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Sample records for ev emission band

  1. Origin of 3.45 eV Emission Line and Yellow Luminescence Band in GaN Nanowires: Surface Microwire and Defect.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pu; Zong, Hua; Shi, Jun-jie; Zhang, Min; Jiang, Xin-he; Zhong, Hong-xia; Ding, Yi-min; He, Ying-ping; Lu, Jing; Hu, Xiao-dong

    2015-09-22

    The physical origin of the strong emission line at 3.45 eV and broadening yellow luminescence (YL) band centered at 2.2 eV in GaN nanowire (NW) has been debated for many years. Here, we solve these two notable issues by using state-of-the-art first-principles calculations based on many-body perturbation theory combined with polarization-resolved experiments. We demonstrate that the ubiquitous surface "microwires" with amazing characteristics, i.e., the outgrowth nanocrystal along the NW side wall, are vital and offer a new perspective to provide insight into some puzzles in epitaxy materials. Furthermore, inversion of the top valence bands, in the decreasing order of crystal-field split-off hole (CH) and heavy/light hole, results in the optical transition polarized along the NW axis due to quantum confinement. The optical emission from bound excitons localized around the surface microwire to CH band is responsible for the 3.45 eV line with E∥c polarization. Both gallium vacancy and carbon-related defects tend to assemble at the NW surface layer, determining the broadening YL band. PMID:26301765

  2. Very slow decay of a defect related emission band at 2.4 eV in AlN: Signatures of the Si related shallow DX state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamprecht, M.; Grund, C.; Neuschl, B.; Thonke, K.; Bryan, Z.; Collazo, R.; Sitar, Z.

    2016-04-01

    We report on a defect related luminescence band at 2.4 eV in aluminum nitride bulk crystals, for which we find strong indications to be related to silicon DX centers. Time resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy using a sub-bandgap excitation reveals two different recombination processes with very long decay times of 13 ms and 153 ms at low temperature. Based on the results of temperature and excitation dependent photoluminescence experiments, the process with the shorter lifetime is assigned to a donor-acceptor pair transition involving the shallow silicon donor state, which can be emptied with a thermal dissociation energy of 65 meV. The slower process with a thermal quenching energy of 15 meV is assigned to the slightly deeper Si DX state known from electron paramagnetic resonance experiments, which is transferred back to the shallow donor state.

  3. Electron-impact excitation of the 31. 4-eV band in N sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    de Souza, G.G.B.; Bielschowsky, C.E.; Lucas, C.A.; Souza, A.C.A. )

    1990-08-01

    Generalized oscillator strengths (GOS) for the dipole-forbidden 31.4-eV band in N{sub 2} have been determined both experimentally and theoretically. The experimental values for the GOS were obtained using a crossed-beam electron spectrometer at 1-keV impact energy. The theoretical results were determined using the first Born approximation with {ital ab} {ital initio} configuration-interaction target wave functions.

  4. The origin of 2.7 eV luminescence and 5.2 eV excitation band in hafnium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Perevalov, T. V.; Aliev, V. Sh.; Gritsenko, V. A.; Saraev, A. A.; Kaichev, V. V.; Ivanova, E. V.; Zamoryanskaya, M. V.

    2014-02-17

    The origin of a blue luminescence band at 2.7 eV and a luminescence excitation band at 5.2 eV of hafnia has been studied in stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric hafnium oxide films. Experimental and calculated results from the first principles valence band spectra showed that the stoichiometry violation leads to the formation of the peak density of states in the band gap caused by oxygen vacancies. Cathodoluminescence in the non-stoichiometric film exhibits a band at 2.65 eV that is excited at the energy of 5.2 eV. The optical absorption spectrum calculated for the cubic phase of HfO{sub 2} with oxygen vacancies shows a peak at 5.3 eV. Thus, it could be concluded that the blue luminescence band at 2.7 eV and HfO{sub x} excitation peak at 5.2 eV are due to oxygen vacancies. The thermal trap energy in hafnia was estimated.

  5. Optical constants and related electronic energy bands of lithium triborate crystal in the 6{endash}12-eV region

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.; Tao, R.; Rife, J.C.; Hunter, W.R.

    1998-01-01

    Reflectance of lithium triborate crystal in the 6{endash}12-eV region is measured with synchrotron radiation, and the principal values of optical constants are derived. Six absorption peaks are found in both X- and Y-polarized spectra. Among them the five transitions of the Y-polarized peaks and three of the X-polarized peaks are identified. The measurement suggests that the energy of the lowest conducting band 4A{sub 2} is 7.3 eV rather than 7.57 eV, as previously reported. {copyright} 1998 Optical Society of America

  6. Periodic gamma-ray emissions from Geminga at or = 10(12) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, R. K.; Rawat, H. S.; Sanecha, V. K.; Rannot, R. C.; Sapru, M.; Tickoo, A. K.; Qazi, R. A.; Bhat, C. L.; Razdan, H.; Tonwar, S. C.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of data from an atmospheric Cerenkov telescope indicated the periodic emission of gamma rays of energy 10 to the 12th power eV, at 60.25 second period, from 2CG 195+4. The gamma ray flux at 99% confidence level is estimated to be 9.5 x 10 to 12 photons/sq cm/s.

  7. Mie Resonances, Infrared Emission, and the Band Gap of InN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubina, T. V.; Ivanov, S. V.; Jmerik, V. N.; Solnyshkov, D. D.; Vekshin, V. A.; Kop'ev, P. S.; Vasson, A.; Leymarie, J.; Kavokin, A.; Amano, H.; Shimono, K.; Kasic, A.; Monemar, B.

    2004-03-01

    Mie resonances due to scattering or absorption of light in InN-containing clusters of metallic In may have been erroneously interpreted as the infrared band gap absorption in tens of papers. Here we show by direct thermally detected optical absorption measurements that the true band gap of InN is markedly wider than the currently accepted 0.7eV. Microcathodoluminescence studies complemented by the imaging of metallic In have shown that bright infrared emission at 0.7 0.8eV arises in a close vicinity of In inclusions and is likely associated with surface states at the metal/InN interfaces.

  8. UNIDENTIFIED INFRARED EMISSION BANDS: PAHs or MAONs?

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Kwok; Yong Zhang

    2013-07-01

    We suggest that the carrier of the unidentified infrared emission (UIE) bands is an amorphous carbonaceous solid with mixed aromatic/aliphatic structures, rather than free-flying polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules. Through spectral fittings of the astronomical spectra of the UIE bands, we show that a significant amount of the energy is emitted by the aliphatic component, implying that aliphatic groups are an essential part of the chemical structure. Arguments in favor of an amorphous, solid-state structure rather than a gas-phase molecule as a carrier of the UIE are also presented.

  9. Diffuse Interstellar Band Emission in the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton Williams, Theodore; Sarre, Peter; Marshall, Charlotte; Spekkens, Kristine; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel

    2015-08-01

    The longest-standing problem in astronomical spectroscopy is the identification of the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs), the first examples of which were discovered on photographic plates almost 100 years ago. Most researchers consider a population of large carbon-based molecules to be responsible for the DIBs. Identification of the carriers would open a new probe of interstellar conditions and processes in interstellar clouds and could have implications far beyond - including the role of such molecules in star and planet formation and even for the origins of life. Only one clear-cut example exists where complementary emission (from a subset) of DIBs is seen - in the Red Rectangle nebula - where the emission is excited by radiation from the central star HD 44179.Recent Fabry-Perot observations towards galaxy NGC 1325 with the Southern African Large Telescope led to the serendipitous discovery of an emission feature centered at 6613 Å arising from material in the ISM of our Galaxy; this emission feature lies at the wavelength of one of the sharper and stronger diffuse bands normally seen in absorption, and it is one of the most prominent of the Red Rectangle emission bands. The flux of the feature is 4.2 ± 0.5 x 10-18 e/s/cm2 /arc-sec2. It appears that this is the first observation of emission from a diffuse band carrier in the ISM, excited in this case by the interstellar radiation field. Unlike the Red Rectangle, the emission from the ISM is expected to have a very low molecular rotational temperature, potentially as low as 3 K. Spectra of this nature will assist greatly in spectroscopic analysis and in refining the nature of the molecules responsible for the DIB spectrum.We present the discovery spectra and follow-up measurements for the expected strong DIB features at 6613, 5797, 5850 and 5418 Å, in fields near NGC 1325, near the Red Rectangle, and near Rho Ophiuchi.

  10. VIIRS emissive band radiometric performance trending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Eric; Ranshaw, Courtney

    2012-09-01

    The Visible/Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a key sensor on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite launched on October 28, 2011 into a polar orbit of 824 km nominal altitude. VIIRS collects radiometric and imagery data of the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and land surfaces in 22 spectral bands spanning the visible and infrared spectrum from 0.4 to 12.5 μm. This paper summarizes the radiometric performance measured in the 7 VIIRS thermal emissive bands (3.7 to 12.5 μm), covering both pre-launch thermal-vacuum testing and early on-orbit characterizations. Radiometric characteristics trended include radiometric response and radiometric sensitivity (SNR/NEdT).

  11. Band edge and phonon-assisted deep level emissions in the ordered filled tetrahedral semiconductor LiMgP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuriyama, K.; Kushida, K.

    2000-03-01

    Band edge and phonon-assisted deep level emissions in the ordered filled tetrahedral semiconductor LiMgP (space group: F4¯3m, direct band gap: 2.43 eV at room temperature), viewed as a zincblende-like (MgP)- lattice partially filled with He-like Li+ interstitials, have been studied using a photoluminescence (PL) method. Two band edge emissions A and B, consisting of two PL peaks, were observed at around 489 nm at 15 K. Emissions A and B were associated with a free carrier recombination (2.535 eV) and a donor-to-valence band transition (2.532 eV), respectively. From the temperature dependence of the band edge emission and optical absorption data, the temperature variation of the band gap was approximated by the empirical formula Eg(eV)=2.536-1.43×10-3T2/(T+912) (T in K). A broad emission involving at least three phonon lines was observed at around 625 nm with full width at half maximum of ˜150 meV, showing a large Franck-Condon shift. The main phonon lines in the broad PL emission were associated with two combinations of longitudinal-optical phonons relating to Li-P and Mg-P pairs.

  12. Coordinated EV adoption: double-digit reductions in emissions and fuel use for $40/vehicle-year.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong Gu; Kreikebaum, Frank; Thomas, Valerie M; Divan, Deepak

    2013-09-17

    Adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) would affect the costs and sources of electricity and the United States efficiency requirements for conventional vehicles (CVs). We model EV adoption scenarios in each of six regions of the Eastern Interconnection, containing 70% of the United States population. We develop electricity system optimization models at the multidecade, day-ahead, and hour-ahead time scales, incorporating spatial wind energy modeling, endogenous modeling of CV efficiencies, projections for EV efficiencies, and projected CV and EV costs. We find two means to reduce total consumer expenditure (TCE): (i) controlling charge timing and (ii) unlinking the fuel economy regulations for CVs from EVs. Although EVs provide minimal direct GHG reductions, controlled charging provides load flexibility, lowering the cost of renewable electricity. Without EVs, a 33% renewable electricity standard (RES) would cost $193/vehicle-year more than the reference case (10% RES). Combining a 33% RES, EVs with controlled charging and unlinking would reduce combined electric- and vehicle-sector CO2 emissions by 27% and reduce gasoline consumption by 59% for $40/vehicle-year more than the reference case. Coordinating EV adoption with adoption of controlled charging, unlinked fuel economy regulations, and renewable electricity standards would provide low-cost reductions in emissions and fuel usage. PMID:23875888

  13. Coordinated EV adoption: double-digit reductions in emissions and fuel use for $40/vehicle-year.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong Gu; Kreikebaum, Frank; Thomas, Valerie M; Divan, Deepak

    2013-09-17

    Adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) would affect the costs and sources of electricity and the United States efficiency requirements for conventional vehicles (CVs). We model EV adoption scenarios in each of six regions of the Eastern Interconnection, containing 70% of the United States population. We develop electricity system optimization models at the multidecade, day-ahead, and hour-ahead time scales, incorporating spatial wind energy modeling, endogenous modeling of CV efficiencies, projections for EV efficiencies, and projected CV and EV costs. We find two means to reduce total consumer expenditure (TCE): (i) controlling charge timing and (ii) unlinking the fuel economy regulations for CVs from EVs. Although EVs provide minimal direct GHG reductions, controlled charging provides load flexibility, lowering the cost of renewable electricity. Without EVs, a 33% renewable electricity standard (RES) would cost $193/vehicle-year more than the reference case (10% RES). Combining a 33% RES, EVs with controlled charging and unlinking would reduce combined electric- and vehicle-sector CO2 emissions by 27% and reduce gasoline consumption by 59% for $40/vehicle-year more than the reference case. Coordinating EV adoption with adoption of controlled charging, unlinked fuel economy regulations, and renewable electricity standards would provide low-cost reductions in emissions and fuel usage.

  14. NaCd excimer emission bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichler, G.; Veža, D.; Fijan, D.

    1988-06-01

    The analysis of the visible spectrum of a high pressure sodium lamp filled with sodium, cadium and xenon revealed the existence of NaCd excimer spectral features. These are four red satellite bands at 691, 697, 709 and 726.5 nm and diffuse bands peaking at 479.1 and 484.3 nm. Both spectral phenomena are related to those found earlier for the NaHg system. An interpretation of the red satellite bands origin is given in terms of a qualitative model for the four lowest potential curves of the NaCd excimer. In this model the essential feature is the avoided crossing between B 2∑ 1/2 and A 2∏ 1/2 electronic states, which causes a complex structure of the satellite bands in the very far red wing of the sodium D lines broadened by cadmium.

  15. Photonic band-edge-induced enhancement in absorption and emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ummer, Karikkuzhi Variyath; Vijaya, Ramarao

    2015-01-01

    An enhancement in photonic band-edge-induced absorption and emission from rhodamine-B dye doped polystyrene pseudo gap photonic crystals is studied. The band-edge-induced enhancement in absorption is achieved by selecting the incident angle of the excitation beam so that the absorption spectrum of the emitter overlaps the photonic band edge. The band-edge-induced enhancement in emission, on the other hand, is possible with and without an enhancement in band-edge-induced absorption, depending on the collection angle of emission. Through a simple set of measurements with suitably chosen angles for excitation and emission, we achieve a maximum enhancement of 70% in emission intensity with band-edge-induced effects over and above the intrinsic emission in the case of self-assembled opals. This is a comprehensive effort to interpret tunable lasing in opals as well as to predict the wavelength of lasing arising as a result of band-edge-induced distributed feedback effects.

  16. Frequency band broadening of magnetospheric VLF emissions near the equator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maeda, K.; Lin, C. S.

    1981-01-01

    The broadening of the whistler mode VLF emission band has frequently been observed by the equatorially orbiting S3-A (Explorer 45) satellite outside the midnight sector of the plasmasphere, during periods of geomagnetic disturbance. Prior to the broadening, the band of this emission is narrow with a sharp gap at the half electron gyrofrequency. The gradual broadening of the emission band on the low-frequency side is associated with the simultaneously observed spreading of the anisotropy of the ring current electrons to higher and wider energy ranges. Using the modeled distribution function, the linear growth rates of the cyclotron instability are calculated numerically. The results suggest that broadening of the VLF emission band near the plasmasphere can be caused by spreading of the ring current electron anisotropy toward higher energies.

  17. Subsurface banding poultry litter impacts greenhouse gas emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact subsurface banding poultry litter (PL) has on greenhouse gas emissions is limited. Thus, a study was conducted in established bermudagrass pastures located in Coastal Plain and Piedmont regions to determine the effects subsurface applying PL has on soil flux using two different band spaci...

  18. NIF-scale re-emission sphere measurements of early-time Tr = 100 eV hohlraum symmetry (invited).

    PubMed

    Dewald, E L; Thomas, C; Milovich, J; Edwards, J; Sorce, C; Kirkwood, R; Meeker, D; Jones, O; Izumi, N; Landen, O L

    2008-10-01

    The indirect-drive National Ignition Campaign (NIC) proposes to set the first 2 ns of hohlraum radiation symmetry by observing the instantaneous soft x-ray re-emission pattern from a high-Z sphere in place of the ignition capsule. To assess this technique under NIC conditions, we used the Omega Laser Facility to image the re-emission of Bi coated spheres with 200 ps temporal, 50-100 microm spatial, and 30% spectral resolution. The sphere is driven by 70% NIC-scale vacuum Au hohlraums heated to Tr=100 eV using two cones per side laser beam illumination. The experiments have demonstrated the required accuracies of <3%P(2)/P(0) and <3%P(4)/P(0) Legendre mode flux asymmetry at both 900 and 1200 eV re-emission photon energies. The re-emission patterns at 900 and 1200 eV are also consistent with each other and their relative dependence on radiation temperature. We measured the P(2)/P(0) and P(4)/P(0) dependence to laser cone power ratio. View factor calculations are in agreement with the experimentally measured radiation flux and re-emit images when assuming 55% inner beam and 100 % outer beam coupling into x rays at the hohlraum wall.

  19. The infrared emission bands. III. Southern IRAS sources.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M; Tielens, A G; Bregman, J; Witteborn, F C; Rank, D M; Allamandola, L J; Wooden, D H; de Muizon, M

    1989-06-01

    We present airborne 5-8 micrometers spectra of southern IRAS sources which reveal strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features. The good correlation between the bands, in particular the dominant 6.2 and "7.7" micrometers features, strongly imply a common carrier, reinforcing the PAH hypothesis. However, small but detectable spectral variations exist. Planetaries have a distinctly different ratio of I(6.2)/I(7.7) than other nebulae, accompanied by a redward shift in the actual wavelength of the "7.7" micrometers peak. Further, we have detected a new feature, previously predicted from laboratory spectra of PAH molecules, at 5.2 micrometers in many of these sources. Spectra of two rare [WC 10] planetary nebular nuclei indicate a very prominent plateau of emission, linking the 6.2 and 7.7 micrometers bands. Several of our sources show definite evidence for emission structure between 14 and 23 micrometers in their IRAS Low-Resolution Spectral Atlas spectra: we attribute this structure to PAH bands. too. We have defined the "generic" spectrum of emission bands relating the mean intensities of each band to that of the strongest, near 7.7 micrometers. We have added three more planetary or protoplanetary nebulae to our correlation between 7.7 micrometers band intensity and nebular gas phase C/O ratio, namely NGC 6302, HR 4049, and the highly carbon-rich [WC 10] nucleus, CPD--56 degrees 8032. For the latter we have determined a ratio for C/O of approximately 4.8 from IUE observations. The good correlation between the intensity ratio of the "7.7" micrometers feature relative to the far-infrared dust continuum and nebular C/O also supports a carbonaceous carrier for these emission features. PMID:11542167

  20. The infrared emission bands. III. Southern IRAS sources.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M; Tielens, A G; Bregman, J; Witteborn, F C; Rank, D M; Allamandola, L J; Wooden, D H; de Muizon, M

    1989-06-01

    We present airborne 5-8 micrometers spectra of southern IRAS sources which reveal strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features. The good correlation between the bands, in particular the dominant 6.2 and "7.7" micrometers features, strongly imply a common carrier, reinforcing the PAH hypothesis. However, small but detectable spectral variations exist. Planetaries have a distinctly different ratio of I(6.2)/I(7.7) than other nebulae, accompanied by a redward shift in the actual wavelength of the "7.7" micrometers peak. Further, we have detected a new feature, previously predicted from laboratory spectra of PAH molecules, at 5.2 micrometers in many of these sources. Spectra of two rare [WC 10] planetary nebular nuclei indicate a very prominent plateau of emission, linking the 6.2 and 7.7 micrometers bands. Several of our sources show definite evidence for emission structure between 14 and 23 micrometers in their IRAS Low-Resolution Spectral Atlas spectra: we attribute this structure to PAH bands. too. We have defined the "generic" spectrum of emission bands relating the mean intensities of each band to that of the strongest, near 7.7 micrometers. We have added three more planetary or protoplanetary nebulae to our correlation between 7.7 micrometers band intensity and nebular gas phase C/O ratio, namely NGC 6302, HR 4049, and the highly carbon-rich [WC 10] nucleus, CPD--56 degrees 8032. For the latter we have determined a ratio for C/O of approximately 4.8 from IUE observations. The good correlation between the intensity ratio of the "7.7" micrometers feature relative to the far-infrared dust continuum and nebular C/O also supports a carbonaceous carrier for these emission features.

  1. Anisotropy of BN and Be x-ray-emission bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, A.; Schnatterly, S. E.

    1987-12-01

    We present measurements of the K emission spectra of hexagonal Be and BN (h-Be and h-BN). The anisotropy of the emission allows us to separate the bands into their σ and π components, enabling us to demonstrate the unambiguous π character of the B core exciton. We find that the exciton presents a double-peaked structure which we attribute to phonon ringing. For the first time we are able to separate into π and σ components the doubly ionized K emission bands of B and N in h-BN and of Be in h-Be, revealing the effect of the spectator core hole on the shape of the density of states. Such an effect is in qualitative agreement with the final-state rule, although the local p density of states is distorted more than has previously been reported.

  2. Reflectivity and Emissivity of Sea Foam at L-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anguelova, M. D.; Burrage, D. M.; Bettenhausen, M. H.

    2015-12-01

    The ubiquitous use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) for navigation is well known. GPS operates at L-band frequencies of 1-2 GHz. Because these low microwave frequencies penetrate clouds and rain, GPS signals can detect the specular reflection and diffuse scattering from flat and rough surfaces. This makes the GPS signals useful for geophysical measurements in all weather conditions. Aircraft and satellite-borne GPS reflectometers have been shown to successfully sense ocean surface wind. L-band reflectometry measures changes in ocean surface reflectivity due to changes of ocean surface roughness as wind increases. The use of GPS, together with other Global Navigation Satellite Systems, will soon provide hundreds of L-band transmitters in space and thus high temporal resolution for geophysical measurements. With its all weather capability and high temporal resolution, GPS reflectometry can provide wind speed data in hurricane conditions. Such capabilities enable the new Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) project which aims to improve the skill of hurricane intensity forecasts. However, wave breaking under high winds produces sea foam (whitecaps) and sea spray, which complicate processes acting at the air-sea interface. Whitecaps and sea spray have high emissivity at L-band and will thus reduce the ocean reflectivity needed for wind speed retrieval. A combination of L-band reflectometry and L-band radiometry can thus help to better understand and model the physical mechanisms governing the L-band sensor responses. We use a radiative transfer model formulated in terms of foam layer thickness and void fraction to evaluate both the reflectivity and emissivity of a foam-covered sea surface. We report on the attenuation of L-band radiation in foam layers, and the corresponding foam reflectivity, for layers with varying thicknesses and void fractions. The reflected GPS signal sensitivity to wind speed variations in the presence of foam is assessed.

  3. Interactions of protons with furan molecules studied by collision-induced emission spectroscopy at the incident energy range of 50-1000 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasowicz, Tomasz J.; Pranszke, Boguslaw

    2016-08-01

    Investigations of the ion-molecule reactions provide insight into many fields ranging from the stellar wind interaction with interstellar media, up to medicine and industrial applications. Besides the applications, the understanding of these processes is itself a problem of fundamental importance. Thus, interactions of protons with the gas-phase furan molecules have been investigated for the first time in the energy range of 50-1000 eV exploiting collision-induced emission spectroscopy. Recorded spectra reveal emission of the atomic H β to H θ lines of the hydrogen Balmer series and the molecular bands of vibrationally and rotationally excited diatomic CH fragments created in the A2 Δ and B2Σ- electronic states. The measurements of the emission yields of the excited fragments by recording their intensities at different projectile energies have been performed. The highest yields have been observed for production of hydrogen atoms which intensities rapidly decreased with increasing principal quantum number n . From the H ( n = 4-7) intensity ratios depopulation factors of hydrogen excited states have been determined at each impact energy and possible collisional mechanisms leading to enhanced production of the hydrogen atoms have been suggested. We compare and discuss our results with improved data set of proton collisions with tetrahydrofuran (THF) molecules, the hydrogenated derivatives of furan.

  4. Interactions of protons with furan molecules studied by collision-induced emission spectroscopy at the incident energy range of 50-1000 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasowicz, Tomasz J.; Pranszke, Boguslaw

    2016-08-01

    Investigations of the ion-molecule reactions provide insight into many fields ranging from the stellar wind interaction with interstellar media, up to medicine and industrial applications. Besides the applications, the understanding of these processes is itself a problem of fundamental importance. Thus, interactions of protons with the gas-phase furan molecules have been investigated for the first time in the energy range of 50-1000 eV exploiting collision-induced emission spectroscopy. Recorded spectra reveal emission of the atomic Hβ to Hθ lines of the hydrogen Balmer series and the molecular bands of vibrationally and rotationally excited diatomic CH fragments created in the A2Δ and B2Σ- electronic states. The measurements of the emission yields of the excited fragments by recording their intensities at different projectile energies have been performed. The highest yields have been observed for production of hydrogen atoms which intensities rapidly decreased with increasing principal quantum number n. From the H (n = 4-7) intensity ratios depopulation factors of hydrogen excited states have been determined at each impact energy and possible collisional mechanisms leading to enhanced production of the hydrogen atoms have been suggested. We compare and discuss our results with improved data set of proton collisions with tetrahydrofuran (THF) molecules, the hydrogenated derivatives of furan. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Low-Energy Interactions related to Atmospheric and Extreme Conditions", edited by S. Ptasinska, M. Smialek-Telega, A. Milosavljevic, B. Sivaraman.

  5. An analysis of the information dependence between MODIS emissive bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottipati, Srikanth; Gladkova, Irina; Grossberg, Michael

    2008-08-01

    Multispectral, hyperspectral and ultraspectral imagers and sounders are increasingly important for atmospheric science and weather forecasting. The recent advent of multipsectral and hyperspectral sensors measuring radiances in the emissive IR are providing valuable new information. This is due to the presence of spectral channels (in some cases micro-channels) which are carefully positioned in and out of absorption lines of CO2, ozone, and water vapor. These spectral bands are used for measuring surface/cloud temperature, atmospheric temperature, Cirrus clouds water vapor, cloud properties/ozone, and cloud top altidude etc. The complexity of the spectral structure wherein the emissive bands have been selected presents challenges for lossless data compression; these are qualitatively different than the challenges offered by the reflective bands. For a hyperspectral sounder such as AIRS, the large number of channels is the principal contributor to data size. We have shown that methods combining clustering and linear models in the spectral channels can be effective for lossless data compression. However, when the number of emissive channels is relatively small compared to the spatial resolution, such as with the 17 emissive channels of MODIS, such techniques are not effective. In previous work the CCNY-NOAA compression group has reported an algorithm which addresses this case by sequential prediction of the spatial image. While that algorithm demonstrated an improved compression ratio over pure JPEG2000 compression, it underperformed optimal compression ratios estimated from entropy. In order to effectively exploit the redundant information in a progressive prediction scheme we must, determine a sequence of bands in which each band has sufficient mutual information with the next band, so that it predicts it well. We will provide a covariance and mutual information based analysis of the pairwise dependence between the bands and compare this with the qualitative

  6. The average GeV-band emission from gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, J.; Pohl, M.

    2013-03-01

    Aims: We analyze the emission in the 0.3-30 GeV energy range of gamma-ray bursts detected with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. We concentrate on bursts that were previously only detected with the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor in the keV energy range. These bursts will then be compared to the bursts that were individually detected with the Large Area Telescope at higher energies. Methods: To estimate the emission of faint GRBs we used nonstandard analysis methods and sum over many GRBs to find an average signal that is significantly above background level. We used a subsample of 99 GRBs listed in the Burst Catalog from the first two years of observation. Results: Although most are not individually detectable, the bursts not detected by the Large Area Telescope on average emit a significant flux in the energy range from 0.3 GeV to 30 GeV, but their cumulative energy fluence is only 8% of that of all GRBs. Likewise, the GeV-to-MeV flux ratio is less and the GeV-band spectra are softer. We confirm that the GeV-band emission lasts much longer than the emission found in the keV energy range. The average allsky energy flux from GRBs in the GeV band is 6.4 × 10-4 erg cm-2 yr-1 or only ~4% of the energy flux of cosmic rays above the ankle at 1018.6 eV.

  7. 100 eV electron temperatures in the Maryland centrifugal experiment observed using electron Bernstein emission

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R. R.; Romero-Talamás, C. A.; Young, W. C.; Ellis, R. F.; Hassam, A. B.

    2014-06-15

    Thermal electron Bernstein emission has been observed at the second harmonic of the electron cyclotron frequency at the mid-plane of the Maryland Centrifugal eXperiment. The emission is received in the X-mode polarization and coupled to the Bernstein wave by the B-X mode conversion process. The average B-X coupling efficiency is approximately 20%. The observed emission indicates thermal electron temperatures an excess of 100 eV in the core of the rotating plasma. The measured electron temperature is consistent with recent ion temperature measurements and indicates that the total energy confinement time exceeds 500 μs.

  8. Inference of a 7.75 eV lower limit in the ultraviolet pumping of interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon cations with resulting unidentified infrared emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, M. S.; Beegle, L. W.; Wdowiak, T. J.

    1997-01-01

    The discrete infrared features known as the unidentified infrared (UIR) bands originating in starburst regions of other galaxies, and in H II regions and planetary nebulae within the Milky Way, are widely thought to be the result of ultraviolet pumped infrared fluorescence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules and ions. These UIR emissions are estimated to account for 10%-30% of the total energy emitted by galaxies. Laboratory absorption spectra including the vacuum ultraviolet region, as described in this paper, show a weakening of the intensity of absorption features as the population of cations increases, suggesting that strong pi* <-- pi transitions are absent in the spectra of PAH cations. This implies a lower energy bound for ultraviolet photons that pump infrared emissions from such ions at 7.75 eV, an amount greater than previously thought. The implications include size and structure limitations on the PAH molecules and ions which are apparent constituents of the interstellar medium. Also, this might affect estimations of the population of early-type stars in regions of rapid star formation.

  9. Inference of a 7.75 eV lower limit in the ultraviolet pumping of interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon cations with resulting unidentified infrared emissions.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M S; Beegle, L W; Wdowiak, T J

    1997-01-01

    The discrete infrared features known as the unidentified infrared (UIR) bands originating in starburst regions of other galaxies, and in H II regions and planetary nebulae within the Milky Way, are widely thought to be the result of ultraviolet pumped infrared fluorescence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules and ions. These UIR emissions are estimated to account for 10%-30% of the total energy emitted by galaxies. Laboratory absorption spectra including the vacuum ultraviolet region, as described in this paper, show a weakening of the intensity of absorption features as the population of cations increases, suggesting that strong pi* <-- pi transitions are absent in the spectra of PAH cations. This implies a lower energy bound for ultraviolet photons that pump infrared emissions from such ions at 7.75 eV, an amount greater than previously thought. The implications include size and structure limitations on the PAH molecules and ions which are apparent constituents of the interstellar medium. Also, this might affect estimations of the population of early-type stars in regions of rapid star formation. PMID:11540592

  10. Inference of a 7.75 eV lower limit in the ultraviolet pumping of interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon cations with resulting unidentified infrared emissions.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M S; Beegle, L W; Wdowiak, T J

    1997-01-01

    The discrete infrared features known as the unidentified infrared (UIR) bands originating in starburst regions of other galaxies, and in H II regions and planetary nebulae within the Milky Way, are widely thought to be the result of ultraviolet pumped infrared fluorescence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules and ions. These UIR emissions are estimated to account for 10%-30% of the total energy emitted by galaxies. Laboratory absorption spectra including the vacuum ultraviolet region, as described in this paper, show a weakening of the intensity of absorption features as the population of cations increases, suggesting that strong pi* <-- pi transitions are absent in the spectra of PAH cations. This implies a lower energy bound for ultraviolet photons that pump infrared emissions from such ions at 7.75 eV, an amount greater than previously thought. The implications include size and structure limitations on the PAH molecules and ions which are apparent constituents of the interstellar medium. Also, this might affect estimations of the population of early-type stars in regions of rapid star formation.

  11. Indirect Band Gap Emission by Hot Electron Injection in Metal/MoS2 and Metal/WSe2 Heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Ezhilarasu, Goutham; Chatzakis, Ioannis; Dhall, Rohan; Chen, Chun-Chung; Cronin, Stephen

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), such as MoS2 and WSe2, are free of dangling bonds, therefore make more `ideal' Schottky junctions than bulk semiconductors, which produce recombination centers at the interface with metals, inhibiting charge transfer. Here, we observe a more than 10X enhancement in the indirect band gap PL of TMDCs deposited on various metals, while the direct band gap emission remains unchanged. We believe the main mechanism of light emission arises from photoexcited hot electrons in the metal that are injected into the conduction band of MoS2 and WSe2, and subsequently recombine radiatively with minority holes. Since the conduction band at the K-point is 0.5eV higher than at the Σ-point, a lower Schottky barrier of the Σ-point band makes electron injection more favorable. Also, the Σ band consists of the sulfur pz orbital, which overlaps more significantly with the electron wavefunctions in the metal. This enhancement only occurs for thick flakes, and is absent in monolayer and few-layer flakes. Here, the flake thickness must exceed the depletion width of the Schottky junction, in order for efficient radiative recombination to occur in the TMDC. The intensity of this indirect peak decreases at low temperatures. Reference: DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b00885

  12. Direct versus indirect band gap emission and exciton-exciton annihilation in atomically thin molybdenum ditelluride (MoTe2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froehlicher, Guillaume; Lorchat, Etienne; Berciaud, Stéphane

    2016-08-01

    We probe the room temperature photoluminescence of N -layer molybdenum ditelluride (MoTe2) in the continuous wave (cw) regime. The photoluminescence quantum yield of monolayer MoTe2 is three times larger than in bilayer MoTe2 and 40 times greater than in the bulk limit. Mono- and bilayer MoTe2 display almost symmetric emission lines at 1.10 and 1.07 eV, respectively, which predominantly arise from direct radiative recombination of the A exciton. In contrast, N ≥3 -layer MoTe2 exhibits a much reduced photoluminescence quantum yield and a broader, redshifted, and seemingly bimodal photoluminescence spectrum. The low- and high-energy contributions are attributed to emission from the indirect and direct optical band gaps, respectively. Bulk MoTe2 displays a broad emission line with a dominant contribution at 0.94 eV that is assigned to emission from the indirect optical band gap. As compared to related systems (such as MoS2,MoSe2,WS2, and WSe2), the smaller energy difference between the monolayer direct optical band gap and the bulk indirect optical band gap leads to a smoother increase of the photoluminescence quantum yield as N decreases. In addition, we study the evolution of the photoluminescence intensity in monolayer MoTe2 as a function of the exciton formation rate Wabs up to 3.6 ×1022cm-2s-1 . The line shape of the photoluminescence spectrum remains largely independent of Wabs, whereas the photoluminescence intensity grows sublinearly above Wabs˜1021cm-2s-1 . This behavior is assigned to exciton-exciton annihilation and is well captured by an elementary rate equation model.

  13. Status of the first NASA EV-I Project, Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Suleiman, R. M.; Flittner, D. E.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Janz, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    TEMPO is the first NASA Earth Venture Instrument. It will measure atmospheric pollution for greater North America from space using ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy. TEMPO measures from Mexico City to the Canadian tar sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution (2 km N/S × 4.5 km E/W at the center of its field of regard). The status of TEMPO including progress in instrument definition and implementation of the ground system will be presented. TEMPO provides a minimally-redundant measurement suite that includes all key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry. Measurements are from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the inherent high variability in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry. The small spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies. TEMPO will be delivered in 2017 for integration onto a NASA-selected GEO host spacecraft for launch as early as 2018. It will provide the spectra required to retrieve O3, NO2, SO2, H2CO, C2H2O2, H2O, aerosols, cloud parameters, and UVB radiation. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, substantially reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides near-real-time air quality products that will be made widely, publicly available. Additional gases not central to air quality, including BrO, OClO, and IO will also be measured. TEMPO and its Asian (GEMS) and European (Sentinel-4) constellation partners make the first tropospheric trace gas measurements from GEO, building on the heritage of six spectrometers flown in low-earth-orbit (LEO). These LEO instruments measure the needed

  14. Rotationally resolved pulsed-field ionization photoelectron bands for O{sub 2}{sup +}(A {sup 2}{pi}{sub u},v{sup +}=0-12) in the energy range of 17.0-18.2 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Y.; Evans, M.; Ng, C. Y.; Hsu, C.-W.; Jarvis, G. K.

    2000-01-15

    We have obtained rotationally resolved pulsed-field ionization photoelectron (PFI-PE) spectra for O{sub 2} in the energy range of 17.05-18.13 eV, covering the ionization transitions O{sub 2}{sup +}(A {sup 2}{pi}{sub u},v{sup +}=0-12,N{sup +})(<-)O{sub 2}(X {sup 3}{sigma}{sub g}{sup -},v{sup ''}=0,N{sup ''}). Although these O{sub 2}{sup +}(A {sup 2}{pi}{sub u},v{sup +}) PFI-PE bands have significant overlaps with vibrational bands for O{sub 2}{sup +}(a {sup 4}{pi}{sub u}) and O{sub 2}{sup +}(X {sup 2}{pi}{sub g}), we have identified all the O{sub 2}{sup +}(A {sup 2}{pi}{sub u},v{sup +}=0-12) bands by simulation of spectra obtained using supersonically cooled O{sub 2} samples with rotational temperatures {approx_equal}20 and 220 K. While these v{sup +}=0-12 PFI-PE bands represent the first rotationally resolved photoelectron data for O{sub 2}{sup +}(A {sup 2}{pi}{sub u}), the PFI-PE bands for O{sub 2}{sup +}(A {sup 2}{pi}{sub u},v{sup +}=9 and 10) are the first rotationally resolved spectroscopic data for these levels. The simulation also allows the determination of accurate ionization energies, vibrational constants, and rotational constants for O{sub 2}{sup +}(A {sup 2}{pi}{sub u},v{sup +}=0-12). The analysis of the PFI-PE spectra supports the conclusion of the previous emission study that the O{sub 2}{sup +}(A {sup 2}{pi}{sub u},v{sup +}=9 and 10) states are strongly perturbed by a nearby electronic state. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  15. Excitonic emissions and above-band-gap luminescence in the single-crystal perovskite semiconductors CsPbB r3 and CsPbC l3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastian, M.; Peters, J. A.; Stoumpos, C. C.; Im, J.; Kostina, S. S.; Liu, Z.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Freeman, A. J.; Wessels, B. W.

    2015-12-01

    The ternary compounds CsPb X3 (X =Br or Cl) have perovskite structures that are being considered for optical and electronic applications such as lasing and gamma-ray detection. An above-band-gap excitonic photoluminescence (PL) band is seen in both CsPb X3 compounds. An excitonic emission peak centered at 2.98 eV, ˜ 0.1 eV above the room-temperature band gap, is observed for CsPbC l3 . The thermal quenching of the excitonic luminescence is well described by a two-step quenching model, yielding activation energies of 0.057 and 0.0076 eV for high- and low-temperature regimes, respectively. CsPbB r3 exhibits bound excitonic luminescence peaks located at 2.29 and 2.33 eV that are attributed to recombination involving Br vacancy centers. Activation energies for thermal quenching of the excitonic luminescence of 0.017 and 0.0007 eV were calculated for CsPbB r3 . Temperature-dependent PL experiments reveal unexpected blueshifts for all excitonic emission peaks in CsPb X3 compounds. A phonon-assisted step-up process leads to the blueshift in CsPbB r3 emission, while there is a contribution from band-gap widening in CsPbC l3 . The absence of significant deep level defect luminescence in these compounds makes them attractive candidates for high-resolution, room-temperature radiation detection.

  16. Source characteristics of Jovian narrow-band kilometric radio emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiner, M. J.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.; Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.; Manning, R.; Zarka, P.; Pedersen, B.-M.

    1993-07-01

    New observations of Jovian narrow-band kilometric (nKOM) radio emissions were made by the Unified Radio and Plasma Wave (URAP) experiment on the Ulysses spacecraft during the Ulysses-Jupiter encounter in early February 1992. These observations have demonstrated the unique capability of the URAP instrument for determining both the direction and polarization of nKOM radio sources. An important result is the discovery that nKOM radio emission originates from a number of distinct sources located at different Jovian longitudes and at the inner and outermost regions of the Io plasma torus. These sources have been tracked for several Jovian rotations, yielding their corotational lags, their spatial and temporal evolution, and their radiation characteristics at both low latitudes far from Jupiter and at high latitudes near the planet. Both right-hand and left-hand circularly polarized nKOM sources were observed. The polarizations observed for sources in the outermost regions of the torus seem to favor extraordinary mode emission.

  17. SAXES, a high resolution spectrometer for resonant x-ray emission in the 400-1600 eV energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Ghiringhelli, G.; Piazzalunga, A.; Dallera, C.; Trezzi, G.; Braicovich, L.; Schmitt, T.; Strocov, V. N.; Betemps, R.; Patthey, L.; Wang, X.; Grioni, M.

    2006-11-15

    We present a 5 m long spectrometer for soft x rays to be used at a synchrotron radiation beamline for resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering in the 400-1600 eV energy range. It is based on a variable line spacing spherical grating (average groove density of 3200 mm{sup -1}, R=58.55 m) and a charge coupled device two dimensional detector. With an x-ray spot on the sample of 10 {mu}m, the targeted resolving power is higher than 10 000 at all energies below 1100 eV and better than 7000 at 1500 eV. The off-line tests made with Al and Mg K{alpha}{sub 1,2} fluorescence emissions indicate that the spectrometer can actually work at 12 000 and 17 000 resolving power at the L{sub 3} edges of Cu (930 eV) and of Ti (470 eV), respectively. SAXES (superadvanced x-ray emission spectrometer) is mounted on a rotating platform allowing to vary the scattering angle from 25 degree sign to 130 degree sign . The spectrometer will be operational at the ADRESS (advanced resonant spectroscopies) beamline of the Swiss Light Source from 2007.

  18. Terahertz emission upon the band-to-band excitation of Group-IV semiconductors at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Zakhar’in, A. O.; Bobylev, A. V.; Egorov, S. V.; Andrianov, A. V.

    2015-03-15

    Terahertz emission upon the band-to-band excitation of Group-IV semiconductors (Si:B and Ge:Ga) at room temperature by a semiconductor laser emitting in the visible range (660 nm) is observed and investigated. It is established that, as the crystal temperature is elevated above room temperature, the emission intensity increases considerably, while the emission spectrum shifts to higher frequencies. The terahertz-emission spectra of germanium and silicon are quite similar to each other. The pump-intensity dependence of the terahertz-emission intensity is nearly linear. The above features make it possible to attribute the observed terahertz emission to the effect of crystal heating by absorbed pump radiation.

  19. Resonant soft-x-ray emission study in relation to the band structure of cBN

    SciTech Connect

    Agui, A.; Shin, S.; Fujisawa, M.; Tezuka, Y.; Ishii, T.; Muramatsu, Y.; Mishima, O.; Era, K.

    1997-01-01

    The resonant soft-x-ray emission (SXE) and its total photon yield (TPY) spectra were measured at the B 1s and N 1s edges of cubic boron nitride (cBN) using undulator radiation. The band-gap energy was found to be about 6.2 eV, which is in good agreement with other experiments. It was found that the emission from the high symmetry point in the SXE spectrum is enhanced when the same high symmetry point in the TPY spectrum is excited. The line shapes in both the SXE and N 1s TPY spectra were consistent with the calculated partial density of states, though the total bandwidth was not well reproduced. On the other hand, the exciton effect was found to be strong in the B 1s TPY spectra. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Observation of valence band electron emission from n-type silicon field emitter arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Meng; Kim, Han; Akinwande, Akintunde I.

    1999-08-01

    Electron emission from the valence band of n-type Si field emitter arrays is reported. High electrostatic field at the surface of Si was achieved by reducing the radius of the emitter tip. Using oxidation sharpening, 1 μm aperture polycrystalline Si gate, n-type Si field emitter arrays with small tip radius (˜10 nm) were fabricated. Three distinct emission regions were observed: conduction band emission at low gate voltages, saturated current emission from the conduction band at intermediate voltages, and valence band plus conduction band emission at high gate voltages. Emission currents at low and high voltages obey the Fowler-Nordheim theory. The ratio of the slopes of the corresponding Fowler-Nordheim fits for these two regions is 1.495 which is in close agreement with the theoretical value of 1.445.

  1. Detection of marine methane emissions with AVIRIS band ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Eliza S.; Leifer, Ira; Roberts, Dar A.; Dennison, Philip E.; Washburn, Libe

    2011-05-01

    The relative source contributions of methane (CH4) have high uncertainty, creating a need for local-scale characterization in concert with global satellite measurements. However, efforts towards methane plume imaging have yet to provide convincing results for concentrated sources. Although atmospheric CH4 mapping did not motivate the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) design, recent studies suggest its potential for studying concentrated CH4 sources such as the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field (˜0.015 Tg CH4 yr-1) offshore Santa Barbara, California. In this study, we developed a band ratio approach on high glint COP AVIRIS data and demonstrate the first successful local-scale remote sensing mapping of natural atmospheric CH4 plumes. Plume origins closely matched surface and sonar-derived seepage distributions, with plume characteristics consistent with wind advection. Imaging spectrometer data may also be useful for high spatial-resolution characterization of concentrated, globally-significant CH4 emissions from offshore platforms and cattle feedlots.

  2. MODIS on-orbit thermal emissive bands lifetime performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhavan, Sriharsha; Wu, Aisheng; Chen, Na; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2016-05-01

    MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), a leading heritage sensor in the fleet of Earth Observing System for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is in space orbit on two spacecrafts. They are the Terra (T) and Aqua (A) platforms. Both instruments have successfully continued to operate beyond the 6 year design life time, with the T-MODIS currently functional beyond 15 years and the A-MODIS operating beyond 13 years respectively. The MODIS sensor characteristics include a spectral coverage from 0.41 μm - 14.4 μm, of which wavelengths ranging from 3.7 μm - 14. 4 μm cover the thermal infrared region also referred to as the Thermal Emissive Bands (TEBs). The TEBs is calibrated using a v-grooved BlackBody (BB) whose temperature measurements are traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology temperature scales. The TEBs calibration based on the onboard BB is extremely important for its high radiometric fidelity. In this paper, we provide a complete characterization of the lifetime instrument performance of both MODIS instruments in terms of the sensor gain, the Noise Equivalent difference Temperature, key instrument telemetry such as the BB lifetime trends, the instrument temperature trends, the Cold Focal Plane telemetry and finally, the total assessed calibration uncertainty of the TEBs.

  3. Enhanced free exciton and direct band-edge emissions at room temperature in ultrathin ZnO films grown on Si nanopillars by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuan-Ming; Shieh, Jiann; Chu, Pei-Yuan; Lee, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Chih-Ming; Juang, Jenh-Yih

    2011-11-01

    Room-temperature ultraviolet (UV) luminescence was investigated for the atomic layer deposited ZnO films grown on silicon nanopillars (Si-NPs) fabricated by self-masking dry etching in hydrogen-containing plasma. For films deposited at 200 °C, an intensive UV emission corresponding to free-exciton recombination (~3.31 eV) was observed with a nearly complete suppression of the defect-associated broad visible range emission peak. On the other hand, for ZnO films grown at 25 °C, albeit the appearance of the defect-associated visible emission, the UV emission peak was observed to shift by ~60 meV to near the direct band edge (3.37 eV) recombination emission. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) showed that the ZnO films obtained at 25 °C were consisting of ZnO nanocrystals with a mean radius of 2 nm embedded in a largely amorphous matrix. Because the Bohr radius of free-exictons in bulk ZnO is ~2.3 nm, the size confinement effect may have occurred and resulted in the observed direct band edge electron-hole recombination. Additionally, the results also demonstrate order of magnitude enhancement in emission efficiency for the ZnO/Si-NP structure, as compared to that of ZnO directly deposited on Si substrate under the same conditions.

  4. Sub-band gap photo-enhanced secondary electron emission from high-purity single-crystal chemical-vapor-deposited diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yater, J. E.; Shaw, J. L.; Pate, B. B.; Feygelson, T. I.

    2016-02-01

    Secondary-electron-emission (SEE) current measured from high-purity, single-crystal (100) chemical-vapor-deposited diamond is found to increase when sub-band gap (3.06 eV) photons are incident on the hydrogenated surface. Although the light does not produce photoemission directly, the SEE current increases by more than a factor of 2 before saturating with increasing laser power. In energy distribution curves (EDCs), the emission peak shows a corresponding increase in intensity with increasing laser power. However, the emission-onset energy in the EDCs remains constant, indicating that the bands are pinned at the surface. On the other hand, changes are observed on the high-energy side of the distribution as the laser power increases, with a well-defined shoulder becoming more pronounced. From an analysis of this feature in the EDCs, it is deduced that upward band bending is present in the near-surface region during the SEE measurements and this band bending suppresses the SEE yield. However, sub-band gap photon illumination reduces the band bending and thereby increases the SEE current. Because the bands are pinned at the surface, we conclude that the changes in the band levels occur below the surface in the electron transport region. Sample heating produces similar effects as observed with sub-band gap photon illumination, namely, an increase in SEE current and a reduction in band bending. However, the upward band bending is not fully removed by either increasing laser power or temperature, and a minimum band bending of ˜0.8 eV is established in both cases. The sub-band gap photo-excitation mechanism is under further investigation, although it appears likely at present that defect or gap states play a role in the photo-enhanced SEE process. In the meantime, the study demonstrates the ability of visible light to modify the electronic properties of diamond and enhance the emission capabilities, which may have potential impact for diamond-based vacuum electron

  5. Inhomogeneous broadening and peak shift of the 7.6 eV optical absorption band of oxygen vacancies in SiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Kajihara, Koichi; Skuja, Linards; Hosono, Hideo

    2014-10-21

    The peak parameters of radiation-induced 7.6 eV optical absorption band of oxygen vacancies (Si-Si bonds) were examined for high-purity synthetic α-quartz and amorphous SiO{sub 2} (a‐SiO{sub 2}) exposed to {sup 60}Co γ-rays. The peak shape is asymmetric with the steeper edge at the lower energy side both in α-quartz and a‐SiO{sub 2}, and the peak energy is larger for α-quartz than that for a‐SiO{sub 2}. The full width at half maximum for a‐SiO{sub 2} is larger by ∼40-60% than that for α-quartz, and it increases with an increase in the disorder of the a‐SiO{sub 2} network, which is enhanced by raising the temperature of preannealing before irradiation, i.e., fictive temperature. These data are interpreted from the viewpoint of the site-to-site distribution of the Si-Si bond length in a‐SiO{sub 2}.

  6. Using Lunar Observations to Assess Terra MODIS Thermal Emissive Bands Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Chen, Hongda

    2010-01-01

    MODIS collects data in both the reflected solar and thermal emissive regions using 36 spectral bands. The center wavelengths of these bands cover the3.7 to 14.24 micron region. In addition to using its on-board calibrators (OBC), which include a full aperture solar diffuser (SD) and a blackbody (BB), lunar observations have been scheduled on a regular basis to support both Terra and Aqua MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization. This paper provides an overview of MODIS lunar observations and their applications for the reflective solar bands (RSB) and thermal emissive bands (TEB) with an emphasis on potential calibration improvements of MODIS band 21 at 3.96 microns. This spectral band has detectors set with low gains to enable fire detection. Methodologies are proposed and examined on the use of lunar observations for the band 21 calibration. Also presented in this paper are preliminary results derived from Terra MODIS lunar observations and remaining challenging issues.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the unidentified infrared emission bands: Auto exhaust along the Milky Wayexclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Allamandola, L.J.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Barker, J.R.

    1985-03-01

    We have attributed the unidentified infrared emission feature (UIR bands) to a collection of partially hydrogenated, positively charged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This assignment is based on a spectrocopic analysis of the UIR bands. Comparison of the observed interstellar 6.2 and 7.7 ..mu..m bands with the laboratory measured Raman spectrum of a collection of carbon-based particulates (auto exhaust) shows a very good agreement, supporting this idenfication. The infrared-emission is due to relaxation from highly vibrationally and electronically excited states. The infrared emission is due to relaxation from highly vibrationally excited states. The excitation is probably caused by UV photon absorption.

  8. RFID Transponders' RF Emissions in Aircraft Communication and Navigation Radio Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Koppen Sandra V.; Fersch, Mariatheresa S.

    2008-01-01

    Radiated emission data in aircraft communication and navigation bands are presented for several active radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. The individual tags are different in design, operation and transmitting frequencies. The process for measuring the tags emissions in a reverberation chamber is discussed. Measurement issues dealing with tag interrogation, low level measurement in the presence of strong transmissions, and tags low duty factors are discussed. The results show strong emissions, far exceeding aircraft emission limits and can be of potential interference risks.

  9. Defect-Band Emission Photoluminescence Imaging on Multi-Crystalline Si Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, F.; Johnston, S.; Zaunbrecher, K.; Al-Jassim, M.; Sidelkheir, O.; Blosse, A.

    2011-01-01

    Defect-band photoluminescence (PL) imaging with an InGaAs camera was applied to multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) wafers, which were taken from different heights of different Si bricks. Neighboring wafers were picked at six different processing steps, from as-cut to post-metallization. By using different cut-off filters, we were able to separate the band-to-band emission images from the defect-band emission images. On the defect-band emission images, the bright regions that originate from the grain boundaries and defect clusters were extracted from the PL images. The area fraction percentage of these regions at various processing stages shows a correlation with the final cell electrical parameters.

  10. Defect-Band Emission Photoluminescence Imaging on Multi-Crystalline Si Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, F.; Johnston, S.; Zaunbrecher, K.; Al-Jassim, M.; Sidelkheir, O.; Blosse, A.

    2011-07-01

    Defect-band photoluminescence (PL) imaging with an InGaAs camera was applied to multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) wafers, which were taken from different heights of different Si bricks. Neighboring wafers were picked at six different processing steps, from as-cut to post-metallization. By using different cut-off filters, we were able to separate the band-to-band emission images from the defect-band emission images. On the defect-band emission images, the bright regions that originate from the grain boundaries and defect clusters were extracted from the PL images. The area fraction percentage of these regions at various processing stages shows a correlation with the final cell electrical parameters.

  11. C-H Hot Bands in the Near-IR Emission Spectra of Leonids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, F. T.; Scoville, J.; Holm, R.; Seelemann, R.; Freund, M. M.

    2002-01-01

    The reported infrared (IR) emission spectra from 1999 Leonid fireballs show a 3.4 micron C-H emission band and unidentified bands at longer wavelengths. Upon atmospheric entry, the Leonid meteorites were flash-heated to temperatures around 2400K, which would destroy any organics on the surface of the meteorite grains. We propose that the nu(sub )CH emission band in the Leonid emission spectra arises from matrix-embedded C(sub n)-H-O entities that are protected from instant pyrolysis. Our model is based on IR absorption nu(sub )CH bands, which we observed in laboratory-grown MgO and natural olivine single crystals, where they arise from C(sub n)-H-O units imbedded in the mineral matrix, indicative of aliphatic -CH2- and -CH3 organics. Instead of being pyrolyzed, the C(sub n)-H-O entities in the Leonid trails become vibrationally excited to higher levels n = 1, 2, 3 etc. During de-excitation they emit at 3.4 microns, due to the (0 => 1) transition, and at longer wavelengths, due to hot bands. As a first step toward verifying this hypothesis we measured the C-H vibrational manifold of hexane (C6H14). The calculated positions of the (2 => l ) , (3 => 2), and possibly (4 => 3) hot bands agree with the Leonid emission bands at 3.5, 3.8 and 4.l microns.

  12. Anisotropy of the high-energy satellites of the K emission band in graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, A.; Schnatterly, S. E.; Carson, R. D.

    1985-05-01

    Two satellites on the high-energy side of the K emission band of graphite have been observed and found to be anisotropic. One of them is attributed to the radiative decay of double ionization of the K shell while the other is tentatively explained as resulting from electronic transitions from the conduction-band minimum into the K-shell vacancy.

  13. Si3N4 emissivity and the unidentified infrared bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Ray W.; Chatelain, M. A.; Hecht, James H.; Stephens, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy of warm (about 150 to 750 K), dusty astronomical sources has revealed a structured emission spectrum which can be diagnostic of the composition, temperature, and in some cases, even size and shape of the grains giving rise to the observed emission. The identifications of silicate emission in oxygen rich objects and SiC in carbon rich object are two examples of this type of analysis. Cometary spectra at moderate resolution have similarly revealed silicate emission, tying together interstellar and interplanetary dust. However, Goebel has pointed out that some astronomical sources appear to contain a different type of dust which results in a qualitatively different spectral shape in the 8 to 13 micron region. The spectra shown make it appear unlikely that silicon nitride can be identified as the source of the 8 to 13 micron emission in either NGC 6572 or Nova Aql 1982. The similarity between the general wavelength and shape of the 10 micron emission from some silicates and that from the two forms of silicon nitride reported could allow a mix of cosmic grains which include some silicon nitride if only the 8 to 13 micron data are considered.

  14. Techniques to minimize adjacent band emissions from Earth Exploration Satellites to protect the Space Research (Category B) Earth Stations in the 8400-8450 MHz band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Charles C.; Sue, Miles K.; Manshadi, Farzin

    2004-01-01

    The Earth Exploration Satellites operating in the 8025-8400 MHz band can have strong adjacent band emissions on the8400-8450 MHz band which is allocated for Space Research (Category-B). The unwanted emission may exceed the protection criterion establish by the ITU-R for the protection of the Space Research (Category B) earth stations, i.e., deep-space earth stations. An SFCG Action Item (SF 23/14) was created during the 23rd SFCG meeting to explore technical and operational techniques to reduce the adjacent band emissions. In response to this action item, a study was conducted and results are presented in this document.

  15. Origin of multi-band emission from the microquasar Cygnus X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jianfu; Lu, Jufu; Xu, Bing

    2014-06-20

    We study the origin of non-thermal emissions from the Galactic black hole X-ray binary Cygnus X-1, which is a confirmed high-mass microquasar. By analogy with the methods used in studies of active galactic nuclei, we propose a two-dimensional, time-dependent radiation model from the microquasar Cygnus X-1. In this model, the evolution equation for relativistic electrons in a conical jet are numerically solved by including escape, adiabatic, and various radiative losses. The radiative processes involved are synchrotron emission, its self-Compton scattering, and inverse Compton scatterings of an accretion disk and its surrounding stellar companion. This model also includes an electromagnetic cascade process of an anisotropic γ-γ interaction. We study the spectral properties of electron evolution and its emission spectral characteristic at different heights of the emission region located in the jet. We find that radio data from Cygnus X-1 are reproduced by the synchrotron emission, the Fermi Large Area Telescope measurements by the synchrotron emission and Comptonization of photons of the stellar companion, and the TeV band emission fluxes by the Comptonization of the stellar photons. Our results show the following. (1) The radio emission region extends from the binary system scales to the termination of the jet. (2) The GeV band emissions should originate from the distance close to the binary system scales. (3) The TeV band emissions could be inside the binary system, and these emissions could be probed by the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array. (4) The MeV tail emissions, which produce a strongly linearly polarized signal, are emitted inside the binary system. The location of the emissions is very close to the inner region of the jet.

  16. Discovery of SiO Band Emission from Galactic B[e] Supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, M.; Oksala, M. E.; Cidale, L. S.; Arias, M. L.; Torres, A. F.; Borges Fernandes, M.

    2015-02-01

    B[e] supergiants (B[e]SGs) are evolved massive stars in a short-lived transition phase. During this phase, these objects eject large amounts of material, which accumulate in a circumstellar disk-like structure. The expelled material is typically dense and cool, providing the cradle for molecule and dust condensation and for a rich, ongoing chemistry. Very little is known about the chemical composition of these disks, beyond the emission from dust and CO revolving around the star on Keplerian orbits. As massive stars preserve an oxygen-rich surface composition throughout their life, other oxygen-based molecules can be expected to form. As SiO is the second most stable oxygen compound, we initiated an observing campaign to search for first-overtone SiO emission bands. We obtained high-resolution near-infrared L-band spectra for a sample of Galactic B[e]SGs with reported CO band emission. We clearly detect emission from the SiO first-overtone bands in CPD-52 9243 and indications for faint emission in HD 62623, HD 327083, and CPD-57 2874. From model fits, we find that in all these stars the SiO bands are rotationally broadened with a velocity lower than observed in the CO band forming regions, suggesting that SiO forms at larger distances from the star. Hence, searching for and analyzing these bands is crucial for studying the structure and kinematics of circumstellar disks, because they trace complementary regions to the CO band formation zone. Moreover, since SiO molecules are the building blocks for silicate dust, their study might provide insight in the early stage of dust formation. Based on observations collected with the ESO VLT Paranal Observatory under program 093.D-0248(A).

  17. CO Cameron band and CO2+ UV doublet emissions in the dayglow of Venus: Role of CO in the Cameron band production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Jain, Sonal Kumar

    2013-06-01

    The present study deals with the model calculations of CO Cameron band and CO2+ ultraviolet doublet emissions in the dayglow of Venus. The overhead and limb intensities of CO Cameron band and CO2+ UV doublet emissions are calculated for low, moderate, and high solar activity conditions. Using updated cross sections, the impact of different e-CO cross sections for Cameron band production is estimated. The electron impact on CO is the major source mechanism of Cameron band, followed by electron and photon impact dissociation of CO2. The overhead intensities of CO Cameron band and CO2+UV doublet emissions are about a factor of 2 higher in solar maximum than those in solar minimum condition. The effect of solar EUV flux models on the emission intensity is ˜30-40% in solar minimum condition and ˜2-10% in solar maximum condition. At the altitude of emission peak (˜135 km), the model predicted limb intensity of CO Cameron band and CO2+ UV doublet emissions in moderate (F10.7=130) solar activity condition is about 2400 and 300 kR, respectively, which is in agreement with the very recently published SPICAV/Venus Express observation. The model limb intensity profiles of CO Cameron band and CO2+UV doublet are compared with SPICAV observation. We also calculated intensities of N2Vegard-Kaplan UV bands and O I 2972 Å emissions during moderate and high solar activity conditions.

  18. Narrow-band tunable terahertz emission from ferrimagnetic Mn3-xGa thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awari, N.; Kovalev, S.; Fowley, C.; Rode, K.; Gallardo, R. A.; Lau, Y.-C.; Betto, D.; Thiyagarajah, N.; Green, B.; Yildirim, O.; Lindner, J.; Fassbender, J.; Coey, J. M. D.; Deac, A. M.; Gensch, M.

    2016-07-01

    Narrow-band terahertz emission from coherently excited spin precession in metallic ferrimagnetic Mn3-xGa Heusler alloy nanofilms has been observed. The efficiency of the emission, per nanometer film thickness, is comparable or higher than that of classical laser-driven terahertz sources based on optical rectification. The center frequency of the emission from the films can be tuned precisely via the film composition in the range of 0.20-0.35 THz, making this type of metallic film a candidate for efficient on-chip terahertz emitters. Terahertz emission spectroscopy is furthermore shown to be a sensitive probe of magnetic properties of ultra-thin films.

  19. Measurement of the pressure dependence of the direct band gap of In0.53Ga0.47As using stimulated emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    People, R.; Jayaraman, A.; Wecht, K. W.; Sivco, D. L.; Cho, A. Y.

    1988-06-01

    Stimulated emission, obtainable at high optical pumping levels, has been used to follow the pressure dependence of the Γ-band gap of molecular beam epitaxial In0.53Ga0.47As on (001)InP. Hydrostatic pressure was generated using a diamond anvil cell, and all measurements were made at room temperature. The gap varies sublinearly with pressure for P≳10 kbar, having an initial slope of 12.44 meV/kbar. The deviation from a linear behavior is largely due to nonlinearities in the equation of state at higher pressures. The deformation potential (Ξd+ (1)/(3) Ξu-a) =-(7.79±0.4)eV, for the Γ-band gap.

  20. The MAON model of Astronomical Unidentified Infrared Emission Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, Sun; Zhang, Yong

    2015-08-01

    Infrared spectroscopic observations of the stretching and bending modes of aliphatic and aromatic compounds are now seen throughout the Universe, from the diffuse interstellar medium of the Milky Way Galaxy to distant galaxies. Observations of evolved stars have revealed a rapid (~10$^3$ year time scale) and continuous synthesis of organic materials from the end of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB), to proto-planetary nebulae, to planetary nebulae. These synthesized products are ejected into the interstellar medium through stellar winds and as a result enriching the Galaxy with complex organics. Analysis of the infrared spectra suggests that the chemical structure of the carrier is consistent with that of mixed aromatic and aliphatic nanoparticles (MAON). These structures are very similar to those of the insoluble organic matter found in meteorites, suggesting that the early solar system may have been enriched by stellar ejecta.ReferencesKwok, S. The Synthesis of Organic and Inorganic Compounds in Evolved Stars, Nature, 430, 985 (2004)Kwok, S. and Zhang, Y. Mixed aromatic/aliphatic organic nanoparticles as carriers of unidentified infrared emission features, Nature, 479, 80 (2011)Kwok, S. Organic Matter in the Universe, Wiley (2011)

  1. Light on the 3 μm Emission Band from Space with Molecular Beam Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltseva, Elena; Mackie, Cameron J.; Candian, Alessandra; Petrignani, Annemieke; Tielens, Xander; Oomens, Jos; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2016-06-01

    The majority of interstellar objects shows IR emission features also known as unidentified infrared (UIR) emission bands. These UIR bands are attributed to IR emission of highly-excited gaseous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). To understand the physical conditions and chemical evolution of the interstellar environment a precise identification of the emission carriers is desired. The 3 μm UIR feature is represented by a strong band at 3040 cm-1, a plateau from 3150 to 2700 cm-1 and a number of weak features within this plateau. The 3040 cm-1 component is assigned to fundamental CH-stretch vibrations of PAHs, but there still remain many questions on the origin of the other features. In this work we have studied experimentally the 3 μm region of regular, hydrogenated and methylated PAHs (up to 5 rings), combining molecular beam techniques with IR-UV ion dip spectroscopy, and theoretically by density functional theory (DFT) calculations within the harmonic and anharmonic approximation. We find that (a) the 3 μm region of PAHs is dominated by Fermi resonances and thereby cannot be treated within the harmonic approximation; (b) the periphery structure of the molecules strongly affects the shape of the 3 μm band. In particular, the two-component emission interpretation can be explained by the presence of molecules with and without bay-hydrogens; (c) due to strong Fermi resonances of fundamental modes with combination bands regular PAHs can significantly contribute to the 3 μm plateau in the 3150-2950 cm-1, while hydrogenated and methylated species are primarily responsible for features in the 2950-2750 cm-1 region.

  2. Mechanism of generation of the emission bands in the dynamic spectrum of the Crab pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardavan, Houshang; Ardavan, Arzhang; Singleton, John; Perez, Mario R.

    2008-08-01

    We show that the proportionately spaced emission bands in the dynamic spectrum of the Crab pulsar fit the oscillations of the square of a Bessel function whose argument exceeds its order. This function has already been encountered in the analysis of the emission from a polarization current with a superluminal distribution pattern: a current whose distribution pattern rotates (with an angular frequency ω) and oscillates (with a frequency Ω > ω differing from an integral multiple of ω) at the same time. Using the results of our earlier analysis, we find that the dependence on frequency of the spacing and width of the observed emission bands can be quantitatively accounted for by an appropriate choice of the value of the single free parameter Ω/ω. In addition, the value of this parameter, thus implied by Hankins & Eilek's data, places the last peak in the amplitude of the oscillating Bessel function in question at a frequency (~Ω3/ω2) that agrees with the position of the observed ultraviolet peak in the spectrum of the Crab pulsar. We also show how the suppression of the emission bands by the interference of the contributions from differing polarizations can account for the differences in the time and frequency signatures of the interpulse and the main pulse in the Crab pulsar. Finally, we put the emission bands in the context of the observed continuum spectrum of the Crab pulsar by fitting this broad-band spectrum (over 16 orders of magnitude of frequency) with that generated by an electric current with a superluminally rotating distribution pattern.

  3. Analysis of multi-band pyrometry for emissivity and temperature measurements of gray surfaces at ambient temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, António

    2016-05-01

    A multi-band pyrometry model is developed to evaluate the potential of measuring temperature and emissivity of assumably gray target surfaces at 300 K. Twelve wavelength bands between 2 and 60 μm are selected to define the spectral characteristics of the pyrometers. The pyrometers are surrounded by an enclosure with known background temperature. Multi-band pyrometry modeling results in an overdetermined system of equations, in which the solution for temperature and emissivity is obtained through an optimization procedure that minimizes the sum of the squared residuals of each system equation. The Monte Carlo technique is applied to estimate the uncertainties of temperature and emissivity, resulting from the propagation of the uncertainties of the pyrometers. Maximum reduction in temperature uncertainty is obtained from dual-band to tri-band systems, a small reduction is obtained from tri-band to quad-band, with a negligible reduction above quad-band systems (a reduction between 6.5% and 12.9% is obtained from dual-band to quad-band systems). However, increasing the number of bands does not always reduce uncertainty, and uncertainty reduction depends on the specific band arrangement, indicating the importance of choosing the most appropriate multi-band spectral arrangement if uncertainty is to be reduced. A reduction in emissivity uncertainty is achieved when the number of spectral bands is increased (a reduction between 6.3% and 12.1% is obtained from dual-band to penta-band systems). Besides, emissivity uncertainty increases for pyrometers with high wavelength spectral arrangements. Temperature and emissivity uncertainties are strongly dependent on the difference between target and background temperatures: uncertainties are low when the background temperature is far from the target temperature, tending to very high values as the background temperature approaches the target temperature.

  4. Near band edge emission characteristics of sputtered nano-crystalline ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunj, Saurabh; Sreenivas, K.

    2016-05-01

    Sputtered zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films deposited on unheated glass substrate under different sputtering gas mixtures (Ar+O2) have been investigated using X-ray diffraction and photo luminescence spectroscopy. Earlier reported studies on ZnO films prepared by different techniques exhibit either a sharp/broad near band edge (NBE) emission peak depending on the crystalline quality of the film. In the present study zinc oxide films, grown on unheated substrates, are seen to possess a preferred (002) orientation with a microstructure consisting of clustered nano-sized crystallites. The splitting in the near band edge emission (NBE) into three characteristic peaks is attributed to quantum confinement effect, and is observed specifically under an excitation of 270 nm. Deep level emission (DLE) in the range 400 to 700 nm is not observed indicating absence of deep level radiative defects.

  5. RFID Transponders' Radio Frequency Emissions in Aircraft Communication and Navigation Radio Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Williams, Reuben A.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2006-01-01

    Radiated emissions in aircraft communication and navigation bands are measured from several active radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. The individual tags are different in design and operations. They may also operate in different frequency bands. The process for measuring the emissions is discussed, and includes tag interrogation, reverberation chamber testing, and instrument settings selection. The measurement results are described and compared against aircraft emission limits. In addition, interference path loss for the cargo bays of passenger aircraft is measured. Cargo bay path loss is more appropriate for RFID tags than passenger cabin path loss. The path loss data are reported for several aircraft radio systems on a Boeing 747 and an Airbus A320.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the unidentified infrared emission bands - Auto exhaust along the Milky Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, L. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Barker, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The unidentified infrared emission features (UIR bands) are attributed to a collection of partially hydrogenated, positively charged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This assignment is based on a spectroscopic analysis of the UIR bands. Comparison of the observed interstellar 6.2 and 7.7-micron bands with the laboratory measured Raman spectrum of a collection of carbon-based particulates (auto exhaust) shows a very good agreement, supporting this identification. The infrared emission is due to relaxation from highly vibrationally and electronically excited states. The excitation is probably caused by UV photon absorption. The infrared fluorescence of one particular, highly vibrationally excited PAH (chrysene) is modeled. In this analysis the species is treated as a molecule rather than bulk material and the non-thermodynamic equilibrium nature of the emission is fully taken into account. From a comparison of the observed ratio of the 3.3 to 11.3-micron UIR bands with the model calculations, the average number of carbon atoms per molecule is estimated to be about 20. The abundance of interstellar PAHs is calculated to be about 2 x 10 to the -7th with respect to hydrogen.

  7. Field emission analysis of band bending in donor/acceptor heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Yingjie; Li, Shuai; Wang, Guiwei; Zhao, Tianjiao; Zhang, Gengmin

    2016-06-01

    The donor/acceptor heterojunction plays an important role in organic solar cells. An investigation of band bending in the donor/acceptor heterojunction is helpful in analysis of the charge transport behavior and for the improvement of the device performance. In this work, we report an approach for detection of band bending in a donor/acceptor heterojunction that has been prepared on a small and sharp tungsten tip. In situ field emission measurements are performed after the deposition process, and a linear Fowler-Nordheim plot is obtained from the fresh organic film surface. The thickness-dependent work function is then measured in the layer-by-layer deposited heterojunction. Several different types of heterojunction (zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc)/C60, copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic bisbenzimidazole, and CuPc/C60) are fabricated and analyzed. The different charge transfer directions in the heterojunctions are distinguished by field emission measurements. The calculation method used to determine the band bending is then discussed in detail. A triple layer heterojunction (C60/ZnPc/CuPc) is also analyzed using this method. A small amount of band bending is measured in the outer CuPc layer. This method provides an independent reference method for determination of the band bending in an organic heterojunction that will complement photoemission spectroscopy and current-voltage measurement methods.

  8. Dayglow emissions of the O2 Herzberg bands and the Rayleigh backscattered spectrum of the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, J. E.; Abrams, R. B.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that numerous fluorescent emissions from the Herzberg bands of molecular oxygen lie in the spectral region 242-300 nm. This coincides with the wavelength range used by orbiting spectrometers that observe the Rayleigh backscattered spectrum of the earth for the purpose of monitoring the vertical distribution of stratospheric ozone. Model calculations suggest that Herzberg band emissions in the dayglow could provide significant contamination of the ozone measurements if the quenching rate of O2(A3Sigma) is sufficiently small. It is noted that this is especially true near 255 nm, where the most intense fluorescent emissions relative to the Rayleigh scattered signal are located and where past satellite measurements have shown a persistent excess radiance above that expected for a pure ozone absorbing and molecular scattering atmosphere. Very small quenching rates, however, are adequate to reduce the dayglow emission to negligible levels. Noting that available laboratory data have not definitely established the quenching on the rate of O2(A3Sigma) as a function of vibration level, it is emphasized that such information is required before the Herzberg band contributions can be evaluated with confidence.

  9. High brightness field emission from printed carbon nanotubes in an S-band microwave gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qilong; Li, Xiangkun; Di, Yusong; Yu, Cairu; Zhang, Xiaobing; Li, Ming; Lei, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Printed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were applied as cold cathode and placed into an S-band microwave gun operating at 2856 MHz with the pulse duration of 2.8 μs. High brightness field emission was demonstrated and the current density achieves the value more than 4.2 A/cm2. The emittance of field emission beam is calculated to be nearly 21 μm based on the beam profile of emission electrons monitored via yttrium aluminum garnet screen. The infrared image of printed CNTs confirms that the emitters in the center contributed more electrons and the heat generated during the large current density field emission. The results in the paper imply that randomly distributed printed CNTs have the potential to be applied as the high brightness electron sources for free electron lasers.

  10. Band limited emission with central frequency around 2 Hz accompanying powerful cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troitskaia, V. A.; Shepetnov, K. S.; Dvobnia, B. D.

    1992-01-01

    It has been found that powerful cyclones are proceeded, accompanied and followed by narrow band electromagnetic emission with central frequency around 2 Hz. It is shown that the signal from this emission is unique and clearly distinguishable from known types of magnetic pulsations, spectra of local thunderstorms, and signals from industrial sources. This emission was first observed during an unusually powerful cyclone with tornadoes in the western European part of the Soviet Union, which passed by the observatory of Borok from south to north-east. The emission has been confirmed by analysis of similar events in Antarctica. The phenomenon described presents a new aspect of interactions of processes in the lower atmosphere and the ionosphere.

  11. One Martian Year of the Orbiting Thermal Emission Spectrometer's Observations of 10μ m CO2 Hot Band Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguire, W. C.; Pearl, J. C.; Smith, M. D.; Conrath, B. J.; Kutepov, A. A.; Feofilov, A. G.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-05-01

    More than a complete Martian year's Mars Global Surveyor (MGS/TES) data have been obtained allowing tracking of the 10μ m CO2 hot band emission. We show the latitudinal and height changes of the emission as a function of time. Previously, we have shown how absorption of solar radiation in the 1-5μ m region pumping the ν 3 CO2 manifold in our non-LTE (non-local thermodynamic equilibrium) model reproduces the seasonal, latitudinal and height dependence of this IR emission[1]. We will describe improvements to our model and discuss high altitude observations. In Mars' atmosphere, the 15μ m CO2 band is used for temperature retrievals, including limb retrievals. Non-LTE effects in the CO2 vibrational bending mode manifold set in above about 95 km. Even at lower altitudes limb observations, due to long optical paths, include contributions from above 95 km. We will report on our comparison of non-LTE to LTE limb retrievals. Funding for this research was provided by NASA through the Mars Data Analysis Program. We also acknowledge support by NASA for an NAS/NRC Associateship. [1] W.C. Maguire, J.C. Pearl, M.D. Smith, B.J. Conrath, A.A. Kutepov, M.S. Kaelberer, E. Winter and P.R. Christensen, Observations of high-altitude CO2 hot bands in Mars by the orbiting Thermal Emission Spectrometer, J.G.R. 107 (E), doi: 10.1029/2001JE001516, 2002.

  12. Effect of nitrogen addition on the band gap, core level shift, surface energy, and the threshold field of electron emission of the SrTiO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, H. J.; Chen, X. F.; Pan, J. S.; Zhu, W.; Sun, Chang Q.

    2007-12-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) doping on the behavior of field emission, surface energy and the band structure of strontium titanate (SrTiO3) thin films coated on silicon tip arrays has been examined in detail. Measurements using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ellipsometry, water contact angle and field emission testing revealed that the optimal 50%-nitrogen partial pressure (PN) could improve substantially the threshold field of electron emission of the SrTiO3 films accompanied with narrowed band gap, lowered surface energy and work function and a negative energy shift of the N 1s level from 404 to 396 eV. Results evidence consistently the presence of the nonbonding lone pairs and the lone pair induced antibonding dipoles upon tetrahedron formation which is responsible for the observations. At PN below and above the optimal value physisorption and hydrogen bond likes formation like to occur.

  13. L to X-band scatter and emission measurements of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueppi, R.; Schanda, E.

    1986-08-01

    A broad-band H and V polarization radiometer was combined with a noise transmitter to an instrument for measuring active and passive microwave signatures at seven frequencies between L and X band. This radiometer-scatterometer is operated from a cherry picker over agricultural fields. During the growing seasons the development of sugar-beet, wheat, and corn was measured. The geometrical structure of the vegetation cover was described by recording the crop type, the distances between the plants, and the canopy height. The soil underneath was characterized by moisture, temperature profile, and dielectric constant. Another variable was the seasonal change in water content of the plants. Relating these parameters to the microwave signatures reveals the interaction of scatter and emission processes between soil and vegetation. Significant differences of the emission and scattering behavior for the measured crops are found.

  14. Anomalous Series of Bands in the Edge Emission Spectra of CdS(О)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, N. K.; Kanakhin, A. A.; Galstyan, V. G.; Shnitnikov, A. S.

    2015-02-01

    The region of the edge emission spectrum of CdS(O) single crystals with cadmium excess is examined. An anomalous series of equidistant bands with leading line at 514 nm and phonon replicas has been revealed. These bands grow in intensity with increase of the excitation density up to 1026-1027 cm-3ṡs-1 at 80 K, and the leading line of the series is observed even at 300 K. It is shown that luminescence is conditioned by the exciton spectrum in perfect bulk single-crystals of CdO. Some characteristics of this spectrum are presented, in particular, the dependence on temperature, excitation intensity, composition and size of the crystals, and the LO interaction. The results experimentally confirm the theoretically calculated magnitude of the direct band gap of CdO.

  15. Photoconvertible Behavior of LSSmOrange Applicable for Single Emission Band Optical Highlighting.

    PubMed

    De Keersmaecker, Herlinde; Fron, Eduard; Rocha, Susana; Kogure, Takako; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Hofkens, Johan; Mizuno, Hideaki

    2016-09-01

    Photoswitchable fluorescent proteins are capable of changing their spectral properties upon light irradiation, thus allowing one to follow a chosen subpopulation of molecules in a biological system. Recently, we revealed a photoinduced absorption band shift of LSSmOrange, which was originally engineered to have a large energy gap between excitation and emission bands. Here, we evaluated the performance of LSSmOrange as a fluorescent tracer in living cells. The absorption maximum of LSSmOrange in HeLa cells shifted from 437 nm to 553 nm upon illumination with a 405-, 445-, 458-, or 488-nm laser on a laser-scanning microscope, whereas the emission band remained same (∼570 nm). LSSmOrange behaves as a freely diffusing protein in living cells, enabling the use of the protein as a fluorescence tag for studies of protein dynamics. By targeting LSSmOrange in mitochondria, we observed an exchange of soluble molecules between the matrices upon mitochondrial fusion. Since converted and unconverted LSSmOrange proteins have similar emission spectra, this tracer offers unique possibilities for multicolor imaging. The fluorescence emission from LSSmOrange was spectrally distinguishable from that of eYFP and mRFP, and could be separated completely by applying linear unmixing. Furthermore, by using a femtosecond laser at 850 nm, we showed that a two-photon process could evoke a light-induced red shift of the absorption band of LSSmOrange, providing a strict confinement of the conversion volume in a three-dimensional space.

  16. Photoconvertible Behavior of LSSmOrange Applicable for Single Emission Band Optical Highlighting.

    PubMed

    De Keersmaecker, Herlinde; Fron, Eduard; Rocha, Susana; Kogure, Takako; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Hofkens, Johan; Mizuno, Hideaki

    2016-09-01

    Photoswitchable fluorescent proteins are capable of changing their spectral properties upon light irradiation, thus allowing one to follow a chosen subpopulation of molecules in a biological system. Recently, we revealed a photoinduced absorption band shift of LSSmOrange, which was originally engineered to have a large energy gap between excitation and emission bands. Here, we evaluated the performance of LSSmOrange as a fluorescent tracer in living cells. The absorption maximum of LSSmOrange in HeLa cells shifted from 437 nm to 553 nm upon illumination with a 405-, 445-, 458-, or 488-nm laser on a laser-scanning microscope, whereas the emission band remained same (∼570 nm). LSSmOrange behaves as a freely diffusing protein in living cells, enabling the use of the protein as a fluorescence tag for studies of protein dynamics. By targeting LSSmOrange in mitochondria, we observed an exchange of soluble molecules between the matrices upon mitochondrial fusion. Since converted and unconverted LSSmOrange proteins have similar emission spectra, this tracer offers unique possibilities for multicolor imaging. The fluorescence emission from LSSmOrange was spectrally distinguishable from that of eYFP and mRFP, and could be separated completely by applying linear unmixing. Furthermore, by using a femtosecond laser at 850 nm, we showed that a two-photon process could evoke a light-induced red shift of the absorption band of LSSmOrange, providing a strict confinement of the conversion volume in a three-dimensional space. PMID:27602729

  17. Rotationally resolved pulsed field ionization photoelectron bands for O{sub 2}{sup +}(a {sup 4}{pi}{sub u}, v{sup +}=0-18) in the energy range of 16.0-18.0 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Y.; Evans, M.; Ng, C. Y.; Hsu, C.-W.; Jarvis, G. K.

    2000-01-15

    We have obtained rotationally resolved pulsed field ionization-photoelectron (PFI-PE) spectra of O{sub 2} in the energy range of 16.0-18.0 eV, covering ionization transitions O{sub 2}{sup +}(a {sup 4}{pi}{sub u}, v{sup +}=0-18,J{sup +})(<-)O{sub 2}(X {sup 3}{sigma}{sub g}{sup .}, v{sup ''}=0,N{sup ''}). Although these vibrational PFI-PE bands for O{sub 2}{sup +}(a {sup 4}{pi}{sub u}, v{sup +}) have significant overlaps with those for O{sub 2}{sup +}(X {sup 2}{pi}{sub g}) and O{sub 2}{sup +}(A {sup 2}{pi}{sub u}), we have identified all O{sub 2}{sup +}(a {sup 4}{pi}{sub u}, v{sup +}=0-18) bands by simulation of spectra obtained using supersonically cooled O{sub 2} samples with rotational temperatures {approx_equal}20 and 220 K. While the v{sup +}=4-18PFI-PE bands represent the first rotationally resolved photoelectron data for O{sub 2}{sup +}(a {sup 4}{pi}{sub u}), the PFI-PE bands for O{sub 2}{sup +}(a {sup 4}{pi}{sub u}, v{sup +}=10-18) are the first rotationally resolved spectroscopic data for these levels. The simulation also allows the determination of accurate ionization energies, vibrational constants, and rotational constants for O{sub 2}{sup +}(a {sup 2}{pi}{sub u}, v{sup +}=0-18). The observed intensities of spin-orbit components for the majority of O{sub 2}{sup +}(a {sup 2}{pi}{sub u}, v{sup +}) vibrational bands are in accordance with the forced spin-orbit/rotational autoionization mechanism. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  18. Valence-band electronic structure of silicon nitride studied with the use of soft-x-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, R. D.; Schnatterly, S. E.

    1986-02-01

    We have studied the valence-band electronic structure of α-phase, β-phase, and amorphous silicon nitride samples, using Si L-x-ray emission. Our results are compared with a recent band-structure calculation and show that Si 3d states are necessary to properly describe the upper-valence-band and lower-conduction-band density of states. A prominent feature is seen above the valence band which is attributed to conduction-band states that are populated by the incident electron beam. By reducing the energy of the electron beam it is possible to enhance the surface emission relative to bulk emission, and such spectra are also presented and discussed.

  19. Laboratory Measurement of the CO Cameron Bands and Visible Emissions Following VUV Photodissociation of CO{_2}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogerakis, K. S.; Romanescu, C.; Slanger, T. G.; Lee, L. C.; Ahmed, M.; Wilson, K. R.

    2009-06-01

    The CO(a^{3}Π-X^{1}Σ^{+}) Cameron bands are one of the most important emission features in the UV dayglow of the CO{_2} planets, as demonstrated in the case of Mars by the measurements performed by Mariner and Mars Express missions. One of the mechanisms to produce electronically excited CO(a^{3}Π) is photodissociation of CO{_2} at wavelengths shorter than 108 nm. At wavelengths below 100 nm, new CO{_2} photodissociation channels open leading to formation of higher energy triplet states of CO. These states cascade into the lower triplet state by emission in the visible spectral region before radiating in the Cameron system. This two step relaxation pathway was demonstrated by Lee and Judge for the 90-93 nm photodissociation of CO{_2}. We have further investigated this process using the 85-110 nm tunable synchrotron radiation at the Advanced Light Source facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The experimental results confirmed that once a triplet state excitation threshold is exceeded, a fraction of the Cameron band emission is accompanied by visible emission. These results indicate that the emission corresponding to the CO(a^'-a, d-a, e-a) triplet bands must be part of the visible Mars / Venus dayglow. The same is true for CO{_2} photoexcitation in cometary atmospheres. This work was supported by the NASA Outer Planets Research Program under grant NNX06AB82G. The Advanced Light Source is supported by the Director, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. D. L. Judge and L. C. Lee, J. Chem. Phys., 58, 104 (1973)

  20. Excitation temperatures determined from H{sup +}{sub 3} hot band emission in the Jovian ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Jagod, M.F.; Oka, T.; Geballe, T.R.

    1996-12-31

    Since the observation of the 3.544 {mu}m 2v{sup 0}{sub 2} {r_arrow} v{sub 2} (J = 9, K = 9 {r_arrow} J = 8, G = 9, U = 1) hot band transition of H{sup +}{sub 3} in the polar regions of Jupiter, the authors have pursued the simultaneous detection of additional hot band transitions with fundamental band transitions in order to derive well determined H+ excitation temperatures. The authors report 9 additional resolved 2{nu}{sub 2}{sup 2} {r_arrow} {nu}{sub 2} and {nu}{sub 1} + {nu}{sub 2} {r_arrow} {nu}{sub 1} hot band transitions observed in emission at 3.52, 3.63, 3.66, and 3.84 {mu}m. The hot band transitions have thus far only been detected in the polar regions, with the occasional exception being the 3.544 {mu}m 2{nu}{sup 0}{sub 2} {r_arrow} {nu}{sub 2} transition around 45{degrees}S latitude during the 1994 Comet Shoemaker Levy-9 encounter. Temporal and spatial variation of the excitation temperatures as well as their dependence on vibrational mode will be presented. Anomalous line intensities, e.g. {sup r}R(3,3){sup -b} will also be discussed. All observations were made with the CGS4 spectrometer at the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii.

  1. Origin of the low-energy emission band in epitaxially grown para-sexiphenyl nanocrystallites

    SciTech Connect

    Kadashchuk, A.; Schols, S.; Heremans, P.; Skryshevski, Yu.; Piryatinski, Yu.; Beinik, I.; Teichert, C.; Hernandez-Sosa, G.; Sitter, H.; Andreev, A.; Frank, P.; Winkler, A.

    2009-02-28

    A comparative study of steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence of para-sexiphenyl (PSP) films grown by organic molecular beam epitaxy (OMBE) and hot wall epitaxy (HWE) under comparable conditions is presented. Using different template substrates [mica(001) and KCl(001) surfaces] as well as different OMBE growth conditions has enabled us to vary greatly the morphology of the PSP crystallites while keeping their chemical structure virtually untouched. We prove that the broad redshifted emission band has a structure-related origin rather than being due to monomolecular oxidative defects. We conclude that the growth conditions and type of template substrate impacts substantially on the film morphology (measured by atomic force microscopy) and emission properties of the PSP films. The relative intensity of the defect emission band observed in the delayed spectra was found to correlate with the structural quality of PSP crystallites. In particular, the defect emission has been found to be drastically suppressed when (i) a KCl template substrate was used instead of mica in HWE-grown films, and (ii) in the OMBE-grown films dominated by growth mounds composed of upright standing molecules as opposed to the films consisting of crystallites formed by molecules lying parallel to the substrate.

  2. Epitaxy, phase separation and band-edge emission of spontaneously formed InGaN nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Arpan; Shivaprasad, S. M.

    2016-09-01

    An In-flux dependent study of the nature of epitaxy, compositional phase separation and band-edge emission of spontaneously formed c-oriented InGaN nanorods on c-sapphire is performed. At higher In flux-rates, m-faceted thick nanorods (≈700 nm) form with two in-plane epitaxial orientations, and display compositional phases with In composition varying from 14 to 63%. In these rods, photo-luminescent (PL) emission is seen to originate only from the localized high-In phase (63%) that is embedded in the low-In (14%) InGaN matrix. As the In flux-rate is reduced, nanorods of smaller diameter (≈60 nm) and a coalesced nanorod network are formed, with In incorporation of 15% and 9%, respectively. These faceted, c-aligned thinner nanorods are of a single compositional phase and epitaxy and display room-temperature PL emission. Optical absorption and emission properties of these nanostructures follow Vegard’s law of band-gaps, and the observed bowing parameter and Stokes shifts correlate to the observed compositional inhomogeneity and carrier localization.

  3. The microwave emission and transmission characters of deciduous forest at L-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongjun; Yuan, Yu; Zheng, Xingming; Zhu, Xiaoming; Fu, Xiuli

    2014-11-01

    Forest covers about 30% of earth surface, which plays an important role in global forecast and carbon cycle. Monitoring forest biomass, and retrieving soil moisture at forest area, are the main goals of most passive microwave sensors on satellite missions. L-band is the most sensitive frequency among all the frequencies due to its good penetration ability. Because of its variety of the size of scattering components, the complicated structures and species of forest, it is difficult to describe the scattering and attenuation characters of forest in modeling microwave emission at forest area. In this paper, we studied the emissivity and transmissivity of deciduous forest at L(1.4GHz) by model simulation and field experiment. The microwave emission model was based on Matrix-Doubling algorithm. The comparison between simulated emissivity and measured data collected during an experiment at Maryland, USA in 2007 was good. Since theoretical model like Matrix-Doubling is too complicated to be used in retrial application, we mapped the results of Matrix-Doubling to a simple 0th-order model, also called ω-τ model, by setting the simulated emissivity to be the emissivity of 0th-order model at the same environment, which 2 unknown variables---opacity τ and effective single scattering albedo ω need to be determined. To valited τ (transmissivity of forest) simulated by Matrix-Doubling, we took an deciduous forest experiment by an L band microwave radiometer under trees at JingYueTan area, Changchun, Jilin Province in April to June in 2014. Thus the ω of forest can be determined. The matching results are presented in this paper. The relationship between LAI and forest microwave characters are discussed.

  4. Soil nitrous oxide emissions following band-incorporation of fertilizer nitrogen and swine manure.

    PubMed

    Chantigny, Martin H; Rochette, Philippe; Angers, Denis A; Bittman, Shabtai; Buckley, Katherine; Massé, Daniel; Bélanger, Gilles; Eriksen-Hamel, Nikita; Gasser, Marc-Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of liquid swine manure (LSM) offers opportunities to improve manure nutrient management. However, N2O fluxes and cumulative emissions resulting from application of treated LSM are not well documented. Nitrous oxide emissions were monitored following band-incorporation of 100 kg N ha(-1) of either mineral fertilizer, raw LSM, or four pretreated LSMs (anaerobic digestion; anaerobic digestion + flocculation: filtration; decantation) at the four-leaf stage of corn (Zea mays L.). In a clay soil, a larger proportion of applied N was lost as N2O with the mineral fertilizer (average of 6.6%) than with LSMs (3.1-5.0%), whereas in a loam soil, the proportion of applied N lost as N2O was lower with the mineral fertilizer (average of 0.4%) than with LSMs (1.2-2.4%). Emissions were related to soil NO3 intensity in the clay soil, whereas they were related to water-extractable organic C in the loam soil. This suggests that N2O production was N limited in the clay soil and C limited in the loam soil, and would explain the interaction found between N sources and soil type. The large N2O emission coefficients measured in many treatments, and the contradicting responses among N sources depending on soil type, indicate that (i) the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) default value (1%) may seriously underestimate N2O emissions from fine-textured soils where fertilizer N and manure are band-incorporated, and (ii) site-specific factors, such as drainage conditions and soil properties (e.g., texture, organic matter content), have a differential influence on emissions depending on N source.

  5. Multiyear On-orbit Calibration and Performance of Terra MODIS Thermal Emissive Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Chiang, Kwo-Fu; Wu, Aisheng; Barnes, William; Guenther, Bruce; Salomonson, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    Since launch in December 1999, Terra MODIS has been making continuous Earth observations for more than seven years. It has produced a broad range of land, ocean, and atmospheric science data products for improvements in studies of global climate and environmental change. Among its 36 spectral bands, there are 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) and 16 thermal emissive bands (TEB). MODIS thermal emissive bands cover the mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) spectral regions with wavelengths from 3.7 to 14.4pm. They are calibrated on-orbit using an on-board blackbody (BB) with its temperature measured by a set of thermistors on a scan-by-scan basis. This paper will provide a brief overview of MODIS TEB calibration and characterization methodologies and illustrate on-board BB functions and TEB performance over more than seven years of on-orbit operation and calibration. Discussions will be focused on TEB detector short-term stability and noise characterization, and changes in long-term response (or system gain). Results show that Terra MODIS BB operation has been extremely stable since launch. When operated at its nominal controlled temperature of 290K, the BB temperature variation is typically less than +0.30mK on a scan-by-scan basis and there has been no time-dependent temperature drift. In addition to excellent short-term stability, most TEB detectors continue to meet or exceed their specified noise characterization requirements, thus enabling calibration accuracy and science data product quality to be maintained. Excluding the noisy detectors identified pre-launch and those that occurred post-launch, the changes in TEB responses have been less than 0.7% on an annual basis. The optical leak corrections applied to bands 32-36 have been effective and stable over the entire mission

  6. EXAMINING THE BROADBAND EMISSION SPECTRUM OF WASP-19b: A NEW z-BAND ECLIPSE DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, George; Bayliss, Daniel D. R.; Kedziora-Chudczer, Lucyna; Bailey, Jeremy

    2013-09-10

    WASP-19b is one of the most irradiated hot-Jupiters known. Its secondary eclipse is the deepest of all transiting planets and has been measured in multiple optical and infrared bands. We obtained a z-band eclipse observation with a measured depth of 0.080% {+-} 0.029%, using the 2 m Faulkes Telescope South, which is consistent with the results of previous observations. We combined our measurement of the z-band eclipse with previous observations to explore atmosphere models of WASP-19b that are consistent with its broadband spectrum. We use the VSTAR radiative transfer code to examine the effect of varying pressure-temperature profiles and C/O abundance ratios on the emission spectrum of the planet. We find that models with super-solar carbon enrichment best match the observations, which is consistent with previous model retrieval studies. We also include upper atmosphere haze as another dimension in the interpretation of exoplanet emission spectra and find that particles <0.5 {mu}m in size are unlikely to be present in WASP-19b.

  7. Dielectric properties and emissivity of seawater at C-band microwave frequency.

    PubMed

    Murugkar, A G; Joshi, A S; Kurtadikar, M L

    2012-10-01

    Microwave remote sensing applications over ocean using radar and radiometers, a precise knowledge of emissivity and reflectivity, are required. Emissivity of ocean surface is a function of the surface configuration, frequency of radiation, temperature and its dielectric properties. The emissivity of a smooth ocean surface at a particular wavelength is determined by its complex dielectric properties. In present study, laboratory measurements of complex dielectric properties, real part epsilon', and imaginary part epsilon", of surface seawater samples collected from Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea are carried out. Measurements of these seawater samples are done at 5 GHz and 30 degrees C using an automated C-band microwave bench set up. The salinity of samples is also measured using autosalinometer. The salinity values are used to determine epsilon' and epsilon" using the Debye equations. The normal incidence emissivity and brightness temperature values for smooth sea surface are reported for surface samples. The dielectric constant epsilon' decreases and dielectric loss increases with increase in salinity at 5 GHz and 30 degrees C. At normal incidence, emissivity is almost constant for varying salinities.

  8. Study of instrument temperature effect on MODIS thermal emissive band responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tiejun; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2010-09-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has 16 thermal emissive bands (TEB) over a spectral range from mid-wave infrared (MWIR) to long-wave infrared (LWIR), using photovoltaic (PV) HgCdTe detectors for bands 20-25 and 27-30 with wavelengths from 3.75μm to 9.73μm and photoconductive (PC) HgCdTe detectors for bands 31-36 with wavelengths from 11.0μm to 14.2μm. A total of 160 individual detectors, 10 per band, are distributed on the short- and mid-wave (SMIR) and LWIR cold focal-plane assemblies (CFPA) with temperature controlled at 83K. The instrument temperature affects the detector response and this effect varies with the detector type. Detector responses from on-orbit calibration and pre-launch measurements have been examined to characterize this effect. Results from this analysis show that, for the PV detectors on the SMIR CFPA, the detector responses (gains) increase with instrument temperature whereas the PC detector responses decrease with the instrument temperature. The calibration impact due to on-orbit changes in instrument temperatures is examined. On-orbit detector offset and nonlinear response characterization obtained from the on-boar blackbody (BB) warm-up and cool-down (WUCD) cycle is discussed. This investigation was performed for both Terra MODIS and Aqua MODIS.

  9. Room temperature direct band gap emission characteristics of surfactant mediated grown compressively strained Ge films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katiyar, Ajit K.; Grimm, Andreas; Bar, R.; Schmidt, Jan; Wietler, Tobias; Joerg Osten, H.; Ray, Samit K.

    2016-10-01

    Compressively strained Ge films have been grown on relaxed Si0.45Ge0.55 virtual substrates using molecular beam epitaxy in the presence of Sb as a surfactant. Structural characterization has shown that films grown in the presence of surfactant exhibit very smooth surfaces with a relatively higher strain value in comparison to those grown without any surfactant. The variation of strain with increasing Ge layer thickness was analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The strain is found to be reduced with increasing film thickness due to the onset of island nucleation following Stranski-Krastanov growth mechanism. No phonon assisted direct band gap photoluminescence from compressively strained Ge films grown on relaxed Si0.45Ge0.55 has been achieved up to room temperature. Excitation power and temperature dependent photoluminescence have been studied in details to investigate the origin of different emission sub-bands.

  10. [Research on the emission spectrum of NO molecule's γ-band system by corona discharge].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Xiao-dong; Ding, Yan-jun; Peng, Zhi-min; Luo, Rui

    2012-05-01

    The optical emission spectrum of the gamma-band system of NO molecule, A2 sigma+ --> X2 pi(r), has been analyzed and calculated based on the energy structure of NO molecule' doublet states. By employing the theory of diatomic molecular Spectra, some key parameters of equations for the radiative transition intensity were evaluated theoretically, including the potentials of the doublet states of NO molecule's upper and lower energy levels, the electronic transition moments calculated by using r-centroid approximation method, and the Einstein coefficient of different vibrational and rotational levels. The simulated spectrum of the gamma-band system was calculated as a function of different vibrational and rotational temperature. Compared to the theoretical spectroscopy, the measured results were achieved from corona discharge experiments of NO and N2. The vibrational and rotational temperatures were determined approximately by fitting the measured spectral intensities with the calculated ones.

  11. Studies of collision-induced emission in the fundamental vibration-rotation band of H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caledonia, G. E.; Krech, R. H.; Wilkerson, T.; Taylor, R. L.; Birnbaum, G.

    Measurements are presented of the collision induced emission (CIE) from the fundamental vibration-rotation band of H2 taken over the temperature range of 900-3000 K. The spectral shape and strength of this IR band centered about 2.4 microns has been measured behind reflected shocks in mixtures of H2/Ar. The observed radiation at elevated temperatures is found to be dominantly in the Q branch. The results, compared with theory, show that radiation at elevated temperatures is primarily the result of an induced dipole moment in H2 induced by the overlap between the H2 and Ar electron clouds during collision. The strength of this interaction has been evaluated by an analysis of the measured temperature dependence of the absolute bandstrengths.

  12. Valence x-ray-emission bands of a-Si:H/a-SiNx:H superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nithianandam, Jeyasingh; Schnatterly, Stephen E.

    1990-11-01

    Si L2,3 x-ray-emission spectra from amorphous superlattices made with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H are presented and interpreted using a two-phase linear superposition model for the valence-band region. The average thickness of buried interfaces in these superlattices was found to be 1.8 Å and the interfaces were shown to be of silicon-nitride character. A direct measurement of the fluorescence yield ratio in the soft-x-ray spectral range for any two materials is also presented.

  13. Development of a L-band ocean emissivity electromagnetic model using observations from the Aquarius Radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazin, Y.; Jones, W.; El-Nimri, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Aquarius/SAC-D ocean salinity measurement mission was launched into polar orbit during the summer of 2011. The prime sensor is an L-band radiometer/scatterometer developed jointly by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This paper deals with the development of an ocean emissivity model using AQ radiometer brightness temperature (Tb) observations. This model calculates the ocean surface emissivity as a function of ocean salinity, sea surface temperature, surface wind speed and direction. One unique aspect of this model is that it calculates ocean emissivity over wide ranges of Earth incidence angles (EIAs) from nadir to > 60°and ocean wind speeds from 0 m/s to > 70 m/s. This physical electromagnetic model with empirical coefficients follows the form of Stogryn [1967] that treats the ocean as a mixture of foam and clean rough water. The CFRSL ocean surface emissivity (ɛocean) is modeled as a linear sum of foam (ɛfoam) and foam-free seawater (ɛrough) emissivities, according to ɛocean = FF * ɛfoam + (1 - FF) * ɛrough (1) where FF is the fractional area coverage by foam. The foam emissivity is modeled as ɛfoam = Q(freq, U10, EIA) (2) where Q( ) is the empirical dependence of foam emissivity on radiometer frequency, the 10-m neutral stability wind speed and EIA according to El-Nimri [2010]. Following Stogryn, the foam-free seawater emissivity (ɛrough) is modeled ɛrough = ɛsmooth +Δɛexcess (3) where ɛsmooth = (1 - Γ) is the smooth surface emissivity, Γ is the Fresnel power reflection coefficient, and Δɛexcess is the wind-induced excess emissivity, given by Δɛexcess = G(freq, U10, WDir, EIA) (4) Where G( ) is the empirical signature of foam-free rough ocean, which depends upon the surface wind speed and wind direction. This function is determined empirically from measured AQ radiometer Tb's associated with surface wind vector from collocated NOAA GDAS numerical weather model. Ocean emissivity calculations are compared

  14. Band-limited Green's Functions for Quantitative Evaluation of Acoustic Emission Using the Finite Element Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leser, William P.; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo; Leser, William P.

    2013-01-01

    A method of numerically estimating dynamic Green's functions using the finite element method is proposed. These Green's functions are accurate in a limited frequency range dependent on the mesh size used to generate them. This range can often match or exceed the frequency sensitivity of the traditional acoustic emission sensors. An algorithm is also developed to characterize an acoustic emission source by obtaining information about its strength and temporal dependence. This information can then be used to reproduce the source in a finite element model for further analysis. Numerical examples are presented that demonstrate the ability of the band-limited Green's functions approach to determine the moment tensor coefficients of several reference signals to within seven percent, as well as accurately reproduce the source-time function.

  15. Interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: the infrared emission bands, the excitation/emission mechanism, and the astrophysical implications.

    PubMed

    Allamandola, L J; Tielens, A G; Barker, J R

    1989-12-01

    This article presents a comprehensive treatment of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) hypothesis. The interstellar, infrared spectral features which have been attributed to emission from highly vibrationally excited PAHs are discussed in detail. These include major (most intense) bands at 3040, 1615, "1310," 1150, and 885 cm-1 (3.29, 6.2 "7.7," 8.7, and 11.3 micrometers), minor bands and broad features in the 3200-2700 cm-1 [correction of 3200-2700-1] (3.1-3.7 micrometers), 1600-1100 cm-1 (6.0-9 micrometers) and 910-770 cm-1 (11-13 micrometers) regions, as well as the vibrational quasi-continuum spanning the entire mid-IR and the electronic transitions which contribute to the high-frequency IR continuum. All the major and minor bands, as well as the quasi-continuum, can be attributed to vibrational transitions in molecular-sized PAHs. The latter two broad features probably arise from very large PAHs, PAH clusters, and amorphous carbon particles. A precise match of the interstellar spectra with laboratory spectra is not yet possible because laboratory spectra are not available of PAHs in the forms probably present in the interstellar medium (completely isolated, ionized, some completely dehydrogenated, and containing between about 20 and 40 carbon atoms). The method with which one can calculate the IR fluorescence spectrum from a vibrationally excited molecule is also described in detail. Fluorescence band intensities, relaxation rates, and dependence on molecule size and energy content are treated explicitly. Analysis of the interstellar spectra indicates that the PAHs which dominate the infrared spectra contain between about 20 and 40 carbon atoms. The results obtained with this method are compared with the results obtained using a thermal approximation. It is shown that for high levels of vibrational excitation and emission from low-frequency modes, the two methods give similar results. However, at low levels of vibrational excitation and for the high

  16. Terra and Aqua MODIS Thermal Emissive Bands On-Orbit Calibration and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wu, Aisheng; Wenny, Brian N.; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Wang, Zhipeng; Li, Yonghong; Chen, Na; Barnes, William L.; Salomonson, Vincent V.

    2015-01-01

    Since launch, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on the Terra and Aqua spacecraft have operated successfully for more than 14 and 12 years, respectively. A key instrument for National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Observing System missions, MODIS was designed to make continuous observations for studies of Earth's land, ocean, and atmospheric properties and to extend existing data records from heritage Earth observing sensors. The 16 thermal emissive bands (TEBs) (3.75-14.24 micrometers) are calibrated on orbit using a temperature controlled blackbody (BB). Both Terra and Aqua MODIS BBs have displayed minimal drift over the mission lifetime, and the seasonal variations of the BB temperature are extremely small in Aqua MODIS. The long-term gain and noise equivalent difference in temperature performance of the 160 TEB detectors on both MODIS instruments have been well behaved and generally very stable. Small but noticeable variations of Aqua MODIS bands 33-36 (13.34-14.24 micrometer) response in recent years are primarily due to loss of temperature control margin of its passive cryoradiative cooler. As a result, fixed calibration coefficients, previously used by bands when the BB temperature is above their saturation temperatures, are replaced by the focal-plane-temperature-dependent calibration coefficients. This paper presents an overview of the MODIS TEB calibration, the on-orbit performance, and the challenging issues likely to impact the instruments as they continue operating well past their designed lifetime of six years.

  17. The GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager: detector spectral response effects on thermal emissive band calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, Aaron J.; Padula, Francis; Cao, Changyong; Wu, Xiangqian

    2015-10-01

    The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) will be aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-Series (GOES-R) to supply data needed for operational weather forecasts and long-term climate variability studies, which depend on high quality data. Unlike the heritage operational GOES systems that have two or four detectors per band, ABI has hundreds of detectors per channel requiring calibration coefficients for each one. This increase in number of detectors poses new challenges for next generation sensors as each detector has a unique spectral response function (SRF) even though only one averaged SRF per band is used operationally to calibrate each detector. This simplified processing increases computational efficiency. Using measured system-level SRF data from pre-launch testing, we have the opportunity to characterize the calibration impact using measured SRFs, both per detector and as an average of detector-level SRFs similar to the operational version. We calculated the spectral response impacts for the thermal emissive bands (TEB) theoretically, by simulating the ABI response viewing an ideal blackbody and practically, with the measured ABI response to an external reference blackbody from the pre-launch TEB calibration test. The impacts from the practical case match the theoretical results using an ideal blackbody. The observed brightness temperature trends show structure across the array with magnitudes as large as 0.1 K for and 12 (9.61 µm), and 0.25 K for band 14 (11.2 µm) for a 300 K blackbody. The trends in the raw ABI signal viewing the blackbody support the spectral response measurements results, since they show similar trends in bands 12 (9.61µm), and 14 (11.2 µm), meaning that the spectral effects dominate the response differences between detectors for these bands. We further validated these effects using the radiometric bias calculated between calibrations using the external blackbody and

  18. Probing the Ionization States of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons via the 15-20 μm Emission Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, M. J.; Stock, D. J.; Peeters, E.

    2015-10-01

    We report new correlations between ratios of band intensities of the 15-20 μm emission bands of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a sample of 57 sources observed with the Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph. This sample includes Large Magellanic Cloud point sources from the SAGE-Spec survey, nearby galaxies from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey survey, two Galactic interstellar medium cirrus sources, and the spectral maps of the Galactic reflection nebulae NGC 2023 and NGC 7023. We find that the 16.4, 17.4, and 17.8 μm band intensities are inter-correlated in all environments. In NGC 2023 and NGC 7023 these bands also correlate with the 11.0 and 12.7 μm band intensities. The 15.8 μm band correlates only with the 15-18 μm plateau and the 11.2 μm emission. We examine the spatial morphology of these bands and introduce radial cuts. We find that these bands can be spatially organized into three sets: the 12.7, 16.4, and 17.8 μm bands; the 11.2, 15.8 μm bands and the 15-18 μm plateau; and the 11.0 and 17.4 μm bands. We also find that the spatial distribution of the 12.7, 16.4, and 17.8 μm bands can be reconstructed by averaging the spatial distributions of the cationic 11.0 μm and neutral 11.2 μm bands. We conclude that the 17.4 μm band is dominated by cations, the 15.8 μm band by neutral species, and the 12.7, 16.4, and 17.8 μm bands by a combination of the two. These results highlight the importance of PAH ionization for spatially differentiating sub-populations by their 15-20 μm emission variability.

  19. PROBING THE IONIZATION STATES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS VIA THE 15–20 μm EMISSION BANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, M. J.; Stock, D. J.; Peeters, E.

    2015-10-01

    We report new correlations between ratios of band intensities of the 15–20 μm emission bands of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a sample of 57 sources observed with the Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph. This sample includes Large Magellanic Cloud point sources from the SAGE-Spec survey, nearby galaxies from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey survey, two Galactic interstellar medium cirrus sources, and the spectral maps of the Galactic reflection nebulae NGC 2023 and NGC 7023. We find that the 16.4, 17.4, and 17.8 μm band intensities are inter-correlated in all environments. In NGC 2023 and NGC 7023 these bands also correlate with the 11.0 and 12.7 μm band intensities. The 15.8 μm band correlates only with the 15–18 μm plateau and the 11.2 μm emission. We examine the spatial morphology of these bands and introduce radial cuts. We find that these bands can be spatially organized into three sets: the 12.7, 16.4, and 17.8 μm bands; the 11.2, 15.8 μm bands and the 15–18 μm plateau; and the 11.0 and 17.4 μm bands. We also find that the spatial distribution of the 12.7, 16.4, and 17.8 μm bands can be reconstructed by averaging the spatial distributions of the cationic 11.0 μm and neutral 11.2 μm bands. We conclude that the 17.4 μm band is dominated by cations, the 15.8 μm band by neutral species, and the 12.7, 16.4, and 17.8 μm bands by a combination of the two. These results highlight the importance of PAH ionization for spatially differentiating sub-populations by their 15–20 μm emission variability.

  20. Leaf Level Chlorophyll Fluorescence Emission Spectra: Narrow Band versus Full 650-800 nm Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, E.; Zhang, Q.; Campbell, P. K.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Corp, L.; Cheng, Y.

    2012-12-01

    nm (r2 = 0.88, RMSE = 7.54 x 107). When perfect retrievals were assumed (0% noise), retrievals remained good in the low emission regions on either side of the peaks-- those associated with the H alpha line at 655 nm (r2 = 0.83, RMSE =8.87 x 107) and the far-NIR wavelengths recently utilized for satellite retrievals: a K line at 770 nm (r2 = 0.85, RMSE = 8.36 x 107) and the 750-770 nm interval (r2 = 0.88, RMSE = 6.92 x 107). However, the atmosphere and satellite observations are expected to add noise to retrievals. Adding 5% random error to these relationships did not seriously impair the retrieval successes in the red and far-red peaks (r2 ~ 0.85, RMSEs = 6.31 x 107). A greater impact occurred (reducing retrieval success by ~10%) when adding 5% noise for the far-NIR narrow band at 770 nm (r2 ~ 0.70, RMSE ~ 8.5 x 107). When a 10% random error was added, the retrieval successes fell to ~68 ± 7% for all retrieval wavebands, and RMSEs increased by a factor of 10. This laboratory approach will be critical to calibrate space borne retrievals, but additional information across plant species is needed. Furthermore, this experiment indicates that ChlF retrievals from space should include information from the red and far-red peak emission regions, since the true total fluorescence signal is the desired parameter for Earth carbon and energy budgets.

  1. Impact of Conifer Forest Litter on Microwave Emission at L-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurum, Mehmet; O'Neill, Peggy E.; Lang, Roger H.; Cosh, Michael H.; Joseph, Alicia T.; Jackson, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on the utilization of microwave modeling, together with ground truth, and L-band (1.4-GHz) brightness temperatures to investigate the passive microwave characteristics of a conifer forest floor. The microwave data were acquired over a natural Virginia Pine forest in Maryland by a ground-based microwave active/passive instrument system in 2008/2009. Ground measurements of the tree biophysical parameters and forest floor characteristics were obtained during the field campaign. The test site consisted of medium-sized evergreen conifers with an average height of 12 m and average diameters at breast height of 12.6 cm. The site is a typical pine forest site in that there is a surface layer of loose debris/needles and an organic transition layer above the mineral soil. In an effort to characterize and model the impact of the surface litter layer, an experiment was conducted on a day with wet soil conditions, which involved removal of the surface litter layer from one half of the test site while keeping the other half undisturbed. The observations showed detectable decrease in emissivity for both polarizations after the surface litter layer was removed. A first-order radiative transfer model of the forest stands including the multilayer nature of the forest floor in conjunction with the ground truth data are used to compute forest emission. The model calculations reproduced the major features of the experimental data over the entire duration, which included the effects of surface litter and ground moisture content on overall emission. Both theory and experimental results confirm that the litter layer increases the observed canopy brightness temperature and obscure the soil emission.

  2. Observational studies on the near-infrared unidentified emission bands in galactic H II regions

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Tamami I.; Onaka, Takashi; Sakon, Itsuki; Ohsawa, Ryou; Bell, Aaron C.; Ishihara, Daisuke; Shimonishi, Takashi

    2014-03-20

    Using a large collection of near-infrared spectra (2.5-5.4 μm) of Galactic H II regions and H II region-like objects, we perform a systematic investigation of astronomical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features. Thirty-six objects were observed using the infrared camera on board the AKARI satellite as a part of a director's time program. In addition to the well known 3.3-3.6 μm features, most spectra show a relatively weak emission feature at 5.22 μm with sufficient signal-to-noise ratios, which we identify as the PAH 5.25 μm band (previously reported). By careful analysis, we find good correlations between the 5.25 μm band and both the aromatic hydrocarbon feature at 3.3 μm and the aliphatic hydrocarbon features at around 3.4-3.6 μm. The present results give us convincing evidence that the astronomical 5.25 μm band is associated with C-H vibrations, as suggested by previous studies, and show its potential to probe the PAH size distribution. The analysis also shows that the aliphatic-to-aromatic ratio of I {sub 3.4-3.6} {sub μm}/I {sub 3.3} {sub μm} decreases against the ratio of the 3.7 μm continuum intensity to the 3.3 μm band, I {sub cont,} {sub 3.7} {sub μm}/I {sub 3.3} {sub μm}, which is an indicator of the ionization fraction of PAHs. The midinfrared color of I {sub 9} {sub μm}/I {sub 18} {sub μm} also declines steeply against the ratio of the hydrogen recombination line Brα at 4.05 μm to the 3.3 μm band, I {sub Brα}/I {sub 3.3} {sub μm}. These facts indicate possible dust processing inside or at the boundary of ionized gas.

  3. Correlated pulsations in auroral light intensity and narrow band VLF emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, H. J.; Scourfield, M. W. J.; Rash, J. P. S.

    Observations at Sanae, Antarctica of pulsating aurora with a low light level TV system have been combined with simultaneous records of narrow band VLF emissions. Both auroral light and VLF intensities display a significant peak at 1.3±0.3 Hz in the power spectrum. The peaks in the auroral light intensity variations lead those in the VLF by times between zero and 200 ms, as revealed by cross-spectral analysis. Furthermore the 4 kHz VLF component leads the 3.5 kHz component by zero to 100 ms. These results are explained in terms of cyclotron resonance between the auroral electrons and VLF in a region displaced 8000 km from the equatorial plane.

  4. Evaluation of VIIRS and MODIS thermal emissive band calibration consistency using Dome C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhavan, Sriharsha; Wu, Aisheng; Brinkmann, Jake; Wenny, Brian; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2015-10-01

    The S-NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument is designed based on MODIS heritage and uses a similar on-board calibrating source - a V-grooved blackbody for the Thermal Emissive Bands (TEBs). Except for the 10.7 μm band, the central wavelengths of the rest of the VIIRS TEBs match well with MODIS. To ensure the continuity and consistency of data records between VIIRS and MODIS TEBs, it is important to assess any systematic differences between the two instruments for scenes with temperatures significantly lower than blackbody operating temperatures at ~290 K. In previous studies, the MODIS Calibration and Characterization Support Team (MCST) at NASA/GSFC uses recurrent observations of Dome C, Antarctica by both Terra and Aqua MODIS over the mission lifetime to track their calibration stability and consistency. Near-surface temperature measurements from an Automatic Weather Station (AWS) provide a proxy reference useful for tracking the stability and determining the relative bias between the two MODIS instruments. In this study, the same approach is applied to VIIRS TEBs and the results are compared with those from the matched MODIS TEBs. The results of this study provide a quantitative assessment for VIIRS TEBs performance over the first three years of the mission.

  5. On-orbit Characterization of RVS for MODIS Thermal Emissive Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Salomonson, V.; Chiang, K.; Wu, A.; Guenther, B.; Barnes, W.

    2004-01-01

    Response versus scan angle (RVS) is a key calibration parameter for remote sensing radiometers that make observations using a scanning optical system, such as a scan mirror in MODIS and GLI or a rotating telescope in SeaWiFS and VIIRS, since the calibration is typically performed at a fixed viewing angle while the Earth scene observations are made over a range of viewing angles. Terra MODIS has been in operation for more than four years since its launch in December 1999. It has 36 spectral bands covering spectral range from visible (VIS) to long-wave infrared (LWIR). It is a cross-track scanning radiometer using a two-sided paddle wheel scan mirror, making observations over a wide field of view (FOV) of +/-55 deg from the instrument nadir. This paper describes on-orbit characterization of MODIS RVS for its thermal emissive bands (TEB), using the Earth view data collected during Terra spacecraft deep space maneuvers (DSM). Comparisons with pre-launch analysis and early on-orbit measurements are also provided.

  6. Use of IRI to Model the Effect of Ionosphere Emission on Earth Remote Sensing at L-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, Saji; LeVine, David M.

    2004-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing in the window at 1.413 GHz (L-band) set aside for passive use only is important for monitoring sea surface salinity and soil moisture. These parameters are important for understanding ocean dynamics and energy exchange between the surface and atmosphere, and both NASA and ESA plan to launch satellite sensors to monitor these parameters at L-band (Aquarius, Hydros and SMOS). The ionosphere is an important source of error for passive remote sensing at this frequency. In addition to Faraday rotation, emission from the ionosphere is also a potential source of error at L-band. As an aid for correcting for emission, a regression model is presented that relates ionosphere emission to the integrated electron density (TEC). The goal is to use TEC from sources such as TOPEX, JASON or GPS to obtain estimates of emission over the oceans where the electron density profiles needed to compute emission are not available. In addition, data will also be presented to evaluate the use of the IRI for computing emission over the ocean.

  7. Improvement of EVS II over EVS I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimberg, Ernest

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents the improvements integrated into the second generation of Enhanced Vision System (EVS) or the Enhanced Flight Vision System (EFVS) (in comparison with the first generation). These improvements are based on the experience and knowledge accumulated during the last 3.5 years of observing more than 300 planes operating with the EVS system. Among the main improvements incorporated into the second-generation product are: - Higher probability of detection for runway lights and flashers, during bad atmospheric conditions. - Extended algorithm for ambient temperature compensation, eliminating the requirement for optics and dewar head temperature stabilization. - The sealed-off system that constitutes the second generation, not requiring any air flow supply or temperature stabilization. (The EVS first generation requires an air flow of 7 liters/second at 23° C with a relative humidity not higher than 30%. The airflow prevents water condensation on the optical parts and also enables stabilizing the optics and dewar head temperatures.) - Improved algorithm for the replacement of clusters of bad pixels. - Reduced size, weight, and power consumption.

  8. Band alignment at SrCu2O2/ZnO heterointerface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalov, I.; Hesse, R.

    2009-09-01

    SrCu2O2/ZnO interface is interesting for application in blue and UV light emission devices. Measurements of the valence band offset at SrCu2O2/ZnO interface using photoelectron spectroscopy result in an offset of 2.0 eV (cliff), meaning that the interface band gap is reduced to 1.4 eV. Blue and UV light emission observed previously can be attained in this material system presumably by injection of minority carriers involving tunneling through a narrow barrier at the interface. Additional intensive infrared light emission due to interface recombination can be predicted.

  9. Impact of surface roughness on L-band emissivity of the sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miernecki, M.; Kaleschke, L.; Hendricks, S.; Søbjærg, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    In March 2014 a joint experiment IRO2/SMOSice was carried out in the Barents Sea. R/V Lance equipped with meteorological instruments, electromagnetic sea ice thickness probe and engine monitoring instruments, was performing a series of tests in different ice conditions in order to validate the ice route optimization (IRO) system, advising on his route through pack ice. In parallel cal/val activities for sea ice thickness product obtained from SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission) L-band radiometer were carried out. Apart from helicopter towing the EMbird thickness probe, Polar 5 aircraft was serving the area during the experiment with L-band radiometer EMIRAD2 and Airborne Laser Scanner (ALS) as primary instruments. Sea ice Thickness algorithm using SMOS brightness temperature developed at University of Hamburg, provides daily maps of thin sea ice (up to 0.5-1 m) in polar regions with resolution of 35-50 km. So far the retrieval method was not taking into account surface roughness, assuming that sea ice is a specular surface. Roughness is a stochastic process that can be characterized by standard deviation of surface height σ and by shape of the autocorrelation function R to estimate it's vertical and horizontal scales respectively. Interactions of electromagnetic radiation with the surface of the medium are dependent on R and σ and they scales with respect to the incident wavelength. During SMOSice the radiometer was observing sea ice surface at two incidence angles 0 and 40 degrees and simultaneously the surface elevation was scanned with ALS with ground resolution of ~ 0.25 m. This configuration allowed us to calculate σ and R from power spectral densities of surface elevation profiles and quantify the effect of surface roughness on the emissivity of the sea ice. First results indicate that Gaussian autocorrelation function is suitable for deformed ice, for other ice types exponential function is the best fit.

  10. Alterations in Cochlear Function after Exposure to Short Term Broad Band Noise Assessed by Otoacoustic Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Prasen; M M, Kavitha; Khavasi, Prabhu; Doddamani, S S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sudden or chronic exposure to sound alters the functioning of cochlea. This results in temporary or permanent alteration of functioning of cochlear cells. Alteration of functioning of outer hair cells (OHC) of cochlea following exposure to noise can be assessed by measurement of transient otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE). Such a measurement is of great clinical importance in early detection of the damage to the OHC. Aim: In this study we aim to study effect of noise on outer hair cell function by studying the changes in TEOAE’s amplitude following exposure to short term broad band noise in healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: Twenty volunteers’ ten males and ten females participated in the study. They underwent pure tone and impedance audiometry to rule out ear pathology. Then pre-exposure TEOAE’s were recorded. After that they were exposed to broad band noise for two minutes. After gap of five minutes again TEOAE’s were recorded. Pre and post exposure amplitude of TEOAE’s was analysed statistically.s Results: There was statistically significant difference between pre exposure and post-exposure amplitude of TEOAE’s. Pre and post exposure values for A & B amplitudes showed p-value of 0.0001 whereas values for A-B amplitude showed p-value of 0.0001. Conclusion: Measurement of TEOAE’s can detect early changes in the functioning of outer hair cells which cannot be picked by routine pure tone audiometry. Thus they can be used in assessing early changes in cochlear function following exposure to noise in individuals exposed to sudden noise or working in noisy environments. Thus preventive methods to reduce the noise induced hearing loss in such individuals can be implemented. PMID:25386468

  11. The ground-based H-, K-, and L-band absolute emission spectra of HD 209458b

    SciTech Connect

    Zellem, Robert T.; Griffith, Caitlin A.; Deroo, Pieter; Swain, Mark R.; Waldmann, Ingo P.

    2014-11-20

    Here we explore the capabilities of NASA's 3.0 m Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and SpeX spectrometer and the 5.08 m Hale telescope with the TripleSpec spectrometer with near-infrared H-, K-, and L-band measurements of HD 209458b's secondary eclipse. Our IRTF/SpeX data are the first absolute L-band spectroscopic emission measurements of any exoplanet other than the hot Jupiter HD 189733b. Previous measurements of HD 189733b's L band indicate bright emission hypothesized to result from non-LTE CH{sub 4} ν{sub 3} fluorescence. We do not detect a similar bright 3.3 μm feature to ∼3σ, suggesting that fluorescence does not need to be invoked to explain HD 209458b's L-band measurements. The validity of our observation and reduction techniques, which decrease the flux variance by up to 2.8 orders of magnitude, is reinforced by 1σ agreement with existent Hubble/NICMOS and Spitzer/IRAC1 observations that overlap the H, K, and L bands, suggesting that both IRTF/SpeX and Palomar/TripleSpec can measure an exoplanet's emission with high precision.

  12. Measurement of the 238U neutron-capture cross section and gamma-emission spectra from 10 eV to 100 keV using the DANCE detector at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Ullmann, John L; Couture, A J; Keksis, A L; Vieira, D J; O' Donnell, J M; Jandel, M; Haight, R C; Rundberg, R S; Kawano, T; Chyzh, A; Baramsai, B; Wu, C Y; Mitchell, G E; Becker, J A; Krticka, M

    2010-01-01

    A careful new measurement of the {sup 238}U(n,{gamma}) cross section from 10 eV to 100 keV has been made using the DANCE detector at LANSCE. DANCE is a 4{pi} calorimetric scintillator array consisting of 160 BaF{sub 2} crystals. Measurements were made on a 48 mg/cm{sup 2} depleted uranium target. The cross sections are in general good agreement with previous measurements. The gamma-ray emission spectra, as a function of gamma multiplicity, were also measured and compared to model calculations.

  13. Observation of an intermediate band in Sn-doped chalcopyrites with wide-spectrum solar response.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chongyin; Qin, Mingsheng; Wang, Yaoming; Wan, Dongyun; Huang, Fuqiang; Lin, Jianhua

    2013-01-01

    Nanostrcutured particles and polycrystalline thin films of Sn-doped chalcopyrite are synthesized by newly-developed methods. Surprisingly, Sn doping introduces a narrow partially filled intermediate band (IB) located ~1.7 eV (CuGaS(2)) and ~0.8 eV (CuInS(2)) above the valance band maximum in the forbidden band gap. Diffuse reflection spectra and photoluminescence spectra reveal extra absorption and emission spectra induced by the IBs, which are further supported by first-principle calculations. Wide spectrum solar response greatly enhances photocatalysis, photovoltaics, and photo-induced hydrogen production due to the intermediate band.

  14. The ROSCOE manual. Volume 28-1: Molecular band model parameters for thermal emissions: Expanded wavelength coverage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, T. L.; Klein, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    The spectral range of band model parameters for the ROSCOE thermal emission has been extended to cover the 2- to 100-micron region. Sources for the new parameter compilation are documented, and graphical representations of the parameters at selected temperatures are presented.

  15. 2D XANES-XEOL mapping: observation of enhanced band gap emission from ZnO nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Guo, Xiaoxuan; Sham, Tsun-Kong

    2014-05-01

    Using 2D XANES-XEOL spectroscopy, it is found that the band gap emission of ZnO nanowire arrays is substantially enhanced i.e. that the intensity ratio between the band gap and defect emissions increases by more than an order of magnitude when the excitation energy is scanned across the O K-edge. Possible mechanisms are discussed.Using 2D XANES-XEOL spectroscopy, it is found that the band gap emission of ZnO nanowire arrays is substantially enhanced i.e. that the intensity ratio between the band gap and defect emissions increases by more than an order of magnitude when the excitation energy is scanned across the O K-edge. Possible mechanisms are discussed. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XEOL spectra with different excitation energies. X-ray attenuation length vs. photon energy. Details of surface defects in ZnO NWs. The second O K-edge and Zn L-edge 2D XANES-XEOL maps. Comparison of the first and second TEY at O K-edge and Zn L-edge scans, respectively. Raman spectra of the ZnO NWs with different IBGE/IDE ratios. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01049c

  16. The origin of yellow band emission and cathodoluminescence of Au-catalyzed wurtzite GaN nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R. S.; Jiao, J. F.; Wu, X.

    2016-06-01

    GaN nanowires with large yield are directly synthesized by simply ammoniating the gallium oxide powders in the presence of ammonia gas at 1000 °C, under the assistance of Au nanocatalysts. The microstructure and crystallinity of as-synthesized GaN nanowires are well studied by using high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and some structural defects such as stacking faults are found in the GaN nano-crystal. Cathodoluminescence measurement shows that a strong near-band-edge (NBE) emission band centered at 384 nm and a broad yellow band in the range of 500-800 nm are observed. Finally, the growth mechanism and possible optical emission process of GaN nanowires are discussed.

  17. C{sub 2} swan band emission intensity as a function of C{sub 2} density.

    SciTech Connect

    Goyette, A. N.; Lawler, J. E.; Anderson, L. W.; Gruen, D. M.; McCauley, T. G.; Zhou, D.; Krauss, A. R.; Univ. of Wisconsin

    1998-05-01

    We report the systematic comparison of the optical emission intensity of the d {sup 3}{Pi} {yields} a {sup 3}{Pi} (0, 0) vibrational band of the C{sub 2} Swan system with the absolute C{sub 2} concentration in Ar/H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} and Ar/H{sub 2}/C{sub 60} microwave plasmas used in the deposition of nanocrystalline diamond. The absolute C{sub 2} concentration is obtained using white-light absorption spectroscopy. Emission intensity correlates linearly with C{sub 2} density for variations of several plasma parameters and across two decades of species concentration. Although optical emission intensity generally is not an accurate quantitative diagnostic for gas phase species concentrations, these results confirm the reliability of the (0,0) Swan band for relative determination of C{sub 2} density with high sensitivity under conditions used for hydrogen-deficient plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of diamond.

  18. THE DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR BANDS AND ANOMALOUS MICROWAVE EMISSION MAY ORIGINATE FROM THE SAME CARRIERS

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, L. S.; Cline, J. A.; Clark, F. O.; Lynch, D. K. E-mail: jcline@spectral.com E-mail: dave@thulescientific.com

    2015-11-10

    We argue that the observed spectroscopic and statistical properties of the diffuse interstellar band (DIB) carriers are those that are needed to produce the anomalous microwave emission (AME). We explore this idea using a carrier-impartial model for AME based on the observed DIB statistical properties. We show that an observed distribution of profile widths for narrow DIBs can be mapped into an AME spectrum. The mapping model is applied to width distributions observed for HD 204827 and HD 183143, selected because their spectroscopic and statistical properties bracket those for most other sight lines. The predicted AME spectra for these sight lines agree well with the range of spectral shapes, and peak frequencies, ∼23–31 GHz, typically observed for AME. We use the AME spectral profiles to derive a strong constraint between the average carrier size and its rotational temperature. The constraint is applied to a variety of postulated molecular carrier classes, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fulleranes, hydrocarbon chains, and amorphous hydrocarbon clusters. The constraint favors small, cold carriers with average sizes of ∼8–15 carbon atoms, and average rotational temperatures of ∼3–10 K, depending on carrier type. We suggest new observations, analyses, and modeling efforts to help resolve the ambiguities with regard to carrier size and class, and to further clarify the DIB–AME relationship.

  19. Quantitative Method for the Optimal Subtraction of Continuum Emission from Narrow-band Images: Skewness Transition Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sungryong; Calzetti, Daniela; Dickinson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We present an objective method to remove the stellar continuum emission from narrow-band images to derive emission-line images. The method is based on the skewness of the pixel histogram of the residual images. Specifically, we exploit a transition in the skewness of the signal in the continuum-subtracted image, which appears when the image changes from being undersubtracted to oversubtracted. Tests on one-dimensional artificial images demonstrate that the transition identifies the optimal scaling factor μ to be used on the broad-band image IB in order to produce the optimal line-emission image IE, i.e., IE = IN-μIB, with IN the original (unsubtracted) narrow-band image. The advantage of this method is that it uses all information-bearing pixels in the final image, and not just a subset of those pixels (the latter being common in many traditional approaches to stellar continuum removal from narrow-band images). We apply our method to actual images, both from ground-based and space facilities, in particular to WFPC2 and ACS images from the Hubble Space Telescope, and we show that it is successful irrespective of the nature of the sources (point-like or extended). We also discuss the impact on the accuracy of the method of nonoptimal images, such as those containing saturated sources or nonuniform background, and present workarounds for those problems.

  20. Passive L-Band H Polarized Microwave Emission During the Corn Growth Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, A. T.; van der Velde, R.; O'Neill, P. E.; Kim, E. J.; Lang, R. H.; Gish, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    Hourly L-band (1.4 GHz) horizontally (H) polarized brightness temperatures (TB's) measured during five episodes (more than two days of continuous measurements) of the 2002 corn growth cycle are analyzed. These TB measurements were acquired as a part of a combined active/passive microwave field campaign, and were obtained at five incidence and three azimuth angles relative to the row direction. In support of this microwave data collection, intensive ground sampling took place once a week. Moreover, the interpretation of the hourly TB's could also rely on the data obtained using the various automated instruments installed in the same field. In this paper, the soil moisture and temperature measured at fixed time intervals have been employed as input for the tau-omega model to reproduce the hourly TB. Through the calibration of the vegetation and surface roughness parameterizations, the impact of the vegetation morphological changes on the microwave emission and the dependence of the soil surface roughness parameter, hr, on soil moisture are investigated. This analysis demonstrates that the b parameter, appearing in the representation of the canopy opacity, has an angular dependence that varies throughout the growing period and also that the parameter hr increases as the soil dries in a portion of the dry-down cycle. The angular dependence of the b parameter imposes the largest uncertainty on TB simulations near senescence as the response of b to the incidence is also affected by the crop row orientation. On the other hand, the incorporation of a soil moisture dependent hr parameterization was responsible for the largest error reduction of TB simulations in the early growth cycle. A.T. Joseph, R. Van der Velde, P.E. O'Neill, R.H. Lang, and T. Gish, "Soil moisture retrieval during a corn growth cycle using L-band (1.6 GHz) radar observations", IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 46, DOI:10.1109/TGRS.2008.917214, Aug. 2008. M.C. Dobson, F.T. Ulaby, M

  1. Rotationally resolved pulsed field ionization photoelectron bands of O{sub 2}{sup +}(X {sup 2}{Pi}{sub 1/2,3/2g},v{sup +}=0{endash}38) in the energy range of 12.05{endash}18.15 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Y.; Evans, M.; Ng, C.Y.; Hsu, C.; Jarvis, G.K.

    1999-08-01

    We have obtained rotationally resolved pulsed field ionization photoelectron (PFI-PE) spectra for O{sub 2} in the energy range of 12.05{endash}18.15 eV, covering ionization transitions O{sub 2}{sup +}(X&hthinsp;{sup 2}{Pi}{sub 1/2,3/2g},&hthinsp;v{sup +}=0{endash}38,J{sup +}){l_arrow}O{sub 2}(X&hthinsp;{sup 3}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup {minus}},&hthinsp;v{sup +}=0,N{sup {double_prime}}). While the PFI-PE bands for O{sub 2}{sup +}(X&hthinsp;{sup 2}{Pi}{sub 1/2,3/2g}, v{sup +}=3{endash}5, 9, 11, 12, 22, and 25{endash}38) reported here are the first rotational-resolved photoelectron measurements, the PFI-PE bands for O{sub 2}{sup +}(X&hthinsp;{sup 2}{Pi}{sub 1/2,3/2g},&hthinsp;v{sup +}=25{endash}38) represent the first rotationally resolved spectroscopic data for these states. The simulation of spectra obtained at rotational temperatures of {approx}20 and 220 K allows the unambiguous identification of O{sub 2}{sup +}(X&hthinsp;{sup 2}{Pi}{sub 1/2,3/2g},&hthinsp;v{sup +}{ge}21) PFI-PE bands, the majority of which overlap with prominent PFI-PE bands for O{sub 2}{sup +}(A&hthinsp;{sup 2}{Pi}{sub u},&hthinsp;v{sup +}=0{endash}12) and O{sub 2}{sup +}(a&hthinsp;{sup 4}{Pi}{sub u},&hthinsp;v{sup +}=0{endash}18). Combined with spectroscopic data obtained in the previous emission study and the present PFI-PE experiment, we have obtained accurate Dunham-type expansion coefficients for ionization energies, vibrational constants, rotational constants, and spin{endash}orbit splitting constants covering the O{sub 2}{sup +}(X&hthinsp;{sup 2}{Pi}{sub 1/2,3/2g},&hthinsp;v{sup +}=0{endash}38) states. Significant local intensity enhancements due to near-resonant autoionization were observed in PFI-PE bands for O{sub 2}{sup +}(X&hthinsp;{sup 2}{Pi}{sub 1/2,3/2g},&hthinsp;v{sup +}=0{endash}14). The energy region of these states is known to manifest a high density of very strong autoionizing low-{ital n}-Rydberg states. The observation of a long PFI-PE vibrational progression with a relatively

  2. DETECTION OF K{sub S} -BAND THERMAL EMISSION FROM WASP-3b

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Ming; Wright, Jason; Milburn, Jennifer; Hinkley, Sasha; Barman, Travis; Swain, Mark R.; Monnier, John D.

    2012-03-20

    We report the detection of thermal emission from the hot Jupiter WASP-3b in the K{sub S} band, using a newly developed guiding scheme for the WIRC instrument at the Palomar Hale 200 inch telescope. Our new guiding scheme has improved the telescope guiding precision by a factor of {approx}5-7, significantly reducing the correlated systematics in the measured light curves. This results in the detection of a secondary eclipse with depth of 0.181% {+-} 0.020% (9{sigma})-a significant improvement in WIRC's photometric precision and a demonstration of the capability of Palomar/WIRC to produce high-quality measurements of exoplanetary atmospheres. Our measured eclipse depth cannot be explained by model atmospheres with heat redistribution but favors a pure radiative equilibrium case with no redistribution across the surface of the planet. Our measurement also gives an eclipse phase center of 0.5045 {+-} 0.0020, corresponding to an ecos {omega} of 0.0070 {+-} 0.0032. This result is consistent with a circular orbit, although it also suggests that the planet's orbit might be slightly eccentric. The possible non-zero eccentricity provides insight into the tidal circularization process of the star-planet system, but might also have been caused by a second low-mass planet in the system, as suggested by a previous transit timing variation study. More secondary eclipse observations, especially at multiple wavelengths, are necessary to determine the temperature-pressure profile of the planet's atmosphere and shed light on its orbital eccentricity.

  3. Methane oxidation behind reflected shock waves: Ignition delay times measured by pressure and flame band emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brabbs, T. A.; Robertson, T. F.

    1986-01-01

    Ignition delay data were recorded for three methane-oxygen-argon mixtures (phi = 0.5, 1.0, 2.0) for the temperature range 1500 to 1920 K. Quiet pressure trances enabled us to obtain delay times for the start of the experimental pressure rise. These times were in good agreement with those obtained from the flame band emission at 3700 A. The data correlated well with the oxygen and methane dependence of Lifshitz, but showed a much stronger temperature dependence (phi = 0.5 delta E = 51.9, phi = 1.0 delta = 58.8, phi = 2.0 delta E = 58.7 Kcal). The effect of probe location on the delay time measurement was studied. It appears that the probe located 83 mm from the reflecting surface measured delay times which may not be related to the initial temperature and pressure. It was estimated that for a probe located 7 mm from the reflecting surface, the measured delay time would be about 10 microseconds too short, and it was suggested that delay times less than 100 microsecond should not be used. The ignition period was defined as the time interval between start of the experimental pressure rise and 50 percent of the ignition pressure. This time interval was measured for three gas mixtures and found to be similar (40 to 60 micro sec) for phi = 1.0 and 0.5 but much longer (100 to 120) microsecond for phi = 2.0. It was suggested that the ignition period would be very useful to the kinetic modeler in judging the agreement between experimental and calculated delay times.

  4. L-Band H Polarized Microwave Emission During the Corn Growth Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, A. T.; va der Velde, R.; O'Neill, P. E.; Kim, E.; Lang, R. H.; Gish, T.

    2012-01-01

    Hourly L-band (1.4 GHz) horizontally (H) polarized brightness temperatures (T(sub B))'s measured during five episodes (more than two days of continuous measurements) of the 2002 corn growth cycle are analyzed. These T(sub B)'s measurements were acquired as a part of a combined active/passive microwave field campaign, and were obtained at five incidence and three azimuth angles relative to the row direction. In support of this microwave data collection, intensive ground sampling took place once a week. Moreover, the interpretation of the hourly T(sub B)'s could also rely on the data obtained using the various automated instruments installed in the same field. In this paper, the soil moisture and temperature measured at fixed time intervals have been employed as input for the tau-omega model to reproduce the hourly T(sub B). Through the calibration of the vegetation and surface roughness parameterizations, the impact of the vegetation morphological changes on the microwave emission and the dependence of the soil surface roughness parameter, h(sub r), on soil moisture are investigated. This analysis demonstrates that the b parameter, appearing in the representation of the canopy opacity, has an angular dependence that varies throughout the growing period and also that the parameter hr increases as the soil dries in a portion of the dry-down cycle. The angular dependence of the b parameter imposes the largest uncertainty on T(sub B) simulations near senescence as the response of b to the incidence is also affected by the crop row orientation. On the other hand, the incorporation of a soil moisture dependent h(sub r) parameterization was responsible for the largest error reduction of T(sub B) simulations in the early growth cycle.

  5. Estimating net rainfall, evaporation and water storage of a bare soil from sequential L-band emissivities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroosnijder, L.; Lascano, R. J.; Newton, R. W.; Vanbavel, C. H. M.

    1984-01-01

    A general method to use a time series of L-band emissivities as an input to a hydrological model for continuously monitoring the net rainfall and evaporation as well as the water content over the entire soil profile is proposed. The model requires a sufficiently accurate and general relation between soil emissivity and surface moisture content. A model which requires the soil hydraulic properties as an additional input, but does not need any weather data was developed. The method is shown to be numerically consistent.

  6. Effect of N2 and H2 plasma treatments on band edge emission of ZnO microrods

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Joana; Holz, Tiago; Fath Allah, Rabie; Gonzalez, David; Ben, Teresa; Correia, Maria R.; Monteiro, Teresa; Costa, Florinda M.

    2015-01-01

    ZnO microrods were grown by laser assisted flow deposition technique in order to study their luminescence behaviour in the near band edge spectral region. Transmission electron microscopy analysis put in evidence the high crystallinity degree and microrod’s compositional homogeneity. Photoluminescence revealed a dominant 3.31 eV emission. The correlation between this emission and the presence of surface states was investigated by performing plasma treatments with hydrogen and nitrogen. The significant modifications in photoluminescence spectra after the plasma treatments suggest a connexion between the 3.31 eV luminescence and the surface related electronic levels. PMID:26027718

  7. Investigating the Origin of Upper-Side-Band Distortion-Product Otoacoustic Emissions within a Micromechanical Cochlear Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, J.; Elliott, S. J.; Lineton, B.

    2011-11-01

    Upper-side-band distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) have a higher frequency than either of the stimulus tones (f1 and f2). They are less widely used in clinical practice and their generation is more difficult to understand in comparison to lower side band DPOAEs. We have developed a numerical quasilinear model of the cochlea based on the work of Kanis and de Boer. The model is applied to investigate the source of the 2f2-f1 upper-side-band DPOAE using several complementary approaches, including a novel method of decomposing the predicted cochlear response into forward and backward travelling waves. We conclude that the simulated 2f2-f1 distortion product (DP) consists of contributions from two source mechanisms: A distributed distortion source encompassing both the DP and f2 characteristic places, and a reflection source at the DP characteristic place.

  8. Research on effect of emission uniformity on X-band relativistic backward oscillator using conformal PIC code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zaigao

    2016-07-01

    Explosive emission cathodes (EECs) are adopted in relativistic backward wave oscillators (RBWOs) to generate intense relativistic electron beam. The emission uniformity of the EEC can render saturation of the power generation unstable and the output mode impure. However, the direct measurement of the plasma parameters on the cathode surface is quite difficult and there are very few related numerical study reports about this issue. In this paper, a self-developed three-dimensional conformal fully electromagnetic particle in cell code is used to study the effect of emission uniformity on the X-band RBWO; the electron explosive emission model and the field emission model are both implemented in the same cathode surface, and the local field enhancement factor is also considered in the field emission model. The RBWO with a random nonuniform EEC is thoroughly studied using this code; the simulation results reveal that when the area ratio of cathode surface for electron explosive emission is 80%, the output power is unstable and the output mode is impure. When the annular EEC does not emit electron in the angle range of 30°, the RBWO can also operate normally.

  9. Emission of direct-gap band in germanium with Ge-GeSn layers on one-dimensional structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhong-Mei; Huang, Wei-Qi; Liu, Shi-Rong; Dong, Tai-Ge; Wang, Gang; Wu, Xue-Ke; Qin, Cao-Jian

    2016-04-01

    In our experiment, it was observed that the emission of direct-gap band in germanium with Ge-GeSn layers on one-dimensional (1D) structure. The results of experiment and calculation demonstrate that the uniaxial tensile strain in the (111) and (110) direction can efficiently transform Ge to a direct bandgap material with the bandgap energy useful for technological application. It is interested that under the tensile strain from Ge-GeSn layers on 1D structure in which the uniaxial strain could be obtained by curved layer (CL) effect, the two bandgaps EΓg and ELg in the (111) direction become nearly equal at 0.83 eV related to the emission of direct-gap band near 1500 nm in the experiments. It is discovered that the red-shift of the peaks from 1500 nm to 1600 nm occurs with change of the uniaxial tensile strain, which proves that the peaks come from the emission of direct-gap band.

  10. Wavelength Shifts of the 7.7 Micron Emission Band in Reflection Nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, Jesse; Temi, Pasquale

    2003-01-01

    Using spatial-spectral data cubes of reflection nebulae obtained by ISOCAM, we have observed a shift in the central wavelength of the 7.7 micron band within several reflection nebulae. The band shifts progressively from approx. 7.8 microns near the edge of the nebulae to approx. 7.6 microns towards the center of the nebulae. The ratio of the 11.3/7.7 micron bands also changes with distance from the central star, first rising from the center towards the edge of the nebula, then falling at the largest distances from the star, consistent with the 11.3/7.7 micron band ratio being controlled by the PAH ionization state. The behavior of the 7.7 micron band center can be explained either by assuming that anions are the origin of the 7.85 micron band and cations the 7.65 micron band, or that the band center wavelength depends on the chemical nature of the PAHs.

  11. Mass composition of 10{sup 17}- to 10{sup 18}-eV primary cosmic rays according to data on the lateral distribution of radio emission from extensive air showers

    SciTech Connect

    Kalmykov, N. N. Konstantinov, A. A.; Vedeneev, O. V.

    2012-12-15

    Experimental data obtained for the lateral distribution of radio emission from extensive air showers (EAS) at the array of Moscow State University (30-34 MHz) and the LOPES array (40-80 MHz) were comparedwith the results of calculations performed within amicroscopic approach based on aMonte Carlo simulation of EAS (CORSIKA code). The same experimental data were used to reconstruct the distribution of the depth of the EAS maximum at cosmic-ray energies in the range of 1017-1018 eV. The energy dependence of the depth of the EAS maximum was constructed for the case of data from the LOPES array, and the mass composition of cosmic rays was estimated for this case. From the resulting dependences, it follows that the mass composition shows a trend toward becoming lighter in the energy range being considered.

  12. Calculated hydroxyl A2 sigma --> X2 pi (0, 0) band emission rate factors applicable to atmospheric spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cageao, R. P.; Ha, Y. L.; Jiang, Y.; Morgan, M. F.; Yung, Y. L.; Sander, S. P.

    1997-01-01

    A calculation of the A2 sigma --> X2 pi (0, 0) band emission rate factors and line center absorption cross sections of OH applicable to its measurement using solar resonant fluorescence in the terrestrial atmosphere is presented in this paper. The most accurate available line parameters have been used. Special consideration has been given to the solar input flux because of its highly structured Fraunhofer spectrum. The calculation for the OH atmospheric emission rate factor in the solar resonant fluorescent case is described in detail with examples and intermediate results. Results of this calculation of OH emission rate factors for individual rotational lines are on average 30% lower than the values obtained in an earlier work.

  13. The circumstellar dust envelopes of red giant stars. I - M giant stars with the 10-micron silicate emission band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashimoto, O.; Nakada, Y.; Onaka, T.; Kamijo, F.; Tanabe, T.

    1990-01-01

    Spherical dust envelope models of red giant stars are constructed by solving the radiative transfer equations of the generalized two-stream Eddington approximation. The IRAS observations of M giant stars which show the 10-micron silicate emission band in IRAS LRS spectra are explained by the models with the dirty silicate grains with K proportional to lambda exp -1.5 for lambda greather than 28 microns. Under the assumption of steady mass flow in the envelope, this model analysis gives the following conclusions: (1) the strength of the silicate emission peak at 10 microns is a good indicator of the mass loss rate of the star, (2) no stars with the 10-microns silicate emission feature are observed in the range of mass loss rate smaller than 7 x 10 to the -8th solar mass/yr, and (3) the characteristic time of the mass loss process of M stars does not exceed a few 10,000 years.

  14. The Influence of Martian Global Dust Storm 2001A on CO2 Hot Band Emission As Observed by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguire, W. C.; Pearl, J. C.; Smith, M. D.; Conrath, B. J.; Kutepov, A. A.; Christensen, P. R.

    2002-09-01

    The Thermal Emission Spectrometer on Mars Global Surveyor observed the genesis and evolution of a major dust storm beginning on 26 June 2001 at areocentric longitude Ls = 185 deg. The atmospheric temperature at 0.5 mbar ( 25 km above the surface) reached a maximum for 200 deg < Ls < 220 deg( 23 July 2001 to 23 August 2001). The middle atmosphere temperature was 40K warmer during this time than the corresponding Ls interval ( 4 September 1999 to 6 October 1999) in the previous Martian year. (Smith et al., Icarus 157 , 259-263 (2001)). The altitude of the region of nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) emission from the 10μ m CO2 hot bands rose 10 km compared to the earlier time. We present preliminary modeling of this emission region, comparing it to our previous modeling of non-LTE CO2 hot band seasonal variation (Maguire et al., J.G.R. 107, 10.1029/2001JE001516, 2002). This work was supported in part by the NASA Mars Data Analysis Program.

  15. Initial Results from a Search for Lunar Radio Emission from Interactions of >= 10(exp 19) eV Neutrinos and Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorham, P. W.; Liewer, K. M.; Naudet, C. J.

    2000-01-01

    Using the NASA Goldstone 70m antenna DSS 14 both singly and in coincidence with the 34 m antenna DSS 13 (21.7 km to the southeast), we have acquired approximately 12 hrs of livetime in a search for predicted pulsed radio emission from extremely-high energy cascades induced by neutrinos or cosmic rays in the lunar regolith. In about 4 hrs of single antenna observations, we reduced our sensitivity to impulsive terrestrial interference to a negligible level by use of a veto afforded by the unique capability of DSS 14. In the 8 hrs of dual-antenna observations, terrestrial interference is eliminated as a background. In both observing modes the thermal noise floor limits the sensitivity. We detected no events above statistical background. We report here initial limits based on these data which begin to constrain several predictions of the flux of EHE neutrinos.

  16. Imaging Jupiter's aurorae from H3+ emissions in the 3-4 micrometers band.

    PubMed

    Baron, R; Joseph, R D; Owen, T; Tennyson, J; Miller, S; Ballester, G E

    1991-10-10

    Since H3+ was first spectroscopically detected on Jupiter, there has been considerable interest in using this simple molecular ion to probe conditions existing in the planet's auroral regions. Here we present a series of images of Jupiter recorded at wavelengths sensitive to emission by H3+, which reveal the spatial distribution of excited H3+ molecular ions in the jovian ionosphere, as seen from Earth. We believe that they provide high-spatial-resolution images of polar aurorae on Jupiter. They suggest that the intensity of the auroral emission can vary on a timescale of an hour, a shorter period than had previously been noted. We also find that the spatial distribution of H3+ emissions correlates only partially with the loci of auroral activity inferred from ultraviolet and longer-wavelength infrared observations. The H3+ emission may therefore be controlled by auroral processes that are different from those responsible for the ultraviolet and infrared emissions.

  17. DOMEX-2 Ground-Based Antarctic L-Band Emission Measurements: a Contribution to Smos Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinkwater, M. R.; Macelloni, G.; Brogioni, M.; Pettinato, S.

    2010-12-01

    In recent years, interest has grown in the remote sensing community for using the Antarctic ice sheet for calibrating and validating data from low-frequency satellite-borne microwave radiometers such as SMOS, Aquarius and SMAP. In particular, the East Antarctic Plateau Dome-C region around the Concordia Station appears to be particularly suited for this purpose. The specific characteristics of this region of interest are its size, structure, spatial homogeneity and thermal stability as well as frequent overpasses of these polar-orbiting satellites. In-situ measurements indicate that the roughness is limited with respect to other Antarctic areas and the temperature of the firn below 10 m remains stable on multiyear timescales. This attribute is particularly interesting for low-frequency microwave radiometers since, due to the low extinction of dry snow, the upper ice sheet layer is almost transparent and the brightness temperature (Tb) variability therefore predicted to be extremely small. At the year-round Italian-French base of Concordia ancillary data such as atmospheric parameters and snow temperature at different depths are routinely acquired as a basis for the analysis and the interpretation of satellite microwave data. Meanwhile, a first pilot experiment, called DOMEX-1 carried out an austral summer Antarctic campaign in November 2004- December 2005 to demonstrate the short-term brightness temperature stability at monthly scale. With the November 2009 launch of the European Space Agency’s SMOS satellite, a corresponding second experiment called DOMEX-2 was initiated in the Austral summer 2008-2009 with the goal to verify the assumption of year-round stability and suitability of the ice sheet as an external calibration reference target. The primary objectives of DOMEX-2 are to provide an independent source of stable reference data for SMOS satellite calibration and in particular: continuous acquisition of a calibrated time series of microwave (L-band) and

  18. Narrow Red Emission Band Fluoride Phosphor KNaSiF6:Mn(4+) for Warm White Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ye; Fang, Mu-Huai; Grinberg, Marek; Mahlik, Sebastian; Lesniewski, Tadeusz; Brik, M G; Luo, Guan-Yu; Lin, Jauyn Grace; Liu, Ru-Shi

    2016-05-11

    Red phosphors AMF6:Mn(4+) (A = Na, K, Cs, Ba, Rb; M = Si, Ti, Ge) have been widely studied due to the narrow red emission bands around 630 nm. The different emission of the zero-phonon line (ZPL) may affect the color rendering index of white light-emitting diodes (WLED). The primary reason behind the emergence and intensity of ZPL, taking KNaSiF6:Mn(4+) as an example, was investigated here. The effects of pressure on crystal structure and luminescence were determined experimentally and theoretically. The increase of band gap, red shift of emission spectrum and blue shift of excitation spectrum were observed with higher applied pressure. The angles of ∠FMnF and ∠FMF(M = Si, Ti, Ge) were found clearly distorted from 180° in MF6(2-) octahedron with strong ZPL intensity. The larger distorted SiF6(2-) octahedron, the stronger ZPL intensity. This research provides a new perspective to address the ZPL intensity problem of the hexafluorosilicate phosphors caused by crystal distortion and pressure-dependence of the luminescence. The efficacy of the device featuring from Y3Al5O12:Ce(3+) (YAG) and KNaSiF6:Mn(4+) phosphor was 118 lm/W with the color temperature of 3455 K. These results reveal that KNaSiF6:Mn(4+) presents good luminescent properties and could be a potential candidate material for application in back-lighting systems.

  19. THE 217.5 nm BAND, INFRARED ABSORPTION, AND INFRARED EMISSION FEATURES IN HYDROGENATED AMORPHOUS CARBON NANOPARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Duley, W. W.; Hu, Anming E-mail: a2hu@uwaterloo.ca

    2012-12-20

    We report on the preparation of hydrogenated amorphous carbon nanoparticles whose spectral characteristics include an absorption band at 217.5 nm with the profile and characteristics of the interstellar 217.5 nm feature. Vibrational spectra of these particles also contain the features commonly observed in absorption and emission from dust in the diffuse interstellar medium. These materials are produced under ''slow'' deposition conditions by minimizing the flux of incident carbon atoms and by reducing surface mobility. The initial chemistry leads to the formation of carbon chains, together with a limited range of small aromatic ring molecules, and eventually results in carbon nanoparticles having an sp {sup 2}/sp {sup 3} ratio Almost-Equal-To 0.4. Spectroscopic analysis of particle composition indicates that naphthalene and naphthalene derivatives are important constituents of this material. We suggest that carbon nanoparticles with similar composition are responsible for the appearance of the interstellar 217.5 nm band and outline how these particles can form in situ under diffuse cloud conditions by deposition of carbon on the surface of silicate grains. Spectral data from carbon nanoparticles formed under these conditions accurately reproduce IR emission spectra from a number of Galactic sources. We provide the first detailed fits to observational spectra of Type A and B emission sources based entirely on measured spectra of a carbonaceous material that can be produced in the laboratory.

  20. Optimal fluorescence excitation and emission bands for detection of fecal contamination.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moon S; Lefcourt, Alan M; Chen, Yud-Ren

    2003-07-01

    Fecal contamination of food products is a critical health issue. To test the feasibility of the use fluorescent techniques to detect fecal contamination, fluorescence excitation and emission characteristics of fecal matter from cows, deer, swine, chickens, and turkeys in the UV to far-red regions of the spectrum were evaluated. To allow the optimization of the detection of fecal contamination on animal carcasses and cut meats, emission-excitation spectra of the feces were compared with spectra for animal meats. The feedstuffs for the swine, chickens, and turkeys were also analyzed. Excitation at approximately 410 to 420 nm yielded the highest level of fluorescence for both feces and feedstuffs. Emission maxima were in the red region (at 632 nm for chicken feces and at 675 nm for the feces of the other species). The major constituent responsible for emission at 632 nm was tentatively identified as protoporphyrin IX; emission at 675 nm most likely emanates from chlorophyll a or its metabolites. Animal meats emitted strong fluorescence in the blue-green regions, but no emission peaks were observed in the red region for these meats. These results suggest that fluorescence emissions from naturally occurring chlorophyll a and its metabolites are good markers for fecal contamination and that with excitation at 410 to 420 nm, the responses of fecal matter can easily be differentiated from the responses of animal meats. We suggest that the detection of fecal contamination can be enhanced by requiring a minimum chlorophyll a content in the finishing diets of all farm animals.

  1. High resolution vacuum ultraviolet emission spectrum of D2: the B' 1Sigmau+-->X 1Sigmag+ band system.

    PubMed

    Roudjane, Mourad; Tchang-Brillet, W-U Lydia; Launay, Françoise

    2007-08-01

    In this work, we have extended our previous high resolution study of the vacuum ultraviolet emission spectrum of the D2 molecule [M. Roudjane, et al. J. Chem. Phys. 125, 214305 (2006)] up to 124.2 nm in order to investigate the B' 1Sigmau+-->X 1Sigmag+ band system. The analysis of the spectrum has been carried out by means of a complex spectrum visual identification code IDEN [V. I. Azarov, Phys. Scr. 44, 528 (1991); 48, 656, (1993)] and supported by theoretical calculations using ab initio data [L. Wolniewicz, J. Chem. Phys. 103, 1792 (1995); 99, 1851 (1993); G. Staszewska and L. Wolniewicz, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 212, 208 (2002); L. Wolniewicz and G. Staszewska, 220, 45 (2003)] which provided level energies and transition probabilities. More than 1480 new emission lines have been observed and 109 bands belonging to the B' 1Sigmau+-->X 1Sigmag+ system have been identified between 84.1 and 121.6 nm. Except for the upsilon'-0 bands that were reported in absorption [I. Dabrowski and G. Herzberg, Can. J. Phys. 52, 1110 (1974)], all the upsilon'-upsilon" bands are reported here for the first time. The analysis led to the determination of 111 rovibronic energy levels in the B' 1Sigmau+ state, of which 31 with higher rotational numbers J are new. Observed perturbations are accounted for through a set of coupled equations involving the four excited electronic states B 1Sigmau+, B' 1Sigmau+, C 1Piu, and D 1Piu and including nonadiabatic couplings. The solution of this set provides the percent contribution of these four states to each of the observed rovibronic level.

  2. Ultrafast carrier dynamics in band edge and broad deep defect emission ZnSe nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othonos, Andreas; Lioudakis, Emmanouil; Philipose, U.; Ruda, Harry E.

    2007-12-01

    Ultrafast carrier dynamics of ZnSe nanowires grown under different growth conditions have been studied. Transient absorption measurements reveal the dependence of the competing effects of state filling and photoinduced absorption on the probed energy states. The relaxation of the photogenerated carriers occupying defect states in the stoichiometric and Se-rich samples are single exponentials with time constants of 3-4ps. State filling is the main contribution for probe energies below 1.85eV in the Zn-rich grown sample. This ultrafast carrier dynamics study provides an important insight into the role that intrinsic point defects play in the observed photoluminescence from ZnSe nanowires.

  3. Detection of CO Cameron band emission in comet P/Hartley 2 (1991 XV) with the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, H. A.; Feldman, P. D.; Mcphate, J. B.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Arpigny, C.; Smith, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) spectra of comet P/Hartley 2 (1991 XV) taken with the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in 1991 September reveal several bands of the Cameron system of CO (a 3 Pi-X 1 Sigma). These band are most likely due to 'prompt' emission from CO2 and, thus, provide a direct tracer of the CO2 abundance in the nucleus. Photodissociative excitation of CO2 is probably the largest contributor to the Cameron band emission, but significant contributions from electron impact excitation of CO, electron impact dissociation of CO2, and dissociative recombination of CO2(+), are also possible. Using our estimate that photodissociative excitation is responsible for approximately 60% of the total excitation of the Cameron system, we derive Q(sub CO2) approximately 2.6 x 10(exp 27) molecules/s, which implies CO2/H20 approximately 4%. If all of the Cameron band emission is due to photodissociative excitation, then CO2/H2O = 7 +/- 2%. For the largest possible contributions from the other excitation mechanisms considered, the CO2 abundance could be as a small as aproximately 2-3%. We did not detect CO Fourth Positive Group emission in our data and derive an upper limit of CO/H2O less than or equal to 1% (3 sigma) for CO coming directly from the nucleus. Comparison of the relative CO2 and CO abundances in P/Hartley 2 to those in P/Halley (CO2/H2O approximately 3%-4%, CO/H20 approximately 4% for the nucleus source) indicates that selective devolatilization of the nucleus may have occurred for P/Hartley 2. A relatively large CO2/CO ratio (i.e., approximately greater than 1) seems to be a common property of cometary nuclei. Since gas phase chemistry, in either the solar nebula or the interstellar medium (ISM), appears incapable of producing large relative CO2 abundances, the CO2 in cometary nuclei is probably produced either by UV and/or cosmic ray irradiation of ISM grains prior to the formation of the Solar System, or by condensation

  4. Enhanced tunable narrow-band THz emission from laser-modulated electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, D.; Stupakov, G.; /SLAC

    2009-06-19

    We propose and analyze a scheme to generate enhanced narrow-band terahertz (THz) radiation through down-conversion of the frequency of optical lasers using laser-modulated electron beams. In the scheme the electron beam is first energy modulated by two lasers with wave numbers k{sub 1} and k2, respectively. After passing through a dispersion section, the energy modulation is converted to density modulation. Due to the nonlinear conversion process, the beam will have density modulation at wave number k = nk{sub 1} + mk{sub 2}, where n and m are positive or negative integers. By properly choosing the parameters for the lasers and dispersion section, one can generate density modulation at THz frequency in the beam using optical lasers. This density-modulated beam can be used to generate powerful narrow-band THz radiation. Since the THz radiation is in tight synchronization with the lasers, it should provide a high temporal resolution for the optical-pump THz-probe experiments. The central frequency of the THz radiation can be easily tuned by varying the wavelength of the two lasers and the energy chirp of the electron beam. The proposed scheme is in principle able to generate intense narrow-band THz radiation covering the whole THz range and offers a promising way towards the tunable intense narrow-band THz sources.

  5. Parametric exponentially correlated surface emission model for L-band passive microwave soil moisture retrieval

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface soil moisture is an important parameter in hydrology and climate investigations. Current and future satellite missions with L-band passive microwave radiometers can provide valuable information for monitoring the global soil moisture. A factor that can play a significant role in the modeling...

  6. Suramin inhibits EV71 infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaxin; Qing, Jie; Sun, Yuna; Rao, Zihe

    2014-03-01

    Enterovirus-71 (EV71) is one of the major causative reagents for hand-foot-and-mouth disease. In particular, EV71 causes severe central nervous system infections and leads to numerous dead cases. Although several inactivated whole-virus vaccines have entered in clinical trials, no antiviral agent has been provided for clinical therapy. In the present work, we screened our compound library and identified that suramin, which has been clinically used to treat variable diseases, could inhibit EV71 proliferation with an IC50 value of 40 μM. We further revealed that suramin could block the attachment of EV71 to host cells to regulate the early stage of EV71 infection, as well as affected other steps of EV71 life cycle. Our results are helpful to understand the mechanism for EV71 life cycle and provide a potential for the usage of an approved drug, suramin, as the antiviral against EV71 infection.

  7. Emission red shift and unusual band narrowing of Mn2+ in NaCaPO4 phosphor.

    PubMed

    Shi, Liang; Huang, Yanlin; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2010-07-01

    Concentration dependence of Mn(2+) luminescence in NaCaPO(4)/Mn(2+) is investigated by structural analyses and optical and laser excitation spectroscopies in the temperature range 19-300 K. NaCaPO(4)/Mn(2+) forms solid solution over the Mn(2+) concentration range 1.0-22 mol %. We observe the red shift and unusual band narrowing of Mn(2+) emission by increasing Mn(2+) concentration in NaCaPO(4). The lifetime of Mn(2+) emission lengthens unexpectedly for higher Mn(2+) concentration. The results are discussed in relation with crystal structure, photon reabsorption, exchange interaction, and energy transfer and energy migration in NaCaPO(4)/Mn(2+).

  8. Soil moisture, dielectric permittivity and emissivity of soil: effective depth of emission measured by the L-band radiometer ELBARA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usowicz, Boguslaw; Lukowski, Mateusz; Marczewski, Wojciech; Usowicz, Jerzy; Lipiec, Jerzy; Rojek, Edyta; Slominska, Ewa; Slominski, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Due to the large variation of soil moisture in space and in time, obtaining soil water balance with an aid of data acquired from the surface is still a challenge. Microwave remote sensing is widely used to determine the water content in soil. It is based on the fact that the dielectric constant of the soil is strongly dependent on its water content. This method provides the data in both local and global scales. Very important issue that is still not solved, is the soil depth at which radiometer "sees" the incoming radiation and how this "depth of view" depends on water content and physical properties of soil. The microwave emission comes from its entire profile, but much of this energy is absorbed by the upper layers of soil. As a result, the contribution of each layer to radiation visible for radiometer decreases with depth. The thickness of the surface layer, which significantly contributes to the energy measured by the radiometer is defined as the "penetration depth". In order to improve the physical base of the methodology of soil moisture measurements using microwave remote sensing and to determine the effective emission depth seen by the radiometer, a new algorithm was developed. This algorithm determines the reflectance coefficient from Fresnel equations, and, what is new, the complex dielectric constant of the soil, calculated from the Usowicz's statistical-physical model (S-PM) of dielectric permittivity and conductivity of soil. The model is expressed in terms of electrical resistance and capacity. The unit volume of soil in the model consists of solid, water and air, and is treated as a system made up of spheres, filling volume by overlapping layers. It was assumed that connections between layers and spheres in the layer are represented by serial and parallel connections of "resistors" and "capacitors". The emissivity of the soil surface is calculated from the ratio between the brightness temperature measured by the ELBARA radiometer (GAMMA Remote

  9. Band edge emission enhancement by quadrupole surface plasmon-exciton coupling using direct-contact Ag/ZnO nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Zang, Yashu; He, Xu; Li, Jing; Yin, Jun; Li, Kongyi; Yue, Chuang; Wu, Zhiming; Wu, Suntao; Kang, Junyong

    2013-01-21

    Periodic Ag nanoball (NB) arrays on ZnO hollow nanosphere (HNS) supporting structures were fabricated in a large area by a laser irradiation method. The optimized laser power and spherical supporting structure of ZnO with a certain size and separation were employed to aggregate a sputtering-deposited Ag nano-film into an ordered, large-area, and two dimensional Ag NB array. A significant band edge (BE) emission enhancement of ZnO HNSs was achieved on this Ag NB/ZnO HNS hybrid structure and the mechanism was revealed by further experimental and theoretical analyses. With successfully fabricating the direct-contact structure of a Ag NB on the top of each ZnO HNS, the highly localized quadrupole mode surface plasmon resonance (SPR), realized on the metal NBs in the ultraviolet region, can effectively improve the BE emission of ZnO through strong coupling with the excitons of ZnO. Compared with the dipole mode SPR, the quadrupole mode SPR is insensitive to the metal nanoparticle's size and has a resonance frequency in the BE region of the wide band gap materials, hence, it can be potentially applied in related optoelectronic devices. PMID:23196786

  10. HITEMP derived spectral database for the prediction of jet engine exhaust infrared emission using a statistical band model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindermeir, E.; Beier, K.

    2012-08-01

    The spectroscopic database HITEMP 2010 is used to upgrade the parameters of the statistical molecular band model which is part of the infrared signature prediction code NIRATAM (NATO InfraRed Air TArget Model). This band model was recommended by NASA and is applied in several codes that determine the infrared emission of combustion gases. The upgrade regards spectral absorption coefficients and line densities of the gases H2O, CO2, and CO in the spectral region 400-5000 cm-1 (2-25μm) with a spectral resolution of 5 cm-1. The temperature range 100-3000 K is covered. Two methods to update the database are presented: the usually applied method as provided in the literature and an alternative, more laborious procedure that employs least squares fitting. The achieved improvements resulting from both methods are demonstrated by comparisons of radiance spectra obtained from the band model to line-by-line results. The performance in a realistic scenario is investigated on the basis of measured and predicted spectra of a jet aircraft plume in afterburner mode.

  11. Spectral modification of the laser emission of a terahertz quantum cascade laser induced by broad-band double pulse injection seeding

    SciTech Connect

    Markmann, Sergej Nong, Hanond Hekmat, Negar; Jukam, Nathan; Pal, Shovon; Scholz, Sven; Kukharchyk, Nadezhda; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D.; Dhillon, Sukhdeep; Tignon, Jérôme; Marcadet, Xavier; Bock, Claudia; Kunze, Ulrich

    2015-09-14

    We demonstrate by injection seeding that the spectral emission of a terahertz (THz) quantum cascade laser (QCL) can be modified with broad-band THz pulses whose bandwidths are greater than the QCL bandwidth. Two broad-band THz pulses delayed in time imprint a modulation on the single THz pulse spectrum. The resulting spectrum is used to injection seed the THz QCL. By varying the time delay between the THz pulses, the amplitude distribution of the QCL longitudinal modes is modified. By applying this approach, the QCL emission is reversibly switched from multi-mode to single mode emission.

  12. Spectral modification of the laser emission of a terahertz quantum cascade laser induced by broad-band double pulse injection seeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markmann, Sergej; Nong, Hanond; Pal, Shovon; Hekmat, Negar; Scholz, Sven; Kukharchyk, Nadezhda; Ludwig, Arne; Dhillon, Sukhdeep; Tignon, Jérôme; Marcadet, Xavier; Bock, Claudia; Kunze, Ulrich; Wieck, Andreas D.; Jukam, Nathan

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate by injection seeding that the spectral emission of a terahertz (THz) quantum cascade laser (QCL) can be modified with broad-band THz pulses whose bandwidths are greater than the QCL bandwidth. Two broad-band THz pulses delayed in time imprint a modulation on the single THz pulse spectrum. The resulting spectrum is used to injection seed the THz QCL. By varying the time delay between the THz pulses, the amplitude distribution of the QCL longitudinal modes is modified. By applying this approach, the QCL emission is reversibly switched from multi-mode to single mode emission.

  13. Molecular emission bands in the ultraviolet spectrum of the red rectangle star HD 44179

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitko, M. L.

    1981-01-01

    New observations of the ultraviolet spectrum of HD 44179 are reported. Absorption due to the CO molecule is present in the spectrum with NCO approximately 10 to the 18th power per sq cm. Emission due to either CO or a molecule containing C=C, C=N, C-C, and C-H bonds (or both) is also present.

  14. Ocean Surface Emissivity at L-band (1.4 GHz): The Dependence on Salinity and Roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Lang, R.; Wentz, F.; Messiner, T.

    2012-01-01

    A characterization of the emissivity of sea water at L-band is important for the remote sensing of sea surface salinity. Measurements of salinity are currently being made in the radio astronomy band at 1.413 GHz by ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission and NASA's Aquarius instrument aboard the Aquarius/SAC-D observatory. The goal of both missions is accuracy on the order of 0.1 psu. This requires accurate knowledge of the dielectric constant of sea water as a function of salinity and temperature and also the effect of waves (roughness). The former determines the emissivity of an ideal (i.e. flat) surface and the later is the major source of error from predictions based on a flat surface. These two aspects of the problem of characterizing the emissivity are being addressed in the context of the Aquarius mission. First, laboratory measurements are being made of the dielectric constant of sea water. This is being done at the George Washington University using a resonant cavity. In this technique, sea water of known salinity and temperature is fed into the cavity along its axis through a narrow tube. The sea water changes the resonant frequency and Q of the cavity which, if the sample is small enough, can be related to the dielectric constant of the sample. An extensive set of measurements have been conducted at 1.413 GHz to develop a model for the real and imaginary part of the dielectric constant as a function of salinity and temperature. The results are compared to the predictions of models based on parameterization of the Debye resonance of the water molecule. The models and measurements are close; however, the differences are significant for remote sensing of salinity. This is especially true at low temperatures where the sensitivity to salinity is lowest.

  15. Mapping H-band Scattered Light Emission in the Mysterious SR21Transitional Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Follette, Katherine B.; Motohide, Tamura; Hashimoto, Jun; Whitney, Barbara; Grady, Carol; Close, Laird; Andrews, Sean M.; Kwon, Jungmi; Wisniewski, John; Brandt, Timothy D.; Mayama, Satoshi; Kandori, Ryo; Dong, Ruobing; Abe, Lyu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Carson, Joseph; Currie, Thayne; Egner, Sebastian E.; Feldt, Markus; Goto, Miwa; Guyon, Olivier.; Hayano, Yutaka; McElwain, Michael W.; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Saeko

    2013-01-01

    We present the first near infrared (NIR) spatially resolved images of the circumstellar transitional disk around SR21. These images were obtained with the Subaru HiCIAO camera, adaptive optics, and the polarized differential imaging technique. We resolve the disk in scattered light at H-band for stellocentric 0.1 < or approx. r < or approx. 0.6 (12 < or approx. r < or approx. 75AU). We compare our results with previously published spatially resolved 880 micron continuum Submillimeter Array images that show an inner r < or approx. 36AU cavity in SR21. Radiative transfer models reveal that the large disk depletion factor invoked to explain SR21's sub-mm cavity cannot be "universal" for all grain sizes. Even significantly more moderate depletions (delta = 0.1, 0.01 relative to an undepleted disk) than those that reproduce the sub-mm cavity (delta approx. 10(exp -6) are inconsistent with our H-band images when they are assumed to carry over to small grains, suggesting that surface grains scattering in the NIR either survive or are generated by whatever mechanism is clearing the disk midplane. In fact, the radial polarized intensity profile of our H-band observations is smooth and steeply inwardly-increasing (r(sup -3), with no evidence of a break at the 36AU sub-mm cavity wall. We hypothesize that this profile is dominated by an optically thin disk envelope or atmosphere component.We also discuss the compatibility of our data with the previously postulated existence of a sub-stellar companion to SR21 at r approx. 10-20AU, and find that we can neither exclude nor verify this scenario. This study demonstrates the power of multiwavelength imaging of transitional disks to inform modeling efforts, including the debate over precisely what physical mechanism is responsible for clearing these disks of their large midplane grains.

  16. MAPPING H-BAND SCATTERED LIGHT EMISSION IN THE MYSTERIOUS SR21 TRANSITIONAL DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Follette, Katherine B.; Close, Laird; Tamura, Motohide; Hashimoto, Jun; Kwon, Jungmi; Kandori, Ryo; Whitney, Barbara; Grady, Carol; Andrews, Sean M.; Wisniewski, John; Brandt, Timothy D.; Dong, Ruobing; Mayama, Satoshi; Abe, Lyu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Feldt, Markus; Carson, Joseph; Currie, Thayne; Egner, Sebastian E.; Goto, Miwa; and others

    2013-04-10

    We present the first near infrared (NIR) spatially resolved images of the circumstellar transitional disk around SR21. These images were obtained with the Subaru HiCIAO camera, adaptive optics, and the polarized differential imaging technique. We resolve the disk in scattered light at H-band for stellocentric 0.''1 {<=} r {<=} 0.''6 (12 {approx}< r {approx}< 75 AU). We compare our results with previously published spatially resolved 880 {mu}m continuum Submillimeter Array images that show an inner r {approx}< 36 AU cavity in SR21. Radiative transfer models reveal that the large disk depletion factor invoked to explain SR21's sub-mm cavity cannot be 'universal' for all grain sizes. Even significantly more moderate depletions ({delta} = 0.1, 0.01 relative to an undepleted disk) than those that reproduce the sub-mm cavity ({delta} {approx} 10{sup -6}) are inconsistent with our H-band images when they are assumed to carry over to small grains, suggesting that surface grains scattering in the NIR either survive or are generated by whatever mechanism is clearing the disk midplane. In fact, the radial polarized intensity profile of our H-band observations is smooth and steeply inwardly-increasing (r {sup -3}), with no evidence of a break at the 36 AU sub-mm cavity wall. We hypothesize that this profile is dominated by an optically thin disk envelope or atmosphere component. We also discuss the compatibility of our data with the previously postulated existence of a sub-stellar companion to SR21 at r {approx} 10-20 AU, and find that we can neither exclude nor verify this scenario. This study demonstrates the power of multiwavelength imaging of transitional disks to inform modeling efforts, including the debate over precisely what physical mechanism is responsible for clearing these disks of their large midplane grains.

  17. The electrosphere of macroscopc ""nuclei"": diffuse emissions in the MeV band from dark antimatter

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, Michael Mcneil; Lawson, Kyle; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R

    2009-01-01

    Using a Thomas-Fermi model, we calculate the structure of the electrosphere of the quark antimatter nuggets postulated to comprise much of the dark matter. This provides a single self-consistent density profile from ultra-rel ativistic densities to the non-relativistic Boltzmann regime. We use this to present a microscopically justified calculation of several properties of the nuggets, including their net charge, and the ratio of MeV to 511 keV emissions from electron annihilation. We find that the calculated parameters agree with previous phenomenological estimates based on the observational supposition that the nuggets are a source of several unexplained diffuse emissions from the galaxy. This provides another nontrivial verification of the dark matter proposal. The structure of the electrosphere is quite general and will also be valid at the surface of strange-quark stars, should they exist.

  18. An Unusual Rotationally Modulated Attenuation Band in the Jovian Hectometric Radio Emission Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Menietti, J. D.; Persoon, A. M.

    1998-01-01

    A well-defined attenuation band modulated by the rotation of Jupiter has been found in the spectrum of Jovian hectometric radiation using data from the Galileo plasma wave instrument. The center frequency of this band usually occurs in the frequency range from about 1 to 3 MHz and the bandwidth is about 10 to 20 percent. The center frequency varies systematically with the rotation of Jupiter and has two peaks per rotation, the first at a system III longitude of about 50 deg, and the second at about 185 deg. It is now believed that the attenuation occurs as the ray path from a high-latitude cyclotron maser source passes approximately parallel to the magnetic field near the northern or southern edges of the Io L-shell. The peak at 50 deg system 3 longitude is attributed to radiation from a southern hemisphere source and the peak at 185 deg is from a northern hemisphere source. The attenuation is thought to be caused by coherent scattering or shallow angle reflection from field-aligned density irregularities near the Io L-shell. The narrow bandwidth indicates that the density irregularities are confined to a very narrow range of L values (Delta L = 0.2 to 0.4) near the Io L-shell.

  19. Extreme Emission Line Galaxies in CANDELS: Broad-Band Selected, Star-Bursting Dwarf Galaxies at Z greater than 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDerWel, A.; Straughn, A. N.; Rix, H.-W.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Weiner, B. J.; Wuyts, S.; Bell, E. F.; Faber, S. M.; Trump, J. R.; Koo, D.; Ferguson, H. C.; Scarlata, C.; Hathi, N. P.; Dunlop, J. S.; Newman, J. A.; Kocevski, D. D.; Lai, K.; Grogin, N. A.; Rodney, S. A.; Lee, K.-S.; Guo, Y.

    2011-01-01

    We identify an abundant population of extreme emission line galaxies at redshift z=1.6 - 1.8 in the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) imaging from Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3). 69 candidates are selected by the large contribution of exceptionally bright emission lines to their near-infrared, broad-band fluxes. Supported by spectroscopic confirmation of strong [OIII] emission lines - with equivalent widths approximately 1000A - in the four candidates that have HST/WFC3 grism observations, we conclude that these objects are dwarf galaxies with approximately 10(exp 8) solar mass in stellar mass, undergoing an enormous star-burst phase with M*/M* of only approximately 10 Myr. The star formation activity and the co-moving number density (3.7 x 10(exp -4) Mpc(exp -3)) imply that strong, short-lived bursts play a significant, perhaps even dominant role in the formation and evolution of dwarf galaxies at z greater than 1. The observed star formation activity can produce in less than 5 Gyr the same amount of stellar mass density as is presently contained in dwarf galaxies. Therefore, our observations provide a strong indication that the stellar populations of present-day dwarf galaxies formed mainly in strong, short-lived bursts, mostly at z greater than 1.

  20. Extreme Emission Line Galaxies in CANDELS: Broad-Band Selected, Star-Bursting Dwarf Galaxies at Z greater than 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderWel, A.; Straughn, A. N.; Rix, H.-W.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Weiner, B. J.; Wuyts, S.; Bell, E. F.; Faber, S. M.; Trump, J. R.; Koo, D. C.; Ferguson, H. C.; Scarlata, C.; Hathi, N. P.; Dunlop, J. S.; Newman, J. A.; Dickinson, M.; Jahnke, K.; Salmon, B. W.; deMello, D. F.; Kkocevski, D. D.; Lai, K.; Grogin, N. A.; Rodney, S. A.; Guo, Yicheng

    2012-01-01

    We identify an abundant population of extreme emission line galaxies (EELGs) at redshift z approx. 1.7 in the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) imaging from Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3). 69 EELG candidates are selected by the large contribution of exceptionally bright emission lines to their near-infrared broad-band magnitudes. Supported by spectroscopic confirmation of strong [OIII] emission lines . with rest-frame equivalent widths approx. 1000A in the four candidates that have HST/WFC3 grism observations, we conclude that these objects are galaxies with approx.10(exp 8) Solar Mass in stellar mass, undergoing an enormous starburst phase with M*/M* of only approx. 15 Myr. These bursts may cause outflows that are strong enough to produce cored dark matter profiles in low-mass galaxies. The individual star formation rates and the co-moving number density (3.7x10(exp -4) Mpc(sup -3) can produce in approx.4 Gyr much of the stellar mass density that is presently contained in 10(exp 8) - 10(exp 9) Solar Mass dwarf galaxies. Therefore, our observations provide a strong indication that many or even most of the stars in present-day dwarf galaxies formed in strong, short-lived bursts, mostly at z > 1.

  1. Broad band simulation of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) prompt emission in presence of an external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziaeepour, Houri; Gardner, Brian

    2011-12-01

    The origin of prompt emission in GRBs is not yet well understood. The simplest and most popular model is Synchrotron Self-Compton (SSC) emission produced by internal shocks inside an ultra-relativistic jet. However, recent observations of a delayed high energy component by the Fermi-LAT instrument have encouraged alternative models. Here we use a recently developed formulation of relativistic shocks for GRBs to simulate light curves and spectra of synchrotron and self-Compton emissions in the framework of internal shock model. This model takes into account the evolution of quantities such as densities of colliding shells, and fraction of kinetic energy transferred to electrons and to induced magnetic field. We also extend this formulation by considering the presence of a precessing external magnetic field. These simulations are very realistic and present significant improvement with respect to previous phenomenological GRB simulations. They reproduce light curves of separate peaks of real GRBs and variety of spectral slopes at E > Epeak observed by the Fermi-LAT instrument. The high energy emission can be explained by synchrotron emission and a subdominant contribution from inverse Compton. We also suggest an explanation for extended tail emission and relate it to the screening of the magnetic field and/or trapping of accelerated electrons in the electromagnetic energy structure of the plasma in the shock front. Spectral slopes of simulated bursts at E << Epeak are consistent with theoretical prediction and at E < Epeak can be flatter if the spectrum of electrons is roughly flat or has a shallow slope at low energies. The observed flat spectra at soft gamma-ray and hard x-ray bands is the evidence that there is a significant contribution at E < Epeak from lower Lorentz factor wing of electron distribution which have a roughly random acceleration rather than being thermal. This means that the state of matter in the jet at the time of ejection is most probably

  2. Optical study of the band structure of wurtzite GaP nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assali, S.; Greil, J.; Zardo, I.; Belabbes, A.; de Moor, M. W. A.; Koelling, S.; Koenraad, P. M.; Bechstedt, F.; Bakkers, E. P. A. M.; Haverkort, J. E. M.

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the optical properties of wurtzite (WZ) GaP nanowires by performing photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved PL measurements in the temperature range from 4 K to 300 K, together with atom probe tomography to identify residual impurities in the nanowires. At low temperature, the WZ GaP luminescence shows donor-acceptor pair emission at 2.115 eV and 2.088 eV, and Burstein-Moss band-filling continuum between 2.180 and 2.253 eV, resulting in a direct band gap above 2.170 eV. Sharp exciton α-β-γ lines are observed at 2.140-2.164-2.252 eV, respectively, showing clear differences in lifetime, presence of phonon replicas, and temperature-dependence. The excitonic nature of those peaks is critically discussed, leading to a direct band gap of ˜2.190 eV and to a resonant state associated with the γ-line ˜80 meV above the Γ8C conduction band edge.

  3. Search for CO2/CO Band Emission in Active Asteroid 324P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mommert, Michael; Hora, Joseph L.; Hsieh, Henry H.; Trilling, David E.; Sheppard, Scott S.

    2015-10-01

    Until a few decades ago, the distinction between asteroids and comets seemed to be simple: comets exhibit activity in the form of a coma and/or a tail as a result of the sublimation of surface ices, whereas asteroids are inactive, rocky bodies. The separation between the two groups became less clear with the discovery of asteroidal bodies that exhibit comet-like dust activity - the active asteroids. For some of those objects, disruption or mass loss due to rotational destabilization or recent collisions are the most likely processes causing the activity. Other objects display recurrent dust activity near perihelion that seems to be caused by the sublimation of ices, but gases have never been directly measured in them. We propose the first Spitzer observations of recurrently active asteroid 324P to search for emission from CO2 or CO. Our observations will detect emission from either gas with unprecedented sensitivity and provide the first ever confirmed detection of volatiles in an active asteroid. We will measure the CO2/CO gas production rates - or put upper-limits on them in the case of a lack of emission. The detection of sublimation-driven activity in active asteroids provide important constraints on the volatile inventory of the inner Solar System and Solar System formation models, gives insight into volatile preservation/retention in asteroidal bodies, and may be relevant to primordial terrestrial water delivery scenarios, as well as future asteroid resource utilization. This proposal conforms with the Spitzer Cycle 12 focus on planetary science programs observing targets in our Solar System.

  4. Fragmentation of isoxazole molecules by electron impact in the energy range 10-85 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linert, Ireneusz; Lachowicz, Izabela; Wasowicz, Tomasz J.; Zubek, Mariusz

    2010-09-01

    Fragmentation of isoxazole molecules by electron impact excitation, that produces excited atomic and molecular fragments, has been studied using the optical excitation technique. Excited hydrogen atoms H( n), n = 4-7, have been detected by observation of the H β to H ɛ lines of the Balmer series. The diatomic CH(A 2Δ) and CN(B 2Σ +) fragments have been identified by their A 2Δ → X 2Π r and B 2Σ + → X 2Σ + emission bands, respectively. The appearance energies for the H( n = 4), CH(A 2Δ) and CN(B 2Σ +) have been measured to be 21.9, 14.0 and 10.6 eV, respectively. Absolute emission cross sections have been also obtained for the fragments in electron energy ranges from their respective appearance thresholds up to 85 eV. Possible fragmentation processes are discussed.

  5. Wide-band-tunable photomixers using resonant laser-assisted field emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagmann, Mark J.

    2003-07-01

    Simulations and experiments show a resonant interaction of tunneling electrons with a radiation field, and photomixing (optical heterodyning) in laser-assisted field emission can cause current oscillations from dc to 100 THz with this effect. Recent simulations by others are shown to be consistent with Fowler-Nordheim theory when the radiation is at low frequencies, and also confirm the existence of the resonance. The relationship of these simulations to photomixing is demonstrated, and estimates are given for the power of signals that could be obtained by this means.

  6. Multi-band Emission Light Curves of Jupiter: Insights on Brown Dwarfs and Directly Imaged Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi; Ge, Huazhi; Orton, Glenn S.; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Sinclair, James; Fernandes, Joshua; Momary, Thomas W.; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Sato, Takao M.; Fujiyoshi, Takuya

    2016-10-01

    Many brown dwarfs exhibit significant infrared flux variability (e.g., Artigau et al. 2009, ApJ, 701, 1534; Radigan et al. 2012, ApJ, 750, 105), ranging from several to twenty percent of the brightness. Current hypotheses include temperature variations, cloud holes and patchiness, and cloud height and thickness variations (e.g., Apai et al. 2013, ApJ, 768, 121; Robinson and Marley 2014, ApJ, 785, 158; Zhang and Showman 2014, ApJ, 788, L6). Some brown dwarfs show phase shifts in the light curves among different wavelengths (e.g., Buenzli et al. 2012, ApJ, 760, L31; Yang et al. 2016, arXiv:1605.02708), indicating vertical variations of the cloud distribution. The current observational technique can barely detect the brightness changes on the surfaces of nearby brown dwarfs (Crossfield et al. 2014, Nature, 505, 654) let alone resolve detailed weather patterns that cause the flux variability. The infrared emission maps of Jupiter might shed light on this problem. Using COMICS at Subaru Telescope, VISIR at Very Large Telescope (VLT) and NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF), we obtained infrared images of Jupiter over several nights at multiple wavelengths that are sensitive to several pressure levels from the stratosphere to the deep troposphere below the ammonia clouds. The rotational maps and emission light curves are constructed. The individual pixel brightness varies up to a hundred percent level and the variation of the full-disk brightness is around several percent. Both the shape and amplitude of the light curves are significantly distinct at different wavelengths. Variation of light curves at different epochs and phase shift among different wavelengths are observed. We will present principle component analysis to identify dominant emission features such as stable vortices, cloud holes and eddies in the belts and zones and strong emissions in the aurora region. A radiative transfer model is used to simulate those features to get a more quantitative

  7. Remote Sensing of lower thermospheric temperature and composition based on observations of O2 Atmospheric band emission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, A. B.; Yee, J.; Budzien, S. A.; Bishop, R. L.; Hecht, J. H.; Stephan, A. W.; Crowley, G.

    2011-12-01

    upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere from OSIRIS observations of O2 A-band emission spectra, Can. J. Phys. 88, 919-925, 2010. J. H. Yee, (private communication, 2011)

  8. Spatially resolved band alignments at Au-hexadecanethiol monolayer-GaAs(001) interfaces by ballistic electron emission microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Junay, A.; Guézo, S. Turban, P.; Delhaye, G.; Lépine, B.; Tricot, S.; Ababou-Girard, S.; Solal, F.

    2015-08-28

    We study structural and electronic inhomogeneities in Metal—Organic Molecular monoLayer (OML)—semiconductor interfaces at the sub-nanometer scale by means of in situ Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy (BEEM). BEEM imaging of Au/1-hexadecanethiols/GaAs(001) heterostructures reveals the evolution of pinholes density as a function of the thickness of the metallic top-contact. Using BEEM in spectroscopic mode in non-short-circuited areas, local electronic fingerprints (barrier height values and corresponding spectral weights) reveal a low-energy tunneling regime through the insulating organic monolayer. At higher energies, BEEM evidences new conduction channels, associated with hot-electron injection in the empty molecular orbitals of the OML. Corresponding band diagrams at buried interfaces can be thus locally described. The energy position of GaAs conduction band minimum in the heterostructure is observed to evolve as a function of the thickness of the deposited metal, and coherently with size-dependent electrostatic effects under the molecular patches. Such BEEM analysis provides a quantitative diagnosis on metallic top-contact formation on organic molecular monolayer and appears as a relevant characterization for its optimization.

  9. The modeling of emissions of Lyman-Birge-Hopfield and Vegard-Kaplan bands in the atmospheres of planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillov, Andrey S.

    Molecular nitrogen is main component in the atmospheres of Earth, Titan, Triton. Energetic particles interacting with the atmospheres cause electronic excitation of nitrogen molecules. Total quenching rate coefficients of three singlet and four triplet states of molecular nitrogen in the collisions with N2 and O2 molecules are calculated on the basis of quantum-chemical approximations. The calculated rate coefficients of electronic quenching of N2* molecules are compared with available experimental data. An influence of radiational and collisional processes on vibrational populations of electronically excited N2(a1) and N2(A3) molecules and emissions of Lyman-Birge-Hopfield and Vegard-Kaplan bands is studied for the mixture of N2 and O2 at different pressures. It is indicated that molecular collisions cause changes in relative populations of vibrational levels of the states and intensity relations of ultraviolet bands of N2 with the rise in the pressure and O2 admixture. The influence of electronically excited molecules on vibrational kinetics of molecular nitrogen is discussed.

  10. Spatial variation of the 3.29 and 3.40 micron emission bands within reflection nebulae and the photochemical evolution of methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Joblin, C; Tielens, A G; Allamandola, L J; Geballe, T R

    1996-02-20

    Spectra of 3 micrometers emission features have been obtained at several positions within the reflection nebulae NGC 1333 SVS3 and NGC 2023. Strong variations of the relative intensities of the 3.29 micrometers feature and its most prominent satellite band at 3.40 micrometers are found. It is shown that (i) the 3.40 micrometers band is too intense with respect to the 3.29 micrometers band at certain positions to arise from hot band emission alone, (ii) the 3.40 micrometers band can be reasonably well matched by new laboratory spectra of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with alkyl (-CH3) side groups, and (iii) the variations in the 3.40 micrometers to 3.29 micrometers band intensity ratios are consistent with the photochemical erosion of alkylated PAHs. We conclude that the 3.40 micrometers emission feature is attributable to -CH3 side groups on PAH molecules. We predict a value of 0.5 for the peak intensity ratio of the 3.40 and 3.29 micrometers emission bands from free PAHs in the diffuse interstellar medium, which would correspond to a proportion of one methyl group for four peripheral hydrogens. We also compare the 3 micrometers spectrum of the proto-planetary nebula IRAS 05341+0852 with the spectrum of the planetary nebula IRAS 21282+5050. We suggest that a photochemical evolution of the initial aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon mixture formed in the outflow is responsible for the changes observed in the 3 micrometers emission spectra of these objects. PMID:11538557

  11. Spatial variation of the 3.29 and 3.40 micron emission bands within reflection nebulae and the photochemical evolution of methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joblin, C.; Tielens, A. G.; Allamandola, L. J.; Geballe, T. R.

    1996-01-01

    Spectra of 3 micrometers emission features have been obtained at several positions within the reflection nebulae NGC 1333 SVS3 and NGC 2023. Strong variations of the relative intensities of the 3.29 micrometers feature and its most prominent satellite band at 3.40 micrometers are found. It is shown that (i) the 3.40 micrometers band is too intense with respect to the 3.29 micrometers band at certain positions to arise from hot band emission alone, (ii) the 3.40 micrometers band can be reasonably well matched by new laboratory spectra of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with alkyl (-CH3) side groups, and (iii) the variations in the 3.40 micrometers to 3.29 micrometers band intensity ratios are consistent with the photochemical erosion of alkylated PAHs. We conclude that the 3.40 micrometers emission feature is attributable to -CH3 side groups on PAH molecules. We predict a value of 0.5 for the peak intensity ratio of the 3.40 and 3.29 micrometers emission bands from free PAHs in the diffuse interstellar medium, which would correspond to a proportion of one methyl group for four peripheral hydrogens. We also compare the 3 micrometers spectrum of the proto-planetary nebula IRAS 05341+0852 with the spectrum of the planetary nebula IRAS 21282+5050. We suggest that a photochemical evolution of the initial aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon mixture formed in the outflow is responsible for the changes observed in the 3 micrometers emission spectra of these objects.

  12. Spatial Variation of the 3.29 and 3.40 Micron Emission Bands Within Reflection Nebulae and The Photochemical Evolution of Methylated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joblin, C.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Allamandola, L. J.; Geballe, T. R.

    1996-01-01

    Spectra of 3 microns emission features have been obtained at several positions within the reflection nebulae NGC 1333 SVS3 and NGC 2023. Strong variations of the relative intensities of the 3.29 microns feature and its most prominent satellite band at 3.40 microns are found. It is shown that: (1) the 3.40 microns band is too intense with respect to the 3.29 microns band at certain positions to arise from hot band emission alone, (2) the 3.40 microns band can be reasonably well matched by new laboratory spectra of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with alkyl (-CH3) side groups, and (3) the variations in the 3.40 microns to 3.29 microns band intensity ratios are consistent with the photochemical erosion of alkylated PAHs. We conclude that the 3.40 microns emission feature is attributable to -CH3 side groups on PAH molecules. We predict a value of 0.5 for the peak intensity ratio of the 3.40 and 3.29 microns emission bands from free PAHs in the diffuse interstellar medium, which would correspond to a proportion of one methyl group for four peripheral hydrogens. We also compare the 3 microns spectrum of the proto-planetary nebula IRAS 05341 + 0852 with the spectrum of the planetary nebula IRAS 21282 + 5050. We suggest that a photochemical evolution of the initial aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon mixture formed in the outflow is responsible for the changes observed in the 3 microns emission spectra of these objects.

  13. A Balloon-borne Limb-Emission Sounder at 650-GHz band for Stratospheric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irimajiri, Yoshihisa; Ochiai, Satoshi

    We have developed a Balloon-borne Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (BSMILES) to observe stratospheric minor constituents like ozone, HCl etc. BSMILES carries a 300mm-diameter offset parabolic antenna, a 650-GHz heterodyne superconducting (SIS) low-noise receiver, and an acousto-optical spectrometer (AOS) with the bandwidth of 1GHz and the resolution of 1MHz. Gondola size is 1.35 m x 1.35 m x 1.26 m. Total weight is about 500 kg. Limb observations are made by scanning the antenna beam of about 0.12 degrees (FWHM) in vertical direction. A calibrated hot load (CHL) and elevation angle of 50 degrees are ob-served after each scan for calibration. The DSB system noise temperature of the SIS receiver is less than 460 K at 624-639 GHz with a best value of 330 K that is 11 times as large as the quantum limit. Data acquisition and antenna control are made by on-board PCs. Observed data are recorded to PC card with 2 GB capacity to collect after the observations from the sea, and HK data are transmitted to the ground. Gondola attitude is measured by three-axis fiber-optical gyroscope with accuracy less than 0.01 degrees, three-axis accelerometer, and a two-axis geoaspect sensor. Electric power is supplied by lithium batteries. Total power con-sumption is about 150W. Almost all systems are put in pressurized vessels for waterproofing, heat dissipation, and noise shield, etc. BSMILES was launched from Sanriku Balloon Center of Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), at the east coast of Japan, in the summer of 2003, 2004, and 2006. The gondola was carried to an altitude of 35 km by a balloon of 100,000 m3 in volume and the observations were made for 1.5 hours in 2004. All systems operated normally by keeping their temperature within the limit of operation by keeping gondola warm with styrene foam. After the observations, the gondola was dropped and splashed on the Pacific Ocean by a parachute and

  14. A Fluorescent Indicator for Imaging Lysosomal Zinc(II) with Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-Enhanced Photostability and a Narrow Band of Emission

    PubMed Central

    Sreenath, Kesavapillai; Yuan, Zhao; Allen, John R.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a strategy to transfer the zinc(II) sensitivity of a fluoroionophore with low photostability and a broad emission band to a bright and photostable fluorophore with a narrow emission band. The two fluorophores are covalently connected to afford an intramolecular Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) conjugate. The FRET donor in the conjugate is a zinc(II)-sensitive arylvinylbipyridyl fluoroionophore, the absorption and emission of which undergo bathochromic shifts upon zinc(II) coordination. When the FRET donor is excited, efficient intramolecular energy transfer occurs to result in the emission of the acceptor boron dipyrromethene (4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene or BODIPY) as a function of zinc(II) concentration. The broad emission band of the donor/zinc(II) complex is transformed into the strong, narrow emission band of the BODIPY acceptor in the FRET conjugates, which can be captured within the narrow emission window that is preferred for multicolor imaging experiments. In addition to competing with other nonradiative decay processes of the FRET donor, the rapid intramolecular FRET of the excited FRET-conjugate molecule protects the donor fluorophore from photobleaching, thus enhancing the photostability of the indicator. FRET conjugates 3 and 4 contain aliphatic amino groups, which selectively target lysosomes in mammalian cells. This subcellular localization preference was verified by using confocal fluorescence microscopy, which also shows the zinc(II)-enhanced emission of 3 and 4 in lysosomes. It was further shown using two-color structured illumination microscopy (SIM), which is capable of extending the lateral resolution over the Abbe diffraction limit by a factor of two, that the morpholino-functionalized compound 4 localizes in the interior of lysosomes, rather than anchoring on the lysosomal membranes, of live HeLa cells. PMID:25382395

  15. Ocean Surface Emissivity at L-band (1.4 GHz): The Dependence on Salinity and Roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Vine, D. M.; Lang, R. H.; Wentz, F. J.; Meissner, T.

    2012-12-01

    A characterization of the emissivity of sea water at L-band is important for the remote sensing of sea surface salinity. Measurements of salinity are currently being made in the radio astronomy band at 1.413 GHz by ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission and NASA's Aquarius instrument aboard the Aquarius/SAC-D observatory. The goal of both missions is accuracy on the order of 0.2 psu. This requires accurate knowledge of the dielectric constant of sea water as a function of salinity and temperature and also the effect of waves (roughness). The former determines the emissivity of an ideal (i.e. flat) surface and the later is the major source of error from predictions based on a flat surface. These two aspects of the problem of characterizing the emissivity are being addressed in the context of the Aquarius mission. First, laboratory measurements are being made of the dielectric constant of sea water. This is being done at the George Washington University using a resonant cavity. In this technique, sea water of known salinity and temperature is fed into the cavity along its axis through a narrow tube. The sea water changes the resonant frequency and Q of the cavity which, if the sample is small enough, can be related to the dielectric constant of the sample. An extensive set of measurements have been conducted at 1.413 GHz to develop a model for the real and imaginary part of the dielectric constant as a function of salinity and temperature. The results are compared to the predictions of models based on parameterization of the Debye resonance of the water molecule. The models and measurements are close; however, the differences are significant for remote sensing of salinity. This is especially true at low temperatures where the sensitivity to salinity is lowest. Second, observations from Aquarius are being used to develop a model for the effect of wind-driven roughness (waves) on the emissivity in the open ocean. This is done by comparing the measured

  16. Modulations of broad-band radio continua and X-ray emissions in the large X-ray flare on 03 November 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauphin, C.; Vilmer, N.; Lüthi, T.; Trottet, G.; Krucker, S.; Magun, A.

    The GOES X3.9 flare on 03 November 2003 at ˜09:45 UT was observed from metric to millimetric wavelengths by the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH), the Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN) and by radio instruments operated by the Institute of Applied Physics (University of Bern). This flare was simultaneously observed and imaged up to several 100 keV by the RHESSI experiment. The time profile of the X-ray emission above 100 keV and of the radio emissions shows two main parts, impulsive emission lasting about 3 min and long duration emission (partially observed by RHESSI) separated in time by 4 min. We shall focus here on the modulations of the broad-band radio continua and of the X-ray emissions observed in the second part of the flare. The observations suggest that gyrosynchrotron emission is the prevailing emission mechanism even at decimetric wavelengths for the broad-band radio emission. Following this interpretation, we deduce the density and the magnetic field of the decimetric sources and briefly comment on possible interpretations of the modulations.

  17. Observations of the near- to Mid-infrared Unidentified Emission Bands in the Interstellar Medium of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Tamami I.; Sakon, Itsuki; Onaka, Takashi; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Umehata, Hideki; Ohsawa, Ryou

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of near- to mid-infrared slit spectroscopic observations (2.55-13.4 μm) of the diffuse emission toward nine positions in the Large Magellanic Cloud with the infrared camera on board AKARI. The target positions are selected to cover a wide range of the intensity of the incident radiation field. The unidentified infrared bands at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 μm are detected toward all the targets and ionized gas signatures; hydrogen recombination lines and ionic forbidden lines are detected toward three of them. We classify the targets into two groups: those without the ionized gas signatures (Group A) and those with the ionized signatures (Group B). Group A includes molecular clouds and photodissociation regions, whereas Group B consists of H II regions. In Group A, the band ratios of I 3.3 μm/I 11.3 μm, I 6.2 μm/I 11.3 μm, I 7.7 μm/I 11.3 μm, and I 8.6 μm/I 11.3 μm show positive correlation with the IRAS and AKARI colors, but those of Group B do not follow the correlation. We discuss the results in terms of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) model and attribute the difference to the destruction of small PAHs and an increase in the recombination due to the high electron density in Group B. In the present study, the 3.3 μm band provides crucial information on the size distribution and/or the excitation conditions of PAHs and plays a key role in the distinction of Group A from B. The results suggest the possibility of the diagram of I 3.3 μm/I 11.3 μm versus I 7.7 μm/I 11.3 μm as an efficient diagnostic tool to infer the physical conditions of the interstellar medium.

  18. Making Waves—The VIIRS Day/Night Band Reveals Upper Atmospheric Gravity Wave via Sensitivity to Nightglow Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. D.; Straka, W. C.; Yue, J.; Smith, S. M.; Alexander, M. J.; Hoffmann, L.; Setvak, M.; Partain, P.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric gravity waves, which are disturbances to the atmospheric density structure with restoring forces of gravity and buoyancy, represent the principal form of energy exchange between the lower and upper atmosphere. Wave breaking drives the mean upper-atmospheric circulation, driving coupled processes that in turn influence weather and climate patterns throughout the atmosphere on various spatial and temporal scales. Very little is known about upper-level gravity wave characteristics, mainly for lack of global, high-resolution observations from satellite observing systems. Consequently, representations of wave-related processes in global models at present are crude, highly parameterized, and poorly constrained. Shortly after launch of the NOAA/NASA Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership environmental satellite instrument, it was discovered that its Visible/Infrared Imaging Radiomter Suite (VIIRS) Day/Night Band (DNB) was able to observe clouds on moonless nights using the reflection of downwelling nightglow—light emitted from a geometrically thin and tenuous emission layer residing near the mesopause (~85-95 km AMSL). Following this revelation, it was discovered that the DNB also held the further ability to resolve gravity structures within the nightglow direct emissions. On moonless nights, the DNB provides all-weather viewing of these waves at unprecedented 0.74 km horizontal resolution as they modulate the temperature and density structure (and hence brightness) of the nightglow layer. The waves are launched by a variety of physical mechanisms, ranging from terrain, to convective storms, to jet streams and strong wind shear, and even seismic and volcanic events. We cross-reference DNB imagery with thermal infrared imagery to discern nightglow wave structures and attribute their sources. The capability stands to advance our basic understanding of a critical yet poorly constrained driver of the general atmospheric circulation.

  19. Band gap and defect states of MgO thin films investigated using reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Heo, Sung; Cho, Eunseog; Lee, Hyung-Ik; Park, Gyeong Su; Kang, Hee Jae; Nagatomi, T.; Choi, Pyungho; Choi, Byoung-Deog

    2015-07-15

    The band gap and defect states of MgO thin films were investigated by using reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) and high-energy resolution REELS (HR-REELS). HR-REELS with a primary electron energy of 0.3 keV revealed that the surface F center (FS) energy was located at approximately 4.2 eV above the valence band maximum (VBM) and the surface band gap width (E{sub g}{sup S}) was approximately 6.3 eV. The bulk F center (F{sub B}) energy was located approximately 4.9 eV above the VBM and the bulk band gap width was about 7.8 eV, when measured by REELS with 3 keV primary electrons. From a first-principles calculation, we confirmed that the 4.2 eV and 4.9 eV peaks were F{sub S} and F{sub B}, induced by oxygen vacancies. We also experimentally demonstrated that the HR-REELS peak height increases with increasing number of oxygen vacancies. Finally, we calculated the secondary electron emission yields (γ) for various noble gases. He and Ne were not influenced by the defect states owing to their higher ionization energies, but Ar, Kr, and Xe exhibited a stronger dependence on the defect states owing to their small ionization energies.

  20. Improvements on Near Real Time Detection of Volcanic Ash Emissions for Emergency Monitoring with Limited Satellite Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steensen, Torge; Webley, Peter; Dehn, Jon

    2014-05-01

    Quantifying volcanic ash emissions syn-eruptively is an important task for the global aviation community. However, due to the near real time nature of volcano monitoring, many parameters important for accurate ash mass estimates cannot be obtained easily. Previous studies highlight the surface temperature, the refractive index of the ash and the cloud top temperature as most crucial of these values. Even when estimating those parameters best possible, uncertainties associated with the ash masses remain high, especially when the satellite data is only available in the traditional 10.8 and 12.0 µm bands. To counteract this limitation, we developed a quantitative comparison between the ash extents in satellite and model data. The main aspect is to manually define the cloud edge based on the available satellite data as well as other knowledge like pilot reports or ground-based observations. This manual aspect, although subjective to the experience of the observer, can show a significant improvement as it provides the ability to highlight ash that otherwise would be obscured by meteorological clouds or, by passing over different surfaces with unaccounted temperatures, might be lost entirely and thus remains undetectable for an automated satellite approach. We show comparisons to Volcanic Ash Transport and Dispersion models and outline a quantitative match as well as percentages of overestimates based on satellite or dispersion model data which can be converted into a level of reliability for near real time volcano monitoring.

  1. Development and testing of the EVS 2000 enhanced vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Way, Scott P.; Kerr, Richard; Imamura, Joe J.; Arnoldy, Dan; Zeylmaker, Richard; Zuro, Greg

    2003-09-01

    An effective enhanced vision system must operate over a broad spectral range in order to offer a pilot an optimized scene that includes runway background as well as airport lighting and aircraft operations. The large dynamic range of intensities of these images is best handled with separate imaging sensors. The EVS 2000 is a patented dual-band Infrared Enhanced Vision System (EVS) utilizing image fusion concepts to provide a single image from uncooled infrared imagers in both the LWIR and SWIR. The system is designed to provide commercial and corporate airline pilots with improved situational awareness at night and in degraded weather conditions. A prototype of this system was recently fabricated and flown on the Boeing Advanced Technology Demonstrator 737-900 aircraft. This paper will discuss the current EVS 2000 concept, show results taken from the Boeing Advanced Technology Demonstrator program, and discuss future plans for EVS systems.

  2. First detection of Mars atmospheric hydroxyl: CRISM Near-IR measurement versus LMD GCM simulation of OH Meinel band emission in the Mars polar winter atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, R. Todd; Sandor, Brad J.; García-Muñoz, Antonio; Lefèvre, Franck; Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Montmessin, Franck; Murchie, Scott L.; Nair, Hari

    2013-09-01

    Visible and near-IR Meinel band emissions originate from excited OH in the terrestrial upper atmosphere (Meinel, I.A.B. [1950]. Astrophys. J. 111, 555. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/145296), and have recently been detected in the Venus nightside upper mesosphere (Piccioni, G. et al. [2008]. Astron. Astrophys. 483, L29-L33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:200809761). Meinel band observations support key studies of transport and photochemistry in both of these atmospheres. In the case of Mars, OH regulates the basic stability of the CO2 atmosphere to photolytic decomposition (to CO and O2, e.g. Parkinson, T.D., Hunten, D.M. [1972]. J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 1380-1390. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1972)029<1380:SAAOOO>2.0.CO;2), and yet has never been measured. We present the first detection of Mars atmospheric OH, associated with CRISM near-IR spectral limb observations of polar night Meinel band emissions centered at 1.45 and 2.9 μm. Meinel band (1-0), (2-1), and (2-0) average limb intensities of 990 ± 280, 1060 ± 480, and 200 ± 100 kiloRayleighs (kR), respectively, are determined for 70-90 NS polar winter latitudes over altitudes of 40-56 km. Additional OH bands, such as (3-2), (3-1), and (4-2), present ⩽1σ measurements. Uncertainty in the (4-2) band emission rate contributes to increased uncertainty in the determination of the O2(1Δg) (0-0)/(0-1) band emission ratio A00/A01=47-12+26. An average profile retrieval for Mars OH polar nightglow indicates 45-55 km altitude levels for volume emission rates (VER) of 0.4 (2-0) to 2 (1-0, 2-1) × 104 photons/(cm3 s). Similar to polar night O2(1Δg) emission (e.g. Clancy, R.T. et al. [2012]. J. Geophys. Res. (Planets) 117, E00J10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2011JE004018), Meinel OH band emission is supported by upper level, winter poleward transport of O and H in the deep Hadley solsticial circulations of Mars. The retrieved OH emission rates are compared to polar winter OH nightglow simulated by the LMD (Laboratoire

  3. First detection of Mars atmospheric hydroxyl: CRISM Near-IR measurement versus LMD GCM simulation of OH Meinel band emission in the Mars polar winter atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd Clancy, R.; Sandor, Brad J.; García-Muñoz, Antonio; Lefèvre, Franck; Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Montmessin, Franck; Murchie, Scott L.; Nair, Hari

    2013-09-01

    Visible and near-IR Meinel band emissions originate from excited OH in the terrestrial upper atmosphere (Meinel, I.A.B. [1950]. Astrophys. J. 111, 555. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/145296), and have recently been detected in the Venus nightside upper mesosphere (Piccioni, G. et al. [2008]. Astron. Astrophys. 483, L29-L33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:200809761). Meinel band observations support key studies of transport and photochemistry in both of these atmospheres. In the case of Mars, OH regulates the basic stability of the CO2 atmosphere to photolytic decomposition (to CO and O2, e.g. Parkinson, T.D., Hunten, D.M. [1972]. J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 1380-1390. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1972)029<1380:SAAOOO>2.0.CO;2), and yet has never been measured. We present the first detection of Mars atmospheric OH, associated with CRISM near-IR spectral limb observations of polar night Meinel band emissions centered at 1.45 and 2.9 μm. Meinel band (1-0), (2-1), and (2-0) average limb intensities of 990 ± 280, 1060 ± 480, and 200 ± 100 kiloRayleighs (kR), respectively, are determined for 70-90 NS polar winter latitudes over altitudes of 40-56 km. Additional OH bands, such as (3-2), (3-1), and (4-2), present ⩽1σ measurements. Uncertainty in the (4-2) band emission rate contributes to increased uncertainty in the determination of the O2(1Δg) (0-0)/(0-1) band emission ratio A00/A01=47-12+26. An average profile retrieval for Mars OH polar nightglow indicates 45-55 km altitude levels for volume emission rates (VER) of 0.4 (2-0) to 2 (1-0, 2-1) × 104 photons/(cm3 s). Similar to polar night O2(1Δg) emission (e.g. Clancy, R.T. et al. [2012]. J. Geophys. Res. (Planets) 117, E00J10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2011JE004018), Meinel OH band emission is supported by upper level, winter poleward transport of O and H in the deep Hadley solsticial circulations of Mars. The retrieved OH emission rates are compared to polar winter OH nightglow simulated by the LMD (Laboratoire

  4. A 1.1-1.9 GHz SETI Survey of the Kepler Field. I. A Search for Narrow-band Emission from Select Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemion, Andrew P. V.; Demorest, Paul; Korpela, Eric; Maddalena, Ron J.; Werthimer, Dan; Cobb, Jeff; Howard, Andrew W.; Langston, Glen; Lebofsky, Matt; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Tarter, Jill

    2013-04-01

    We present a targeted search for narrow-band (<5 Hz) drifting sinusoidal radio emission from 86 stars in the Kepler field hosting confirmed or candidate exoplanets. Radio emission less than 5 Hz in spectral extent is currently known to only arise from artificial sources. The stars searched were chosen based on the properties of their putative exoplanets, including stars hosting candidates with 380 K > T eq > 230 K, stars with five or more detected candidates or stars with a super-Earth (R p < 3 R ⊕) in a >50 day orbit. Baseband voltage data across the entire band between 1.1 and 1.9 GHz were recorded at the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope between 2011 February and April and subsequently searched offline. No signals of extraterrestrial origin were found. We estimate that fewer than ~1% of transiting exoplanet systems host technological civilizations that are radio loud in narrow-band emission between 1 and 2 GHz at an equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) of ~1.5 × 1021 erg s-1, approximately eight times the peak EIRP of the Arecibo Planetary Radar, and we limit the number of 1-2 GHz narrow-band-radio-loud Kardashev type II civilizations in the Milky Way to be {<}10^{-6}\\ M^{-1}_\\odot. Here we describe our observations, data reduction procedures and results.

  5. A 1.1-1.9 GHz SETI SURVEY OF THE KEPLER FIELD. I. A SEARCH FOR NARROW-BAND EMISSION FROM SELECT TARGETS

    SciTech Connect

    Siemion, Andrew P. V.; Korpela, Eric; Werthimer, Dan; Cobb, Jeff; Lebofsky, Matt; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Demorest, Paul; Maddalena, Ron J.; Langston, Glen; Howard, Andrew W.; Tarter, Jill

    2013-04-10

    We present a targeted search for narrow-band (<5 Hz) drifting sinusoidal radio emission from 86 stars in the Kepler field hosting confirmed or candidate exoplanets. Radio emission less than 5 Hz in spectral extent is currently known to only arise from artificial sources. The stars searched were chosen based on the properties of their putative exoplanets, including stars hosting candidates with 380 K > T{sub eq} > 230 K, stars with five or more detected candidates or stars with a super-Earth (R{sub p} < 3 R{sub Circled-Plus }) in a >50 day orbit. Baseband voltage data across the entire band between 1.1 and 1.9 GHz were recorded at the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope between 2011 February and April and subsequently searched offline. No signals of extraterrestrial origin were found. We estimate that fewer than {approx}1% of transiting exoplanet systems host technological civilizations that are radio loud in narrow-band emission between 1 and 2 GHz at an equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) of {approx}1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} erg s{sup -1}, approximately eight times the peak EIRP of the Arecibo Planetary Radar, and we limit the number of 1-2 GHz narrow-band-radio-loud Kardashev type II civilizations in the Milky Way to be <10{sup -6} M{sub Sun }{sup -1}. Here we describe our observations, data reduction procedures and results.

  6. Morphology of OH Meinel Band Emissions Observed by SABER/TIMED: Implication for Comparison and Interpretation of groundbased OH Airglow Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    The OH Meinel band emissions of various vibrational manifolds have been observed for many decades by groundbased optical instruments to study the changes of atmospheric properties near the mesopause region. These include the temporal and spatial variablities of atmospheric temperature and composition at the emission region near 87 km and processes responsible for the observed changes. Much of our previous and current knowledge of dynamical processes (i.e. tides and waves), thermal properties (i.e. inter-annual cycles), and decadal-scale changes (i.e. solar cycle and human-induced) in the mesosphere have been gained from these important observations. Groundbased measurements, however, are constrained to limited locations, cloud-free and dark nights (local time) with very poor vertical resolution. The Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument onboard the TIMED satellite has provided nearly 14 years of continuous observations of OH (5-3, 4-2) 1.6 μm and OH (9-7, 8-6) 2.0 μm Meinel band emissions. Most importantly, it has provided over one solar cycle long of well temporally and spatially sampled OH emissions with excellent vertical resolution. In this paper, we will present the morphological properties of the OH emissions at 1.6 μm and 2.0 μm observed by SABER and discuss the implication for satellite/ground measurement comparisons and the interpretation of past and future groundbased OH observations.

  7. Photoabsorption and fluorescence excitation spectra of CF 3CN in the region of 6-41 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibuki, Toshio; Okada, Kazumasa

    1996-12-01

    Photoabsorption and fluorescence cross sections of CF 3CN have been measured in the region of 6-41 eV by using synchrotron radiation. The bands observed have been assigned as the Rydberg transitions of the lone pair electrons on N and F atoms. It has been found that the CN and CF stretching and FCF bending frequencies are excited in the Rydberg states. Emissions from the CN(A 2IIIi, B 2Σ+ → X 2Σ+) transitions have been observed even in the ionization region, and increased at ≈ 22 eV by the ionization of the (2e) -1 and (4a 1) -1 valence electrons.

  8. Ballistic-electron-emission spectroscopy of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}As/GaAs heterostructures: Conduction-band offsets, transport mechanisms, and band-structure effects

    SciTech Connect

    OShea, J.J.; Brazel, E.G.; Rubin, M.E.; Bhargava, S.; Chin, M.A.; Narayanamurti, V.

    1997-07-01

    We report an extensive investigation of semiconductor band-structure effects in single-barrier Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}As/GaAs heterostructures using ballistic-electron-emission spectroscopy (BEES). The transport mechanisms in these single-barrier structures were studied systematically as a function of temperature and Al composition over the full compositional range (0{le}x{le}1). The initial ({Gamma}) BEES thresholds for Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}As single barriers with 0{le}x{le}0.42 were extracted using a model which includes the complete transmission probability of the metal-semiconductor interface and the semiconductor heterostructure. Band offsets measured by BEES are in good agreement with previous measurements by other techniques which demonstrates the accuracy of this technique. BEES measurements at 77 K give the same band-offset values as at room temperature. When a reverse bias is applied to the heterostructures, the BEES thresholds shift to lower voltages in good agreement with the expected bias-induced band-bending. In the indirect band-gap regime ({ital x}{gt}0.45), spectra show a weak ballistic-electron-emission microscopy current contribution due to intervalley scattering through Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}As {ital X} valley states. Low-temperature spectra show a marked reduction in this intervalley current component, indicating that intervalley phonon scattering at the GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}As interface produces a significant fraction of this{ital X} valley current. A comparison of the BEES thresholds with the expected composition dependence of the Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}As {Gamma}, {ital L}, and {ital X} points yields good agreement over the entire composition range. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. Prediction of CO Cameron band and atomic oxygen visible emissions in comets C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) and 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghuram, S.; Bhardwaj, A.

    2014-04-01

    The forbidden emissions of cometary species have special importance in the cometary spectra. The excited species which produce these forbidden emissions can not be populated by direct solar radiation excitation. These metastable species are produced mainly from dissociative excitation and ion-electron recombination reactions. Thus the observed emissions have been used as tracers of parent cometary species. The CO (a3 -X1) is a forbidden transition which produces Cameron band emission in the ultraviolet region during dissociative excitation of CObearing neutrals and the dissociative recombination of CO-ionic species in the cometary coma. Similarly, the forbidden transitions of metastable atomic oxygen 1S-3P (green, 5577 Å), and 1D-3P (red-doublet, 6300 and 6364 Å) produce line emissions in the visible region. These emissions have been used to probe H2O and CO2 abundances in the comets. We have developed a coupled chemistry-emission model to study various production and loss mechanisms of these excited metastable states. The model is applied to comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) which will have a close fly-by of Mars during mid October, 2014, when Indian Mars orbiter Mission and NASA's Maven, would be orbiting the planet. The model is also applied on ESA's Rosetta mission target comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko which will be useful for different observations over various heliocentric distances. The predicted intensities and quantitative analysis of these emissions can be a theoretical support for various space and ground-based observations.

  10. Two-band luminescence from an intrinsic defect in spherical and terraced MgO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikhitsa, Peter V.; Kim, Changhyuk; Chae, Sukbyung; Shin, Seungha; Jung, Sekwon; Kitaura, Mamoru; Kimura, Shin-ichi; Fukui, Kazutoshi; Choi, Mansoo

    2015-05-01

    Luminescent defect centers in wide bandgap materials such as MgO are of great interest for science and technology. Magnesium oxide nanocubes obtained by the self-combustion of Mg metal have long exhibited only a broad 2.9 eV cathodoluminescence band owing to oxygen vacancies (F centers). However, in this work, a room-temperature ultraviolet 4.8 eV cathodoluminescence band has been observed coincident with a 2.5 eV band of the same intensity from an unexplored intrinsic defect in MgO terraced nanocubes and nanospheres produced from Mg metal combustion in an H2/O2 flame. Synchrotron radiation excitation spectra reveal that the excitation energy at the onset of both bands is just above the bandgap energy of 7.7 eV, where electrons and holes are generated. We determine that a defect, responsible for both emission bands, creates proximal anion-cation vacancy pairs named P centers that may appear instead of F centers because of changes in the MgO nanoparticle growth conditions.

  11. Telecommunication Wavelength-Band Single-Photon Emission from Single Large InAs Quantum Dots Nucleated on Low-Density Seed Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ze-Sheng; Ma, Ben; Shang, Xiang-Jun; He, Yu; Zhang, Li-Chun; Ni, Hai-Qiao; Wang, Jin-Liang; Niu, Zhi-Chuan

    2016-08-01

    Single-photon emission in the telecommunication wavelength band is realized with self-assembled strain-coupled bilayer InAs quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a planar microcavity on GaAs substrate. Low-density large QDs in the upper layer active for ~1.3 μm emission are fabricated by precisely controlling the indium deposition amount and applying a gradient indium flux in both QD layers. Time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) intensity suggested that the radiative lifetime of their exciton emission is 1.5~1.6 ns. The second-order correlation function of g 2(0) < 0.5 which demonstrates a pure single-photon emission.

  12. Telecommunication Wavelength-Band Single-Photon Emission from Single Large InAs Quantum Dots Nucleated on Low-Density Seed Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ze-Sheng; Ma, Ben; Shang, Xiang-Jun; He, Yu; Zhang, Li-Chun; Ni, Hai-Qiao; Wang, Jin-Liang; Niu, Zhi-Chuan

    2016-12-01

    Single-photon emission in the telecommunication wavelength band is realized with self-assembled strain-coupled bilayer InAs quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a planar microcavity on GaAs substrate. Low-density large QDs in the upper layer active for ~1.3 μm emission are fabricated by precisely controlling the indium deposition amount and applying a gradient indium flux in both QD layers. Time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) intensity suggested that the radiative lifetime of their exciton emission is 1.5~1.6 ns. The second-order correlation function of g (2)(0) < 0.5 which demonstrates a pure single-photon emission.

  13. Telecommunication Wavelength-Band Single-Photon Emission from Single Large InAs Quantum Dots Nucleated on Low-Density Seed Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ze-Sheng; Ma, Ben; Shang, Xiang-Jun; He, Yu; Zhang, Li-Chun; Ni, Hai-Qiao; Wang, Jin-Liang; Niu, Zhi-Chuan

    2016-12-01

    Single-photon emission in the telecommunication wavelength band is realized with self-assembled strain-coupled bilayer InAs quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a planar microcavity on GaAs substrate. Low-density large QDs in the upper layer active for ~1.3 μm emission are fabricated by precisely controlling the indium deposition amount and applying a gradient indium flux in both QD layers. Time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) intensity suggested that the radiative lifetime of their exciton emission is 1.5~1.6 ns. The second-order correlation function of g (2)(0) < 0.5 which demonstrates a pure single-photon emission. PMID:27576522

  14. Phosphorus K β X-Ray Emission Spectra and Valence-Band Structures of Transition-Metal Phosphides and GaAs 1-xPx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Chikara

    1996-07-01

    The P Kβ emission spectra in fluorescence from ZrP, NbP, MoP,HfP, TaP, WP, AgP2, CdP2, Mn3P2, Cd3P2 and GaAs1-xPxfor 0.2 ≤ x ≤ 1 are measured with a high-resolutiontwo-crystal vacuum spectrometer equipped with Ge(111) crystals. Theinfluence of metal atoms appears distinctly in the P Kβemission spectra of transition-metal phosphides. The effect ofarsenic atoms appears slightly in the P Kβ emission spectraof GaAs1-xPx. The P Kβ emission spectra of AgP2,CdP2, Cd3P2 and GaAs0.6 P0.4 are compared withavailable P L2,3 emission and XPS valence-band spectra ona common energy scale. It is shown that the P 3p electronsinteract fairly with the metal d electrons in the upper partof the valence band for MP ( M = Zr, Nb, Mo, Hf, Ta, W) and Mn3P2;considerable p-d, s mixing occurs in the middle part for AgP2and in the lower part for CdP2 and Cd3P2; and the Ga 3dstates mix fairly with the P 3s states in GaAs0.6P0.4.

  15. Unpolarized emissivity with shadow and multiple reflections from random rough surfaces with the geometric optics approximation: application to Gaussian sea surfaces in the infrared band.

    PubMed

    Bourlier, Christophe

    2006-08-20

    The emissivity from a stationary random rough surface is derived by taking into account the multiple reflections and the shadowing effect. The model is applied to the ocean surface. The geometric optics approximation is assumed to be valid, which means that the rough surface is modeled as a collection of facets reflecting locally the light in the specular direction. In particular, the emissivity with zero, single, and double reflections are analytically calculated, and each contribution is studied numerically by considering a 1D sea surface observed in the near infrared band. The model is also compared with results computed from a Monte Carlo ray-tracing method. PMID:16892130

  16. Interaction of wide band gap single crystals with 248 nm excimer laser radiation. XII. The emission of negative atomic ions from alkali halides

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Kenichi; Langford, S. C.; Dickinson, J. T.

    2007-12-01

    Many wide band gap materials yield charged and neutral emissions when exposed to sub-band-gap laser radiation at power densities below the threshold for optical breakdown and plume formation. In this work, we report the observation of negative alkali ions from several alkali halides under comparable conditions. We observe no evidence for negative halogen ions, in spite of the high electron affinities of the halogens. Significantly, the positive and negative alkali ions show a high degree of spatial and temporal overlap. A detailed study of all the relevant particle emissions from potassium chloride (KCl) suggests that K{sup -} is formed by the sequential attachment of two electrons to K{sup +}.

  17. Single Material Band Gap Engineering in GaAs Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Spirkoska, D.; Abstreiter, G.; Efros, A.; Conesa-Boj, S.; Morante, J. R.; Arbiol, J.; Fontcuberta i Morral, A.

    2011-12-23

    The structural and optical properties of GaAs nanowire with mixed zinc-blende/wurtzite structure are presented. High resolution transmission electron microscopy indicates the presence of a variety of shorter and longer segments of zinc-blende or wurtzite crystal phases. Sharp photoluminescence lines are observed with emission energies tuned from 1.515 eV down to 1.43 eV. The downward shift of the emission peaks can be understood by carrier confinement at the wurtzite/zinc-blende heterojunction, in quantum wells and in random short period superlattices existent in these nanowires, assuming the theoretical staggered band-offset between wurtzite and zinc-blende GaAs.

  18. Activation of an intense near band edge emission from ZnTe/ZnMgTe core/shell nanowires grown on silicon.

    PubMed

    Wojnar, P; Szymura, M; Zaleszczyk, W; Kłopotowski, L; Janik, E; Wiater, M; Baczewski, L T; Kret, S; Karczewski, G; Kossut, J; Wojtowicz, T

    2013-09-13

    The absence of luminescence in the near band edge energy region of Te-anion based semiconductor nanowires grown by gold catalyst assisted molecular beam epitaxy has strongly limited their applications in the field of photonics. In this paper, an enhancement of the near band edge emission intensity from ZnTe/ZnMgTe core/shell nanowires grown on Si substrates is reported. A special role of the use of Si substrates instead of GaAs substrates is emphasized, which results in an increase of the near band edge emission intensity by at least one order of magnitude accompanied by a simultaneous reduction of the defect related luminescence. A possible explanation of this effect relies on the presence of Ga-related deep level defects in structures grown on GaAs substrates, which are absent when Si substrates are used. Monochromatic mapping of the cathodoluminescence clearly confirms that the observed emission originates, indeed, from the ZnTe/ZnMgTe core/shell nanowires, whereas individual objects are studied by means of microphotoluminescence.

  19. Spectroscopy of Fe L-shell line emission from Fe XVII- XXIV in the 10--18 A wavelength band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Gregory Vallee

    2000-09-01

    The line emission from the L-shell, n --> 2, transitions in Fe XVII-XXIV falling in the ultra-soft x-ray regime from 10-18 Å has been measured using the Electron Beam Ion Trap located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The results of these measurements include wavelengths, relative intensities, and line identifications of over 150 features from Fe XVIII-XXIV. In addition, measurements of the intensity of the high- n L-shell transitions, i.e., n >= 5, in Fe XVII falling in the 9.8-11.5 Å wavelength band have been made. These measurements were done at single electron beam energies where the only population process is direct excitation followed by radiative cascades. Also presented in this work are the results of a systematic study of the relative and absolute cross sections of the 1s22s 22p1/22 p43/2 3d3/2J = 1 --> 1 s22s22p 6 J = 0 resonance to ls2 2s22 p21/2 2 p33/2 3d5/2J = 1 --> 1 s22s22p 6 J = 0 intercombination line in neon-like Fe XVII. This ratio was measured under conditions where different processes contribute to the line flux. The contributing processes are direct impact excitation followed by radiative cascades, blending with Fe XVI innershell satellites, and Fe XVI dielectronic recombination satellites involving capture into high- n levels. The measured ratio varies between 2.8 and 3.2 depending on the line formation processes. These values are higher than ratios measured in non-flaring active regions of the Sun. However, the measurements are significantly lower than values calculated with current atomic physics codes demonstrating that calculational methods are not yet accurate enough to provide relative intensities useful for comparative diagnostics. The results suggest that the relatively low ratio measured in non-flaring active regions may be a result of blending with innershell satellites of Fe XVI.

  20. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel About Their EVS?

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, James E.

    2015-02-01

    The EV Project is an infrastructure study that enrolled over 8,000 residential participants. These participants purchased or leased a Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle (BEV) or Chevrolet Volt extended range electric vehicle (EREV) and were among the first to explore this new electric drive technology. Collectively, BEV, EREV, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are called plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The EV Project participants were very cooperative and enthusiastic about their participation in the project and very supportive in providing feedback and information. The information and attitudes of these participants concerning their experience with their PEVs were solicited using a survey in June 2013. At that time, some had up to 3 years of experience with their PEVs.

  1. GROUND-BASED DETECTIONS OF THERMAL EMISSION FROM THE DENSE HOT JUPITER WASP-43b IN THE H AND K{sub s} BANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.; Zhao, G.; Van Boekel, R.; Henning, Th.; Madhusudhan, N.; Chen, G.

    2013-06-10

    We report new detections of thermal emission from the transiting hot Jupiter WASP-43b in the H and K{sub s} bands as observed at secondary eclipses. The observations were made with the WIRCam instrument on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. We obtained a secondary eclipse depth of 0.103{sub -0.017}{sup +0.017}%$ and 0.194{sub -0.029}{sup +0.029} in the H and K{sub s} bands, respectively. The K{sub s}-band depth is consistent with the previous measurement in the narrow band centered at 2.09 {mu}m by Gillon et al. Our eclipse depths in both bands are consistent with a blackbody spectrum with a temperature of {approx}1850 K, slightly higher than the dayside equilibrium temperature without day-night energy redistribution. Based on theoretical models of the dayside atmosphere of WASP-43b, our data constrain the day-night energy redistribution in the planet to be {approx}< 15%-25%, depending on the metal content in the atmosphere. Combined with energy balance arguments, our data suggest that a strong temperature inversion is unlikely in the dayside atmosphere of WASP-43b. However, a weak inversion cannot be strictly ruled out at the current time. Future observations are required to place detailed constraints on the chemical composition of the atmosphere.

  2. Quantification of fluorine traces in solid samples using CaF molecular emission bands in atmospheric air Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Llamas, C.; Pisonero, J.; Bordel, N.

    2016-09-01

    Direct solid determination of trace amounts of fluorine using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a challenging task due to the low excitation efficiency of this element. Several strategies have been developed to improve the detection capabilities, including the use of LIBS in a He atmosphere to enhance the signal to background ratios of F atomic emission lines. An alternative method is based on the detection of the molecular compounds that are formed with fluorine in the LIBS plasma. In this work, the detection of CaF molecular emission bands is investigated to improve the analytical capabilities of atmospheric air LIBS for the determination of fluorine traces in solid samples. In particular, Cu matrix samples containing different fluorine concentration (between 50 and 600 μg/g), and variable amounts of Ca, are used to demonstrate the linear relationships between CaF emission signal and F concentration. Limits of detection for fluorine are improved by more than 1 order of magnitude using CaF emission bands versus F atomic lines, in atmospheric-air LIBS. Furthermore, a toothpaste powder sample is used to validate this analytical method. Good agreement is observed between the nominal and the predicted fluorine mass-content.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission bands in selected planetary nebulae: a study of the behaviour with gas phase C/O ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Martin; Barlow, M. J.

    2005-10-01

    Airborne and space-based low-resolution spectroscopy in the 1980s discovered tantalizing quantitative relationships between the gas phase C/O abundance ratio in planetary nebulae (PNe) and the fractions of total far-infrared (FIR) luminosity radiated by the 7.7- and 11.3-μm bands (the C = C stretch and C-H bend, respectively), of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Only a very small sample of nebulae was studied in this context, limited by airborne observations of the 7.7-μm band, or the existence of adequate IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer data for the 11.3-μm band. To investigate these trends further, we have expanded the sample of planetaries available for this study using Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) low-resolution spectra secured with the Short Wavelength Spectrometer and the Long Wavelength Spectrometer. The new sample of 43 PNe, of which 17 are detected in PAH emission, addresses the range from C/O = 0.2-13 with the objective of trying to delineate the pathways by which carbon dust grains might have formed in planetaries. For the 7.7-μm and 11.3-μm bands, we confirm that the ratio of band strength to total infrared (IR) luminosity is correlated with the nebular C/O ratio. Expressed in equivalent width terms, the cut-on C/O ratio for the 7.7-μm band is found to be 0.6+0.2-0.4, in good accord with that found from sensitive ground-based measurements of the 3.3-μ band.

  4. Optical spectroscopy of IRAS sources with infrared emission bands. II. IRAS 04324+5106, 06114+1745, 20319+3958, and 22539+5758

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.; Jones, B.F.; Walker, H.J.; Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA; Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute, Los Altos, CA )

    1989-06-01

    The paper presents long-slit optical spectra and microwave CO spectra of four nebulous counterparts to IRAS sources showing PAH emission features: 04324+5106, 06114+1745, 20319+3958, and 22539+5758. IRAS 22539+5758 is associated with a bipolar nebula. All are allied with B-type stars that suffer appreciable circumstellar extinction, and whose environs show atomic emission lines; three represent mixed reflection/emission nebulosities. Three show spectroscopic evidence for outflows at about 100 km/s. One, 06114+1745, exhibits indications of enhanced diffuse interstellar bands. It is concluded that extinction alone is insufficient to yield enhanced DIBs and that peculiar circumstellar abundances and/or physical conditions must play a role. 20 refs.

  5. SPATIALLY RESOLVED M-BAND EMISSION FROM IO’S LOKI PATERA–FIZEAU IMAGING AT THE 22.8 m LBT

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, Albert; Veillet, Christian; Kleer, Katherine de; Pater, Imke de; Leisenring, Jarron; Defrère, Denis; Hinz, Philip; Skemer, Andy; Camera, Andrea La; Bertero, Mario; Boccacci, Patrizia; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd; Kürster, Martin; Rathbun, Julie; Skrutskie, Michael; Spencer, John; Woodward, Charles E.

    2015-05-15

    The Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer mid-infrared camera, LMIRcam, imaged Io on the night of 2013 December 24 UT and detected strong M-band (4.8 μm) thermal emission arising from Loki Patera. The 22.8 m baseline of the Large Binocular Telescope provides an angular resolution of ∼32 mas (∼100 km at Io) resolving the Loki Patera emission into two distinct maxima originating from different regions within Loki’s horseshoe lava lake. This observation is consistent with the presence of a high-temperature source observed in previous studies combined with an independent peak arising from cooling crust from recent resurfacing. The deconvolved images also reveal 15 other emission sites on the visible hemisphere of Io including two previously unidentified hot spots.

  6. Visible and infra-red light emission in boron-doped wurtzite silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Filippo; Rotunno, Enzo; Lazzarini, Laura; Fukata, Naoki; Salviati, Giancarlo

    2014-01-08

    Silicon, the mainstay semiconductor in microelectronic circuitry, is considered unsuitable for optoelectronic applications owing to its indirect electronic band gap, which limits its efficiency as a light emitter. Here we show the light emission properties of boron-doped wurtzite silicon nanowires measured by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy at room temperature. A visible emission, peaked above 1.5 eV, and a near infra-red emission at 0.8 eV correlate respectively to the direct transition at the Γ point and to the indirect band-gap of wurtzite silicon. We find additional intense emissions due to boron intra-gap states in the short wavelength infra-red range. We present the evolution of the light emission properties as function of the boron doping concentration and the growth temperature.

  7. Electron Emission Sites on Carbon Nanotubes and the Energy Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Chuhei; Matsuda, Kohei; Kona, Takayuki; Mogami, Yuhta; Komaki, Masashi; Murata, Yoshitaka; Yamashita, Tetsutane; Saito, Yahachi; Hata, Koichi; Takakura, Akihiro

    2001-11-01

    Two kinds of electron emission sites on carbon nanotubes have been clarified; one is a nanoprotrusion exhibiting deformed honeycomb structures composed of carbon hexagons,pentagons and possibly heptagons. The other is either an edged species or adsorbates. The emission spectra show two characteristic features; a broad main peak as compared with theoretical curves based on Fowler-Nordheim theory, and an additional shoulder at about 0.5 eV from EF, of which the features are observed independent of the emission direction. The broad main peak may indicate that energy band bending occurs near the emission sites.

  8. Electrostatic emissions between electron gyroharmonics in the outer magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, R. F.; Birmingham, T. J.

    1977-01-01

    A scheme was constructed and a theoretical model was developed to classify electrostatic emissions. All of the emissions appear to be generated by the same basic mechanism: an unstable electron plasma distribution consisting of cold electrons (less than 100 eV) and hot loss cone electrons (about 1 keV). Each emission class is associated with a particular range of model parameters; the wide band electric field data can thus be used to infer the density and temperature of the cold plasma component. The model predicts that gyroharmonic emissions near the plasma frequency require large cold plasma densities.

  9. Strong electroluminescence from direct band and defects in Ge n+/p shallow junctions at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Guangyang; Wang, Chen; Li, Cheng; Chen, Chaowen; Huang, Zhiwei; Huang, Wei; Chen, Songyan; Lai, Hongkai; Jin, Chunyan; Sun, Jiaming

    2016-05-01

    Strong room temperature electroluminescence with two emission peaks at around 0.786 eV and 0.747 eV from Ge n+/p shallow junctions was reported. The peak at around 0.786 eV comes from direct band luminescence (DBL) in n + Ge regions, while the peak fixing at 0.747 eV is resulted from defects induced by ion implantation. Heavy n-type doping in Ge renders realization of strong defect-related luminescence (DRL) feasible. The peak intensity ratio of DRL/DBL decreases with increase of injection current since more electrons are filled in Γ valley. Above all, the Ge n+/p shallow junction is fully compatible with the source and drain in Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors.

  10. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A2, S/N 108, 08

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A2, S/N 108, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  11. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1, S/N 109

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1, S/N 109, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  12. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1, S/N 108 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1 SIN 108, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  13. Complex organic matter in space: about the chemical composition of carriers of the Unidentified Infrared Bands (UIBs) and protoplanetary emission spectra recorded from certain astrophysical objects.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Franco; Keheyan, Yeghis; Heymann, Dieter

    2004-02-01

    In this communication we present the basic concept that the pure PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) can be considered only the ideal carriers of the UIBs (Unidentified Infrared Bands), the emission spectra coming from a large variety of astronomical objects. Instead we have proposed that the carriers of UIBs and of protoplanetary nebulae (PPNe) emission spectra are much more complex molecular mixtures possessing also complex chemical structures comparable to certain petroleum fractions obtained from the petroleum refining processes. The demonstration of our proposal is based on the comparison between the emission spectra recorded from the protoplanetary nebulae (PPNe) IRAS 22272+ 5435 and the infrared absorption spectra of certain 'heavy' petroleum fractions. It is shown that the best match with the reference spectrum is achieved by highly aromatic petroleum fractions. It is shown that the selected petroleum fractions used in the present study are able to match the band pattern of anthracite coal. Coal has been proposed previously as a model for the PPNe and UIBs but presents some drawbacks which could be overcome by adopting the petroleum fractions as model for PPNe and UIBs in place of coal. A brief discussion on the formation of the petroleum-like fractions in PPNe objects is included. PMID:14979641

  14. Complex organic matter in space: about the chemical composition of carriers of the Unidentified Infrared Bands (UIBs) and protoplanetary emission spectra recorded from certain astrophysical objects.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Franco; Keheyan, Yeghis; Heymann, Dieter

    2004-02-01

    In this communication we present the basic concept that the pure PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) can be considered only the ideal carriers of the UIBs (Unidentified Infrared Bands), the emission spectra coming from a large variety of astronomical objects. Instead we have proposed that the carriers of UIBs and of protoplanetary nebulae (PPNe) emission spectra are much more complex molecular mixtures possessing also complex chemical structures comparable to certain petroleum fractions obtained from the petroleum refining processes. The demonstration of our proposal is based on the comparison between the emission spectra recorded from the protoplanetary nebulae (PPNe) IRAS 22272+ 5435 and the infrared absorption spectra of certain 'heavy' petroleum fractions. It is shown that the best match with the reference spectrum is achieved by highly aromatic petroleum fractions. It is shown that the selected petroleum fractions used in the present study are able to match the band pattern of anthracite coal. Coal has been proposed previously as a model for the PPNe and UIBs but presents some drawbacks which could be overcome by adopting the petroleum fractions as model for PPNe and UIBs in place of coal. A brief discussion on the formation of the petroleum-like fractions in PPNe objects is included.

  15. Temperature profile retrieval in axisymmetric combustion plumes using multilayer perceptron modeling and spectral feature selection in the infrared CO2 emission band.

    PubMed

    García-Cuesta, Esteban; de Castro, Antonio J; Galván, Inés M; López, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a methodology based on the combined use of a multilayer perceptron model fed using selected spectral information is presented to invert the radiative transfer equation (RTE) and to recover the spatial temperature profile inside an axisymmetric flame. The spectral information is provided by the measurement of the infrared CO2 emission band in the 3-5 μm spectral region. A guided spectral feature selection was carried out using a joint criterion of principal component analysis and a priori physical knowledge of the radiative problem. After applying this guided feature selection, a subset of 17 wavenumbers was selected. The proposed methodology was applied over synthetic scenarios. Also, an experimental validation was carried out by measuring the spectral emission of the exhaust hot gas plume in a microjet engine with a Fourier transform-based spectroradiometer. Temperatures retrieved using the proposed methodology were compared with classical thermocouple measurements, showing a good agreement between them. Results obtained using the proposed methodology are very promising and can encourage the use of sensor systems based on the spectral measurement of the CO2 emission band in the 3-5 μm spectral window to monitor combustion processes in a nonintrusive way.

  16. Search for the OH (X(2)Pi) Meinel band emission in meteors as a tracer of mineral water in comets: detection of N(2)(+) (A-X).

    PubMed

    Jenniskens, Peter; Laux, Christophe O

    2004-01-01

    We report the discovery of the N(2)(+) A-X Meinel band in the 780-840 nm meteor emission from two Leonid meteoroids that were ejected less than 1000 years ago by comet 55P/Tempel-Tuttle. Our analysis indicates that the N(2)(+) molecule is at least an order of magnitude less abundant than expected, possibly as a result of charge transfer reactions with meteoric metal atoms. This new band was found while searching for rovibrational transitions in the X(2)Pi electronic ground state of OH (the OH Meinel band), a potential tracer of water bound to minerals in cometary matter. The electronic A-X transition of OH has been identified in other Leonid meteors. We did not detect this OH Meinel band, which implies that the excited A state is not populated by thermal excitation but by a mechanism that directly produces OH in low vibrational levels of the excited A(2)Sigma state. Ultraviolet dissociation of atmospheric or meteoric water vapor is such a mechanism, as is the possible combustion of meteoric organics.

  17. Search for the OH (X(2)Pi) Meinel band emission in meteors as a tracer of mineral water in comets: detection of N(2)(+) (A-X)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Laux, Christophe O.

    2004-01-01

    We report the discovery of the N(2)(+) A-X Meinel band in the 780-840 nm meteor emission from two Leonid meteoroids that were ejected less than 1000 years ago by comet 55P/Tempel-Tuttle. Our analysis indicates that the N(2)(+) molecule is at least an order of magnitude less abundant than expected, possibly as a result of charge transfer reactions with meteoric metal atoms. This new band was found while searching for rovibrational transitions in the X(2)Pi electronic ground state of OH (the OH Meinel band), a potential tracer of water bound to minerals in cometary matter. The electronic A-X transition of OH has been identified in other Leonid meteors. We did not detect this OH Meinel band, which implies that the excited A state is not populated by thermal excitation but by a mechanism that directly produces OH in low vibrational levels of the excited A(2)Sigma state. Ultraviolet dissociation of atmospheric or meteoric water vapor is such a mechanism, as is the possible combustion of meteoric organics.

  18. Using band engineering to tailor the emission spectra of trichromatic semipolar InGaN light-emitting diodes for phosphor-free polarized white light emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowsz, S. J.; Pynn, C. D.; Oh, S. H.; Farrell, R. M.; DenBaars, S. P.; Nakamura, S.

    2016-07-01

    We report a polarized white light-emitting device that monolithically integrates an electrically injected blue light-emitting diode grown on the (20 2 ¯ 1 ¯ ) face of a bulk GaN substrate and optically pumped InGaN quantum wells (QWs) with green and red light emission grown on the (20 2 ¯ 1 ) face. To overcome the challenges associated with growing high indium content InGaN QWs for long wavelength emission, a p-i-n doping profile was used to red-shift the emission wavelength of one of the optically pumped QWs by creating a built-in electric field in the same direction as the polarization-induced electric field. Emission peaks were observed at 450 nm from the electrically injected QW and at 520 nm and 590 nm from the optically pumped QWs, which were situated in n-i-n and p-i-n structures, respectively. The optically pumped QW in the p-i-n structure was grown at a growth temperature that was 10 °C colder compared to the QW in the n-i-n structure, so the emission from the QW in the p-i-n structure was red-shifted due to increased indium content as well as the built-in electric field. Modeling work confirmed that the built-in electric field made a greater contribution than the change in alloy composition to the red-shift in emission from the QW in the p-i-n structure. The combined emission from the red, green, and blue QWs resulted in white-light emission with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage x- and y-chromaticity coordinates of (0.33, 0.35) and an optical polarization ratio of 0.30.

  19. K band SINFONI spectra of two z ~ 5 submillimeter galaxy systems: upper limits to the unobscured star formation from [O II] optical emission line searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couto, Guilherme S.; Colina, Luis; López, Javier Piqueras; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Arribas, Santiago

    2016-10-01

    We present deep SINFONI K-band integral field spectra of two submillimeter galaxy systems (SMG): BR 1202-0725 and J1000+0234, at z = 4.69 and 4.55, respectively. Spectra extracted for each object in the two systems do not show any signature of the [O ii]λλ3726, 29 Å emission-lines, placing upper flux limits of 3.9 and 2.5 × 10-18erg s-1 cm-2for BR 1202-0725 and J1000+0234, respectively. Using the relation between the star formation rate (SFR) and the luminosity of the [O ii] doublet, we estimate unobscured SFR upper limits of ~ 10-15 M⊙ yr-1and ~30-40 M⊙ yr-1for the objects of the two systems, respectively. For the SMGs, these values are at least two orders of magnitude lower than those derived from SED and IR luminosities. The differences on the SFR values would correspond to internal extinction of, at least, 3.4-4.9 and 2.1-3.6 mag in the visual for BR 1202-0725 and J1000+0234 SMGs, respectively. The upper limit for the [O ii]-derived SFR in one of the LAEs (Lyα2) in the BR1202-0725 system is at least one order of magnitude lower than the previous SFR derived from infrared tracers, while both estimates are in good agreement for Lyα1. The lower limits to the internal extinction in these two Lyman-alpha emitters are 0.6 mag and 1.3 mag, respectively. No evidence for [O ii] emission associated with Lyα1 is identified in our data, implying that residuals of the K-band sky emission lines after subtraction in medium-band imaging data could provide the adequate flux.

  20. Estimation of band gap of muscovite mineral using thermoluminescence (TL) analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, J. M.; Wary, G.

    2016-03-01

    In this article thermoluminescence (TL) mechanism in muscovite mineral has been reported in detail. The trap spectroscopy of the mineral has been studied from the TL glow curve of X-ray irradiated sample. A stable TL peak has been observed at around 347 K in the glow curve, however after annealing the sample above 573 K an additional peak is observed at around 408 K. In the TL emission spectra an emission peak has been observed at around 447 nm at TL peak maximum temperatures. The glow curves are analyzed by Tm-Tstop analysis, peak shape method and fractional glow technique. Analyses showed that there is a trap center and a radiative recombination center at depth around 0.71 and 2.78 eV from the conduction band. These two localized centers do not affected by annealing up to 773 K. However, annealing at 573 K (or above) a new electron trap center was found to generate at depth around 1.23 eV. This significant result has been confirmed with the help of phototransfer phenomena observed under UV irradiation. Due to UV irradiation on the excited sample, the transfer of trapped charges from the deeper trap level (1.23 eV) to the shallow level (0.71 eV) has been observed. Based on the analysis a schematic band diagram of muscovite crystal has been proposed. With the help of the band model, radiative as well as non-radiative recombination mechanisms have been discussed. The band gap of the material has been estimated to be around 5.09 eV and verified.

  1. On sky characterization of the BAORadio wide band digital backend. Search for HI emission in Abell85, Abell1205 and Abell2440 galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, R.; Campagne, J. E.; Colom, P.; Ferrari, C.; Magneville, Ch.; Martin, J. M.; Moniez, M.; Torrentó, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    We have observed regions of three galaxy clusters at z˜[0.06÷0.09] (Abell85, Abell1205, Abell2440) with the Nançay radiotelescope (NRT) to search for 21 cm emission and to fully characterize the FPGA based BAORadio digital backend. We have tested the new BAORadio data acquisition system by observing sources in parallel with the NRT standard correlator (ACRT) back-end over several months. BAORadio enables wide band instantaneous observation of the [1250,1500] MHz frequency range, as well as the use of powerful RFI mitigation methods thanks to its fine time sampling. A number of questions related to instrument stability, data processing and calibration are discussed. We have obtained the radiometer curves over the integration time range [0.01,10 000] seconds and we show that sensitivities of few mJy over most of the wide frequency band can be reached with the NRT. It is clearly shown that in blind line search, which is the context of H I intensity mapping for Baryon Acoustic Oscillations, the new acquisition system and processing pipeline outperforms the standard one. We report a positive detection of 21 cm emission at 3 σ-level from galaxies in the outer region of Abell85 at ≃1352 MHz (14400 km/s) corresponding to a line strength of ≃0.8 Jy km/s. We also observe an excess power around ≃1318 MHz (21600 km/s), although at lower statistical significance, compatible with emission from Abell1205 galaxies. Detected radio line emissions have been cross matched with optical catalogs and we have derived hydrogen mass estimates.

  2. Electronic structure descriptor for the discovery of narrow-band red-emitting phosphors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Zhenbin; Chu, Iek -Heng; Zhou, Fei; Ong, Shyue Ping

    2016-05-09

    Narrow-band red-emitting phosphors are a critical component of phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes for highly efficient illumination-grade lighting. In this work, we report the discovery of a quantitative descriptor for narrow-band Eu2+-activated emission identified through a comparison of the electronic structures of known narrow-band and broad-band phosphors. We find that a narrow emission bandwidth is characterized by a large splitting of more than 0.1 eV between the two highest Eu2+ 4f7 bands. By incorporating this descriptor in a high-throughput first-principles screening of 2259 nitride compounds, we identify five promising new nitride hosts for Eu2+-activated red-emitting phosphors that are predicted to exhibit goodmore » chemical stability, thermal quenching resistance, and quantum efficiency, as well as narrow-band emission. Lastly, our findings provide important insights into the emission characteristics of rare-earth activators in phosphor hosts and a general strategy to the discovery of phosphors with a desired emission peak and bandwidth.« less

  3. Photosensized Controlling Benzyl Methacrylate-Based Matrix Enhanced Eu3+ Narrow-Band Emission for Fluorescence Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jiann-Fong; Chen, Hsuen-Li; Lee, Geneh-Siang; Tseng, Shao-Chin; Lin, Mei-Hsiang; Liau, Wen-Bin

    2012-01-01

    This study synthesized a europium (Eu3+) complex Eu(DBM)3Cl-MIP (DBM = dibenzoyl methane; Cl-MIP = 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-1-methyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline) dispersed in a benzyl methacrylate (BMA) monomer and treated with ultraviolet (UV) light for polymerization. Spectral results showed that the europium complex containing an antenna, Cl-MIP, which had higher triplet energy into the Eu3+ energy level, was an energetically enhanced europium emission. Typical stacking behaviors of π–π interactions between the ligands and the Eu3+-ion were analyzed using single crystal X-ray diffraction. Regarding the luminescence performance of this europium composite, the ligand/defect emission was suppressed by dispersion in a poly-BMA (PBMA) matrix. The underlying mechanism of the effective enhancement of the pure Eu3+ emission was attributed to the combined effects of structural modifications, defect emissions, and carrier charge transfer. Fluorescence spectra were compared to the composite of optimized Eu3+ emission where they were subsequently chelated to four metal ions via carboxylate groups on the BMA unit. The optical enhanced europium composite clearly demonstrated highly efficient optical responses and is, therefore a promising application as an optical detection material. PMID:22489178

  4. The first identification of C2 emission bands in comet Scorichenko-George (1989e1) spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Churyumov, Klim I.; Chorny, G. F.

    1992-01-01

    Wave lengths from 360 emissions within the spectral range lambda lambda 3380-6290 A in the spectrum of the comet Scorichenko-George, obtained with the help of the TV spectral scanner of a 6-meter reflector BTA (in Special AO) have been determined. The CN, C2, C3, NH, CH, CO, Na, NH2, N2(+), CO(+), CO2(+), H2O(+), and C2(-) emissions have been identified. For the first time, it has been shown that emissions of C2(-) (the transitions 0-0, 0-1, et al.) in the cometary spectrum possibly exist. Molecular ions C2(-) column density with cross-section 1 sq cm is N = 1.44 10(exp -12) cm(exp -2) and their upper limits of gas C2(-) productivity is Q(C2(-)) = 2 10(exp 28) c(exp -1).

  5. Simultaneous K- and L-band Spectroscopy of Be Stars: Circumstellar Envelope Properties from Hydrogen Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granada, A.; Arias, M. L.; Cidale, L. S.

    2010-05-01

    We present medium-resolution K- and L-band spectra of a sample of eight Be stars, obtained with Gemini/NIRI. The IR K and L bands contain many lines of different hydrogen series that are used as a diagnosis to the physical conditions in the circumstellar environments. We make an analysis on the optical depths of the line-forming regions based on the intensity ratios of Pfγ and Brα lines, the behavior of Humphreys' series, and the fluxes of Brα and Brγ lines. All our targets show spectroscopic and photometric long-term variability; thus, time-resolved K- and L-band spectroscopy is an ideal tool for studying the structure and evolution of the innermost regions of the envelope and to test models on the disk-forming mechanism. We note that the instrumental configuration used allowed us to obtain good quality IR observations and to take profit of Gemini band 3 observing time (allocation time for ranked programs in which the observing conditions are relaxed). Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (USA), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (UK), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  6. I-V characteristics of high-voltage 4H-SiC diodes with a 1.1-eV Schottky barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, P. A. Grekhov, I. V.; Kon'kov, O. I.; Potapov, A. S.; Samsonova, T. P.; Semenov, T. V.

    2011-10-15

    The I-V characteristics of high-voltage 4H-SiC diodes with a Schottky barrier {approx}1.1 eV in height are measured and analyzed. The forward I-V characteristics proved to be close to 'ideal' in the temperature range of 295-470 K. The reverse I-V characteristics are adequately described by the model of thermionic emission at the voltages to 2 kV in the temperature range of 361-470 K if, additionally, a barrier lowering with an increase in the band bending in the semiconductor is taken into account.

  7. A novel method of synthesis of small band gap SnS nanorods and its efficient photocatalytic dye degradation.

    PubMed

    Das, Dipika; Dutta, Raj Kumar

    2015-11-01

    A facile one pot method has been developed for synthesis of stable (ξ=-37.5 mV), orthorhombic structured SnS nanorods capped with mercaptoacetic acid by precipitation method. The SnS nanorods were measured to be about 45 nm long with a diameter of 20 nm, as studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The band gap of the MAA capped SnS nanorods was 1.81 eV, measured by diffused reflectance spectroscopy and was larger than the bulk SnS. The relative positions of highest valence band and lowest conduction band were determined from theoretical band structure calculation as 1.58 eV and -0.23 eV, respectively. The UV-Visible-NIR fluorescence emission spectrum of the SnS nanorods revealed intense emission peak at 1000 nm (1.239 eV) and weaker peaks at 935 nm, 1080 nm, 1160 nm which is likely to be due to Sn(2+) vacancies. The as-synthesized SnS nanorods exhibited more than 95% sunlight induced photocatalytic degradation of trypan blue in 4 h, following first order kinetics with high rate of degradation (k) (0.0124 min(-1)). The observed dye degradation is attributable to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), confirmed from terephthalic acid assay. The ROS generation has been explained on the basis of interaction between photoexcited electrons from conduction band with molecular oxygen adhered to the surface of nanorods owing to favourable redox potentials of O2/O2(-) (-0.20 eV) in normal hydrogen electrode (NHE) scale.

  8. A novel method of synthesis of small band gap SnS nanorods and its efficient photocatalytic dye degradation.

    PubMed

    Das, Dipika; Dutta, Raj Kumar

    2015-11-01

    A facile one pot method has been developed for synthesis of stable (ξ=-37.5 mV), orthorhombic structured SnS nanorods capped with mercaptoacetic acid by precipitation method. The SnS nanorods were measured to be about 45 nm long with a diameter of 20 nm, as studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The band gap of the MAA capped SnS nanorods was 1.81 eV, measured by diffused reflectance spectroscopy and was larger than the bulk SnS. The relative positions of highest valence band and lowest conduction band were determined from theoretical band structure calculation as 1.58 eV and -0.23 eV, respectively. The UV-Visible-NIR fluorescence emission spectrum of the SnS nanorods revealed intense emission peak at 1000 nm (1.239 eV) and weaker peaks at 935 nm, 1080 nm, 1160 nm which is likely to be due to Sn(2+) vacancies. The as-synthesized SnS nanorods exhibited more than 95% sunlight induced photocatalytic degradation of trypan blue in 4 h, following first order kinetics with high rate of degradation (k) (0.0124 min(-1)). The observed dye degradation is attributable to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), confirmed from terephthalic acid assay. The ROS generation has been explained on the basis of interaction between photoexcited electrons from conduction band with molecular oxygen adhered to the surface of nanorods owing to favourable redox potentials of O2/O2(-) (-0.20 eV) in normal hydrogen electrode (NHE) scale. PMID:26196717

  9. EV space suit gloves (passive)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, E. G.; Dodson, J. D.; Elkins, W.; Tickner, E. G.

    1975-01-01

    A pair of pressure and thermal insulating overgloves to be used with an Extravehicular (EV) suit assembly was designed, developed, fabricated, and tested. The design features extensive use of Nomex felt materials in lieu of the multiple layer insulation formerly used with the Apollo thermal glove. The glove theoretically satisfies all of the thermal requirements. The presence of the thermal glove does not degrade pressure glove tactility by more than the acceptable 10% value. On the other hand, the thermal glove generally degrades pressure glove mobility by more than the acceptable 10% value, primarily in the area of the fingers. Life cycling tests were completed with minimal problems. The thermal glove/pressure glove ensemble was also tested for comfort; the test subjects found no problems with the thermal glove although they did report difficulties with pressure points on the pressure glove which were independent of the thermal glove.

  10. Mapping the low-surface brightness Universe in the UV band with Lyα emission from IGM filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Marta B.; Kooistra, Robin; Zaroubi, Saleem

    2016-10-01

    A large fraction of the baryonic matter in the Universe is located in filaments in the intergalactic medium (IGM). However, the low surface brightness of these filaments has not yet allowed their direct detection except in very special regions in the circum-galactic medium. Here we simulate the intensity and spatial fluctuations in Lyman alpha (Lyα) emission from filaments in the IGM and discuss the prospects for the next generation of space-based instruments to detect the low-surface brightness Universe at ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths. Starting with a high-resolution N-body simulation, we obtain the dark matter density fluctuations and associate baryons with the dark matter particles assuming that they follow the same spatial distribution. The IGM thermal and ionization state is set by a model of the UV background and by the relevant cooling processes for a hydrogen and helium gas. The Lyα emissivity is then estimated, taking into account recombination and collisional excitation processes. We find that the detection of these filaments through their Lyα emission is well in the reach of the next generation of UV space-based instruments and so it should be achieved in the next decade. The density field is populated with halos and galaxies and their Lyα emission is estimated. Galaxies are treated as foregrounds and so we discuss methods to reduce their contamination from observational maps. Finally, we estimate the UV continuum background as a function of the redshift of the Lyα emission line and discuss how this continuum can affect observations.

  11. Valence band hybridization in N-rich GaN1-xAsx alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; Walukiewicz, W.; Yu, K.M.; Denlinger, J.D.; Shan, W.; Ager III, J.W.; Kimura, A.; Tang, H.F.; Kuech, T.F.

    2004-05-04

    We have used photo-modulated transmission and optical absorption spectroscopies to measure the composition dependence of interband optical transitions in N-rich GaN{sub 1-x}As{sub x} alloys with x up to 0.06. The direct bandgap gradually decreases as x increases. In the dilute x limit, the observed band gap approaches 2.8 eV; this limiting value is attributed to a transition between the As localized level, which has been previously observed in As-doped GaN at 0.6 eV above the valence band maximum in As-doped GaN, and the conduction band minimum. The structure of the valence band of GaN{sub 1-x}As{sub x} is explained by the hybridization of the localized As states with the extended valence band states of GaN matrix. The hybridization is directly confirmed by soft x-ray emission experiments. To describe the electronic structure of the GaN{sub 1-x}As{sub x} alloys in the entire composition range a linear interpolation is used to combine the effects of valence band hybridization in N-rich alloys with conduction band anticrossing in As-rich alloys.

  12. Comparison of the O Kα x-ray emission bands in micro- and mesoporous silica materials and in α-quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khyzhun, O. Yu.; Strunskus, T.; Wöll, Ch.; Gies, H.; Staemmler, V.

    2008-08-01

    X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) at the O Kα threshold has been used to investigate the electronic structure of a microporous pure calcined zeolite with the crystal structure of the MFI-type framework (silicalite), a deboronated MFI zeolite (DB-MFI), a pure mesoporous cubic MCM-48 material, a MCM-48 loaded with copper and zinc oxide nanoparticles (Cu/ZnO-MCM-48), and a crystalline layered silicic acid H-RUB-18. For comparison, the XES O Kα spectrum of pure α-quartz has also been recorded. In the nonresonant energy regime the XES O Kα spectra for all these compounds look very similar indicating that the electronic structure of the micro- and mesoporous silica materials is very similar to that of quartz. In the resonant regime, however, the spectra exhibit significant differences. In all the materials under study, the resonant XES O Kα spectra recorded at photon energies close to the positions of the O K edges show Raman-type inelastic peaks with an energy loss of 11 eV, originating from electronic excitations within these insulating materials. The prominent features in the XES O Kα spectra of α-quartz and H-RUB-18 are analyzed by means of quantum chemical ab initio cluster calculations.

  13. First Operation of an Ungated Diamond Field-Emission Array Cathode in a L-Band Radiofrequency Electron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, P.; Brau, C. A.; Choi, B. K.; Blomberg, B.; Gabella, W. E.; Ivanov, B.; Jarvis, J.; Mendenhall, M. H.; Mihalcea, D.; Panuganti, S.; Prieto, P.; Reid, J.

    2014-06-30

    We report on the first successful operation of a field-emitter-array cathode in a conventional L-band radio-frequency electron source. The cathode consisted of an array of $\\sim 10^6$ diamond diamond tips on pyramids. Maximum current on the order of 15~mA were reached and the cathode did not show appreciable signs of fatigue after weeks of operation. The measured Fowler-Nordheim characteristics, transverse beam density, and current stability are discussed. Numerical simulations of the beam dynamics are also presented.

  14. Serological detection and analysis of anti-VP1 responses against various enteroviruses (EV) (EV-A, EV-B and EV-C) in Chinese individuals.

    PubMed

    Gao, Caixia; Ding, Yingying; Zhou, Peng; Feng, Jiaojiao; Qian, Baohua; Lin, Ziyu; Wang, Lili; Wang, Jinhong; Zhao, Chunyan; Li, Xiangyu; Cao, Mingmei; Peng, Heng; Rui, Bing; Pan, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The overall serological prevalence of EV infections based on ELISA remains unknown. In the present study, the antibody responses against VP1 of the EV-A species (enterovirus 71 (EV71), Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), Coxsackievirus A5 (CA5) and Coxsackievirus A6 (CA6)), of the EV-B species (Coxsackievirus B3 (CB3)), and of the EV-C species (Poliovirus 1 (PV1)) were detected and analyzed by a NEIBM (novel evolved immunoglobulin-binding molecule)-based ELISA in Shanghai blood donors. The serological prevalence of anti-CB3 VP1 antibodies was demonstrated to show the highest level, with anti-PV1 VP1 antibodies at the second highest level, and anti-CA5, CA6, CA16 and EV71 VP1 antibodies at a comparatively low level. All reactions were significantly correlated at different levels, which were approximately proportional to their sequence similarities. Antibody responses against EV71 VP1 showed obvious differences with responses against other EV-A viruses. Obvious differences in antibody responses between August 2013 and May 2014 were revealed. These findings are the first to describe the detailed information of the serological prevalence of human antibody responses against the VP1 of EV-A, B and C viruses, and could be helpful for understanding of the ubiquity of EV infections and for identifying an effective approach for seroepidemiological surveillance based on ELISA. PMID:26917423

  15. Serological detection and analysis of anti-VP1 responses against various enteroviruses (EV) (EV-A, EV-B and EV-C) in Chinese individuals

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Caixia; Ding, Yingying; Zhou, Peng; Feng, Jiaojiao; Qian, Baohua; Lin, Ziyu; Wang, Lili; Wang, Jinhong; Zhao, Chunyan; Li, Xiangyu; Cao, Mingmei; Peng, Heng; Rui, Bing; Pan, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The overall serological prevalence of EV infections based on ELISA remains unknown. In the present study, the antibody responses against VP1 of the EV-A species (enterovirus 71 (EV71), Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), Coxsackievirus A5 (CA5) and Coxsackievirus A6 (CA6)), of the EV-B species (Coxsackievirus B3 (CB3)), and of the EV-C species (Poliovirus 1 (PV1)) were detected and analyzed by a NEIBM (novel evolved immunoglobulin-binding molecule)-based ELISA in Shanghai blood donors. The serological prevalence of anti-CB3 VP1 antibodies was demonstrated to show the highest level, with anti-PV1 VP1 antibodies at the second highest level, and anti-CA5, CA6, CA16 and EV71 VP1 antibodies at a comparatively low level. All reactions were significantly correlated at different levels, which were approximately proportional to their sequence similarities. Antibody responses against EV71 VP1 showed obvious differences with responses against other EV-A viruses. Obvious differences in antibody responses between August 2013 and May 2014 were revealed. These findings are the first to describe the detailed information of the serological prevalence of human antibody responses against the VP1 of EV-A, B and C viruses, and could be helpful for understanding of the ubiquity of EV infections and for identifying an effective approach for seroepidemiological surveillance based on ELISA. PMID:26917423

  16. Theoretical predictions for the effect of nebular emission on the broad-band photometry of high-redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Stephen M.; Coulton, William; Caruana, Joseph; Croft, Rupert; Matteo, Tiziana Di; Khandai, Nishikanta; Feng, Yu; Bunker, Andrew; Elbert, Holly

    2013-11-01

    By combining optical and near-IR observations from the Hubble Space Telescope with near-IR photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope, it is possible to measure the rest-frame UV-optical colours of galaxies at z = 4-8. The UV-optical spectral energy distribution of star formation dominated galaxies is the result of several different factors. These include the joint distribution of stellar masses, ages and metallicities (solely responsible for the pure stellar spectral energy distribution), and the subsequent reprocessing by dust and gas in the interstellar medium. Using a large cosmological hydrodynamical simulation (MassiveBlack-II), we investigate the predicted spectral energy distributions of galaxies at high redshift with a particular emphasis on assessing the potential contribution of nebular emission. We find that the average (median) pure stellar UV-optical colour correlates with both luminosity and redshift such that galaxies at lower redshift and higher luminosity are typically redder. Assuming that the escape fraction of ionizing photons is close to zero, the effect of nebular emission is to redden the UV-optical 1500 - Vw colour by, on average, 0.4 mag at z = 8 declining to 0.25 mag at z = 4. Young and low-metallicity stellar populations, which typically have bluer pure stellar UV-optical colours, produce larger ionizing luminosities and are thus more strongly affected by the reddening effects of nebular emission. This causes the distribution of 1500 - Vw colours to narrow and the trends with luminosity and redshift to weaken. The strong effect of nebular emission leaves observed-frame colours critically sensitive to the redshift of the source. For example, increasing the redshift by 0.1 can result in observed-frame colours changing by up to ˜0.6. These predictions reinforce the need to include nebular emission when modelling the spectral energy distributions of galaxies at high redshift and also highlight the difficultly in interpreting the observed

  17. Luminescence of Bi3+ in the orthorhombic perovskites CaB4+O3 (B4+=Zr, sn): Crossover from localized to D-state emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Alok M.

    2016-08-01

    The optical properties of Bi3+ in the orthorhombic perovskites CaZrO3 and CaSnO3 are investigated. The Stokes shift of Bi3+ emission in CaZrO3 is small (∼0.80 eV) with the peak wavelength of the emission band occurring in the ultraviolet. This emission is attributed to the localized 3P0,1 → 1S0 optical transition. In contrast, the Stokes shift of the Bi3+ emission in CaSnO3 is large (>1 eV) with the emission band peaking in the visible. The emission band is also considerably broadened in CaSnO3. It is claimed that Bi3+ luminescence in CaSnO3 corresponds with the Bi3+ (6s2) -Sn4+ (5s°) charge transfer emission (D-state emission). The energy of the 1S0→3P1 (A-band) excitation band in both perovskites are very nearly the same. Physical reasoning is advanced for the occurrence and lack thereof of the D-state emission in these perovskites.

  18. Size/morphology induced tunable luminescence in upconversion crystals: ultra-strong single-band emission and underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaofeng; Zeng, Songshan; Yu, Jingfang; Ji, Xiaoming; Zeng, Huidan; Xin, Shuangyu; Wang, Yuhua; Sun, Luyi

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we present a two-step method to controllably synthesize novel and highly efficient upconversion materials, Lu5O4F7:Er(3+),Yb(3+) nano/micro-crystals, and investigate their size/morphology induced tunable upconversion properties. In addition to the common phenomenon aroused by a surface quenching effect, direct experimental evidence for the regulation of phonon modes is obtained in nanoparticles. The findings in this work advance the existing mechanisms for the general explanation of size/morphology induced upconversion features. Because of the adjustment of phonon energy and density as well as the surface quenching effect, the biocompatible Lu5O4F7:Er(3+),Yb(3+) nanoparticles exhibit an ultra-strong single-band red upconversion, rendering them promising for biomedical applications.

  19. Band gap enhancement of glancing angle deposited TiO{sub 2} nanowire array

    SciTech Connect

    Chinnamuthu, P.; Mondal, A.; Singh, N. K.; Dhar, J. C.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.; Bhattacharya, Sekhar

    2012-09-01

    Vertically oriented TiO{sub 2} nanowire (NW) arrays were fabricated by glancing angle deposition technique. Field emission-scanning electron microscopy shows the formation of two different diameters {approx}80 nm and {approx}40 nm TiO{sub 2} NW for 120 and 460 rpm azimuthal rotation of the substrate. The x-ray diffraction and Raman scattering depicted the presence of rutile and anatase phase TiO{sub 2}. The overall Raman scattering intensity decreased with nanowire diameter. The role of phonon confinement in anatase and rutile peaks has been discussed. The red (7.9 cm{sup -1} of anatase E{sub g}) and blue (7.4 cm{sup -1} of rutile E{sub g}, 7.8 cm{sup -1} of rutile A{sub 1g}) shifts of Raman frequencies were observed. UV-vis absorption measurements show the main band absorption at 3.42 eV, 3.48 eV, and {approx}3.51 eV for thin film and NW prepared at 120 and 460 rpm, respectively. Three fold enhance photon absorption and intense light emission were observed for NW assembly. The photoluminescence emission from the NW assembly revealed blue shift in main band transition due to quantum confinement in NW structures.

  20. Band gap enhancement of glancing angle deposited TiO2 nanowire array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinnamuthu, P.; Mondal, A.; Singh, N. K.; Dhar, J. C.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.; Bhattacharya, Sekhar

    2012-09-01

    Vertically oriented TiO2 nanowire (NW) arrays were fabricated by glancing angle deposition technique. Field emission-scanning electron microscopy shows the formation of two different diameters ˜80 nm and ˜40 nm TiO2 NW for 120 and 460 rpm azimuthal rotation of the substrate. The x-ray diffraction and Raman scattering depicted the presence of rutile and anatase phase TiO2. The overall Raman scattering intensity decreased with nanowire diameter. The role of phonon confinement in anatase and rutile peaks has been discussed. The red (7.9 cm-1 of anatase Eg) and blue (7.4 cm-1 of rutile Eg, 7.8 cm-1 of rutile A1g) shifts of Raman frequencies were observed. UV-vis absorption measurements show the main band absorption at 3.42 eV, 3.48 eV, and ˜3.51 eV for thin film and NW prepared at 120 and 460 rpm, respectively. Three fold enhance photon absorption and intense light emission were observed for NW assembly. The photoluminescence emission from the NW assembly revealed blue shift in main band transition due to quantum confinement in NW structures.

  1. Broad-Band Continuum and Line Emission of the gamma-Ray Blazar PKS 0537-441

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, E.; Falomo, R.; Hartman, R. C.; Maraschi, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Tornikoski, M.; Treves, A.; Urry, C. M.; Ballo, L.; Mukherjee, R.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    PKS 0537-441, a bright gamma ray emitting blazar was observed at radio, optical, UV and X-ray frequencies during various EGRET paintings, often quasi-simultaneously. In 1995 the object was found in an intense emission state at all wavelengths. BeppoSAX observations made in 1998, non-simultaneously with exposures at other frequencies, allow us to characterize precisely the spectral shape of the high energy blazer component, which we attribute to inverse Compton scatter in The optical-to-gamma-ray spectral energy distributions at the different epochs show that the gamma-ray luminosity dominates the barometric output. This, together with the presence of optical and UV line emission, suggests that, besides the synchrotron self-Compton mechanism, the Compton upscattering of photons external to the jet (e.g., in the broad line region) may have a significant role for high energy radiation. The multiwavelength variability can be reproduced by changes of the plasma bulk Lorentz factor. The spectrum secured by ICE in 1995 appears to be partially absorbed shortward of approximately 1700 Angstroms. However, this signature is not detected in the HST spectrum taker during a lower state of the source. The presence of intervening absorbers is not supported by optical imaging and spectroscopy of the field.

  2. Confinement effect of laser ablation plume in liquids probed by self-absorption of C{sub 2} Swan band emission

    SciTech Connect

    Sakka, Tetsuo; Saito, Kotaro; Ogata, Yukio H.

    2005-01-01

    The (0,0) Swan band of the C{sub 2} molecules in a laser ablation plume produced on the surface of graphite target submerged in water was used as a probe to estimate the density of C{sub 2} molecules in the plume. Observed emission spectra were reproduced excellently by introducing a self-absorption parameter to the theoretical spectral profile expected by a rotational population distribution at a certain temperature. The optical density of the ablation plume as a function of time was determined as a best-fit parameter by the quantitative fitting of the whole spectral profile. The results show high optical densities for the laser ablation plume in water compared with that in air. It is related to the plume confinement or the expansion, which are the important phenomena influencing the characteristics of laser ablation plumes in liquids.

  3. Damage assessed by wavelet scale bands and b-value in dynamical tests of a reinforced concrete slab monitored with acoustic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitto, Miguel E.; Piotrkowski, Rosa; Gallego, Antolino; Sagasta, Francisco; Benavent-Climent, Amadeo

    2015-08-01

    The complex Morlet Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) was applied to acoustic emission (AE) signals from dynamic tests conducted on a reinforced concrete slab with a shaking table. The steel reinforcement bars did not yield during the tests, but a severe loss of bond between reinforcement bars and surrounding concrete was detected. Comparison of the evolution of the scale position of maximum values of CWT coefficients and the histories of response acceleration obtained in different seismic simulations allowed us to identify the (45-64 kHz) frequency band corresponding to the fracture of concrete. The Cumulative Acoustic Emission Energy (CAE) obtained by reconstructing the AE signals in this scale (frequency) band was compared with the Cumulative Dissipated Energy (CDE) of the tested structure. The CDE is accepted as a good parameter for characterizing the mechanical damage in structures. A reasonably good agreement was found between the normalized histories of CAE and CDE. This made it possible to categorize the cracking of concrete as the main source of damage in the reinforced concrete slab. Conversely, the differences between the CAE and CDE curves observed for high levels of peak acceleration applied to the shaking table can be attributed to the deformation of the steel that formed the columns. The AE coming from the plastic deformation of the steel is not detected by CAE due to the threshold amplitude (45 dB) used in the AE monitoring, but the strain energy dissipated by the steel through plastic deformations is included in the CDE. Further, a study of the evolution of the b-value in the successive seismic simulations revealed that the b-value can capture the inception of severe cracking in the concrete, which the tests described in this study attributed mainly to the loss of bond between reinforcing steel and surrounding concrete.

  4. Highly Efficient Defect Emission from ZnO:Zn and ZnO:S Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everitt, Henry

    2013-03-01

    Bulk Zinc Oxide (ZnO) is a wide band gap semiconductor with an ultraviolet direct band gap energy of 3.4 eV and a broad, defect-related visible wavelength emission band centered near 2 eV. We have shown that the external quantum efficiency can exceed 50% for this nearly white emission band that closely matches the human dark-adapted visual response. To explore the potential of ZnO as a rare earth-free white light phosphor, we investigated the mechanism of efficient defect emission in three types of ZnO powders: unannealed, annealed, and sulfur-doped. Annealing and sulfur-doping of ZnO greatly increase the strength of defect emission while suppressing the UV band edge emission. Continuous wave and ultrafast one- and two-photon excitation spectroscopy are used to examine the defect emission mechanism. Low temperature photoluminescence (PL) and PL excitation (PLE) spectra were measured for all three compounds, and it was found that bound excitons mediate the defect emission. Temperature-dependent PLE spectra for the defect and band edge emission were measured to estimate trapping and activation energies of the bound excitons and clarify the role they play in the defect emission. Time-resolved techniques were used to ascertain the role of exciton diffusion, the effects of reabsorption, and the spatial distributions of radiative and non-radiative traps. In unannealed ZnO we find that defect emission is suppressed and UV band edge emission is inefficient (< 2%) because of reabsorption and non-radiative recombination due to a high density of non-radiative bulk traps. By annealing ZnO, bulk trap densities are reduced, and a high density of defects responsible for the broad visible emission are created near the surface. Interestingly, nearly identical PLE spectra are found for both the band edge and the defect emission, one of many indications that the defect emission is deeply connected to bound excitons. Quantum efficiency, also measured as a function of excitation

  5. Ultrafast Time-Resolved Emission and Absorption Spectra of meso-Pyridyl Porphyrins upon Soret Band Excitation Studied by Fluorescence Up-Conversion and Transient Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Yeduru; Venkatesan, M; Ramakrishna, B; Bangal, Prakriti Ranjan

    2016-09-01

    A comprehensive study of ultrafast molecular relaxation processes of isomeric meso-(pyridyl) porphyrins (TpyPs) has been carried out by using femtosecond time-resolved emission and absorption spectroscopic techniques upon pumping at 400 nm, Soret band (B band or S2), in 4:1 dichloromethane (DCM) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvent mixture. By combined studies of fluorescence up-conversion, time-correlated single photon counting, and transient absorption spectroscopic techniques, a complete model with different microscopic rate constants associated with elementary processes involved in electronic manifolds has been reported. Besides, a distinct coherent nuclear wave packet motion in Qy state is observed at low-frequency mode, ca. 26 cm(-1) region. Fluorescence up-conversion studies constitute ultrafast time-resolved emission spectra (TRES) over the whole emission range (430-710 nm) starting from S2 state to Qx state via Qy state. Careful analysis of time profiles of up-converted signals at different emission wavelengths helps to reveal detail molecular dynamics. The observed lifetimes are as indicated: A very fast decay component with 80 ± 20 fs observed at ∼435 nm is assigned to the lifetime of S2 (B) state, whereas being a rise component in the region of between 550 and 710 nm emission wavelength pertaining to Qy and Qx states, it is attributed to very fast internal conversion (IC) occurring from B → Qy and B → Qx as well. Two distinct components of Qy emission decay with ∼200-300 fs and ∼1-1.5 ps time constants are due to intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR) induced by solute-solvent inelastic collisions and vibrational redistribution induced by solute-solvent elastic collision, respectively. The weighted average of these two decay components is assigned as the characteristic lifetime of Qy, and it ranges between 0.3 and 0.5 ps. An additional ∼20 ± 2 ps rise component is observed in Qx emission, and it is assigned to the formation time of

  6. Ultrafast Time-Resolved Emission and Absorption Spectra of meso-Pyridyl Porphyrins upon Soret Band Excitation Studied by Fluorescence Up-Conversion and Transient Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Yeduru; Venkatesan, M; Ramakrishna, B; Bangal, Prakriti Ranjan

    2016-09-01

    A comprehensive study of ultrafast molecular relaxation processes of isomeric meso-(pyridyl) porphyrins (TpyPs) has been carried out by using femtosecond time-resolved emission and absorption spectroscopic techniques upon pumping at 400 nm, Soret band (B band or S2), in 4:1 dichloromethane (DCM) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvent mixture. By combined studies of fluorescence up-conversion, time-correlated single photon counting, and transient absorption spectroscopic techniques, a complete model with different microscopic rate constants associated with elementary processes involved in electronic manifolds has been reported. Besides, a distinct coherent nuclear wave packet motion in Qy state is observed at low-frequency mode, ca. 26 cm(-1) region. Fluorescence up-conversion studies constitute ultrafast time-resolved emission spectra (TRES) over the whole emission range (430-710 nm) starting from S2 state to Qx state via Qy state. Careful analysis of time profiles of up-converted signals at different emission wavelengths helps to reveal detail molecular dynamics. The observed lifetimes are as indicated: A very fast decay component with 80 ± 20 fs observed at ∼435 nm is assigned to the lifetime of S2 (B) state, whereas being a rise component in the region of between 550 and 710 nm emission wavelength pertaining to Qy and Qx states, it is attributed to very fast internal conversion (IC) occurring from B → Qy and B → Qx as well. Two distinct components of Qy emission decay with ∼200-300 fs and ∼1-1.5 ps time constants are due to intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR) induced by solute-solvent inelastic collisions and vibrational redistribution induced by solute-solvent elastic collision, respectively. The weighted average of these two decay components is assigned as the characteristic lifetime of Qy, and it ranges between 0.3 and 0.5 ps. An additional ∼20 ± 2 ps rise component is observed in Qx emission, and it is assigned to the formation time of

  7. SIGNIFICANT X-RAY LINE EMISSION IN THE 5-6 keV BAND OF NGC 4051

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, T. J.; Miller, L.; Reeves, J. N.; Lobban, A.; Braito, V.; Kraemer, S. B.; Crenshaw, D. M.

    2010-03-20

    A Suzaku X-ray observation of NGC 4051 taken during 2005 November reveals line emission at 5.44 keV in the rest frame of the galaxy which does not have an obvious origin in known rest-frame atomic transitions. The improvement to the fit statistic when this line is accounted for establishes its reality at >99.9% confidence: we have also verified that the line is detected in the three X-ray Imaging Spectrometer units independently. Comparison between the data and Monte Carlo simulations shows that the probability of the line being a statistical fluctuation is p < 3.3 x 10{sup -4}. Consideration of three independent line detections in Suzaku data taken at different epochs yields a probability p < 3 x 10{sup -11} and thus conclusively demonstrates that it cannot be a statistical fluctuation in the data. The new line and a strong component of Fe Kalpha emission from neutral material are prominent when the source flux is low, during 2005. Spectra from 2008 show evidence for a line consistent with having the same flux and energy as that observed during 2005, but inconsistent with having a constant equivalent width against the observed continuum. The stability of the line flux and energy suggests that it may not arise in transient hotspots, as has been suggested for similar lines in other sources, but could arise from a special location in the reprocessor, such as the inner edge of the accretion disk. Alternatively, the line energy may be explained by spallation of Fe into Cr, as discussed in a companion paper.

  8. HIGH-RESOLUTION ELECTRON-IMPACT EMISSION SPECTRA AND VIBRATIONAL EMISSION CROSS SECTIONS FROM 330-1100 nm FOR N{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Mangina, Rao S.; Ajello, Joseph M.; West, Robert A.; Dziczek, Dariusz

    2011-09-01

    Electron-impact emission cross sections for N{sub 2} were measured in the wavelength range of 330-1100 nm at 25 eV and 100 eV impact energies. Cross sections of several molecular emission bands of the first positive band system B {sup 3}{Pi}{sub g} {sup +}({nu}') {yields} A {sup 3}{Sigma}{sub g} {sup +}({nu}'') and the second positive band system C {sup 3}{Pi}{sub u} ({nu}') {yields} B {sup 3}{Pi}{sub g} ({nu}'') of N{sub 2}, the first negative band (1NB) system B {sup 2}{Sigma}{sub u} {sup +}({nu}') {yields} X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g} {sup +}({nu}'') and Meinel band system A {sup 2}{Pi}{sub u} ({nu}') {yields} X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g} {sup +}({nu}'') of N{sub 2} {sup +} ions as well as line emissions of N (N I) and N{sup +} (N II) in the visible-optical-near-IR wavelength range reported in this work were measured for the first time in a single experimental setup at high spectral resolving power ({lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} {approx} 10000) under single-collision-scattering geometry and optically thin conditions. Rotational emission lines of N{sub 2} and N{sub 2} {sup +} were observed for strong emission bands at a gas temperature of about 300 K. The absolute cross section of the strongest (0,0) vibrational band at 391.43 nm of 1NB was determined using the standard H{sub {alpha}} emission cross sections of H{sub 2} by electron impact at both 25 eV and 100 eV electron-impact energies, and the cross sections for the remainder of the emissions were determined using (0,0) 1NB value. A comparison of the present emission cross sections with the earlier published data from both electron energy loss and electron-impact-induced fluorescence emission is discussed.

  9. Effect of Zn-Cd interdiffusion on the band structure and spontaneous emission of ZnO/Zn1-xCdxO/ZnO quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shtepliuk, I.; Khranovskyy, V.; Yakimova, R.

    2015-09-01

    Needs in more-efficient visible light sources based on quantum wells (QWs) requires the diversification of traditional optoelectronics' materials as well as development of the cost-effective approaches for reliable quantum confinement engineering. Interdiffusion approach has a great potential to become a simple method for controlling the optical properties of QWs and diminishing the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE). In this work we theoretically study the effect of Zn-Cd interdiffusion in ZnCdO/ZnO QWs on their band structure, optical matrix elements and spontaneous emission properties. The QW intermixing leads to improving both the transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) optical matrix elements due to enhancement of the overlap integral between electron and hole wave functions and modification of the confinement potential from triangle-shaped to parabolic-like. The optimized diffusion length 4 Å provided by the annealing at 700 K during 60 s was determined for 2 nm-thick Zn0.85Cd0.15O QW, which offers higher spontaneous emission rate in comparison to conventional QW. The reasonable interpretation of the interdiffusion effect on the optical properties of QWs is proposed in terms of low diffusion length and high diffusion length regimes. Thus, suitable combination of annealing duration and annealing temperature with the geometrical/compositional parameters of QWs can be the efficient way for improving the optical performance of ZnO-based QWs.

  10. Photoelectron Emission Studies in CsBr at 257 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Maldonado, Juan R.; Liu, Zhi; Sun, Yun; Pianetta, Piero A.; Pease, Fabian W.; /Stanford U., Elect. Eng. Dept. /SLAC, SSRL

    2006-09-28

    CsBr/Cr photocathodes were found [1,2] to meet the requirements of a multi-electron beam lithography system operating with a light energy of 4.8 eV (257nm). The fact that photoemission was observed with a light energy below the reported 7.3 eV band gap for CsBr was not understood. This paper presents experimental results on the presence of intra-band gap absorption sites (IBAS) in CsBr thin film photo electron emitters, and presents a model based on IBAS to explain the observed photoelectron emission behavior at energies below band gap. A fluorescence band centered at 330 nm with a FWHM of about 0.34 eV was observed in CsBr/Cr samples under 257 nm laser illumination which can be attributed to IBAS and agrees well with previously obtained synchrotron photoelectron spectra[1] from the valence band of CsBr films.

  11. Multi-band Emission of Active Galactic Nuclei: the Relationship of Stellar and Gravitational-Accretion Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltre, Anna

    2013-07-01

    One of the remaining open issues in the context of the analysis of active galactic nuclei is the evidence that nuclear gravitational accretion is often accompanied by a concurrent starburst activity. What is, in this picture, the role played by the obscuring dust around the nucleus and what does the state of the art models have to say? Can the infrared data provided by Spitzer and Herschel help us in extensively investigate both phenomena and, if so, how and with what limitations? Does the presence of an active nucleus have an impact in the mid- and far-infrared properties of galaxies? Which are the effects of simultaneous nuclear gravitational accretion and starburst activities in these same galaxies? This Thesis presents our contribution to the efforts of answering these questions. I report on results coming from a comparative study of various approaches adopted while modelling active galactic nuclei, focusing mostly on the much-debated issue about the morphology of the dust distribution in the toroidal structure surrounding their nuclear centre. We largely illustrate that properties of dust in active galactic nuclei as measured by matching observations (be it broad band infrared photometry or infrared spectra) with models strongly depend on the choice of the dust distribution. Further, I describe a spectral energy distribution fitting tool appositely developed to derive simultaneously the physical properties of active nuclei and coexisting starbursts. The procedure was developed to make the best use of Spitzer and Herschel mid- and far-infrared observations. Such data play a crucial role in this context, providing much stronger constraints on the models with respect to the previous observing facilities. The tool has been applied to a large sample of extragalactic sources representing the Herschel/Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey population with mid-infrared spectra from Spitzer and with a plethora of multi-wavelength data (SDSS, Spitzer and Herschel/SPIRE). The

  12. The Swift/Fermi GRB 080928 from 1 eV to 150 keV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonbas, Eda; Rossi, A.; Schulze, S.; Klose, S.; Kann, D. A.; Ferrero, P.; NicuesaGuelbenzu, A.; Rau, A.; Kruehler, T.; Greiner, J.; Schady, P.; Afonso, P. M. J.; Clemens, C.; Filgas, R.; KuepcuYoldas, A.; McBreen, S.; Olivares, F.; Szokoly, G.; Yoldas, A.; Krimm, H. A.; Johannesson, G.; Panaitescu, A.; Yuan, F.; Pandey, S. B.; Akerlof, C. W.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a comprehensive study of the Gamma-Ray Burst 080928 and of its afterglow. GRB 08092 was a long burst detected by Swift/BAT and Fermi/GBM, It is one of the exceptional cases where optical emission was already detected when the GRB itself was still radiating in the gamma-ray band. for nearly 100 seconds simultaneous optical X-ray and gamma-ray data provide a coverage of the spectral energy distribution of the transient source from about 1 eV to 150 keV. Here we analyze the prompt emission, constrain its spectral propertIes. and set lower limits on the initial Lorentz factor of the relativistic outflow, In particular. we show that the SED during the main prompt emission phase is in agreement with synchrotron radiation. We construct the optical/near-infrared light curve and the spectral energy distribution based on Swift/UVOT. ROTSE-Illa (Australia) and GROND (La Silla) data and compare it to the X-ray light curve retrieved from the Swift/XRT repository. We show that its bumpy shape can be modeled by multiple energy injections into the forward shock. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the temporal and spectral evolution of the first strong flare seen in the early X-ray light curve can be explained by large-angle emission. Finally, we report on the results of our search for the GRB host galaxy, for which only a deep upper limit can be provided.

  13. Production of EV71 vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Chong, Pele; Hsieh, Shih-Yang; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Chang, Jui-Yuan; Wu, Suh-Chin; Liu, Shih-Jen; Chow, Yen-Hung; Su, Ih-Jen; Klein, Michel

    2012-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia and with Coxsackie virus (CV) it is the other major causative agent of hand-foot-mouth diseases (HFMD). Effective medications and/or prophylactic vaccines against HFMD are urgently needed. From a scientific (the feasibility of bioprocess, immunological responses and potency in animal challenge model) and business development (cost of goods) points of view, we in this review address and discuss the pros and cons of different EV71 vaccine candidates that have been produced and evaluated in animal models. Epitope-based synthetic peptide vaccine candidates containing residues 211-225 of VP1 formulated with Freund's adjuvant (CFA/IFA) elicited low EV71 virus neutralizing antibody responses, but were protective in the suckling mouse challenge model. Among recombinant EV71 subunits (rVP1, rVP2 and rVP3) expressed in E. coli, purified and formulated with CFA/IFA, only VP1 elicited mouse antibody responses with measurable EV71-specific virus neutralization titers. Immunization of mice with either a DNA plasmid containing VP1 gene or VP1 expressed in Salmonella typhimurium also generated neutralizing antibody responses and protected animals against a live EV71 challenge. Recombinant EV71 virus-like particles (rVLP) produced from baculovirus formulated either with CFA/IFA or alum elicited good virus neutralization titers in both mice and non-human primates, and were found to be protective in the suckling mouse EV71 challenge model. Synthetic peptides or recombinant EV71 subunit vaccines (rVP1 and rVLP) formulated in alum were found to be poorly immunogenic in rabbits. Only formalin-inactivated (FI) EV71 virions formulated in alum elicited cross-neutralizing antibodies against different EV71 genotypes in mice, rabbits and non-human primates but induced weak neutralizing responses against CAV16. From a regulatory, economic and market acceptability standpoint, FI-EV71 virion vaccines are the most

  14. Direct band gap carbon superlattices with efficient optical transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Young Jun; Kim, Sunghyun; Lee, In-Ho; Lee, Jooyoung; Chang, K. J.

    2016-02-01

    We report pure carbon-based superlattices that exhibit direct band gaps and excellent optical absorption and emission properties at the threshold energy. The structures are nearly identical to that of cubic diamond except that defective layers characterized by five- and seven-membered rings are intercalated in the diamond lattice. The direct band gaps lie in the range of 5.6-5.9 eV, corresponding to wavelengths of 210-221 nm. The dipole matrix elements of direct optical transition are comparable to that of GaN, suggesting that the superlattices are promising materials as an efficient deep ultraviolet light emitter. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the superlattices are thermally stable even at a high temperature of 2000 K. We provide a possible route to the synthesis of superlattices through wafer bonding of diamond (100) surfaces.

  15. Rotationally resolved pulsed field ionization photoelectron bands of O[sub 2][sup +](X [sup 2][Pi][sub 1/2,3/2g],v[sup +]=0[endash]38) in the energy range of 12. 05[endash]18. 15 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Y.; Evans, M.; Ng, C.Y. ); Hsu, C.; Jarvis, G.K. )

    1999-08-01

    We have obtained rotationally resolved pulsed field ionization photoelectron (PFI-PE) spectra for O[sub 2] in the energy range of 12.05[endash]18.15 eV, covering ionization transitions O[sub 2][sup +](X hthinsp;[sup 2][Pi][sub 1/2,3/2g], hthinsp;v[sup +]=0[endash]38,J[sup +])[l arrow]O[sub 2](X hthinsp;[sup 3][Sigma][sub g][sup [minus

  16. Yellow luminescence band in undoped GaN revealed by two-wavelength excited photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julkarnain, M.; Kamata, N.; Fukuda, T.; Arakawa, Y.

    2016-10-01

    The below-gap emission components including yellow luminescence (YL) band of an MOCVD grown undoped GaN have been studied by the two-wavelength-excited photoluminescence (TWEPL). The nature of each emission line has been investigated by using an intermittent below-gap excitation (BGE) light of 1.17 eV on an above-gap excitation (AGE) light of 3.49 eV. The intensity of DAP and the YL decreased while it increased for IOX after irradiation of the BGE. The intensity change in PL after addition of the BGE implies the presence of defect levels in the energy position corresponding to the photon energy of the BGE. Possible recombination models are listed and examined. Only the recombination model in which the YL corresponds to the transition from a shallow donor to a deep state at about 1 eV above the valence band maximum satisfies our experimental result. The possible origin of this defect state is discussed.

  17. Origin of the blue luminescence band in zirconium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyaev, D. V.; Perevalov, T. V.; Aliev, V. Sh.; Zhuravlev, K. S.; Gritsenko, V. A.; Eliseev, A. P.; Zablotskii, A. V.

    2015-07-01

    The photoluminescence excitation and steady-state photoluminescence spectra of nonstoichiometric zirconium oxide films with a high concentration of oxygen vacancies have been investigated. A band with energy of about 2.7 eV in the blue spectral region dominates in photoluminescence spectra of prepared films. The photoluminescence intensity of this band increases as the depletion of zirconium oxide films with oxygen increases. The excitation maximum of the blue photoluminescence band corresponds to energy of 5.2 eV. It has been established by quantum-chemical modeling that the optical absorption peak of the oxygen vacancy in crystalline zirconium oxide is located at energy of 5.1 eV. The analysis of the results has demonstrated that the blue photoluminescence band at 2.7 eV with the excitation peak near 5.2 eV is caused by oxygen vacancies in zirconium oxide.

  18. Simultaneous Hosting of Positive and Negative Trions and the Enhanced Direct Band Emission in MoSe2/MoS2 Heterostacked Multilayers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Su; Seo, Changwon; Kim, Hyun; Lee, Jubok; Luong, Dinh Hoa; Park, Ji-Hoon; Han, Gang Hee; Kim, Jeongyong

    2016-06-28

    Heterostacking of layered transition-metal dichalcogenide (LTMD) monolayers (1Ls) offers a convenient way of designing two-dimensional exciton systems. Here we demonstrate the simultaneous hosting of positive trions and negative trions in heterobilayers made by vertically stacking 1L MoSe2 and 1L MoS2. The charge transfer occurring between the 1Ls of MoSe2 and MoS2 converted the polarity of trions in 1L MoSe2 from negative to positive, resulting in the presence of positive trions in the 1L MoSe2 and negative trions in the 1L MoS2 of the same heterostacked bilayer. Significantly enhanced MoSe2 photoluminescence (PL) in the heterostacked bilayers compared to the PL of 1L MoSe2 alone suggests that, unlike other previously reported heterostacked bilayers, direct band transition of 1L MoSe2 in heterobilayer was enhanced after the vertical heterostacking. Moreover, by inserting hexagonal BN monolayers between 1L MoSe2 and 1L MoS2, we were able to adjust the charge transfer to maximize the MoSe2 PL of the heteromultilayers and have achieved a 9-fold increase of the PL emission. The enhanced optical properties of our heterostacked LTMDs suggest the exciting possibility of designing LTMD structures that exploit the superior optical properties of 1L LTMDs. PMID:27187667

  19. Structural Studies of Potential 1 eV Solar Cell Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, A.; Al-Jassim, M.; Friedman, D.; Geisz, J.; Olson, J.; Kurtz, S.

    2000-01-01

    Structural studies using transmission electron microscopy have been made on 1-eV band-gap materials, lattice-matched to GaAs and Ge substrates, grown by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy for use in multijunction, high-efficiency solar cells.

  20. Sensible Ozone on Mars based on 2-D Maps of O 2(a 1△ g) Emission for L s=102° Comparison of (0,0) and (1,1) Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Robert E.; Mumma, Michael J.; Villanueva, Geronimo Luis

    2016-10-01

    We report 2-D maps of the O2(a1△g) emission rate (a tracer for high-altitude ozone) taken during early northern summer (Ls=102° on 30 January 2016) using CSHELL at NASA's IRTF. The entrance slit of the spectrometer was positioned N-S on Mars and stepped E-W at 0.5 arc-sec increments. Spectral extracts were taken at 0.6 arc-sec intervals along the slit. We also took data to compare the emission rates of the O2(a1△g) (1-1) band (1.28 μm) to the (0-0) band (1.27 μm) with the entrance slit centered at the sub-Earth point. A model consisting of the solar continuum with Fraunhofer lines, two-way transmission through Mars' atmosphere, and a one-way transmission through the Earth's atmosphere was used to isolate and analyze individual spectral emission lines from Mars. Boltzmann analysis of these lines yielded a rotational temperature (~165 K) that was used to determine the total emission rates for the a-X system from the measured line intensities. The line-of-sight emission rates were converted to vertical emission rates and O2(a1△g) column densities after geometric correction. The sensible O3 column implied by these data is compared with maps of total O3 in Mars standard atmosphere models.The 2-D map shows increased emission in the southern hemisphere when compared to previously reported results taken at earlier seasonal points (Ls=72° on 3 April 2010 and Ls=88° on 10 February 2014). Emission results of the O2(a1△g) (0-0) band (Local Time ~ 14:30) will be compared with MARCI results (LT ~ 15:00, Clancy et al., Icarus 266 (2016) 112-113). We searched for the (1-1) band in two adjacent wavelength ranges; (0-0) emissions were detected at these settings, but no (1-1) emissions were noticed above the noise level. An upper limit will be presented, and implications discussed.This work was partially funded by grants from NASA's Mars Fundamental Research Program (11-MFRP11-0066) and the NSF-RUI Program (AST-805540). The NASA Astrobiology Institute supported this work

  1. Isothermal annealing of a 620 nm optical absorption band in Brazilian topaz crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isotani, Sadao; Matsuoka, Masao; Albuquerque, Antonio Roberto Pereira Leite

    2013-04-01

    Isothermal decay behaviors, observed at 515, 523, 562, and 693 K, for an optical absorption band at 620 nm in gamma-irradiated Brazilian blue topaz were analyzed using a kinetic model consisting of O- bound small polarons adjacent to recombination centers (electron traps). The kinetic equations obtained on the basis of this model were solved using the method of Runge-Kutta and the fit parameters describing these defects were determined with a grid optimization method. Two activation energies of 0.52±0.08 and 0.88±0.13 eV, corresponding to two different structural configurations of the O- polarons, explained well the isothermal decay curves using first-order kinetics expected from the kinetic model. On the other hand, thermoluminescence (TL) emission spectra measured at various temperatures showed a single band at 400 nm in the temperature range of 373-553 K in which the 620 nm optical absorption band decreased in intensity. Monochromatic TL glow curve data at 400 nm extracted from the TL emission spectra observed were found to be explained reasonably by using the knowledge obtained from the isothermal decay analysis. This suggests that two different structural configurations of O- polarons are responsible for the 620 nm optical absorption band and that the thermal annealing of the polarons causes the 400 nm TL emission band.

  2. Calibration impact assessment of MODIS spectral band location on the focal plane assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2014-09-01

    The key on-board calibrators (OBCs) of MODIS include a solar diffuser (SD) for the reflective solar bands calibration and a blackbody (BB) for the thermal emissive bands calibration. MODIS also has a space view (SV) port through which the detectors can view the dark space to provide background signal and the Moon during lunar calibration. As a whiskbroom scanning spectroradiometer, the spectral bands of MODIS are spread on its focal plane assemblies (FPA) in the along-scan direction. The images of these bands are spatially co-registered by delaying the observations of individual band according to their location on the FPA to account for the along-scan motion needed to view the same target. While this co-registration works well for the "far field" Earth view (EV) target, significant band-to-band image misregistration in the along-scan direction has been observed when the detectors view "near field" targets, such as the OBCs. In this paper, this "near field" misregistration phenomenon is presented and analyzed, using the OBC images acquired when the electric sector rotation is applied. It is shown that the amount of the misregistration is proportional to the band location and the linear coefficient is inversely proportional to the distance between the object and the scan mirror. The root cause of the misregistration is provided. Also discussed in this paper is the calibration impact due to the "near field" misregistration for MODIS and sensors with MODIS-like scanning mechanism.

  3. Inferring middle atmospheric ozone height profiles from ground-based measurements of molecular oxygen emission rates. 2. Comparison with O[sub 2]([sup 1][Delta][sub g])(0,1) band measurements at sunset

    SciTech Connect

    Sica, R.J.; Lowe, R.P. )

    1993-01-20

    The ability to routinely acquire measurements of the ozone density profile in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere is important for use in chemical-dynamical models of the middle atmosphere. Zenith measurements of the O[sub 2]([sup 1][Delta][sub g]) (0,1) band emission rate in the evening twilight were acquired near the spring equinox of 1982 with a Michelson interferometer from London, Ontario, Canada. Knowledge of the change of the O[sub 2]([sup 1][Delta][sub g])(0,1) band emission rate at twilight can be related directly to ozone density, since ozone destruction by sunlight is the primary source of O[sub 2]([sup 1][Delta][sub g]) in the atmosphere. Measurements and calculations have shown that a secondary peak in the ozone density often exists in the middle atmosphere. A model has been developed to infer the ozone profile in the middle atmosphere by simultaneously solving the time-dependent chemistry of the molecular oxygen atmospheric and atmospheric-IR bands and O(ID) during twilight. Calculations are presented which show the effect of a secondary peak in the ozone density at various heights on the O[sub 2]([sup 1][Delta][sub g]) (0,1) band emission rate during twilight. The model is used to demonstrate that the London measurements are consistent with an ozone profile with a secondary peak at 85-90 km. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  4. The emission rates of CH, CD and C2 spectral bands and a re-evaluation of the chemical sputtering yield of the JT-60U carbon divertor plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, T.; Higashijima, S.; Kubo, H.; Asakura, N.; Fukumoto, M.

    2014-04-01

    The CH photon emission rate, defined as the number of photons over a dissociation and/or ionization event of CH4, has been determined from the ratio of the measured emission intensity of the CH spectral band over the CH4 injection rate into the divertor plasma of JT-60U. Similar photon emission rates of CD for CD4, and CH and C2 for C2H4 and C2H6, have also been determined. Interestingly, the C2 spectral band intensity is found to increase during the CH4 and CD4 injection, suggesting that the injected CH4 reacts with the carbon divertor plates to form heavier hydrocarbons. Previously published chemical sputtering yields (Nakano et al 2002 Nucl. Fusion 42 689) evaluated with the photon efficiencies determined in PISCES-A (Pospieszczyk et al 1989 UCLA Report UCLA-PPG-1251) have been re-evaluated using the measured emission rates. By applying the photon emission data found here and taking into account the C2 emission process originating from CH4, the re-evaluated total chemical sputtering yield becomes lower (˜7%) compared to the original in (Nakano et al 2002 Nucl. Fusion 42 689) (˜8%), and the dependence on the incident ion flux and energy becomes weaker.

  5. Chemical trends of the luminescence in wide band gap II 1-xMn xVI semimagnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benecke, C.; Busse, W.; Gumlich, H.-E.

    1990-04-01

    Time resolved emission and excitation spectroscopy is used to investigate the Mn correlated luminescence in wide band gap II-VI compounds, i.e. Zn 1-xMn xS, Cd 1-xMn xSe, Zn 1-xMn xTe and Cd 1-xMn xTe. Additional Information has been obtained with CdxZnyMnzTe( x+ y+ z=1) in checking the luminescence by variation of the ratio of the cations Cd and Zn. Generally speaking, at least two distinct emissions bands can be observed for each II 1- xMn xVI compound. One emissions band is attributed to the internal transition 4T 1(G)→ 6A 1(S) of the 3d 5 electron of the Mn 2+ on regular metal sites with energies of about ≈2 eV. The other emission band is found to occur in the near infrared range of about ≈1.3 eV. This emission band is tentatively interpreted as a transition of Mn 2+ ions on interstitial sites or in small Mn chalcogenide clusters, both interpretations assuming cubic symmetry. This model is supported by the existence of low energy excitation bands and by the great similarity of the shape of the two emission bands which lead to comparable Huang-Rhys factors and effective phonon energies. Also the established trend in the experimental data of the II-VI compounds under consideration confirm this interpretation. For both the IR and the yellow Mn 2+ center, the Racah parameters B and C and the crystal field parameter Dq are determined on the basis of experimental data. As a result, the energy of both the emission and the excitation bands is predominantly determined by the sorrounding anions. These bands shift to higher energies when the anions are changed in the fixed order: Te→Se→S. Regularly, there is also a spectral shift when Zn is replaced by Cd, which is smaller than the shift due to the variation of onions.

  6. Effects of solar zenith angles on CO Cameron bands emission intensities in the dayside atmosphere of Mars: MEX/SPICAM observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pothuraju, Thirupathaiah; Haider, Syed A.

    2016-07-01

    We have developed a model to calculate the photoelectron energy fluxes and emission intensities of the CO Cameron bands in the upper atmosphere of Mars between solar zenith angles 0° to 90°. The production and loss mechanisms of CO (a ^{3}Π) are incorporated in the model. The atmospheric neutral parameters are adopted from the Mars Climate Database (v5.2). The required solar EUV fluxes are taken from the Solar2000 model (v2.37) and scaled to Mars. The photoelectron fluxes are calculated at different solar zenith angles using an analytical yield spectrum approach based on the Monte Carlo method. In this model we have assumed that crustal magnetic fields are horizontal in direction. Thus, photoelectrons are losing their energy at the same height where they are produced. This assumption is valid at mid and high latitudes where magnetic fields are mostly horizontal. We have also developed a coupled chemistry model to calculate the ion and electron density at different solar zenith angles, which are used in the airglow model. The model results are compared with the observations provided by the SPICAM onboard MEX. Our model reproduces the observed intensity profiles quite well. The CO (a ^{3}Π) is produced due to photoelectron excitation/dissociation, photodissociation, and dissociative recombination processes. It is destroyed by CO _{2}, CO and radiative decay. It is found that photon and photoelectron dissociation are dominant production processes of CO (a ^{3}Π), while radiative decay is a major loss mechanism of this state. The estimated photoelectron fluxes, production rates and intensities are decreasing with increasing solar zenith angles.

  7. Modeling electron emission and surface effects from diamond cathodes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dimitrov, D. A.; Smithe, D.; Cary, J. R.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rao, T.; Smedley, J.; Wang, E.

    2015-02-05

    We developed modeling capabilities, within the Vorpal particle-in-cell code, for three-dimensional (3D) simulations of surface effects and electron emission from semiconductor photocathodes. They include calculation of emission probabilities using general, piece-wise continuous, space-time dependent surface potentials, effective mass and band bending field effects. We applied these models, in combination with previously implemented capabilities for modeling charge generation and transport in diamond, to investigate the emission dependence on applied electric field in the range from approximately 2 MV/m to 17 MV/m along the [100] direction. The simulation results were compared to experimental data. For the considered parameter regime, conservation of transversemore » electron momentum (in the plane of the emission surface) allows direct emission from only two (parallel to [100]) of the six equivalent lowest conduction band valleys. When the electron affinity χ is the only parameter varied in the simulations, the value χ = 0.31 eV leads to overall qualitative agreement with the probability of emission deduced from experiments. Including band bending in the simulations improves the agreement with the experimental data, particularly at low applied fields, but not significantly. In this study, using surface potentials with different profiles further allows us to investigate the emission as a function of potential barrier height, width, and vacuum level position. However, adding surface patches with different levels of hydrogenation, modeled with position-dependent electron affinity, leads to the closest agreement with the experimental data.« less

  8. Modeling electron emission and surface effects from diamond cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Dimitrov, D. A.; Smithe, D.; Cary, J. R.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rao, T.; Smedley, J.; Wang, E.

    2015-02-05

    We developed modeling capabilities, within the Vorpal particle-in-cell code, for three-dimensional (3D) simulations of surface effects and electron emission from semiconductor photocathodes. They include calculation of emission probabilities using general, piece-wise continuous, space-time dependent surface potentials, effective mass and band bending field effects. We applied these models, in combination with previously implemented capabilities for modeling charge generation and transport in diamond, to investigate the emission dependence on applied electric field in the range from approximately 2 MV/m to 17 MV/m along the [100] direction. The simulation results were compared to experimental data. For the considered parameter regime, conservation of transverse electron momentum (in the plane of the emission surface) allows direct emission from only two (parallel to [100]) of the six equivalent lowest conduction band valleys. When the electron affinity χ is the only parameter varied in the simulations, the value χ = 0.31 eV leads to overall qualitative agreement with the probability of emission deduced from experiments. Including band bending in the simulations improves the agreement with the experimental data, particularly at low applied fields, but not significantly. In this study, using surface potentials with different profiles further allows us to investigate the emission as a function of potential barrier height, width, and vacuum level position. However, adding surface patches with different levels of hydrogenation, modeled with position-dependent electron affinity, leads to the closest agreement with the experimental data.

  9. How much are Chevrolet Volts in The EV Project driven in EV Mode?

    SciTech Connect

    John Smart

    2013-08-01

    This report summarizes key conclusions from analysis of data collected from Chevrolet Volts participating in The EV Project. Topics include how many miles are driven in EV mode, how far vehicles are driven between charging events, and how much energy is charged from the electric grid per charging event.

  10. Characterization and calibration of 8-channel E-band heterodyne radiometer system for SST-1 tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Siju, Varsha; Kumar, Dharmendra; Shukla, Praveena; Pathak, S. K.

    2014-05-15

    An 8-channel E-band heterodyne radiometer system (74–86 GHz) is designed, characterized, and calibrated to measure the radial electron temperature profile by measuring Electron Cyclotron Emission spectrum at SST-1 Tokamak. The developed radiometer has a noise equivalent temperature of 1 eV and sensitivity of 5 × 10{sup 9} V/W. In order to precisely measure the absolute value of electron temperature, a calibration measurement of the radiometer system is performed using hot-cold Dicke switch method, which confirms the system linearity.

  11. EV71 vaccine, an invaluable gift for children.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhenglun; Wang, Junzhi

    2014-10-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major pathogen for severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Development of vaccines against EV71 would be the most effective approach to prevent the EV71 outbreak. Research and development (R&D) of EV71 vaccine was carried out in several Asian countries. Currently three companies in mainland China have completed Phase III clinical trials of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines, whereas the other two companies have completed Phase I clinical trials separately in Taiwan and in Singapore. Results from those clinical trials have indicated high safety and immunogenicity of EV71 vaccine. Protective efficacies were over 90% on EV71-associated HFMD and over 80% on other EV71-associated diseases. In this paper, we summarize the results from three EV71 vaccine Phase III clinical trials and discuss the challenges of incorporating EV71 vaccine into Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in countries with EV71 epidemics.

  12. Zero-phonon line and fine structure of the yellow luminescence band in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshchikov, M. A.; McNamara, J. D.; Zhang, F.; Monavarian, M.; Usikov, A.; Helava, H.; Makarov, Yu.; Morkoç, H.

    2016-07-01

    The yellow luminescence band was studied in undoped and Si-doped GaN samples by steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence. At low temperature (18 K), the zero-phonon line (ZPL) for the yellow band is observed at 2.57 eV and attributed to electron transitions from a shallow donor to a deep-level defect. At higher temperatures, the ZPL at 2.59 eV emerges, which is attributed to electron transitions from the conduction band to the same defect. In addition to the ZPL, a set of phonon replicas is observed, which is caused by the emission of phonons with energies of 39.5 meV and 91.5 meV. The defect is called the YL1 center. The possible identity of the YL1 center is discussed. The results indicate that the same defect is responsible for the strong YL1 band in undoped and Si-doped GaN samples.

  13. Effect of cubic phase evolution on field emission properties of boron nitride island films

    SciTech Connect

    Teii, Kungen; Yamao, Ryota; Matsumoto, Seiichiro

    2009-12-01

    Field emission performance of boron nitride (BN) island films is studied in terms of cubic phase evolution in plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Fine-grained island films with large surface roughness can be grown for initial sp{sup 2}-bonded BN and subsequent cubic BN (cBN) phases by using low-energy (approx20 eV) ion bombardment. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the electron affinity is as low as 0.3 eV for both sp{sup 2}-bonded BN and cBN phases. The evolution of cBN islands reduces the turn-on field down to around 9 V/mum and increases the current density up to 10{sup -4} A/cm{sup 2}. The emission is facilitated by the larger field enhancement due to the larger roughness and the higher conduction of cBN islands. The potential barrier height is estimated to be about 3.4 eV for emission from the Fermi level, while it is only about 0.3 eV for 'conduction band emission'.

  14. Electronic structure of multiferroic BiFeO3 by resonant soft-x-ray emission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, Tohru; Higuchi, T.; Liu, Y.-S.; Yao, P.; Glans, P.-A.; Guo, Jinghua; Chang, C.; Wu, Z.; Sakamoto, W.; Itoh, N.; Shimura, T.; Yogo, T.; Hattori, T.

    2008-07-11

    The electronic structure of multiferroic BiFeO{sub 3} has been studied using soft-X-ray emission spectroscopy. The fluorescence spectra exhibit that the valence band is mainly composed of O 2p state hybridized with Fe 3d state. The band gap corresponding to the energy separation between the top of the O 2p valence band and the bottom of the Fe 3d conduction band is 1.3 eV. The soft-X-ray Raman scattering reflects the features due to charge transfer transition from O 2p valence band to Fe 3d conduction band. These findings are similar to the result of electronic structure calculation by density functional theory within the local spin-density approximation that included the effect of Coulomb repulsion between localized d states.

  15. Smart cards for EV billing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    If electric vehicles are to gain widespread popularity, there will need to be public charging stations for refueling away from home. However, public charging raises some potentially complex issues regarding how individual EV owners will be billed for the electricity they use. It`s easy enough to meter the electricity used at a given battery charger, but the utility bill goes to the EV station merchant rather than the driver who consumed the electricity. So far this has not posed a problem, as many early charging sites have either been providing free electricity or billing only nominal flat fees. As the EV market grows, however, an effective point-of-sale (POS) billing mechanism will need to be established. In 1993, an investigation of POS billing systems for different types of non-home EV charging was conducted. Recently, the Cost Subcommittee of the Infrastructure Working Council`s (IWC) Load Management, Distribution, Power Quality Committee requested that an update be performed on the newest of these POS technologies--smart cards. The same size and shape as regular credit cards, smart cards use a microchip instead of a magnetic stripe to store information. The chip can hold significantly more information than a magnetic stripe, enabling greater security and flexible applications. Since 1993, there have been major advances in smart card technology, and smart card use has grown dramatically in both Europe and Asia. The US has been slower to embrace smart cards due to the entrenched infrastructure of traditional magnetic stripe credit cards. This paper reviews smart card technology and related POS transaction structures, and assesses the technical feasibility and economics of using these versatile cards for EV billing.

  16. Defect related emission versus intersystem crossing: blue emitting ZnO/graphene oxide quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vempati, Sesha; Celebioglu, Asli; Uyar, Tamer

    2015-09-01

    In ref. [Nat. Nanotechnol., 2012, 7, 465-471] interesting optoelectronic properties of ZnO/graphene oxide (GO) composite were presented. Essentially, in the luminescence spectrum indirect optical transitions were identified to be from the epoxy group of GO (GOepoxy) to the valance band (Ev) of ZnO. Viz. 406 nm, L1: (LUMO+2)GOepoxy --> Ev and 436 nm, L2: (LUMO)GOepoxy --> Ev. Furthermore, the emission peak at ~550 nm was attributed to zinc interstitials (Znis) or oxygen vacancies (VOs) and shown to span from 350-650 nm (equivalent to a width of ~0.8 eV). In this report we accentuate two vital though largely ignored concerns as itemized in the following. (i) By considering the growth mechanism of ZnO in the composite, there is a certain possibility that these two bands (L1 and L2) may originate from intrinsic defects of ZnO such as Znis and extended Znis (ex-Znis). Or L1 and L2 might be intrinsic to GO. (ii) The 550 nm emission involves VOs and consists of two components with a typical width of ~0.3 eV. Here we present the results of a thorough investigation confirming the presence of Znis, ex-Znis and intrinsic emission from GO. We also note that during the synthesis the presence of dimethyl formamide significantly affected the emission from GO in addition to some chemical modifications. Apart from these, we have discussed other crucial factors which require deeper attention in the context of luminescence from complex systems such as those present.

  17. Evidence of satellite valley position in GaN by photoexcited field emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmazoglu, O.; Pavlidis, D.; Hartnagel, H. L.; Evtukh, A.; Litovchenko, V.; Semenenko, N.

    2008-06-01

    GaN field emitter rods with nanometer diameter were fabricated by photoelectrochemical etching on a n+-GaN substrate. Their electron field emission properties were investigated under ultraviolet (UV) illumination. The Fowler-Nordheim plots of the emission current show different slopes for nonilluminated and UV illuminated devices. A model based on the electron emission from valleys having different specific electron affinities is proposed to explain the experimental results. In the absence of illumination, the GaN rods are almost fully depleted and emission takes place only from the lower valley. Upon UV illumination and presence of a high electric field at the emitter tip, the upper valley of the conduction band appears to be occupied by electrons generated at the valence band. The energy difference between the lower and upper valleys was determined to be 1.15eV and is in good agreement with formerly published theoretical and measured values.

  18. Shear-deformation-potential constant of the conduction-band minima of Si: Experimental determination by the deep-level capacitance transient method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming-Fu; Zhao, Xue-Shu; Gu, Zong-Quan; Chen, Jian-Xin; Li, Yan-Jin; Wang, Jian-Qing

    1991-06-01

    The shear-deformation-potential constant Ξu of the conduction-band minima of Si has been measured by a method which we called deep-level capacitance transient under uniaxial stress. The uniaxial-stress (F) dependence of the electron emission rate en from deep levels to the split conduction-band minima of Si has been analyzed. Theoretical curves are in good agreement with experimental data for the S0 and S+ deep levels in Si. The values of Ξu obtained by the method are 11.1+/-0.3 eV at 148.9 K and 11.3+/-0.3 eV at 223.6 K. The analysis and the Ξu values obtained are also valuable for symmetry determination of deep electron traps in Si.

  19. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel about Charging Their EV at Home?

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, James E.

    2015-02-01

    Key Observations from the Survey of the EV Project Participants; In June 2013, 72% of EV Project participants were very satisfied with their home charging experience; 21% of participants relied totally on home charging for all of their charging needs; Volt owners relied more on home charging than Leaf owners, who reported more use of away-from-home charging; 74% of participants reported that they plug in their plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) every time they park at home. Others plugged in as they determined necessary to support their driving needs; 40% of participants reported that they would not have or are unsure that in June 2013 whether they would have purchased an alternating current (AC) Level 2 electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) for home charging if it had not been provided by The EV Project; and 61% of participants reported that The EV Project incentive was very important or important in their decision to obtain a PEV.

  20. Synthesis, characterization, growth mechanism, photoluminescence and field emission properties of novel dandelion-like gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabi, Ghulam; Cao, Chuanbao; Khan, Waheed S.; Hussain, Sajad; Usman, Zahid; Safdar, Muhammad; Shah, Sajjad Hussain; Khattak, Noor Abass Din

    2011-09-01

    Dandelion-like gallium nitride (GaN) microstructures were successfully synthesized via Ni catalyst assisted chemical vapor deposition method at 1200 °C under NH3 atmosphere by pre-treating precursors with aqueous ammonia. The as-synthesized product was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that as-synthesized dandelion-like GaN was pure and has hexagonal wurtzite structure. SEM results showed that the size of the dandelion-like GaN structure was in the range of 30-60 μm. Dandelion-like GaN microstructures exhibited reasonable field emission properties with the turn-on field of 9.65 V μm-1 (0.01 mA cm-2) and threshold field of 11.35 V μm-1 (1 mA cm-2) which is sufficient for applications of electron emission devices, field emission displays and vacuum micro electronic devices. Optical properties were studied at room temperature by using fluorescence spectrophotometer. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements of dandelion-like GaN showed a strong near-band-edge emission at 370.2 nm (3.35 eV) with blue band emission at 450.4 nm (2.75 eV) and 465.2 nm (2.66 eV) but with out yellow band emission. The room-temperature photoluminescence properties showed that it has also potential application in light-emitting devices. The tentative growth mechanism for the growth of dandelion-like GaN was also described.

  1. Determination of the optical band gap of Alq3 and its derivatives for the use in two-layer OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvenhage, Mart-Mari; Ntwaeaborwa, Martin; Visser, Hendrik G.; Swarts, Pieter J.; Swarts, Jannie C.; Swart, Hendrik C.

    2015-04-01

    Tris-(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminium (Alq3) was used as both the emission and electron transporting layer in organic light emitting diodes. One way to tune the emissive color of Alq3 is to introduce substituents onto the hydroxyquinoline ligands. These substituents will have an effect on the energy gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital. In this study, Alq3 powders were synthesized with -CH3 substituted at position 5 and 7 (tris-(5,7-dimethyl-8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminium) and -Cl at position 5 (tris-(5-chloro-8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminium). Optical absorption and cyclic voltammetry measurements were performed on the samples. The optical band gap was determined from these measurements. The band gap did not vary with more than 0.2 eV from the theoretical value of Alq3.

  2. Intervalence-band and band-to-band transitions in CuGaTe2 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincón, C.; Wasim, S. M.; Marín, G.

    2003-09-01

    A study of the temperature dependence of the heavy-hole-band-split-off-band Ehs and of the heavy-hole-band-conduction-band EGA transitions in single crystal of p-type CuGaTe2 was made from the analysis of optical absorption spectra. Ehs and EGA were found to vary from 0.72 to 0.70 eV and 1.36 to 1.25 eV, respectively, between 10 and 300 K. It is found that the variation of EGA with T is mainly governed by the contribution of optical phonons with a characteristic energy ɛeff≈14 meV. From the analysis of Ehs(T) and EGA(T), the temperature dependence of the split-off-band-conduction-band transition energy EGC is also determined. It was found to vary from 2.08 to 1.95 eV in the temperature range from 10 to 300 K. A relatively low value of the characteristic phonon energy, ɛeff≈11 meV, obtained in this case, indicates that the major contribution to the shift of EGC versus T originates from acoustic phonons.

  3. Fast spectrophotometry of the flare star EV lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhilyaev, B. E.; Andreev, M. V.; Sergeev, A. V.; Reshetnik, V. N.; Parakhin, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    We present the results of fast spectrophotometry for two flares on EV Lac with a time resolution of 8 s and a spectroscopic resolution R ˜ 100. The observations were performed in May and August 2010 with a slitless spectrograph on the Zeiss-600 telescope at Peak Terskol. We have estimated the UBVR magnitudes from spectrograms through a mathematical convolution of the spectra with the filter transmission curves. The UBV R amplitudes of the August 10, 2010 flare are 2\\underset{raise0.3emsmashriptscriptstyle\\cdot}{m} 83, 1\\underset{raise0.3emsmashriptscriptstyle\\cdot}{m} 94, 0\\underset{raise0.3emsmashriptscriptstyle\\cdot}{m} 82, and 0\\underset{raise0.3emsmashriptscriptstyle\\cdot}{m} 28, respectively. The UBV R amplitudes of the May 30, 2010 flare are 0\\underset{raise0.3emsmashriptscriptstyle\\cdot}{m} 65, 0\\underset{raise0.3emsmashriptscriptstyle\\cdot}{m} 25, 0\\underset{raise0.3emsmashriptscriptstyle\\cdot}{m} 15, and 0\\underset{raise0.3emsmashriptscriptstyle\\cdot}{m} 10, respectively. A detailed colorimetric analysis has allowed important parameters of the flares on EV Lac to be estimated: the temperatures at maximum light and their sizes. The color-color ( U - B)-( B - V ) diagrams confirm that both flares at maximum light radiate as a blackbody. The temperatures at maximum light was 13 400 ± 500 K for the August flare and 5700 ± 100 K for the May flare. During the May flare, an additional hydrogen emission appeared in the Balmer H α, H β, H γ, H δ, H ɛ, H ζ lines and the Balmer continuum (3647 Å) in the spectrum of EV Lac. The excess of emission in the Balmer lines was approximately from two to thirty percent. Based on our colorimetric analysis, we have estimated the linear sizes of the flares at maximum light. The size of the May 30, 2010 flare is approximately 7% of the stellar radius. The size of the August 10, 2010 flare is 3.9% of the stellar radius.

  4. Recombination reactions of 5-eV O(3P) atoms on a MgF2 surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orient, O. J.; Chutjian, A.; Murad, E.

    1990-01-01

    A source of hyperthermal, ground-state, impurity-free, atomic oxygen of an energy variable in the range 2-100 eV has been developed. Experimental results are presented of emission spectra in the wavelength range 250-850 nm produced by collisions of 5-eV O(3P) atoms with adsorbed NO and CO molecules on a MgF2 surface.

  5. An amphidynamic inorganic-organic hybrid crystal of bromoplumbate with 1,5-bis(1-methylimidazolium)pentane exhibiting multi-functionality of a dielectric anomaly and temperature-dependent dual band emissions.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yuan-Bo; Ren, Li-Te; Duan, Hai-Bao; Liu, Jian-Lan; Ren, Xiao-Ming

    2015-10-28

    Organic-inorganic hybrid crystals, [1,5-bis(1-methylimidazolium)pentane][PbBr3]2 (1), were achieved through the mutual diffusion of a bi-imidazolium based ionic liquid and PbBr2 solution of DMF in a glass tube. The hybrid solid crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Fdd2 at room temperature; and is composed of one-dimensional [PbBr3]∞ chains where the neighbouring PbBr6 coordination octahedra are linked together via the face-sharing mode and the inorganic chains are surrounded by organic cations. The hybrid solid exhibits a dielectric anomaly around 443 K and dielectric relaxation above 400 K, the dielectric response mechanism was investigated using variable-temperature X-ray single crystal and powder diffraction as well as DSC techniques. Fascinatingly, this hybrid solid shows dual band emissions, moreover, the fluorescence nature of the two emission bands exhibits a distinct response to temperature, leading to a temperature-dependent fluorescence color, this feature has promising application in the emission temperature-sensing field. PMID:26399984

  6. Broad-band X-ray emission and the reality of the broad iron line from the neutron star-white dwarf X-ray binary 4U 1820-30

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Aditya S.; Dewangan, G. C.; Pahari, M.; Misra, R.; Kembhavi, A. K.; Raychaudhuri, B.

    2016-09-01

    Broad relativistic iron lines from neutron star X-ray binaries are important probes of the inner accretion disc. The X-ray reflection features can be weakened due to strong magnetic fields or very low iron abundances such as is possible in X-ray binaries with low mass, first generation stars as companions. Here, we investigate the reality of the broad iron line detected earlier from the neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1820-30 with a degenerate helium dwarf companion. We perform a comprehensive, systematic broad-band spectral study of the atoll source using Suzaku and simultaneous NuSTAR and Swift observations. We have used different continuum models involving accretion disc emission, thermal blackbody and thermal Comptonization of either disc or blackbody photons. The Suzaku data show positive and negative residuals in the region of Fe K band. These features are well described by two absorption edges at 7.67 ± 0.14 keV and 6.93 ± 0.07 keV or partial covering photoionized absorption or by blurred reflection. Though, the simultaneous Swift and NuSTAR data do not clearly reveal the emission or absorption features, the data are consistent with the presence of either absorption or emission features. Thus, the absorption based models provide an alternative to the broad iron line or reflection model. The absorption features may arise in winds from the inner accretion disc. The broad-band spectra appear to disfavour continuum models in which the blackbody emission from the neutron-star surface provides the seed photons for thermal Comptonization. Our results suggest emission from a thin accretion disc (kTdisc ˜ 1 keV), Comptonization of disc photons in a boundary layer most likely covering a large fraction of the neutron-star surface and innermost parts of the accretion disc, and blackbody emission (kTbb ˜ 2 keV) from the polar regions.

  7. Efficient evaluation of epitaxial MoS2 on sapphire by direct band structure imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hokwon; Dumcenco, Dumitru; Fregnaux, Mathieu; Benayad, Anass; Kung, Yen-Cheng; Kis, Andras; Renault, Olivier; Lanes Group, Epfl Team; Leti, Cea Team

    The electronic band structure evaluation of two-dimensional metal dichalcogenides is critical as the band structure can be greatly influenced by the film thickness, strain, and substrate. Here, we performed a direct measurement of the band structure of as-grown monolayer MoS2 on single crystalline sapphire by reciprocal-space photoelectron emission microscopy with a conventional laboratory ultra-violet He I light source. Arrays of gold electrodes were deposited onto the sample in order to avoid charging effects due to the insulating substrate. This allowed the high resolution mapping (ΔE = 0.2 eV Δk = 0.05 Å-1) of the valence states in momentum space down to 7 eV below the Fermi level. The high degree of the epitaxial alignment of the single crystalline MoS2 nuclei was verified by the direct momentum space imaging over a large area containing multiple nuclei. The derived values of the hole effective mass were 2.41 +/-0.05 m0 and 0.81 +/-0.05 m0, respectively at Γ and K points, consistent with the theoretical values of the freestanding monolayer MoS2 reported in the literature. HK acknowledges the french CEA Basic Technological Research program (RTB) for funding.

  8. Thermoreflectance investigation of Th band structure

    SciTech Connect

    Colavita, E.; Paolucci, G.; Rosei, R.

    1982-06-15

    Thermoreflectance measurements have been carried out on thorium bulk samples at about 140 K in the 0.5--5-eV photon energy range. The data are interpreted within the framework of existing energy-band calculations. Several critical-point transitions and a Fermi-surface transition have been clearly identified and located in the Brillouin zone.

  9. The Band Gap of AlGaN Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Biefeld, R.M.; Crawford, M.H.; Han, J.; Lee, S.R.; Petersen, G.A.; Wright, A.F.

    1999-01-29

    The band gap of AlXGal.XN is measured for the composition range 0s<0.45; the resulting bowing parameter, b=+O.69 eV, is compared to 20 previous works. A correlation is found between the measured band gaps and the methods used for epitaxial growth of the AlXGal_XN: directly nucleated or buffered growths of AlXGal-XN initiated at temperatures T>800 C on sapphire usually lead to stronger apparent bowing (b> +1.3 eV); while growths initiated using low-temperature buffers on sapphire, followed by high-temperature growth, lead to weaker bowing (b<+ 1.3 eV). Extant data suggests that the correct band-gap bowing parameter for AlXGal-XN is b=+O.62 (N.45) eV.

  10. Gastric Banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... gastric banding before deciding to have the procedure. Advertisements for a device or procedure may not include ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  11. Direct band gap silicon allotropes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qianqian; Xu, Bo; Sun, Jian; Liu, Hanyu; Zhao, Zhisheng; Yu, Dongli; Fan, Changzeng; He, Julong

    2014-07-16

    Elemental silicon has a large impact on the economy of the modern world and is of fundamental importance in the technological field, particularly in solar cell industry. The great demand of society for new clean energy and the shortcomings of the current silicon solar cells are calling for new materials that can make full use of the solar power. In this paper, six metastable allotropes of silicon with direct or quasidirect band gaps of 0.39-1.25 eV are predicted by ab initio calculations at ambient pressure. Five of them possess band gaps within the optimal range for high converting efficiency from solar energy to electric power and also have better optical properties than the Si-I phase. These Si structures with different band gaps could be applied to multiple p-n junction photovoltaic modules.

  12. Band Offset Characterization of the Atomic Layer Deposited Aluminum Oxide on m-Plane Indium Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Ye; Wallace, Joshua S.; Qin, Yueling; Gardella, Joseph A.; Dabiran, Amir M.; Singisetti, Uttam

    2016-04-01

    In this letter, we report the band offset characterization of the atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide on non-polar m-plane indium nitride grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy by using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The valence band offset between aluminum oxide and m-plane indium nitride was determined to be 2.83 eV. The Fermi level of indium nitride was 0.63 eV above valence band maximum, indicated a reduced band bending in comparison to polar indium nitride. The band gap of aluminum oxide was found to be to 6.7 eV, which gave a conduction band offset of 3.17 eV.

  13. Enhanced Video Surveillance (EVS) with speckle imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Carrano, C J

    2004-01-13

    Enhanced Video Surveillance (EVS) with Speckle Imaging is a high-resolution imaging system that substantially improves resolution and contrast in images acquired over long distances. This technology will increase image resolution up to an order of magnitude or greater for video surveillance systems. The system's hardware components are all commercially available and consist of a telescope or large-aperture lens assembly, a high-performance digital camera, and a personal computer. The system's software, developed at LLNL, extends standard speckle-image-processing methods (used in the astronomical community) to solve the atmospheric blurring problem associated with imaging over medium to long distances (hundreds of meters to tens of kilometers) through horizontal or slant-path turbulence. This novel imaging technology will not only enhance national security but also will benefit law enforcement, security contractors, and any private or public entity that uses video surveillance to protect their assets.

  14. Band offsets in c-Si/Si-XII heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Jamal I.; Malone, Brad D.; Cohen, Marvin L.; Louie, Steven G.

    2014-08-01

    Silicon has a rich phase diagram with a multitude of phases existing over a wide range of pressures and temperatures, in addition to the common cubic silicon (c-Si) phase. One such phase, Si-XII, was first observed less than 2 decades ago in diamond anvil experiments, and more recently as a product of nanoindentation. In some of these latter experiments, I-V measurements were performed to characterize the c-Si/Si-XII interface that results when Si-XII is formed in cubic silicon substrates. In this paper we describe calculations of the band offsets in c-Si/Si-XII heterojunctions. We find that the heterojunction is of Type I and that the band offsets are estimated to be ΔEv=0.3 eV and ΔEc=0.5 eV for the valence bands and conduction bands, respectively.

  15. Simple cost model for EV traction motors

    SciTech Connect

    Cuenca, R.M.

    1995-02-01

    A simple cost model has been developed that allows the calculation of the OEM cost of electric traction motors of three different types, normalized as a function of power in order to accommodate different power and size. The model includes enough information on the various elements integrated in the motors to allow analysis of individual components and to factor-in the effects of changes in commodities prices. A scalable cost model for each of the main components of an electric vehicle (EV) is a useful tool that can have direct application in computer simulation or in parametric studies. For the cost model to have wide usefulness, it needs to be valid for a range of values of some parameter that determines the magnitude or size of the component. For instance, in the case of batteries, size may be determined by energy capacity, usually expressed in kilowatt-hours (kWh), while in the case of traction motors, size is better determined by rated power, usually expressed in kilowatts (kW). The simplest case is when the cost of the component in question is a direct function of its size; then cost is simply the product of its specific cost ($/unit size) and the number of units (size) in the vehicle in question. Batteries usually fall in this category (cost = energy capacity x $/kWh). But cost is not always linear with size or magnitude; motors (and controllers), for instance, become relatively less expensive as power rating increases. Traction motors, one of the main components for EV powertrains are examined in this paper, and a simplified cost model is developed for the three most popular design variations.

  16. Electronic Structure measurements of MoS2 clusters using Soft x-ray absorption and Emission Spectrscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Buuren, Tony; Bostedt, Christoph; Franco, Nicolas; Terminello, Lou; Wilcoxon, Jess

    2000-03-01

    The electronic structure of well defined MoS2 clusters was investigated using x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopes. MoS2 clusters from 1-10nm in diameter were formed using the inverse micelle synthetic process at room temperature in an inert oil. The cluster size and distribution could be precisely controlled using a high-pressure liquid chromatography system. By measuring the S 2p absorption were are able to measure the change in the conduction band edge of the MoS2 clusters as a function of particle size. We found that the conduction band edge was blue shifted with decreasing clusters size with shifts up to 1.2 eV measured for clusters 2nm in diameter. The valence band density of states was determined by measuring the soft x-ray emission from the S 2p core hole. A shift in the valence band edge together with a dramatic change in the density of states was observed with decreasing cluster size. For 2nm clusters a valence band shift of approximately 1.0 eV was measured. These results are compared to recent theoretical and optical measurments on MoS2 clusters. This work is supported by US Department of Energy under contract number DE-AC04-AL8500 and W-7405-ENG-48.

  17. Ionospheric dynamo theory for production of far ultraviolet emissions on Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, M. K.; Warren, J. A.; Clarke, J. T.

    1989-01-01

    A model is presented to explain diffuse FUV emissions from the outer planets, specifically Uranus, in excess of those diffuse emissions that are currently explainable by scattering of sunlight and/or excitation by photoelectrons. These electroglow emissions in H Ly-alpha and H2 bands, which occur in the sunlit hemisphere slightly above the homopause, appear to require particle excitation in the 10- to 50-eV range. An in situ mechanism for accelerating photoelectrons (and ions is proposed, involving neutral wind dynamo generation of field-aligned currents analogous to what occurs in the earth's equatorial E and F regions. Sufficiently strong field-aligned currents are found in the model calculation for Uranus to produce a potential drop of about 100 eV or greater between the F peak and homopause, concentrated at lower altitudes, and capable in principle of accelerating photoelectrons (and ions) to the 10- to 50-eV energies required to explain the observed emissions. The fact that the excitation and ionization cross sections are larger than elastic scattering cross sections in an H2 atmosphere at these energies makes in situ acceleration feasible for the production of UV on the outer planets.

  18. Ionospheric dynamo theory for production of far ultraviolet emissions on Uranus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, M. K.; Clarke, J. T.; Warren, J. A.

    1989-06-01

    A model is presented to explain diffuse FUV emissions from the outer planets, specifically Uranus, in excess of those diffuse emissions that are currently explainable by scattering of sunlight and/or excitation by photoelectrons. These electroglow emissions in H Ly-alpha and H2 bands, which occur in the sunlit hemisphere slightly above the homopause, appear to require particle excitation in the 10- to 50-eV range. An in situ mechanism for accelerating photoelectrons (and ions is proposed, involving neutral wind dynamo generation of field-aligned currents analogous to what occurs in the earth's equatorial E and F regions. Sufficiently strong field-aligned currents are found in the model calculation for Uranus to produce a potential drop of about 100 eV or greater between the F peak and homopause, concentrated at lower altitudes, and capable in principle of accelerating photoelectrons (and ions) to the 10- to 50-eV energies required to explain the observed emissions. The fact that the excitation and ionization cross sections are larger than elastic scattering cross sections in an H2 atmosphere at these energies makes in situ acceleration feasible for the production of UV on the outer planets.

  19. Ionospheric dynamo theory for production of far ultraviolet emissions on Uranus

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, M.K.; Warren, J.A. ); Clarke, J.T. )

    1989-06-01

    A model is presented to explain diffuse FUV emissions from the outer planets, specifically Uranus, in excess of those diffuse emissions that are currently explainable by scattering of sunlight and/or excitation by photoelectrons. These electroglow emissions in H Ly {alpha} and H{sub 2} bands, which occur in the sunlit hemisphere slightly above the homopause, appear to require particle excitation in the 10- to 50-eV range. The authors propose an in situ mechanism for accelerating photoelectrons (and ions) involving neutral wind dynamo generation of field-aligned currents analogous to what occurs in the Earth's equatorial E and F regions. Sufficiently strong field-aligned currents are found in the model calculation for Uranus to produce a potential drop of {approximately} 100 eV or greater between the F peak and homopause, concentrated at lower altitudes, and capable in principle of accelerating photoelectrons (and ions) to the 10- to 50-eV energies required to explain the observed emissions. The fact that the excitation and ionization cross sections are larger than elastic scattering cross sections in an H{sub 2} atmosphere at these energies makes in situ acceleration feasible for the production of UV on the outer planets.

  20. X-ray grating spectrometer for opacity measurements in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range at the LULI 2000 laser facility

    SciTech Connect

    Reverdin, Charles; Caillaud, T.; Gilleron, F.; Pain, J. C.; Silvert, V.; Soullie, G.; Villette, B.; Thais, Frederic; Loisel, Guillaume; Blenski, T.; Poirier, M.; Busquet, M.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Serres, F.; Ducret, J. E.; Foelsner, W.; Gilles, D.; Turck-Chieze, S.

    2012-10-15

    An x-ray grating spectrometer was built in order to measure opacities in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range with an average spectral resolution {approx} 50. It has been used at the LULI-2000 laser facility at Ecole Polytechnique (France) to measure the {Delta}n = 0, n = 3 transitions of several elements with neighboring atomic number: Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cu in the same experimental conditions. Hence a spectrometer with a wide spectral range is required. This spectrometer features one line of sight looking through a heated sample at backlighter emission. It is outfitted with one toroidal condensing mirror and several flat mirrors cutting off higher energy photons. The spectral dispersion is obtained with a flatfield grating. Detection consists of a streak camera sensitive to soft x-ray radiation. Some experimental results showing the performance of this spectrometer are presented.

  1. X-ray grating spectrometer for opacity measurements in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range at the LULI 2000 laser facility.

    PubMed

    Reverdin, Charles; Thais, Frédéric; Loisel, Guillaume; Busquet, M; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S; Blenski, T; Caillaud, T; Ducret, J E; Foelsner, W; Gilles, D; Gilleron, F; Pain, J C; Poirier, M; Serres, F; Silvert, V; Soullie, G; Turck-Chieze, S; Villette, B

    2012-10-01

    An x-ray grating spectrometer was built in order to measure opacities in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range with an average spectral resolution ∼ 50. It has been used at the LULI-2000 laser facility at École Polytechnique (France) to measure the Δn = 0, n = 3 transitions of several elements with neighboring atomic number: Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cu in the same experimental conditions. Hence a spectrometer with a wide spectral range is required. This spectrometer features one line of sight looking through a heated sample at backlighter emission. It is outfitted with one toroidal condensing mirror and several flat mirrors cutting off higher energy photons. The spectral dispersion is obtained with a flatfield grating. Detection consists of a streak camera sensitive to soft x-ray radiation. Some experimental results showing the performance of this spectrometer are presented. PMID:23126955

  2. X-ray grating spectrometer for opacity measurements in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range at the LULI 2000 laser facilitya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverdin, Charles; Thais, Frédéric; Loisel, Guillaume; Busquet, M.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Blenski, T.; Caillaud, T.; Ducret, J. E.; Foelsner, W.; Gilles, D.; Gilleron, F.; Pain, J. C.; Poirier, M.; Serres, F.; Silvert, V.; Soullie, G.; Turck-Chieze, S.; Villette, B.

    2012-10-01

    An x-ray grating spectrometer was built in order to measure opacities in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range with an average spectral resolution ⟨E/δE⟩ ˜ 50. It has been used at the LULI-2000 laser facility at École Polytechnique (France) to measure the Δn = 0, n = 3 transitions of several elements with neighboring atomic number: Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cu in the same experimental conditions. Hence a spectrometer with a wide spectral range is required. This spectrometer features one line of sight looking through a heated sample at backlighter emission. It is outfitted with one toroidal condensing mirror and several flat mirrors cutting off higher energy photons. The spectral dispersion is obtained with a flatfield grating. Detection consists of a streak camera sensitive to soft x-ray radiation. Some experimental results showing the performance of this spectrometer are presented.

  3. Nitrous oxide emissions in Midwest US maize production vary widely with band-injected N fertilizer rates, timing and nitrapyrin presence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burzaco, Juan P.; Smith, Doug R.; Vyn, Tony J.

    2013-09-01

    Nitrification inhibitors have the potential to reduce N2O emissions from maize fields, but optimal results may depend on deployment of integrated N fertilizer management systems that increase yields achieved per unit of N2O lost. A new micro-encapsulated formulation of nitrapyrin for liquid N fertilizers became available to US farmers in 2010. Our research objectives were to (i) assess the impacts of urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) management practices (timing, rate and nitrification inhibitor) and environmental variables on growing-season N2O fluxes and (ii) identify UAN treatment combinations that both reduce N2O emissions and optimize maize productivity. Field experiments near West Lafayette, Indiana in 2010 and 2011 examined three N rates (0, 90 and 180 kg N ha-1), two timings (pre-emergence and side-dress) and presence or absence of nitrapyrin. Mean cumulative N2O-N emissions (Q10 corrected) were 0.81, 1.83 and 3.52 kg N2O-N ha-1 for the rates of 0, 90 and 180 kg N ha-1, respectively; 1.80 and 2.31 kg N2O-N ha-1 for pre-emergence and side-dress timings, respectively; and 1.77 versus 2.34 kg N2O-N ha-1 for with and without nitrapyrin, respectively. Yield-scaled N2O-N emissions increased with N rates as anticipated (averaging 167, 204 and 328 g N2O-N Mg grain-1 for the 0, 90 and 180 kg N ha-1 rates), but were 22% greater with the side-dress timing than the pre-emergence timing (when averaged across N rates and inhibitor treatments) because of environmental conditions following later applications. Overall yield-scaled N2O-N emissions were 22% lower with nitrapyrin than without the inhibitor, but these did not interact with N rate or timing.

  4. Exciton Emission from Bare and Alq3/Gold Coated GaN Nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Fatemesadat; Kuhnert, Gerd; Hommel, Detlef; Schmitzer, Heidrun; Wagner, Hans-Peter

    We study the excitonic and impurity related emission in bare and aluminum quinoline (Alq3)/gold coated wurtzite GaN nanorods by temperature-dependent time-integrated (TI) and time-resolved (TR) photoluminescence (PL). The GaN nanorods were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Alq3 as well as Alq3/gold covered nanorods were synthesized by organic molecular beam deposition. In the near-band edge region a donor-bound-exciton (D0X) emission is observed at 3.473 eV. Another emission band at 3.275 eV reveals LO-phonon replica and is attributed to a donor-acceptor-pair (DAP) luminescence. TR PL traces at 20 K show a nearly biexponential decay for the D0X with lifetimes of approximately 180 and 800 ps for both bare and Alq3 coated nanorods. In GaN nanorods which were coated with an Alq3 film and subsequently with a 10 nm thick gold layer we observe a PL quenching of D0X and DAP band and the lifetimes of the D0X transition shorten. The quenching behaviour is partially attributed to the energy-transfer from free excitons and donor-bound-excitons to plasmon oscillations in the gold layer.

  5. Proteomics analysis of EV71-infected cells reveals the involvement of host protein NEDD4L in EV71 replication.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Rei-Lin; Lin, Ya-Han; Wang, Robert Yung-Liang; Hsu, Chia-Wei; Chiu, Yi-Ting; Huang, Hsing-I; Kao, Li-Ting; Yu, Jau-Song; Shih, Shin-Ru; Wu, Chih-Ching

    2015-04-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a human enterovirus that has seriously affected the Asia-Pacific area for the past two decades. EV71 infection can result in mild hand-foot-and-mouth disease and herpangina and may occasionally lead to severe neurological complications in children. However, the specific biological processes that become altered during EV71 infection remain unclear. To further explore host responses upon EV71 infection, we identified proteins differentially expressed in EV71-infected human glioblastoma SF268 cells using isobaric mass tag (iTRAQ) labeling coupled with multidimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Network analysis of proteins altered in cells infected with EV71 revealed that the changed biological processes are related to protein and ion transport, regulation of protein degradation, and homeostatic processes. We confirmed that the levels of NEDD4L and PSMF1 were increased and reduced, respectively, in EV71-infected cells compared to mock-infected control cells. To determine the physiological relevance of our findings, we investigated the consequences of EV71 infection in cells with NEDD4L or PSMF1 depletion. We found that the depletion of NEDD4L significantly reduced the replication of EV71, whereas PSMF1 knockdown enhanced EV71 replication. Collectively, our findings provide the first evidence of proteome-wide dysregulation by EV71 infection and suggest a novel role for the host protein NEDD4L in the replication of this virus.

  6. Lasers without inversion (LWI) in Space: A possible explanation for intense, narrow-band, emissions that dominate the visible and/or far-UV (FUV) spectra of certain astronomical objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, P. P.; Glownia, J. H.

    2002-03-01

    The optical or far-UV (FUV) spectra of certain objects in Space are completely dominated by one or two spectrally narrow emission lines, strongly suggesting that laser action of some kind occurs in these objects. However, the electronic level structures of the atoms/ions producing these emissions preclude the possibility of maintaining population inversions on the electronic transitions involved. In lasers, gain is normally produced on an optical transition that is inverted, i.e. one that has more atoms maintained in the upper than in the lower state, so that stimulated emission can exceed stimulated absorption. However, as a result of discoveries made in quantum electronics over the past 30 years or so, one now knows that there are several ways to make stimulated emission occur on a transition that is not inverted, i.e. to realize a ``laser without inversion (LWI)''. This requires first making the atoms non-absorbing at the lasing frequency, i.e. setting up a condition of ``electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)''. Some recently developed EIT techniques for three-level atoms are first reviewed. A simple model for a space LWI based upon a gas of two-level atoms is then proposed. In this model, transparency results from a form of EIT induced by the presence of an intense, monochromatic, continuous-wave, laser beam tuned to the frequency omega _o of the two-level-atom transition. Amplification of light at this same frequency occurs via resonant stimulated hyper-Raman scattering (SHRS) and four-wave mixing (FWM), with pumping energy provided by continuum starlight spectrally overlapping the two outer absorption sidebands (``Mollow bands'') induced by the presence of the beam at omega _o. Two specific examples of superintense line emission from Space are here considered. These are (a) the H(alpha ) emission line appearing as a dominant singularity in certain reddened, early-type stars, and (b) the powerful O VI (1032 Å, 1038 Å) emission doublet that dominates

  7. Narrow-band single photon emission at room temperature based on a single nitrogen-vacancy center coupled to an all-fiber-cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, Roland; Bommer, Alexander; Becher, Christoph; Pauly, Christoph; Mücklich, Frank; Schell, Andreas W.; Engel, Philip; Benson, Oliver; Schröder, Tim; Reichel, Jakob

    2014-08-18

    We report the realization of a device based on a single Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) center in diamond coupled to a fiber-cavity for use as single photon source (SPS). The device consists of two concave mirrors each directly fabricated on the facets of two optical fibers and a preselected nanodiamond containing a single NV center deposited onto one of these mirrors. Both, cavity in- and out-put are directly fiber-coupled, and the emission wavelength is easily tunable by variation of the separation of the two mirrors with a piezo-electric crystal. By coupling to the cavity, we achieve an increase of the spectral photon rate density by two orders of magnitude compared to free-space emission of the NV center. With this work, we establish a simple all-fiber based SPS with promising prospects for the integration into photonic quantum networks.

  8. X-ray emission line spectroscopy of cataclysmic variables. II. Temperatures and densities from line ratios in the Chandra HETG band

    SciTech Connect

    Schlegel, E. M.; Shipley, H. V.; Rana, V. R.; Barrett, P. E.; Singh, K. P. E-mail: vrana@srl.caltech.edu E-mail: singh@tifr.res.in

    2014-12-10

    We summarize the results of a line-by-line fitting analysis of the available spectra obtained using the Chandra High-Energy Transmission Grating. We confirm the existence of broad ionization and electron temperature ranges and high number densities in cataclysmic variables (CVs) of all subtypes. Temperatures range from ∼0.4 keV to ∼5-10 keV or more with a broad range detected in any given CV. In other words, single-temperature models do not describe the line emission. Number densities also cover a broad range, from 10{sup 12} to >10{sup 16} cm{sup –3}. We demonstrate that much of the plasma is in a nonequilibrium state; the Fe emission, however, may arise from plasma in the ionization equilibrium.

  9. An origin of orange (2 eV) photoluminescence in SiO{sub 2} films implanted with high Si{sup +}-ion doses

    SciTech Connect

    Tyschenko, I. E.

    2015-09-15

    The photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectra of SiO{sub 2} films implanted with high (3 at %) Si{sup +}-ion doses are studied in relation to the temperature of postimplantation annealing. It is shown that two photoluminescence bands with peaks at 2.7 and 2 eV are dominant in the spectra. As the annealing temperature is increased, the relation between the intensities of the 2.7 and 2 eV bands changes in favor of the former one. Both of the photoluminescence bands have their main excitation peak at the energy 5.1 eV. The excitation spectrum of the ∼2-eV band exhibits also peaks at 3.8 and 4.6 eV. It is concluded that, in the implanted SiO{sub 2} films, the orange photoluminescence band originates from radiative transitions between levels of centers associated with a deficiency of oxygen (≡Si–Si≡ or =Si:) and the levels of nonbridging oxygen (≡Si–O•)

  10. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel About Charging Their EV Away From Home?

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, James E.

    2015-02-01

    The EV Project is an infrastructure study that enrolled over 8,000 residential participants. These participants purchased or leased a Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle or Chevrolet Volt extended-range electric vehicle and were among the first to explore this new electric drive technology. Collectively, battery electric vehicles, extended-range electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are called PEVs. The EV Project participants were very cooperative and enthusiastic about their participation in the project and very supportive in providing feedback and information. The information and attitudes of these participants concerning their experience with their PEVs were solicited using a survey in June 2013. At that time, some had up to 3 years of experience with their PEVs.

  11. Crew coordination issues of EVS approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Bernd; Korn, Bernd R.

    2004-08-01

    Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS) are currently developed with the goal to alleviate restrictions in airspace and airport capacity in low visibility conditions. Existing EVS-systems are based on IR-sensors although the penetration of bad weather (dense fog and light rain) by MMW-radar is remarkably better than in the infrared spectrum. But the quality of MMW radar is rather poor compared to IR images. However, the analysis of radar images can be simplified dramatically when simple passive radar retro-reflectors are used to mark the runway. This presentation is the third in a series of studies investigating the use of such simple landing aids. In the first study the feasibility of the radar PAPI concept was determined; the second one provided first promising human performance results in a low-fidelity simulation. The present study examined pilot performance, workload, situation awareness, and crew coordination issues in a high-fidelity simulation of 'Radar-PAPI' visual aids supporting a precision straight-in landing in low visibility (CAT-II). Simulation scenarios were completed in a fixed-base cockpit simulator involving six two-pilot flight-deck crews. Pilots could derive visual cues to correct lateral glide-path deviations from 13 pairs of runway-marking corner reflectors. Vertical deviations were indicated by a set of six diplane reflectors using intensity-coding to provide the PAPI categories needed for the correction of vertical deviations. The study compared three display formats and associated crew coordination issues: (1) PF views a head-down B-scope display and switches to visual landing upon PNF's call-out that runway is in sight; (2) PF views a head-down C-scope display and switches to visual landing upon PNF's call-out that runway is in sight; (3) PF views through a head-up display (HUD) that displays primary flight guidance information and receives vertical and lateral guidance from PNF who views a head-down B-scope. PNF guidance is terminated upon PF

  12. Effects of excess oxygen on the 4.5-6.3 eV absorption spectra of oxygen-rich high purity silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magruder, R. H.; Robinson, S. J.

    2016-05-01

    Type III silica samples were implanted with O using a multi-energy process that produced a layer of constant concentration to within ±5% beginning ∼80 nm from the surface and extending to ∼640 nm below the surfaces of the samples. The concentrations of excess oxygen in the layer ranged from 0.035 to ∼2.1at.%. In these samples we show that E‧ centers and NBOHCs, as well as the normal cadre of ODC (II) centers, were suppressed, and the optical absorption from 4.7 to 6.4 eV was primarily due to oxygen excess defects. Using Gaussian fitting techniques to examine the optical difference spectra, we have been able to identify four defect centers that are related to excess oxygen defect bands at 4.76 eV, 5.42 eV, 5.75 eV and 6.25 eV.

  13. The study of optical band edge property of bismuth oxide nanowires α-Bi2O3.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ching-Hwa; Chan, Ching-Hsiang; Huang, Ying-Sheng; Tien, Li-Chia; Chao, Liang-Chiun

    2013-05-20

    The α-phase Bi(2)O(3) (α-Bi(2)O(3)) is a crucial and potential visiblelight photocatalyst material needless of intentional doping on accommodating band gap. The understanding on fundamental optical property of α-Bi(2)O(3) is important for its extended applications. In this study, bismuth oxide nanowires with diameters from tens to hundreds nm have been grown by vapor transport method driven with vapor-liquid-solid mechanism on Si substrate. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman measurement confirm α phase of monoclinic structure for the as-grown nanowires. The axial direction for the as-grown nanowires was along < 122 >. The band-edge structure of α-Bi(2)O(3) has been probed experimentally by thermoreflectance (TR) spectroscopy. The direct band gap was determined accurately to be 2.91 eV at 300 K. Temperaturedependent TR measurements of 30-300 K were carried out to evaluate temperature-energy shift and line-width broadening effect for the band edge of α-Bi(2)O(3) thin-film nanowires. Photoluminescence (PL) experiments at 30 and 300 K were carried out to identify band-edge emission as well as defect luminescence for the α-Bi(2)O(3) nanowires. On the basis of experimental analyses of TR and PL, optical characteristics of direct band edge of α-Bi(2)O(3) nanowires have thus been realized.

  14. EFFECT OF METALLICITY ON X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE WARM-HOT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Ursino, E.; Galeazzi, M.; Roncarelli, M.

    2010-09-20

    Hydrodynamic simulations predict that a significant fraction of the gas in the current universe is in the form of high temperature, highly ionized plasma emitting and absorbing primarily in the soft X-ray and UV bands, dubbed the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM). Its signature should be observable in redshifted emission and absorption lines from highly ionized elements. To determine the expected WHIM emission in the soft X-ray band we used the output of a large scale smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulation to generate images and spectra with angular resolution of 14'' and energy resolution of 1 eV. The current biggest limit of any hydrodynamic simulation in predicting the X-ray emission comes from metal diffusion. In our investigation, by using four different models for the WHIM metallicity we have found a strong dependence of the emission on the model used, with differences up to almost an order of magnitude. For each model, we have investigated the redshift distribution and angular scale of the emission, confirming that most photons come from redshift z < 1.2 and that the emission has a typical angular scale of less than a few arcminutes. We also compared our simulations with the few currently available observations and found that, within the variation of the metallicity models, our predictions are in good agreement with current constraints on the WHIM emission, and at this time the weak experimental constraints on the WHIM emission are not sufficient to exclude any of the models used.

  15. An interpretation of a mysterious 3.0- to 4.6-kHz emission band observed on Voyager 2 near Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonwalkar, Vikas S.; Inan, Umran S.; Bell, Timothy F.

    1995-01-01

    A whistler mode interpretation is provided for the narrowband signal (f approx. 3 - 4.6 kHz, Delta f approx. 200 - 800 Hz) detected by the plasma wave instrument on Voyager 2 during its encounter with Neptune. Our analysis indicates that this signal may have been generated in a limited spatial region and that it propagated to other regions of the Neptunian magnetosphere in the nonducted whistler mode with wave normal vectors lying close to the whistler mode resonance cone. The observed frequency variation of the emission along the Voyager 2 trajectory is consistent with this interpretation. The source location is estimated to be near the magnetic equator at L approx. 4 and dipole longitude of 111 deg W (260 deg W longitude in Neptune coordinate system). The source frequency and bandwidth are estimated to be 3.6 kHz and 300 Hz, respectively. The waves most likely would have been generated by energetic electrons with 2- to 20-keV parallel energy via a gyroresonance mechanism. Our interpretation of the narrowband emissions places the following limits on the Neptunian thermal plasma density and temperature: (1) N(sub e, min) greater than 0.16 el/cu cm for 1.2 R(sub N) less than R less than 5 R(sub N), (2) N(sub e, max) = 597.5/cu cm at R - 1.3 R(sub N), (3) T(sub e, max) less than 500-1000 K at R approx. 5 R(sub N). It is also possible that the weak UV aurora observed near Neptune could have been caused by the precipitation of energetic particles by the narrowband emission as a result of wave particle interactions.

  16. Potentials and capabilities of the Extracellular Vesicle (EV) Array.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Malene Møller; Bæk, Rikke; Varming, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) and exosomes are difficult to enrich or purify from biofluids, hence quantification and phenotyping of these are tedious and inaccurate. The multiplexed, highly sensitive and high-throughput platform of the EV Array presented by Jørgensen et al., (J Extracell Vesicles, 2013; 2: 10) has been refined regarding the capabilities of the method for characterization and molecular profiling of EV surface markers. Here, we present an extended microarray platform to detect and phenotype plasma-derived EVs (optimized for exosomes) for up to 60 antigens without any enrichment or purification prior to analysis.

  17. B-757: RIPS, LAHSO, EVS, and SVS projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    B-757 experimental equipment installed to support RIPS (Runway Incursion Prevention system), LAHSO (Land and Hold Short Operations), EVS (Enhanced Vision System), and SVS (Synthetic Vision System) projects.

  18. Wideband thulium-holmium-doped fiber source with combined forward and backward amplified spontaneous emission at 1600-2300  nm spectral band.

    PubMed

    Honzatko, Pavel; Baravets, Yauhen; Kasik, Ivan; Podrazky, Ondrej

    2014-06-15

    We have experimentally demonstrated two extremely wideband amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) sources. High bandwidth is achieved by combining the backward and forward ASEs generated in thulium-holmium-doped fiber using appropriate wideband couplers. The ASE source optimized for flat spectral power density covers a spectral range from 1527 to 2171 nm at a -10  dB level. The ASE source optimized for spectroscopy features an enhancement with respect to single-mode fiber (SMF) coupled halogen lamps within the spectral range from 1540 nm to more than 2340 nm covering the 800 nm bandwidth.

  19. Laparoscopic gastric banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... adjustable gastric banding; Bariatric surgery - laparoscopic gastric banding; Obesity - gastric banding; Weight loss - gastric banding ... gastric banding is not a "quick fix" for obesity. It will greatly change your lifestyle. You must ...

  20. Composition of near-Earth Asteroid 2008 EV5: Potential target for robotic and human exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Vishnu; Corre, Lucille Le; Hicks, Michael; Lawrence, Kenneth; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Abell, Paul A.; Gaffey, Michael J.; Hardersen, Paul S.

    2012-11-01

    We observed Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) 2008 EV5 in the visible (0.30-0.92 μm) and near-IR (0.75-2.5 μm) wavelengths to determine its surface composition. This asteroid is especially interesting because it is a potential target for two sample return mission proposals (Marco Polo-R and Hayabusa-2) and human exploration due to its low delta-v for rendezvous. The spectrum of 2008 EV5 is essentially featureless with exception of a weak 0.48-μm spin-forbidden Fe3+ absorption band. The spectrum also has an overall blue slope. The albedo of 2008 EV5 remains uncertain with a lower limit at 0.05 and a higher end at 0.20 based on thermal modeling. The Busch et al. (Busch et al. [2011]. Icarus 212, 649-660) albedo estimate of 0.12 ± 0.04 is consistent with our thermal modeling results. The albedo and composition of 2008 EV5 are also consistent with a C-type taxonomic classification (Somers, J.M., Hicks, M.D., Lawrence, K.J. [2008]. Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 40, 440). The best spectral match is with CI carbonaceous chondrites similar to Orgueil, which also have a weak 0.48-μm feature and an overall blue slope. This 0.48-μm feature is also seen in the spectrum of magnetite. The albedo of CI chondrites is at the lower limit of our estimated range for the albedo of 2008 EV5.

  1. Supernova 2010ev: A reddened high velocity gradient type Ia supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Claudia P.; González-Gaitán, Santiago; Folatelli, Gastón; Pignata, Giuliano; Anderson, Joseph P.; Hamuy, Mario; Morrell, Nidia; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Taubenberger, Stefan; Bufano, Filomena; Olivares E., Felipe; Haislip, Joshua B.; Reichart, Daniel E.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: We present and study the spectroscopic and photometric evolution of the type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2010ev. Methods: We obtain and analyze multiband optical light curves and optical/near-infrared spectroscopy at low and medium resolution spanning -7 days to +300 days from the B-band maximum. Results: A photometric analysis shows that SN 2010ev is a SN Ia of normal brightness with a light-curve shape of Δm15(B) = 1.12 ± 0.02 and a stretch s = 0.94 ± 0.01 suffering significant reddening. From photometric and spectroscopic analysis, we deduce a color excess of E(B - V) = 0.25 ± 0.05 and a reddening law of Rv = 1.54 ± 0.65. Spectroscopically, SN 2010ev belongs to the broad-line SN Ia group, showing stronger than average Si iiλ6355 absorption features. We also find that SN 2010ev is a high velocity gradient SN with v˙Si = 164 ± 7 km s-1 d-1. The photometric and spectral comparison with other supernovae shows that SN 2010ev has similar colors and velocities to SN 2002bo and SN 2002dj. The analysis of the nebular spectra indicates that the [Fe ii]λ7155 and [Ni ii]λ7378 lines are redshifted, as expected for a high velocity gradient supernova. All these common intrinsic and extrinsic properties of the high velocity gradient (HVG) group are different from the low velocity gradient (LVG) normal SN Ia population and suggest significant variety in SN Ia explosions. This paper includes data gathered with the Du Pont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile; and the Gemini Observatory, Cerro Pachon, Chile (Gemini Program GS-2010A-Q-14). Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (ESO Programme 085.D-0577).

  2. Band gap opening in bilayer silicene by alkali metal intercalation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongsheng; Han, Nannan; Zhao, Jijun

    2014-11-26

    Recently, bilayer and multilayer silicene have attracted increased attention following the boom of silicene, which holds great promise for future applications in microelectronic devices. Herein we systematically investigate all stacking configurations of bilayer silicene and the corresponding electronic properties. Strong coupling is found between two silicene layers, which destroys the Dirac cones in the band structures of pristine silicene and makes bilayer silicene sheets metallic. However, intercalation of alkali metal (especially potassium) can effectively decouple the interaction between two silicene layers. In the K-intercalated bilayer silicene (KSi4), the Dirac cones are recovered with a small band gap of 0.27 eV located about 0.55 eV below the Fermi level. Furthermore, intercalation of K(+) cations in bilayer silicene (K(+)Si4) results in a semiconductor with a moderate band gap of 0.43 eV, making it ideal for microelectronic applications.

  3. Effects of metal/Ge contact and surface passivation on direct band gap light emission and detection for asymmetric metal/Ge/metal diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maekura, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Wang, Dong

    2016-04-01

    Direct band gap electroluminescence (EL) and light detection were studied at room temperature for n-type bulk germanium (Ge) by using fin-type asymmetric lateral metal/Ge/metal diodes. HfGe/Ge and PtGe/Ge contacts were used for injecting holes. Electron cyclotron resonance plasma oxidation and physical vapor deposition bilayer passivation (BLP) methods were employed for passivating the surface of the active region. A high EL intensity and a low dark current intensity were observed for the sample with PtGe/Ge contact and BLP, owing to the small/large barrier height of holes/electrons for PtGe/Ge contact, respectively, and the low density of interface states for the active region with BLP. The local-heating-induced redshift of the EL peak for the sample with PtGe/Ge contact is smaller than that for the sample with HfGe/Ge contact, owing to the lower parasitic resistance of PtGe/Ge contact. The diode with PtGe/Ge contact and BLP shows an on/off ratio of ∼104 and a responsivity of 0.70 A/W, corresponding to an external quantum efficiency of 56.0% under a wavelength of 1.55 µm.

  4. Development of EV71 virus-like particle purification processes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Yeh; Chiu, Hsin-Yi; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2015-11-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes the outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and results in deaths of hundreds of young children. EV71 virus-like particles (VLPs) are empty capsids consisting of viral structural proteins and can elicit potent immune responses, thus holding promise as an EV71 vaccine candidate. However, an efficient, scalable production and purification scheme is missing. For mass production of EV71 VLPs, this study aimed to develop a production and chromatography-based purification process. We first demonstrated the successful EV71 VLPs production in the stirred-tank bioreactor in which High Five™ cells were infected with a recombinant baculovirus co-expressing EV71 structural polyprotein P1 and protease 3CD. The culture supernatant containing the VLPs was subjected to tangential flow filtration (TFF) for concentration/diafiltration, which enabled the removal of >80% of proteins while recovering >80% of VLPs. The concentrated VLPs were next subjected to hydroxyapatite chromatography (HAC) in which the VLPs were mainly found in the flow through. After another TFF concentration/diafiltration, the VLPs were purified by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and concentrated/diafiltered by a final TFF. The integrated process yielded an overall VLPs recovery of ≈ 36% and a purity of ≈ 83%, which was better or comparable to the recovery and purity for the purification of live EV71 virus particles. This process thus may move the EV71 VLPs vaccine one step closer to the clinical applications.

  5. DOE Field Operations Program EV and HEV Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, James Edward; Slezak, L. A.

    2001-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s (DOE) Field Operations Program tests advanced technology vehicles (ATVs) and disseminates the testing results to provide fleet managers and other potential ATV users with accurate and unbiased information on vehicle performance. The ATVs (including electric, hybrid, and other alternative fuel vehicles) are tested using one or more methods - Baseline Performance Testing (EVAmerica and Pomona Loop), Accelerated Reliability Testing, and Fleet Testing. The Program (http://ev.inel.gov/sop) and its nine industry testing partners have tested over 30 full-size electric vehicle (EV) models and they have accumulated over 4 million miles of EV testing experience since 1994. In conjunction with several original equipment manufacturers, the Program has developed testing procedures for the new classes of hybrid, urban, and neighborhood EVs. The testing of these vehicles started during 2001. The EVS 18 presentation will include (1) EV and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) test results, (2) operating experience with and performance trends of various EV and HEV models, and (3) experience with operating hydrogen-fueled vehicles. Data presented for EVs will include vehicle efficiency (km/kWh), average distance driven per charge, and range testing results. The HEV data will include operating considerations, fuel use rates, and range testing results.

  6. High efficiency carbon-based multilayers for LAMP at 250 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Mingwu; Huang, Qiushi; She, Rui; Jiang, Li; Zhang, Zhong; Wang, Zhanshan; Feng, Hua; Spiga, Daniele; Giglia, Angelo

    2015-09-01

    X-ray reflection near the Brewster's angle by multilayer mirrors can be used to detect the polarization from X-ray sources. The photon emission spectra from some isolated neutron stars and AGN/blazars etc. show that their emission is peaked at low energies near 250eV, which is just below carbon K-absorption edge. The Lightweight Asymmetry and Magnetism Probe (LAMP) is proposed as a micro-satellite mission dedicated for astronomical X-ray polarimetry working at 250 eV and is currently under early phase study. Co/C multilayers are selected and designed at the energy near 250eV with a grazing incident angle of 45°. The carbon layer thickness ratio is optimized to get the highest integral reflectivity which means larger effective signals in the astrophysics observation. The multilayer coatings were manufactured by direct current magnetron sputtering on D263 glasses and electroformed nickels and characterized using Grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry at 8keV. Reactive sputtering with 4%, 6% and 8% nitrogen were used to improve the Co/C multilayer interfaces respectively. Reflectivity for s-polarization and p-polarization light was measured at BEAR beamline in Elettra synchtron facility. Co/C multilayer deposited with 6% nitrogen exhibits the best performance comparing to other multilayers with different nitrogen content.

  7. New Kronig-Penney Equation Emphasizing the Band Edge Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szmulowicz, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The Kronig-Penney problem is a textbook example for discussing band dispersions and band gap formation in periodic layered media. For example, in photonic crystals, the behaviour of bands next to the band edges is important for further discussions of such effects as inhibited light emission, slow light and negative index of refraction. However,…

  8. White light tunable emissions from ZnS: Eu3+ nanophosphors over 330-465 nm excitation range for white LED applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahemen, I.; De, D. K.; Dejene, F. B.; Viana, B.

    2016-04-01

    (ZnS: Eu3+ - CMC) nanophosphors of cubic (zinc blende) structure were synthesized using a precipitation technique with doping concentrations of Eu3+ ions 1 mol% and 5 mol%. The crystal sizes were 2.56 nm and 2.91 nm respectively. Annealing at 300 °C in a sulfur-rich atmosphere altered the crystal size to 4.35 nm and 3.65 nm respectively and the band gap from 4.2 eV to 3.76 eV and 3.81 eV respectively. The as-synthesized samples gave pure orange-red emission when excited at wavelengths of 394 nm and 465 nm. After thermal annealing of the samples, a broad emission band in the blue-green region assigned to defect related states emerged or were enhanced. Also enhanced were the emission lines of Eu3+ ions in the orange-red region. A combination of these two transitions gave white light of different shades (recorded on the CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram) from cool white through day-light to warm white light, depending on Eu3+ concentration and the excitation wavelengths (UV-330 to blue 465 nm), thus showing great potential of these nano-phosphors in the generation of high quality white light.

  9. Determination of satellite valley position in GaN emitter from photoexcited field emission investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenenko, M.; Yilmazoglu, O.; Hartnagel, H. L.; Pavlidis, D.

    2011-01-01

    Argon plasma etched GaN field-emitter rods with nanometer-scale diameter were fabricated on GaN grown on an n+-GaN substrate. Their electron field emission properties were investigated both without and under illumination by using light sources with various wavelengths. The Fowler-Nordheim current-voltage characteristics of the cathodes show a change in slope for illuminated cathodes. The electron affinity difference ΔE between the different valleys in the conduction band has been ascertained and is in the range from 1.18 up to 1.21 eV.

  10. Hydrogen transport diagnostics by atomic and molecular emission line profiles simultaneously measured for large helical device

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, K.; Shikama, T.; Hasuo, M.; Goto, M.; Morita, S.

    2013-01-15

    We observe the Balmer-{alpha}, -{beta}, and -{gamma} lines of hydrogen atoms and Q branches of the Fulcher-{alpha} band of hydrogen molecules simultaneously with their polarization resolved for large helical device. From the fit including the line splits and the polarization dependences by the Zeeman effect, the emission locations, intensities, and the temperatures of the atoms and molecules are determined. The emission locations of the hydrogen atoms are determined outside but close to the last closed flux surface (LCFS). The results are consistent with a previous work (Phys. Plasmas 12, 042501 (2005)). On the other hand, the emission locations of the molecules are determined to be in the divertor legs, which is farer from those of the atoms. The kinetic energy of the atoms is 1 {approx} 20 eV, while the rotational temperature of molecules is {approx}0.04 eV. Additionally, substantial wings, which originate from high velocity atoms and are not reproduced by the conventional spectral analysis, are observed in the Balmer line profiles. We develop a one-dimensional model to simulate the transport of the atoms and molecules. The model reproduces the differences of the emission locations of the atoms and molecules when their initial temperatures are assumed to be 3 eV and 0.04 eV, respectively. From the model, the wings of the Balmer-{alpha} line is attributed to the high velocity atoms exist deep inside the LCFS, which are generated by the charge exchange collisions with hot protons there.

  11. Impacts of EV battery production and recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.; Singh, M.

    1996-06-01

    Electric vehicles batteries use energy and produce environmental residuals when they are produced and recycled. This study estimates, for four selected battery types (sodium-sulfur, nickel-metal hydride, nickel-cadmium, and advanced lead-acid), the impacts of production and recycling of the materials used in electric vehicle batteries. These impacts are compared, with special attention to the locations of the emissions. It is found that the choice among batteries for electric vehicles involves tradeoffs among impacts. Nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries are similar, for example, but energy requirements for the production of cadmium electrodes may be higher than those for metal hydride electrodes, while the latter may be more difficult to recycle.

  12. Band edge alignment of pseudomorphic GaAs{sub 1-y}Sb{sub y} on GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.-B.; Johnson, S.R.; Chaparro, S.A.; Ding, D.; Cao, Y.; Sadofyev, Yu.G.; Zhang, Y.-H.; Gupta, J.A.; Guo, C.Z.

    2004-11-15

    Measurements of the transition energies of GaAsSb quantum well samples with different barrier configurations reveal that the conduction band offset of the coherently strained GaAs{sub 1-y}Sb{sub y}/GaAs heterojunction grown on GaAs has a zero crossing at a Sb mole fraction of y=0.43{+-}0.07. A type-I band alignment is formed for lower Sb mole fractions and a type-II band alignment is formed for higher Sb mole fractions. This occurs as a consequence of a considerable amount (58%) of the -1.58 eV bandgap bowing being distributed to the conduction band. As a suitable active material for 1.3 {mu}m emission, pseudomorphic GaAs{sub 0.643}Sb{sub 0.357} grown on GaAs is determined to have a weak, 23{+-}23 meV, type-I conduction band offset and a bandgap energy of 928{+-}4 meV.

  13. An adenosine nucleoside analogue NITD008 inhibits EV71 proliferation.

    PubMed

    Shang, Luqing; Wang, Yaxin; Qing, Jie; Shu, Bo; Cao, Lin; Lou, Zhiyong; Gong, Peng; Sun, Yuna; Yin, Zheng

    2014-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), one of the major causative agents of Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease (HFMD), causes severe pandemics and hundreds of deaths in the Asia-Pacific region annually and is an enormous public health threat. However, effective therapeutic antiviral drugs against EV71 are rare. Nucleoside analogues have been successfully used in the clinic for the treatment of various viral infections. We evaluated a total of 27 nucleoside analogues and discovered that an adenosine nucleoside analogue NITD008, which has been reported to be an antiviral reagent that specifically inhibits flaviviruses, effectively suppressed the propagation of different strains of EV71 in RD, 293T and Vero cells with a relatively high selectivity index. Triphosphorylated NITD008 (ppp-NITD008) functions as a chain terminator to directly inhibit the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity of EV71, and it does not affect the EV71 VPg uridylylation process. A significant synergistic anti-EV71 effect of NITD008 with rupintrivir (AG7088) (a protease inhibitor) was documented, supporting the potential combination therapy of NITD008 with other inhibitors for the treatment of EV71 infections.

  14. Bernauer's bands.

    PubMed

    Shtukenberg, Alexander; Gunn, Erica; Gazzano, Massimo; Freudenthal, John; Camp, Eric; Sours, Ryan; Rosseeva, Elena; Kahr, Bart

    2011-06-01

    Ferdinand Bernauer proposed in his monograph, "Gedrillte" Kristalle (1929), that a great number of simple, crystalline substances grow from solution or from the melt as polycrystalline spherulites with helically twisting radii that give rise to distinct bull's-eye patterns of concentric optical bands between crossed polarizers. The idea that many common molecular crystals can be induced to grow as mesoscale helices is a remarkable proposition poorly grounded in theories of polycrystalline pattern formation. Recent reinvestigation of one of the systems Bernauer described revealed that rhythmic precipitation in the absence of helical twisting accounted for modulated optical properties [Gunn, E. et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 14234-14235]. Herein, the Bernauer hypothesis is re-examined in detail for three substances described in "Gedrillte" Kristalle, potassium dichromate, hippuric acid, and tetraphenyl lead, using contemporary methods of analysis not available to Bernauer, including micro-focus X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry. Potassium dichromate is shown to fall in the class of rhythmic precipitates of undistorted crystallites, while hippuric acid spherulites are well described as helical fibrils. Tetraphenyl lead spherulites grow by twisting and rhythmic precipitation. The behavior of tetraphenyl lead is likely typical of many substances in "Gedrillte" Kristalle. Rhythmic precipitation and helical twisting often coexist, complicating optical analyses and presenting Bernauer with difficulties in the characterization and classification of the objects of his interest.

  15. 47 CFR 90.543 - Emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-805 MHz Bands § 90.543 Emission limitations. Transmitters designed to operate in 769-775 MHz and 799-805 MHz frequency bands must meet the emission limitations in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section. Transmitters operating in 763-768 MHz and 793-798 MHz bands must meet the emission limitations...

  16. 47 CFR 90.543 - Emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-805 MHz Bands § 90.543 Emission limitations. Transmitters designed to operate in 769-775 MHz and 799-805 MHz frequency bands must meet the emission limitations in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section. Transmitters operating in 763-768 MHz and 793-798 MHz bands must meet the emission limitations...

  17. 47 CFR 90.543 - Emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-805 MHz Bands § 90.543 Emission limitations. Transmitters designed to operate in 769-775 MHz and 799-805 MHz frequency bands must meet the emission limitations in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section. Transmitters operating in 763-768 MHz and 793-798 MHz bands must meet the emission limitations...

  18. 47 CFR 90.1323 - Emission limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emission limits. 90.1323 Section 90.1323... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Wireless Broadband Services in the 3650-3700 MHz Band § 90.1323 Emission limits. (a) The power of any emission outside a licensee's frequency band(s) of operation shall be...

  19. 47 CFR 90.1323 - Emission limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emission limits. 90.1323 Section 90.1323... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Wireless Broadband Services in the 3650-3700 MHz Band § 90.1323 Emission limits. (a) The power of any emission outside a licensee's frequency band(s) of operation shall be...

  20. Emission of Cu-related complexes in ZnO:Cu nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torchynska, T. V.; El Filali, B.; Ballardo Rodríguez, I. Ch.

    2016-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL), its temperature dependence, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and X ray diffraction (XRD) have been applied for the comparative study of varying the emission, morphology and crystal structure of ZnO and ZnO:Cu nanocrystals (NCs) versus technological routines, as well as the dependence of ZnO:Cu NC parameters on the Cu concentration. A set of ZnO and ZnO Cu NCs was prepared by the electrochemical (anodization) method at a permanent voltage and different etching durations with follows thermal annealing at 400 °C for 2 h in ambient air. The size of ZnO NCs decreases from 300 nm×540 nm down to 200 nm×320 nm with etching duration increasing. XRD study has confirmed that thermal annealing stimulates the ZnO oxidation and crystallization with the formation of wurtzite ZnO crystal lattice. XRD method has been used for monitoring the lattice parameters and for confirming the Cu doping of ZnO Cu NCs. In ZnO Cu NCs four defect related PL bands are detected with the PL peaks at 1.95-2.00 eV (A), 2.15-2.23 eV (B), 2.43-2.50 eV (C) and 2.61-2.69 eV (D). Highest PL intensities of orange, yellow and green emissions have been obtained in ZnO Cu NCs with the Cu concentration of 2.28 at%. At Cu concentration increasing (≥2.28 at%) the PL intensities of the bands A, B, C decrease and the new PL band peaked at 2.61-2.69 eV at 10 K appears in the PL spectrum. The variation of PL intensities for all PL bands versus temperature has been studied and the corresponding activation energies of PL thermal decay have been estimated. The type of Cu-related complexes is discussed using the correlation between the PL spectrum transformation and the variation of XRD parameters in ZnO Cu NCs.

  1. Search for discrete gamma-ray sources emitting at energies greater than 10/sup 15/ eV

    SciTech Connect

    Samorski, M.; Stamm, W.

    1984-02-15

    The data of the extensive air shower experiment at Kiel have been scanned systematically for possible discrete ..gamma..-ray sources in the energy range E>10/sup 15/ eV and in the declination band delta = 25/sup 0/-75/sup 0/. Photon fluxes for celestial positions with the statistically most significant excesses of showers and 3 sigma upper limit photon fluxes for COS B ..gamma..-ray sources visible to the extensive air shower experiment at Kiel are presented.

  2. Ks-BAND DETECTION OF THERMAL EMISSION AND COLOR CONSTRAINTS TO CoRoT-1b: A LOW-ALBEDO PLANET WITH INEFFICIENT ATMOSPHERIC ENERGY REDISTRIBUTION AND A TEMPERATURE INVERSION

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Justin C.; Apai, Daniel; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Sing, David K.; Burrows, Adam

    2009-12-20

    We report the detection in Ks-band of the secondary eclipse of the hot Jupiter CoRoT-1b from time series photometry with the ARC 3.5 m telescope at Apache Point Observatory. The eclipse shows a depth of 0.336 +- 0.042% and is centered at phase 0.5022{sup +0.0023}{sub -0.0027}, consistent with a zero eccentricity orbit (e cos omega = 0.0035{sup +0.0036}{sub -0.0042}). We perform the first optical to near-infrared multi-band photometric analysis of an exoplanet's atmosphere and constrain the reflected and thermal emissions by combining our result with the recent 0.6, 0.71, and 2.09 mum secondary eclipse detections by Snellen et al., Gillon et al., and Alonso et al. Comparing the multi-wavelength detections to state-of-the-art radiative-convective chemical-equilibrium atmosphere models, we find the near-infrared fluxes difficult to reproduce. The closest blackbody-based and physical models provide the following atmosphere parameters: a temperature T = 2460{sup +80}{sub -160} K; a very low Bond albedo A{sub B} = 0.000{sup +0.081}{sub -0.000}; and an energy redistribution parameter P{sub n} = 0.1, indicating a small but nonzero amount of heat transfer from the day to nightside. The best physical model suggests a thermal inversion layer with an extra optical absorber of opacity kappa{sub e} = 0.05 cm{sup 2} g{sup -1}, placed near the 0.1 bar atmospheric pressure level. This inversion layer is located 10 times deeper in the atmosphere than the absorbers used in models to fit mid-infrared Spitzer detections of other irradiated hot Jupiters.

  3. Ks-Band Detection of Thermal Emission and Color Constraints to CoRoT-1b: A Low-Albedo Planet with Inefficient Atmospheric Energy Redistribution and a Temperature Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Justin C.; Apai, Dániel; López-Morales, Mercedes; Sing, David K.; Burrows, Adam

    2009-12-01

    We report the detection in Ks-band of the secondary eclipse of the hot Jupiter CoRoT-1b from time series photometry with the ARC 3.5 m telescope at Apache Point Observatory. The eclipse shows a depth of 0.336 ± 0.042% and is centered at phase 0.5022+0.0023 -0.0027, consistent with a zero eccentricity orbit (e cos ω = 0.0035+0.0036 -0.0042). We perform the first optical to near-infrared multi-band photometric analysis of an exoplanet's atmosphere and constrain the reflected and thermal emissions by combining our result with the recent 0.6, 0.71, and 2.09 μm secondary eclipse detections by Snellen et al., Gillon et al., and Alonso et al. Comparing the multi-wavelength detections to state-of-the-art radiative-convective chemical-equilibrium atmosphere models, we find the near-infrared fluxes difficult to reproduce. The closest blackbody-based and physical models provide the following atmosphere parameters: a temperature T = 2460+80 -160 K; a very low Bond albedo AB = 0.000+0.081 -0.000 and an energy redistribution parameter Pn = 0.1, indicating a small but nonzero amount of heat transfer from the day to nightside. The best physical model suggests a thermal inversion layer with an extra optical absorber of opacity κ e = 0.05 cm2 g-1, placed near the 0.1 bar atmospheric pressure level. This inversion layer is located 10 times deeper in the atmosphere than the absorbers used in models to fit mid-infrared Spitzer detections of other irradiated hot Jupiters. Based on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium.

  4. Relating the defect band gap and the density functional band gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Peter; Edwards, Arthur

    2014-03-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) is an important tool to probe the physics of materials. The Kohn-Sham (KS) gap in DFT is typically (much) smaller than the observed band gap for materials in nature, the infamous ``band gap problem.'' Accurate prediction of defect energy levels is often claimed to be a casualty--the band gap defines the energy scale for defect levels. By applying rigorous control of boundary conditions in size-converged supercell calculations, however, we compute defect levels in Si and GaAs with accuracies of ~0.1 eV, across the full gap, unhampered by a band gap problem. Using GaAs as a theoretical laboratory, we show that the defect band gap--the span of computed defect levels--is insensitive to variations in the KS gap (with functional and pseudopotential), these KS gaps ranging from 0.1 to 1.1 eV. The defect gap matches the experimental 1.52 eV gap. The computed defect gaps for several other III-V, II-VI, I-VII, and other compounds also agree with the experimental gap, and show no correlation with the KS gap. Where, then, is the band gap problem? This talk presents these results, discusses why the defect gap and the KS gap are distinct, implying that current understanding of what the ``band gap problem'' means--and how to ``fix'' it--need to be rethought. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. Design of energy band alignment at the Zn(1-x)Mg(x)O/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 interface for Cd-free Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Soo; Larina, Liudmila; Shin, Young-Min; Al-Ammar, Essam A; Ahn, Byung Tae

    2012-04-14

    The electronic band structure at the Zn(1-x)Mg(x)O/Cu(In(0.7)Ga(0.3))Se(2) interface was investigated for its potential application in Cd-free Cu(In,Ga)Se(2) thin film solar cells. Zn(1-x)Mg(x)O thin films with various Mg contents were grown by atomic layer deposition on Cu(In(0.7)Ga(0.3))Se(2) absorbers, which were deposited by the co-evaporation of Cu, In, Ga, and Se elemental sources. The electron emissions from the valence band and core levels were measured by a depth profile technique using X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. The valence band maximum positions are around 3.17 eV for both Zn(0.9)Mg(0.1)O and Zn(0.8)Mg(0.2)O films, while the valence band maximum value for CIGS is 0.48 eV. As a result, the valence band offset value between the bulk Zn(1-x)Mg(x)O (x = 0.1 and x = 0.2) region and the bulk CIGS region was 2.69 eV. The valence band offset value at the Zn(1-x)Mg(x)O/CIGS interface was found to be 2.55 eV after considering a small band bending in the interface region. The bandgap energy of Zn(1-x)Mg(x)O films increased from 3.25 to 3.76 eV as the Mg content increased from 0% to 25%. The combination of the valence band offset values and the bandgap energy of Zn(1-x)Mg(x)O films results in the flat (0 eV) and cliff (-0.23 eV) conduction band alignments at the Zn(0.8)Mg(0.2)O/Cu(In(0.7)Ga(0.3))Se(2) and Zn(0.9)Mg(0.1)O/Cu(In(0.7)Ga(0.3))Se(2) interfaces, respectively. The experimental results suggest that the bandgap energy of Zn(1-x)Mg(x)O films is the main factor that determines the conduction band offset at the Zn(1-x)Mg(x)O/Cu(In(0.7)Ga(0.3))Se(2) interface. Based on these results, we conclude that a Zn(1-x)Mg(x)O film with a relatively high bandgap energy is necessary to create a suitable conduction band offset at the Zn(1-x)Mg(x)O/CIGS interface to obtain a robust heterojunction. Also, ALD Zn(1-x)Mg(x)O films can be considered as a promising alternative buffer material to replace the toxic CdS for environmental safety.

  6. Base fluid in improving heat transfer for EV car battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin-Abdun, Nazih A.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman, A. B.; Wan, Khairunizam; Hazry, D.; Ahmed, S. Faiz; Adnan, Nazrul H.; Heng, R.; Kamarudin, H.; Zunaidi, I.

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the effects of base fluid (as coolants) channeling inside the heat exchanger in the process of the increase in thermal conductivity between EV car battery and the heat exchanger. The analysis showed that secondary cooling system by means of water has advantages in improving the heat transfer process and reducing the electric power loss on the form of thermal energy from batteries. This leads to the increase in the efficiency of the EV car battery, hence also positively reflecting the performance of the EV car. The present work, analysis is performed to assess the design and use of heat exchanger in increasing the performance efficiency of the EV car battery. This provides a preface to the use this design for nano-fluids which increase and improve from heat transfer.

  7. B-757: RIPS, LAHSO, EVS-SVS projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Photograph of the B-757 experimental equipment installed to support RIPS (Runway Incursion Prevention system), LAHSO (Land and Hold Short Operations), EVS (Enhanced Vision System), and the SVS (Synthetic Vision System) projects.

  8. Band alignment at a MgO/GaSb heterointerface using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruxue; Wei, Zhipeng; Liu, Xue; Li, Yongfeng; Fang, Xuan; Tang, Jilong; Fang, Dan; Gao, Xian; Wang, Dengkui; Hao, Yongqin; Yao, Bin; Ma, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiaohua

    2016-07-01

    The valence band offset (ΔE V) of a MgO/GaSb heterostructure was determined using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. A ΔE V value of 2.84 ± 0.10 eV was calculated by using Ga 3d3/2 and Mg 2p1/2 binding energies as references. Taking the empirical band gaps of 7.83 eV and 0.73 eV for MgO and GaSb thin films into consideration, respectively, we obtained the type-I band alignment of a MgO/GaSb heterostructure with a conduction band offset (ΔE c) of 4.26 ± 0.10 eV, suggesting a nested interface band alignment.

  9. Single-junction solar cells with the optimum band gap for terrestrial concentrator applications

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, Mark W.

    1994-01-01

    A single-junction solar cell having the ideal band gap for terrestrial concentrator applications. Computer modeling studies of single-junction solar cells have shown that the presence of absorption bands in the direct spectrum has the effect of "pinning" the optimum band gap for a wide range of operating conditions at a value of 1.14.+-.0.02 eV. Efficiencies exceeding 30% may be possible at high concentration ratios for devices with the ideal band gap.

  10. Calibrating image plate sensitivity in the 700 to 5000 eV spectral energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugh, Michael J.; Lee, Joshua; Romano, Edward; Schneider, Marilyn

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes a method to calibrate image plate sensitivity for use in the low energy spectral range. Image plates, also known as photostimulable luminescence (PSL) detectors, have often proved to be a valuable tool as a detector for plasma physics studies. Their advantages of large dynamic range, high stopping power, and resistance to neutron damage sometimes outweigh the problems of limited resolution and the remote processing required. The neutron damage resistance is required when the X-ray source is producing a high neutron flux. The Static X-ray Imager (SXI) is a key diagnostic on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) target chamber at LLNL for use in determining the symmetry of the laser beams. The SXI is essential to proper interpretation of the data from the Dante diagnostic to determine the X-ray radiation temperature. It is comprised of two diagnostics located at the top and the bottom of the target chamber. The usual detector is a large array CCD camera. For shots giving high yields of neutrons, the camera would not only be blinded by the neutrons, it would be damaged. To get around this problem, an image plate (IP) is used as the detector. The NIF application covers the energy range from 700 to 5000 eV. The type of image plates typically used for plasma physics are the Fuji BAS-MS, BAS-SR, and BAS-TR models. All models consist of an X-ray sensitive material made of BaF(Br,I):Eu2+ embedded in a plastic binder. X-rays incident on the phosphor ionize the Eu 2+ producing Eu3+ and free electrons that are trapped in lattice defects (F-centers) produced by the absence of halogen ions in the BaF2 crystal. An image plate readout scanner irradiates the IP with a red laser causing reduction of the Eu3+ and emission of a blue photon. The photon is collected using a photomultiplier and digitized to make an electronic image. Image plates are cleared of all F-centers by putting them under a bright light for about 10 minutes. They are then ready for producing a

  11. The role of beryllium in the band structure of MgZnO: Lifting the valence band maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. S.; Pan, X. H.; Chen, W.; Zhang, H. H.; Dai, W.; Ding, P.; Huang, J. Y.; Lu, B.; Ye, Z. Z.

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the effect of Be on the valence band maximum (VBM) of MgZnO by measuring the band offsets of MgxZn1-xO/BexMgyZn1-x-yO heterojunctions using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. MgxZn1-xO and BexMgyZn1-x-yO films have been grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The valence band offset ( Δ E V) of Mg0.15Zn0.85O ( E g = 3.62 eV)/Be0.005Mg0.19Zn0.805O ( E g = 3.73 eV) heterojunction is 0.01 eV and Be0.005Mg0.19Zn0.805O has a lower VBM. The increased Mg composition is the main factor for the reduction of VBM. The VBM of MgxZn1-xO is lower by 0.03 eV with the enlargement of E g from 3.62 eV to 3.73 eV by increasing Mg composition. Considering the effect of increased Mg composition, it is concluded that the little amount of Be makes the VBM go up by 0.02 eV when the E g of the alloy is 3.73 eV. The Δ E V of Mg0.11Zn0.89O ( E g = 3.56 eV)/Be0.007Mg0.12Zn0.873O ( E g = 3.56 eV) heterojunction is calculated to be 0.03 eV and Be0.007Mg0.12Zn0.873O has a higher VBM than Mg0.11Zn0.89O, which means that a little amount Be lifts the VBM by 0.03 eV when the E g of the alloy is 3.56 eV. The experimental measurements have offered a strong support for the theoretical research that alloying Be in MgxZn1-xO alloys is hopeful to form a higher VBM and to enhance the p-type dopability of MgZnO.

  12. Photoelectron spectroscopy of hexachloroplatinate-nucleobase complexes: Nucleobase excited state decay observed via delayed electron emission.

    PubMed

    Sen, Ananya; Matthews, Edward M; Hou, Gao-Lei; Wang, Xue-Bin; Dessent, Caroline E H

    2015-11-14

    We report low-temperature photoelectron spectra of isolated gas-phase complexes of the hexachloroplatinate dianion bound to the nucleobases uracil, thymine, cytosine, and adenine. The spectra display well-resolved, distinct peaks that are consistent with complexes where the hexachloroplatinate dianion is largely intact. Adiabatic electron detachment energies for the hexachloroplatinate-nucleobase complexes are measured as 2.26-2.36 eV. The magnitudes of the repulsive Coulomb barriers (RCBs) of the complexes are all ∼1.7 eV, values that are lower than the RCB of the uncomplexed PtCl6 (2-) dianion as a result of charge solvation by the nucleobases. In addition to the resolved spectral features, broad featureless bands indicative of delayed electron detachment are observed in the 193 nm photoelectron spectra of the four clusters. The 266 nm spectra of the PtCl6 (2-) ⋅ thymine and PtCl6 (2-) ⋅ adenine complexes also display very prominent delayed electron emission bands. These results mirror recent results on the related Pt(CN)4 (2-) ⋅ nucleobase complexes [A. Sen et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 119, 11626 (2015)]. The observation of delayed electron emission bands in the PtCl6 (2-) ⋅ nucleobase spectra obtained in this work, as for the previously studied Pt(CN)4 (2-) ⋅ nucleobase complexes, is attributed to one-photon excitation of nucleobase-centred excited states that can effectively couple to the electron detachment continuum, producing strong electron detachment. Moreover, the selective, strong excitation of the delayed emission bands in the 266 nm spectra is linked to fundamental differences in the individual nucleobase photophysics at this excitation energy. This strongly supports our previous suggestion that the dianion within these clusters can be viewed as a "dynamic tag" which has the propensity to emit electrons when the attached nucleobase decays over a time scale long enough to allow autodetachment.

  13. Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Hexachloroplatinate-Nucleobase Complexes: Nucleobase Excited State Decay Observed via Delayed Electron Emission

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Ananya; Matthews, Edward M.; Hou, Gao-Lei; Wang, Xue B.; Dessent, Caroline

    2015-11-14

    We report low-temperature photoelectron spectra of isolated gas-phase complexes of the hexachloroplatinate dianion bound to the nucleobases uracil, thymine, cytosine and adenine. The spectra display well-resolved, distinct peaks that are consistent with complexes where the hexachloroplatinate dianion is largely intact. Adiabatic electron detachment energies for the hexachloroplatinate-nucleobase complexes are measured as 2.26-2.36 eV. The magnitudes of the repulsive Coulomb barriers (RCBs) of the complexes are all ~1.7 eV, values that are lower than the RCB of the uncomplexed PtCl6 2- dianion as a result of charge solvation by the nucleobases. In addition to the resolved spectral features, broad featureless bands indicative of delayed electron detachment are observed in the 193 nm photoelectron spectra of the four clusters. The 266 nm spectra of the PtCl6 2-∙thymine and PtCl6 2-∙adenine complexes also display very prominent delayed electron emission bands. These results mirror recent results on the related Pt(CN)4 2-∙nucleobase complexes [Sen et al, J. Phys. Chem. B, 119, 11626, 2015]. The observation of delayed electron emission bands in the PtCl6 2-∙nucleobase spectra obtained in this work, as for the previously studied Pt(CN)4 2-∙nucleobase complexes, is attributed to onephoton excitation of nucleobase-centred excited states that can effectively couple to the electron detachment continuum, producing strong electron detachment. Moreover, the selective, strong excitation of the delayed emission bands in the 266 nm spectra is linked to fundamental differences in the individual nucleobase photophysics at this excitation energy. This strongly supports our previous suggestion that the dianion within these clusters can be viewed as a “dynamic tag” which has the propensity to emit electrons when the attached nucleobase decays over a timescale long enough to allow autodetachment.

  14. Photoelectron spectroscopy of hexachloroplatinate-nucleobase complexes: Nucleobase excited state decay observed via delayed electron emission.

    PubMed

    Sen, Ananya; Matthews, Edward M; Hou, Gao-Lei; Wang, Xue-Bin; Dessent, Caroline E H

    2015-11-14

    We report low-temperature photoelectron spectra of isolated gas-phase complexes of the hexachloroplatinate dianion bound to the nucleobases uracil, thymine, cytosine, and adenine. The spectra display well-resolved, distinct peaks that are consistent with complexes where the hexachloroplatinate dianion is largely intact. Adiabatic electron detachment energies for the hexachloroplatinate-nucleobase complexes are measured as 2.26-2.36 eV. The magnitudes of the repulsive Coulomb barriers (RCBs) of the complexes are all ∼1.7 eV, values that are lower than the RCB of the uncomplexed PtCl6 (2-) dianion as a result of charge solvation by the nucleobases. In addition to the resolved spectral features, broad featureless bands indicative of delayed electron detachment are observed in the 193 nm photoelectron spectra of the four clusters. The 266 nm spectra of the PtCl6 (2-) ⋅ thymine and PtCl6 (2-) ⋅ adenine complexes also display very prominent delayed electron emission bands. These results mirror recent results on the related Pt(CN)4 (2-) ⋅ nucleobase complexes [A. Sen et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 119, 11626 (2015)]. The observation of delayed electron emission bands in the PtCl6 (2-) ⋅ nucleobase spectra obtained in this work, as for the previously studied Pt(CN)4 (2-) ⋅ nucleobase complexes, is attributed to one-photon excitation of nucleobase-centred excited states that can effectively couple to the electron detachment continuum, producing strong electron detachment. Moreover, the selective, strong excitation of the delayed emission bands in the 266 nm spectra is linked to fundamental differences in the individual nucleobase photophysics at this excitation energy. This strongly supports our previous suggestion that the dianion within these clusters can be viewed as a "dynamic tag" which has the propensity to emit electrons when the attached nucleobase decays over a time scale long enough to allow autodetachment. PMID:26567662

  15. Observation of near-band-edge photoluminescence and UV photoresponse in near-stoichiometric Zn2SnO4 nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tien, Li-Chia; Yang, Shang-Jan; Chen, Ya-Han; Ho, Ching-Hwa

    2016-06-01

    Single-phase, near-stoichiometric zinc stannate (Zn2SnO4) nanowires were synthesized by a direct vapor transport process on c-Al2O3 substrates under optimized growth conditions. The optimal growth temperature for Zn2SnO4 nanowires is above 700 °C. Structural characterization indicates that the nanowires had the single crystal cubic spinel structure and diameters of ∼90 nm and they grew in the [1\\bar{1}\\bar{1}] direction. Low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) shows a strong emission peak at 3.7 eV, attributed to the near-band-edge-emission of Zn2SnO4 nanowires. Temperature-dependent PL results are consistent with the Varshni equation, and the band gap is redshifted by ∼170 meV as the temperature is increased from 11 to 300 K. The obtained direct gap of Zn2SnO4 nanowires is 3.546 eV at 300 K. A UV photodetector based on as-grown Zn2SnO4 nanowires was fabricated by a simple and cost-effective process. The Zn2SnO4 nanowires exhibited UV photoconductivity, and good selectivity and decent response to UV. The efficient fabrication method, high chemical and thermal stability of the Zn2SnO4 nanowire UV photodetector made it very suitable for use in harsh environments.

  16. Infrared emissivities of Mn, Co co-doped ZnO powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yin-Hua; Cao, Quan-Xi

    2012-12-01

    Infrared emissivities of Zn0.99-xMn0.01CoxO (x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05) powders synthesized at different calcination temperatures by solid-state reaction are investigated. Their phases, morphologies, UV absorption spectra, and infrared emissivities are studied by XRD, SEM, UV spectrophotometer, and an IR-2 dual-band infrared emissometer in a range of 8 μm-14 μm. Doped ZnO still has a wurtzite structure, and no peaks of other phases originating from impurities are detected. The optical band-gap decreases as the Co content and calcination temperature ascend, and of which the smallest optical band gap is 2.19 eV. The lowest infrared emissivity, 0.754, is observed in Zn0.98Mn0.01Co0.01O with the increase in Co concentration. The infrared emissivity experiences fluctuations as the calcination temperature increases, and its minimum value is 0.762 at 1100 °C.

  17. Structure and red shift of optical band gap in CdO–ZnO nanocomposite synthesized by the sol gel method

    SciTech Connect

    Mosquera, Edgar; Pozo, Ignacio del; Morel, Mauricio

    2013-10-15

    The structure and the optical band gap of CdO–ZnO nanocomposites were studied. Characterization using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) analysis confirms that CdO phase is present in the nanocomposites. TEM analysis confirms the formation of spheroidal nanoparticles and nanorods. The particle size was calculated from Debey–Sherrer′s formula and corroborated by TEM images. FTIR spectroscopy shows residual organic materials (aromatic/Olefinic carbon) from nanocomposites surface. CdO content was modified in the nanocomposites in function of polyvinylalcohol (PVA) added. The optical band gap is found to be red shift from 3.21 eV to 3.11 eV with the increase of CdO content. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements reveal the existence of defects in the synthesized CdO–ZnO nanocomposites. - Graphical abstract: Optical properties of ZnO, CdO and ZnO/CdO nanoparticles. Display Omitted - Highlights: • TEM analysis confirms the presence of spherical nanoparticles and nanorods. • The CdO phase is present in the nanocomposites. • The band gap of the CdO–ZnO nanocomposites is slightly red shift with CdO content. • PL emission of CdO–ZnO nanocomposite are associated to structural defects.

  18. Optical Transitions and Electronic Band structure of Cuprous Oxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hosun; Park, Jun-Woo; Jang, Hyungkeun; Kim, Sung; Choi, Suk-Ho; Kang, Joongoo; Wei, Su-Huai

    2012-02-01

    Cu2O thin films were grown on Si and SiO2/Si substrates via RF sputtering deposition at various temperatures. The Cu2O thin films had a smooth surface when grown at RT, but developed grain boundaries when grown at 300 ^oC. We observed the high-energy photoluminescence (PL) peaks at 3.18 eV (Ep) and 3.27 eV (Eq). The dielectric functions of the Cu2O thin films were measured using spectroscopic ellipsometry. To estimate the critical point (CP) energies, we applied the standard critical point (SCP) model to the second derivative spectra of the dielectric functions (d^2ɛ/dE^2). We also calculated the electronic band structure of bulk Cu2O by using the screened HSE hybrid density functional. Based on the band structure, the CP was estimated as 2.05 eV (E0A(E0B)), 2.77 eV (E0C(E0D)) at the γ point, 4.17 eV (E1A) and 6.10 eV (E2) at the X point, 4.94 eV (E1B) at the R point. The experimental CP energies are consistent with the HSE results, but are systematically smaller than the calculated values by 0.3-0.8 eV due to large electron-hole interaction in CuO2 that was not included in the simulations. The high-energy peaks in the PL spectra at 3.18 eV (Ep) and 3.27 eV (Eq) were attributed to the quasi-direct transitions between the γ valence band and the M and X conduction bands, respectively. The physical origin of the quasi-direct transitions was attributed to the grain boundaries.

  19. Synthesis of copper quantum dots by chemical reduction method and tailoring of its band gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhash, P. G.; Nair, Swapna S.

    2016-05-01

    Metallic copper nano particles are synthesized with citric acid and CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) as surfactant and chlorides as precursors. The particle size and surface morphology are analyzed by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy. The average size of the nano particle is found to be 3 - 10 nm. The optical absorption characteristics are done by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. From the Tauc plots, the energy band gaps are calculated and because of their smaller size the particles have much higher band gap than the bulk material. The energy band gap is changed from 3.67 eV to 4.27 eV in citric acid coated copper quantum dots and 4.17 eV to 4.52 eV in CTAB coated copper quantum dots.

  20. Acoustic emission frequency discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugg, Frank E. (Inventor); Graham, Lloyd J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    In acoustic emission nondestructive testing, broadband frequency noise is distinguished from narrow banded acoustic emission signals, since the latter are valid events indicative of structural flaws in the material being examined. This is accomplished by separating out those signals which contain frequency components both within and beyond (either above or below) the range of valid acoustic emission events. Application to acoustic emission monitoring during nondestructive bond verification and proof loading of undensified tiles on the Space Shuttle Orbiter is considered.

  1. Laparoscopic gastric banding - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... laparoscopic gastric banding - discharge; Obesity gastric banding discharge; Weight loss - gastric banding discharge ... as your body gets used to your weight loss and your weight becomes stable. Weight loss may be slower after ...

  2. PHEV/EV Li-Ion Battery Second-Use Project, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Newbauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-05-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and full electric vehicles (Evs) have great potential to reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil and emissions. Battery costs need to be reduced by ~50% to make PHEVs cost competitive with conventional vehicles. One option to reduce initial costs is to reuse the battery in a second application following its retirement from automotive service and offer a cost credit for its residual value.

  3. Low-cost near-infrared sensors for EVS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiana, Carlo L.

    2003-09-01

    The utility of Near-Infrared (NIR) sensors for Enhanced Vision System (EVS) applications has been identified and well documented. In particular, such sensors are well suited to detecting runway approach lighting, and often outperform the pilot's vision for this task. We present the results of field tests of very low cost NIR sensors, based on sensitive visible-light cameras, for this application; the cost/benefit tradeoffs of these sensors are so favorable that they may well form the core of a basic EVS system, or an effective enhancement to EVS systems based on other primary vision sensors. Useful processing techniques for imagery from these sensors, in the presence of cooperative sensors, or as a standalone system, are also presented.

  4. NASA's Earth Venture-1 (EV-1) Airborne Science Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillory, A.; Denkins, T.; Allen, B. Danette; Braun, Scott A.; Crawford, James H.; Jensen, Eric J.; Miller, Charles E.; Moghaddam, Mahta; Maring, Hal

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, NASA announced the first Earth Venture (EV-1) selections in response to a recommendation made by the National Research Council for low-cost investigations fostering innovation in Earth science. The five EV-1 investigations span the Earth science focus areas of atmosphere, weather, climate, water and energy and, carbon and represent earth science researchers from NASA as well as other government agencies, academia and industry from around the world. The EV-1 missions are: 1) Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS), 2) Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX), 3) Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE), 4) Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ), and 5) Hurricane And Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3). The Earth Venture missions are managed out of the Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) Program Office (Allen, et. al. 2010b)

  5. Ordinary and extraordinary dielectric functions of rutile SnO2 up to 20 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feneberg, Martin; Lidig, Christian; Lange, Karsten; Goldhahn, Rüdiger; Neumann, Maciej D.; Esser, Norbert; Bierwagen, Oliver; White, Mark E.; Tsai, Min Y.; Speck, James S.

    2014-06-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry at room temperature is applied in order to determine the ordinary (ɛ⊥) and extraordinary (ɛ∥) dielectric functions (DFs) of rutile SnO2 corresponding to electric field (E) polarization perpendicular (E ⊥c) and parallel (E∥c) to the optical axis (c), respectively. Strong anisotropic behavior is found for the full spectral range from 0.5 up to 20 eV. The onsets of strong absorption are found at 4.28 eV and 5.42 eV for E ⊥c and E ∥c, respectively. A dipole-forbidden band gap at (3.59 ± 0.2) eV at room temperature is found by line shape fits to the imaginary parts of the DFs. Further high-energy transitions are resolved. Their accurate energy values are obtained by fitting the second derivatives of the DFs. Comparison to published DFs calculated by ab-initio theory demonstrates that the electron-hole interaction in SnO2 is strong and has to be included for interpretation.

  6. Vibrational renormalisation of the electronic band gap in hexagonal and cubic ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Edgar A.; Monserrat, Bartomeu; Needs, Richard J.

    2015-12-01

    Electron-phonon coupling in hexagonal and cubic water ice is studied using first-principles quantum mechanical methods. We consider 29 distinct hexagonal and cubic ice proton-orderings with up to 192 molecules in the simulation cell to account for proton-disorder. We find quantum zero-point vibrational corrections to the minimum electronic band gaps ranging from -1.5 to -1.7 eV, which leads to improved agreement between calculated and experimental band gaps. Anharmonic nuclear vibrations play a negligible role in determining the gaps. Deuterated ice has a smaller band-gap correction at zero-temperature of -1.2 to -1.4 eV. Vibrations reduce the differences between the electronic band gaps of different proton-orderings from around 0.17 eV to less than 0.05 eV, so that the electronic band gaps of hexagonal and cubic ice are almost independent of the proton-ordering when quantum nuclear vibrations are taken into account. The comparatively small reduction in the band gap over the temperature range 0 - 240 K of around 0.1 eV does not depend on the proton ordering, or whether the ice is protiated or deuterated, or hexagonal, or cubic. We explain this in terms of the atomistic origin of the strong electron-phonon coupling in ice.

  7. Vibrational renormalisation of the electronic band gap in hexagonal and cubic ice

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, Edgar A. Needs, Richard J.; Monserrat, Bartomeu

    2015-12-28

    Electron-phonon coupling in hexagonal and cubic water ice is studied using first-principles quantum mechanical methods. We consider 29 distinct hexagonal and cubic ice proton-orderings with up to 192 molecules in the simulation cell to account for proton-disorder. We find quantum zero-point vibrational corrections to the minimum electronic band gaps ranging from −1.5 to −1.7 eV, which leads to improved agreement between calculated and experimental band gaps. Anharmonic nuclear vibrations play a negligible role in determining the gaps. Deuterated ice has a smaller band-gap correction at zero-temperature of −1.2 to −1.4 eV. Vibrations reduce the differences between the electronic band gaps of different proton-orderings from around 0.17 eV to less than 0.05 eV, so that the electronic band gaps of hexagonal and cubic ice are almost independent of the proton-ordering when quantum nuclear vibrations are taken into account. The comparatively small reduction in the band gap over the temperature range 0 − 240 K of around 0.1 eV does not depend on the proton ordering, or whether the ice is protiated or deuterated, or hexagonal, or cubic. We explain this in terms of the atomistic origin of the strong electron-phonon coupling in ice.

  8. Energy-band diagram configuration of Al2O3/oxygen-terminated p-diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maréchal, A.; Aoukar, M.; Vallée, C.; Rivière, C.; Eon, D.; Pernot, J.; Gheeraert, E.

    2015-10-01

    Diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors were prepared using atomic layer deposition at 250 °C of Al2O3 on oxygen-terminated boron doped (001) diamond. Their electrical properties were investigated in terms of capacitance and current versus voltage measurements. Performing X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy based on the measured core level energies and valence band maxima, the interfacial energy band diagram configuration of the Al2O3/O-diamond is established. The band diagram alignment is concluded to be of type I with valence band offset Δ E v of 1.34 ± 0.2 eV and conduction band offset Δ E c of 0.56 ± 0.2 eV considering an Al2O3 energy band gap of 7.4 eV. The agreement with electrical measurement and the ability to perform a MOS transistor are discussed.

  9. Single ionization of helium by 730-eV electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, M. A.; Lohmann, B.; Bray, I.; Fursa, D. V.; Stelbovics, A. T.

    2007-03-15

    We present fully differential measurements of 730-eV electron-impact single ionization of the ground state of helium with 205- or 100-eV outgoing electrons. Internormalized data are obtained for coplanar geometries with the fast electron detected at {theta}{sub A}=6 degree sign , 9 degree sign , and 12 degree sign . The data are compared, where possible, with the corresponding data of Catoire et al. [J. Phys. B 39, 2827 (2006)] and the convergent close-coupling theory. An improved agreement is found between the present measurements and the theory.

  10. Characterization of p-type wide band gap transparent oxide for heterojunction devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sang-Hyun

    Transparent p-type CuCr1-xMgxO2 wide band gap oxide semiconductor thin films were deposited over quartz substrates by chemical spray pyrolysis technique using metalloorganic precursors. A mechanism of synthesis of CuCrO2 films involving precursor decomposition, oxidation, and reaction between constituent oxides in the spray deposition process is presented. Crystalline single phase CuCrO2 delafossite structure was dominant in ≥700ºC argon ambient annealed films but the as-deposited films contained spinel CuCr2O4 mixed phases as shown by XRD and XPS studies. Spin-orbital energy ˜9.8eV in Cr 2p electron spectra consistent with Cr3+ valence state and Cr 2p3/2 resolved peaks show mixed valence state on Cr4+ /Cr6+ confirming CuCr1-xMgxO 2 compound phase in the films. Effect of substrate temperature, film thickness, and acceptor Mg2+ doping on crystallographic structure, optical, electrical conductivity and thermoelectric coefficient was investigated. The invariance of the alpha- and increase of the c-lattice parameter with Mg concentration suggests that Mg2+ ions are introduced at the Cr3+ site. Highly transparent ≥80% CuCr 0.93Mg0.07O2 films with direct and indirect optical band gaps 3.08 and 2.58eV for 155 nm and 3.14 and 2.79eV for 305nm thin films, respectively were obtained. Photoluminescence emission bands at 532 and 484nm interpreted to arise from 3d94s1 and 3d 10 Cu+ intra-band transitions. Electrical conductivity of CuCr0.93Mg0.07O 2 films ranged from 0.6-1.0 Scm-1 and exhibits activation energies ˜0.11eV in 300-420K and ˜0.23eV in ≥ 420K region ascribed to activated conduction and grain boundary trap assisted conduction, respectively. Restricted by the Mg solubility, the substituted Mg dopants limited to x≤0.05 are only able to contribute to the optimum hole carrier in the range ˜2-4x1019cm-3 and thus no substantial increase of electrical conductivity could be realized with increased Mg concentration. A major fraction of Mg atoms do not act as

  11. Band gap engineering of N-alloyed Ga2O3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dongyu; Li, Li; Li, Bingsheng; Sui, Yu; Shen, Aidong

    2016-06-01

    The authors report the tuning of band gap of GaON ternary alloy in a wide range of 2.75 eV. The samples were prepared by a two-step nitridation method. First, the samples were deposited on 2-inch fused silica substrates by megnetron sputtering with NH3 and Ar gas for 60 minutes. Then they were annealed in NH3 ambience at different temperatures. The optical band gap energies are calculated from transmittance measurements. With the increase of nitridation temperature, the band gap gradually decreases from 4.8 eV to 2.05 eV. X-ray diffraction results indicate that as-deposited amorphous samples can crystallize into monoclinic and hexagonal structures after they were annealed in oxygen or ammonia ambience, respectively. The narrowing of the band gap is attributed to the enhanced repulsion of N2p -Ga3d orbits and formation of hexagonal structure.

  12. Band gap states of Ti, V, and Cr in 4H-silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achtziger, Norbert; Witthuhn, Wolfgang

    1997-07-01

    Band gap states of Ti, V, and Cr in n-type 4H-SiC were investigated by radiotracer deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Doping with the radioactive isotopes 48V and 51Cr was done by recoil implantation followed by annealing (1600 K). Repeated DLTS measurements during the elemental transmutation of these isotopes to 48Ti and 51V, respectively, reveal the corresponding concentration changes of band gap states. Thus, six levels are identified in the band gap: Cr levels at 0.15, 0.18, and 0.74 eV, one V level at 0.97 eV, and two Ti levels at 0.13 and 0.17 eV below the conduction band edge.

  13. A Highly Doppler Blueshifted Fe-K Emission Line in the High-Redshift QSO PKS 2149-306

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaqoob, Tahir; George, I. M.; Nandra, K.; Turner, T. J.; Zobair, S.; Selemitsos, P. J.

    1999-01-01

    We report the results from an ASCA observation of the high-luminosity, radioloud quasar PKS 2149-306 (redshift 2.345), covering the approximately 1.7 - 30 keV band in the quasar-frame. We find the source to have a luminosity of approximately 6 x 10(exp 47) ergs/s in the 2 - 10 keV band (quasar frame). We detect an emission line centered at approximately 17 keV in the quasar frame. Line emission at this energy has not been observed in any other active galaxy or quasar to date. We present evidence rejecting the possibility that this line is the result of instrumental artifacts, or a serendipitous source. The most likely explanation is blueshifted Fe-K emission (the equivalent width, is EW approximately 300 +/- 200 eV, quasar frame). Bulk velocities of the order of 0.75c are implied by the data. We show that Fe-K line photons originating in an accretion disk and Compton-scattering off a leptonic jet aligned along the disk axis can account for the emission line. Curiously. if the emission-line feature recently discovered in another quasar (PKS 0637-752, z = 0.654) at 1.6 keV in the quasar frame, is due to blueshifted OVII emission, the Doppler blueshifting factor in both quasars is similar (approximately 2.7 - 2.8).

  14. A Highly Doppler Blueshifted Fe-K Emission Line in the High-Redshift QSO PKS 2149-306.

    PubMed

    Yaqoob; George; Nandra; Turner; Zobair; Serlemitsos

    1999-11-01

    We report the results from an ASCA observation of the high-luminosity, radio-loud quasar PKS 2149-306 (redshift 2.345), covering the approximately 1.7-30 keV band in the quasar frame. We find the source to have a luminosity approximately 6x1047 ergs s-1 in the 2-10 keV band (quasar frame). We detect an emission line centered at approximately 17 keV in the quasar frame. Line emission at this energy has not been observed in any other active galaxy or quasar to date. We present evidence rejecting the possibility that this line is the result of instrumental artifacts or a serendipitous source. The most likely explanation is blueshifted Fe-K emission (the equivalent width is EW approximately 300+/-200 eV, quasar frame). Bulk velocities of the order of 0.75c are implied by the data. We show that Fe-K line photons originating in an accretion disk and Compton scattering off a leptonic jet aligned along the disk axis can account for the emission line. Curiously, if the emission-line feature recently discovered in another quasar (PKS 0637-752, z=0.654) at 1.6 keV in the quasar frame is due to blueshifted O vii emission, the Doppler blueshifting factor in both quasars is similar ( approximately 2.7-2.8).

  15. Photoionization of iodine atoms: Angular distributions and relative partial photoionization cross-sections in the energy region 11.0-23.0 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eypper, Marie; Innocenti, Fabrizio; Morris, Alan; Dyke, John M.; Stranges, Stefano; West, John B.; King, George C.

    2010-08-01

    Relative partial photoionization cross-sections and angular distribution parameters, β, have been measured for the first, I+(P32)←I(P23/2), and fourth, I+(D12)←I(P23/2), (5p)-1 photoelectron (PE) bands of atomic iodine, by performing angle-resolved constant-ionic-state (CIS) measurements on these PE bands in the photon energy range 11.0-23.0 eV. Three Rydberg series, two ns and one nd series, which converge to the I+ P31 limit at 11.33 eV and four Rydberg series, two ns and two nd series, which converge to the I+ D12 limit at 12.15 eV were observed in the first PE band CIS spectra. The fourth band CIS spectrum showed structure in the 12.9-14.1eV photon energy range, which is also seen in the first band CIS spectra. This structure arises from excitation to ns and nd Rydberg states that are parts of series converging to the I+ S10 limit we reported on earlier, as well as 5s→5p excitations in the photon energy range 17.5-22.5 eV. These atomic iodine CIS spectra show reasonably good agreement with the equivalent spectra obtained for atomic bromine. The β-plots for the first PE band recorded up to the I+ P31 and I+ D12 limits only show resonances corresponding to some of the 5p→nd excitations observed in the first band CIS spectra scanned to the I+ D12 limit (12.15 eV). These plots are interpreted in terms of an angular momentum transfer model with the positive values of β obtained on resonances corresponding to parity allowed jt=1 and 3 channels and the off-resonance negative β values corresponding to parity unfavored channels, where jt is the quantum number for angular momentum transfer between the molecule, and the ion and photoelectron. The β-plots recorded for iodine are significantly different from those obtained for atomic bromine. Comparison of the experimental CIS spectra and β-plots with available theoretical results highlights the need for higher level calculations which include factors such as configuration interaction in the initial and final

  16. Quasiparticle band structures and optical properties of magnesium fluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Zhijun; Jia, Ran

    2012-02-01

    The quasiparticle and optical properties of magnesium fluoride (MgF2) are computed within the GW approximation based on many-body perturbation theory (MBPT). The many-body effects appearing in self-energy and electron-hole interactions have an important influence on the electronic and optical properties. The DFT-LDA calculation shows a 6.78 eV band gap. Two methods are employed to evaluate the self-energy within the GW approximation in the present work. The generalized plasmon pole model (GPP) provides a band gap of 12.17 eV, which agrees well with the experimental value of 12.4 eV (Thomas et al 1973 Phys. Status Solidi b 56 163). Another band gap value of 11.30 eV is obtained by using a full frequency-dependent self-energy, which is also not far from the experimental value and is much better than the result from the LDA calculation. The calculated optical spectrum within DFT is significantly different from the experiment. Although the calculated optical absorption threshold within the GW method is close to the experiment, the overall shape of the spectrum is still similar to the case of DFT. However, the overall shape of the spectrum via the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) method agrees well with the experiment.

  17. Quasiparticle band structures and optical properties of magnesium fluoride.

    PubMed

    Yi, Zhijun; Jia, Ran

    2012-02-29

    The quasiparticle and optical properties of magnesium fluoride (MgF(2)) are computed within the GW approximation based on many-body perturbation theory (MBPT). The many-body effects appearing in self-energy and electron-hole interactions have an important influence on the electronic and optical properties. The DFT-LDA calculation shows a 6.78 eV band gap. Two methods are employed to evaluate the self-energy within the GW approximation in the present work. The generalized plasmon pole model (GPP) provides a band gap of 12.17 eV, which agrees well with the experimental value of 12.4 eV (Thomas et al 1973 Phys. Status Solidi b 56 163). Another band gap value of 11.30 eV is obtained by using a full frequency-dependent self-energy, which is also not far from the experimental value and is much better than the result from the LDA calculation. The calculated optical spectrum within DFT is significantly different from the experiment. Although the calculated optical absorption threshold within the GW method is close to the experiment, the overall shape of the spectrum is still similar to the case of DFT. However, the overall shape of the spectrum via the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) method agrees well with the experiment.

  18. Transmittance and optical constants of Eu films from 8.3 to 1400 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Perea, Mónica; Vidal-Dasilva, Manuela; Aznárez, José A.; Larruquert, Juan I.; Méndez, José A.; Poletto, Luca; Garoli, Denis; Malvezzi, A. Marco; Giglia, Angelo; Nannarone, Stefano

    2008-12-01

    The optical constants of Eu films were obtained in the 8.3-1400 eV range from transmittance measurements performed at room temperature. Thin films of Eu were deposited by evaporation in ultrahigh vacuum conditions and their transmittance was measured in situ. Eu films were deposited onto grids coated with a thin C support film. The refractive index n of Eu was calculated using the Kramers-Kronig analysis. Data were extrapolated both on the high- and low-energy sides by using experimental and calculated extinction coefficient values available in the literature. Eu, similar to other lanthanides, has a low-absorption band just below the O2,3 edge onset; the lowest absorption was measured at about 16.7 eV. Therefore, Eu is a promising material for filters and multilayer coatings in the energy range below the O2,3 edge in which materials typically have a strong absorption. The consistency of the composite optical constants was tested with the f and inertial sum rules and found to be good.

  19. Compact, self-contained enhanced-vision system (EVS) sensor simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiana, Carlo

    2007-04-01

    We describe the model SIM-100 PC-based simulator, for imaging sensors used, or planned for use, in Enhanced Vision System (EVS) applications. Typically housed in a small-form-factor PC, it can be easily integrated into existing out-the-window visual simulators for fixed-wing or rotorcraft, to add realistic sensor imagery to the simulator cockpit. Multiple bands of infrared (short-wave, midwave, extended-midwave and longwave) as well as active millimeter-wave RADAR systems can all be simulated in real time. Various aspects of physical and electronic image formation and processing in the sensor are accurately (and optionally) simulated, including sensor random and fixed pattern noise, dead pixels, blooming, B-C scope transformation (MMWR). The effects of various obscurants (fog, rain, etc.) on the sensor imagery are faithfully represented and can be selected by an operator remotely and in real-time. The images generated by the system are ideally suited for many applications, ranging from sensor development engineering tradeoffs (Field Of View, resolution, etc.), to pilot familiarization and operational training, and certification support. The realistic appearance of the simulated images goes well beyond that of currently deployed systems, and beyond that required by certification authorities; this level of realism will become necessary as operational experience with EVS systems grows.

  20. VUV action spectroscopy of protonated leucine-enkephalin peptide in the 6-14 eV range

    SciTech Connect

    Ranković, M. Lj.; Canon, F.; Nahon, L.; Giuliani, A.; Milosavljević, A. R.

    2015-12-28

    We have studied the Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) photodissociation of gas-phase protonated leucine-enkephalin peptide ion in the 5.7 to 14 eV photon energy range by coupling a linear quadrupole ion trap with a synchrotron radiation source. We report VUV activation tandem mass spectra at 6.7, 8.4, and 12.8 eV photon energies and photodissociation yields for a number of selected fragments. The obtained results provide insight into both near VUV radiation damage and electronic properties of a model peptide. We could distinguish several absorption bands and assign them to particular electronic transitions, according to previous theoretical studies. The photodissociation yields appear to be very different for the various observed fragmentation channels, depending on both the types of fragments and their position along the peptide backbone. The present results are discussed in light of recent gas-phase spectroscopic data on peptides.

  1. VUV action spectroscopy of protonated leucine-enkephalin peptide in the 6-14 eV range

    SciTech Connect

    Ranković, M. Lj.; Canon, F.; Nahon, L.; Giuliani, A.; Milosavljević, A. R.

    2015-12-29

    We have studied the VUV photodissociation of gas-phase protonated leucine-enkephalin peptide ion in the 5.7 to 14 eV photon energy range by coupling a linear quadrupole ion trap with a synchrotron radiation source. We report VUV activation tandem mass spectra at 6.7, 8.4 and 12.8 eV photon energies and photodissociation yields for a number of selected fragments. The obtained results provide insights into both near VUV radiation damage and electronic properties of a model peptide. We could distinguish several absorption bands and assign them to particular electronic transitions, according to previous theoretical studies. Furthermore, the photodissociation yields appear to be very different for the various observed fragmentation channels, depending both on the type of fragments and their position along the peptide backbone. The present results are discussed in light of recent gas-phase spectroscopic data on peptides.

  2. VUV action spectroscopy of protonated leucine-enkephalin peptide in the 6-14 eV range

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ranković, M. Lj.; Canon, F.; Nahon, L.; Giuliani, A.; Milosavljević, A. R.

    2015-12-29

    We have studied the VUV photodissociation of gas-phase protonated leucine-enkephalin peptide ion in the 5.7 to 14 eV photon energy range by coupling a linear quadrupole ion trap with a synchrotron radiation source. We report VUV activation tandem mass spectra at 6.7, 8.4 and 12.8 eV photon energies and photodissociation yields for a number of selected fragments. The obtained results provide insights into both near VUV radiation damage and electronic properties of a model peptide. We could distinguish several absorption bands and assign them to particular electronic transitions, according to previous theoretical studies. Furthermore, the photodissociation yields appear to bemore » very different for the various observed fragmentation channels, depending both on the type of fragments and their position along the peptide backbone. The present results are discussed in light of recent gas-phase spectroscopic data on peptides.« less

  3. Observations from The EV Project in Q4 2013

    SciTech Connect

    John Smart

    2014-02-01

    This is a summary report for The EV Project 4th quarter 2013 reports. It describes electric vehicle driver driving and charging behavior observed in Q4. It is the same report as the previously approved/published Q3 2013 report, only the numbers have been updated. It is for public release and does not have limited distribution.

  4. Philosophical Adventures in the Lands of Oz and Ev

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Gareth B.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the philosophical adventures of the characters in L. Frank Baum's Lands of Oz and Ev stories and discusses how such stories can stimulate reflections on philosophically interesting questions. Frank Baum is considered as the first American writer of philosophical fantasy for children for writing "The…

  5. Come Join the Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of students in Blue Springs, Missouri, are joining the band, drawn by a band director who emphasizes caring and inclusiveness. In the four years since Melissia Goff arrived at Blue Springs High School, the school's extensive band program has swelled. The marching band alone has gone from 100 to 185 participants. Also under Goff's…

  6. Electron field emission from nanostructured cubic boron nitride islands

    SciTech Connect

    Teii, Kungen; Matsumoto, Seiichiro; Robertson, John

    2008-01-07

    Nanocrystal-assembled cubic boron nitride (cBN) islands are formed by using low-energy ({approx}20 eV) ion irradiation in an inductively coupled fluorine-containing plasma. The temporal evolution of surface morphology and roughness reveals three-dimensional island growth for initial sp{sup 2}-bonded BN and subsequent cBN, accompanied by a high frequency of renucleation. The formation of cBN islands enhances the field emission and reduces the turn-on field down to around 9 V/{mu}m due to an increase in the island-related field. The results demonstrate the high potential of cBN for field emitters, comparable to other wide band gap semiconductors.

  7. 47 CFR 22.861 - Emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... operating in the spectrum immediately below and adjacent to the commercial aviation air-ground bands, may... emission or technology that complies with the technical rules in this subpart. (a) Out of band emissions... bandwidth of 100 kHz or greater. In the 1 MHz bands immediately outside and adjacent to the frequency...

  8. 47 CFR 22.861 - Emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... operating in the spectrum immediately below and adjacent to the commercial aviation air-ground bands, may... emission or technology that complies with the technical rules in this subpart. (a) Out of band emissions... bandwidth of 100 kHz or greater. In the 1 MHz bands immediately outside and adjacent to the frequency...

  9. 47 CFR 22.861 - Emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... operating in the spectrum immediately below and adjacent to the commercial aviation air-ground bands, may... emission or technology that complies with the technical rules in this subpart. (a) Out of band emissions... bandwidth of 100 kHz or greater. In the 1 MHz bands immediately outside and adjacent to the frequency...

  10. 47 CFR 22.861 - Emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... operating in the spectrum immediately below and adjacent to the commercial aviation air-ground bands, may... emission or technology that complies with the technical rules in this subpart. (a) Out of band emissions... bandwidth of 100 kHz or greater. In the 1 MHz bands immediately outside and adjacent to the frequency...

  11. 47 CFR 22.861 - Emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... operating in the spectrum immediately below and adjacent to the commercial aviation air-ground bands, may... emission or technology that complies with the technical rules in this subpart. (a) Out of band emissions... bandwidth of 100 kHz or greater. In the 1 MHz bands immediately outside and adjacent to the frequency...

  12. The band-gap enhanced photovoltaic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessler, Nir

    2016-05-01

    We critically examine the recently suggested structure that was postulated to potentially add 50% to the photo-conversion efficiency of organic solar cells. We find that the structure could be realized using stepwise increase in the gap as long as the steps are not above 0.1 eV. We also show that the charge extraction is not compromised due to an interplay between the contact's space charge and the energy level modification, which result in a flat energy band at the extracting contact.

  13. Calculations of band gaps in polyaniline from theoretical studies of oligomers

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, O.; McKee, M.L.

    2000-03-02

    Geometries and band gaps of polyaniline oligomers up to decamer have been systematically calculated and analyzed using various computational techniques such as molecular mechanics, semiempirical, and ab initio methods. On the basis of fully optimized geometries of neural and charged forms of polyaniline oligomers, excitation energies are calculated at the semiempirical ZINDO (INDO/S) level and extrapolated to the band gap value of the infinite chain. Band gaps are also approximately by extrapolating the HOMO/LUMO difference calculated at the density functional level (B3LYP/6--31G*). The SINDO//AM1 band gaps in the reduced and oxidized form of polyaniline (4.3 and 2.7 eV) are in good agreement with experimental values (3.8 {+-} 2 and 1.8 {+-} 3 eV, respectively). The doped form of polyaniline (two positive charges per four aniline units) has been computed with a spin-unrestricted method (UAM1) and the band gap approximated from an extrapolation of the tetramer and octamer. The calculated band gap of 1.3 eV (UZINDO//UAM1) is in good agreement with experiment (1.5 eV). The influence of ring torsional angle and interchain interaction on the band gap of the polyaniline system are also discussed.

  14. Band structures and band offsets of high K dielectrics on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, J.

    2002-05-01

    Various high dielectric constant oxides will be used as insulator in ferroelectric memories, dynamic random access memories, and as the gate dielectric material in future complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. These oxides which have moderately wide bandgaps provide a good test of our understanding of Schottky barrier heights and band offsets at semiconductor interfaces. Metal induced gap states (MIGS) are found to give a good description of these interfaces. The electronic structure and band offsets of these oxides are calculated. It is found that Ta 2O 5 and SrTiO 3 have small or vanishing conduction band offsets on Si. La 2O 3, Y 2O 3, ZrO 2, HfO 2, Al 2O 3 and silicates like ZrSiO 4 have offsets over 1.4 eV for both electrons and holes, making them better gate dielectrics.

  15. Diluted magnetic semiconductors with narrow band gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Bo; Maekawa, Sadamichi

    2016-10-01

    We propose a method to realize diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs) with p - and n -type carriers by choosing host semiconductors with a narrow band gap. By employing a combination of the density function theory and quantum Monte Carlo simulation, we demonstrate such semiconductors using Mn-doped BaZn2As2 , which has a band gap of 0.2 eV. In addition, we found a nontoxic DMS Mn-doped BaZn2Sb2 , of which the Curie temperature Tc is predicted to be higher than that of Mn-doped BaZn2As2 , the Tc of which was up to 230 K in a recent experiment.

  16. Cascades from nu_E above 1020 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Spencer R.

    2004-12-21

    At very high energies, the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect reduces the cross sections for electron bremsstrahlung and photon e{sup +}e{sup -} pair production. The fractional electron energy loss and pair production cross sections drop as the energy increases. In contrast, the cross sections for photonuclear interactions grow with energy. In solids and liquids, at energies above 10{sup 20} eV, photonuclear reactions dominate, and showers that originate as photons or electrons quickly become hadronic showers. These electron-initiated hadronic showers are much shorter (due to the absence of the LPM effect), but wider than purely electromagnetic showers would be. This change in shape alters the spectrum of the electromagnetic and acoustic radiation emitted from the shower. These alterations have important implications for existing and planned searches for radiation from u{sub e} induced showers above 10{sup 20} eV, and some existing limits should be reevaluated.

  17. Enhanced detection of LED runway/approach lights for EVS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, J. Richard

    2008-04-01

    The acquisition of approach and runway lights by an imager is critical to landing-credit operations with EVS. Using a GPS clock, LED sources are pulsed at one-half the EVS video rate of 60 Hz or more. The camera then uses synchronous (lock-in) detection to store the imaged lights in alternate frames, with digital subtraction of the background for each respective frame-pair. Range and weather penetration, limited only by detector background shot-noise (or camera system noise at night), substantially exceed that of the human eye. An alternative is the use of short-wave infrared cameras with eyesafe laser diode emitters. Also, runway identification may be encoded on the pulses. With standardized cameras and emitters, an "instrument qualified visual range" may be established. The concept extends to portable beacons at austere airfields, and to see-and-avoid sensing of other aircraft including UAVs.

  18. Archaeology management system based on EV-Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lin; Lu, Guo-nian; Pei, An-ping; Niu, Yu-gang; Luo, Tao

    2008-10-01

    Traditionally, cultural relics were recorded in a 2D (2 dimensions) method such as paper maps, pictures, multi-media, micro-models and so on. This paper introduces the archaeology management system based on EV-Globe (Earth View-Globe - spatial information service platform on virtual 3D environment) for the cultural relics along the Eastern Route Project (ERP) of South-to-North Water Diversion (SNWD). Integrate the spatial and attribute data of the cultural relics along ERP of SNWD processed by SuperMap deskpro2005 with the relative basic geological data based on the platform of EV-Globe and develop a series of functions based on the SDK (Software Development Kit), and so the relics can be managed visually, at the same time the system may assist the archaeologists and some researchers in managing and studying the cultural relics. Some conception and conceiving of web and mobile version is put forward for next researching.

  19. Photonic band structure

    SciTech Connect

    Yablonovitch, E.

    1993-05-01

    We learned how to create 3-dimensionally periodic dielectric structures which are to photon waves, as semiconductor crystals are to electron waves. That is, these photonic crystals have a photonic bandgap, a band of frequencies in which electromagnetic waves are forbidden, irrespective of propagation direction in space. Photonic bandgaps provide for spontaneous emission inhibition and allow for a new class of electromagnetic micro-cavities. If the perfect 3-dimensional periodicity is broken by a local defect, then local electromagnetic modes can occur within the forbidden bandgap. The addition of extra dielectric material locally, inside the photonic crystal, produces {open_quotes}donor{close_quotes} modes. Conversely, the local removal of dielectric material from the photonic crystal produces {open_quotes}acceptor{close_quotes} modes. Therefore, it will now be possible to make high-Q electromagnetic cavities of volume {approx_lt}1 cubic wavelength, for short wavelengths at which metallic cavities are useless. These new dielectric micro-resonators can cover the range all the way from millimeter waves, down to ultraviolet wavelengths.

  20. Direct band gap wurtzite gallium phosphide nanowires.

    PubMed

    Assali, S; Zardo, I; Plissard, S; Kriegner, D; Verheijen, M A; Bauer, G; Meijerink, A; Belabbes, A; Bechstedt, F; Haverkort, J E M; Bakkers, E P A M

    2013-04-10

    The main challenge for light-emitting diodes is to increase the efficiency in the green part of the spectrum. Gallium phosphide (GaP) with the normal cubic crystal structure has an indirect band gap, which severely limits the green emission efficiency. Band structure calculations have predicted a direct band gap for wurtzite GaP. Here, we report the fabrication of GaP nanowires with pure hexagonal crystal structure and demonstrate the direct nature of the band gap. We observe strong photoluminescence at a wavelength of 594 nm with short lifetime, typical for a direct band gap. Furthermore, by incorporation of aluminum or arsenic in the GaP nanowires, the emitted wavelength is tuned across an important range of the visible light spectrum (555-690 nm). This approach of crystal structure engineering enables new pathways to tailor materials properties enhancing the functionality.

  1. Direct Band Gap Wurtzite Gallium Phosphide Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The main challenge for light-emitting diodes is to increase the efficiency in the green part of the spectrum. Gallium phosphide (GaP) with the normal cubic crystal structure has an indirect band gap, which severely limits the green emission efficiency. Band structure calculations have predicted a direct band gap for wurtzite GaP. Here, we report the fabrication of GaP nanowires with pure hexagonal crystal structure and demonstrate the direct nature of the band gap. We observe strong photoluminescence at a wavelength of 594 nm with short lifetime, typical for a direct band gap. Furthermore, by incorporation of aluminum or arsenic in the GaP nanowires, the emitted wavelength is tuned across an important range of the visible light spectrum (555–690 nm). This approach of crystal structure engineering enables new pathways to tailor materials properties enhancing the functionality. PMID:23464761

  2. LANDSAT 4 band 6 data evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A series of images of a portion of a TM frame of Lake Ontario are presented. The top left frame is the TM Band 6 image, the top right image is a conventional contrast stretched image. The bottom left image is a Band 5 to Band 3 ratio image. This image is used to generate a primitive land cover classificaton. Each land cover (Water, Urban, Forest, Agriculture) is assigned a Band 6 emissivity value. The ratio image is then combined with the Band 6 image and atmospheric propagation data to generate the bottom right image. This image represents a display of data whose digital count can be directly related to estimated surface temperature. The resolution appears higher because the process cell is the size of the TM shortwave pixels.

  3. Volatile Survival on Near-Earth Asteroid 2008 EV5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Leos; Britt, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Asteroid 2008 EV5 is currently one of the possible targets of NASA Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM). The objective of this mission is to recover a boulder from the surface of an asteroid. The selection of the final target requires understanding the physical characteristics of the asteroid such as the size-frequency distribution of boulders on the asteroid's surface, the presence of volatiles on the surface and below, the strength of the surface materials and the degree of their alteration. In our work, we focus on the second criterion, the possibility of volatiles presence on 2008 EV5. These can be expected to survive embedded within the crystal lattice of various phyllosilicates. The positive presence of volatiles on the surface of and inside the asteroid is important especially for ISRU hardware demonstrations. Spectral data suggest that 2008 EV5 is a member of CI chondrite group which is characterized by high phyllosilicate content (~70%) but there is also the possibility of it being a CR chondrite where the phyllosilicate content ranges significantly, from samples with negligible phyllosilicate content to samples with almost 70% phyllosilicate content. If the dynamical history of the asteroid brought it close enough to the Sun, the lattice of phyllosilicates could have disintegrated and released the volatiles (water) and the material could have dehydrated. The depth at which the dehydration might have taken place depends on the characteristic depth of heat wave penetration which in turn depends on material characteristics such as density, heat capacity and heat conductivity. These are in turn are closely linked to the porosity. The characteristic heat penetration depth also depends on orbital geometry and rotational and orbital periods. Besides the temperature itself, the dehydration is also affected by the duration of the crystal lattice breakup temperatures. We use thermal model in conjunction with available experimental data on the dehydration of clays and

  4. Ionization of rubidium by 50-eV electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, M.A.; Lohmann, B.; Bray, I.; Bartschat, K.

    2004-04-01

    We report on a joint experimental and theoretical study of 50-eV electron-impact ionization of rubidium. Comparison of the experimental data with theoretical predictions from various models shows good qualitative agreement, as long as distortion and channel-coupling effects in the projectile-target interaction are accounted for. The remaining differences between experiment and theory indicate the need for further studies of this collision system.

  5. Observations from The EV Project in Q3 2013

    SciTech Connect

    John Smart

    2013-12-01

    This is a brief report that summarizes results published in numerous other reports. It describes the usage of electric vehicles and charging units in the EV Project over the past 3 months. There is no new data or information provided in this report, only summarizing of information published in other reports (which have all been approved for unlimited distribution publication). This report will be posted to the INL/AVTA website for viewing by the general public.

  6. BEV Charging Behavior Observed in The EV Project for 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Brion D. Bennett

    2014-01-01

    This fact sheet will be issued quarterly to report on the number of Nissan Leafs vehicle usage, charging locations, and charging completeness as part of the EV Project. It will be posted on the INL/AVTA and ECOtality websites and will be accessible by the general public. The raw data that is used to create the report is considered proprietary/OUO and NDA protected, but the information in this report is NOT proprietary nor NDA protected.

  7. UHM/HNEI EV test and evaluation program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-03-01

    The electric vehicle (EV) program of the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) focuses primarily on the field testing of promising EV/traction batteries. The intent is to utilize typical driving cycles to develop information that verifies or refutes what is obtained in the laboratory. Three different types of batteries were assigned by the U.S. DOE for testing in this program: Sonnenschein Dryfit 6V-160, Exide GC-5, Trojan T-145. We added the following battery to the test program: ALCO2200. The following EVs were chosen in our program: Converted Ford Escort station wagon, Converted Ford Escort two-door sedan, Converted Ford Escort two-door sedan, Converted Dodge van. Based on capacity tests, corrective action such as battery replacement, additional charging, adjusting terminal connections, etc., may be taken to maintain good performance. About 15,500 miles and 600 cycles have been accumulated on the Sonnenschein Dryfit 6V-160 battery pack. Five of its 18 modules have been changed. Based on DOE's standard, the battery has reached the end of its useful life. Nevertheless, the battery pack is still operational and its operating range is still greater than 40 miles per charge. It is too early to evaluate the life expectancy of the other three batteries. No module has been replaced in these three packs. HNEI will keep the Trojan and Exide battery packs in operation. The Alco 2200 batteries will be transferred to another vehicle.

  8. Intelligent Vehicle Charging Benefits Assessment Using EV Project Data

    SciTech Connect

    Letendre, Steven; Gowri, Krishnan; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Pratt, Richard M.

    2013-12-01

    PEVs can represent a significant power resource for the grid. An IVCI with bi-direction V2G capabilities would allow PEVs to provide grid support services and thus generate a source of revenue for PEV owners. The fleet of EV Project vehicles represents a power resource between 30 MW and 90 MW, depending on the power rating of the grid connection (5-15 kW). Aggregation of vehicle capacity would allow PEVs to participate in wholesale reserve capacity markets. One of the key insights from EV Project data is the fact that vehicles are connected to an EVSE much longer than is necessary to deliver a full charge. During these hours when the vehicles are not charging, they can be participating in wholesale power markets providing the high-value services of regulation and spinning reserves. The annual gross revenue potential for providing these services using the fleet of EV Project vehicles is several hundred thousands of dollars to several million dollars annually depending on the power rating of the grid interface, the number of hours providing grid services, and the market being served. On a per vehicle basis, providing grid services can generate several thousands of dollars over the life of the vehicle.

  9. Energy impacts in producing and recycling EV batteries

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This article reports that choosing the best EV battery involves more than a quest for greater range per charge, as total energy cycle assessment of batteries demonstrates. Much has been written about the performance characteristics of electric vehicle (EV) batteries, but information about materials and the production and recycling processes is not as readily available. Such information has not been the primary focus of interest, since designs and processes are still under development, and much of the information is proprietary. An overview of four electric vehicle batteries--advanced lead/acid, sodium/sulfur, nickel/cadmium and nickel/metal hydride--highlights significant differences in energy consumption during production and recycling of materials used in the batteries. Certain realities apply to these batteries, despite their technical distinctions. First, and most obvious, the batteries will make up a significant fraction, 20--40%, of vehicle mass. Impacts are increased because some batteries with lifetimes shorter than the vehicle`s will need replacement at least once. Another insight is that battery recyclability is being considered at the design stage because the electric vehicle is being born green, that is, environmentally benign from the onset. In contrast to the small consumer cells now simply being shredded, EV batteries will be large enough to warrant disassembly and material segregation as the first step in recycling. Electrode and electrolyte materials in advanced batteries are nonstandard in the automotive industry, so process information is not readily available.

  10. The band alignment of Cu2O/ZnO and Cu2O/GaN heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramm, B.; Laufer, A.; Reppin, D.; Kronenberger, A.; Hering, P.; Polity, A.; Meyer, B. K.

    2012-02-01

    Using photoelectron spectroscopy, we investigate the band alignments of the Cu2O/ZnO heterointerface and compare the findings with the corresponding values for Cu2O/GaN. While for Cu2O/ZnO, we find a valence band offset (VBO) of 2.17 eV and a conduction band offset (CBO) of 0.97 eV, both values are considerably reduced for Cu2O/GaN where the numbers are 1.47 eV (VBO) and 0.24 eV (CBO), respectively. The large CBO between ZnO and Cu2O will very likely result in low photovoltaic power conversion efficiencies as is the current status of Cu2O/ZnO solar cells.

  11. Photonic band gap materials

    SciTech Connect

    Soukoulis, C.M. |

    1993-12-31

    An overview of the theoretical and experimental efforts in obtaining a photonic band gap, a frequency band in three-dimensional dielectric structures in which electromagnetic waves are forbidden, is presented.

  12. Visible WGM emissions from rare earth ion doped ZnO microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K, Fabitha; Rao, M. S. Ramachandra

    ZnO is known to be an ideal candidate for short wavelength range opto-electronic device applications due to its wide and direct bandgap (3.37 eV) and high excitonic binding energy (60 meV). Apart from the UV emission at ~380 nm (free exciton emission) ZnO also possesses a broad emission band centered at ~530 nm which is expected to be originated from the oxygen vacancy (Vo) defects. In rare earth (RE) ion doped ZnO, emissions originate from the 4f levels of RE ions will be obtained in addition to the characteristic emissions of ZnO. Small micro/nanostructures made of ZnO with high crystalline quality show unique characteristics in light emission, especially in lasing applications. A micro/ nanostructured ZnO crystal generally has a wurtzite structure with a natural hexagonal cross section, which serves as a WGM lasing micro cavity owing to its high reflective index (~2). However, there exists a potential optical loss at corners of hexagons; therefore, an isotropic structure like spheres may be a better candidate to achieve efficient light confinement. In our work, highly smooth micro spheres with different diameters were grown. Raman spectroscopy measurements confirm the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO, SEM and AFM studies shows the smooth surfaced spheres. WGM lasing characteristics of ZnO spheres have been investigated using optical pumping with 488 nm laser in a micro-PL system. Details of the results will be presented.

  13. Low energy cluster beam deposited BN films as the cascade for field emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, L.; Ge, J.; Wang, G.

    2005-07-01

    The atomic deposited BN films with the thickness of nanometers (ABN) were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering method and the nanostructured BN films (CBN) were prepared by Low Energy Cluster Beam Deposition. UV-Vis Absorption measurement proves the band gap of 4.27 eV and field emission of the BN films were carried out. F-N plots of all the samples give a good fitting and demonstrate the F-N tunneling of the emission process. The emission of ABN begins at the electric field of 14.6 V/μ m while that of CBN starts at 5.10 V/μ m. Emission current density of 1 mA/cm2 for ABN needs the field of 20 V/μ m while that of CBN needs only 12.1 V/μ m. The cluster-deposited BN on n-type Silicon substrate proves a good performance in terms of the lower gauge voltage, more emission sites and higher electron intensity and seems a promising substitute for the cascade of field emission.

  14. Generation of Whistler Chorus Emissions and Resulting Wave-Particle Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decyk, V.; Schriver, D.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Coroniti, F. V.; Travnicek, P. M.; Winningham, J. D.; Pickett, J. S.; Santolik, O.; Goldstein, M. L.

    2009-12-01

    On July 24, 2003, when the Cluster satellites crossed the magnetic equator at about 4.5 RE radial distance on the dusk side (~ 15 MLT) emissions were observed below the local electron gyrofrequency in two bands, one band above one-half the gyrofrequency and the other band below one-half the gyrofrequency, which is typical of chorus emissions propagating in the whistler wave mode. A careful analysis of the emissions for this event has shown that Cluster passed through the wave generation region. Simultaneous electron particle data from the PEACE instrument in the generation region indicated the presence of a mid-energy electron population (~ 100’s of eV) that had a highly anisotropic temperature distribution with the perpendicular temperature about 10 times the parallel temperature. To understand this event in which the satellite passed directly through the whistler wave generation region and in which the free energy source (i.e., temperature anisotropy) was readily identified, a linear theory and particle in cell simulation study has been carried out to understand the physics of the wave generation, saturation and energy redistribution. The theoretical results show that for this event the anisotropic electron distribution can linearly excite obliquely propagating whistler mode waves in the upper band, i.e., greater than one-half the electron gyrofrequency. Non-linear processes excite waves in the lower band, i.e., less than one-half the electron gyrofrequency. The instability saturates by a combination of a decrease in the anisotropy of the mid-energy electrons as well as by heating of the cold electron population.

  15. Elucidating the Band Gap of Niobium Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, Andrew; Vigil-Fowler, Derek; Louie, Steven G.; Demkov, Alexander A.

    2015-03-01

    Like VO2, niobium dioxide (NbO2) belongs to the family of transition metal oxides with a temperature-driven metal-to-insulator transition. However, NbO2 has received considerably less attention, and several open questions about the material remain. One such question, of both practical and fundamental importance, is the nature and size of the band gap in the low-temperature, distorted rutile phase with a range reported for the gap of 0.5 eV to 1.2 eV. In this work, we investigate the low-temperature phase, utilizing several methodologies - density functional theory within the standard local density approximation (LDA), LDA +U, hybrid functional, and the GW approximation, to better understand the physics of the band gap in NbO2. Comparisons of the calculations are made to recent experimental work on NbO2 utilizing photoemission spectroscopy and ellipsometry. This work is supported by DOE under the SciDAC program, the NSF, and SRC.

  16. Circular intensity differential scattering measurements in the soft x-ray region of the spectrum (~16 EV to 500 EV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maestre, Marcos F.; Bustamante, Carlos J.; Snyder, Patricia A.; Rowe, Ednor M.; Hansen, Roger W.

    1991-11-01

    We propose the use of recently developed technique of circular intensity differential scattering (CIDS), as extended to the soft x-ray region of the spectrum (16 eV to 500 eV), to study the higher order organization of the eukaryotic chromosome. CIDS is the difference in scattering power of an object when illuminated by right circularly polarized vs. left circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation of arbitrary wavelength. CIDS has been shown to be a very sensitive measure of the helical organization of the scattering object, e.g., the eukaryotic chromosome. Preliminary results of measurements of samples of bacteriophages and octopus sperm done at SRC, Wisconsin, show the technique to be very sensitive to the dimensional parameters of the particles interrogated by circularly polarized light.

  17. STS-54 EV1 Harbaugh carries EV2 Runco during DTO 1210 EVA in OV-105's PLB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-54 Mission Specialist (MS2) and extravehicular crewmember 1 (EV1) Gregory J. Harbaugh, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) (red stripes),carries EMU-suited MS1 and EV2 Mario Runco, Jr along Endeavour's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105's, payload bay (PLB) starboard sill longeron during Detailed Test Objective (DTO) 1210, extravehicular activity (EVA) operations procedure/ training. Harbaugh uses Runco's EMU mini-workstation as a handhold. The objective of this exercise is to simulate carrying a large object. It will also evaluate the ability of an astronaut to move about it space with a 'bulky' object in hand. The empty airborne support equipment (ASE) frames appear below the crewmembers and the PLB aft bulkhead behind them. This EVA is the first in a series to broaden EVA procedures and training experience bases and proficiency in preparation for future EVAs such as the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Space Station Freedom (SSF).

  18. Band offsets in YSZ/InGaZnO4 heterostructure system.

    PubMed

    Kim, J K; Kim, K W; Douglas, E A; Gila, B P; Craciun, V; Lambers, E S; Norton, D P; Ren, F; Pearton, S J; Cho, Hyun

    2014-05-01

    The energy discontinuity in the valence band (deltaE(v)) of Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ)/InGaZnO4 (IGZO) heterostructures was obtained from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. The YSZ exhibited a bandgap of 4.4 eV from absorption measurements. A value of deltaE(v) = 0.57 +/- 0.12 eV was obtained by using Ga 2P3/2, Zn 2p3/2 and In 3d5/2 energy levels as references. This implies a conduction band offset (deltaE(c)) of 0.63 eV in YSZ/InGaZnO4 heterostructures and a nested interface band alignment.

  19. Recombination in the Evolution of Enterovirus C Species Sub-Group that Contains Types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99

    PubMed Central

    Smura, Teemu; Blomqvist, Soile; Vuorinen, Tytti; Ivanova, Olga; Samoilovich, Elena; Al-Hello, Haider; Savolainen-Kopra, Carita; Hovi, Tapani; Roivainen, Merja

    2014-01-01

    Genetic recombination is considered to be a very frequent phenomenon among enteroviruses (Family Picornaviridae, Genus Enterovirus). However, the recombination patterns may differ between enterovirus species and between types within species. Enterovirus C (EV-C) species contains 21 types. In the capsid coding P1 region, the types of EV-C species cluster further into three sub-groups (designated here as A–C). In this study, the recombination pattern of EV-C species sub-group B that contains types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99 was determined using partial 5′UTR and VP1 sequences of enterovirus strains isolated during poliovirus surveillance and previously published complete genome sequences. Several inter-typic recombination events were detected. Furthermore, the analyses suggested that inter-typic recombination events have occurred mainly within the distinct sub-groups of EV-C species. Only sporadic recombination events between EV-C species sub-group B and other EV-C sub-groups were detected. In addition, strict recombination barriers were inferred for CVA-21 genotype C and CVA-24 variant strains. These results suggest that the frequency of inter-typic recombinations, even within species, may depend on the phylogenetic position of the given viruses. PMID:24722726

  20. Band gap states of V and Cr in 6H-silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achtziger, N.; Grillenberger, J.; Witthuhn, W.

    Band gap states of Ti, V and Cr in n-type 6H-SiC were investigated by radiotracer deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Doping with the radioactive isotopes 48V and 51Cr was done by recoil implantation followed by annealing (1600 K). Repeated DLTS measurements during the elemental transmutation of these isotopes to 48Ti and 51V respectively revealed the corresponding concentration changes of band gap states. Thus, three levels were identified in the band gap: a Cr level at 0.54 eV and two V levels at 0.71 and 0.75 eV below the conduction band edge. There are no deep levels of Ti in the upper part of the band gap.

  1. Absolute total electron scattering cross sections for N/sub 2/ between 0. 5 and 50 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Kennerly, R.E.

    1980-06-01

    Absolute total electron scattering cross sections for N/sub 2/ from 0.5 to 50 eV have been measured with an estimated uncertainty of +- 3% using a transmission time-of-flight method previously described. The results are compared to previous experimental results and to recent calculations. The positions of the /sup 2/Pi/sub g/ resonance peaks were determined with much greater accuracy ( +- 15 meV) than in previous transmission measurements. The structure reported by Golden (1966) below the /sup 2/Pi/sub g/ resonance was clearly not present, indicating that, if real, these features are not a property of the N/sub 2/ ground vibronic state. The shape resonance predicted at 11 eV by Dill and Dehmer (1977) was not seen, perhaps because it was too weakly manifested in the total cross section. A weak broad band centered at 25 eV may be interpreted as being due to a sigma/sub u/ shape resonance as predicted by Dehmer, Siegel, Welch, and Dill.

  2. Site-specific intermolecular valence-band dispersion in α-phase crystalline films of cobalt phthalocyanine studied by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yamane, Hiroyuki; Kosugi, Nobuhiro

    2014-12-14

    The valence band structure of α-phase crystalline films of cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) grown on Au(111) is investigated by using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) with synchrotron radiation. The photo-induced change in the ARPES peaks is noticed in shape and energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO, C 2p) and HOMO-1 (Co 3d) of CoPc, and is misleading the interpretation of the electronic properties of CoPc films. From the damage-free normal-emission ARPES measurement, the clear valence-band dispersion has been first observed, showing that orbital-specific behaviors are attributable to the interplay of the intermolecular π-π and π-d interactions. The HOMO band dispersion of 0.1 eV gives the lower limit of the hole mobility for α-CoPc of 28.9 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} at 15 K. The non-dispersive character of the split HOMO-1 bands indicates that the localization of the spin state is a possible origin of the antiferromagnetism.

  3. Fe Line Diagnostics of Cataclysmic Variables and Galactic Ridge X-Ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao-jie; Wang, Q. Daniel; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2016-02-01

    The properties of the Galactic Ridge X-ray Emission (GRXE) observed in the 2-10 keV band place fundamental constraints on various types of X-ray sources in the Milky Way. Although the primarily discrete origin of the emission is now well established, the responsible populations of these sources remain uncertain, especially at relatively low fluxes. To provide insights into this issue, we systematically characterize the Fe emission line properties of the candidate types of the sources in the solar neighborhood and compare them with those measured for the GRXE. Our source sample includes 6 symbiotic stars, 16 intermediate polars (IPs), 3 polars, 16 quiescent dwarf novae, and 4 active binaries (ABs); they are all observed with the Suzaku X-ray Observatory. The data of about one-fourth of these sources are analyzed for the first time. We find that the mean equivalent width (EW6.7) of the 6.7 keV line and the mean 7.0/6.7 keV line ratio are 107 ± 16.0 eV and 0.71 ± 0.04 for IPs and 221 ± 135 eV and 0.44 ± 0.14 for polars, respectively, which are all substantially different from those (490 ± 15 eV and 0.2 ± 0.08) for the GRXE. Instead, the GRXE values are better agreed by the EW6.7 (438 ± 84.6 eV) and the ratio (0.27 ± 0.06) observed for the DNe. We further find that the EW6.7 is strongly correlated with the 2-10 keV luminosity of the DNe, which can be characterized by the relation {{EW}}6.7={(438+/- 95{{eV}})(L/{10}31{erg}{{{s}}}-1)}(-0.31+/- 0.15). Accounting for this correlation, the agreement can be improved further, especially when the contributions from other class sources to the GRXE are considered, which all have low EW6.7 values. We conclude that the GRXE mostly consists of typically faint but numerous DNe, plus ABs, while magnetic cataclysmic variables are probably mainly the high-flux representatives of the responsible populations and dominate the GRXE only in harder energy bands.

  4. [Establishment of EV71 animal models with 2-week-old BALB/c mice].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Qiang; Jiang, Jian-Dong; Li, Yu-Huan

    2013-03-01

    Animal model is very important for anti-EV71 (enterovirus 71) drug and vaccine development. 1-day-old suckling EV71 mouse model is the main in vivo model used in China. 1-day-old suckling EV71 mouse is too small to perform antiviral experiment. And the route of administration and dosage capacity are also restricted. A strong virulence EV71 virus strain was selected after screening from five EV71 strains with 1-day-old suckling mice. A mouse-adapted EV71 strain with increased virulence in 12-day-old suckling mice, EV71-M5, was generated after five serial passages of the parental EV71 strain in mice. Virus titers of EV71 infected mice heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, small intestine, brain and muscle tissue were determined by cytopathic effect (CPE) assay. The virus used in this model is the first isolated EV71 strain in China. And 2-week-old suckling mice were used in this model. This is a supplement for the EV71 animal model in China. Establishment of this EV71 model will provide an attractive platform for anti-EV71 vaccine and drug development.

  5. 47 CFR 15.239 - Operation in the band 88-108 MHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Intentional Radiators Radiated Emission Limits, Additional Provisions § 15.239 Operation in the band 88-108 MHz. (a) Emissions from the intentional radiator shall be confined within a band 200 kHz wide centered... the general radiated emission limits in § 15.209. (d) A custom built telemetry intentional...

  6. 47 CFR 15.239 - Operation in the band 88-108 MHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Intentional Radiators Radiated Emission Limits, Additional Provisions § 15.239 Operation in the band 88-108 MHz. (a) Emissions from the intentional radiator shall be confined within a band 200 kHz wide centered... the general radiated emission limits in § 15.209. (d) A custom built telemetry intentional...

  7. 47 CFR 15.239 - Operation in the band 88-108 MHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Intentional Radiators Radiated Emission Limits, Additional Provisions § 15.239 Operation in the band 88-108 MHz. (a) Emissions from the intentional radiator shall be confined within a band 200 kHz wide centered... the general radiated emission limits in § 15.209. (d) A custom built telemetry intentional...

  8. 47 CFR 15.239 - Operation in the band 88-108 MHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Intentional Radiators Radiated Emission Limits, Additional Provisions § 15.239 Operation in the band 88-108 MHz. (a) Emissions from the intentional radiator shall be confined within a band 200 kHz wide centered... the general radiated emission limits in § 15.209. (d) A custom built telemetry intentional...

  9. 47 CFR 15.239 - Operation in the band 88-108 MHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Intentional Radiators Radiated Emission Limits, Additional Provisions § 15.239 Operation in the band 88-108 MHz. (a) Emissions from the intentional radiator shall be confined within a band 200 kHz wide centered... the general radiated emission limits in § 15.209. (d) A custom built telemetry intentional...

  10. Excitation dependent multicolor emission and photoconductivity of Mn, Cu doped In2S3 monodisperse quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sirshendu; Saha, Manas; Ashok, Vishal Dev; Chatterjee, Arijit; De, S. K.

    2016-04-01

    Indium sulphide (In2S3) quantum dots (QDs) of average size 6 ± 2 nm and hexagonal nanoplatelets of average size 37 ± 4 nm have been synthesized from indium myristate and indium diethyl dithiocarbamate precursors respectively. The absorbance and emission band was tuned with variation of nanocrytal size from very small in the strong confinement regime to very large in the weak confinement regime. The blue emission and its shifting with size has been explained with the donor-acceptor recombination process. The 3d element doping (Mn2+ and Cu2+) is found to be effective for formation of new emission bands at higher wavelengths. The characteristic peaks of Mn2+ and Cu2+ and the modification of In3+ peaks in the x-ray photoelectric spectrum (XPS) confirm the incorporation of Mn2+ and Cu2+ into the In2S3 matrix. The simulation of the electron paramagnetic resonance signal indicates the coexistence of isotropic and axial symmetry for In and S vacancies. Moreover, the majority of Mn2+ ions and sulphur vacancies (VS ) reside on the surface of nanocrystals. The quantum confinement effect leads to an enhancement of band gap up to 3.65 eV in QDs. The formation of Mn 3d levels between conduction band edge and shallow donor states is evidenced from a systematic variation of emission spectra with the excitation wavelength. In2S3 QDs have been established as efficient sensitizers to Mn and Cu emission centers. Fast and slow components of photoluminescence (PL) decay dynamics in Mn and Cu doped QDs are interpreted in terms of surface and bulk recombination processes. Fast and stable photodetctors with high photocurrent gain are fabricated with Mn and Cu doped QDs and are found to be faster than pure In2S3. The fastest response time in Cu doped QDs is an indication of the most suitable system for photodetector devices.

  11. Excitation dependent multicolor emission and photoconductivity of Mn, Cu doped In2S3 monodisperse quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sirshendu; Saha, Manas; Ashok, Vishal Dev; Chatterjee, Arijit; De, S K

    2016-04-15

    Indium sulphide (In2S3) quantum dots (QDs) of average size 6 ± 2 nm and hexagonal nanoplatelets of average size 37 ± 4 nm have been synthesized from indium myristate and indium diethyl dithiocarbamate precursors respectively. The absorbance and emission band was tuned with variation of nanocrytal size from very small in the strong confinement regime to very large in the weak confinement regime. The blue emission and its shifting with size has been explained with the donor-acceptor recombination process. The 3d element doping (Mn(2+) and Cu(2+)) is found to be effective for formation of new emission bands at higher wavelengths. The characteristic peaks of Mn(2+) and Cu(2+) and the modification of In(3+) peaks in the x-ray photoelectric spectrum (XPS) confirm the incorporation of Mn(2+) and Cu(2+) into the In2S3 matrix. The simulation of the electron paramagnetic resonance signal indicates the coexistence of isotropic and axial symmetry for In and S vacancies. Moreover, the majority of Mn(2+) ions and sulphur vacancies (VS ) reside on the surface of nanocrystals. The quantum confinement effect leads to an enhancement of band gap up to 3.65 eV in QDs. The formation of Mn 3d levels between conduction band edge and shallow donor states is evidenced from a systematic variation of emission spectra with the excitation wavelength. In2S3 QDs have been established as efficient sensitizers to Mn and Cu emission centers. Fast and slow components of photoluminescence (PL) decay dynamics in Mn and Cu doped QDs are interpreted in terms of surface and bulk recombination processes. Fast and stable photodetctors with high photocurrent gain are fabricated with Mn and Cu doped QDs and are found to be faster than pure In2S3. The fastest response time in Cu doped QDs is an indication of the most suitable system for photodetector devices. PMID:26934114

  12. Excitation dependent multicolor emission and photoconductivity of Mn, Cu doped In2S3 monodisperse quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sirshendu; Saha, Manas; Ashok, Vishal Dev; Chatterjee, Arijit; De, S K

    2016-04-15

    Indium sulphide (In2S3) quantum dots (QDs) of average size 6 ± 2 nm and hexagonal nanoplatelets of average size 37 ± 4 nm have been synthesized from indium myristate and indium diethyl dithiocarbamate precursors respectively. The absorbance and emission band was tuned with variation of nanocrytal size from very small in the strong confinement regime to very large in the weak confinement regime. The blue emission and its shifting with size has been explained with the donor-acceptor recombination process. The 3d element doping (Mn(2+) and Cu(2+)) is found to be effective for formation of new emission bands at higher wavelengths. The characteristic peaks of Mn(2+) and Cu(2+) and the modification of In(3+) peaks in the x-ray photoelectric spectrum (XPS) confirm the incorporation of Mn(2+) and Cu(2+) into the In2S3 matrix. The simulation of the electron paramagnetic resonance signal indicates the coexistence of isotropic and axial symmetry for In and S vacancies. Moreover, the majority of Mn(2+) ions and sulphur vacancies (VS ) reside on the surface of nanocrystals. The quantum confinement effect leads to an enhancement of band gap up to 3.65 eV in QDs. The formation of Mn 3d levels between conduction band edge and shallow donor states is evidenced from a systematic variation of emission spectra with the excitation wavelength. In2S3 QDs have been established as efficient sensitizers to Mn and Cu emission centers. Fast and slow components of photoluminescence (PL) decay dynamics in Mn and Cu doped QDs are interpreted in terms of surface and bulk recombination processes. Fast and stable photodetctors with high photocurrent gain are fabricated with Mn and Cu doped QDs and are found to be faster than pure In2S3. The fastest response time in Cu doped QDs is an indication of the most suitable system for photodetector devices.

  13. The approved pediatric drug suramin identified as a clinical candidate for the treatment of EV71 infection—suramin inhibits EV71 infection in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Peijun; Zou, Gang; Bailly, Benjamin; Xu, Shanshan; Zeng, Mei; Chen, Xinsheng; Shen, Liang; Zhang, Ying; Guillon, Patrice; Arenzana-Seisdedos, Fernando; Buchy, Philippe; Li, Jian; von Itzstein, Mark; Li, Qihan; Altmeyer, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes severe central nervous system infections, leading to cardiopulmonary complications and death in young children. There is an urgent unmet medical need for new pharmaceutical agents to control EV71 infections. Using a multidisciplinary approach, we found that the approved pediatric antiparasitic drug suramin blocked EV71 infectivity by a novel mechanism of action that involves binding of the naphtalentrisulonic acid group of suramin to the viral capsid. Moreover, we demonstrate that when suramin is used in vivo at doses equivalent to or lower than the highest dose already used in humans, it significantly decreased mortality in mice challenged with a lethal dose of EV71 and peak viral load in adult rhesus monkeys. Thus, suramin inhibits EV71 infection by neutralizing virus particles prior to cell attachment. Consequently, these findings identify suramin as a clinical candidate for further development as a therapeutic or prophylactic treatment for severe EV71 infection. PMID:26038755

  14. The approved pediatric drug suramin identified as a clinical candidate for the treatment of EV71 infection-suramin inhibits EV71 infection in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ren, Peijun; Zou, Gang; Bailly, Benjamin; Xu, Shanshan; Zeng, Mei; Chen, Xinsheng; Shen, Liang; Zhang, Ying; Guillon, Patrice; Arenzana-Seisdedos, Fernando; Buchy, Philippe; Li, Jian; von Itzstein, Mark; Li, Qihan; Altmeyer, Ralf

    2014-09-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes severe central nervous system infections, leading to cardiopulmonary complications and death in young children. There is an urgent unmet medical need for new pharmaceutical agents to control EV71 infections. Using a multidisciplinary approach, we found that the approved pediatric antiparasitic drug suramin blocked EV71 infectivity by a novel mechanism of action that involves binding of the naphtalentrisulonic acid group of suramin to the viral capsid. Moreover, we demonstrate that when suramin is used in vivo at doses equivalent to or lower than the highest dose already used in humans, it significantly decreased mortality in mice challenged with a lethal dose of EV71 and peak viral load in adult rhesus monkeys. Thus, suramin inhibits EV71 infection by neutralizing virus particles prior to cell attachment. Consequently, these findings identify suramin as a clinical candidate for further development as a therapeutic or prophylactic treatment for severe EV71 infection.

  15. Flat conduction-band alignment at the CdS/CuInSe2 thin-film solar-cell heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morkel, M.; Weinhardt, L.; Lohmüller, B.; Heske, C.; Umbach, E.; Riedl, W.; Zweigart, S.; Karg, F.

    2001-12-01

    By combining ultraviolet and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with inverse photoemission spectroscopy, we find that the conduction-band alignment at the CdS/CuInSe2 thin-film solar-cell heterojunction is flat (0.0±0.2 eV). Furthermore, we observe a valence-band offset of 0.8±0.2 eV. The electronic level alignment is dominated by (1) an unusually large surface band gap of the CuInSe2 thin film (1.4 eV), (2) by a reduced surface band gap of the CdS overlayer (2.2 eV) due to intermixing effects, and (3) by a general influence of the intermixing on the chemical state near the interface.

  16. Optimization of unipolar magnetic couplers for EV wireless power chargers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, H.; Liu, Z. Z.; Chen, H. X.; Zhou, B.; Hei, T.

    2016-08-01

    In order to improve the coupling coefficient of EV wireless power chargers, it's important to optimize the magnetic couplers. To improve the coupling coefficient, the relationship between coupling coefficient and efficiency is derived, and the expression of coupling coefficient based on magnetic circuit is deduced, which provide the basis for optimizing the couplers. By 3D FEM simulation, the optimal core structure and coils are designed for unipolar circular couplers. Experiments are designed to verify the correctness of the optimization results, and compared with previous coupler, the transmission efficiency is improved and weight is reduced.

  17. Band alignment of type I at (100)ZnTe/PbSe interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalov, Igor; Emelianov, Vitali; Linke, Ralf

    2016-06-01

    A junction of lattice-matched cubic semiconductors ZnTe and PbSe results in a band alignment of type I so that the narrow band gap of PbSe is completely within the wider band gap of ZnTe. The valence band offset of 0.27 eV was found, representing a minor barrier during injection of holes from PbSe into ZnTe. Simple linear extrapolation of the valence band edge results in a smaller calculated band offset, but a more elaborate square root approximation was used instead, which accounts for parabolic bands. PbSe was electrodeposited at room temperature with and without Cd2+ ions in the electrolyte. Although Cd adsorbs at the surface, the presence of Cd in the electrolyte does not influence the band offset.

  18. Protective effect of enterovirus‑71 (EV71) virus‑like particle vaccine against lethal EV71 infection in a neonatal mouse model.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lei; Mao, Fengfeng; Pang, Zheng; Yi, Yao; Qiu, Feng; Tian, Ruiguang; Meng, Qingling; Jia, Zhiyuan; Bi, Shengli

    2015-08-01

    Enterovirus-71 (EV71) is a viral pathogen that causes severe cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among young children, with significant mortality. Effective vaccines against HFMD are urgently required. Several EV71 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidates were found to be protective in the neonatal mouse EV71 challenge model. However, to what extent the VLP vaccine protects susceptible organs against EV71 infection in vivo has remained elusive. In the present study, the comprehensive immunogenicity of a potential EV71 vaccine candidate based on VLPs was evaluated in a neonatal mouse model. Despite lower levels of neutralizing antibodies to EV71 in the sera of VLP-immunized mice compared with those in mice vaccinated with inactivated EV71, the VLP-based vaccine was shown to be able to induce immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgA memory-associated cellular immune responses to EV71. Of note, the EV71 VLP vaccine candidate was capable of inhibiting viral proliferation in cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, lung and intestine of immunized mice and provided effective protection against the pathological damage caused by viral attack. In particular, the VLP vaccine was able to inhibit the transportation of EV71 from the central nervous system to the muscle tissue and greatly protected muscle tissue from infection, along with recovery from the viral infection. This led to nearly 100% immunoprotective efficacy, enabling neonatal mice delivered by VLP-immunized female adult mice to survive and grow with good health. The present study provided valuable additional knowledge of the specific protective efficacy of the EV71 VLP vaccine in vivo, which also indicated that it is a promising potential candidate for being developed into an EV71 vaccine.

  19. High band gap 2-6 and 3-5 tunneling junctions for silicon multijunction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daud, Taher (Inventor); Kachare, Akaram H. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A multijunction silicon solar cell of high efficiency is provided by providing a tunnel junction between the solar cell junctions to connect them in series. The tunnel junction is comprised of p+ and n+ layers of high band gap 3-5 or 2-6 semiconductor materials that match the lattice structure of silicon, such as GaP (band gap 2.24 eV) or ZnS (band gap 3.6 eV). Each of which has a perfect lattice match with silicon to avoid defects normally associated with lattice mismatch.

  20. A platform for actively loading cargo RNA to elucidate limiting steps in EV-mediated delivery.

    PubMed

    Hung, Michelle E; Leonard, Joshua N

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate intercellular communication through transfer of RNA and protein between cells. Thus, understanding how cargo molecules are loaded and delivered by EVs is of central importance for elucidating the biological roles of EVs and developing EV-based therapeutics. While some motifs modulating the loading of biomolecular cargo into EVs have been elucidated, the general rules governing cargo loading and delivery remain poorly understood. To investigate how general biophysical properties impact loading and delivery of RNA by EVs, we developed a platform for actively loading engineered cargo RNAs into EVs. In our system, the MS2 bacteriophage coat protein was fused to EV-associated proteins, and the cognate MS2 stem loop was engineered into cargo RNAs. Using this Targeted and Modular EV Loading (TAMEL) approach, we identified a configuration that substantially enhanced cargo RNA loading (up to 6-fold) into EVs. When applied to vesicles expressing the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSVG) - gesicles - we observed a 40-fold enrichment in cargo RNA loading. While active loading of mRNA-length (>1.5 kb) cargo molecules was possible, active loading was much more efficient for smaller (~0.5 kb) RNA molecules. We next leveraged the TAMEL platform to elucidate the limiting steps in EV-mediated delivery of mRNA and protein to prostate cancer cells, as a model system. Overall, most cargo was rapidly degraded in recipient cells, despite high EV-loading efficiencies and substantial EV uptake by recipient cells. While gesicles were efficiently internalized via a VSVG-mediated mechanism, most cargo molecules were rapidly degraded. Thus, in this model system, inefficient endosomal fusion or escape likely represents a limiting barrier to EV-mediated transfer. Altogether, the TAMEL platform enabled a comparative analysis elucidating a key opportunity for enhancing EV-mediated delivery to prostate cancer cells, and this technology should be of

  1. Band gap opening in silicene on MgBr2(0001) induced by Li and Na.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiajie; Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2014-11-12

    Silicene consists of a monolayer of Si atoms in a buckled honeycomb structure and is expected to be well compatible with the current Si-based technology. However, the band gap is strongly influenced by the substrate. In this context, the structural and electronic properties of silicene on MgBr2(0001) modified by Li and Na are investigated by first-principles calculations. Charge transfer from silicene (substrate) to substrate (silicene) is found for substitutional doping (intercalation). As compared to a band gap of 0.01 eV on the pristine substrate, strongly enhanced band gaps of 0.65 eV (substitutional doping) and 0.24 eV (intercalation) are achieved. The band gap increases with the dopant concentration.

  2. The unidentified interstellar infrared bands: PAHs as carriers?

    PubMed

    Schlemmer, S; Cook, D J; Harrison, J A; Wurfel, B; Chapman, W; Saykally, R J

    1994-09-16

    Infrared emission spectra of gas-phase naphthalene and pyrene have been measured in the range of 3 to 7.5 micrometers with ultraviolet laser desorption-excitation and a spectroscopic technique featuring single-photon counting in the infrared. The spectra were compared with the unidentified infrared emission bands that are observed in many astronomical objects. Marked discrepancies between those observations and the laboratory emission spectra in the wavelengths and relative intensities of principal spectral features led to the conclusion that small neutral unsubstituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons cannot be the carriers of the unidentified infrared emission bands.

  3. Band Structure of SnTe Studied by Photoemission Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littlewood, P. B.; Mihaila, B.; Schulze, R. K.; Safarik, D. J.; Gubernatis, J. E.; Bostwick, A.; Rotenberg, E.; Opeil, C. P.; Durakiewicz, T.; Smith, J. L.; Lashley, J. C.

    2010-08-01

    We present an angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy study of the electronic structure of SnTe and compare the experimental results to ab initio band structure calculations as well as a simplified tight-binding model of the p bands. Our study reveals the conjectured complex Fermi surface structure near the L points showing topological changes in the bands from disconnected pockets, to open tubes, and then to cuboids as the binding energy increases, resolving lingering issues about the electronic structure. The chemical potential at the crystal surface is found to be 0.5 eV below the gap, corresponding to a carrier density of p=1.14×1021cm-3 or 7.2×10-2 holes per unit cell. At a temperature below the cubic-rhombohedral structural transition a small shift in spectral energy of the valance band is found, in agreement with model predictions.

  4. Band structure of SnTe studied by photoemission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Littlewood, P B; Mihaila, B; Schulze, R K; Safarik, D J; Gubernatis, J E; Bostwick, A; Rotenberg, E; Opeil, C P; Durakiewicz, T; Smith, J L; Lashley, J C

    2010-08-20

    We present an angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy study of the electronic structure of SnTe and compare the experimental results to ab initio band structure calculations as well as a simplified tight-binding model of the p bands. Our study reveals the conjectured complex Fermi surface structure near the L points showing topological changes in the bands from disconnected pockets, to open tubes, and then to cuboids as the binding energy increases, resolving lingering issues about the electronic structure. The chemical potential at the crystal surface is found to be 0.5 eV below the gap, corresponding to a carrier density of p=1.14 × 10(21)  cm(-3) or 7.2 × 10(-2) holes per unit cell. At a temperature below the cubic-rhombohedral structural transition a small shift in spectral energy of the valance band is found, in agreement with model predictions. PMID:20868120

  5. Physical reasons of emission transformation in infrared CdSeTe/ZnS quantum dots at bioconjugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torchynska, T. V.

    2015-04-01

    The core/shell CdSeTe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with emission at 780-800 nm (1.55-1.60 eV) have been studied by means of photoluminescence (PL) and Raman scattering methods in the nonconjugated state and after conjugation to different antibodies (Ab): (i) mouse monoclonal [8C9] human papilloma virus Ab, anti-HPV 16-E7 Ab, (ii) mouse monoclonal [C1P5] human papilloma virus HPV16 E6+HPV18 E6 Ab, and (iii) pseudo rabies virus (PRV) Ab. The transformations of PL and Raman scattering spectra of QDs, stimulated by conjugated antibodies, have been revealed and discussed. The energy band diagram of core/shell CdSeTe/ZnS QDs has been designed that helps to analyze the PL spectra and their transformations at the bioconjugation. It is shown that the core in CdSeTe/ZnS QDs is complex and including the type II quantum well. The last fact permits to explain the nature of infrared (IR) optical transitions (1.55-1.60 eV) and the high energy PL band (1.88-1.94 eV) in the nonconjugated and bioconjugated QDs. A set of physical reasons has been analyzed with the aim to explain the transformation of PL spectra in bioconjugated QDs. Finally it is shown that two factors are responsible for the PL spectrum transformation at bioconjugation to charged antibodies: (i) the change of energy band profile in QDs and (ii) the shift of QD energy levels in the strong quantum confinement case. The effect of PL spectrum transformation is useful for the study of QD bioconjugation to specific antibodies and can be a powerful technique for early medical diagnostics.

  6. Observations of potential ultra high energy gamma-ray sources above 10(15) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, A.; Lloyd-Evans, J.; Perrett, J. C.; Watson, A. A.; West, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    The Haverah Park 50 m water-Cerenkov array has been used to examine a number of periodic sources for ultra high energy gamma-ray emission above 10 to the 15th power eV. The data, recorded between 1 Jan. 1979 and 31 Dec. 1984, feature a modest angular resolution of approx 3 deg with millisecond arrival time resolution post 1982. The sources investigated include the Crab pulsar, Her X-1, Au0115 + 63 and Geminga. All objects have been detected by workers in the TeV region, with varying degrees of confidence.

  7. Development of an apparatus for obtaining molecular beams in the energy range from 2 to 200 eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapier, R.; Devienne, F. M.; Roustan, A.; Roustan, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    The formation and detection of molecular beams obtained by charge exchange from a low-energy ion source is discussed. Dispersion in energy of the ion source was measured and problems concerning detection of neutral beams were studied. Various methods were used, specifically secondary electron emissivity of a metallic surface and ionization of a gas target with a low ionization voltage. The intensities of neutral beams as low as 10 eV are measured by a tubular electron multiplier and a lock-in amplifier.

  8. Mitsubishi iMiEV: An Electric Mini-Car in NREL's Advanced Technology Vehicle Fleet (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet highlights the Mitsubishi iMiEV, an electric mini-car in the advanced technology vehicle fleet at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). In support of the U.S. Department of Energy's fast-charging research efforts, NREL engineers are conducting charge and discharge performance testing on the vehicle. NREL's advanced technology vehicle fleet features promising technologies to increase efficiency and reduce emissions without sacrificing safety or comfort. The fleet serves as a technology showcase, helping visitors learn about innovative vehicles that are available today or are in development. Vehicles in the fleet are representative of current, advanced, prototype, and emerging technologies.

  9. Energetic (above 60 eV) atmospheric photoelectrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winningham, J. D.; Decker, D. T.; Kozyra, J. U.; Nagy, A. F.; Jasperse, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Data from low altitude plasma instrument (LAPI) on Dynamics Explorer 2 document a population of high-energy (up to 800 eV) atmospheric photoelectrons that has not been reported in the published literature. The source of these photoelectrons is postulated to be the soft X-ray portion of the whole sun spectrum. This conclusion is supported by sunrise-sunset characteristics that track those of the classical (below 60 eV) EUV-produced photoelectrons, and theoretical results from two models that incorporate the soft X-ray portion of the solar spectrum. The models include K-shell ionization effects and predict peaks in the photoelectron spectrum due to Auger electrons emitted from oxygen and nitrogen. The peak for nitrogen is observed as predicted, but the peak for oxygen is barely observable. Excellent quantitative agreement is achieved between theory and experiment by using reasonable adjustments to the few published soft X-ray spectra based on solar activity. The upflowing energetic photoelectrons provide a heretofore unknown source of electrons to the magnetosphere. They occur whenever and wherever the sun is up, that is, at all invariant latitudes. Their density is low, but they are steady and ubiquitous. If scattering and trapping occur on closed field lines, then photoelectrons could contribute as a significant particle source and thus represent a new facet of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  10. NASA JSC EV2 Intern Spring 2016 - Jennie Chung

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Jennie

    2016-01-01

    Exploration Mission 2 (EM-2) is a mission to resume the manned exploration of the Solar System. This mission is the first crewed mission of NASA’s Orion on the Space Launch System. The target for EM-2 is to perform a flyby of a captured asteroid in lunar orbit, which NASA plans to launch in 2023. As an intern working with EV-2 – Avionics Systems Division in Johnson Space Center, we are developing flight instrumentation systems for EM-2 (MISL & RFID). The Modular Integrated Stackable Layer (MISL) is a compact space-related computer system that is modular, scalable and reconfigurable. The RFID (radio frequency identification) sensors are used to take lower frequency (TC) type measurements and be able to stream data real-time to an RF (radio frequency) interrogator upon demand. Our job, in EV-2, is to certify, test, manufacture/assemble and deliver flight EM-2 DFI System (MISL & RFID). Our goal is to propose a development effort to design low-mass wire and wireless data acquisition and sensor solutions for EM-2 DFI (Development Flight Instrumentation). The team is tasked to provide the most effective use of 75 pounds to acquire DFI data and to collect sensor data for 100-200 high priority DFI channels (mass driven).

  11. Band Offsets for the Epitaxial TiO₂/SrTiO₃/Si(001) System

    SciTech Connect

    Tuan, Allan C.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Rogers, J. W.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2003-11-03

    We have used x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with high energy resolution to determine band discontinuities at the two buried interfaces of the epitaxial TiO₂ (anatase)/ SrTiO₃/Si(001) system. The valence band offsets are -2.1 +/- 0.1 eV and +0.2 +/- 0.1 eV at the SrTiO₃/Si and TiO₂/SrTiO₃ heterojunctions, respectively. Assuming bulk band gaps for the SrTiO₃ and TiO₂ epitaxial films, the associated conduction band offsets are +0.1 +/- 0.1 eV and +0.1 +/- 0.1 eV. Si at the interface is in a flat-band state, indicating a very low density of electronic states. These results suggest that spin polarized electron injection from ferromagnetic Co-doped TiO₂ anatase into Si should be facile. PACS numbers: 79.60.Jv, 72.25.Dc

  12. Emission variation in infrared (CdSeTe)/ZnS quantum dots conjugated to antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo Gómez, J. A.; Casas Espinola, J. L.; Douda, J.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents the photoluminescence (PL) and Raman scattering investigations of infrared CdSeTe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with emission at 800 nm (1.60 eV) in nonconjugated states and after the conjugation to the anti-papilloma virus antibodies (Ab). The Raman scattering study has shown that the CdSeTe core includes two layers with different material compositions such as: CdSe0.5Te0.5 and CdSe0.7Te0.3. PL spectra of nonconjugated CdSeTe/ZnS QDs are characterized by two Gaussian shape PL bands related to exciton emission in the CdSeTe core and in intermediate layer at the core/shell interface. PL spectra of bioconjugated QDs have changed essentially: the main PL band related to the core emission shifts into high energy and become asymmetric. The energy diagram of double core/shell CdSeTe/ZnS QDs has been analyzed to explain the PL spectrum of nonconjugated QDs and its transformation at the bioconjugation to the papiloma virus antibodies. It is shown that the PL spectrum transformation in bioconjugated QDs can be a powerful technique for biology and medicine.

  13. OH Meinel band nightglow profiles from OSIRIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheese, P. E.; Llewellyn, E. J.; Gattinger, R. L.; Strong, K.

    2014-10-01

    The mesospheric nightglow spectrum is replete with OH Meinel band emissions, from the midvisible to the midinfrared. These emissions provide a wealth of aeronomic information, giving a physical view of the chemistry and dynamics of the upper atmosphere. The Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imaging System (OSIRIS) instrument, on the Odin satellite, is currently one of the few satellite instruments that simultaneously observes emissions from multiple and separate Meinel bands. This has allowed the derivation of near-global data sets of nighttime OH volume emission rate profiles for the Meinel (5-1), (8-3), and (9-4) bands. The 2002-2013 climatologies consistently show that emission from bands in higher upper vibrational levels peaks at higher altitudes. The global average (5-1), (8-3), and (9-4) band emission peak heights are at altitudes of 86.0 km, 86.7 km, and 87.1 km, respectively. The 1σ variation in the (5-1), (8-3), and (9-4) band, peak heights are 1.8 km, 1.9 km, and 1.9 km, respectively. The climatological (30 day, 10° latitude) peak heights can vary significantly with both time and latitude; however, the (5-1) band climatological peak height is nearly always below that of the (8-3) band, which is nearly always below that of the (9-4) band. The temporal variation in the emission peak height can have a significant impact on measurements of OH rotational temperatures from ground-based observations of the OH layer. It was found that omitting the profile climatology can bias a ground-based temperature measurement by as much as ±4 K and can also make ground-based measurements susceptible to nonrealistic temperature variations.

  14. Resonant x-ray emission from gas-phase TiCl{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Hague, C.F.; Tronc, M.; De Groot, F.

    1997-04-01

    Resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy (RXES) has proved to be a powerful tool for studying the electronic structure of condensed matter. Over the past few years it has been used mainly for studying the valence bands of solids and condensed molecules. Very recently the advent of high brightness photon beams provided by third generation synchrotron radiation source undulators, associated with efficient x-ray emission spectrometers has made it possible to perform experiments on free diatomic molecular systems. RXE spectra of free molecules are of prime importance to gain insight into their electronic structure and bonding as they reflect the symmetry of orbitals engaged in the two-electron, two-step process with the l = 0, {+-}2 parity-conserving selection rule, and are free from solid state effects which can introduce difficulties in the interpretation. They provide information (more so than XAS) on the core excited states, and, when performed at fixed incident photon energy as a function of the emitted photon energy, on the electronic excitation (charge transfer, multiplet states). Moreover the anisotropy of the angular distribution of resonant x-ray emission affects the relative intensity of the emission peaks and provides information concerning the symmetries of final states. This is a preliminary report on what are the first RXE spectra of a 3d transition metal complex in the gas phase. The experiment concerns the Ti 3d {yields}2p emission spectrum of TiCl{sub 4} over the 450 to 470 eV region.

  15. Effect of interfacial lattice mismatch on bulk carrier concentration and band gap of InN

    SciTech Connect

    Kuyyalil, Jithesh; Tangi, Malleswararao; Shivaprasad, S. M.

    2012-10-15

    The issue of ambiguous values of the band gap (0.6 to 2 eV) of InN thin film in literature has been addressed by a careful experiment. We have grown wurtzite InN films by PA-MBE simultaneously on differently modified c-plane sapphire substrates and characterized by complementary structural and chemical probes. Our studies discount Mie resonances caused by metallic In segregation at grain boundaries as the reason for low band gap values ( Almost-Equal-To 0.6 eV) and also the formation of Indium oxides and oxynitrides as the cause for high band gap value ( Almost-Equal-To 2.0 eV). It is observed that polycrystallinity arising from azimuthal miss-orientation of c-oriented wurtzite InN crystals increases the carrier concentration and the band gap values. We have reviewed the band gap, carrier concentration, and effective mass of InN in literature and our own measurements, which show that the Moss-Burstein relation with a non-parabolic conduction band accounts for the observed variation of band gap with carrier concentration.

  16. Panchromatic Observations of the Textbook GRB 110205A: Constraining Physical Mechanisms of Prompt Emission and Afterglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, W.; Shen, R. F.; Sakamoto, T.; Beardmore, A. P.; De Pasquale, M.; Wu, X. F.; Gorosabel, J.; Urata, Y.; Sugita, S.; Zhang, B.; Pozanenko, A.; Nissinen, M.; Sahu, D. K.; Im, M.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Andreev, M.; Klunko, E.; Volnova, A.; Akerlof, C. W.; Anto, P.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Breeveld, A.; Carsenty, U.; Gehrels, N.; Sonbas, E.

    2011-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of a bright, long duration (T(sub 90) approx. 257 s) GRB 110205A at redshift z = 2.22. The optical prompt emission was detected by Swift/UVOT, ROTSE-IIIb and BOOTES telescopes when the GRB was still radiating in the gamma-ray band. Thanks to its long duration, nearly 200 s of observations were obtained simultaneously from optical, X-ray to gamma-ray (1 eV - 5 MeV), which makes it one of the exceptional cases to study the broadband spectral energy distribution across 6 orders of magnitude in energy during the prompt emission phase. In particular, by fitting the time resolved prompt spectra, we clearly identify, for the first time, an interesting two-break energy spectrum, roughly consistent with the standard GRB synchrotron emission model in the fast cooling regime. Although the prompt optical emission is brighter than the extrapolation of the best fit X/ -ray spectra, it traces the -ray light curve shape, suggesting a relation to the prompt high energy emission. The synchrotron + synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) scenario is disfavored by the data, but the models invoking a pair of internal shocks or having two emission regions can interpret the data well. Shortly after prompt emission (approx. 1100 s), a bright (R = 14.0) optical emission hump with very steep rise ( alpha approx. 5.5) was observed which we interpret as the emission from the reverse shock. It is the first time that the rising phase of a reverse shock component has been closely observed.

  17. A Novel Recombinant Enterovirus Type EV-A89 with Low Epidemic Strength in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qin; Zhang, Yong; Hu, Lan; Sun, Qiang; Cui, Hui; Yan, Dongmei; Sikandaner, Huerxidan; Tang, Haishu; Wang, Dongyan; Zhu, Zhen; Zhu, Shuangli; Xu, Wenbo

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus A89 (EV-A89) is a novel member of the EV-A species. To date, only one full-length genome sequence (the prototype strain) has been published. Here, we report the molecular identification and genomic characterization of a Chinese EV-A89 strain, KSYPH-TRMH22F/XJ/CHN/2011, isolated in 2011 from a contact of an acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) patient during AFP case surveillance in Xinjiang China. This was the first report of EV-A89 in China. The VP1 coding sequence of this strain demonstrated 93.2% nucleotide and 99.3% amino acid identity with the EV-A89 prototype strain. In the P2 and P3 regions, the Chinese EV-A89 strain demonstrated markedly higher identity than the prototype strains of EV-A76, EV-A90, and EV-A91, indicating that one or more recombination events between EV-A89 and these EV-A types might have occurred. Long-term evolution of these EV types originated from the same ancestor provides the spatial and temporal circumstances for recombination to occur. An antibody sero-prevalence survey against EV-A89 in two Xinjiang prefectures demonstrated low positive rates and low titres of EV-A89 neutralization antibody, suggesting limited range of transmission and exposure to the population. This study provides a solid foundation for further studies on the biological and pathogenic properties of EV-A89. PMID:26685900

  18. Diluted II-VI oxide semiconductors with multiple band gaps.

    PubMed

    Yu, K M; Walukiewicz, W; Wu, J; Shan, W; Beeman, J W; Scarpulla, M A; Dubon, O D; Becla, P

    2003-12-12

    We report the realization of a new mult-band-gap semiconductor. Zn(1-y)Mn(y)OxTe1-x alloys have been synthesized using the combination of oxygen ion implantation and pulsed laser melting. Incorporation of small quantities of isovalent oxygen leads to the formation of a narrow, oxygen-derived band of extended states located within the band gap of the Zn(1-y)Mn(y)Te host. When only 1.3% of Te atoms are replaced with oxygen in a Zn0.88Mn0.12Te crystal the resulting band structure consists of two direct band gaps with interband transitions at approximately 1.77 and 2.7 eV. This remarkable modification of the band structure is well described by the band anticrossing model. With multiple band gaps that fall within the solar energy spectrum, Zn(1-y)Mn(y)OxTe1-x is a material perfectly satisfying the conditions for single-junction photovoltaics with the potential for power conversion efficiencies surpassing 50%.

  19. Features of the band structure for semiconducting iron, ruthenium, and osmium monosilicides

    SciTech Connect

    Shaposhnikov, V. L. Migas, D. B.; Borisenko, V. E.; Dorozhkin, N. N.

    2009-02-15

    The pseudopotential method has been used to optimize the crystal lattice and calculate the energy band spectra for iron, ruthenium and, osmium monosilicides. It is found that all these compounds are indirect-gap semiconductors with band gaps of 0.17, 0.22, and 0.50 eV (FeSi, RuSi, and OsSi, respectively). A distinctive feature of their band structure is the 'loop of extrema' both in the valence and conduction bands near the center of the cubic Brillouin zone.

  20. Single-junction solar cells with the optimum band gap for terrestrial concentrator applications

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1994-12-27

    A single-junction solar cell is described having the ideal band gap for terrestrial concentrator applications. Computer modeling studies of single-junction solar cells have shown that the presence of absorption bands in the direct spectrum has the effect of ''pinning'' the optimum band gap for a wide range of operating conditions at a value of 1.14[+-]0.02 eV. Efficiencies exceeding 30% may be possible at high concentration ratios for devices with the ideal band gap. 7 figures.

  1. Analysis on influencing factors of EV charging station planning based on AHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, F.; Ma, X. F.

    2016-08-01

    As a new means of transport, electric vehicle (EV) is of great significance to alleviate the energy crisis. EV charging station planning has a far-reaching significance for the development of EV industry. This paper analyzes the impact factors of EV charging station planning, and then uses the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to carry on the further analysis to the influencing factors, finally it gets the weight of each influence factor, and provides the basis for the evaluation scheme of the planning of charging stations for EV.

  2. RASSF4 promotes EV71 replication to accelerate the inhibition of the phosphorylation of AKT.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengfeng; Liu, Yongjuan; Chen, Xiong; Dong, Lanlan; Zhou, Bingfei; Cheng, Qingqing; Han, Song; Liu, Zhongchun; Peng, Biwen; He, Xiaohua; Liu, Wanhong

    2015-03-20

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a neurotropic virus that causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), occasionally leading to death. As a member of the RAS association domain family (RASSFs), RASSF4 plays important roles in cell death, tumor development and signal transduction. However, little is known about the relationship between RASSF4 and EV71. Our study reveals for the first time that RASSF4 promotes EV71 replication and then accelerates AKT phosphorylation inhibition in EV71-infected 293T cells, suggesting that RASSF4 may be a potential new target for designing therapeutic measures to prevent and control EV71 infection.

  3. ALEXIS (Array of Low-Energy X-Ray Imaging Sensors): A narrow-band survey/monitor of the ultrasoft x-ray sky

    SciTech Connect

    Priedhorsky, W.C.; Bloch, J.J.; Cordova, F.; Smith, B.W.; Ulibarri, M.; Chavez, J.; Evans, E.; Seigmund, O.H.W.; Marshall, H.; Vallerga, J.

    1989-01-01

    Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories are building an ultrasoft X-ray monitor experiment. This experiment, called ALEXIS (Array of Low-Energy X-Ray Imaging Sensors), consists of six compact normal-incidence telescopes. ALEXIS will operate in the range 70--110 eV. The ultrasoft X-ray/EUV band is nearly uncharted territory for astrophysics. ALEXIS, with its wide fields-of-view and well-defined wavelength bands, will complement the upcoming NASA Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer and ROSAT EUV Wide Field Camera, which are sensitive broad-band survey experiments. The program objectives of ALEXIS are to (1) demonstrate the feasibility of a wide field-of-view, normal incidence ultrasoft X-ray telescope system and (2) to determine ultrasoft X-ray backgrounds in the space environment. As a dividend, ALEXIS will pursue the following scientific objectives: (1) to map the diffuse background, with unprecedented angular resolution, in several emission-line bands, (2) to perform a narrow-band survey of point sources, (3) to search for transient phenomena in the ultrasoft X-ray band, and (4) to provide synoptic monitoring of variable ultrasoft X-ray sources such as cataclysmic variables and flare stars. ALEXIS is designed to be flown on a small autonomous payload carrier (a minisat) that could be launched from any expendable launch vehicle. The experiment weighs 100 pounds, draws 40 watts, and produces 10 kbps of data. It can be flown in any low earth orbit. Onboard data storage allows operation and tracking from a single ground station at Los Alamos. 57 refs., 12 figs.

  4. Delivery of Human EV71 Receptors by Adeno-Associated Virus Increases EV71 Infection-Induced Local Inflammation in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hung-Bo; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Lin, Su-I; Lien, Shu-Pei; Tao, Mi-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus71 (EV71) is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia and one major causative agent of hand-foot-mouth diseases (HFMD). However potential animal models for vaccine development are limited to young mice. In this study, we used an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector to introduce the human EV71 receptors P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (hPSGL1) or a scavenger receptor class-B member-2 (hSCARB2) into adult ICR mice to change their susceptibility to EV71 infection. Mice were administered AAV-hSCARB2 or AAV-hPSGL1 through intravenous and oral routes. After three weeks, expression of human SCARB2 and PSGL1 was detected in various organs. After infection with EV71, we found that the EV71 viral load in AAV-hSCARB2- or AAV-hPSGL1-transduced mice was higher than that of the control mice in both the brain and intestines. The presence of EV71 viral particles in tissues was confirmed using immunohistochemistry analysis. Moreover, inflammatory cytokines were induced in the brain and intestines of AAV-hSCARB2- or AAV-hPSGL1-transduced mice after EV71 infection but not in wild-type mice. However, neurological disease was not observed in these animals. Taken together, we successfully infected adult mice with live EV71 and induced local inflammation using an AAV delivery system. PMID:25243194

  5. Delivery of human EV71 receptors by adeno-associated virus increases EV71 infection-induced local inflammation in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hung-Bo; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Lin, Su-I; Lien, Shu-Pei; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chong, Pele; Chen, Chih-Yeh; Tao, Mi-Hua; Liu, Shih-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus71 (EV71) is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia and one major causative agent of hand-foot-mouth diseases (HFMD). However potential animal models for vaccine development are limited to young mice. In this study, we used an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector to introduce the human EV71 receptors P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (hPSGL1) or a scavenger receptor class-B member-2 (hSCARB2) into adult ICR mice to change their susceptibility to EV71 infection. Mice were administered AAV-hSCARB2 or AAV-hPSGL1 through intravenous and oral routes. After three weeks, expression of human SCARB2 and PSGL1 was detected in various organs. After infection with EV71, we found that the EV71 viral load in AAV-hSCARB2- or AAV-hPSGL1-transduced mice was higher than that of the control mice in both the brain and intestines. The presence of EV71 viral particles in tissues was confirmed using immunohistochemistry analysis. Moreover, inflammatory cytokines were induced in the brain and intestines of AAV-hSCARB2- or AAV-hPSGL1-transduced mice after EV71 infection but not in wild-type mice. However, neurological disease was not observed in these animals. Taken together, we successfully infected adult mice with live EV71 and induced local inflammation using an AAV delivery system.

  6. Stretch Band Exercise Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skirka, Nicholas; Hume, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how to use stretch bands for improving total body fitness and quality of life. A stretch band exercise program offers a versatile and inexpensive option to motivate participants to exercise. The authors suggest practical exercises that can be used in physical education to improve or maintain muscular strength and endurance,…

  7. Rubber Band Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowens, John

    2005-01-01

    Not only are rubber bands great for binding objects together, but they can be used in a simple science experiment that involves predicting, problem solving, measuring, graphing, and experimenting. In this article, the author describes how rubber bands can be used to teach the force of mass.

  8. Singing with the Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Timothy Meyer; Wright, Gary K.

    2012-01-01

    Usually band, orchestra, and choir directors work independently. However, the authors--one a choral director, the other a band director--have learned that making music together makes friends. Not only can ensemble directors get along, but joint concerts may be just the way to help students see how music can reach the heart. Combined instrumental…

  9. EV71-infected CD14(+) cells modulate the immune activity of T lymphocytes in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjing; Pu, Jing; Huang, Hongtai; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Longding; Yang, Erxia; Zhou, Xiaofang; Ma, Na; Zhao, Hongling; Wang, Lichun; Xie, Zhenfeng; Tang, Donghong; Li, Qihan

    2013-07-01

    Preliminary studies of the major pathogen enterovirus 71 (EV71), a member of the Picornaviridae family, have suggested that EV71 may be a major cause of fatal hand, foot and mouth disease cases. Currently, the role of the pathological changes induced by EV71 infection in the immunopathogenic response remains unclear. Our study focused on the interaction between this virus and immunocytes and indicated that this virus has the ability to replicate in CD14(+) cells. Furthermore, these EV71-infected CD14(+) cells have the capacity to stimulate the proliferation of T cells and to enhance the release of certain functional cytokines. An adaptive immune response induced by the back-transfusion of EV71-infected CD14(+) cells was observed in donor neonatal rhesus monkeys. Based on these observations, the proposed hypothesis is that CD14(+) cells infected by the EV71 virus might modulate the anti-EV71 adaptive immune response by inducing simultaneous T-cell activation.

  10. Recent Progress towards Novel EV71 Anti-Therapeutics and Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ng, Qingyong; He, Fang; Kwang, Jimmy

    2015-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a group of viruses that belongs to the Picornaviridae family, which also includes viruses such as polioviruses. EV71, together with coxsackieviruses, is widely known for its association with Hand Foot Mouth Disease (HFMD), which generally affects children age five and below. Besides HFMD, EV71 can also trigger more severe and life-threatening neurological conditions such as encephalitis. Considering the lack of a vaccine and antiviral drug against EV71, together with the increasing spread of these viruses, the development of such drugs and vaccines becomes the top priority in protecting our younger generations. This article, hence, reviews some of the recent progress in the formulations of anti-therapeutics and vaccine generation for EV71, covering (i) inactivated vaccines; (ii) baculovirus-expressed vaccines against EV71; (iii) human intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment; and (iv) the use of monoclonal antibody therapy as a prevention and treatment for EV71 infections.

  11. Recent Progress towards Novel EV71 Anti-Therapeutics and Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Qingyong; He, Fang; Kwang, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a group of viruses that belongs to the Picornaviridae family, which also includes viruses such as polioviruses. EV71, together with coxsackieviruses, is widely known for its association with Hand Foot Mouth Disease (HFMD), which generally affects children age five and below. Besides HFMD, EV71 can also trigger more severe and life-threatening neurological conditions such as encephalitis. Considering the lack of a vaccine and antiviral drug against EV71, together with the increasing spread of these viruses, the development of such drugs and vaccines becomes the top priority in protecting our younger generations. This article, hence, reviews some of the recent progress in the formulations of anti-therapeutics and vaccine generation for EV71, covering (i) inactivated vaccines; (ii) baculovirus-expressed vaccines against EV71; (iii) human intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment; and (iv) the use of monoclonal antibody therapy as a prevention and treatment for EV71 infections. PMID:26670245

  12. Band gap bowing and electron localization of (GaxIn1-x)N

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byounghak; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2006-05-09

    The band gap bowing and the electron localization ofGaxIn1-xN are calculated using both the local density approximation (LDA)and screened-exchange local density functional (sX-LDA) methods. Thecalculated sX-LDA band gaps are in good agreement with the experimentallyobserved values, with errors of -0.26 and 0.09 eV for bulk GaN and InN,respectively. The LDA band gap errors are 1.33 and 0.81 eV for GaN andInN, in order. In contrast to the gap itself, the band gap bowingparameter is found to be very similar in sX-LDA and LDA. We identify thelocalization of hole states in GaxIn1-xN alloys along In-N-In chains. Thepredicted localizationis stronger in sX-LDA.

  13. Band structure and optical transitions in LaFeO3: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Scafetta, Mark D; Cordi, Adam M; Rondinelli, James M; May, Steven J

    2014-12-17

    The optical absorption properties of LaFeO(3) (LFO) have been calculated using density functional theory and experimentally measured from several high quality epitaxial films using variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. We have analyzed the calculated absorption spectrum using different Tauc models and find the model based on a direct-forbidden transition gives the best agreement with the ab initio band gap energies and band dispersions. We have applied this model to the experimental data and determine the band gap of epitaxial LFO to be ∼2.34 eV, with a slight dependence on strain state. This approach has also been used to analyze the higher indirect transition at ∼3.4 eV. Temperature dependent ellipsometry measurements further confirm our theoretical analysis of the nature of the transitions. This works helps to provide a general approach for accurate determination of band gaps and transition energies in complex oxide materials. PMID:25406799

  14. Progressive Band Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Kevin; Chang, Chein-I

    2009-01-01

    Progressive band selection (PBS) reduces spectral redundancy without significant loss of information, thereby reducing hyperspectral image data volume and processing time. Used onboard a spacecraft, it can also reduce image downlink time. PBS prioritizes an image's spectral bands according to priority scores that measure their significance to a specific application. Then it uses one of three methods to select an appropriate number of the most useful bands. Key challenges for PBS include selecting an appropriate criterion to generate band priority scores, and determining how many bands should be retained in the reduced image. The image's Virtual Dimensionality (VD), once computed, is a reasonable estimate of the latter. We describe the major design details of PBS and test PBS in a land classification experiment.

  15. BEST sensitivity to O(1) eV sterile neutrino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barinov, Vladislav; Gavrin, Vladimir; Gorbunov, Dmitry; Ibragimova, Tatiana

    2016-04-01

    Numerous anomalous results in neutrino oscillation experiments can be attributed to the interference of an ˜1 eV sterile neutrino. The Baksan Experiment on Sterile Transitions (BEST), specially designed to fully explore the Gallium anomaly, starts next year. We investigate the sensitivity of BEST in search of a sterile neutrino mixed with an electron neutrino. Then, performing the combined analysis of all the Gallium experiments (SAGE, GALLEX, BEST), we find the region in the model parameter space (sterile neutrino mass and mixing angle) which will be excluded if BEST agrees with no sterile neutrino hypothesis. For the opposite case, if BEST observes the signal as it follows from the sterile neutrino explanation of the Gallium (SAGE and GALLEX) anomaly, we show how BEST will improve upon the present estimates of the model parameters.

  16. Electron emission from nickel-alloy surfaces in cesium vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manda, M.; Jacobson, D.

    1978-01-01

    The cesiated electron emission was measured for three candidate electrodes for use as collectors in thermionic converters. Nickel, Inconel 600 and Hastelloy were tested with a 412 K cesium reservoir. Peak emission from the alloys was found to be comparable to that from pure nickel. Both the Inconel and the Hastelloy samples had work functions of 1.64 eV at peak emission. The minimum work functions were estimated to be 1.37 eV at a probe temperature of 750 K for Inconel and 1.40 eV for Hastelloy at 665 K. The bare work function for both alloys is estimated to be approximately the same as for pure nickel, 4.8 eV.

  17. Bonds, bands and elasticity of smithsonite rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouibes, A.; Zaoui, A.; Tunega, D.

    2013-07-01

    The objective here is to spread out in detail the various fundamental state properties of smithsonite rock (ZnCO3) for which the most intrinsic quantities remain still unknown. First-principles electronic structure calculations based on the density functional theory with the pseudopotential method were performed using diverse functionals. A number of mechanical quantities were evaluated such as bulk modulus, elastic constants, Young's and shear moduli, and transversal and longitudinal sound velocities (VS and VP). Fitting the compression data of smithsonite to the third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state gives a bulk modulus of 124.17 GPa, which reflects an important rigidity compared to the other carbonates. The analysis of the band structure reveals a band-gap energy of 3.36 eV that is close enough to some semiconductors rather than insulators. Finally the chemical bonding was analyzed through the electronic charge density of the total contributions of the valence bands. A pronounced charge transfer was observed towards the carbonate ion, indicating thereby the ionic character of ZnCO3.

  18. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of novel mouse cell line (NIH/3T3)-adapted human enterovirus 71 strains (EV71:TLLm and EV71:TLLmv).

    PubMed

    Victorio, Carla Bianca Luena; Xu, Yishi; Ng, Qimei; Chow, Vincent T K; Chua, Kaw Bing

    2014-01-01

    Since its identification in 1969, Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has been causing periodic outbreaks of infection in children worldwide and most prominently in the Asia-Pacific Region. Understanding the pathogenesis of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is hampered by the virus's inability to infect small animals and replicate in their derived in vitro cultured cells. This manuscript describes the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of two selected EV71 strains (EV71:TLLm and EV71:TLLmv), which have been adapted to replicate in mouse-derived NIH/3T3 cells, in contrast to the original parental virus which is only able to replicate in primate cell lines. The EV71:TLLm strain exhibited productive infection in all primate and rodent cell lines tested, while EV71:TLLmv exhibited greater preference for mouse cell lines. EV71:TLLmv displayed higher degree of adaptation and temperature adaptability in NIH/3T3 cells than in Vero cells, suggesting much higher fitness in NIH/3T3 cells. In comparison with the parental EV71:BS strain, the adapted strains accumulated multiple adaptive mutations in the genome resulting in amino acid substitutions, most notably in the capsid-encoding region (P1) and viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3D). Two mutations, E167D and L169F, were mapped to the VP1 canyon that binds the SCARB2 receptor on host cells. Another two mutations, S135T and K140I, were located in the VP2 neutralization epitope spanning amino acids 136-150. This is the first report of human EV71 with the ability to productively infect rodent cell lines in vitro.

  19. AKARI far-infrared maps of the zodiacal dust bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ootsubo, Takafumi; Doi, Yasuo; Takita, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Takao; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Matsuura, Shuji; Usui, Fumihiko; Arimatsu, Ko

    2016-06-01

    Zodiacal emission is thermal emission from interplanetary dust. Its contribution to the sky brightness is non-negligible in the region near the ecliptic plane, even in the far-infrared (far-IR) wavelength regime. We analyze zodiacal emission observed by the AKARI far-IR all-sky survey, which covers 97% of the entire sky at arcminute-scale resolution in four photometric bands, with central wavelengths of 65, 90, 140, and 160 μm. AKARI detected small-scale structures in the zodiacal dust cloud, including the asteroidal dust bands and the circumsolar ring, at far-IR wavelengths. Although the smooth component of the zodiacal emission structure in the far-IR sky can be reproduced well by models based on existing far-IR observations, previous zodiacal emission models have discrepancies in the small-scale structures compared with observations. We investigate the geometry of the small-scale dust-band structures in the AKARI far-IR all-sky maps and construct template maps of the asteroidal dust bands and the circumsolar ring components based on the AKARI far-IR maps. In the maps, ± 1.4°, ± 2.1°, and ± 10° asteroidal dust-band structures are detected in the 65 μm and 90 μm bands. A possible ± 17° band may also have been detected. No evident dust-band structures are identified in either the 140 μm or the 160 μm bands. By subtracting the dust-band templates constructed in this paper, we can achieve a similar level of flux calibration of the AKARI far-IR all-sky maps in the |β| < 40° region to that in the region for |β| > 40°.

  20. Astrophysical data on 5 eV to 1 keV radiation from the radiative decay of fundamental particles - Current limits and prospects for improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, Stuart; Malina, Roger F.

    1986-01-01

    Line emission from the decay of fundamental particles, integrated over cosmological distances, can give rise to detectable spectral features in the diffuse astronomical background between 5 eV and 1 keV. Spectroscopic observations may allow these features to be separated from line emission from the numerous local sources of radiation. The current observational status and existing evidence for such features are reviewed. No definitive detections of nongalactic line features have been made. Several local sources of background mask the features at many wavelengths and confuse the interpretation of the data. No systematic spectral observations have been carried out to date. Upcoming experiments which can be expected to provide significantly better constraints on the presence of spectral features in the diffuse background from 5 eV to 1 keV are reviewed.

  1. X-ray photoelectron spectrum and electronic properties of a noncentrosymmetric chalcopyrite compound HgGa(2)S(4): LDA, GGA, and EV-GGA.

    PubMed

    Reshak, Ali Hussain; Khenata, R; Kityk, I V; Plucinski, K J; Auluck, S

    2009-04-30

    An all electron full potential linearized augmented plane wave method has been applied for a theoretical study of the band structure, density of states, and electron charge density of a noncentrosymmetric chalcopyrite compound HgGa(2)S(4) using three different approximations for the exchange correlation potential. Our calculations show that the valence band maximum (VBM) and conduction band minimum (CBM) are located at Gamma resulting in a direct energy gap of about 2.0, 2.2, and 2.8 eV for local density approximation (LDA), generalized gradient approximation (GGA), and Engel-Vosko (EVGGA) compared to the experimental value of 2.84 eV. We notice that EVGGA shows excellent agreement with the experimental data. This agreement is attributed to the fact that the Engel-Vosko GGA formalism optimizes the corresponding potential for band structure calculations. We make a detailed comparison of the density of states deduced from the X-ray photoelectron spectra with our calculations. We find that there is a strong covalent bond between the Hg and S atoms and Ga and S atoms. The Hg-Hg, Ga-Ga, and S-S bonds are found to be weaker than the Hg-S and Ga-S bonds showing that a covalent bond exists between Hg and S atoms and Ga and S atoms.

  2. Terra MODIS Band 27 Electronic Crosstalk Effect and Its Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Junqiang; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Wenny, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the primary instruments in the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS). The first MODIS instrument was launched in December, 1999 on-board the Terra spacecraft. MODIS has 36 bands, covering a wavelength range from 0.4 micron to 14.4 micron. MODIS band 27 (6.72 micron) is a water vapor band, which is designed to be insensitive to Earth surface features. In recent Earth View (EV) images of Terra band 27, surface feature contamination is clearly seen and striping has become very pronounced. In this paper, it is shown that band 27 is impacted by electronic crosstalk from bands 28-30. An algorithm using a linear approximation is developed to correct the crosstalk effect. The crosstalk coefficients are derived from Terra MODIS lunar observations. They show that the crosstalk is strongly detector dependent and the crosstalk pattern has changed dramatically since launch. The crosstalk contributions are positive to the instrument response of band 27 early in the mission but became negative and much larger in magnitude at later stages of the mission for most detectors of the band. The algorithm is applied to both Black Body (BB) calibration and MODIS L1B products. With the crosstalk effect removed, the calibration coefficients of Terra MODIS band 27 derived from the BB show that the detector differences become smaller. With the algorithm applied to MODIS L1B products, the Earth surface features are significantly removed and the striping is substantially reduced in the images of the band. The approach developed in this report for removal of the electronic crosstalk effect can be applied to other MODIS bands if similar crosstalk behaviors occur.

  3. Mass spectrometry investigation of the degradation of polyethylene terephtalate induced by low-energy (<100 eV) electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Sylvain; Cloutier, Pierre; Sanche, Léon; Roy, Denis

    2008-07-01

    Polyethylene terephtalate (PET) thin films were damaged by low-energy (0-100 eV) electron irradiation to simulate the degradation of this polymer in electronic devices. The products formed were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The emission of anions from the polymer surface is associated with dissociative electron attachment (DEA) and dipolar dissociation (DD) for H -, and with DD for O -. The monotonic emission rise in O - desorption as a function of incident electron energy is produced by mid-chain C-O-C cleavage, leading to chain scission. The signal of the positive mass fragments showed only a monotonic increase with electron energy. In this case, chemical recombination with hydrogen atoms also leads to chain scission.

  4. 1-eV GaInNAs solar cells for ultrahigh-frequency multijunction devices

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, D.J.; Geisz, J.F.; Kurtz, S.R.; Olson, J.M.

    1998-09-01

    The authors demonstrate working prototypes of a GaInNAs-based solar cell lattice-matched to GaAs with photoresponse down to 1 eV. This device is intended for use as the third junction of future-generation ultrahigh-efficiency three- and four-junction devices. Under the AM1.5 direct spectrum with all the light higher in energy than the GaAs band gap filtered out, the prototypes have open-circuit voltages ranging from 0.35 to 0.44 V, short-circuit currents of 1.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factors from 61--66%. The short-circuit currents are of principal concern: the internal quantum efficiencies rise only to about 0.2. The authors discuss the short diffusion lengths which are the reason for this low photocurrent. As a partial workaround for the poor diffusion lengths, they demonstrate a depletion-width-enhanced variation of one of the prototype devices that grades off decreased voltage for increased photocurrent, with a short-circuit current of 6.5 mA/cm{sup 2} and an open-circuit voltage of 0.29 V.

  5. Constraints to the flat band potential of hematite photo-electrodes.

    PubMed

    Hankin, A; Alexander, J C; Kelsall, G H

    2014-08-14

    We revisit the fundamental constraints that apply to flat band potential values at semiconductor photo-electrodes. On the physical scale, the Fermi level energy of a non-degenerate semiconductor at the flat band condition, EF(FB), is constrained to a position between the conduction band, EC, and the valence band, EV,: |EC| < |EF(FB)| < |EV| throughout the depth of the semiconductor. The same constraint applies on the electrode potential scale, where the values are referenced against a common reference electrode: UC(FB) < UF(FB) < UV(FB). Some experimentally determined flat band potentials appear to lie outside these fundamental boundaries. In order to assess the validity of any determined flat band potential, the boundaries set by the conduction band and the valence band must be computed on both scales a priori, where possible. This is accomplished with the aid of an analytical reconstruction of the semiconductor|electrolyte interface in question. To illustrate this approach, we provide a case study based on synthetic hematite, α-Fe2O3. The analysis of this particular semiconductor is motivated by the large variance in the flat band potential values reported in the literature.

  6. Medium resolution studies of extreme ultraviolet emission from N2 by electron impact - The effect of predissociation on the emission cross section of the b 1Pi(u) state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Geoffrey K.; Ajello, Joseph M.; Franklin, Brian; Shemansky, Donald E.

    1990-01-01

    The electron impact induced fluorescence spectrum of N2 is measured in the 102-134 nm range at a 0.05 nm spectral resolution. The spectral measurements provide the emission cross sections of the transitions of the b 1Pi(u)-X 1Sigma(+)g Birge-Hopfield I-band system. The structure and vibrational population distribution of this system are strongly affected by a configuration interaction of the valence b 1Pi(u) and Rydberg c 1Pi(u) and o 1Pi(u) states. The excitation function (0-400 eV) for the b-X (1,2) transition is measured and a modified Born approximation analytic model is applied to calculate the oscillator strength for the b 1Pi(u)-X band system. With the exception of the v-prime = 1 level, vibrational levels of the b 1Pi(u) state predissociate with a branching ratio of between 0.95 and 1.00. Predissociation of the b 1Pi(u) state contributes approximately six percent of the total dissociation cross section of N2 by electron impact at 100 eV.

  7. Iliotibial band friction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lavine, Ronald

    2010-07-20

    Published articles on iliotibial band friction syndrome have been reviewed. These articles cover the epidemiology, etiology, anatomy, pathology, prevention, and treatment of the condition. This article describes (1) the various etiological models that have been proposed to explain iliotibial band friction syndrome; (2) some of the imaging methods, research studies, and clinical experiences that support or call into question these various models; (3) commonly proposed treatment methods for iliotibial band friction syndrome; and (4) the rationale behind these methods and the clinical outcome studies that support their efficacy.

  8. Chiral Bands and Triaxiality

    SciTech Connect

    Petrache, C.M.

    2004-02-27

    The results obtained with the GASP array in the A=130 mass region are reviewed, emphasizing the discovery excited highly-deformed bands and their decay out, the study of the odd-odd Pr nuclei up to high spins, the discovery of stable triaxial bands in Nd nuclei close to the N=82 shell closure. The very recent studies of nuclei near the proton drip line are described. A discussion of the origin of the various doublet bands observed in odd-odd nuclei of the A=130 mass region is presented.

  9. Iliotibial band friction syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Published articles on iliotibial band friction syndrome have been reviewed. These articles cover the epidemiology, etiology, anatomy, pathology, prevention, and treatment of the condition. This article describes (1) the various etiological models that have been proposed to explain iliotibial band friction syndrome; (2) some of the imaging methods, research studies, and clinical experiences that support or call into question these various models; (3) commonly proposed treatment methods for iliotibial band friction syndrome; and (4) the rationale behind these methods and the clinical outcome studies that support their efficacy. PMID:21063495

  10. Tremor bands sweep Cascadia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, A.; Vidale, J. E.; Sweet, J. R.; Creager, K. C.; Wech, A.; Houston, H.

    2009-12-01

    In the last few years, the spatiotemporal distribution of non-volcanic tremor (NVT) activity has been watched with intense curiosity in Cascadia, Japan, and San Andreas Fault. During an episodic tremor and slip (ETS) event in the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ), the dominant tremor migration pattern is characterized by along-strike marching of tremor at a rate of 10 km/day. Spatiotemporal evolution gives critical clues on the physical mechanism of NVT, and the evolving state of stress in the fault. However, tremor migration, its variations over different time-scales, and its underlying physics remain poorly understood. We recorded the May 2008 ETS event in Cascadia with a dense small-aperture seismic array, and beamformed to detect and locate tremor with unparalleled resolution [Ghosh et al., GRL, 2009]. The beams reveal that tremor occurs in elongated bands that extend ~50 km in the direction parallel to the convergence of CSZ and only 10-15 km in the along-strike direction. This is in contrast to the wider blobs of tremor locations seen using a conventional envelope cross-correlation method. The peak activities of the tremor bands are well separated in space and time. Each band remains active for a good part of a day, and fades away while the adjacent band is slowly peaking up. During the 2008 ETS event, these convergence-parallel tremor bands swept the Cascadia megathrust from SE to NW in the region most clearly imaged by our array, producing the long-term tremor migration. Embedded within the bands lie long streaks of tremor that show steady and rapid migration on time-scales of several minutes to an hour at velocities of several tens of km/hr. These tremor streaks also propagate mostly convergence-parallel, along a particular band, both up- and down-dip. The elongated shape of the tremor bands may cause by the tendency of the tremor streaks to align parallel to the direction of subduction. We propose that each tremor band is the result of failure of a section

  11. Band alignment of lattice-matched InGaPN/GaAs and GaAs/InGaPN quantum wells grown by MOVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaewket, Dares; Sanorpim, Sakuntam; Tungasmita, Sukkaneste; Katayama, Ryuji; Onabe, Kentaro

    2010-02-01

    The band alignment of nearly lattice-matched In 0.528Ga 0.472P 1- yN y/GaAs and GaAs/In 0.528Ga 0.472P 1- yN y quantum wells with N content of y=0.027 on GaAs (0 0 1) substrates grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy were studied using low-temperature and temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL). Low temperature (10 K) PL shows the emission ( EPL,QW) in the infrared region which related to sample’s structures. For GaAs/In 0.528Ga 0.472P 0.973N 0.027 QW, the EPL,QW emission was observed at temperature up to 260 K. The results reveal that the In 0.528Ga 0.472P 0.973N 0.027/GaAs and GaAs/In 0.528Ga 0.472P 0.973N 0.027 quantum wells exhibit a type-II quantum structure. Valence band offset Δ EV as large as 450 meV was estimated for GaAs/In 0.528Ga 0.472P 0.973N 0.027 quantum well while the conduction band offset Δ EC was estimated to be 160 meV for In 0.528Ga 0.472P 0.973N 0.027/GaAs quantum well. This type-II quantum structures refer to the natural type-II band alignment between In xGa 1- xP 1- yN y ( x=0.528, y=0.027) and GaAs, which is useful for separation electrons and holes in the electronic and photovoltaic applications.

  12. Both ERK1 and ERK2 are required for enterovirus 71 (EV71) efficient replication.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Meng; Duan, Hao; Gao, Meng; Zhang, Hao; Peng, Yihong

    2015-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that MEK1, one of the two MEK isoforms in Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 pathway, is essential for successful EV71 propagation. However, the distinct function of ERK1 and ERK2 isoforms, the downstream kinases of MEKs, remains unclear in EV71 replication. In this study, specific ERK siRNAs and selective inhibitor U0126 were applied. Silencing specific ERK did not significantly impact on the EV71-caused biphasic activation of the other ERK isoform, suggesting the EV71-induced activations of ERK1 and ERK2 were non-discriminative and independent to one another. Knockdown of either ERK1 or ERK2 markedly impaired progeny EV71 propagation (both by more than 90%), progeny viral RNA amplification (either by about 30% to 40%) and protein synthesis (both by around 70%), indicating both ERK1 and ERK2 were critical and not interchangeable to EV71 propagation. Moreover, suppression of EV71 replication by inhibiting both early and late phases of ERK1/2 activation showed no significant difference from that of only blocking the late phase, supporting the late phase activation was more importantly responsible for EV71 life cycle. Taken together, this study for the first time identified both ERK1 and ERK2 were required for EV71 efficient replication and further verified the important role of MEK1-ERK1/2 in EV71 replication.

  13. Determinants of EV71 immunogenicity and protection against lethal challenge in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Chang, Junliang; Li, Jingliang; Wei, Wei; Liu, Xin; Liu, Guanchen; Yang, Jiaxin; Zhang, Wenyan; Yu, Xiao-Fang

    2015-07-01

    Circulating enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a major public health problem in the Asian-Pacific region. An EV71 vaccine for HFMD prevention is currently being developed. However, viral determinants that could influence the vaccine's efficacy have not been well characterized. In this study, we isolated and characterized several EV71 strains that are currently circulating in northern and southern China. We determined that VP1 variation is a major determinant of EV71 immunogenicity. A single amino acid variation in VP1 can lead to significant differences in the breadth and potency of immune responses against primary EV71 isolates as well as the sensitivity of EV71 to heterologous neutralizing antibody responses. We also identified EV71 strains that could induce potent immunogenic and cross-neutralizing antibody responses against diverse EV71 strains. Furthermore, these neutralizing antibodies could protect neonatal mice from lethal dose challenge with various circulating EV71 viruses. Our study provides useful information for EV71 vaccine development and evaluation.

  14. Effects of Ti incorporation on the interface properties and band alignment of HfTaO{sub x} thin films on sulfur passivated GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Das, T.; Mahata, C.; Maiti, C. K.; Miranda, E.; Sutradhar, G.; Bose, P. K.

    2011-01-10

    Thin HfTaO{sub x} and HfTaTiO{sub x} gate dielectrics ({approx}7-8 nm) have been rf sputter-deposited on sulfur passivated GaAs. Our experimental results suggest that the formation of Ga-O at GaAs surface and As diffusion in dielectric may be effectively controlled by Ti incorporation. Possibility of tailoring of band alignment via Ti incorporation is shown. Valence band offsets of 2.6{+-}0.05 and 2.68{+-}0.05 eV and conduction-band offsets of 1.43{+-}0.05 and 1.05{+-}0.05 eV were found for HfTaO{sub x} (E{sub g{approx}}5.45 eV) and HfTaTiO{sub x} (E{sub g{approx}}5.15 eV), respectively.

  15. O2 atmospheric band measurements with WINDII: Performance of a narrow band filter/wide angle Michelson combination in space

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, W.E.; Hersom, C.H.; Tai, C.C.; Gault, W.A.; Shepherd, G.G.; Solheim, B.H.

    1994-12-31

    Among the emissions viewed by the Wind Imaging Interferometer (WINDII) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are selected lines in the (0-0) transition of the O2 atmospheric band. These lines are viewed simultaneously using a narrow band filter/wide-angle Michelson interferometer combination. The narrow band filter is used to separate the lines on the CCD (spectral-spatial scanning) and the Michelson used to modulate the emissions so that winds and rotational temperatures may be measured from the Doppler shifts and relative intensities of the lines. In this report this technique will be outlined and the on-orbit behavior since launch summarized.

  16. Photoelectron spectroscopy of hexachloroplatinate-nucleobase complexes: Nucleobase excited state decay observed via delayed electron emission

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Ananya; Matthews, Edward M.; Dessent, Caroline E. H. E-mail: xuebin.wang@pnnl.gov; Hou, Gao-Lei; Wang, Xue-Bin E-mail: xuebin.wang@pnnl.gov

    2015-11-14

    We report low-temperature photoelectron spectra of isolated gas-phase complexes of the hexachloroplatinate dianion bound to the nucleobases uracil, thymine, cytosine, and adenine. The spectra display well-resolved, distinct peaks that are consistent with complexes where the hexachloroplatinate dianion is largely intact. Adiabatic electron detachment energies for the hexachloroplatinate-nucleobase complexes are measured as 2.26-2.36 eV. The magnitudes of the repulsive Coulomb barriers (RCBs) of the complexes are all ∼1.7 eV, values that are lower than the RCB of the uncomplexed PtCl{sub 6}{sup 2−} dianion as a result of charge solvation by the nucleobases. In addition to the resolved spectral features, broad featureless bands indicative of delayed electron detachment are observed in the 193 nm photoelectron spectra of the four clusters. The 266 nm spectra of the PtCl{sub 6}{sup 2−} ⋅ thymine and PtCl{sub 6}{sup 2−} ⋅ adenine complexes also display very prominent delayed electron emission bands. These results mirror recent results on the related Pt(CN){sub 4}{sup 2−} ⋅ nucleobase complexes [A. Sen et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 119, 11626 (2015)]. The observation of delayed electron emission bands in the PtCl{sub 6}{sup 2−} ⋅ nucleobase spectra obtained in this work, as for the previously studied Pt(CN){sub 4}{sup 2−} ⋅ nucleobase complexes, is attributed to one-photon excitation of nucleobase-centred excited states that can effectively couple to the electron detachment continuum, producing strong electron detachment. Moreover, the selective, strong excitation of the delayed emission bands in the 266 nm spectra is linked to fundamental differences in the individual nucleobase photophysics at this excitation energy. This strongly supports our previous suggestion that the dianion within these clusters can be viewed as a “dynamic tag” which has the propensity to emit electrons when the attached nucleobase decays over a time scale long enough to

  17. Decay of superdeformed bands

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, M.P.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T.

    1995-12-31

    One of the major challenges in the study of superdeformation is to directly connect the large number of superdeformed bands now known to the yrast states. In this way, excitation energies, spins and parities can be assigned to the levels in the second well which is essential to establish the collective and single-particle components of these bands. This paper will review some of the progress which has been made to understand the decay of superdeformed bands using the new arrays including the measurement of the total decay spectrum and the establishment of direct one-step decays from the superdeformed band to the yrast line in {sup 194}Hg. 42 refs., 5 figs.

  18. CSF oligoclonal banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... system. Oligoclonal bands may be a sign of multiple sclerosis. How the Test is Performed A sample of ... Performed This test helps support the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, it does not confirm the diagnosis. ...

  19. Continuous visible-light emission at room temperature in Mn-doped GaAs and Si light-emitting diodes (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Hai, Pham Nam; Anh, Le Duc

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate visible-light electroluminescence due to d-d transitions in GaAs:Mn based light emitting diodes (LEDs) [1][2]. We prepared p+n junctions with a p+GaAs:Mn layer. At a reverse bias voltage (-3 to -6V), holes are injected from the n-type layer to the depletion layer and accelerated by the intense electric field, and excite the d electrons of Mn in the p+GaAs:Mn layer by impact excitations. We observe visible-light emission E1 = 1.89eV and E2 = 2.16eV, which are exactly the same as the 4T1 -> 6A1 and 4A2 -> 4 T1 transition energy of Mn. Furthermore, by utilizing optical transitions between the p-d hybridized orbitals of Mn atoms doped in Si, we demonstrate Si-based LEDs that continuously emit reddish-yellow visible light at room temperature. The Mn p-d hybrid states are excited by hot holes that are accelerated in the depletion layers of reverse biased Si pn junctions. Above a threshold reverse bias voltage of about -4V, our LEDs show strong visible light emission with two peaks at E1 = 1.75eV and E2 = 2.30eV, corresponding to optical transitions from the t-a (spin-down anti-bonding) states to the e- (spin-down non-bonding) states, and from the e- to the t+a (spin-up anti-bonding) states. The internal quantum efficiency of the E1 and E2 transitions is 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than that of the indirect band-gap transition [3]. [1] P. N. Hai, et al., APL 104, 122409 (2014). [2] P. N. Hai, et al., JAP 116, 113905 (2014). [3] P. N. Hai, et al., submitted.

  20. Laparoscopic Gastric Banding

    PubMed Central

    Suter, Michel; Giusti, Vittorio; Worreth, Marc; Héraief, Eric; Calmes, Jean-Marie

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of laparoscopic gastric banding using 2 different bands (the Lapband [Bioenterics, Carpinteria, CA] and the SAGB [Swedish Adjustable Gastric Band; Obtech Medical, 6310 Zug, Switzerland]) in terms of weight loss and correction of comorbidities, short-and long-term complications, and improvement of quality of life in morbidly obese patients Summary Background Data: During the past 10 years, gastric banding has become 1 of the most common bariatric procedures, at least in Europe and Australia. Weight loss can be excellent, but it is not sufficient in a significant proportion of patients, and a number of long-term complications can develop. We hypothesized that the type of band could be of importance in the outcome. Methods: One hundred eighty morbidly obese patients were randomly assigned to receive the Lapband or the SAGB. All the procedures were performed by the same surgeon. The primary end point was weight loss, and secondary end points were correction of comorbidities, early- and long-term complications, importance of food restriction, and improvement of quality of life. Results: Initial weight loss was faster in the Lapband group, but weight loss was eventually identical in the 2 groups. There was a trend toward more early band-related complications and more band infections with the SAGB, but the study had limited power in that respect. Correction of comorbidities, food restriction, long-term complications, and improvement of quality of life were identical. Only 55% to 60% of the patients achieved an excess weight loss of at least 50% in both groups. There was no difference in the incidence of long-term complications. Conclusions: Gastric banding can be performed safely with the Lapband or the SAGB with similar short- and midterm results with respect to weight loss and morbidity. Only 50% to 60% of the patients will achieve sufficient weight loss, and close to 10% at least will develop severe