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Sample records for eva operations post-space

  1. EVA 2010: Preparing for International Space Station EVA Operations Post-Space Shuttle Retirement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; West, William W.

    2010-01-01

    The expected retirement of the NASA Space Transportation System (also known as the Space Shuttle ) by 2011 will pose a significant challenge to Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) on-board the International Space Station (ISS). The EVA hardware currently used to assemble and maintain the ISS was designed assuming that it would be returned to Earth on the Space Shuttle for refurbishment, or if necessary for failure investigation. With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, a new concept of operations was developed to enable EVA hardware (Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), Airlock Systems, EVA tools, and associated support hardware and consumables) to perform ISS EVAs until 2015, and possibly beyond to 2020. Shortly after the decision to retire the Space Shuttle was announced, the EVA 2010 Project was jointly initiated by NASA and the OneEVA contractor team. The challenges addressed were to extend the operating life and certification of EVA hardware, to secure the capability to launch EVA hardware safely on alternate launch vehicles, to protect for EMU hardware operability on-orbit, and to determine the source of high water purity to support recharge of PLSSs (no longer available via Shuttle). EVA 2010 Project includes the following tasks: the development of a launch fixture that would allow the EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) to be launched on-board alternate vehicles; extension of the EMU hardware maintenance interval from 3 years (current certification) to a minimum of 6 years (to extend to 2015); testing of recycled ISS Water Processor Assembly (WPA) water for use in the EMU cooling system in lieu of water resupplied by International Partner (IP) vehicles; development of techniques to remove & replace critical components in the PLSS on-orbit (not routine); extension of on-orbit certification of EVA tools; and development of an EVA hardware logistical plan to support the ISS without the Space Shuttle. Assumptions for the EVA 2010 Project included no more than

  2. EVA-SCRAM operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanigan, Lee A.; Tamir, David; Weeks, Jack L.; Mcclure, Sidney R.; Kimbrough, Andrew G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper wrestles with the on-orbit operational challenges introduced by the proposed Space Construction, Repair, and Maintenance (SCRAM) tool kit for Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). SCRAM undertakes a new challenging series of on-orbit tasks in support of the near-term Hubble Space Telescope, Extended Duration Orbiter, Long Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, other orbital platforms, and even the future manned Lunar/Mars missions. These new EVA tasks involve welding, brazing, cutting, coating, heat-treating, and cleaning operations. Anticipated near-term EVA-SCRAM applications include construction of fluid lines and structural members, repair of punctures by orbital debris, refurbishment of surfaces eroded by atomic oxygen, and cleaning of optical, solar panel, and high emissivity radiator surfaces which have been degraded by contaminants. Future EVA-SCRAM applications are also examined, involving mass production tasks automated with robotics and artificial intelligence, for construction of large truss, aerobrake, and reactor shadow shield structures. Realistically achieving EVA-SCRAM is examined by addressing manual, teleoperated, semi-automated, and fully-automated operation modes. The operational challenges posed by EVA-SCRAM tasks are reviewed with respect to capabilities of existing and upcoming EVA systems, such as the Extravehicular Mobility Unit, the Shuttle Remote Manipulating System, the Dexterous End Effector, and the Servicing Aid Tool.

  3. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hardware & Operations Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Sandra; Marmolejo, Jose

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this presentation are to: Define Extravehicular Activity (EVA), identify the reasons for conducting an EVA, and review the role that EVA has played in the space program; Identify the types of EVAs that may be performed; Describe some of the U.S. Space Station equipment and tools that are used during an EVA, such as the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER), the International Space Station (ISS) Joint Airlock and Russian Docking Compartment 1 (DC-1), and EVA Tools & Equipment; Outline the methods and procedures of EVA Preparation, EVA, and Post-EVA operations; Describe the Russian spacesuit used to perform an EVA; Provide a comparison between U.S. and Russian spacesuit hardware and EVA support; and Define the roles that different training facilities play in EVA training.

  4. Post-Shuttle EVA Operations on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Bill; Witt, Vincent; Chullen, Cinda

    2010-01-01

    The EVA hardware used to assemble and maintain the ISS was designed with the assumption that it would be returned to Earth on the Space Shuttle for ground processing, refurbishment, or failure investigation (if necessary). With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, a new concept of operations was developed to enable EVA hardware (EMU, Airlock Systems, EVA tools, and associated support equipment and consumables) to perform ISS EVAs until 2016 and possibly beyond to 2020. Shortly after the decision to retire the Space Shuttle was announced, NASA and the One EVA contractor team jointly initiated the EVA 2010 Project. Challenges were addressed to extend the operating life and certification of EVA hardware, secure the capability to launch EVA hardware safely on alternate launch vehicles, and protect EMU hardware operability on orbit for long durations.

  5. Post-Shuttle EVA Operations on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, William; Witt, Vincent; Chullen, Cinda

    2010-01-01

    The expected retirement of the NASA Space Transportation System (also known as the Space Shuttle ) by 2011 will pose a significant challenge to Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) on-board the International Space Station (ISS). The EVA hardware currently used to assemble and maintain the ISS was designed assuming that it would be returned to Earth on the Space Shuttle for refurbishment, or if necessary for failure investigation. With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, a new concept of operations was developed to enable EVA hardware (Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), Airlock Systems, EVA tools, and associated support hardware and consumables) to perform ISS EVAs until 2015, and possibly beyond to 2020. Shortly after the decision to retire the Space Shuttle was announced, the EVA 2010 Project was jointly initiated by NASA and the One EVA contractor team. The challenges addressed were to extend the operating life and certification of EVA hardware, to secure the capability to launch EVA hardware safely on alternate launch vehicles, to protect for EMU hardware operability on-orbit, and to determine the source of high water purity to support recharge of PLSSs (no longer available via Shuttle). EVA 2010 Project includes the following tasks: the development of a launch fixture that would allow the EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) to be launched on-board alternate vehicles; extension of the EMU hardware maintenance interval from 3 years (current certification) to a minimum of 6 years (to extend to 2015); testing of recycled ISS Water Processor Assembly (WPA) water for use in the EMU cooling system in lieu of water resupplied by International Partner (IP) vehicles; development of techniques to remove & replace critical components in the PLSS on-orbit (not routine); extension of on-orbit certification of EVA tools; and development of an EVA hardware logistical plan to support the ISS without the Space Shuttle. Assumptions for the EVA 2010 Project included no more

  6. Application of shuttle EVA systems to payloads. Volume 1: EVA systems and operational modes description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Descriptions of the EVA system baselined for the space shuttle program were provided, as well as a compendium of data on available EVA operational modes for payload and orbiter servicing. Operational concepts and techniques to accomplish representative EVA payload tasks are proposed. Some of the subjects discussed include: extravehicular mobility unit, remote manipulator system, airlock, EVA translation aids, restraints, workstations, tools and support equipment.

  7. EVA worksite analysis--use of computer analysis for EVA operations development and execution.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D

    1999-01-01

    To sustain the rate of extravehicular activity (EVA) required to assemble and maintain the International Space Station, we must enhance our ability to plan, train for, and execute EVAs. An underlying analysis capability has been developed to ensure EVA access to all external worksites as a starting point for ground training, to generate information needed for on-orbit training, and to react quickly to develop contingency EVA plans, techniques, and procedures. This paper describes the use of computer-based EVA worksite analysis techniques for EVA worksite design. EVA worksite analysis has been used to design 80% of EVA worksites on the U.S. portion of the International Space Station. With the launch of the first U.S. element of the station, EVA worksite analysis is being developed further to support real-time analysis of unplanned EVA operations. This paper describes this development and deployment of EVA worksite analysis for International Space Station (ISS) mission support.

  8. Students Speak With EVA Operations Specialist Glenda Brown

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA’s International Space Station Mission Control Center, EVA Operations Specialist Glenda Brown participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at Victory Lakes Interm...

  9. EVA Requirements for Exploration EVAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webbon, Bruce; Luna, Bernadette

    2005-01-01

    The exploration program proposed by the President will require extensive extravehicular operations in a wide range of environments. These include Og EVAs in planetary orbits as well as potential contingency EVAs during inter-planetary flight and surface operations on the moon and Mars. The EVA environments and mission requirements are very different for each of these. Commonality among such systems is highly desirable from the programmatic standpoint but the dramatic differences in EVA environments will have a profound impact on EVA system design. This paper will examine the relevant environmental parameters and discuss their impacts on EVA system design. An EVA design philosophy that maximizes EVA system commonality will be discussed.

  10. Study of EVA operations associated with satellite services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, J. O.; Wilde, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    Extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) factors associated with satellite servicing activities are identified and the EMU improvements necessary to enhance satellite servicing operations are outlined. Areas of EMU capabilities, equipment and structural interfaces, time lines, EMU modifications for satellite servicing, environmental hazards, and crew training are vital to manned Eva/satellite services and as such are detailed. Evaluation of EMU capabilities indicates that the EMU can be used in performing near term, basic satellite servicing tasks; however, satellite servicing is greatly enhanced by incorporating key modifications into the EMU. The servicing missions involved in contamination sensitive payload repair are illustrated. EVA procedures and equipment can be standardized, reducing both crew training time and in orbit operations time. By standardizing and coordinating procedures, mission cumulative time lines fall well within the EMU capability.

  11. The First Results of the Russian EVA Space Suits Operation in the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, I. P.; Albats, E. A.; Glazov, G. M.

    The year of 2001 saw the first EVAs of the International Space Station (ISS) crews using the Russian "Orlan-M" space suits. This marked the beginning of a new stage of activities on putting into operation of the next ISS modules. The paper reviews the results of the Russian space suits' operation in the course of extravehicular activity (EVA) by the crews of the first ISS expeditions. The paper also reviews differences in operation of the "Orlan-M" in the ISS and "Mir" orbiting station resulting from space suit (SS) systems design, peculiarities of the station airlocks and EVA performance methods. The paper presents data on EVA results and comments on space suit systems' operation. The paper gives diagrams for main parameters of the space suits' life support systems (LSS) and comments about them. In conclusion the paper reviews the "Orlan-M" improvements being performed and prospects of "Orlan-M" usage in the ISS.

  12. Utilization of ISS to Develop and Test Operational Concepts and Hardware for Low-Gravity Terrestrial EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gast, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    NASA has considerable experience in two areas of Extravehicular Activities (EVA). The first can be defined as microgravity, orbital EVAs. This consists of everything done in low Earth orbit (LEO), from the early, proof of concept EVAs conducted during the Gemini program of the 1960s, to the complex International Space Station (ISS) assembly tasks of the first decade of the 21st century. The second area of expertise is comprised of those EVAs conducted on the lunar surface, under a gravitational force one-sixth that of Earth. This EVA expertise encapsulates two extremes - microgravity and Earthlike gravitation - but is insufficient as humans expand their exploration purview, most notably with respect to spacewalks conducted on very low-gravity bodies, such as near- Earth objects (NEO) and the moons of Mars. The operational and technical challenges of this category of EVA have yet to be significantly examined, and as such, only a small number of operational concepts have been proposed thus far. To ensure mission success, however, EVA techniques must be developed and vetted to allow the selection of operational concepts that can be utilized across an assortment of destinations whose physical characteristics vary. This paper examines the utilization of ISS-based EVAs to test operational concepts and hardware in preparation for a low-gravity terrestrial EVA. While the ISS cannot mimic some of the fundamental challenges of a low-gravity terrestrial EVA - such as rotation rate and surface composition - it may be the most effective test bed available.

  13. Apollo Medical Operations Project: Recommendations for EVA and Lunar Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, R. A.; Davis, J. R.; Duncan, J. M.; Polk, J. D.; Jones, J. A.; Gillis, D. B.; Novak, J.

    2013-01-01

    The potential risk of injury to crewmembers is inherent in aggressive surface activities, whether they be Moon-, Mars-, or asteroid-based. In December 2005, the Space Medicine Division at JSC requested a study to identify Apollo mission issues that had an impact to crew health or performance or both. This talk focused on the Apollo EVA suit and lunar surface operations concerning crew health and performance. There were roughly 20 recommendations from this study of Apollo for improving these two areas for future exploration missions, a few of which were incorporated into the Human Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR). Dr. Richard Scheuring covered these topics along with some of the analog work that has been done regarding surface operations and medical contingencies.

  14. Evidence Report: Risk of Injury and Compromised Performance due to EVA Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Norcross, Jason R.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Bekdash, Omar S.; Benson, Elizabeth A.; Jarvis, Sarah L.; Conkin, Johnny; Gernhardt, Michael L.; House, Nancy; Jadwick, Jennifer; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Lee, Lesley R.; Scheuring, Richard A.; Tuxhorn, Jennifer A.

    2017-01-01

    Given the high physiological and functional demands of operating in a self-contained EVA or training suit in various gravity fields and system environments, there is a possibility that crew injury can occur and physiological and functional performance may be comprised.

  15. Interoperability Trends in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Space Operations for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Gerald E.

    1999-01-01

    No other space operations in the 21 st century more comprehensively embody the challenges and dependencies of interoperability than EVA. This discipline is already functioning at an W1paralleled level of interagency, inter-organizational and international cooperation. This trend will only increase as space programs endeavor to expand in the face of shrinking budgets. Among the topics examined in this paper are hardware-oriented issues. Differences in design standards among various space participants dictate differences in the EVA tools that must be manufactured, flown and maintained on-orbit. Presently only two types of functional space suits exist in the world. However, three versions of functional airlocks are in operation. Of the three airlocks, only the International Space Station (ISS) Joint Airlock can accommodate both types of suits. Due to functional differences in the suits, completely different operating protocols are required for each. Should additional space suit or airlock designs become available, the complexity will increase. The lessons learned as a result of designing and operating within such a system are explored. This paper also examines the non-hardware challenges presented by interoperability for a discipline that is as uniquely dependent upon the individual as EVA. Operation of space suits (essentially single-person spacecrafts) by persons whose native language is not that of the suits' designers is explored. The intricacies of shared mission planning, shared control and shared execution of joint EVA's are explained. For example, once ISS is fully functional, the potential exists for two crewmembers of different nationality to be wearing suits manufactured and controlled by a third nation, while operating within an airlock manufactured and controlled by a fourth nation, in an effort to perform tasks upon hardware belonging to a fifth nation. Everything from training issues, to procedures development and writing, to real-time operations is

  16. Ensuring of long operation life of the orbiting station EVA space suit.

    PubMed

    Abramov, I P; Glazov, G M; Svertshek, V I; Stoklitsky AYu

    1997-01-01

    Russia has gained a lot of experience in operating the space suits (SS) during the extravehicular activities (EVA) by the crews of SALYUT-6, SALYUT-7 and MIR orbiting stations. A total of 21 Orlan-type space suits of various models were operated onboard the orbiting stations (OS) during almost 20 years period. Some of these space suits served up to 3 years in orbit. The paper reviews special features of long SS operation (without return to the Earth) onboard an orbiting station as well as the problems associated with SS repeated use by several crews. An analysis of measures to support solving of the problems of SS long stay and reliable operation onboard the orbiting station is made: selection of a corresponding SS type and separate elements design; selection of the materials; routine and preventive maintenance; development tests. The advantages of the space suit of a semi-rigid type for solving the above problems are shown. The paper includes a short analysis of space suits' operation onboard the Russian orbiting station MIR, and some restuts of inspection of the Orlan-DMA space suit returned to the Earth from orbit by STS-79 alter long operation in orbit. Recommendations on further improvement of the space suits for EVA operations in the International Space Station (ISS) are given.

  17. Ensuring of long operation life of the orbiting station EVA space suit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, I. P.; Glazov, G. M.; Svertshek, V. I.; Stoklitsky, A. Yu.

    Russia has gained a lot of experience in operating the space suits (SS) during the extravehicular activities (EVA) by the crews of SALYUT-6, SALYUT-7 and MIR orbiting stations. A total of 21 Orlan-type space suits of various models were operated onboard the orbiting stations (OS) during almost 20 years period. Some of these space suits served up to 3 years in orbit. The paper reviews special features of long SS operation (without return to the Earth) onboard an orbiting station as well as the problems associated with SS repeated use by several crews. An analysis of measures to support solving of the problems of SS long stay and reliable operation onboard the orbiting station is made: selection of a corresponding SS type and separate elements design selection of the materials routine and preventive maintenance development tests. The advantages of the space suit of a semirigid type for solving the above problems are shown. The paper includes a short analysis of space suits' operation onboard the Russian orbiting station MIR, and some results of inspection of the Orian-DMA space suit returned to the Earth from orbit by STS-79 after long operation in orbit. Recommendations on further improvement of the space suits for EVA operations in the International Space Station (ISS) are given.

  18. Crew/Robot Coordinated Planetary EVA Operations at a Lunar Base Analog Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diftler, M. A.; Ambrose, R. O.; Bluethmann, W. J.; Delgado, F. J.; Herrera, E.; Kosmo, J. J.; Janoiko, B. A.; Wilcox, B. H.; Townsend, J. A.; Matthews, J. B.; Fong, T. W.; Bualat, M. G.; Lee, S. Y.; Dorsey, J. T.; Doggett, W. R.

    2007-01-01

    Under the direction of NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program, robots and space suited subjects from several NASA centers recently completed a very successful demonstration of coordinated activities indicative of base camp operations on the lunar surface. For these activities, NASA chose a site near Meteor Crater, Arizona close to where Apollo Astronauts previously trained. The main scenario demonstrated crew returning from a planetary EVA (extra-vehicular activity) to a temporary base camp and entering a pressurized rover compartment while robots performed tasks in preparation for the next EVA. Scenario tasks included: rover operations under direct human control and autonomous modes, crew ingress and egress activities, autonomous robotic payload removal and stowage operations under both local control and remote control from Houston, and autonomous robotic navigation and inspection. In addition to the main scenario, participants had an opportunity to explore additional robotic operations: hill climbing, maneuvering heaving loads, gathering geo-logical samples, drilling, and tether operations. In this analog environment, the suited subjects and robots experienced high levels of dust, rough terrain, and harsh lighting.

  19. Cooperative EVA/Telerobotic Surface Operations in Support of Exploration Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akin, David L.

    2001-01-01

    The contents include: 1) Planetary Surface Robotics; 2) EVA Difficulties from Apollo; 3) Robotic Capabilities for EVA Support; 4) Astronaut Support Vehicle; 5) Three ASV Preliminary Designs; 6) Small Single-arm Assistant; 7) Dual-arm Assistant; 8) Large EVA Assistant; 9) Lessons Learned-Preliminary Designs; 10) Rover Design Assumptions; 11) Design Requirements-Terrain; 12) Design Requirements; 13) Science Payload; 14) Manipulator Arm; 15) EVA Multiple Robot Cooperation; 16) SSL Rover Body Concept; 17) Advanced EVA Support Rover Concept; 18) Robotic Access to Restricted Sites; 19) Robotic Rescue of EVA crew; and 19) Why Do We Need Humans? This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  20. H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) and the Operations Concept for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda

    2010-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle fleet imminent in 2011, a new concept of operations will become reality to meet the transportation challenges of the International Space Station (ISS). The planning associated with the retirement of the Space Shuttle has been underway since the announcement in 2004. Since then, several companies and government entities have had to look for innovative low-cost commercial orbital transportation systems to continue to achieve the objectives of ISS delivery requirements. Several options have been assessed and appear ready to meet the large and demanding delivery requirements of the ISS. Options that have been identified that can facilitate the challenge include the Russian Federal Space Agency's Soyuz and Progress spacecraft, European Space Agency's Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA's) H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) and the Boeing Delta IV Heavy (DIV-H). The newest of these options is the JAXA's HTV. This paper focuses on the HTV, mission architecture and operations concept for Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) hardware, the associated launch system, and details of the launch operations approach.

  1. H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) and the Operations Concept for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Blome, Elizabeth; Tetsuya, Sakashita

    2011-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle fleet imminent in 2011, a new operations concept will become reality to meet the transportation challenges of the International Space Station (ISS). The planning associated with the retirement of the Space Shuttle has been underway since the announcement in 2004. Since then, several companies and government entities have had to look for innovative low-cost commercial orbital transportation systems to continue to achieve the objectives of ISS delivery requirements. Several options have been assessed and appear ready to meet the large and demanding delivery requirements of the ISS. Options that have been identified that can facilitate the challenge include the Russian Federal Space Agency's Soyuz and Progress spacecraft, European Space Agency's Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA s) H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV). The newest of these options is the JAXA's HTV. This paper focuses on the HTV, mission architecture and operations concept for Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) hardware, the associated launch system, and details of the launch operations approach.

  2. EVA safety: Space suit system interoperability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoog, A. I.; McBarron, J. W.; Abramov, L. P.; Zvezda, A. O.

    1995-01-01

    The results and the recommendations of the International Academy of Astronautics extravehicular activities (IAA EVA) Committee work are presented. The IAA EVA protocols and operation were analyzed for harmonization procedures and for the standardization of safety critical and operationally important interfaces. The key role of EVA and how to improve the situation based on the identified EVA space suit system interoperability deficiencies were considered.

  3. Application of Shuttle EVA Systems to Payloads. Volume 2: Payload EVA Task Completion Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Candidate payload tasks for EVA application were identified and selected, based on an analysis of four representative space shuttle payloads, and typical EVA scenarios with supporting crew timelines and procedures were developed. The EVA preparations and post EVA operations, as well as the timelines emphasizing concurrent payload support functions, were also summarized.

  4. EVA Physiology

    NASA Video Gallery

    An introduction to the risk of decompression sickness (DCS) in astronauts during EVA. This will include an explanation of Prebreathe Protocols (PB), to affect nitrogen washout as a primary risk mit...

  5. EVA Skills Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parazynski, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Parazynski and a colleague from Extravehicular Activity (EVA), Robotics, & Crew Systems Operations (DX) worked closely to build the EVA Skills Training Program, and for the first time, defined the gold standards of EVA performance, allowing crewmembers to increase their performance significantly. As part of the program, individuals had the opportunity to learn at their own rate, taking additional water time as required, to achieve that level of performance. This focus on training to one's strengths and weaknesses to bolster them enabled the Crew Office and DX to field a much larger group of spacewalkers for the daunting "wall of EVA" required for the building and maintenance of the ISS. Parazynski also stressed the need for designers to understand the capabilities and the limitations of a human in a spacesuit, as well as opportunities to improve future generations of space. He shared lessons learned (how the Crew Office engaged in these endeavors) and illustrated the need to work as a team to develop these complex systems.

  6. Understanding Skill in EVA Mass Handling. Volume 1; Theoretical and Operational Foundations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccio, Gary; McDonald, Vernon; Peters, Brian; Layne, Charles; Bloomberg, Jacob

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the theoretical and operational foundations for our analysis of skill in extravehicular mass handling. A review of our research on postural control, human-environment interactions, and exploratory behavior in skill acquisition is used to motivate our analysis. This scientific material is presented within the context of operationally valid issues concerning extravehicular mass handling. We describe the development of meaningful empirical measures that are relevant to a special class of nested control systems: manual interactions between an individual and the substantial environment. These measures are incorporated into a unique empirical protocol implemented on NASA's principal mass handling simulator, the precision air-bearing floor, in order to evaluate skill in extravehicular mass handling. We discuss the components of such skill with reference to the relationship between postural configuration and controllability of an orbital replacement unit, the relationship between orbital replacement unit control and postural stability, the relationship between antecedent and consequent movements of an orbital replacement unit, and the relationship between antecedent and consequent postural movements. Finally, we describe our expectations regarding the operational relevance of the empirical results as it pertains to extravehicular activity tools, training, monitoring, and planning.

  7. In Vivo Noninvasive Analysis of Human Forearm Muscle Function and Fatigue: Applications to EVA Operations and Training Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fotedar, L. K.; Marshburn, T.; Quast, M. J.; Feeback, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Forearm muscle fatigue is one of the major limiting factors affecting endurance during performance of deep-space extravehicular activity (EVA) by crew members. Magnetic resonance (MR) provides in vivo noninvasive analysis of tissue level metabolism and fluid exchange dynamics in exercised forearm muscles through the monitoring of proton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P-31-MRS) parameter variations. Using a space glove box and EVA simulation protocols, we conducted a preliminary MRS/MRI study in a small group of human test subjects during submaximal exercise and recovery and following exhaustive exercise. In assessing simulated EVA-related muscle fatigue and function, this pilot study revealed substantial changes in the MR image longitudinal relaxation times (T2) as an indicator of specific muscle activation and proton flux as well as changes in spectral phosphocreatine-to-phosphate (PCr/Pi) levels as a function of tissue bioenergetic potential.

  8. Design and Verification of Space Station EVA-Operated Truss Attachment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katell, Gabriel

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the design and verification of a system used to attach two segments of the International Space Station (ISS). This system was first used in space to mate the P6 and Z1 trusses together in December 2000, through a combination of robotic and extravehicular tasks. Features that provided capture, coarse alignment, and fine alignment during the berthing process are described. Attachment of this high value hardware was critical to the ISS's sequential assembly, necessitating the inclusion of backup design and operational features. Astronauts checked for the proper performance of the alignment and bolting features during on-orbit operations. During berthing, the system accommodates truss-to-truss relative displacements that are caused by manufacturing tolerances and on-orbit thermal gradients. After bolt installation, the truss interface becomes statically determinate with respect to in-plane shear loads and isolates attach bolts from bending moments. The approach used to estimate relative displacements and the means of accommodating them is explained. Confidence in system performance was achieved through a cost-effective collection of tests and analyses, including thermal, structural, vibration, misalignment, contact dynamics, underwater simulation, and full-scale functional testing. Design considerations that have potential application to other mechanisms include accommodating variations of friction coefficients in the on-orbit joints, wrench torque tolerances, joint preload, moving element clearances at temperature extremes, and bolt-nut torque reaction.

  9. Climbing the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Wall - Safely

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuentes, Jose; Greene, Stacie

    2010-01-01

    The success of the EVA team, that includes the EVA project office, Crew Office, Mission Operations, Engineering and Safety, is assured by the full integration of all necessary disciplines. Safety participation in all activities from hardware development concepts, certification and crew training, provides for a strong partnership within the team. Early involvement of Safety on the EVA team has mitigated risk and produced a high degree of mission success.

  10. Post space preparation: an online study guide.

    PubMed

    2008-05-01

    The Editorial Board of the Journal of Endodontics has developed a literature-based study guide of topical areas related to endodontics. This study guide is intended to give the reader a focused review of the essential endodontic literature and does not cite all possible articles related to each topic. Although citing all articles would be comprehensive, it would defeat the idea of a study guide. This section will focus on post space preparation.

  11. Risk Management in EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Jonathan; Lutomski, M.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of risk management in Extravehicular Activities (EVA). The contents include: 1) EVA Office at NASA - JSC; 2) EVA Project Risk Management: Why and When; 3) EVA Office Risk Management: How; 4) Criteria for Closing a Risk; 5) Criteria for Accepting a Risk; 6) ISS IRMA Reference Card Data Entry Requirement s; 7) XA/ EVA Office Risk Activity Summary; 8) EVA Significant Change Summary; 9) Integrated Risk Management Application (XA) Matrix, March 31, 2004; 10) ISS Watch Item: 50XX Summary Report; and 11) EVA Project RM Usefulness

  12. Advanced EVA system design requirements study: EVAS/space station system interface requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, T. G.

    1985-01-01

    The definition of the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) systems interface requirements and accomodations for effective integration of a production EVA capability into the space station are contained. A description of the EVA systems for which the space station must provide the various interfaces and accomodations are provided. The discussion and analyses of the various space station areas in which the EVA interfaces are required and/or from which implications for EVA system design requirements are derived, are included. The rationale is provided for all EVAS mechanical, fluid, electrical, communications, and data system interfaces as well as exterior and interior requirements necessary to facilitate EVA operations. Results of the studies supporting these discussions are presented in the appendix.

  13. Lateral perforation in parallel post space preparations.

    PubMed

    Tinaz, A Cemal; Alaçam, Tayfun; Topuz, Ozgur; Er, Ozgur; Maden, Murat

    2004-08-15

    This study evaluates the amount of remaining tooth structure and possibility of producing lateral perforation following the use of different diameters of parallel-sided Parapost drills in groups of different canal curvatures (0 degrees-15 degrees, 16 degrees-25 degrees, 26 degrees <) in distal canals of first and second mandibular molar teeth. After enlargement of root canals using the crown-down pressureless technique, Parapost drills #1, #2, and #3 were used in the different canal groups for the preparation of a post space. Standardized digital radiographs were taken before the post space preparation and after each Parapost drill application. Four horizontal lines (a, b, c, and d) were drawn at equal distances on these images, starting from the pulp chamber floor moving apically at 2 mm increments. There were no significant differences between the different curvature groups at the a, b, c, and d levels for the critical level of the remaining tooth structure (multiple comparison test; p>0.05). However, in considering root perforation, both at the inner and outer side of the roots, there were statistically significant differences at "c" and "d" levels in group 3 (#3 drill) without taking into account the root curvature (ANOVA; p< 0.5). None of the specimens showed strip perforation.

  14. Advanced EVA system design requirements study, executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Design requirements and criteria for the space station advanced Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) including crew enclosures, portable life support systems, maneuvering propulsion systems, and related EVA support equipment were established. The EVA mission requirements, environments, and medical and physiological requirements, as well as operational, procedures and training issues were considered.

  15. EVA Wiki - Transforming Knowledge Management for EVA Flight Controllers and Instructors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Stephanie S.; Alpert, Brian K.; Montalvo, Edwin James; Welsh, Lawrence Daren; Wray, Scott; Mavridis, Costa

    2016-01-01

    The EVA Wiki was recently implemented as the primary knowledge database to retain critical knowledge and skills in the EVA Operations group at NASA's Johnson Space Center by ensuring that information is recorded in a common, easy to search repository. Prior to the EVA Wiki, information required for EVA flight controllers and instructors was scattered across different sources, including multiple file share directories, SharePoint, individual computers, and paper archives. Many documents were outdated, and data was often difficult to find and distribute. In 2011, a team recognized that these knowledge management problems could be solved by creating an EVA Wiki using MediaWiki, a free and open-source software developed by the Wikimedia Foundation. The EVA Wiki developed into an EVA-specific Wikipedia on an internal NASA server. While the technical implementation of the wiki had many challenges, one of the biggest hurdles came from a cultural shift. Like many enterprise organizations, the EVA Operations group was accustomed to hierarchical data structures and individually-owned documents. Instead of sorting files into various folders, the wiki searches content. Rather than having a single document owner, the wiki harmonized the efforts of many contributors and established an automated revision controlled system. As the group adapted to the wiki, the usefulness of this single portal for information became apparent. It transformed into a useful data mining tool for EVA flight controllers and instructors, as well as hundreds of others that support EVA. Program managers, engineers, astronauts, flight directors, and flight controllers in differing disciplines now have an easier-to-use, searchable system to find EVA data. This paper presents the benefits the EVA Wiki has brought to NASA's EVA community, as well as the cultural challenges it had to overcome.

  16. EVA Wiki - Transforming Knowledge Management for EVA Flight Controllers and Instructors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Stephanie S.; Alpert, Brian K.; Montalvo, Edwin James; Welsh, Lawrence Daren; Wray, Scott; Mavridis, Costa

    2016-01-01

    The EVA Wiki was recently implemented as the primary knowledge database to retain critical knowledge and skills in the EVA Operations group at NASA's Johnson Space Center by ensuring that information is recorded in a common, easy to search repository. Prior to the EVA Wiki, information required for EVA flight controllers and instructors was scattered across different sources, including multiple file share directories, SharePoint, individual computers, and paper archives. Many documents were outdated, and data was often difficult to find and distribute. In 2011, a team recognized that these knowledge management problems could be solved by creating an EVA Wiki using MediaWiki, a free and open-source software developed by the Wikimedia Foundation. The EVA Wiki developed into an EVA-specific Wikipedia on an internal NASA server. While the technical implementation of the wiki had many challenges, one of the biggest hurdles came from a cultural shift. Like many enterprise organizations, the EVA Operations group was accustomed to hierarchical data structures and individually-owned documents. Instead of sorting files into various folders, the wiki searches content. Rather than having a single document owner, the wiki harmonized the efforts of many contributors and established an automated revision controlled system. As the group adapted to the wiki, the usefulness of this single portal for information became apparent. It transformed into a useful data mining tool for EVA flight controllers and instructors, as well as hundreds of others that support the EVA. Program managers, engineers, astronauts, flight directors, and flight controllers in differing disciplines now have an easier-to-use, searchable system to find EVA data. This paper presents the benefits the EVA Wiki has brought to NASA's EVA community, as well as the cultural challenges it had to overcome.

  17. Miniature EVA Software Defined Radio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey

    2012-01-01

    As NASA embarks upon developing the Next-Generation Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Radio for deep space exploration, the demands on EVA battery life will substantially increase. The number of modes and frequency bands required will continue to grow in order to enable efficient and complex multi-mode operations including communications, navigation, and tracking applications. Whether conducting astronaut excursions, communicating to soldiers, or first responders responding to emergency hazards, NASA has developed an innovative, affordable, miniaturized, power-efficient software defined radio that offers unprecedented power-efficient flexibility. This lightweight, programmable, S-band, multi-service, frequency- agile EVA software defined radio (SDR) supports data, telemetry, voice, and both standard and high-definition video. Features include a modular design, an easily scalable architecture, and the EVA SDR allows for both stationary and mobile battery powered handheld operations. Currently, the radio is equipped with an S-band RF section. However, its scalable architecture can accommodate multiple RF sections simultaneously to cover multiple frequency bands. The EVA SDR also supports multiple network protocols. It currently implements a Hybrid Mesh Network based on the 802.11s open standard protocol. The radio targets RF channel data rates up to 20 Mbps and can be equipped with a real-time operating system (RTOS) that can be switched off for power-aware applications. The EVA SDR's modular design permits implementation of the same hardware at all Network Nodes concept. This approach assures the portability of the same software into any radio in the system. It also brings several benefits to the entire system including reducing system maintenance, system complexity, and development cost.

  18. Studies Relating to EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session JA1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: The Staged Decompression to the Hypobaric Atmosphere as a Prophylactic Measure Against Decompression Sickness During Repetitive EVA; A New Preoxygenation Procedure for Extravehicular Activity (EVA); Metabolic Assessments During Extra-Vehicular Activity; Evaluation of Safety of Hypobaric Decompressions and EVA From Positions of Probabilistic Theory; Fatty Acid Composition of Plasma Lipids and Erythrocyte Membranes During Simulation of Extravehicular Activity; Biomedical Studies Relating to Decompression Stress with Simulated EVA, Overview; The Joint Angle and Muscle Signature (JAMS) System - Current Uses and Future Applications; and Experimental Investigation of Cooperative Human-Robotic Roles in an EVA Work Site.

  19. EVA Wiki - Transforming Knowledge Management for EVA Flight Controllers and Instructors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The EVA (Extravehicular Activity) Wiki was recently implemented as the primary knowledge database to retain critical knowledge and skills in the EVA Operations group at NASA's Johnson Space Center by ensuring that information is recorded in a common, searchable repository. Prior to the EVA Wiki, information required for EVA flight controllers and instructors was scattered across different sources, including multiple file share directories, SharePoint, individual computers, and paper archives. Many documents were outdated, and data was often difficult to find and distribute. In 2011, a team recognized that these knowledge management problems could be solved by creating an EVA Wiki using MediaWiki, a free and open-source software developed by the Wikimedia Foundation. The EVA Wiki developed into an EVA-specific Wikipedia on an internal NASA server. While the technical implementation of the wiki had many challenges, the one of the biggest hurdles came from a cultural shift. Like many enterprise organizations, the EVA Operations group was accustomed to hierarchical data structures and individually-owned documents. Instead of sorting files into various folders, the wiki searches content. Rather than having a single document owner, the wiki harmonized the efforts of many contributors and established an automated revision control system. As the group adapted to the wiki, the usefulness of this single portal for information became apparent. It transformed into a useful data mining tool for EVA flight controllers and instructors, and also for hundreds of other NASA and contract employees. Program managers, engineers, astronauts, flight directors, and flight controllers in differing disciplines now have an easier-to-use, searchable system to find EVA data. This paper presents the benefits the EVA Wiki has brought to NASA's EVA community, as well as the cultural challenges it had to overcome.

  20. EVA Performance Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peacock, Brian; Maida, James; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2004-01-01

    out for EVA activities are based more on extensive domain experience than any formal analytic structure. Conversely, physical task analysis for industrial and structured evidence from training and EV A contexts. Again on earth there is considerable evidence of human performance degradation due to encumbrance and fatigue. These industrial models generally take the form of a discounting equation. The development of performance estimates for space operations, such as timeline predictions for EVA is generally based on specific input from training activity, for example in the NBL or KC135. uniformed services tasks on earth are much more formalized. Human performance data in the space context has two sources: first there is the micro analysis of performance in structured tasks by the space physiology community and second there is the less structured evidence from training and EV A contexts.

  1. EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance [EPSP] Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a general overview of the biomedical and technological challenges of Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The topics covered include: 1) Prebreathe Protocols; 2) Lunar Suit Testing and Development; and 3) Lunar Electric Rover and Exploration Operations Concepts.

  2. Applications of EVA guidelines and design criteria. Volume 3: EVA systems cost model formating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, N. E.

    1973-01-01

    The development of a model for estimating the impact of manned EVA costs on future payloads is discussed. Basic information on the EV crewman requirements, equipment, physical and operational characteristics, and vehicle interfaces is provided. The cost model is being designed to allow system designers to quantify the impact of EVA on vehicle and payload systems.

  3. Antarctica EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, Stan

    2013-01-01

    NASA astronaut Stan Love shared his experiences with the Antarctic Search for Meteorites (ANSMET), an annual expedition to the southern continent to collect valuable samples for research in planetary science. ANSMET teams operate from isolated, remote field camps on the polar plateau, where windchill factors often reach -40? F. Several astronaut participants have noted ANSMET's similarity to a space mission. Some of the operational concepts, tools, and equipment employed by ANSMET teams may offer valuable insights to designers of future planetary surface exploration hardware.

  4. European EVA decompression sickness risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Lorenz; Wenzel, Jürgen; Skoog, A. I.; Luck, S.; Svensson, Bengt

    For the first manned flight of Hermes there will be a capability of performing EVA. The European EVA Space Suit will be an anthropomorphic system with an internal pressure of 500 hPa of pure oxygen. The pressure reduction from the Hermes cabin pressure of 1013 hPa will induce a risk for Decompression Sickness (DCS) for the EVA crewmember if no adequate protective procedures are implemented. Specific decompression procedures have to be developed. From a critical review of the literature and by using knowledge gained from research conducted in the past in the fields of diving and aerospace medicine safe protective procedures are proposed for the European EVA scenario. An R factor of 1.2 and a tissue half-time ( t1/2) of 360 minutes in a single-tissue model have been identified as appropriate operational values. On the basis of an acceptable risk level of approximately 1%, oxygen prebreathing times are proposed for (a) direct pressure reduction from 1013 hPa to a suit pressure of 500 hPa, and (b) staged decompression using a 700 hPa intermediate stage in the spacecraft cabin. In addition, factors which influence individual susceptibility to DCS are identified. Recommendations are also given in the areas of crew selection and medical monitoring requirements together with therapeutic measures that can be implemented in the Hermes scenario. A method for demonstration of the validity of proposed risks and procedures is proposed.

  5. EVA Physiology and Medical Considerations Working in the Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parazynski, Scott

    2012-01-01

    This "EVA Physiology and Medical Considerations Working in the Suit" presentation covers several topics related to the medical implications and physiological effects of suited operations in space from the perspective of a physician with considerable first-hand Extravehicular Activity (EVA) experience. Key themes include EVA physiology working in a pressure suit in the vacuum of space, basic EVA life support and work support, Thermal Protection System (TPS) inspections and repairs, and discussions of the physical challenges of an EVA. Parazynski covers the common injuries and significant risks during EVAs, as well as physical training required to prepare for EVAs. He also shares overall suit physiological and medical knowledge with the next generation of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) system designers.

  6. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 101: Constellation EVA Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Nicole C.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Systems is shown. The topics include: 1) Why do we need space suits? 2) Protection From the Environment; 3) Primary Life Support System (PLSS); 4) Thermal Control; 5) Communications; 6) Helmet and Extravehicular Visor Assy; 7) Hard Upper Torso (HUT) and Arm Assy; 8) Display and Controls Module (DCM); 9) Gloves; 10) Lower Torso Assembly (LTA); 11) What Size Do You Need?; 12) Boot and Sizing Insert; 13) Boot Heel Clip and Foot Restraint; 14) Advanced and Crew Escape Suit; 15) Nominal & Off-Nominal Landing; 16) Gemini Program (mid-1960s); 17) Apollo EVA on Service Module; 18) A Bold Vision for Space Exploration, Authorized by Congress; 19) EVA System Missions; 20) Configurations; 21) Reduced Gravity Program; and 22) Other Opportunities.

  7. Collaborative Human Engineering Work in Space Exploration Extravehicular Activities (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeSantis, Lena; Whitmore, Mihriban

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on extravehicular activities in space exploration in collaboration with other NASA centers, industries, and universities is shown. The topics include: 1) Concept of Operations for Future EVA activities; 2) Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS); 3) Advanced EVA Walkback Test; 4) Walkback Subjective Results; 5) Integrated Suit Test 1; 6) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS); 7) Flex PLSS Design Process; and 8) EVA Information System; 9)

  8. EVA Training and Development Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cupples, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Overview: Vast majority of US EVA (ExtraVehicular Activity) training and EVA hardware development occurs at JSC; EVA training facilities used to develop and refine procedures and improve skills; EVA hardware development facilities test hardware to evaluate performance and certify requirement compliance; Environmental chambers enable testing of hardware from as large as suits to as small as individual components in thermal vacuum conditions.

  9. Mission Specialists Mario Runco and Greg Harbaugh suiting up for EVA.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Candid view of EVA Mission Specialists Mario Runco and Greg Harbaugh suiting up for EVA in the middeck with the assistance of Mission Specialist Susan Helms (reviewing the operation with a procedural checklist).

  10. EVA Health and Human Performance Benchmarking Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, A. F.; Norcross, J.; Jarvis, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple HRP Risks and Gaps require detailed characterization of human health and performance during exploration extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks; however, a rigorous and comprehensive methodology for characterizing and comparing the health and human performance implications of current and future EVA spacesuit designs does not exist. This study will identify and implement functional tasks and metrics, both objective and subjective, that are relevant to health and human performance, such as metabolic expenditure, suit fit, discomfort, suited postural stability, cognitive performance, and potentially biochemical responses for humans working inside different EVA suits doing functional tasks under the appropriate simulated reduced gravity environments. This study will provide health and human performance benchmark data for humans working in current EVA suits (EMU, Mark III, and Z2) as well as shirtsleeves using a standard set of tasks and metrics with quantified reliability. Results and methodologies developed during this test will provide benchmark data against which future EVA suits, and different suit configurations (eg, varied pressure, mass, CG) may be reliably compared in subsequent tests. Results will also inform fitness for duty standards as well as design requirements and operations concepts for future EVA suits and other exploration systems.

  11. EVA Retriever Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The EVA retriever is demonstrated in the Manipulator Development Facility (MDF). The retriever moves on the air bearing table 'searching' for its target, in this case tools 'dropped' by astronauts on orbit.

  12. Compiling a Comprehensive EVA Training Dataset for NASA Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, M. S.; Murry, J. D.; Lee, L. R.; Wear, M. L.; Van Baalen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Training for a spacewalk or extravehicular activity (EVA) is considered hazardous duty for NASA astronauts. This activity places astronauts at risk for decompression sickness as well as various musculoskeletal disorders from working in the spacesuit. As a result, the operational and research communities over the years have requested access to EVA training data to supplement their studies.

  13. Creating a Lunar EVA Work Envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brand N.; Howard, Robert; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Smitherman, David

    2009-01-01

    A work envelope has been defined for weightless Extravehicular Activity (EVA) based on the Space Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), but there is no equivalent for planetary operations. The weightless work envelope is essential for planning all EVA tasks because it determines the location of removable parts, making sure they are within reach and visibility of the suited crew member. In addition, using the envelope positions the structural hard points for foot restraints that allow placing both hands on the job and provides a load path for reacting forces. EVA operations are always constrained by time. Tasks are carefully planned to ensure the crew has enough breathing oxygen, cooling water, and battery power. Planning first involves computers using a virtual work envelope to model tasks, next suited crew members in a simulated environment refine the tasks. For weightless operations, this process is well developed, but planetary EVA is different and no work envelope has been defined. The primary difference between weightless and planetary work envelopes is gravity. It influences anthropometry, horizontal and vertical mobility, and reaction load paths and introduces effort into doing "overhead" work. Additionally, the use of spacesuits other than the EMU, and their impacts on range of motion, must be taken into account. This paper presents the analysis leading to a concept for a planetary EVA work envelope with emphasis on lunar operations. There is some urgency in creating this concept because NASA has begun building and testing development hardware for the lunar surface, including rovers, habitats and cargo off-loading equipment. Just as with microgravity operations, a lunar EVA work envelope is needed to guide designers in the formative stages of the program with the objective of avoiding difficult and costly rework.

  14. EVA Glove Research Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, Alvin M.; Peterson, Steven W.; Main, John A.; Dickenson, Rueben D.; Shields, Bobby L.; Lorenz, Christine H.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the basic research portion of the extravehicular activity (EVA) glove research program is to gain a greater understanding of the kinematics of the hand, the characteristics of the pressurized EVA glove, and the interaction of the two. Examination of the literature showed that there existed no acceptable, non-invasive method of obtaining accurate biomechanical data on the hand. For this reason a project was initiated to develop magnetic resonance imaging as a tool for biomechanical data acquisition and visualization. Literature reviews also revealed a lack of practical modeling methods for fabric structures, so a basic science research program was also initiated in this area.

  15. Effective Teamwork: The EVA NBL Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crocker, Lori

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the experience of improving the operation of the ExtraVehiclar Activity (EVA) Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory as a team of NASA employees and contractors. It reviews specific recommendations to use in turning a struggling organization around as a NASA/contractor team

  16. Real-Time EVA Troubleshooting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leestma, David

    2013-01-01

    David Leestma was EV-1 for the STS-41G extravehicular activity (EVA) with Kathy Sullivan (first American female spacewalker). They conducted an EVA to fully demonstrate the feasibility of refueling satellites from the Space Shuttle, and performed the first contingency EVA task involving the Ku-band antenna. STS-41G was the fourth Space Shuttle mission to perform an EVA, and Leestma related his experiences with training, the spacesuit, and EVA tasks that were conducted on October 11, 1984 during this mission.

  17. Astronaut hazard during free-flight polar EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, W. N.

    1985-01-01

    Extravehicular Activity (EVA) during Shuttle flights planned for the late 1980's includes several factors which together may constitute an astronaut hazard. Free-flight EVA is planned whereas prior United States Earth orbit EVA has used umbilical tethers carrying communications, coolant, and oxygen. EVA associated with missions like LANDSAT Retrieval will be in orbits through the auroral oval where charging of spacecraft may occur. The astronaut performing free flight EVA constitutes an independent spacecraft. The astronaut and the Shuttle make up a system of electrically isolated spacecraft with a wide disparity in size. Unique situations, such as the astronaut being in the wake of the Shuttle while traversing an auroral disturbance, could result in significant astronaut and Shuttle charging. Charging and subsequent arc discharge are important because they have been associated with operating upsets and even satellite failure at geosynchronous orbit. Spacecraft charging theory and experiments are examined to evaluate charging for Shuttle size spacecraft in the polar ionosphere.

  18. Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Cheryl B.; Conger, Bruce C.; Miranda, Bruno M.; Bue, Grant C.; Rouen, Michael N.

    2007-01-01

    An effort was initiated by NASA/JSC in 2001 to develop an Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT) for the sizing of Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) architecture and studies. Its intent was to support space suit development efforts and to aid in conceptual designs for future human exploration missions. Its basis was the Life Support Options Performance Program (LSOPP), a spacesuit and portable life support system (PLSS) sizing program developed for NASA/JSC circa 1990. EVAS_SAT estimates the mass, power, and volume characteristics for user-defined EVAS architectures, including Suit Systems, Airlock Systems, Tools and Translation Aids, and Vehicle Support equipment. The tool has undergone annual changes and has been updated as new data have become available. Certain sizing algorithms have been developed based on industry standards, while others are based on the LSOPP sizing routines. The sizing algorithms used by EVAS_SAT are preliminary. Because EVAS_SAT was designed for use by members of the EVA community, subsystem familiarity on the part of the intended user group and in the analysis of results is assumed. The current EVAS_SAT is operated within Microsoft Excel 2003 using a Visual Basic interface system.

  19. Development of an EVA systems cost model. Volume 3: EVA systems cost model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The EVA systems cost model presented is based on proposed EVA equipment for the space shuttle program. General information on EVA crewman requirements in a weightless environment and an EVA capabilities overview are provided.

  20. What's NEXT for EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullerton, R. K.

    The NASA Exploration Team (NEXT) promotes a vision of new capabilities through an ongoing, integrated and prioritized investment in leap ahead concepts and technologies. The wise marriage of robotic and human work systems is a key element of this vision. To enable a wide array of future destinations and applications, it is important to develop and implement systems which are scalable, environmentally adaptable, reliable and efficiently productive. This paper highlights a few of the recently envisioned customers and applications for advanced extravehicular activity (EVA) systems. It also summarizes recent conceptual and practical studies to define the features and options of such a system. More importantly, it communicates the need and progress of knowledge capture, clearly defined performance targets, credible decision making tools, tangible benefits and creative leverage. With this integrated long range approach, space exploration and EVA can accelerate and enable the future for all generations.

  1. CETA truck and EVA restraint system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beals, David C.; Merson, Wayne R.

    1991-01-01

    The Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) experiment is an extravehicular activity (EVA) Space Transportation System (STS) based flight experiment which will explore various modes of transporting astronauts and light equipment for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The basic elements of CETA are: (1) two 25 foot long sections of monorail, which will be EVA assembled in the STS cargo bay to become a single 50 ft. rail called the track; (2) a wheeled baseplate called the truck which rolls along the track and can accept three cart concepts; and (3) the three carts which are designated manual, electric, and mechanical. The three carts serve as the astronaut restraint and locomotive interfaces with the track. The manual cart is powered by the astronaut grasping the track's handrail and pulling himself along. The electric cart is operated by an astronaut turning a generator which powers the electric motor and drives the cart. The mechanical cart is driven by a Bendix type transmission and is similar in concept to a man-propelled railroad cart. During launch and landing, the truck is attached to the deployable track by means of EVA removable restraint bolts and held in position by a system of retractable shims. These shims are positioned on the exterior of the rail for launch and landing and rotate out of the way for the duration of the experiment. The shims are held in position by strips of Velcro nap, which rub against the sides of the shim and exert a tailored force. The amount of force required to rotate the shims was a major EVA concern, along with operational repeatability and extreme temperature effects. The restraint system was tested in a thermal-vac and vibration environment and was shown to meet all of the initial design requirements. Using design inputs from the astronauts who will perform the EVA, CETA evolved through an iterative design process and represented a cooperative effort.

  2. Active personal radiation monitor for lunar EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straume, Tore; Borak, Tom; Braby, L. A.; Lusby, Terry; Semones, Edward J.; Vazquez, Marcelo E.

    As astronauts return to the Moon-and this time, work for extended periods-there will be a critical need for crew personnel radiation monitoring as they operate lunar rovers or otherwise perform a myriad of extravehicular activities (EVAs). Our focus is on development of a small personal radiation monitor for lunar EVA that responds to the complex radiation quality and changing dose rates on the Moon. Of particular concern are active monitoring capabilities that provide both early warning and radiation dosimetry information during solar particle events (SPEs). To accomplish this, we are developing small detectors integrated with modern high speed, low power microelectronics to measure dose-rate and dose-mean lineal energy in real time. The monitor is designed to perform over the range of dose rates and LETs expected from both GCR and SPE radiations during lunar EVA missions. The monitor design provides simultaneous measurement of dose-equivalent rates at two tissue-equivalent depths simulating skin and marrow. The compact personal monitor is estimated to be the size of a cell phone and would fit on an EVA spacesuit (e.g., in backpack) or in a toolbox. The four-year development effort (which began December 2007) will result in a prototype radiation monitor field tested and characterized for the major radiations expected on the surface of the Moon. We acknowledge support from NSBRI through grants to NASA Ames Research Center (T. Straume, PI) and Colorado State University (T. Borak, PI).

  3. Study of space shuttle EVA/IVA support requirements. Volume 2: EVA/IVA tasks, guidelines, and constraints definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webbon, B. W.; Copeland, R. J.; Wood, P. W., Jr.; Cox, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    The guidelines for EVA and IVA tasks to be performed on the space shuttle are defined. In deriving tasks, guidelines, and constraints, payloads were first identified from the mission model. Payload requirements, together with man and manipulator capabilities, vehicle characteristics and operation, and safety considerations led to a definition of candidate tasks. Guidelines and constraints were also established from these considerations. Scenarios were established, and screening criteria, such as commonality of EVA and IVA activities, were applied to derive representative planned and unplanned tasks. The whole spectrum of credible contingency situations with a potential requirement for EVA/IVA was analyzed.

  4. Space Shuttle/Orbiter EVA and EVA provisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    EVA objectives, procedures, and equipment for the Shuttle are reviewed. The EVA will occur as a planned excursion, to complete a mission objective, or on a contingency basis as support for the mission or to effect repairs to the Orbiter or its payload. Configurations for the placement of the airlock for EVA with and without Spacelab payloads are discussed, along with the various EVA tasks which could be expected as necessary for mission completion. Handholds have been placed in strategic positions on the RMS and along the payload doors, and a safety tether has been incorporated with line extension out to 25 ft. Off-the-shelf tools such as needlenose pliers, forceps, diagonal cutters, etc. are carried as standard equipment for the repair of malfunctioning equipment and doorlatches. Finally, attention is given to EVA lighting, communication, life-support, and work station restraint systems.

  5. A Human Machine Interface for EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, L.

    EVA astronauts work in a challenging environment that includes high rate of muscle fatigue, haptic and proprioception impairment, lack of dexterity and interaction with robotic equipment. Currently they are heavily dependent on support from on-board crew and ground station staff for information and robotics operation. They are limited to the operation of simple controls on the suit exterior and external robot controls that are difficult to operate because of the heavy gloves that are part of the EVA suit. A wearable human machine interface (HMI) inside the suit provides a powerful alternative for robot teleoperation, procedure checklist access, generic equipment operation via virtual control panels and general information retrieval and presentation. The HMI proposed here includes speech input and output, a simple 6 degree of freedom (dof) pointing device and a heads up display (HUD). The essential characteristic of this interface is that it offers an alternative to the standard keyboard and mouse interface of a desktop computer. The astronaut's speech is used as input to command mode changes, execute arbitrary computer commands and generate text. The HMI can respond with speech also in order to confirm selections, provide status and feedback and present text output. A candidate 6 dof pointing device is Measurand's Shapetape, a flexible "tape" substrate to which is attached an optic fiber with embedded sensors. Measurement of the modulation of the light passing through the fiber can be used to compute the shape of the tape and, in particular, the position and orientation of the end of the Shapetape. It can be used to provide any kind of 3d geometric information including robot teleoperation control. The HUD can overlay graphical information onto the astronaut's visual field including robot joint torques, end effector configuration, procedure checklists and virtual control panels. With suitable tracking information about the position and orientation of the EVA suit

  6. ChEVAS: Combining Suprarenal EVAS with Chimney Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Torella, Francesco; Chan, Tze Y. Shaikh, Usman; England, Andrew; Fisher, Robert K.; McWilliams, Richard G.

    2015-10-15

    Endovascular sealing with the Nellix{sup ®} endoprosthesis (EVAS) is a new technique to treat infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms. We describe the use of endovascular sealing in conjunction with chimney stents for the renal arteries (chEVAS) in two patients, one with a refractory type Ia endoleak and an expanding aneurysm, and one with a large juxtarenal aneurysm unsuitable for fenestrated endovascular repair (EVAR). Both aneurysms were successfully excluded. Our report confirms the utility of chEVAS in challenging cases, where suprarenal seal is necessary. We suggest that, due to lack of knowledge on its durability, chEVAS should only been considered when more conventional treatment modalities (open repair and fenestrated EVAR) are deemed difficult or unfeasible.

  7. Extravehicular activities limitations study. Volume 2: Establishment of physiological and performance criteria for EVA gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohara, John M.; Briganti, Michael; Cleland, John; Winfield, Dan

    1988-01-01

    One of the major probelms faced in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove development has been the absence of concise and reliable methods to measure the effects of EVA gloves on human hand capabilities. This report describes the development of a standardized set of tests designed to assess EVA-gloved hand capabilities in six measurement domains: Range of Motion, Strength, Tactile Perception, Dexterity, Fatigue, and Comfort. Based on an assessment of general human hand functioning and EVA task requirements several tests within each measurement domain were developed to provide a comprehensive evaluation. All tests were designed to be conducted in a glove box with the bare hand as a baseline and the EVA glove at operating pressure. A test program was conducted to evaluate the tests using a representative EVA glove. Eleven test subjects participated in a repeated-measures design. The report presents the results of the tests in each capability domain.

  8. Health and Safety Benefits of Small Pressurized Suitport Rovers as EVA Surface Support Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.

    2008-01-01

    Pressurized safe-haven providing SPE protection and decompression sickness (DCS) treatment capabilities within 20 mins at all times. Up to 50% reduction in time spent in EVA suits (vs. Unpressurized Rovers) for equal or greater Boots-on-Surface EVA exploration time. Reduces suit-induced trauma and provides improved options for nutrition, hydration, and waste-management. Time spent inside SPR during long translations may be spent performing resistive and cardiovascular exercise. Multiple shorter EVAs versus single 8 hr EVAs increases DCS safety and decreases prebreathe requirements. SPRs also offer many potential operational, engineering and exploration benefits not addressed here.

  9. The feasibility of Doppler monitoring during EVA.

    PubMed

    Barer, A; Filipenkov, S; Katuntsev, V; Vogt, L; Wenzel, J

    1995-07-01

    During extravehicular activities (EVA) outside the spacecraft, astronauts have to work under reduced pressure in a space suit. This pressure reduction induces the risk of decompression sickness (DCS) by the formation of gas bubbles from excess nitrogen dissolved in the organism by breathing air at normal pressure. Under laboratory conditions the gas bubbles moving in the blood stream can be detected by the non-invasive ultrasonic Doppler method. By early detection of excessive bubble formation the development of DCS symptoms may be prevented by early application of preventative measures. The method could also be useful when applied in the space suit in order to compare the results of laboratory tests with operational results, because there is a discrepancy according to the DCS risk of laboratory experiments and actual EVA missions, where no symptoms have been reported yet. A prototype Doppler sensor has been developed and implemented in the Russian Orlan suit. To investigate the feasibility of this method under simulated space conditions, the equipment has been used in a series of 12 thermovacuum chamber tests with suited subjects, where intravenous bubble formation was compared to unsuited control experiments. In more than 50% of the suited tests good Doppler recordings could be achieved. In some cases with unsatisfying results the signal could be improved by breathholding. Although the results do not yet allow any conclusion about a possible difference between suited and unsuited subjects due to the small number of tests performed, the method proved its feasibility for use in EVA suits and should be further developed to enhance the safety of EVA procedures.

  10. Minimizing EVA Airlock Time and Depress Gas Losses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis A.; Lafuse, Sharon A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the need and solution for minimizing EVA airlock time and depress gas losses using a new method that minimizes EVA out-the-door time for a suited astronaut and reclaims most of the airlock depress gas. This method consists of one or more related concepts that use an evacuated reservoir tank to store and reclaim the airlock depress gas. The evacuated tank can be an inflatable tank, a spent fuel tank from a lunar lander descent stage, or a backup airlock. During EVA airlock operations, the airlock and reservoir would be equalized at some low pressure, and through proper selection of reservoir size, most of the depress gas would be stored in the reservoir for later reclamation. The benefit of this method is directly applicable to long duration lunar and Mars missions that require multiple EVA missions (up to 100, two-person lunar EVAs) and conservation of consumables, including depress pump power and depress gas. The current ISS airlock gas reclamation method requires approximately 45 minutes of the astronaut s time in the airlock and 1 KW in electrical power. The proposed method would decrease the astronaut s time in the airlock because the depress gas is being temporarily stored in a reservoir tank for later recovery. Once the EVA crew is conducting the EVA, the volume in the reservoir would be pumped back to the cabin at a slow rate. Various trades were conducted to optimize this method, which include time to equalize the airlock with the evacuated reservoir versus reservoir size, pump power to reclaim depress gas versus time allotted, inflatable reservoir pros and cons (weight, volume, complexity), and feasibility of spent lunar nitrogen and oxygen tanks as reservoirs.

  11. Russian-American Cooperation in EVA Area (from Russian Perspective)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsygankov, O. S.; Alexandrov, A. P.; Poleschuk, A. F.

    Russian and American extravehicular activity (EVA) specialists started cooperation after Russia entered the ISS Program. Practical work began in the framework of the Mir-NASA Program, when astronauts J. Linenger, M. Foale and D. Wolf were trained in Russia and participated in the EVA on MIR. This was the intercourse of two experiences, two equal schools each formed under specific conditions. The Report studies the peculiarities of national EVA schools, shows the experience in their integration for the ISS purposes. Organizational aspects of the ISS Program to optimize the implementation of the EVA tasks are presented. It gives examples of the cooperation and development of the hardware equally compatible both with EMU and ORLAN-M space suits, impacts of different schools on the operational methods. It presents proposals on the further integration of the Russian and American schools, considers the prerequisites and perspectives of maximally integrated EVA system for the ISS and the possibility of its incorporation in future in to the mission to Mars.

  12. Electrostatic Discharge Issues in International Space Station Program EVAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, John B.

    2009-01-01

    EVA activity in the ISS program encounters several dangerous ESD conditions. The ISS program has been aggressive for many years to find ways to mitigate or to eliminate the associated risks. Investments have included: (1) Major mods to EVA tools, suit connectors & analytical tools (2) Floating Potential Measurement Unit (3) Plasma Contactor Units (4) Certification of new ISS flight attitudes (5) Teraflops of computation (6) Thousands of hours of work by scores of specialists (7) Monthly management attention at the highest program levels. The risks are now mitigated to a level that is orders of magnitude safer than prior operations

  13. EVA crew workstation provisions for Skylab and Space Shuttle missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, N. E.; Saenger, E. L.

    1973-01-01

    A synopsis of scheduled extravehicular activities (EVA) for a nominal Skylab mission is presented with an overview of EV workstation equipment developed for the program. Also included are the unprogrammed extravehicular activities and supporting equipment that was quickly developed and retrofitted in a series of successful operations to salvage the crippled Skylab Cluster during the Skylab 1 Mission. Because EVA appears to be a requirement for the Space Shuttle Program, candidate EV workstations are discussed in terms of effective and economical Shuttle payload servicing and maintenance. Several such concepts, which could provide a versatile, portable EV support system, are presented.

  14. Advanced EVA system design requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Design requirements and criteria for the Space Station Advanced Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) including crew enclosures, portable life support systems, maneuvering propulsion systems, and related extravehicular activity (EVA) support equipment were defined and established. The EVA mission requirements, environments, and medical and physiological requirements, as well as opertional, procedures, and training issues were considered.

  15. Reducing cyclone pressure drop with evasés

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclones are widely used to separate particles from gas flows and as air emissions control devices. Their cost of operation is proportional to the fan energy required to overcome their pressure drop. Evasés or exit diffusers potentially could reduce exit pressure losses without affecting collection...

  16. Space Station Freedom airlock - The integration of IVA and EVA capabilities in an orbital element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Thomas O., Jr.; Matthews, Anthony P.

    1992-07-01

    In order to meet mission goals, the Space Station Freedom (SSF) airlock must maximize crew efficiency while supporting a range of extravehicular activity (EVA) and intravehicular activity (IVA) operations. EVA will be a frequently planned occurrence on SSF. In order to maximize the usefulness of the limited EVA resource, overhead times must be minimized. This paper discusses how the SSF airlock outfitting design responds to both IVA and EVA requirements. An overview of the SSF airlock and the missions it must accomplish are also provided. The focus of this paper is on how the outfitting and man systems designs provide solutions to multiple requirements, explicitly stated as well as derived requirements. The Space Station airlock is evaluated as an integrated system in the functional assessments of the EVA task, and this paper explains how station common hardware and systems are adapted to the unique airlock environment.

  17. Design, development and evaluation of Stanford/Ames EVA prehensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leifer, Larry J.; Aldrich, J.; Leblanc, M.; Sabelman, E.; Schwandt, D.

    1988-01-01

    Space Station operations and maintenance are expected to make unprecedented demands on astronaut EVA. With Space Station expected to operate with an 8 to 10 psi atmosphere (4 psi for Shuttle operations), the effectivness of pressurized gloves is called into doubt at the same time that EVA activity levels are to be increased. To address the need for more frequent and complex EVA missions and also to extend the dexterity, duration, and safety of EVA astronauts, NASA Ames and Stanford University have an ongoing cooperative agreement to explore and compare alternatives. This is the final Stanford/Ames report on manually powered Prehensors, each of which consists of a shroud forming a pressure enclosure around the astronaut's hand, and a linkage system to transfer the motions and forces of the hand to mechanical digits attached to the shroud. All prehensors are intended for attachment to a standard wrist coupling, as found on the AX-5 hard suit prototype, so that realistic tests can be performed under normal and reduced gravity as simulated by water flotation.

  18. Generic extravehicular (EVA) and telerobot task primitives for analysis, design, and integration. Version 1.0: Reference compilation for the EVA and telerobotics communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.; Drews, Michael

    1990-01-01

    The results are described of an effort to establish commonality and standardization of generic crew extravehicular (crew-EVA) and telerobotic task analysis primitives used for the study of spaceborne operations. Although direct crew-EVA plans are the most visible output of spaceborne operations, significant ongoing efforts by a wide variety of projects and organizations also require tools for estimation of crew-EVA and telerobotic times. Task analysis tools provide estimates for input to technical and cost tradeoff studies. A workshop was convened to identify the issues and needs to establish a common language and syntax for task analysis primitives. In addition, the importance of such a syntax was shown to have precedence over the level to which such a syntax is applied. The syntax, lists of crew-EVA and telerobotic primitives, and the data base in diskette form are presented.

  19. EVA 2000: A European/Russian space suit concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoog, A. I.; Abramov, I. P.

    1995-07-01

    For the European manned space activities an EVA space suit system was being developed in the frame of the Hermes Space Vehicle Programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The space suit was to serve the needs for all relevant extravehicular activities for the Hermes/Columbus operations planned to begin in 2004. For the present Russian manned space programme the relevant EVAs are performed by the Orlan-DMA semi-rigid space suit. The origin of its development reaches back to the 1970s and has since been adapted to cover the needs for extravehicular activities on Salyut and MIR until today. The latest modification of the space suit, which guaranteed its completely self-contained operation, was made in 1988. However, Russian specialists considered it necessary to start developing an EVA space suit of a new generation, which would have improved performance and would cover the needs by the turn of the century and into the beginning of the next century. Potentially these two suit developments could have a lot in common based on similarities in present concepts. As future manned space activities become more and more an international effort, a safe and reliable interoperability of the different space suit systems is required. Based on the results of the Munich Minister Conference in 1991, the European Space Agency and the Russian Space Agency agreed to initiate a requirements analysis and conceptual design study to determine the feasibility of a joint space suit development, EVA 2000. The design philosophy for the EVA 2000 study was oriented on a space suit system design of: —space suit commonality and interoperability —increased crew productivity and safety —increase in useful life and reduced maintainability —reduced development and production cost. The EVA 2000 feasibility study was performed in 1992, and with the positive conclusions for EVA 2000, this approach became the new joint European/Russian EVA Suit 2000 Development Programme. This paper gives an

  20. An EVA Suit Fatigue, Strength, and Reach Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maida, James C.

    1999-01-01

    The number of Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) performed will increase dramatically with the upcoming Space Station assembly missions. It is estimated that up to 900 EVA hours may be required to assemble the Space Station with an additional 200 hours per year for maintenance requirements. Efficient modeling tools will be essential to assist in planning these EVAS. Important components include strength and fatigue parameters, multi-body dynamics and kinematics. This project is focused on building a model of the EVA crew member encompassing all these capabilities. Phase 1, which is currently underway, involves collecting EMU suited and unsuited fatigue, strength and range of motion data, for all major joints of the body. Phase 2 involves processing the data for model input, formulating comparisons between the EMU suits and deriving generalized relationships between suited and unsuited data. Phase 3 will be formulation of a multi-body dynamics model of the EMU capable of predicting mass handling properties and integration of empirical data into the model. Phase 4 will be validation of the model with collected EMU data from the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory at NASA/JSC. Engineers and designers will use tie EVA suit database to better understand the capabilities of the suited individuals. This knowledge will lead to better design of tools and planned operations. Mission planners can use the modeling system and view the animations and the visualizations of the various parameters, such as overall fatigue, motion, timelines, reach, and strength to streamline the timing, duration, task arrangement, personnel and overall efficiency of the EVA tasks. Suit designers can use quantifiable data at common biomechanical structure points to better analyze and compare suit performance.

  1. Experiments with an EVA Assistant Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burridge, Robert R.; Graham, Jeffrey; Shillcutt, Kim; Hirsh, Robert; Kortenkamp, David

    2003-01-01

    Human missions to the Moon or Mars will likely be accompanied by many useful robots that will assist in all aspects of the mission, from construction to maintenance to surface exploration. Such robots might scout terrain, carry tools, take pictures, curate samples, or provide status information during a traverse. At NASA/JSC, the EVA Robotic Assistant (ERA) project has developed a robot testbed for exploring the issues of astronaut-robot interaction. Together with JSC's Advanced Spacesuit Lab, the ERA team has been developing robot capabilities and testing them with space-suited test subjects at planetary surface analog sites. In this paper, we describe the current state of the ERA testbed and two weeks of remote field tests in Arizona in September 2002. A number of teams with a broad range of interests participated in these experiments to explore different aspects of what must be done to develop a program for robotic assistance to surface EVA. Technologies explored in the field experiments included a fuel cell, new mobility platform and manipulator, novel software and communications infrastructure for multi-agent modeling and planning, a mobile science lab, an "InfoPak" for monitoring the spacesuit, and delayed satellite communication to a remote operations team. In this paper, we will describe this latest round of field tests in detail.

  2. The EVA space suit development in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoog, A. Ingemar

    The progress of the European EVA space suit predevelopment activities has resulted in an improved technical reference concept, which will form the basis for a start of the Phase C/D development work in 1992. Technology development work over the last 2 years has resulted in a considerable amount of test data and a better understanding of the characteristics and behaviour of individual parts of the space suit system, in particular in the areas of suits' mobility and life support functions. This information has enabled a consolidation of certain design features on the one hand, but also led to the challenging of some of the design solutions on the other hand. While working towards an improved situation with respect to the main design drivers mass and cost, the technical concept has been improved with respect to functional safety and ease of handling, taking the evolving Hermes spaceplane requirements into consideration. Necessary hardware and functional redundancies have been implemented taking the operational scenario with Hermes and Columbus servicing into consideration. This paper presents the latest design status of the European EVA space suit concept, with particular emphasis on crew safety, comfort and productivity, in the frame of the predevelopment work for the European Space Agency.

  3. Dust Tolerant EVA-Compatible Connectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Townsend, Ivan I., III

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this project are to develop connectors (quick disconnects and umbilical systems) that can be repetitively and reliably mated and de-mated during Lunar surface extra-vehicular activities. These standardized interfaces will be required for structural integrity and commodities transfer between linked surface elements. QD's fittings are needed for EVA spacesuit Primary Life Support Systems as well as liquid cooled garment circulation and suit heat rejection. Umbilical electro-mechanical systems (connectors) are needed between discrete surface systems for transfer of air, power, fluid (water), and data must be capable of being operated by extra vehicular astronaut crew members and/or robotic assistants. There exists an urgent need to prevent electro-statically charged dust and debris from clogging and degrading the interface seals and causing leakage and spills of hazardous commodities, contaminating the flowstream, and degrading the mechanisms needed for umbilical connection. Other challenges include modularity, standardization, autonomous operation, and lifetime sealing issues.

  4. A new method of measuring the stiffness of astronauts' EVA gloves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, Mehdi; Appendino, Silvia; Battezzato, Alessandro; Bonanno, Alberto; Chen Chen, Fai; Crepaldi, Marco; Demarchi, Danilo; Favetto, Alain; Pescarmona, Francesco

    2014-04-01

    Hand fatigue is one of the most important problems of astronauts during their missions to space. This fatigue is due to the stiffness of the astronauts' gloves known as Extravehicular Activity (EVA) gloves. The EVA glove has a multilayered, bulky structure and is pressurized against the vacuum of space. In order to evaluate the stiffness of EVA gloves, different methods have been proposed in the past. In particular, the effects of wearing an EVA glove on the performance of the hands have been published by many researchers to represent the stiffness of the EVA glove. In this paper, a new method for measuring the stiffness of EVA gloves is proposed. A tendon-actuated finger probe is designed and used as an alternative to the human index finger in order to be placed inside an EVA glove and measure its stiffness. The finger probe is equipped with accelerometers, which work as tilt sensors, to measure the angles of its phalanges. The phalanges are actuated by applying different amount of torque using the tendons of the finger probe. Moreover, a hypobaric glove box is designed and realized to simulate the actual operating pressure of the EVA glove and to measure its stiffness in both pressurized and non-pressurized conditions. In order to prove the right performance of the proposed finger probe, an Orlam-DM EVA glove is used to perform a number of tests. The equation of stiffness for the PIP joint of this glove is extracted from the results acquired from the tests. This equation presents the torque required to flex the middle phalanx of the glove. Then, the effect of pressurization on the stiffness is highlighted in the last section. This setup can be used to measure the stiffness of different kinds of EVA gloves and allows direct, numerical comparison of their stiffness.

  5. EVA Radio DRATS 2011 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swank, Aaron J.; Bakula, Casey J.

    2012-01-01

    In the Fall of 2011, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) participated in the Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) field experiments held near Flagstaff, Arizona. The objective of the DRATS outing is to provide analog mission testing of candidate technologies for space exploration, especially those technologies applicable to human exploration of extra- terrestrial rocky bodies. These activities are performed at locations with similarities to extra-terrestrial conditions. This report describes the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Dual-Band Radio Communication System which was demonstrated during the 2011 outing. The EVA radio system is designed to transport both voice and telemetry data through a mobile ad hoc wireless network and employs a dual-band radio configuration. Some key characteristics of this system include: 1. Dual-band radio configuration. 2. Intelligent switching between two different capability wireless networks. 3. Self-healing network. 4. Simultaneous data and voice communication.

  6. Interfacing with an EVA Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy

    2011-01-01

    A NASA spacesuit under the EVA Technology Domain consists of a suit system; a PLSS; and a Power, Avionics, and Software (PAS) system. Ross described the basic functions, components, and interfaces of the PLSS, which consists of oxygen, ventilation, and thermal control subsystems; electronics; and interfaces. Design challenges were reviewed from a packaging perspective. Ross also discussed the development of the PLSS over the last two decades.

  7. Advanced EVA Capabilities: A Study for NASA's Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concept Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the results of a study carried out as part of NASA s Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts Program examining the future technology needs of extravehicular activities (EVAs). The intent of this study is to produce a comprehensive report that identifies various design concepts for human-related advanced EVA systems necessary to achieve the goals of supporting future space exploration and development customers in free space and on planetary surfaces for space missions in the post-2020 timeframe. The design concepts studied and evaluated are not limited to anthropomorphic space suits, but include a wide range of human-enhancing EVA technologies as well as consideration of coordination and integration with advanced robotics. The goal of the study effort is to establish a baseline technology "road map" that identifies and describes an investment and technical development strategy, including recommendations that will lead to future enhanced synergistic human/robot EVA operations. The eventual use of this study effort is to focus evolving performance capabilities of various EVA system elements toward the goal of providing high performance human operational capabilities for a multitude of future space applications and destinations. The data collected for this study indicate a rich and diverse history of systems that have been developed to perform a variety of EVA tasks, indicating what is possible. However, the data gathered for this study also indicate a paucity of new concepts and technologies for advanced EVA missions - at least any that researchers are willing to discuss in this type of forum.

  8. NEEMO 21: Tools, Techniques, Technologies & Training for Science Exploration EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    The 21st mission of the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) was a highly integrated operational test and evaluation of tools, techniques, technologies, and training for science driven exploration during Extravehicular Activity (EVA).The 16-day mission was conducted from the Aquarius habitat, an underwater laboratory, off the coast of Key Largo, FL. The unique facility, authentic science objectives, and diverse skill-sets of the crew/team facilitate the planning and design for future space exploration.

  9. EVA Human Health and Performance Benchmarking Study Overview and Development of a Microgravity Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, Jason; Jarvis, Sarah; Bekdash, Omar; Cupples, Scott; Abercromby, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to develop a protocol to reliably characterize human health and performance metrics for individuals working inside various EVA suits under realistic spaceflight conditions. Expected results and methodologies developed during this study will provide the baseline benchmarking data and protocols with which future EVA suits and suit configurations (e.g., varied pressure, mass, center of gravity [CG]) and different test subject populations (e.g., deconditioned crewmembers) may be reliably assessed and compared. Results may also be used, in conjunction with subsequent testing, to inform fitness-for-duty standards, as well as design requirements and operations concepts for future EVA suits and other exploration systems.

  10. STS-64 Mission Photograph - Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Mark Lee floats freely as he tests the new backpack called the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) system. SAFER is designed for use in the event a crew member becomes untethered while conducting an EVA. The STS-64 mission marked the first untethered U.S. EVA in 10 years, and was launched on September 9, 1994, aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery.

  11. EVA Development and Verification Testing at NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jairala, Juniper; Durkin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    As an early step in preparing for future EVAs, astronauts perform neutral buoyancy testing to develop and verify EVA hardware and operations. To date, neutral buoyancy demonstrations at NASA JSC’s Sonny Carter Training Facility have primarily evaluated assembly and maintenance tasks associated with several elements of the ISS. With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, completion of ISS assembly, and introduction of commercial participants for human transportation into space, evaluations at the NBL will take on a new focus. In this session, Juniper Jairala briefly discussed the design of the NBL and, in more detail, described the requirements and process for performing a neutral buoyancy test, including typical hardware and support equipment requirements, personnel and administrative resource requirements, examples of ISS systems and operations that are evaluated, and typical operational objectives that are evaluated. Robert Durkin discussed the new and potential types of uses for the NBL, including those by non-NASA external customers.

  12. EVA Development and Verification Testing at NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jairala, Juniper; Durkin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    As an early step in preparing for future EVAs, astronauts perform neutral buoyancy testing to develop and verify EVA hardware and operations. To date, neutral buoyancy demonstrations at NASA JSC's Sonny Carter Training Facility have primarily evaluated assembly and maintenance tasks associated with several elements of the ISS. With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, completion of ISS assembly, and introduction of commercial participants for human transportation into space, evaluations at the NBL will take on a new focus. In this session, Juniper Jairala briefly discussed the design of the NBL and, in more detail, described the requirements and process for performing a neutral buoyancy test, including typical hardware and support equipment requirements, personnel and administrative resource requirements, examples of ISS systems and operations that are evaluated, and typical operational objectives that are evaluated. Robert Durkin discussed the new and potential types of uses for the NBL, including those by non-NASA external customers.

  13. EVA Systems Flight Controller Talks With Students

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, EVA Systems Flight Controller Sandy Fletcher participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students from Northtowne Ele...

  14. EVA Development and Verification Testing at NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jairala, Juniper C.; Durkin, Robert; Marak, Ralph J.; Sipila, Stepahnie A.; Ney, Zane A.; Parazynski, Scott E.; Thomason, Arthur H.

    2012-01-01

    As an early step in the preparation for future Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), astronauts perform neutral buoyancy testing to develop and verify EVA hardware and operations. Neutral buoyancy demonstrations at NASA Johnson Space Center's Sonny Carter Training Facility to date have primarily evaluated assembly and maintenance tasks associated with several elements of the International Space Station (ISS). With the retirement of the Shuttle, completion of ISS assembly, and introduction of commercial players for human transportation to space, evaluations at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) will take on a new focus. Test objectives are selected for their criticality, lack of previous testing, or design changes that justify retesting. Assembly tasks investigated are performed using procedures developed by the flight hardware providers and the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD). Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) maintenance tasks are performed using a more systematic set of procedures, EVA Concept of Operations for the International Space Station (JSC-33408), also developed by the MOD. This paper describes the requirements and process for performing a neutral buoyancy test, including typical hardware and support equipment requirements, personnel and administrative resource requirements, examples of ISS systems and operations that are evaluated, and typical operational objectives that are evaluated.

  15. Compiling a Comprehensive EVA Training Dataset for NASA Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, M. S.; Murray, J. D.; Lee, L. R.; Wear, M. L.; Van Baalen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Training for a spacewalk or extravehicular activity (EVA) is considered a hazardous duty for NASA astronauts. This places astronauts at risk for decompression sickness as well as various musculoskeletal disorders from working in the spacesuit. As a result, the operational and research communities over the years have requested access to EVA training data to supplement their studies. The purpose of this paper is to document the comprehensive EVA training data set that was compiled from multiple sources by the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) epidemiologists to investigate musculoskeletal injuries. The EVA training dataset does not contain any medical data, rather it only documents when EVA training was performed, by whom and other details about the session. The first activities practicing EVA maneuvers in water were performed at the Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) at the Marshall Spaceflight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. This facility opened in 1967 and was used for EVA training until the early Space Shuttle program days. Although several photographs show astronauts performing EVA training in the NBS, records detailing who performed the training and the frequency of training are unavailable. Paper training records were stored within the NBS after it was designated as a National Historic Landmark in 1985 and closed in 1997, but significant resources would be needed to identify and secure these records, and at this time LSAH has not pursued acquisition of these early training records. Training in the NBS decreased when the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, opened the Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) in 1980. Early training records from the WETF consist of 11 hand-written dive logbooks compiled by individual workers that were digitized at the request of LSAH. The WETF was integral in the training for Space Shuttle EVAs until its closure in 1998. The Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) at the Sonny Carter Training Facility near JSC

  16. Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Space Suit and EVA System Architecture Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanco, Raul A.; Bowie, Jonathan T.; Watson, Richard D.; Sipila, Stephanie A.

    2014-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) requires a Launch/Entry/Abort (LEA) suit capability and short duration Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) capability for Orion. The EVAs will involve a two-person crew for approximately four hours. Currently, two EVAs are planned with one contingency EVA in reserve. Providing this EVA capability is very challenging due to system level constraints and a new and unknown environment. The goal of the EVA architecture for ARCM is one that builds upon previously developed technologies and lessons learned, and that accomplishes the ARCM mission while providing a stepping stone to future missions and destinations. The primary system level constraints are to 1) minimize system mass and volume and 2) minimize the interfacing impacts to the baseline Orion design. In order to minimize the interfacing impacts and to not perturb the baseline Orion schedule, the concept of adding "kits" to the baseline system is proposed. These kits consist of: an EVA kit (converts LEA suit to EVA suit), EVA Servicing and Recharge Kit (provides suit consumables), the EVA Tools, Translation Aids & Sample Container Kit (the tools and mobility aids to complete the tasks), the EVA Communications Kit (interface between the EVA radio and the MPCV), and the Cabin Repress Kit (represses the MPCV between EVAs). This paper will focus on the trade space, analysis, and testing regarding the space suit (pressure garment and life support system). Historical approaches and lessons learned from all past EVA operations were researched. Previous and current, successfully operated EVA hardware and high technology readiness level (TRL) hardware were evaluated, and a trade study was conducted for all possible pressure garment and life support options. Testing and analysis was conducted and a recommended EVA system architecture was proposed. Pressure garment options that were considered for this mission include the currently in-use ISS EVA Mobility Unit (EMU), all variations of

  17. Emergency vehicle alert system (EVAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Bill; Crump, Roger; Harper, Warren; Myneni, Krishna

    1995-01-01

    The Emergency Vehicle Alert System (EVAS) program is sponsored by the NASA/MSFC Technology Utilization (TU) office. The program was conceived to support the needs of hearing impaired drivers. The objective of the program is to develop a low-cost, small device which can be located in a personal vehicle and warn the driver, via a visual means, of the approach of an emergency vehicle. Many different technologies might be developed for this purpose and each has its own advantages and drawbacks. The requirements for an acoustic detection system, appear to be pretty stringent and may not allow the development of a reliable, low-cost device in the near future. The problems include variations in the sirens between various types of emergency vehicles, distortions due to wind and surrounding objects, competing background noise, sophisticated signal processing requirements, and omni-directional coverage requirements. Another approach is to use a Radio Frequency (RF) signal between the Emergency Vehicle (EV) and the Personal Vehicle (PV). This approach requires a transmitter on each EV and a receiver in each PV, however it is virtually assured that a system can be developed which works. With this approach, the real technology issue is how to make a system work as inexpensively as possible. This report gives a brief summary of the EVAS program from its inception and concentrates on describing the activities that occurred during Phase 4. References 1-3 describe activities under Phases 1-3. In the fourth phase of the program, the major effort to be expended was in development of the microcontroller system for the PV, refinement of some system elements and packaging for demonstration purposes. An EVAS system was developed and demonstrated which used standard spread spectrum modems with minor modifications.

  18. Exploration EVA Purge Flow Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Moses; Conger, Bruce; Campbell, Colin

    2011-01-01

    An advanced future spacesuit will require properly sized suit and helmet purge flow rates in order to sustain a crew member with a failed Portable Life Support System (PLSS) during an Extravehicular Activity (EVA). A computational fluid dynamics evaluation was performed to estimate the helmet purge flow rate required to washout carbon dioxide and to prevent the condensing ("fogging") of water vapor on the helmet visor. An additional investigation predicted the suit purge flow rate required to provide sufficient convective cooling to keep the crew member comfortable. This paper summarizes the results of these evaluations.

  19. Exploration EVA Purge Flow Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Moses; Conger, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    An advanced future spacesuit will require properly sized suit and helmet purge flow rates in order to sustain a crew member with a failed Portable Life Support System (PLSS) during an Extravehicular Activity (EVA). A computational fluid dynamics evaluation was performed to estimate the helmet purge flow rate required to washout carbon dioxide and to prevent the condensing ("fogging") of water vapor on the helmet visor. An additional investigation predicted the suit purge flow rate required to provide sufficient convective cooling to keep the crew member comfortable. This paper summarizes the results of these evaluations.

  20. Approaches to decompression safety support of EVA for orbital and interplanetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katuntsev, Vladimir P.

    2010-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the analysis of possible methods for decompression safety support of extravehicular activity (EVA) in order to ground the perspective approaches for solution of decompression sickness (DCS) problem in space missions of the near and distant future. Current DCS risk mitigation strategies reduce operational efficiency: preoxygenation extends the time required on preparation to EVA. The crewmembers often experience general and hand fatigue during long EVA due to the lack of flexibility of space suits enclosure operated at 30-40 kPa. To create the safe and comfortable working conditions for EVA crewmembers on the Lunar and Martian surfaces the main biomedical requirements to a planetary space suit have to include low mass of EVA system, high mobility and flexibility of space suit enclosure and reliable protection against DCS with a short or zero preoxygenation period. Reviewed here are the possibilities for the use of preoxygenation, hypobaric gas atmosphere in space cabin and/or planetary habitat, idea of substitution of nitrogen in normobaric gas atmosphere to another inert gas (helium and neon) as countermeasures against DCS in EVA crewmembers. Physiological aspects of the conception for space suit with high operating pressure are considered.

  1. Advanced EVA system design requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, T. G.

    1988-01-01

    The results are presented of a study to identify specific criteria regarding space station extravehicular activity system (EVAS) hardware requirements. Key EVA design issues include maintainability, technology readiness, LSS volume vs. EVA time available, suit pressure/cabin pressure relationship and productivity effects, crew autonomy, integration of EVA as a program resource, and standardization of task interfaces. A variety of DOD EVA systems issues were taken into consideration. Recommendations include: (1) crew limitations, not hardware limitations; (2) capability to perform all of 15 generic missions; (3) 90 days on-orbit maintainability with 50 percent duty cycle as minimum; and (4) use by payload sponsors of JSC document 10615A plus a Generic Tool Kit and Specialized Tool Kit description. EVA baseline design requirements and criteria, including requirements of various subsystems, are outlined. Space station/EVA system interface requirements and EVA accommodations are discussed in the areas of atmosphere composition and pressure, communications, data management, logistics, safe haven, SS exterior and interior requirements, and SS airlock.

  2. Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Space Suit and EVA System Maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowie, Jonathan T.; Kelly, Cody; Buffington, Jesse; Watson, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) requires a Launch/Entry/Abort (LEA) suit capability and short duration Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) capability from the Orion spacecraft. For this mission, the pressure garment that was selected, for both functions, is the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) with EVA enhancements and the life support option that was selected is the Exploration Portable Life Support System (PLSS). The proposed architecture was found to meet the mission constraints, but much more work is required to determine the details of the required suit upgrades, the integration with the PLSS, and the rest of the tools and equipment required to accomplish the mission. This work has continued over the last year to better define the operations and hardware maturation of these systems. EVA simulations have been completed in the NBL and interfacing options have been prototyped and analyzed with testing planned for late 2014. For NBL EVA simulations, in 2013, components were procured to allow in-house build up for four new suits with mobility enhancements built into the arms. Boots outfitted with clips that fit into foot restraints have also been added to the suit and analyzed for possible loads. Major suit objectives accomplished this year in testing include: evaluation of mobility enhancements, ingress/egress of foot restraint, use of foot restraint for worksite stability, ingress/egress of Orion hatch with PLSS mockup, and testing with two crew members in the water at one time to evaluate the crew's ability to help one another. Major tool objectives accomplished this year include using various other methods for worksite stability, testing new methods for asteroid geologic sampling and improving the fidelity of the mockups and crew equipment. These tests were completed on a medium fidelity capsule mockup, asteroid vehicle mockup, and asteroid mockups that were more accurate for an asteroid type EVA than previous tests. Another focus was the

  3. Non-Venting Thermal and Humidity Control for EVA Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo; Bue, Grant

    2011-01-01

    Future EVA suits need processes and systems to control internal temperature and humidity without venting water to the environment. This paper describes an absorption-based cooling and dehumidification system as well as laboratory demonstrations of the key processes. There are two main components in the system: an evaporation cooling and dehumidification garment (ECDG) that removes both sensible heat and latent heat from the pressure garment, and an absorber radiator that absorbs moisture and rejects heat to space by thermal radiation. This paper discusses the overall design of both components, and presents recent data demonstrating their operation. We developed a design and fabrication approach to produce prototypical heat/water absorbing elements for the ECDG, and demonstrated by test that these elements could absorb heat and moisture at a high flux. Proof-of-concept tests showed that an ECDG prototype absorbs heat and moisture at a rate of 85 W/ft under conditions that simulate operation in an EVA suit. The heat absorption was primarily due to direct absorption of water vapor. It is possible to construct large, flexible, durable cooling patches that can be incorporated into a cooling garment with this system. The proof-of-concept test data was scaled to calculate area needed for full metabolic loads, thus showing that it is feasible to use this technology in an EVA suit. Full-scale, lightweight absorber/radiator modules have also been built and tested. They can reject heat at a flux of 33 W/ft while maintaining ECDG operation at conditions that will provide a cool and dry environment inside the EVA suit.

  4. The Effect of Different Cleaning Protocols on Post Space: A SEM Study

    PubMed Central

    Lo Giudice, Giuseppe; Lizio, Angelo; Giudice, Roberto Lo; Centofanti, Antonio; Rizzo, Giuseppina; Runci, Michele; Alibrandi, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Purpose of the present paper is to analyze the efficiency of different post-space irrigation protocols. Methods. 28 single rooted teeth were endodontically treated. After post-space preparation every sample was assigned to one of three experimental groups and to one control group. In each group different irrigation protocols were performed as follows: EDTA (Group A), 37% orthophosphoric acid (Group B), and EDTA + 37% orthophosphoric acid with ultrasounds activation (Group C). In the control group (Group D) the irrigate association was not activated by ultrasounds. Three zones (coronal, middle, and apical) of each sample were analyzed by using Scan Electron Microscopy (SEM) without any metallization procedures. The presence of smear layer on the canal surface was qualitatively evaluated by applying Serafino's score with values included between 0 and 2. Results. The results of the research showed how Group C recorded the better results (0.81 ± 0.72). Group A and Group B showed lower mean scores (1.06 ± 0.69 and 1.08 ± 0.77); Group D showed the lowest mean score of 1.30 ± 0.69. The SEM observation analysis demonstrated how the smear layer presence decreased in the crown-apical direction. Conclusions. The different post-space treatments statistically determine significant differences on the dentinal surfaces cleansing. The absence of ultrasonic activation lowers the cleansing efficacy of endocanalar irrigants, showing sensible differences among each post-space zone. PMID:27766106

  5. Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portree, David S. F.; Trevino, Robert C.

    1997-01-01

    Spacewalkers enjoy a view of Earth once reserved for Apollo, Zeus, and other denizens of Mt. Olympus. During humanity's first extravehicular activity (EVA), Alexei Leonov floated above Gibraltar, the rock ancient seafarers saw as the gateway to the great unknown Atlantic. The symbolism was clear, Leonov stepped past a new Gibraltar when he stepped into space. More than 32 years and 154 EVAs later, Jerry Linenger conducted an EVA with Vladimir Tsibliyev as part of International Space Station Phase 1. They floated together above Gibraltar. Today the symbolism has new meaning: humanity is starting to think of stepping out of Earth orbit, space travel's new Gibraltar, and perhaps obtaining a new olympian view, a close-up look at Olympus Mons on Mars. Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology chronicles the 154 EVAs conducted from March 1965 to April 1997. It is intended to make clear the crucial role played by EVA in the history of spaceflight, as well as to chronicle the large body of EVA "lessons learned." Russia and the U.S. define EVA differently. Russian cosmonauts are said to perform EVA any time they are in vacuum in a space suit. A U.S. astronaut must have at least his head outside his spacecraft before he is said to perform an EVA. The difference is based in differing spacecraft design philoso- phies. Russian and Soviet spacecraft have always had a specialized airlock through which the EVA cosmonaut egressed, leaving the main habitable volume of the spacecraft pressurized. The U.S. Gemini and Apollo vehicles, on the other hand, depressurized their entire habitable volume for egress. In this document, we apply the Russian definition to Russian EVAS, and the U.S. definition to U.S. EVAS. Thus, for example, Gemini 4 Command Pilot James McDivitt does not share the honor of being first American spacewalker with Ed White, even though he was suited and in vacuum when White stepped out into space. Non-EVA spaceflights are listed in the chronology to provide context and to

  6. Software For Integration Of EVA And Telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drews, Michael L.; Smith, Jeffrey H.; Estus, Jay M.; Heneghan, Cate; Zimmerman, Wayne; Fiorini, Paolo; Schenker, Paul S.; Mcaffee, Douglas A.

    1991-01-01

    Telerobotics/EVA Joint Analysis Systems (TEJAS) computer program is hypermedia information software system using object-oriented programming to bridge gap between crew-EVA and telerobotics activities. TEJAS Version 1.0 contains 20 HyperCard stacks using visual, customizable interface of icon buttons, pop-up menus, and relational commands to store, link, and standardize related information about primitives, technologies, tasks, assumptions, and open issues involved in space-telerobot or crew-EVA tasks. Runs on any Apple MacIntosh personal computer.

  7. EVA Suit Microbial Leakage Investigation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falker, Jay; Baker, Christopher; Clayton, Ronald; Rucker, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this project is to collect microbial samples from various EVA suits to determine how much microbial contamination is typically released during simulated planetary exploration activities. Data will be released to the planetary protection and science communities, and advanced EVA system designers. In the best case scenario, we will discover that very little microbial contamination leaks from our current or prototype suit designs, in the worst case scenario, we will identify leak paths, learn more about what affects leakage--and we'll have a new, flight-certified swab tool for our EVA toolbox.

  8. Planetary Protection Considerations in EVA System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Dean B.; Kosmo, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    very little expression of these anomalies. hardware from the human-occupied area may limit (although not likely eliminate) external materials in the human habitat. Definition of design-to requirements is critical to understanding technical feasibility and costs. The definition of Planetary Protection needs in relation to EVA mission and system element development cost impacts should be considered and interpreted in terms of Plausible Protection criteria. Since EVA operations will have the most direct physical interaction with the Martian surface, PP needs should be considered in the terms of mitigating hardware and operations impacts and costs.

  9. Astronaut Bernard Harris on RMS during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronaut Bernard A. Harris, Jr., payload commander, watches astronaut C. Michael Foale (out of frame), mission specialist, during the late phases of their shared extravehicular activity (EVA) in the STS-63 Space Shuttle Discovery's cargo bay.

  10. Astronaut Bernard Harris on RMS during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronaut Bernard A. Harris, Jr., payload commander, standing on a foot restraint attached to the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm carries astronaut C. Michael Foale, mission specialist, during their shared extravehicular activity (EVA) in the Space Shuttle Discovery's cargo bay.

  11. Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Space Suit and EVA System Maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowie, Jonathan; Buffington, Jesse; Hood, Drew; Kelly, Cody; Naids, Adam; Watson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) requires a Launch/Entry/Abort (LEA) suit capability and short duration Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) capability from the Orion spacecraft. For this mission, the pressure garment selected for both functions is the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) with EVA enhancements and the life support option that was selected is the Exploration Portable Life Support System (PLSS) currently under development for Advanced Exploration Systems (AES). The proposed architecture meets the ARCM constraints, but much more work is required to determine the details of the suit upgrades, the integration with the PLSS, and the tools and equipment necessary to accomplish the mission. This work has continued over the last year to better define the operations and hardware maturation of these systems. EVA simulations were completed in the Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) and interfacing options were prototyped and analyzed with testing planned for late 2014. This paper discusses the work done over the last year on the MACES enhancements, the use of tools while using the suit, and the integration of the PLSS with the MACES.

  12. Power assist EVA glove development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Main, John A.; Peterson, Steven W.; Strauss, Alvin M.

    1992-01-01

    Structural modeling of the EVA glove indicates that flexibility in the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint can be improved by selectively lowering the elasticity of the glove fabric. Two strategies are used to accomplish this. One method uses coil springs on the back of the glove to carry the tension in the glove skin due to pressurization. These springs carry the loads normally borne by the glove fabric, but are more easily deformed. An active system was also designed for the same purpose and uses gas filled bladders attached to the back of the EVA glove that change the dimensions of the back of the glove and allow the glove to bend at the MCP joint, thus providing greater flexibility at this joint. A threshold control scheme was devised to control the action of the joint actuators. Input to the controller was provided by thin resistive pressure sensors placed between the hand and the pressurized glove. The pressure sensors consist of a layer of polyester film that has a thin layer of ink screened on the surface. The resistivity of the ink is pressure dependent, so an extremely thin pressure sensor can be fabricated by covering the ink patch with another layer of polyester film and measuring the changing resistance of the ink with a bridge circuit. In order to sense the force between the hand and the glove at the MCP joint, a sensor was placed on the palmar face of the middle finger. The resultant signal was used by the controller to decide whether to fill or exhaust the bladder actuators on the back of the glove. The information from the sensor can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a given control scheme or glove design since the magnitude of the measured pressures gives some idea of the torque required to bend a glove finger at the MCP joint. Tests of this actuator, sensor, and control system were conducted in an 57.2 kPa glove box by performing a series of 90 degree finger bends with a glove without an MCP joint assembly, a glove with the coil spring

  13. Post space preparation timing of root canals sealed with AH Plus sealer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae-Ri; Kim, Young Kyung

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine the optimal timing for post space preparation of root canals sealed with epoxy resin-based AH Plus sealer in terms of its polymerization and influence on apical leakage. Materials and Methods The epoxy polymerization of AH Plus (Dentsply DeTrey) as a function of time after mixing (8, 24, and 72 hours, and 1 week) was evaluated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and microhardness measurements. The change in the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the material with time was also investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Fifty extracted human single-rooted premolars were filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus, and randomly separated into five groups (n = 10) based on post space preparation timing (immediately after root canal obturation and 8, 24, and 72 hours, and 1 week after root canal obturation). The extent of apical leakage (mm) of the five groups was compared using a dye leakage test. Each dataset was statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc test (α = 0.05). Results Continuous epoxy polymerization of the material with time was observed. Although the Tg values of the material gradually increased with time, the specimens presented no clear Tg value at 1 week after mixing. When the post space was prepared 1 week after root canal obturation, the leakage was significantly higher than in the other groups (p < 0.05), among which there was no significant difference in leakage. Conclusions Poor apical seal was detected when post space preparation was delayed until 1 week after root canal obturation. PMID:28194361

  14. Temperature Increase during Different Post Space Preparation Systems: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Nazari Moghadam, Kiumars; Shahab, Shahriar; Shirvani, Soghra; Kazemi, Ali

    2011-01-01

     INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate external root surface temperature rise during post space preparation using LA Axxess bur, Beefill pack System, and Peeso Reamer drill. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The distal canals of forty-five extracted human permanent mandibular first molars were instrumented in crown-apical manner and obturated with lateral condensation technique. Teeth were then randomly divided into three groups according to post space preparation technique including: group 1. LA Axxess bur (Sybronendo Co., CA, USA), group 2 Beefill pack System (VD W Co., Munich, Germany) and group 3 Peeso Reamer drill (Mani Co., Tochigi-ken, Japan). Temperature was measured by means of digital thermometer MT-405 (Comercio Co., Sao Paulo, Brazil) which was installed on the root surfaces. Data was collected and submitted to one-way ANOVA and Post hoc analysis. RESULTS: Root surface temperatures were found to be significantly higher (7.3±2.7 vs. 4.3±2.1 and 4±2.4,) in samples of Beefill pack System compared with the two other groups (P<0.02). CONCLUSION: Using Beefill pack System during post space preparation may be potentially hazardous for periodontal tissues. PMID:24778690

  15. EVA tools and equipment reference book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fullerton, R. K.

    1993-01-01

    This document contains a mixture of tools and equipment used throughout the space shuttle-based extravehicular activity (EVA) program. Promising items which have reached the prototype stage of development are also included, but should not be considered certified ready for flight. Each item is described with a photo, a written discussion, technical specifications, dimensional drawings, and points of contact for additional information. Numbers on the upper left-hand corner of each photo may be used to order specific pictures from NASA and contractor photo libraries. Points of contact were classified as either operational or technical. An operational contact is an engineer from JSC Mission Operations Directorate who is familiar with the basic function and on-orbit use of the tool. A technical contact would be the best source of detailed technical specifications and is typically the NASA subsystem manager. The technical information table for each item uses the following terms to describe the availability or status of each hardware item: Standard - Flown on every mission as standard manifest; Flight specific - Potentially available for flight, not flown every mission (flight certification cannot be guaranteed and recertification may be required); Reference only - Item no longer in active inventory or not recommended for future use, some items may be too application-specific for general use; and Developmental - In the prototype stage only and not yet available for flight. The current availability and certification of any flight-specific tool should be verified with the technical point of contact. Those tools built and fit checked for Hubble Space Telescope maintenance are program dedicated and are not available to other customers. Other customers may have identical tools built from the existing, already certified designs as an optional service.

  16. Simulation of Martian EVA at the Mars Society Arctic Research Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletser, V.; Zubrin, R.; Quinn, K.

    The Mars Society has established a Mars Arctic Research Station (M.A.R.S.) on Devon Island, North of Canada, in the middle of the Haughton crater formed by the impact of a large meteorite several million years ago. The site was selected for its similarities with the surface of the Mars planet. During the Summer 2001, the MARS Flashline Research Station supported an extended international simulation campaign of human Mars exploration operations. Six rotations of six person crews spent up to ten days each at the MARS Flashline Research Station. International crews, of mixed gender and professional qualifications, conducted various tasks as a Martian crew would do and performed scientific experiments in several fields (Geophysics, Biology, Psychology). One of the goals of this simulation campaign was to assess the operational and technical feasibility of sustaining a crew in an autonomous habitat, conducting a field scientific research program. Operations were conducted as they would be during a Martian mission, including Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) with specially designed unpressurized suits. The second rotation crew conducted seven simulated EVAs for a total of 17 hours, including motorized EVAs with All Terrain Vehicles, to perform field scientific experiments in Biology and Geophysics. Some EVAs were highly successful. For some others, several problems were encountered related to hardware technical failures and to bad weather conditions. The paper will present the experiment programme conducted at the Mars Flashline Research Station, the problems encountered and the lessons learned from an EVA operational point of view. Suggestions to improve foreseen Martian EVA operations will be discussed.

  17. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-110 Mission astronaut Rex J. Walheim, accompanied by astronaut Steven L. Smith (out of frame) translates along the Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS) during the third scheduled EVA session. The duo released the locking bolts on the Mobile Transporter and rewired the Station's robotic arm. The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future space walks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-Zero) Truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 truss weighing in at 27,000 pounds was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the S-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver space walkers around the Station and marked the first time all space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  18. Water Pump Development for the EVA PLSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuller, Michael; Kurwitz, Cable; Goldman, Jeff; Morris, Kim; Trevino, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the effort by the Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES) and Honeywell for NASA to design, fabricate, and test a preflight prototype pump for use in the Extravehicular activity (EVA) portable life support subsystem (PLSS). Major design decisions were driven by the need to reduce the pump s mass, power, and volume compared to the existing PLSS pump. In addition, the pump will accommodate a much wider range of abnormal conditions than the existing pump, including vapor/gas bubbles and increased pressure drop when employed to cool two suits simultaneously. A positive displacement, external gear type pump was selected because it offers the most compact and highest efficiency solution over the required range of flow rates and pressure drops. An additional benefit of selecting a gear pump design is that it is self priming and capable of ingesting noncondensable gas without becoming "air locked." The chosen pump design consists of a 28 V DC, brushless, sealless, permanent magnet motor driven, external gear pump that utilizes a Honeywell development that eliminates the need for magnetic coupling. Although the planned flight unit will use a sensorless motor with custom designed controller, the preflight prototype to be provided for this project incorporates Hall effect sensors, allowing an interface with a readily available commercial motor controller. This design approach reduced the cost of this project and gives NASA more flexibility in future PLSS laboratory testing. The pump design was based on existing Honeywell designs, but incorporated features specifically for the PLSS application, including all of the key features of the flight pump. Testing at TEES will simulate the vacuum environment in which the flight pump will operate. Testing will verify that the pump meets design requirements for range of flow rates, pressure rise, power consumption, working fluid temperature, operating time, and restart capability. Pump testing is currently

  19. EVA/ORU model architecture using RAMCOST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ntuen, Celestine A.; Park, Eui H.; Wang, Y. M.; Bretoi, R.

    1990-01-01

    A parametrically driven simulation model is presented in order to provide a detailed insight into the effects of various input parameters in the life testing of a modular space suit. The RAMCOST model employed is a user-oriented simulation model for studying the life-cycle costs of designs under conditions of uncertainty. The results obtained from the EVA simulated model are used to assess various mission life testing parameters such as the number of joint motions per EVA cycle time, part availability, and number of inspection requirements. RAMCOST first simulates EVA completion for NASA application using a probabilistic like PERT network. With the mission time heuristically determined, RAMCOST then models different orbital replacement unit policies with special application to the astronaut's space suit functional designs.

  20. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Microbial Swab Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    When we send humans to search for life on Mars, we'll need to know what we brought with us versus what may already be there. To ensure our crewed spacecraft meet planetary protection requirements--and to protect our science from human contamination--we'll need to know whether micro-organisms are leaking/venting from our ships and spacesuits. This is easily done by swabbing external vents and surfaces for analysis, but there was no US EVA tool for that job. NASA engineers developed an EVA-compatible swab tool that can be used to collect data on current hardware, which will influence eventual Mars life support and EVA hardware designs.

  1. STS-57 astronauts Low and Wisoff perform DTO 1210 EVA in OV-105's payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    During STS-57 extravehicular activity (EVA), Mission Specialist (MS) and Payload Commander (PLC) G. David Low (foreground) secures portable foot restraint (PFR) (manipulator foot restraint (MFR)) to the remote manipulator system (RMS) end effector using a PFR attachment device (PAD). MS3 Peter J.K. Wisoff performs operations next to Low at the stowed European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA). This EVA, designated Detailed Test Objective (DTO) 1210, included evaluation of procedures being developed to service the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) on mission STS-61 in December 1993. The scene is backdropped against the blackness of space with Endeavour's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105's, payload bay (PLB) and payloads appearing in the foreground.

  2. Synergistic effects of EB irradiation and heat on EVA electrical insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jipa, S.; Zaharescu, T.; Maˇrcuţaˇ, M.; Setnescu, R.; Gorghiu, L. M.; Dumitrescu, C.

    2005-07-01

    Radiation/thermal degradation is discussed as a successful endurance check. EVA samples were subjected to electron beam irradiation at 12, 30, 60 and 90 kGy. Heat treatment was performed in air at 120 °C for 72 h and 120 h. Chemiluminescence (CL) investigations on EVA specimens were carried out at 200, 210 and 220 °C. Several kinetic parameters such as oxidation induction time (ti), half-oxidation time (t1/2), maximum oxidation rate (voxmax), maximum time of thermal oxidation (tmax) and other chemiluminescence features were obtained from the time dependencies of the CL intensity. While the ageing factors of processed EVA samples reveal a constant value for two testing temperatures (200 and 210 °C), the co-operative factors that describe a combined (synergistic) degradation present higher than unity values, either for the oxidation rates or for the maximum CL intensity measured for all irradiation doses. They increase linearly with dose.

  3. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norfleet, William; Harris, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    The Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) was favorably impressed by the operational risk management approach taken by the Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan (IRP) to address the stated life sciences issues. The life sciences community at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) seems to be focused on operational risk management. This approach is more likely to provide risk managers with the information they need at the time they need it. Concerning the information provided to the SRP by the EVA Physiology, Systems, and Performance Project (EPSP), it is obvious that a great deal of productive activity is under way. Evaluation of this information was hampered by the fact that it often was not organized in a fashion that reflects the "Gaps and Tasks" approach of the overall Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) effort, and that a substantial proportion of the briefing concerned subjects that, while interesting, are not part of the HHC Element (e.g., the pressurized rover presentation). Additionally, no information was provided on several of the tasks or how they related to work underway or already accomplished. This situation left the SRP having to guess at the efforts and relationship to other elements, and made it hard to easily map the EVA Project efforts currently underway, and the data collected thus far, to the gaps and tasks in the IRP. It seems that integration of the EPSP project into the HHC Element could be improved. Along these lines, we were concerned that our SRP was split off from the other participating SRPs at an early stage in the overall agenda for the meeting. In reality, the concerns of EPSP and other projects share much common ground. For example, the commonality of the concerns of the EVA and exercise physiology groups is obvious, both in terms of what reduced exercise capacity can do to EVA capability, and how the exercise performed during an EVA could contribute to an overall exercise countermeasure prescription.

  4. Hubble Space Telescope EVA Power Ratchet Tool redesign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Paul W.; Park, Chan; Brown, Lee

    The Power Ratchet Tool (PRT) is a self contained, power-driven, 3/8 inch drive ratchet wrench which will be used by astronauts during Extravehicular Activities (EVA). This battery-powered tool is controlled by a dedicated electonic controller. The PRT was flown during the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Deployment Mission STS-31 to deploy the solar arrays if the automatic mechanisms failed. The PRT is currently intended for use during the first HST Servicing Mission STS-61 as a general purpose power tool. The PRT consists of three major components; the wrench, the controller, and the battery module. Fourteen discrete combinations of torque, turns, and speed may be programmed into the controller before the EVA. The crewmember selects the desired parameter profile by a switch mounted on the controller. The tool may also be used in the manual mode as a non-powered ratchet wrench. The power is provided by a silver-zinc battery module, which fits into the controller and is replaceable during an EVA. The original PRT did not meet the design specification of torque output and hours of operation. To increase efficiency and reliability the PRT underwent a redesign effort. The majority of this effort focused on the wrench. The original PRT drive train consisted of a low torque, high speed brushless DC motor, a face gear set, and a planocentric gear assembly. The total gear reduction was 300:1. The new PRT wrench consists of a low speed, high torque brushless DC motor, two planetary gear sets and a bevel gear set. The total gear reduction is now 75:1. A spline clutch has also been added to disengage the drive train in the manual mode. The design changes to the controller will consist of only those modifications necessary to accomodate the redesigned wrench.

  5. Improved flexibility of an EVA glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggeman, G. W.; Held, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    A student design contest was held between four universities. The project was to improve the flexibility of the NASA extra-vehicular activities (EVA) glove with the internal pressure increased from 4 psi to 8 psi. The Kansas State University team used an experimental design methodology and an industrial management scheme. This approach succeeded in making Kansas State University the winner of the competition.

  6. Astronaut Dale Gardner rehearses during EVA practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, 51-A mission specialist, rehearses control of manned maneuvering unit (MMU) during a practice for an extravehicular activity (EVA). Gardner is in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory at JSC. Gardner works to deploy a large stinger device designed for locking onto the orbiting satellites via entering a spent engine's nozzle.

  7. Astronaut Dale Gardner rehearses during EVA practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, 51-A mission specialist, rehearses control of manned maneuvering unit (MMU) during a practice for an extravehicular activity (EVA). Gardner is in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory at JSC. Gardner handles a stinger device to make initial contact with one of the two satellites they will be working with.

  8. Preparing for space - EVA training at the European Astronaut Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolender, Hans; Stevenin, Hervé; Bessone, Loredana; Torres, Antonio

    2006-11-01

    The European Astronaut Centre has developed an Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) training course for ESA astronauts to bridge the gap between their scuba diving certification and the spacesuit qualification provided by NASA. ESA astronauts André Kuipers and Frank De Winne have already completed this "EVA Pre-Familiarisation Training Programme" before their training at NASA. In June 2006, an international crew of experienced EVA astronauts approved the course as good preparation for suited EVA training; they recommended that portions of it be used to help maintain EVA proficiency for astronauts.

  9. Study to evaluate the effect of EVA on payload systems. Volume 1: Executive summary. [project planning of space missions employing extravehicular activity as a means of cost reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patrick, J. W.; Kraly, E. F.

    1975-01-01

    Programmatic benefits to payloads are examined which can result from the routine use of extravehicular activity (EVA) during space missions. Design and operations costs were compared for 13 representative baseline payloads to the costs of those payloads adapted for EVA operations. The EVA-oriented concepts developed in the study were derived from these baseline concepts and maintained mission and program objectives as well as basic configurations. This permitted isolation of cost saving factors associated specifically with incorporation of EVA in a variety of payload designs and operations. The study results were extrapolated to a total of 74 payload programs. Using appropriate complexity and learning factors, net EVA savings were extrapolated to over $551M for NASA and U.S. civil payloads for routine operations. Adding DOD and ESRO payloads increases the net estimated savings of $776M. Planned maintenance by EVA indicated an estimated $168M savings due to elimination of automated service equipment. Contingency problems of payloads were also analyzed to establish expected failure rates for shuttle payloads. The failure information resulted in an estimated potential for EVA savings of $1.9 B.

  10. Overview of Umbilical Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Interfaces in Life Support Systems on Spacecraft Vehicles and Applications for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Laurie J.; Jordan, Nicole C.; Barido, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Extravehicular Activities (EVAs) for manned spacecraft vehicles have been performed for contingencies and nominal operations numerous times throughout history. This paper will investigate how previous U.S. manned spacecraft vehicles provided life support to crewmembers performing the EVA. Specifically defined are umbilical interfaces with respect to crewmember cooling, drinking water, air (or oxygen), humidity control, and carbon dioxide removal. As historical data is available, the need for planned versus contingency EVAs in previous vehicles as well as details for a nominal EVA day versus a contingency EVA day will be discussed. The hardware used to provide the cooling, drinking water, air (or oxygen), humidity control, and carbon dioxide removal, and the general functions of that hardware, will also be detailed, as information is available. The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV or Orion) EVA interfaces will be generically discussed to provide a glimpse of how similar they are to the EVA interfaces in previous vehicles. Conclusions on strategies that should be used for CEV based on previous spacecraft EVA interfaces will be made in the form of questions and recommendations.

  11. Techniques for Improving the Performance of Future EVA Maneuvering Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor W.

    1995-01-01

    The Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) is a small propulsive backpack that was developed as an in-house effort at Johnson Space Center; it is a lightweight system which attaches to the underside of the Primary Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) backpack of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). SAFER provides full six-axis control, as well as Automatic Attitude Hold (AAH), by means of a set of cold-gas nitrogen thrusters and a rate sensor-based control system. For compactness, a single hand controller is used, together with mode switching, to command all six axes. SAFER was successfully test-flown on the STS-64 mission in September 1994 as a Development Test Objective (DTO); development of an operational version is now proceeding. This version will be available for EVA self-rescue on the International Space Station and Mir, starting with the STS-86/Mir-7 mission in September 1997. The DTO SAFER was heavily instrumented, and produced in-flight data that was stored in a 12 MB computer memory on-board. This has allowed post-flight analysis to yield good estimates for the actual mass properties (moments and products of inertia and center of mass location) encountered on-orbit. By contrast, Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) post-flight results were generated mainly from analysis of video images, and so were not very accurate. The main goal of the research reported here was to use the detailed SAFER on-orbit mass properties data to optimize the design of future EVA maneuvering systems, with the aim being to improve flying qualities and/or reduce propellant consumption. The Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division Virtual Reality (VR) Laboratory proved to be a valuable research tool for such studies. A second objective of the grant was to generate an accurate dynamics model in support of the reflight of the DTO SAFER on STS-76/Mir-3. One complicating factor was the fact that a hand controller stowage box was added to the underside of SAFER on this flight; the position of

  12. First flight test results of the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER) propulsion unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meade, Carl J.

    1995-01-01

    The Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) is a small, self-contained, propulsive-backpack system that provides free-flying mobility for an astronaut engaged in a space walk, also known as extravehicular activity (EVA.) SAFER contains no redundant systems and is intended for contingency use only. In essence, it is a small, simplified version of the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) last flown aboard the Space Shuttle in 1985. The operational SAFER unit will only be used to return an adrift EVA astronaut to the spacecraft. Currently, if an EVA crew member inadvertently becomes separated from the Space Shuttle, the Orbiter will maneuver to within the crew member's reach envelope, allowing the astronaut to regain contact with the Orbiter. However, with the advent of operations aboard the Russian MIR Space Station and the International Space Station, the Space Shuttle will not be available to effect a timely rescue. Under these conditions, a SAFER unit would be worn by each EVA crew member. Flight test of the pre-production model of SAFER occurred in September 1994. The crew of Space Shuttle Mission STS-64 flew a 6.9 hour test flight which included performance, flying qualities, systems, and operational utility evaluations. We found that the unit offers adequate propellant and control authority to stabilize and enable the return of a tumbling/separating crew member. With certain modifications, production model of SAFER can provide self-rescue capability to a separated crew member. This paper will present the program background, explain the flight test results and provide some insight into the complex operations of flight test in space.

  13. EVA-Compatible Microbial Swab Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    When we send humans to search for life on Mars, we'll need to know what we brought with us versus what may already be there. To ensure our crewed spacecraft meet planetary protection requirements—and to protect our science from human contamination—we'll need to know whether micro-organisms are leaking/venting from our ships and spacesuits. This is easily done by swabbing external vents and suit surfaces for analysis, but requires a specialized tool for the job. Engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently developed an Extravehicular Activity (EVA)-compatible swab tool that can be used to sample current space suits and life support systems. Data collected now will influence Mars life support and EVA hardware early in the planning process, before design changes become difficult and expensive.NASA’s EVA swab tool pairs a Space Shuttle-era tool handle with a commercially available swab tip mounted into a custom-designed end effector. A glove-compatible release mechanism allows the handle to quickly switch between swab tips, much like a shaving razor handle can snap onto a disposable blade cartridge. Swab tips are stowed inside individual sterile containers, each fitted with a microbial filter that allows the container to equalize atmospheric pressure, but prevents cabin contaminants from rushing into the container when passing from the EVA environment into a pressurized cabin. A bank of containers arrayed inside a tool caddy allows up to six individual samples to be collected during a given spacewalk.NASA plans to use the tool in 2016 to collect samples from various spacesuits during ground testing to determine what (if any) human-borne microbial contamination leaks from the suit under simulated thermal vacuum conditions. Next, the tool will be used on board the International Space Station to assess the types of microbial contaminants found on external environmental control and life support system vents. Data will support

  14. EVA suit 2000: A joint European/Russian space suit design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, P.; Loewens, R.; Abramov, I. P.; Albats, E. A.

    1995-07-01

    A feasibility study in 1992 showed the benefits of a common European/Russian space suit development, EVA Suit 2000, replacing the Russian space suit Orlan-DMA and the planned European Hermes EVA space suit at the turn of the century. This EVA Suit 2000 is a joint development initiated by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Russian Space Agency (RKA). The main objectives of this development program are: • first utilization aboard the Russian Space Station MIR-2 • performance improvement with respect to current operational suits • development cost reduction. Russian experience gained with the present extravehicular activity (EVA) suit on the MIR Space Station and extensive application of European Technologies will be needed to achieve these ambitious goals. This paper presents the current status of the development activities, the space suit system design and concentrates in more detail on life support aspects. Specific subjects addressed will include the overall life support conceptual architecture, design features, crew comfort and operational considerations.

  15. One hundred US EVAs: a perspective on spacewalks.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Richard C; McBarron, James W; Manatt, Scott A; McMann, Harold J; Fullerton, Richard K

    2002-01-01

    In the 36 years between June 1965 and February 2001, the US human space flight program has conducted 100 spacewalks, or extravehicular activities (EVAs), as NASA officially calls them. EVA occurs when astronauts wearing spacesuits travel outside their protective spacecraft to perform tasks in the space vacuum environment. US EVA started with pioneering feasibility tests during the Gemini Program. The Apollo Program required sending astronauts to the moon and performing EVA to explore the lunar surface. EVA supported scientific mission objectives of the Skylab program, but may be best remembered for repairing launch damage to the vehicle and thus saving the program. EVA capability on Shuttle was initially planned to be a kit that could be flown at will, and was primarily intended for coping with vehicle return emergencies. The Skylab emergency and the pivotal role of EVA in salvaging that program quickly promoted Shuttle EVA to an essential element for achieving mission objectives, including retrieving satellites and developing techniques to assemble and maintain the International Space Station (ISS). Now, EVA is supporting assembly of ISS. This paper highlights development of US EVA capability within the context of the overarching mission objectives of the US human space flight program.

  16. EVA assembly of large space structure element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Bush, H. G.; Heard, W. L., Jr.; Stokes, J. W., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a test program to assess the potential of manned extravehicular activity (EVA) assembly of erectable space trusses are described. Seventeen tests were conducted in which six "space-weight" columns were assembled into a regular tetrahedral cell by a team of two "space"-suited test subjects. This cell represents the fundamental "element" of a tetrahedral truss structure. The tests were conducted under simulated zero-gravity conditions. Both manual and simulated remote manipulator system modes were evaluated. Articulation limits of the pressure suit and zero gravity could be accommodated by work stations with foot restraints. The results of this study have confirmed that astronaut EVA assembly of large, erectable space structures is well within man's capabilities.

  17. Skylab 3 crewmen practice EVA procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The three prime crewmen of the Skylab 3 mission practice procedures which will be used during the extravehicular activity (EVA) portion of the scheduled Skylab rate gyro six-pac installation. They are Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott (center), Astronaut Alan L. Bean (center background) and Astronaut Jack R. Lousma (right). Garriott is working with a mock-up of a trunion plug plate which is on the space station's deployment assembly. This picture was taken during Skylab 3 prelaunch training at JSC. In the left foreground with back to camera is Astronaut Russell L. Schweickart, who is assisting with the Skylab 3 training. Another training officer is in the left background (31322); Lousma practices procedures for EVA in his extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). He is working with a mock-up of a trunion plug plate which is on the space station's deployment assembly (31323).

  18. Eva Szabo, MD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Eva Szabo is Chief of the Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group at the NCI Division of Cancer Prevention. She graduated from Yale University with a BS in Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, received her MD from Duke University, and completed her internal medicine residency at Bellevue-NYU Medical Center. After completing her medical oncology fellowship at the National Cancer Institute, Dr. |

  19. Astronaut Jack Lousma seen outside Skylab space station during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, is seen outside the Skylab space station in Earth orbit during the August 5, 1973 Skylab 3 extravehicular activity (EVA) in this photographic reproduction taken from a television transmission made by a color TV camera aboard the space station. Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, participated in the EVA with Lousma. During the EVA the two crewmen deployed the twin pole solar shield to help shade the Orbital Workshop.

  20. High Performance EVA Glove Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, C. R.; Benosn, E.; England, S.; Norcross, J. R.; McFarland, S. M.; Rajulu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Human hands play a significant role during extravehicular activity (EVA) missions and Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) training events, as they are needed for translating and performing tasks in the weightless environment. It is because of this high frequency usage that hand- and arm-related injuries and discomfort are known to occur during training in the NBL and while conducting EVAs. Hand-related injuries and discomforts have been occurring to crewmembers since the days of Apollo. While there have been numerous engineering changes to the glove design, hand-related issues still persist. The primary objectives of this study are therefore to: 1) document all known EVA glove-related injuries and the circumstances of these incidents, 2) determine likely risk factors, and 3) recommend ergonomic mitigations or design strategies that can be implemented in the current and future glove designs. METHODS: The investigator team conducted an initial set of literature reviews, data mining of Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) databases, and data distribution analyses to understand the ergonomic issues related to glove-related injuries and discomforts. The investigation focused on the injuries and discomforts of U.S. crewmembers who had worn pressurized suits and experienced glove-related incidents during the 1980 to 2010 time frame, either during training or on-orbit EVA. In addition to data mining of the LSAH database, the other objective of the study was to find complimentary sources of information such as training experience, EVA experience, suit-related sizing data, and hand-arm anthropometric data to be tied to the injury data from LSAH. RESULTS: Past studies indicated that the hand was the most frequently injured part of the body during both EVA and NBL training. This study effort thus focused primarily on crew training data in the NBL between 2002 and 2010. Of the 87 recorded training incidents, 19 occurred to women and 68 to men. While crew ages ranged from

  1. Eva Physiology, Systems, and Performance (EPSP) Project Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA) is any activity performed by astronauts outside their space vehicle or habitat. EVA may be performed on orbit, such as outside the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station, or on a planetary surface such as Mars or on the moon. Astronauts wear a pressurized suit that provides environmental protection, mobility, life support, and communications while they work in the harsh conditions of a microgravity environment. Exploration missions to the moon and Mars may last many days and will include many types of EVAs; exploration, science, construction and maintenance. The effectiveness and success of these EVA-filled missions is dependent on the ability to perform tasks efficiently. The EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance (EPSP) project will conduct a number of studies to understand human performance during EVA, from a molecular level to full-scale equipment and suit design aspects, with the aim of developing safe and efficient systems for Exploration missions and the Constellation Program. The EPSP project will 1) develop Exploration Mission EVA suit requirements for metabolic and thermal loading, optional center of gravity location, biomedical sensors, hydration, nutrition, and human biomedical interactions; 2) develop validated EVA prebreathe protocols that meet medical, vehicle, and habitat constraints while minimizing crew time and thus increasing EVA work efficiency; and 3) define exploration decompression sickness (DCS) risks, policy, and mission success statistics and develop a DCS risk definition report.

  2. EVA - Don't Leave Earth Without It

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cupples, J. Scott; Smith, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Modern manned space programs come in two categories: those that need Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and those that will need EVA. This paper discusses major milestones in the Shuttle Program where EVA was used to save payloads, enhance on-orbit capabilities, and build structures in order to ensure success of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) missions. In conjunction, the Extravehicular Mobility Unit s (EMU) design, and hence, its capabilities evolved as its mission evolved. It is the intent that lessons can be drawn from these case studies so that EVA compatibility is designed into future vehicles and payloads.

  3. An air bearing fan for EVA suit ventilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murry, Roger P.

    1990-01-01

    The portable life-support system (PLSS) ventilation requirements are outlined, along with the application of a high-speed axial fan technology for extravehicular-activity (EVA) space-suit ventilation. Focus is placed on a mechanical design employing high-speed gas bearings, permanent magnet rotor, and current-fed chopper/inverter electronics. The operational characteristics of the fan unit and its applicability for use in a pure-oxygen environment are discussed. It delivers a nominal 0.17 cu m/min at 1.24 kPa pressure rise using 13.8 w of input power. It is shown that the overall selection of materials for all major component meets the NASA requirements.

  4. Architectural development of an advanced EVA Electronic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavelle, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    An advanced electronic system for future EVA missions (including zero gravity, the lunar surface, and the surface of Mars) is under research and development within the Advanced Life Support Division at NASA Ames Research Center. As a first step in the development, an optimum system architecture has been derived from an analysis of the projected requirements for these missions. The open, modular architecture centers around a distributed multiprocessing concept where the major subsystems independently process their own I/O functions and communicate over a common bus. Supervision and coordination of the subsystems is handled by an embedded real-time operating system kernel employing multitasking software techniques. A discussion of how the architecture most efficiently meets the electronic system functional requirements, maximizes flexibility for future development and mission applications, and enhances the reliability and serviceability of the system in these remote, hostile environments is included.

  5. Evaluation of an Anthropometric Human Body Model for Simulated EVA Task Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etter, Brad

    1996-01-01

    implementation of NBS testing has proven to invaluable in the assessment of EVA activities performed with the Orbiter and is considered to be a key step in the construction of the International Space Station (ISS). While the NBS testing is extremely valuable, it does require considerable overhead to maintain and operate. It has been estimated that the cost of utilizing the facility is approximately $10,000 per day. Therefore it is important to maximize the utility of NBS testing for optimal results. One important aspect to consider in any human/worksite interface is the considerable wealth of anthropometric and ergonomic data available. A subset of this information specific to EVA activity is available in NASA standard 3000. The difficulty in implementing this data is that most of the anthropometric information is represented in a two-dimensional format. This poses some limitations in complete evaluation of the astronaut's capabilities in a three-dimensional environment. Advances in computer hardware and software have provided for three-dimensional design and implementation of hardware with the advance of computer aided design (CAD) software. There are a number of CAD products available and most companies and agencies have adopted CAD as a fundamental aspect of the design process. Another factor which supports the use of CAD is the implementation of computer aided manufacturing (CAM) software and hardware which provides for rapid prototyping and decreases the time to product in the design process. It is probable that most hardware to be accessed by astronauts in EVA or IVA (intravehicular activity) has been designed by a CAD system, and is therefore represented in three-dimensional space for evaluation. Because of the implementation of CAD systems and the movement towards early prototyping, a need has arisen in industry and government for tools which facilitate the evaluation of ergonomic consideration in a three-dimensional environment where the hardware has been designed by

  6. Simplified Abrasion Test Methodology for Candidate EVA Glove Lay-Ups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabel, Emily; Aitchison, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, space suit outer-layer fabrics were badly abraded after performing just a few extravehicular activities (EVAs). For example, the Apollo 12 commander reported abrasive wear on the boots that penetrated the outer-layer fabric into the thermal protection layers after less than 8 hrs of surface operations. Current plans for the exploration planetary space suits require the space suits to support hundreds of hours of EVA on a lunar or Martian surface, creating a challenge for space suit designers to utilize materials advances made over the last 40 years and improve on the space suit fabrics used in the Apollo Program. Over the past 25 years the NASA Johnson Space Center Crew and Thermal Systems Division has focused on tumble testing as means of simulating wear on the outer layer of the space suit fabric. Most recently, in 2009, testing was performed on 4 different candidate outer layers to gather baseline data for future use in design of planetary space suit outer layers. In support of the High Performance EVA Glove Element of the Next Generation Life Support Project, testing a new configuration was recently attempted in which require 10% of the fabric per replicate of that need in 2009. The smaller fabric samples allowed for reduced per sample cost and flexibility to test small samples from manufacturers without the overhead to have a production run completed. Data collected from this iteration was compared to that taken in 2009 to validate the new test method. In addition the method also evaluated the fabrics and fabric layups used in a prototype thermal micrometeoroid garment (TMG) developed for EVA gloves under the NASA High Performance EVA Glove Project. This paper provides a review of previous abrasion studies on space suit fabrics, details methodologies used for abrasion testing in this particular study, results of the validation study, and results of the TMG testing.

  7. The odontological identification of Eva Braun Hitler.

    PubMed

    Keiser-Nielsen, S; Strøm, F

    1983-01-01

    On May 7th-9th, 1945, a team of Russian pathologists autopsied several bodies found in and near the Fuehrer Bunker in Berlin; among them, a female body (No. 13) was later identified as that of Eva Braun Hitler (EBH), mainly by means of a gold bridge from the lower right jaw. A postmortem photograph of this bridge also shows a separate gold filling. Data now available on the dental treatment of EBH have permitted the present authors to substantiate that this gold filling also came from the mouth of EBH. Further speculation about the fate of EBH would henceforth seem professionally unfounded.

  8. A human factors analysis of EVA time requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pate, D. W.

    1996-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering (HFE), also known as Ergonomics, is a discipline whose goal is to engineer a safer, more efficient interface between humans and machines. HFE makes use of a wide range of tools and techniques to fulfill this goal. One of these tools is known as motion and time study, a technique used to develop time standards for given tasks. A human factors motion and time study was initiated with the goal of developing a database of EVA task times and a method of utilizing the database to predict how long an ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA) should take. Initial development relied on the EVA activities performed during the STS-61 mission (Hubble repair). The first step of the analysis was to become familiar with EVAs and with the previous studies and documents produced on EVAs. After reviewing these documents, an initial set of task primitives and task time modifiers was developed. Videotaped footage of STS-61 EVAs were analyzed using these primitives and task time modifiers. Data for two entire EVA missions and portions of several others, each with two EVA astronauts, was collected for analysis. Feedback from the analysis of the data will be used to further refine the primitives and task time modifiers used. Analysis of variance techniques for categorical data will be used to determine which factors may, individually or by interactions, effect the primitive times and how much of an effect they have.

  9. Astronaut David Scott practicing for Gemini 8 EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronaut David R. Scott practicing for Gemini 8 extravehicular acitivity (EVA) in bldg 4 of the Manned Spacecraft Center on the air bearing floor. He is wearing the the Hand-Held Maneuvering Unit which he will use during the EVA.

  10. Astronaut Dale Gardner holds up for sale sign after EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, having just completed the major portion of his second extravehicular activity (EVA) period in three days, holds up a 'for sale' sign. Astronaut Joseph P. ALlen IV, who also participated in the two EVA's, is reflected in Gardner's helmet visor. A portion of each of two recovered satellites is in the lower right corner, with Westar nearer Discovery's aft.

  11. Development of an air-bearing fan for space extravehicular activity (EVA) suit ventilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukumoto, Paul; Allen, Norman; Stonesifer, Greg

    1992-01-01

    A high-speed/variable flow fan has been developed for EVA suit ventilation which combines air bearings with a two-pole, toothless permanent-magnet motor. The fan has demonstrated quiet and vibration-free operation and a 2:1 range in flow rate variation. System weight is 0.9 kg, and input powers range from 12.4 to 42 W.

  12. Next Generation Life Support (NGLS): High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Technology Development Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Sarah; Barta, Daniel; Stephan, Ryan; Gaddis, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The overall objective is to develop advanced gloves for extra vehicular activity (EVA) for future human space exploration missions and generate corresponding standards by which progress may be quantitatively assessed. The glove prototypes that result from the successful completion of this technology development activity will be delivered to NASA's Human Exploration Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) and ultimately to be included in an integrated test with the next generation spacesuit currently under development.

  13. Results from an Investigation into Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) Training Related Shoulder Injuries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Brian J.; Williams, David R.

    2004-01-01

    The number and complexity of extravehicular activities (EVAs) required for the completion and maintenance of the International Space Station (ISS) is unprecedented. The training required to successfully complete this magnitude of space walks presents a real risk of overuse musculoskeletal injuries to the EVA crew population. There was mounting evidence raised by crewmembers, trainers, and physicians at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) between 1999 and 2002 that suggested a link between training in the Neutral - Buoyancy Lab (NBL) and the several reported cases of shoulder injuries. The short- and long-term health consequences of shoulder injury to astronauts in training as well as the potential mission impact associated with surgical intervention to assigned EVA crew point to this as a critical problem that must be mitigated. Thus, a multi-directorate tiger team was formed in December of 2002 led by the EVA Office and Astronaut Office at the JSC. The primary objectives of this Tiger Team were to evaluate the prevalence of these injuries and substantiate the relationship to training in the NBL with the crew person operating in the EVA Mobility Unit (EMU). Between December 2002 and June of 2003 the team collected data, surveyed crewmembers, consulted with a variety of physicians, and performed tests. The results of this effort were combined with the vast knowledge and experience of the Tiger Team members to formulate several findings and over fifty recommendations. This paper summarizes those findings and recommendations as well as the process by which these were determined. The Tiger Team concluded that training in the NBL was directly linked to several major and minor shoulder injuries that had occurred. With the assistance of JSC flight surgeons, outside consultants, and the lead crewmember/physician on the team, the mechanisms of injury were determined. These mechanisms were then linked to specific aspects of the hardware design, operational techniques, and the

  14. EVA Hazards due to TPS Inspection and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Christine E.

    2007-01-01

    Tile inspection and repair activities have implicit hazards associated with them. When an Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA) crewmember and associated hardware are added into the equation, additional hazards are introduced. Potential hazards to the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), the Orbiter or the crew member themselves are created. In order to accurately assess the risk of performing a TPS inspection or repair, an accurate evaluation of potential hazards and how adequately these hazards are controlled is essential. The EMU could become damaged due to sharp edges, protrusions, thermal extremes, molten metal or impact with the Orbiter. Tools, tethers and the presence of a crew member in the vicinity of the Orbiter Thermal Protection System (TPS) pose hazards to the Orbiter. Hazards such as additional tile or Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) damage from a loose tool, safety tethers, crewmember or arm impact are introduced. Additionally, there are hazards to the crew which should be addressed. Crew hazards include laser injury, electrical shock, inability to return to the airlock for EMU failures or Orbiter rapid safing scenarios, as well as the potential inadvertent release of a crew member from the arm/boom. The aforementioned hazards are controlled in various ways. Generally, these controls are addressed operationally versus by design, as the majority of the interfaces are to the Orbiter and the Orbiter design did not originally account for tile repair. The Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS), for instance, was originally designed to deploy experiments, and therefore has insufficient design controls for retention of the Orbiter Boom Sensor System (OBSS). Although multiple methods to repair the Orbiter TPS exist, the majority of the hazards are applicable no matter which specific repair method is being performed. TPS Inspection performed via EVA also presents some of the same hazards. Therefore, the hazards common to all TPS inspection or repair methods will

  15. Main problems of the Russian Orlan-M space suit utilization for EVAs on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, I. P.; Pozdnyakov, S. S.; Severin, G. I.; Stoklitsky, A. Yu.

    2001-03-01

    In the recent years the Russian Orlan-M space suits have been improved as applied to their operational requirements for the ISS. A special attention is paid to enhancement of EVA crew efficiency and safety. The paper considers the main problems regarding specific features of the Russian space suit operation in the ISS, and analyses measures on their solution. In particular, the problems associated with the following are considered: enhancement of the anthropometric range for the EVA crewmembers; use of some US EMU elements and unified NASA equipment elements; Orlan-M operation support in the wide range of the ISS thermal conditions; use of Simplified Aid For Extravehicular activity Rescue (SAFER) designed as a self-rescue device, which will be used for an EVA crewmember return in the event that he (she) breaks away inadvertently from the ISS surface. The paper states the main space suit differences with reference to solution of the above problems. The paper presents briefly the design of space suit arms developed for crewmembers with small anthropometric parameters, as well as peculiarities and test results for the gloves with enhanced thermal protection. Measures on further space suit development with the purpose to improve its performances are considered.

  16. Active Solid State Dosimetry for Lunar EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Chen, Liang-Yu.

    2006-01-01

    The primary threat to astronauts from space radiation is high-energy charged particles, such as electrons, protons, alpha and heavier particles, originating from galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), solar particle events (SPEs) and trapped radiation belts in Earth orbit. There is also the added threat of secondary neutrons generated as the space radiation interacts with atmosphere, soil and structural materials.[1] For Lunar exploration missions, the habitats and transfer vehicles are expected to provide shielding from standard background radiation. Unfortunately, the Lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suit is not expected to afford such shielding. Astronauts need to be aware of potentially hazardous conditions in their immediate area on EVA before a health and hardware risk arises. These conditions would include fluctuations of the local radiation field due to changes in the space radiation field and unknown variations in the local surface composition. Should undue exposure occur, knowledge of the dynamic intensity conditions during the exposure will allow more precise diagnostic assessment of the potential health risk to the exposed individual.[2

  17. STS-112 Astronaut Wolf Participates in EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronaut David A. Wolf, STS-112 mission specialist, participates in the mission's second session of extravehicular activity (EVA), a six hour, four minute space walk, in which an exterior station television camera was installed outside of the Destiny Laboratory. Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three EVA sessions. Its primary mission was to install the Starboard (S1) Integrated Truss Structure and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the International Space Station (ISS). The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the International Space Station's railway providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts.

  18. STS-112 Astronaut Wolf Participates in EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Anchored to a foot restraint on the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) or Canadarm2, astronaut David A. Wolf, STS-112 mission specialist, participates in the mission's first session of extravehicular activity (EVA). Wolf is carrying the Starboard One (S1) outboard nadir external camera which was installed on the end of the S1 Truss on the International Space Station (ISS). Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three EVAs. Its primary mission was to install the S1 Integrated Truss Structure and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the International Space Station's railway providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts.

  19. Heat shrinkage of electron beam modified EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Sujit K.; Chaki, T. K.; Tikku, V. K.; Pradhan, N. K.; Bhowmick, A. K.

    1997-10-01

    Heat shrinkage of electron beam modified ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) has been investigated over a range of times, temperatures, stretching, irradiation doses and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) levels. The irradiated (radiation dose 50 kGy and TMPTMA level 1%) and stretched (100% elongation) sample shrinks to a maximum level when kept at 453K temperature for 60 s. The heat shrinkage of samples irradiated with radiation doses of 20, 50, 100 and 150 kGy increases sharply with increasing stretching in the initial stage. Amnesia rating decreases with increasing radiation dose and TMPTMA level as well as gel content. The high radiation dose and TMPTMA level lower the heat shrinkage due to the chain scission. The effect of temperature at which extension is carried out on heat shrinkage is marginal. The irradiated (radiation dose 50 kGy and TMPTMA level 1%) EVA tubes of different dimensions expanded in a laboratory grade tube expander show similar behaviour at 453K and 60 s. The X-ray and DSC studies reveal that the crystallinity increases on stretching due to orientation of chains and it decreases to a considerable extent on heat shrinking. The theoretical and experimental values of heat shrinkage for tubes and rectangular strips are in good accord, when the radiation dose is 50 kGy and TMPTMA level 1%.

  20. Use MACES IVA Suit for EVA Mobility Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    The use of an Intra-Vehicular Activity (IVA) suit for a spacewalk or Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) was evaluated for mobility and usability in the Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) environment. The Space Shuttle Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) has been modified (MACES) to integrate with the Orion spacecraft. The first several missions of the Orion MPCV spacecraft will not have mass available to carry an EVA specific suit so any EVA required will have to be performed by the MACES. Since the MACES was not designed with EVA in mind, it was unknown what mobility the suit would be able to provide for an EVA or if a person could perform useful tasks for an extended time inside the pressurized suit. The suit was evaluated in multiple NBL runs by a variety of subjects including crewmembers with significant EVA experience. Various functional mobility tasks performed included: translation, body positioning, carrying tools, body stabilization, equipment handling, and use of tools. Hardware configurations included with and without TMG, suit with IVA gloves and suit with EVA gloves. Most tasks were completed on ISS mockups with existing EVA tools. Some limited tasks were completed with prototype tools on a simulated rocky surface. Major findings include: demonstration of the ability to weigh-out the suit, understanding the need to have subjects perform multiple runs prior to getting feedback, determination of critical sizing factors, and need for adjustment of suit work envelop. The early testing has demonstrated the feasibility of EVA's limited duration and limited scope. Further testing is required with more flight like tasking and constraints to validate these early results. If the suit is used for EVA, it will require mission specific modifications for umbilical management or PLSS integration, safety tether attachment, and tool interfaces. These evaluations are continuing through calendar year 2014.

  1. Advanced EVA Suit Camera System Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mock, Kyla

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is developing a new extra-vehicular activity (EVA) suit known as the Advanced EVA Z2 Suit. All of the improvements to the EVA Suit provide the opportunity to update the technology of the video imagery. My summer internship project involved improving the video streaming capabilities of the cameras that will be used on the Z2 Suit for data acquisition. To accomplish this, I familiarized myself with the architecture of the camera that is currently being tested to be able to make improvements on the design. Because there is a lot of benefit to saving space, power, and weight on the EVA suit, my job was to use Altium Design to start designing a much smaller and simplified interface board for the camera's microprocessor and external components. This involved checking datasheets of various components and checking signal connections to ensure that this architecture could be used for both the Z2 suit and potentially other future projects. The Orion spacecraft is a specific project that may benefit from this condensed camera interface design. The camera's physical placement on the suit also needed to be determined and tested so that image resolution can be maximized. Many of the options of the camera placement may be tested along with other future suit testing. There are multiple teams that work on different parts of the suit, so the camera's placement could directly affect their research or design. For this reason, a big part of my project was initiating contact with other branches and setting up multiple meetings to learn more about the pros and cons of the potential camera placements we are analyzing. Collaboration with the multiple teams working on the Advanced EVA Z2 Suit is absolutely necessary and these comparisons will be used as further progress is made for the overall suit design. This prototype will not be finished in time for the scheduled Z2 Suit testing, so my time was

  2. The Effect of Time of Post Space Preparation on the Seal and Adaptation of Resilon-Epiphany Se & Gutta-percha-AH Plus Sealer- An Sem Study

    PubMed Central

    Dhaded, Neha; Dhaded, Sunil; Patil, Chetan; Patil, Roopa; Roshan, Joan Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background: The field of endodontics is dynamic & ever expanding. With the availability of a wide array of products in the dental market it’s an absolute necessity to evaluate their efficiency before including them into routine clinical practice.Hence, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of immediate & delayed post space preparation & sealing ability of new root canal filling material & sealers. Aim: The effect of time of post space preparation on the seal and adaptation of Resilon-Epiphany Se & Gutta-percha-AH Plus Sealer - An SEM study. Settings and design: Eighty extracted permanent maxillary central and lateral incisors selected for the study were decoronated. Roots canals were prepared and obturated. Materials and Methods: Samples were divided into four groups depending on the time of post, space, preparation and obturated material.GROUP I & II: Immediate and Delayed post space preparation respectively with Gutta-percha / AH Plus as obturating material. GROUP III & IV Immediate and Delayed post space preparation with Resilon / Epiphany as the obturating material. The samples were sectioned, then measured and studied by Scanning Electron Microscope. Results: There was a significant difference found between immediate and delayed post space preparation in resilon –epiphany group (p<0.001). Similarly significant difference was seen between immediate and delayed post space preparation in AH Plus-GP group (p<0.001). Difference in the adaptation of the two materials was seen in the delayed group (p = 0.030) but the immediate group showed no signifcant difference (p =0.971). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, immediate post space preparation shows less leakage in both the groups. Resilon–Epiphany shows better results when post space is delayed amongst the two whereas in immediate post space preparation there is no significant difference. PMID:24596779

  3. Reconfiguration of EVA Modular Truss Assemblies using an Anthropomorphic Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diftler, Myron A.; Doggett, William R.; Mehling, Joshua S.; King, Bruce D.

    2006-01-01

    NASA relies heavily on astronauts to perform Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) as part of space construction and maintenance operations. Astronauts provide an unmatched capability and flexibility. In the future, this capability will be in even greater demand as space platforms become more modular making on-orbit servicing, repair and reconfiguration routine. To assist crew, NASA is developing Robonaut, an anthropomorphic robot with human sized arms and hands that can work with many of the same interfaces designed for the space suited astronaut. Recently Robonaut has been used to investigate techniques for automated assembly, disassembly, and repair of space platforms. The current work focuses on techniques to reconfigure a modular truss system representative of the tasks necessary to convert a space solar power tug to a lunar orbiting solar power station in support of lunar exploration missions. An overview of these activities is given, detailing the assembly sequence and the infrastructure used by Robonaut to perform the reconfiguration operations. Advances in Robonaut's capabilities are described and include: a grip surface augmentation to Robonaut's gloves that provides a close approximation to the latest astronaut gloves, ensuring a secure grasp during truss coupler manipulation, and a shared control strategy that divides the Cartesian control of Robonaut's hands between the teleoperator and the robot's on-board controller to minimize human workload during constrained tasks. To support truss reconfiguration experiments, infrastructure is required to stabilize and register the structure during reconfiguration. Details on the design and operation of the infrastructure, a small fixture, are given.

  4. Augmented robotic device for EVA hand manoeuvres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheson, Eloise; Brooker, Graham

    2012-12-01

    During extravehicular activities (EVAs), pressurised space suits can lead to difficulties in performing hand manoeuvres and fatigue. This is often the cause of EVAs being terminated early, or taking longer to complete. Assistive robotic gloves can be used to augment the natural motion of a human hand, meaning work can be carried out more efficiently with less stress to the astronaut. Lightweight and low profile solutions must be found in order for the assistive robotic glove to be easily integrated with a space suit pressure garment. Pneumatic muscle actuators combined with force sensors are one such solution. These actuators are extremely light, yet can output high forces using pressurised gases as the actuation drive. Their movement is omnidirectional, so when combined with a flexible exoskeleton that itself provides a degree of freedom of movement, individual fingers can be controlled during flexion and extension. This setup allows actuators and other hardware to be stored remotely on the user's body, resulting in the least possible mass being supported by the hand. Two prototype gloves have been developed at the University of Sydney; prototype I using a fibreglass exoskeleton to provide flexion force, and prototype II using torsion springs to achieve the same result. The gloves have been designed to increase the ease of human movements, rather than to add unnatural ability to the hand. A state space control algorithm has been developed to ensure that human initiated movements are recognised, and calibration methods have been implemented to accommodate the different characteristics of each wearer's hands. For this calibration technique, it was necessary to take into account the natural tremors of the human hand which may have otherwise initiated unexpected control signals. Prototype I was able to actuate the user's hand in 1 degree of freedom (DOF) from full flexion to partial extension, and prototype II actuated a user's finger in 2 DOF with forces achieved

  5. Genomic characterization of two new enterovirus types, EV-A114 and EV-A121.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Jagadish M; Sharma, Deepa K; Saxena, Vinay K; Shetty, Sushmitha A; Qureshi, Tarique Husain I H; Nalavade, Uma P

    2016-12-01

    Enteroviruses cause a variety of illnesses of the gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system and cardiovascular system. Phylogenetic analysis of VP1 sequences has identified 106 different human enteroviruses classified into four enterovirus species within the genus Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae. It is likely that not all enterovirus types have been discovered. Between September 2013 and October 2014, stool samples of 6274 apparently healthy children of up to 5 years of age residing in Gorakhpur district, Uttar Pradesh, India were screened for enteroviruses. Virus isolates obtained in RD and Hep-2c cells were identified by complete VP1 sequencing. Enteroviruses were isolated from 3042 samples. A total of 87 different enterovirus types were identified. Two isolates with 71 and 74 % nucleotide sequence similarity to all other known enteroviruses were recognized as novel types. In this paper we report identification and complete genome sequence analysis of these two isolates classified as EV-A114 and EV-A121.

  6. Application of EVA guidelines and design criteria. Volume 1: EVA selection/systems design considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, N. E.

    1973-01-01

    Parameters that require consideration by the planners and designers when planning for man to perform functions outside the vehicle are presented in terms of the impact the extravehicular crewmen and major EV equipment items have on the mission, vehicle, and payload. Summary data on man's performance capabilities in the weightless space environment are also provided. The performance data are based on orbital and transearth EVA from previous space flight programs and earthbound simulations, such as water immersion and zero-g aircraft.

  7. Application of EVA guidelines and design criteria. Volume 2: EVA workstation conceptual designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, N. E.

    1973-01-01

    Several EV workstation concepts were developed and are documented. The workstation concepts were developed following a comprehensive analysis of potential EV missions, functions, and tasks as interpreted from NASA and contractor space shuttle and space station studies, mission models, and related reports. The design of a versatile, portable EVA workstation is aimed at reducing the design and development costs for each mission and aiding in the development of on-orbit serviceable payloads.

  8. Astronaut Noriega During Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In this image, STS-97 astronaut and mission specialist Carlos I. Noriega waves at a crew member inside Endeavor's cabin during the mission's final session of Extravehicular Activity (EVA). Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor on November 30, 2000, the STS-97 mission's primary objective was the delivery, assembly, and activation of the U.S. electrical power system onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The electrical power system, which is built into a 73-meter (240-foot) long solar array structure consists of solar arrays, radiators, batteries, and electronics. The entire 15.4-metric ton (17-ton) package is called the P6 Integrated Truss Segment, and is the heaviest and largest element yet delivered to the station aboard a space shuttle. The electrical system will eventually provide the power necessary for the first ISS crews to live and work in the U.S. segment.

  9. Evaluation of a Hybrid Elastic EVA Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korona, F. Adam; Akin, David

    2002-01-01

    The hybrid elastic design is based upon an American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) glove designed by at the Space Systems Laboratory (SSL) in 1985. This design uses an elastic restraint layer instead of convolute joints to achieve greater dexterity and mobility during EVA (extravehicular activity). Two pilot studies and a main study were conducted using the hybrid elastic glove and 4000-series EMU (extravehicular activity unit) glove. Data on dexterity performance, joint range of motion, grip strength and perceived exertion was assessed for the EMU and hybrid elastic gloves with correlations to a barehanded condition. During this study, 30 test subjects performed multiple test sessions using a hybrid elastic glove and a 4000- series shuttle glove in a 4.3psid pressure environment. Test results to date indicate that the hybrid elastic glove performance is approximately similar to the performance of the 4000-series glove.

  10. Exploration Architecture Options - ECLSS, TCS, EVA Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe; Henninger, Don

    2011-01-01

    Many options for exploration of space have been identified and evaluated since the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) was announced in 2004. The Augustine Commission evaluated human space flight for the Obama administration then the Human Exploration Framework Teams (HEFT and HEFT2) evaluated potential exploration missions and the infrastructure and technology needs for those missions. Lunar architectures have been identified and addressed by the Lunar Surface Systems team to establish options for how to get to, and then inhabit and explore, the moon. This paper will evaluate the options for exploration of space for the implications of architectures on the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLSS), Thermal Control (TCS), and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Systems.

  11. Exploration Architecture Options - ECLSS, EVA, TCS Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe; Henninger, Don; Lawrence, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Many options for exploration of space have been identified and evaluated since the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) was announced in 2004. Lunar architectures have been identified and addressed in the Lunar Surface Systems team to establish options for how to get to and then inhabit and explore the moon. The Augustine Commission evaluated human space flight for the Obama administration and identified many options for how to conduct human spaceflight in the future. This paper will evaluate the options for exploration of space for the implications of architectures on the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLSS), ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA) and Thermal Control System (TCS) Systems. The advantages and disadvantages of each architecture and options are presented.

  12. A Cabin Air Separator for EVA Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Presently, the Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) conducted from the Quest Joint Airlock on the International Space Station use high pressure, high purity oxygen that is delivered to the Space Station by the Space Shuttle. When the Space Shuttle retires, a new method of delivering high pressure, high purity oxygen to the High Pressure Gas Tanks (HPGTs) is needed. One method is to use a cabin air separator to sweep oxygen from the cabin air, generate a low pressure/high purity oxygen stream, and compress the oxygen with a multistage mechanical compressor. A main advantage to this type of system is that the existing low pressure oxygen supply infrastructure can be used as the source of cabin oxygen. ISS has two water electrolysis systems that deliver low pressure oxygen to the cabin, as well as chlorate candles and compressed gas tanks on cargo vehicles. Each of these systems can feed low pressure oxygen into the cabin, and any low pressure oxygen source can be used as an on-board source of oxygen. Three different oxygen separator systems were evaluated, and a two stage Pressure Swing Adsorption system was selected for reasons of technical maturity. Two different compressor designs were subjected to long term testing, and the compressor with better life performance and more favorable oxygen safety characteristics was selected. These technologies have been used as the basis of a design for a flight system located in Equipment Lock, and taken to Preliminary Design Review level of maturity. This paper describes the Cabin Air Separator for EVA Oxygen (CASEO) concept, describes the separator and compressor technology trades, highlights key technology risks, and describes the flight hardware concept as presented at Preliminary Design Review (PDR)

  13. EVA manipulation and assembly of space structure columns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loughead, T. E.; Pruett, E. C.

    1980-01-01

    Assembly techniques and hardware configurations used in assembly of the basic tetrahedral cell by A7LB pressure-suited subjects in a neutral bouyancy simulator were studied. Eleven subjects participated in assembly procedures which investigated two types of structural members and two configurations of attachment hardware. The assembly was accomplished through extra-vehicular activity (EVA) only, EVA with simulated manned maneuvering unit (MMU), and EVA with simulated MMU and simulated remote manipulator system (RMS). Assembly times as low as 10.20 minutes per tetrahedron were achieved. Task element data, as well as assembly procedures, are included.

  14. The Evolution of Extravehicular Activity Operations to Lunar Exploration Based on Operational Lessons Learned During 2009 NASA Desert RATS Field Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Ernest R., Jr.; Welsh, Daren; Coan, Dave; Johnson, Kieth; Ney, Zane; McDaniel, Randall; Looper, Chris; Guirgis, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    This paper will present options to evolutionary changes in several philosophical areas of extravehicular activity (EVA) operations. These areas will include single person verses team EVAs; various loss of communications scenarios (with Mission Control, between suited crew, suited crew to rover crew, and rover crew A to rover crew B); EVA termination and abort time requirements; incapacitated crew ingress time requirements; autonomous crew operations during loss of signal periods including crew decisions on EVA execution (including decision for single verses team EVA). Additionally, suggestions as to the evolution of the make-up of the EVA flight control team from the current standard will be presented. With respect to the flight control team, the major areas of EVA flight control, EVA Systems and EVA Tasks, will be reviewed, and suggested evolutions of each will be presented. Currently both areas receive real-time information, and provide immediate feedback during EVAs as well as spacesuit (extravehicular mobility unit - EMU) maintenance and servicing periods. With respect to the tasks being performed, either EMU servicing and maintenance, or the specific EVA tasks, daily revising of plans will need to be able to be smoothly implemented to account for unforeseen situations and findings. Many of the presented ideas are a result of lessons learned by the NASA Johnson Space Center Mission Operations Directorate operations team support during the 2009 NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS). It is important that the philosophy of both EVA crew operations and flight control be examined now, so that, where required, adjustments can be made to a next generation EMU and EVA equipment that will complement the anticipated needs of both the EVA flight control team and the crews.

  15. Development of an EVA systems cost model. Volume 2: Shuttle orbiter crew and equipment translation concepts and EVA workstation concept development and integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    EVA crewman/equipment translational concepts are developed for a shuttle orbiter payload application. Also considered are EVA workstation systems to meet orbiter and payload requirements for integration of workstations into candidate orbiter payload worksites.

  16. Astronaut Richard Gordon returns to hatch of spacecraft following EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., pilot for the Gemini 11 space flight, returns to the hatch of the spacecraft following extravehicular activity (EVA). This picture was taken over the Atlantic Ocean at approximately 160 nautical miles above the earth's surface.

  17. 7. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, IN SPACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, IN SPACE SUIT AFTER TESTING IN NEUTRAL BUOYANCY TANK. AVERAGE COST OF SUIT IS $1,000,000. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  18. Astronaut Dale Gardner rehearses control of MMU during EVA practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, 51-A mission specialist, rehearses control of manned maneuvering unit (MMU) during a practice for an extravehicular activity (EVA). Gardner is in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory at JSC.

  19. Astronauts Harris and Foale ready to egress airlock for EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronauts Bernard A. Harris, Jr., payload commander, (top) and C. Michael Foale, mission specialist, are ready to egress airlock for an extravehicular activity (EVA) during the STS-63 mission on the Space Shuttle Discovery.

  20. Results of EVA/mobile transporter space station truss assembly tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Judith J.; Heard, Walter L., Jr.; Bush, Harold G.; Lake, M. S.; Jensen, J. K.; Wallsom, R. E.; Phelps, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    Underwater neutral buoyance tests were conducted to evaluate the use of a Mobile Transporter concept in conjunction with EVA astronauts to construct the Space Station Freedom truss structure. A three-bay orthogonal tetrahedral truss configuration with a 15 foot square cross section was repeatedly assembled by a single pair of pressure suited test subjects working from the Mobile Transporter astronaut positioning devices (mobile foot restraints). The average unit assembly time (which included integrated installation of utility trays) was 27.6 s/strut, or 6 min/bay. The results of these tests indicate that EVA assembly of space station size structures can be significantly enhanced when using a Mobile Transporter equipped with astronaut positioning devices. Rapid assembly time can be expected and are dependent primarily on the rate of translation permissible for on-orbit operations. The concept used to demonstate integrated installation of utility trays requires minimal EVA handling and consequentially, as the results show, has little impact on overall assembly time.

  1. Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Space Suit and EVA System Architecture Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowie, Jonathan; Buffington, Jesse; Hood, Drew; Kelly, Cody; Naids, Adam; Watson, Richard; Blanco, Raul; Sipila, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) requires a Launch/Entry/Abort (LEA) suit capability and short duration Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) capability from the Orion spacecraft. For this mission, the pressure garment selected for both functions is the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) with EVA enhancements and the life support option that was selected is the Exploration Portable Life Support System (PLSS) currently under development for Advanced Exploration Systems (AES). The proposed architecture meets the ARCM constraints, but much more work is required to determine the details of the suit upgrades, the integration with the PLSS, and the tools and equipment necessary to accomplish the mission. This work has continued over the last year to better define the operations and hardware maturation of these systems. EVA simulations were completed in the Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) and interfacing options were prototyped and analyzed with testing planned for late 2014. This paper discusses the work done over the last year on the MACES enhancements, the use of tools while using the suit, and the integration of the PLSS with the MACES.

  2. Abrasion Testing of Candidate Outer Layer Fabrics for Lunar EVA Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kathryn C.

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo program, the space suit outer layer fabrics were badly abraded after just a few Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). For example, the Apollo 12 commander reported abrasive wear on the boots, which penetrated the outer layer fabric into the thermal protection layers after less than eight hours of surface operations. Current plans for the Constellation Space Suit Element require the space suits to support hundreds of hours of EVA on the Lunar surface, creating a challenge for space suit designers to utilize materials advances made over the last forty years and improve upon the space suit fabrics used in the Apollo program. A test methodology has been developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center Crew and Thermal Systems Division for establishing comparative abrasion wear characteristics between various candidate space suit outer layer fabrics. The abrasion test method incorporates a large rotary drum tumbler with rocks and loose lunar simulant material to induce abrasion in fabric test cylinder elements, representative of what might occur during long term planetary surface EVAs. Preliminary materials screening activities were conducted to determine the degree of wear on representative space suit outer layer materials and the corresponding dust permeation encountered between subsequent sub -layers of thermal protective materials when exposed to a simulated worst case eight hour EVA. The test method was used to provide a preliminary evaluation of four candidate outer layer fabrics for future planetary surface space suit applications. This Paper provides a review of previous abrasion studies on space suit fabrics, details the methodologies used for abrasion testing in this particular study, and shares the results and conclusions of the testing.

  3. Custom Unit Pump Development for the EVA PLSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuller, Michael; Kurwitz, Cable; Little, Frank; Oinuma, Ryoji; Larsen, Ben; Goldman, Jeff; Reinis, Filip; Trevino, Luis

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the effort by the Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES) and Honeywell for NASA to design and test a pre-flight prototype pump for use in the Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) portable life support subsystem (PLSS). Major design decisions were driven by the need to reduce the pump s mass, power, and volume compared to the existing PLSS pump. In addition, the pump must accommodate a much wider range of abnormal conditions than the existing pump, including vapor/gas bubbles and increased pressure drop when employed to cool two suits simultaneously. A positive displacement, external gear type pump was selected because it offers the most compact and highest efficiency solution over the required range of flow rates and pressure drops. An additional benefit of selecting a gear pump design is that it is self priming and capable of ingesting non-condensable gas without becoming air locked. The chosen pump design consists of a 28 V DC, brushless, seal-less, permanent magnet motor driven, external gear pump that utilizes a Honeywell development that eliminates the need for magnetic coupling. The pump design was based on existing Honeywell designs, but incorporated features specifically for the PLSS application, including all of the key features of the flight pump. Testing at TEES verified that the pump meets the design requirements for range of flow rates, pressure drop, power consumption, working fluid temperature, operating time, gas ingestion, and restart capability under both ambient and vacuum conditions. The pump operated at 40 to 240 lbm/hr flow rate, 35 to 100 oF pump temperature, and 5 to 10 psid pressure rise. Power consumption of the pump controller at the nominal operating point in both ambient and vacuum conditions was 9.5 W, which was less than the 12 W predicted. Gas ingestion capabilities were tested by injecting 100 cc of air into the fluid line; the pump operated normally throughout this test.

  4. EVA Robotic Assistant Project: Platform Attitude Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickels, Kevin M.

    2003-01-01

    The Robotic Systems Technology Branch is currently working on the development of an EVA Robotic Assistant under the sponsorship of the Surface Systems Thrust of the NASA Cross Enterprise Technology Development Program (CETDP). This will be a mobile robot that can follow a field geologist during planetary surface exploration, carry his tools and the samples that he collects, and provide video coverage of his activity. Prior experiments have shown that for such a robot to be useful it must be able to follow the geologist at walking speed over any terrain of interest. Geologically interesting terrain tends to be rough rather than smooth. The commercial mobile robot that was recently purchased as an initial testbed for the EVA Robotic Assistant Project, an ATRV Jr., is capable of faster than walking speed outside but it has no suspension. Its wheels with inflated rubber tires are attached to axles that are connected directly to the robot body. Any angular motion of the robot produced by driving over rough terrain will directly affect the pointing of the on-board stereo cameras. The resulting image motion is expected to make tracking of the geologist more difficult. This will either require the tracker to search a larger part of the image to find the target from frame to frame or to search mechanically in pan and tilt whenever the image motion is large enough to put the target outside the image in the next frame. This project consists of the design and implementation of a Kalman filter that combines the output of the angular rate sensors and linear accelerometers on the robot to estimate the motion of the robot base. The motion of the stereo camera pair mounted on the robot that results from this motion as the robot drives over rough terrain is then straightforward to compute. The estimates may then be used, for example, to command the robot s on-board pan-tilt unit to compensate for the camera motion induced by the base movement. This has been accomplished in two ways

  5. Further analysis of EVA self-rescue data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, Adam R.

    A means for rescuing a stranded extravehicular activity (EVA) astronaut is necessary to ensure safe space station operations. One promising device is a hand-held thruster similar to the Hand-Held Maneuvering Unit (HHMU) from the Gemini and Skylab programs. A study was performed in the Virtual Interactive Environment Workstation (VIEW) at NASA Ames Research Center. Three Initial (Separation) Velocities (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 m/s) were crossed with five Initial spin velocities (0, +/- 0.1, +/- 0.3) to yield 15 different trials. An Attitude Hold system was also modeled, which, when combined with the 15 combinations of separation and spin velocity, provided 30 distinct trails. Recent examinations of the data reveal that Initial (Separation) Velocity and Initial Spin Velocity each produced main effects and combined to produce an interaction effect on Solution Time. Solution Time increased with Initial Velocity and absolute Initial Spin Velocity. Final Roll Angle also increased Initial Spin Velocity. Attitude Hole Fuel increased with absolute Initial Spin Velocity. Interaction effects revealed that main effects were less pronounced at the lowest Initial Velocity level.

  6. Expedition 16 Flight Engineer Tani Performs EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Astronaut Daniel Tani (top center), Expedition 16 flight engineer, participates in the second of five scheduled sessions of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction continues on the International Space Station (ISS). During the 6-hour and 33-minute space walk, Tani and STS-120 mission specialist Scott Parazynski (out of frame), worked in tandem to disconnect cables from the P6 truss, allowing it to be removed from the Z1 truss. Tani also visually inspected the station's starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) and gathered samples of 'shavings' he found under the joint's multilayer insulation covers. The space walkers also outfitted the Harmony module, mated the power and data grapple fixture and reconfigured connectors on the starboard 1 (S1) truss that will allow the radiator on S1 to be deployed from the ground later. The moon is visible at lower center. The STS-120 mission launched from Kennedy Space Center's launch pad 39A at 11:38:19 a.m. (EDT) on October 23, 2007.

  7. Astronaut Sellers Performs STS-112 EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three sessions of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). Its primary mission was to install the Starboard Side Integrated Truss Structure (S1) and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the International Space Station (ISS). The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the International Space Station's railway providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts. In this photograph, Astronaut Piers J. Sellers uses both a handrail on the Destiny Laboratory and a foot restraint on the Space Station Remote Manipulator System or Canadarm2 to remain stationary while performing work at the end of the STS-112 mission's second space walk. A cloud-covered Earth provides the backdrop for the scene.

  8. Infrared On-Orbit RCC Inspection With the EVA IR Camera: Development of Flight Hardware From a COTS System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazanik, Michael; Johnson, Dave; Kist, Ed; Novak, Frank; Antill, Charles; Haakenson, David; Howell, Patricia; Jenkins, Rusty; Yates, Rusty; Stephan, Ryan; Hawk, Doug; Amoroso, Michael

    2005-01-01

    In November 2004, NASA's Space Shuttle Program approved the development of the Extravehicular (EVA) Infrared (IR) Camera to test the application of infrared thermography to on-orbit reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) damage detection. A multi-center team composed of members from NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC), Langley Research Center (LaRC), and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) was formed to develop the camera system and plan a flight test. The initial development schedule called for the delivery of the system in time to support STS-115 in late 2005. At the request of Shuttle Program managers and the flight crews, the team accelerated its schedule and delivered a certified EVA IR Camera system in time to support STS-114 in July 2005 as a contingency. The development of the camera system, led by LaRC, was based on the Commercial-Off-the-Shelf (COTS) FLIR S65 handheld infrared camera. An assessment of the S65 system in regards to space-flight operation was critical to the project. This paper discusses the space-flight assessment and describes the significant modifications required for EVA use by the astronaut crew. The on-orbit inspection technique will be demonstrated during the third EVA of STS-121 in September 2005 by imaging damaged RCC samples mounted in a box in the Shuttle's cargo bay.

  9. A Human Factors Analysis of EVA Time Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pate, Dennis W.

    1997-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering (HFE) is a discipline whose goal is to engineer a safer, more efficient interface between humans and machines. HFE makes use of a wide range of tools and techniques to fulfill this goal. One of these tools is known as motion and time study, a technique used to develop time standards for given tasks. During the summer of 1995, a human factors motion and time study was initiated with the goals of developing a database of EVA task times and developing a method of utilizing the database to predict how long an EVA should take. Initial development relied on the EVA activities performed during the STS-61 (Hubble) mission. The first step of the study was to become familiar with EVA's, the previous task-time studies, and documents produced on EVA's. After reviewing these documents, an initial set of task primitives and task-time modifiers was developed. Data was collected from videotaped footage of two entire STS-61 EVA missions and portions of several others, each with two EVA astronauts. Feedback from the analysis of the data was used to further refine the primitives and modifiers used. The project was continued during the summer of 1996, during which data on human errors was also collected and analyzed. Additional data from the STS-71 mission was also collected. Analysis of variance techniques for categorical data was used to determine which factors may affect the primitive times and how much of an effect they have. Probability distributions for the various task were also generated. Further analysis of the modifiers and interactions is planned.

  10. EVA Glove Sensor Feasbility II Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melone, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The main objectives for the glove project include taking various measurements from human subjects during and after they perform different tasks in the glove box, acquiring data from these tests and determining the accuracy of these results, interpreting and analyzing this data, and using the data to better understand how hand injuries are caused during EVAs.1 Some of these measurements include force readings, temperature readings, and micro-circulatory blood flow.1 The three glove conditions tested were ungloved (a comfort glove was worn to house the sensors), Series 4000, and Phase VI. The general approach/procedure for the glove sensor feasibility project is as follows: 1. Prepare test subject for testing. This includes attaching numerous sensors (approximately 50) to the test subject, wiring, and weaving the sensors and wires in the glove which helps to keep everything together. This also includes recording baseline moisture data using the Vapometer and MoistSense. 2. Pressurizing the glove box. Once the glove box is pressurized to the desired pressure (4.3 psid), testing can begin. 3. Testing. The test subject will perform a series of tests, some of which include pinching a load cell, making a fist, pushing down on a force plate, and picking up metal pegs, rotating them 90 degrees, and placing them back in the peg board. 4. Post glove box testing data collection. After the data is collected from inside the glove box, the Vapometer and MoistSense device will be used to collect moisture data from the subject's hand. 5. Survey. At the conclusion of testing, he/she will complete a survey that asks questions pertaining to comfort/discomfort levels of the glove, glove sizing, as well as offering any additional feedback.

  11. Thermal processing of EVA encapsulants and effects of formulation additives

    SciTech Connect

    Pern, F.J.; Glick, S.H.

    1996-05-01

    The authors investigated the in-situ processing temperatures and effects of various formulation additives on the formation of ultraviolet (UV) excitable chromophores, in the thermal lamination and curing of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulants. A programmable, microprocessor-controlled, double-bag vacuum laminator was used to study two commercial as formulated EVA films, A9918P and 15295P, and solution-cast films of Elvaxrm (EVX) impregnated with various curing agents and antioxidants. The results show that the actual measured temperatures of EVA lagged significantly behind the programmed profiles for the heating elements and were affected by the total thermal mass loaded inside the laminator chamber. The antioxidant Naugard P{trademark}, used in the two commercial EVA formulations, greatly enhances the formation of UV-excitable, short chromophores upon curing, whereas other tested antioxidants show little effect. A new curing agent chosen specifically for the EVA formulation modification produces little or no effect on chromophore formation, no bubbling problems in the glass/EVX/glass laminates, and a gel content of {approximately}80% when cured at programmed 155{degrees}C for 4 min. Also demonstrated is the greater discoloring effect with higher concentrations of curing-generated chromophores.

  12. Effects of EVA spacesuit glove on grasping and pinching tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appendino, Silvia; Battezzato, Alessandro; Chen Chen, Fai; Favetto, Alain; Mousavi, Mehdi; Pescarmona, Francesco

    2014-03-01

    The human hand has a wide range of degrees of freedom, allowing a great variety of movements, and is also one of the most sensitive parts of the human body. Due to these characteristics, it is the most important tool for astronauts to perform extravehicular activities (EVA). However, astronauts must wear mandatory EVA equipment to be protected from the harsh conditions in space and this strongly reduces hand performance, in particular as regards dexterity, tactile perception, mobility and fatigue. Several studies have been conducted to determine the influence of the EVA glove on manual capabilities, both in the past and more recently. This study presents experimental data regarding the performance decline occurring in terms of force and fatigue in the execution of grasping and pinching tasks when wearing an EVA glove, in pressurized and unpressurized conditions, compared with barehanded potential. Results show that wearing the unpressurized EVA glove hinders grip and lateral pinch performances, dropping exerted forces to about 50-70%, while it barely affects two- and three-finger pinch performances. On the other hand, wearing the pressurized glove worsens performances in all cases, reducing forces to about 10-30% of barehanded potential. The results are presented and compared with the previous literature.

  13. STS-37 crewmembers work with CETA during EVA training in JSC's WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-37 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Mission Specialist (MS) Jerry L. Ross and MS Jerome Apt operate crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) electrical hand pedal cart during training session in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Wearing extravehicular mobility units (EMUs), Ross and Apt practice a extravehicular activity (EVA) spacewalk they will perform in OV-104's payload bay during STS-37. CETA is a type of railroad hand cart planned as a spacewalker's transportation system along the truss of Space Station Freedom (SSF). Apt is pulling Ross along to test the cart's ability to carry a person plus cargo. SCUBA divers monitor astronauts' underwater activity.

  14. Mechanisms of Injury and Countermeasures for EVA Associated Upper Extremity Medical Issues: Extended Vent Tube Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jeff; Hoffman, Ron; Harvey, Craig; Bowen, C. K.; Hudy, C. E.; Tuxhorn, Jennifer; Gernhardt, Mike; Scheuring, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study is to determine the role that moisture plays in the injury to the fingers and fingernails during EVA training operations in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory. Current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU, with a PLSS) as configured in the NBL was used for all testing and a vent tube was extended down a single arm of the crewmember during the test; vent tube was moved between left and right arm to serve as experimental condition being investigated and the other arm served as control condition.

  15. Interviews with the Apollo lunar surface astronauts in support of planning for EVA systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, Mary M.; Eppler, Dean B.; Morrow, Daniel G.

    1994-01-01

    Focused interviews were conducted with the Apollo astronauts who landed on the moon. The purpose of these interviews was to help define extravehicular activity (EVA) system requirements for future lunar and planetary missions. Information from the interviews was examined with particular attention to identifying areas of consensus, since some commonality of experience is necessary to aid in the design of advanced systems. Results are presented under the following categories: mission approach; mission structure; suits; portable life support systems; dust control; gloves; automation; information, displays, and controls; rovers and remotes; tools; operations; training; and general comments. Research recommendations are offered, along with supporting information.

  16. STS-33 EVA Prep and Post with Gregory, Blaha, Carter, Thorton, and Musgrave in FFT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This video shows the crew in the airlock of the FFT, talking with technicians about the extravehicular activity (EVA) equipment. Thornton and Carter put on EVA suits and enter the airlock as the other crew members help with checklists.

  17. STS-64 Mission Onboard Photograph - Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Mark Lee (red stripe on extravehicular activity suit) tests the new backpack called Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER), a system designed for use in the event a crew member becomes untethered while conducting an EVA. The Lidar-In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) is shown in the foreground. The LITE payload employs lidar, which stands for light detection and ranging, a type of optical radar using laser pulses instead of radio waves to study Earth's atmosphere. Unprecedented views were obtained of cloud structures, storm systems, dust clouds, pollutants, forest burning, and surface reflectance. The STS-64 mission marked the first untethered U.S. EVA in 10 years, and was launched on September 9, 1994, aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery.

  18. Enhanced transdermal delivery of loratadine from the EVA matrix.

    PubMed

    Cho, Cheong-Weon; Choi, Jun-Shik; Kim, Seong-Jin; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2009-05-01

    Various enhancers, such as fatty acids (saturated, unsaturated), glycerides, propylene glycols, and non-ionic surfactants, have been incorporated in the loratadine-EVA matrix to increase the rate of skin permeation of loratadine from an EVA matrix. The enhancing effects of these enhancers on the skin permeation of loratadine were evaluated using a modified Keshary-Chien cell fitted with intact excised rat skin. The penetration enhancers showed a higher flux, probably due to the enhancing effect on the skin barrier, the stratum corneum. Among the enhancers used, such as the fatty acids, glycols, propylene glycols, and non-ionic surfactants, linoleic acid showed the best enhancement. For the enhanced transdermal delivery of loratadine, application of an EVA matrix containing a permeation enhancer might be useful in the development of a transdermal drug delivery system.

  19. Shoulder Injuries in US Astronauts Related to EVA Suit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, R. A.; McCulloch, P.; Van Baalen, Mary; Minard, Charles; Watson, Richard; Blatt, T.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: For every one hour spent performing extravehicular activity (EVA) in space, astronauts in the US space program spend approximately six to ten hours training in the EVA spacesuit at NASA-Johnson Space Center's Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL). In 1997, NASA introduced the planar hard upper torso (HUT) EVA spacesuit which subsequently replaced the existing pivoted HUT. An extra joint in the pivoted shoulder allows increased mobility but also increased complexity. Over the next decade a number of astronauts developed shoulder problems requiring surgical intervention, many of whom performed EVA training in the NBL. This study investigated whether changing HUT designs led to shoulder injuries requiring surgical repair. Methods: US astronaut EVA training data and spacesuit design employed were analyzed from the NBL data. Shoulder surgery data was acquired from the medical record database, and causal mechanisms were obtained from personal interviews Analysis of the individual HUT designs was performed as it related to normal shoulder biomechanics. Results: To date, 23 US astronauts have required 25 shoulder surgeries. Approximately 48% (11/23) directly attributed their injury to training in the planar HUT, whereas none attributed their injury to training in the pivoted HUT. The planar HUT design limits shoulder abduction to 90 degrees compared to approximately 120 degrees in the pivoted HUT. The planar HUT also forces the shoulder into a forward flexed position requiring active retraction and extension to increase abduction beyond 90 degrees. Discussion: Multiple factors are associated with mechanisms leading to shoulder injury requiring surgical repair. Limitations to normal shoulder mechanics, suit fit, donning/doffing, body position, pre-existing injury, tool weight and configuration, age, in-suit activity, and HUT design have all been identified as potential sources of injury. Conclusion: Crewmembers with pre-existing or current shoulder injuries or certain

  20. Crosscutting Development- EVA Tools and Geology Sample Acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    Exploration to all destinations has at one time or another involved the acquisition and return of samples and context data. Gathered at the summit of the highest mountain, the floor of the deepest sea, or the ice of a polar surface, samples and their value (both scientific and symbolic) have been a mainstay of Earthly exploration. In manned spaceflight exploration, the gathering of samples and their contextual information has continued. With the extension of collecting activities to spaceflight destinations comes the need for geology tools and equipment uniquely designed for use by suited crew members in radically different environments from conventional field geology. Beginning with the first Apollo Lunar Surface Extravehicular Activity (EVA), EVA Geology Tools were successfully used to enable the exploration and scientific sample gathering objectives of the lunar crew members. These early designs were a step in the evolution of Field Geology equipment, and the evolution continues today. Contemporary efforts seek to build upon and extend the knowledge gained in not only the Apollo program but a wealth of terrestrial field geology methods and hardware that have continued to evolve since the last lunar surface EVA. This paper is presented with intentional focus on documenting the continuing evolution and growing body of knowledge for both engineering and science team members seeking to further the development of EVA Geology. Recent engineering development and field testing efforts of EVA Geology equipment for surface EVA applications are presented, including the 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATs) field trial. An executive summary of findings will also be presented, detailing efforts recommended for exotic sample acquisition and pre-return curation development regardless of planetary or microgravity destination.

  1. Extravehicular Activity/Air Traffic Control (EVA/ATC) test report. [communication links to the astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomaro, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    During extravehicular activity (EVA), communications between the EVA astronaut and the space shuttle orbiter are maintained by means of transceiver installed in the environmental support system backpack. Onboard the orbiter, a transceiver line replaceable unit and its associated equipment performs the task of providing a communications link to the astronaut in the extravehicular activity/air traffic control (EVA/ATC) mode. Results of the acceptance tests that performed on the system designed and fabricated for EVA/ATC testing are discussed.

  2. The role of EVA on Space Shuttle. [experimental support and maintenance activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the history of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) through the Skylab Program and to outline the expected tasks and equipment capabilities projected for the Space Shuttle Program. Advantages offered by EVA as a tool to extend payload capabilities and effectiveness and economic advantages of using EVA will be explored. The presentation will conclude with some guidelines and recommendations for consideration by payload investigators in establishing concepts and designs utilizing EVA support.

  3. Medical, Psychophysiological, and Human Performance Problems During Extended EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session JP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: New Developments in the Assessment of the Risk of Decompression Sickness in Null Gravity During Extravehicular Activity; The Dynamic of Physiological Reactions of Cosmonauts Under the Influence of Repeated EVA Workouts, The Russian Experience; Medical Emergencies in Space; The Evolution from 'Physiological Adequacy' to 'Physiological Tuning'; Five Zones of Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Conflicting Temperatures on the Human Body, Physiological Consequences; Human Performance and Subjective Perception in Nonuniform Thermal Conditions; The Hand as a Control System, Implications for Hand-Finger Dexterity During Extended EVA; and Understanding the Skill of Extravehicular Mass Handling.

  4. Astronaut Jack Lousma seen outside Skylab space station during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, is seen outside the Skylab space station in Earth orbit during the August 5, 1973 Skylab 3 extravehicular activity (EVA) in this photographic reproduction taken from a television transmission made by a color TV camera aboard the space station. Lousma is at the Apollo Telescope Mount EVA work station assembling one of the two 55-foot long sectionalized poles for the twin pole solar shield which was deployed to help cool the Orbital Workshop. Part of the Airlock Module's thermal/meteoroid curtain is in the left foreground.

  5. Robonaut 2 - IVA Experiments On-Board ISS and Development Towards EVA Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diftler, Myron; Hulse, Aaron; Badger, Julia; Thackston, Allison; Rogers, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Robonaut 2 (R2) has completed its fixed base activities on-board the ISS and is scheduled to receive its climbing legs in early 2014. In its continuing line of firsts, the R2 torso finished up its on-orbit activities on its stanchion with the manipulation of space blanket materials and performed multiple tasks under teleoperation control by IVA astronauts. The successful completion of these two IVA experiments is a key step in Robonaut's progression towards an EVA capability. Integration with the legs and climbing inside the ISS will provide another important part of the experience that R2 will need prior to performing tasks on the outside of ISS. In support of these on-orbit activities, R2 has been traversing across handrails in simulated zero-g environments and working with EVA tools and equipment on the ground to determine manipulation strategies for an EVA Robonaut. R2 made significant advances in robotic manipulation of deformable materials in space while working with its softgoods task panel. This panel features quarter turn latches that secure a space blanket to the task panel structure. The space blanket covers two cloth cubes that are attached with Velcro to the structure. R2 was able to open and close the latches, pull back the blanket, and remove the cube underneath. R2 simulated cleaning up an EVA worksite as well, by replacing the cube and reattaching the blanket. In order to interact with the softgoods panel, R2 has both autonomously and with a human in the loop identified and localized these deformable objects. Using stereo color cameras, R2 identified characteristic elements on the softgoods panel then extracted the location and orientation of the object in its field of view using stereo disparity and kinematic transforms. R2 used both vision processing and supervisory control to successfully accomplish this important task. Teleoperation is a key capability for Robonaut's effectiveness as an EVA system. To build proficiency, crewmembers have

  6. Testing of an Ammonia EVA Vent Tool for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Stanewich, Brett J.; Wilhelm, Sheri Munekata

    2000-01-01

    When components of the International Space Station ammonia External Active Thermal Control System are replaced on-orbit, they must be vented immediately after removal from the system. Venting ensures that the component is not hard packed with liquid and thus does not pose a hazard. An extravehicular activity (EVA) vent tool has been developed to perform this function. However, there were concerns that the tool could whip, posing a hazard to the EVA astronaut, or would freeze. The ammonia vent tool was recently tested in a thermal/vacuum chamber to demonstrate that it would operate safely and would not freeze during venting. During the test, ammonia mimicking the venting conditions for six different heat exchanger initial conditions was passed through representative test articles. In the present work, the model that was used to develop the ammonia state and flow for the test points is discussed and the test setup and operation is described. The qualitative whipping and freezing results of the test are discussed and vent plume pressure measurements are described and interpreted.

  7. Astronaut Richard Gordon practices attaching camera to film EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., prime crew pilot for the Gemini 11 space flight, practices attaching to a Gemini boilerplate a camera which will film his extravehicular activity (EVA) outside the spacecraft. The training exercise is being conducted in the Astronaut Training Building, Kennedy Space Center, Florida.

  8. Astronaut Alan Bean with subpackages of the ALSEP during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot, traverses with the two subpackages of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) during the first Apollo 12 extravehicular activity (EVA). Bean deployed the ALSEP components 300 feet from the Lunar Module (LM). The LM and deployed erectable S-band antenna can be seen in the background.

  9. Commercial Spacewalking: Designing an EVA Qualification Program for Space Tourism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gast, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    In the near future, accessibility to space will be opened to anyone with the means and the desire to experience the weightlessness of microgravity, and to look out upon both the curvature of the Earth and the blackness of space, from the protected, shirt-sleeved environment of a commercial spacecraft. Initial forays will be short-duration, suborbital flights, but the experience and expertise of half a century of spaceflight will soon produce commercial vehicles capable of achieving low Earth orbit. Even with the commercial space industry still in its infancy, and manned orbital flight a number of years away, there is little doubt that there will one day be a feasible and viable market for those courageous enough to venture outside the vehicle and into the void, wearing nothing but a spacesuit, armed with nothing but preflight training. What that Extravehicular Activity (EVA) preflight training entails, however, is something that has yet to be defined. A number of significant factors will influence the composition of a commercial EVA training program, but a fundamental question remains: 'what minimum training guidelines must be met to ensure a safe and successful commercial spacewalk?' Utilizing the experience gained through the development of NASA's Skills program - designed to qualify NASA and International Partner astronauts for EVA aboard the International Space Station - this paper identifies the attributes and training objectives essential to the safe conduct of an EVA, and attempts to conceptually design a comprehensive training methodology meant to represent an acceptable qualification standard.

  10. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt standing next to boulder during third EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt is photographed standing next to a huge, split boulder during the third Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site on the Moon. Schmitt is the Apollo 17 lunar module pilot. This picture was taken by Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, commander.

  11. Television transmission of Astronaut Harrison Schmitt falling during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt loses his balance and heads for a fall during the second Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site, in this black and white reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by the RCA color TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Schmitt is the lunar module pilot.

  12. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt retrieving lunar samples during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison Schmitt, Apollo 17 lunar module pilot, with his adjustable sampling scoop, heads for a selected rock on the lunar surface to retrieve the sample for study. The action was photographed by Apollo 17 crew commander, Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan on the mission's second extravehicular activity (EVA-2), at Station 5 (Camelot Crater) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site.

  13. 8. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, GETTING OUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, GETTING OUT OF SPACE SUIT AFTER TESTING IN NEUTRAL BUOYANCY TANK. AVERAGE COST OF SUIT $1,000,000. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  14. Ordering Chaos: Eva Miller--Multnomah County Library, Portland, OR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Eva Miller has a knack for creating order out of disorder. She single-handedly brought Oregon's virtual reference service, Answerland, live in just under 90 days, says Rivkah Sass, now director of the Omaha Public Library. Miller created its web site, designed the graphics, developed marketing materials, and recruited and trained librarians--all…

  15. Polarization Processes of Nanocomposite Silicate-EVA and PP Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanari, Gian Carlo; Palmieri, Fabrizio; Testa, Luigi; Motori, Antonio; Saccani, Andrea; Patuelli, Francesca

    Recent works indicate that polypropylene (PP) and ethylene-vinylacetate (EVA) filled by nanosilicates may present low content of space charge and high electric strength. Investigations are being made to explain nanocomposite behaviour and characterize their electrical, thermal and mechanical properties. In this paper, the results of broad-band dielectric spectroscopy performed on EVA and PP filled by layered nanosized silicates are reported. Isochronal and isothermal curves of complex permittivity, as well as activation energies of the relaxation processes, are presented and discussed. Nanostructuration gives rise to substantial changes in the polarisation and dielectric loss behaviour. While the relaxation process of EVA, associated with glass transition of the material amorphous phase, results unchanged from base to nanostructured material, nanocomposites EVA and PP have shown the rise of a new process at higher temperatures respect to the typical host material processes, as well as a different distribution of relaxation processes. Changes in space charge accumulation in relation to the effectiveness of the purification process performed upon nanostructured materials are also reported: while the dispersion of the clean clays leads to a reduction of the space charge, especially at high fields, an unclean filler gives rise to significant homo-charge accumulation and interfacial polarisation phenomena.

  16. Astronaut James Irwin uses scoop during Apollo 15 EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot, uses a scoop in making a trench in the lunar soil during Apollo 15 extravehicular activity (EVA). Mount Hadley rises approximately 14,765 feet (about 4,500 meters) above the plain in the background.

  17. EVA Metro Sedan Electric Propulsion System Test and Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    This report provides the procedure and results of the performance evaluation of an EVA Metro Sedan propulsion system. Data is provided for the automatic transmission, solid state dc motor controller and the dc motor as well as the entire propulsion system. Algorithms used on the automatic data acquisition system are included. (Author)

  18. EVA: Collaborative Distributed Learning Environment Based in Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheremetov, Leonid; Tellez, Rolando Quintero

    In this paper, a Web-based learning environment developed within the project called Virtual Learning Spaces (EVA, in Spanish) is presented. The environment is composed of knowledge, collaboration, consulting, experimentation, and personal spaces as a collection of agents and conventional software components working over the knowledge domains. All…

  19. EVA: An Interactive Web-Based Collaborative Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheremetov, Leonid; Arenas, Adolfo Guzman

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a Web-based learning environment developed within the project called Virtual Learning Spaces (EVA, in Spanish) is described. The environment is composed of knowledge, collaboration, consulting and experimentation spaces as a collection of agents and conventional software components working over the knowledge domains. All user…

  20. Space Station Human Factors Research Review. Volume 1: EVA Research and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc M. (Editor); Vykukal, H. C. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    An overview is presented of extravehicular activity (EVA) research and development activities at Ames. The majority of the program was devoted to presentations by the three contractors working in parallel on the EVA System Phase A Study, focusing on Implications for Man-Systems Design. Overhead visuals are included for a mission results summary, space station EVA requirements and interface accommodations summary, human productivity study cross-task coordination, and advanced EVAS Phase A study implications for man-systems design. Articles are also included on subsea approach to work systems development and advanced EVA system design requirements.

  1. The Use of Human Modeling of EVA Tasks as a Systems Engineering Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dischinger, H. Charles, Jr.; Schmidt, Henry J.; Kross, Dennis A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Computer-generated human models have been used in aerospace design for a decade. They have come to be highly reliable for worksite analysis of certain types of EVA tasks. In many design environments, this analysis comes after the structural design is largely complete. However, the use of these models as a development tool is gaining acceptance within organizations that practice good systems engineering processes. The design of the United States Propulsion Module for the International Space Station provides an example of this application. The Propulsion Module will provide augmentation to the propulsion capability supplied by the Russian Service Module Zvezda. It is a late addition to the set of modules provided by the United States to the ISS Program, and as a result, faces design challenges that result from the level of immaturity of its integration into the Station. Among these are heat dissipation and physical envelopes. Since the rest of the Station was designed to maximize the use of the cooling system, little margin is available for the addition of another module. The Propulsion Module will attach at the forward end of the Station, and will be between the Orbiter and the rest of ISS. Since cargo must be removed from the Payload Bay and transferred to Station by the Canadarm, there is a potential for protrusions from the module, such as thruster booms, to interfere with robotic operations. These and similar engineering issues must be addressed as part of the development. In the implementation of good system design, all design solutions should be analyzed for compatibility with all affected subsystems. Human modeling has been used in this project to provide rapid input to system trades of design concepts. For example, the placement of radiators and avionics components for optimization of heat dissipation had to be examined for feasibility of EVA translation paths and worksite development. Likewise, the location of and mechanism for the retraction of thruster

  2. Effect of post space preparation on the sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate and Gutta-percha: A bacterial leakage study

    PubMed Central

    Metgud, Sandeep S; Shah, Harsh H; Hiremath, Hemalatha T; Agarwal, Deepali; Reddy, Kartik

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of post space preparation on the sealing ability of teeth obturated with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Gutta-percha. Materials and Methods: Fifty intact human mandibular premolars, after decoronation and biomechanical preparation, were randomly divided into three experimental groups. In Group A (n = 10), the canals were obturated with Gutta-percha using cold lateral compaction technique, followed by immediate post space preparation. In Group B (n = 10), the canals were obturated with 8 mm of MTA and in Group C (n = 10), sectional obturation with 4 mm of MTA was done, followed by delayed post space preparation. All specimens were subjected to bacterial leakage analysis, and the occurrence of turbidity was checked. Results: All specimens in the lateral compaction group leaked. The mean number of days at which leakage was observed in Groups A, B and C were 18.5 days, 93.6 days and 95.5 days. Conclusions: MTA can be considered as an alternative to Gutta-percha as an apical third restorative material for teeth indicated for post and core, as it demonstrates better-sealing ability compared with Gutta-percha. Further, the removal of set MTA for post space preparation does not disrupt the integrity of the remaining apical MTA. PMID:26180414

  3. Information Flow Model of Human Extravehicular Activity Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Matthew J.; McGuire, Kerry M.; Feigh, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Future human spaceflight missions will face the complex challenge of performing human extravehicular activity (EVA) beyond the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment. Astronauts will become increasingly isolated from Earth-based mission support and thus will rely heavily on their own decision-making capabilities and onboard tools to accomplish proposed EVA mission objectives. To better address time delay communication issues, EVA characters, e.g. flight controllers, astronauts, etc., and their respective work practices and roles need to be better characterized and understood. This paper presents the results of a study examining the EVA work domain and the personnel that operate within it. The goal is to characterize current and historical roles of ground support, intravehicular (IV) crew and EV crew, their communication patterns and information needs. This work provides a description of EVA operations and identifies issues to be used as a basis for future investigation.

  4. Crew Systems for Asteroid Exploration: Concepts for Lightweight & Low Volume EVA Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Rob; Calle, Carlos; Mantovani, James

    2013-01-01

    This RFI response is targeting Area 5. Crew Systems for Asteroid Exploration: concepts for lightweight and low volume robotic and extra-vehicular activity (EVA) systems, such as space suits, tools, translation aids, stowage containers, and other equipment. The NASA KSC Surface Systems Office, Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations (GMRO) Lab and the Electrostatics & Surface Physics Lab (ESPL) are dedicated to developing technologies for operating in regolith environments on target body surfaces. We have identified two technologies in our current portfolio that are highly relevant and useful for crews that will visit a re-directed asteroid in Cis-Lunar Space. Both technologies are at a high TRL of 5/6 and could be rapidly implemented in time for an ARM mission in this decade.

  5. High Performance EVA Glove Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, C. R.; Benson, E.; England, S.; Charvat, J.; Norcross, J. R.; McFarland, S. M.; Rajulu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Human hands play a significant role during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) missions and Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) training events, as they are needed for translating and performing tasks in the weightless environment. Because of this high frequency usage, hand and arm related injuries are known to occur during EVA and EVA training in the NBL. The primary objectives of this investigation were to: 1) document all known EVA glove related injuries and circumstances of these incidents, 2) determine likely risk factors, and 3) recommend interventions where possible that could be implemented in the current and future glove designs. METHODS: The investigation focused on the discomforts and injuries of U.S. crewmembers who had worn the pressurized Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) spacesuit and experienced 4000 Series or Phase VI glove related incidents during 1981 to 2010 for either EVA ground training or in-orbit flight. We conducted an observational retrospective case-control investigation using 1) a literature review of known injuries, 2) data mining of crew injury, glove sizing, and hand anthropometry databases, 3) descriptive statistical analyses, and finally 4) statistical risk correlation and predictor analyses to better understand injury prevalence and potential causation. Specific predictor statistical analyses included use of principal component analyses (PCA), multiple logistic regression, and survival analyses (Cox proportional hazards regression). Results of these analyses were computed risk variables in the forms of odds ratios (likelihood of an injury occurring given the magnitude of a risk variable) and hazard ratios (likelihood of time to injury occurrence). Due to the exploratory nature of this investigation, we selected predictor variables significant at p=0.15. RESULTS: Through 2010, there have been a total of 330 NASA crewmembers, from which 96 crewmembers performed 322 EVAs during 1981-2010, resulting in 50 crewmembers being injured inflight and 44

  6. Regenerative Blower for EVA Suit Ventilation Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather; Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo

    2008-01-01

    Portable life support systems in future space suits will include a ventilation subsystem driven by a dedicated fan. This ventilation fan must meet challenging requirements for pressure rise, flow rate, efficiency, size, safety, and reliability. This paper describes research and development that showed the feasibility of a regenerative blower that is uniquely suited to meet these requirements. We proved feasibility through component tests, blower tests, and design analysis. Based on the requirements for the Constellation Space Suit ventilation fan, we designed the critical elements of the blower. We measured the effects of key design parameters on blower performance using separate effects tests, and used the results of these tests to design a regenerative blower that will meet the ventilation fan requirements. We assembled a proof-of-concept blower and measured its performance at low pressures that simulate a PLSS environment. We obtained head/flow performance curves over a range of operating speeds, identified the maximum efficiency point for the blower, and used these results to specify the design and operating conditions for the ventilation fan. We designed a compact motor that can drive the blower under all anticipated operating requirements and operate with high efficiency during normal operation. We identified materials for the blower that will enhance safety for operation in a lunar environment. We produced a solid model that illustrates the final design. The proof-of-concept blower produced the flow rate and pressure rise needed for the CSSS ventilation subsystem while running at 5400 rpm and consuming only 9 W of electric power and using a non-optimized, commercial motor and controller and inefficient bearings. Scaling the test results to a complete design shows that a lightweight, compact, reliable, and low power blower can meet the performance requirements for future PLSSs.

  7. A mobile transporter concept for EVA assembly of future spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Judith J.; Bush, Harold G.; Heard, Walter L., Jr.; Lake, Mark S.; Jensen, J. Kermit

    1990-01-01

    This paper details the ground test program for the NASA Langley Research Center Mobile Transporter concept. The Mobile Transporter would assist EVA astronauts in the assembly of the Space Station Freedom. 1-g and simulated O-g (neutral buoyancy) tests were conducted to evaluate the use of the Mobile Transporter. A three-bay (44 struts) orthogonal tetrahedral truss configuration with a 15-foot-square cross section was repeatedly assembled by a single pair of pressure suited test subjects working from the Mobile Transporter astronaut positioning devices. The average unit assembly time was 28 seconds/strut. The results of these tests indicate that the use of a Mobile Transporter for EVA assembly of Space Station size structure is viable and practical. Additionally, the Mobile Transporter could be used to construct other spacecraft such as the submillimeter astronomical laboratory, space crane, and interplanetary (i.e., Mars and lunar) spacecraft.

  8. High-Pressure Oxygen Generation for Outpost EVA Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, Frank F.; Conger, Bruce; Ewert, Michael K.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2009-01-01

    The amount of oxygen consumption for crew extravehicular activity (EVA) in future lunar exploration missions will be significant. Eight technologies to provide high pressure EVA O2 were investigated. They are: high pressure O2 storage, liquid oxygen (LOX) storage followed by vaporization, scavenging LOX from Lander followed by vaporization, LOX delivery followed by sorption compression, water electrolysis followed by compression, stand-alone high pressure water electrolyzer, Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and Power Elements sharing a high pressure water electrolyzer, and ECLSS and In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Elements sharing a high pressure electrolyzer. A trade analysis was conducted comparing launch mass and equivalent system mass (ESM) of the eight technologies in open and closed ECLSS architectures. Technologies considered appropriate for the two architectures were selected and suggested for development.

  9. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt standing next to boulder during third EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt is photographed standing next to a huge, split boulder at Station 6 (base of North Massif) during the third Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site on the Moon. Notice the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) in the left foreground. Schmitt is the Apollo 17 lunar module pilot. This picture was taken by Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, commander.

  10. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt standing next to boulder during third EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt is photographed standing next to a huge, split boulder during the third Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site on the Moon. The lunar rover, which transported Schmitt and Eugene A. Cernan, mission commander, to this extravehicular station from their Lunar Module, is seen in the background. Schmitt is the Apollo 17 lunar module pilot. The mosaic is made from two frames from Apollo 17 Hasselblad magaine 140.

  11. Enhanced Controlled Transdermal Delivery of Ambroxol from the EVA Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Cho, C. W.; Kim, D. B.; Cho, H. W.; Shin, S. C.

    2012-01-01

    To avoid the systemic adverse effects that might occur after oral administration, transdermal delivery of ambroxol was studied as a method for maintaining proper blood levels for an extended period. Release of ambroxol according to concentration and temperature was determined, and permeation of drug through rat skin was studied using two chamber-diffusion cells. The solubility according to PEG 400 volume fraction was highest at 40% PEG 400. The rate of drug release from the EVA matrix increased with increased temperature and drug loading doses. A linear relationship existed between the release rate and the square root of loading rate. The activation energy (Ea) was measured from the slope of the plot of log P versus 1000/T and was found to be 10.71, 10.39, 10.33 and 9.87 kcal/mol for 2, 3, 4 and 5% loading dose from the EVA matrix, respectively. To increase the permeation rate of ambroxol across rat skin from the EVA matrix, various penetration enhancers such as fatty acids (saturated, unsaturated), propylene glycols, glycerides, pyrrolidones, and non-ionic surfactants were used. The enhancing effects of the incorporated enhancers on the skin permeation of ambroxol were evaluated using Franz diffusion cells fitted with intact excised rat skin at 37° using 40% PEG 400 solution as a receptor medium. Among the enhancers used, polyoxyethylene-2-oleyl ether increased the permeation rate by 4.25-fold. In conclusion, EVA matrix containing plasticizer and permeation enhancer could be developed for enhanced transdermal delivery of ambroxol. PMID:23325993

  12. Apollo 16 lunar module 'Orion' photographed from distance during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 Lunar Module 'Orion' is photographed from a distance by Astronaut Chares M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, aboard the moving Lunar Roving Vehicle. Astronauts Duke and John W. Young, commander, were returing from the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2). The RCA color television camera mounted on the LRV is in the foreground. A portion of the LRV's high-gain antenna is at top left.

  13. Custom Unit Pump Design and Testing for the EVA PLSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuller, Michael; Kurwitz, Cable; Goldman, Jeff; Morris, Kim; Trevino, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the effort by the Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES) and Honeywell for NASA to design and test a pre-flight prototype pump for use in the Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) portable life support subsystem (PLSS). Major design decisions were driven by the need to reduce the pump s mass, power, and volume compared to the existing PLSS pump. In addition, the pump must accommodate a much wider range of abnormal conditions than the existing pump, including vapor/gas bubbles and increased pressure drop when employed to cool two suits simultaneously. A positive displacement, external gear type pump was selected because it offers the most compact and highest efficiency solution over the required range of flow rates and pressure drops. An additional benefit of selecting a gear pump design is that it is self priming and capable of ingesting non-condensable gas without becoming air locked. The chosen pump design consists of a 28 V DC, brushless, sealless, permanent magnet motor driven, external gear pump that utilizes a Honeywell development that eliminates the need for magnetic coupling. Although the planned flight unit will use a sensorless motor with custom designed controller, the pre-flight prototype to be provided for this project incorporates Hall effect sensors, allowing an interface with a readily available commercial motor controller. This design approach reduced the cost of this project and gives NASA more flexibility in future PLSS laboratory testing. The pump design was based on existing Honeywell designs, but incorporated features specifically for the PLSS application, including all of the key features of the flight pump. Testing at TEES verified that the pump meets the design requirements for range of flow rates, pressure drop, power consumption, working fluid temperature, operating time, gas ingestion , and restart capability under both ambient and vacuum conditions. The pump operated between 40 and 240 lbm/hr flowrate, 35 to 100 F

  14. UV aging and outdoor exposure correlation for EVA PV encapsulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Charles G.; Bokria, Jayesh G.; Woods, Joseph T.

    2013-09-01

    A widely cited approximation in the solar industry is that "one week of xenon arc weather-o-meter exposure is equivalent to one year of field exposure." This statement is a generalization of test data generated in the mid-1990s as part of the NREL managed PVMaT-3 project. This approximation was based entirely upon yellowing of first generation EVA-based encapsulants in two different accelerated test conditions, xenon arc and mirror accelerated outdoor aging. First generation EVA encapsulants were developed by STR under the JPL solar project (1975-1986) and exhibit yellowing (or browning) with exposure to UV and heat. This yellowing mechanism was understood and resolved with newer generation EVA encapsulation products introduced in late 1990s. Modules were manufactured at the end of the PVMaT-3 project that included both older and newer generation encapsulants. Those modules were on a two-axis tracker in Arizona from 1996 to 2012 and are now undergoing diagnostic tests. Older generation standard-cure encapsulant used in these modules exhibited severe browning over cells and the modules exhibit approximate power loss of about two percent per year. This same standard cure encapsulant material has been tested with updated xenon arc exposure methods and optical transmission tests to estimate the loss in power due only to browning and reduction in light transmission.

  15. Next Generation Life Support: High Performance EVA Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Sarah K.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the High Performance EVA Glove task are to develop advanced EVA gloves for future human space exploration missions and generate corresponding standards by which progress may be quantitatively assessed. New technologies and manufacturing techniques will be incorporated into the new gloves to address finger and hand mobility, injury reduction and durability in nonpristine environments. Three prototypes will be developed, each focusing on different technological advances. A robotic assist glove will integrate a powered grasping system into the current EVA glove design to reduce astronaut hand fatigue and hand injuries. A mechanical counter pressure (MCP) glove will be developed to further explore the potential of MCP technology and assess its capability for countering the effects of vacuum or low pressure environments on the body by using compression fabrics or materials to apply the necessary pressure. A gas pressurized glove, incorporating new technologies, will be the most flight-like of the three prototypes. Advancements include the development and integration of aerogel insulation, damage sensing components, dust-repellant coatings, and dust tolerant bearings.

  16. Maturing Pump Technology for EVA Applications in a Collaborative Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgson, Edward; Dionne, Steven; Gervais, Edward; Anchondo, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The transition from low earth orbit Extravehicular Activity (EVA) for construction and maintenance activities to planetary surface EVA on asteroids, moons, and, ultimately, Mars demands a new spacesuit system. NASA's development of that system has resulted in dramatically different pumping requirements from those in the current spacesuit system. Hamilton Sundstrand, Cascon, and NASA are collaborating to develop and mature a pump that will reliably meet those new requirements in space environments and within the design constraints imposed by spacesuit system integration. That collaboration, which began in the NASA purchase of a pump prototype for test evaluation, is now entering a new phase of development. A second generation pump reflecting the lessons learned in NASA's testing of the original prototype will be developed under Hamilton Sundstrand internal research funding and ultimately tested in an integrated Advanced Portable Life Support System (APLSS) in NASA laboratories at the Johnson Space Center. This partnership is providing benefit to both industry and NASA by supplying a custom component for EVA integrated testing at no cost to the government while providing test data for industry that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to duplicate in industry laboratories. This paper discusses the evolving collaborative process, component requirements and design development based on early NASA test experience, component stand alone test results, and near term plans for integrated testing at JSCs.

  17. Influence of the length of remaining root canal filling and post space preparation on the coronal leakage of Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Mozini, Alexandra Conca Alves; Vansan, Luis P.; Sousa Neto, Manoel D.; Pietro, Rosimeire

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the sealing ability of different lengths of remaining root canal filling and post space preparation against coronal leakage of Enterococcus faecalis. Forty-one roots of maxillary incisors were biomechanically prepared, maintaining standardized canal diameter at the middle and coronal thirds. The roots were autoclaved and all subsequent steps were undertaken in a laminar flow chamber. The canals of 33 roots were obturated with AH Plus sealer and gutta-percha. The root canal fillings were reduced to 3 predetermined lengths (n=11): G1=6 mm, G2=4 mm and G3=2 mm. The remaining roots served as positive and negative controls. Bacterial leakage test apparatuses were fabricated with the roots attached to Eppendorf tubes keeping 2 mm of apex submerged in BHI in glass flasks. The specimens received an E. faecalis inoculum of 1 x 107 cfu/mL every 3 days and were observed for bacterial leakage daily during 60 days. Data were submitted to ANOVA, Tukey’s test and Fisher’s test. At 60 days, G1 (6 mm) and G2 (4 mm) presented statistically similar results (p>0.05) (54.4% of specimens with bacterial leakage) and both groups differed significantly (p<0.01) from G3 (2 mm), which presented 100% of specimens with E. faecalis leakage. It may be concluded that the shortest endodontic obturation remnant leaked considerably more than the other lengths, although none of the tested conditions avoids coronal leakage of E. faecalis. PMID:24031339

  18. Mobile Agents: A Distributed Voice-Commanded Sensory and Robotic System for Surface EVA Assistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Alena, Rick; Crawford, Sekou; Dowding, John; Graham, Jeff; Kaskiris, Charis; Tyree, Kim S.; vanHoof, Ronnie

    2003-01-01

    A model-based, distributed architecture integrates diverse components in a system designed for lunar and planetary surface operations: spacesuit biosensors, cameras, GPS, and a robotic assistant. The system transmits data and assists communication between the extra-vehicular activity (EVA) astronauts, the crew in a local habitat, and a remote mission support team. Software processes ("agents"), implemented in a system called Brahms, run on multiple, mobile platforms, including the spacesuit backpacks, all-terrain vehicles, and robot. These "mobile agents" interpret and transform available data to help people and robotic systems coordinate their actions to make operations more safe and efficient. Different types of agents relate platforms to each other ("proxy agents"), devices to software ("comm agents"), and people to the system ("personal agents"). A state-of-the-art spoken dialogue interface enables people to communicate with their personal agents, supporting a speech-driven navigation and scheduling tool, field observation record, and rover command system. An important aspect of the engineering methodology involves first simulating the entire hardware and software system in Brahms, and then configuring the agents into a runtime system. Design of mobile agent functionality has been based on ethnographic observation of scientists working in Mars analog settings in the High Canadian Arctic on Devon Island and the southeast Utah desert. The Mobile Agents system is developed iteratively in the context of use, with people doing authentic work. This paper provides a brief introduction to the architecture and emphasizes the method of empirical requirements analysis, through which observation, modeling, design, and testing are integrated in simulated EVA operations.

  19. Effect of VA and MWNT contents on the rheological and physical properties of EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Ho; Lee, Seungwon; Kim, Byoung Chul; Shin, Bong-Seob; Jeon, Jong-Young; Chae, Dong Wook

    2016-02-01

    Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymers with two different VA contents (15 and 33 wt.%, denoted by EVA15 and EVA33, respectively) were melt compounded with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and the effect of VA and nanotube contents on the rheological, thermal and morphological properties was investigated. The addition of nanotubes into both EVAs increased the onset temperature of crystallization and broadened the peak, but further addition from 3 wt.% slightly decreased the temperature with increasing nanotube contents. In the wide angle X-ray diffraction patterns the peak of EVA15 was little affected by the presence of nanotubes but that of EVA33 slightly shifted to higher degree and became sharper with increasing nanotube contents. Dynamic viscosity (η') increased with nanotube contents giving abrupt increase at 2 wt.% nanotubes. Loss tangent decreased with increasing nanotube contents exhibiting the plateau-like behavior over most of the frequency range from 2 wt.% nanotubes. In the Casson plot, yield stress increased with nanotube content and its increasing extent was more notable for more VA content. In the Cole-Cole plot, the presence of nanotubes from 2 wt.% gave rise to the deviation from the single master curve by decreasing the slope. The deviated extent of EVA33 became more remarkable with increasing nanotube contents than that of EVA15. The stress-strain curve showed that more improved tensile modulus and yield stress were achieved by the introduction of MWNTs for EVA 33 than for EVA15. Tensile strength of EVA33 increased with increasing nanotube contents, while that of EVA15 decreased.

  20. Astronaut Russell Schweickart photographed during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Russell L. Schweickart, lunar module pilot, operates a 70mm Hasselblad camera during his extravehicular activity on the fourth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The Command/Service Module and the Lunar Module 3 'Spider' are docked. This view was taken form the Command Module 'Gumdrop'. Schweickart, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), is standing in 'golden slippers' on the Lunar Module porch. On his back, partially visible, are a Portable Life Support System (PLSS) and an Oxygen Purge System (OPS).

  1. Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Space Suit and EVA System Architecture Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowie, Jonathan T.; Blanco, Raul A.; Watson, Richard D.; Kelly, Cody; Buffington, Jesse; Sipila, Stephanie A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) space suit and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) architecture trade study and the current state of the work to mature the requirements and products to the mission concept review level. The mission requirements and the resulting concept of operations will be discussed. A historical context will be presented as to present the similarities and differences from previous NASA missions. That will set the stage for the trade study where all options for both pressure garment and life support were considered. The rationale for the architecture decisions will then be presented. Since the trade study did identity risks, the subsequent tests and analyses that mitigated the risks will be discussed. Lastly, the current state of the effort will be provided.

  2. Regenerative Blower for EVA Suit Ventilation Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Paul, Heather L.

    2010-01-01

    Portable life support systems in future space suits will include a ventilation subsystem driven by a dedicated fan. This ventilation fan must meet challenging requirements for pressure rise, flow rate, efficiency, size, safety, and reliability. This paper describes research and development that showed the feasibility of a regenerative blower that is uniquely suited to meet these requirements. We proved feasibility through component tests, blower tests, and design analysis. Based on the requirements for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) ventilation fan, we designed the critical elements of the blower. We measured the effects of key design parameters on blower performance using separate effects tests, and used the results of these tests to design a regenerative blower that will meet the ventilation fan requirements. We assembled a proof-of-concept blower and measured its performance at sub-atmospheric pressures that simulate a PLSS ventilation loop environment. Head/flow performance and maximum efficiency point data were used to specify the design and operating conditions for the ventilation fan. We identified materials for the blower that will enhance safety for operation in a lunar environment, and produced a solid model that illustrates the final design. The proof-of-concept blower produced the flow rate and pressure rise needed for the CSSE ventilation subsystem while running at 5400 rpm, consuming only 9 W of electric power using a non-optimized, commercial motor and controller and inefficient bearings. Scaling the test results to a complete design shows that a lightweight, compact, reliable, and low power regenerative blower can meet the performance requirements for future space suit life support systems.

  3. Biosensors for EVA: Improved Instrumentation for Ground-based Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soller, B.; Ellerby, G.; Zou, F.; Scott, P.; Jin, C.; Lee, S. M. C.; Coates, J.

    2010-01-01

    During lunar excursions in the EVA suit, real-time measurement of metabolic rate is required to manage consumables and guide activities to ensure safe return to the base. Metabolic rate, or oxygen consumption (VO2), is normally measured from pulmonary parameters but cannot be determined with standard techniques in the oxygen-rich environment of a spacesuit. Our group has developed novel near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) methods to calculate muscle oxygen saturation (SmO 2), hematocrit, and pH, and we recently demonstrated that we can use our NIRS sensor to measure VO 2 on the leg during cycling. Our NSBRI project has 4 objectives: (1) increase the accuracy of the metabolic rate calculation through improved prediction of stroke volume; (2) investigate the relative contributions of calf and thigh oxygen consumption to metabolic rate calculation for walking and running; (3) demonstrate that the NIRS-based noninvasive metabolic rate methodology is sensitive enough to detect decrement in VO 2 in a space analog; and (4) improve instrumentation to allow testing within a spacesuit. Over the past year we have made progress on all four objectives, but the most significant progress was made in improving the instrumentation. The NIRS system currently in use at JSC is based on fiber optics technology. Optical fiber bundles are used to deliver light from a light source in the monitor to the patient, and light reflected back from the patient s muscle to the monitor for spectroscopic analysis. The fiber optic cables are large and fragile, and there is no way to get them in and out of the test spacesuit used for ground-based studies. With complimentary funding from the US Army, we undertook a complete redesign of the sensor and control electronics to build a novel system small enough to be used within the spacesuit and portable enough to be used by a combat medic. In the new system the filament lamp used in the fiber optic system was replaced with a novel broadband near infrared

  4. Simulation and preparation of surface EVA in reduced gravity at the Marseilles Bay subsea analogue sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, P.; Gardette, B.; Chirié, B.; Collina-Girard, J.; Delauze, H. G.

    2012-12-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA) of astronauts during space missions is simulated nowadays underwater in neutral buoyancy facilities. Certain aspects of weightlessness can be reproduced underwater by adding buoyancy to a diver-astronaut, therefore exposing the subject to the difficulties of working without gravity. Such tests were done at the COMEX' test pool in Marseilles in the 1980s to train for a French-Russian mission to the MIR station, for the development of the European HERMES shuttle and the COLUMBUS laboratory. However, space agencies are currently studying missions to other destinations than the International Space Station in orbit, such as the return to the Moon, NEO (near-Earth objects) or Mars. All these objects expose different gravities: Moon has one sixth of Earth's gravity, Mars has a third of Earth's gravity and asteroids have virtually no surface gravity; the astronaut "floats" above the ground. The preparation of such missions calls for a new concept in neutral buoyancy training, not on man-made structures, but on natural terrain, underwater, to simulate EVA operations such as sampling, locomotion or even anchoring in low gravity. Underwater sites can be used not only to simulate the reduced gravity that astronauts will experience during their field trips, also human factors like stress are more realistically reproduced in such environment. The Bay of Marseille hosts several underwater sites that can be used to simulate various geologic morphologies, such as sink-holes which can be used to simulate astronaut descends into craters, caves where explorations of lava tubes can be trained or monolithic rock structures that can be used to test anchoring devices (e.g., near Earth objects). Marseilles with its aerospace and maritime/offshore heritage hosts the necessary logistics and expertise that is needed to perform such simulations underwater in a safe manner (training of astronaut-divers in local test pools, research vessels, subsea robots and

  5. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt collects lunar rake samples during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt collects lunar rake samples at Station 1 during the first Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. This picture was taken by Astronatu Eugene Cernan, Apollo 17 commander. Schmitt is the lunar module pilot. The lunar rake, An Apollo lunar geology hand tool, is used to collect discrete samples of rocks and rock chips ranging in size from one-half inch (1.3 cm) to one inch (2.5 cm).

  6. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt collects lunar rake samples during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt collects lunar rake samples at Station 1 during the first Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. This picture was taken by Astronaut Eugene Cernan, Apollo 17 commander. Schmitt is the lunar module pilot. The lunar rake, an Apollo lunar geology hand tool, is used to collect discrete samples of rocks and rock chips ranging in size from one-half inch (1.3 cm) to one inch (2.5 cm).

  7. Baseline tests of the EVA contractor electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozek, J. M.; Tryon, H. B.; Slavick, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    The EVA Contactor four door sedan, an electric passenger vehicle, was tested to characterize the state-of-the-art of electric vehicles. It is a four passenger sedan that was converted to an electric vehicle. It is powered by 16 series connected 6 volt electric vehicle batteries through a four step contactor controller actuated by a foot accelerator pedal. The controller changes the voltage applied to the separately excited DC motor. The braking system is a vacuum assisted hydraulic braking system. Regenerative braking was also provided.

  8. Boudreaux the Robot (a.k.a. EVA Robotic Assistant)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shillcutt, Kimberly; Burridge, Robert; Graham, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    The EVA Robotic Assistant is a prototype for an autonomous rover designed to assist human astronauts. The primary focus of the research is to explore the interaction between humans and robots, particularly in extreme environments, and to develop a software infrastructure that could be applied to any type of assistant robot, whether for planetary exploration or orbital missions. This paper describes the background and current status of the project, the types of scenarios addressed in field demonstrations, the hardware and software that comprise the current prototype, and future research plans.

  9. Astronaut Thomas Mattingly performs EVA during Apollo 16 transearth coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Thomas K. Mattingly II, command module pilot of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, performs extravehicular activity (EVA) during the Apollo 16 transearth coast. mattingly is assisted by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. Mattingly inspected the SIM bay of the Service Module, and retrieved film from the Mapping and Panoramic cameras. Mattingly is wearing the helmet of Astronaut John W. Young, commander. The helmet's lunar extravehicular visor assembly helped protect Mattingly's eyes frmo the bright sun. This view is a frame from motion picture film exposed by a 16mm Maurer camera.

  10. Apollo 16 lunar module 'Orion' photographed from distance during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 Lunar Module 'Orion' is photographed from a distance by Astronaut Chares M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, aboard the moving Lunar Roving Vehicle. Astronauts Duke and John W. Young, commander, were returning from the excursion to Stone Mountain during the second Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2). The RCA color television camera mounted on the LRV is in the foreground. A portion of the LRV's high-gain antenna is at top left. Smoky Mountain rises behind the LM in this north-looking view at the Descartes landing site.

  11. STS-118 Astronauts Rick Mastracchio and Clay Anderson Perform EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    As the construction continued on the International Space Station (ISS), STS-118 astronaut and mission specialist Rick Mastracchio was anchored on the foot restraint of the Canadarm2 as he participated in the third session of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) for the mission. Assisting Mastracchio was Expedition 15 flight engineer Clay Anderson (out of frame). During the 5 hour, 28 minute space walk, the two relocated the S-band Antenna Sub-Assembly from the Port 6 (P6) truss to the Port 1 (P1) truss, installed a new transponder on P1 and retrieved the P6 transponder.

  12. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Power, Avionics, and Software (PAS) 101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irimies, David

    2011-01-01

    EVA systems consist of a spacesuit or garment, a PLSS, a PAS system, and spacesuit interface hardware. The PAS system is responsible for providing power for the suit, communication of several types of data between the suit and other mission assets, avionics hardware to perform numerous data display and processing functions, and information systems that provide crewmembers data to perform their tasks with more autonomy and efficiency. Irimies discussed how technology development efforts have advanced the state-of-the-art in these areas and shared technology development challenges.

  13. Underwater EVA training in the WETF with astronaut Robert L. Stewart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Underwater extravehicular activity (EVA) training in the weightless environment training facility (WETF) with astronaut Robert L. Stewart. Stewart is simulating a planned EVA using the mobile foot restraint device and a one-G version of the Canadian-built remote manipulator system.

  14. An Experimental Investigation of Dextrous Robots Using EVA Tools and Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Robert; Culbert, Christopher; Rehnmark, Frederik

    2001-01-01

    This investigation of robot capabilities with extravehicular activity (EVA) equipment looks at how improvements in dexterity are enabling robots to perform tasks once thought to be beyond machines. The approach is qualitative, using the Robonaut system at the Johnson Space Center (JSC), performing task trials that offer a quick look at this system's high degree of dexterity and the demands of EVA. Specific EVA tools attempted include tether hooks, power torque tools, and rock scoops, as well as conventional tools like scissors, wire strippers, forceps, and wrenches. More complex EVA equipment was also studied, with more complete tasks that mix tools, EVA hand rails, tethers, tools boxes, PIP pins, and EVA electrical connectors. These task trials have been ongoing over an 18 month period, as the Robonaut system evolved to its current 43 degree of freedom (DOF) configuration, soon to expand to over 50. In each case, the number of teleoperators is reported, with rough numbers of attempts and their experience level, with a subjective difficulty rating assigned to each piece of EVA equipment and function. JSC' s Robonaut system was successful with all attempted EVA hardware, suggesting new options for human and robot teams working together in space.

  15. Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented schemes and operations that undergird students' understanding of fractions. This prior research was based, in large part, on small-group teaching experiments. However, written assessments are needed in order for teachers and researchers to assess students' ways of operating on a whole-class scale. In this study,…

  16. Enhanced Adhesion of EVA Laminates to Primed Glass Substrates Subjected to Damp-Heat Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Pern, F. J.; Jorgensen, G. J.

    2005-02-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of glass-surface priming to promote enhanced adhesion of EVA laminates during damp-heat exposure at 85 C and 85% relative humidity. The primary objective was to develop advanced encapsulant formulations by incorporation of various primer formulations that exhibit improved adhesion during damp-heat exposure. Several primer formulations were identified that greatly enhanced the EVA adhesion strength, including to the extent that peeling could not be initiated, even for the laminates of the glass substrate/fast-cure EVA15295P/TPE backsheet (a Tedlar/polyester/EVA tri-laminate) that were exposed in a damp-heat test chamber for more than 750 h. The results show that a synergistic increase in the interfacial hydrophobicity, siloxane density, and cross-linking density are the key attributes to the improvement in the EVA adhesion strength.

  17. Initial Work Toward a Robotically Assisted EVA Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J.; Peters, B.; McBryan, E.; Laske, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Space Suit RoboGlove is a device designed to provide additional grasp strength or endurance for an EVA crew member since gloved hand performance is a fraction of what the unencumbered human hand can achieve. There have been past efforts to approach this problem by employing novel materials and construction techniques to the glove design, as well as integrating powered assistance devices. This application of the NASA/GM RoboGlove technology uses a unique approach to integrate the robotic actuators and sensors into a Phase VI EVA glove. This design provides grasp augmentation to the glove user while active, but can also function as a normal glove when disabled. Care was taken to avoid adding excessive bulk to the glove or affecting tactility by choosing low-profile sensors and extrinsically locating the actuators. Conduits are used to guide robotic tendons from linear actuators, across the wrist, and to the fingers. The second generation of the SSRG includes updated electronics, sensors, and actuators to improve performance. The following discusses the electromechanical design, softgoods integration, and control system of the SSRG. It also presents test results from the first integration of a powered mobility element onto a space suit, the NASA Mark III. Early results show that sensor integration did not impact tactile feedback in the glove and the actuators show potential for reduction in grasp fatigue over time.

  18. Spectroscopic, scanning laser OBIC, and I-V/QE characterizations of browned EVA solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pern, F.J.; Eisgruber, I.L.; Micheels, R.H.

    1996-05-01

    The effects of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) discoloration due to accelerated field or laboratory exposure on the encapsulated silicon (Si) solar cells or EVA/glass laminates were characterized quantitatively by using non-invasive, non-destructive ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometry, spectrocolorimetry, spectrofluorometry, scanning laser OBIC (optical beam induced current) spectroscopy, and current-voltage (I-V) and quantum efficiency (QE) measurements. The results show that the yellowness index (YI) measured directly over the AR-coated solar cells under the glass superstrate increased from the range of -80 to -90 to the range of -20 to 15 as the EVA changed from clear to brown. The ratio of two fluorescence emission peak areas generally increased from 1.45 to 5.69 as browning increased, but dropped to 4.21 on a darker EVA. For a solar cell with brown EVA in the central region, small-area grating QE measurements and scanning laser OBIC analysis between the brown and clear EVA regions showed that the quantum efficiency loss at 633 nm was 42%-48% of the loss at 488 nm, due to a reduced decrease of transmittance in browned EVA at the longer wavelengths. The portion of the solar cell under the browned EVA showed a decrease of {approximately}36% in efficiency, as compared to the cell efficiency under clear EVA. Transmittance loss at 633 nm was 38% of the loss at 488 nm for a light yellow-brown EVA/glass laminate that showed a small increase of 10 in the yellowness index.

  19. STS-49 - A demonstration of EMU operational capabilities for Space Station Freedom assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleisath, Scott A.; Johnson, Kieth G.

    1992-07-01

    One of the primary objectives for Space Shuttle mission STS-49 is to perform three EVAs on consecutive days in a manner similar to those planned for Space Station Freedom (SSF) assembly missions. The preparation and completion of this mission will serve as a pathfinder for future EVA intensive SSF assembly flights. Several operational issues pertaining to the EMU have been addressed in preparation for this mission. Provisioning and orbiter stowage of the EMU and associated hardware have been optimized for four EVA crewmembers. EMU preparatory and maintenance activities have been streamlined to help minimize crew overhead and have been carefully integrated into a very demanding mission timeline. The constraints and limitations have been assessed in providing a backup EMU capability for each EVA crewmember. Several EMU concerns have also been addressed in supporting new EVA task requirements, such as large mass handling and performing SSF assembly operations over the crew cabin and nose of the Shuttle orbiter.

  20. The main results of EVA medical support on the Mir Space Station.

    PubMed

    Katuntsev, V P; Osipov, Yu Yu; Barer, A S; Gnoevaya, N K; Tarasenkov, G G

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the main results of medical support of 78 two-person extravehicular activities (EVAs) which have been conducted in the Mir Space Program. Thirty-six male crewmembers participated in these EVAs. Maximum length of a space walk was equal to 7 h 14 min. The total duration of all space walks reached 717.1 man-hours. The maximum frequency of EVA's execution was 10 per year. Most of the EVAs (67) have been performed at mission elapsed time ranging from 31 to 180 days. The oxygen atmosphere of the Orlan space suit with a pressure of 40 kPa in combination with the normobaric cabin environment and a short (30 min) oxygen prebreathe protocol have minimized the risk of decompression sickness (DCS). There has been no incidence of DCS during performed EVAs. At the peak activity, metabolic rates and heart rates increased up to 9.9-13 kcal/min and 150-174 min-1, respectively. The medical problems have centred on feeling of moderate overcooling during a rest period in a shadow after the high physical loads, episodes with tachycardia accompanied by cardiac rhythm disorders at the moments of emotional stress, pains in the muscles and general fatigue after the end of a hard EVA. All of the EVAs have been completed safely.

  1. A clinically authentic mouse model of enterovirus 71 (EV-A71)-induced neurogenic pulmonary oedema

    PubMed Central

    Victorio, Carla Bianca Luena; Xu, Yishi; Ng, Qimei; Chua, Beng Hooi; Alonso, Sylvie; Chow, Vincent T. K.; Chua, Kaw Bing

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is a neurotropic virus that sporadically causes fatal neurologic illness among infected children. Animal models of EV-A71 infection exist, but they do not recapitulate in animals the spectrum of disease and pathology observed in fatal human cases. Specifically, neurogenic pulmonary oedema (NPE)—the main cause of EV-A71 infection-related mortality—is not observed in any of these models. This limits their utility in understanding viral pathogenesis of neurologic infections. We report the development of a mouse model of EV-A71 infection displaying NPE in severely affected animals. We inoculated one-week-old BALB/c mice with an adapted EV-A71 strain and identified clinical signs consistent with observations in human cases and other animal models. We also observed respiratory distress in some mice. At necropsy, we found their lungs to be heavier and incompletely collapsed compared to other mice. Serum levels of catecholamines and histopathology of lung and brain tissues of these mice strongly indicated onset of NPE. The localization of virally-induced brain lesions also suggested a potential pathogenic mechanism for EV-A71-induced NPE. This novel mouse model of virally-induced NPE represents a valuable resource for studying viral mechanisms of neuro-pathogenesis and pre-clinical testing of potential therapeutics and prophylactics against EV-A71-related neurologic complications. PMID:27357918

  2. The main results of EVA medical support on the Mir Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katuntsev, V. P.; Osipov, Yu. Yu.; Barer, A. S.; Gnoevaya, N. K.; Tarasenkov, G. G.

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the main results of medical support of 78 two-person extravehicular activities (EVAs) which have been conducted in the Mir Space Program. Thirty-six male crewmembers participated in these EVAs. Maximum length of a space walk was equal to 7 h 14 min. The total duration of all space walks reached 717.1 man-hours. The maximum frequency of EVA's execution was 10 per year. Most of the EVAs (67) have been performed at mission elapsed time ranging from 31 to 180 days. The oxygen atmosphere of the Orlan space suit with a pressure of 40 kPa in combination with the normobaric cabin environment and a short (30 min) oxygen prebreathe protocol have minimized the risk of decompression sickness (DCS). There has been no incidence of DCS during performed EVAs. At the peak activity, metabolic rates and heart rates increased up to 9.9- 13 kcal/ min and 150- 174 min-1, respectively. The medical problems have centred on feeling of moderate overcooling during a rest period in a shadow after the high physical loads, episodes with tachycardia accompanied by cardiac rhythm disorders at the moments of emotional stress, pains in the muscles and general fatigue after the end of a hard EVA. All of the EVAs have been completed safely.

  3. CLCA2 Interactor EVA1 Is Required for Mammary Epithelial Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Ramena, Grace; Yin, Yufang; Yu, Yang; Walia, Vijay; Elble, Randolph C.

    2016-01-01

    CLCA2 is a p53-, p63-inducible transmembrane protein that is frequently downregulated in breast cancer. It is induced during differentiation of human mammary epithelial cells, and its knockdown causes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). To determine how CLCA2 promotes epithelial differentiation, we searched for interactors using membrane dihybrid screening. We discovered a strong interaction with the cell junctional protein EVA1 (Epithelial V-like Antigen 1) and confirmed it by co-immunoprecipitation. Like CLCA2, EVA1 is a type I transmembrane protein that is regulated by p53 and p63. It is thought to mediate homophilic cell-cell adhesion in diverse epithelial tissues. We found that EVA1 is frequently downregulated in breast tumors and breast cancer cell lines, especially those of mesenchymal phenotype. Moreover, knockdown of EVA1 in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) caused EMT, implying that EVA1 is essential for epithelial differentiation. Both EVA1 and CLCA2 co-localized with E-cadherin at cell-cell junctions. The interacting domains were delimited by deletion analysis, revealing the site of interaction to be the transmembrane segment (TMS). The primary sequence of the CLCA2 TMS was found to be conserved in CLCA2 orthologs throughout mammals, suggesting that its interaction with EVA1 co-evolved with the mammary gland. A screen for other junctional interactors revealed that CLCA2 was involved in two different complexes, one with EVA1 and ZO-1, the other with beta catenin. Overexpression of CLCA2 caused downregulation of beta catenin and beta catenin-activated genes. Thus, CLCA2 links a junctional adhesion molecule to cytosolic signaling proteins that modulate proliferation and differentiation. These results may explain how attenuation of CLCA2 causes EMT and why CLCA2 and EVA1 are frequently downregulated in metastatic breast cancer cell lines. PMID:26930581

  4. Further analysis of EVA self-rescue data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, Adam R.

    1992-08-01

    Results of an EVA study performed in the Virtual Interactive Environment Workstation at the NASA Ames Research Center are presented. Three initial separation velocities (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 m/s) were crossed with five initial spin velocities (0, +/-0.1, +/-0.3) to yield 15 different trials. An attitude hold system was also modeled, which, when combined with the 15 combinations of separation and spin velocity, provided 30 distinct trials. Recent examinations of the data reveal that initial separation velocity and initial spin velocity each produced the main effects and combined to produce an interaction effect on the solution time. The solution time increased with the initial velocity and absolute initial spin velocity. The final roll angle also increased the initial spin velocity. The attitude hold fuel increased with absolute initial spin velocity. Interaction effects revealed that the main effects were less pronounced at the lowest initial velocity level.

  5. STS-114 Astronauts Participate in Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Launched on July 26, 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) and the External Stowage Platform-2. In this photograph, astronaut Soichi Noguchi, STS-114 mission specialist representing the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), participates in the mission's first scheduled session of Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). Noguchi and crew mate Stephen K. Robinson (out of frame) completed a demonstration of Shuttle thermal protection repair techniques and enhancements to the ISS's attitude control system during the successful 6 hour, 50 minute space walk.

  6. Person to Person Biological Heat Bypass During EVA Emergencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koscheyev, Victor S.; Leon, Gloria R.; Lee, Joo-Young; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Berowiski, Anna; Trevino, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    During EVA and other extreme environments, mutual human support is sometimes the last way to survive when there is a failure of the life support equipment. The possibility to transfer a coolant to remove heat or a warming fluid to increase heat from one individual to another to support the thermal balance of the individual with system failure was assessed. The following scenarios were considered: 1. one participant has a cooling system that is not working well and already has a body heat deficit equal to 100-120 kcal and a finger temperature decline to 25 C; 2. one participant has the same status of overcooling and the other mild overheating. Preliminary findings showed promise in using such sharing tactics to extend the time duration of survival in extreme situations when there is a high metabolic rate in the donor.

  7. Advanced Design Heat PumpRadiator for EVA Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Passow, Christian; Phillips, Scott; Trevino, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Absorption cooling using a LiCl/water heat pump can enable lightweight and effective thermal control for EVA suits without venting water to the environment. The key components in the system are an absorber/radiator that rejects heat to space and a flexible evaporation cooling garment that absorbs heat from the crew member. This paper describes progress in the design, development, and testing of the absorber/radiator and evaporation cooling garment. New design concepts and fabrication approaches will significantly reduce the mass of the absorber/radiator. We have also identified materials and demonstrated fabrication approaches for production of a flexible evaporation cooling garment. Data from tests of the absorber/radiator s modular components have validated the design models and allowed predictions of the size and weight of a complete system.

  8. STS-110 Astronaut Jerry Ross Performs Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis on April 8, 2002, the STS-110 mission prepared the International Space Station (ISS) for future space walks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long Starboard side S0 (S-zero) truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver space walkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. In this photograph, Astronaut Jerry L. Ross, mission specialist, anchored on the end of the Canadarm2, moves near the newly installed S0 truss. Astronaut Lee M. E. Morin, mission specialist, (out of frame), worked in tandem with Ross during this fourth and final scheduled session of EVA for the STS-110 mission. The final major task of the space walk was the installation of a beam, the Airlock Spur, between the Quest Airlock and the S0. The spur will be used by space walkers in the future as a path from the airlock to the truss.

  9. Effect of glass-ionomer cement as an intra-canal barrier in post space prepared teeth: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Rajakumar; Indira, R

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the bacterial microleakage across remaining Gutta-percha in teeth prepared for post space with and without the use of an intracanal glass ionomer barrier. Materials and Methods: Forty freshly extracted intact human mandibular premolars with single canal were instrumented, obturated with Gutta-percha and AH plus sealer and post spaces were created. Teeth were assigned into experimental groups as follows: Group I – 3 mm of Gutta-percha, Group II – 4 mm of Gutta-percha, Group III – 3 mm of Gutta-percha with 1 mm of Vitrebond as barrier, Group IV – 4 mm of Gutta-percha with 1mm of Vitrebond as barrier. The roots were suspended in Rogosa SL broth and 50 μl of lyophilized Lactobacilli Casei was inoculated as the microbial marker. The mean days taken for the broth to turn turbid were tabulated. The values were statistically analyzed using one way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. Results: At the end of 64 days, the mean and standard deviation of the number of days for the broth to turn turbid was: Group I – 20.50, (SD - 3.96). Group II – 25.43, (SD - 4.83), Group III – 38.63, (SD - 9.36), and Group IV – 53.50, (SD - 11.15) Conclusion: Vitrebond could be used as an intracanal barrier to provide a superior coronal seal in teeth requiring post and core. PMID:20617069

  10. Dynamics, control and sensor issues pertinent to robotic hands for the EVA retriever system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclauchlan, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    Basic dynamics, sensor, control, and related artificial intelligence issues pertinent to smart robotic hands for the Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Retriever system are summarized and discussed. These smart hands are to be used as end effectors on arms attached to manned maneuvering units (MMU). The Retriever robotic systems comprised of MMU, arm and smart hands, are being developed to aid crewmen in the performance of routine EVA tasks including tool and object retrieval. The ultimate goal is to enhance the effectiveness of EVA crewmen.

  11. ESEM analysis of polymeric film in EVA-modified cement paste

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, D.A. . E-mail: denise@ecv.ufsc.br; Monteiro, P.J.M.

    2005-10-01

    Portland cement pastes modified by 20% weight (polymer/cement ratio) of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) were prepared, cured, and immersed in water for 11 days. The effects of water saturation and drying on the EVA polymeric film formed in cement pastes were observed using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). This technique allowed the imaging of the EVA film even in saturated samples. The decrease of the relative humidity inside the ESEM chamber did not cause any visual modification of the polymeric film during its drying.

  12. Efficacy of Wrist/Palm Warming as an EVA Countermeasure to Maintain Finger Comfort in Cold Conditions During EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koscheyev, Victor S.; Leon, Gloria R.; Trevino, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    This study explored the effectiveness of local wrist/palm warming as a potential countermeasure for providing finger comfort during extended duration EVA. Methods: Six subjects (5 males and 1 female) were evaluated in a sagitally divided liquid cooling/warming garment (LCWG) with modified liquid cooling/warming (LCW) gloves in three different experimental conditions. Condition 1: Stage 1- no LCWG; chamber adaptation with LCW glove inlet water temperature 33 C; Stage 2-LCW glove inlet water temperature cooled to 8 C; Stage 3-LCW glove inlet water temperature warmed to 45 C; Condition 2: Stage1-LCWG and LCW glove inlet water temperature 33 C; Stage 2-LCWG inlet temperature cooled to 31 C, LCW gloves, 8 C; Stage 3-LCWG inlet water temperature remains at 31 C, LCW glove inlet water temperature warmed to 45 C; Condition 3: Stage l -LCWG and LCW gloves 33 C; Stage 2-LCWG inlet water temperature cooled to 28 C, LCW gloves, 8 C; Stage 3-LCWG remains at 28 C, LCW glove water temperature warmed to 45 C. Results: Wrist/palm area warming significantly increased finger temperature (Tfing) and blood perfusion in Stage 3 compared to Stage 2. The LCW gloves were most effective in increasing Stage 3 Tfing in Condition 1; and in increasing blood perfusion in Conditions 1 and 2 compared to Condition 3. Ratings of subjective perception of heat in the hand and overall body heat were higher at Stage 3 than Stage 2, with no significant differences across Conditions. Conclusions: Local wrist/palm warming was effective in increasing blood circulation to the distal extremities, suggesting the potential usefulness of this technique for increasing astronaut thermal comfort during EVA while decreasing power requirements. The LCW gloves were effective in heating the highly cooled fingers when the overall body was in a mild heat deficit.

  13. Automatic antenna switching design for Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randhawa, Manjit S.

    1987-01-01

    An Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) crewmember had two-way communications with the space station in the Ku-band frequency (12 to 18 GHz). The maximum range of the EVA communications link with the space station is approximately one kilometer for nominal values for transmitter power, antenna gains, and receiver noise figure. The EVA Communications System, that will continue to function regardless of the astronaut's position and orientation, requires an antenna system that has full spherical coverage. Three or more antennas that can be flush mounted on the astronaut's space suit (EMU) and/or his propulsive backpack (MMU), will be needed to provide the desired coverage. As the astronaut moves in the space station, the signal received by a given EVA antenna changes. An automatic antenna switching system is needed that will switch the communication system to the antenna with the largest signal strength. A design for automatic antenna switching is presented and discussed.

  14. EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in EVA) overview of selected results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akin, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental Assembly of Structures in EVA (EASE) objectives, experimental protocol, neutral buoyancy simulation, task time distribution, assembly task performance, metabolic rate/biomedical readouts are summarized. This presentation is shown in charts, figures, and graphs.

  15. Enhancing the thermal conductivity of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) in a photovoltaic thermal collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, J.; Pinder, H.; Dehouche, Z.

    2016-03-01

    Samples of Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate (EVA) were doped with particles of Boron Nitride (BN) in concentrations ranging from 0-60% w/w. Thermal conductivity was measured using a Differential Scanning Calorimetery (DSC) technique. The thermal conductivity of parent EVA was increased from 0.24W/m ṡ K to 0.80W/m ṡ K for the 60% w/w sample. Two PV laminates were made; one using the parent EVA the other using EVA doped with 50% BN. When exposed to a one directional heat flux the doped laminate was, on average, 6% cooler than the standard laminate. A finite difference model had good agreement with experimental results and showed that the use of 60% BN composite achieved a PV performance increase of 0.3% compared to the standard laminate.

  16. A synopsis of the EVA training conducted on EASE/ACCESS for STS-61-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havens, Kathryn A.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental Assembly of Structure in EVA (EASE)/Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (ACCESS) training problems; photography/television coverage; training schedules; flight data file (FDF), and flight rules production are summarized.

  17. The Potential of Wearable Sensor Technology for EVA Glove Ergonomic Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Christopher R.; McFarland, Shane M.; Norcross, Jason R.; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    Injuries to the hands are common among astronauts who train for extravehicular activity (EVA). Many of these injuries refer to the gloves worn during EVA as the root cause. While pressurized, the bladder and outer material of these gloves restrict movement and create pressure points while performing tasks, sometimes resulting in pain, muscle fatigue, abrasions, and occasionally a more severe injury, onycholysis (fingernail delamination). The most common injury causes are glove contact (pressure point/rubbing), ill-fitting gloves, and/or performing EVA tasks in pressurized gloves. A brief review of the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health's injury database reveals over 57% of the total injuries to the upper extremities during EVA training occurred either to the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint, fingernail, or the fingertip. Twenty-five of these injuries resulted in a diagnosis of onycholysis.

  18. The Potential of Wearable Sensor Technology for EVA Glove Ergonomic Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Christopher R.; McFarland, Shane; Norcross, Jason R.; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    Injuries to the hands are common among astronauts who train for extravehicular activity (EVA). Many of these injuries refer to the gloves worn during EVA as the root cause. While pressurized, the bladder and outer material of these gloves restrict movement and create pressure points while performing tasks, sometimes resulting in pain, muscle fatigue, abrasions, and occasionally a more severe injury, onycholysis (fingernail delamination). The most common injury causes are glove contact (pressure point/rubbing), ill-fitting gloves, and/or performing EVA tasks in pressurized gloves. A brief review of the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health's injury database reveals over 57% of the total injuries to the upper extremities during EVA training occurred either to the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint, fingernail, or the fingertip. Twenty-five of these injuries resulted in a diagnosis of onycholysis

  19. The micro conical system: Lessons learned from a successful EVA/robot-compatible mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gittleman, Mark; Johnston, Alistair

    1996-01-01

    The Micro Conical System (MCS) is a three-part, multi-purpose mechanical interface system used for acquiring and manipulating masses on-orbit by either extravehicular activity (EVA) or telerobotic means. The three components of the system are the micro conical fitting (MCF), the EVA micro tool (EMCT), and the Robot Micro Conical Tool (RMCT). The MCS was developed and refined over a four-year period. This period culminated with the delivery of 358 Class 1 and Class 2 micro conical fittings for the International Space Station and with its first use in space to handle a 1272 kg (2800 lbm) Spartan satellite (11000 times greater than the MCF mass) during an EVA aboard STS-63 in February, 1995. The micro conical system is the first successful EVA/robot-compatible mechanism to be demonstrated in the external environment aboard the U.S. Space Shuttle.

  20. FY13 High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort - Training Data Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Christopher; Benson, Elizabeth; England, Scott; Charvat, Jacqueline; Norcross, Jason; McFarland, Shane; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    From the time hand-intensive tasks were first created for EVAs, discomforts and injuries have been noted.. There have been numerous versions of EVA gloves for US crew over the past 50 years, yet pain and injuries persist. The investigation team was tasked with assisting in a glove injury assessment for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) project.center dot To aid in this assessment, the team was asked to complete the following objectives: - First, to develop the best current understanding of what glove-related injuries have occurred to date, and when possible, identify the specific mechanisms that caused those injuries - Second, to create a standardized method for comparison of glove injury potential from one glove to another. center dot The overall goal of the gloved hand injury assessment is to utilize ergonomics in understanding how these glove injuries are occurring, and to propose mitigations to current designs or design changes in the next generation of EVA gloves.

  1. Overview of EVA PRA for TPS Repair for Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigler, Mark; Duncan, Gary; Roeschel, Eduardo; Canga, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Following the Columbia accident in 2003, NASA developed techniques to repair the Thermal Protection System (TPS) in the event of damage to the TPS as one of several actions to reduce the risk to future flights from ascent debris, micro-meteoroid and/or orbital debris (MMOD). Other actions to help reduce the risk include improved inspection techniques, reduced shedding of debris from the External Tank and ability to rescue the crew with a launch on need vehicle. For the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Mission the crew rescue capability was limited by the inability to safe haven on the International Space Station (ISS), resulting in a greater reliance on the repair capability. Therefore it was desirable to have an idea of the risk associated with conducting a repair, where the repair would have to be conducted using an Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). Previously, focused analyses had been conducted to quantify the risk associated with certain aspects of an EVA, for example the EVA Mobility Unit (EMU) or Space Suit; however, the analyses were somewhat limited in scope. A complete integrated model of an EVA which could quantify the risk associated with all of the major components of an EVA had never been done before. It was desired to have a complete integrated model to be able to assess the risks associated with an EVA to support the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) in making risk informed decisions. In the case of the HST Servicing Mission, this model was developed to assess specifically the risks associated with performing a TPS repair EVA. This paper provides an overview of the model that was developed to support the HST mission in the event of TPS damage. The HST Servicing Mission was successfully completed on May 24th 2009 with no critical TPS damage; therefore the model was not required for real-time mission support. However, it laid the foundation upon which future EVA quantitative risk assessments could be based.

  2. Preparation and Properties of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer/Silica Nanocomposites in Presence of EVA-g-Acrylic Acid.

    PubMed

    Tham, Do Quang; Tuan, Vu Manh; Thanh, Dinh Thi Mai; Chinh, Nguyen Thuy; Giang, Nguyen Vu; Trang, Nguyen Thi Thu; Hang, To Thi Xuan; Huong, Ho Thu; Dung, Nguyen Thi Kim; Hoang, Thai

    2015-04-01

    Here we report a facile approach to enhance the dispersibility of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA)/silica nanocomposites (for the EVA/silica nanocomposites and interaction between silica nanoparticles (nanosilica) and EVA by adding EVA-g-acrylic acid (EVAgAA) as a compatibilizer, which was formed by grafting acrylic acid onto EVA chains with the aid of dicumyl peroxide). The above nanocomposites with and without EVAgAA were prepared by melt mixing in a Haake intermixer with different contents of silica and EVAgAA. Their structure and morphology were characterized by Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and the mechanical, rheological, dielectrical, and flammability properties of the nanocomposites were also investigated. The FT-IR spectra of the nanocomposites confirmed the formation of hydrogen bonds between the surface silanol groups of nanosilica and C=O groups of EVA and/or EVAgAA. The presence of EVAgAA remarkably increased the intensity of hydrogen bonding between nanosilica and EVA which not only enhanced the dispersion of nanosilica in EVA matrix but also increased the mechanical, viscosity and storage modulus of EVA/silica nanocomposites. In addition, the flammability of EVA/silica nanocomposites is also significantly reduced after the functionalization with EVAgAA. However, the mechanical properties of EVA/silica nanocomposites tended to level off when its content was above 1.5 wt.%. It has also been found that the dielectric constant value of the EVA/EVAgAA/silica nanocomposites is much lower than that of the EVA/silica nanocomposites, which is another evidence of the hydrogen bonding formation between EVAgAA and nanosilica.

  3. Preparing for the High Frontier: The Role and Training of NASA Astronauts in the Post- Space Shuttle Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    In May 2010, the National Research Council (NRC) was asked by NASA to address several questions related to the Astronaut Corps. The NRC s Committee on Human Spaceflight Crew Operations was tasked to answer several questions: 1. How should the role and size of the activities managed by the Johnson Space Center Flight Crew Operations Directorate change after space shuttle retirement and completion of the assembly of the International Space Station (ISS)? 2. What are the requirements for crew-related ground-based facilities after the Space Shuttle program ends? 3. Is the fleet of aircraft used for training the Astronaut Corps a cost-effective means of preparing astronauts to meet the requirements of NASA s human spaceflight program? Are there more cost-effective means of meeting these training requirements? Although the future of NASA s human spaceflight program has garnered considerable discussion in recent years and there is considerable uncertainty about what the program will involve in the coming years, the committee was not tasked to address whether human spaceflight should continue or what form it should take. The committee s task restricted it to studying activities managed by the Flight Crew Operations Directorate or those closely related to its activities, such as crew-related ground-based facilities and the training aircraft.

  4. Developing Science Operations Concepts for the Future of Planetary Surface Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, K. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Rogers, A. D.; McAdam, A.; Evans, C. A.; Graff, T. G.; Garry, W. B.; Whelley, P. L.; Scheidt, S.; Carter, L.; Coan, D.; Reagan, M.; Glotch, T.; Lewis, R.

    2017-02-01

    Human exploration of other planetary bodies is crucial in answering critical science questions about our solar system. As we seek to put humans on other surfaces by 2050, we must understand the science operations concepts needed for planetary EVA.

  5. EVA1A/TMEM166 Regulates Embryonic Neurogenesis by Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mengtao; Lu, Guang; Hu, Jia; Shen, Xue; Ju, Jiabao; Gao, Yuanxu; Qu, Liujing; Xia, Yan; Chen, Yingyu; Bai, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Summary Self-renewal and differentiation of neural stem cells is essential for embryonic neurogenesis, which is associated with cell autophagy. However, the mechanism by which autophagy regulates neurogenesis remains undefined. Here, we show that Eva1a/Tmem166, an autophagy-related gene, regulates neural stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Eva1a depletion impaired the generation of newborn neurons, both in vivo and in vitro. Conversely, overexpression of EVA1A enhanced newborn neuron generation and maturation. Moreover, Eva1a depletion activated the PIK3CA-AKT axis, leading to the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin and the subsequent inhibition of autophagy. Furthermore, addition of methylpyruvate to the culture during neural stem cell differentiation rescued the defective embryonic neurogenesis induced by Eva1a depletion, suggesting that energy availability is a significant factor in embryonic neurogenesis. Collectively, these data demonstrated that EVA1A regulates embryonic neurogenesis by modulating autophagy. Our results have potential implications for understanding the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders caused by autophagy dysregulation. PMID:26905199

  6. EVA1A/TMEM166 Regulates Embryonic Neurogenesis by Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengtao; Lu, Guang; Hu, Jia; Shen, Xue; Ju, Jiabao; Gao, Yuanxu; Qu, Liujing; Xia, Yan; Chen, Yingyu; Bai, Yun

    2016-03-08

    Self-renewal and differentiation of neural stem cells is essential for embryonic neurogenesis, which is associated with cell autophagy. However, the mechanism by which autophagy regulates neurogenesis remains undefined. Here, we show that Eva1a/Tmem166, an autophagy-related gene, regulates neural stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Eva1a depletion impaired the generation of newborn neurons, both in vivo and in vitro. Conversely, overexpression of EVA1A enhanced newborn neuron generation and maturation. Moreover, Eva1a depletion activated the PIK3CA-AKT axis, leading to the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin and the subsequent inhibition of autophagy. Furthermore, addition of methylpyruvate to the culture during neural stem cell differentiation rescued the defective embryonic neurogenesis induced by Eva1a depletion, suggesting that energy availability is a significant factor in embryonic neurogenesis. Collectively, these data demonstrated that EVA1A regulates embryonic neurogenesis by modulating autophagy. Our results have potential implications for understanding the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders caused by autophagy dysregulation.

  7. Saline ingestion during lower body negative pressure as an end-of-mission countermeasure to post-space flight orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.; Jones, Michele M.; Fortney, Suzanne M.

    1992-01-01

    Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) in conjunction with saline ingestion can protect astronauts against post-space flight orthostatic intolerance. LBNP was used for both treatment and testing. The treatment was 4 hours of lower body decompression at 30 mm Hg below ambient pressure. One liter of water and 8 g of salt were ingested during the first hour. The treatment was evaluated by comparing heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) responses to test decompressions on the days before and after treatment. It is concluded that cardiovascular responses to step-wise decompression duplicated Skylab findings. BP was maintained, but HR responses to each step were progressively greater in-flight than preflight. After the 4-hour treatment HR responses were closer to preflight values.

  8. STS-111 Astronaut Perrin Performs Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The STS-111 mission, the 14th Shuttle mission to visit the International Space Station (ISS), was launched on June 5, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour. On board were the STS-111 and Expedition Five crew members. Astronauts Kerneth D. Cockrell, commander; Paul S. Lockhart, pilot; and mission specialists Franklin R. Chang-Diaz and Philippe Perrin were the STS-111 crew members. Expedition Five crew members included Cosmonaut Valeri G. Korzun, commander; Astronaut Peggy A. Whitson and Cosmonaut Sergei Y. Treschev, flight engineers. Three space walks enabled the STS-111 crew to accomplish the delivery and installation of the Mobile Remote Servicer Base System (MBS), an important part of the Station's Mobile Servicing System that allows the robotic arm to travel the length of the Station, which is necessary for future construction tasks. In this photograph, Astronaut Philippe Perrin, representing CNES, the French Space Agency, participates in the second scheduled EVA. During the space walk, Perrin and Chang-Diaz attached power, data, and video cables from the ISS to the MBS, and used a power wrench to complete the attachment of the MBS onto the Mobile Transporter (MT).

  9. STS-61B Astronaut Spring During EASE Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Spring was working on the EASE during an Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The primary objective of this experiment was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  10. EVA Suit R and D for Performance Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowley, Matthew S.; Harvill, Lauren; Benson, Elizabeth; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    Designing a planetary suit is very complex and often requires difficult trade-offs between performance, cost, mass, and system complexity. To verify that new suit designs meet requirements, full prototypes must be built and tested with human subjects. However, numerous design iterations will occur before the hardware meets those requirements. Traditional draw-prototype-test paradigms for R&D are prohibitively expensive with today's shrinking Government budgets. Personnel at NASA are developing modern simulation techniques which focus on human-centric designs by creating virtual prototype simulations and fully adjustable physical prototypes of suit hardware. During the R&D design phase, these easily modifiable representations of an EVA suit's hard components will allow designers to think creatively and exhaust design possibilities before they build and test working prototypes with human subjects. It allows scientists to comprehensively benchmark current suit capabilities and limitations for existing suit sizes and sizes that do not exist. This is extremely advantageous and enables comprehensive design down-selections to be made early in the design process, enables the use of human performance as design criteria, and enables designs to target specific populations

  11. Gradient Compression Garments as a Countermeasure to Post-Space Flight Orthostatic Intolerance: Potential Interactions with the Maximum Absorbency Garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. M. C.; Laurie, S. S.; Macias, B. R.; Willig, M.; Johnson, K.; Stenger, M. B.

    2017-01-01

    Astronauts and cosmonauts may experience symptoms of orthostatic intolerance during re-entry, landing, and for several days post-landing following short- and long-duration spaceflight. Presyncopal symptoms have been documented in approximately 20% of short-duration and greater than 60% of long-duration flyers on landing day specifically during 5-10 min of controlled (no countermeasures employed at the time of testing) stand tests or 80 deg head-up tilt tests. Current operational countermeasures to orthostatic intolerance include fluid loading prior to and whole body cooling during re-entry as well as compression garments that are worn during and for up to several days after landing. While both NASA and the Russian space program have utilized compression garments to protect astronauts and cosmonauts traveling on their respective vehicles, a "next-generation" gradient compression garment (GCG) has been developed and tested in collaboration with a commercial partner to support future space flight missions. Unlike previous compression garments used operationally by NASA that provide a single level of compression across only the calves, thighs, and lower abdomen, the GCG provides continuous coverage from the feet to below the pectoral muscles in a gradient fashion (from approximately 55 mm Hg at the feet to approximately 16 mmHg across the abdomen). The efficacy of the GCG has been demonstrated previously after a 14-d bed rest study without other countermeasures and after short-duration Space Shuttle missions. Currently the GCG is being tested during a stand test following long-duration missions (6 months) to the International Space Station. While results to date have been promising, interactions of the GCG with other space suit components have not been examined. Specifically, it is unknown whether wearing the GCG over NASA's Maximum Absorbency Garment (MAG; absorbent briefs worn for the collection of urine and feces while suited during re-entry and landing) will

  12. Conversion of IVA Human Computer Model to EVA Use and Evaluation and Comparison of the Result to Existing EVA Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, George S.; Williams, Jermaine C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the methods, rationale, and comparative results of the conversion of an intravehicular (IVA) 3D human computer model (HCM) to extravehicular (EVA) use and compares the converted model to an existing model on another computer platform. The task of accurately modeling a spacesuited human figure in software is daunting: the suit restricts the human's joint range of motion (ROM) and does not have joints collocated with human joints. The modeling of the variety of materials needed to construct a space suit (e. g. metal bearings, rigid fiberglass torso, flexible cloth limbs and rubber coated gloves) attached to a human figure is currently out of reach of desktop computer hardware and software. Therefore a simplified approach was taken. The HCM's body parts were enlarged and the joint ROM was restricted to match the existing spacesuit model. This basic approach could be used to model other restrictive environments in industry such as chemical or fire protective clothing. In summary, the approach provides a moderate fidelity, usable tool which will run on current notebook computers.

  13. Heart Rhythm Monitoring in the Constellation Lunar and Launch/Landing EVA Suit: Recommendations from an Expert Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.; Hamilton, D.; Jones, J. A.; Alexander, D.

    2008-01-01

    Currently there are several physiological monitoring requirements for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) in the Human-Systems Interface Requirements (HSIR) document, including continuous heart rhythm monitoring. However, it is not known whether heart rhythm monitoring in the lunar surface space suit is a necessary capability for lunar surface operations or in launch/landing suit the event of a cabin depressurization enroute to or from the moon. Methods: Current US astronaut corps demographic information was provided to an expert panel of cardiovascular medicine experts, including specialists in electrophysiology, exercise physiology, interventional cardiology and arrhythmia. This information included averages for male/female age, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, cholesterol, inflammatory markers, echocardiogram, ranges for coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores for long duration astronauts, and ranges for heart rate (HR) and metabolic (MET) rates obtained during microgravity and lunar EVA. Results: The panel determined that no uncontrolled hazard was likely to occur in the suit during lunar surface or contingency microgravity ops that would require ECG monitoring in the highly screened US astronaut population. However having the capability for rhythm monitoring inside the vehicle (IVA) was considered critical to manage an astronaut in distress. Discussion: Heart rate (HR) monitoring alone allows effective monitoring of astronaut health and function. Consequently, electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring capability as a clinical tool is not essential in the lunar or launch/landing space suit. However, the panel considered that rhythm monitoring could be useful in certain clinical situations, it was not considered required for safe operations. Also, lunar vehicles should be required to have ECG monitoring capability with a minimum of 5-lead ECG (derived 12- lead) for IVA medical assessments.

  14. Beneficial effects of air inclusions on the performance of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) mouthguard material

    PubMed Central

    Westerman, B; Stringfellow, P; Eccleston, J

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the impact characteristics of an ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) mouthguard material with regulated air inclusions, which included various air cell volumes and wall thickness between air cells. In particular, the aim was to identify the magnitude and direction of forces within the impacts. Method: EVA mouthguard material, 4 mm thick and with and without air inclusions, was impacted with a constant force impact pendulum with an energy of 4.4 J and a velocity of 3 m/s. Transmitted forces through the EVA material were measured using an accelerometer, which also allowed the determination of force direction and magnitude within the impacts. Results: Statistically significant reductions in the transmitted forces were observed with all the air inclusion materials when compared with EVA without air inclusions. Maximum transmitted force through one air inclusion material was reduced by 32%. Force rebound was eliminated in one material, and reduced second force impulses were observed in all the air inclusion materials. Conclusion: The regulated air inclusions improved the impact characteristics of the EVA mouthguard material, the material most commonly used in mouthguards world wide. PMID:11867493

  15. Easy Volcanic Aerosol (EVA v1.0): an idealized forcing generator for climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toohey, Matthew; Stevens, Bjorn; Schmidt, Hauke; Timmreck, Claudia

    2016-11-01

    Stratospheric sulfate aerosols from volcanic eruptions have a significant impact on the Earth's climate. To include the effects of volcanic eruptions in climate model simulations, the Easy Volcanic Aerosol (EVA) forcing generator provides stratospheric aerosol optical properties as a function of time, latitude, height, and wavelength for a given input list of volcanic eruption attributes. EVA is based on a parameterized three-box model of stratospheric transport and simple scaling relationships used to derive mid-visible (550 nm) aerosol optical depth and aerosol effective radius from stratospheric sulfate mass. Precalculated look-up tables computed from Mie theory are used to produce wavelength-dependent aerosol extinction, single scattering albedo, and scattering asymmetry factor values. The structural form of EVA and the tuning of its parameters are chosen to produce best agreement with the satellite-based reconstruction of stratospheric aerosol properties following the 1991 Pinatubo eruption, and with prior millennial-timescale forcing reconstructions, including the 1815 eruption of Tambora. EVA can be used to produce volcanic forcing for climate models which is based on recent observations and physical understanding but internally self-consistent over any timescale of choice. In addition, EVA is constructed so as to allow for easy modification of different aspects of aerosol properties, in order to be used in model experiments to help advance understanding of what aspects of the volcanic aerosol are important for the climate system.

  16. Development of an Extra-vehicular (EVA) Infrared (IR) Camera Inspection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazarik, Michael; Johnson, Dave; Kist, Ed; Novak, Frank; Antill, Charles; Haakenson, David; Howell, Patricia; Pandolf, John; Jenkins, Rusty; Yates, Rusty

    2006-01-01

    Designed to fulfill a critical inspection need for the Space Shuttle Program, the EVA IR Camera System can detect crack and subsurface defects in the Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) sections of the Space Shuttle s Thermal Protection System (TPS). The EVA IR Camera performs this detection by taking advantage of the natural thermal gradients induced in the RCC by solar flux and thermal emission from the Earth. This instrument is a compact, low-mass, low-power solution (1.2cm3, 1.5kg, 5.0W) for TPS inspection that exceeds existing requirements for feature detection. Taking advantage of ground-based IR thermography techniques, the EVA IR Camera System provides the Space Shuttle program with a solution that can be accommodated by the existing inspection system. The EVA IR Camera System augments the visible and laser inspection systems and finds cracks and subsurface damage that is not measurable by the other sensors, and thus fills a critical gap in the Space Shuttle s inspection needs. This paper discusses the on-orbit RCC inspection measurement concept and requirements, and then presents a detailed description of the EVA IR Camera System design.

  17. Comparison Of Human Modelling Tools For Efficiency Of Prediction Of EVA Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dischinger, H. Charles, Jr.; Loughead, Tomas E.

    1998-01-01

    Construction of the International Space Station (ISS) will require extensive extravehicular activity (EVA, spacewalks), and estimates of the actual time needed continue to rise. As recently as September, 1996, the amount of time to be spent in EVA was believed to be about 400 hours, excluding spacewalks on the Russian segment. This estimate has recently risen to over 1100 hours, and it could go higher before assembly begins in the summer of 1998. These activities are extremely expensive and hazardous, so any design tools which help assure mission success and improve the efficiency of the astronaut in task completion can pay off in reduced design and EVA costs and increased astronaut safety. The tasks which astronauts can accomplish in EVA are limited by spacesuit mobility. They are therefore relatively simple, from an ergonomic standpoint, requiring gross movements rather than time motor skills. The actual tasks include driving bolts, mating and demating electric and fluid connectors, and actuating levers; the important characteristics to be considered in design improvement include the ability of the astronaut to see and reach the item to be manipulated and the clearance required to accomplish the manipulation. This makes the tasks amenable to simulation in a Computer-Assisted Design (CAD) environment. For EVA, the spacesuited astronaut must have his or her feet attached on a work platform called a foot restraint to obtain a purchase against which work forces may be actuated. An important component of the design is therefore the proper placement of foot restraints.

  18. Development of an extra-vehicular (EVA) infrared (IR) camera inspection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazarik, Michael; Johnson, Dave; Kist, Ed; Novak, Frank; Antill, Charles; Haakenson, David; Howell, Patricia; Pandolf, John; Jenkins, Rusty; Yates, Rusty; Stephan, Ryan; Hawk, Doug; Amoroso, Michael

    2006-04-01

    Designed to fulfill a critical inspection need for the Space Shuttle Program, the EVA IR Camera System can detect crack and subsurface defects in the Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) sections of the Space Shuttle's Thermal Protection System (TPS). The EVA IR Camera performs this detection by taking advantage of the natural thermal gradients induced in the RCC by solar flux and thermal emission from the Earth. This instrument is a compact, low-mass, low-power solution (1.2cm3, 1.5kg, 5.0W) for TPS inspection that exceeds existing requirements for feature detection. Taking advantage of ground-based IR thermography techniques, the EVA IR Camera System provides the Space Shuttle program with a solution that can be accommodated by the existing inspection system. The EVA IR Camera System augments the visible and laser inspection systems and finds cracks and subsurface damage that is not measurable by the other sensors, and thus fills a critical gap in the Space Shuttle's inspection needs. This paper discusses the on-orbit RCC inspection measurement concept and requirements, and then presents a detailed description of the EVA IR Camera System design.

  19. Biosensors for EVA: Muscle Oxygen and pH During Walking, Running and Simulated Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. M. C.; Ellerby, G.; Scott, P.; Stroud, L.; Norcross, J.; Pesholov, B.; Zou, F.; Gernhardt, M.; Soller, B.

    2009-01-01

    During lunar excursions in the EVA suit, real-time measurement of metabolic rate is required to manage consumables and guide activities to ensure safe return to the base. Metabolic rate, or oxygen consumption (VO2), is normally measured from pulmonary parameters but cannot be determined with standard techniques in the oxygen-rich environment of a spacesuit. Our group developed novel near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) methods to calculate muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2), hematocrit, and pH, and we recently demonstrated that we can use our NIRS sensor to measure VO2 on the leg during cycling. Our NSBRI-funded project is looking to extend this methodology to examine activities which more appropriately represent EVA activities, such as walking and running and to better understand factors that determine the metabolic cost of exercise in both normal and lunar gravity. Our 4 year project specifically addresses risk: ExMC 4.18: Lack of adequate biomedical monitoring capability for Constellation EVA Suits and EPSP risk: Risk of compromised EVA performance and crew health due to inadequate EVA suit systems.

  20. Science Support Room Operations During Desert RATS 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofgren, Gary E.; Hoerz, F.; Bell, M. S.; Cohen, B. A.; Eppler, D. B.; Evans,C. A.; Hodges, K. V.; Hynek, B. M.; Gruener, J. E.; Kring, D. A.; Hurtado, J. M.; Lee, P.; Ming, D. W.; Rice, J. W.

    2009-01-01

    NASA s Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) field test is a demonstration that combines operations development, technology advances and science in analog planetary surface conditions. The focus is testing preliminary operational concepts for extravehicular activity (EVA) systems by providing hands-on experience with simulated surface operations and EVA hardware and procedures. The DRATS activities also develop technical skills and experience for the engineers, scientists, technicians, and astronauts responsible for realizing the goals of the Lunar Surface Systems Program. The 2009 test is the twelfth for the D-RATS team.

  1. Science Support Room Operations During Desert RATS 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofgren, G. E.; Horz, F.; Bell, M. S.; Cohen, B. A.; Eppler,D. B.; Evans, C. a.; Hodges, K. V.; Hynek, B. M.; Gruener, J. E.; Kring, D. A.; Hurtado, J. M.; Lee, P.; Ming, D. W.; Rice, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) field test is a demonstration that combines operations development, technology advances and science in analog planetary surface conditions. The focus is testing preliminary operational concepts for extravehicular activity (EVA) systems by providing hands-on experience with simulated surface operations and EVA hardware and procedures. The DRATS activities also develop technical skills and experience for the engineers, scientists, technicians, and astronauts responsible for realizing the goals of the Lunar Surface Systems Program. The 2009 test is the twelfth for the D-RATS team.

  2. Risk Reduction and Measures of Injury for EVA Associated Upper Extremity Medical Issues: Extended Vent Tube Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jeffrey A.; Hoffman, Ronald B.; Harvey, C. M.; Bowen, C. K.; Hudy, C. E.; Gernhardt, M. L.

    2007-01-01

    During Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) training sessions, a large amount of moisture accumulates in the EVA gloves. The glove design restricts the extension of the EVA suit s ventilation/cooling system to the hand. Subungual redness and fingernail pain develops for many astronauts following their NBL training sessions with subsequent oncholysis occurring over succeeding weeks. Various attempts have been made to reduce or avoid this problem. The causal role of moisture has yet to be defined. Methods: To determine the contribution that moisture plays in the injury to the fingers and fingernails during EVA training operations in NBL, the current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), with a Portable Life Support System (PLSS) was configured with a ventilation tube that extended down a single arm of the crewmember during the test and compared with the unventilated contralateral arm; with the ventilated hand serving as the experimental condition (E) and the opposite arm as the control (C). A cross-over design was used with opposite handedness for the vent tube on a subsequent NBL training run. Moisture content measures were conducted at six points on each hand with three types of moisture meters. A questionnaire was administered to determine subjective thermal hand discomfort, skin moisture perception, and hand and nail discomfort. Photographs and video were recorded. Measures were applied to six astronauts pre- and post-run in the NBL. Results: The consistent trends in relative hydration ratios at the dorsum, from 3.34 for C to 2.11 for E, and first ring finger joint locations, from 2.46 for C to 1.96 for E, indicated the extended vent tube promoted skin drying. The experimental treatment appeared to be more effective on the left hand versus the right hand, implying an interaction with hand anthropometry and glove fit. Video analyses differentiated fine and gross motor training tasks during runs and will be discussed. Conclusions: This potential countermeasure was effective in

  3. Assessment and Management of the Risks of Debris Hits During Space Station EVAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pate-Cornell, Elisabeth; Sachon, Marc

    1997-01-01

    The risk of EVAs is critical to the decision of whether or not to automate a large part of the construction of the International Space Station (ISS). Furthermore, the choice of the technologies of the space suit and the life support system will determine (1) the immediate safety of these operations, and (2) the long-run costs and risks of human presence in space, not only in lower orbit (as is the case of the ISS) but also perhaps, outside these orbits, or on the surface of other planets. The problem is therefore both an immediate one and a long-term one. The fundamental question is how and when to shift from the existing EMU system (suit, helmet, gloves and life support system) to another type (e.g. a hard suit), given the potential trade-offs among life-cycle costs, risks to the astronauts, performance of tasks, and uncertainties about new systems' safety inherent to such a shift in technology. A more immediate issue is how to manage the risks of EVAs during the construction and operation of the ISS in order to make the astronauts (in the words of the NASA Administrator) "as safe outside as inside". For the moment (June 1997), the plan is to construct the Space Station using the low-pressure space suits that have been developed for the space shuttle. In the following, we will refer to this suit assembly as EMU (External Maneuvering Unit). It is the product of a long evolution, starting from the U.S. Air Force pilot suits through the various versions and changes that occurred for the purpose of NASA space exploration, in particular during the Gemini and the Apollo programs. The Shuttle EMU is composed of both soft fabrics and hard plates. As an alternative to the shuttle suit, at least two hard suits were developed by NASA: the AX5 and the MRKIII. The problem of producing hard suits for space exploration is very similar to that of producing deep-sea diving suits. There was thus an opportunity to develop a suit that could be manufactured for both purposes with the

  4. Human-Centric Teaming in a Multi-Agent EVA Assembly Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehnmark, Fredrik; Currie, Nancy; Ambrose, Robert O.; Culbert, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Human Space Flight program depends heavily on spacewalks performed by pairs of suited human astronauts. These Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) are severely restricted in both duration and scope by consumables and available manpower.An expanded multi-agent EVA team combining the information-gathering and problem-solving skills of human astronauts with the survivability and physical capabilities of highly dexterous space robots is proposed. A 1-g test featuring two NASA/DARPA Robonaut systems working side-by-side with a suited human subject is conducted to evaluate human-robot teaming strategies in the context of a simulated EVA assembly task based on the STS-61B ACCESS flight experiment.

  5. STS-55 MS3 Bernard A. Harris, Jr in EMU at JSC's WETF for EVA simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Mission Specialist 3 (MS3) Bernard A. Harris, Jr, fully suited in an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), stands on platform awaiting an underwater extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool. Harris will be lowered into the WETF's 25 foot deep pool and once underwater will perform contingency EVA tasks. With the aid of weights (attached at his ankles and upper torso) he will achieve neutral buoyancy. There is no scheduled EVA for the 1993 flight but each space flight crew includes astronauts trained for a variety of contingency tasks that could require exiting the shirt-sleeve environment of a Shuttle's cabin.

  6. Irradiation crosslinking and halogen-free flame retardation of EVA using hydrotalcite and red phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Chuanmei; Wang, Zhengzhou; Chen, Xilei; Yu, Benyi; Hu, Yuan

    2006-05-01

    Halogen-free flame retarded ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) composites using Mg-Al-CO 3 hydrotalcite (MALDH) and microcapsulated red phosphorus (MRP) have been prepared in a melt process. The flame retardation of the composites has been studied by the limited oxygen index (LOI) and UL-94 methods, and the thermal decomposition by the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The changes of their properties of the composites before and after the Gamma irradiation are compared. The synergistic effect in the flame retardation between MALDH and MRP in EVA has been found. The EVA/MALDH/MRP composites after the irradiation crosslinking result in a great increase in the Vicat softening point. The LOI value, the mechanical properties and thermal stability are also improved for the composites irradiated by a suitable irradiation dose.

  7. Influence of association of "EVA-NBR" on indirect tensile strength of modified bituminous concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinoun, M.; Soudani, K.; Haddadi, S.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work is to contribute to the improvement of the mechanical properties of bituminous concrete by modification of bituminous concrete. In this study, we present the results of the indirect tensile strength "ITS" of modified bituminous concrete by the combination of two modifiers, one is a plastomer EVA (Ethylene Vinyl Acetate) and the other is a industrial waste from the shoe soles grinding NBR (Nitrile Butadiene Rubber) as crumb rubber. To modify the bitumen a wet process was used. The results show that the modification of bitumen by EVA-NBR combination increases their resistance to the indirect traction "ITS" compared to the bituminous concrete control. The mixture of 5% [50% EVA+ 50% NBR] is given the best result among the other associations.

  8. Investigation of the effects of extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves on performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishu, Ram R.; Klute, Glenn

    1993-01-01

    The objective was to assess the effects of extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves at different pressures on human hand capabilities. A factorial experiment was performed in which three types of EVA gloves were tested at five pressure differentials. The independent variables tested in this experiment were gender, glove type, pressure differential, and glove make. Six subjects participated in an experiment where a number of dexterity measures, namely time to tie a rope, and the time to assemble a nut and bolt were recorded. Tactility was measured through a two point discrimination test. The results indicate that with EVA gloves strength is reduced by nearly 50 percent, there is a considerable reduction in dexterity, performance decrements increase with increasing pressure differential, and some interesting gender glove interactions were observed, some of which may have been due to the extent (or lack of) fit of the glove to the hand. The implications for the designer are discussed.

  9. Assessment of Scheduling and Plan Execution of Apollo 14 Lunar Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marquez, Jessica J.

    2010-01-01

    Although over forty years have passed since first landing on the Moon, there is not yet a comprehensive, quantitative assessment of Apollo extravehicular activities (EVAs). Quantitatively evaluating lunar EVAs will provide a better understanding of the challenges involved with surface operations. This first evaluation of a surface EVA centers on comparing the planned and the as-ran timeline, specifically collecting data on discrepancies between durations that were estimated versus executed. Differences were summarized by task categories in order to gain insight as to the type of surface operation activities that were most challenging. One Apollo 14 EVA was assessed utilizing the described methodology. Selected metrics and task categorizations were effective, and limitations to this process were identified.

  10. Characterization of the Radiation Shielding Properties of US andRussian EVA Suits

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, E.R.; Benton, E.V.; Frank, A.L.

    2001-10-26

    Reported herein are results from the Eril Research, Inc.(ERI) participationin the NASA Johnson Space Center sponsored studycharacterizing the radiation shielding properties of the two types ofspace suit that astronauts are wearing during the EVA on-orbit assemblyof the International Space Station (ISS). Measurements using passivedetectors were carried out to assess the shielding properties of the USEMU Suit and the Russian Orlan-M suit during irradiations of the suitsand a tissue equivalent phantom to monoenergetic proton and electronbeams at the Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC). Duringirradiations of 6 MeV electrons and 60 MeV protons, absorbed dose as afunction of depth was measured using TLDs exposed behind swatches of thetwo suit materials and inside the two EVA helmets. Considerable reductionin electron dosewas measured behind all suit materials in exposures to 6MeV electrons. Slowing of the proton beam in the suit materials led to anincrease in dose measured in exposures to 60 MeV protons. During 232 MeVproton irradiations, measurements were made with TLDs and CR-39 PNTDs atfive organ locations inside a tissue equivalent phantom, exposed bothwith and without the two EVA suits. The EVA helmets produce a 13 to 27percent reduction in total dose and a 0 to 25 percent reduction in doseequivalent when compared to measurements made in the phantom head alone.Differences in dose and dose equivalent between the suit and non-suitirradiations forthe lower portions of the two EVA suits tended to besmaller. Proton-induced target fragmentation was found to be asignificant source of increased dose equivalent, especially within thetwo EVA helmets, and average quality factor inside the EMU and Orlan-Mhelmets was 2 to 14 percent greater than that measured in the barephantom head.

  11. TEJAS - TELEROBOTICS/EVA JOINT ANALYSIS SYSTEM VERSION 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drews, M. L.

    1994-01-01

    The primary objective of space telerobotics as a research discipline is the augmentation and/or support of extravehicular activity (EVA) with telerobotic activity; this allows increased emplacement of on-orbit assets while providing for their "in situ" management. Development of the requisite telerobot work system requires a well-understood correspondence between EVA and telerobotics that to date has been only partially established. The Telerobotics/EVA Joint Analysis Systems (TEJAS) hypermedia information system uses object-oriented programming to bridge the gap between crew-EVA and telerobotics activities. TEJAS Version 1.0 contains twenty HyperCard stacks that use a visual, customizable interface of icon buttons, pop-up menus, and relational commands to store, link, and standardize related information about the primitives, technologies, tasks, assumptions, and open issues involved in space telerobot or crew EVA tasks. These stacks are meant to be interactive and can be used with any database system running on a Macintosh, including spreadsheets, relational databases, word-processed documents, and hypermedia utilities. The software provides a means for managing volumes of data and for communicating complex ideas, relationships, and processes inherent to task planning. The stack system contains 3MB of data and utilities to aid referencing, discussion, communication, and analysis within the EVA and telerobotics communities. The six baseline analysis stacks (EVATasks, EVAAssume, EVAIssues, TeleTasks, TeleAssume, and TeleIssues) work interactively to manage and relate basic information which you enter about the crew-EVA and telerobot tasks you wish to analyze in depth. Analysis stacks draw on information in the Reference stacks as part of a rapid point-and-click utility for building scripts of specific task primitives or for any EVA or telerobotics task. Any or all of these stacks can be completely incorporated within other hypermedia applications, or they can be

  12. STS-37 MS Apt tests CETA cart during EVA in OV-104's payload bay (PLB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-37 Mission Specialist (MS) Jerome Apt, suited in extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), tests Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) electrical hand pedal cart during extravehicular activity (EVA) in Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, payload bay (PLB). Apt works his way along the CETA deployable track mounted on OV-104's PLB port side. The ascent particle monitor (APM) is visible on the starboard side in the foreground. In the background are the aft PLB bulkhead and the vertical tail and orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods. Crewmembers spent several hours evaluating means of performing future EVA chores, transporting tools and crewmembers, etc. on Space Station Freedom (SSF).

  13. A structure-odour relationship study using EVA descriptors and hierarchical clustering.

    PubMed

    Takane, Shin-ya; Mitchell, John B O

    2004-11-21

    Structure-odour relationship analyses using hierarchical clustering were carried out on a diverse dataset of 47 molecules. These molecules were divided into seven odour categories: ambergris, bitter almond, camphoraceous, rose, jasmine, muguet, and musk. The alignment-independent descriptor EVA (EigenVAlue) was used as the molecular descriptor. The results were compared with those of another kind of descriptor, the UNITY 2D fingerprint. The dendrograms obtained with these descriptors were compared with the seven odour categories using the adjusted Rand index. The dendrograms produced by EVA consistently outperformed those from UNITY 2D in reproducing the experimental odour classifications of these 47 molecules.

  14. Baseline tests of the EVA change-of-pace coupe electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozek, J. M.; Maslowski, E. A.; Dustin, M. O.

    1977-01-01

    The EVA Change-of-Pace Coupe, is an electric passenger vehicle, to characterize the state-of-the-art of electric vehicles. The EVA Change-of-Pace Coupe is a four passenger sedan that has been coverted to an electric vehicle. It is powered by twenty 6 volt traction batteries through a silicon controlled rectifier chopper controller actuated by a foot throttle to change the voltage applied to the series wound, direct current motor. Braking is accomplished with a vacuum assist hydraulic braking system. Regenerative braking is also provided.

  15. STS-37 Mission Specialist Ross in OV-104's payload bay (PLB) during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-37 Mission Specialist (MS) Jerry L. Ross, suited in extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), peers into Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, aft flight deck viewing window while performing emergency extravehicular activity (EVA) procedures in the payload bay (PLB). The unscheduled EVA was necessary to manually extend the Gamma Ray Observatory's (GRO's) high gain antenna (HGA). The GRO grappled by the remote manipulator system (RMS) end effector and held above the PLB is visible in the background. The entire scene is backdropped against the blue and white surface of the Earth.

  16. An innovative exercise method to simulate orbital EVA work - Applications to PLSS automatic controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lantz, Renee; Vykukal, H.; Webbon, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    An exercise method has been proposed which may satisfy the current need for a laboratory simulation representative of muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, and thermoregulatory responses to work during orbital extravehicular activity (EVA). The simulation incorporates arm crank ergometry with a unique body support mechanism that allows all body position stabilization forces to be reacted at the feet. By instituting this exercise method in laboratory experimentation, an advanced portable life support system (PLSS) thermoregulatory control system can be designed to more accurately reflect the specific work requirements of orbital EVA.

  17. Study of roles of remote manipulator systems and EVA for shuttle mission support, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, T. B.; Micocci, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Alternate extravehicular activity (EVA) and remote manipulator system (RMS) configurations were examined for their relative effectiveness in performing an array of representative shuttle and payload support tasks. Initially a comprehensive analysis was performed of payload and shuttle support missions required to be conducted exterior to a pressurized inclosure. A set of task selection criteria was established, and study tasks were identified. The EVA and RMS modes were evaluated according to their applicability for each task and task condition. The results are summarized in tabular form, showing the modes which are chosen as most effective or as feasible for each task/condition. Conclusions concerning the requirements and recommendations for each mode are presented.

  18. Astronaut David Scott gives salute beside U.S. flag during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut David R. Scott, commander, gives a military salute while standing beside the deployed U.S. flag during the Apollo 15 lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA) at the Hadley-Apennine landing site. The flag was deployed toward the end of EVA-2. The Lunar Module 'Falcon' is partially visible on the right. Hadley Delta in the background rises approximately 4,000 meters (about 13,124 feet) above the plain. The base of the mountain is approximately 5 kilometers (about 3 statute miles) away. This photograph was taken by Astronaut James B. Irwin, Lunar Module pilot.

  19. Astronaut James Irwin gives salute beside U.S. flag during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot, gives a military salute while standing beside the deployed U.S. flag during the Apollo 15 lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA) at the Hadley-Apennine landing site. The flag was deployed toward the end of EVA-2. The Lunar Module 'Falcon' is partially visible on the right. Hadley Delta in the background rises approximately 4,000 meters (about 13,124 feet) above the plain. The base of the mountain is approximately 5 kilometers (about 3 statute miles) away. This photograph was taken by Astronaut David R. Scott, Apollo 15 commander.

  20. TMEM166/EVA1A interacts with ATG16L1 and induces autophagosome formation and cell death

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jia; Li, Ge; Qu, Liujing; Li, Ning; Liu, Wei; xia, Dan; Hongdu, Beiqi; Lin, Xin; Xu, Chentong; Lou, Yaxin; He, Qihua; Ma, Dalong; Chen, Yingyu

    2016-01-01

    The formation of the autophagosome is controlled by an orderly action of ATG proteins. However, how these proteins are recruited to autophagic membranes remain poorly clarified. In this study, we have provided a line of evidence confirming that EVA1A (eva-1 homolog A)/TMEM166 (transmembrane protein 166) is associated with autophagosomal membrane development. This notion is based on dotted EVA1A structures that colocalize with ZFYVE1, ATG9, LC3B, ATG16L1, ATG5, STX17, RAB7 and LAMP1, which represent different stages of the autophagic process. It is required for autophagosome formation as this phenotype was significantly decreased in EVA1A-silenced cells and Eva1a KO MEFs. EVA1A-induced autophagy is independent of the BECN1-PIK3C3 (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, catalytic subunit type 3) complex but requires ATG7 activity and the ATG12–ATG5/ATG16L1 complex. Here, we present a molecular mechanism by which EVA1A interacts with the WD repeats of ATG16L1 through its C-terminal and promotes ATG12–ATG5/ATG16L1 complex recruitment to the autophagic membrane and enhances the formation of the autophagosome. We also found that both autophagic and apoptotic mechanisms contributed to EVA1A-induced cell death while inhibition of autophagy and apoptosis attenuated EVA1A-induced cell death. Overall, these findings provide a comprehensive view to our understanding of the pathways involved in the role of EVA1A in autophagy and programmed cell death. PMID:27490928

  1. TMEM166/EVA1A interacts with ATG16L1 and induces autophagosome formation and cell death.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jia; Li, Ge; Qu, Liujing; Li, Ning; Liu, Wei; Xia, Dan; Hongdu, Beiqi; Lin, Xin; Xu, Chentong; Lou, Yaxin; He, Qihua; Ma, Dalong; Chen, Yingyu

    2016-08-04

    The formation of the autophagosome is controlled by an orderly action of ATG proteins. However, how these proteins are recruited to autophagic membranes remain poorly clarified. In this study, we have provided a line of evidence confirming that EVA1A (eva-1 homolog A)/TMEM166 (transmembrane protein 166) is associated with autophagosomal membrane development. This notion is based on dotted EVA1A structures that colocalize with ZFYVE1, ATG9, LC3B, ATG16L1, ATG5, STX17, RAB7 and LAMP1, which represent different stages of the autophagic process. It is required for autophagosome formation as this phenotype was significantly decreased in EVA1A-silenced cells and Eva1a KO MEFs. EVA1A-induced autophagy is independent of the BECN1-PIK3C3 (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, catalytic subunit type 3) complex but requires ATG7 activity and the ATG12-ATG5/ATG16L1 complex. Here, we present a molecular mechanism by which EVA1A interacts with the WD repeats of ATG16L1 through its C-terminal and promotes ATG12-ATG5/ATG16L1 complex recruitment to the autophagic membrane and enhances the formation of the autophagosome. We also found that both autophagic and apoptotic mechanisms contributed to EVA1A-induced cell death while inhibition of autophagy and apoptosis attenuated EVA1A-induced cell death. Overall, these findings provide a comprehensive view to our understanding of the pathways involved in the role of EVA1A in autophagy and programmed cell death.

  2. Evaluation of the EVA descriptor for QSAR studies: 3. The use of a genetic algorithm to search for models with enhanced predictive properties (EVA_GA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, David B.; Willett, Peter

    2000-01-01

    The EVA structural descriptor, based upon calculated fundamental molecular vibrational frequencies, has proved to be an effective descriptor for both QSAR and database similarity calculations. The descriptor is sensitive to 3D structure but has an advantage over field-based 3D-QSAR methods inasmuch as structural superposition is not required. The original technique involves a standardisation method wherein uniform Gaussians of fixed standard deviation (σ) are used to smear out frequencies projected onto a linear scale. The smearing function permits the overlap of proximal frequencies and thence the extraction of a fixed dimensional descriptor regardless of the number and precise values of the frequencies. It is proposed here that there exist optimal localised values of σ in different spectral regions; that is, the overlap of frequencies using uniform Gaussians may, at certain points in the spectrum, either be insufficient to pick up relationships where they exist or mix up information to such an extent that significant correlations are obscured by noise. A genetic algorithm is used to search for optimal localised σ values using crossvalidated PLS regression scores as the fitness score to be optimised. The resultant models were then validated against a previously unseen test set of compounds and through data scrambling. The performance of EVA_GA is compared to that of EVA and analogous CoMFA studies; in the latter case a brief evaluation is made of the effect of grid resolution upon the stability of CoMFA PLS scores particularly in relation to test set predictions.

  3. High-Resolution Modelling of Health Impacts from Air Pollution for Denmark using the Integrated Model System EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob; Christensen, Jesper H.; Hansen, Kaj M.; Hertel, Ole; Im, Ulas; Jensen, Steen S.; Ketzel, Matthias; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Sigsgaard, Torben; Geels, Camilla

    2015-04-01

    We have developed an integrated health impact assessment system EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution; Brandt et al., 2013a; 2013b), based on the impact-pathway chain, to assess the health impacts and health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The system is used to support policymaking with respect to emission control. The EVA system has previously been used to assess the health impacts based on results from a regional model DEHM (the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model; Brandt et al., 2012). In this study we have used a coupling of two chemistry transport models to calculate the air pollution concentration at different scales; the DEHM model to calculate the air pollution levels with a resolution down to 5.6 km x 5.6 km and the UBM model (Urban Background Model ; Berkowicz, 2000; Brandt et al., 2001) to further calculate the air pollution at 1 km x 1 km resolution for Denmark using results from DEHM as boundary conditions. Both the emission data based on the SPREAD model (Plejdrup and Gyldenkærne, 2011) as well as the population density has been represented in the model system with the same high resolution. The new developments of the integrated model system will be presented as well as results for health impacts and related external costs over the years 2006-2014 for Denmark. Furthermore, a sensitivity study of the health impact using coarse and fine resolutions in the model system has been carried out to evaluate the effect of improved description of the geographical population distribution with respect to location of local emissions. References Berkowicz, R., 2000. A Simple Model for Urban Background Pollution. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 65, 1/2, 259-267. Brandt, J., J. H. Christensen, L. M. Frohn, F. Palmgren, R. Berkowicz and Z. Zlatev, 2001: "Operational air pollution forecasts from European to local scale". Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 35, Sup. No. 1, pp. S91-S98, 2001 Brandt

  4. The Effects of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove Pressure on Hand Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Mesloh, Miranda; Thompson, Shelby; England, Scott; Benson, Liz

    2009-01-01

    With the new vision of space travel aimed at traveling back to the Moon and eventually to Mars, NASA is designing a new spacesuit glove. The purpose of this study was to baseline hand strength while wearing the current Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove, the Phase VI. By varying the pressure in the glove, hand strength could be characterized as a function of spacesuit pressure. This finding is of extreme importance when evaluating missions that require varying suit pressures associated with different operations within NASA's current human spaceflight program, Constellation. This characterization fed directly into the derivation of requirements for the next EVA glove. This study captured three types of maximum hand strength: grip, lateral pinch, and pulp-2 pinch. All three strengths were measured under varying pressures and compared to a bare-hand condition. The resulting standardized data was reported as a percentage of the bare-hand strength. The first wave of tests was performed while the subjects, four female and four male, were wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit supported by a suit stand. This portion of the test collected data from the barehand, suited unpressurized, and suited pressurized (4.3 psi) conditions. In addition, the effects of the Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment (TMG) on hand strength were examined, with the suited unpressurized and pressurized cases tested with and without a TMG. It was found that, when pressurized and with the TMG, the Phase VI glove reduced applied grip strength to a little more than half of the subject s bare-hand strength. The lateral pinch strength remained relatively constant while the pulp-2 pinch strength actually increased with pressure. The TMG was found to decrease maximum applied grip strength by an additional 10% for both pressurized and unpressurized cases, while the pinch strengths saw little to no change. In developing requirements based on human subjects, it is important to attempt to derive

  5. MICROBIAL LEAKAGE AND APICAL INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE IN DOG’S TEETH AFTER ROOT CANAL FILLING WITH DIFFERENT SEALERS, POST SPACE PREPARATION AND EXPOSURE TO THE ORAL ENVIRONMENT

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Maximiliano Schünke; Barletta, Fernando Branco; Bona, Alvaro Della; Vanni, José Roberto; Pereira, Charles da Cunha; de Figueiredo, José Antônio Poli

    2007-01-01

    Coronal leakage is an important factor affecting the outcome of endodontic therapy. This study evaluated the microbial leakage (ML) and the apical inflammatory response (AIR) in dog’s teeth after root canal filling with three endodontic sealers, post preparation and exposure to the oral environment, testing the hypothesis that there is a positive correlation between these two histological parameters (ML and AIR). Sixty-four root canals of 8 mongrel dogs were cleaned, shaped and randomly distributed into groups according to the sealer to be used: Sealer 26 (n=18); AH Plus (n=18); RoekoSeal (n=19); no sealer – control group (n=9). Root canals were filled by the lateral condensation technique. Post space preparation left 4 mm of filling material in the apical root third, and specimens were exposed to the oral environment for 90 days. The dogs were killed and jaw blocks were histologically processed using Brown & Brenn and HE staining techniques. ML and AIR were scored from 1 to 4. Results were analyzed statistically using ANOVA, Duncan’s post-hoc test and Spearman’s correlation. ML and AIR score means were: Sealer 26 - 2.44±0.98 and 2.50±0.70; AH Plus - 2.50±0.78 and 2.22±0.54; RoekoSeal - 1.84±0.95 and 2.63±0.83; Control - 2.56±1.23 and 3.11±0.60. Statistically significant differences in AIR scores were found between the AH Plus and control groups (p<0.05). Although RoekoSeal had the lowest ML means, and AH Plus, the lowest AIR means after 90-day exposure to the oral environment, no statistically significant differences were found between the three sealers under study, and no correlation was found between ML and AIR. PMID:19089174

  6. Astronaut Alan Bean deploys ALSEP during first Apollo 12 EVA on moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Apollo 12 lunar module pilot, deploys components of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) during the first Apollo 12 extravehicular activity (EVA) on the moon. The photo was made by Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., Apollo 12 commander, using a 70mm handheld Haselblad camera modified for lunar surface usage.

  7. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt seated in Lunar Roving Vehicle during EVA-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt is photographed seated in the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) at Station 9 (Van Serg Crater) during the third Apollo 17 extrvehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. This photograph was taken by Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, crew commander.

  8. Study of space shuttle EVA/IVA support requirements. Volume 1: Technical summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, R. J.; Wood, P. W., Jr.; Cox, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Results are summarized which were obtained for equipment requirements for the space shuttle EVA/IVA pressure suit, life support system, mobility aids, vehicle support provisions, and energy 4 support. An initial study of tasks, guidelines, and constraints and a special task on the impact of a 10 psia orbiter cabin atmosphere are included. Supporting studies not related exclusively to any one group of equipment requirements are also summarized. Representative EVA/IVA task scenarios were defined based on an evaluation of missions and payloads. Analysis of the scenarios resulted in a total of 788 EVA/IVA's in the 1979-1990 time frame, for an average of 1.3 per shuttle flight. Duration was estimated to be under 4 hours on 98% of the EVA/IVA's, and distance from the airlock was determined to be 70 feet or less 96% of the time. Payload water vapor sensitivity was estimated to be significant on 9%-17% of the flights. Further analysis of the scenarios was carried out to determine specific equipment characteristics, such as suit cycle and mobility requirements.

  9. STS-31 Crew Training: Firefighting, Food Tasting, EVA Prep and Post

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Space Shuttle crew is shown lighting a pond of gasoline and then performing firefighting tasks. The crew is also shown tasting food including lemonade, chicken casserole, and tortillas, and performing extravehicular activity (EVA) equipment checkouts in the CCT middeck and airlock.

  10. Examination of a Standardized Test for Evaluating the Degree of Cure of EVA Encapsulation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Gu, X.; Haldeman, S.; Hidalgo, M.; Malguth, E.; Reid, C.; Shioda, T.; Schulze, S.; Wang, Z.

    2013-11-01

    The curing of cross-linkable encapsulation is a critical consideration for photovoltaic (PV) modules manufactured using a lamination process. Concerns related to ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) include the quality (e.g., expiration and uniformity) of the films or completion (duration) of the cross-linking of the EVA within a laminator. Because these issues are important to both EVA and module manufacturers, an international standard has recently been proposed by the Encapsulation Task-Group within the Working Group 2 (WG2) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC82) for the quantification of the degree of cure for EVA encapsulation. The present draft of the standard calls for the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as the rapid, enabling secondary (test) method. Both the residual enthalpy- and melt/freeze-DSC methods are identified. The DSC methods are calibrated against the gel content test, the primary (reference) method. Aspects of other established methods, including indentation and rotor cure metering, were considered by the group. Key details of the test procedure will be described.

  11. Study on structure and hydrophobicity of PP/EVA co-blending membrane: Quenching rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Na; Li, Zhao; Hua, Xinxin

    2017-03-01

    Isotactic polypropylene (iPP)/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) co-blending hydrophobic microporous membranes for vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) were prepared via thermally induced phase separation (TIPS). In the process of preparation, quenching rate has a great influence on the membrane morphology.

  12. View of the Lunar Module 'Orion' and Lunar Roving Vehicle during first EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A view of the Lunar Module (LM) 'Orion' and Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), as photographed by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Descates landing site. Astronaut John W. Young, commander, can be seen directly behind the LRV. The lunar surface feature in the left background is Stone Mountain.

  13. Underwater views of STS-11 crewman Robert L. Stewart during EVA training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Underwater views of STS-11 crewman Robert L. Stewart during extravehicular activity (EVA) training in the cargo bay in the weightless environment training facility (WETF) in bldg 27. Stewart busies himself with donning and doffing of the manned maneuvering unit (MMU) in a mockup of the Shuttle's cargo bay.

  14. Astronaut Jack Lousma participates in EVA to deploy twin pole solar shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, participates in the August 6, 1973 extravehicular activity (EVA) during which he and Astronauts Owen K. Garriott, science pilot, deployed the twin pole solar shield to help shade the Orbital Workshop (OWS). Note the reflection of the Apollo Telescope Mount and the Earth in Lousma's helmet visor.

  15. Astronaut Jack Lousma participates in EVA to deploy twin pole solar shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, participates in the August 6, 1973 extravehicular activity (EVA) during which he and Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, science pilot, deployed the twin pole solar shield to help shade the Orbital Workshop (OWS). Note the striking reflection of the Earth in Lousma's helmet visor.

  16. Space shuttle EVA/IVA support equipment requirements study. Volume 1: Final summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the support equipment requirements for space shuttle intravehicular and extravehicular activities. The subjects investigated are; (1) EVA/IVA task identification and analysis,. (2) primary life support system, (3) emergency life support system, (4) pressure suit assembly, (5) restraints, (6) work site provision, (7) emergency internal vehicular emergencies, and (8) vehicular interfaces.

  17. Examination of a Standardized Test for Evaluating the Degree of Cure of EVA Encapsulation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. C.; Gu, X.; Haldenman, S.; Hidalgo, M.; Malguth, E.; Reid, C. G.; Shioda, T.; Schulze, S. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2013-11-01

    The curing of cross-linkable encapsulation is a critical consideration for photovoltaic (PV) modules manufactured using a lamination process. Concerns related to ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) include the quality (e.g., expiration and uniformity) of the films or completion (duration) of the cross-linking of the EVA within a laminator. Because these issues are important to both EVA and module manufacturers, an international standard has recently been proposed by the Encapsulation Task-Group within the Working Group 2 (WG2) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC82) for the quantification of the degree of cure for EVA encapsulation. The present draft of the standard calls for the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as the rapid, enabling secondary (test) method. Both the residual enthalpy- and melt/freeze-DSC methods are identified. The DSC methods are calibrated against the gel content test, the primary (reference) method. Aspects of other established methods, including indentation and rotor cure metering, were considered by the group. Key details of the test procedure will be described.

  18. Astronaut James Irwin works at Lunar Roving Vehicle during Apollo 15 EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot, works at the Lunar Roving Vehicle during the first Apollo 15 lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Hadley-Apennine landing site. The shadow of the Lunar Module 'Falcon' is in the foreground. This view is looking northeast, with Mount Hadley in the background. This photograph was taken by Astronaut David R. Scott, commander.

  19. Astronaut David Scott on slope of Hadley Delta during Apollo 15 EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut David R. Scott, mission commander, performs a task at the Lunar Roving Vehicle parked on the edge of Hadley Rille during the first Apollo 15 lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA-1). This photograph was taken by Astronaut James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot, from the flank of St. George Crater. The view is looking north along the rille.

  20. Design of a 2-Hour Prebreathe Protocol for Space Walks (EVAs) from the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, M. L.; Conkin, J.; Foster, P. P.; Pilmanis, A. A.; Butler, B. D.; Fife, C.; Vann, R. D.; Gerth, W. A.; Loftin, K. C.; Dervay, J.; Waligora, J. M.; Powell, M. R.; Homick, Jerry L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The majority of extravehicular activities (EVAs) performed from the shuttle use a 10.2 psi staged decompression. The International Space Station (ISS) will operate at 14.7 psi, requiring crews to "campout" in the airlock at 10.2 psi. The constraints associated with campout (crew isolation, oxygen usage, and waste management), provided the rationale to develop a 2-hour prebreathe protocol from 14.7 psi. Previous studies on the affect of microgravity and exercise during prebreathe suggested the feasibility of this approach. Various combinations of adynamia (nonwalking subjects), prebreathe exercise doses, and space suit donning options (10.2 vs. 14.7 psi) were analyzed against timeline and consumable constraints. Prospective decompression sickness (DCS) and venous gas emboli (VGE) accept/reject criteria were defined from statistical analysis of historical DCS data, combined with risk management of DCS under ISS mission circumstances. Maximum operational DCS levels were defined based on protecting for EVA capability with two crew members at 95% confidence, throughout ISS lifetime (within the constraints of NASA DCS disposition policy JPG 1800.3). The accept / reject limits were adjusted for greater safety (including Grade IV VGE criteria) based on analysis of related medical factors. Monte-Carlo simulation was performed to design a closed sequential, multi-center laboratory trial, including the capability of rejecting the primary protocol and testing at least one alternate exercise dose, within the 2-hour prebreathe. The 2-hour protocol incorporates 0, breathing for 5 0 min at 14.7 psi, including 10 min dual cycle ergometry at 75%VO(2max). It requires an additional 30 minO2breathing during depress from 14.7 to 10.2 psi, followed by a 30-60 min suit donning break at 10.2 psi/26.5% O2. It concludes with a 40 min in-suit O2 prebreathe. The protocol would be accepted for operations, if the incidence of DCS was less than 15% and Grade IV VGE less than 20%, both at 95

  1. Refinement of Optimal Work Envelope for Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) Suit Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaramillo, Marcos A.; Angermiller, Bonnie L.; Morency, Richard M.; Rajululu, Sudhakar L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Work Envelope study is to determine and revise the work envelope defined in NSTS 07700 "System Description and Design Data - Extravehicular Activities" [1], arising from an action item as a result of the Shoulder Injury Tiger Team findings. The aim of this study is to determine a common work envelope that will encompass a majority of the crew population while minimizing the possibility of shoulder and upper arm injuries. There will be approximately two phases of testing: arm sweep analysis to be performed in the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF), and torso lean testing to be performed on the Precision Air Bearing Facility (PABF). NSTS 07700 defines the preferred work envelope arm reach in terms of maximum reach, and defines the preferred work envelope torso flexibility of a crewmember to be a net 45 degree backwards lean [1]. This test served two functions: to investigate the validity of the standard discussed in NSTS 07700, and to provide recommendations to update this standard if necessary.

  2. Comparative Evaluation of the Reinforcing Effect of Different Post Systems in the Restoration of Endodontically Treated Human Anterior Teeth at Two Different Lengths of Post Space Preparation- An in Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Sahil; Jindal, Ritu; Gupta, Kanika; Mahajan, Sandeep; Garg, Sunidhi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Comparative evaluation of the reinforcing effect of different post systems in the restoration of endodontically treated human anterior teeth at two different lengths of post space preparation- an in vitro study Materials and Methods: 135 extracted human incisors were endodontically treated, out of which 120 teeth were decoronated 2mm above the cementoenamel junction and divided into four experimental groups based on the post system to be used: Glass fiber post (GFP) and stainless steel post (SSP), titanium post (TTP), cast metal post (CMP). Each group was divided into two sub-groups according to the length of post space preparation: 5mm and 10mm. All the samples were restored with metal crowns. The fracture resistance was measured by applying loads at an angle of 135º to the long axis of teeth in an instron universal testing machine. Fracture mode was analyzed for all the samples. Results from the four test groups were compared and analysed using one-way ANOVA test and the Post-hoc Bonferroni test to demonstrate differences between pairs of groups. Results: The results revealed that SSP group at 10mm post space length showed the significantly (“P-value< 0.05”) highest fracture resistance (793.7787 N). Decrease in post length resulted in the decrease in fracture resistance in all the groups reduced to values even lesser than the control (437.8733N). Conclusion: The different post systems used in the study were able to reinforce endodontically treated teeth only at 10mm post space length. PMID:23724211

  3. Enabler operator station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Andrea; Keitzman, John; King, Shirlyn; Stover, Rae; Wegner, Torsten

    The objective of this project was to design an onboard operator station for the conceptual Lunar Work Vehicle (LWV). This LWV would be used in the colonization of a lunar outpost. The details that follow, however, are for an earth-bound model. Several recommendations are made in the appendix as to the changes needed in material selection for the lunar environment. The operator station is designed dimensionally correct for an astronaut wearing the current space shuttle EVA suit (which includes life support). The proposed operator station will support and restrain an astronaut as well as provide protection from the hazards of vehicle rollover. The threat of suit puncture is eliminated by rounding all corners and edges. A step-plate, located at the front of the vehicle, provides excellent ease of entry and exit. The operator station weight requirements are met by making efficient use of grid members, semi-rigid members and woven fabrics.

  4. Enabler operator station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Andrea; Kietzman, John; King, Shirlyn; Stover, Rae; Wegner, Torsten

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project was to design an onboard operator station for the conceptual Lunar Work Vehicle (LWV). The LWV would be used in the colonization of a lunar outpost. The details that follow, however, are for an Earth-bound model. The operator station is designed to be dimensionally correct for an astronaut wearing the current space shuttle EVA suit (which include life support). The proposed operator station will support and restrain an astronaut as well as to provide protection from the hazards of vehicle rollover. The threat of suit puncture is eliminated by rounding all corners and edges. A step-plate, located at the front of the vehicle, provides excellent ease of entry and exit. The operator station weight requirements are met by making efficient use of rigid members, semi-rigid members, and woven fabrics.

  5. Heart Rhythm Monitoring in the Constellation Lunar and Launch/Landing EVA Suit: Recommendations from an Expert Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.; Hamilton, Doug; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Alexander, David

    2009-01-01

    There are currently several physiological monitoring requirements for EVA in the Human-Systems Interface Requirements (HSIR) document. There are questions as to whether the capability to monitor heart rhythm in the lunar surface space suit is a necessary capability for lunar surface operations. Similarly, there are questions as to whether the capability to monitor heart rhythm during a cabin depressurization scenario in the launch/landing space suit is necessary. This presentation seeks to inform space medicine personnel of recommendations made by an expert panel of cardiovascular medicine specialists regarding in-suit ECG heart rhythm monitoring requirements during lunar surface operations. After a review of demographic information and clinical cases and panel discussion, the panel recommended that ECG monitoring capability as a clinical tool was not essential in the lunar space suit; ECG monitoring was not essential in the launch/landing space suit for contingency scenarios; the current hear rate monitoring capability requirement for both launch/landing and lunar space suits should be maintained; lunar vehicles should be required to have ECG monitoring capability with a minimum of 5-lead ECG for IVA medical assessments; and, exercise stress testing for astronaut selection and retention should be changed from the current 85% maximum heart rate limit to maximal, exhaustive 'symptom-limited' testing to maximize diagnostic utility as a screening tool for evaluating the functional capacity of astronauts and their cardiovascular health.

  6. Influence of the association of the EVA and NBR on the characteristics of modified bitumen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensaada, A.; Soudani, K.; Haddadi, S.; Saoula, S.

    2015-03-01

    Durability and the performance of pavement depend mainly on the characteristics of materials which change over time like all other organic substances. They are subject to significant changes due to environmental conditions during the different phases of use. In the present work we investigated experimentally the influence of the association of ethyl vinyl acetate polymer (EVA) with an industrial waste, acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) on the modification of bitumen AC 35-50 and its rheological behavior. The incorporation of NBR and EVA in the bitumen improved its intrinsic characteristics (softening point, penetration and ductility). In addition to improving the characteristics of bituminous binders that will affect the durability of bituminous structures, the environment will be preserved by the recycling of industrial waste.

  7. STS-54 MS Susan J. Helms prepares for EVA simulation at JSC's WETF Bldg 29

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-54 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Mission Specialist 3 (MS3) Susan J. Helms, wearing liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG) and extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) lower torso, prepares to don EMU upper torso with some assistance from technicians. Once fully suited in the EMU, Helms will participate in an underwater extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Though not assigned to the scheduled EVA, Helms, for backup and contingency purposes, is trained in the WETF. Nearby, divers await her entry into the water via the platform (visible behind Helms). The EMU is weighted so as to allow Helms to achieve neutral buoyancy and simulate the various chores of the spacewalk.

  8. STS-57 astronauts Low and Wisoff perform DTO 1210 EVA in OV-105's payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    During STS-57 extravehicular activity (EVA), Mission Specialist (MS) and Payload Commander (PLC) G. David Low (foreground) and MS3 Peter J.K. Wisoff work along the port side sill longeron in the payload bay (PLB) of the Earth-orbiting Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Low will secure a portable foot restraint (PFR) (manipulator foot restraint (MFR)) to the remote manipulator system (RMS) end effector (deployed behind the two astronauts) using a PFR attachment device (PAD). This EVA, designated Detailed Test Objective (DTO) 1210, included evaluation of procedures being developed to service the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) on mission STS-61 in December 1993. Visible in OV-105's PLB are (front to back) the SPACEHAB-01 module (Commercial Middeck Augmentation Module (CMAM)), the Superhelium Onorbit Transfer (SHOOT) liquid helium dewar assembly, and the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) spacecraft. The scene is backdropped against the Earth's surface.

  9. STS-55 MS3 Harris, wearing EMU and CCA, prepares for EVA simulation at JSC WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Mission Specialist 3 (MS3) Bernard A. Harris, Jr, suited in the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) upper torso and communications carrier assembly (CCA), smiles as he prepares for an underwater simulation in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool. This portrait-like view captures Harris as he checks out his communications equipment. Once fully suited, Harris will be lowered into the WETF's 25-foot deep pool for an underwater contingency extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation. There is no scheduled EVA for the 1993 flight but each spaceflight crew includes astronauts trained for a variety of contingency tasks that could require exiting the shirt-sleeve environment of a Shuttle's cabin.

  10. Past, present, and future: the U.S. EVA program.

    PubMed

    McBarron JW 2nd

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides an overview and summary of U.S. extravehicular activity accomplishments of the last 26 years, Space Shuttle missions having scheduled extravehicular activities to be performed over the next several years, extravehicular activities expected to be necessary to support Space Station Freedom assembly tasks and operations, and potential extravehicular activity roles of the NASA Space Exploration Initiative Program.

  11. Astronaut Jack Lousma hooks up cable for rate gyro six pack during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, hooks up a 23 ft. 2 in. connecting cable for the rate gyro six pack during extravehicular activity (EVA) on August 24, 1973, as senn in this photographic reproduction taken from a color television tranmsission made by a TV camera aboard the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The rate gyros were mounted inside the Multiple Docking Adapter opposite the Apollo Telescope Mount control and display console.

  12. STS-37 Mission Specialist (MS) Ross during EVA in OV-104's payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-37 Mission Specialist (MS) Jerry L. Ross drifts outside Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, payload bay (PLB) as he attaches a tether to a port side guidewire during extravehicular activity (EVA). OV-104's wing tip is visible below Ross. The Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) deployable track appears mounted inside the PLB. Only the shoulder and upper arm of the deployed remote manipulator system (RMS) are visible at the right.

  13. Astronaut David Wolf participates in training for contingency EVA in WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut David A. Wolf participates in training for contingency extravehicular activity (EVA) for the STS-58 mission. The mission specialist was about to be submerged ito a point of neutral buoyancy in the JSC Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF). In this view, Wolf is displaying the flexibility of his training version of the Shuttle extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) by lifting his arms above his head (31701); Wolf waves to the camera before he is submerged in the WETF (31702).

  14. Astronaut John Young at LRV prior to deployment of ALSEP during first EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of Apollo 16, is at the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), just prior to deployment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP) during the first extravehicular activity (EVA-1), on April 21, 1972. Note Ultraviolet Camera/Spectrometer at right of Lunar Module (LM) ladder. Also note pile of protective/thermal foil under the U.S. flag on the LM which the astronauts pulled away to get to the Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly (MESA) bay.

  15. Astronaut John Young reaches for tools in Lunar Roving Vehicle during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, reaches for tools in the Apollo lunar hand tool carrier at the aft end of the Lunar Roving Vehicle during the second Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2) at the Descartes landing site. This photograph was taken by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. This view is looking south from the base of Stone Mountain.

  16. Astronaut John Young replaces tools in Lunar Roving Vehicle during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, replaces tools in the Apollo lunar hand tool carrier at the aft end of the Lunar Roving Vehicle during the second Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2) at the Descartes landing site. This photograph was taken by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. Smoky Mountain, with the large Ravine crater on its flank, is in the left background. This view is looking northeast.

  17. View of the Discovery's payload bay during EVA taken from inside shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This unusual scene of STS-51 extravehicular activity (EVA) was captured on 35mm film by one of the supportive in-cabin crew members shooting through the aft flight deck window. Astronaut James H. Newman, working on Discovery's starboard side, is nearer the camera, with astronaut Carl E. Walz traversing near the aft firewall and the airborne support equipment (ASE). A view of a section of the Earth can be seen through the upper aft window.

  18. EVA Assembly of Large Space Structure Neutral Buoyancy, Zero-Gravity Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    EVA Assembly of Large Space Structure Neutral Buoyancy, Zero-Gravity Simulation: NASA-LaRC Nestable Columns and Joints. The film depicts an extravehicular activity (EVA) that involved the assembly of six 'space-weight' columns into a regular tetrahedral cell by a team of two 'space'-suited test subjects. This cell represents the fundamental 'element' of a tetrahedral truss structure. The tests were conducted under simulated zero-gravity conditions, achieved by neutral buoyancy in water. The cell was assembled on an 'outrigger' assembly aid off the side of a mockup of the Shuttle Orbiter cargo bay. Both manual and simulated remote manipulator system (RMS) modes were evaluated. The simulated RMS was used only to transfer stowed hardware from the cargo bay to the work sites. Articulation limits of the pressure suit and zero gravity could be accommodated by work stations with foot restraints. The results of this study have confirmed that astronaut EVA assembly of large, erectable space structur is well within man's capabilities. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070031008. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  19. Fogging Control on LDPE/EVA Coextruded Films: Wettability Behavior and Its Correlation with Electric Performance

    PubMed Central

    Waldo-Mendoza, Miguel A.; Quiñones-Jurado, Zoe V.; Pérez-Medina, Juan C.; Yañez-Soto, Bernardo; Ramírez-González, Pedro E.

    2017-01-01

    The transformation of fog at a non-visible water layer on a membrane of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) was evaluated. Nonionic surfactants of major demand in the polyolefin industry were studied. A kinetic study using a hot fog chamber showed that condensation is controlled by both the diffusion and permanency of the surfactant more than by the change of the surface energy developed by the wetting agents. The greatest permanency of the anti-fog effect of the LDPE/EVA surface was close to 3000 h. The contact angle results demonstrated the ability of the wetting agent to spread out to the surface. Complementarily, the migration of nonionic surfactants from the inside of the polymeric matrix to the surface was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy. Additionally, electrical measurement on the anti-fogging membrane at alternating currents and at a sweep frequency was proposed to test the conductivity and wetting ability of nonionic surfactants. We proved that the amphiphilic molecules had the ability to increase the conductivity in the polyolefin membrane. A correlation between the bulk electrical conductivity and the permanency of the fogging control on the LDPE/EVA coextruded film was found. PMID:28241433

  20. Fogging Control on LDPE/EVA Coextruded Films: Wettability Behavior and Its Correlation with Electric Performance.

    PubMed

    Waldo-Mendoza, Miguel A; Quiñones-Jurado, Zoe V; Pérez-Medina, Juan C; Yañez-Soto, Bernardo; Ramírez-González, Pedro E

    2017-02-22

    The transformation of fog at a non-visible water layer on a membrane of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) was evaluated. Nonionic surfactants of major demand in the polyolefin industry were studied. A kinetic study using a hot fog chamber showed that condensation is controlled by both the diffusion and permanency of the surfactant more than by the change of the surface energy developed by the wetting agents. The greatest permanency of the anti-fog effect of the LDPE/EVA surface was close to 3000 h. The contact angle results demonstrated the ability of the wetting agent to spread out to the surface. Complementarily, the migration of nonionic surfactants from the inside of the polymeric matrix to the surface was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy. Additionally, electrical measurement on the anti-fogging membrane at alternating currents and at a sweep frequency was proposed to test the conductivity and wetting ability of nonionic surfactants. We proved that the amphiphilic molecules had the ability to increase the conductivity in the polyolefin membrane. A correlation between the bulk electrical conductivity and the permanency of the fogging control on the LDPE/EVA coextruded film was found.

  1. Determining the Optimum Post Spacing of LIDAR-Derived Elevation Data in Varying Terrain for Flood Hazard Mapping Purposes in North Carolina and Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berglund, Judith; Davis, Bruce; Estep, Lee

    2004-01-01

    assurance/quality control analyses were performed on each dataset. Cross sections extracted form the high density and then the decimated datasets were individually input into an H&H model to determine the model's sensitivity to topographic variation and the effect of that variation on the resulting water profiles. Additional analysis was performed on the Brownsville, Texas, LIDAR data to determine the percentage of returns that "penetrated" various types of canopy or vegetative cover. It is hoped that the results of these studies will benefit state and local communities as they consider the post spacing at which to acquire LIDAR data (which affects cost) and will benefit FEMA as the Agency assesses the use of different technologies for updating National Flood Insurance Program and related products.

  2. Understanding Skill in EVA Mass Handling. Volume 2; Empirical Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccio, Gary; McDonald, Vernon; Peters, Brian; Layne, Charles; Bloomberg, Jacob

    1997-01-01

    In this report we describe the details of our empirical protocol effort investigating skill in extravehicular mass handling using NASA's principal mass handling simulator, the precision air bearing floor. Contents of this report include a description of the necessary modifications to the mass handling simulator; choice of task, and the description of an operationally relevant protocol. Our independent variables are presented in the context of the specific operational issues they were designed to simulate. The explanation of our dependent variables focuses on the specific data processing procedures used to transform data from common laboratory instruments into measures that are relevant to a special class of nested control systems (discussed in Volume 1): manual interactions between an individual and the substantial environment. The data reduction is explained in the context of the theoretical foundation described in Volume 1. Finally as a preface to the presentation of the empirical data in Volume 3 of this report series, a set of detailed hypotheses is presented.

  3. Life Sciences Implications of Lunar Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Norcross, Jason R.; Abercromby, Andrew F.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document preliminary, predicted, life sciences implications of expected operational concepts for lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA). Algorithms developed through simulation and testing in lunar analog environments were used to predict crew metabolic rates and ground reaction forces experienced during lunar EVA. Subsequently, the total metabolic energy consumption, the daily bone load stimulus, total oxygen needed, and other variables were calculated and provided to Human Research Program and Exploration Systems Mission Directorate stakeholders. To provide context to the modeling, the report includes an overview of some scenarios that have been considered. Concise descriptions of the analog testing and development of the algorithms are also provided. This document may be updated to remain current with evolving lunar or other planetary surface operations, assumptions and concepts, and to provide additional data and analyses collected during the ongoing analog research program.

  4. Improved crystallinity and dynamic mechanical properties of reclaimed waste tire rubber/EVA blends under the influence of electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramarad, Suganti; Ratnam, Chantara T.; Khalid, Mohammad; Chuah, Abdullah Luqman; Hanson, Svenja

    2017-01-01

    Dependence on automobiles has led to a huge amount of waste tires produced annually around the globe. In this study, the feasibility of recycling these waste tires by blending reclaimed waste tire rubber (RTR) with poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) and electron beam irradiation was studied. The RTR/EVA blends containing 100-0 wt% of RTR were prepared in the internal mixer followed by electron beam (EB) irradiation with doses ranging from 50 to 200 kGy. The processing torques, calorimetric and dynamic mechanical properties of the blends were studied. Blends were found to have lower processing torque indicating easier processability of RTR/EVA blends compared to EVA. RTR domains were found to be dispersed in EVA matrix, whereas, irradiation improved the dispersion of RTR into smaller domains in EVA matrix. Results showed the addition of EVA improves the efficiency of irradiation induced crosslink formation and dynamic mechanical properties of the blends at the expense of the calorimetric properties. Storage and loss modulus of 50 wt% RTR blend was higher than RTR and EVA, suggesting partial miscibility of the blend. Whereas, electron beam irradiation improved the calorimetric properties and dynamic mechanical properties of the blends through redistribution of RTR in smaller domain sizes within EVA.

  5. Development of a test protocol for evaluating EVA glove performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinman, Elaine M.

    1992-01-01

    Testing gloved hand performance involves work from several disciplines. Evaluations performed in the course of reenabling a disabled hand, designing a robotic end effector or master controller, or hard-suit design have all yielded relevant information, and, in most cases, produced performance test methods. Most times, these test methods have been primarily oriented toward their parent discipline. For space operations, a comparative test which would provide a way to quantify pressure glove and end effector performance would be useful in dividing tasks between humans and robots. Such a test would have to rely heavily on sensored measurement, as opposed to questionnaires, to produce relevant data. However, at some point human preference would have to be taken into account. This paper presents a methodology for evaluating gloved hand performance which attempts to respond to these issues. Glove testing of a prototype glove design using this method is described.

  6. Implications of Operational Pressure on CSSE PGS Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ryan

    2008-01-01

    The Constellation Spacesuit Element (CSSE) was required to support crew survival (CS); launch, entry, and abort (LEA) scenarios; zero gravity (0-g) extravehicular activity (EVA) (both unscheduled and contingency); and planetary EVA. Operation of the CSSE in all of these capacities required a pressure garment subsystem (PGS) that would operate efficiently through various pressure profiles. The PGS team initiated a study to determine the appropriate operational pressure profile of the CSSE and how this selection would affect the design of the CSSE PGS. This study included an extensive review of historical PGS operational pressure selection and the operational effects of those pressures, the presentation of four possible pressure paradigm options for use by the CSSE, the risks and design impacts of these options, and the down-selected pressure option.

  7. High-resolution modelling of health impacts from air pollution using the integrated model system EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob; Christensen, Jesper H.; Geels, Camilla; Hansen, Kaj M.; Jensen, Steen S.; Ketzel, Matthias; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Sigsgaard, Torben; Silver, Jeremy D.

    2014-05-01

    A high-resolution assessment of health impacts from air pollution and related external cost has been conducted for Denmark using the integrated EVA model system. The EVA system has been further developed by implementing an air quality model with a 1 km x 1 km resolution covering the whole of Denmark. New developments of the integrated model system will be presented as well as results for health impacts and related external costs over several decades. Furthermore, the sensitivity of health impacts to model resolution will be studied. We have developed an integrated model system EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution), based on the impact-pathway chain, to assess the health impacts and health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The system is used to support policymaking with respect to emission control. In Brandt et al. (2013a; 2013b), the EVA system was used to assess the impacts in Europe and Denmark from the past, present and future total air pollution levels as well as the contribution from the major anthropogenic emission sectors. The EVA system was applied using the hemispheric chemistry-transport model, the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM), with nesting capability for higher resolution over Europe (50 km x 50 km) and Northern Europe (16.7 km x 16.7 km). In this study an Urban Background Model (UBM) has been further developed to cover the whole of Denmark with a 1 km x 1 km resolution and the model has been implemented as a part of the integrated model system, EVA. The EVA system is based on the impact-pathway methodology. The site-specific emissions will result (via atmospheric transport and chemistry) in a concentration distribution, which together with detailed population data, are used to estimate the population-level exposure. Using exposure-response functions and economic valuations, the exposure is transformed into impacts on human health and related external costs. In this study

  8. Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) glove evaluation test protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinman-Sweeney, E. M.

    1994-01-01

    One of the most critical components of a space suit is the gloves, yet gloves have traditionally presented significant design challenges. With continued efforts at glove development, a method for evaluating glove performance is needed. This paper presents a pressure-glove evaluation protocol. A description of this evaluation protocol, and its development is provided. The protocol allows comparison of one glove design to another, or any one design to bare-handed performance. Gloves for higher pressure suits may be evaluated at current and future design pressures to drive out differences in performance due to pressure effects. Using this protocol, gloves may be evaluated during design to drive out design problems and determine areas for improvement, or fully mature designs may be evaluated with respect to mission requirements. Several different test configurations are presented to handle these cases. This protocol was run on a prototype glove. The prototype was evaluated at two operating pressures and in the unpressurized state, with results compared to bare-handed performance. Results and analysis from this test series are provided, as is a description of the configuration used for this test.

  9. Understanding Skill in EVA Mass Handling. Volume 4; An Integrated Methodology for Evaluating Space Suit Mobility and Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, P. Vernon; Newman, Dava

    1999-01-01

    The empirical investigation of extravehicular activity (EVA) mass handling conducted on NASA's Precision Air-Bearing Floor led to a Phase I SBIR from JSC. The purpose of the SBIR was to design an innovative system for evaluating space suit mobility and stability in conditions that simulate EVA on the surface of the Moon or Mars. The approach we used to satisfy the Phase I objectives was based on a structured methodology for the development of human-systems technology. Accordingly the project was broken down into a number of tasks and subtasks. In sequence, the major tasks were: 1) Identify missions and tasks that will involve EVA and resulting mobility requirements in the near and long term; 2) Assess possible methods for evaluating mobility of space suits during field-based EVA tests; 3) Identify requirements for behavioral evaluation by interacting with NASA stakeholders;.4) Identify necessary and sufficient technology for implementation of a mobility evaluation system; and 5) Prioritize and select technology solutions. The work conducted in these tasks is described in this final volume of the series on EVA mass handling. While prior volumes in the series focus on novel data-analytic techniques, this volume addresses technology that is necessary for minimally intrusive data collection and near-real-time data analysis and display.

  10. Dynamic analysis of astronaut motions in microgravity: Applications for Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Dava J.

    1995-01-01

    Simulations of astronaut motions during extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks were performed using computational multibody dynamics methods. The application of computational dynamic simulation to EVA was prompted by the realization that physical microgravity simulators have inherent limitations: viscosity in neutral buoyancy tanks; friction in air bearing floors; short duration for parabolic aircraft; and inertia and friction in suspension mechanisms. These limitations can mask critical dynamic effects that later cause problems during actual EVA's performed in space. Methods of formulating dynamic equations of motion for multibody systems are discussed with emphasis on Kane's method, which forms the basis of the simulations presented herein. Formulation of the equations of motion for a two degree of freedom arm is presented as an explicit example. The four basic steps in creating the computational simulations were: system description, in which the geometry, mass properties, and interconnection of system bodies are input to the computer; equation formulation based on the system description; inverse kinematics, in which the angles, velocities, and accelerations of joints are calculated for prescribed motion of the endpoint (hand) of the arm; and inverse dynamics, in which joint torques are calculated for a prescribed motion. A graphical animation and data plotting program, EVADS (EVA Dynamics Simulation), was developed and used to analyze the results of the simulations that were performed on a Silicon Graphics Indigo2 computer. EVA tasks involving manipulation of the Spartan 204 free flying astronomy payload, as performed during Space Shuttle mission STS-63 (February 1995), served as the subject for two dynamic simulations. An EVA crewmember was modeled as a seven segment system with an eighth segment representing the massive payload attached to the hand. For both simulations, the initial configuration of the lower body (trunk, upper leg, and lower leg) was a neutral

  11. Dielectric properties of EVA rubber composites at microwave frequencies theory, instrumentation and measurements.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Prasun; Biswas, Salil Kumar; Ghosh, Gautam

    2011-01-01

    This work describes and evaluates a technique for determining the dielectric properties of carbon-black filled Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) rubber and presents results on the studies of the effect of frequency on the permittivity and microwave conductivity using resonant cavity perturbation method. The measurements are performed with the aid of a Network Analyzer in X-band. The simplicity of this method lies in the fact that the dielectric properties can be obtained directly from the analytical formula without taking recourse to calibration.

  12. Astronaut John Young looks over a boulder at Station no. 13 during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, looks over a large boulder at Station No. 13 during the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. This was the site of the permanently shadowed soil sample which was taken from a hole extending under overhanging rock. Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, took this photograph. Concerning Young's reaching under the big rock, Duke remarked: 'You do that in west Texas and you get a rattlesnake!'

  13. Astronaut James Irwin works at Lunar Roving Vehicle during Apollo 15 EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot, works at the Lunar Roving Vehicle during the first Apollo 15 lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Hadley-Apennine landing site. A portion of the Lunar Module 'Falcon' is on the left. The undeployed Laser Ranging Retro Reflector (LR-3) lies atop the LM's MOdulear Equipment Stowage Assembly (MESA). This view is looking slightly west of south. Hadley Delta and the Apennine Front are in the background to the left. St. George crater is approximately 5 kilometers (about 3 statute miles) in the distance behind Irwin's head. This photograph was taken by Astronaut David R. Scott, Apollo 15 commander.

  14. Severe paediatric conditions linked with EV-A71 and EV-D68, France, May to October 2016

    PubMed Central

    Antona, Denise; Kossorotoff, Manoëlle; Schuffenecker, Isabelle; Mirand, Audrey; Leruez-Ville, Marianne; Bassi, Clément; Aubart, Mélodie; Moulin, Florence; Lévy-Bruhl, Daniel; Henquell, Cécile; Lina, Bruno; Desguerre, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    We report 59 cases of severe paediatric conditions linked with enterovirus (EV)-A71 and EV-D68 in France between May and October 2016. Fifty-two children had severe neurological symptoms. EV sequence-based typing for 42 cases revealed EV-A71 in 21 (18 subgenotype C1, detected for the first time in France) and EV-D68 in eight. Clinicians should be encouraged to obtain stool and respiratory specimens from patients presenting with severe neurological disorders for EV detection and characterisation. PMID:27918268

  15. PLRP-3: Operational Perspectives of Conducting Science-Driven Extravehicular Activity with Communications Latency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Matthew J.; Lim, Darlene S. S.; Brady, Allyson; Cardman, Zena; Bell, Ernest; Garry, Brent; Reid, Donnie; Chappell, Steve; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.

    2016-01-01

    The Pavilion Lake Research Project (PLRP) is a unique platform where the combination of scientific research and human space exploration concepts can be tested in an underwater spaceflight analog environment. The 2015 PLRP field season was performed at Pavilion Lake, Canada, where science-driven exploration techniques focusing on microbialite characterization and acquisition were evaluated within the context of crew and robotic extravehicular activity (EVA) operations. The primary objectives of this analog study were to detail the capabilities, decision-making process, and operational concepts required to meet non-simulated scientific objectives during 5-minute one-way communication latency utilizing crew and robotic assets. Furthermore, this field study served as an opportunity build upon previous tests at PLRP, NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS), and NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) to characterize the functional roles and responsibilities of the personnel involved in the distributed flight control team and identify operational constraints imposed by science-driven EVA operations. The relationship and interaction between ground and flight crew was found to be dependent on the specific scientific activities being addressed. Furthermore, the addition of a second intravehicular operator was found to be highly enabling when conducting science-driven EVAs. Future human spaceflight activities will need to cope with the added complexity of dynamic and rapid execution of scientific priorities both during and between EVA execution to ensure scientific objectives are achieved.

  16. Wissler Simulations of a Liquid Cooled and Ventilation Garment (LCVG) for Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kesterson, Matthew; Bue, Grant; Trevino, Luis

    2006-01-01

    In order to provide effective cooling for astronauts during extravehicular activities (EVAs), a liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG) is used to remove heat by a series off tubes through which cooling water is circulated. To better predict the effectiveness of the LCG and determine possible modifications to improve performance, computer simulations dealing with the interaction of the cooling garment with the human body have been run using the Wissler Human Model. Simulations have been conducted to predict the heat removal rate for various liquid cooled garment configurations. The current LCVG uses 48 cooling tubes woven into a fabric with cooling water flowing through the tubes. The purpose of the current project is to decrease the overall weight of the LCVG system. In order to achieve this weight reduction, advances in the garment heat removal rates need to be obtained. Currently, increasing the fabric s thermal conductivity along with also examining an increase in the cooling tube conductivity to more efficiently remove the excess heat generated during EVA is being simulated. Initial trials varied cooling water temperature, water flow rate, garment conductivity, tube conductivity, and total number of cooling tubes in the LCVG. Results indicate that the total number of cooling tubes could be reduced to 22 and still achieve the desired heat removal rate of 361 W. Further improvements are being made to the garment network used in the model to account for temperature gradients associated with the spacing of the cooling tubes over the surface of the garment

  17. On the Surface Free Energy of PVC/EVA Polymer Blends: Comparison of Different Calculation Methods.

    PubMed

    Michalski; Hardy; Saramago

    1998-12-01

    The surface free energy of polymeric films of polyvinylchloride (PVC) + poly(ethylene-co-vinylacetate) (EVA) blends was calculated using the van Oss treatment (Lifshitz and electron donor-electron acceptor components of surface free energy) and the Owens-Wendt treatment (dispersive and nondispersive components of surface free energy). Surface free energy results were found to be greatly dependent on the calculation method and on the number of standard liquids used for contact angle measurements. The nondispersive/donor-acceptor surface free energy component and the total surface free energy of polymeric films were always higher when the van Oss treatment was used compared to the Owens-Wendt treatment. Conversely, both methods led to similar apolar/Lifshitz components. All the calculation methods were in good agreement for the surface free energy of PVC; however, a discrepancy between the methods arose as EVA content in the blends increased. It seems that there is not yet a definite solution for the calculation of solid surface free energy. Further developments of existing models are needed in order to gain consistency when calculating this important physicochemical quantity. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  18. Performance Evaluation and Software Design for EVA Robotic Assistant Stereo Vision Heads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiPaolo, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to aid the EVA Robotic Assistant project by evaluating and designing the necessary interfaces for two stereo vision heads - the TracLabs Biclops pan-tilt-verge head, and the Helpmate Zebra pan-tilt-verge head. The first half of the project consisted of designing the necessary software interface so that the other modules of the EVA Robotic Assistant had proper access to all of the functionalities offered by each of the stereovision heads. This half took most of the project time, due to a lack of ready-made CORBA drivers for either of the heads. Once this was overcome, the evaluation stage of the project began. The second half of the project was to take these interfaces and to evaluate each of the stereo vision heads in terms of usefulness to the project. In the key project areas such as stability and reliability, the Zebra pan-tilt-verge head came out on top. However, the Biclops did have many more advantages over the Zebra, such as: lower power consumption, faster communications, and a simpler, cleaner API. Overall, the Biclops pan-tilt-verge head outperformed the Zebra pan-tilt-verge head.

  19. Ground controlled robotic assembly operations for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Joseph C.

    1991-01-01

    A number of dextrous robotic systems and associated positioning and transportation devices are available on Space Station Freedom (SSF) to perform assembly tasks that would otherwise need to be performed by extravehicular activity (EVA) crewmembers. The currently planned operating mode for these robotic systems during the assembly phase is teleoperation by intravehicular activity (IVA) crewmembers. While this operating mode is less hazardous and expensive than manned EVA operations, and has insignificant control loop time delays, the amount of IVA time available to support telerobotic operations is much less than the anticipated requirements. Some alternative is needed to allow the robotic systems to perform useful tasks without exhausting the available IVA resources; ground control is one such alternative. The issues associated with ground control of SSF robotic systems to alleviate onboard crew time availability constraints are investigated. Key technical issues include the effect of communication time delays, the need for safe, reliable execution of remote operations, and required modifications to the SSF ground and flight system architecture. Time delay compensation techniques such as predictive displays and world model-based force reflection are addressed and collision detection and avoidance strategies to ensure the safety of the on-orbit crew, Orbiter, and SSF are described. Although more time consuming and difficult than IVA controlled teleoperations or manned EVA, ground controlled telerobotic operations offer significant benefits during the SSF assembly phase, and should be considered in assembly planning activities.

  20. The International Space Station 2B Photovoltaic Thermal Control System (PVTCS) Leak: An Operational History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vareha, Anthony N.

    2014-01-01

    As early as 2004, the Photovoltaic Thermal Control System (PVTCS) for the International Space Station's 2B electrical power channel began slowly leaking ammonia overboard. Initially, the operations strategy was "feed the leak," a strategy successfully put into action via Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) during the STS-134 Space Shuttle mission. This recharge was to have allowed for continued power channel operation into 2014 or 2015, at which point another EVA would have been required. In mid-2012, the leak rate increased from 1.5lbm/year to approximately 5lbm/year. As a result, an EVA was planned and executed within a 5 week timeframe to drastically alter the architecture of the PVTCS via connection to an adjacent dormant thermal control system. This EVA, US EVA 20, was successfully executed on November 1, 2012 and left the 2B PVTCS in a configuration where the system was now being adequately cooled via a different radiator than what the system was designed to utilize. Data monitoring over the next several months showed that the isolated radiator had not been leaking, and the system itself continued to leak steadily until May 9th, 2013. It was on this day that the ISS crew noticed the visible presence of ammonia crystals escaping from the 2B channel's truss segment, signifying a rapid acceleration of the leak from 5lbm/year to 5lbm/day. Within 48 hours of the crew noticing the leak, US EVA 21 was in progress to replace the coolant pump - the only remaining replaceable leak source. This was successful, and telemetry monitoring has shown that indeed the coolant pump was the leak source and was thus isolated from the running 2B PVTCS. This paper will explore the management of the 2B PVTCS leak from the operations perspective.

  1. Centaur: A Mobile Dexterous Humanoid for Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehnmark, Fredrik; Ambrose, Robert O.; Goza, S. Michael; Junkin, Lucien; Neuhaus, Peter D.; Pratt, Jerry E.

    2005-01-01

    Future human and robotic planetary expeditions could benefit greatly from expanded Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) capabilities supporting a broad range of multiple, concurrent surface operations. Risky, expensive and complex, conventional EVAs are restricted in both duration and scope by consumables and available manpower, creating a resource management problem. A mobile, highly dexterous Extra-Vehicular Robotic (EVR) system called Centaur is proposed to cost-effectively augment human astronauts on surface excursions. The Centaur design combines a highly capable wheeled mobility platform with an anthropomorphic upper body mounted on a three degree-of-freedom waist. Able to use many ordinary handheld tools, the robot could conserve EVA hours by relieving humans of many routine inspection and maintenance chores and assisting them in more complex tasks, such as repairing other robots. As an astronaut surrogate, Centaur could take risks unacceptable to humans, respond more quickly to EVA emergencies and work much longer shifts. Though originally conceived as a system for planetary surface exploration, the Centaur concept could easily be adapted for terrestrial military applications such as de-Gig, surveillance and other hazardous duties.

  2. Functional assessment of allelic variants in the SLC26A4 gene involved in Pendred syndrome and nonsyndromic EVA.

    PubMed

    Pera, Alejandra; Dossena, Silvia; Rodighiero, Simona; Gandía, Marta; Bottà, Guido; Meyer, Giuliano; Moreno, Felipe; Nofziger, Charity; Hernández-Chico, Concepción; Paulmichl, Markus

    2008-11-25

    Pendred syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, with malformations of the inner ear, ranging from enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) to Mondini malformation, and deficient iodide organification in the thyroid gland. Nonsyndromic EVA (ns-EVA) is a separate type of sensorineural hearing loss showing normal thyroid function. Both Pendred syndrome and ns-EVA seem to be linked to the malfunction of pendrin (SLC26A4), a membrane transporter able to exchange anions between the cytosol and extracellular fluid. In the past, the pathogenicity of SLC26A4 missense mutations were assumed if the mutations fulfilled two criteria: low incidence of the mutation in the control population and substitution of evolutionary conserved amino acids. Here we show that these criteria are insufficient to make meaningful predictions about the effect of these SLC26A4 variants on the pendrin-induced ion transport. Furthermore, we functionally characterized 10 missense mutations within the SLC26A4 ORF, and consistently found that on the protein level, an addition or omission of a proline or a charged amino acid in the SLC26A4 sequence is detrimental to its function. These types of changes may be adequate for predicting SLC26A4 functionality in the absence of direct functional tests.

  3. Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) as a new drug carrier for 3D printed medical drug delivery devices.

    PubMed

    Genina, Natalja; Holländer, Jenny; Jukarainen, Harri; Mäkilä, Ermei; Salonen, Jarno; Sandler, Niklas

    2016-07-30

    The main purpose of this work was to investigate the printability of different grades of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymers as new feedstock material for fused-deposition modeling (FDM™)-based 3D printing technology in fabrication of custom-made T-shaped intrauterine systems (IUS) and subcutaneous rods (SR). The goal was to select an EVA grade with optimal properties, namely vinyl acetate content, melting index, flexural modulus, for 3D printing of implantable prototypes with the drug incorporated within the entire matrix of the medical devices. Indomethacin was used as a model drug in this study. Out of the twelve tested grades of the EVA five were printable. One of them showed superior print quality and was further investigated by printing drug-loaded filaments, containing 5% and 15% indomethacin. The feedstock filaments were fabricated by hot-melt extrusion (HME) below the melting point of the drug substance and the IUS and SR were successfully printed at the temperature above the melting point of the drug. As a result, the drug substance in the printed prototypes showed to be at least partly amorphous, while the drug in the corresponding HME filaments was crystalline. This difference affected the drug release profiles from the filaments and printed prototype products: faster release from the prototypes over 30days in the in vitro tests. To conclude, this study indicates that certain grades of EVA were applicable feedstock material for 3D printing to produce drug-loaded implantable prototypes.

  4. Comparing Apollo and Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Operations Paradigms for Human Exploration During NASA Desert-Rats Science Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yingst, R. A.; Cohen, B. A.; Ming, D. W.; Eppler, D. B.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) field test is one of several analog tests that NASA conducts each year to combine operations development, technology advances and science under planetary surface conditions. The D-RATS focus is testing preliminary operational concepts for extravehicular activity (EVA) systems in the field using simulated surface operations and EVA hardware and procedures. For 2010 hardware included the Space Exploration Vehicles, Habitat Demonstration Units, Tri-ATHLETE, and a suite of new geology sample collection tools, including a self-contained GeoLab glove box for conducting in-field analysis of various collected rock samples. The D-RATS activities develop technical skills and experience for the mission planners, engineers, scientists, technicians, and astronauts responsible for realizing the goals of exploring planetary surfaces.

  5. Investigation of the effects of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) and Launch and Entry (LES) gloves on performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishu, Ram R.

    1992-01-01

    Human capabilities such as dexterity, manipulability, and tactile perception are unique and render the hand as a very versatile, effective and a multipurpose tool. This is especially true for unknown environments such as the EVA environment. In the microgravity environment interfaces, procedures, and activities are too complex, diverse, and defy advance definition. Under these conditions the hand becomes the primary means of locomotion, restraint, and material handling. Facilitation of these activities, with simultaneous protection from the cruel EVA environment are the two, often conflicting, objectives of glove design. The objectives of this study was (1) to assess the effects of EVA gloves at different pressures on human hand capabilities, (2) to devise a protocol for evaluating EVA gloves, (3) to develop force time relations for a number of EVA glove pressure combinations, and (4) to evaluate two types of launch and entry suit gloves. The objectives were achieved through three experiments. The experiments for achieving objectives 1, 2, and 3 were performed in the glove box in building 34. In experiment 1 three types of EVA gloves were tested at five pressure differentials. A number of performance measures were recorded. In experiment 2 the same gloves as in experiment 1 were evaluated in a reduced number of pressure conditions. The performance measure was endurance time. Six subjects participated in both the experiments. In experiment 3 two types of launch and entry suit gloves were evaluated using a paradigm similar to experiment 1. Currently the data is being analyzed. However for this report some summary analyses have been performed. The results indicate that a) With EVA gloves strength is reduced by nearly 50 percent, b) performance decrements increase with increasing pressure differential, c) TMG effects are not consistent across the three gloves tested, d) some interesting gender glove interactions were observed, some of which may have been due to the

  6. Evidence-Based Approach to the Analysis of Serious Decompression Sickness with Application to EVA Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conkin, Johnny

    2001-01-01

    It is important to understand the risk of serious hypobaric decompression sickness (DCS) in order to develop procedures and treatment responses to mitigate the risk. Since it is not ethical to conduct prospective tests about serious DCS with humans, the necessary information was gathered from 73 published reports. We hypothesize that a 4-hr 100% oxygen (O2) prebreathe results in a very low risk of serious DCS, and test this through analysis. We evaluated 258 tests containing information from 79,366 exposures in attitude chambers. Serious DCS was documented in 918 men during the tests. Serious DCS are signs and symptoms broadly classified as Type II DCS. A risk function analysis with maximum likelihood optimization was performed to identify significant explanatory variables, and to create a predictive model for the probability of serious DCS [P(serious DCS)]. Useful variables were Tissue Ratio, the planned time spent at altitude (T(sub alt)), and whether or not repetitive exercise was performed at altitude. Tissue Ratio is P1N2/P2, where P1N2 is calculated nitrogen (N2) pressure in a compartment with a 180-min half-time for N2 pressure just before ascent, and P2 is ambient pressure after ascent. A prebreathe and decompression profile Shuttle astronauts use for extravehicular activity (EVA) includes a 4-hr prebreathe with 100% O2, an ascent to P2 = 4.3 lb per sq. in. absolute, and a T(sub alt) = 6 hr. The P(serious DCS) is: 0.0014 (0.00096 - 0.00196, 95% confidence interval) with exercise and 0.00025 (0.00016 - 0.00035) without exercise. Given 100 Shuttle EVAs to date and no report of serious DCS, the true risk is less than 0.03 with 95% confidence (Binomial Theorem). It is problematic to estimate the risk of serious DCS since it appears infrequently, even if the estimate is based on thousands of altitude chamber exposures. The true risk to astronauts may lie between the extremes of the confidence intervals (0.00016 - 0.00196) since the contribution of other factors

  7. The Effects of Lunar Dust on EVA Systems During the Apollo Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Mission documents from the six Apollo missions that landed on the lunar surface have been studied in order to catalog the effects of lunar dust on Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) systems, primarily the Apollo surface space suit. It was found that the effects could be sorted into nine categories: vision obscuration, false instrument readings, dust coating and contamination, loss of traction, clogging of mechanisms, abrasion, thermal control problems, seal failures, and inhalation and irritation. Although simple dust mitigation measures were sufficient to mitigate some of the problems (i.e., loss of traction) it was found that these measures were ineffective to mitigate many of the more serious problems (i.e., clogging, abrasion, diminished heat rejection). The severity of the dust problems were consistently underestimated by ground tests, indicating a need to develop better simulation facilities and procedures.

  8. The Effects of Lunar Dust on EVA Systems During the Apollo Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    2005-01-01

    Mission documents from the six Apollo missions that landed on the lunar surface have been studied in order to catalog the effects of lunar dust on Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) systems, primarily the Apollo surface space suit. It was found that the effects could be sorted into nine categories: vision obscuration, false instrument readings, dust coating and contamination, loss of traction, clogging of mechanisms, abrasion, thermal control problems, seal failures, and inhalation and irritation. Although simple dust mitigation measures were sufficient to mitigate some of the problems (i.e., loss of traction) it was found that these measures were ineffective to mitigate many of the more serious problems (i.e., clogging, abrasion, diminished heat rejection). The severity of the dust problems were consistently underestimated by ground tests, indicating a need to develop better simulation facilities and procedures.

  9. EVA: A new theoretically based molecular descriptor for use in QSAR/QSPR analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, A. M.; Heritage, T.; Jonathon, P.; Pack, S. E.; Phillips, L.; Rogan, J.; Snaith, P. J.

    1997-03-01

    A new descriptor of molecular structure, EVA, for use in the derivation of robustly predictive QSAR relationships is described. It is based on theoretically derived normal coordinate frequencies, and has been used extensively and successfully in proprietary chemical discovery programmes within Shell Research. As a result of informal dissemination of the methodology, it is now being used successfully in related areas such as pharmaceutical drug discovery. Much of the experimental data used in development remain proprietary, and are not available for publication. This paper describes the method and illustrates its application to the calculation of nonproprietary data, log Pow, in both explanatory and predictive modes. It will be followed by other publications illustrating its application to a range of data derived from biological systems.

  10. A feasibility study of hand kinematics for EVA analysis using magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickenson, Reuben D.; Lorenz, Christine H.; Peterson, Steven W.; Strauss, Alvin M.; Main, John A.

    1992-01-01

    A new method for analyzing the kinematics of joint motion using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is described. The reconstruction of the metacarpalphalangeal joint of the left index finger into a 3D graphic display is shown. From the reconstructed volumetric images, measurements of the angles of movement of the applicable bones are obtained and processed by analyzing the screw motion of the joint. Landmark positions are chosen at distinctive locations of the joint at fixed image threshold intensity levels to ensure repeatability. The primarily 2D planar motion of this joint is then studied using a method of constructing coordinate systems using three or more points. A transformation matrix based on a world coordinate system describes the location and orientation of the local target coordinate system. The findings show the applicability of MRI to joint kinematics for gaining further knowledge of the hand-glove design for EVA.

  11. Astronaut John Young stands at ALSEP deployment site during first EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, stands at the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) deployment site during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Descartes landing site. The components of the ALSEP are in the background. The lunar surface drill is just behind and to the right of Young. The drill's rack and bore stems are to the left. The three sensor Lunar Surface Magnetometer is beyond the rack. The dark object in the right background is the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). Between the RTG and the drill is the Heat Flow Experiment. A part of the Central Station is at the right center edge of the picture. This photograph was taken by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot.

  12. Force-endurance capabilities of extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves at different pressure levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishu, Ram R.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1993-01-01

    The human hand is a very useful multipurpose tool in all environments. However, performance capabilities are compromised considerably when gloves are donned. This is especially true to extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves. The primary intent was to answer the question of how long a person can perform tasks requiring certain levels of exertion. The objective was to develop grip force-endurance relations. Six subjects participated in a factorial experiment involving three hand conditions, three pressure differentials, and four levels of force exertion. The results indicate that, while the force that could be exerted depended on the glove, pressure differential, and the level of exertion, the endurance time at any exertion level depended just on the level of exertion expressed as a percentage of maximum exertion possible at that condition. The impact of these findings for practitioners as well as theoreticians is discussed.

  13. Tools for Asteroid Regolith Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Calle, Carlos I.; Mantovani, James G.

    2013-01-01

    This RFI response is targeting Area 5. Crew Systems for Asteroid Exploration: concepts for lightweight and low volume robotic and extra-vehicular activity (EVA) systems, such as space suits, tools, translation aids, stowage containers, and other equipment.The NASA KSC Surface Systems Office, Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations (GMRO) Lab and the Electrostatics Surface Physics Lab (ESPL) are dedicated to developing technologies for operating in regolith environments on target body surfaces. We have identified two technologies in our current portfolio that are highly relevant and useful for crews that will visit a re-directed asteroid in Cis-Lunar Space. Both technologies are at a high TRL of 56 and could be rapidly implemented in time for an ARM mission in this decade.

  14. Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission Four (HST SM4) EVA Challenges for Safe Execution of STS-125

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dedalis, Robert P.; Hill, William H.; Rice, Karin Bergh; Cooter, Ann M.

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2009, the world-renowned Hubble Space Telescope (HST) received a suite of new instruments and a refurbished bus to enable science for many years to come. The restoration was conducted on-orbit by four space-walkers on five carefully scripted Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) days. Assuring the safety of the space-walkers and their crew-mates required careful attention to tool development, detailed procedures for every activity and many rehearsals with engineers and crew to ensure that everything worked together. Additionally, evolution of EVA requirements since the last servicing mission in 2002, and the broad scope of the mission demanded a much higher degree of safety participation in hardware design and risk acceptance than for previous servicing missions.

  15. STS-55 MS3 Harris in EMU and CCA tests equipment prior to EVA simulation at JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Mission Specialist 3 (MS3) Bernard A. Harris, Jr, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and communications carrier assembly (CCA), listens to instructions during a communications check prior to an underwater simulation in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool. When checkout procedures are complete, Harris will don EMU helmet (held by technician in the foreground). Then, the platform he is standing on will be lowered into the WETF's 25-foot deep pool. Once underwater, Harris will perform contingency extravehicular activity (EVA) procedures. There is no scheduled EVA for the 1993 flight but each space flight crew includes astronauts trained for a variety of contingency tasks that could require exiting the shirt-sleeve environment of a Shuttle's cabin.

  16. The terrestrial radiation environment and EVA's: Prediction requirements, model improvements, and warning systems. [radiation hazards to orbital workers and spacecrews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.

    1979-01-01

    The total medical-biological impact of the Earth's space radiation environment on humans is a function of combined EVA and non-EVA exposure. In either case, the correct assessment of the eventual health risk to crew members is crucial to the success and viability of a project or mission. Aside from the medical-biological aspect itself, the validity of any assessment depends entirely on the existence of good and reliable models providing the high quality data that is needed for such evaluations, which should contain time histories of storm and substorm events, their intensities, their frequency of occurence, and their duration. Prediction requirements, advantageous and desirable model developments and improvements, and systems that need to be designed and tested, which would alert space crews and maintenance personnel about impending radiation danger are outlined.

  17. Moments applied in the manual assembly of space structures - Ease biomechanics results from STS-61B. [Experimental Assembly of Structures in EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cousins, D.; Akin, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of the level and pattern of moments applied in the manual assembly of a space structure were made in extravehicular activity (EVA) and neutral buoyancy simulation (NBS). The Experimental Assembly of Structures in EVA program included the repeated assembly of a 3.6 m tetrahedral truss structure in EVA on STS-61B after extensive neutral buoyancy crew training. The flight and training structures were of equivalent mass and geometry to allow a direct correlation between EVA and NBS performance. A stereo photographic motion camera system was used to reconstruct in three dimensions rotational movements of structural beams during assembly. Moments applied in these manual handling tasks were calculated on the basis of the reconstructed movements taking into account effects of inertia, drag and virtual mass. Applied moments of 2.0 Nm were typical for beam rotations in EVA. Corresponding applied moments in NBS were typically up to five times greater. Moments were applied as impulses separated by several seconds of coasting in both EVA and NBS. Decelerating impulses were only infrequently observed in NBS.

  18. EV-A71 vaccine licensure: a first step for multivalent enterovirus vaccine to control HFMD and other severe diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Qunying; Wang, Yiping; Bian, Lianlian; Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun

    2016-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EVs) are the most common viral agents in humans. Although most infections are mild or asymptomatic, there is a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that may be caused by EV infections with varying degrees of severity. Among these viruses, EV-A71 and coxsackievirus (CV) CV-A16 from group A EVs attract the most attention because they are responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Other EV-A viruses such as CV-A6 and CV-A10 were also reported to cause HFMD outbreaks in several countries or regions. Group B EVs such as CV-B3, CV-B5 and echovirus 30 were reported to be the main pathogens responsible for myocarditis and encephalitis epidemics and were also detected in HFMD patients. Vaccines are the best tools to control infectious diseases. In December 2015, China's Food and Drug Administration approved two inactivated EV-A71 vaccines for preventing severe HFMD.The CV-A16 vaccine and the EV-A71-CV-A16 bivalent vaccine showed substantial efficacy against HFMD in pre-clinical animal models. Previously, research on EV-B group vaccines was mainly focused on CV-B3 vaccine development. Because the HFMD pathogen spectrum has changed, and the threat from EV-B virus-associated severe diseases has gradually increased, it is necessary to develop multivalent HFMD vaccines. This study summarizes the clinical symptoms of diseases caused by EVs, such as HFMD, myocarditis and encephalitis, and the related EV vaccine development progress. In conclusion, developing multivalent EV vaccines should be strongly recommended to prevent HFMD, myocarditis, encephalitis and other severe diseases. PMID:27436364

  19. A model system for the synthesis of complanadine alkaloids by "diverted Kondrat'eva" oxazole-olefin cycloaddition.

    PubMed

    Uosis-Martin, Mario; Pantoş, G Dan; Mahon, Mary F; Lewis, Simon E

    2013-06-21

    A synthetic approach to complanadine alkaloids is described which employs a Kondrat'eva reaction to construct the pyridine rings. The viability of this approach is demonstrated by its application to a model substrate accessed from unfunctionalized decalin. The key transformation affords the desired tetracyclic architecture with unprecedented incorporation of substituents on the pyridine ring, implicating the oxazole α-hydroxy group as an active participant in the cycloadduct fragmentation process.

  20. EV-A71 vaccine licensure: a first step for multivalent enterovirus vaccine to control HFMD and other severe diseases.

    PubMed

    Mao, Qunying; Wang, Yiping; Bian, Lianlian; Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun

    2016-07-20

    Enteroviruses (EVs) are the most common viral agents in humans. Although most infections are mild or asymptomatic, there is a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that may be caused by EV infections with varying degrees of severity. Among these viruses, EV-A71 and coxsackievirus (CV) CV-A16 from group A EVs attract the most attention because they are responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Other EV-A viruses such as CV-A6 and CV-A10 were also reported to cause HFMD outbreaks in several countries or regions. Group B EVs such as CV-B3, CV-B5 and echovirus 30 were reported to be the main pathogens responsible for myocarditis and encephalitis epidemics and were also detected in HFMD patients. Vaccines are the best tools to control infectious diseases. In December 2015, China's Food and Drug Administration approved two inactivated EV-A71 vaccines for preventing severe HFMD.The CV-A16 vaccine and the EV-A71-CV-A16 bivalent vaccine showed substantial efficacy against HFMD in pre-clinical animal models. Previously, research on EV-B group vaccines was mainly focused on CV-B3 vaccine development. Because the HFMD pathogen spectrum has changed, and the threat from EV-B virus-associated severe diseases has gradually increased, it is necessary to develop multivalent HFMD vaccines. This study summarizes the clinical symptoms of diseases caused by EVs, such as HFMD, myocarditis and encephalitis, and the related EV vaccine development progress. In conclusion, developing multivalent EV vaccines should be strongly recommended to prevent HFMD, myocarditis, encephalitis and other severe diseases.

  1. The use of an extended ventilation tube as a countermeasure for EVA-associated upper extremity medical issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. A.; Hoffman, R. B.; Buckland, D. A.; Harvey, C. M.; Bowen, C. K.; Hudy, C. E.; Strauss, S.; Novak, J.; Gernhardt, M. L.

    Introduction: Onycholysis due to repetitive activity in the space suit glove during Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) training and during spaceflight extravehicular activity (EVA) is a common observation. Moisture accumulates in gloves during EVA task performance and may contribute to the development of pain and damage to the fingernails experienced by many astronauts. The study evaluated the use of a long ventilation tube to determine if improved gas circulation into the hand area could reduce hand moisture and thereby decrease the associated symptoms. Methods: The current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) was configured with a ventilation tube that extended down a single arm of the crew member (E) and compared with the unventilated arm (C). Skin surface moisture was measured on both hands immediately after glove removal and a questionnaire administered to determine subjective measures. Astronauts ( n=6) were examined pre- and post-run. Results: There were consistent trends in the reduction of relative hydration ratios at dorsum ( C=3.34, E=2.11) and first ring finger joint ( C=2.46, E=1.96) when the ventilation tube was employed. Ventilation appeared more effective on the left versus the right hand, implying an interaction with hand anthropometry and glove fit. Symptom score was lower on the hand that had the long ventilation tube relative to the control hand in 2/6 EVA crew members. Conclusions: Increased ventilation to the hand was effective in reducing the risks of hand and nail discomfort symptoms from moderate to low in one-third of the subjects. Improved design in the ventilation capability of EVA spacesuits is expected to improve efficiency of air flow distribution.

  2. Transcatheter Embolisation of Proximal Type 1 Endoleaks Following Endovascular Aneurysm Sealing (EVAS) Using the Nellix Device: Technique and Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Ameli-Renani, S. Morgan, R. A.

    2015-10-15

    AimTo evaluate the technical success and mid-term outcomes following transcatheter embolisation of type 1a endoleak after Nellix endovascular aneurysm sealing (EVAS).Materials and MethodsSeven patients (5 men; mean age 83; range 79–90) underwent transcatheter embolisation between July 2013 and August 2014. The average time from EVAS to embolisation was 136 days (range 6–301) and from endoleak diagnosis to embolisation was 20 days (range 2–50). Embolisation was performed with coils and Onyx in six cases and Onyx only in one case. Technical success, imaging and clinical outcomes of embolisation were reviewed. Technical success was defined as elimination of the endoleak on completion angiography and first imaging follow-up. Clinical success was defined as unchanged or decreased aneurysm sac size on subsequent follow-up (average 8 months; range 103–471 days).ResultsAll cases were technically successful. One patient required a second endovascular procedure following Onyx reflux into the Nellix endograft and another patient required surgical closure of a brachial puncture site. All patients are endoleak free with stable sac size on the latest available follow-up imaging.ConclusionIf a type 1 endoleak occurs after EVAS, embolisation using Onyx with or without coils is feasible and effective with high technical success and freedom from endoleak recurrence at mid-term follow-up.

  3. Thermal and chemical stabilization of ethylene/vinyl acetate/vinyl alcohol (EVA-OH) terpolymers under nitroplasticizer environments

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Dali; Hubbard, Kevin M.; Henderson, Kevin C.; Labouriau, Andrea

    2014-09-17

    Here, we compare the aging behaviors of cross-linked ethylene/vinyl acetate/vinyl alcohol terpolymers, also referred to as EVA-OH, when they are either immersed in nitroplasticizer (NP) liquid or exposed to NP vapor at different temperatures. And while thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry are used to probe the thermal stability of aged NP and polymers, Fourier transform infrared, gel permeation chromatography, ultra-violet/vis, and nuclear magnetic resonance are used to probe their structural changes over the aging process. Our study confirms that NP degrades through C[BOND]N cleavage, and releases HONO molecules at a slightly elevated temperature (<75°C). As these molecules accumulate in the vapor phase, they react among themselves to create an acidic environment. Therefore, these chemical constituents in the NP vapor significantly accelerate the hydrolysis of EVA-OH polymer. When the hydrolysis occurs in both vinyl acetate and urethane groups and the scission at the cross-linker progresses, EVA-OH becomes vulnerable to further degradation in the NP vapor environment. Finally, through the comprehensive characterization, the possible degradation mechanisms of the terpolymers are proposed.

  4. Thermal and chemical stabilization of ethylene/vinyl acetate/vinyl alcohol (EVA-OH) terpolymers under nitroplasticizer environments

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Dali; Hubbard, Kevin M.; Henderson, Kevin C.; ...

    2014-09-17

    Here, we compare the aging behaviors of cross-linked ethylene/vinyl acetate/vinyl alcohol terpolymers, also referred to as EVA-OH, when they are either immersed in nitroplasticizer (NP) liquid or exposed to NP vapor at different temperatures. And while thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry are used to probe the thermal stability of aged NP and polymers, Fourier transform infrared, gel permeation chromatography, ultra-violet/vis, and nuclear magnetic resonance are used to probe their structural changes over the aging process. Our study confirms that NP degrades through C[BOND]N cleavage, and releases HONO molecules at a slightly elevated temperature (<75°C). As these molecules accumulate inmore » the vapor phase, they react among themselves to create an acidic environment. Therefore, these chemical constituents in the NP vapor significantly accelerate the hydrolysis of EVA-OH polymer. When the hydrolysis occurs in both vinyl acetate and urethane groups and the scission at the cross-linker progresses, EVA-OH becomes vulnerable to further degradation in the NP vapor environment. Finally, through the comprehensive characterization, the possible degradation mechanisms of the terpolymers are proposed.« less

  5. A Glimpse from the Inside of a Space Suit: What Is It Really Like to Train for an EVA?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gast, Matthew A.; Moore, Sandra K.

    2009-01-01

    The beauty of the view from the office of a spacewalking astronaut gives the impression of simplicity, but few beyond the astronauts, and those who train them, know what it really takes to get there. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) training is an intense process that utilizes NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) to develop a very specific skill set needed to safely construct and maintain the orbiting International Space Station. To qualify for flight assignments, astronauts must demonstrate the ability to work safely and efficiently in the physically demanding environment of the spacesuit, possess an acute ability to resolve unforeseen problems, and implement proper tool protocols to ensure no tools will be lost in space. Through the insights and the lessons learned by actual EVA astronauts and EVA instructors, this paper twill take you on a journey through an astronaut's earliest experiences working in the spacesuit. termed the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), in the underwater training environment of the NBL. This work details an actual Suit Qualification NBL training event, outlines the numerous challenges the astronauts face throughout their initial training, and the various ways they adapt their own abilities to overcome them. The goal of this paper is to give everyone a small glimpse into what it is really like to work in a spacesuit.

  6. Space station proximity operations and window design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    On-orbit proximity operations (PROX-OPS) consist of all extravehicular activity (EVA) within 1 km of the space station. Because of the potentially large variety of PROX-OPS, very careful planning for space station windows is called for and must consider a great many human factors. The following topics are discussed: (1) basic window design philosophy and assumptions; (2) the concept of the local horizontal - local vertical on-orbit; (3) window linear dimensions; (4) selected anthropomorphic considerations; (5) displays and controls relative to windows; and (6) full window assembly replacement.

  7. Implementing Earned Value Management in the CxP EVA Systems Project Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorge, Les L.

    2009-01-01

    Earned Value Management (EVM), like project management, is as much art as it is science to develop an implementation plan for a project. This presentation will cover issues that were overcome and the implementation strategy to deploy Earned Value Management (EVM) within the Constellation Program (CxP), EVA Systems Project Office (ESPO), as well as discuss additional hurdles that currently prevent the organization from optimizing EVM. Each organization and each project within an organization needs to mold an EVM implementation plan around existing processes and tools, while at the same time revising those existing processes and tools as necessary to make them compatible with EVM. The ESPO EVM implementation covers work breakdown structure, organizational breakdown structure, control account, work/planning package development; integrated master schedule development using an integrated master plan; incorporating reporting requirements for existing funding process such as Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Execution (PPBE) and JSC Internal Task Agreements (ITA); and interfacing with other software tools such as the Systems Applications and Products (SAP) accounting system and the CxP wInsight EVM analysis tool. However, there are always areas for improvement and EVM is no exception. As EVM continues to mature within the NASA CxP, these areas will continue to be worked to resolution to provide the Program Managers, Project Managers, and Control Account Managers the best EVM data possible to make informed decisions.

  8. The Effects of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove Pressure on Hand Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mesloh, Miranda; England, Scott; Benson, Elizabeth; Thompson, Shelby; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize hand strength, while wearing a Phase VI Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove in an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit. Three types of data were collected: hand grip, lateral pinch, and pulp-2 pinch, wider three different conditions: bare-handed, gloved with no Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment (TMG), and glove with TMG. In addition, during the gloved conditions, subjects were tested when unpressurized and pressurized (43 psi). As a percentage of bare-hand strength, the TMG condition showed reduction in grip strength to 55% unpressurized and 46% pressurized. Without the TMG, grip strength increased to 66% unpressurized and 58% pressurized of bare-hand strength. For lateral pinch strength, the reduction in strength was the same for both pressure conditions and with and without the TMG, about 8.5% of bare-hand Pulp-2 pinch strength with no TMG showed an increase to 122% unpressurized and 115% pressurized of bare-hand strength. While wearing the TMG, pulp-2 pinch strength was 115% of bare-hand strength for both pressure conditions.

  9. Feasibility Assessment of an EVA Glove Sensing Platform to Evaluate Potential Hand Injury Risk Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Christopher R.; McFarland, Shane M.

    2015-01-01

    Injuries to the hands are common among astronauts who train for extravehicular activity (EVA). When the gloves are pressurized, they restrict movement and create pressure points during tasks, sometimes resulting in pain, muscle fatigue, abrasions, and occasionally more severe injuries such as onycholysis. A brief review of the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health's injury database reveals that 58% of total astronaut hand and arm injuries from NBL training between 1993 and 2010 occurred either to the fingernail, MCP, or fingertip. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of using small sensors to measure force acting on the fingers and hand within pressurized gloves and other variables such as blood perfusion, skin temperature, humidity, fingernail strain, skin moisture, among others. Tasks were performed gloved and ungloved in a pressurizable glove box. The test demonstrated that fingernails saw greater transverse strain levels for tension or compression than for longitudinal strain, even during axial fingertip loading. Blood perfusion peaked and dropped as the finger deformed during finger presses, indicating an initial dispersion and decrease of blood perfusion levels. Force sensitive resistors to force plate comparisons showed similar force curve patterns as fingers were depressed, indicating suitable functionality for future testing. Strategies for proper placement and protection of these sensors for ideal data collection and longevity through the test session were developed and will be implemented going forward for future testing.

  10. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt uses scoop to retrieve lunar samples during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison Schmitt, Apollo 17 lunar module pilot, uses an adjustable sampling scoop to retrieve lunar samples during the second Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-2), at Station 5 at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. A gnomon is atop the large rock in the foreground. The gnomon is a stadia rod mounted on a tripod, and serves as an indicator of the gravitational vector and provides accurate vertical reference and calibrated length for determining size and position of objects in near-field photographs. The color scale of blue, orange and green is used to accurately determine color for photography. The rod of it is 18 inches long. The scoop Dr. Schmitt is using is 11 3/4 inches long and is attached to a tool extension which adds a potential 30 inches of length to the scoop. The pan portion, obscured in this view, has a flat bottom, flanged on both sides with a partial cover on the top. It is used to retrieve sand, dust and lunar samples too small for the tongs. The pa

  11. The extra vector abeyance (EVA) mechanism as the origin of the KM matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, S.; Lopez, Jorge L.; Nanopoulos, D. V.

    1991-06-01

    We examine a general mechanism whereby an extra vector-like quark of mass Meva generates realistic quark mixing angles from otherwise flavor diagonal quark Yukawa matrices. For scales above Meva the vector-like quark is manifest, while the Yukawa matrices are diagonal, i.e., the KM matrix is held in abeyance. Conversely, for scales below Meva the vector-like quark is in an abeyant state, while the KM matrix is manifest. This mechanism is naturally realized in many superstring models. In fact, knowledge of the Yukawa matrices at the string scale, together with suitable renormalization group scaling, unambigously determines the quark mass ratios and the KM angles at low energies. Conversely, these low-energy observables may be used to determine asyet-unknown parameters in the string model. We explicitly apply the EVA mechanism to a toy model inspired by the structure of the flipped SU (5) string model, to illustrate how this mechanism may be used to predict some of the KM angles. We also outline the procedure to be followed in a realistic calculation in the flipped SU (5) string model. Supported in part by DOE grant DE-AS05-81ER40039.

  12. Metabolic rate control during extravehicular activity simulations and measurement techniques during actual EVAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horrigan, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A description of the methods used to control and measure metabolic rate during ground simulations is given. Work levels attained at the Space Environment Simulation Laboratory are presented. The techniques and data acquired during ground simulations are described and compared with inflight procedures. Data from both the Skylab and Apollo Program were utilized and emphasis is given to the methodology, both in simulation and during flight. The basic techniques of work rate assessment are described. They include oxygen consumption, which was useful for averages over long time periods, heart rate correlations based on laboratory calibrations, and liquid cooling garment temperature changes. The relative accuracy of these methods as well as the methods of real-time monitoring at the Mission Control Center are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of each of the metabolic measurement techniques are discussed. Particular emphasis is given to the problem of utilizing oxygen decrement for short time periods and heart rate at low work levels. A summary is given of the effectiveness of work rate control and measurements; and current plans for future EVA monitoring are discussed.

  13. Rapid next-generation sequencing of dengue, EV-A71 and RSV-A viruses.

    PubMed

    Baronti, Cécile; Piorkowski, Géraldine; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Dubot-Pérès, Audrey

    2015-12-15

    Accurate characterisation of viral strains constitutes a crucial objective for the management of modern virus collections. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) provides technical solution for fast and cost-effective full genome sequencing. Here, we report protocols for rapid full-genome characterisation of RNA viruses of medical importance: dengue virus, enterovirus A71 and respiratory syncytial virus A, based on a specific amplification step followed by NGS-sequencing. A subset of full-length genome sequences representing the genetic diversity of each virus type was selected in GenBank and used to design primer sets allowing the amplification of the complete genome in 3-8 overlapping PCR fragments. The technique was used for characterising 53 strains (33 DENV, 8 EV-A71, 12 RSV-A) from various genotypes and origins. In a single assay, and in just 4 days, it provided for all strains an excellent genomic coverage (∼ 99% including complete ORF for all strains) and accurate sequences with high number of reads per position (250-3500 on average). The elaboration of specific PCR-based full-genome sequencing protocols for diverse virus groups is likely to revolutionise the characterisation of viral isolates in modern collection, but also to contribute in the next future to the study of RNA viruses directly from biological samples.

  14. Effective Presentation of Metabolic Rate Information for Lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackin, Michael A.; Gonia, Philip; Lombay-Gonzalez, Jose

    2010-01-01

    During human exploration of the lunar surface, a suited crewmember needs effective and accurate information about consumable levels remaining in their life support system. The information must be presented in a manner that supports real-time consumable monitoring and route planning. Since consumable usage is closely tied to metabolic rate, the lunar suit must estimate metabolic rate from life support sensors, such as oxygen tank pressures, carbon dioxide partial pressure, and cooling water inlet and outlet temperatures. To provide adequate warnings that account for traverse time for a crewmember to return to a safe haven, accurate forecasts of consumable depletion rates are required. The forecasts must be presented to the crewmember in a straightforward, effective manner. In order to evaluate methods for displaying consumable forecasts, a desktop-based simulation of a lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) has been developed for the Constellation lunar suite s life-support system. The program was used to compare the effectiveness of several different data presentation methods.

  15. Prototype Vent Gas Heat Exchanger for Exploration EVA - Performance and Manufacturing Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Gregory J.; Strange, Jeremy; Jennings, Mallory

    2013-01-01

    NASA is developing new portable life support system (PLSS) technologies, which it is demonstrating in an unmanned ground based prototype unit called PLSS 2.0. One set of technologies within the PLSS provides suitable ventilation to an astronaut while on an EVA. A new component within the ventilation gas loop is a liquid-to-gas heat exchanger to transfer excess heat from the gas to the thermal control system s liquid coolant loop. A unique bench top prototype heat exchanger was built and tested for use in PLSS 2.0. The heat exchanger was designed as a counter-flow, compact plate fin type using stainless steel. Its design was based on previous compact heat exchangers manufactured by United Technologies Aerospace Systems (UTAS), but was half the size of any previous heat exchanger model and one third the size of previous liquid-to-gas heat exchangers. The prototype heat exchanger was less than 40 cubic inches and weighed 2.57 lb. Performance of the heat exchanger met the requirements and the model predictions. The water side and gas side pressure drops were less 0.8 psid and 0.5 inches of water, respectively, and an effectiveness of 94% was measured at the nominal air side pressure of 4.1 psia.

  16. STS-111 Astronaut Chang-Diaz Performs Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The STS-111 mission, the 14th Shuttle mission to visit the International Space Station (ISS), was launched on June 5, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour. On board were the STS-111 and Expedition Five crew members. Astronauts Kerneth D. Cockrell, commander; Paul S. Lockhart, pilot; and mission specialists Franklin R. Chang-Diaz and Philippe Perrin were the STS-111 crew members. Expedition Five crew members included Cosmonaut Valery G. Korzun, commander; and Astronaut Peggy A. Whitson and Cosmonaut Sergei Y. Treschev, flight engineers. Three space walks enabled the STS-111 crew to accomplish the delivery and installation of the Mobile Remote Servicer Base System (MBS), an important part of the Station's Mobile Servicing System that allows the robotic arm to travel the length of the Station, which is necessary for future construction tasks. In this photograph, Astronaut Franklin R. Chang-Diaz participates in the first scheduled session of extra vehicular activity (EVA) for the STS-111 mission. During the space walk, Chang-Diaz and Perrin attached a Power and Data Grapple Fixture onto the ISS's P6 Truss, setting the stage for the future relocation of the P6. The next major task was to remove Service Module Debris Panels from Space Shuttle Endeavour's payload bay and attach them to their temporary location on Pressurized Mating Adapter 1 (PMA-1). The space walkers also removed thermal blankets to prepare the MBS for installation onto the station's Mobile Transporter (MT).

  17. Factors associated with longitudinal plasma selenium decline in the elderly: The EVA Study

    PubMed Central

    Arnaud, Josiane; Akbaraly, Tasnime N.; Hininger, Isabelle; Roussel, Anne-Marie; Berr, Claudine

    2007-01-01

    Selenium status decreases in elderly populations. Cardiovascular diseases are the primary cause of death in French elderly and selenium may protect against cardiovascular diseases. The present work aims to evaluate the relationships between cardiovascular related risk factors and plasma selenium variability in an elderly population during a nine-year period. 751 subjects from the EVA (“Etude du Vieillissement Artériel”) study, aged 59 to 71 at baseline were followed for 9 years. Clinical examinations and life style questionnaires were repeated every two years. Plasma selenium determinations were performed at baseline and at the end of the study. The association between the nine-year plasma selenium variability and studied risk factors at baseline or occurring during the follow-up was evaluated by using multivariate linear regression models. After controlling all potential associated factors, age of subjects (p<0.01), obesity (p=0.02) and occurrence of cardiovascular disease during follow-up (p=0.03) increased the longitudinal decline in plasma selenium, whereas gender, education, smoking, alcohol intakes, dyslipidemia, diabetes, hypertension had no effect (p>0.05). It may be postulated that obesity and occurrence of cardiovascular events are the main factors associated to plasma selenium fall during ageing. The respective roles played by nutritional and metabolism changes in the mechanism of these associations still need to be explored. PMID:17142028

  18. Enabler operator station. [lunar surface vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Andrea; Keitzman, John; King, Shirlyn; Stover, Rae; Wegner, Torsten

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project was to design an onboard operator station for the conceptual Lunar Work Vehicle (LWV). This LWV would be used in the colonization of a lunar outpost. The details that follow, however, are for an earth-bound model. Several recommendations are made in the appendix as to the changes needed in material selection for the lunar environment. The operator station is designed dimensionally correct for an astronaut wearing the current space shuttle EVA suit (which includes life support). The proposed operator station will support and restrain an astronaut as well as provide protection from the hazards of vehicle rollover. The threat of suit puncture is eliminated by rounding all corners and edges. A step-plate, located at the front of the vehicle, provides excellent ease of entry and exit. The operator station weight requirements are met by making efficient use of grid members, semi-rigid members and woven fabrics.

  19. Enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) related with recurrent benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV).

    PubMed

    Manzari, Leonardo

    2008-01-01

    The vestibular aqueduct is a bony canal related to the bony labyrinth of the inner ear and represents the non-sensory components of the endolymph-filled, closed, membranous labyrinth. The association of congenital sensorineural hearing loss with a large or enlarged vestibular aqueduct is well known as the large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS). The enlarged VA (EVA) comprises abnormalities not only in the structure of the inner ear, but also in the physiology of the auditory and vestibular systems. The clinical picture of this clinical entity is variable [Yetiser S, Kertment M, Ozkaptan Y. Vestibular disturbance in patients with Large Vestibular Aqueduct Syndrome (LVAS). Acta Otolaryngol (StochK) 1999;119: 641-646]. Signs and symptoms of the auditory impairment are more commonly described in the literature: hearing loss ranges from mild to profound, arising from fluctuating to stepwise progressive or sudden. Vestibular disturbances, ranging from mild imbalance to episodic vertigo, are rarely described in the literature. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a labyrinthine disorder with a typical behavior: intense crises of rotational vertigo induced by postural changes of the head, with short duration and usually good responsiveness to rehabilitative maneuvers. These maneuvers are effective in about 80% of patients with BPPV. BPPV often recurs. About 1/3 of patients have a recurrence in the first year after treatment, and by five years, about half of all patients have a recurrence. Vestibular aqueduct has been demonstrated by conventional tomography and computed tomography (CT), however, CT scans cannot show the membranous labyrinth itself. On MR images it is not the vestibular aqueduct that is visualized but its contents, the endolymphatic duct and sac, and can show the abnormalities of the fluid spaces related to the membranous labyrinth. It is proposed that recurrent benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is related with volumetric abnormalities

  20. A feasibility study of hand kinematics for EVA analysis using magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickenson, Rueben D.; Lorenz, Christine H.; Peterson, Steven W.; Strauss, Alvin M.; Main, John A.

    1992-01-01

    A new method of analyzing the kinematics of joint motion is developed. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) offers several distinct advantages. Past methods of studying anatomic joint motion have usually centered on four approaches. These methods are x-ray projection, goniometric linkage analysis, sonic digitization, and landmark measurement of photogrammetry. Of these four, only x-ray is applicable for in vivo studies. The remaining three methods utilize other types of projections of inter-joint measurements, which can cause various types of error. MRI offers accuracy in measurement due to its tomographic nature (as opposed to projection) without the problems associated with x-ray dosage. Once the data acquisition of MR images was complete, the images were processed using a 3D volume rendering workstation. The metacarpalphalangeal (MCP) joint of the left index finger was selected and reconstructed into a three-dimensional graphic display. From the reconstructed volumetric images, measurements of the angles of movement of the applicable bones were obtained and processed by analyzing the screw motion of the MCP joint. Landmark positions were chosen at distinctive locations of the joint at fixed image threshold intensity levels to ensure repeatability. The primarily two dimensional planar motion of this joint was then studied using a method of constructing coordinate systems using three (or more) points. A transformation matrix based on a world coordinate system described the location and orientation of a local target coordinate system. Future research involving volume rendering of MRI data focusing on the internal kinematics of the hand's individual ligaments, cartilage, tendons, etc. will follow. Its findings will show the applicability of MRI to joint kinematics for gaining further knowledge of the hand-glove (power assisted) design for extravehicular activity (EVA).

  1. STS-110 Astronaut Morin Totes S0 Keel Pins During EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Hovering in space some 240 miles above the blue and white Earth, STS-110 astronaut M.E. Morin participates in his first ever and second of four scheduled space walks for the STS-110 mission. He is seen toting one of the S0 (S-Zero) keel pins which were removed from their functional position on the truss and attached on the truss' exterior for long term stowage. The 43-foot-long, 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the International Space Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. The mission completed the installations and preparations of the S0 truss and the Mobile Transporter within four space walks. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver space walkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  2. Prototype Vent Gas Heat Exchanger for Exploration EVA - Performance and Manufacturing Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Mallory; Quinn, Gregory; Strange, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    NASA is developing new portable life support system (PLSS) technologies, which it is demonstrating in an unmanned ground based prototype unit called PLSS 2.0. One set of technologies within the PLSS provides suitable ventilation to an astronaut while on an EVA. A new component within the ventilation gas loop is a liquid-to-gas heat exchanger to transfer excess heat from the gas to the thermal control system's liquid coolant loop. A unique bench top prototype heat exchanger was built and tested for use in PLSS 2.0. The heat exchanger was designed as a counter-flow, compact plate fin type using stainless steel. Its design was based on previous compact heat exchangers manufactured by United Technologies Aerospace Systems, but was half the size of any previous heat exchanger model and one third the size of previous liquid-to-gas heat exchangers. The prototype heat exchanger was less than 40 cubic inches and weighed 2.6 lb. The water side and gas side pressure drops were 0.8 psid and 0.5 inches of water, respectively. Performance of the heat exchanger at the nominal pressure of 4.1 psia was measured at 94%, while a gas inlet pressure of 25 psia resulted in an effectiveness of 84%. These results compared well with the model, which was scaled for the small size. Modeling of certain phenomena that affect performance, such as flow distribution in the headers was particularly difficult due to the small size of the heat exchanger. Data from the tests has confirmed the correction factors that were used in these parts of the model.

  3. Determination of the linear coefficient of thermal expansion in polymer films at the nanoscale: influence of the composition of EVA copolymers and the molecular weight of PMMA.

    PubMed

    González-Benito, J; Castillo, E; Cruz-Caldito, J F

    2015-07-28

    Nanothermal-expansion of poly(ethylene-co-vinylacetate), EVA, and poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, in the form of films was measured to finally obtain linear coefficients of thermal expansion, CTEs. The simple deflection of a cantilever in an atomic force microscope, AFM, was used to monitor thermal expansions at the nanoscale. The influences of: (a) the structure of EVA in terms of its composition (vinylacetate content) and (b) the size of PMMA chains in terms of the molecular weight were studied. To carry out this, several polymer samples were used, EVA copolymers with different weight percents of the vinylacetate comonomer (12, 18, 25 and 40%) and PMMA polymers with different weight average molecular weights (33.9, 64.8, 75.600 and 360.0 kg mol(-1)). The dependencies of the vinyl acetate weight fraction of EVA and the molecular weight of PMMA on their corresponding CTEs were analyzed to finally explain them using new, intuitive and very simple models based on the rule of mixtures. In the case of EVA copolymers a simple equation considering the weighted contributions of each comonomer was enough to estimate the final CTE above the glass transition temperature. On the other hand, when the molecular weight dependence is considered the free volume concept was used as novelty. The expansion of PMMA, at least at the nanoscale, was well and easily described by the sum of the weighted contributions of the occupied and free volumes, respectively.

  4. Advanced Thermal Status Control of Crews in EVA and Escape Suits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koscheyev, V. S.; Coca, A.; Leon, G. R.

    Over the course of the manned space program, there has been an accumulation of experience on methods to control the thermal status of astronauts in open space. However, there remains a significant need for a simple method to monitor the astronaut's level of heat exchange during EVA, particularly in an emergency period, or during crew escape. The liquid cooling/warming tubing system that covers the body surface creates considerable complexity for evaluating the body's overall thermal response. Moreover, the methods used to monitor core temperature (Tc) are problematic in regard to their invasiveness and accuracy. NASA is currently attempting to develop a unified methodology for protection during EVA and crew escape that would necessarily include the control of astronaut thermal status. The findings from our research program have significant implications for solving this still-vexing problem. Our experimental paradigm centers on the assessment of thermodynamic processes with subjects donned in a specially designed symmetrically divided multi-compartment liquid cooling/warming garment consisting of 16 zones, 8 on each side of the body (hands, forearms, shoulders, torso, head, thighs, calves and feet). This garment configuration enables the study of heat exchange under nonuniform temperatures on the body surface by systematically varying the proportions of nonuniform temperatures (warm/cold) in different experimental conditions. Tc was assessed by rectal (Tr), esophageal (Tes), and ear canal temperature (Tec). Skin temperature (Tsk) was measured by a total of 26 sensors placed symmetrically on the left and right sides of the body, the main magistral vessels (carotid, brachial, femoral), and local vessel networks. We paid particular attention to the thermal status of the fingers by measuring blood perfusion, temperature (Tfing), heat flux, and thermal/comfort perception. The monitoring of Tfing and heat flux in different experimental conditions was highly informative

  5. Assessment of health-cost externalities of air pollution at the national level using the EVA model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, J.; Frohn, L. M.; Christensen, J. H.; Andersen, M. S.; Hertel, O.; Geels, C.; Buus Hansen, A.; Hansen, K. M.; Hedegaard, G. B.; Skjøth, C. A.

    2009-04-01

    An integrated model system EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution) has been developed to assess external costs related to air pollution from individual sources as specific power plants or different emission sectors, as e.g. power production, road traffic, farming etc. The EVA system is based on the impact pathway chain and consists of a regional scale non-linear Eulerian atmospheric transport-chemistry model including detailed emissions inventories (the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model, DEHM), address-level or gridded population data, state-of-the-art exposure-response functions and monetary valuation of the impacts from air pollution. The first general assessment of health-cost externalities at the national level using the EVA system is presented here. Health-cost externalities from different emission sectors in Denmark e.g. power production, road traffic, as well as all sectors simultaneously have been calculated. Furthermore, the heath-cost externalities based on emissions from international ship traffic in the Baltic Sea as well as the North Sea have been estimated. Examples of delta functions, human exposure levels and the total costs of impacts from different chemical species are given. The work is partly carried out within the Centre for Energy, Environment and Health (www.CEEH.dk), which is a Danish strategic research centre funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research. The mission of the centre is to develop a system to support planning of future energy systems in Denmark, where both direct and indirect costs related to environment, climate and health are considered.

  6. The ISS 2B PVTCS Ammonia Leak: An Operational History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vareha, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, the Photovoltaic Thermal Control System (PVTCS) for the International Space Station's 2B power channel began leaking ammonia at a rate of approximately 1.5lbm/year (out of a starting approximately 53lbm system ammonia mass). Initially, the operations strategy was "feed the leak," a strategy successfully put into action via Extra Vehicular Activity during the STS-134 mission. During this mission the system was topped off with ammonia piped over from a separate thermal control system. This recharge was to have allowed for continued power channel operation into 2014 or 2015, at which point another EVA would have been required. Without these periodic EVAs to refill the 2B coolant system, the channel would eventually leak enough fluid as to risk pump cavitation and system failure, resulting in the loss of the 2B power channel - the most critical of the Space Station's 8 power channels. In mid-2012, the leak rate increased to approximately 5lbm/year. Once discovered, an EVA was planned and executed within a 5 week timeframe to drastically alter the architecture of the PVTCS via connection to a dormant thermal control system not intended to be utilized as anything other than spare components. The purpose of this rerouting of the TCS was to increase system volume and to isolate the photovoltaic radiator, thought to be the likely leak source. This EVA was successfully executed on November 1st, 2012 and left the 2B PVTCS in a configuration where the system was now being adequately cooled via a totally different radiator than what the system was designed to utilize. Unfortunately, data monitoring over the next several months showed that the isolated radiator was not leaking, and the system itself continued to leak steadily until May 9th, 2013. It was on this day that the ISS crew noticed the visible presence of ammonia crystals escaping from the 2B channel's truss segment, signifying a rapid acceleration of the leak from 5lbm/year to 5lbm/day. Within 48 hours of the

  7. Self-rescue strategies for EVA crewmembers equipped with the SAFER backpack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor; Baughman, David

    1994-01-01

    An extravehicular astronaut who becomes separated from a space station has three options available: grappling the station immediately by means of a 'shepherd's crook' device; rescue by either a second crewmember flying an MMU or a robotic-controlled MMU; or self-rescue by means of a propulsive system. The first option requires very fast response by a tumbling astronaut; the second requires constant availability of an MMU, as well as a rendezvous procedure thousands of feet from the station. This paper will consider the third option, propulsive self-rescue. In particular, the capability of the new Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) propulsive backpack, which is to be tested on STS-64 in Sep. 1994, will be studied. This system possesses an attitude hold function that can automatically detumble an astronaut after separation. On-orbit tests of candidate self-rescue systems have demonstrated the need for such a feature. SAFER has a total delta(v) capability of about 10 fps, to cover both rotations and translations, compared with a possible separation rate of 2.5 fps. But the delta(v) required for self-rescue is critically dependent on the delay before return can be initiated, as a consequence of orbital effects. A very important practical question is then whether the total delta(v) of SAFER is adequate to perform self-rescue for worst case values of separation speed, time to detumble, and time for the astronaut to visually acquire the station. This paper shows that SAFER does indeed have sufficient propellant to carry out self-rescue in all realistic separation cases, as well as in cases which are considerably more severe than anything likely to be encountered in practice. The return trajectories and total delta(v)'s discussed are obtained by means of an 'inertial line-of-sight targeting' scheme, derived in the paper, which allows orbital effects to be corrected by making use of the visual information available to the pilot, namely the line-of-sight direction to the

  8. Neurological complications and risk factors of cardiopulmonary failure of EV-A71-related hand, foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Long, Lili; Xu, Lin; Xiao, Zhenghui; Hu, Shixiong; Luo, Ruping; Wang, Hua; Lu, Xiulan; Xu, Zhiyue; Yao, Xu; Zhou, Luo; Long, Hongyu; Gong, Jiaoe; Song, Yanmin; Zhao, Li; Luo, Kaiwei; Zhang, Mengqi; Feng, Li; Yang, Liming; Sheng, Xiaoqi; Fan, Xuegong; Xiao, Bo

    2016-03-22

    From 2010 to 2012, large outbreaks of EV-A71-related- hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) occurred annually in China. Some cases had neurological complications and were closely associated with fatal cardiopulmonary collapse, but not all children with central nervous system (CNS) involvement demonstrated a poor prognosis. To identify which patients and which neurological complications are more likely to progress to cardiopulmonary failure, we retrospectively studied 1,125 paediatric inpatients diagnosed with EV-A71-related HFMD in Hunan province, including 1,017 cases with CNS involvement. These patients were divided into cardiopulmonary failure (976 people) group and group without cardiopulmonary failure (149 people). A logistic regression analysis was used to compare the clinical symptoms, laboratory test results, and neurological complications between these two groups. The most significant risk factors included young age, fever duration ≥3 days, coma, limb weakness, drowsiness and ANS involvement. Patients with brainstem encephalitis and more CNS-involved regions were more likely to progress to cardiopulmonary failure. These findings can help front-line clinicians rapidly and accurately determine patient prognosis, thus rationally distributing the limited medical resources and implementing interventions as early as possible.

  9. Neurological complications and risk factors of cardiopulmonary failure of EV-A71-related hand, foot and mouth disease

    PubMed Central

    Long, Lili; Xu, Lin; Xiao, Zhenghui; Hu, Shixiong; Luo, Ruping; Wang, Hua; Lu, Xiulan; Xu, Zhiyue; Yao, Xu; Zhou, Luo; Long, Hongyu; Gong, Jiaoe; Song, Yanmin; Zhao, Li; Luo, Kaiwei; Zhang, Mengqi; Feng, Li; Yang, Liming; Sheng, Xiaoqi; Fan, Xuegong; Xiao, Bo

    2016-01-01

    From 2010 to 2012, large outbreaks of EV-A71-related- hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) occurred annually in China. Some cases had neurological complications and were closely associated with fatal cardiopulmonary collapse, but not all children with central nervous system (CNS) involvement demonstrated a poor prognosis. To identify which patients and which neurological complications are more likely to progress to cardiopulmonary failure, we retrospectively studied 1,125 paediatric inpatients diagnosed with EV-A71-related HFMD in Hunan province, including 1,017 cases with CNS involvement. These patients were divided into cardiopulmonary failure (976 people) group and group without cardiopulmonary failure (149 people). A logistic regression analysis was used to compare the clinical symptoms, laboratory test results, and neurological complications between these two groups. The most significant risk factors included young age, fever duration ≥3 days, coma, limb weakness, drowsiness and ANS involvement. Patients with brainstem encephalitis and more CNS-involved regions were more likely to progress to cardiopulmonary failure. These findings can help front-line clinicians rapidly and accurately determine patient prognosis, thus rationally distributing the limited medical resources and implementing interventions as early as possible. PMID:27001010

  10. The experience in operation and improving the Orlan-type space suits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, I. P.

    1995-07-01

    Nowadays significant experience has been gained in Russia concerning extravehicular activity (EVA) with cosmonauts wearing a semi-rigid space suit of the "Orlan" type. The conditions for the cosmonauts' vital activities, the operational and ergonomic features of the space suit and its reliability are the most critical factors defining the efficiency of the scheduled operation to be performed by the astronaut and his safety. As the missions performed by the cosmonauts during EVA become more and more elaborate, the requirements for EVA space suits and their systems become more and more demanding, resulting in their consistent advancement. This paper provides certain results of the space suit's operation and analysis of its major problems as applied to the Salyut and MIR orbiting stations. The modification steps of the space suit in the course of operation (Orlan-D, Orlan-DM, Orlan-DMA) and its specific features are presented. The concept of the suited cosmonauts' safety is described as well as trends for future space suit improvements.

  11. Performance and Life Tests of a Regenerative Blower for EVA Suit Ventilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo; Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.

    2011-01-01

    Ventilation fans for future space suits must meet demanding performance specifications, satisfy stringent safety requirements for operation in an oxygen atmosphere, and be able to increase output to operate in buddy mode. A regenerative blower is an attractive choice due to its ability to meet these requirements at low operating speed. This paper describes progress in the development and testing of a regenerative blower designed to meet requirements for ventilation subsystems in a future space suit Portable Life Support Systems (PLSS). The blower assembly includes a custom-designed motor that has significantly improved in efficiency during this development effort. The blower was tested at both nominal and buddy mode operating points and head/flow performance and power consumption were measured. The blower was operated for over 1000 hours to demonstrate safe operation in an oxygen test loop at prototypical pressures. In addition, the blower demonstrated operation with the introduction of simulated lunar dust.

  12. Performance and Life Tests of a Regenerative Blower for EVA Suit Ventilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; McCormick, John; Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.

    2012-01-01

    Ventilation fans for future space suits must meet demanding performance specifications, satisfy stringent safety requirements for operation in an oxygen atmosphere, and be able to increase output to operate in buddy mode. A regenerative blower is an attractive choice due to its ability to meet these requirements at low operating speed. This paper describes progress in the development and testing of a regenerative blower designed to meet requirements for ventilation subsystems in future space suits. The blower includes a custom-designed motor that has significantly improved its efficiency. We have measured the blower s head/flow performance and power consumption under conditions that simulate both the normal and buddy mode operating points. We have operated the blower for TBD hours and demonstrated safe operation in an oxygen test loop at prototypical pressures. We also demonstrated operation with simulated lunar dust.

  13. NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations: Science Operations Development for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) mission 16 in 2012 was to evaluate and compare the performance of a defined series of representative near-Earth asteroid (NEA) extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks under different conditions and combinations of work systems, constraints, and assumptions considered for future human NEA exploration missions. NEEMO 16 followed NASA's 2011 Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS), the primary focus of which was understanding the implications of communication latency, crew size, and work system combinations with respect to scientific data quality, data management, crew workload, and crew/mission control interactions. The 1-g environment precluded meaningful evaluation of NEA EVA translation, worksite stabilization, sampling, or instrument deployment techniques. Thus, NEEMO missions were designed to provide an opportunity to perform a preliminary evaluation of these important factors for each of the conditions being considered. NEEMO 15 also took place in 2011 and provided a first look at many of the factors, but the mission was cut short due to a hurricane threat before all objectives were completed. ARES Directorate (KX) personnel consulted with JSC engineers to ensure that high-fidelity planetary science protocols were incorporated into NEEMO mission architectures. ARES has been collaborating with NEEMO mission planners since NEEMO 9 in 2006, successively building upon previous developments to refine science operations concepts within engineering constraints; it is expected to continue the collaboration as NASA's human exploration mission plans evolve.

  14. Electron beam irradiation induced compatibilization of immiscible polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate (PE/EVA) blends: Mechanical properties and morphology stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entezam, Mehdi; Aghjeh, Mir Karim Razavi; Ghaffari, Mehdi

    2017-02-01

    Gel content, mechanical properties and morphology of immiscible PE/EVA blends irradiated by high energy electron beam were studied. The results of gel content measurements showed that the capability of cross-linking of the blend samples increased with an increase of the EVA composition. Also, the gel content for most compositions of the blends displayed a positive deviation from the additive rule. The results of mechanical properties showed that the tensile strength and elongation at break of the samples increased and decreased, respectively, with irradiation dose. On the other hand, the mechanical properties of the irradiated blends also depicted a positive deviation from additive rule contrary to the un-irradiated blends. A synergistic effect observed for the mechanical properties improvement of the irradiated blends and it was attributed to the probable formation of the PE-graft-EVA copolymers at the interface of the blends during the irradiation process. A theoretical analysis revealed that irradiation induced synergistic effect was more significant for EVA-rich blends with weaker interfacial interaction as compared to PE-rich blends. The morphological analysis indicated that the blend morphology was not affected obviously, whereas it was stabilized by irradiation.

  15. The influence of Ca-Mg-Al hydrotalcite synthesized from brine water on thermal and mechanical properties of HTlc-EVA composite

    SciTech Connect

    Karina, Wiwiek Heraldy, Eddy Pramono, Edi; Heriyanto,; Astuti, Shanti

    2016-02-08

    Ca-Mg-Al hydrotalcite-like compound (Ca-Mg-Al HTlc) was prepared by co-precipitation method using brine water that is well known as the desalination process waste water. The structure of Ca-Mg-Al HTlc was determined by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis. Ca-Mg-Al HTlc was studied as a non-halogenated filler in ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) matrix. Composites with different filler concentrations were prepared to evaluate the influence of Ca-Mg-Al HTlc on thermal and mechanical properties of EVA.The presence of Ca-Mg-Al HTlc in the composite has been confirmed by FTIR analysis. Thermal properties of composites show significant reduction of degradation temperature as well as the loading of HTlc in EVA. However, the total enthalpies combustion of composites with 1% and 5% HTlc loadings higher compared to neat EVA. Further, mechanical properties were determined by tensile test. The result shows that tensile strength and elongation at break of composites decrease relatively by Ca-Mg-Al HTlc addition.

  16. The influence of Ca-Mg-Al hydrotalcite synthesized from brine water on thermal and mechanical properties of HTlc-EVA composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karina, Wiwiek; Heraldy, Eddy; Pramono, Edi; Heriyanto, Astuti, Shanti

    2016-02-01

    Ca-Mg-Al hydrotalcite-like compound (Ca-Mg-Al HTlc) was prepared by co-precipitation method using brine water that is well known as the desalination process waste water. The structure of Ca-Mg-Al HTlc was determined by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis. Ca-Mg-Al HTlc was studied as a non-halogenated filler in ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) matrix. Composites with different filler concentrations were prepared to evaluate the influence of Ca-Mg-Al HTlc on thermal and mechanical properties of EVA.The presence of Ca-Mg-Al HTlc in the composite has been confirmed by FTIR analysis. Thermal properties of composites show significant reduction of degradation temperature as well as the loading of HTlc in EVA. However, the total enthalpies combustion of composites with 1% and 5% HTlc loadings higher compared to neat EVA. Further, mechanical properties were determined by tensile test. The result shows that tensile strength and elongation at break of composites decrease relatively by Ca-Mg-Al HTlc addition.

  17. Human factors in space station architecture 2. EVA access facility: A comparative analysis of 4 concepts for on-orbit space suit servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc M.; Bussolari, Steven

    1987-01-01

    Four concepts for on-orbit spacesuit donning, doffing, servicing, check-out, egress and ingress are presented. These are: the Space Transportation System (STS) Type (shuttle system enlarged), the Transit Airlock (Shuttle Airlock with suit servicing removed from the pump-down chamber), the Suitport (a rear-entry suit mates to a port in the airlock wall), and the Crewlock (a small, individual, conformal airlock). Each of these four concepts is compared through a series of seven steps representing a typical Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) mission: (1) Predonning suit preparation; (2) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) preparation; (3) Suit Donning and Final Check; (4) Egress/Ingress; (5) Mid-EVA rest period; (6) Post-EVA Securing; (7) Non-Routine Maintenance. The different characteristics of each concept are articulated through this step-by-step approach. Recommendations concerning an approach for further evaluations of airlock geometry, anthropometrics, ergonomics, and functional efficiency are made. The key recommendation is that before any particular airlock can be designed, the full range of spacesuit servicing functions must be considered, including timelines that are most supportive of EVA human productivity.

  18. Pre-dispersed organo-montmorillonite (organo-MMT) nanofiller: Morphology, cytocompatibility and impact on flexibility, toughness and biostability of biomedical ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer.

    PubMed

    Osman, Azlin F; M Fitri, Tuty Fareyhynn; Rakibuddin, Md; Hashim, Fatimah; Tuan Johari, Syed Ahmad Tajudin; Ananthakrishnan, Rajakumar; Ramli, Rafiza

    2017-05-01

    Polymer-clay based nanocomposites are among the attractive materials to be applied for various applications, including biomedical. The incorporation of the nano sized clay (nanoclay) into polymer matrices can result in their remarkable improvement in mechanical, thermal and barrier properties as long as the nanofillers are well exfoliated and dispersed throughout the matrix. In this work, exfoliation strategy through pre-dispersing process of the organically modified montmorillonite (organo-MMT) nanofiller was done to obtain ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA) nanocomposite with improved flexibility, toughness, thermal stability and biostability. Our results indicated that the degree of organo-MMT exfoliation affects its cytotoxicity level and the properties of the resulting EVA nanocomposite. The pre-dispersed organo-MMT by ultrasonication in water possesses higher degree of exfoliation as compared to its origin condition and significantly performed reduced cytotoxicity level. Beneficially, this nanofiller also enhanced the EVA flexibility, thermal stability and biostability upon the in vitro exposure. We postulated that these were due to plasticizing effect and enhanced EVA-nanofiller interactions contributing to more stable chemical bonds in the main copolymer chains. Improvement in copolymer flexibility is beneficial for close contact with human soft tissue, while enhancement in toughness and biostability is crucial to extend its life expectancy as insulation material for implantable device.

  19. Barrier properties of PE, PP and EVA (nano)composites - The influence of filler type and concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merinska, D.; Kalendova, A.; Tesarikova, A.

    2014-05-01

    Nanocomposite materials with layered clay used as nanofiller and polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and copolymer ethylene and vinyl acetate matrix (EVA, the content of VA component 19 wt. %) were prepared by compounding the individual components in Brabender kneader. The MMT Na+ and four types of commercial products such as Nanofil N 5 and N3000, Cloisite 93A and 30B were used as nanofillers. Next to the clays microprecipitated CaHCO3, nanosilica and Halloysite tubes were used. The quantity of all the above-mentioned (nano)fillers was 1, 3 and 5 wt. % in relation to the content of montmorillonite. The aim was to evaluate the influence of (nano)filler type and concentration on nanocomposite barrier properties. The morphology of nanocomposite samples was examined by means of XRD analysis illustrated by transmission electronic microscopy TEM. Furthermore, permeability for O2 and CO2 were observed.

  20. Evaluation of hole sizes in structures requiring EVA services as a means to prevent gloved-hand finger entrapment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar L.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1993-01-01

    One of the concerns of Space Station designers was making sure that the suited crewmembers' gloved fingers are not trapped in the holes that may be present in the structures during EVA activities. A study was conducted on 11 subjects to determine the minimum and maximum possible hole sizes that would eliminate the possibility of finger entrapment. Subjects wore pressurized gloves and attempted to insert their fingers into holes of various sizes. Based on the experimental results, it is recommended that the smallest diameter should be less than 13.0 mm and the largest diameter should be greater than 35.0 mm in order to eliminate the possibility of finger entrapment while wearing gloves. It is also recommended that the current requirements specified by the MSIS-STD-3000 (Section 6.3.3.4) should be modified accordingly.

  1. STS-57 astronauts Low and Wisoff, in EMUs, perform DTO 1210 EVA in OV-105's PLB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Backdropped against the blue and white Earth, Mission Specialist (MS) and Payload Commander (PLC) G. David Low and MS3 Peter J.K. Wisoff, wearing extravehicular mobility units (EMUs), simulate handling of large components in space. Above Endeavour's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105's, payload bay (PLB), Low, anchored by a portable foot restraint (PFR) (manipulator foot restraint (MFR)) on the remote manipulator system (RMS) end effector, maneuvers Wisoff, representing the mass of a large space component. This particular task was rehearsed with eyes toward the servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) or the assembly and maintenance of Space Station. This extravehicular activity (EVA), Detailed Test Objective (DTO) 1210, was conducted both with and without intentional disturbances from OV-105's thrusters and movements of the RMS. This phase of DTO 1210 will enable helpful evaluation for the HST wide field planetary camera (WFPC) during the STS-61 HST-servicing mission. The SPACEHAB-01 (Com

  2. STS-57 astronauts Low and Wisoff, in EMUs, perform DTO 1210 EVA in OV-105's PLB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Backdropped against the blackness of space and upside down in relation to Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Mission Specialist (MS) and Payload Commander (PLC) G. David Low and MS3 Peter J.K. Wisoff, wearing extravehicular mobility units (EMUs), simulate handling of large components in space. Above OV-105's payload bay (PLB), Low, anchored by a portable foot restraint (PFR) (manipulator foot restraint (MFR)) on the remote manipulator system (RMS) end effector, holds Wisoff and maneuvers him as if he were a large space component. This particular task was rehearsed with eyes toward the servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) or the assembly and maintenance of Space Station. This extravehicular activity (EVA), Detailed Test Objective (DTO) 1210, was conducted both with and without intentional disturbances from OV-105's thrusters and movements of the RMS. This phase of DTO 1210 will enable helpful evaluation for the HST wide field planetary camera (WFPC) during the STS-61 HST-serv

  3. Barrier properties of PE, PP and EVA (nano)composites - The influence of filler type and concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Merinska, D.; Kalendova, A.; Tesarikova, A.

    2014-05-15

    Nanocomposite materials with layered clay used as nanofiller and polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and copolymer ethylene and vinyl acetate matrix (EVA, the content of VA component 19 wt. %) were prepared by compounding the individual components in Brabender kneader. The MMT Na+ and four types of commercial products such as Nanofil N 5 and N3000, Cloisite 93A and 30B were used as nanofillers. Next to the clays microprecipitated CaHCO{sub 3}, nanosilica and Halloysite tubes were used. The quantity of all the above-mentioned (nano)fillers was 1, 3 and 5 wt. % in relation to the content of montmorillonite. The aim was to evaluate the influence of (nano)filler type and concentration on nanocomposite barrier properties. The morphology of nanocomposite samples was examined by means of XRD analysis illustrated by transmission electronic microscopy TEM. Furthermore, permeability for O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} were observed.

  4. Use of Traditional and Novel Methods to Evaluate the Influence of an EVA Glove on Hand Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Elizabeth A.; England, Scott A.; Mesloh, Miranda; Thompson, Shelby; ajulu, Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    The gloved hand is one of an astronaut s primary means of interacting with the environment, and any restrictions imposed by the glove can strongly affect performance during extravehicular activity (EVA). Glove restrictions have been the subject of study for decades, yet previous studies have generally been unsuccessful in quantifying glove mobility and tactility. Past studies have tended to focus on the dexterity, strength, and functional performance of the gloved hand; this provides only a circumspect analysis of the impact of each type of restriction on the glove s overall capability. The aim of this study was to develop novel capabilities to provide metrics for mobility and tactility that can be used to assess the performance of a glove in a way that could enable designers and engineers to improve their current designs. A series of evaluations were performed to compare unpressurized and pressurized (4.3 psi) gloved conditions with the ungloved condition. A second series of evaluations were performed with the Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment (TMG) removed. This series of tests provided interesting insight into how much of an effect the TMG has on gloved mobility - in some cases, the presence of the TMG restricted glove mobility as much as pressurization did. Previous hypotheses had assumed that the TMG would have a much lower impact on mobility, but these results suggest that an improvement in the design of the TMG could have a significant impact on glove performance. Tactility testing illustrated the effect of glove pressurization, provided insight into the design of hardware that interfaces with the glove, and highlighted areas of concern. The metrics developed in this study served to benchmark the Phase VI EVA glove and to develop requirements for the next-generation glove for the Constellation program.

  5. A Combination of Traditional and Novel Methods Used to Evaluate the Impact of an EVA Glove on Hand Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Benson, Elizabeth; England, Scott; Mesloh, Miranda; Thompson, Shelby

    2009-01-01

    The gloved hand is an astronaut s primary means of interacting with the environment, so performance on an EVA is strongly impacted by any restrictions imposed by the glove. As a result, these restrictions have been the subject of study for decades. However, previous studies have generally been unsuccessful in quantifying glove mobility and tactility. Instead, studies have tended to focus on the dexterity, strength and functional performance of the gloved hand. Therefore, it has been difficult to judge the impact of each type of restriction on the glove s overall capability. The lack of basic information on glove mobility in particular, is related to the difficulty in instrumenting a gloved hand to allow an accurate evaluation. However, the current study aims at developing novel technological capabilities to provide metrics for mobility and tactility that can be used to assess the performance of a glove in a way that could enable designers and engineers to improve upon their current designs. A series of evaluations were performed in ungloved, unpressurized and pressurized (4.3 psi) conditions, to allow a comparison across pressures and to the baseline barehanded condition. In addition, a subset of the testing was also performed with the Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment (TMG) removed. This test case in particular provided some interesting insight into how much of an impact the TMG has on gloved mobility -- in some cases, as much as pressurization of the glove. Previous rule-of-thumb estimates had assumed that the TMG would have a much lower impact on mobility, while these results suggest that an improvement in the TMG could actually have a significant impact on glove performance. Similarly, tactility testing illustrated the impact of glove pressurization on tactility and provided insight on the design of interfaces to the glove. The metrics described in this paper have been used to benchmark the Phase VI EVA glove and to develop requirements for the next generation

  6. Automatic sequencing and control of Space Station airlock operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himel, Victor; Abeles, Fred J.; Auman, James; Tqi, Terry O.

    1989-01-01

    Procedures that have been developed as part of the NASA JSC-sponsored pre-prototype Checkout, Servicing and Maintenance (COSM) program for pre- and post-EVA airlock operations are described. This paper addresses the accompanying pressure changes in the airlock and in the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). Additionally, the paper focuses on the components that are checked out, and includes the step-by-step sequences to be followed by the crew, the required screen displays and prompts that accompany each step, and a description of the automated processes that occur.

  7. Fusing human and machine skills for remote robotic operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenker, Paul S.; Kim, Won S.; Venema, Steven C.; Bejczy, Antal K.

    1991-01-01

    The question of how computer assists can improve teleoperator trajectory tracking during both free and force-constrained motions is addressed. Computer graphics techniques which enable the human operator to both visualize and predict detailed 3D trajectories in real-time are reported. Man-machine interactive control procedures for better management of manipulator contact forces and positioning are also described. It is found that collectively, these novel advanced teleoperations techniques both enhance system performance and significantly reduce control problems long associated with teleoperations under time delay. Ongoing robotic simulations of the 1984 space shuttle Solar Maximum EVA Repair Mission are briefly described.

  8. Diagnostic Value of SLC26A4 Mutation Status in Hereditary Hearing Loss With EVA: A PRISMA-Compliant Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ya-Jie; Yao, Jun; Wei, Qin-Jun; Xing, Guang-Qian; Cao, Xin

    2015-12-01

    Many SLC26A4 mutations have been identified in patients with nonsyndromic enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA). However, the roles of SLC26A4 genotypes and phenotypes in hereditary deafness remain unexplained. This study aims to perform a meta-analysis based on the PRISMA statement to evaluate the diagnostic value of SLC26A4 mutant alleles and their correlations with multiethnic hearing phenotypes in EVA patients. The systematic literature search of the PubMed, Wiley Online Library, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Science Direct databases was conducted in English for articles published before July 15, 2015. Two investigators independently reviewed retrieved literature and evaluated eligibility. Discrepancy was resolved by discussion and a third investigator. Quality of included studies was evaluated using Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. Data were synthesized using random-effect or fixed-effect models. The effect sizes were estimated by measuring odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Twenty-five eligible studies involved 2294 cases with EVA data. A total of 272 SLC26A4 variations were found in deafness with EVA and 26 mutations of SCL26A4 had higher frequency. The overall OR was 646.71 (95% CI: 383.30-1091.15, P = 0.000). A total of 22 mutants were considered statistically significant in all ethnicities (ORs >1, P < 0.05). In particular, 8 mutants were specificity of EVA phenotypes in mutations of SLC26A4 for Asia deafness populations (ORs >1, P < 0.05), 4 mutants for Europe and North America (ORs >1, P < 0.05), and the IVS7-2A>G mutations in SLC26A4 were found to have the highest frequency in deafness individuals with EVA phenotype (62.42%). Moreover, subgroups for studies limited to cases with EVA phenotype, 11 mutants relevant risks (RRs) were P < 0.05, especially for IVS7-2A>G bi-allelic mutants assayed in a deafness population (RR = 0.880, P = 0.000). Diagnostic accuracy of SLC26A4 mutation results also identified

  9. STS-57 MS2 Sherlock operates RMS THC on OV-105's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-57 Mission Specialist 2 (MS2) Nancy J. Sherlock operates the remote manipulator system (RMS) translation hand control (THC) while observing extravehicular activity (EVA) outside viewing window W10 on the aft flight deck of Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Positioned at the onorbit station, Sherlock moved EVA astronauts in the payload bay (PLB). Payload Commander (PLC) G. David Low with his feet anchored to a special restraint device on the end of the RMS arm held MS3 Peter J.K. Wisoff during the RMS maneuvers. The activity represented an evaluation of techniques which might be used on planned future missions -- a 1993 servicing visit to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and later space station work -- which will require astronauts to frequently lift objects of similar sized bulk. Note: Just below Sherlock's left hand a 'GUMBY' toy watches the actvity.

  10. Benefits of a Single-Person Spacecraft for Weightless Operations. [(Stop Walking and Start Flying)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brand N.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, less than 20 percent of crew time related to extravehicular activity (EVA) is spent on productive external work.1 A single-person spacecraft with 90 percent efficiency provides productive new capabilities for maintaining the International Space Station (ISS), exploring asteroids, and servicing telescopes or satellites. With suits, going outside to inspect, service or repair a spacecraft is time-consuming, requiring pre-breathe time, donning a fitted space suit, and pumping down an airlock. For ISS, this is between 12.5 and 16 hours for each EVA, not including translation and work-site set up. The work is physically demanding requiring a day of rest between EVAs and often results in suit-induced trauma with frequent injury to astronauts fingers2. For maximum mobility, suits use a low pressure, pure oxygen atmosphere. This represents a fire hazard and requires pre-breathing to reduce the risk of decompression sickness (bends). With virtually no gravity, humans exploring asteroids cannot use legs for walking. The Manned Maneuvering Unit offers a propulsive alternative however it is no longer in NASA s flight inventory. FlexCraft is a single person spacecraft operating at the same cabin atmosphere as its host so there is no risk of the bends and no pre-breathing. This allows rapid, any-time access to space for repeated short or long EVAs by different astronauts. Integrated propulsion eliminates hand-over-hand translation or having another crew member operate the robotic arm. The one-size-fits-all FlexCraft interior eliminates the suit part inventory and crew time required to fit all astronauts. With a shirtsleeve cockpit, conventional displays and controls are used and because the work is not strenuous no rest days are required. Furthermore, there is no need for hand tools because manipulators are equipped with force multiplying end-effectors that can deliver the precise torque for the job.

  11. Understanding Skill in EVA Mass Handling. Volume 3; Empirical Developments and Conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccio, Gary E.; McDonald, P. Vernon

    1998-01-01

    Key attributes of skilled mass handling were identified through an examination of lessons learned by the extravehicular activity operational community. These qualities were translated into measurable quantities. The operational validity of the ground-based investigation was improved by building a device that increased the degrees of freedom of extravehicular mobility unit motion on the Precision Air-Bearing Floor. The results revealed subtle patterns of interaction between motions of an orbital replacement unit mockup and mass handler that should be important for effective performance on orbit. The investigation also demonstrated that such patterns can be measured with a variety of common instruments and under imperfect conditions of observation.

  12. The Antarctic Search for Meteorites: The Future of Space, on Earth Today - EVA Knowledge Capture Outbrief

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, Stan

    2013-01-01

    NASA astronaut Stan Love shared his experiences with the Antarctic Search for Meteorites (ANSMET), an annual expedition to the southern continent to collect valuable samples for research in planetary science. ANSMET teams operate from isolated, remote field camps on the polar plateau, where windchill factors often reach -40 F. Several astronaut participants have noted ANSMET's similarity to a space mission. Some of the operational concepts, tools, and equipment employed by ANSMET teams may offer valuable insights to designers of future planetary surface exploration hardware.

  13. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Development through High-Resolution 3C3D Seismic and Horizontal Drilling: Eva South Marrow Sand Unit, Texas County, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler,David M.; Miller, William A.; Wilson, Travis C.

    2002-03-11

    The Eva South Morrow Sand Unit is located in western Texas County, Oklahoma. The field produces from an upper Morrow sandstone, termed the Eva sandstone, deposited in a transgressive valley-fill sequence. The field is defined as a combination structural stratigraphic trap; the reservoir lies in a convex up -dip bend in the valley and is truncated on the west side by the Teepee Creek fault. Although the field has been a successful waterflood since 1993, reservoir heterogeneity and compartmentalization has impeded overall sweep efficiency. A 4.25 square mile high-resolution, three component three-dimensional (3C3D) seismic survey was acquired in order to improve reservoir characterization and pinpoint the optimal location of a new horizontal producing well, the ESU 13-H.

  14. Astronaut Jeffrey Hoffman with Wide Field/Planetary Camera during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut Jeffrey A. Hoffman with Wide Field/Planetary Camera (WF/PC 1) in payload bay during changeout operations. Hoffman is standing on a foot restraint attached to the robot arm of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) in order to remove the old WF/PC. The new WF/PC has already been installed in cavity (out of frame).

  15. Exploring the Integration of Field Portable Instrumentation into Real-Time Surface Science Operations with the RIS4E SSERVI Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, K. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Rogers, D.; Garry, W. B.; McAdam, A.; Scheidt, S. P.; Carter, L. M.; Glotch, T. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Remote, In Situ, and Synchrotron Studies for Science (RIS4E) team represents one node of the Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) program. While the RIS4E team consists of four themes, each dedicated to a different aspect of airless body exploration, this submission details the RIS4E work underway to maximize an astronaut's effectiveness while conducting surface science. The next generation of surface science operations will look quite different than the EVAs (extravehicular activities) conducted during Apollo. Astronauts will possess data of much higher resolution than the Apollo reconnaissance data, and the EVAs will thus be designed to answer targeted science questions. Additionally, technological advancements over the last several decades have made it possible to conduct in situ analyses of a caliber much greater than was achievable during Apollo. For example, lab techniques such as x-ray fluorescence, x-ray diffraction, and multi-spectral imaging are now available in field portable formats, meaning that astronauts can gain real-time geochemical awareness during sample collection. The integration of these instruments into EVA operations, however, has not been widely tested. While these instruments will provide the astronaut with a high-resolution look at regional geochemistry and structure, their implementation could prove costly to the already constrained astronaut EVA timeline. The RIS4E team, through fieldwork at the December 1974 lava flow at Kilauea Volcano, HI, investigates the incorporation of portable technologies into planetary surface exploration and explores the relationship between science value added from these instruments and the cost associated with integrating them into an EVA timeline. We also consider what an appropriate instrumentation suite would be for the exploration of a volcanic terrain using this ideal terrestrial analog (see Rogers et al., Young et al., Bleacher et al., and Yant et al., this meeting).

  16. Fuel Oxidizer Reaction Products (FORP) Contamination of Service Module (SM) and Release of N-nitrosodimethylamine(NDMA)in a Humid Environment from Crew EVA Suits Contaminated with FORP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidl, William; Mikatarian, Ron; Lam, Chiu-Wing; West, Bil; Buchanan, Vanessa; Dee, Louis; Baker, David; Koontz, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The Service Module (SM) is an element of the Russian Segment of the International Space Station (ISS). One of the functions of the SM is to provide attitude control for the ISS using thrusters when the U.S. Control Moment Gyros (CMG's) must be desaturated. Prior to an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) on the Russian Segment, the Docking Compartment (DC1) is depressurized, as it is used as an airlock. When the DC1 is depressurized, the CMG's margin of momentum is insufficient and the SM attitude control thrusters need to fire to desaturate the CMG's. SM roll thruster firings induce contamination onto adjacent surfaces with Fuel Oxidizer Reaction Products (FORP). FORP is composed of both volatile and non-volatile components. One of the components of FORP is the potent carcinogen N-nitrosdimethylamine (NDMA). Since the EVA crewmembers often enter the area surrounding the thrusters for tasks on the aft end of the SM and when translating to other areas of the Russian Segment, the presence of FORP is a concern. This paper will discuss FORP contamination of the SM surfaces, the release of NDMA in a humid environment from crew EVA suits, if they happen to be contaminated with FORP, and the toxicological risk associated with the NDMA release.

  17. Serological detection and analysis of anti-VP1 responses against various enteroviruses (EV) (EV-A, EV-B and EV-C) in Chinese individuals

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Caixia; Ding, Yingying; Zhou, Peng; Feng, Jiaojiao; Qian, Baohua; Lin, Ziyu; Wang, Lili; Wang, Jinhong; Zhao, Chunyan; Li, Xiangyu; Cao, Mingmei; Peng, Heng; Rui, Bing; Pan, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The overall serological prevalence of EV infections based on ELISA remains unknown. In the present study, the antibody responses against VP1 of the EV-A species (enterovirus 71 (EV71), Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), Coxsackievirus A5 (CA5) and Coxsackievirus A6 (CA6)), of the EV-B species (Coxsackievirus B3 (CB3)), and of the EV-C species (Poliovirus 1 (PV1)) were detected and analyzed by a NEIBM (novel evolved immunoglobulin-binding molecule)-based ELISA in Shanghai blood donors. The serological prevalence of anti-CB3 VP1 antibodies was demonstrated to show the highest level, with anti-PV1 VP1 antibodies at the second highest level, and anti-CA5, CA6, CA16 and EV71 VP1 antibodies at a comparatively low level. All reactions were significantly correlated at different levels, which were approximately proportional to their sequence similarities. Antibody responses against EV71 VP1 showed obvious differences with responses against other EV-A viruses. Obvious differences in antibody responses between August 2013 and May 2014 were revealed. These findings are the first to describe the detailed information of the serological prevalence of human antibody responses against the VP1 of EV-A, B and C viruses, and could be helpful for understanding of the ubiquity of EV infections and for identifying an effective approach for seroepidemiological surveillance based on ELISA. PMID:26917423

  18. Serological detection and analysis of anti-VP1 responses against various enteroviruses (EV) (EV-A, EV-B and EV-C) in Chinese individuals.

    PubMed

    Gao, Caixia; Ding, Yingying; Zhou, Peng; Feng, Jiaojiao; Qian, Baohua; Lin, Ziyu; Wang, Lili; Wang, Jinhong; Zhao, Chunyan; Li, Xiangyu; Cao, Mingmei; Peng, Heng; Rui, Bing; Pan, Wei

    2016-02-26

    The overall serological prevalence of EV infections based on ELISA remains unknown. In the present study, the antibody responses against VP1 of the EV-A species (enterovirus 71 (EV71), Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), Coxsackievirus A5 (CA5) and Coxsackievirus A6 (CA6)), of the EV-B species (Coxsackievirus B3 (CB3)), and of the EV-C species (Poliovirus 1 (PV1)) were detected and analyzed by a NEIBM (novel evolved immunoglobulin-binding molecule)-based ELISA in Shanghai blood donors. The serological prevalence of anti-CB3 VP1 antibodies was demonstrated to show the highest level, with anti-PV1 VP1 antibodies at the second highest level, and anti-CA5, CA6, CA16 and EV71 VP1 antibodies at a comparatively low level. All reactions were significantly correlated at different levels, which were approximately proportional to their sequence similarities. Antibody responses against EV71 VP1 showed obvious differences with responses against other EV-A viruses. Obvious differences in antibody responses between August 2013 and May 2014 were revealed. These findings are the first to describe the detailed information of the serological prevalence of human antibody responses against the VP1 of EV-A, B and C viruses, and could be helpful for understanding of the ubiquity of EV infections and for identifying an effective approach for seroepidemiological surveillance based on ELISA.

  19. Drug release from cast films of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer: Stability of drugs by 1H NMR and solid state 13C CP/MAS NMR.

    PubMed

    Kalachandra, S; Lin, D M; Stejskal, E O; Prakki, A; Offenbacher, S

    2005-07-01

    The study utilizes an oral biocompatible material based on ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) designed to release drugs in vitro at therapeutic levels over several days. We examined the drug stability during film casting process using proton and solid state NMR techniques. The drug-loaded EVA films were prepared from the dry sheet obtained by solvent (dichloromethane) evaporation of polymer casting solutions. Drugs tested include chlorhexidine diacetate (CDA), doxycycline hydrochloride (DOH), tetracycline hydrochloride (TTH) and nystatin (NST). Drug release from the films was examined for at least 14 days in 10 ml ddH2O (NST in water/ethanol (4:1)) which was replaced daily. Changes in optical density were followed spectraphotometrically. Effect of temperature on rate measurements was studied and the energies of activation (E*) were calculated using Arrhenius plots. Effect of EVA copolymer composition on CDA release rate was also investigated. The enhanced rates with temperature increase may be attributed to the formation of channels with increased geometry in the polymer. The highest E* observed for CDA compared to DOH and TTH may be related to their average molecular weights. Spectral analyses for CDA and NST revealed that the chemical and physical structures of the drugs remained unaffected during the film casting process.

  20. EVA thin film with thermo- and moisture-stable luminescent copolymer beads composed of Eu(III) complexes for improvement of energy conversion efficiency on silicon solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Hisataka; Omagari, Shun; Nakanishi, Takayuki; Hasegawa, Yasuchika

    2015-04-01

    Luminescent beads composed of Eu(hfa)3(TPPO)2 (hfa: hexafluoroacetylacetonate, TPPO: triphenylphosphine oxide) in PMMA copolymer (polymethylmethacrylate- styrene and polymethylmethacrylate-trifluoromethylmethacrylate copolymers), PMMA-St-Eu and PMMA-TF-Eu have been reported for improvement of energy conversion efficiency on silicon solar cell. The PMMA-St-Eu and PMMA-TF-Eu beads are prepared using radical initiator AIBN (2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile) without BPO (Benzoyl peroxide) which promotes decomposition of Eu(hfa)3(TPPO)2. The emission properties of EVA (ethylene vinyl acetate) film with PMMA-St-Eu or PMMA-TF-Eu beads are characterized by the emission spectra and lifetimes. Thermo- and moisture-stabilities of the EVA films are performed under high temperature and high moisture condition (85°C85%RH). Increase percentage the solar cell short circuit current efficiency in the solar cell modulation using with EVA film containing PMMA-St-Eu beads with size in 70 μm was estimated to 1.2%. Thermo- and moisture-stable PMMA-St-Eu and PMMA-TF-Eu beads for solar sealing film are demonstrated for the first time.

  1. Conducting Planetary Field Geology on EVA: Lessons from the 2010 DRATS Geologist Crewmembers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Kelsey E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Hurtado, J. M., Jr.; Rice, J.; Garry, W. B.; Eppler, D.

    2011-01-01

    In order to prepare for the next phase of planetary surface exploration, the Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) field program seeks to test the next generation of technology needed to explore other surfaces. The 2010 DRATS 14-day field campaign focused on the simultaneous operation of two habitatable rovers, or Space Exploration Vehicles (SEVs). Each rover was crewed by one astronaut/commander and one geologist, with a change in crews on day seven of the mission. This shift change allowed for eight crew members to test the DRATS technology and operational protocols [1,2]. The insights presented in this abstract represent the crew s thoughts on lessons learned from this field season, as well as potential future testing concepts.

  2. Space Station Freedom coupling tasks: An evaluation of their telerobotic and EVA compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampaio, Carlos E.; Bierschwale, John M.; Fleming, Terence F.; Stuart, Mark A.

    1993-01-01

    Of the couplings included in this study, several design components were found to be of interest. With respect to the operation of the couplings, the various concepts resulted in differing reactions from the four subjects who participated in this study. The purpose of this study was not to conceive the final coupling design. Rather, it was intended as a step along an interactive process. The newly modified coupling will be included in a series of further controlled, as well as subjective, evaluations. This part of the ongoing work in the Remote Operator Interaction Laboratory (ROIL) designed to enhance the overall interface by improving design at both the teleoperator and telerobot ends of the system.

  3. Design and Development of a Regenerative Blower for EVA Suit Ventilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Hill, Roger W.; Phillips, Scott D.; Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Ventilation subsystems in future space suits require a dedicated ventilation fan. The unique requirements for the ventilation fan - including stringent safety requirements and the ability to increase output to operate in buddy mode - combine to make a regenerative blower an attractive choice. This paper describes progress in the design, development, and testing of a regenerative blower designed to meet requirements for ventilation subsystems in future space suits. We have developed analysis methods for the blower s complex, internal flows and identified impeller geometries that enable significant improvements in blower efficiency. We verified these predictions by test, measuring aerodynamic efficiencies of 45% at operating conditions that correspond to the ventilation fan s design point. We have developed a compact motor/controller to drive the blower efficiently at low rotating speed (4500 rpm). Finally, we have assembled a low-pressure oxygen test loop to demonstrate the blower s reliability under prototypical conditions.

  4. Quantification of circulating miRNAs by droplet digital PCR: comparison of EvaGreen- and TaqMan-based chemistries.

    PubMed

    Miotto, Elena; Saccenti, Elena; Lupini, Laura; Callegari, Elisa; Negrini, Massimo; Ferracin, Manuela

    2014-12-01

    Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) has been successfully used with TaqMan assays to assess gene expression through the quantification of mRNA and miRNA. Recently, a new ddPCR system that can also run DNA-binding dye-based assays has been developed but it has not yet been tested for miRNA. We tested and compared the feasibility of quantifying miRNA with the new QX200 Droplet Digital PCR system when used with EvaGreen dye- and TaqMan probe-based assays. RNA from plasma and serum of 28 patients with cancer and healthy persons was reverse-transcribed and quantified for two circulating miRNAs and one added exogenous miRNA, with both EvaGreen dye-based miRCURY LNA miRNA assays and TaqMan assays. Amplification and detection of target miRNAs were performed on the QX200 ddPCR system. Conditions required to run miRCURY LNA miRNA assays were optimized. The EvaGreen-based assay was precise, reproducible over a range of concentrations of four orders of magnitude, and sensitive, detecting a target miRNA at levels down to 1 copy/μL. When this assay was compared with TaqMan assays, high concordance was obtained for two endogenous miRNAs in serum and plasma (Pearson r > 0.90). EvaGreen dye-based and TaqMan probe-based assays can be equally used with the ddPCR system to quantify circulating miRNAs in human plasma and serum. This study establishes the basis for using EvaGreen dye-based assays on a ddPCR system for quantifying circulating miRNA biomarkers and potentially other low-abundance RNA biomarkers in human biofluids. See all the articles in this CEBP Focus section, "Biomarkers, Biospecimens, and New Technologies in Molecular Epidemiology."

  5. Ground operation of space-based telerobots will enhance productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schober, Wayne R.

    1988-01-01

    Due to the limited human resources which will be available on the U.S. Space Station, automation and robotics technologies are being developed to enhance the productivity on the Space Station. The need for space telerobots which can be operated from the ground is explored, taking into consideration the resulting time delay, the technology involved, and some currently planned experiments. The proposed experiments include a remote link with the Kennedy Space Center robotics laboratory and the Telerobot Intelligent Interface Flight Experiment (TRIIFEX). It is concluded that there is a need to develop and implement ground-remote telerobotics technology which can effectively operate in the time-delay environment. This capability will enable servicing operations in polar and geosynchronous orbits and assist EVA astronauts on the Space Station.

  6. Radiation Exposure Analysis for ISS: The Female Astronaut in EVA. Chapter 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Brooke M.; Wilson, John W.; Atwell, William; Hugger, Craig; Nealy, John E.

    2003-01-01

    Special exposure limit recommendations have been designated by the NCRP for US. astronauts in LEO operations. These have been established from consideration of a 3% lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality for a 10-yr. active career. The most recent recommendations of the NCRP have incorporated modified procedures for evaluating exposures with accompanying adjustments in career limits. Of special importance are the limit specifications for female exposures, which are approximately 40% less than those for males. Furthermore, radiosensitive organs unique to females require additional attention.

  7. STS-49 crew captures INTELSAT VI above OV-105's payload bay (PLB) during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Following the successful capture of the International Telecommunications Organization Satellite (INTELSAT) VI, the STS-49 crewmembers continue their chores toward moving the 4.5 ton communications satellite into Endeavour's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105's, payload bay (PLB). Left to right, Mission Specialist (MS) Richard J. Hieb, MS Thomas D. Akers, cooperate on the effort to attach a specially designed grapple bar or capture bar underneath the satellite. Thuot stands on the end of the remote manipulator system's (RMS's) arm while Hieb and Akers are on portable foot restraints (PFRs) affixed to OV-105's portside and the multipurpose experiment support structure (MPESS), respectively. The sections of Earth which form the backdrop for the scene are blanketed with thousands of square miles of clouds. Below and behind the three astronauts is the vertical perigee stage which will be attached to INTELSAT VI during servicing operations and prior to its release.

  8. Long-term operation of ''Orlan'' space suits in the ''Mir'' orbiting station: Experience obtained and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, I. P.; Glazov, G. M.; Svertshek, V. I.

    2002-07-01

    The started assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) and its further operation will call for a great number of extravehicular activity sorties (EVA) to be performed by ISS crews. Therefore, of great importance is to make use of the EVA experience gained by cosmonauts in the process of 15-year operation of the Mir orbiting station (OS). Over the 15-year period, Mir crewmembers wearing Orlan type semi-rigid space suits have accumulated 158 man/sorties from the orbiting station. Crewmembers used 15 suits in orbit and some of the suits were in operation for more than 3 years. The paper presents principal design features, which provide effective and safe operation of orbit-based suits, and briefly describes procedures for preparation and maintenance of suit systems, which ensure long-term operation of space suit in orbit. The paper gives results of the space suit modifications, presents suit performance characteristics and lists novel or upgraded components of the space suit and its systems. The paper also summarizes improvements in the Orlan type suits described in some earlier publications. They refer, in the first run, to the improvement of space suit operations characteristics and reliability, and the utilization of the Orlan type space suit in the ISS program. The paper analyses the experience gained and drawbacks detected and observations made, and gives statistical data on long-term space suit operations aboard the Mir station. The paper reviews certain problems in the process of EVAs performed from the station, and describes the ways of their solution as applied to the further utilization of the suit within the ISS program.

  9. Dexterous Operations on ISS and Future Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keenan, P. Andrew; Read, David A.

    2011-01-01

    The Mobile Servicing System (MSS) is a complex robotics system used extensively in the assembly, inspection and maintenance of the International Space Station (ISS). Its external components are comprised of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), the Mobile Base System (MBS), and the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM or "Dextre"). Dexterous robotic maintenance operations on the ISS are now enabled with the launch and deployment of "Dextre" in March 2008 and the recently completed commissioning to support nominal operations. These operations include allowing for maintenance of the MSS capability to be executed uniquely via robotic means. Examples are detailed inspection and the removal and replacement of On-orbit Replaceable Units (ORUs) located outside the pressurized volume of the ISS, alleviating astronauts from performing numerous risky and time-consuming extra-vehicular activities (EVAs). In light of the proposed extension of the ISS to 2020 and beyond, "Dextre" can also be seen as a resource for the support and conduct of external ISS experiments. "Dextre" can be utilized to move experiments around ISS, as test bed for more elaborate experiments outside the original design intent, and as a unique platform for external experiments. This paper summarizes the status of "Dextre", its planned use, and future potential for dexterous operations on the ISS. Lessons learned from the planning and execution of SPDM commissioning are first introduced, and significant differences between "Dextre" and SSRMS operations are discussed. The use of ground control as the predominant method for operating "Dextre" is highlighted, along with the benefits and challenges that this poses. Finally, the latest plans for dexterous operations on ISS are summarized including visiting vehicle unloading, nominal maintenance, and operations of a more experimental flavor.

  10. Estimation of extreme sea levels along the Bangladesh coast due to storm surge and sea level rise using EEMD and EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Han Soo

    2013-09-01

    Extreme sea levels due to storm surge and future sea level rise (SLR) in the year 2050 are estimated using ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and extreme value analysis (EVA) based on long-term sea level records from Hiron Point (HP) on the coast of western Bangladesh. EEMD is an adaptive method that can detrend the nonlinear trend and separate the tidal motions from the original sea level records to reconstruct storm surge levels at HP. The reconstructed storm surge levels are then applied to EVA to obtain the extreme storm surges in the target return periods at a 95% confidence interval (CI). The 30, 50, and 100 year return levels at HP obtained by EVA are 1.59, 1.66, and 1.75 m. The SLR trend obtained from EEMD is 4.46 mm/yr over April 1990 to March 2009, which is larger than the recent altimetry-based global rate of 3.3 ± 0.4 mm/yr over the period from 1993 to 2007. The resulting SLR in 2050 is estimated as 0.34 m. Therefore, the extreme sea level in 2050 due to SLR and the storm surge at a 100 year return level would be 2.09 m (95% CI from 1.91 to 2.48 m). The SLR depends not only on changes in the mass and volume of sea water but also on other factors, such as local subsidence, river discharge, sediment and the effects of vegetation. The residual nonlinear trend of SLR obtained from EEMD can be regarded as an adaptive sea level after considering those factors and their nonlinearity.

  11. Design for Assured Safe Jettison Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herd, Andrew; Shea, Matt

    2010-09-01

    The International Space Station is coming toward the end of the assembly process and will enter "steady state" operations. During this time and also in the future, there arises the need for removing items from station, and in some instances this is achieved through jettison, either robotic or crew initiated. To control this practice at the ISS Partner level, a policy document has been developed. The policy states: "While there are risks inherent in jettisoning objects, the ISS Program recognizes that there may be significant benefits in terms of operational flexibility, crew safety, etc. A thorough assessment of the risks vs. the benefits will be conducted whenever a proposal to jettison an object is made. It is the intent of the ISS Program to limit the number of objects that are jettisoned from the ISS ...". The policy addresses hardware that: "may fall into one or more of the following categories: 1. Items that pose a safety issue for the ISS or for return onboard a visiting vehicle(contamination, materials degradation, etc.) 2. Items that negatively impact ISS utilization, return or on-orbit stowage manifests 3. Items that represent an Extravehicular Activity(EVA) timeline savings large enough to reduce the sum of the risks of EVA exposure time and the orbital environment’s hazardous debris population, compared to the sum of such risks without a jettison. 4. Items that are designed for jettison ". [1] Through the use of jettison to date, as a disposal means, operational experiences have been gained during and as a result of post-disposal event analysis. The data collected has allowed a generic assessment of issues(and best practices) and the proposal of ways in which process corrective action can be taken to assure future safe jettison operations. The improvements proposed emphasize the ways in which design can offer key interface and hardware response characteristics to the jettison event and the subsequent orbital and re-entry profile. There exist simple

  12. From "Below Dignity" to "Above It All": Origins and Early History of Underwater Neutral Buoyancy Simulation of Weightlessness for EVA Procedures Development and Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.

    2013-01-01

    An attempt to clarify some vague memories of underwater studies of astronaut capabilities in space led Dr. John Charles to become acquainted with Sam Mattingly, one of the pioneers in the field, and to greater insights into Mattingly's work simulating Gemini EVAs in the mid-1960s. Charles recounted major accomplishments by Environmental Research Associates (ERA), Mattingly's company for contracting with NASA Langley on several early studies. ERA's work was considered within the context of contemporary efforts to simulate weightlessness and the widespread development of neutral buoyancy facilities after ERA's successful demonstration for Gemini 12.

  13. Correlation of ISS Electric Potential Variations with Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Emily M.; Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard

    2014-01-01

    Orbiting approximately 400 km above the Earth, the International Space Station (ISS) is a unique research laboratory used to conduct ground-breaking science experiments in space. The ISS has eight Solar Array Wings (SAW), and each wing is 11.7 meters wide and 35.1 meters long. The SAWs are controlled individually to maximize power output, minimize stress to the ISS structure, and minimize interference with other ISS operations such as vehicle dockings and Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA). The Solar Arrays are designed to operate at 160 Volts. These large, high power solar arrays are negatively grounded to the ISS and collect charged particles (predominately electrons) as they travel through the space plasma in the Earth's ionosphere. If not controlled, this collected charge causes floating potential variations which can result in arcing, causing injury to the crew during an EVA or damage to hardware [1]. The environmental catalysts for ISS floating potential variations include plasma density and temperature fluctuations and magnetic induction from the Earth's magnetic field. These alone are not enough to cause concern for ISS, but when they are coupled with the large positive potential on the solar arrays, floating potentials up to negative 95 Volts have been observed. Our goal is to differentiate the operationally induced fluctuations in floating potentials from the environmental causes. Differentiating will help to determine what charging can be controlled, and we can then design the proper operations controls for charge collection mitigation. Additionally, the knowledge of how high power solar arrays interact with the environment and what regulations or design techniques can be employed to minimize charging impacts can be applied to future programs.

  14. Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO): Design and Testing of an Extravehicular Activity Glove Adapted for Human-Computer Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard J.; Olowin, Aaron; Krepkovich, Eileen; Hannaford, Blake; Lindsay, Jack I. C.; Homer, Peter; Patrie, James T.; Sands, O. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO) system enables an extravehicular activity (EVA) glove to be dual-purposed as a human-computer interface device. This paper describes the design and human participant testing of a right-handed GECO glove in a pressurized glove box. As part of an investigation into the usability of the GECO system for EVA data entry, twenty participants were asked to complete activities including (1) a Simon Says Games in which they attempted to duplicate random sequences of targeted finger strikes and (2) a Text Entry activity in which they used the GECO glove to enter target phrases in two different virtual keyboard modes. In a within-subjects design, both activities were performed both with and without vibrotactile feedback. Participants mean accuracies in correctly generating finger strikes with the pressurized glove were surprisingly high, both with and without the benefit of tactile feedback. Five of the subjects achieved mean accuracies exceeding 99 in both conditions. In Text Entry, tactile feedback provided a statistically significant performance benefit, quantified by characters entered per minute, as well as reduction in error rate. Secondary analyses of responses to a NASA Task Loader Index (TLX) subjective workload assessments reveal a benefit for tactile feedback in GECO glove use for data entry. This first-ever investigation of employment of a pressurized EVA glove for human-computer interface opens up a wide range of future applications, including text chat communications, manipulation of procedureschecklists, cataloguingannotating images, scientific note taking, human-robot interaction, and control of suit andor other EVA systems.

  15. Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO): Design and Testing of an Extravehicular Activity Glove Adapted for Human-Computer Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard J.; Olowin, Aaron; Krepkovich, Eileen; Hannaford, Blake; Lindsay, Jack I. C.; Homer, Peter; Patrie, James T.; Sands, O. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO) system enables an extravehicular activity (EVA) glove to be dual-purposed as a human-computer interface device. This paper describes the design and human participant testing of a right-handed GECO glove in a pressurized glove box. As part of an investigation into the usability of the GECO system for EVA data entry, twenty participants were asked to complete activities including (1) a Simon Says Games in which they attempted to duplicate random sequences of targeted finger strikes and (2) a Text Entry activity in which they used the GECO glove to enter target phrases in two different virtual keyboard modes. In a within-subjects design, both activities were performed both with and without vibrotactile feedback. Participants' mean accuracies in correctly generating finger strikes with the pressurized glove were surprisingly high, both with and without the benefit of tactile feedback. Five of the subjects achieved mean accuracies exceeding 99% in both conditions. In Text Entry, tactile feedback provided a statistically significant performance benefit, quantified by characters entered per minute, as well as reduction in error rate. Secondary analyses of responses to a NASA Task Loader Index (TLX) subjective workload assessments reveal a benefit for tactile feedback in GECO glove use for data entry. This first-ever investigation of employment of a pressurized EVA glove for human-computer interface opens up a wide range of future applications, including text "chat" communications, manipulation of procedures/checklists, cataloguing/annotating images, scientific note taking, human-robot interaction, and control of suit and/or other EVA systems.

  16. EvaGreen real-time PCR protocol for specific 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali' detection and quantification in insects.

    PubMed

    Monti, Monia; Martini, Marta; Tedeschi, Rosemarie

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the validation and implementation of a Real-time PCR protocol based on ribosomal protein genes has been carried out for sensitive and specific quantification of 'Candidatus (Ca.) Phytoplasma mali' (apple proliferation phytoplasma, APP) in insects. The method combines the use of EvaGreen(®) dye as chemistry detection system and the specific primer pair rpAP15f-mod/rpAP15r3, which amplifies a fragment of 238 bp of the ribosomal protein rplV (rpl22) gene of APP. Primers specificity was demonstrated by running in the same Real-time PCR 'Ca. Phytoplasma mali' samples with phytoplasmas belonging to the same group (16SrX) as 'Ca. Phytoplasma pyri' and 'Ca. Phytoplasma prunorum', and also phytoplasmas from different groups, as 'Ca. Phytoplasma phoenicium' (16SrIX) and Flavescence dorée phytoplasma (16SrV). 'Ca. Phytoplasma mali' titre in insects was quantified using a specific approach, which relates the concentration of the phytoplasma to insect 18S rDNA. Absolute quantification of APP and insect 18S rDNA were calculated using standard curves prepared from serial dilutions of plasmids containing rplV-rpsC and a portion of 18S rDNA genes, respectively. APP titre in insects was expressed as genome units (GU) of phytoplasma per picogram (pg) of individual insect 18S rDNA. 'Ca. Phytoplasma mali' concentration in examined samples (Cacopsylla melanoneura overwintered adults) ranged from 5.94 × 10(2) to 2.51 × 10(4) GU/pg of insect 18S rDNA. Repeatability and reproducibility of the method were also evaluated by calculation of the coefficient of variation (CV%) of GU of phytoplasma and pg of 18S rDNA fragment for both assays. CV less than 14% and 9% (for reproducibility test) and less than 10 and 11% (for repeatability test) were obtained for phytoplasma and insect qPCR assays, respectively. Sensitivity of the method was also evaluated, in comparison with conventional 16S rDNA-based nested-PCR procedure. The method described has been demonstrated reliable

  17. Lunar base surface mission operations. Lunar Base Systems Study (LBSS) task 4.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose was to perform an analysis of the surface operations associated with a human-tended lunar base. Specifically, the study defined surface elements and developed mission manifests for a selected base scenario, determined the nature of surface operations associated with this scenario, generated a preliminary crew extravehicular and intravehicular activity (EVA/IVA) time resource schedule for conducting the missions, and proposed concepts for utilizing remotely operated equipment to perform repetitious or hazardous surface tasks. The operations analysis was performed on a 6 year period of human-tended lunar base operation prior to permanent occupancy. The baseline scenario was derived from a modified version of the civil needs database (CNDB) scenario. This scenario emphasizes achievement of a limited set of science and exploration objectives while emplacing the minimum habitability elements required for a permanent base.

  18. Suramin interacts with the positively charged region surrounding the 5-fold axis of the EV-A71 capsid and inhibits multiple enterovirus A

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Peijun; Zheng, Yimei; Wang, Wenqi; Hong, Liping; Delpeyroux, Françis; Arenzana-Seisdedos, Fernando; Altmeyer, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Suramin was previously shown to bind to the EV-A71 capsid through its naphthalenetrisulfonic acid groups, thereby reducing virus-cell binding and inhibiting viral replication. Here, we identify VP1-145 as the critical amino acid that accounts for the differential sensitivity of EVA-71 viruses to suramin. A single Q or G to E substitution at VP1-145 results in an approximately 30-fold shift of IC50 or IC90 values reproducing the inhibition profile observed with field isolates expressing either the 145Q or E mutation. Our data support the conclusion that suramin binds to the positively charged region surrounding the 5-fold axis of the capsid and consequently blocks the virus attachment and entry into host cells. In order to assess the antiviral-spectrum of suramin, we analyzed 18 representative enteroviruses: A (n = 7), B (n = 5), C (n = 5) and D (n = 1). We show that suramin potency is restricted to enterovirus A species. Clinical development of suramin is further supported by pharmacokinetic data demonstrating bioactive plasma levels after a single dose intramuscular administration in macaques. Altogether, our findings support the clinical development of suramin as a novel entry inhibitor for the treatment of enterovirus A infections. PMID:28218309

  19. Microwave irradiation induced modifications on the interfaces in SAN/EVA/PVC and PVAc/BPA/PVP ternary polymer blends: Positron lifetime study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinesh, Meghala; Chikkakuntappa, Ranganathaiah

    2013-09-01

    Ternary polymer blends of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(ethylene-co-vinylacetate)/poly(vinyl chloride) (SAN/EVA/PVC) and poly(vinyl acetate)/bisphenol A/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVAc/BPA/PVP) with different compositions have been prepared by solvent casting method and characterized by positron lifetime spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry DSC. Phase modifications have been induced by irradiating the blends with microwave radiation. These changes have been monitored by measuring the free-volume content in the blends. The results clearly show improved interactions between the constituent polymers of the blends upon microwave irradiation. However, the free-volume data and DSC measurements are found to be inadequate to reveal the changes at the interfaces and the interfaces determine the final properties of the blend. For this we have used hydrodynamic interaction (αij) approach developed by us to measure strength of hydrodynamic interaction at the interfaces. These results show that microwave irradiation stabilizes the interfaces if the blend contains strong polar groups. SAN/EVA/PVC blend shows an increased effective hydrodynamic interaction from -3.18 to -4.85 at composition 50/35/15 upon microwave irradiation and PVAc/BPA/PVP blend shows an increased effective hydrodynamic interaction from -3.81 to -7.57 at composition 20/50/30 after irradiation.

  20. Effect of TiO2-Crystal Forms on the Photo-Degradation of EVA/PLA Blend Under Accelerated Weather Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Cong, Do; Trang, Nguyen Thi Thu; Giang, Nguyen Vu; Lam, Tran Dai; Hoang, Thai

    2016-05-01

    Photo-degradation of poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA)/poly (lactic acid) (PLA) blend and EVA/PLA/TiO2 nanocomposites was carried out under accelerated weather testing conditions by alternating cycles of ultraviolet (UV) light and moisture at controlled and elevated temperatures. The characters, properties, and morphology of these materials before and after accelerated weather testing were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, colour changes, viscosity, tensile test, thermogravimetric analysis, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The increases in the content of oxygen-containing groups, colour changes; the decreases in viscosity, tensile properties, and thermal stability of these materials after accelerated weather testing are the evidence for the photo-degradation of the blend and nanocomposites. After accelerated weather testing, the appearance of many micro-holes and micro-pores on the surface of the collected samples was observed. The photo-degradation degree of the nanocomposites depended on the TiO2-crystal form. Rutile TiO2 do not enhance the degradation, but anatase and mixed crystals TiO2 nanoparticles promoted the degradation of the nanocomposites. Particularly, the mixed crystals TiO2 nanoparticles showed the highest photo-catalytic activity of the nanocomposites.

  1. A Simultaneous Analytical Method for Duplex Identification of Porcine and Horse in the Meat Products by EvaGreen based Real-time PCR

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assay for the detection of porcine and horse meat in sausages was designed by using EvaGreen fluorescent dye. Primers were selected from mitochondrial 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes which are powerful regions for identification of horse and porcine meat. DNA from reference samples and industrial products was successfully extracted using the GIDAGEN® Multi-Fast DNA Isolation Kit. Genomes were identified based on their specific melting peaks (Mp) which are 82.5℃ and 78℃ for horse and porcine, respectively. The assay used in this study allowed the detection of as little as 0.0001% level of horse meat and 0.001% level of porcine meat in the experimental admixtures. These findings indicate that EvaGreen based duplex real-time PCR is a potentially sensitive, reliable, rapid and accurate assay for the detection of meat species adulterated with porcine and horse meats. PMID:26761852

  2. Injury Risk Assessment of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Phase VI and Series 4000 Gloves During Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hand Manipulation Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilby, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Functional Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs) with high precision gloves are essential for the success of Extravehicular Activity (EVA). Previous research done at NASA has shown that total strength capabilities and performance are reduced when wearing a pressurized EMU. The goal of this project was to characterize the human-space suit glove interaction and assess the risk of injury during common EVA hand manipulation tasks, including pushing, pinching and gripping objects. A custom third generation sensor garment was designed to incorporate a combination of sensors, including force sensitive resistors, strain gauge sensors, and shear force sensors. The combination of sensors was used to measure the forces acting on the finger nails, finger pads, finger tips, as well as the knuckle joints. In addition to measuring the forces, data was collected on the temperature, humidity, skin conductance, and blood perfusion of the hands. Testing compared both the Phase VI and Series 4000 glove against an ungloved condition. The ungloved test was performed wearing the sensor garment only. The project outcomes identified critical landmarks that experienced higher workloads and are more likely to suffer injuries. These critical landmarks varied as a function of space suit glove and task performed. The results showed that less forces were acting on the hands while wearing the Phase VI glove as compared to wearing the Series 4000 glove. Based on our findings, the engineering division can utilize these methods for optimizing the current space suit glove and designing next generation gloves to prevent injuries and optimize hand mobility and comfort.

  3. A Simultaneous Analytical Method for Duplex Identification of Porcine and Horse in the Meat Products by EvaGreen based Real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Sakalar, Ergün; Ergün, Seyma Özçirak; Akar, Emine

    2015-01-01

    A duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assay for the detection of porcine and horse meat in sausages was designed by using EvaGreen fluorescent dye. Primers were selected from mitochondrial 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes which are powerful regions for identification of horse and porcine meat. DNA from reference samples and industrial products was successfully extracted using the GIDAGEN® Multi-Fast DNA Isolation Kit. Genomes were identified based on their specific melting peaks (Mp) which are 82.5℃ and 78℃ for horse and porcine, respectively. The assay used in this study allowed the detection of as little as 0.0001% level of horse meat and 0.001% level of porcine meat in the experimental admixtures. These findings indicate that EvaGreen based duplex real-time PCR is a potentially sensitive, reliable, rapid and accurate assay for the detection of meat species adulterated with porcine and horse meats.

  4. Extravehicular Activity Operations Concepts Under Communication Latency and Bandwidth Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaton, Kara H.; Chappell, Steven P.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Miller, Matthew J.; Nawotniak, Shannon Kobs; Hughes, Scott; Brady, Allyson; Lim, Darlene S. S.

    2017-01-01

    The Biologic Analog Science Associated with Lava Terrains (BASALT) project is a multi-year program dedicated to iteratively develop, implement, and evaluate concepts of operations (ConOps) and supporting capabilities intended to enable and enhance human scientific exploration of Mars. This pa-per describes the planning, execution, and initial results from the first field deployment, referred to as BASALT-1, which consisted of a series of 10 simulated extravehicular activities (EVAs) on volcanic flows in Idaho's Craters of the Moon (COTM) National Monument. The ConOps and capabilities deployed and tested during BASALT-1 were based on previous NASA trade studies and analog testing. Our primary research question was whether those ConOps and capabilities work acceptably when performing real (non-simulated) biological and geological scientific exploration under 4 different Mars-to-Earth communication conditions: 5 and 15 min one-way light time (OWLT) communication latencies and low (0.512 Mb/s uplink, 1.54 Mb/s downlink) and high (5.0 Mb/s uplink, 10.0 Mb/s downlink) bandwidth conditions representing the lower and higher limits of technical communication capabilities currently proposed for future human exploration missions. The synthesized results of BASALT-1 with respect to the ConOps and capabilities assessment were derived from a variety of sources, including EVA task timing data, network analytic data, and subjective ratings and comments regarding the scientific and operational acceptability of the ConOp and the extent to which specific capabilities were enabling and enhancing, and are presented here. BASALT-1 established preliminary findings that baseline ConOp, software systems, and communication protocols were scientifically and operationally acceptable with minor improvements desired by the "Mars" extravehicular (EV) and intravehicular (IV) crewmembers, but unacceptable with improvements required by the "Earth" Mission Support Center. These data will provide a

  5. Benefits of a Single-Person Spacecraft for Weightless Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brand Norman

    2012-01-01

    Historically, less than 20 percent of crew time related to extravehicular activity (EVA) is spent on productive external work. For planetary operations space suits are still the logical choice; however for safe and rapid access to the weightless environment, spacecraft offer compelling advantages. FlexCraft, a concept for a single-person spacecraft, enables any-time access to space for short or long excursions by different astronauts. For the International Space Station (ISS), going outside is time-consuming, requiring pre-breathing, donning a fitted space suit, and pumping down an airlock. For each ISS EVA this is between 12.5 and 16 hours. FlexCraft provides immediate access to space because it operates with the same cabin atmosphere as its host. Furthermore, compared to the space suit pure oxygen environment, a mixed gas atmosphere lowers the fire risk and allows use of conventional materials and systems. For getting to the worksite, integral propulsion replaces hand-over-hand translation or having another crew member operate the robotic arm. This means less physical exertion and more time at the work site. Possibly more important, in case of an emergency, FlexCraft can return from the most distant point on ISS in less than a minute. The one-size-fits-all FlexCraft means no on-orbit inventory of parts or crew time required to fit all astronauts. With a shirtsleeve cockpit, conventional displays and controls are used, there is no suit trauma and because the work is not strenuous, no rest days are required. Furthermore, there is no need to collect hand tools because manipulators are equipped with force multiplying end-effectors that can deliver the precise torque for the job. FlexCraft is an efficient solution for asteroid exploration allowing all crew to use one vehicle with no risk of contamination. And, because FlexCraft is a vehicle, its design offers better radiation and micro-meteoroid protection than space suits.

  6. Principles for Integrating Mars Analog Science, Operations, and Technology Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.

    2003-01-01

    During the Apollo program, the scientific community and NASA used terrestrial analog sites for understanding planetary features and for training astronauts to be scientists. Human factors studies (Harrison, Clearwater, & McKay 1991; Stuster 1996) have focused on the effects of isolation in extreme environments. More recently, with the advent of wireless computing, we have prototyped advanced EVA technologies for navigation, scheduling, and science data logging (Clancey 2002b; Clancey et al., in press). Combining these interests in a single expedition enables tremendous synergy and authenticity, as pioneered by Pascal Lee's Haughton-Mars Project (Lee 2001; Clancey 2000a) and the Mars Society s research stations on a crater rim on Devon Island in the High Canadian Arctic (Clancey 2000b; 2001b) and the Morrison Formation of southeast Utah (Clancey 2002a). Based on this experience, the following principles are proposed for conducting an integrated science, operations, and technology research program at analog sites: 1) Authentic work; 2) PI-based projects; 3) Unencumbered baseline studies; 4) Closed simulations; and 5) Observation and documentation. Following these principles, we have been integrating field science, operations research, and technology development at analog sites on Devon Island and in Utah over the past five years. Analytic methods include work practice simulation (Clancey 2002c; Sierhuis et a]., 2000a;b), by which the interaction of human behavior, facilities, geography, tools, and procedures are formalized in computer models. These models are then converted into the runtime EVA system we call mobile agents (Clancey 2002b; Clancey et al., in press). Furthermore, we have found that the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal (Jones, 1999) provides a vast repository or understanding astronaut and CapCom interactions, serving as a baseline for Mars operations and quickly highlighting opportunities for computer automation (Clancey, in press).

  7. Schwartz operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyl, M.; Kiukas, J.; Werner, R. F.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce Schwartz operators as a non-commutative analog of Schwartz functions and provide a detailed discussion of their properties. We equip them, in particular, with a number of different (but equivalent) families of seminorms which turns the space of Schwartz operators into a Fréchet space. The study of the topological dual leads to non-commutative tempered distributions which are discussed in detail as well. We show, in particular, that the latter can be identified with a certain class of quadratic forms, therefore making operations like products with bounded (and also some unbounded) operators and quantum harmonic analysis available to objects which are otherwise too singular for being a Hilbert space operator. Finally, we show how the new methods can be applied by studying operator moment problems and convergence properties of fluctuation operators.

  8. Eva & Rick's Incredible Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carner, Eva

    2006-01-01

    In 1982, the author became the foster mom to Rick, a small child who got a pretty rough start to life and an even rougher "pre" start. Rick's birth mother was addicted to alcohol and for most of his time in her womb she drank heavily. The author was a single, special education teacher, and worked with children with developmental…

  9. Robotic assembly and maintenance of future space stations based on the ISS mission operations experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rembala, Richard; Ower, Cameron

    2009-10-01

    MDA has provided 25 years of real-time engineering support to Shuttle (Canadarm) and ISS (Canadarm2) robotic operations beginning with the second shuttle flight STS-2 in 1981. In this capacity, our engineering support teams have become familiar with the evolution of mission planning and flight support practices for robotic assembly and support operations at mission control. This paper presents observations on existing practices and ideas to achieve reduced operational overhead to present programs. It also identifies areas where robotic assembly and maintenance of future space stations and space-based facilities could be accomplished more effectively and efficiently. Specifically, our experience shows that past and current space Shuttle and ISS assembly and maintenance operations have used the approach of extensive preflight mission planning and training to prepare the flight crews for the entire mission. This has been driven by the overall communication latency between the earth and remote location of the space station/vehicle as well as the lack of consistent robotic and interface standards. While the early Shuttle and ISS architectures included robotics, their eventual benefits on the overall assembly and maintenance operations could have been greater through incorporating them as a major design driver from the beginning of the system design. Lessons learned from the ISS highlight the potential benefits of real-time health monitoring systems, consistent standards for robotic interfaces and procedures and automated script-driven ground control in future space station assembly and logistics architectures. In addition, advances in computer vision systems and remote operation, supervised autonomous command and control systems offer the potential to adjust the balance between assembly and maintenance tasks performed using extra vehicular activity (EVA), extra vehicular robotics (EVR) and EVR controlled from the ground, offloading the EVA astronaut and even the robotic

  10. Desert RATS 2011: Near-Earth Asteroid Human Exploration Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, Andrew; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Chappel, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) 2011 field test involved the planning and execution of a series of exploration scenarios under operational conditions similar to those that would be expected during a human exploration mission to a near-Earth asteroid (NEA). The focus was on understanding the operations tempo during simulated NEA exploration and the implications of communications latency and limited data bandwidth. Anchoring technologies and sampling techniques were not evaluated due to the immaturity of those technologies and the inability to meaningfully test them at D-RATS. Reduced gravity analogs and simulations are being used to fully evaluate Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) and extravehicular (EVA) operations and interactions in near-weightlessness at a NEA as part of NASA s integrated analogs program. Hypotheses were tested by planning and performing a series of 1-day simulated exploration excursions comparing test conditions all of which involved a single Deep Space Habitat (DSH) and either zero, one, or two MMSEVs; three or four crewmembers; one of two different communications bandwidths; and a 100-second roundtrip communications latency between the field site and Houston. Excursions were executed at the Black Point Lava Flow test site with a Mission Control Center and Science Support Room at Johnson Space Center (JSC) being operated with 100-second roundtrip communication latency to the field. Crews were composed of astronauts and professional field geologists and teams of Mission Operations, Science, and Education & Public Outreach (EPO) experts also supported the mission simulations each day. Data were collected separately from the Crew, Mission Operations, Science, and EPO teams to assess the test conditions from multiple perspectives. For the operations tested, data indicates practically significant benefits may be realized by including at least one MMSEV and by including 4 versus 3 crewmembers in the NEA exploration

  11. Study on thermal properties and crystallization behavior of electron beam irradiated ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)/waste tyre dust (WTD) blends in the presence of polyethylene graft maleic anhydride (PEgMAH)

    SciTech Connect

    Ramli, Syuhada; Ahmad, S. H.; Ratnam, C. T.; Athirah, Nurul

    2013-11-27

    The aim of this article is to show the effects of the electron beam irradiation dose and presence of a compatibiliser on the thermal properties and crystallinity of EVA/WTD blends. The purpose of applying electron beam radiation with doses range 50 to 200 kGy and adding a compatibiliser was to enhance the compatibility of the studied blends and at the same time to investigate the possibility of using this technique in the process of recycling polymeric materials. As the compatibilisers, the polyethylene grafted maleic anhydride (PEgMAH) was utilized, they were added at the amounts of 1-5 phr respectively. The enhancement of thermal properties was accompanied by the following effects, discussed in this article: i) an irradiated EVA/WTD blend at 200kGy was found to improve the thermal properties of EVA, ii) the addition of PEgMAH in EVA/WTD blends and the subsequent irradiation allowed prevention of degradation mechanism. iii) the ΔH{sub f} and crystallinity percentage decrease at higher PEgMAH content.

  12. Study on thermal properties and crystallization behavior of electron beam irradiated ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)/waste tyre dust (WTD) blends in the presence of polyethylene graft maleic anhydride (PEgMAH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Syuhada; Ratnam, C. T.; Ahmad, S. H.; Athirah, Nurul

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this article is to show the effects of the electron beam irradiation dose and presence of a compatibiliser on the thermal properties and crystallinity of EVA/WTD blends. The purpose of applying electron beam radiation with doses range 50 to 200 kGy and adding a compatibiliser was to enhance the compatibility of the studied blends and at the same time to investigate the possibility of using this technique in the process of recycling polymeric materials. As the compatibilisers, the polyethylene grafted maleic anhydride (PEgMAH) was utilized, they were added at the amounts of 1-5 phr respectively. The enhancement of thermal properties was accompanied by the following effects, discussed in this article: i) an irradiated EVA/WTD blend at 200kGy was found to improve the thermal properties of EVA, ii) the addition of PEgMAH in EVA/WTD blends and the subsequent irradiation allowed prevention of degradation mechanism. iii) the ΔHf and crystallinity percentage decrease at higher PEgMAH content.

  13. International Space Station Medical Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is currently the leader, in conjunction with our Russian counterpart co-leads, of the Multilateral Medical Policy Board (MMPB), the Multilateral Medical Operations Panel (MMOP), which coordinates medical system support for International Space Station (ISS) crews, and the Multilateral Space Medicine Board (MSMB), which medically certifies all crewmembers for space flight on-board the ISS. These three organizations have representatives from NASA, RSA-IMBP (Russian Space Agency- Institute for Biomedical Problems), GCTC (Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center), ESA (European Space Agency), JAXA (Japanese Space Agency), and CSA (Canadian Space Agency). The policy and strategic coordination of ISS medical operations occurs at this level, and includes interactions with MMOP working groups in Radiation Health, Countermeasures, Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA), Informatics, Environmental Health, Behavioral Health and Performance, Nutrition, Clinical Medicine, Standards, Post-flight Activities and Rehabilitation, and Training. Each ISS Expedition has a lead Crew Surgeon from NASA and a Russian Crew Surgeon from GCTC assigned to the mission. Day-to-day issues are worked real-time by the flight surgeons and biomedical engineers (also called the Integrated Medical Group) on consoles at the MCC (Mission Control Center) in Houston and the TsUP (Center for Flight Control) in Moscow/Korolev. In the future, this may also include mission control centers in Europe and Japan, when their modules are added onto the ISS. Private medical conferences (PMCs) are conducted regularly and upon crew request with the ISS crew via private audio and video communication links from the biomedical MPSR (multipurpose support room) at MCC Houston. When issues arise in the day-to-day medical support of ISS crews, they are discussed and resolved at the SMOT (space medical operations team) meetings, which occur weekly among the International Partners. Any medical or life science issue that is not resolved at

  14. Business & Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with John D. Musso, executive director of the Association of School Business Officials (ASBO) International. Musso talks about trends and issues that will most affect school business and operations in 2007 and beyond. Despite the challenges facing school operations, he believes that the key to being successful at…

  15. Operational Amplifiers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxcroft, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the introduction of low cost equipment into high school and college physical science classes. Examines the properties of an "ideal" operational amplifier and discusses how it might be used under saturated and non-saturated conditions. Notes the action of a "real" operational amplifier. (TW)

  16. Corps Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-26

    Coordinates and synchronizes aviation operations. Coordinates and synchronizes space support. Provides terrain visualization and terrain...section acquires, manages, and distributes geospatial data and terrain visualization products to the CG and staff. This section includes imagery analysts...operations by integrating information from internal and external sources. The ABCS provides a COP using a common map set and database to present a visual

  17. Payload Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cissom, R. D.; Melton, T. L.; Schneider, M. P.; Lapenta, C. C.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide the future ISS scientist and/or engineer a sense of what ISS payload operations are expected to be. This paper uses a real-time operations scenario to convey this message. The real-time operations scenario begins at the initiation of payload operations and runs through post run experiment analysis. In developing this scenario, it is assumed that the ISS payload operations flight and ground capabilities are fully available for use by the payload user community. Emphasis is placed on telescience operations whose main objective is to enable researchers to utilize experiment hardware onboard the International Space Station as if it were located in their terrestrial laboratory. An overview of the Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) systems and user ground system options is included to provide an understanding of the systems and interfaces users will utilize to perform payload operations. Detailed information regarding POIC capabilities can be found in the POIC Capabilities Document, SSP 50304.

  18. Operating Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denning, Peter J.; Brown, Robert L.

    1984-01-01

    A computer operating system spans multiple layers of complexity, from commands entered at a keyboard to the details of electronic switching. In addition, the system is organized as a hierarchy of abstractions. Various parts of such a system and system dynamics (using the Unix operating system as an example) are described. (JN)

  19. Origins and Early History of Underwater Neutral Buoyancy Simulation of Weightlessness for EVA Procedures Development and Training. Part 2; Winnowing and Regrowth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.

    2013-01-01

    The technique of neutral buoyancy during water immersion was applied to a variety of questions pertaining to human performance factors in the early years of the space age. It was independently initiated by numerous aerospace contractors at nearly the same time, but specific applications depended on the problems that the developers were trying to solve. Those problems dealt primarily with human restraint and maneuverability and were often generic across extravehicular activity (EVA) and intravehicular activity (IVA) worksites. The same groups often also considered fractional gravity as well as weightless settings and experimented with ballasting to achieve lunar and Mars-equivalent loads as part of their on-going research and development. Dr. John Charles reviewed the association of those tasks with contemporary perceptions of the direction of NASA's future space exploration activities and with Air Force assessments of the military value of man in space.

  20. Association between different risk factors and vascular accelerated ageing (EVA study): study protocol for a cross-sectional, descriptive observational study

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A; Martinez-Salgado, Carlos; Gonzalez-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Hernandez-Rivas, Jesus Ma; Sanchez-Fernandez, Pedro L; Recio-Rodriguez, Jose I; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Emiliano; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The process of population ageing that is occurring in developed societies represents a major challenge for the health system. The aim of this study is to analyse factors that have an influence on early vascular ageing (EVA), estimated by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) and Cardio Ankle Vascular Index (CAVI), and to determine differences by gender in a Spanish population. Methods and analysis An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study. Study population From the population assigned to the participating healthcare centres, a cluster random sampling stratified by age and gender will be performed to obtain 500 participants aged between 35 and 75. Those who meet the inclusion criteria and give written informed consent will be included in the study. Measurements Main dependent variables: cf-PWV determined using the SphygmoCor System and CAVI estimated using VASERA. Secondary dependent variables: telomere length, carotid intima-media thickness, central and peripheral augmentation index, ankle-brachial pulse wave velocity, ankle-brachial index, retinal arteriovenous index, and renal and cardiac organ damage. Independent variables: lifestyles (physical activity, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, alcohol and tobacco consumption); psychological factors (depression, anxiety and chronic stress); inflammatory factors and oxidative stress. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the clinical research ethics committee of the healthcare area of Salamanca. All study participants will sign an informed consent form agreeing to participate in the study in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki and the WHO standards for observational studies. The results of this study will allow the understanding of the relationship of the different influencing factors and their relative weight in the development of EVA. At least 5 publications in first-quartile scientific journals are planned. Trial registration number NCT02623894; Pre