Science.gov

Sample records for evaluate cover system

  1. EVALUATION OF THE TEMPORARY TENT COVER TRUSS SYSTEM AP PRIMARY VENT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    HAQ MA

    2009-12-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to evaluate a temporary ten cover truss system. This system will be used to provide weather protection to the workers during replacement of the filter for the Primary Ventilation System in AP Tank Farm. The truss system has been fabricated utilizing tubes and couplers, which are normally used for scaffoldings.

  2. A RULE-BASED SYSTEM FOR EVALUATING FINAL COVERS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter examines how rules are used as a knowledge representation formalism in the domain of hazardous waste management. A specific example from this domain involves performance evaluation of final covers used to close hazardous waste landfills. Final cover design and associ...

  3. ETV REPORT & STATEMENT: EVALUATION OF THE KCH SERVICES, INC. AUTOMATED COVERED TANK SYSTEM FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    KCH Services, Inc. manufacturers a commercial-ready energy conserving automatic covered tank system for use in the metal finishing industry. The ACTSEC technology is a system designed to provide an efficient removal of air contaminants from the workplace at a reasonable cost and ...

  4. Graphical methods for evaluating covering arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Youngil; Jang, Dae -Heung; Anderson-Cook, Christine M.

    2015-08-10

    Covering arrays relax the condition of orthogonal arrays by only requiring that all combination of levels be covered but not requiring that the appearance of all combination of levels be balanced. This allows for a much larger number of factors to be simultaneously considered but at the cost of poorer estimation of the factor effects. To better understand patterns between sets of columns and evaluate the degree of coverage to compare and select between alternative arrays, we suggest several new graphical methods that show some of the patterns of coverage for different designs. As a result, these graphical methods for evaluating covering arrays are illustrated with a few examples.

  5. Regulatory guidance on soil cover systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, J.D.

    1991-12-31

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in September 1991, completed revisions to 14 sections of the Standard Review Plan (SRP) for the Review of a License Application for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility. The major purposes of the SRP are to ensure the quality and uniformity of the NRC staff`s safety reviews, and to present a well-defined base from which to evaluate the acceptability of information and data provided in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) portion of the license application. SRP 3.2, entitled, Design Considerations for Normal and Abnormal/Accident Conditions, was one of the sections that was revised by the NRC staff. This revision was completed to provide additional regulatory guidance on the important considerations that need to be addressed for the proper design and construction of soil cover systems that are to be placed over the LLW. The cover system over the waste is acknowledged to be one of the most important engineered barriers for the long-term stable performance of the disposal facility. The guidance in revised SRP 3.2 summarizes the previous efforts and recommendations of the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE), and a peer review panel on the placement of soil cover systems. NRC published these efforts in NUREG/CR-5432. The discussions in this paper highlight selected recommendations on soil cover issues that the NRC staff considers important for ensuring the safe, long-term performance of the soil cover systems. The development phases to be discussed include: (1) cover design; (2) cover material selection; (3) laboratory and field testing; (4) field placement control and acceptance; and (5) penetrations through the constructed covers.

  6. Evaluation of tropical legume cover crops for copper use efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are important components of cropping systems due to their role in improving soil quality. Lack of adequate levels of soil micronutrients prevent the success of cover crops in highly weathered tropical soils. A greenhouse experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate copper use ...

  7. Graphical methods for evaluating covering arrays

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kim, Youngil; Jang, Dae -Heung; Anderson-Cook, Christine M.

    2015-08-10

    Covering arrays relax the condition of orthogonal arrays by only requiring that all combination of levels be covered but not requiring that the appearance of all combination of levels be balanced. This allows for a much larger number of factors to be simultaneously considered but at the cost of poorer estimation of the factor effects. To better understand patterns between sets of columns and evaluate the degree of coverage to compare and select between alternative arrays, we suggest several new graphical methods that show some of the patterns of coverage for different designs. As a result, these graphical methods formore » evaluating covering arrays are illustrated with a few examples.« less

  8. 49 CFR 193.2167 - Covered systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Covered systems. 193.2167 Section 193.2167...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Impoundment Design and Capacity § 193.2167 Covered systems. A covered impounding system is prohibited except for concrete wall designed tanks where the concrete wall is an...

  9. Suitability of Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model of the US Environmental Protection Agency for the simulation of the water balance of landfill cover systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, K.; Melchior, S.; Miehlich, G.

    1996-12-01

    Cover systems are widely used to safeguard landfills and contaminated sites. The evaluation of the water balance is crucial for the design of landfill covers. The Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model of the US Environmental Protection Agency was developed for this purpose. This paper discusses some limitations of version 2 of this model and some operational difficulties for the use of this model in Germany, which has been developed for the United States. The model results are tested against field data of the water balance, measured on test fields on the Georgswerder landfill in Hamburg. Theoretically, HELP considers gravitational forces as driving forces of water flow only. Therefore capillary barriers cannot be simulated. Furthermore, the formation of and the flow through macropores are not considered, a main critical process that the diminishes the effectiveness of compacted soil liners. In the output comparison, the matching of measured and simulated data is quite good for lateral drainage, but failed for surface runoff and liner leakage through compacted soil liners. A further validation study is planned for HELP version 3 using a broader range of test field data.

  10. Estimating juniper cover from NAIP imagery and evaluating relationships between potential cover and environmental variables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juniper management is constrained by limited tools to estimate juniper cover and potential cover at stand closure across landscapes. We evaluated if remotely sensed imagery (NAIP) could be used to estimate juniper cover and if environmental characteristic could be used to determine potential junipe...

  11. An engineered cover system for mine tailings using a hardpan layer: a solidification/stabilization method for layer and field performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Joo Sung; Song, Hocheol; Yim, Gil-Jae; Ji, Sang Woo; Kim, Jae-Gon

    2011-12-15

    A cover system for mine tailings with a solidified layer (called an engineered hardpan) was developed in this study to reduce water infiltration, acid generation and sulfide oxidation. Hydrated lime and waterglass were used to produce calcium silicate, which can serve as a binder when constructing a hardpan layer. The compressive strength of each solidified/stabilized material was found to be sufficient in the lab, and the amounts of heavy metals were significantly reduced in chemical leaching tests. Various characteristics of tailings may affect the layer's mechanical strength early on, but a long curing period is capable of compensating for these effects. Heavy metals were stabilized as carbonate-bound phases and sulfide minerals were surrounded by calcium silicate matrix, thereby preventing further reaction. To evaluate the field performance of the system, a hardpan layer was installed on top of tailings on a pilot scale. Leachate with high salt content was generated in the tailings layer in the early stages of monitoring, but after approximately 6 months, the objective was achieved as the hardpan layer gradually stabilized. Notably, during the heavy rainfall season of the later monitoring stage, water infiltration was continuously prevented by the system. PMID:21974852

  12. Evaluation of concrete cover by surface wave technique: Identification procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piwakowski, Bogdan; Kaczmarek, Mariusz; Safinowski, Paweł

    2012-05-01

    Concrete cover degradation is induced by aggressive agents in ambiance, such as moisture, chemicals or temperature variations. Due to degradation usually a thin (a few millimeters thick) surface layer has porosity slightly higher than the deeper sound material. The non destructive evaluation of concrete cover is vital to monitor the integrity of concrete structures and prevent their irreversible damage. In this paper the methodology applied by the classical technique used for ground structure recovery called Multichanel Analysis of Surface Waves is discussed as the NDT tool in civil engineering domain to characterize the concrete cover. In order to obtain the velocity as a function of sample depth the dispersion of surface waves is used as an input for solving inverse problem. The paper describes the inversion procedure and provides the practical example of use of developed system.

  13. EVALUATING A FIBERGLASS ROLLER COVERING ON A ROLLER GIN STAND

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experimental roller covering, made from woven fiberglass, was tested on a roller gin stand to evaluate its ginning performance and effect on fiber quality. The experimental roller covering was much more aggressive than the standard covering; it ginned at twice the rate (2.4 vs. 1.2 bales per hour...

  14. Evaluation of organic cover crop termination methods: flame or fiction?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of winter cover crops is an integral component of organic vegetable systems. However, timely spring termination currently relies on tillage in most instances due to time constraints. Thus, the use of conservation practices in organic systems is usually disjointed with some tillage required betw...

  15. Shuttle landing facility cloud cover study: Climatological analysis and two tenths cloud cover rule evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atchison, Michael K.; Schumann, Robin; Taylor, Greg; Warburton, John; Wheeler, Mark; Yersavich, Ann

    1993-01-01

    The two-tenths cloud cover rule in effect for all End Of Mission (EOM) STS landings at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) states: 'for scattered cloud layers below 10,000 feet, cloud cover must be observed to be less than or equal to 0.2 at the de-orbit burn go/no-go decision time (approximately 90 minutes before landing time)'. This rule was designed to protect against a ceiling (below 10,000 feet) developing unexpectedly within the next 90 minutes (i.e., after the de-orbit burn decision and before landing). The Applied Meteorological Unit (AMU) developed and analyzed a database of cloud cover amounts and weather conditions at the Shuttle Landing Facility for a five-year (1986-1990) period. The data indicate the best time to land the shuttle at KSC is during the summer while the worst time is during the winter. The analysis also shows the highest frequency of landing opportunities occurs for the 0100-0600 UTC and 1300-1600 UTC time periods. The worst time of the day to land a shuttle is near sunrise and during the afternoon. An evaluation of the two-tenths cloud cover rule for most data categorizations has shown that there is a significant difference in the proportions of weather violations one and two hours subsequent to initial conditions of 0.2 and 0.3 cloud cover. However, for May, Oct., 700 mb northerly wind category, 1500 UTC category, and 1600 UTC category there is some evidence that the 0.2 cloud cover rule may be overly conservative. This possibility requires further investigation. As a result of these analyses, the AMU developed nomograms to help the Spaceflight Meteorological Group (SMG) and the Cape Canaveral Forecast Facility (CCFF) forecast cloud cover for EOM and Return to Launch Site (RTLS) at KSC. Future work will include updating the two tenths database, further analysis of the data for several categorizations, and developing a proof of concept artificial neural network to provide forecast guidance of weather constraint violations for shuttle

  16. Covering the Bases: Exploring Alternative Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Terri L.; Garcia, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1950s, the understanding of how the base 10 system works has been encouraged through alternative base systems (Price 1995; Woodward 2004). If high school students are given opportunities to learn other base systems and analyze what they denote, we believe that they will better understand the structure of base 10 and its operations…

  17. Cover crops in vegetable production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current vegetable production systems require an intensive amount Current vegetable production systems require an intensive amount of work and inputs, and if not properly managed could have detrimental effects on soil and the environment. Practices such as intensive tillage, increased herbicide use, ...

  18. MATCON MODIFIED ASPHALT COVER CONTAINMENT SYSTEM DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to make improvements to conventional paving asphalt to make it more suitable for containment applications, Wilder Construction Co. of Everett, WA offers MatCon, a polymer modified asphalt system comprised of proprietary binder, when coupled with a selected aggregate type...

  19. Incoherent systems and coverings in finite dimensional Banach spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Temlyakov, V N

    2014-05-31

    We discuss the construction of coverings of the unit ball of a finite dimensional Banach space. There is a well-known technique based on comparing volumes which gives upper and lower bounds on covering numbers. However, this technique does not provide a method for constructing good coverings. Here we study incoherent systems and apply them to construct good coverings. We use the following strategy. First, we build a good covering using balls with a radius close to one. Second, we iterate this construction to obtain a good covering for any radius. We shall concentrate mainly on the first step of this strategy. Bibliography: 14 titles.

  20. View of steel flume (Irving intake system) that is covered ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of steel flume (Irving intake system) that is covered with old flume stock, flattened to protect from debris, animals and daylight, and is supported by wood trestles, as it continues downhill toward the Irving Powerhouse. Truck in photo provides scale. Looking north - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Irving System, Intake System, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  1. Indicator Systems and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canright, Shelley; Grabowski, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    Participants in the workshop session were actively engaged in a hands-on, minds-on approach to learning about indicators and evaluation processes. The six hour session was broken down into three two hour sessions. Each session was built upon an instructional model which moved from general understanding to specific IITA application. Examples and practice exercises served to demonstrate tand reinforce the workshop concepts. Each successive session built upon the previous session and addressed the major steps in the evaluation process. The major steps covered in the workshop included: project descriptions, writing goals and objectives for categories, determining indicators and indicator systems for specific projects, and methods and issues of data collection. The workshop served as a baseline upon which the field centers will build during the summer in undertaking a comprehensive examination and evaluation of their existing K-12 education projects.

  2. Hydrologic modeling of soil water storage in landfill cover systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, F.J.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The accuracy of modeling soil water storage by two hydrologic models, CREAMS and HELP, was tested by comparing simulation results with field measurements of soil moisture in eight experimental landfill cover systems having a range of well-defined soil profiles and vegetative covers. Regression analysis showed that CREAMS generally represented soil moisture more accurately than HELP simulations. Soil profiles that more closely resembled natural agricultural soils were more accurately modeled than highly artificial layered soil profiles. Precautions for determining parameter values for model input and for interpreting simulation results are discussed.

  3. Evaluation of the cover cracking potential due to ground subsidence at UMTRA Project disposal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Claire, R.F.; Kuo, J.C.; Wanket, D.R.

    1994-03-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project requires that mill tailings, containing low-level radioactive uranium mill tailings and other waste, be stabilized and controlled by placement in an encapsulated disposal cell. The cover of the cell is a multi-layer system which includes a low-permeability earthen radon/infiltration barrier, a bedding layer, and a erosion protection layer. The radon/infiltration barrier is designed to limit the radon flux and reduce water infiltration. The performance criteria established by the US Environmental Protection Agency in 40 CFR 192 require the cover to be effective for up to 1000 years to the extent reasonably achievable, and in any case, for at least 200 years. One concern that would affect the integrity of the radon/infiltration barrier is the potential for cracking due to the post-construction settlement of underlying compressible materials. To investigate the potential of cover cracking for UMTRA disposal cells, a simplified beam analysis is used to determine the horizontal movements and strains due to the differential settlements at the top surface of a relatively incompressible layer (e.g. radon/infiltration barrier and compacted tailings). The potential of cover cracking is then evaluated by comparing the calculated horizontal tensile strains with the strains that will cause cracking of the cover for a given material.

  4. Evaluations of LIDAR reflectance amplitude sensitivity towards land cover conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Hiroyuki

    2006-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the characteristics of LIDAR intensity data for executing land cover classification. The quantitative and qualitative analyses, the LIDAR intensity feasibility for classification was discussed. The survey found that intensity is inversely proportional to angle and distance, though their relation did not agree with the theoretical model. The survey also found that intensity correction with distance and angle is not always applicable, the effect of correction is not significant, and consequently raw intensity value usage is justified. We conclude that some land cover and building materials were separable with intensity data. Old asphalt and grass were separable though cement, slate & zinc, brick, and trees were not easy to recognize. Soil, gravel, and grass could be distinguishable each other.

  5. Evaluation of space SAR as a land-cover classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brisco, B.; Ulaby, F. T.; Williams, T. H. L.

    1985-01-01

    The multidimensional approach to the mapping of land cover, crops, and forests is reported. Dimensionality is achieved by using data from sensors such as LANDSAT to augment Seasat and Shuttle Image Radar (SIR) data, using different image features such as tone and texture, and acquiring multidate data. Seasat, Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-A), and LANDSAT data are used both individually and in combination to map land cover in Oklahoma. The results indicates that radar is the best single sensor (72% accuracy) and produces the best sensor combination (97.5% accuracy) for discriminating among five land cover categories. Multidate Seasat data and a single data of LANDSAT coverage are then used in a crop classification study of western Kansas. The highest accuracy for a single channel is achieved using a Seasat scene, which produces a classification accuracy of 67%. Classification accuracy increases to approximately 75% when either a multidate Seasat combination or LANDSAT data in a multisensor combination is used. The tonal and textural elements of SIR-A data are then used both alone and in combination to classify forests into five categories.

  6. Assessment of Performance for Alternative Cover Systems on a Waste Rock Storage Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argunhan, C.; Yazicigil, H.

    2015-12-01

    A cover is usually applied to the top of the mining wastes to prevent exposure of sulphide minerals in the waste to water and oxygen ingress in order to mitigate the unwanted consequences such as acid rock drainage. Hence, the selection and design of the appropriate cover system by considering the climatic conditions, local unsaturated and saturated properties and the availability of the cover materials become an important issue. This study aims to investigate the performance of various cover systems and designs for the North Waste Rock Storage Area in Kışladağ Gold Mine located in Uşak in Western Turkey. SEEP/W and VADOSE/W softwares are used to model the flow in unsaturated and saturated zones and to assess the performance of various cover systems. The soil water characteristics and parameters used in the model for saturated and unsaturated conditions were taken from field tests and literature. Accuracy of input data is checked during calibration for steady state conditions with SEEP/W. Then, bedrock, waste rock and cover alternatives are modeled under transient conditions for 20 years using daily climatic data. The effectiveness of the various cover systems for minimizing the ingress of water and air that cause acid rock drainage is evaluated and recommendations are made so that the impacts to groundwater from the waste rock storage areas during closure period are minimized.

  7. The Role of Terrestrial Snow Cover in the Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavrus, S. J.

    2005-12-01

    Snow cover is known to exert a strong influence on the overlying atmosphere and underlying soil, but quantifying this impact is difficult. Besides its well-accepted ability to cool locally, snow cover can also force climate remotely in complex ways by inducing changes in the atmospheric circulation. Most research on the impact of snow cover has focused on the regional rather than global scale. By contrast, this study investigates the global impact of terrestrial snow cover in the present climate by comparing a pair of Community Climate System Model (CCSM3) simulations run with prognostic snow cover (control case) and with all snow cover on land eliminated (NOSNOWCOVER). In this experiment all snowfall over land was converted into liquid water-equivalent upon reaching the surface. Compared with the control run, NOSNOWCOVER produces mean-annual surface air temperatures up to 5 K higher over northern North America and Eurasia and 8 to 9 K greater in these regions during winter. The global-mean warming of 0.8 K in NOSNOWCOVER is nearly 1/3 as large as the simulated 2 x CO2 response. This pronounced surface heating dramatically increases geopotential heights throughout the troposphere: annual increases of up to 50 m occur at the 250 hPa level, along with even larger inflations during winter. Despite the large surface warming, the absence of an insulating snow pack causes soil temperatures in NOSNOWCOVER to fall throughout northern Asia and Canada, including extreme wintertime cooling of more than 20 K in Siberia and a 5 to 10o equatorward expansion of simulated permafrost. The absence of local melt-water percolation causes significantly drier soils over northern boreal regions and a consequent decrease in cloudiness. The removal of snow cover also drastically affects extreme weather in middle latitudes. Extreme cold-air outbreaks (CAOs), defined relative to the control simulation, essentially disappear in NOSNOWCOVER. The loss of CAOs appears to stem from both the local

  8. Evaluation of wavelength groups for discrimination of agricultural cover types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, R.

    1978-01-01

    Multispectral scanner data in twelve spectral channels, in the wavelength range 0.46 to 11.7 microns, acquired in July, 1971, for three flightlines, were analyzed by applying automatic pattern recognition techniques. These twelve spectral channels were divided into four wavelength groups (W1, W2, W3 and W4), each consisting of three wavelength groups - with respect to their estimated probability of correct classification (Pc) - in discriminating agricultural cover types. The same analysis was also done for the data acquired in August, to investigate the effect of time on these results. The effect of deletion of each of the wavelength groups on Pc, in the subsets of one to nine channels, is given. Values of Pc for all possible combinations of wavelength groups, in the subsets of one to eleven channels, are also given.

  9. Symbiotic performance of herbaceous legumes in tropical cover cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Ibewiro, B; Onuh, M; Sanginga, N; Bernard, V; Merckx, R

    2001-11-10

    Increasing use of herbaceous legumes such as mucuna ( Mucuna pruriens var. utilis [Wright] Bruck) and lablab ( Lablab purpureus [L.] Sweet) in the derived savannas of West Africa can be attributed to their potential to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2). The effects of management practices on N2 fixation in mucuna and lablab were examined using 15N isotope dilution technique. Dry matter yield of both legumes at 12 weeks was two to five times more in in situ mulch (IM) than live mulch (LM) systems. Land Equivalent Ratios, however, showed 8 to 30% more efficient utilization of resources required for biomass production under LM than IM systems. Live mulching reduced nodule numbers in the legumes by one third compared to values in the IM systems. Similarly, nodule mass was reduced by 34 to 58% under LM compared to the IM systems. The proportion of fixed N2 in the legumes was 18% higher in LM than IM systems. Except for inoculated mucuna, the amounts of N fixed by both legumes were greater in IM than LM systems. Rhizobia inoculation of the legumes did not significantly increase N2 fixation compared to uninoculated plots. Application of N fertilizer reduced N2 fixed in the legumes by 36 to 51% compared to inoculated or uninoculated systems. The implications of cover cropping, N fertilization, and rhizobia inoculation on N contributions of legumes into tropical low-input systems were discussed. PMID:12805778

  10. System for reducing heat losses from indoor swimming pools by use of automatic covers. Report No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-25

    This is a progress report for the period October 1, 1993 through March 31, 1994, for a project to develop cover systems for indoor swimming pools with the objective of reducing energy consumption. Effort has included evaluation of cover materials, development of brakes to tension deployment ropes, better limit of motion switches, reel systems, drive systems for the take up spool, and drive tensioning systems.

  11. EBR-II Cover Gas Cleanup System upgrade distributed control and front end computer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.B.

    1992-05-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) Cover Gas Cleanup System (CGCS) control system was upgraded in 1991 to improve control and provide a graphical operator interface. The upgrade consisted of a main control computer, a distributed control computer, a front end input/output computer, a main graphics interface terminal, and a remote graphics interface terminal. This paper briefly describes the Cover Gas Cleanup System and the overall control system; gives reasons behind the computer system structure; and then gives a detailed description of the distributed control computer, the front end computer, and how these computers interact with the main control computer. The descriptions cover both hardware and software.

  12. EBR-II Cover Gas Cleanup System upgrade distributed control and front end computer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) Cover Gas Cleanup System (CGCS) control system was upgraded in 1991 to improve control and provide a graphical operator interface. The upgrade consisted of a main control computer, a distributed control computer, a front end input/output computer, a main graphics interface terminal, and a remote graphics interface terminal. This paper briefly describes the Cover Gas Cleanup System and the overall control system; gives reasons behind the computer system structure; and then gives a detailed description of the distributed control computer, the front end computer, and how these computers interact with the main control computer. The descriptions cover both hardware and software.

  13. Re-evaluating estimates of impervious cover and riparian zone condition in New England watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under EPA’s Green Infrastructure Initiative, research activities are underway to evaluate the effectiveness of green infrastructure in mitigating the effects of urbanization and stormwater impacts on stream biota and habitat. Preliminary analyses, using impervious cover es...

  14. The Use of Cover Crops as Climate-Smart Management in Midwest Cropping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basche, A.; Miguez, F.; Archontoulis, S.; Kaspar, T.

    2014-12-01

    institutions established to evaluate how conservation practices, including cover crops, improve the resilience of Midwest agriculture to future change. Such collaborations can help better quantify long term impacts of conservation practices on the landscape that ultimately lead to more climate-smart management of such agricultural systems.

  15. Comparison and evaluation of five global land cover datasets for Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Espinoza, E. D.; Zavala-Hidalgo, J.; Gómez-Ramos, O.; Osorio-Tai, M. E.; Romero-Centeno, R.

    2013-05-01

    A comparison and evaluation of five global and continental land use and land cover datasets was carried out over Mexico. The analysis includes the IGBP-DISCover1993 map, version 1.2, produced by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC); the GLC2000 map, produced by the JRC in collaboration with 30 institutions; the NALCMS2005 map, produced by a collaborative effort of governmental agencies in Canada, Mexico and the United States coordinated by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC); and the 2005 and 2009 GLOBCOVER maps, produced by the ESA-GlobCover (European Space Agency) project. Since the five datasets differ in map projection, resolution and legend system, a step of standardization was performed. The analysis shows that all databases have an agreement of 16.82% for the Mexican territory. The classes with a better agreement in all datasets are evergreen broadleaf forest in the Yucatán peninsula, the urban and built land in the center of the country and shrubland in the north. Moreover, the quantitative assessment showed that classification accuracy obtained by NALCMS2005 is the highest compared to the other four analyzed maps, the GLOBCOVER2005 land cover map ranked second, while the GLC2000 and IGBP-DISCover1993 maps ranked third. GLOBCOVER2009 is the map that more poorly describes the Mexican land use and land cover. In general, this analysis shows that a dataset does not represent a region more accurately by the fact of being the most recently created, so it is recommended to carry out regional reviews in order to deciding which dataset is more useful.

  16. Black oat cover crop management in watermelon production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb.) were sown as a cover crop near Weslaco, Texas (Lat. 26 deg N) in Fall 2010. The cover crop was allowed to senesce naturally and was planted to watermelons in both the spring and in the fall of 2011. Watermelon transplants planted in the spring into mowed black o...

  17. The role of ERTS in the establishment and of a nationwide land cover information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abram, P.; Tullos, J.

    1974-01-01

    The economic potential of utilizing an ERTS type satellite in the development, updating, and maintenance of a nation-wide land cover information system in the post-1977 time frame was examined. Several alternative acquisition systems were evaluated for land cover data acquisition, processing, and interpretation costs in order to determine, on a total life cycle cost basis, under which conditions of user demand (i.e., area of coverage, frequency of coverage, timeliness of information, and level of information detail) an ERTS type satellite would be cost effective, and what the annual cost savings benefits would be. It was concluded that a three satellite system with high and low altitude aircraft and ground survey team utilizing automatic interpretation and classification techniques is an economically sound proposal.

  18. Evaluation of the Biodurability of Polyurethane-Covered Stent Using a Flow Phantom

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Choi, Jung Ryul; Byun, Ju Nam; Kim, Young Chul; Ahn, Young Moo

    2001-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the biodurability of the covering material in retrievable metallic stents covered with polycarbonate polyurethane. Materials and Methods Using a peristaltic pump at a constant rate of 1ml/min, bile was recirculated from a reservoir through a long tube containing four stents. Each of these was removed from the system every two weeks and a radial tensile strength test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed. Each stent, removed at 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks, was compared with a control stent not exposed to bile juice. Results Gross examination showed that stents were intact at 2 weeks, but at 4, 6 and 8 weeks cracks were observed. The size of these increased gradually in accordance with the duration of exposure, and at 8 weeks several large holes in the polyurethane membrane were evident. With regard to radial tensile strength, extension and peak load at break were 84.47% and 10.030 N/mm, 54.90% and 6.769 N/mm, 16.55% and 2.452 N/mm, 11.21% and 1.373 N/mm at 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy at 2 weeks revealed intermittent pitting and cracking, and examination at 4, 6 and 8 weeks showed that the size of these defects was gradually increasing. Conclusion When the polyurethane membrane was exposed to bile, biodegradation was first observed at week two and increased gradually according to the duration of exposure. PMID:11752974

  19. Experimental evaluation of the net "Dallop" covered with collagen as the dural substitute.

    PubMed

    Harat, M; Radek, A; Koktysz, R; Kulig, A

    1989-01-01

    Evaluation of the usefulness of the net "Dallop" produced by Tricomed Lódź covered with collagen to the dural defects reparation was analysed. This new original product of Lódź Technical University was compared with widely used in neurosurgery "Zenoderm" produced by Ethicon and "Duratexol" produced by Czechoslovakia. The trial was conducted on 38 rabbits: 4 as a control group (just an original dura sutured after incision with Mersilk Ethicon sutures), 19 with implanted the net "Dallop" covered with collagen, 11 with the "Zenoderm" and 4 with the "Duratexol". Animals were sacrificed after 3, 14, 30 or 90 days after surgery. There were no significant differences between all analysed groups in clinical, macroscopical and morphological investigations. No negative local reactions in histopathological evaluation of the net "Dallop" covered with collagen were observed. The results of our investigations show that the net "Dallop" covered with collagen seems to be the "Zenoderm" and the "Duratexol" dural substitute.

  20. Evaluation of forest cover estimates for Haiti using supervised classification of Landsat data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churches, Christopher E.; Wampler, Peter J.; Sun, Wanxiao; Smith, Andrew J.

    2014-08-01

    This study uses 2010-2011 Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery to estimate total forested area in Haiti. The thematic map was generated using radiometric normalization of digital numbers by a modified normalization method utilizing pseudo-invariant polygons (PIPs), followed by supervised classification of the mosaicked image using the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations Land Cover Classification System. Classification results were compared to other sources of land-cover data produced for similar years, with an emphasis on the statistics presented by the FAO. Three global land cover datasets (GLC2000, Globcover, 2009, and MODIS MCD12Q1), and a national-scale dataset (a land cover analysis by Haitian National Centre for Geospatial Information (CNIGS)) were reclassified and compared. According to our classification, approximately 32.3% of Haiti's total land area was tree covered in 2010-2011. This result was confirmed using an error-adjusted area estimator, which predicted a tree covered area of 32.4%. Standardization to the FAO's forest cover class definition reduces the amount of tree cover of our supervised classification to 29.4%. This result was greater than the reported FAO value of 4% and the value for the recoded GLC2000 dataset of 7.0%, but is comparable to values for three other recoded datasets: MCD12Q1 (21.1%), Globcover (2009) (26.9%), and CNIGS (19.5%). We propose that at coarse resolutions, the segmented and patchy nature of Haiti's forests resulted in a systematic underestimation of the extent of forest cover. It appears the best explanation for the significant difference between our results, FAO statistics, and compared datasets is the accuracy of the data sources and the resolution of the imagery used for land cover analyses. Analysis of recoded global datasets and results from this study suggest a strong linear relationship (R2 = 0.996 for tree cover) between spatial resolution and land cover estimates.

  1. An Investigation of the Potential for a Computer-based Tutorial Program Covering the Cardiovascular System to Replace Traditional Lectures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewhurst, D. G.; Williams, A. D.

    1998-01-01

    Presents the results of a comparative study to evaluate the effectiveness of two interactive computer-based learning (CBL) programs, covering the cardiovascular system, as an alternative to lectures for first year undergraduate students at a United Kingdom University. Discusses results in relation to the design of evaluative studies and the future…

  2. Multi-well sample plate cover penetration system

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2011-12-27

    An apparatus for penetrating a cover over a multi-well sample plate containing at least one individual sample well includes a cutting head, a cutter extending from the cutting head, and a robot. The cutting head is connected to the robot wherein the robot moves the cutting head and cutter so that the cutter penetrates the cover over the multi-well sample plate providing access to the individual sample well. When the cutting head is moved downward the foil is pierced by the cutter that splits, opens, and folds the foil inward toward the well. The well is then open for sample aspiration but has been protected from cross contamination.

  3. Target Evaluation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenden, Dan

    The Instructor and Course Evaluation System (ICES) is a computer-based system for obtaining student ratings of instructors and courses. To use ICES, an instructor will choose 23 evaluative items from an item catalog. These items are then printed on a standard form. Students respond to these items using a five position scale. On the back of the…

  4. [Land use and land cover charnge (LUCC) and landscape service: Evaluation, mapping and modeling].

    PubMed

    Song, Zhang-jian; Cao, Yu; Tan, Yong-zhong; Chen, Xiao-dong; Chen, Xian-peng

    2015-05-01

    Studies on ecosystem service from landscape scale aspect have received increasing attention from researchers all over the world. Compared with ecosystem scale, it should be more suitable to explore the influence of human activities on land use and land cover change (LUCC), and to interpret the mechanisms and processes of sustainable landscape dynamics on landscape scale. Based on comprehensive and systematic analysis of researches on landscape service, this paper firstly discussed basic concepts and classification of landscape service. Then, methods of evaluation, mapping and modeling of landscape service were analyzed and concluded. Finally, future trends for the research on landscape service were proposed. It was put forward that, exploring further connotation and classification system of landscape service, improving methods and quantitative indicators for evaluation, mapping and modelling of landscape service, carrying out long-term integrated researches on landscape pattern-process-service-scale relationships and enhancing the applications of theories and methods on landscape economics and landscape ecology are very important fields of the research on landscape service in future.

  5. Evaluation of cover crop and reduced cultivation for reducing nitrate leaching in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Hooker, K V; Coxon, C E; Hackett, R; Kirwan, L E; O'Keeffe, E; Richards, K G

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate (NO(3)) loss from arable systems to surface and groundwater has attracted considerable attention in recent years in Ireland. Little information exists under Irish conditions, which are wet and temperate, on the effects of winter cover crops and different tillage techniques on NO(3) leaching. This study investigated the efficacy of such practices in reducing NO(3) leaching from a spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) system in the Barrow River valley, southeast Ireland. The study compared the effect of two tillage systems (plow-based tillage and noninversion tillage) and two over-winter alternatives (no vegetative cover and a mustard cover crop) on soil solution NO(3) concentrations at 90 cm depth over two winter drainage seasons (2003/04 and 2004/05). Soil samples were taken and analyzed for inorganic N. During both years of the study, the use of a mustard cover crop significantly reduced NO(3) losses for the plowed and reduced cultivation treatments. Mean soil solution NO(3) concentrations were between 38 and 70% lower when a cover crop was used, and total N load lost over the winter was between 18 and 83% lower. Results from this study highlight the importance of drainage volume and winter temperatures on NO(3) concentrations in soil solution and overall N load lost. It is suggested that cover crops will be of particular value in reducing NO(3) loss in temperate regions with mild winters, where winter N mineralization is important and high winter temperatures favor a long growing season.

  6. Evaluation of native bees as pollinators of cucurbit crops under floating row covers.

    PubMed

    Minter, Logan M; Bessin, Ricardo T

    2014-10-01

    Production of cucurbit crops presents growers with numerous challenges. Several severe pests and diseases can be managed through the use of rotation, trap cropping, mechanical barriers, such as row covers, and chemical applications. However, considerations must also be made for pollinating insects, as adequate pollination affects the quantity and quality of fruit. Insecticides may negatively affect pollinators; a concern enhanced in recent years due to losses in managed Apis melifera L. colonies. Row covers can be used in place of chemical control before pollination, but when removed, pests have access to fields along with the pollinators. If pollination services of native bees could be harnessed for use under continuous row covers, both concerns could be balanced for growers. The potential of two bee species which specialize on cucurbit flowers, Peponapis pruinosa Say and Xenoglossa strenua Cresson, were assessed under continuous row covers, employed over acorn squash. Experimental treatments included plots with either naturally or artificially introduced bees under row covers and control plots with row covers either permanently removed at crop flowering, or employed continuously with no added pollinating insects. Pests in plots with permanently removed row covers were managed using standard practices used in certified organic production. Marketable yields from plots inoculated with bees were indistinguishable from those produced under standard practices, indicating this system would provide adequate yields to growers without time and monetary inputs of insecticide applications. Additionally, application of this technique was investigated for muskmelon production and discussed along with considerations for farm management. PMID:25199100

  7. Evaluation of native bees as pollinators of cucurbit crops under floating row covers.

    PubMed

    Minter, Logan M; Bessin, Ricardo T

    2014-10-01

    Production of cucurbit crops presents growers with numerous challenges. Several severe pests and diseases can be managed through the use of rotation, trap cropping, mechanical barriers, such as row covers, and chemical applications. However, considerations must also be made for pollinating insects, as adequate pollination affects the quantity and quality of fruit. Insecticides may negatively affect pollinators; a concern enhanced in recent years due to losses in managed Apis melifera L. colonies. Row covers can be used in place of chemical control before pollination, but when removed, pests have access to fields along with the pollinators. If pollination services of native bees could be harnessed for use under continuous row covers, both concerns could be balanced for growers. The potential of two bee species which specialize on cucurbit flowers, Peponapis pruinosa Say and Xenoglossa strenua Cresson, were assessed under continuous row covers, employed over acorn squash. Experimental treatments included plots with either naturally or artificially introduced bees under row covers and control plots with row covers either permanently removed at crop flowering, or employed continuously with no added pollinating insects. Pests in plots with permanently removed row covers were managed using standard practices used in certified organic production. Marketable yields from plots inoculated with bees were indistinguishable from those produced under standard practices, indicating this system would provide adequate yields to growers without time and monetary inputs of insecticide applications. Additionally, application of this technique was investigated for muskmelon production and discussed along with considerations for farm management.

  8. Annotated bibliography covering generation and use of evaluated cross section uncertainty files

    SciTech Connect

    Peelle, R.W.; Burrows, T.W.

    1983-03-01

    Literature references related to definition, generation, and use of evaluated cross section uncertainty (variance-covariance) files are listed with comments intended primarily to guide the reader toward materials of immediate interest. Papers are also cited that cover covariance information for individual experiments and that relate to production and use of multigroup covariance matrices. Titles are divided among several major categories.

  9. Assessment of cover systems at the Grand Junction, Colorado, uranium mill tailings pile: 1987 field measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, G.W.; Campbell, M.D.; Freeman, H.D.; Cline, J.F.

    1989-02-01

    Four Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) scientists and a technician conducted an onsite evaluation of radon gas exhalation, water content profiles, and plant and animal intrusion for a series of cover systems located on the uranium mill tailings pile at Grand Junction, Colorado. These six plots were sampled extensively down to the radon control layer (e.g., asphalt or wet clay) for soil moisture content and permeability. Radon gas emission through the surface was measured. Soil samples were collected and analyzed in the lab for particle-size distribution, particle density, bulk density, and ambient water content. Prairie dog burrows were excavated to discover the extent to which they penetrated the barriers. Plant type, density, and cover characteristics were measured.

  10. Evaluation of the application of dry covers over carbonate-rich sulphide tailings.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jimnei; Alakangas, Lena; Jia, Yu; Gotthardsson, Jenny

    2013-01-15

    In this study, four ten years test areas with covered tailings were geochemically evaluated. Three areas were covered with a fly ash and an overlying sludge layer, and one only with a sludge cover, originating from paper mills. The accumulation of As, Fe and Pb in sludge layers, originating from air-borne dust and the depletion of K, Na and P from both cover layers were observed. High release of elements from tailings was observed in the comparison profile due to oxidation and weathering of tailings. In only sludge covered area, the leaching of elements from tailings decreased. In the profiles with thin ash (20 cm and 30 cm), most elements were retained in tailings with pH 7-9. In the profile with the thickest ash (50 cm), elements such as As, Cd, Cu, Mg, Mn, Pb, S and Zn were depleted in the uppermost tailings with pH above 11 and retained deeper in the zone with pH 7-8, which implied that large quantities of fly ash increased the oxidation and weathering of tailings and mobility of elements. Elements excluding K, never reached the groundwater in high concentrations in the covered areas, while the comparison area had high Ca, K, Mn and S concentrations.

  11. Evaluating cover depth of steel fiber reinforced concrete using impact-echo testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Feng

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to estimate of the cover depth of steel fiber reinforced concrete using the impact-echo testing. In order to evaluate the security of the construction, usually need to estimate the cover depth of the reinforced concrete. At present, the examination technique of the cover depth of the reinforced concrete without the steel fiber is mainly applied in the magnetic and electrical methods, its rapid detection and good results. But the research of the reactive powder concrete be gradually progress, with the steel fiber concrete structure will be increased, if should still operate the examination with the magnetic and electrical methods, theoretically the steel fiber will have the interference to its electromagnetism field. Therefore, this research designs four kinds of reinforced concrete plate that include different steel fiber contents, to evaluate test results of estimate of the cover depth of the reinforcing bar. The results showed that: estimate of the cover depth of steel fiber reinforced concrete reinforcing bar using the impact-echo testing, the variety of the steel fiber content does not have much influence, the test measurement error within ± 10%, and the most important source of uncertainty is the velocity of concrete.

  12. Evaluation of solar cell covers and encapsulant materials for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of space radiation (electrons and protons), vacuum, and thermal cycling on a variety of solar cell covers are investigated. Cover materials evaluated include glass resins, 2 mil glass applied with adhesives or electrostatically bonded, and thin plastic films of FEP or PFA applied with adhesive. Solar cells were exposed to environmental conditions simulating those encountered in outer space. These test conditions include 1 MeV electrons, 0.5 MeV protons, and thermal cycling in vacuum. During testing the solar cells were monitored for variations in electrical characteristics and structural changes.

  13. Evaluation of engineering properties for the use of leached brown coal ash in soil covers.

    PubMed

    Mudd, Gavin M; Chakrabarti, Srijib; Kodikara, Jayantha

    2007-01-31

    The need to engineer cover systems for the successful rehabilitation or remediation of a wide variety of solid wastes is increasing. Some common applications include landfills, hazardous waste repositories, or mine tailings dams and waste rock/overburden dumps. The brown coal industry of the Latrobe Valley region of Victoria, Australia, produces significant quantities of coal ash and overburden annually. There are some site-specific acid mine drainage (AMD) issues associated with overburden material. This needs to be addressed both during the operational phase of a project and during rehabilitation. An innovative approach was taken to investigate the potential to use leached brown coal ash in engineered soil covers on this overburden dump. The basis for this is two-fold: first, the ash has favourable physical characteristics for use in cover systems (such as high storage capacity/porosity, moderately low permeability, and an ability to act as a capillary break layer generating minimal leachate or seepage); and second, the leachate from the ash is mildly alkaline (which can help to mitigate and reduce the risk of AMD). This paper will review the engineering issues involved in using leached brown coal ash in designing soil covers for potentially acid-forming overburden dumps. It presents the results of laboratory work investigating the technical feasibility of using leached brown coal ash in engineered solid waste cover systems.

  14. 10 CFR 1304.115 - Systems of records covered by exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systems of records covered by exemptions. 1304.115 Section 1304.115 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.115 Systems of records covered by exemptions. The Board currently has no exempt systems of records....

  15. 10 CFR 1304.115 - Systems of records covered by exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Systems of records covered by exemptions. 1304.115 Section 1304.115 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.115 Systems of records covered by exemptions. The Board currently has no exempt systems of records....

  16. 10 CFR 1304.115 - Systems of records covered by exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Systems of records covered by exemptions. 1304.115 Section 1304.115 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.115 Systems of records covered by exemptions. The Board currently has no exempt systems of records....

  17. 10 CFR 1304.115 - Systems of records covered by exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Systems of records covered by exemptions. 1304.115 Section 1304.115 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.115 Systems of records covered by exemptions. The Board currently has no exempt systems of records....

  18. 10 CFR 1304.115 - Systems of records covered by exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Systems of records covered by exemptions. 1304.115 Section 1304.115 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.115 Systems of records covered by exemptions. The Board currently has no exempt systems of records....

  19. Effectiveness Evaluation of Skin Covers against Intravascular Brachytherapy Sources Using VARSKIN3 Code

    PubMed Central

    Baghani, H R; Nazempour, A R; Aghamiri, S M R; Hosseini Daghigh, S M; Mowlavi, A A

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: The most common intravascular brachytherapy sources include 32P, 188Re, 106Rh and 90Sr/90Y. In this research, skin absorbed dose for different covering materials in dealing with these sources were evaluated and the best covering material for skin protection and reduction of absorbed dose by radiation staff was recognized and recommended. Method: Four materials including polyethylene, cotton and two different kinds of plastic were proposed as skin covers and skin absorbed dose at different depths for each kind of the materials was calculated separately using the VARSKIN3 code. Results: The results suggested that for all sources, skin absorbed dose was minimized when using polyethylene. Considering this material as skin cover, maximum and minimum doses at skin surface were related to 90Sr/90Y and 106Rh, respectively. Conclusion: polyethylene was found the most effective cover in reducing skin dose and protecting the skin. Furthermore, proper agreement between the results of VARSKIN3 and other experimental measurements indicated that VRASKIN3 is a powerful tool for skin dose calculations when working with beta emitter sources. Therefore, it can be utilized in dealing with the issue of radiation protection. PMID:25505758

  20. An Evaluation of New High-Resolution Image Collection and Processing Techniques for Estimating Shrub Cover and Detecting Landscape Changes

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, D.J.; Ostler, W.K.

    2001-05-01

    Research funded by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as part of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) evaluated novel techniques for collecting and processing high-resolution images in the Mojave Desert. Several camera types, lens, films, and digital processing techniques were evaluated on the basis of their ability to correctly estimate canopy cover of shrubs. A high degree of accuracy was obtained with photo scales of 1:1000 to 1:4000 and flatbed scanning rates from films or prints of 300 lines per inch or larger. Smaller scale images were of value in detecting retrospective changes in cover of large shrubs, but failed to detect smaller shrubs. New image-processing software, typically used in light microscopy, forensics, and industrial engineering, make it possible to accurately measure areas for total cover of up to four dominant shrub species in minutes compared to hours or days of field work. Canopy cover and individual shrub parameters such as width, length, circumference, and shape factors can be readily measured yielding size distribution histograms and other statistical data on plant community structure. These novel techniques are being evaluated in a four-year study of military training impacts at Fort Irwin, California. Results will be compared among the new and conventional imagery and processing, including 1-meter (m) pixel IKONOS images. The new processes create georectified color-coded contour maps of shrub cover for use with Geographic Information System (GIS) software. The technique is a valuable new emerging tool to accurately assess vegetation structure and landscape changes due to military or other land-use disturbances.

  1. Pyrolysis system evaluation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of two different pyrolysis concepts which recover energy from solid waste was conducted in order to determine the merits of each concept for integration into a Integrated Utility System (IUS). The two concepts evaluated were a Lead Bath Furnace Pyrolysis System and a Slagging Vertical Shaft, Partial Air Oxidation Pyrolysis System. Both concepts will produce a fuel gas from the IUS waste and sewage sludge which can be used to offset primary fuel consumption in addition to the sanitary disposal of the waste. The study evaluated the thermal integration of each concept as well as the economic impact on the IUS resulting from integrating each pyrolysis concepts. For reference, the pyrolysis concepts were also compared to incineration which was considered the baseline IUS solid waste disposal system.

  2. Remote terminal system evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, T. L.; Grams, H. L.; Lindenlaub, J. C.; Schwingendorf, S. K.; Swain, P. H.; Simmons, W. R.

    1975-01-01

    An Earth Resources Data Processing System was developed to evaluate the system for training, technology transfer, and data processing. In addition to the five sites included in this project two other sites were connected to the system under separate agreements. The experience of these two sites is discussed. The results of the remote terminal project are documented in seven reports: one from each of the five project sites, Purdue University, and an overview report summarizing the other six reports.

  3. Evaluation of land cover change detection techniques using Landsat MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, G. S.; Joyce, A. T.

    1982-01-01

    Four techniques for detecting land cover change with Landsat MSS data were evaluated for a test site in east central Louisiana where forestland is being converted to cropland and pasture. The four techniques were: (1) post-classification differencing, (2) composite classification, (3) radiance value shift, and (4) regression modeling. Three of the techniques gave acceptable accuracies. The main differences were the amount of computer time and the level of complexity.

  4. Use of Remote Sensed Imagery to Evaluate Land Cover Change: North Platte River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, G.; Piburn, J.; Rudolph, J.; Tootle, G.; Marks, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    High resolution remote sensed data for land cover classification, such as LiDAR, is often times not readily available in rural areas. For basin-wide and other small-scale projects, proprietary LiDAR collection may not be cost effective and an alternative is found with the use of the National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP). NAIP imagery provides 1-meter resolution aerial imagery for the entire United States, temporally updated on a state by state basis at no charge to the user. NAIP imagery was used to classify forest cover change due to beetle infestation in the roughly 4,000 square-mile North Platte River Basin (NPRB). Using an interactive classification method with an underlying maximum likelihood classification algorithm, it was found that forest cover in the NPRB decreased by approximately 25% from 2005-2006 to 2009. Using focal histograms to refine the classifications to large-scale USGS 7.5 minute quadrangles, the land cover results will be used as parameters in the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) Macroscale Hydrologic Model to estimate how this physical change in land cover affects the riparian system of the NPRB, specifically streamflow response.

  5. Performance Evaluation of the Engineered Cover at the Lakeview, Oregon, Uranium Mill Tailings Site

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, J.; Smith, G.; Danforth, B.; Gee, G.; Kothari, V.; Pauling, T.

    2007-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) is evaluating the performance of disposal cell covers at LM sites and exploring ways to enhance their sustainability. The cover of the Lakeview, Oregon, disposal cell relies on a compacted soil layer (CSL) to limit radon escape and water percolation into underlying tailings. The design created habitat favorable for growth of woody plants that sent roots through the CSL. The mean saturated hydraulic conductivity (K{sub sat}) of the CSL, measured at 17 locations, was 3.0 x 10{sup -5} cm s{sup -1}, 300 times greater than the design target. The highest K{sub sat} values were measured near the top of the CSL at locations both with and without roots; the lowest K{sub sat} values were measured deeper in the CSL. Water flux meters (WFMs) installed in 2005 to directly measure percolation flux show significant percolation through the cover. Three WMFs began recording percolation in mid-November, 7 days after the start of a prolonged precipitation event, and continued until early June 2006. Percolation flux during this period ranged between 3.1 x 10{sup -5} and 8.5 x 10{sup -5} cm s{sup -1}. The cumulative percolation was greater than total precipitation during the period, probably because of a water-harvesting effect. The WFMs were strategically placed in down-gradient positions on the cover top slope where water likely accumulated in a sand drainage layer. Routine monitoring at Lakeview shows that the ground water remains protected. LM plans to evaluate potential effects of high percolation rates in covers to ensure that disposal cells remain protective for the long term. (authors)

  6. Effect of nitrogen fertilization and cover cropping systems on sorghum grain characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, R C; Wilson, J D; Bean, S R; Presley, D R; Blanco-Canqui, H; Mikha, M

    2013-06-19

    Cover crop treatments and nitrogen (N) fertilization rates were investigated for their impact on sorghum grain quality attributes. Sorghum was planted in field plots treated with differing cover cropping systems and fertilization rates. The size (weight and diameter) and hardness of the kernels were influenced by both the cover crop and N rates. The protein content increased as the N rate increased and also with the addition of cover crops to the system. The protein digestibility values and starch granule size distributions were not affected by N rate or the cover cropping treatments. Soil properties were tested to determine relationships with grain quality attributes. The utilization of cover crops appears to increase the protein content without causing a deleterious effect on protein digestibility. The end-product quality is not hampered by the use of beneficial cropping systems necessary for sustainable agriculture.

  7. System status display evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Leland G.

    1988-01-01

    The System Status Display is an electronic display system which provides the crew with an enhanced capability for monitoring and managing the aircraft systems. A flight simulation in a fixed base cockpit simulator was used to evaluate alternative design concepts for this display system. The alternative concepts included pictorial versus alphanumeric text formats, multifunction versus dedicated controls, and integration of the procedures with the system status information versus paper checklists. Twelve pilots manually flew approach patterns with the different concepts. System malfunctions occurred which required the pilots to respond to the alert by reconfiguring the system. The pictorial display, the multifunction control interfaces collocated with the system display, and the procedures integrated with the status information all had shorter event processing times and lower subjective workloads.

  8. Evaluation of a biologically active cover for mitigation of landfill gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Barlaz, M A; Green, R B; Chanton, J P; Goldsmith, C D; Hater, G R

    2004-09-15

    Landfills are the third largest source of anthropogenic CH4 in the United States, and there is potential for reduction in this source of greenhouse gases and other contaminants. The objective of this work was to contrast emissions of CH4 and non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) from landfill cells covered with soil or a biologically active cover consisting of yard waste compost. On the basis of four field campaigns over 14 months, CH4 emissions from the biocover (BC) varied from -1.73 to 1.33 g m(-2) d(-1), with atmospheric uptake measured in 52% of tests. BC emissions did not increase when the gas collection system was turned off. Uptake of atmospheric CH4 was measured in 54% of tests on the soil cover (SC) when the gas collection was system active and 12% when the gas collection system was off. Many (26%) relatively high fluxes (>15 g m(-2) d(-1)) were measured from the SC as were some dramatic effects due to deactivation of the gas collection system. In tests with positive emissions, stable isotope measurements showed that the BC and SC were responsible for oxidation of 55% and 21% of the CH4 reaching the bottom of the respective cover. Seven of the highest 10 NMOC emissions were measured in the SC, and 17 of 21 fluxes for speciated organic compounds were higher in the SC. The relationship between CH4, NMOC, and individual organic compound emissions suggested a correlation between CH4 and trace organic oxidation. BCs can reduce landfill gas emissions in the absence of a gas collection system and can serve as a polishing step in the presence of an active system.

  9. Test report, earth orbiter teleoperator visual system evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, M.; Shields, N. L., Jr.; Malone, T. B.

    1974-01-01

    Work carried out to identify human performance requirements for remotely manned system is reported. Specifically, an evaluation was made of the human visual system. Data cover distance estimation 4, solid target alignment 2, motion detection 1, and motion detection 2.

  10. Performance evaluation of four-wave mixing in a graphene-covered tapered fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Qiang; Lu, Jiamei; Li, Xibin; Yan, Qiang; Gao, Qianyu; Gao, Shiming

    2016-07-01

    Four-wave mixing in a monolayer graphene-covered tapered fiber is theoretically analyzed by taking into account the influence of the graphene layer on the light-field distribution. A figure-of-merit (FOM) coefficient, considering both the high nonlinearity and the heavy absorption, is redefined to evaluate nonlinear performance. The fiber diameter and length are optimized to acquire a higher FOM. Using such a graphene-covered tapered fiber with an optimal diameter of 0.736 μm, a maximum conversion efficiency of -38.07 dB is numerically obtained for the 1.55 μm pump when the graphene length is 34.4 μm and the peak pump power is 10 W. Moreover, a 3 dB bandwidth as broad as 430 nm can be realized in the 1.55 μm telecommunication band.

  11. Process evaluation distributed system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffatt, Christopher L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The distributed system includes a database server, an administration module, a process evaluation module, and a data display module. The administration module is in communication with the database server for providing observation criteria information to the database server. The process evaluation module is in communication with the database server for obtaining the observation criteria information from the database server and collecting process data based on the observation criteria information. The process evaluation module utilizes a personal digital assistant (PDA). A data display module in communication with the database server, including a website for viewing collected process data in a desired metrics form, the data display module also for providing desired editing and modification of the collected process data. The connectivity established by the database server to the administration module, the process evaluation module, and the data display module, minimizes the requirement for manual input of the collected process data.

  12. MODULAR CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    S. Gillespie

    2002-08-08

    The purpose of this study is to respond to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Technical Direction Letter (TDL) 02-003 (Waisley 2001), which directs Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC (BSC) to complete a design study to recommend repository design options to support receipt and/or emplacement of any or all of the following: commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), high-level radioactive waste (HLW), DOE-managed spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) (including naval spent nuclear fuel [SNF]), and immobilized plutonium (if available), as soon as practicable, but no later than 2010. From the possible design options, a recommended approach will be determined for further evaluation to support the preliminary design of the repository. This study integrates the results of the repository Design Evolution Study (Rowe 2002) with supporting studies concerning national transportation options (BSC 2002b) and Nevada transportation options (Gehner 2002). The repository Design Evolution Study documents the processes used to reevaluate the design, construction, operation, and cost of the repository in response to TDL 02-003 (Waisley 2001), and to determine possible repository conceptual design options. The transportation studies evaluate the national and Nevada transportation options that support the repository conceptual design options. An evaluation methodology was established, based on Program-level requirements developed for the study in reference BSC 2001a, to allow the repository and system design options to be evaluated on a consistent basis. The transportation options and the design components were integrated into system design implementation options, which were evaluated using receipt and emplacement scenarios. The scenarios tested the ability of the design concept to adapt to changes in funding, waste receipt rate, and Nevada rail transportation availability. The results of the evaluation (in terms of system throughput, cost, and schedule) were then compared to the Program-level requirements, and

  13. Snow Cover in Canada: Data and Information for Understanding the Role of the Cryosphere in the Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodison, B. E.; Brown, R. D.; Walker, A. E.

    2001-12-01

    Snow cover exhibits the largest spatial extent of any component of the cryosphere in Canada, and exerts a significant influence on climate and hydrology through modification of energy and moisture transfers and the storage of water. In addition, snow cover information (extent, depth, and water equivalent) is used in many applications such as numerical weather forecast modelling, water resource management, agriculture, construction, calculation of forest fire severity and validation of satellite algorithms and snow process models. Improved knowledge of the interactions and feedbacks of terrestrial snow and ice in the current climate system, in land surface processes, and in the hydrological cycle are required to address potential future changes in the cryosphere. A reliable database of snow cover information over a range of time and space scales is essential to achieve improved understanding of the changing nature of the cryosphere in Canada. Canada's snow cover observing system has undergone substantial changes over the last 30 years, making it a challenge to develop consistent spatial and temporal information. In-situ measurements of SWE and snow depth have declined markedly with network rationalization and automation of observing systems. Changes in methods of observation, such as for winter precipitation, have produced new systematic errors and the need to develop new adjustment and analytical techniques. On the other hand, Canadian advances in satellite-based monitoring of snow cover, especially using passive microwave data, provide the capability to derive snow cover properties in varying landscapes, and to provide new insights into snow cover-atmosphere interactions. Merging of in-situ and satellite information has yielded new information on variability and change in continental snow cover since the early 1900s. A renewed interest in the cryosphere system in Canada has provided the impetus to rescue snow data and make it easily available to the community

  14. Transportation Systems Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanning, M. L.; Michelson, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    A methodology for the analysis of transportation systems consisting of five major interacting elements is reported. The analysis begins with the causes of travel demand: geographic, economic, and demographic characteristics as well as attitudes toward travel. Through the analysis, the interaction of these factors with the physical and economic characteristics of the transportation system is determined. The result is an evaluation of the system from the point of view of both passenger and operator. The methodology is applicable to the intraurban transit systems as well as major airlines. Applications of the technique to analysis of a PRT system and a study of intraurban air travel are given. In the discussion several unique models or techniques are mentioned: i.e., passenger preference modeling, an integrated intraurban transit model, and a series of models to perform airline analysis.

  15. Cover crop impact on weed dynamics in an organic dry bean system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops have the potential to enhance crop rotations by increasing diversity and enriching agroecosystems. Weed suppression, nutrient provisoning, and enhancements to soil biota and structure are benefits of cover crops in cropping systems, including organic dry bean production. The late spring ...

  16. The effects of combined cover crop termination and planting in a cotton no-till system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One method to save resources while positively impacting the environment is combining agricultural field operations. In no-till systems, cover crop termination and cash crop planting can be performed simultaneously utilizing a tractor as a single power source. A no-till field experiment merging cover...

  17. Optimal vegetation cover in the Horqin Sands of Inner Mongolia: an evaluation of Eagleson's ecohydrological optimality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, K.; Cong, Z.; Lei, H.

    2014-12-01

    Vegetation distribution has received much attention in ecohydrological research because of its essential role in terrestrial hydraulic cycling. Although tightly coupled to precipitation and temperature, the real-life vegetation cover pattern under certain climate conditions is hard to be reproduced theoretically. Eagleson proposed an optimality theory on calculating the optimum vegetation cover (M, defined as fraction of total ground surface covered by vegetation) through a solution of simultaneous equations reflecting the balance of water demand and water supply. Two equations were built under a long-term equilibrium state with fixed vegetation species, climate and soil types. One represented water demand which was derived from the potential canopy conductance- the ratio of potential transpiration to potential bare soil evaporation. The other was for water supply composed of information about precipitation and soil conditions. Their joint solution would be the theoretical optimum vegetation cover. Although the optimality theory was proposed as the theoretical basis of ecohydrology, only few works have been carried out to evaluate it. In this work, we tested Eagleson's optimality in the Horqin Sand in Inner Mongolia, China, featured by natural vegetation types of grassland and bushes. MODIS datasets were used as basic data to evaluate two vegetation parameters- vegetation cover (M) and leaf area index (LAI). M was conducted from normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with temporal resolution of 15 days and spatial resolution of 250 meters (from 2000 to 2012), and was averaged by 0.39 on the whole area during rainy season (May to September).LAI was used with temporal resolution of 4 days and spatial resolution of 1 kilometers (from 2003 to 2012), and mean LAI on the whole area was 0.45 during rainy season. Meteorological data over 50 years (1951-2012) were obtained from three weather stations in this area. Annual mean precipitation was 365.0mm; annual mean

  18. A new strategy for snow-cover mapping using remote sensing data and ensemble based systems techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberge, S.; Chokmani, K.; De Sève, D.

    2012-04-01

    The snow cover plays an important role in the hydrological cycle of Quebec (Eastern Canada). Consequently, evaluating its spatial extent interests the authorities responsible for the management of water resources, especially hydropower companies. The main objective of this study is the development of a snow-cover mapping strategy using remote sensing data and ensemble based systems techniques. Planned to be tested in a near real-time operational mode, this snow-cover mapping strategy has the advantage to provide the probability of a pixel to be snow covered and its uncertainty. Ensemble systems are made of two key components. First, a method is needed to build an ensemble of classifiers that is diverse as much as possible. Second, an approach is required to combine the outputs of individual classifiers that make up the ensemble in such a way that correct decisions are amplified, and incorrect ones are cancelled out. In this study, we demonstrate the potential of ensemble systems to snow-cover mapping using remote sensing data. The chosen classifier is a sequential thresholds algorithm using NOAA-AVHRR data adapted to conditions over Eastern Canada. Its special feature is the use of a combination of six sequential thresholds varying according to the day in the winter season. Two versions of the snow-cover mapping algorithm have been developed: one is specific for autumn (from October 1st to December 31st) and the other for spring (from March 16th to May 31st). In order to build the ensemble based system, different versions of the algorithm are created by varying randomly its parameters. One hundred of the versions are included in the ensemble. The probability of a pixel to be snow, no-snow or cloud covered corresponds to the amount of votes the pixel has been classified as such by all classifiers. The overall performance of ensemble based mapping is compared to the overall performance of the chosen classifier, and also with ground observations at meteorological

  19. The estimation of methane emissions from landfills with different cover systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Lee, K.; Sung, K.

    2006-12-01

    Methane is a very potent greenhouse gas, second only to CO2 as an anthropogenic contributor to global warming. Landfills are important anthropogenic source in the CH4 emissions. Microbially mediated CH4 oxidation in landfills with conventional soil covers can serve as an efficient biological sink. Methane from modern sanitary landfills equipped with composite covers and gas collection system is vented directly to the atmosphere, except for some of the largest landfills at which it is collected and burned. However, previous laboratory research has shown that biofilters have the potential to reduce CH4 emissions from landfills with modern composite covers. In this study a CH4 emission model was developed. The model used the calculated CH4 oxidation rates to estimate CH4 emissions from landfills constructed with conventional soil covers, modern composite covers, and modern composite covers plus biofilters. According to the CH4 emission rates predicted by CH4 emission model, it was estimated that 90% of the generated CH4 was emitted to the atmosphere for landfills with modern composite cover. For landfills with modern composite cover plus biofilters, an average of only 9% of the generated CH4 was estimated to be emitted. For landfills with conventional covers, an average of 83% of the generated CH4 was estimated to be emitted. By comparing the CH4 emission rates from three different landfill types, the use of a properly managed biofilter should be an effective technique to reduce CH4 emissions from landfills.

  20. Evaluation of historical land cover, land use, and land-use change emissions in the GCAM integrated assessment model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvin, K. V.; Wise, M.; Kyle, P.; Janetos, A. C.; Zhou, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) are often used as science-based decision-support tools for evaluating the consequences of climate and energy policies, and their use in this framework is likely to increase in the future. However, quantitative evaluation of these models has been somewhat limited for a variety of reasons, including data availability, data quality, and the inherent challenges in projections of societal values and decision-making. In this analysis, we identify and confront methodological challenges involved in evaluating the agriculture and land use component of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). GCAM is a global integrated assessment model, linking submodules of the regionally disaggregated global economy, energy system, agriculture and land-use, terrestrial carbon cycle, oceans and climate. GCAM simulates supply, demand, and prices for energy and agricultural goods from 2005 to 2100 in 5-year increments. In each time period, the model computes the allocation of land across a variety of land cover types in 151 different regions, assuming that farmers maximize profits and that food demand is relatively inelastic. GCAM then calculates both emissions from land-use practices, and long-term changes in carbon stocks in different land uses, thus providing simulation information that can be compared to observed historical data. In this work, we compare GCAM results, both in recent historic and future time periods, to historical data sets. We focus on land use, land cover, land-use change emissions, and albedo.

  1. Topography Mediates the Influence of Cover Crops on Soil Nitrate Levels in Row Crop Agricultural Systems.

    PubMed

    Ladoni, Moslem; Kravchenko, Alexandra N; Robertson, G Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Supplying adequate amounts of soil N for plant growth during the growing season and across large agricultural fields is a challenge for conservational agricultural systems with cover crops. Knowledge about cover crop effects on N comes mostly from small, flat research plots and performance of cover crops across topographically diverse agricultural land is poorly understood. Our objective was to assess effects of both leguminous (red clover) and non-leguminous (winter rye) cover crops on potentially mineralizable N (PMN) and [Formula: see text] levels across a topographically diverse landscape. We studied conventional, low-input, and organic managements in corn-soybean-wheat rotation. The rotations of low-input and organic managements included rye and red clover cover crops. The managements were implemented in twenty large undulating fields in Southwest Michigan starting from 2006. The data collection and analysis were conducted during three growing seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Observational micro-plots with and without cover crops were laid within each field on three contrasting topographical positions of depression, slope and summit. Soil samples were collected 4-5 times during each growing season and analyzed for [Formula: see text] and PMN. The results showed that all three managements were similar in their temporal and spatial distributions of NO3-N. Red clover cover crop increased [Formula: see text] by 35% on depression, 20% on slope and 32% on summit positions. Rye cover crop had a significant 15% negative effect on [Formula: see text] in topographical depressions but not in slope and summit positions. The magnitude of the cover crop effects on soil mineral nitrogen across topographically diverse fields was associated with the amount of cover crop growth and residue production. The results emphasize the potential environmental and economic benefits that can be generated by implementing site-specific topography-driven cover crop management in row

  2. Topography Mediates the Influence of Cover Crops on Soil Nitrate Levels in Row Crop Agricultural Systems.

    PubMed

    Ladoni, Moslem; Kravchenko, Alexandra N; Robertson, G Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Supplying adequate amounts of soil N for plant growth during the growing season and across large agricultural fields is a challenge for conservational agricultural systems with cover crops. Knowledge about cover crop effects on N comes mostly from small, flat research plots and performance of cover crops across topographically diverse agricultural land is poorly understood. Our objective was to assess effects of both leguminous (red clover) and non-leguminous (winter rye) cover crops on potentially mineralizable N (PMN) and [Formula: see text] levels across a topographically diverse landscape. We studied conventional, low-input, and organic managements in corn-soybean-wheat rotation. The rotations of low-input and organic managements included rye and red clover cover crops. The managements were implemented in twenty large undulating fields in Southwest Michigan starting from 2006. The data collection and analysis were conducted during three growing seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Observational micro-plots with and without cover crops were laid within each field on three contrasting topographical positions of depression, slope and summit. Soil samples were collected 4-5 times during each growing season and analyzed for [Formula: see text] and PMN. The results showed that all three managements were similar in their temporal and spatial distributions of NO3-N. Red clover cover crop increased [Formula: see text] by 35% on depression, 20% on slope and 32% on summit positions. Rye cover crop had a significant 15% negative effect on [Formula: see text] in topographical depressions but not in slope and summit positions. The magnitude of the cover crop effects on soil mineral nitrogen across topographically diverse fields was associated with the amount of cover crop growth and residue production. The results emphasize the potential environmental and economic benefits that can be generated by implementing site-specific topography-driven cover crop management in row

  3. Topography Mediates the Influence of Cover Crops on Soil Nitrate Levels in Row Crop Agricultural Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ladoni, Moslem; Kravchenko, Alexandra N.; Robertson, G. Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Supplying adequate amounts of soil N for plant growth during the growing season and across large agricultural fields is a challenge for conservational agricultural systems with cover crops. Knowledge about cover crop effects on N comes mostly from small, flat research plots and performance of cover crops across topographically diverse agricultural land is poorly understood. Our objective was to assess effects of both leguminous (red clover) and non-leguminous (winter rye) cover crops on potentially mineralizable N (PMN) and NO3--N levels across a topographically diverse landscape. We studied conventional, low-input, and organic managements in corn-soybean-wheat rotation. The rotations of low-input and organic managements included rye and red clover cover crops. The managements were implemented in twenty large undulating fields in Southwest Michigan starting from 2006. The data collection and analysis were conducted during three growing seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Observational micro-plots with and without cover crops were laid within each field on three contrasting topographical positions of depression, slope and summit. Soil samples were collected 4–5 times during each growing season and analyzed for NO3--N and PMN. The results showed that all three managements were similar in their temporal and spatial distributions of NO3—N. Red clover cover crop increased NO3--N by 35% on depression, 20% on slope and 32% on summit positions. Rye cover crop had a significant 15% negative effect on NO3--N in topographical depressions but not in slope and summit positions. The magnitude of the cover crop effects on soil mineral nitrogen across topographically diverse fields was associated with the amount of cover crop growth and residue production. The results emphasize the potential environmental and economic benefits that can be generated by implementing site-specific topography-driven cover crop management in row-crop agricultural systems. PMID:26600462

  4. Evaluation of the uncertainty due to land cover observation and conversion into plant functional types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgievski, Goran; Hartley, Andrew; MacBean, Natasha; Hagemann, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Land surface processes represented in the latest generation of climate models (IPCC AR5) use the concept of Plant Functional Types (PFTs) to group different vegetation types and species according to similar physiological, biochemical and structural characteristics. The 5th IPCC Assessment Report recognizes the role of the Land Surface Models (LSMs) as one of the key contributors to uncertainty in climate change impacts projections. In the frame of the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative (CCI), a new global land cover (LC) data set was derived. We aim to investigate two sources of uncertainties in LSMs and their ranges: (i) uncertainty of ESA-CCI state of the art satellite observation of LC classes, and (ii) uncertainty due to LC conversion ("cross-walking (CW) procedure") into PFTs. Therefore, we have derived 5 perturbations of PFTs maps: (i) reference map (REF), (ii) map that minimizes biomass in LC observation and CW procedure (MinLC MinCW), (iii) map that minimizes biomass in LC observation with reference CW procedure (MinLC RefCW), (iv) map that maximizes biomass in LC observation with reference CW procedure (MaxLC RefCW), and (v) map that maximizes biomass in LC observation and CW procedure (MaxLC MaxCW). Our analysis demonstrates that there is still considerable uncertainty in the methods used to convert LC classes into the PFTs used by LSMs. Furthermore, uncertainty in the labelling of LC classes has an equal magnitude compared to the cross-walking uncertainty. In the next phase, we aim to quantify the sensitivity of the carbon, hydrological and energy cycles to LC and CW uncertainty with 3 LSMs (JSBACH, JULES, and ORHCIDEE). This work will enable us to both advice the land cover mapping community about the accuracy requirements for land cover maps, and to provide insights to the earth system modelling community on the implications of decisions taken when converting from land cover classes to PFTs.

  5. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator); Knowlton, D. J.; Dean, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    A set of training statistics for the 30 meter resolution simulated thematic mapper MSS data was generated based on land use/land cover classes. In addition to this supervised data set, a nonsupervised multicluster block of training statistics is being defined in order to compare the classification results and evaluate the effect of the different training selection methods on classification performance. Two test data sets, defined using a stratified sampling procedure incorporating a grid system with dimensions of 50 lines by 50 columns, and another set based on an analyst supervised set of test fields were used to evaluate the classifications of the TMS data. The supervised training data set generated training statistics, and a per point Gaussian maximum likelihood classification of the 1979 TMS data was obtained. The August 1980 MSS data was radiometrically adjusted. The SAR data was redigitized and the SAR imagery was qualitatively analyzed.

  6. Land-cover change detection for the tropics using remote sensing and geographic information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Jane M.

    1999-12-01

    Changing land-cover in the tropics is a central issue in global change research. This dissertation used Landsat-TM data to examine processes of land-use and land-cover changes for a lowland tropical site in Sarapiqui, Costa Rica. Performances of selected image-processing methods to detect and identify land-cover changes were evaluated. A land-cover time-series from 1960 to 1996 for the site was generated using maps derived from aerial photographs and Landsat-TM classifications. Changes in land-cover from 1986 to 1996 were evaluated using standard landscape indices, and interpreted in terms of their historical context. Dominant changes in the site during this decade included the breakup of extensive cattle ranches for large-scale plantation enterprises and small-scale farming. Colonization processes, improvements in access, and changes in export markets were identified as the major driving forces of change. Evaluation of change-detection methods revealed that postclassification comparison performed significantly better than image differencing algorithms. Image differencing using mid- infrared bonds performed the best of the differencing algorithms tested. Selection of a suitable change-detection method can be aided through examination of the individual bond statistics for the specific area and problem in question. The univariate bond differencing technique has potential for identification of 'hot spots' of change using Landsat-TM data. Spatial pattern-recognition techniques to characterize complexity of Landsat-TM data were evaluated. Fractal dimension calculated using the triangular prism surface area method, and Moran's I index of spatial autocorrelation, clearly distinguished different land-cover types. Shannon's diversity index and the contagion metric were not found to be useful in characterizing the images. The use of fractal dimension, in conjunction with standard non-spatial descriptive band statistics, are seen as having great potential in characterizing

  7. Ground cover rice production system facilitates soil carbon and nitrogen stocks at regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Dannenmann, M.; Lin, S.; Saiz, G.; Yan, G.; Yao, Z.; Pelster, D.; Tao, H.; Sippel, S.; Tao, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zheng, X.; Zuo, Q.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2015-02-01

    Rice production is increasingly challenged by irrigation water scarcity, however covering paddy rice soils with films (ground cover rice production system: GCRPS) can significantly reduce water demand as well as overcome temperature limitations at the beginning of the vegetation period resulting in increased grain yields in colder regions of rice production with seasonal water shortages. It has been speculated that the increased soil aeration and temperature under GCRPS may result in losses of soil organic carbon and nitrogen stocks. Here we report on a regional scale experiment, conducted by sampling paired adjacent Paddy and GCRPS fields at 49 representative sites in the Shiyan region, which is typical for many mountainous areas across China. Parameters evaluated included soil C and N stocks, soil physical and chemical properties, potential carbon mineralization rates, fractions of soil organic carbon and stable carbon isotopic composition of plant leaves. Furthermore, root biomass was quantified at maximum tillering stage at one of our paired sites. Against expectations the study showed that: (1) GCRPS significantly increased soil organic C and N stocks 5-20 years following conversion of production systems, (2) there were no differences between GCRPS and Paddy in soil physical and chemical properties for the various soil depths with the exception of soil bulk density, (3) GCRPS had lower mineralization potential for soil organic C compared with Paddy over the incubation period, (4) GCRPS showed lower δ15N in the soils and plant leafs indicating less NH3 volatilization in GCRPS than in Paddy; and (5) GCRPS increased yields and root biomass in all soil layers down to 40 cm depth. Our results suggest that GCRPS is an innovative rice production technique that not only increases yields using less irrigation water, but that it also is environmentally beneficial due to increased soil C and N stocks at regional scale.

  8. Evaluation of three techniques for classifying urban land cover patterns using LANDSAT MSS data. [New Orleans, Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, P. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    Three computer quantitative techniques for determining urban land cover patterns are evaluated. The techniques examined deal with the selection of training samples by an automated process, the overlaying of two scenes from different seasons of the year, and the use of individual pixels as training points. Evaluation is based on the number and type of land cover classes generated and the marks obtained from an accuracy test. New Orleans, Louisiana and its environs form the study area.

  9. Exact cover of states in the discrete state-space system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiśniewski, Remigiusz; Stefanowicz, Łukasz; Wiśniewska, Monika; Kur, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Given the discrete state-space system, the set cover problem is defined as selection of the minimal number of global states to cover all the local states. Commonly known methods base on the matrix reduction, boolean function transformation or heuristics ideas. Most of them are inefficient because of computational/memory complexity or non-optimal results. We propose an application of xt-hypergraphs to compute the solution in case where the discrete system can be represented by an xt-hypergraph. Recognition, as well as computation of exact cover in case of xt-hypergraphs is bounded by a polynomial in the number of local states. Therefore, the whole cover process problem turns out to be polynomial.

  10. System for reducing heat losses from indoor swimming pools by use of automatic covers. Report No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-30

    This progress report covers the period July 1, 1994 through September 30, 1994, and summarizes continuing work on developing deloyable covers for indoor swimming pools. This work includes design and development of motor controllers to deploy and roll up pool covers, reels, cover material of polyethylene and foam filled laminates, and plans for field deployment of a system, where energy savings can be monitored.

  11. Cover and startup gas supply system for solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Singh, P.; George, R.A.

    1999-07-27

    A cover and startup gas supply system for a solid oxide fuel cell power generator is disclosed. Hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas or diesel fuel, and oxygen-containing gas are supplied to a burner. Combustion gas exiting the burner is cooled prior to delivery to the solid oxide fuel cell. The system mixes the combusted hydrocarbon fuel constituents with hydrogen which is preferably stored in solid form to obtain a non-explosive gas mixture. The system may be used to provide both non-explosive cover gas and hydrogen-rich startup gas to the fuel cell. 4 figs.

  12. Cover and startup gas supply system for solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Prabhakar; George, Raymond A.

    1999-01-01

    A cover and startup gas supply system for a solid oxide fuel cell power generator is disclosed. Hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas or diesel fuel, and oxygen-containing gas are supplied to a burner. Combustion gas exiting the burner is cooled prior to delivery to the solid oxide fuel cell. The system mixes the combusted hydrocarbon fuel constituents with hydrogen which is preferably stored in solid form to obtain a non-explosive gas mixture. The system may be used to provide both non-explosive cover gas and hydrogen-rich startup gas to the fuel cell.

  13. Evaluating the effects of historical land cover change on summertime weather and climate in New Jersey: Land cover and surface energy budget changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wichansky, P.S.; Steyaert, L.T.; Walko, R.L.; Waever, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    The 19th-century agrarian landscape of New Jersey (NJ) and the surrounding region has been extensively transformed to the present-day land cover by urbanization, reforestation, and localized areas of deforestation. This study used a mesoscale atmospheric numerical model to investigate the sensitivity of the warm season climate of NJ to these land cover changes. Reconstructed 1880s-era and present-day land cover data sets were used as surface boundary conditions for a set of simulations performed with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). Three-member ensembles with historical and present-day land cover were compared to examine the sensitivity of surface air and dew point temperatures, rainfall, and the individual components of the surface energy budget to these land cover changes. Mean temperatures for the present-day landscape were 0.3-0.6??C warmer than for the historical landscape over a considerable portion of NJ and the surrounding region, with daily maximum temperatures at least 1.0??C warmer over some of the highly urbanized locations. Reforested regions, however, were slightly cooler. Dew point temperatures decreased by 0.3-0.6??C, suggesting drier, less humid near-surface air for the present-day landscape. Surface warming was generally associated with repartitioning of net radiation from latent to sensible heat flux, and conversely for cooling. While urbanization was accompanied by strong surface albedo decreases and increases in net shortwave radiation, reforestation and potential changes in forest composition have generally increased albedos and also enhanced landscape heterogeneity. The increased deciduousness of forests may have further reduced net downward longwave radiation. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Reduction of acid rock drainage using steel slag in cover systems over sulfide rock waste piles.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Rodrigo Pereira; Leite, Adilson do Lago; Borghetti Soares, Anderson

    2015-04-01

    The extraction of gold, coal, nickel, uranium, copper and other earth-moving activities almost always leads to environmental damage. In metal and coal extraction, exposure of sulfide minerals to the atmosphere leads to generation of acid rock drainage (ARD) and in underground mining to acid mine drainage (AMD) due to contamination of infiltrating groundwater. This study proposes to develop a reactive cover system that inhibits infiltration of oxygen and also releases alkalinity to increase the pH of generated ARD and attenuate metal contaminants at the same time. The reactive cover system is constructed using steel slag, a waste product generated from steel industries. This study shows that this type of cover system has the potential to reduce some of the adverse effects of sulfide mine waste disposal on land. Geochemical and geotechnical characterization tests were carried out. Different proportions of sulfide mine waste and steel slag were studied in leachate extraction tests. The best proportion was 33% of steel slag in dry weight. Other tests were conducted as follows: soil consolidation, saturated permeability and soil water characteristic curve. The cover system was numerically modeled through unsaturated flux analysis using Vadose/w. The solution proposed is an oxygen transport barrier that allows rain water percolation to treat the ARD in the waste rock pile. The results showed that the waste pile slope is an important factor and the cover system must have 5 m thickness to achieve an acceptable effectiveness. PMID:25750056

  15. Reduction of acid rock drainage using steel slag in cover systems over sulfide rock waste piles.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Rodrigo Pereira; Leite, Adilson do Lago; Borghetti Soares, Anderson

    2015-04-01

    The extraction of gold, coal, nickel, uranium, copper and other earth-moving activities almost always leads to environmental damage. In metal and coal extraction, exposure of sulfide minerals to the atmosphere leads to generation of acid rock drainage (ARD) and in underground mining to acid mine drainage (AMD) due to contamination of infiltrating groundwater. This study proposes to develop a reactive cover system that inhibits infiltration of oxygen and also releases alkalinity to increase the pH of generated ARD and attenuate metal contaminants at the same time. The reactive cover system is constructed using steel slag, a waste product generated from steel industries. This study shows that this type of cover system has the potential to reduce some of the adverse effects of sulfide mine waste disposal on land. Geochemical and geotechnical characterization tests were carried out. Different proportions of sulfide mine waste and steel slag were studied in leachate extraction tests. The best proportion was 33% of steel slag in dry weight. Other tests were conducted as follows: soil consolidation, saturated permeability and soil water characteristic curve. The cover system was numerically modeled through unsaturated flux analysis using Vadose/w. The solution proposed is an oxygen transport barrier that allows rain water percolation to treat the ARD in the waste rock pile. The results showed that the waste pile slope is an important factor and the cover system must have 5 m thickness to achieve an acceptable effectiveness.

  16. Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Global Snow-Cover Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; Scharfen, Greg R.

    2000-01-01

    Following the 1999 launch of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the capability exists to produce global snow-cover maps on a daily basis at 500-m resolution. Eight-day composite snow-cover maps will also be available. MODIS snow-cover products are produced at Goddard Space Flight Center and archived and distributed by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) in Boulder, Colorado. The products are available in both orbital and gridded formats. An online search and order tool and user-services staff will be available at NSIDC to assist users with the snow products. The snow maps are available at a spatial resolution of 500 m, and 1/4 degree x 1/4 degree spatial resolution, and provide information on sub-pixel (fractional) snow cover. Pre-launch validation work has shown that the MODIS snow-mapping algorithms perform best under conditions of continuous snow cover in low vegetation areas, but can also map snow cover in dense forests. Post-launch validation activities will be performed using field and aircraft measurements from a February 2000 validation mission, as well as from existing satellite-derived snow-cover maps from NOAA and Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+).

  17. Quantifying Urban Watershed Stressor Gradients and Evaluating How Different Land Cover Datasets Affect Stream Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used a gradient (divided into impervious cover categories), spatially-balanced, random design (1) to sample streams along an impervious cover gradient in a large coastal watershed, (2) to characterize relationships between water chemistry and land cover, and (3) to document di...

  18. Tree cover bistability in the MPI Earth system model due to fire-vegetation feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasslop, Gitta; Brovkin, Victor; Kloster, Silvia; Reick, Christian

    2015-04-01

    The global distribution of tree cover is mainly limited by precipitation and temperature. Within tropical ecosystems different tree cover values have been observed in regions with similar climate. Satellite data even revealed a lack of ecosystems with tree coverage around 60% and dominant tree covers of 20% and 80%. Conceptual models have been used to explain this tree cover distribution and base it on a bistability in tree cover caused by fire-vegetation interactions or competition between trees and grasses. Some ecological models also show this property of multiple stable tree covers, but it remains unclear which mechanism is the cause for this behaviour. Vegetation models used in climate simulations usually use simple approaches and were criticised to neglect such ecological theories and misrepresent tropical tree cover distribution and dynamics. Here we show that including the process based fire model SPITFIRE generated a bistability in tree cover in the land surface model JSBACH. Previous model versions showed only one stable tree cover state. Using a conceptual model we can show that a bistability can occur due to a feedback between grasses and fire. Grasses and trees are represented in the model based on plant functional types. With respect to fire the main difference between grasses and trees is the fuel characteristics. Grass fuels are smaller in size, and have a higher surface area to volume ratio. These grass fuels dry faster increasing their flammability which leads to a higher fire rate of spread. Trees are characterized by coarse fuels, which are less likely to ignite and rather suppress fire. Therefore a higher fraction of grasses promotes fire, fire kills trees and following a fire, grasses establish faster. This feedback can stabilize ecosystems with low tree cover in a low tree cover state and systems with high tree cover in a high tree cover state. In previous model versions this feedback was absent. Based on the new JSBACH model driven with

  19. Evaluation of spectral channels and wavelength regions for separability of agricultural cover types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, R.

    1977-01-01

    The spectral channels were evaluated as well as wavelength regions; visible, near infrared, middle infrared and thermal infrared were evaluated with respect to their estimated probability of correct classification (P sub c) in discriminating agricultural cover types. Multispectral scanner data in twelve spectral channels in the wavelength range of 0.4 to 11.7 micrometers acquired in the middle of July for three flightlines were analyzed by applying automatic pattern recognition techniques. The same analysis was performed for the data acquired in the middle of August, over the same three flightlines, to investigate the effect of time on the results. The effect of deletion of each spectral channel as well as each wavelength region on P sub c was given. Values of P sub c for all possible combinations of wavelength regions in the subsets of one to twelve spectral channels were also given. The overall values of P sub c were found to be greater for the data of the middle of August than the data of the middle of July.

  20. Making Safe Surgery Affordable: Design of a Surgical Drill Cover System for Scale.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Lawrence L; Black, Marianne S; Cancilla, Michael A; Huisman, Elise S; Kooyman, Jeremy J R; Nelson, Scott C; OʼHara, Nathan N; OʼBrien, Peter J; Blachut, Piotr A

    2015-10-01

    Many surgeons in low-resource settings do not have access to safe, affordable, or reliable surgical drilling tools. Surgeons often resort to nonsterile hardware drills because they are affordable, robust, and efficient, but they are impossible to sterilize using steam. A promising alternative is to use a Drill Cover system (a sterilizable fabric bag plus surgical chuck adapter) so that a nonsterile hardware drill can be used safely for surgical bone drilling. Our objective was to design a safe, effective, affordable Drill Cover system for scale in low-resource settings. We designed our device based on feedback from users at Mulago Hospital (Kampala, Uganda) and focused on 3 main aspects. First, the design included a sealed barrier between the surgical field and hardware drill that withstands pressurized fluid. Second, the selected hardware drill had a maximum speed of 1050 rpm to match common surgical drills and reduce risk of necrosis. Third, the fabric cover was optimized for ease of assembly while maintaining a sterile technique. Furthermore, with the Drill Cover approach, multiple Drill Covers can be provided with a single battery-powered drill in a "kit," so that the drill can be used in back-to-back surgeries without requiring immediate sterilization. The Drill Cover design presented here provides a proof-of-concept for a product that can be commercialized, produced at scale, and used in low-resource settings globally to improve access to safe surgery.

  1. Making Safe Surgery Affordable: Design of a Surgical Drill Cover System for Scale.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Lawrence L; Black, Marianne S; Cancilla, Michael A; Huisman, Elise S; Kooyman, Jeremy J R; Nelson, Scott C; OʼHara, Nathan N; OʼBrien, Peter J; Blachut, Piotr A

    2015-10-01

    Many surgeons in low-resource settings do not have access to safe, affordable, or reliable surgical drilling tools. Surgeons often resort to nonsterile hardware drills because they are affordable, robust, and efficient, but they are impossible to sterilize using steam. A promising alternative is to use a Drill Cover system (a sterilizable fabric bag plus surgical chuck adapter) so that a nonsterile hardware drill can be used safely for surgical bone drilling. Our objective was to design a safe, effective, affordable Drill Cover system for scale in low-resource settings. We designed our device based on feedback from users at Mulago Hospital (Kampala, Uganda) and focused on 3 main aspects. First, the design included a sealed barrier between the surgical field and hardware drill that withstands pressurized fluid. Second, the selected hardware drill had a maximum speed of 1050 rpm to match common surgical drills and reduce risk of necrosis. Third, the fabric cover was optimized for ease of assembly while maintaining a sterile technique. Furthermore, with the Drill Cover approach, multiple Drill Covers can be provided with a single battery-powered drill in a "kit," so that the drill can be used in back-to-back surgeries without requiring immediate sterilization. The Drill Cover design presented here provides a proof-of-concept for a product that can be commercialized, produced at scale, and used in low-resource settings globally to improve access to safe surgery. PMID:26356212

  2. Fire Emissions Estimates in Siberia: Evaluation of Uncertainties in Area Burned, Land Cover, and Fuel Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, E.; Soja, A. J.; Ivanova, G. A.; Petkov, A.; Ponomarev, E. I.; Conard, S. G.

    2012-12-01

    Wildfire is one of the main disturbance factors in the boreal zone of Russia. Fires in the Russian boreal forest range from low-severity surface fires to high-severity crown fires. Estimates of carbon emissions from fires in Russia vary substantially due to differences in ecosystem classification and mapping, burned area calculations, and estimates of fuel consumption. We examined uncertainties in different parameters used to estimate biomass burning emissions. Several fire datasets (Institute of Forest burned area product, MCD45, MCD64, MOD14/MYD14, official data) were compared to estimate uncertainties in area burned in Siberia. Area burned was found to differ significantly by data source, with satellite data being by an order of magnitude greater than ground-based data. Differences between mapped ecosystems were also compared and contrasted on the basis of five land cover maps (GLC-2000, Globcover-2009, MODIS Collection 4 and 5 Global Land Cover, and the Digitized Ecosystem map of the Former Soviet Union) to evaluate the potential for error resulting from disparate vegetation structure and fuel consumption estimates. The examination of land cover maps showed that estimates of relative proportion of fire by ecosystem type varied substantially for the same year from map to map. Fuel consumption remains one of the main uncertainties in estimates of biomass burning emissions in Siberia. Accurate fuel consumption estimates are obtained in the course of fire experiments with pre- and post-fire biomass measuring. Our large-scale experiments carried out in the course of the FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project provided quantitative and qualitative data on ecosystem state and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior in major forest types of Siberia that could be used to verify large-scale carbon emissions estimates. Global climate change is expected to result in increase of fire hazard and area burned, leading to impacts on global air

  3. Cover crops and crop residue management under no-till systems improve soils and environmental quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Wegner, Brianna; Vahyala, Ibrahim; Osborne, Shannon; Schumacher, Thomas; Lehman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Crop residue harvest is a common practice in the Midwestern USA for the ethanol production. However, excessive removal of crop residues from the soil surface contributes to the degradation of important soil quality indicators such as soil organic carbon (SOC). Addition of a cover crop may help to mitigate these negative effects. The present study was set up to assess the impacts of corn (Zea mays L.) residue removal and cover crops on various soil quality indicators and surface greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. The study was being conducted on plots located at the North Central Agricultural Research Laboratory (NCARL) in Brookings, South Dakota, USA. Three plots of a corn and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) rotation under a no-till (NT) system are being monitored for soils and surface gas fluxes. Each plot has three residue removal (high residue removal, HRR; medium residue removal, MRR; and low residue removal, LRR) treatments and two cover crops (cover crops and no cover crops) treatments. Both corn and soybean are represented every year. Gas flux measurements were taken weekly using a closed static chamber method. Data show that residue removal significantly impacted soil quality indicators while more time was needed for an affect from cover crop treatments to be noticed. The LRR treatment resulted in higher SOC concentrations, increased aggregate stability, and increased microbial activity. The LRR treatment also increased soil organic matter (SOM) and particulate organic matter (POM) concentrations. Cover crops used in HRR (high corn residue removal) improved SOC (27 g kg-1) by 6% compared to that without cover crops (25.4 g kg-1). Cover crops significantly impacted POM concentration directly after the residue removal treatments were applied in 2012. CO2 fluxes were observed to increase as temperature increased, while N2O fluxes increased as soil moisture increased. CH4 fluxes were responsive to both increases in temperature and moisture. On average, soils under

  4. Technical and systems evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Skolnik, E.G.; DiPietro, J.P.

    1998-08-01

    During FY 1998 Energetics performed a variety of technology-based evaluations for the Hydrogen Program. Three evaluations are summarized below: hydrogen bromine-based electricity storage, carbon-based hydrogen storage, and hydrogen-fueled buses.

  5. Abrolhos Bank Reef Health Evaluated by Means of Water Quality, Microbial Diversity, Benthic Cover, and Fish Biomass Data

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Thiago; Meirelles, Pedro M.; Garcia, Gizele; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Rezende, Carlos E.; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Filho, Ronaldo-Francini; Coni, Ericka O. C.; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza; Amado Filho, Gilberto; Hatay, Mark; Schmieder, Robert; Edwards, Robert; Dinsdale, Elizabeth; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2012-01-01

    The health of the coral reefs of the Abrolhos Bank (southwestern Atlantic) was characterized with a holistic approach using measurements of four ecosystem components: (i) inorganic and organic nutrient concentrations, [1] fish biomass, [1] macroalgal and coral cover and (iv) microbial community composition and abundance. The possible benefits of protection from fishing were particularly evaluated by comparing sites with varying levels of protection. Two reefs within the well-enforced no-take area of the National Marine Park of Abrolhos (Parcel dos Abrolhos and California) were compared with two unprotected coastal reefs (Sebastião Gomes and Pedra de Leste) and one legally protected but poorly enforced coastal reef (the “paper park” of Timbebas Reef). The fish biomass was lower and the fleshy macroalgal cover was higher in the unprotected reefs compared with the protected areas. The unprotected and protected reefs had similar seawater chemistry. Lower vibrio CFU counts were observed in the fully protected area of California Reef. Metagenome analysis showed that the unprotected reefs had a higher abundance of archaeal and viral sequences and more bacterial pathogens, while the protected reefs had a higher abundance of genes related to photosynthesis. Similar to other reef systems in the world, there was evidence that reductions in the biomass of herbivorous fishes and the consequent increase in macroalgal cover in the Abrolhos Bank may be affecting microbial diversity and abundance. Through the integration of different types of ecological data, the present study showed that protection from fishing may lead to greater reef health. The data presented herein suggest that protected coral reefs have higher microbial diversity, with the most degraded reef (Sebastião Gomes) showing a marked reduction in microbial species richness. It is concluded that ecological conditions in unprotected reefs may promote the growth and rapid evolution of opportunistic microbial

  6. Abrolhos bank reef health evaluated by means of water quality, microbial diversity, benthic cover, and fish biomass data.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Thiago; Meirelles, Pedro M; Garcia, Gizele; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Rezende, Carlos E; de Moura, Rodrigo L; Filho, Ronaldo-Francini; Coni, Ericka O C; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza; Amado Filho, Gilberto; Hatay, Mark; Schmieder, Robert; Edwards, Robert; Dinsdale, Elizabeth; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2012-01-01

    The health of the coral reefs of the Abrolhos Bank (Southwestern Atlantic) was characterized with a holistic approach using measurements of four ecosystem components: (i) inorganic and organic nutrient concentrations, [1] fish biomass, [1] macroalgal and coral cover and (iv) microbial community composition and abundance. The possible benefits of protection from fishing were particularly evaluated by comparing sites with varying levels of protection. Two reefs within the well-enforced no-take area of the National Marine Park of Abrolhos (Parcel dos Abrolhos and California) were compared with two unprotected coastal reefs (Sebastião Gomes and Pedra de Leste) and one legally protected but poorly enforced coastal reef (the "paper park" of Timbebas Reef). The fish biomass was lower and the fleshy macroalgal cover was higher in the unprotected reefs compared with the protected areas. The unprotected and protected reefs had similar seawater chemistry. Lower vibrio CFU counts were observed in the fully protected area of California Reef. Metagenome analysis showed that the unprotected reefs had a higher abundance of archaeal and viral sequences and more bacterial pathogens, while the protected reefs had a higher abundance of genes related to photosynthesis. Similar to other reef systems in the world, there was evidence that reductions in the biomass of herbivorous fishes and the consequent increase in macroalgal cover in the Abrolhos Bank may be affecting microbial diversity and abundance. Through the integration of different types of ecological data, the present study showed that protection from fishing may lead to greater reef health. The data presented herein suggest that protected coral reefs have higher microbial diversity, with the most degraded reef (Sebastião Gomes) showing a marked reduction in microbial species richness. It is concluded that ecological conditions in unprotected reefs may promote the growth and rapid evolution of opportunistic microbial pathogens

  7. Multiple rolling/crimping effects on termination of two summer cover crops in a conservation system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field experiment was initiated in the 2015 growing season at the USDA-NSDL to determine the effectiveness of a prototype two-stage roller/crimper in mechanical termination of two summer cover crops intended for organic systems. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with four replic...

  8. Cover crops alter phosphorus soil fractions and organic matter accumulation in a Peruvian cacao agroforestry system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many tropical soils, excessive weathering of primary minerals confounded by intense agricultural production has resulted in the depletion of organic matter and plant available forms of phosphorus (P). Long-term growth of cover crops in tropical agroforestry systems have been shown to influence nu...

  9. Monitoring and evaluation of seasonal snow cover in Kashmir valley using remote sensing, GIS and ancillary data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negi, H. S.; Thakur, N. K.; Kumar, Rajeev; Kumar, Manoj

    2009-12-01

    Seasonal snow cover is a vital natural resource in the Himalaya. Monitoring of the areal extent of seasonal snow cover is important for both climatological studies as well as hydrological applications. In the present paper, snow cover monitoring was carried out to evaluate the region-wise accumulation and ablation pattern of snow cover in Pir Panjal and Shamshawari ranges of Kashmir valley. The study was carried out for the winter period between November and April of 2004-05, 2005-06 and 2006-07, using multi-temporal WiFS sensor data of IRS-1C/1D satellites. The study shows reduction in the areal extent of seasonal snow cover and rising trend of maximum temperature in three winters for the entire Kashmir valley. This has been validated with 20 years (1988-89 to 2007-08) climatic conditions prevailed in both ranges of Kashmir valley. Region-wise study shows the spatial and temporal variability in seasonal snow cover within Kashmir valley. Advance melting was observed in Banihal and Naugam/Tangdhar regions than Gurez and Machhal regions. Different geographical parameters of these regions were studied to evaluate the influence on snow cover and it was observed that altitude and position of region with respect to mountain range are the deciding factors for retaining the seasonal snow cover for longer duration. Such region-wise study of snow cover monitoring, can provide vital inputs for planning the hydropower projects, development in habitat areas, recreational and strategic planning in the region.

  10. Using Eddy Covariance Tower Clusters To Evaluate Biogeophysical Impacts Of Land Cover In The Community Land Model (CLM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burakowski, E. A.; Ollinger, S. V.; Bonan, G. B.; Ouimette, A.; Lepine, L. C.; Tawfik, A. B.; Zarzycki, C. M.; Fogarty, S.; Novick, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Community Land Model (CLM) land surface model has been used widely to evaluate biogeophysical responses to land cover and land use change. Here, we compare surface attributes collected from eddy covariance towers clusters to uncoupled point CLM (PTCLM) simulations. The tower clusters collect surface energy fluxes over adjacent forested and deforested land surface types located within 10-km of each other in temperate eastern North America. Summer surface albedo is very well simulated over cropland, C-3 grassland, and broadleaf deciduous temperate forests. In winter, modeled snow cover persists longer in spring than at the tower sites, resulting in higher average winter and spring albedo. Latent heat does not vary significantly among the three tower sites. PTCLM underestimates forest latent heat and overestimates cropland and grassland summer latent heat. We evaluate temperature differences between forested and deforested sites due to changes in surface albedo, energy redistribution due to changes in surface roughness, and energy redistribution due to changes in latent and sensible heat partitioning (e.g., Bowen ratio). Surprisingly, temperature differences resulting from radiative forcing due to changes in surface albedo are relatively minor at the tower sites and generally too high in PTCLM. We conclude that the increased surface roughness of forests contributes strongly to nocturnal cooling over deforested tower sites in winter and daytime warming in summer. The importance of biogeophysical coupling between the land surface and atmosphere on energy redistribution due to surface roughness is explored using high-resolution (28-km) Variable Resolution Community Earth System Model (VR-CESM) simulations.

  11. Quantifying Urban Watershed Stressor Gradients and Evaluating How Different Land Cover Datasets Affect Stream Management.

    PubMed

    Smucker, Nathan J; Kuhn, Anne; Charpentier, Michael A; Cruz-Quinones, Carlos J; Elonen, Colleen M; Whorley, Sarah B; Jicha, Terri M; Serbst, Jonathan R; Hill, Brian H; Wehr, John D

    2016-03-01

    Watershed management and policies affecting downstream ecosystems benefit from identifying relationships between land cover and water quality. However, different data sources can create dissimilarities in land cover estimates and models that characterize ecosystem responses. We used a spatially balanced stream study (1) to effectively sample development and urban stressor gradients while representing the extent of a large coastal watershed (>4400 km(2)), (2) to document differences between estimates of watershed land cover using 30-m resolution national land cover database (NLCD) and <1-m resolution land cover data, and (3) to determine if predictive models and relationships between water quality and land cover differed when using these two land cover datasets. Increased concentrations of nutrients, anions, and cations had similarly significant correlations with increased watershed percent impervious cover (IC), regardless of data resolution. The NLCD underestimated percent forest for 71/76 sites by a mean of 11 % and overestimated percent wetlands for 71/76 sites by a mean of 8 %. The NLCD almost always underestimated IC at low development intensities and overestimated IC at high development intensities. As a result of underestimated IC, regression models using NLCD data predicted mean background concentrations of NO3 (-) and Cl(-) that were 475 and 177 %, respectively, of those predicted when using finer resolution land cover data. Our sampling design could help states and other agencies seeking to create monitoring programs and indicators responsive to anthropogenic impacts. Differences between land cover datasets could affect resource protection due to misguided management targets, watershed development and conservation practices, or water quality criteria. PMID:26614349

  12. Quantifying Urban Watershed Stressor Gradients and Evaluating How Different Land Cover Datasets Affect Stream Management.

    PubMed

    Smucker, Nathan J; Kuhn, Anne; Charpentier, Michael A; Cruz-Quinones, Carlos J; Elonen, Colleen M; Whorley, Sarah B; Jicha, Terri M; Serbst, Jonathan R; Hill, Brian H; Wehr, John D

    2016-03-01

    Watershed management and policies affecting downstream ecosystems benefit from identifying relationships between land cover and water quality. However, different data sources can create dissimilarities in land cover estimates and models that characterize ecosystem responses. We used a spatially balanced stream study (1) to effectively sample development and urban stressor gradients while representing the extent of a large coastal watershed (>4400 km(2)), (2) to document differences between estimates of watershed land cover using 30-m resolution national land cover database (NLCD) and <1-m resolution land cover data, and (3) to determine if predictive models and relationships between water quality and land cover differed when using these two land cover datasets. Increased concentrations of nutrients, anions, and cations had similarly significant correlations with increased watershed percent impervious cover (IC), regardless of data resolution. The NLCD underestimated percent forest for 71/76 sites by a mean of 11 % and overestimated percent wetlands for 71/76 sites by a mean of 8 %. The NLCD almost always underestimated IC at low development intensities and overestimated IC at high development intensities. As a result of underestimated IC, regression models using NLCD data predicted mean background concentrations of NO3 (-) and Cl(-) that were 475 and 177 %, respectively, of those predicted when using finer resolution land cover data. Our sampling design could help states and other agencies seeking to create monitoring programs and indicators responsive to anthropogenic impacts. Differences between land cover datasets could affect resource protection due to misguided management targets, watershed development and conservation practices, or water quality criteria.

  13. Quantifying Urban Watershed Stressor Gradients and Evaluating How Different Land Cover Datasets Affect Stream Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smucker, Nathan J.; Kuhn, Anne; Charpentier, Michael A.; Cruz-Quinones, Carlos J.; Elonen, Colleen M.; Whorley, Sarah B.; Jicha, Terri M.; Serbst, Jonathan R.; Hill, Brian H.; Wehr, John D.

    2016-03-01

    Watershed management and policies affecting downstream ecosystems benefit from identifying relationships between land cover and water quality. However, different data sources can create dissimilarities in land cover estimates and models that characterize ecosystem responses. We used a spatially balanced stream study (1) to effectively sample development and urban stressor gradients while representing the extent of a large coastal watershed (>4400 km2), (2) to document differences between estimates of watershed land cover using 30-m resolution national land cover database (NLCD) and <1-m resolution land cover data, and (3) to determine if predictive models and relationships between water quality and land cover differed when using these two land cover datasets. Increased concentrations of nutrients, anions, and cations had similarly significant correlations with increased watershed percent impervious cover (IC), regardless of data resolution. The NLCD underestimated percent forest for 71/76 sites by a mean of 11 % and overestimated percent wetlands for 71/76 sites by a mean of 8 %. The NLCD almost always underestimated IC at low development intensities and overestimated IC at high development intensities. As a result of underestimated IC, regression models using NLCD data predicted mean background concentrations of NO3 - and Cl- that were 475 and 177 %, respectively, of those predicted when using finer resolution land cover data. Our sampling design could help states and other agencies seeking to create monitoring programs and indicators responsive to anthropogenic impacts. Differences between land cover datasets could affect resource protection due to misguided management targets, watershed development and conservation practices, or water quality criteria.

  14. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Assess Vegetative Cover and Identify Biotic Resources in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystems: Preliminary Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Breckenridge

    2006-04-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in conjunction with the University of Idaho, is evaluating novel approaches for using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a quicker and safer method for monitoring biotic resources. Evaluating vegetative cover is an important factor in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems. In assessing vegetative cover, methods that improve accuracy and cost efficiency could revolutionize how biotic resources are monitored on western federal lands. Sagebrush steppe ecosystems provide important habitat for a variety of species, some of which are important indicator species (e.g., sage grouse). Improved methods are needed to support monitoring these habitats because there are not enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluation of these ecosystems. In this project, two types of UAV platforms (fixed wing and helicopter) were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This paper discusses the process for collecting and analyzing imagery from the UAVs to (1) estimate total percent cover, (2) estimate percent cover for six different types of vegetation, and (3) locate sage grouse based on representative decoys. The field plots were located on the INL site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, in areas with varying amounts and types of vegetative cover. A software program called SamplePoint developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service was used to evaluate the imagery for percent cover for the six vegetation types (bare ground, litter, shrubs, dead shrubs, grasses, and forbs). Results were compared against standard field measurements to assess accuracy.

  15. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Porous pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pavers themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between the pavers are backfilled with washed, grade...

  16. The international geosphere biosphere programme data and information system global land cover data set (DIScover)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, T.R.; Belward, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    The International Geosphere Biosphere Programme Data and Information System (IGBP-DIS), through the mapping expertise of the U.S. Geological Survey and the European Commission's Joint Research Centre, recently guided the completion of a 1-km resolution global land cover data set from advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data. The 1-km resolution land cover product, 'DISCover,' was based on monthly normalized difference vegetation index composites from 1992 and 1993. The development of DISCover was coordinated by the IGBP-DIS Land Cover Working Group as part of the IGBP-DIS Focus 1 activity. DISCover is a 17-class land cover data set based on the scientific requirements of IGBP elements. The mapping used unsupervised classification and postclassification refinement using ancillary data. The development of this data set was motivated by the need for global land cover data with higher spatial resolution, improved temporal specificity, and known classification accuracy. The completed DISCover data set will soon be validated to determine the accuracy of the global classification.

  17. EVALUATION OF LAND USE/LAND COVER DATASETS FOR URBAN WATERSHED MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    S.J. BURIAN; M.J. BROWN; T.N. MCPHERSON

    2001-08-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) data are a vital component for nonpoint source pollution modeling. Most watershed hydrology and pollutant loading models use, in some capacity, LULC information to generate runoff and pollutant loading estimates. Simple equation methods predict runoff and pollutant loads using runoff coefficients or pollutant export coefficients that are often correlated to LULC type. Complex models use input variables and parameters to represent watershed characteristics and pollutant buildup and washoff rates as a function of LULC type. Whether using simple or complex models an accurate LULC dataset with an appropriate spatial resolution and level of detail is paramount for reliable predictions. The study presented in this paper compared and evaluated several LULC dataset sources for application in urban environmental modeling. The commonly used USGS LULC datasets have coarser spatial resolution and lower levels of classification than other LULC datasets. In addition, the USGS datasets do not accurately represent the land use in areas that have undergone significant land use change during the past two decades. We performed a watershed modeling analysis of three urban catchments in Los Angeles, California, USA to investigate the relative difference in average annual runoff volumes and total suspended solids (TSS) loads when using the USGS LULC dataset versus using a more detailed and current LULC dataset. When the two LULC datasets were aggregated to the same land use categories, the relative differences in predicted average annual runoff volumes and TSS loads from the three catchments were 8 to 14% and 13 to 40%, respectively. The relative differences did not have a predictable relationship with catchment size.

  18. Evaluation of land use/land cover datasets for urban watershed modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Burian, S. J.; Brown, M. J.; McPherson, T. N.

    2001-01-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) data are a vital component for nonpoint source pollution modeling. Most watershed hydrology and pollutant loading models use, in some capacity, LULC information to generate runoff and pollutant loading estimates. Simple equation methods predict runoff and pollutant loads using runoff coefficients or pollutant export coefficients that are often correlated to LULC type. Complex models use input variables and parameters to represent watershed characteristics and pollutant buildup and washoff rates as a function of LULC type. Whether using simple or complex models an accurate LULC dataset with an appropriate spatial resolution and level of detail is paramount for reliable predictions. The study presented in this paper compared and evaluated several LULC dataset sources for application in urban environmental modeling. The commonly used USGS LULC datasets have coarser spatial resolution and lower levels of classification than other LULC datasets. In addition, the USGS datasets do not accurately represent the land use in areas that have undergone significant land use change during the past two decades. We performed a watershed modeling analysis of three urban catchments in Los Angeles, California, USA to investigate the relative difference in average annual runoff volumes and total suspended solids (TSS) loads when using the USGS LULC dataset versus using a more detailed and current LULC dataset. When the two LULC datasets were aggregated to the same land use categories, the relative differences in predicted average annual runoff volumes and TSS loads from the three catchments were 8 to 14% and 13 to 40%, respectively. The relative differences did not have a predictable relationship with catchment size.

  19. Evaluation of land use/land cover datasets for urban watershed modeling.

    PubMed

    Burian, S J; Brown, M J; McPherson, T N

    2002-01-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) data are a vital component for nonpoint source pollution modeling. Most watershed hydrology and pollutant loading models use, in some capacity, LULC information to generate runoff and pollutant loading estimates. Simple equation methods predict runoff and pollutant loads using runoff coefficients or pollutant export coefficients that are often correlated to LULC type. Complex models use input variables and parameters to represent watershed characteristics and pollutant buildup and washoff rates as a function of LULC type. Whether using simple or complex models an accurate LULC dataset with an appropriate spatial resolution and level of detail is paramount for reliable predictions. The study presented in this paper compared and evaluated several LULC dataset sources for application in urban environmental modeling. The commonly used USGS LULC datasets have coarser spatial resolution and lower levels of classification than other LULC datasets. In addition, the USGS datasets do not accurately represent the land use in areas that have undergone significant land use change during the past two decades. We performed a watershed modeling analysis of three urban catchments in Los Angeles, California, USA to investigate the relative difference in average annual runoff volumes and total suspended solids (TSS) loads when using the USGS LULC dataset versus using a more detailed and current LULC dataset. When the two LULC datasets were aggregated to the same land use categories, the relative differences in predicted average annual runoff volumes and TSS loads from the three catchments were 8 to 14% and 13 to 40%, respectively. The relative differences did not have a predictable relationship with catchment size. PMID:12079113

  20. Evaluation of the satellite derived snow cover area - Runoff forecasting models for the inaccessible basins of western Himalayas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dey, B.

    1985-01-01

    In this study, the existing seasonal snow cover area runoff forecasting models of the Indus, Kabul, Sutlej and Chenab basins were evaluated with the concurrent flow correlation model for the period 1975-79. In all the basins under study, correlation of concurrent flow model explained the variability in flow better than by the snow cover area runoff models. Actually, the concurrent flow correlation model explained more than 90 percent of the variability in the flow of these rivers. Compared to this model, the snow cover area runoff models explained less of the variability in flow. In the Himalayan river basins under study and at least for the period under observation, the concurrent flow correlation model provided a set of results with which to compare the estimates from the snow cover area runoff models.

  1. Experimental evaluation of ALS point cloud ground extraction over different land cover in the Malopolska Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzeniowska, Karolina; Mandlburger, Gottfried; Klimczyk, Agata

    2013-04-01

    The paper presents an evaluation of different terrain point extraction algorithms for Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) point clouds. The research area covers eight test sites in the Małopolska Province (Poland) with varying point density between 3-15points/m² and surface as well as land cover characteristics. In this paper the existing implementations of algorithms were considered. Approaches based on mathematical morphology, progressive densification, robust surface interpolation and segmentation were compared. From the group of morphological filters, the Progressive Morphological Filter (PMF) proposed by Zhang K. et al. (2003) in LIS software was evaluated. From the progressive densification filter methods developed by Axelsson P. (2000) the Martin Isenburg's implementation in LAStools software (LAStools, 2012) was chosen. The third group of methods are surface-based filters. In this study, we used the hierarchic robust interpolation approach by Kraus K., Pfeifer N. (1998) as implemented in SCOP++ (Trimble, 2012). The fourth group of methods works on segmentation. From this filtering concept the segmentation algorithm available in LIS was tested (Wichmann V., 2012). The main aim in executing the automatic classification for ground extraction was operating in default mode or with default parameters which were selected by the developers of the algorithms. It was assumed that the default settings were equivalent to the parameters on which the best results can be achieved. In case it was not possible to apply an algorithm in default mode, a combination of the available and most crucial parameters for ground extraction were selected. As a result of these analyses, several output LAS files with different ground classification were achieved. The results were described on the basis of qualitative and quantitative analyses, both being in a formal description. The classification differences were verified on point cloud data. Qualitative verification of ground extraction was

  2. An Interactive Real-time Decision Support System for Leachate Irrigation on Evapotranspiration Landfill Covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Landfill disposal is still the most common and economical practice for municipal solid waste in most countries. However, heavily polluted leachate generated by excess rainwater percolating through the landfill waste is the major drawback of this practice. Evapotranspiration (ET) cover systems are increasingly being used as alternative cover systems to minimize percolation by evapotranspiration. Leachate recirculation is one of the least expensive options for leachate treatment. The combination of ET cover systems and leachate recirculation can be an economical and environment-friendly practice for landfill leachate management. An interactive real-time decision support system is being developed to better manage leachate irrigation using historical and forecasting weather data, and real time soil moisture data. The main frame of this system includes soil water modules, and plant-soil modules. An inverse simulation module is also included to calibrate certain parameters based on observed data when necessary. It would be an objectives-oriented irrigation management tool to minimize landfill operation costs and negative environmental impacts.

  3. Estimation of runoff mitigation by morphologically different cover crop root systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yang; Loiskandl, Willibald; Kaul, Hans-Peter; Himmelbauer, Margarita; Wei, Wei; Chen, Liding; Bodner, Gernot

    2016-07-01

    Hydrology is a major driver of biogeochemical processes underlying the distinct productivity of different biomes, including agricultural plantations. Understanding factors governing water fluxes in soil is therefore a key target for hydrological management. Our aim was to investigate changes in soil hydraulic conductivity driven by morphologically different root systems of cover crops and their impact on surface runoff. Root systems of twelve cover crop species were characterized and the corresponding hydraulic conductivity was measured by tension infiltrometry. Relations of root traits to Gardner's hydraulic conductivity function were determined and the impact on surface runoff was estimated using HYDRUS 2D. The species differed in both rooting density and root axes thickness, with legumes distinguished by coarser axes. Soil hydraulic conductivity was changed particularly in the plant row where roots are concentrated. Specific root length and median root radius were the best predictors for hydraulic conductivity changes. For an intensive rainfall simulation scenario up to 17% less rainfall was lost by surface runoff in case of the coarsely rooted legumes Melilotus officinalis and Lathyrus sativus, and the densely rooted Linum usitatissimum. Cover crops with coarse root axes and high rooting density enhance soil hydraulic conductivity and effectively reduce surface runoff. An appropriate functional root description can contribute to targeted cover crop selection for efficient runoff mitigation.

  4. A web-based system for supporting global land cover data production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Gang; Chen, Jun; He, Chaoying; Li, Songnian; Wu, Hao; Liao, Anping; Peng, Shu

    2015-05-01

    Global land cover (GLC) data production and verification process is very complicated, time consuming and labor intensive, requiring huge amount of imagery data and ancillary data and involving many people, often from different geographic locations. The efficient integration of various kinds of ancillary data and effective collaborative classification in large area land cover mapping requires advanced supporting tools. This paper presents the design and development of a web-based system for supporting 30-m resolution GLC data production by combining geo-spatial web-service and Computer Support Collaborative Work (CSCW) technology. Based on the analysis of the functional and non-functional requirements from GLC mapping, a three tiers system model is proposed with four major parts, i.e., multisource data resources, data and function services, interactive mapping and production management. The prototyping and implementation of the system have been realised by a combination of Open Source Software (OSS) and commercially available off-the-shelf system. This web-based system not only facilitates the integration of heterogeneous data and services required by GLC data production, but also provides online access, visualization and analysis of the images, ancillary data and interim 30 m global land-cover maps. The system further supports online collaborative quality check and verification workflows. It has been successfully applied to China's 30-m resolution GLC mapping project, and has improved significantly the efficiency of GLC data production and verification. The concepts developed through this study should also benefit other GLC or regional land-cover data production efforts.

  5. Evaluation of the odour reduction potential of alternative cover materials at a commercial landfill.

    PubMed

    Solan, P J; Dodd, V A; Curran, T P

    2010-02-01

    The availability of virgin soils and traditional landfill covers are not only costly and increasingly becoming scarce, but they also reduce the storage capacity of landfill. The problem can be overcome by the utilisation of certain suitable waste streams as alternative landfill covers. The objective of this study was to assess the suitability of Construction & Demolition fines (C&D), Commercial & Industrial fines (C&I) and woodchip (WC) as potential landfill cover materials in terms of odour control. Background odour analysis was conducted to determine if any residual odour was emitted from the cover types. It was deemed negligible for the three materials. The odour reduction performance of each of the materials was also examined on an area of an active landfill site. A range of intermediate cover compositions were also studied to assess their performance. Odour emissions were sampled using a Jiang hood and analysed. Results indicate that the 200 mm deep combination layer of C&D and wood chip used on-site is adequate for odour abatement. The application of daily cover was found to result in effective reduction allowing for the background odour of woodchip. PMID:19786346

  6. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pervious pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in Edison, NJ, is evaluating concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pollutant removal of a bench-scale permeable interlo...

  7. UNREVIEWED DISPOSAL QUESTION EVALUATION: CENTER SLIT TRENCHES ONE THROUGH FIVE OPERATIONAL COVERS REANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.; Swingle, R.

    2011-05-26

    Operational inventory limits for the disposal of solid low-level waste in Slit Trenches 1-7 were established by the Special Analysis (SA) performed by Collard and Hamm (2008). To determine disposal limits for the Slit Trenches, the SA followed the methodology used in the 2008 PA (WSRC, 2008) which assumed that the inventories in each trench were instantaneously placed in 12/1995, which is the date when SLIT1 began operation. The 2008 SA analyzed the impact from placing storm-water runoff covers simultaneously over Slit Trenches 1-7 at 5, 10 and 15 years after the inventory was introduced. To include a measure of conservatism in the limits, the lowest of the limits calculated for any storm-water runoff cover placement time or that calculated in the original 2008 PA was chosen as the operational limit for each radionuclide. Through the availability of funding provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), storm-water runoff covers were placed over Slit Trenches 1-5 in December 2010. SRNL was requested to perform a UDQE for this accelerated action. Table 1 below lists the operational dates for Slit Trenches 1-5 and the time elapsed between when the first waste package was disposed in each Slit Trench and when the storm-water runoff covers were placed. As shown in Table 1, SLIT1 was covered 15.0 years after the date of the first waste package disposal. SLIT2 was covered 9.2 years after the date of the first waste package disposal in SLIT2 which falls within the window of {+-} 1.0 year within which the 2008 SA cover time analysis was assumed to be valid (Crowley and Butcher, 2008). Therefore, the analysis of SLIT1 and SLIT2 in the 2008 SA is considered adequate. However, the cover timings for SLIT3, SLIT4 and SLIT5 are from 2.2 to 1.6 years beyond the nearest cover time of 5 years assumed in the 2008 SA analysis and fall outside of the acceptable one-year margin. Therefore, an additional study was conducted by Collard et al. (2011) that assessed the

  8. Evaluating The National Land Cover Database Tree Canopy and Impervious Cover Estimates Across the Conterminous United States: A Comparison with Photo-Interpreted Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    The 2001 National Land Cover Database (NLCD) provides 30-m resolution estimates of percentage tree canopy and percentage impervious cover for the conterminous United States. Previous estimates that compared NLCD tree canopy and impervious cover estimates with photo-interpreted cover estimates within selected counties and places revealed that NLCD underestimates tree and impervious cover. Based on these previous results, a wall-to-wall comprehensive national analysis was conducted to determine if and how NLCD derived estimates of tree and impervious cover varies from photo-interpreted values across the conterminous United States. Results of this analysis reveal that NLCD significantly underestimates tree cover in 64 of the 65 zones used to create the NCLD cover maps, with a national average underestimation of 9.7% (standard error (SE) = 1.0%) and a maximum underestimation of 28.4% in mapping zone 3. Impervious cover was also underestimated in 44 zones with an average underestimation of 1.4% (SE = 0.4%) and a maximum underestimation of 5.7% in mapping zone 56. Understanding the degree of underestimation by mapping zone can lead to better estimates of tree and impervious cover and a better understanding of the potential limitations associated with NLCD cover estimates. PMID:20676888

  9. Evaluating The National Land Cover Database Tree Canopy and Impervious Cover Estimates Across the Conterminous United States: A Comparison with Photo-Interpreted Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, David J.; Greenfield, Eric J.

    2010-09-01

    The 2001 National Land Cover Database (NLCD) provides 30-m resolution estimates of percentage tree canopy and percentage impervious cover for the conterminous United States. Previous estimates that compared NLCD tree canopy and impervious cover estimates with photo-interpreted cover estimates within selected counties and places revealed that NLCD underestimates tree and impervious cover. Based on these previous results, a wall-to-wall comprehensive national analysis was conducted to determine if and how NLCD derived estimates of tree and impervious cover varies from photo-interpreted values across the conterminous United States. Results of this analysis reveal that NLCD significantly underestimates tree cover in 64 of the 65 zones used to create the NCLD cover maps, with a national average underestimation of 9.7% (standard error (SE) = 1.0%) and a maximum underestimation of 28.4% in mapping zone 3. Impervious cover was also underestimated in 44 zones with an average underestimation of 1.4% (SE = 0.4%) and a maximum underestimation of 5.7% in mapping zone 56. Understanding the degree of underestimation by mapping zone can lead to better estimates of tree and impervious cover and a better understanding of the potential limitations associated with NLCD cover estimates.

  10. Applications systems verification and transfer project. Volume 1: Operational applications of satellite snow cover observations: Executive summary. [usefulness of satellite snow-cover data for water yield prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.

    1981-01-01

    Both LANDSAT and NOAA satellite data were used in improving snowmelt runoff forecasts. When the satellite snow cover data were tested in both empirical seasonal runoff estimation and short term modeling approaches, a definite potential for reducing forecast error was evident. A cost benefit analysis run in conjunction with the snow mapping indicated a $36.5 million annual benefit accruing from a one percent improvement in forecast accuracy using the snow cover data for the western United States. The annual cost of employing the system would be $505,000. The snow mapping has proven that satellite snow cover data can be used to reduce snowmelt runoff forecast error in a cost effective manner once all operational satellite data are available within 72 hours after acquisition. Executive summaries of the individual snow mapping projects are presented.

  11. Effects of a killed-cover crop mulching system on sweetpotato production, soil pests, and insect predators in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Jackson, D Michael; Harrison, Howard F

    2008-12-01

    Sweetpotatoes, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Convolvulaceae), are typically grown on bare soil where weeds and erosion can be serious problems. Conservation tillage systems using cover crop residues as mulch can help reduce these problems, but little is known about how conservation tillage affects yield and quality of sweetpotato or how these systems impact populations of beneficial and pest insects. Therefore, field experiments were conducted at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, Charleston, SC, in 2002-2004 to evaluate production of sweetpotatoes in conventional tillage versus a conservation tillage system by using an oat (Avena sativa L. (Poaceae)-crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.) (Fabaceae) killed-cover crop (KCC) mulch. The four main treatments were 1) conventional tillage, hand-weeded; 2) KCC, hand-weeded; 3) conventional tillage, weedy; and 4) KCC, weedy. Each main plot was divided into three subplots, whose treatments were sweetpotato genotypes: 'Ruddy', which is resistant to soil insect pests; and 'SC1149-19' and 'Beauregard', which are susceptible to soil insect pests. For both the KCC and conventional tillage systems, sweetpotato yields were higher in plots that received hand weeding than in weedy plots. Orthogonal contrasts revealed a significant effect of tillage treatment (conventional tillage versus KCC) on yield in two of the 3 yr. Ruddy remained resistant to injury by soil insect pests in both cropping systems; and it consistently had significantly higher percentages of clean roots and less damage by wireworm-Diabrotica-Systena complex, sweetpotato flea beetles, grubs, and sweetpotato weevils than the two susceptible genotypes. In general, injury to sweetpotato roots by soil insect pests was not significantly higher in the KCC plots than in the conventionally tilled plots. Also, more fire ants, rove beetles, and carabid beetle were captured by pitfall traps in the KCC plots than in the conventional tillage plots during at least 1 yr of the study

  12. Effect of different cover crops on C and N cycling in sorghum NT systems.

    PubMed

    Frasier, Ileana; Quiroga, Alberto; Noellemeyer, Elke

    2016-08-15

    In many no-till (NT) systems, residue input is low and fallow periods excessive, for which reasons soil degradation occurs. Cover crops could improve organic matter, biological activity, and soil structure. In order to study changes in soil carbon, nitrogen and microbial biomass a field experiment (2010-2012) was set up with sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench.) monoculture and with cover crops. Treatments were control (NT with bare fallow), rye (Secale cereale L.) (R), rye with nitrogen fertilization (R+N), vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.) (V), and rye-vetch mixture (VR) cover crops. A completely randomized block design with 4 replicates was used. Soil was sampled once a year at 0.06 and 0.12m depth for total C, microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and-nitrogen (MBN) determinations. Shoot and root biomass of sorghum and cover crops, litter biomass, and their respective carbon and nitrogen contents were determined. Soil temperatures at 0.06 and 0.12m depth, volumetric water contents and nitrate concentrations were determined at sowing, and harvest of each crop, and during sorghum's vegetative phase. NT led to a small increase in MBC and MBN, despite low litter and root biomass residue. Cover crops increased litter, root biomass, total C, MBC, and MBN. Relationships between MBC, MBN, and root-C and -N adjusted to logistic models (R(2)=0.61 and 0.43 for C and N respectively). Litter cover improved soil moisture to 45-50% water filled pore space and soil temperatures not exceeding 25°C during the warmest month. Microbial biomass stabilized at 20.1gCm(-2) and 1.9gNm(-2) in the upper 0.06m. Soil litter disappearance was a good indicator of mineral N availability. These findings support the view that cover crops, specifically legumes in NT systems can increase soil ecosystem services related to water and carbon storage, habitat for biodiversity, and nutrient availability. PMID:27107651

  13. 40 CFR 60.5416 - What are the initial and continuous cover and closed vent system inspection and monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cover and closed vent system inspection and monitoring requirements for my storage vessel and... for my storage vessel and centrifugal compressor affected facility? For each closed vent system or... required to conduct an inspection of a closed vent system or cover at your storage vessel or...

  14. 40 CFR 60.5416 - What are the initial and continuous cover and closed vent system inspection and monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cover and closed vent system inspection and monitoring requirements for my storage vessel and... for my storage vessel and centrifugal compressor affected facility? For each closed vent system or... in this section and in § 60.5420(c)(9). (c) Cover and closed vent system inspections for...

  15. Balance Evaluation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NeuroCom's Balance Master is a system to assess and then retrain patients with balance and mobility problems and is used in several medical centers. NeuroCom received assistance in research and funding from NASA, and incorporated technology from testing mechanisms for astronauts after shuttle flights. The EquiTest and Balance Master Systems are computerized posturography machines that measure patient responses to movement of a platform on which the subject is standing or sitting, then provide assessments of the patient's postural alignment and stability.

  16. Evaluation of building ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.T.; O'Brien, D.M.

    1986-04-01

    Over the past several years, NIOSH has responded to health hazard evaluation requests from workers in dozens of office environments. Typically, the employees have complained of headache, eye and upper respiratory tract irritation, dizziness, lethargy and the inability to concentrate. Most often inadequate ventilation has been blamed for these complaints. Of paramount importance in the evaluation and correction of these problems is an effective evaluation of the building's ventilation system. Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning conditions that can cause worker stresses include: migration of odors or chemical hazards between building areas; reentrainment of exhaust from building fume hoods or through heat wheels; buildup of microorganisms in the HVAC system components; and poor odor or environmental control due to insufficient fresh outdoor air or system heating or cooling malfunction. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of building ventilation systems, the ventilation problems associated with poorly designed or operating systems, and the methodology for effectively evaluating system performance.

  17. Evaluation of modeled surface ozone biases as a function of cloud cover fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. C.; Lee, P.; Ngan, F.; Tang, Y.; Yoo, H. L.; Pan, L.

    2015-09-01

    A regional air-quality forecast system's model of surface ozone variability based on cloud coverage is evaluated using satellite-observed cloud fraction (CF) information and a surface air-quality monitoring system. We compared CF and daily maximum ozone from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NOAA NAQFC) with CFs from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the US Environmental Protection Agency's AirNow surface ozone measurements during May to October 2014. We found that observed surface ozone shows a negative correlation with the MODIS CFs, showing around 1 ppb decrease for 10 % MODIS CF change over the contiguous United States, while the correlation of modeled surface ozone with the model CFs is much weaker, showing only -0.5 ppb per 10 % NAQFC CF change. Further, daytime CF differences between MODIS and NAQFC are correlated with modeled surface-ozone biases between AirNow and NAQFC, showing -1.05 ppb per 10 % CF change, implying that spatial and temporal misplacement of the modeled cloud field might have biased modeled surface ozone level. Current NAQFC cloud fields seem to have fewer CFs compared to MODIS cloud fields (mean NAQFC CF = 0.38 and mean MODIS CF = 0.55), contributing up to 35 % of surface-ozone bias in the current NAQFC system.

  18. Land-cover observations as part of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS): progress, activities, and prospects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herold, M.; Woodcock, C.E.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Townshend, J.; Brady, M.; Steenmans, C.; Schmullius, C. C.

    2008-01-01

    The international land-cover community has been working with GEO since 2005 to build the foundations for land-cover observations as an integral part of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The Group on Earth Observation (GEO) has provided the platform to elevate the societal relevance of land cover monitoring and helped to link a diverse set of global, regional, and national activities. A dedicated 2007-2009 GEO work plan task has resulted in achievements on the strategic and implementation levels. Integrated Global Observations of the Land (IGOL), the land theme of the Integrated Global Observation Strategy (IGOS), has been approved and is now in the process of transition into GEO implementation. New global land-cover maps at moderate spatial resolutions (i.e., GLOBCOVER) are being produced using guidelines and standards of the international community. The Middecadal Global Landsat Survey for 2005-2006 is extending previous 1990 and 2000 efforts for global, high-quality Landsat data. Despite this progress, essential challenges for building a sustained global land-cover-observing system remain, including: international cooperation on the continuity of global observations; ensuring consistency in land monitoring approaches; community engagement and country participation in mapping activities; commitment to ongoing quality assurance and validation; and regional networking and capacity building.

  19. Evaluating Educative Temporary Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Gary; Lamoureux, Marvin E.

    1975-01-01

    The framework of temporary systems theory was the basis for forming theoretical units and propositions pertaining to the outcomes of intensive adult education programs. Empirical indicators and research hypotheses were then developed and applied in the 1972 residential program of the Labour College of Canada. (Author)

  20. Design of a covered lagoon methane recovery system for a flush dairy

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.W.; Moser, M.; Smith, J.

    1996-12-31

    A lagoon-type methane recovery system was designed for the Cal Poly Dairy, which milks 130 cows with a total population of 296 animals. Most of the herd is housed in freestall barns where the manure is deposited on concrete and flushed with fresh or recycled water to an existing lagoon with a volume of 19,300 cubic meters. The design includes a new, primary covered lagoon of 17,000 cubic meters volume. The floating cover will be made of very low density polyethylene (VLDPE), with an area of 4,500 square meters. The predicted output of the lagoon is an average of over 310 cubic meters of biogas per day containing 60 percent methane. The methane production from the covered lagoon is adequate to produce 18 to 24 kW on a continuous basis from the present cow population. In order to account for future herd size increases, a 40 kW engine generator was specified to operate in parallel with the utility system at a varying level of output controlled by the biogas supply. The non-economic benefits of this covered lagoon include the demonstration of its operation to the students and visitors at Cal Poly which in turn will serve the California Dairy Community. Odor control is the most important non-economic benefit. Conversion of volatile solids to biogas and recovery and use of the biogas limits odor to surrounding areas. The economic benefits of the methane recovery system include the approximately 160,000 kWh of electricity produced annually, worth almost $13,000. Financial analyses for the project showed a payback of 13.7 years with a 4% internal rate of return.

  1. A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, James R.; Hardy, Ernest E.; Roach, John T.; Witmer, Richard E.

    1976-01-01

    The framework of a national land use and land cover classification system is presented for use with remote sensor data. The classification system has been developed to meet the needs of Federal and State agencies for an up-to-date overview of land use and land cover throughout the country on a basis that is uniform in categorization at the more generalized first and second levels and that will be receptive to data from satellite and aircraft remote sensors. The proposed system uses the features of existing widely used classification systems that are amenable to data derived from remote sensing sources. It is intentionally left open-ended so that Federal, regional, State, and local agencies can have flexibility in developing more detailed land use classifications at the third and fourth levels in order to meet their particular needs and at the same time remain compatible with each other and the national system. Revision of the land use classification system as presented in U.S. Geological Survey Circular 671 was undertaken in order to incorporate the results of extensive testing and review of the categorization and definitions.

  2. Evaluating source area contributions from aircraft flux measurements over heterogeneous land cover by large eddy simulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The estimation of spatial patterns in surface fluxes from aircraft observations poses several challenges in presence of heterogeneous land cover. In particular, the effects of turbulence on scalar transport and the different behavior of passive (e.g. moisture) versus active (e.g. temperature) scalar...

  3. 10 CFR 709.3 - Covered persons subject to a CI evaluation and polygraph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Paragraph (a) of this section applies to covered persons: (1) In an intelligence or counterintelligence program office (or with programmatic reporting responsibility to an intelligence or counterintelligence program office) because of access to classified intelligence information, or sources, or methods; (2)...

  4. 10 CFR 709.3 - Covered persons subject to a CI evaluation and polygraph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Paragraph (a) of this section applies to covered persons: (1) In an intelligence or counterintelligence program office (or with programmatic reporting responsibility to an intelligence or counterintelligence program office) because of access to classified intelligence information, or sources, or methods; (2)...

  5. 10 CFR 709.3 - Covered persons subject to a CI evaluation and polygraph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Paragraph (a) of this section applies to covered persons: (1) In an intelligence or counterintelligence program office (or with programmatic reporting responsibility to an intelligence or counterintelligence program office) because of access to classified intelligence information, or sources, or methods; (2)...

  6. 10 CFR 709.3 - Covered persons subject to a CI evaluation and polygraph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Paragraph (a) of this section applies to covered persons: (1) In an intelligence or counterintelligence program office (or with programmatic reporting responsibility to an intelligence or counterintelligence program office) because of access to classified intelligence information, or sources, or methods; (2)...

  7. Critical evaluations of vegetation cover measurement techniques: a response to Thacker et al. (2015)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparison studies are necessary to reconcile methods that have arisen among disparate rangeland monitoring programs. However, Thacker et al.'s study comparing Daubenmire frame (DF) and line-point intercept (LPI) methods for estimating vegetation cover ignores definitional differences between what t...

  8. RETROSPECTIVE LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS, AN APPROACH FOR EVALUATION LAND COVER CHANGE: SAN PEDRO RIVER CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory


    Vegetation change in the American West has been the subject of much concern and controversy throughout the twentieth century. Over the years, a considerable number and variety of 'claims have been made regarding cause related to changes in land cover. The evidence for vegetat...

  9. MTA Computer Based Evaluation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Lisa P.; And Others

    The MTA PLATO-based evaluation system, which has been implemented by a consortium of schools of medical technology, is designed to be general-purpose, modular, data-driven, and interactive, and to accommodate other national and local item banks. The system provides a comprehensive interactive item-banking system in conjunction with online student…

  10. Evaluating the Potential of Multispectral Airborne LIDAR for Topographic Mapping and Land Cover Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichmann, V.; Bremer, M.; Lindenberger, J.; Rutzinger, M.; Georges, C.; Petrini-Monteferri, F.

    2015-08-01

    Recently multispectral LiDAR became a promising research field for enhanced LiDAR classification workflows and e.g. the assessment of vegetation health. Current analyses on multispectral LiDAR are mainly based on experimental setups, which are often limited transferable to operational tasks. In late 2014 Optech Inc. announced the first commercially available multispectral LiDAR system for airborne topographic mapping. The combined system makes synchronic multispectral LiDAR measurements possible, solving time shift problems of experimental acquisitions. This paper presents an explorative analysis of the first airborne collected data with focus on class specific spectral signatures. Spectral patterns are used for a classification approach, which is evaluated in comparison to a manual reference classification. Typical spectral patterns comparable to optical imagery could be observed for homogeneous and planar surfaces. For rough and volumetric objects such as trees, the spectral signature becomes biased by signal modification due to multi return effects. However, we show that this first flight data set is suitable for conventional geometrical classification and mapping procedures. Additional classes such as sealed and unsealed ground can be separated with high classification accuracies. For vegetation classification the distinction of species and health classes is possible.

  11. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The spatial characteristics of the data were evaluated. A program was developed to reduce the spatial distortions resulting from variable viewing distance, and geometrically adjusted data sets were generated. The potential need for some level of radiometric adjustment was evidenced by an along track band of high reflectance across different cover types in the Varian imagery. A multiple regression analysis was employed to explore the viewing angle effect on measured reflectance. Areas in the data set which appeared to have no across track stratification of cover type were identified. A program was developed which computed the average reflectance by column for each channel, over all of the scan lines in the designated areas. A regression analysis was then run using the first, second, and third degree polynomials, for each channel. An atmospheric effect as a component of the viewing angle source of variance is discussed. Cover type maps were completed and training and test field selection was initiated.

  12. Air Sampling System Evaluation Template

    2000-05-09

    The ASSET1.0 software provides a template with which a user can evaluate an Air Sampling System against the latest version of ANSI N13.1 "Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities". The software uses the ANSI N13.1 PIC levels to establish basic design criteria for the existing or proposed sampling system. The software looks at such criteria as PIC level, type of radionuclide emissions, physical state ofmore » the radionuclide, nozzle entrance effects, particulate transmission effects, system and component accuracy and precision evaluations, and basic system operations to provide a detailed look at the subsystems of a monitoring and sampling system/program. A GAP evaluation can then be completed which leads to identification of design and operational flaws in the proposed systems. Corrective measures can then be limited to the GAPs.« less

  13. Evaluating the Australian Traineeship System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Australian Traineeship System (ATS), a program integrating formal education and employment designed to increase options for dropouts. Discusses problems involving the centrality of ATS's educational component and implementation of a program evaluation strategy. Includes two references. (MLH)

  14. High-resolution wave forecasting system for the seasonally ice-covered Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuomi, Laura; Lehtiranta, Jonni

    2016-04-01

    When forecasting surface waves in seasonally ice-covered seas, the inclusion of ice conditions in the modelling is important. The ice cover affects the propagation and also changes the fetch over which the waves grow. In wave models the ice conditions are often still given as a boundary condition and handled by excluding areas where the ice concentration exceeds a certain threshold value. The ice data used are typically based on satellite analysis or expert analysis of local Ice Services who combine data from different sources. This type of data is sufficiently accurate to evaluate the near-real time ice concentrations, but when making forecasts it is also important to account for the possible changes in ice conditions. For example in a case of a high wind situation, there can be rapid changes in the ice field, when the wind and waves may push the ice towards shores and cause fragmentation of ice field. To enhance handling of ice conditions in the Baltic Sea wave forecasts, utilisation of ice model data was studied. Ice concentration, thickness produced by FMI's operational ice model HELMI were used to provide ice data to wave model as follows: Wave model grid points where the ice concentration was more than or equal to 70% and the ice thickness more than1 cm, were excluded from calculations. Ice concentrations smaller than that were taken into account as additional grid obstructions by decreasing the wave energy passed from one grid cell to another. A challenge in evaluating wave forecast accuracy in partly ice covered areas it that there's typically no wave buoy data available, since the buoys have to be recovered well before the sea area freezes. To evaluate the accuracy of wave forecast in partially ice covered areas, significant wave heights from altimeter's ERS2, Envisat, Jason-1 and Jason-2 were extracted from Ifremer database. Results showed that the more frequent update of the ice data was found to improve the wave forecast especially during high wind

  15. Soil depth mapping using seismic surface waves: Evaluation on eroded loess covered hillslopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardie, Severine; Samyn, Kevin; Cerdan, Olivier; Grandjean, Gilles

    2010-05-01

    The purposes of the multidisciplinary DIGISOIL project are the integration and improvement of in situ and proximal technologies for the assessment of soil properties and soil degradation indicators. Foreseen developments concern sensor technologies, data processing and their integration to applications of (digital) soil mapping (DSM). Among available techniques, the seismic one is, in this study, particularly tested for characterising soil vulnerability to erosion. The spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) method is an in situ seismic technique used for evaluation of the stiffnesses (G) and associated depth in layered systems. A profile of Rayleigh wave velocity versus frequency, i.e., the dispersion curve, is calculated from each recorded seismogram before to be inverted to obtain the vertical profile of shear wave velocity Vs. Then, the soil stiffness can easily be calculated from the shear velocity if the material density is estimated, and the soil stiffness as a function of depth can be obtained. This last information can be a good indicator to identify the soil bedrock limit. SASW measurements adapted to soil characterisation is proposed in the DIGISOIL project, as it produces in an easy and quick way a 2D map of the soil. This system was tested for the digital mapping of the depth of loamy material in a catchment of the European loess belt. The validation of this methodology has been performed with the realisation of several acquisitions along the seismic profiles: - Several boreholes were drilled until the bedrock, permitting to get the geological features of the soil and the depth of the bedrock; - Several laboratory measurements of various parameters were done on samples taken from the boreholes at various depths, such as dry density, solid density, and water content; - Dynamic penetration tests were also conducted along the seismic profile, until the bedrock is attained. Some empirical correlations between the parameters measured with laboratory tests

  16. Evaluate the application of ERTS-A data for detecting and mapping snow cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Analysis of ERTS-1 data covering the test sites in the western United States indicate that the MSS-4 and 5 spectral bands are the most useful for detecting and mapping snow cover. Of these two bands, the MSS-5 is the most consistently useful, as snow-covered areas in some MSS-4 images are nearly saturated causing some loss of detail. Snow can be readily detected and can be distinguished from clouds through a number of interpretive keys. At the ERTS-1 resolution, numerous terrestrial features not visible in lower resolution meteorological satellite data can be detected. In addition to various natural features, man-made features such as roads, electric power lines, cultivated fields, and timber cuts are visible. In two cases analyzed for the Salt-Verde Watershed in Arizona, good agreement is observed between the location of the snowline as mapped from the ERTS-1 data and as depicted on aerial snow survey charts compiled within a few days of the ERTS-1 passage. Results indicate that the snowline can be mapped in more detail from ERTS-1 imagery than can be achieved by current aerial survey methods.

  17. Reducing nitrate loss in tile drainage water with cover crops and water-table management systems.

    PubMed

    Drury, C F; Tan, C S; Welacky, T W; Reynolds, W D; Zhang, T Q; Oloya, T O; McLaughlin, N B; Gaynor, J D

    2014-03-01

    Nitrate lost from agricultural soils is an economic cost to producers, an environmental concern when it enters rivers and lakes, and a health risk when it enters wells and aquifers used for drinking water. Planting a winter wheat cover crop (CC) and/or use of controlled tile drainage-subirrigation (CDS) may reduce losses of nitrate (NO) relative to no cover crop (NCC) and/or traditional unrestricted tile drainage (UTD). A 6-yr (1999-2005) corn-soybean study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of CC+CDS, CC+UTD, NCC+CDS, and NCC+UTD treatments for reducing NO loss. Flow volume and NO concentration in surface runoff and tile drainage were measured continuously, and CC reduced the 5-yr flow-weighted mean (FWM) NO concentration in tile drainage water by 21 to 38% and cumulative NO loss by 14 to 16% relative to NCC. Controlled tile drainage-subirrigation reduced FWM NO concentration by 15 to 33% and cumulative NO loss by 38 to 39% relative to UTD. When CC and CDS were combined, 5-yr cumulative FWM NO concentrations and loss in tile drainage were decreased by 47% (from 9.45 to 4.99 mg N L and from 102 to 53.6 kg N ha) relative to NCC+UTD. The reductions in runoff and concomitant increases in tile drainage under CC occurred primarily because of increases in near-surface soil hydraulic conductivity. Cover crops increased corn grain yields by 4 to 7% in 2004 increased 3-yr average soybean yields by 8 to 15%, whereas CDS did not affect corn or soybean yields over the 6 yr. The combined use of a cover crop and water-table management system was highly effective for reducing NO loss from cool, humid agricultural soils.

  18. System for reducing heat losses from indoor swimming pools by use of automatic covers. Technical progress report No. 4, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-15

    The principal developments during the fifth quarter of the project (October - December 1994) have been as follows. (1) Design fabrication and bench testing of new 24-v controller employing automatic photocell shut-off of motor. (2) Design, fabrication and bench testing of new 42-v controller employing automatic stop-ball and limit-switch shut-off of motor. (3) Design, fabrication, installation, operation and adjustment of prototype improved pool cover system in Denver. (4) Continued planning of installation, demonstration and evaluation of improved pool cover system at the Denver Skyland Recreation Center. (5) Improved mounting brackets. (6) Preparation of a comprehensive paper on swimming pool evaporation rates.

  19. On evaluating parallel computer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, George B., III; Brown, Robert L.; Denning, Peter J.

    1985-01-01

    A workshop was held in an attempt to program real problems on the MIT Static Data Flow Machine. Most of the architecture of the machine was specified but some parts were incomplete. The main purpose for the workshop was to explore principles for the evaluation of computer systems employing new architectures. Principles explored were: (1) evaluation must be an integral, ongoing part of a project to develop a computer of radically new architecture; (2) the evaluation should seek to measure the usability of the system as well as its performance; (3) users from the application domains must be an integral part of the evaluation process; and (4) evaluation results should be fed back into the design process. It is concluded that the general organizational principles are achievable in practice from this workshop.

  20. IBM PC/IX operating system evaluation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Granier, Martin; Hall, Philip P.; Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation plan for the IBM PC/IX Operating System designed for IBM PC/XT computers is discussed. The evaluation plan covers the areas of performance measurement and evaluation, software facilities available, man-machine interface considerations, networking, and the suitability of PC/IX as a development environment within the University of Southwestern Louisiana NASA PC Research and Development project. In order to compare and evaluate the PC/IX system, comparisons with other available UNIX-based systems are also included.

  1. Characterization of internal geometry / covered surface defects with a visible light sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    Previous work has used visible light scanning to detect and characterize defects in 3D printed objects. This paper focuses on assessing the internal structures and external surfaces (that will be later hidden) of complex objects. These features make in-process defect detection far more important than it would be with an object that can be fully assessed with a post-completion scan, as it is required both for in-process correction and end-product quality assurance. This paper presents work on the use of a multi-camera visible light 3D scanning system to identify defects with printed objects' interior and covered / obscured exterior surfaces.

  2. Teleteach Expanded Delivery System: Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, G. Ronald; Milam, Alvin L.

    In order to meet the demand for Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) professional continuing education (PCE) courses within the School of Systems and Logistics and the School of Engineering, the Teleteach Expanded Delivery System (TEDS) for instruction of Air Force personnel at remote locations was developed and evaluated. TEDS uses a device…

  3. Design, development, and testing of a lightweight optical sensor cover system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, Mike; Christiansen, Scott

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses aspects of the design, development, and testing of the sensor cover on the Clementine (DSPSE) spacecraft. Particular attention is given to defining the typically ambiguous issue of cleanliness. To characterize performance with respect to these requirements, a simple and effective method for testing prototype seals was developed. This testing was useful for comparing various types of seals as well as for providing information about achievable cleanliness levels. The results were invaluable input for defining a realistic final cleanliness requirement that satisfied everyone from mechanisms to sensor engineers. Balancing torque margins (reliability) versus cost and/or weight of the system can be significantly influenced by the choice of seal type. Several seal types are discussed in terms of both cleanliness and ease of implementation. These design issues influence the actuator selection and structural integrity of the door. The cover system designed and fabricated as described above was thoroughly tested both on a component level and on the Clementine system level. Testing included characterization, vibration, pyro-shock, life, and thermal/vacuum. The extensive testing identified problems early enough that they could be resolved prior to integration and launch.

  4. Evaluation of Soil Manipulation to Prepare Engineered Earthen Waste Covers for Revegetation.

    PubMed

    Waugh, W Joseph; Benson, Craig H; Albright, William H; Smith, Gregory M; Bush, Richard P

    2015-11-01

    Seven ripping treatments designed to improve soil physical conditions for revegetation were compared on a test pad simulating an earthen cover for a waste disposal cell. The field test was part of study of methods to convert compacted-soil waste covers into evapotranspiration covers. The test pad consisted of a compacted layer of fine-textured soil simulating a barrier protection layer overlain by a gravelly sand bedding layer and a cobble armor layer. Treatments included combinations of soil-ripping implements (conventional shank [CS], wing-tipped shank [WTS], and parabolic oscillating shank with wings [POS]), ripping depths, and number of passes. Dimensions, dry density, moisture content, and particle size distribution of disturbance zones were determined in two trenches excavated across rip rows. The goal was to create a root-zone dry density between 1.2 and 1.6 Mg m and a seedbed soil texture ranging from clay loam to sandy loam with low rock content. All treatments created V-shaped disturbance zones as measured on trench faces. Disturbance zone size was most influenced by ripping depth. Winged implements created larger disturbance zones. All treatments lifted fines into the bedding layer, moved gravel and cobble down into the fine-textured protection layer, and thereby disrupted the capillary barrier at the interface. Changes in dry density within disturbance zones were comparable for the CS and WTS treatments but were highly variable among POS treatments. Water content increased in the bedding layer and decreased in the protection layer after ripping. The POS at 1.2-m depth and two passes created the largest zone with a low dry density (1.24 Mg m) and the most favorable seedbed soil texture (gravely silt loam). However, ripping also created large soil aggregates and voids in the protection layer that may produce preferential flow paths and reduce water storage capacity. PMID:26641343

  5. Evaluation of soil manipulation to prepare engineered earthen waste covers for revegetation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Waugh, W. Joseph; Benson, Craig H.; Albright, William H.; Smith, Gregory M.; Bush, Richard P.

    2015-10-21

    Seven ripping treatments designed to improve soil physical conditions for revegetation were compared on a test pad simulating an earthen cover for a waste disposal cell. The field test was part of study of methods to convert compacted-soil waste covers into evapotranspiration covers. The test pad consisted of a compacted layer of fine-textured soil simulating a barrier protection layer overlain by a gravelly sand bedding layer and a cobble armor layer. Treatments included combinations of soil-ripping implements (conventional shank [CS], wing-tipped shank [WTS], and parabolic oscillating shank with wings [POS]), ripping depths, and number of passes. Dimensions, dry density, moisturemore » content, and particle size distribution of disturbance zones were determined in two trenches excavated across rip rows. The goal was to create a root-zone dry density between 1.2 and 1.6 Mg m-3 and a seedbed soil texture ranging from clay loam to sandy loam with low rock content. All treatments created V-shaped disturbance zones as measured on trench faces. Disturbance zone size was most influenced by ripping depth. Winged implements created larger disturbance zones. All treatments lifted fines into the bedding layer, moved gravel and cobble down into the fine-textured protection layer, and thereby disrupted the capillary barrier at the interface. Changes in dry density within disturbance zones were comparable for the CS and WTS treatments but were highly variable among POS treatments. Water content increased in the bedding layer and decreased in the protection layer after ripping. The POS at 1.2-m depth and two passes created the largest zone with a low dry density (1.24 Mg m-3) and the most favorable seedbed soil texture (gravely silt loam). Furthermore, ripping also created large soil aggregates and voids in the protection layer that may produce preferential flow paths and reduce water storage capacity.« less

  6. Evaluation of soil manipulation to prepare engineered earthen waste covers for revegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, W. Joseph; Benson, Craig H.; Albright, William H.; Smith, Gregory M.; Bush, Richard P.

    2015-10-21

    Seven ripping treatments designed to improve soil physical conditions for revegetation were compared on a test pad simulating an earthen cover for a waste disposal cell. The field test was part of study of methods to convert compacted-soil waste covers into evapotranspiration covers. The test pad consisted of a compacted layer of fine-textured soil simulating a barrier protection layer overlain by a gravelly sand bedding layer and a cobble armor layer. Treatments included combinations of soil-ripping implements (conventional shank [CS], wing-tipped shank [WTS], and parabolic oscillating shank with wings [POS]), ripping depths, and number of passes. Dimensions, dry density, moisture content, and particle size distribution of disturbance zones were determined in two trenches excavated across rip rows. The goal was to create a root-zone dry density between 1.2 and 1.6 Mg m-3 and a seedbed soil texture ranging from clay loam to sandy loam with low rock content. All treatments created V-shaped disturbance zones as measured on trench faces. Disturbance zone size was most influenced by ripping depth. Winged implements created larger disturbance zones. All treatments lifted fines into the bedding layer, moved gravel and cobble down into the fine-textured protection layer, and thereby disrupted the capillary barrier at the interface. Changes in dry density within disturbance zones were comparable for the CS and WTS treatments but were highly variable among POS treatments. Water content increased in the bedding layer and decreased in the protection layer after ripping. The POS at 1.2-m depth and two passes created the largest zone with a low dry density (1.24 Mg m-3) and the most favorable seedbed soil texture (gravely silt loam). Furthermore, ripping also created large soil aggregates and voids in the protection layer that may produce preferential flow paths and reduce water storage capacity.

  7. Evaluation of Soil Manipulation to Prepare Engineered Earthen Waste Covers for Revegetation.

    PubMed

    Waugh, W Joseph; Benson, Craig H; Albright, William H; Smith, Gregory M; Bush, Richard P

    2015-11-01

    Seven ripping treatments designed to improve soil physical conditions for revegetation were compared on a test pad simulating an earthen cover for a waste disposal cell. The field test was part of study of methods to convert compacted-soil waste covers into evapotranspiration covers. The test pad consisted of a compacted layer of fine-textured soil simulating a barrier protection layer overlain by a gravelly sand bedding layer and a cobble armor layer. Treatments included combinations of soil-ripping implements (conventional shank [CS], wing-tipped shank [WTS], and parabolic oscillating shank with wings [POS]), ripping depths, and number of passes. Dimensions, dry density, moisture content, and particle size distribution of disturbance zones were determined in two trenches excavated across rip rows. The goal was to create a root-zone dry density between 1.2 and 1.6 Mg m and a seedbed soil texture ranging from clay loam to sandy loam with low rock content. All treatments created V-shaped disturbance zones as measured on trench faces. Disturbance zone size was most influenced by ripping depth. Winged implements created larger disturbance zones. All treatments lifted fines into the bedding layer, moved gravel and cobble down into the fine-textured protection layer, and thereby disrupted the capillary barrier at the interface. Changes in dry density within disturbance zones were comparable for the CS and WTS treatments but were highly variable among POS treatments. Water content increased in the bedding layer and decreased in the protection layer after ripping. The POS at 1.2-m depth and two passes created the largest zone with a low dry density (1.24 Mg m) and the most favorable seedbed soil texture (gravely silt loam). However, ripping also created large soil aggregates and voids in the protection layer that may produce preferential flow paths and reduce water storage capacity.

  8. EBR-II Cover Gas Cleanup System (CGCS) upgrade graphical interface design

    SciTech Connect

    Staffon, J.D.; Peters, G.G.

    1992-05-01

    Technology advances in the past few years have prompted an effort at Argonne National Laboratory to replace existing equipment with high performance digital computers and color graphic displays. Improved operation of process systems can be achieved by utilizing state-of-the-art computer technology in the areas of process control and process monitoring. The Cover Gas Cleanup System (CGCS) at EBR-II is the first system to be upgraded with high performance digital equipment. The upgrade consisted of a main control computer, a distributed control computer, a front end input/output computer, a main graphics interface terminal, and a remote graphics interface terminal. This paper describes the main control computer and the operator interface control software.

  9. EBR-II Cover Gas Cleanup System (CGCS) upgrade graphical interface design

    SciTech Connect

    Staffon, J.D.; Peters, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    Technology advances in the past few years have prompted an effort at Argonne National Laboratory to replace existing equipment with high performance digital computers and color graphic displays. Improved operation of process systems can be achieved by utilizing state-of-the-art computer technology in the areas of process control and process monitoring. The Cover Gas Cleanup System (CGCS) at EBR-II is the first system to be upgraded with high performance digital equipment. The upgrade consisted of a main control computer, a distributed control computer, a front end input/output computer, a main graphics interface terminal, and a remote graphics interface terminal. This paper describes the main control computer and the operator interface control software.

  10. Sky cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerth, Jordan J.

    Of all of the standard meteorological parameters collected and observed daily, sky cover is not only one of the most complex, but the one that is fairly ambiguously defined and difficult to quantify. Despite that, the implications of how cloud fraction and sky cover are understood not only impact daily weather forecasts, but also present challenges to assessing the state of the earth's climate system. Part of the reason for this is the lack of observational methods for verifying the skill of clouds represented and parameterized in numerical models. While human observers record sky cover as part of routine duties, the spatial coverage of such observations in the United States is relatively sparse. There is greater spatial coverage of automated observations, and essentially complete coverage from geostationary weather satellites that observe the Americas. A good analysis of sky cover reconciles differences between manual observations, automated observations, and satellite observations, through an algorithm that accounts for the strengths and weaknesses of each dataset. This work describes the decision structure for trusting and weighting these similar observations. Some of the issues addressed include: human and instrument error resulting from approximations and estimations, a deficiency in high cloud detectability using surface-based ceilometers, poorly resolved low cloud using infrared channels on space-based radiometers during overnight hours, and decreased confidence in satellite-detected cloud during stray light periods. Using the blended sky cover analysis as the best representation of cloudiness, it is possible to compare the analysis to numerical model fields in order to assess the performance of the model and the parameterizations therein, as well as confirm or uncover additional relationships between sky cover and pertinent fields using an optimization methodology. The optimizer minimizes an affine expression of adjusted fields to the "truth" sky cover

  11. Ground cover rice production systems increase soil carbon and nitrogen stocks at regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Dannenmann, M.; Lin, S.; Saiz, G.; Yan, G.; Yao, Z.; Pelster, D. E.; Tao, H.; Sippel, S.; Tao, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zheng, X.; Zuo, Q.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2015-08-01

    Rice production is increasingly limited by water scarcity. Covering paddy rice soils with films (so-called ground cover rice production system: GCRPS) can significantly reduce water demand as well as overcome temperature limitations at the beginning of the growing season, which results in greater grain yields in relatively cold regions and also in those suffering from seasonal water shortages. However, it has been speculated that both increased soil aeration and temperature under GCRPS result in lower soil organic carbon and nitrogen stocks. Here we report on a regional-scale experiment conducted in Shiyan, a typical rice-producing mountainous area of China. We sampled paired adjacent paddy and GCRPS fields at 49 representative sites. Measured parameters included soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stocks (to 1 m depth), soil physical and chemical properties, δ15N composition of plants and soils, potential C mineralization rates, and soil organic carbon (SOC) fractions at all sampling sites. Root biomass was also quantified at one intensively monitored site. The study showed that: (1) GCRPS increased SOC and N stocks 5-20 years following conversion from traditional paddy systems; (2) there were no differences between GCRPS and paddy systems in soil physical and chemical properties for the various soil depths, with the exception of soil bulk density; (3) GCRPS increased above-ground and root biomass in all soil layers down to a 40 cm depth; (4) δ15N values were lower in soils and plant leaves indicating lower NH3 volatilization losses from GCRPS than in paddy systems; and (5) GCRPS had lower C mineralization potential than that observed in paddy systems over a 200-day incubation period. Our results suggest that GCRPS is an innovative production technique that not only increases rice yields using less irrigation water, but that it also increases SOC and N stocks.

  12. The potential application of red mud and soil mixture as additive to the surface layer of a landfill cover system.

    PubMed

    Ujaczki, Éva; Feigl, Viktória; Molnár, Mónika; Vaszita, Emese; Uzinger, Nikolett; Erdélyi, Attila; Gruiz, Katalin

    2016-06-01

    Red mud, the by-product of aluminum production, has been regarded as a problematic residue all over the world. Its storage involves risks as evidenced by the Ajka red mud spill, an accident in Hungary where the slurry broke free, flooding the surrounding areas. As an immediate remediation measure more than 5cm thick red mud layer was removed from the flooded soil surface. The removed red mud and soil mixture (RMSM) was transferred into the reservoirs for storage. In this paper the application of RMSM is evaluated in a field study aiming at re-utilizing waste, decreasing cost of waste disposal and providing a value-added product. The purpose was to investigate the applicability of RMSM as surface layer component of landfill cover systems. The field study was carried out in two steps: in lysimeters and in field plots. The RMSM was mixed at ratios ranging between 0 and 50% w/w with low quality subsoil (LQS) originally used as surface layer of an interim landfill cover. The characteristics of the LQS+RMSM mixtures compared to the subsoil (LQS) and the RMSM were determined by physical-chemical, biological and ecotoxicological methods. The addition of RMSM to the subsoil (LQS) at up to 20% did not result any ecotoxic effect, but it increased the water holding capacity. In addition, the microbial substrate utilization became about triple of subsoil (LQS) after 10months. According to our results the RMSM mixed into subsoil (LQS) at 20% w/w dose may be applied as surface layer of landfill cover systems. PMID:27266315

  13. Strain gage system evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolleris, G. W.; Mazur, H. J.; Kokoszka, E., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A program was conducted to determine the reliability of various strain gage systems when applied to rotating compressor blades in an aircraft gas turbine engine. A survey of current technology strain gage systems was conducted to provide a basis for selecting candidate systems for evaluation. Testing and evaluation was conducted in an F 100 engine. Sixty strain gage systems of seven different designs were installed on the first and third stages of an F 100 engine fan. Nineteen strain gage failures occurred during 62 hours of engine operation, for a survival rate of 68 percent. Of the failures, 16 occurred at blade-to-disk leadwire jumps (84 percent), two at a leadwire splice (11 percent), and one at a gage splice (5 percent). Effects of erosion, temperature, G-loading, and stress levels are discussed. Results of a post-test analysis of the individual components of each strain gage system are presented.

  14. Evaluation of wavelength groups for discrimination of agricultural cover types. [remote sensing of environment in INDIANA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, R.

    1978-01-01

    Multispectral scanner data in twelve spectral channels, in the wavelength range 0.46 to 11.7 mm, acquired in July 1971 for three flightlines, were analyzed by applying automatic pattern recognition techniques. These twelve spectral channels were divided into four wavelength groups (W1, W2, W3 and W4), each consisting of three wavelength channels -- with respect to their estimated probability of correct classification (P sub c) in discriminating agricultural cover types. The same analysis was also done for the data acquired in August, to investigate the effect of time on these results. The effect of deletion of each of the wavelength groups on P sub C in the subsets of one to nine channels, is given. Values of P sub C for all possible combinations of wavelength groups, in the subsets of one to eleven channels are also given.

  15. Evaluating Anthropogenic Risk of Grassland and Forest Habitat Degradation Using Land-Cover Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of landscape context on habitat quality are receiving increased attention in conservation biology. The objective of this research is to demonstrate an approach to mapping and evaluating the anthropogenic risks of grassland and forest habitat degradation by examining ...

  16. A priori evaluation of two-stage cluster sampling for accuracy assessment of large-area land-cover maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wickham, J.D.; Stehman, S.V.; Smith, J.H.; Wade, T.G.; Yang, L.

    2004-01-01

    Two-stage cluster sampling reduces the cost of collecting accuracy assessment reference data by constraining sample elements to fall within a limited number of geographic domains (clusters). However, because classification error is typically positively spatially correlated, within-cluster correlation may reduce the precision of the accuracy estimates. The detailed population information to quantify a priori the effect of within-cluster correlation on precision is typically unavailable. Consequently, a convenient, practical approach to evaluate the likely performance of a two-stage cluster sample is needed. We describe such an a priori evaluation protocol focusing on the spatial distribution of the sample by land-cover class across different cluster sizes and costs of different sampling options, including options not imposing clustering. This protocol also assesses the two-stage design's adequacy for estimating the precision of accuracy estimates for rare land-cover classes. We illustrate the approach using two large-area, regional accuracy assessments from the National Land-Cover Data (NLCD), and describe how the a priorievaluation was used as a decision-making tool when implementing the NLCD design.

  17. Soft material-based microculture system having air permeable cover sheet for the protoplast culture of Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jong Il; Ko, Jung-Moon; Kim, So Hyeon; Baek, Ju Yeoul; Cha, Hyeon-Cheol; Lee, Sang Hoon

    2006-08-01

    In plant cell culture, the delivery of nutrition and gas (mainly oxygen) to the cells is the most important factor for viability. In this paper, we propose a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microculture system that is designed to have good aeration. PDMS is known to have excellent air permeability, and through the experimental method, we investigated the relation between the degree of air delivery and the thickness of the PDMS sheet covering the culture chamber. We determined the proper thickness of the cover sheet, and cultured protoplasts of Nicotiana tabacum in a culture chamber covered with a PDMS sheet having thickness of 400 microm. The cells were successfully divided, and lived well inside the culture chamber for 10 days. In addition, protoplasts were cultured inside the culture chambers covered with the cover glass and the PDMS sheet, respectively, and the microcolonies were formed well inside the PDMS covered chamber after 10 days.

  18. Plant functional type classification for earth system models: results from the European Space Agency's Land Cover Climate Change Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulter, B.; MacBean, N.; Hartley, A.; Khlystova, I.; Arino, O.; Betts, R.; Bontemps, S.; Boettcher, M.; Brockmann, C.; Defourny, P.; Hagemann, S.; Herold, M.; Kirches, G.; Lamarche, C.; Lederer, D.; Ottlé, C.; Peters, M.; Peylin, P.

    2015-07-01

    Global land cover is a key variable in the earth system with feedbacks on climate, biodiversity and natural resources. However, global land cover data sets presently fall short of user needs in providing detailed spatial and thematic information that is consistently mapped over time and easily transferable to the requirements of earth system models. In 2009, the European Space Agency launched the Climate Change Initiative (CCI), with land cover (LC_CCI) as 1 of 13 essential climate variables targeted for research development. The LC_CCI was implemented in three phases: first responding to a survey of user needs; developing a global, moderate-resolution land cover data set for three time periods, or epochs (2000, 2005, and 2010); and the last phase resulting in a user tool for converting land cover to plant functional type equivalents. Here we present the results of the LC_CCI project with a focus on the mapping approach used to convert the United Nations Land Cover Classification System to plant functional types (PFTs). The translation was performed as part of consultative process among map producers and users, and resulted in an open-source conversion tool. A comparison with existing PFT maps used by three earth system modeling teams shows significant differences between the LC_CCI PFT data set and those currently used in earth system models with likely consequences for modeling terrestrial biogeochemistry and land-atmosphere interactions. The main difference between the new LC_CCI product and PFT data sets used currently by three different dynamic global vegetation modeling teams is a reduction in high-latitude grassland cover, a reduction in tropical tree cover and an expansion in temperate forest cover in Europe. The LC_CCI tool is flexible for users to modify land cover to PFT conversions and will evolve as phase 2 of the European Space Agency CCI program continues.

  19. Preliminary evaluation of thematic mapper sensor characteristics relative to land cover/land use discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. L.; Irons, J. R.; Markham, B. L.; Nelson, R. F.; Toll, D. L.; Latty, R. S.; Stauffer, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary experimental results of airborne thematic mapper (TM) data taken to quantify the effect of three major TM sensor parameters, spectral, spatial, and radiometric resolution, six months after launch of Landsat-4 are reported. The flight took place on Nov. 2, 1982 over Washington, D.C., and data gathered were compared with ground reference data from color airborne photography on a 1:40,000 scale. Analyses proceeded by deleting one band from each of four data sets, thus making the data equivalent to MSS data. Attention was directed to land cover/use classes in a quick-look format. A per-pixel maximum likelihood scheme was found to increase the recognition and dicrimination categorization capabilities. Finer spatial resolution, however, impeded classification due to increased within-class variability of the field-center pixels, which also incresed class overlap in the spectral data base. Improved data analyses techniques are therefore needed to exploit the available higher spatial resolution of the TM.

  20. Nondestructive evaluation: A survey of NASA contributions, chapter 1, Chapter 11, cover page, acknowledgements, and contents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A survey of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technology, which is discussed in terms of popular demands for a greater degree of quality, reliability, and safety in industrial products, is presented as an overview of the NDE field to serve the needs of middle management. Three NDE methods are presented: acoustic emission, the use of coherent (laser)light, and ultrasonic holography.

  1. 10 CFR 709.3 - Covered persons subject to a CI evaluation and polygraph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... program office) because of access to classified intelligence information, or sources, or methods; (2) With... and function of nuclear weapons use control systems, features, and their components (currently... administrator with access to a system containing classified information, as identified by the DOE or NNSA...

  2. Hierarchical storage management system evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodrow, Thomas S.

    1993-01-01

    The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Program at NASA Ames Research Center has been developing a hierarchical storage management system, NAStore, for some 6 years. This evaluation compares functionality, performance, reliability, and other factors of NAStore and three commercial alternatives. FileServ is found to be slightly better overall than NAStore and DMF. UniTree is found to be severely lacking in comparison.

  3. Concurrent ultrasonic weld evaluation system

    DOEpatents

    Hood, Donald W.; Johnson, John A.; Smartt, Herschel B.

    1987-01-01

    A system for concurrent, non-destructive evaluation of partially completed welds for use in conjunction with an automated welder. The system utilizes real time, automated ultrasonic inspection of a welding operation as the welds are being made by providing a transducer which follows a short distance behind the welding head. Reflected ultrasonic signals are analyzed utilizing computer based digital pattern recognition techniques to discriminate between good and flawed welds on a pass by pass basis. The system also distinguishes between types of weld flaws.

  4. Concurrent ultrasonic weld evaluation system

    DOEpatents

    Hood, D.W.; Johnson, J.A.; Smartt, H.B.

    1985-09-04

    A system for concurrent, non-destructive evaluation of partially completed welds for use in conjunction with an automated welder. The system utilizes real time, automated ultrasonic inspection of a welding operation as the welds are being made by providing a transducer which follows a short distance behind the welding head. Reflected ultrasonic signals are analyzed utilizing computer based digital pattern recognition techniques to discriminate between good and flawed welds on a pass by pass basis. The system also distinguishes between types of weld flaws.

  5. Concurrent ultrasonic weld evaluation system

    DOEpatents

    Hood, D.W.; Johnson, J.A.; Smartt, H.B.

    1987-12-15

    A system for concurrent, non-destructive evaluation of partially completed welds for use in conjunction with an automated welder is disclosed. The system utilizes real time, automated ultrasonic inspection of a welding operation as the welds are being made by providing a transducer which follows a short distance behind the welding head. Reflected ultrasonic signals are analyzed utilizing computer based digital pattern recognition techniques to discriminate between good and flawed welds on a pass by pass basis. The system also distinguishes between types of weld flaws. 5 figs.

  6. Evaluation of anti-migration properties of biliary covered self-expandable metal stents

    PubMed Central

    Minaga, Kosuke; Kitano, Masayuki; Imai, Hajime; Harwani, Yogesh; Yamao, Kentaro; Kamata, Ken; Miyata, Takeshi; Omoto, Shunsuke; Kadosaka, Kumpei; Sakurai, Toshiharu; Nishida, Naoshi; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess anti-migration potential of six biliary covered self-expandable metal stents (C-SEMSs) by using a newly designed phantom model. METHODS: In the phantom model, the stent was placed in differently sized holes in a silicone wall and retracted with a retraction robot. Resistance force to migration (RFM) was measured by a force gauge on the stent end. Radial force (RF) was measured with a RF measurement machine. Measured flare structure variables were the outer diameter, height, and taper angle of the flare (ODF, HF, and TAF, respectively). Correlations between RFM and RF or flare variables were analyzed using a linear correlated model. RESULTS: Out of the six stents, five stents were braided, the other was laser-cut. The RF and RFM of each stent were expressed as the average of five replicate measurements. For all six stents, RFM and RF decreased as the hole diameter increased. For all six stents, RFM and RF correlated strongly when the stent had not fully expanded. This correlation was not observed in the five braided stents excluding the laser cut stent. For all six stents, there was a strong correlation between RFM and TAF when the stent fully expanded. For the five braided stents, RFM after full stent expansion correlated strongly with all three stent flare structure variables (ODF, HF, and TAF). The laser-cut C-SEMS had higher RFMs than the braided C-SEMSs regardless of expansion state. CONCLUSION: RF was an important anti-migration property when the C-SEMS did not fully expand. Once fully expanded, stent flare structure variables plays an important role in anti-migration. PMID:27570427

  7. Evaluation of SLAR and simulated thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M.; Dean, M. E.; Knowlton, D. J.; Latty, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Kershaw County, South Carolina was selected as the study site for analyzing simulated thematic mapper MSS data and dual-polarized X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. The impact of the improved spatial and spectral characteristics of the LANDSAT D thematic mapper data on computer aided analysis for forest cover type mapping was examined as well as the value of synthetic aperture radar data for differentiating forest and other cover types. The utility of pattern recognition techniques for analyzing SAR data was assessed. Topics covered include: (1) collection and of TMS and reference data; (2) reformatting, geometric and radiometric rectification, and spatial resolution degradation of TMS data; (3) development of training statistics and test data sets; (4) evaluation of different numbers and combinations of wavelength bands on classification performance; (5) comparison among three classification algorithms; and (6) the effectiveness of the principal component transformation in data analysis. The collection, digitization, reformatting, and geometric adjustment of SAR data are also discussed. Image interpretation results and classification results are presented.

  8. Efficiently evaluate complex pressure relief systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.K.; Walker, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    This article will present the steps necessary to perform a comprehensive analysis of complex pressure relief systems. The goal is not to discuss detailed calculations for proper valve sizing and selection, but rather to analyze and verify existing system configurations. Sizing and selection have been covered in detail by the American Petroleum Institute (API) RP 520, API RP 521, various AIChE Design Institute for Emergency Relief Systems (DIERS) publications, and other sources. In their work with industry, the authors have noticed a tendency for some engineers to proceed with detailed calculations without first preparing an overall strategy and implementation plan to make sure that the calculations yield the desired results. They have seen detailed pressure relief system analyses costing hundreds of thousands of dollars which, for any number of reasons, are incorrect. The old adage GIGO (garbage in/garbage out) certainly applies to pressure relief system analysis. They will address the thought processes and actions necessary to correctly and efficiently evaluate complex pressure relief systems.

  9. Evaluation of simple model for net radiation estimates above various vegetation covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavinka, P.; Trnka, M.; Fischer, M.; Kucera, J.; Mozny, M.; Zalud, Z.

    2010-09-01

    The main objective of submitted study was to calibrate and verify the simple model for net radiation (Rn) estimates during the growing periods of selected agricultural crops. In the same time the soil heat flux (G) measurements were analysed. The model needs incoming solar radiation, air temperature, vapor pressure measurements and information about albedo as input. The net radiation is determined as difference between the incoming net shortwave radiation (Rns) and the outgoing net longwave radiation (Rnl). The Rns is estimated from incoming solar radiation using albedo. The Rnl is estimated from daily maximum and minimum temperature, vapour pressure, incoming solar radiation and derived clear-sky radiation. The accuracy of the model was assessed on the basis of radiation balance measurements (by Net radiometer Schenk 8110) at two experimental stations in the Czech Republic (i.e. Polkovice 49°23´ (N), 17°17´ (E), 205 m a.s.l.; Domanínek 49°32´ (N), 16°15´ (E), 544 m a.s.l.) during the years 2009 and 2010. The parameter G was measured by Hukseflux Thermal Sensor HFP01. For the purpose of mentioned analyses the measurements were conducted during the growing season of spring barley, winter wheat, winter rape, grass, poplars and above field after harvest of cereals (after/without tillage). These covers are very common type of surface within agricultural landscape in Central Europe. The enhanced method of Rn and G estimation were then used for the SoilClim model runs. The present version of SoilClim uses very simple algorithm for radiation balance and should be modified to be closer to reality. Namely the estimates of reference evapotranspiration (ETo), actual evapotranspiration (ETa) and soil water content could be substantially improved by this way. Acknowledgement: We gratefully acknowledge the support of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (no. 521/09/P479) and Research plan No. MSM6215648905 "Biological and technological aspects of sustainability of

  10. Agricultural land cover mapping in the context of a geographically referenced digital information system. [Carroll, Macon, and Gentry Counties, Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    The introduction of soil map information to the land cover mapping process can improve discrimination of land cover types and reduce confusion among crop types that may be caused by soil-specific management practices and background reflectance characteristics. Multiple dates of LANDSAT MSS digital were analyzed for three study areas in northern Missouri to produce cover types for major agricultural land cover classes. Digital data bases were then developed by adding ancillary data such as digitized soil and transportation network information to the LANDSAT-derived cover type map. Procedures were developed to manipulate the data base parameters to extract information applicable to user requirements. An agricultural information system combining such data can be used to determine the productive capacity of land to grow crops, fertilizer needs, chemical weed control rates, irrigation suitability, and trafficability of soil for planting.

  11. Performance Criteria and Evaluation System

    1992-06-18

    The Performance Criteria and Evaluation System (PCES) was developed in order to make a data base of criteria accessible to radiation safety staff. The criteria included in the package are applicable to occupational radiation safety at DOE reactor and nonreactor nuclear facilities, but any data base of criteria may be created using the Criterion Data Base Utiliity (CDU). PCES assists personnel in carrying out oversight, line, and support activities.

  12. High Pressure Electrolyzer System Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokopius, Kevin; Coloza, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This report documents the continuing efforts to evaluate the operational state of a high pressure PEM based electrolyzer located at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This electrolyzer is a prototype system built by General Electric and refurbished by Hamilton Standard (now named Hamilton Sunstrand). It is capable of producing hydrogen and oxygen at an output pressure of 3000 psi. The electrolyzer has been in storage for a number of years. Evaluation and testing was performed to determine the state of the electrolyzer and provide an estimate of the cost for refurbishment. Pressure testing was performed using nitrogen gas through the oxygen ports to ascertain the status of the internal membranes and seals. It was determined that the integrity of the electrolyzer stack was good as there were no appreciable leaks in the membranes or seals within the stack. In addition to the integrity testing, an itemized list and part cost estimate was produced for the components of the electrolyzer system. An evaluation of the system s present state and an estimate of the cost to bring it back to operational status was also produced.

  13. Evaluation of surface properties and atmospheric disturbances caused by post-dam alterations of land use/land cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woldemichael, A. T.; Hossain, F.; Pielke, R., Sr.

    2014-09-01

    This study adopted a differential land-use/land-cover (LULC) analysis to evaluate dam-triggered land-atmosphere interactions for a number of LULC scenarios. Two specific questions were addressed: (1) can dam-triggered LULC heterogeneities modify surface and energy budget, which, in turn, change regional convergence and precipitation patterns? (2) How extensive is the modification in surface moisture and energy budget altered by dam-triggered LULC changes occurring in different climate and terrain features? The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS, version 6.0) was set up for two climatologically and topographically contrasting regions: the American River watershed (ARW), located in California, and the Owyhee River watershed (ORW), located in eastern Oregon. For the selected atmospheric river precipitation event of 29 December 1996 to 3 January 1997, simulations of three pre-defined LULC scenarios are performed. The definition of the scenarios are (1) the "control" scenario, representing the contemporary land use, (2) the "pre-dam" scenario, representing the natural landscape before the construction of the dams and (3) the "non-irrigation" scenario, representing the condition where previously irrigated landscape in the control is transformed to the nearby land-use type. Results indicated that the ARW energy and moisture fluxes were more extensively affected by dam-induced changes in LULC than the ORW. Both regions, however, displayed commonalities in the modification of land-atmosphere processes due to LULC changes, with the control-non-irrigation scenario creating more change than the control-pre-dam scenarios. These commonalities were: (1) the combination of a decrease in temperature (up to 0.15 °C) and an increase at dew point (up to 0.25 °C) was observed; (2) there was a larger fraction of energy partitioned to latent heat flux (up to 10 W m-2) that increased the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere and resulted in a larger convective available

  14. Evaluation of surface properties and atmospheric disturbances caused by post-dam alterations of land-use/land-cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woldemichael, A. T.; Hossain, F.; Pielke, R., Sr.

    2014-05-01

    This study adopted a differential land-use/land-cover (LULC) analysis to evaluate dam-triggered land-atmosphere interactions for a number of LULC scenarios. Two specific questions were addressed: (1) can dam-triggered LULC heterogeneities modify surface and energy budget which, in turn, change regional convergence and precipitation patterns? and (2) how extensive is the modification in surface moisture and energy budget altered by dam-triggered LULC changes occurring in different climate and terrain features? The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS, version 6.0) was set up for two climatologically and topographically contrasting regions: the American River Watershed (ARW) located in California and the Owyhee River Watershed (ORW) located in eastern Oregon. For the selected atmospheric river precipitation event of 29 December 1996 to 3 January 1997, simulations of three pre-defined LULC scenarios are performed. The definition of the scenarios are: (1) the control scenario representing the contemporary land-use, (2) the pre-dam scenario representing the natural landscape before the construction of the dams and (3) the non-irrigation scenario representing the condition where previously irrigated landscape in the control is transformed to the nearby land-use type. Results indicated that the ARW energy and moisture fluxes were more extensively affected by dam-induced changes in LULC than the ORW. Both regions, however, displayed commonalities in the modification of land-atmosphere processes due to LULC changes, with the control-non-irrigation scenario creating more change than the control-pre-dam scenarios. These commonalities were: (1) the combination of a decrease in temperature (up to 0.15 °C) and an increase in dewpoint (up to 0.25 °C) was observed, (2) there was a larger fraction of energy partitioned to latent heat flux (up to 10 W m-2) that increased the amount of water vapor to the atmosphere and resulted in a larger convective available potential

  15. Effect of Inert Cover Gas on Performance of Radioisotope Stirling Space Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, Robert; Kumar, V; Ore, C; Schock, Alfred

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an updated Orbital design of a radioisotope Stirling power system and its predicted performance at the beginning and end of a six-year mission to the Jovian moon Europa. The design is based on General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules identical to those previously developed and safety-qualified by the Department of Energy (DOE) which were successfully launched to Jupiter and Saturn by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). In each generator, the heat produced by the decay of the Pu-238 isotope is converted to electric power by two free-piston Stirling engines and linear alternators developed by Stirling Technology Company (STC), and their rejected waste heat is transported to radiators by heat pipes. The principal difference between the proposed system design and previous Orbital designs (Or et al. 2000) is the thermal insulation between the heat source and the generator's housing. Previous designs had employed multifoil insulation, whereas the design described here employs Min-K-1800 thermal insulation. Such insulation had been successfully used by Teledyne and GE in earlier RTGs (Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators). Although Min-K is a much poorer insulator than multifoil in vacuum and requires a substantially greater thickness for equivalent performance, it offers compensating advantages. Specifically it makes it possible to adjust the generator's BOM temperatures by filling its interior volume with inert cover gas. This makes it possible to meet the generator's BOM and EOM performance goals without exceeding its allowable temperature at the beginning of the mission.

  16. Effect of inert cover gas on performance of radioisotope Stirling space power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, R.; Kumar, V.; Or, C.; Schock, A.

    2001-02-01

    This paper describes an updated Orbital design of a radioisotope Stirling power system and its predicted performance at the beginning and end of a six-year mission to the Jovian moon Europa. The design is based on General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules identical to those previously developed and safety-qualified by the Department of Energy (DOE) which were successfully launched on missions to Jupiter and Saturn by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). In each generator, the heat produced by the decay of the Pu-238 isotope is converted to electric power by two free-piston Stirling engines and linear alternators developed by Stirling Technology Company (STC), and their rejected waste heat is transported to radiators by heat pipes. The principal difference between the proposed system design and previous Orbital designs (Or et al., 2000) is the thermal insulation between the heat source and the generator's housing. Previous designs had employed multifoil insulation, whereas the design described here employs Min-K-1800 thermal insulation. Such insulation had been successfully used by Teledyne and GE in earlier RTGs (Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators). Although Min-K is a much poorer insulator than multifoil in vacuum and requires a substantially greater thickness for equivalent performance, it offers compensating advantages. Specifically it makes it possible to adjust the generator's BOM temperatures by filling its interior volume with inert cover gas. This makes it possible to meet the generator's BOM and EOM performance goals without exceeding its allowable temperature at the beginning of the mission. .

  17. On the Implementation of a Land Cover Classification System for SAR Images Using Khoros

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina Revera, Edwin J.; Espinosa, Ramon Vasquez

    1997-01-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensor is widely used to record data about the ground under all atmospheric conditions. The SAR acquired images have very good resolution which necessitates the development of a classification system that process the SAR images to extract useful information for different applications. In this work, a complete system for the land cover classification was designed and programmed using the Khoros, a data flow visual language environment, taking full advantages of the polymorphic data services that it provides. Image analysis was applied to SAR images to improve and automate the processes of recognition and classification of the different regions like mountains and lakes. Both unsupervised and supervised classification utilities were used. The unsupervised classification routines included the use of several Classification/Clustering algorithms like the K-means, ISO2, Weighted Minimum Distance, and the Localized Receptive Field (LRF) training/classifier. Different texture analysis approaches such as Invariant Moments, Fractal Dimension and Second Order statistics were implemented for supervised classification of the images. The results and conclusions for SAR image classification using the various unsupervised and supervised procedures are presented based on their accuracy and performance.

  18. Innovative permeable cover system to reduce risks at a chemical munitions burial site

    SciTech Connect

    Powels, C.C.; Bon, I.; Okusu, N.M.

    1997-12-31

    An innovative permeable sand cover with various integrated systems has been designed to contain and treat the Old O-Field chemical munitions landfill at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The 18,200 m{sup 2} (4.5 acre) landfill was used from the mid 1930s to the mid 1950s for the disposal of chemical, incendiary, and explosive munitions from domestic and foreign origins, together with contaminated wastes associated with the development and production of chemical warfare agents (CWA). The site is suspected to be contaminated with white phosphorous (WP) (which when dry, spontaneously burns when exposed to air), shock sensitive picric acid fuses and has the potential to contain large quantities of CWA-filled munitions. Historically, one to three explosions or fires occurred per ten-year period at the landfill. Such events have the potential to cause a CWA release to the environment, which could potentially affect densely populated areas. Recovery and decontamination projects conducted at the site in the late 1940s and early 1950s used large amounts of decontamination chemicals (containing solvents) and fuels which further contaminated the area. The groundwater downgradient of the landfill is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, metals, explosives and CWA degradation compounds and is currently being contained by a groundwater extraction and treatment system. This report describes a remedial action program for the site.

  19. Research priorities in land use and land-cover change for the Earth system and integrated assessment modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Pongratz, Julia; Rose, Steven K.; Betts, Richard; Herold, Martin; Feddema, Johannes J.

    2010-11-15

    This special issue has highlighted recent and innovative methods and results that integrate observations and AQ3 modelling analyses of regional to global aspect of biophysical and biogeochemical interactions of land-cover change with the climate system. Both the Earth System and the Integrated Assessment modeling communities recognize the importance of an accurate representation of land use and land-cover change to understand and quantify the interactions and feedbacks with the climate and socio-economic systems, respectively. To date, cooperation between these communities has been limited. Based on common interests, this work discusses research priorities in representing land use and land-cover change for improved collaboration across modelling, observing and measurement communities. Major research topics in land use and land-cover change are those that help us better understand (1) the interaction of land use and land cover with the climate system (e.g. carbon cycle feedbacks), (2) the provision of goods and ecosystem services by terrestrial (natural and anthropogenic) land-cover types (e.g. food production), (3) land use and management decisions and (4) opportunities and limitations for managing climate change (for both mitigation and adaptation strategies).

  20. Voice communication research evaluation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, R. L.

    1980-05-01

    Aircraft voice communications may be degraded by a variety of sources such as electrical and/or acoustical noise, radio interference, jamming and various other forms of distraction. The Voice Communication Research and Evaluation System, located in the Biodynamics and Bioengineering Division of the Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, has been developed for the comprehensive analysis and enhancement of operational voice communication. The basic system is comprised of a multi-station voice communication network consisting of the USAF standard aircraft intercommunication system, a standard A-19 diluter-demand oxygen regulation system and an on line computer data collection and data analysis system that displays results in real time. The system is housed in a large reverberation chamber containing a programmable sound source capable of reproducing the spectrum and level of any AF operational noise environment. Standardized voice communication effectiveness test materials are used to assess the performance of any aspect of the total voice communication link, however, emphasis is usually placed upon the performance of the aircrew members. This paper will descibe the salient features of this unique system and provide examples of its application to voice communication problems.

  1. Cover cropping and no-tillage improve soil health in arid irrigated cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact on soil health of long-term no-tillage (NT) and cover cropping (CC) practices, alone and in combination, was measured and compared with standard tillage (ST) with and without cover crops (NO) in irrigated row crops after 15 years of management in the San Joaquin Valley, CA. Soil aggregat...

  2. Drivers of forest cover dynamics in smallholder farming systems: the case of northwestern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Jadin, Isaline; Vanacker, Veerle; Hoang, Huong Thi Thu

    2013-04-01

    The national-scale forest recovery of Vietnam started in the early 1990s and is associated with a shift from net deforestation to net reforestation. Large disparities in forest cover dynamics are, however, observed at the local scale. This study aims to unravel the mechanisms driving forest cover change for a mountainous region located in northwest Vietnam. Statistical analyses were used to explore the association between forest cover change and household characteristics. In Sa Pa district, deforestation rates are decreasing, but forest degradation continues at similar rates. Deforestation is not necessarily associated with impoverished ethnic communities or high levels of subsistence farming, and the largest forest cover dynamics are found in villages with the best socio-economic conditions. Our empirical study does not provide strong evidence of a dominant role of agriculture in forest cover dynamics. It shows that empirical studies on local-scale forest dynamics remain important to unravel the complexity of human-environment interactions. PMID:23001944

  3. Drivers of forest cover dynamics in smallholder farming systems: the case of northwestern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Jadin, Isaline; Vanacker, Veerle; Hoang, Huong Thi Thu

    2013-04-01

    The national-scale forest recovery of Vietnam started in the early 1990s and is associated with a shift from net deforestation to net reforestation. Large disparities in forest cover dynamics are, however, observed at the local scale. This study aims to unravel the mechanisms driving forest cover change for a mountainous region located in northwest Vietnam. Statistical analyses were used to explore the association between forest cover change and household characteristics. In Sa Pa district, deforestation rates are decreasing, but forest degradation continues at similar rates. Deforestation is not necessarily associated with impoverished ethnic communities or high levels of subsistence farming, and the largest forest cover dynamics are found in villages with the best socio-economic conditions. Our empirical study does not provide strong evidence of a dominant role of agriculture in forest cover dynamics. It shows that empirical studies on local-scale forest dynamics remain important to unravel the complexity of human-environment interactions.

  4. Design, construction and evaluation of a simulated geothermal flow system

    SciTech Connect

    Mackanic, J.C.

    1980-07-28

    A system was designed and built to simulate the flow from a geothermal well. The simulated flow will be used to power a Lysholm engine, the performance of which will then be evaluated for different simulated geothermal flows. Two main subjects are covered: 1) the design, construction and evaluation of the behavior of the system that simulates the geothermal flow; included in that topic is a discussion of the probable behavior of the Lysholm engine when it is put into operation, and 2) the investigation of the use of dynamic modeling techniques to determine whether they can provide a suitable means for predicting the behavior of the system.

  5. System for reducing heat losses from indoor swimming pools by use of automatic covers. Final report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This final report is an account of the principal activities of Lof Energy Systems, Inc. in a two-year project funded by the Energy Related Inventions Program (ERIP) of the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary objective has been the development of a fully practical and economical system for saving energy in indoor swimming pools by use of motorized covers. The goal is wide-spread use of a fully developed product, in institutional swimming pools. Four major tasks, depicted in the accompanying Performance Schedule, have been completed, and one other has been initiated and its completion committed. Principal accomplishments have been the selection and improvement of cover materials and designs, lengthening and strengthening of reels and improvements in motorized components and their control, design and installation of pool covers in full scale demonstration and evaluation of fully developed commercial system, preparation and dissemination of manuals and reports, finalization of arrangements for Underwriters Laboratory certification of products, and final report preparation and submission. Of greatest significance has been the successful demonstration of the fully developed system and the verification and reporting by an energy consultant of the large savings resulting from pool cover use. Probably the best evidence of success of the DOE-ERIP project in advancing this invention to a commercial stage is its acceptance for sale by the Lincoln Equipment Company, a national distributor of swimming pool supplies and equipment. A copy of the relevant page in the Lincoln catalog is included in this report as Annex A. Representatives of that company now offer Tof motorized pool cover systems to their pool owner customers. In addition to the plans for securing UL certification the company expects to continue making design improvements that can increase system reliability, durability, and cost-effectiveness.

  6. Effectiveness of compacted soil liner as a gas barrier layer in the landfill final cover system.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seheum; Nam, Kyoungphile; Kim, Jae Young; Hwan, Shim Kyu; Chung, Moonkyung

    2008-01-01

    A compacted soil liner (CSL) has been widely used as a single barrier layer or a part of composite barrier layer in the landfill final cover system to prevent water infiltration into solid wastes for its acceptable hydraulic permeability. This study was conducted to test whether the CSL was also effective in prohibiting landfill gas emissions. For this purpose, three different compaction methods (i.e., reduced, standard, and modified Proctor methods) were used to prepare the soil specimens, with nitrogen as gas, and with water and heptane as liquid permeants. Measured gas permeability ranged from 2.03 x 10(-10) to 4.96 x 10(-9) cm(2), which was a magnitude of two or three orders greater than hydraulic permeability (9.60 x 10(-13) to 1.05 x 10(-11) cm(2)). The difference between gas and hydraulic permeabilities can be explained by gas slippage, which makes gas more permeable, and by soil-water interaction, which impedes water flow and then makes water less permeable. This explanation was also supported by the result that a liquid permeability measured with heptane as a non-polar liquid was similar to the intrinsic gas permeability. The data demonstrate that hydraulic requirement for the CSL is not enough to control the gas emissions from a landfill. PMID:17964132

  7. Effectiveness of compacted soil liner as a gas barrier layer in the landfill final cover system.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seheum; Nam, Kyoungphile; Kim, Jae Young; Hwan, Shim Kyu; Chung, Moonkyung

    2008-01-01

    A compacted soil liner (CSL) has been widely used as a single barrier layer or a part of composite barrier layer in the landfill final cover system to prevent water infiltration into solid wastes for its acceptable hydraulic permeability. This study was conducted to test whether the CSL was also effective in prohibiting landfill gas emissions. For this purpose, three different compaction methods (i.e., reduced, standard, and modified Proctor methods) were used to prepare the soil specimens, with nitrogen as gas, and with water and heptane as liquid permeants. Measured gas permeability ranged from 2.03 x 10(-10) to 4.96 x 10(-9) cm(2), which was a magnitude of two or three orders greater than hydraulic permeability (9.60 x 10(-13) to 1.05 x 10(-11) cm(2)). The difference between gas and hydraulic permeabilities can be explained by gas slippage, which makes gas more permeable, and by soil-water interaction, which impedes water flow and then makes water less permeable. This explanation was also supported by the result that a liquid permeability measured with heptane as a non-polar liquid was similar to the intrinsic gas permeability. The data demonstrate that hydraulic requirement for the CSL is not enough to control the gas emissions from a landfill.

  8. Integrating the system dynamic and cellular automata models to predict land use and land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Du, Ziqiang; Zhang, Hong

    2016-10-01

    Land use and land cover change (LULCC) is a widely researched topic in related studies. A number of models have been established to simulate LULCC patterns. However, the integration of the system dynamic (SD) and the cellular automata (CA) model have been rarely employed in LULCC simulations, although it allows for combining the advantages of each approach and therefore improving the simulation accuracy. In this study, we integrated an SD model and a CA model to predict LULCC under three future development scenarios in Northern Shanxi province of China, a typical agro-pastoral transitional zone. The results indicated that our integrated approach represented the impacts of natural and socioeconomic factors on LULCC well, and could accurately simulate the magnitude and spatial pattern of LULCC. The modeling scenarios illustrated that different development pathways would lead to various LULCC patterns. This study demonstrated the advantages of the integration approach for simulating LULCC and suggests that LULCC is affected to a large degree by natural and socioeconomic factors.

  9. Models and techniques for evaluating the effectiveness of aircraft computing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in the development of system models and techniques for the formulation and evaluation of aircraft computer system effectiveness is reported. Topics covered include: analysis of functional dependence: a prototype software package, METAPHOR, developed to aid the evaluation of performability; and a comprehensive performability modeling and evaluation exercise involving the SIFT computer.

  10. Insects associated with winter legume cover crops in a sorghum for Bio-fuel and cotton rotation system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of novel crops for bio-fuel production requires evaluating the potential for sound ecological and economical implementation in a particular region. We examined the pest and generalist beneficial insect species associated with various winter cover crops (including narrowleaf lupin, white vetch, ...

  11. Evaluating Storage Systems for Lustre

    SciTech Connect

    Oral, H. Sarp

    2015-08-20

    Storage systems are complex, including multiple subsystems and components. Sustained operations with top performance require all these subsystems and components working as expected. Having a detailed performance profile helps establishing a baseline. This baseline can be used for easier identification of possible future problems. A systematic bottom-to-top approach, starting with a detailed performance analysis of disks and moving up across layers and subsystems, provides a quantitative breakdown of each component's capabilities and bottlenecks. Coupling these low-level tests with Lustre-level evaluations will present a better understanding of performance expectations under different I/O workloads.

  12. Evaluating geographic information systems technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guptill, Stephen C.

    1989-01-01

    Computerized geographic information systems (GISs) are emerging as the spatial data handling tools of choice for solving complex geographical problems. However, few guidelines exist for assisting potential users in identifying suitable hardware and software. A process to be followed in evaluating the merits of GIS technology is presented. Related standards and guidelines, software functions, hardware components, and benchmarking are discussed. By making users aware of all aspects of adopting GIS technology, they can decide if GIS is an appropriate tool for their application and, if so, which GIS should be used.

  13. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator); Latty, R. S.; Dean, E.; Knowlton, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    Separate holograms of horizontally (HH) and vertically (HV) polarized responses obtained by the APQ-102 side-looking radar were processed through an optical correlator and the resulting image was recorded on positive film from which black and white negative and positive prints were made. Visual comparison of the HH and HV images reveals a distinct dark band in the imagery which covers about 30% of the radar strip. Preliminary evaluaton of the flight line 1 date indicates that various features on the HH and HV images seem to have different response levels. The amount of sidelap due to the look angle between flight lines 1 and 2 is negligible. NASA mission #425 to obtain flightlines of NS-001 MSS data and supporting aerial photography was successfully flown. Flight line 3 data are of very good quality and virtually cloud-free. Results of data analysis for selection of test fields and for evaluation of waveband combination and spatial resolution are presented.

  14. Cryptogamic covers control spectral vegetation indices and their seasonal variation in dryland systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Caballero, Emilio; Knerr, Tanja; Büdel, Burkhard; Hill, Joachim; Weber, Bettina

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing data provide spatially continuous information on vegetation dynamics by means of long-term series of vegetation indices (VI). However, most of these indices show problematic results in drylands, as a consequence of the scarce vegetation cover and the strong effect of the open space between plants. Open soil between plants as well as rock surfaces in dryland ecosystems are often covered by complex communities of cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and mosses. These cryptogamic covers show a faster phenological response to water pulses than vascular vegetation, turning green almost immediately after the first rain following a dry period and modifying their spectral response. However, only few studies quantified the effects of cryptogamic covers on VI, and none of them considered them in the analysis of temporal series of satellite images, where differences in physiology and reflectance between cryptogamic covers and vascular vegetation interact. For this reason, we quantified how cryptogamic covers modify the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), based on field and lab spectral measurements. For two different biocrust-dominated ecosystems within the South African Karoo, we analyzed the effect of biocrusts on spectrally analyzed vegetation dynamics using multi-temporal series of VI obtained from LANDSAT and MODIS images . Cryptogamic covers exerted a considerable effect on both NDVI and EVI calculated from field and lab spectra. As previously described for vegetation, also increasing cryptogam cover caused an increase of both VI values, and this effect also became apparent at LANDSAT image scale. However, the response of VI extracted from LANDSAT images upon environmental factors differed between pixels dominated by cryptogams and vascular vegetation. Whereas vegetation showed the highest changes in VI values in response to water availability and temperature, cryptogamic covers, which are the main surface

  15. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) evaluation of the gyroscopic wheel cover device under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Syria, S.L.

    1983-06-01

    This report announces the conclusions of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) evaluation of the Gyroscopic Wheel Cover under the provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. The evaluation of the Gyroscopic Wheel Cover device was conducted upon the application of Simmer Wheels, Incorporated. The device is a mechanical assembly which replaces each of the standard wheel covers on a vehicle. The device is claimed to improve fuel economy, handling and braking characteristics, and the life of the brakes and tires.

  16. Evaluation of Small Mass Spectrometer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, C. Richard; Griffin, Timothy P.; Ottens, Andrew K.; Diaz, Jorge A.; Follistein, Duke W.; Adams, Fredrick W.; Helms, William R.; Voska, N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Various mass analyzer systems were evaluated. Several systems show promise, including the Stanford Research Systems RGA-100, Inficon XPR-2, the University of Florida's Ion Trap, and the Compact Double Focus Mass Spectrometer. Areas that need improvement are the response time, recovery time, system volume, and system weight. Future work will investigate techniques to improve systems and will evaluate engineering challenges.

  17. Evaluation of Physical Coverings Used To Control Escherichia coli O157:H7 at the Compost Heap Surface ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Marion W.; Kim, Jinkyung; Jiang, Xiuping; Doyle, Michael P.; Erickson, Marilyn C.

    2011-01-01

    Throughout four field trials, compost heaps covered with finished compost maintained temperatures under the physical covering that were ca. 7 to 15.5°C higher, resulting in rapid Escherichia coli O157:H7 reduction, than those of the heaps covered with fresh straw or left uncovered. Our results validated recommendations made by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for covering fresh compost. PMID:21622780

  18. Evaluating the need for integrated land use and land cover analysis for robust assessment of climate adaptation and mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vittorio, Alan; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying

    2016-04-01

    Several climate adaptation and mitigation strategies incorporate land use and land cover change to address global carbon balance and also food, fuel, fiber, and water resource sustainability. However, Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) are not consistent across the CMIP5 model simulations because only the land use input was harmonized. Differences in LULCC impede understanding of global change because such differences can dramatically alter land-atmosphere mass and energy exchange in response to differences in associated use and distribution of land resources. For example, the Community Earth System Model (CESM) overestimates 2005 atmospheric CO2 concentration by 18 ppmv, and we explore the contribution of historical LULCC to this bias in relation to the effects of CO2 fertilization and nitrogen deposition on terrestrial carbon. Using identical land use input, a chronologically referenced LULCC that accounts for pasture, as opposed to the default year-2000 referenced LULCC, increases this bias to 27 ppmv because more forest needs to be cleared for land use. Assuming maximum forest retention for all land conversion reduces the new bias to ~21 ppmv, while minimum forest retention increases the new bias to ~32 ppmv. Corresponding ecosystem carbon changes from the default in 2005 are approximately -28 PgC, -10 PgC, and -43 PgC, respectively. This 33 PgC uncertainty range due to maximizing versus minimizing forest area is 66% of the estimated 50 PgC gain in ecosystem carbon due to CO2 fertilization from 1850-2005, and 150% of the estimated 22 PgC gain due to nitrogen deposition. This range is also similar to the 28 PgC difference generated by changing the LULCC reference year and accounting for pasture. These results indicate that LULCC uncertainty is not only a major driver of bias in simulated atmospheric CO2, but that it could contribute even more to this bias than uncertainty in CO2 fertilization or nitrogen deposition. This highlights the need for more accurate

  19. Evaluating fractionated space systems - Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornford, S.; Jenkins, S.; Wall, S.; Cole, B.; Bairstow, B.; Rouquette, N.; Dubos, G.; Ryan, T.; Zarifian, P.; Boutwell, J.

    DARPA has funded a number of teams to further refine its Fractionated Spacecraft vision. Several teams, including this team led by JPL, have been tasked to develop a tool for the evaluation of the Business case for a fractionated system architecture. This evaluation is to understand under what conditions and constraints the fractionated architecture make more sense (in a cost/benefit sense) than the traditional monolithic paradigm. Our approach to this evaluation is to generate and evaluate a variety of trade space options. These options include various sets of stimuli, various degrees of fractionation and various subsystem element properties. The stimuli include many not normally modeled such as technology obsolescence, funding profile changes and changes in mission objectives during the mission itself. The degrees of fractionation enable various traditional subsystem elements to be distributed across different free flyers which then act in concert as needed. This will enable key technologies to be updated as need dictates and availability allows. We have described our approach in a previous IEEE Aerospace conference paper but will briefly summarize here. Our approach to generate the Business Case evaluation is to explicitly model both the implementation and operation phases for the life cycle of a fractionated constellation. A variety of models are integrated into the Phoenix ModelCenter framework and are used to generate various intermediate data which is aggregated into the Present Strategic Value (PSV). The PSV is essentially the value (including the value of the embedded real options) minus the cost. These PSVs are calculated for a variety of configurations and scenarios including variations of various stimuli or uncertainties (e.g. supply chain delays, launch vehicle failures and orbital debris events). There are various decision options (e.g. delay, accelerate, cancel) which can now be exercised for each stimulus. We can compute the PSV for the various comb

  20. Water consumption and water-saving characteristics of a ground cover rice production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xinxin; Zuo, Qiang; Ma, Wenwen; Li, Sen; Shi, Jianchu; Tao, Yueyue; Zhang, Yanan; Liu, Yang; Liu, Xiaofei; Lin, Shan; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-09-01

    The ground cover rice production system (GCRPS) offers a potentially water-saving alternative to the traditional paddy rice production system (TPRPS) by furrow irrigating mulched soil beds and maintaining soils under predominately unsaturated conditions. The guiding hypothesis of this study was that a GCRPS would decrease both physiological and non-physiological water consumption of rice compared to a TPRPS while either maintaining or enhancing production. This was tested in a two-year field experiment with three treatments (TPRPS, GCRPSsat keeping root zone average soil water content near saturated, and GCRPS80% keeping root zone average soil water content as 80-100% of field water capacity) and a greenhouse experiment with four treatments (TPRPS, GCRPSsat, GCRPSfwc keeping root zone average soil water content close to field water capacity, and GCRPS80%). The water-saving characteristics of GCRPS were analyzed as a function of the measured soil water conditions, plant parameters regarding growth and production, and water input and consumption. In the field experiment, significant reduction in both physiological and non-physiological water consumption under GCRPS lead to savings in irrigation water of ∼61-84% and reduction in total input water of ∼35-47%. Compared to TPRPS, deep drainage was reduced ∼72-88%, evaporation was lessened ∼83-89% and transpiration was limited ∼6-10% under GCRPS. In addition to saving water, plant growth and grain yield were enhanced under GCRPS due to increased soil temperature in the root zone. Therefore, water use efficiencies (WUEs), based on transpiration, irrigation and total input water, were respectively improved as much as 27%, 609% and 110% under GCRPS. Increased yield attributed to up to ∼19%, decreased deep drainage accounted for ∼75%, decreased evaporation accounted for ∼14% and reduced transpiration for ∼5% of the enhancement in WUE of input water under GCRPS, while increased runoff and water storage had

  1. Metal mobility in sediment-covered ridge-crest hydrothermal systems: experimental and theoretical constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruse, Anna M.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.

    2001-10-01

    alteration experiments indicate that except for Cu, hydrothermal sediment alteration results in equal or greater concentrations of ore-forming metals at a given temperature and pressure. Accordingly, the presence of ore-forming metals in fluids currently venting from sediment-covered hydrothermal systems at concentrations substantially lower than in fluids from bare-rock systems may reflect chemical reequilibration during subsurface cooling within the sediment pile.

  2. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques. [south carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    A literature review on radar and spectral band information was conducted and a NC-130 mission was flown carrying the NS001 scanner system which basically corresponds to the channel configuration of the proposed thematic mapper. Aerial photography and other reference data were obtained for the study site, an area approximately 290 sq miles in north central South Carolina. A cover type map was prepared and methods were devised for reformatting and geometrically correcting MSS CRT data. Arrangements were made to obtain LANDSAT data for dates approximating the NC-130 mission. Because of the waveband employed to obtain SEASAT radar data, it was decided to determine if X-band (2.40 cm to 3.75 cm wavelength) imagery is available.

  3. Java Mission Evaluation Workstation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettinger, Ross; Watlington, Tim; Ryley, Richard; Harbour, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The Java Mission Evaluation Workstation System (JMEWS) is a collection of applications designed to retrieve, display, and analyze both real-time and recorded telemetry data. This software is currently being used by both the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and the International Space Station (ISS) program. JMEWS was written in the Java programming language to satisfy the requirement of platform independence. An object-oriented design was used to satisfy additional requirements and to make the software easily extendable. By virtue of its platform independence, JMEWS can be used on the UNIX workstations in the Mission Control Center (MCC) and on office computers. JMEWS includes an interactive editor that allows users to easily develop displays that meet their specific needs. The displays can be developed and modified while viewing data. By simply selecting a data source, the user can view real-time, recorded, or test data.

  4. Evaluation of Robotic Systems to Carry Out Traverse Execution, Opportunistic Science, and Landing Site Evaluation Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.; Leonard, Matther J.; Pacal, Lee

    2011-01-01

    This report covers the execution of and results from the activities proposed and approved in Exploration Analogs and Mission Development (EAMD) Field Test Protocol HMP2010: Evaluation of Robotic Systems to carry out Traverse Execution, Opportunistic Science, and Landing Site Evaluation Tasks. The field tests documented in this report examine one facet of a larger program of planetary surface exploration. This program has been evolving and maturing for several years, growing from a broad policy statement with a few specified milestones for NASA to an international effort with much higher fidelity descriptions of systems and operations necessary to accomplish this type of exploration.

  5. Evaluation of computer-based ultrasonic inservice inspection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.V. Jr.; Angel, L.J.; Doctor, S.R.; Park, W.R.; Schuster, G.J.; Taylor, T.T.

    1994-03-01

    This report presents the principles, practices, terminology, and technology of computer-based ultrasonic testing for inservice inspection (UT/ISI) of nuclear power plants, with extensive use of drawings, diagrams, and LTT images. The presentation is technical but assumes limited specific knowledge of ultrasonics or computers. The report is divided into 9 sections covering conventional LTT, computer-based LTT, and evaluation methodology. Conventional LTT topics include coordinate axes, scanning, instrument operation, RF and video signals, and A-, B-, and C-scans. Computer-based topics include sampling, digitization, signal analysis, image presentation, SAFI, ultrasonic holography, transducer arrays, and data interpretation. An evaluation methodology for computer-based LTT/ISI systems is presented, including questions, detailed procedures, and test block designs. Brief evaluations of several computer-based LTT/ISI systems are given; supplementary volumes will provide detailed evaluations of selected systems.

  6. Evaluating Water and Energy Fluxes across Three Land Cover Types in a Desert Urban Environment through a Mobile Eddy Covariance Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierini, N.; Vivoni, E. R.; Schreiner-McGraw, A.; Lopez-Castrillo, I.

    2015-12-01

    The urbanization process transforms a natural landscape into a built environment with many engineered surfaces, leading to significant impacts on surface energy and water fluxes across multiple spatial and temporal scales. Nevertheless, the effects of different urban land covers on energy and water fluxes has been rarely quantified across the large varieties of construction materials, landscaping and vegetation types, and industrial, commercial and residential areas in cities. In this study, we deployed a mobile eddy covariance tower at three different locations in the Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan area to capture a variety of urban land covers. The three locations each represent a common urban class in Phoenix: 1) a dense, xeric landscape (gravel cover and native plants with drip-irrigation systems near tall buildings); 2) a high-density urban site (asphalt-paved parking lot near a high-traffic intersection); and 3) a suburban mesic landscape (sprinkler-irrigated turf grass in a suburban neighborhood). At each site, we measured meteorological variables, including air temperature and relative humidity at three heights, precipitation and pressure, surface temperature, and soil moisture and temperature (where applicable), to complement the eddy covariance measurements of radiation, energy, carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes. We evaluated the tower footprint at each site to characterize the contributing surface area to the flux measurements, including engineered and landscaping elements, as a function of time for each deployment. The different sites allowed us to compare how turbulent fluxes of water vapor and carbon dioxide vary for these representative urban land covers, in particular with respect to the role of precipitation events and irrigation. While the deployments covered different seasons, from winter to summer in 2015, the variety of daily conditions allowed quantification of the differential response to precipitation events during the winter, pre

  7. Effects of cover crop management and planting operations on cotton establishment and yield in a no-till system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One method to save resources while positively impacting the environment is combining agricultural field operations. In no-till systems, for example, termination of cover crops and planting of the cash crop can be performed simultaneously utilizing a tractor as a single power source. A no-till field ...

  8. Microbial community structure and abundance in the rhizosphere and bulk soil of a tomato cropping system that includes cover crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this report we use Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (TRFLP) in a tomato production system to “finger printing” the soil microbial community structure with Phylum specific primer sets. Factors influencing the soil microbes are a cover crop of Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa) or Rye (...

  9. 45 CFR 1182.17 - Institute systems of records that are covered by exemptions in the Privacy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Institute systems of records that are covered by exemptions in the Privacy Act. 1182.17 Section 1182.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY...

  10. Using Remotely Sensed Data and Watershed and Hydrodynamic Models to Evaluate the Effects of Land Cover Land Use Change on Aquatic Ecosystems in Mobile Bay, AL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Judd, Chaeli; Thom, Ron; Woodruff, Dana; Ellis, Jean T.; Quattrochi, Dale; Watson, Brian; Rodriquez, Hugo; Johnson, Hoyt

    2012-01-01

    Alabama coastal systems have been subjected to increasing pressure from a variety of activities including urban and rural development, shoreline modifications, industrial activities, and dredging of shipping and navigation channels. The impacts on coastal ecosystems are often observed through the use of indicator species. One such indicator species for aquatic ecosystem health is submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Watershed and hydrodynamic modeling has been performed to evaluate the impact of land cover land use (LCLU) change in the two counties surrounding Mobile Bay (Mobile and Baldwin) on SAV stressors and controlling factors (temperature, salinity, and sediment) in the Mobile Bay estuary. Watershed modeling using the Loading Simulation Package in C++ (LSPC) was performed for all watersheds contiguous to Mobile Bay for LCLU scenarios in 1948, 1992, 2001, and 2030. Remotely sensed Landsat-derived National Land Cover Data (NLCD) were used in the 1992 and 2001 simulations after having been reclassified to a common classification scheme. The Prescott Spatial Growth Model was used to project the 2030 LCLU scenario based on current trends. The LSPC model simulations provided output on changes in flow, temperature, and sediment for 22 discharge points into the estuary. These results were inputted in the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Computer Code (EFDC) hydrodynamic model to generate data on changes in temperature, salinity, and sediment on a grid throughout Mobile Bay and adjacent estuaries. The changes in the aquatic ecosystem were used to perform an ecological analysis to evaluate the impact on SAV habitat suitability. This is the key product benefiting the Mobile Bay coastal environmental managers that integrates the influences of temperature, salinity, and sediment due to LCLU driven flow changes with the restoration potential of SAVs. Data products and results are being integrated into NOAA s EcoWatch and Gulf of Mexico Data Atlas online systems for

  11. Using Remotely Sensed Data and Watershed and Hydrodynamic Models to Evaluate the Effects of Land Cover Land Use Change on Aquatic Ecosystems in Mobile Bay, AL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Estes, M. G.; Judd, C.; Thom, R.; Woodruff, D.; Ellis, J. T.; Quattrochi, D.; Watson, B.; Rodriguez, H.; Johnson, H.

    2012-12-01

    Alabama coastal systems have been subjected to increasing pressure from a variety of activities including urban and rural development, shoreline modifications, industrial activities, and dredging of shipping and navigation channels. The impacts on coastal ecosystems are often observed through the use of indicator species. One such indicator species for aquatic ecosystem health is submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Watershed and hydrodynamic modeling has been performed to evaluate the impact of land cover land use (LCLU) change in the two counties surrounding Mobile Bay (Mobile and Baldwin) on SAV stressors and controlling factors (temperature, salinity, and sediment) in the Mobile Bay estuary. Watershed modeling using the Loading Simulation Package in C++ (LSPC) was performed for all watersheds contiguous to Mobile Bay for LCLU scenarios in 1948, 1992, 2001, and 2030. Remotely sensed Landsat-derived National Land Cover Data (NLCD) were used in the 1992 and 2001 simulations after having been reclassified to a common classification scheme. The Prescott Spatial Growth Model was used to project the 2030 LCLU scenario based on current trends. The LSPC model simulations provided output on changes in flow, temperature, and sediment for 22 discharge points into the estuary. These results were inputted in the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Computer Code (EFDC) hydrodynamic model to generate data on changes in temperature, salinity, and sediment on a grid throughout Mobile Bay and adjacent estuaries. The changes in the aquatic ecosystem were used to perform an ecological analysis to evaluate the impact on SAV habitat suitability. This is the key product benefiting the Mobile Bay coastal environmental managers that integrates the influences of temperature, salinity, and sediment due to LCLU driven flow changes with the restoration potential of SAVs. Data products and results are being integrated into NOAA's EcoWatch and Gulf of Mexico Data Atlas online systems for

  12. Peanut performance and weed management in a high residue cover crop system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research indicates conservation tillage is a viable option for successful peanut production, but more study is needed to help understand interactions between cover crop residues and peanut production. Specifically, additional information is needed about the effects of varying levels of c...

  13. Rye cover crop effects on nitrous oxide emissions from a corn-soybean system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural activities are a major source nitrous oxide emitted to the atmosphere. Development of management practices to reduce these emissions is needed. Non-leguminous cover crops are efficient scavengers of residual soil nitrate, but their effects on nitrous oxide emissions have not been well d...

  14. Downscaling land use and land cover from the Global Change Assessment Model for coupling with Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Page, Yannick; West, Tris O.; Link, Robert; Patel, Pralit

    2016-09-01

    The Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) is a global integrated assessment model used to project future societal and environmental scenarios, based on economic modeling and on a detailed representation of food and energy production systems. The terrestrial module in GCAM represents agricultural activities and ecosystems dynamics at the subregional scale, and must be downscaled to be used for impact assessments in gridded models (e.g., climate models). In this study, we present the downscaling algorithm of the GCAM model, which generates gridded time series of global land use and land cover (LULC) from any GCAM scenario. The downscaling is based on a number of user-defined rules and drivers, including transition priorities (e.g., crop expansion preferentially into grasslands rather than forests) and spatial constraints (e.g., nutrient availability). The default parameterization is evaluated using historical LULC change data, and a sensitivity experiment provides insights on the most critical parameters and how their influence changes regionally and in time. Finally, a reference scenario and a climate mitigation scenario are downscaled to illustrate the gridded land use outcomes of different policies on agricultural expansion and forest management. Several features of the downscaling can be modified by providing new input data or changing the parameterization, without any edits to the code. Those features include spatial resolution as well as the number and type of land classes being downscaled, thereby providing flexibility to adapt GCAM LULC scenarios to the requirements of a wide range of models and applications. The downscaling system is version controlled and freely available.

  15. Biodiversity Pressure Maps to evaluate the impact of land use and land cover change on Endangered Ecological Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisholm, L. A.; Gill, N.

    2014-12-01

    The dynamics of biodiversity are associated with human activities such as land use and land cover change (LULCC). An integrated spatial approach to identify the effects of LULCC is helpful to determine the impact or pressure of human activities on biodiversity. The concept of creating 'biodiversity pressure maps' includes the use of spatial technologies (remote sensing, GIS) over time on areas of sensitivity, for example, areas classified as endangered ecological communities (EEC). The use of a cross-tabulation matrix often forms the basis of creating pressure maps, yet spatial datasets appropriate as input are not always available. The focus of this study was to investigate and evaluate spatial datasets and cross-tabulation techniques useful for producing biodiversity pressure maps. A method will be presented in the form of a case study for an area in the Shoalhaven Local Government Area on the south coast of NSW, Australia. This area is a focus of investigation of the spatial distribution of invasive plants and landholder management practices.

  16. BS-SEM evaluation of the tissular interactions between cortical bone and calcium-phosphate covered titanium implants.

    PubMed

    Manzanares, M C; Franch, J; Carvalho, P; Belmonte, A M; Tusell, J; Franch, B; Fernandez, J M; Clèries, L; Morenza, J L

    2001-01-01

    The improvement of the reliability of the contact between the osseous tissues and the implant materials has been tested by recovering the metallic implants with ceramic materials, usually calcium phosphates. In our study, the calcium phosphate recovering layers were deposited by means of a pulsed-laser deposition technique. Our aim was to to evaluate the tissue interactions established between cortical bone and titanium implants covered by five different layers, ranging from amorphous calcium phosphate to crystalline hydroxyapatite, obtained by altering the parameters of the laser ablation process. The surgical protocol of the study consisted in the simultaneous implantation of the five types of implants in both the tibial dyaphisis of three Beagle dogs, sacrificed respectively one, two and three months after the last surgical procedures. After the sacrifice, the samples were submitted to a scheduled procedure of embedding in plastic polymers without prior decalcification, in order to perform the ultrastructural studies: scanning microscopy with secondary and backscattered electrons (BS-SEM). Our observations show that both in terms of the calcified tissues appearing as a response to the presence of the different coatings and of time of recovering, the implants coated with crystalline calcium phosphate layers by laser ablation present a better result than the amorphous-calcium-phosphate-coated implants. Moreover, the constant presence of chondroid tissue, related with the mechanical induction by forces applied on the recovering area, strongly suggests that the mechanisms implied in osteointegration are related to endomembranous, rather than endochondral ossification processes.

  17. Land-use poverty traps identified in shifting cultivation systems shape long-term tropical forest cover.

    PubMed

    Coomes, Oliver T; Takasaki, Yoshito; Rhemtulla, Jeanine M

    2011-08-23

    In this article we illustrate how fine-grained longitudinal analyses of land holding and land use among forest peasant households in an Amazonian village can enrich our understanding of the poverty/land cover nexus. We examine the dynamic links in shifting cultivation systems among asset poverty, land use, and land cover in a community where poverty is persistent and primary forests have been replaced over time--with community enclosure--by secondary forests (i.e., fallows), orchards, and crop land. Land cover change is assessed using aerial photographs/satellite imagery from 1965 to 2007. Household and plot level data are used to track land holding, portfolios, and use as well as land cover over the past 30 y, with particular attention to forest status (type and age). Our analyses find evidence for two important types of "land-use" poverty traps--a "subsistence crop" trap and a "short fallow" trap--and indicate that the initial conditions of land holding by forest peasants have long-term effects on future forest cover and household welfare. These findings suggest a new mechanism driving poverty traps: insufficient initial land holdings induce land use patterns that trap households in low agricultural productivity. Path dependency in the evolution of household land portfolios and land use strategies strongly influences not only the wellbeing of forest people but also the dynamics of tropical deforestation and secondary forest regrowth. PMID:21873179

  18. Data driven uncertainty evaluation for complex engineered system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Boyuan; Huang, Shuangxi; Fan, Wenhui; Xiao, Tianyuan; Humann, James; Lai, Yuyang; Jin, Yan

    2016-05-01

    Complex engineered systems are often difficult to analyze and design due to the tangled interdependencies among their subsystems and components. Conventional design methods often need exact modeling or accurate structure decomposition, which limits their practical application. The rapid expansion of data makes utilizing data to guide and improve system design indispensable in practical engineering. In this paper, a data driven uncertainty evaluation approach is proposed to support the design of complex engineered systems. The core of the approach is a data-mining based uncertainty evaluation method that predicts the uncertainty level of a specific system design by means of analyzing association relations along different system attributes and synthesizing the information entropy of the covered attribute areas, and a quantitative measure of system uncertainty can be obtained accordingly. Monte Carlo simulation is introduced to get the uncertainty extrema, and the possible data distributions under different situations is discussed in detail. The uncertainty values can be normalized using the simulation results and the values can be used to evaluate different system designs. A prototype system is established, and two case studies have been carried out. The case of an inverted pendulum system validates the effectiveness of the proposed method, and the case of an oil sump design shows the practicability when two or more design plans need to be compared. This research can be used to evaluate the uncertainty of complex engineered systems completely relying on data, and is ideally suited for plan selection and performance analysis in system design.

  19. Standards for evaluating expert system tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Sharon S.; Gevarter, William

    1991-01-01

    A brief survey of the literature and proposal for a standard methodology for evaluating expert system building tools are discribed. Criteria for expert systems environmental factors and expert systems tool features are also discussed.

  20. Using rainfall simulations to evaluate variability of surface runoff for different land-use/cover types in Alpine Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newesely, Christian; Leitinger, Georg; Tasser, Erich; Zimmerhofer, Werner; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2010-05-01

    Alpine areas are highly sensitive to land-use and climate changes which can result in a shift in biodiversity. So far, detailed information on attached processes is still missing. Although surface runoff is known for enhancing wet land slide and erosions we still do not understand the underlying factors. We designed a rainfall simulator for mountain areas in order to (1) assess small-scale differences of surface runoff and (2) get along with water availability. Using tubes and three different types of nozzles (full, half and quarter circle) a rain simulator for the irrigation of 10m2 (5m x 2m) was constructed. Sprinkling outside the plot (2m on each side) reduced boundary effects leading to a delay of saturation excess flow. As part of the water was sprinkled on the lateral area outside the study plot, a specific calibration factor was needed in order to obtain the effective water quantity within the measuring plot. Rainfall distribution within the simulated plots is a prerequisite for rainfall simulation and was therefore evaluated and visualized. Irrigated water quantities were automatically registered with a logger connected to a water meter and by changing the water pressure, the rain intensity can be modified from 70 to 100 mm h-1. The runoff water was caught in a cannel and recorded in intervals of 1 minute. Using the rainfall simulator in a study in the Eastern Alps, Stubai Valley, Austria, surface runoff for heavy rainfall events (return period of 100 years) on different land-use/cover types (pastures, meadows, abandoned land) was investigated. Accompanying soil water content and soil water tension measurements in different soil depths as well as analyses of soil type, soil physical properties and phytomass were used for results' interpretation. Results revealed significant differences in surface runoff coefficients between investigated land-use/cover types. Moreover, pastures revealed a clear seasonal variability of surface runoff. However, besides

  1. Evaluating the relationship between biomass, percent groundcover and remote sensing indices across six winter cover crop fields in Maryland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Planting cover crops is an effective method to reduce both nitrogen leaching and sedimentation into waterways. Winter cover crops are planted post-harvest on corn and soybean fields to scavenge residual nitrogen that remains in the soil, and to meet soil erosion guidelines, providing positive water...

  2. Merging LANDSAT Derived Land Covers into Quad-referenced Geographic Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. M.; Ragan, R. M.; Lade, K. P.

    1982-01-01

    An approach for merging multiscene LANDSAT data bases into existing geographic information systems having 5-second or smaller cells is described. The approach uses the output from the State of Maryland's UNIVAC 1180-based LANDSAT classification program ASTEP (Algorithm Simulation Test and Evaluation) developed by NASA. The structure of the technique was designed to address the problems that emerged as part of the LANDSAT classification of the 64,000 square mile Chesapeake water shed involving twelve scenes. The removal of overlap among adjacent scenes, the crossreferencing of ground control points, and the isolation of the appropriate pixels from the LANDSAT data base for subsequent positioning into a file containing ancillary data referenced to a specific USGS 7 1/2 minute quadrangle sheet are described. Examples illustrate the clustering of classified LANDSAT pixels to define the dominant land use for each of 8,100 cells within a series of quadrangle sheets distributed over the State of Maryland. The approach uses a hard copy terminal tied to an ASTEP algorithm through telephone lines. A coordinate digitizing board for inputing the position of ground control points is also valuable, although manual measurements are possible. The approach is quite efficient and should be especially attractive for use on regional scale studies.

  3. Land Cover Change Community-based Processing and Analysis System (LC-ComPS): Lessons Learned from Technology Infusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masek, J.; Rao, A.; Gao, F.; Davis, P.; Jackson, G.; Huang, C.; Weinstein, B.

    2008-12-01

    The Land Cover Change Community-based Processing and Analysis System (LC-ComPS) combines grid technology, existing science modules, and dynamic workflows to enable users to complete advanced land data processing on data available from local and distributed archives. Changes in land cover represent a direct link between human activities and the global environment, and in turn affect Earth's climate. Thus characterizing land cover change has become a major goal for Earth observation science. Many science algorithms exist to generate new products (e.g., surface reflectance, change detection) used to study land cover change. The overall objective of the LC-ComPS is to release a set of tools and services to the land science community that can be implemented as a flexible LC-ComPS to produce surface reflectance and land-cover change information with ground resolution on the order of Landsat-class instruments. This package includes software modules for pre-processing Landsat-type satellite imagery (calibration, atmospheric correction, orthorectification, precision registration, BRDF correction) for performing land-cover change analysis and includes pre-built workflow chains to automatically generate surface reflectance and land-cover change products based on user input. In order to meet the project objectives, the team created the infrastructure (i.e., client-server system with graphical and machine interfaces) to expand the use of these existing science algorithm capabilities in a community with distributed, large data archives and processing centers. Because of the distributed nature of the user community, grid technology was chosen to unite the dispersed community resources. At that time, grid computing was not used consistently and operationally within the Earth science research community. Therefore, there was a learning curve to configure and implement the underlying public key infrastructure (PKI) interfaces, required for the user authentication, secure file

  4. Feedback Improvement in Automatic Program Evaluation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skupas, Bronius

    2010-01-01

    Automatic program evaluation is a way to assess source program files. These techniques are used in learning management environments, programming exams and contest systems. However, use of automated program evaluation encounters problems: some evaluations are not clear for the students and the system messages do not show reasons for lost points.…

  5. Influence of cover crop and intercrop systems on Bemisia argentifolli (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) infestation and associated squash silverleaf disorder in zucchini.

    PubMed

    Manandhar, Roshan; Hooks, Cerruti R R; Wright, Mark G

    2009-04-01

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of cover cropping and intercropping on population densities of silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolli Bellow and Perring, and the incidence of squash silverleaf disorder (SSL) in zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L., in Oahu, HI. Two cover crops, buckwheat (BW), Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, and white clover (WC), Trifolium repens L., or sunn hemp (SH), Crotolaria juncea L., and an intercropped vegetable, okra, Abelmonchus esculentus L., were evaluated during the 2003, 2005, and 2006 growing seasons, respectively. Population densities of whiteflies and SSL severity varied during the three field experiments. In 2003, the severity of SSL and percentage of leaves displaying symptoms were significantly lower on zucchini plants in WC than BW plots throughout the crops' growth cycle. Additionally, the percentage of leaves per plant displaying SSL symptoms was significantly greater in bare-ground (BG) compared with the pooled BW and WC treatments on each inspection date. In 2005, zucchini intercropped with okra had lower numbers of adult whiteflies and resulted in significantly lower severity of SSL than pooled BW and WC treatments. During 2006, zucchini grown with SH had significantly lower numbers of all whitefly stages (i.e., egg, immature, and adult) and less SSL severity symptoms than BW. Despite these differences in whitefly numbers and SSL severity, marketable yields were not significantly lower in BW compared with WC or SH treatment plots during the study. The mechanisms underlying these results and the feasibility of using cover crops and intercrops to manage B. argentifolli and SSL are discussed.

  6. Evaluation Strategy. Paper Preservation Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FMC Corp., Gastonia, NC. Lithium Div.

    After a decade of slow but steady progress, the pace of development of technologies to deacidify and strengthen deteriorating books and documents has quickened significantly. These developments accentuate the need for the conservation community to scientifically evaluate the technical merits of potential processes. This draft evaluation strategy…

  7. Internal structure and current evolution of very small debris-covered glacier systems located in alpine permafrost environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosson, Jean-Baptiste; Lambiel, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    This contribution explores the internal structure of very small debris-covered glacier systems located in permafrost environments and their current dynamical responses to short-term climatic variations. Three systems were investigated with electrical resistivity tomography and dGPS monitoring over a 3-year period. Five distinct sectors are highlighted in each system: firn and bare-ice glacier, debris-covered glacier, heavily debris-covered glacier of low activity, rock glacier and ice-free debris. Decimetric to metric movements, related to ice ablation, internal deformation and basal sliding affect the glacial zones, which are mainly active in summer. Conversely, surface lowering is close to zero (-0.04 m yr-1) in the rock glaciers. Here, a constant and slow internal deformation was observed (c. 0.2 m yr-1). Thus, these systems are affected by both direct and high magnitude responses and delayed and attenuated responses to climatic variations. This differential evolution appears mainly controlled by (1) the proportion of ice, debris and the presence of water in the ground, and (2) the thickness of the superficial debris layer.

  8. Evaluating the controls of shear stress, sediment supply, alluvial cover, and channel morphology on experimental bedrock incision rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Joel P. L.; Whipple, Kelin X.

    2010-06-01

    We explored the dependence of experimental bedrock erosion rate on shear stress, bed load sediment flux, alluvial bed cover, and evolving channel morphology. We isolated these variables experimentally by systematically varying gravel sediment flux Qs and water discharge Qw in a laboratory flume, gradually abrading weak concrete "bedrock." All else held constant, we found that (1) erosion rate was insensitive to flume-averaged shear stress, (2) erosion rate increased linearly with sediment flux, (3) erosion rate decreased linearly with the extent of alluvial bed cover, and (4) the spatial distribution of bed cover was sensitive to local bed topography, but the extent of cover increased with Qs/Qt (where Qt is flume-averaged transport capacity) once critical values of bed roughness and sediment flux were exceeded. Starting from a planar geometry, erosion increased bed roughness due to feedbacks between preferential sediment transport through interconnected topographic lows, focused erosion along these zones of preferential bed load transport, and local shear stresses that depended on the evolving bed morphology. Finally, continued growth of bed roughness was inhibited by imposed variability in discharge and sediment flux, due to changes in spatial patterns of alluvial deposition and impact wear. Erosion was preferentially focused at lower bed elevations when the bed was cover-free, but was focused at higher bed elevations when static alluvial cover filled topographic lows. Natural variations in discharge and sediment flux may thus stabilize and limit the growth of roughness in bedrock channels due to the effects of partial bed cover.

  9. Covering Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Ryan; Wind, Andrew; Trevidi, Neema

    2000-01-01

    Presents four articles considering: (1) the media's role in the coverage of politics; (2) the influence of photography particularly in terms of the president; (3) an event where an Iowa student had a chance to work with professionals while covering politics; and (4) considering scholastic reporters covering national candidates as they learn and…

  10. Covering Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gest, Ted; Krajicek, David; Hackney, Suzette; Moore, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    Presents four brief articles on covering crime. Notes that reporting on crimes requires special skills for student reporters, editors, and photographers. Explains how to gain access to scenes, to develop journalistic ethics, and how to cover crime and its victims. Discusses the relation of race and ethnic issues to crime, and how visual…

  11. An evaluation of sampling strategies to improve precision of estimates of gross change in land use and land cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stehman, S.V.; Sohl, T.L.; Loveland, T.R.

    2005-01-01

    Statistical sampling offers a cost-effective, practical alternative to complete-coverage mapping for the objective of estimating gross change in land cover over large areas. Because land cover change is typically rare, the sampling strategy must take advantage of design and analysis tools that enhance precision. Using two populations of land cover change in the eastern United States, we demonstrate that the choice of sampling unit size and use of a survey sampling regression estimator can significantly improve precision with only a minor increase in cost. ?? 2005 Taylor & Francis.

  12. Evaluating hydrologic response to land cover and climate change: An example from the Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, J. W.; Briggs, M.; Kulongoski, J. T.; Pollock, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge is located in the central Pacific Ocean, about 1,000 miles south of the island of Oahu. Impacts on the atoll's hydrologic and ecologic systems are anticipated from two key anthropogenic drivers of change: (1) eradication of invasive coconut palms and replanting of native Pisonia grandis trees, and (2) global climate change. In the near-term, the palm eradication program is expected to modify the distribution and quality of groundwater proximal to the reforested areas. Longer term, sea level rise, changes in precipitation, and changes in storm frequency and intensity are expected to have a broader impact on the freshwater resources of the atoll. We have initiated a project to characterize current climatic and hydrologic conditions on Palmyra, and monitor changes in order to model baseline conditions and future changes in groundwater distribution. Because rain water harvest satisfies human need on Palmyra, the atoll enables study of groundwater resource change uncomplicated by groundwater pumping stress. Field trips conducted in 2008 and 2013 have included geophysical surveys, weather station upgrades, installation of monitoring wells, and geochemical sampling. Nine wells have been installed on Cooper Island (the largest island of the atoll), each instrumented with a combination of temperature, conductivity, and pressure sensors. Repeated frequency-domain electromagnetic conductivity surveys indicate a reduction in the thickness of the freshwater lens on the southern side of the Cooper Island since 2008, possibly linked to recent modification to the atoll's runway and drainage system. These results indicate that we can successfully capture future transformations induced by land cover and climate changes. The Palmyra Atoll project provides open-source information and insight about human-driven change to the vulnerable freshwater resources of low-lying islands; we hope others will take interest in, and make use of the

  13. Evaluating Impacts of Land Use/Land Cover Changes on Water Balance of a Small Watershed using a Distributed Hydrologic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, S. K.; Ostrowski, M. W.; Jain, A.

    2005-12-01

    The impacts of land use/land cover changes due to varying agricultural practices, urbanization, and forestation/deforestation can impact the water cycle of a region significantly. The changes in the hydrologic characteristics of a region are closely linked to its environment and ecology. Therefore, an accurate evaluation of such impacts is important from the environmental and water resources management point of view. This paper presents the results of an investigative study aimed at evaluating the effects of changes in dynamic land uses on water balance of a small watershed. The detailed meteorological and hydrological data from Tarrawara watershed of area 10.5 hectares in Australia were employed to carry out the sensitivity analyses. The Tarrawara watershed mainly consists of grass, and is used for cattle grazing. The watershed has smoothly undulating terrain with no perennial streams or channels. The climate is temperate with mean annual rainfall of 820 mm and potential evapotranspiration of 830 mm. A physically based, spatially distributed conceptual hydrological model, called Water Balance Model (WBM), developed at the Institute for Hydraulics and Water Resources Engineering, Technical University Darmstadt, Germany, was employed in this study. The WBM model simulates the watershed using a raster element with four layers: infiltration layer, root layer, transport layer, and groundwater layer. Each raster element is capable of simulating the soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer system (SVAT) accounting for separation of precipitation into storage processes in a vertical column and runoff generation. The effect of changes in root depth, vegetation cover, leaf area index, and land uses in terms of various combinations of coniferous and deciduous forests on the interception evaporation, soil evaporation, transpiration, evapotranspiration, and through fall have been studied. The data in terms of precipitation (mm), temperature (0C), evapotranspiration (mm/hr), and

  14. Alternative Landfill Cover and Monitoring Systems for Landfills in Arid Environments

    SciTech Connect

    S. E. Rawlinson

    2002-09-01

    In December 2000, a performance monitoring facility was constructed adjacent to the mixed waste disposal unit U-3ax/bl at the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site. This facility consists of eight drainage lysimeters measuring 10 feet in diameter, 8 feet deep, and backfilled with native soil. The lysimeters have three different surface treatments: two were left bare, two were revegetated with native species, and two were allowed to revegetate with invader species (two are reserved for future studies). The lysimeters are instrumented with an array of soil water content and soil water potential sensors and have sealed bottoms so that any drainage can be measured. All sensors are working properly and indicate that the bare lysimeters are the wettest, as expected. The vegetated lysimeters, both seeded and those allowed to revegetate with invader species, are significantly drier than the bare cover treatments. No drainage has occurred in any of the lysimeters. The Accelerated Site Technology Deployment program under the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science and Technology provided the funding for this project with the objective of reducing the uncertainty associated with the performance of monolayer-evapotranspiration waste covers in arid regions such as the one deployed at U-3ax/bl.

  15. Using Remotely Sensed Data and Watershed and Hydrodynamic Models to Evaluate the Effects of Land Cover Land Use Change on Aquatic Ecosystems in Mobile Bay, AL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Judd, Chaeli; Woodruff, Dana; Ellis, Jean; Quattrochi, Dale; Watson, Brian; Rodriquez, Hugo; Johnson, Hoyt

    2012-01-01

    Alabama coastal systems have been subjected to increasing pressure from a variety of activities including urban and rural development, shoreline modifications, industrial activities, and dredging of shipping and navigation channels. The impacts on coastal ecosystems are often observed through the use of indicator species. One such indicator species for aquatic ecosystem health is submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Watershed and hydrodynamic modeling has been performed to evaluate the impact of land cover land use (LCLU) change in the two counties surrounding Mobile Bay (Mobile and Baldwin) on SAV stressors and controlling factors (temperature, salinity, and sediment) in the Mobile Bay estuary. Watershed modeling using the Loading Simulation Package in C++ (LSPC) was performed for all watersheds contiguous to Mobile Bay for LCLU scenarios in 1948, 1992, 2001, and 2030. Remotely sensed Landsat-derived National Land Cover Data (NLCD) were used in the 1992 and 2001 simulations after having been reclassified to a common classification scheme. The Prescott Spatial Growth Model was used to project the 2030 LCLU scenario based on current trends. The LSPC model simulations provided output on changes in flow, temperature, and sediment for 22 discharge points into the estuary. These results were inputted in the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Computer Code (EFDC) hydrodynamic model to generate data on changes in temperature, salinity, and sediment on a grid throughout Mobile Bay and adjacent estuaries. The changes in the aquatic ecosystem were used to perform an ecological analysis to evaluate the impact on SAV habitat suitability. This is the key product benefiting the Mobile Bay coastal environmental managers that integrates the influences of temperature, salinity, and sediment due to LCLU driven flow changes with the restoration potential of SAVs. Data products and results are being integrated into NOAA s EcoWatch and Gulf of Mexico Data Atlas online systems for

  16. Satellite power system concept development and evaluation program system definition technical assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The results of the system definition studies conducted by NASA as a part of the Department of Energy/National Aeronautics and Space Administration SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program are summarized. The purpose of the system definition efforts was to identify and define candidate SPS concepts and to evaluate the concepts in terms of technical and cost factors. Although the system definition efforts consisted primarily of evaluation and assessment of alternative technical approaches, a reference system was also defined to facilitate economic, environmental, and societal assessments by the Department of Energy. This reference system was designed to deliver 5 GW of electrical power to the utility grid. Topics covered include system definition; energy conversion and power management; power transmission and reception; structures, controls, and materials; construction and operations; and space transportation.

  17. Evaluation of multiband, multitemporal, and transformed LANDSAT MSS data for land cover area estimation. [North Central Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.; May, G. A.; Kalcic, M. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Sample segments of ground-verified land cover data collected in conjunction with the USDA/ESS June Enumerative Survey were merged with LANDSAT data and served as a focus for unsupervised spectral class development and accuracy assessment. Multitemporal data sets were created from single-date LANDSAT MSS acquisitions from a nominal scene covering an eleven-county area in north central Missouri. Classification accuracies for the four land cover types predominant in the test site showed significant improvement in going from unitemporal to multitemporal data sets. Transformed LANDSAT data sets did not significantly improve classification accuracies. Regression estimators yielded mixed results for different land covers. Misregistration of two LANDSAT data sets by as much and one half pixels did not significantly alter overall classification accuracies. Existing algorithms for scene-to scene overlay proved adequate for multitemporal data analysis as long as statistical class development and accuracy assessment were restricted to field interior pixels.

  18. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation- Abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Porous pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pavers themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between the pavers are backfilled with washed, gra...

  19. Cover Picture.

    PubMed

    Breuning; Ruben; Lehn; Renz; Garcia; Ksenofontov; Gütlich; Wegelius; Rissanen

    2000-07-17

    The cover picture shows how both, fine arts and science, avail themselves of a system of intertwined symbolic and iconic languages. They make use of a common set of abstracted signs to report on their results. Thus, already in 1925, Wassily Kandinsky painted a masterpiece (bottom), which now, 75 years later, might be regarded as a blueprint for a scientific project. In his painting, Kandinsky pictured a grid-shaped sign that resembles in effect an actual molecular switch. Apparently following an enigmatic protocol, the groups of Lehn and Gütlich (see p. 2504 ff. for more details) constructed a grid-type inorganic architecture that operates as a three-level magnetic switch (center) triggered by three external perturbations (p, T, hnu). The switching principle is based on the spin-crossover phenomenon of Fe(II) ions and can be monitored by Mössbauer spectroscopy (left) and magnetic measurements (rear). Maybe not by chance, the English translation of the title of the painting "signs" is a homonym of "science", since both presented works are a product of the insatiable curiosity of man and his untiring desire to recognize his existence.

  20. A review and evaluation of alternatives for updating U.S. Geological Survey land use and land cover maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milazzo, Valerie A.

    1980-01-01

    Since 1974, the U.S. Geological Survey has been engaged in a nationwide program of baseline mapping of land use and land cover and associated data at a scale of 1:250,000. As l:100,000-scale bases have become available, they have been used for mapping certain areas and for special applications. These two scales are appropriate for mapping land use and land cover data on a nationwide basis within a practical time frame, and with an acceptable degree of standardization, accuracy, and level of detail. An essential requisite to better use of the land is current information on land use and land cover conditions and on the rates and trends of changes with time. Thus, plans are underway to update these maps and data. The major considerations in planning a nationwide program for updating U.S. Geological Survey land use and land cover maps are as follows: (1) How often should maps be updated? (2) What remotely sensed source materials should be used for detecting and compiling changes in land use and land cover? (3) What base maps should be used for presenting data on land use and land cover changes? (4) What maps or portions of a map should be updated? (5) What methods should be used for identifying and mapping changes? (6) What procedures should be followed for updating maps and what formats should be used? These factors must be considered in developing a map update program that portrays an appropriate level of information, relates to and builds upon the existing U.S. Geological Survey land use and land cover digital and statistical data base, is timely, cost-effective and standardized, and meets the varying needs of land use and land cover data users.

  1. Evaluating neural networks and artificial intelligence systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberts, David S.

    1994-02-01

    Systems have no intrinsic value in and of themselves, but rather derive value from the contributions they make to the missions, decisions, and tasks they are intended to support. The estimation of the cost-effectiveness of systems is a prerequisite for rational planning, budgeting, and investment documents. Neural network and expert system applications, although similar in their incorporation of a significant amount of decision-making capability, differ from each other in ways that affect the manner in which they can be evaluated. Both these types of systems are, by definition, evolutionary systems, which also impacts their evaluation. This paper discusses key aspects of neural network and expert system applications and their impact on the evaluation process. A practical approach or methodology for evaluating a certain class of expert systems that are particularly difficult to measure using traditional evaluation approaches is presented.

  2. Conversion to No-Till Improves Maize Nitrogen Use Efficiency in a Continuous Cover Cropping System

    PubMed Central

    Habbib, Hazzar; Verzeaux, Julien; Nivelle, Elodie; Roger, David; Lacoux, Jérôme; Catterou, Manuella; Hirel, Bertrand; Dubois, Frédéric; Tétu, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    A two-year experiment was conducted in the field to measure the combined impact of tilling and N fertilization on various agronomic traits related to nitrogen (N) use efficiency and to grain yield in maize cultivated in the presence of a cover crop. Four years after conversion to no-till, a significant increase in N use efficiency N harvest index, N remobilization and N remobilization efficiency was observed both under no and high N fertilization conditions. Moreover, we observed that grain yield and grain N content were higher under no-till conditions only when N fertilizers were applied. Thus, agronomic practices based on continuous no-till appear to be a promising for increasing N use efficiency in maize. PMID:27711154

  3. Efficient Evaluation System for Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavus, Nadire

    2009-01-01

    A learning management system (LMS) provides the platform for web-based learning environment by enabling the management, delivery, tracking of learning, testing, communication, registration process and scheduling. There are many LMS systems on the market that can be obtained for free or through payment. It has now become an important task to choose…

  4. Shuttle orbiter Ku-band radar/communications system design evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, J.; Holmes, J.; Huth, G. K.; Iwasaki, R.; Maronde, R.; Polydoros, A.; Weber, C.; Broad, P.

    1980-01-01

    Tasks performed in an examination and critique of a Ku-band radar communications system for the shuttle orbiter are reported. Topics cover: (1) Ku-band high gain antenna/widebeam horn design evaluation; (2) evaluation of the Ku-band SPA and EA-1 LRU software; (3) system test evaluation; (4) critical design review and development test evaluation; (5) Ku-band bent pipe channel performance evaluation; (6) Ku-band LRU interchangeability analysis; and (7) deliverable test equipment evaluation. Where discrepancies were found, modifications and improvements to the Ku-band system and the associated test procedures are suggested.

  5. An expert system shell for inferring vegetation characteristics: Changes to the historical cover type database (Task F)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    All the options in the NASA VEGetation Workbench (VEG) make use of a database of historical cover types. This database contains results from experiments by scientists on a wide variety of different cover types. The learning system uses the database to provide positive and negative training examples of classes that enable it to learn distinguishing features between classes of vegetation. All the other VEG options use the database to estimate the error bounds involved in the results obtained when various analysis techniques are applied to the sample of cover type data that is being studied. In the previous version of VEG, the historical cover type database was stored as part of the VEG knowledge base. This database was removed from the knowledge base. It is now stored as a series of flat files that are external to VEG. An interface between VEG and these files was provided. The interface allows the user to select which files of historical data to use. The files are then read, and the data are stored in Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) units using the same organization of units as in the previous version of VEG. The interface also allows the user to delete some or all of the historical database units from VEG and load new historical data from a file. This report summarizes the use of the historical cover type database in VEG. It then describes the new interface to the files containing the historical data. It describes minor changes that were made to VEG to enable the externally stored database to be used. Test runs to test the operation of the new interface and also to test the operation of VEG using historical data loaded from external files are described. Task F was completed. A Sun cartridge tape containing the KEE and Common Lisp code for the new interface and the modified version of the VEG knowledge base was delivered to the NASA GSFC technical representative.

  6. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Covered Wells in Tohono O’odham Nation, AZ - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Covered Wells in Tohono O’odham Nation, AZ. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the effectiveness of AdEdge Technologies’ ...

  7. User's guide to closure evaluation system: CES beta-test version 1. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T.; McCready, J.

    1992-12-01

    The Closure Evaluation System (CES) is a decision support tool, developed by the U.S. EPA's Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, to assist reviewers and preparers of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit applications. CES is designed to serve as a checklist for identifying potential design problems in the vegetative cover, final cover, and leachate collection components of RCRA landfill closures as set forth in 40 CFR 264 and 40 CFR 265. It is not intended to be a complete automation of the evaluation process. The conclusions reached by the CES system (and it's modules) should serve either as a starting point for a more thorough investigation or as a final check applied after completion of a technical review. The CES system will, nevertheless, be useful in the directing the appropriate users attention to critical closure design issues and in applying design criteria that are supported by RCRA guidance. The CES system incorporates three modules that can assist in the evaluation of a proposed RCRA closure design: The Vegetative Cover Evaluation System (V-CES); The Final Cover Evaluation System (F-CES); and The Leachate Collection Evaluation System (L-CES). Since each module is a stand alone system, you can work with one module during a CES consultation or work with all three modules in any order.

  8. Early 21st century climatology of snow cover for the western river basins of the Indus River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Khan, M. R.; Petitta, M.; Bolch, T.; Gioli, G.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we assess the snow cover and its dynamics for the western river basins of the Indus River System (IRS) and their sub-basins located in Afghanistan, China, India and Pakistan for the period 2001-2012. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) daily snow products from Terra (MOD) and Aqua (MYD) have been first improved and then analysed on seasonal and annual basis against different topographic parameters (aspect, elevation and slope). Our applied cloud filtering technique has reduced the cloud cover from 37% (MOD) and 43% (MYD) to 7%, thus improving snow cover estimates from 7% (MOD) and 5% (MYD) to 14% for the area of interest (AOI) during the validation period (2004). Our results show a decreasing tendency for the annual average snow cover for the westerlies-influenced basins (Upper Indus Basin, Astore, Hunza, Shigar, Shyok) and an increasing tendency for the monsoon-influenced basins (Jhelum, Kabul, Swat and Gilgit). Regarding the seasonal snow cover, decrease during winter and autumn and increase during spring and summer has been found, which is consistent with the observed cooling and warming trends during the respective seasons. Sub-basins at relatively higher latitude/altitude show higher variability than basins at lower latitude/mid-altitude. Northeastern and northwestern aspects feature larger snow cover. The mean regional snow line altitude (SLA) zones range between 3000 and 5000 m a.s.l. for all basins. Our analysis provides an indication of a decrease in the regional SLA zone, thus indicating a change in the water resources of the studied basins, particularly for the Upper Indus Basin (UIB). Such results are consistent with the observed hydro-climate data, recently collected local perceptions and glacier mass balances for the investigated period. Moreover, our analysis suggests some potential for the seasonal stream flow forecast as a significant negative correlation has been detected for the inter-annual variability of winter

  9. Early 21st century snow cover state over the western river basins of the Indus River system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Khan, M. R.; Petitta, M.; Bolch, T.; Gioli, G.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we assess the snow cover and its dynamics for the western river basins of the Indus River system (IRS) and their sub-basins located in Afghanistan, China, India and Pakistan for the period 2001-2012. First, we validate the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily snow products from Terra (MOD10A1) and Aqua (MYD10A1) against the Landsat Thematic Mapper/Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (TM/ETM+) data set, and then improve them for clouds by applying a validated non-spectral cloud removal technique. The improved snow product has been analysed on a seasonal and annual basis against different topographic parameters (aspect, elevation and slope). Our results show a decreasing tendency for the annual average snow cover for the westerlies-influenced basins (upper Indus basin (UIB), Astore, Hunza, Shigar and Shyok) and an increasing tendency for the monsoon-influenced basins (Jhelum, Kabul, Swat and Gilgit). Seasonal average snow cover decreases during winter and autumn, and increases during spring and summer, which is consistent with the observed cooling and warming trends during the respective seasons. Sub-basins at relatively higher latitudes/altitudes show higher variability than basins at lower latitudes/middle altitudes. Northeastern and northwestern aspects feature greater snow cover. The mean end-of-summer regional snow line altitude (SLA) zones range from 3000 to 5000 m a.s.l. for all basins. Our analysis provides an indication of a descending end-of-summer regional SLA zone for most of the studied basins, which is significant for the Shyok and Kabul basins, thus indicating a change in their water resources. Such results are consistent with the observed hydro-climatic data, recently collected local perceptions and glacier mass balances for the investigated period within the UIB. Moreover, our analysis shows a significant correlation between winter season snow cover and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index of the previous autumn

  10. Aided targeting system simulation evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demaio, Joe; Becker, Curtis

    1994-01-01

    Simulation research was conducted at the Crew Station Research and Development Facility on the effectiveness and ease of use of three targeting systems. A manual system required the aviator to scan a target array area with a simulated second generation forward looking infrared (FLIR) sensor, locate and categorize targets, and construct a target hand-off list. The interface between the aviator and the system was like that of an advanced scout helicopter (manual mode). Two aided systems detected and categorized targets automatically. One system used only the FLIR sensor and the second used FLIR fused with Longbow radar. The interface for both was like that of an advanced scout helicopter aided mode. Exposure time while performing the task was reduced substantially with the aided systems, with no loss of target hand-off list accuracy. The fused sensor system showed lower time to construct the target hand-off list and a slightly lower false alarm rate than the other systems. A number of issues regarding system sensitivity and criterion, and operator interface design are discussed.

  11. Evaluation system of negative electron affinity photocathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Rongguo; Chang, Benkang; Qian, Yunsheng; Wang, Guihua; Zong, Zhiyuan

    2001-10-01

    This article first describes the background of the research and manufacture of evaluation system of Negative Electron Affinity photocathode. This article designs a set of super high vacuum system for activating NEA photocathode on the base of activation theory, the process of design and debugging is given. The system is composed of three parts: super high vacuum system for GaAs material activation, multi-meter testing system, surface analysis system. The system is used for on-line evaluation of activating of NEA photocathode. The technical parameters and structure of the evaluation system of NEA photocathode are given in the paper. The system is finished and experiments are made. At last the picture of the system is given.

  12. Evaluation of biomass systems for electricity generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipinsky, E. S.; Ball, D. A.; Anson, D.

    1982-02-01

    State-of-the-art information and evaluation of alternative biomass systems for generation of electricity are provided. The biomass systems consist of silvicultural or agricultural resources, processing and conversion technology to make biomass-derived fuels, and electricity-generating technology. The systems are delineated in energy network charts and are evaluated in matrices that display biomass-system alternatives and multiple technical, economic, and environmental-impact criteria.

  13. Earth orbital teleoperator visual system evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, P. N.; Shields, N. L., Jr.; Kirkpatrick, M., III

    1977-01-01

    Visual system parameters and stereoptic television component geometries were evaluated for optimum viewing. The accuracy of operator range estimation using a Fresnell stereo television system with a three dimensional cursor was examined. An operator's ability to align three dimensional targets using vidicon tube and solid state television cameras as part of a Fresnell stereoptic system was evaluated. An operator's ability to discriminate between varied color samples viewed with a color television system was determined.

  14. Internet Systems for Evaluation Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, James H.

    1999-01-01

    Provides a detailed description of diverse data collection tools based on the World Wide Web and enumerates their advantages, disadvantages, and logistical challenges. Web-based data collection can offer cost-effective, flexible, and timely solutions to many evaluation needs. (Author/SLD)

  15. Speech Analysis Systems: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Charles; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Performance characteristics are reviewed for seven computerized systems marketed for acoustic speech analysis: CSpeech, CSRE, ILS-PC, Kay Elemetrics model 550 Sona-Graph, MacSpeech Lab II, MSL, and Signalyze. Characteristics reviewed include system components, basic capabilities, documentation, user interface, data formats and journaling, and…

  16. Evaluation Methods for Intelligent Tutoring Systems Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Jim; Mark, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The 1993 paper in "IJAIED" on evaluation methods for Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) still holds up well today. Basic evaluation techniques described in that paper remain in use. Approaches such as kappa scores, simulated learners and learning curves are refinements on past evaluation techniques. New approaches have also arisen, in…

  17. A three-dimensional numerical investigation of the effect of cover materials on heat transfer in floor heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.; Athienitis, A.K.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents a numerical investigation of transient heat transfer in floor heating systems using a specially developed three-dimensional explicit finite-difference model. The study focused on the influence of the cover layer on temperature distribution and on energy consumption. Complete and partial (area) carpets were considered as well as hardwood cover layers over concrete or gypcrete thermal storage. A thick central area carpet over a concrete thermal storage layer (5cm) caused a temperature difference of about 2 C between the carpeted and uncarpeted surface of the floor and a difference of about 11 C in the corresponding regions of the heating panel. The largest thermal lag time between auxiliary heating and floor surface temperature was observed for the carpeted floor (4.75 hours), which also had the highest energy consumption--9% higher than for the case with the uncarpeted 5 cm concrete layer.

  18. Armored Geomembrane Cover Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Foye, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Geomembranes are an important component of modern engineered barriers to prevent the infiltration of stormwater and runoff into contaminated soil and rock as well as waste containment facilities—a function generally described as a geomembrane cover. This paper presents a case history involving a novel implementation of a geomembrane cover system. Due to this novelty, the design engineers needed to assemble from disparate sources the design criteria for the engineering of the cover. This paper discusses the design methodologies assembled by the engineering team. This information will aid engineers designing similar cover systems as well as environmental and public health professionals selecting site improvements that involve infiltration barriers. PMID:21776229

  19. Development of a School Leadership Evaluation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlando, Nik

    2014-01-01

    This action research study examined the effectiveness of the process implemented by Partnerships to Uplift Communities (PUC) Schools Charter Management Organization to develop their school leader evaluation system in collaboration with current PUC school leaders. The development of the leadership evaluation system included the collective voices of…

  20. Earth orbital teleoperator systems evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, N. L., Jr.; Slaughter, P. H.; Brye, R. G.; Henderson, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    The mechanical extension of the human operator to remote and specialized environments poses a series of complex operational questions. A technical and scientific team was organized to investigate these questions through conducting specific laboratory and analytical studies. The intent of the studies was to determine the human operator requirements for remotely manned systems and to determine the particular effects that various system parameters have on human operator performance. In so doing, certain design criteria based on empirically derived data concerning the ultimate control system, the human operator, were added to the Teleoperator Development Program.

  1. Framework for Evaluating Educational Systemic Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikegulu, T. Nelson

    This paper describes the implementation of the Holistic Systemic Evaluation (HSE), a component of an Education Systemic Initiative's strategic management. The HSE provides general guidance for the implementation and continual improvement of an Education Systemic Initiative Reform (ESIR). The implementation of the education system initiative plan:…

  2. Temporal dynamics of total and particulate organic carbon and nitrogen in cover crop grazed cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil organic C and N are important indicators of agricultural sustainability, yet numerous field studies have revealed a multitude of responses in the extent and rate of change imposed by conservation management, and therefore, a lack of clarity on responses. We conducted an evaluation of total and...

  3. An evaluation of high-resolution regional climate model simulations of snow cover and albedo over the Rocky Mountains, with implications for the simulated snow-albedo feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minder, Justin R.; Letcher, Theodore W.; Skiles, S. McKenzie

    2016-08-01

    The snow-albedo feedback (SAF) strongly influences climate over midlatitude mountainous regions. However, over these regions the skill of regional climate models (RCMs) at simulating properties such as snow cover and surface albedo is poorly characterized. These properties are evaluated in a pair of 7 year long high-resolution RCM simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting model over the central Rocky Mountains. Key differences between the simulations include the computational domain (regional versus continental) and land surface model used (Noah versus Noah-MP). Simulations are evaluated against high-resolution satellite estimates of snow cover and albedo from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer. Both simulations generally reproduce the observed seasonal and spatial variability of snow cover and also exhibit important biases. One simulation substantially overpredicts subpixel fractional snow cover over snowy pixels (by up to 0.4) causing large positive biases in surface albedo, likely due in part to inadequate representation of canopy effects. The other simulation exhibits a negative bias in areal snow extent (as much as 19% of the analysis domain). Surface measurements reveal large positive biases in snow albedo (exceeding 0.2) during late spring caused by neglecting radiative effects of impurities deposited onto snow. Semi-idealized climate change experiments show substantially different magnitudes of SAF-enhanced warming in the two simulations that can be tied to the differences in snow cover in their control climates. More confident projections of regional climate change over mountains will require further work to evaluate and improve representation of snow cover and albedo in RCMs.

  4. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SENSORY SYSTEMS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to many neurotoxic compounds has been shown to produce a sensory system dysfunction. Neurophysiological assessment of sensory function in humans and animal models often uses techniques known as sensory evoked potentials. Because both humans and animals show analogous res...

  5. System for electronic transformation and geographic correlation of satellite television information. [cloud cover photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubenskiy, V. P.; Nemkovskiy, B. L.; Rodionov, B. N.

    1974-01-01

    An electronic transformation and correlation system has been developed for the Meteor space weather system which provides transformation and scaling of the original picture, accounts for satellite flight altitude and inclinations of the optical axes of the transmitting devices, and simultaneously superposes the geographical coordinate grid on the transformed picture.

  6. UNIX-based operating systems robustness evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Yu-Ming

    1996-01-01

    Robust operating systems are required for reliable computing. Techniques for robustness evaluation of operating systems not only enhance the understanding of the reliability of computer systems, but also provide valuable feed- back to system designers. This thesis presents results from robustness evaluation experiments on five UNIX-based operating systems, which include Digital Equipment's OSF/l, Hewlett Packard's HP-UX, Sun Microsystems' Solaris and SunOS, and Silicon Graphics' IRIX. Three sets of experiments were performed. The methodology for evaluation tested (1) the exception handling mechanism, (2) system resource management, and (3) system capacity under high workload stress. An exception generator was used to evaluate the exception handling mechanism of the operating systems. Results included exit status of the exception generator and the system state. Resource management techniques used by individual operating systems were tested using programs designed to usurp system resources such as physical memory and process slots. Finally, the workload stress testing evaluated the effect of the workload on system performance by running a synthetic workload and recording the response time of local and remote user requests. Moderate to severe performance degradations were observed on the systems under stress.

  7. Evaluation of Literature-Based Discovery Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yetisgen-Yildiz, M.; Pratt, W.

    Evaluating discovery systems is a fundamentally challenging task because if they are successful, by definition they are capturing new knowledge that has yet to be proven useful. To overcome this difficulty, many researchers in literature-based discovery (LBD) replicated Swanson's discoveries to evaluate the performance of their systems. They reported overall success if one of the discoveries generated by their system was the same as Swanson's discovery. This type of evaluation is powerful yet incomplete because it does not inform us about the quality of the rest of the discoveries identified by the system nor does it test the generalizability of the results. Recently, alternative evaluation methods have been designed to provide more information on the overall performance of the systems. The purpose of this chapter is to review and analyze the current evaluation methods for LBD systems and to discuss potential ways to use these evaluation methods for comparing performance of different systems, rather than reporting the performance of only one system. We will also summarize the current approaches used to evaluate the graphical user interfaces of LBD systems.

  8. An Evaluation of High-Resolution Regional Climate Model Simulated Snow Cover Using Satellite Data (With Implications for the Simulated Snow-Albedo Feedback)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minder, J. R.; Letcher, T.

    2015-12-01

    Snow cover often exhibits large spatial variability over mountainous regions where variations in elevation, aspect, vegetation, winds, and orographic precipitation all modulate snow cover. Under climate change, reductions in mountain snow cover are likely to substantially amplify regional warming via the snow-albedo feedback. To capture this important feedback it is crucial that regional climate models (RCMs) adequately simulate spatial and temporal variations in snow cover. Snow cover simulated by high-resolution RCMs over the central Rocky Mountains of the United States is evaluated. RCM simulations were conducted using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model on a 4 km horizontal grid forced by reanalysis boundary conditions over a seven-year time period. A pair of simulations is considered that differ in the domain size (regional vs. continental) and the land surface model (Noah vs. Noah-MP) employed. RCM output is compared with high-resolution gridded satellite analyses of surface albedo and fractional snow cover derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Results reveal that both RCMs are generally successful at reproducing the observed seasonal cycle and interannual variability of snow extent over the high terrain of the Rockies. However, in simulations using the Noah land surface model (LSM), sub-grid scale fractional snow covered area of grid cells containing snow is systematically too high compared to observations, often exceeding observations by more than 0.2. This bias in fractional snow cover leads to a substantial positive bias in regional surface albedo. Simulations using the Noah-MP LSM produce more realistic variations in fractional snow cover and surface albedo, likely due to its more-realistic treatment of canopy effects. We quantify how differences in simulated snow cover affect the strength of the snow-albedo feedback under climate change. Both RCMs were used to conduct representative 7-year simulations of a

  9. An Evaluation of Copy Cover and Compare Spelling Intervention for an Elementary Student with Learning Disabilities: A Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breach, Celena; McLaughlin, T. F.; Derby, K. Mark

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase the spelling performance for a 4th grade student with learning disabilities. The second objective was to replicate the document with the efficacy of Copy, Cover, and Compare (CCC) in spelling. The study was conducted in a resource room in a low socio-economic school in the Pacific Northwest. The skill…

  10. Evaluation of Chinese and Kyrgyzstan grass germplasm collections for maintenance of green cover under limited irrigation in western North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important strategy to save irrigation water on turf is to develop cultivars with improved drought tolerance, especially in the arid and semi-arid North American West. In this region, maintenance of green cover during summer with reduced levels of irrigation is of paramount importance. Germplasm...

  11. Evaluation of Cover Crops with Potential for Use in Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD) for Susceptibility to Three Species of Meloidogyne

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several cover crops with potential for use in tropical and subtropical regions were assessed for susceptibility to three common species of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica. Crops were selected based on potential use as organic amendments in anaerobic soil disin...

  12. Design requirements for SRB production control system. Volume 3: Package evaluation, modification and hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The software package evaluation was designed to analyze commercially available, field-proven, production control or manufacturing resource planning management technology and software package. The analysis was conducted by comparing SRB production control software requirements and conceptual system design to software package capabilities. The methodology of evaluation and the findings at each stage of evaluation are described. Topics covered include: vendor listing; request for information (RFI) document; RFI response rate and quality; RFI evaluation process; and capabilities versus requirements.

  13. Operational Solar Forecasting System for DNI and GHI for Horizons Covering 5 Minutes to 72 Hours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coimbra, C. F.

    2014-12-01

    I will describe the methodology used to develop and deploy operationally a comprehensive solar forecasting system for both concentrated and non-concentrated solar technologies. This operational forecasting system ingests data from local telemetry, remote sensing and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models, processes all the diferent types of data (time series, sky images, satellite images, gridded data, etc.) to produce concatenated solar forecasts from 5 minutes out to 72 hours into the future. Each forecast is optimized with stochastic learning techniques that include input selection, model topology optimization, model output statistics, metric fitness optimization and machine learning. These forecasts are used by solar generators (plant managers), utilities and independent system operators for operations, scheduling, dispatching and market participation.

  14. Evaluation of implement monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Rakhra, A K; Mann, D D

    2013-01-01

    During monitoring of rear-mounted equipment, frequent rearward turning of tractor drivers causes awkward postures that can cause musculoskeletal disorders related to the back, neck, and shoulders. The objective of this study was to compare three implement monitoring strategies (direct viewing via physical turning, indirect viewing via rear-view mirrors, and indirect viewing via a camera-monitor system) in a lab environment using a tractor and air seeder driving simulator Comparison was based on monitoring performance of the operator (i.e., response error), physical impact on the operator (i.e., head/neck acceleration and increase in neck muscle temperature), and operator preference. Indirect viewing via a camera-monitor system caused the least physical impact on subjects and was the preferred implement monitoring strategy. No significant differences (alpha = 0.05) in monitoring performance were observed. PMID:23600169

  15. Computerized ultrasound risk evaluation system

    DOEpatents

    Duric, Nebojsa; Littrup, Peter J.; Holsapple, III, Earle; Barter, Robert Henry; Moore, Thomas L.; Azevedo, Stephen G.; Ferguson, Sidney W.

    2007-10-23

    A method and system for examining tissue are provided in which the tissue is maintained in a position so that it may be insonified with a plurality of pulsed spherical or cylindrical acoustic waves. The insonifying acoustic waves are scattered by the tissue so that scattered acoustic radiation including a mix of reflected and transmitted acoustic waves is received. A representation of a portion of the tissue is then derived from the received scattered acoustic radiation.

  16. Evaluating Health Information Systems Using Ontologies

    PubMed Central

    Anderberg, Peter; Larsson, Tobias C; Fricker, Samuel A; Berglund, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Background There are several frameworks that attempt to address the challenges of evaluation of health information systems by offering models, methods, and guidelines about what to evaluate, how to evaluate, and how to report the evaluation results. Model-based evaluation frameworks usually suggest universally applicable evaluation aspects but do not consider case-specific aspects. On the other hand, evaluation frameworks that are case specific, by eliciting user requirements, limit their output to the evaluation aspects suggested by the users in the early phases of system development. In addition, these case-specific approaches extract different sets of evaluation aspects from each case, making it challenging to collectively compare, unify, or aggregate the evaluation of a set of heterogeneous health information systems. Objectives The aim of this paper is to find a method capable of suggesting evaluation aspects for a set of one or more health information systems—whether similar or heterogeneous—by organizing, unifying, and aggregating the quality attributes extracted from those systems and from an external evaluation framework. Methods On the basis of the available literature in semantic networks and ontologies, a method (called Unified eValuation using Ontology; UVON) was developed that can organize, unify, and aggregate the quality attributes of several health information systems into a tree-style ontology structure. The method was extended to integrate its generated ontology with the evaluation aspects suggested by model-based evaluation frameworks. An approach was developed to extract evaluation aspects from the ontology that also considers evaluation case practicalities such as the maximum number of evaluation aspects to be measured or their required degree of specificity. The method was applied and tested in Future Internet Social and Technological Alignment Research (FI-STAR), a project of 7 cloud-based eHealth applications that were developed and

  17. Evaluating the Impact of Vegetation Cover and Atmospheric Characteristics on the Estimation of Snow Water Equivalent from Spaceborne Microwave Radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, Bhaskar J.; Foster, James L.

    2010-01-01

    A radiative transfer model for estimating snow water equivalent (SWE, mm) from satellite-observed brightness temperature (K) at 19 and 37 GHz (respectively, T(sub B(sub, sat,19)) and T(sub B(sub, sat,37)) over partially forested area is presented, as an extension of a previously published model, by considering scattering of radiation within the canopy. For the specific case of dense vegetation covering fractional area f, the model can be written as, SWE = alpha{ A. delta (T(sub B(sub, sat)) + B - C. f}/(l f), where delta T(sub B(sub, sat)), is the difference of T(sub B(sub, sat,19)) and T(sub B(sub, sat,37)), alpha(mm/K) is the slope of SWE vs. brightness temperature difference at 19 and 37 GHz that would be obtained by ignoring the presence of atmosphere, delta(T(sub B)sub g)), for a homogeneous snow cover (which varies with grain size). The parameters A, B, and C, are determined primarily by atmospheric characteristics, and for a likely range of atmospheric conditions appear to be in the range of, respectively, 1.15-1.63, 0.69-2.84 K and 0.59-2.39 K. Ignoring atmospheric correction would introduce bias towards underestimation of SWE (and also, snow cover area and snow depth). Increasing cloud liquid water path (L) has the effect of increasing A, and ignoring this variation of A with L would have the impact of biasing the estimate of SWE (and snow extent). Such biasing is further exacerbated with increasing f, because of the appearance of term (l-f) in the denominator. The impact of ignoring the intercept parameters (B and C) would be noticeable at low values of SWE (appearing as a bias towards underestimation of SWE), which has been determined to be about 6 mm for average environmental conditions. The uncertainty in estimating SWE due to variations in the atmospheric characteristics is likely to be less than 15%, but could be up to 25% for non-vegetated snow-covered areas. Better estimates of SWE (and snow extent) would be obtained by adjusting the parameters of

  18. Cover Crop, Amendment, and Tillage Effects on Decomposers, Nematodes, and Collembolans in An Organic Vegetable System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil organisms are sensitive indicators of changes in soil properties. This study reports the effects of different organic management practices on microbial biomass, nematodes and collembolans. Cropping systems treatments are traditional post-harvest, fall-seeded cereal rye-hairy vetch mix; relay-...

  19. Evaluation of accuracy of calculations of VVER-1000 core states with incomplete covering of fuel by the absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Tikhomirov, A. V.; Ponomarenko, G. L.

    2012-07-01

    An additional verification of bundled software (BS) SAPFIR-95 and amp;RC [1] and code KORSAR/GP [2] was performed. Both software products were developed in A.P. Alexandrov NITI and certified by ROSTEKHNADZOR of RF for numeric simulation of stationary, transitional and emergency conditions of VVER reactors. A benchmark model for neutronics calculations was created within the limits of this work. The cold subcritical state of VVER - 1000 reactor stationary fuelling was simulated on the basis of FA with an increased height of the fuel column (TVS-2M) considering detailed presentation of radial and front neutron reflectors. A case of passing of pure condensate slug through the core in initially deep subcritical state during start of the first RCP set after refueling was considered as an examined condition of reactor operation. A relatively small size of the slug, its spatial position near the reflectors (lower and lateral), as well as failure of the inserted control rods of the control and protection system (CPS CR) to reach the lower limit of the fuel column stipulate for methodical complexity of a correct calculation of the neutron multiplication constant (K{sub eff}) using engineering codes. Code RC was used as a test program in the process of reactor calculated 3-D modeling. Code MCNP5 [3] was used as the precision program, which solves the equation of neutrons transfer by Monte-Carlo method and which was developed in the US (Los-Alamos). As a result of comparative calculations dependency of K{sub eff} on two parameters was evaluated - boron acid concentration (Cb) and CPS CR position. Reactivity effect was evaluated, which is implemented as a result of failure of all CPS control rods to reach the lower fuel limit calculated using the engineering codes mentioned above. (authors)

  20. Wall Covering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The attractive wall covering shown below is one of 132 styles in the Mirror Magic II line offered by The General Tire & Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio. The material is metallized plastic fabric, a spinoff from space programs. Wall coverings are one of many consumer applications of aluminized plastic film technology developed for NASA by a firm later bought by King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Massachusetts, which now produces the material. The original NASA use was in the Echo 1 passive communications satellite, a "space baloon" made of aluminized mylar; the high reflectivity of the metallized coating enabled relay of communications signals from one Earth station to another by "bouncing" them off the satellite. The reflectivity feature also made the material an extremely efficient insulator and it was subsequently widely used in the Apollo program for such purposes as temperature control of spacecraft components and insulation of tanks for fuels that must be maintained at very low temperatures. I Used as a wall covering, the aluminized material offers extra insulation, reflects light and I resists cracking. In addition to General Tire, King-Seeley also supplies wall covering material to Columbus Coated Fabrics Division of Borden, Incorporated, Columbus, Ohio, among others.

  1. Cover Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are great tools to improve soil quality and health, and great tools to increase carbon sequestration. They are nutrient management tools that can help scavenge nitrate, cycle nitrogen to the following crop, mine NO3 from groundwater, and increase nitrogen use efficiency of cropping syste...

  2. Comprehensive system models: Strategies for evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Field, Christopher; Kutzbach, John E.; Ramanathan, V.; Maccracken, Michael C.

    1992-01-01

    The task of evaluating comprehensive earth system models is vast involving validations of every model component at every scale of organization, as well as tests of all the individual linkages. Even the most detailed evaluation of each of the component processes and the individual links among them should not, however, engender confidence in the performance of the whole. The integrated earth system is so rich with complex feedback loops, often involving components of the atmosphere, oceans, biosphere, and cryosphere, that it is certain to exhibit emergent properties very difficult to predict from the perspective of a narrow focus on any individual component of the system. Therefore, a substantial share of the task of evaluating comprehensive earth system models must reside at the level of whole system evaluations. Since complete, integrated atmosphere/ ocean/ biosphere/ hydrology models are not yet operational, questions of evaluation must be addressed at the level of the kinds of earth system processes that the models should be competent to simulate, rather than at the level of specific performance criteria. Here, we have tried to identify examples of earth system processes that are difficult to simulate with existing models and that involve a rich enough suite of feedbacks that they are unlikely to be satisfactorily described by highly simplified or toy models. Our purpose is not to specify a checklist of evaluation criteria but to introduce characteristics of the earth system that may present useful opportunities for model testing and, of course, improvement.

  3. Economic Evaluation of Townhouse Solar Energy System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Solar-energy site in Columbia, South Carolina, is comprised of four townhouse apartments. Report summarizes economic evaluation of solar--energy system and projected performance of similar systems in four other selected cities. System is designed to supply 65 percent of heating and 75 percent of hot water.

  4. Evaluating the use of uncertainty visualization for exploratory analysis of land cover change: A qualitative expert user study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinkeldey, Christoph; Schiewe, Jochen; Gerstmann, Henning; Götze, Christian; Kit, Oleksandr; Lüdeke, Matthias; Taubenböck, Hannes; Wurm, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Extensive research on geodata uncertainty has been conducted in the past decades, mostly related to modeling, quantifying, and communicating uncertainty. But findings on if and how users can incorporate this information into spatial analyses are still rare. In this paper we address these questions with a focus on land cover change analysis. We conducted semi-structured interviews with three expert groups dealing with change analysis in the fields of climate research, urban development, and vegetation monitoring. During the interviews we used a software prototype to show change scenarios that the experts had analyzed before, extended by visual depiction of uncertainty related to land cover change. This paper describes the study, summarizes results, and discusses findings as well as the study method. Participants came up with several ideas for applications that could be supported by uncertainty, for example, identification of erroneous change, description of change detection algorithm characteristics, or optimization of change detection parameters. Regarding the aspect of reasoning with uncertainty in land cover change data the interviewees saw potential in better-informed hypotheses and insights about change. Communication of uncertainty information to users was seen as critical, depending on the users' role and expertize. We judge semi-structured interviews to be suitable for the purpose of this study and emphasize the potential of qualitative methods (workshops, focus groups etc.) for future uncertainty visualization studies.

  5. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator); Knowlton, D. J.; Dean, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    Supervised and cluster block training statistics were used to analyze the thematic mapper simulation MSS data (both 1979 and 1980 data sets). Cover information classes identified on SAR imagery include: hardwood, pine, mixed pine hardwood, clearcut, pasture, crops, emergent crops, bare soil, urban, and water. Preliminary analysis of the HH and HV polarized SAR data indicate a high variance associated with each information class except for water and bare soil. The large variance for most spectral classes suggests that while the means might be statistically separable, an overlap may exist between the classes which could introduce a significant classification error. The quantitative values of many cover types are much larger on the HV polarization than on the HH, thereby indicating the relative nature of the digitized data values. The mean values of the spectral classes in the areas with larger look angles are greater than the means of the same cover type in other areas having steeper look angles. Difficulty in accurately overlaying the dual polarization of the SAR data was resolved.

  6. VEGETATIVE COVERS FOR WASTE CONTAINMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disposal of municipal ahd hazardous waste in the United States is primarily accomplished by containment in lined and capped landfills. Evapotranspiration cover systems offer an alternative to conventional landfill cap systems. These covers work on completely different principles ...

  7. Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking of Next Intelligent Systems

    SciTech Connect

    del Pobil, Angel; Madhavan, Raj; Bonsignorio, Fabio

    2009-10-01

    Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking of Intelligent Systems presents research dedicated to the subject of performance evaluation and benchmarking of intelligent systems by drawing from the experiences and insights of leading experts gained both through theoretical development and practical implementation of intelligent systems in a variety of diverse application domains. This contributed volume offers a detailed and coherent picture of state-of-the-art, recent developments, and further research areas in intelligent systems. The chapters cover a broad range of applications, such as assistive robotics, planetary surveying, urban search and rescue, and line tracking for automotive assembly. Subsystems or components described in this book include human-robot interaction, multi-robot coordination, communications, perception, and mapping. Chapters are also devoted to simulation support and open source software for cognitive platforms, providing examples of the type of enabling underlying technologies that can help intelligent systems to propagate and increase in capabilities. Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking of Intelligent Systems serves as a professional reference for researchers and practitioners in the field. This book is also applicable to advanced courses for graduate level students and robotics professionals in a wide range of engineering and related disciplines including computer science, automotive, healthcare, manufacturing, and service robotics.

  8. Capacity for biodegradation of CFCs and HCFCs in a methane oxidative counter-gradient laboratory system simulating landfill soil covers.

    PubMed

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2003-11-15

    The attenuation of methane and four chlorofluorocarbons was investigated in a dynamic methane and oxygen counter-gradient system simulating a landfill soil cover. Soil was sampled at Skellingsted Landfill, Denmark. The soil columns showed a high capacity of methane oxidation with oxidation rates of 210 g m(-2) d(-1) corresponding to a removal efficiency of 81%. CFC-11 and to a lesser extent also CFC-12 were degraded in the active soil columns. The average removal efficiency was 90% and 30% for CFC-11 and CFC-12, respectively. Soil gas concentration profiles indicated that the removal was due to anaerobic degradation, which was verified in anaerobic batch experiments where CFC-11 was rapidly degraded. HCFC-21 and HCFC-22 were also degraded in active soil columns (61% and 41%, respectively), but compared to the CFCs, the degradation was located in the upper oxic part of the column with overlapping gradients of methane and oxygen. High oxidation rates of methane and HCFCs were obtained in soil microcosms incubated with methane. When increasing the column inlet flow, the oxidation zone was moved upward in the column, and the removal efficiency of methane and HCFCs decreased. The removal of CFCs was, however, less affected since the anaerobic zone expanded with increasing inlet flow rates. This study demonstrates the complexity of landfill soil cover systems and shows that both anaerobic and aerobic bacteria may play a very important role in reducing the emission of not only methane but also trace components into the atmosphere. PMID:14655700

  9. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation-Poster

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pervious pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Environmental Protection Agency's Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavingstone pervious pavement systems. The pavingstones themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between...

  10. INTEGRATED WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    SEXTON RA; MEEUWSEN WE

    2009-03-12

    This document describes the results of an evaluation of the current Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) operation against design performance and a determination of short term and long term actions recommended to sustain IWTS performance.

  11. The State of Retrieval System Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salton, Gerald

    1992-01-01

    The current state of information retrieval (IR) evaluation is reviewed with criticisms directed at the available test collections and the research and evaluation methodologies used, including precision and recall rates for online searches and laboratory tests not including real users. Automatic text retrieval systems are also discussed. (32…

  12. A Clinical Evaluation System for Anesthesiology Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viets, J. L.; Foster, Scot D.

    1988-01-01

    Baylor College of Medicine's system for evaluating the clinical progress of anesthesiology residents, developed in response to problems of standards, staff cooperation, and student dissatisfaction with evaluation, assesses resident progress in terms of performance levels based on case complexity and degree of staff intervention. (Author/MSE)

  13. Multiple-scenario spatial modeling of Holocene anthropogenic land cover changes and evaluation against archaeological, palynological and geomorphological records: an example for the Dijle catchment (Belgian loess belt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Brue, Hanne; Verstraeten, Gert; Broothaerts, Nils; Notebaert, Bastiaan; Van Rompaey, Anton

    2015-04-01

    Holocene anthropogenic land cover reconstructions have recently been created at a variety of spatial scales and resolutions and using different methodologies and proxies. However, considerable discrepancies among these reconstructions, as well as their often limited levels of spatial and thematic detail and the uncertainties resulting from equifinality in proxy records, restrict the potential for application in other research fields. There is thus a need for new methodological approaches that integrate different sources of data at a high spatial resolution. This study presents the methodological framework and first results of a multiple-scenario and multi-proxy land cover allocation model that is applied to the Belgian Dijle catchment (ca. 760 km²) and aims to contribute to a better understanding of the evolution of anthropogenic land use patterns and intensity in the NW European loess area throughout the Holocene. In the first part of the model, a series of hypothetical, time-independent land cover patterns is modeled based on a multi-objective allocation algorithm, including natural vegetation, cropland and pasture, and taking into account the land's natural suitability for agricultural land use and conservative ranges of values for input parameters such as settlement density, minimum inter-settlement distance, deforestation rates, and the specialization towards arable land or pasture. This results in a few tens of thousands of land cover maps, which are assumed to cover virtually every possible anthropogenic land cover pattern for the Holocene Dijle catchment. Subsequently, to arrive at realistic land cover scenarios in the Dijle catchment for distinct cultural periods from the Neolithic onwards, the modeled scenarios are evaluated against three sources of time-differentiated, empirical data: 1. archaeological records serve to validate modeled settlement densities and patterns; 2. application of the modeled land cover maps in a pollen dispersal and deposition

  14. Evapotranspiration (ET) covers.

    PubMed

    Rock, Steve; Myers, Bill; Fiedler, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) cover systems are increasingly being used at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, hazardous waste landfills, at industrial monofills, and at mine sites. Conventional cover systems use materials with low hydraulic permeability (barrier layers) to minimize the downward migration of water from the surface to the waste (percolation), ET cover systems use water balance components to minimize percolation. These cover systems rely on soil to capture and store precipitation until it is either transpired through vegetation or evaporated from the soil surface. Compared to conventional membrane or compacted clay cover systems, ET cover systems are expected to cost less to construct. They are often aesthetic because they employ naturalized vegetation, require less maintenance once the vegetative system is established, including eliminating mowing, and may require fewer repairs than a barrier system. All cover systems should consider the goals of the cover in terms of protectiveness, including the pathways of risk from contained material, the lifecycle of the containment system. The containment system needs to be protective of direct contact of people and animals with the waste, prevent surface and groundwater water pollution, and minimize release of airborne contaminants. While most containment strategies have been based on the dry tomb strategy of keeping waste dry, there are some sites where adding or allowing moisture to help decompose organic waste is the current plan. ET covers may work well in places where complete exclusion of precipitation is not needed. The U.S. EPA Alternative Cover Assessment Program (ACAP), USDOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others have researched ET cover design and efficacy, including the history of their use, general considerations in their design, performance, monitoring, cost, current status, limitations on their use, and project specific examples. An on-line database has been developed with information

  15. Evaluating the relationship between biomass, percent groundcover and remote sensing indices across six winter cover crop fields in Maryland, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakara, Kusuma; Hively, W. Dean; McCarty, Gregory W.

    2015-07-01

    Winter cover crops are an essential part of managing nutrient and sediment losses from agricultural lands. Cover crops lessen sedimentation by reducing erosion, and the accumulation of nitrogen in aboveground biomass results in reduced nutrient runoff. Winter cover crops are planted in the fall and are usually terminated in early spring, making them susceptible to senescence, frost burn, and leaf yellowing due to wintertime conditions. This study sought to determine to what extent remote sensing indices are capable of accurately estimating the percent groundcover and biomass of winter cover crops, and to analyze under what critical ranges these relationships are strong and under which conditions they break down. Cover crop growth on six fields planted to barley, rye, ryegrass, triticale or wheat was measured over the 2012-2013 winter growing season. Data collection included spectral reflectance measurements, aboveground biomass, and percent groundcover. Ten vegetation indices were evaluated using surface reflectance data from a 16-band CROPSCAN sensor. Restricting analysis to sampling dates before the onset of prolonged freezing temperatures and leaf yellowing resulted in increased estimation accuracy. There was a strong relationship between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and percent groundcover (r2 = 0.93) suggesting that date restrictions effectively eliminate yellowing vegetation from analysis. The triangular vegetation index (TVI) was most accurate in estimating high ranges of biomass (r2 = 0.86), while NDVI did not experience a clustering of values in the low and medium biomass ranges but saturated in the higher range (>1500 kg/ha). The results of this study show that accounting for index saturation, senescence, and frost burn on leaves can greatly increase the accuracy of estimates of percent groundcover and biomass for winter cover crops.

  16. Evaluating the relationship between biomass, percent groundcover and remote sensing indices across six winter cover crop fields in Maryland, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prabhakara, Kusuma; Hively, W. Dean; McCarty, Greg W.

    2015-01-01

    Winter cover crops are an essential part of managing nutrient and sediment losses from agricultural lands. Cover crops lessen sedimentation by reducing erosion, and the accumulation of nitrogen in aboveground biomass results in reduced nutrient runoff. Winter cover crops are planted in the fall and are usually terminated in early spring, making them susceptible to senescence, frost burn, and leaf yellowing due to wintertime conditions. This study sought to determine to what extent remote sensing indices are capable of accurately estimating the percent groundcover and biomass of winter cover crops, and to analyze under what critical ranges these relationships are strong and under which conditions they break down. Cover crop growth on six fields planted to barley, rye, ryegrass, triticale or wheat was measured over the 2012–2013 winter growing season. Data collection included spectral reflectance measurements, aboveground biomass, and percent groundcover. Ten vegetation indices were evaluated using surface reflectance data from a 16-band CROPSCAN sensor. Restricting analysis to sampling dates before the onset of prolonged freezing temperatures and leaf yellowing resulted in increased estimation accuracy. There was a strong relationship between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and percent groundcover (r2 = 0.93) suggesting that date restrictions effectively eliminate yellowing vegetation from analysis. The triangular vegetation index (TVI) was most accurate in estimating high ranges of biomass (r2 = 0.86), while NDVI did not experience a clustering of values in the low and medium biomass ranges but saturated in the higher range (>1500 kg/ha). The results of this study show that accounting for index saturation, senescence, and frost burn on leaves can greatly increase the accuracy of estimates of percent groundcover and biomass for winter cover crops.

  17. Land cover change or land-use intensification: simulating land system change with a global-scale land change model.

    PubMed

    van Asselen, Sanneke; Verburg, Peter H

    2013-12-01

    Land-use change is both a cause and consequence of many biophysical and socioeconomic changes. The CLUMondo model provides an innovative approach for global land-use change modeling to support integrated assessments. Demands for goods and services are, in the model, supplied by a variety of land systems that are characterized by their land cover mosaic, the agricultural management intensity, and livestock. Land system changes are simulated by the model, driven by regional demand for goods and influenced by local factors that either constrain or promote land system conversion. A characteristic of the new model is the endogenous simulation of intensification of agricultural management versus expansion of arable land, and urban versus rural settlements expansion based on land availability in the neighborhood of the location. Model results for the OECD Environmental Outlook scenario show that allocation of increased agricultural production by either management intensification or area expansion varies both among and within world regions, providing useful insight into the land sparing versus land sharing debate. The land system approach allows the inclusion of different types of demand for goods and services from the land system as a driving factor of land system change. Simulation results are compared to observed changes over the 1970-2000 period and projections of other global and regional land change models.

  18. Climate Impacts of Potential Vegetation versus Current Day MODIS Land Cover in the Community Climate System Model (CCSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, P. J.; Chase, T. N.

    2007-12-01

    Numerous studies have used General Circulation Models to investigate the possible climate impacts that human development has had through transforming the world from natural ecosystems to one dominated by cultivation, grazing, pastures and urban landscapes. In recent climate sensitivity studies we have found that the global representation of vegetation and soils, as well as the surface hydrology in the Community Land Model (CLM) has large impacts on the climate simulated in the Community Climate System Model (CCSM). Therefore to investigate the climate impacts of land cover change in CCSM we have developed new potential vegetation land surface parameters for CLM that are consistent with our current day MODIS land surface parameters. The new parameters use the potential vegetation biome mapping of Ramankutty and Foley, (1999), with the spatial heterogeneity and temporal phenology of plant functional types (PFTs) extrapolated from the MODIS parameters of current day remnant natural biomes. The potential vegetation parameters replace land use, predominantly cropping, with natural tree, shrub and grass PFTs, resulting in substantially higher leaf area index (LAI) and stem area index (SAI) over much of the world. The climate impacts of the potential vegetation parameters are assessed through climate sensitivity studies with the CCSM compared to the climate simulated with the current day MODIS parameters. The main impact of the potential vegetation on the climate simulated in CCSM is an overall cooling from increased latent heat flux, with mixed impacts from albedo changes. This is consistent with previous GCM studies where surface hydrology dominates the forcing from land cover change, but is opposite to studies where the surface albedo is the dominate change. The strong dominance of surface hydrology in changes with the potential vegetation parameters underscores the importance of providing realistic hydrology and land cover in CCSM sensitivity experiments.

  19. Using Satellite Data to Evaluate Linkages Between Land Cover/Land Use and Hypertension in a National Cohort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClure, Leslie; Crosson, Bill; Al-Hamdan, Mohammed; Estes, Maury; Estes, Sue; Quattrochi, Dale

    2009-01-01

    Coincident with global expansion of urban areas has been an increase in hypertension. It is unclear how much the urban environment contributes as a risk factor for blood pressure differences, and how much is due to a variety of environmental, lifestyle, and demographic correlates of urbanization. Objectives/Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between living environment (defined as urban, suburban, or rural) and hypertension in selected regions from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort. Methods: REGARDS is a national cohort of 30,228 participants from the 48 contiguous United States. We used data from 4 metropolitan regions (Philadelphia, Atlanta, Minneapolis and Chicago) for this study (n=3928). We used Land Cover/Land Use (LCLU) information from the 30-meter National Land Cover Data. Results: Overall, 1996 (61%) of the participants were hypertensive. We characterized participants into urban, suburban or rural living environments using the LCLU data. In univariate models, we found that living environment is associated with hypertension, but that after adjustment for known hypertension risk factors, the relationship was no longer present at the 95% confidence level. Conclusions: LCLU data can be utilized to characterize the living environment, which in turn can be applied to studies of public health outcomes. Further study regarding the relationship between hypertension and living environment should focus on additional characteristics of the associated environment.

  20. MicroSIFT Courseware Evaluations (169-198). Set 9. Including Subject and Title Indexes Covering Sets 1-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Dave, Ed.

    This document consists of 30 microcomputer software package evaluations prepared for the MicroSIFT (Microcomputer Software and Information for Teachers) Clearinghouse at the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL). The concise, single-sheet resume describing and evaluating each software package includes source, cost, ability level,…

  1. MSFC Skylab contamination control systems mission evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Cluster external contamination control evaluation was made throughout the Skylab Mission. This evaluation indicated that contamination control measures instigated during the design, development, and operational phases of this program were adequate to reduce the general contamination environment external to the Cluster below the threshold senstivity levels for experiments and affected subsystems. Launch and orbit contamination control features included eliminating certain vents, rerouting vents for minimum contamination impact, establishing filters, incorporating materials with minimum outgassing characteristics and developing operational constraints and mission rules to minimize contamination effects. Prior to the launch of Skylab, contamination control math models were developed which were used to predict Cluster surface deposition and background brightness levels throughout the mission. The report summarizes the Skylab system and experiment contamination control evaluation. The Cluster systems and experiments evaluated include Induced Atmosphere, Corollary and ATM Experiments, Thermal Control Surfaces, Solar Array Systems, Windows and Star Tracker.

  2. School Planning, Evaluation and Communication System (SPECS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flocco, Edward C.

    A comprehensive school planning tool is available from General Learning Corporation and the Center for the Advanced Study of Educational Administration at the University of Oregon. This School Planning, Evaluation and Communication System (SPECS) provides a deliverable system of training, implementation strategies and materials and technical…

  3. Evaluation in the Design of Complex Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Li-An; Schwen, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    We identify literature that argues the process of creating knowledge-based system is often imbalanced. In most knowledge-based systems, development is often technology-driven instead of requirement-driven. Therefore, we argue designers must recognize that evaluation is a critical link in the application of requirement-driven development models…

  4. Volunteer Evaluation System 1989-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greater Pittsburgh Literacy Council, PA.

    The Greater Pittsburgh Literacy Council developed a Volunteer Evaluation System. Its objective was to create a way to gain knowledge of volunteers' skills and place them in appropriate volunteer positions. A five-step system was created to collect information about volunteers at set intervals and pass it along to appropriate staff members. The…

  5. Advanced technology wind shear prediction system evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gering, Greg

    1992-01-01

    The program overviews: (1) American Airline (AA)/Turbulence Prediction Systems (TPS), which have installed forward looking infrared predictive windshear system on 3 MD-80 aircraft; (2) AA/TPS AWAS III evaluation, which is a joint effort and is installed in the noise landing gear (NLG) area and a data recorder installed in the E/E compartment.

  6. Evaluation System Weighing down Tennessee Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitin, Liana

    2011-01-01

    A state law, which helped Tennessee win Race to the Top money, pushed schools to implement a system that had limited pilot-testing. Education officials in Tennessee are taking flak from teachers and unions for rushing the implementation of the new teacher-evaluation system that will eventually undergird tenure decisions--a move, some worry, that…

  7. Rye cover crop effects on soil quality in no-till corn silage-soybean cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn and soybean farmers in the upper Midwest are showing increasing interest in winter cover crops. Known benefits of winter cover crops include reductions in nutrient leaching, erosion prevention, and weed suppression; however, the effects of winter cover crops on soil quality in this region have ...

  8. Web-Based Evaluation System for Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momani, Alaa

    2010-01-01

    E-learning systems have become an issue in recent years. A learning management system (LMS) is an electronic environment helps the educational society to communicate, exchange information, manage, and schedule the learning process. This study has provided a web-based evaluation system that may help the users to choose the convenient system…

  9. Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking of Intelligent Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Madhavan, Raj; Messina, Elena; Tunstel, Edward

    2009-09-01

    To design and develop capable, dependable, and affordable intelligent systems, their performance must be measurable. Scientific methodologies for standardization and benchmarking are crucial for quantitatively evaluating the performance of emerging robotic and intelligent systems technologies. There is currently no accepted standard for quantitatively measuring the performance of these systems against user-defined requirements; and furthermore, there is no consensus on what objective evaluation procedures need to be followed to understand the performance of these systems. The lack of reproducible and repeatable test methods has precluded researchers working towards a common goal from exchanging and communicating results, inter-comparing system performance, and leveraging previous work that could otherwise avoid duplication and expedite technology transfer. Currently, this lack of cohesion in the community hinders progress in many domains, such as manufacturing, service, healthcare, and security. By providing the research community with access to standardized tools, reference data sets, and open source libraries of solutions, researchers and consumers will be able to evaluate the cost and benefits associated with intelligent systems and associated technologies. In this vein, the edited book volume addresses performance evaluation and metrics for intelligent systems, in general, while emphasizing the need and solutions for standardized methods. To the knowledge of the editors, there is not a single book on the market that is solely dedicated to the subject of performance evaluation and benchmarking of intelligent systems. Even books that address this topic do so only marginally or are out of date. The research work presented in this volume fills this void by drawing from the experiences and insights of experts gained both through theoretical development and practical implementation of intelligent systems in a variety of diverse application domains. The book presents

  10. Assessing quality and quantity of groundwater DOC in relation to plant export from different over-winter green-cover treatments in tillage farming systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premrov, Alina; Coxon, Catherine; Hackett, Richard; Richards, Karl

    2010-05-01

    The biogeochemistry of nitrogen is often connected to carbon and C/N dynamics. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) electron donor availability can be related to groundwater denitrification (Buss, et al. 2005). Therefore groundwater nitrate attenuation processes are also frequently linked to carbon availability. In recent years the role of over-winter green cover in tillage farming has been studied extensively. Nevertheless further research on the biogeochemical effect of green cover on soil/sediment and groundwater quality is still needed. In particular plant roots are known to exude different types of organic compounds, but their role in groundwater quality has not been investigated in depth. According to Cannavo et al. (2004a,b), in addition to quantity, the quality of water-extractable soil organic matter (e.g. molecular size/weight) has also an important role for microbial activity. In this study we investigate the effect of over-winter green-cover on potential DOC export to shallow groundwater (2 - 5 m below ground level), located on tillage land in Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland. The experiment includes three over-winter green-cover treatments: natural green-cover, mustard and no-cover (sprayed with herbicide following harvest); and is underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer. The site is equipped with 4 shallow piezometers per treatment (total no. of piezometers is 20, including treatments and surrounding piezometers). In addition to monitoring the quantity of DOC concentrations in shallow groundwater under different green cover treatments over time, an attempt was made to evaluate the quality of dissolved organic matter in shallow groundwater using Excitation Emission Fluorescence Matrix (EEFM) profiles obtained from analyses performed on a Varian Fluorescence Spectrophotometer of a single batch of samples (from all 20 installed piezometers in September 2009). To evaluate the quality of dissolved organic matter in shallow groundwater, computation of the

  11. Pilot Evaluations of Runway Status Light System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Steven D.; Wills, Robert W.; Smith, R. Marshall

    1996-01-01

    This study focuses on use of the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) Simulator at the Langley Research Center to obtain pilot opinion and input on the Federal Aviation Administration's Runway Status Light System (RWSL) prior to installation in an operational airport environment. The RWSL has been designed to reduce the likelihood of runway incursions by visually alerting pilots when a runway is occupied. Demonstrations of the RWSL in the TSRV Simulator allowed pilots to evaluate the system in a realistic cockpit environment.

  12. Ensuring system security through formal software evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J A; Fuyat, C; Elvy, M

    1992-01-01

    With the increasing use of computer systems and networks to process safeguards information in nuclear facilities, the issue of system and data integrity is receiving worldwide attention. Among the many considerations are validation that the software performs as intended and that the information is adequately protected. Such validations are often requested of the Safeguards Systems Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This paper describes our methodology for performing these software evaluations.

  13. Automated Laser Seeker Performance Evaluation System (ALSPES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Randal G.; Robinson, Elisa L.

    1988-01-01

    The Automated Laser Seeker Performance Evaluation System (ALSPES), which supports the Hellfire missile and Copperhead projectile laser seekers, is discussed. The ALSPES capabilities in manual and automatic operation are described, and the ALSPES test hardware is examined, including the computer system, the laser/attenuator, optics systems, seeker test fixture, and the measurement and test equipment. The calibration of laser energy and test signals in ALSPES is considered.

  14. a Reliability Evaluation System of Association Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiangping; Feng, Wanshu; Luo, Minghai

    2016-06-01

    In mining association rules, the evaluation of the rules is a highly important work because it directly affects the usability and applicability of the output results of mining. In this paper, the concept of reliability was imported into the association rule evaluation. The reliability of association rules was defined as the accordance degree that reflects the rules of the mining data set. Such degree contains three levels of measurement, namely, accuracy, completeness, and consistency of rules. To show its effectiveness, the "accuracy-completeness-consistency" reliability evaluation system was applied to two extremely different data sets, namely, a basket simulation data set and a multi-source lightning data fusion. Results show that the reliability evaluation system works well in both simulation data set and the actual problem. The three-dimensional reliability evaluation can effectively detect the useless rules to be screened out and add the missing rules thereby improving the reliability of mining results. Furthermore, the proposed reliability evaluation system is applicable to many research fields; using the system in the analysis can facilitate obtainment of more accurate, complete, and consistent association rules.

  15. Continuous evaluation of land cover restoration of tsunami struck plains in Japan by using several kinds of optical satellite image in time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashiba, H.

    2015-09-01

    The Mw 9.0 earthquake that struck Japan in 2011 was followed by a large-scale tsunami in the Tohoku region. The damage in the coastal plane was extensively displayed through many satellite images. Furthermore, satellite imaging is requested for the ongoing evaluation of the restoration process. The reconstruction of the urban structure, farmlands, grassland, and coastal forest that collapsed under the large tsunami requires effective long-term monitoring. Moreover, the post-tsunami land cover dynamics can be effectively modeled using time-constrained satellite data to establish a prognosis method for the mitigation of future tsunami impact. However, the remote satellite capture of a long-term restoration process is compromised by accumulating spatial resolution effects and seasonal influences. Therefore, it is necessary to devise a method for data selection and dataset structure. In the present study, the restoration processes were investigated in four years following the disaster in a part of the Sendai plain, northeast Japan, from same-season satellite images acquired by different optical sensors. Coastal plains struck by the tsunami are evaluated through land-cover classification processing using the clustering method. The changes in land cover are analyzed from time-series optical images acquired by Landsat-5/TM, 7/ETM+, 8/OLI, EO-1/ALI, and ALOS-1/AVNIR-2. The study reveals several characteristics of the change in the inundation area and signs of artificial and natural restoration.

  16. Physical protection system design and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.D.

    1997-03-01

    The design of an effective physical protection system includes the determination of physical protection system objectives, initial design of a physical protection system, design evaluation, and probably a redesign or refinement. To develop the objectives, the designer must begin by gathering information about facility operation and conditions, such as a comprehensive description of the facility, operating conditions, and the physical protection requirements. The designer then needs to define the threat. This involves considering factors about potential adversaries: class of adversary, adversary`s capabilities, and range of adversary`s tactics. Next, the designer should identify targets. Determination of whether or not the materials being protected are attractive targets is based mainly on the ease or difficulty of acquisition and desirability of the material. The designer now knows the objectives of the physical protection system, that is, {open_quotes}what to protect against whom.{close_quotes} The next step is to design the system by determining how best to combine such elements as fences, vaults, sensors and assessment devices, entry control elements, procedures, communication devices, and protective forces personnel to meet the objectives of the system. Once a physical protection system is designed, it must be analyzed and evaluated to ensure it meets the physical protection objectives. Evaluation must allow for features working together to ensure protection rather than regarding each feature separately. Due to the complexity of the protection systems, an evaluation usually requires modeling techniques. If any vulnerabilities are found, the initial system must be redesigned to correct the vulnerabilities and a reevaluation conducted. This paper reviews the physical protection system design and methodology mentioned above. Examples of the steps required and a brief introduction to some of the technologies used in modem physical protections system are given.

  17. Evaluating Evaluation Systems: Policy Levers and Strategies for Studying Implementation of Educator Evaluation. Policy Snapshot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matlach, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation studies can provide feedback on implementation, support continuous improvement, and increase understanding of evaluation systems' impact on teaching and learning. Despite the importance of educator evaluation studies, states often need support to prioritize and fund them. Successful studies require expertise, time, and a shared…

  18. WRF model evaluation for the urban heat island assessment under varying land use/land cover and reference site conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhati, Shweta; Mohan, Manju

    2016-10-01

    Urban heat island effect in Delhi has been assessed using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF v3.5) coupled with urban canopy model (UCM) focusing on air temperature and surface skin temperature. The estimated heat island intensities for different land use/land cover (LULC) have been compared with those derived from in situ and satellite observations. The model performs reasonably well for urban heat island intensity (UHI) estimation and is able to reproduce trend of UHI for urban areas. There is a significant improvement in model performance with inclusion of UCM which results in reduction in root mean-squared errors (RMSE) for temperatures from 1.63 °C (2.89 °C) to 1.13 °C (2.75 °C) for urban (non-urban) areas. Modification of LULC also improves performance for non-urban areas. High UHI zones and top 3 hotspots are captured well by the model. The relevance of selecting a reference point at the periphery of the city away from populated and built-up areas for UHI estimation is examined in the context of rapidly growing cities where rural areas are transforming fast into built-up areas, and reference site may not be appropriate for future years. UHI estimated by WRF model (with and without UCM) with respect to reference rural site compares well with the UHI based on observed in situ data. An alternative methodology is explored using a green area with minimum temperature within the city as a reference site. This alternative methodology works well with observed UHIs and WRF-UCM-simulated UHIs but has poor performance for WRF-simulated UHIs. It is concluded that WRF model can be applied for UHI estimation with classical methodology based on rural reference site. In general, many times WRF model performs satisfactorily, though WRF-UCM always shows a better performance. Hence, inclusion of appropriate representation of urban canopies and land use-land cover is important for improving predictive capabilities of the mesoscale models.

  19. Preliminary Evaluation of the AFWA-NASA (ANSA) Blended Snow-Cover Product over the Lower Great Lakes Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; Riggs, George A.; Kelly, Richard E. J.; Chien, Janet Y. L.; Montesano, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    The Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) - NASA (ANSA) blended-snow product utilizes EOS standard snow products from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) to map daily snow cover and snow-water equivalent (SWE) globally. We have compared ANSA-derived SWE. with SWE values calculated from snow depths reported at approx.1500 National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) coop stations in the Lower Great Lakes basin. Our preliminary results show that conversion of snow depth to SWE is very sensitive to the choice of snow density (we used either 0.2 or 03 as conversion factors). We found overall better agreement between the ANSA-derived SWE and the co-op station data when we use a snow density of 0.3 to convert the snow depths to SWE. In addition, we show that the ANSA underestimates SWE in densely-forested areas, using January and February 2008 ANSA and co-op data. Furthermore, apparent large SWE changes from one day to the next may be caused by thaw-re-freeze events, and do not always represent a real change in SWE. In the near future we will continue the analysis in the 2006-07 and 2007-08 snow seasons.

  20. Annual Evaluation Report for Rural Physics Teacher Resource Agents Covering Period from June 2004 to May 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulp, Sherri L.; Banilower, Eric R.

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities and findings of Horizon Research, Inc. (HRI) in its external evaluation of the American Association of Physic Teachers (APPT's) Rural Physics Teacher Resource Agents (PTRA) project. The report details HRI's work and findings since June 2004. The report is divided into five main sections. The first provides an…

  1. MicroSIFT Courseware Evaluations (199-222). Set 10. Including Subject and Title Indexes Covering Sets 1-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    This document consists of 24 microcomputer software package evaluations prepared by the MicroSIFT (Microcomputer Software and Information for Teachers) Clearinghouse at the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. Each software review lists source, cost, ability level, subject, topic, medium of transfer, required hardware, required software,…

  2. NHI Component Technical Readiness Evaluation System

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R. Sherman; Dane F. Wilson; Steven J. Pawel

    2007-09-01

    A decision process for evaluating the technical readiness or maturity of components (i.e., heat exchangers, chemical reactors, valves, etc.) for use by the U.S. DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative is described. This system is used by the DOE NHI to assess individual components in relation to their readiness for pilot-scale and larger-scale deployment and to drive the research and development work needed to attain technical maturity. A description of the evaluation system is provided, and examples are given to illustrate how it is used to assist in component R&D decisions.

  3. Evaluation of Automated Yeast Identification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinnis, M. R.

    1996-01-01

    One hundred and nine teleomorphic and anamorphic yeast isolates representing approximately 30 taxa were used to evaluate the accuracy of the Biolog yeast identification system. Isolates derived from nomenclatural types, environmental, and clinica isolates of known identity were tested in the Biolog system. Of the isolates tested, 81 were in the Biolog database. The system correctly identified 40, incorrectly identified 29, and was unable to identify 12. Of the 28 isolates not in the database, 18 were given names, whereas 10 were not. The Biolog yeast identification system is inadequate for the identification of yeasts originating from the environment during space program activities.

  4. Water-saving ground cover rice production system reduces net greenhouse gas fluxes in an annual rice-based cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Z.; Du, Y.; Tao, Y.; Zheng, X.; Liu, C.; Lin, S.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2014-11-01

    To safeguard food security and preserve precious water resources, the technology of water-saving ground cover rice production system (GCRPS) is being increasingly adopted for rice cultivation. However, changes in soil water status and temperature under GCRPS may affect soil biogeochemical processes that control the biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The overall goal of this study is to better understand how net ecosystem greenhouse gas exchanges (NEGE) and grain yields are affected by GCRPS in an annual rice-based cropping system. Our evaluation was based on measurements of the CH4 and N2O fluxes and soil heterotrophic respiration (CO2 emissions) over a complete year, and the estimated soil carbon sequestration intensity for six different fertilizer treatments for conventional paddy and GCRPS. The fertilizer treatments included urea application and no N fertilization for both conventional paddy (CUN and CNN) and GCRPS (GUN and GNN), and solely chicken manure (GCM) and combined urea and chicken manure applications (GUM) for GCRPS. Averaging across all the fertilizer treatments, GCRPS increased annual N2O emission and grain yield by 40 and 9%, respectively, and decreased annual CH4 emission by 69%, while GCRPS did not affect soil CO2 emissions relative to the conventional paddy. The annual direct emission factors of N2O were 4.01, 0.09 and 0.50% for GUN, GCM and GUM, respectively, and 1.52% for the conventional paddy (CUN). The annual soil carbon sequestration intensity under GCRPS was estimated to be an average of -1.33 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, which is approximately 44% higher than the conventional paddy. The annual NEGE were 10.80-11.02 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 for the conventional paddy and 3.05-9.37 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 for the GCRPS, suggesting the potential feasibility of GCRPS in reducing net greenhouse effects from rice cultivation. Using organic fertilizers for GCRPS considerably reduced annual emissions of CH4

  5. Water-saving ground cover rice production system reduces net greenhouse gas fluxes in an annual rice-based cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Z.; Du, Y.; Tao, Y.; Zheng, X.; Liu, C.; Lin, S.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2014-06-01

    To safeguard food security and preserve precious water resources, the technology of water-saving ground cover rice production system (GCRPS) is being increasingly adopted for the rice cultivation. However, changes in soil water status and temperature under GCRPS may affect soil biogeochemical processes that control the biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The overall goal of this study is to better understand how net ecosystem greenhouse gas exchanges (NEGE) and grain yields are affected by GCRPS in an annual rice-based cropping system. Our evaluation was based on measurements of the CH4 and N2O fluxes and soil heterotrophic respiration (CO2 emission) over a complete year, as well as the estimated soil carbon sequestration intensity for six different fertilizer treatments for conventional paddy and GCRPS. The fertilizer treatments included urea application and no N fertilization for both conventional paddy (CUN and CNN) and GCRPS (GUN and GNN), solely chicken manure (GCM) and combined urea and chicken manure applications (GUM) for GCRPS. Averaging across all the fertilizer treatments, GCRPS increased annual N2O emission and grain yield by 40% and 9%, respectively, and decreased annual CH4 emission by 69%, while GCRPS did not affect soil CO2 emissions relative to the conventional paddy. The annual direct emission factors of N2O were 4.01, 0.087 and 0.50% for GUN, GCM and GUM, respectively, and 1.52% for the conventional paddy (CUN). The annual soil carbon sequestration intensity under GCRPS was estimated to be an average of -1.33 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, which is approximately 44% higher than the conventional paddy. The annual NEGE were 10.80-11.02 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 for the conventional paddy and 3.05-9.37 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 for the GCRPS, suggesting the potential feasibility of GCRPS in reducing net greenhouse effect from rice cultivation. Using organic fertilizers for GCRPS considerably reduced annual emissions

  6. Physical and numerical modeling of an inclined three-layer (silt/gravelly sand/clay) capillary barrier cover system under extreme rainfall.

    PubMed

    Ng, Charles W W; Liu, Jian; Chen, Rui; Xu, Jie

    2015-04-01

    As an extension of the two-layer capillary barrier, a three-layer capillary barrier landfill cover system is proposed for minimizing rainfall infiltration in humid climates. This system consists of a compacted clay layer lying beneath a conventional cover with capillary barrier effects (CCBE), which is in turn composed of a silt layer sitting on top of a gravelly sand layer. To explore the effectiveness of the new system in minimizing rainfall infiltration, a flume model (3.0 m × 1.0 m × 1.1 m) was designed and set up in this study. This physical model was heavily instrumented to monitor pore water pressure, volumetric water content, surface runoff, infiltration and lateral drainage of each layer, and percolation of the cover system. The cover system was subjected to extreme rainfall followed by evaporation. The experiment was also back-analyzed using a piece of finite element software called CODE_BRIGHT to simulate transient water flows in the test. Based on the results obtained from various instruments, it was found that breakthrough of the two upper layers occurred for a 4-h rainfall event having a 100-year return period. Due to the presence of the newly introduced clay layer, the percolation of the three-layer capillary barrier cover system was insignificant because the clay layer enabled lateral diversion in the gravelly sand layer above. In other words, the gravelly sand layer changed from being a capillary barrier in a convention CCBE cover to being a lateral diversion passage after the breakthrough of the two upper layers. Experimental and back-analysis results confirm that no infiltrated water seeped through the proposed three-layer barrier system. The proposed system thus represents a promising alternative landfill cover system for use in humid climates. PMID:25582391

  7. Physical and numerical modeling of an inclined three-layer (silt/gravelly sand/clay) capillary barrier cover system under extreme rainfall.

    PubMed

    Ng, Charles W W; Liu, Jian; Chen, Rui; Xu, Jie

    2015-04-01

    As an extension of the two-layer capillary barrier, a three-layer capillary barrier landfill cover system is proposed for minimizing rainfall infiltration in humid climates. This system consists of a compacted clay layer lying beneath a conventional cover with capillary barrier effects (CCBE), which is in turn composed of a silt layer sitting on top of a gravelly sand layer. To explore the effectiveness of the new system in minimizing rainfall infiltration, a flume model (3.0 m × 1.0 m × 1.1 m) was designed and set up in this study. This physical model was heavily instrumented to monitor pore water pressure, volumetric water content, surface runoff, infiltration and lateral drainage of each layer, and percolation of the cover system. The cover system was subjected to extreme rainfall followed by evaporation. The experiment was also back-analyzed using a piece of finite element software called CODE_BRIGHT to simulate transient water flows in the test. Based on the results obtained from various instruments, it was found that breakthrough of the two upper layers occurred for a 4-h rainfall event having a 100-year return period. Due to the presence of the newly introduced clay layer, the percolation of the three-layer capillary barrier cover system was insignificant because the clay layer enabled lateral diversion in the gravelly sand layer above. In other words, the gravelly sand layer changed from being a capillary barrier in a convention CCBE cover to being a lateral diversion passage after the breakthrough of the two upper layers. Experimental and back-analysis results confirm that no infiltrated water seeped through the proposed three-layer barrier system. The proposed system thus represents a promising alternative landfill cover system for use in humid climates.

  8. Performance and Evaluation of LISP Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    The final report of the Stanford Lisp Performance Study, Performance and Evaluation of Lisp Systems is the first book to present descriptions on Lisp implementation techniques actually in use. It provides performance information using the tools of benchmarking to measure the various Lisp systems, and provides an understanding of the technical tradeoffs made during the implementation of a Lisp system. The study is divided into three parts. The first provides the theoretical background, outlining the factors that go into evaluating the performance of a Lisp system. The second part presents the Lisp implementations: MacLisp, MIT CADR, LMI Lambda, S-I Lisp, Franz Lisp, MIL, Spice Lisp, Vax Common Lisp, Portable Standard Lisp, and Xerox D-Machine. A final part describes the benchmark suite that was used during the major portion of the study and the results themselves.

  9. Applications systems verification and transfer project. Volume 5: Operational applications of satellite snow-cover observations, northwest United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillard, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    The study objective was to develop or modify methods in an operational framework that would allow incorporation of satellite derived snow cover observations for prediction of snowmelt derived runoff. Data were reviewed and verified for five basins in the Pacific Northwest. The data were analyzed for up to a 6-year period ending July 1978, and in all cases cover a low, average, and high snow cover/runoff year. Cloud cover is a major problem in these springtime runoff analyses and have hampered data collection for periods of up to 52 days. Tree cover and terrain are sufficiently dense and rugged to have caused problems. The interpretation of snowlines from satellite data was compared with conventional ground truth data and tested in operational streamflow forecasting models. When the satellite snow-covered area (SCA) data are incorporated in the SSARR (Streamflow Synthesis and Reservoir Regulation) model, there is a definite but minor improvement.

  10. [Monitoring of seasonal variation of vegetation cover and evaluation of biological-control factor in orchards of China].

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Zhang, Wen-bo; Wang, Guo-yan

    2015-03-01

    Biological-control factor (B) can quantitatively reflect the effect of vegetation on soil erosion. Vertical photography method was used to monitor the seasonal changes of orchard coverage in 18 small watersheds, covering all five water erosion zones in China. The canopy coverage and ground green coverage were then calculated, and the B values were estimated. The result indicated that the orchard canopy coverage varied with season and distributed with a bell shape. The trend of ground green coverage and total coverage changed with season and was affected by the land management. For the orchard where the land surface was not treated and the weeds could grow freely, the distribution of the green coverage season change for all five soil erosion zones had a bell shape. The total coverage in the Northwest Loess Plateau area changed with season with a bell shape as well. The total coverage in the other four areas did not vary with the season and almost kept constant. For the orchard where land surface was cleaned up from time to time, the green coverage and total coverage in all five water erosion areas irregularly varied with season. The average B value of orchards in Northeast black soil area was the minimum with a value of 0.0006, while that in the Northwest Loess Plateau area was the maximum (0.1212). The average orchard B values in the Northern rocky earthy area, the Southern red soil area and the Southwest rocky earthy area were not significantly different and were 0.0548, 0.0627 and 0.0639, respectively.

  11. [Monitoring of seasonal variation of vegetation cover and evaluation of biological-control factor in orchards of China].

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Zhang, Wen-bo; Wang, Guo-yan

    2015-03-01

    Biological-control factor (B) can quantitatively reflect the effect of vegetation on soil erosion. Vertical photography method was used to monitor the seasonal changes of orchard coverage in 18 small watersheds, covering all five water erosion zones in China. The canopy coverage and ground green coverage were then calculated, and the B values were estimated. The result indicated that the orchard canopy coverage varied with season and distributed with a bell shape. The trend of ground green coverage and total coverage changed with season and was affected by the land management. For the orchard where the land surface was not treated and the weeds could grow freely, the distribution of the green coverage season change for all five soil erosion zones had a bell shape. The total coverage in the Northwest Loess Plateau area changed with season with a bell shape as well. The total coverage in the other four areas did not vary with the season and almost kept constant. For the orchard where land surface was cleaned up from time to time, the green coverage and total coverage in all five water erosion areas irregularly varied with season. The average B value of orchards in Northeast black soil area was the minimum with a value of 0.0006, while that in the Northwest Loess Plateau area was the maximum (0.1212). The average orchard B values in the Northern rocky earthy area, the Southern red soil area and the Southwest rocky earthy area were not significantly different and were 0.0548, 0.0627 and 0.0639, respectively. PMID:26211057

  12. Evaluating Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, Robb; Arena, Lois

    2013-02-01

    In an effort to improve housing options near Las Vegas, Nevada, the Clark County Community Resources Division (CCCRD) performs substantial renovations to foreclosed homes. After dramatic energy, aesthetic, and health and safety improvements are made, homes are rented or sold to qualified residents. This report describes the evaluation and selection of ventilation systems for these homes, including key considerations when selecting an ideal system. The report then describes CCCRD’s decision process with respect to ventilation.

  13. Energy feedbacks of northern high-latitude ecosystems to the climate system due to reduced snow cover during 20th century warming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Euskirchen, E.S.; McGuire, A.D.; Chapin, F.S.

    2007-01-01

    The warming associated with changes in snow cover in northern high-latitude terrestrial regions represents an important energy feedback to the climate system. Here, we simulate snow cover-climate feedbacks (i.e. changes in snow cover on atmospheric heating) across the Pan-arctic over two distinct warming periods during the 20th century, 1910-1940 and 1970-2000. We offer evidence that increases in snow cover-climate feedbacks during 1970-2000 were nearly three times larger than during 1910-1940 because the recent snow-cover change occurred in spring, when radiation load is highest, rather than in autumn. Based on linear regression analysis, we also detected a greater sensitivity of snow cover-climate feedbacks to temperature trends during the more recent time period. Pan-arctic vegetation types differed substantially in snow cover-climate feedbacks. Those with a high seasonal contrast in albedo, such as tundra, showed much larger changes in atmospheric heating than did those with a low seasonal contrast in albedo, such as forests, even if the changes in snow-cover duration were similar across the vegetation types. These changes in energy exchange warrant careful consideration in studies of climate change, particularly with respect to associated shifts in vegetation between forests, grasslands, and tundra. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Cover Picture.

    PubMed

    Das, Sanjoy K.; Mallet, Jean-Maurice; Esnault, Jacques; Driguez, Pierre-Alexandre; Duchaussoy, Philippe; Sizun, Philippe; Hérault, Jean-Pascal; Herbert, Jean-Marc; Petitou, Maurice; Sinaÿ, Pierre

    2001-05-01

    The cover picture shows how thrombosis occurs in the deep veins of the lower limbs. Stasis, which results from slow and turbulent blood flow, combined with hypercoagulation, caused, for example, by a surgical procedure, may result in thrombus formation. The synthetic sulfated pentasaccharide shown in part is a potent antithrombotic compound that exerts its effect by activation of the plasma protein antithrombin III. Conformationally locked monosaccharides have now been synthesized to demonstrate that L-iduronic acid, one part of the pentasaccharide, must adopt an unusual distorted conformation to activate antithrombin III. Such conformational effects might be relevant in explaining the unique biological properties of glycosaminoglycans that contain L-iduronic acid. In the background of the picture, a flight of vampire bats is attracted by the pentasaccharide. Vampire was the name given to South American blood-sucking bats (Latin name: desmodus rotundus) in 1761 by the French naturalist Georges Louis Leclerc Comte de Buffon (1707-1788). These bats are known to attack cattle and, very rarely, sleeping human beings. Although their saliva has been shown to contain an anticoagulant compound, they would also be happy to benefit from the pentasaccharide mentioned above, to suck the blood out of the vein more easily. More details about this compound which would be helpful to vampire bats are reported by Petitou, Sinaÿ et al. on p. 1670 ff.

  15. Load calculation and system evaluation for electric vehicle climate control

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves-Saborio, S.; Comfort, W.J. III

    1993-10-27

    Providing air conditioning for electric vehicles (EVs) represents an important challenge, because vapor compression air conditioners, which are common in gasoline powered vehicles, may consume a substantial part of the total energy stored in the EV battery. This report consists of two major parts. The first part is a cooling and heating load calculation for electric vehicles. The second part is an evaluation of several systems that can be used to provide the desired cooling and heating in EVs. Four cases are studied. Short range and full range EVs are each analyzed twice, first with the regular vehicle equipment, and then with a fan and heat reflecting windows, to reduce hot soak. Recent legislation has allowed the use of combustion heating whenever the ambient temperature drops below 5{degrees}C. This has simplified the problem of heating, and made cooling the most important problem. Therefore, systems described in this project are designed for cooling, and their applicability to heating at temperatures above 5{degrees}C is described. If the air conditioner systems cannot be used to cover the whole heating load at 5{degrees}C, then the vehicle requires a complementary heating system (most likely a heat recovery system or electric resistance heating). Air conditioners are ranked according to their overall weight. The overall weight is calculated by adding the system weight and the weight of the battery necessary to provide energy for system operation.

  16. ESTIMATING IMPERVIOUS COVER FROM REGIONALLY AVAILABLE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study is to compare and evaluate the reliability of different approaches for estimating impervious cover including three empirical formulations for estimating impervious cover from population density data, estimation from categorized land cover data, and to ...

  17. ICCE/ICCAI 2000 Full & Short Papers (Evaluation of Learning and Systems).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains the full and short papers on evaluation of learning and systems from ICCE/ICCAI 2000 (International Conference on Computers in Education/International Conference on Computer-Assisted Instruction) covering the following topics: a new method for efficient study of Kanji using mnemonics and software; a study on the relation…

  18. The three-dimensional vortex system near the cover of a rectangular package shape mounted in a duct

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, M.T.; Wardwell, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    An experimental program is reported where the three-dimensional vortex adjacent to the cover of a rectangular surface mount package is described. An LDV system is used to measure two velocity components. The wind tunnel model is translated relative to the optical axis of the LDV in order to provide a three dimensional description of the vortex. The limiting streamline pattern on the surface of the block is visualized and is used to determine the direction of flow along the reattachment line. The model is tested over a free stream velocity range from 1.5 m/s to 7.8 m/s. This corresponds to Reynolds number values based upon block length of 1.04 {times} 10{sup 4} and 5.4 {times} 10{sup 4} and represents realistic values for the electronics cooling problem. The model is tested, heated and unheated. The velocity field data show clearly that buoyancy is not important for the range of Gr tested. For the Re increase reported herein, the size of the vortex approximately doubles. The velocity field data and the surface flow visualization provide a qualitative and quantitative description of the vortex system flow.

  19. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation-Paper

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of a pervious pavement can be effective as a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete paver systems as a type of porous pavement. Although the pavers are impermeable, the spaces between the pave...

  20. EVALUATION OF CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND. The confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) has enormous potential in many biological fields. Currently there is a subjective nature in the assessment of a confocal microscope's performance by primarily evaluating the system with a specific test slide provided by ea...

  1. MOLECULAR BONDING SYSTEM - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document presents an evaluation of the Molecular Bonding System (MBS) and its ability to chemically stabilize three metals-contaminated wstes/soils during a SITe demo. The MBS process treated approximately 500 tons each of soil/Fill, Slag, and Miscellaneous Smelter Waste wit...

  2. CTBT integrated verification system evaluation model supplement

    SciTech Connect

    EDENBURN,MICHAEL W.; BUNTING,MARCUS; PAYNE JR.,ARTHUR C.; TROST,LAWRENCE C.

    2000-03-02

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a computer based model called IVSEM (Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model) to estimate the performance of a nuclear detonation monitoring system. The IVSEM project was initiated in June 1994, by Sandia's Monitoring Systems and Technology Center and has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Nonproliferation and National Security (DOE/NN). IVSEM is a simple, ''top-level,'' modeling tool which estimates the performance of a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring system and can help explore the impact of various sensor system concepts and technology advancements on CTBT monitoring. One of IVSEM's unique features is that it integrates results from the various CTBT sensor technologies (seismic, in sound, radionuclide, and hydroacoustic) and allows the user to investigate synergy among the technologies. Specifically, IVSEM estimates the detection effectiveness (probability of detection), location accuracy, and identification capability of the integrated system and of each technology subsystem individually. The model attempts to accurately estimate the monitoring system's performance at medium interfaces (air-land, air-water) and for some evasive testing methods such as seismic decoupling. The original IVSEM report, CTBT Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model, SAND97-25 18, described version 1.2 of IVSEM. This report describes the changes made to IVSEM version 1.2 and the addition of identification capability estimates that have been incorporated into IVSEM version 2.0.

  3. Performance Evaluation of a Data Validation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Edmond (Technical Monitor); Sowers, T. Shane; Santi, L. Michael; Bickford, Randall L.

    2005-01-01

    Online data validation is a performance-enhancing component of modern control and health management systems. It is essential that performance of the data validation system be verified prior to its use in a control and health management system. A new Data Qualification and Validation (DQV) Test-bed application was developed to provide a systematic test environment for this performance verification. The DQV Test-bed was used to evaluate a model-based data validation package known as the Data Quality Validation Studio (DQVS). DQVS was employed as the primary data validation component of a rocket engine health management (EHM) system developed under NASA's NGLT (Next Generation Launch Technology) program. In this paper, the DQVS and DQV Test-bed software applications are described, and the DQV Test-bed verification procedure for this EHM system application is presented. Test-bed results are summarized and implications for EHM system performance improvements are discussed.

  4. Effects of ambient temperature, feather cover, and housing system on energy partitioning and performance in laying hens.

    PubMed

    van Krimpen, M M; Binnendijk, G P; van den Anker, I; Heetkamp, M J W; Kwakkel, R P; van den Brand, H

    2014-11-01

    Environmental factors, such as ambient temperature (T), feather cover (FC), and housing system (HS), probably affect energy requirements of laying hens. Using a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, interaction effects of T (11, 16, and 21°C), FC (100 and 50%), and HS (cage and floor housing) on energy partitioning and performance of laying hens were investigated. Six batches of 70 H&N Brown Nick laying hens, divided over 2 respiration chambers, were exposed to the T levels in three 2-wk periods. Heat production (HP) was determined by indirect calorimetry. The ME intake was calculated by subtracting energy in manure/litter from that in feed and wood shavings. The NE was calculated by subtracting HP from ME. The ME intake increased by 1% for each degree reduction in T. In hens with intact plumage, HP was not affected by T, whereas at decreasing T, HP increased in hens with 50% FC (P < 0.01). At 21°C, HP was not affected by HS, whereas in the floor system, HP at 16 and 11°C was 5.8 and 3.0% higher, respectively, than in cages (P < 0.05). The NE for production was 25.7% higher in cages compared to the floor system (P < 0.05). In cages, 24.7% of NE for production was spent on body fat deposition, whereas in the floor system, 9.0% of NE for production was released from body fat reserves. The ME intake was predicted by the equation (R(2) = 0.74) ME intake (kJ/d) = 612 BW(0.75) - (8.54 × T) + (28.36 × ADG) + (10.43 × egg mass) - (0.972 × FC). Hen performances were not affected by treatments, indicating the adaptive capacity of young laying hens to a broad range of environmental conditions. PMID:25349350

  5. Removal of faecal bacteria from septage by treating it in a full-scale duckweed-covered pond system.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Frantzis H; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A; Zdragas, Antonios G

    2011-12-01

    Performance of a full-scale duckweed-covered treatment system in removing faecal bacteria is presented. The system consisted of three ponds in series and received septage from holding tanks. Inflow averaged between 36 m(3) d(-1) in the cold season and 60 m(3) d(-1) in the warm season, resulting in a total hydraulic retention time of 88 and 58 days, respectively. Duckweed (Lemna minor) colonized the ponds in the summer and continued to grow in the cold season. Due to the difficult harvesting process of the duckweed biomass, the investigation of the treatment efficiency was carried out without plant harvesting. The system was monitored for temperature, pH, oxygen, chlorophyll-a, Escherichia coli and Enterococci. Duckweed growth resulted in chlorophyll-a concentration reduction from 924 to 13 μg L(-1), causing neutral and anoxic conditions in the pond water. A temperature effect was noticed on the E. coli decay coefficient with a decreasing trend along the treatment system. Enterococci always decayed less than E. coli. Differences on decay coefficients and removal efficiencies were not observed between the three ponds for both bacterial types. Effluent quality in terms of E. coli was 489 and 1377 cfu/100 mL, in the warm and the cold seasons, respectively, with average removals of 99.65 ± 1.46% and 99.33 ± 3.03%. Total Enterococci removal was 88.91 ± 23.1% in the warm season and 94.43 ± 24.45% in the cold season, resulting in mean effluent values of 1058 and 1404 cfu/100 mL, respectively. The seasonal differences in total removal efficiencies were insignificant for both bacterial types.

  6. The NASA teleconferencing system: An evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, M. M.; Lindsey, G.; Miller, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    The communication requirements of the Apollo project led to the development of a teleconferencing network which linked together, in an audio-fax mode, the several NASA centers and supporting contractors of the Apollo project. The usefulness of this communication linkage for the Apollo project suggested that the system might be extended to include all NASA centers, enabling them to conduct their in-house business more efficiently than by traveling to other centers. A pilot project was run in which seventeen NASA center and subcenters, some with multiple facilities, were connected into the NASA teleconferencing network. During that year, costs were charted and, at the end of the year, an evaluation was made to determine how the system had been used and with what results. The year-end evaluation of the use of NASA teleconferencing system is summarized.

  7. Alisse : Advanced life support system evaluator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Jean; Gerbi, Olivier; André, Philippe; Davin, Elisabeth; Avezuela Rodriguez, Raul; Carbonero, Fernando; Soumalainen, Emilia; Lasseur, Christophe

    Long duration missions, such as the establishment of permanent bases on the lunar surface or the travel to Mars, require such an amount of life support consumables (e.g. food, water and oxygen) that direct supply or re-supply from Earth is not an option anymore. Regenerative Life Support Systems are therefore necessary to sustain long-term manned space mission to increase recycling rates and so reduce the launched mass. The architecture of an Environmental Controlled Life Support System widely depends on the mission scenario. Even for a given mission scenario, different architectures could be envisaged which need to be evaluated and compared with appropriate tools. As these evaluation and comparison, based on the single criterion of Equivalent System Mass, was not considered com-prehensive enough, ESA is developing a multi-criteria evaluation tool: ALISSE (Advanced Life Support System Evaluator). The main objective of ALISSE, and of the work presented here, is the definition and implemen-tation of a metrics system, addressing the complexity of any ECLSS along its Life Cycle phases. A multi-dimensional and multi-criteria (i.e. mass, energy, efficiency, risk to human, reliability, crew time, sustainability, life cycle cost) approach is proposed through the development of a computing support platform. Each criterion being interrelated with the others, a model based system approach is used. ALISSE is expected to provide significant inputs to the ESA Concurrent Design Facility and, as a consequence, to be a highly valuable tool for decision process linked to any manned space mission. Full contact detail for the contact author : Jean Brunet Sherpa Engineering General Manager Phone : 0033(0)608097480 j.brunet@sherpa-eng.com

  8. Evaluating Radionuclide Air Emission Stack Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2002-12-16

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Hanford Site, Washington. These facilities are subject to Clean Air Act regulations that require sampling of radionuclide air emissions from some of these facilities. A revision to an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard on sampling radioactive air emissions has recently been incorporated into federal and state regulations and a re-evaluation of affected facilities is being performed to determine the impact. The revised standard requires a well-mixed sampling location that must be demonstrated through tests specified in the standard. It also carries a number of maintenance requirements, including inspections and cleaning of the sampling system. Evaluations were performed in 2000 – 2002 on two PNNL facilities to determine the operational and design impacts of the new requirements. The evaluation included inspection and cleaning maintenance activities plus testing to determine if the current sampling locations meet criteria in the revised standard. Results show a wide range of complexity in inspection and cleaning activities depending on accessibility of the system, ease of removal, and potential impact on building operations (need for outages). As expected, these High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA)-filtered systems did not show deposition significant enough to cause concerns with blocking of the nozzle or other parts of the system. The tests for sampling system location in the revised standard also varied in complexity depending on accessibility of the sample site and use of a scale model can alleviate many issues. Previous criteria to locate sampling systems at eight duct diameters downstream and two duct diameters upstream of the nearest disturbances is no guarantee of meeting criteria in the revised standard. A computational fluid dynamics model was helpful in understanding flow and

  9. Effects of a temporary HDPE cover on landfill gas emissions: multiyear evaluation with the static chamber approach at an Italian landfill.

    PubMed

    Capaccioni, Bruno; Caramiello, Cristina; Tatàno, Fabio; Viscione, Alessandro

    2011-05-01

    According to the European Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC and the related Italian Legislation ("D. Lgs. No. 36/2003"), monitoring and control procedures of landfill gas emissions, migration and external dispersions are clearly requested. These procedures could be particularly interesting in the operational circumstance of implementing a temporary cover, as for instance permitted by the Italian legislation over worked-out landfill sections, awaiting the evaluation of expected waste settlements. A possible quantitative approach for field measurement and consequential evaluation of landfill CO(2), CH(4) emission rates in pairs consists of the static, non-stationary accumulation chamber technique. At the Italian level, a significant and recent situation of periodical landfill gas emission monitoring is represented by the sanitary landfill for non-hazardous waste of the "Fano" town district, where monitoring campaigns with the static chamber have been annually conducted during the last 5 years (2005-2009). For the entire multiyear monitoring period, the resulting CO(2), CH(4) emission rates varied on the whole up to about 13,100g CO(2) m(-2)d(-1) and 3800 g CH(4) m(-2)d(-1), respectively. The elaboration of these landfill gas emission data collected at the "Fano" case-study site during the monitoring campaigns, presented and discussed in the paper, gives rise to a certain scientific evidence of the possible negative effects derivable from the implementation of a temporary HDPE cover over a worked-out landfill section, notably: the lateral migration and concentration of landfill gas emissions through adjacent, active landfill sections when hydraulically connected; and consequently, the increase of landfill gas flux velocities throughout the reduced overall soil cover surface, giving rise to a flowing through of CH(4) emissions without a significant oxidation. Thus, these circumstances are expected to cause a certain increase of the overall GHG emissions from the given

  10. Evaluation of the auditory system: an update.

    PubMed

    Brackmann, D E; Forquer, B D

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the audiologic techniques currently used at the Otologic Medical Group, Inc. Auditory threshold in children is determined by a combination of behavioral and objective audiometric techniques. When behavioral techniques fail, auditory brainstem response audiometry combined with impedance audiometry gives a good estimate of hearing thresholds. Impedance audiometry is a valuable addition to the diagnosis of cochlear otosclerosis. This technique is also of benefit in the neurotologic evaluation. Auditory brainstem response audiometry is the most accurate method of detecting an acoustic tumor. We no longer use SISI, tone decay, or Bekesy tests. The newer audiometric studies have greatly improved our evaluation of the auditory system.

  11. Evaluation of the structural steel corrosion behaviour, covered with epoxy-type paints, by means of electrochemical DC techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas, Y.; Guerrero, L.; Martinez, R.; Chicino, T.; Devia, C.

    2016-02-01

    In this work we have studied the behaviour of the electrochemical corrosion of structural steel AISI SAE 1007 with epoxy coatings, using epoxy-type paints, through techniques such as DC resistance Polarization and Potentio-dynamic tests. In order to determine potential and corrosion rates of these coatings, have been correlated this results with different used electrolytes. For this, coatings were characterized by thickness measurement and continuity measurements. The coatings showed a slight degradation in the testing time, due to defects present in their structure, and the attack by the electrolyte; however, epoxy coating system tends to react with the electrolytes based on their chemical composition.

  12. Cover crops and N credits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops often provide many short- and long-term benefits to cropping systems. Legume cover crops can significantly reduce the N fertilizer requirement of non-legume cash crops that follow. The objectives of this presentation were to: I) educate stakeholders about the potential benefits of cover ...

  13. Evaluating security systems using SNAP-PC

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, C.D.; Gregg, M.L.; Erdbruegger, M.R.

    1986-08-01

    SNAP-PC (Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure for the Personal Computer) is a user-friendly version of SNAP designed for IBM XT or AT compatible microcomputers. SNAP is a simulation-based analysis technique supporting the evaluation of fixed-site security systems to prevent theft or sabotage of a specified target. Through SNAP the user is able to define the facility, the sensor system, the guard operating policies and response tactics, and the adversary's attack plan. SNAP uses the system definition to analyze its effectiveness in defending against specific threats. The system performance statistics measured by SNAP include: Adversary mission success probability, guard and adversary casualties, duration of engagements, outcome of engagements, duration of scenario by outcome (adversary success/fail), and adversary duration by facility location. The SNAP-PC package provides a compact analysis tool that can be used to analyze a wide variety of security systems. It places SNAP, a proven evaluation technique, in the hands of on-site personnel, not just computer analysts. The support programs eliminate the labor intensive tedious task of organizing and sorting through reams of output reports and greatly reduce the time previously required to analyze a security system.

  14. Evaluation of a prototype infrasound system

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, R.; Sandoval, T.; Breding, D.; Kromer, D.

    1997-08-01

    Under Department of Energy sponsorship, Sandia National Laboratories and Los Alamos National Laboratory cooperated to develop a prototype infrasonic array, with associated documentation, that could be used as part of the International Monitoring System. The United States Government or foreign countries could procure commercially available systems based on this prototype to fulfill their Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) obligations. The prototype is a four-element array in a triangular layout as recommended in CD/NTB/WP.224 with an element at each corner and one in the center. The prototype test configuration utilize an array spacing of 1 km. The prototype infrasound system has the following objectives: (1) Provide a prototype that reliably acquires and transmits near real-time infrasonic data to facilitate the rapid location and identification of atmospheric events. (2) Provide documentation that could be used by the United States and foreign countries to procure infrasound systems commercially to fulfill their CTBT responsibilities. Infrasonic monitoring is an effective, low cost technology for detecting atmospheric explosions. The low frequency components of explosion signals propagate to long ranges (few thousand kilometers) where they can be detected with an array of sensors. Los Alamos National Laboratory`s expertise in infrasound systems and phenomenology when combined with Sandia`s expertise in providing verification quality system for treaty monitoring make an excellent team to provide the prototype infrasound sensor system. By September 1997, the prototype infrasound system will have been procured, integrated, evaluated and documented. Final documentation will include a system requirements document, an evaluation report and a hardware design document. The hardware design document will describe the various hardware components used in the infrasound prototype and their interrelationships.

  15. Simulating long-term impacts of winter rye cover crop on hydrologic cycling and nitrogen dynamics for a corn-soybean crop system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Planting winter cover crops into corn-soybean rotation is a promising approach for reducing subsurface drainage and nitrate loss. However, the long-term impact of this practice needs investigation. We evaluated the performance of the RZWQM-DSSAT model against five years of comprehensive field data n...

  16. Do cover crops enhance N₂O, CO₂ or CH₄ emissions from soil in Mediterranean arable systems?

    PubMed

    Sanz-Cobena, A; García-Marco, S; Quemada, M; Gabriel, J L; Almendros, P; Vallejo, A

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of planting three cover crops (CCs) (barley, Hordeum vulgare L.; vetch, Vicia villosa L.; rape, Brassica napus L.) on the direct emission of N₂O, CO₂ and CH₄ in the intercrop period and the impact of incorporating these CCs on the emission of greenhouse gas (GHG) from the forthcoming irrigated maize (Zea mays L.) crop. Vetch and barley were the CCs with the highest N₂O and CO₂ losses (75 and 47% increase compared with the control, respectively) in the fallow period. In all cases, fluxes of N₂O were increased through N fertilization and the incorporation of barley and rape residues (40 and 17% increase, respectively). The combination of a high C:N ratio with the addition of an external source of mineral N increased the fluxes of N₂O compared with -Ba and -Rp. The direct emissions of N₂O were lower than expected for a fertilized crop (0.10% emission factor, EF) compared with other studies and the IPCC EF. These results are believed to be associated with a decreased NO₃(-) pool due to highly denitrifying conditions and increased drainage. The fluxes of CO₂ were in the range of other fertilized crops (i.e., 1118.71-1736.52 kg CO₂-Cha(-1)). The incorporation of CC residues enhanced soil respiration in the range of 21-28% for barley and rape although no significant differences between treatments were detected. Negative CH₄ fluxes were measured and displayed an overall sink effect for all incorporated CC (mean values of -0.12 and -0.10 kg CH₄-Cha(-1) for plots with and without incorporated CCs, respectively). PMID:23906854

  17. Do cover crops enhance N₂O, CO₂ or CH₄ emissions from soil in Mediterranean arable systems?

    PubMed

    Sanz-Cobena, A; García-Marco, S; Quemada, M; Gabriel, J L; Almendros, P; Vallejo, A

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of planting three cover crops (CCs) (barley, Hordeum vulgare L.; vetch, Vicia villosa L.; rape, Brassica napus L.) on the direct emission of N₂O, CO₂ and CH₄ in the intercrop period and the impact of incorporating these CCs on the emission of greenhouse gas (GHG) from the forthcoming irrigated maize (Zea mays L.) crop. Vetch and barley were the CCs with the highest N₂O and CO₂ losses (75 and 47% increase compared with the control, respectively) in the fallow period. In all cases, fluxes of N₂O were increased through N fertilization and the incorporation of barley and rape residues (40 and 17% increase, respectively). The combination of a high C:N ratio with the addition of an external source of mineral N increased the fluxes of N₂O compared with -Ba and -Rp. The direct emissions of N₂O were lower than expected for a fertilized crop (0.10% emission factor, EF) compared with other studies and the IPCC EF. These results are believed to be associated with a decreased NO₃(-) pool due to highly denitrifying conditions and increased drainage. The fluxes of CO₂ were in the range of other fertilized crops (i.e., 1118.71-1736.52 kg CO₂-Cha(-1)). The incorporation of CC residues enhanced soil respiration in the range of 21-28% for barley and rape although no significant differences between treatments were detected. Negative CH₄ fluxes were measured and displayed an overall sink effect for all incorporated CC (mean values of -0.12 and -0.10 kg CH₄-Cha(-1) for plots with and without incorporated CCs, respectively).

  18. Performance evaluation of fingerprint verification systems.

    PubMed

    Cappelli, Raffaele; Maio, Dario; Maltoni, Davide; Wayman, James L; Jain, Anil K

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the performance evaluation of fingerprint verification systems. After an initial classification of biometric testing initiatives, we explore both the theoretical and practical issues related to performance evaluation by presenting the outcome of the recent Fingerprint Verification Competition (FVC2004). FVC2004 was organized by the authors of this work for the purpose of assessing the state-of-the-art in this challenging pattern recognition application and making available a new common benchmark for an unambiguous comparison of fingerprint-based biometric systems. FVC2004 is an independent, strongly supervised evaluation performed at the evaluators' site on evaluators' hardware. This allowed the test to be completely controlled and the computation times of different algorithms to be fairly compared. The experience and feedback received from previous, similar competitions (FVC2000 and FVC2002) allowed us to improve the organization and methodology of FVC2004 and to capture the attention of a significantly higher number of academic and commercial organizations (67 algorithms were submitted for FVC2004). A new, "Light" competition category was included to estimate the loss of matching performance caused by imposing computational constraints. This paper discusses data collection and testing protocols, and includes a detailed analysis of the results. We introduce a simple but effective method for comparing algorithms at the score level, allowing us to isolate difficult cases (images) and to study error correlations and algorithm "fusion." The huge amount of information obtained, including a structured classification of the submitted algorithms on the basis of their features, makes it possible to better understand how current fingerprint recognition systems work and to delineate useful research directions for the future.

  19. Performance evaluation of two OCR systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.; Subramaniam, S.; Haralick, R.M.; Phillips, I.T.

    1994-12-31

    An experimental protocol for the performance evaluation of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) algorithms is described. The protocol is intended to serve as a model for using the University of Washington English Document Image Database-I to evaluate OCR systems. The plain text zones (without special symbols) in this database have over 2,300,000 characters. The performances of two UNIX-based OCR systems, namely Caere OCR v109a and Xerox ScanWorX v2.0, are measured. The results suggest that Caere OCR outperforms ScanWorX in terms of recognition accuracy; however, ScanWorX is more robust in the presence of image flaws.

  20. Multi-purpose canister system evaluation: A systems engineering approach

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes Department of Energy (DOE) efforts to investigate various container systems for handling, transporting, storing, and disposing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies in the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). The primary goal of DOE`s investigations was to select a container technology that could handle the vast majority of commercial SNF at a reasonable cost, while ensuring the safety of the public and protecting the environment. Several alternative cask and canister concepts were evaluated for SNF assembly packaging to determine the most suitable concept. Of these alternatives, the multi-purpose canister (MPC) system was determined to be the most suitable. Based on the results of these evaluations, the decision was made to proceed with design and certification of the MPC system. A decision to fabricate and deploy MPCs will be made after further studies and preparation of an environmental impact statement.

  1. An evaluation framework for comparing geocoding systems

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Geocoding, the process of converting textual information describing a location into one or more digital geographic representations, is a routine task performed at large organizations and government agencies across the globe. In a health context, this task is often a fundamental first step performed prior to all operations that take place in a spatially-based health study. As such, the quality of the geocoding system used within these agencies is of paramount concern to the agency (the producer) and researchers or policy-makers who wish to use these data (consumers). However, geocoding systems are continually evolving with new products coming on the market continuously. Agencies must develop and use criteria across a number axes when faced with decisions about building, buying, or maintaining any particular geocoding systems. To date, published criteria have focused on one or more aspects of geocode quality without taking a holistic view of a geocoding system’s role within a large organization. The primary purpose of this study is to develop and test an evaluation framework to assist a large organization in determining which geocoding systems will meet its operational needs. Methods A geocoding platform evaluation framework is derived through an examination of prior literature on geocoding accuracy. The framework developed extends commonly used geocoding metrics to take into account the specific concerns of large organizations for which geocoding is a fundamental operational capability tightly-knit into its core mission of processing health data records. A case study is performed to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of five geocoding platforms currently available in the Australian geospatial marketplace. Results The evaluation framework developed in this research is proven successful in differentiating between key capabilities of geocoding systems that are important in the context of a large organization with significant investments in geocoding

  2. CTBT Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Edenburn, M.W.; Bunting, M.L.; Payne, A.C. Jr.

    1997-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a computer based model called IVSEM (Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model) to estimate the performance of a nuclear detonation monitoring system. The IVSEM project was initiated in June 1994, by Sandia`s Monitoring Systems and Technology Center and has been funded by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security (DOE/NN). IVSEM is a simple, top-level, modeling tool which estimates the performance of a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring system and can help explore the impact of various sensor system concepts and technology advancements on CTBT monitoring. One of IVSEM`s unique features is that it integrates results from the various CTBT sensor technologies (seismic, infrasound, radionuclide, and hydroacoustic) and allows the user to investigate synergy among the technologies. Specifically, IVSEM estimates the detection effectiveness (probability of detection) and location accuracy of the integrated system and of each technology subsystem individually. The model attempts to accurately estimate the monitoring system`s performance at medium interfaces (air-land, air-water) and for some evasive testing methods such as seismic decoupling. This report describes version 1.2 of IVSEM.

  3. MSFC Skylab corollary experiment systems mission evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Evaluations are presented of the performances of corollary experiment hardware developed by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center and operated during the three manned Skylab missions. Also presented are assessments of the functional adequacy of the experiment hardware and its supporting systems, and indications are given as to the degrees by which experiment constraints and interfaces were met. It is shown that most of the corollary experiment hardware performed satisfactorily and within design specifications.

  4. SEC sensor parametric test and evaluation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This system provides the necessary automated hardware required to carry out, in conjunction with the existing 70 mm SEC television camera, the sensor evaluation tests which are described in detail. The Parametric Test Set (PTS) was completed and is used in a semiautomatic data acquisition and control mode to test the development of the 70 mm SEC sensor, WX 32193. Data analysis of raw data is performed on the Princeton IBM 360-91 computer.

  5. TurboTech Technical Evaluation Automated System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiffany, Dorothy J.

    2009-01-01

    TurboTech software is a Web-based process that simplifies and semiautomates technical evaluation of NASA proposals for Contracting Officer's Technical Representatives (COTRs). At the time of this reporting, there have been no set standards or systems for training new COTRs in technical evaluations. This new process provides boilerplate text in response to interview style questions. This text is collected into a Microsoft Word document that can then be further edited to conform to specific cases. By providing technical language and a structured format, TurboTech allows the COTRs to concentrate more on the actual evaluation, and less on deciding what language would be most appropriate. Since the actual word choice is one of the more time-consuming parts of a COTRs job, this process should allow for an increase in quantity of proposals evaluated. TurboTech is applicable to composing technical evaluations of contractor proposals, task and delivery orders, change order modifications, requests for proposals, new work modifications, task assignments, as well as any changes to existing contracts.

  6. Influence of cover crops and crop residue treatment on soil organic carbon stocks evaluated in Swedish long-term field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeplau, Christopher; Bolinder, Martin A.; Börjesson, Gunnar; Kätterer, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in agricultural soils are strongly controlled by management. In this study we quantified the effect of cover crops and crop residue management on SOC stocks in Swedish long-term experiments. Eight pairs of cover crop (undersown ryegrass) vs. no cover crop were investigated in Swedish long-term field experiments (16 to 24 years). Yields of the main crop were not affected by the cover crop. Cover crops significantly increased SOC stocks, with a mean carbon sequestration rate in all experiments (excluding one) of 0.32±0.29 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. Interestingly, this sequestration is similar to that estimated for a U.S.experiment, where ryegrass growth is much less temperature- and light-limited than under Swedish conditions. This sequestration rate is also the same as that recently reported for many other cover crops in a global meta-analysis but less than SOC changes in ley-dominated rotations which under Nordic conditions were shown to accumulate in average 0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 more carbon compared to exclusively annual cropping systems. Thus, originally introduced in agricultural rotations to reduce nitrate leaching, cover crops are also an effective practice to increase SOC stocks, even at relatively high latitudes. The effect of crop residue treatment was studied in 16 pairs of straw incorporated (SI) vs. straw removed (SR) treatments in six Swedish long-term field experiments. Data series on SOC with 5-28 sampling dates during 27-53 years were analysed using ICBM, a dynamic SOC model. At five out of six sites, the humification coefficient for straw (hlitter; the fraction of straw C that is entering the slow C pool) was much smaller (0-0.09) than the ICBM default h-value for plant material estimated in previous studies (0.125). The derived hlitter-values and thus the stabilization of straw-derived carbon increased significantly with clay content. For an Italian site (with five pairs of SI vs. SR) that was used for model validation we found

  7. Hydrological response to land cover changes and human activities in arid regions using a geographic information system and remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Shereif H; Alazba, A A

    2015-01-01

    The hydrological response to land cover changes induced by human activities in arid regions has attracted increased research interest in recent decades. The study reported herein assessed the spatial and quantitative changes in surface runoff resulting from land cover change in the Al-Baha region of Saudi Arabia between 1990 and 2000 using an ArcGIS-surface runoff model and predicted land cover and surface runoff depth in 2030 using Markov chain analysis. Land cover maps for 1990 and 2000 were derived from satellite images using ArcGIS 10.1. The findings reveal a 26% decrease in forest and shrubland area, 28% increase in irrigated cropland, 1.5% increase in sparsely vegetated land and 0.5% increase in bare soil between 1990 and 2000. Overall, land cover changes resulted in a significant decrease in runoff depth values in most of the region. The decrease in surface runoff depth ranged from 25-106 mm/year in a 7020-km2 area, whereas the increase in such depth reached only 10 mm/year in a 243-km2 area. A maximum increase of 73 mm/year was seen in a limited area. The surface runoff depth decreased to the greatest extent in the central region of the study area due to the huge transition in land cover classes associated with the construction of 25 rainwater harvesting dams. The land cover prediction revealed a greater than twofold increase in irrigated cropland during the 2000-2030 period, whereas forest and shrubland are anticipated to occupy just 225 km2 of land area by 2030, a significant decrease from the 747 km2 they occupied in 2000. Overall, changes in land cover are predicted to result in an annual increase in irrigated cropland and dramatic decline in forest area in the study area over the next few decades. The increase in surface runoff depth is likely to have significant implications for irrigation activities.

  8. Hydrological Response to Land Cover Changes and Human Activities in Arid Regions Using a Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Shereif H.; Alazba, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    The hydrological response to land cover changes induced by human activities in arid regions has attracted increased research interest in recent decades. The study reported herein assessed the spatial and quantitative changes in surface runoff resulting from land cover change in the Al-Baha region of Saudi Arabia between 1990 and 2000 using an ArcGIS-surface runoff model and predicted land cover and surface runoff depth in 2030 using Markov chain analysis. Land cover maps for 1990 and 2000 were derived from satellite images using ArcGIS 10.1. The findings reveal a 26% decrease in forest and shrubland area, 28% increase in irrigated cropland, 1.5% increase in sparsely vegetated land and 0.5% increase in bare soil between 1990 and 2000. Overall, land cover changes resulted in a significant decrease in runoff depth values in most of the region. The decrease in surface runoff depth ranged from 25-106 mm/year in a 7020-km2 area, whereas the increase in such depth reached only 10 mm/year in a 243-km2 area. A maximum increase of 73 mm/year was seen in a limited area. The surface runoff depth decreased to the greatest extent in the central region of the study area due to the huge transition in land cover classes associated with the construction of 25 rainwater harvesting dams. The land cover prediction revealed a greater than twofold increase in irrigated cropland during the 2000-2030 period, whereas forest and shrubland are anticipated to occupy just 225 km2 of land area by 2030, a significant decrease from the 747 km2 they occupied in 2000. Overall, changes in land cover are predicted to result in an annual increase in irrigated cropland and dramatic decline in forest area in the study area over the next few decades. The increase in surface runoff depth is likely to have significant implications for irrigation activities. PMID:25923712

  9. 40 CFR 35.927-2 - Sewer system evaluation survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sewer system evaluation survey. 35.927... § 35.927-2 Sewer system evaluation survey. (a) The sewer system evaluation survey shall identify the... results of the sewer system evaluation survey. In addition, the report shall include: (1) A...

  10. 40 CFR 35.927-2 - Sewer system evaluation survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sewer system evaluation survey. 35.927... § 35.927-2 Sewer system evaluation survey. (a) The sewer system evaluation survey shall identify the... results of the sewer system evaluation survey. In addition, the report shall include: (1) A...

  11. 40 CFR 35.927-2 - Sewer system evaluation survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewer system evaluation survey. 35.927... § 35.927-2 Sewer system evaluation survey. (a) The sewer system evaluation survey shall identify the... results of the sewer system evaluation survey. In addition, the report shall include: (1) A...

  12. 40 CFR 35.927-2 - Sewer system evaluation survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sewer system evaluation survey. 35.927... § 35.927-2 Sewer system evaluation survey. (a) The sewer system evaluation survey shall identify the... results of the sewer system evaluation survey. In addition, the report shall include: (1) A...

  13. Perceived Usability Evaluation of Learning Management Systems: Empirical Evaluation of the System Usability Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfanou, Konstantina; Tselios, Nikolaos; Katsanos, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Perceived usability affects greatly student's learning effectiveness and overall learning experience, and thus is an important requirement of educational software. The System Usability Scale (SUS) is a well-researched and widely used questionnaire for perceived usability evaluation. However, surprisingly few studies have used SUS to evaluate the…

  14. Evaluation of a novel phantom-based neurosurgical training system

    PubMed Central

    Müns, Andrea; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Lindner, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Background: The complexity of neurosurgical interventions demands innovative training solutions and standardized evaluation methods that in recent times have been the object of increased research interest. The objective is to establish an education curriculum on a phantom-based training system incorporating theoretical and practical components for important aspects of brain tumor surgery. Methods: Training covers surgical planning of the optimal access path based on real patient data, setup of the navigation system including phantom registration and navigated craniotomy with real instruments. Nine residents from different education levels carried out three simulations on different data sets with varying tumor locations. Trainings were evaluated by a specialist using a uniform score system assessing tumor identification, registration accuracy, injured structures, planning and execution accuracy, tumor accessibility and required time. Results: Average scores improved from 16.9 to 20.4 between first and third training. Average time to craniotomy improved from 28.97 to 21.07 min, average time to suture improved from 37.83 to 27.47 min. Significant correlations were found between time to craniotomy and number of training (P < 0.05), between time to suture and number of training (P < 0.05) as well as between score and number of training (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The training system is evaluated to be a suitable training tool for residents to become familiar with the complex procedures of autonomous neurosurgical planning and conducting of craniotomies in tumor surgeries. Becoming more confident is supposed to result in less error-prone and faster operation procedures and thus is a benefit for both physicians and patients. PMID:25593757

  15. Two Community Protective Service Systems: Comparative Evaluation of Systems Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Clara L.

    Presented are the findings of a study conducted to evaluate two community protective service systems in terms of the mechanisms for identifying and handling child abuse and neglect cases and the effectiveness of intervention. It is noted that data was collected in two sites: Site I (Nashville, Tennessee), which has an emergency reporting system…

  16. Solar energy system economic evaluation: IBM System 2, Togus, Maine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The economic analysis of the solar energy system, is developed for Torgus and four other sites typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions in the continental United States. This analysis is accomplished based on the technical and economic models in the f-chart design procedure with inputs taken on the characteristics of the installed system and local conditions. The results are expressed in terms of the economic parameters of present worth of system cost over a projected twenty year life, life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated. Results demonstrate that the solar energy system is economically viable at all of the five sites for which the analysis was conducted.

  17. Dynamic neural networks for real-time water level predictions of sewerage systems - covering gauged and ungauged sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Y.-M.; Chang, L.-C.; Tsai, M.-J.; Wang, Y.-F.; Chang, F.-J.

    2010-04-01

    In this research, we propose recurrent neural networks (RNNs) to build a relationship between rainfalls and water level patterns of an urban sewerage system based on historical torrential rain/storm events. The RNN allows a signal to propagate in backward direction which gives this network a dynamic memory to effectively deal with time-varying systems. The RNN is implemented at both gauged and ungauged sites for 5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-min-ahead water level predictions. The results show that the RNN is capable of learning the nonlinear sewerage system and producing satisfactory predictions at the gauged sites. Concerning the ungauged sites, there are no historical data of water level to support prediction. In order to overcome such problem, a set of synthetic data, generated from a storm water management model (SWMM) under cautious verification process of applicability based on the data from nearby gauging stations, are introduced as the learning target to the training procedure of the RNN and moreover evaluating the performance of the RNN at the ungauged sites. The results demonstrate that the potential role of the SWMM coupled with nearby rainfall and water level information can be of great use in enhancing the capability of the RNN at the ungauged sites. Hence we can conclude that the RNN is an effective and suitable model for successfully predicting the water levels at both gauged and ungauged sites in urban sewerage systems.

  18. Evaluation of the boron tolerant grass, Puccinellia distans, as an initial vegetative cover for the Phytorestoration of a boron-contaminated mining site in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Stiles, Amanda R; Liu, Chunguang; Kayama, Yuriko; Wong, Josephine; Doner, Harvey; Funston, Roger; Terry, Norman

    2011-10-15

    Land damaged by boron (B) mining should be restored to its natural state with a zero net impact on biodiversity. In an earlier study (Environ. Sci. Technol.2010,44, 7089-7095), we characterized a Turkish ecotype of the grass, Puccinellia distans, which exhibited extreme tolerance to B. Here we evaluated the use of a US ecotype of P. distans as an initial vegetative cover for the phytorestoration of a B mine in southern California. Hydroponic studies revealed that this P. distans ecotype tolerated B concentrations >100 mg B/L and could be germinated and grown in B-contaminated soils taken from the sites to be restored. P. distans grew well in moderately B-contaminated soil (∼88 mg B/L saturated extract) amended with added organic matter (peat moss); other soil treatments such as gypsum addition or pH correction were not needed. P. distans also grew in severely B-contaminated soil (∼1506 mg B/L) provided that toxic levels of soil B were diluted by the addition of sand and/or organic matter. Our results provide evidence in support of the concept of using the US ecotype of P. distans as an initial vegetative cover for the phytorestoration of B-contaminated soil. PMID:21882844

  19. [Hygienic evaluation of environment, morbidity among pregnant women and newborns within social hygienic monitoring system].

    PubMed

    Kuz'min, D V

    2014-01-01

    Hygienic evaluation covered health state of pregnant women and newborns, subjected to chemical pollution of environment by aluminium industrial enterprises. The data obtained helped to suggest methodic approach to selection of priority territories, environmental and health state parameters within social hygienic monitoring system, to form recommendations on creation of system supporting management decisions to lower negative influence of chemical environmental factors on health of pregnant women and newborns.

  20. Evaluation of PEGIT duct connection system

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.; Brenner, Douglas E.; Sherman, Max H.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.

    2003-08-01

    Most air duct system components are assembled in the field and are mechanically fastened by sheet metal screws (for sheet metal-to-sheet metal) or by drawbands (for flex duct-to-sheet metal). Air sealing is separate from this mechanical fastening and is usually achieved using tape or mastic products after mechanical fastening. Field observations have shown that mechanical fastening rarely meets code or manufacturers requirements and that sealing procedures are similarly inconsistent. To address these problems, Proctor Engineering Group (PEG) is developing a system of joining ducts (called PEGIT) that combines the mechanical fastening and sealing into a single self-contained procedure. The PEGIT system uses a shaped flexible seal between specially designed sheet metal duct fittings to both seal and fasten duct sections together. Figure 1 shows the inner duct fitting complete with rubber seal. This seal provides the air seal for the completed fitting and is shaped to allow the inner and outer fittings to slide together, and then to lock the fittings in place. The illustration in Figure 2 shows the approximate cross section of the rubber seal that shows how the seal has a lip that is angled backwards. This angled lip allows the joint to be pushed together by folding flat but then its long axis makes it stiff in the pulling apart direction. This study was undertaken to assist PEG in some of the design aspects of this system and to test the performance of the PEGIT system. This study was carried out in three phases. The initial phase evaluated the performance of a preliminary seal design for the PEGIT system. After the first phase, the seal was redesigned and this new seal was evaluated in the second phase of testing. The third phase performed more detailed testing of the second seal design to optimize the production tolerances of the sheet metal fittings. This report summarizes our findings from the first two phases and provides details about the third phase of testing.

  1. Evaluating Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, R.; Arena, L.

    2013-02-01

    During the course of this project, an affordable and high performance ductwork system to directly address the problems of thermal losses, poor efficiency, and air leakage was designed. To save space and enable direct connections between different floors of the building, the ductwork system was designed in such a way that it occupied interior or exterior frame wall cavities. The ductwork system satisfied building regulations for structural support when bridging multiple floors, the spread of fire and smoke, and insulation to reduce the heat flow into or out of the building. Retrofits of urban residential buildings will be the main focus for the application of this ductwork system. Highly reflective foils and insulating materials were used to aid in the increase of the overall R-value of the ductwork itself and the wall assembly. It is expected that the proposed system will increase the efficiency of the HVAC system and the thermal resistance of the building envelope. The performance of the proposed ductwork design was numerically evaluated in a number of different ways. Our results indicate that the duct method is a very cost attractive alternative to the conventional method.

  2. Evaluation of Small Mass Spectrometer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, C. Richard; Griffin, Timothy P.; Ottens, Andrew K.; Diaz, Jorge A.; Follistein, Duke W.; Adams, Fredrick W.; Helms, William R.; Voska, N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This work is aimed at understanding the aspects of designing a miniature mass spectrometer (MS) system. A multitude of commercial and government sectors, such as the military, environmental agencies and industrial manufacturers of semiconductors, refrigerants, and petroleum products, would find a small, portable, rugged and reliable MS system beneficial. Several types of small MS systems are evaluated and discussed, including linear quadrupole, quadrupole ion trap, time of flight and sector. The performance of each system in terms of accuracy, precision, limits of detection, response time, recovery time, scan rate, volume and weight is assessed. A performance scale is setup to rank each systems and an overall performance score is given to each system. All experiments involved the analysis of hydrogen, helium, oxygen and argon in a nitrogen background with the concentrations of the components of interest ranging from 0-5000 part-per-million (ppm). The relative accuracies of the systems vary from < 1% to approx. 40% with an average below 10%. Relative precisions varied from 1% to 20%, with an average below 5%. The detection limits had a large distribution, ranging from 0.2 to 170 ppm. The systems had a diverse response time ranging from 4 s to 210 s as did the recovery time with a 6 s to 210 s distribution. Most instruments had scan times near, 1 s, however one instrument exceeded 13 s. System weights varied from 9 to 52 kg and sizes from 15 x 10(exp 3)cu cm to 110 x 10(exp 3) cu cm.

  3. Solar energy system economic evaluation: IBM System 4, Clinton, Mississippi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An economic analysis of the solar energy system was developed for five sites, typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions in the continental United States. The analysis was based on the technical and economic models in the F-chart design procedure, with inputs based on the characteristic of the installed system and local conditions. The results are of the economic parameters of present worth of system cost over a 20 year time span: life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated.

  4. Solar energy system economic evaluation: IBM System 4, Clinton, Mississippi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    An economic analysis of the solar energy system was developed for five sites, typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions in the continental United States. The analysis was based on the technical and economic models in the F-chart design procedure, with inputs based on the characteristic of the installed system and local conditions. The results are of the economic parameters of present worth of system cost over a 20 year time span: life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated.

  5. Runway Incursion Prevention System Simulation Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.

    2002-01-01

    A Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) was evaluated in a full mission simulation study at the NASA Langley Research center in March 2002. RIPS integrates airborne and ground-based technologies to provide (1) enhanced surface situational awareness to avoid blunders and (2) alerts of runway conflicts in order to prevent runway incidents while also improving operational capability. A series of test runs was conducted in a high fidelity simulator. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the RIPS airborne incursion detection algorithms and associated alerting and airport surface display concepts. Eight commercial airline crews participated as test subjects completing 467 test runs. This paper gives an overview of the RIPS, simulation study, and test results.

  6. Biosensors for antioxidant evaluation in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Mello, Lucilene Dornelles; Kisner, Alexandre; Goulart, Marilia Oliveira Fonseca; Kubota, Lauro Tatsuo

    2013-02-01

    The prevention of oxidative reactions in a biological medium as well as the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in chronic degenerative diseases are questions that continue to be investigated. Electrochemical biosensors have shown attractive features to evaluate the oxidative stress condition at a level comparable to chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. The biosensors developed so far are based on direct analysis of specific indicators such as biomarkers of oxidative stress on the monitoring of reactive oxygen species the free radicals in cells or tissues, aiming to obtain a correlation between the index obtained from these indicators with the oxidative stress levels in cells. In this review we will provide an overview of the development of electrochemical biosensors to evaluate the content of antioxidants and reactive oxygen species in physiological systems. Some discussion regarding the analysis of antioxidant capacity at the single cell level is also presented.

  7. Living cover crops have immediate impacts on soil microbial community structure and function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover cropping is a widely promoted strategy to enhance soil health in agricultural systems. Despite a substantial body of literature demonstrating links between cover crops and soil biology, an important component of soil health, research evaluating how specific cover crop species influence soil mi...

  8. Airborne seeker evaluation and test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jollie, William B.

    1991-08-01

    The Airborne Seeker Evaluation Test System (ASETS) is an airborne platform for development, test, and evaluation of air-to-ground seekers and sensors. ASETS consists of approximately 10,000 pounds of equipment, including sixteen racks of control, display, and recording electronics, and a very large stabilized airborne turret, all carried by a modified C- 130A aircraft. The turret measures 50 in. in diameter and extends over 50 in. below the aircraft. Because of the low ground clearance of the C-130, a unique retractor mechanism was designed to raise the turret inside the aircraft for take-offs and landings, and deploy the turret outside the aircraft for testing. The turret has over 7 cubic feet of payload space and can accommodate up to 300 pounds of instrumentation, including missile seekers, thermal imagers, infrared mapping systems, laser systems, millimeter wave radar units, television cameras, and laser rangers. It contains a 5-axis gyro-stabilized gimbal system that will maintain a line of sight in the pitch, roll, and yaw axes to an accuracy better than +/- 125 (mu) rad. The rack-mounted electronics in the aircraft cargo bay can be interchanged to operate any type of sensor and record the data. Six microcomputer subsystems operate and maintain all of the system components during a test mission. ASETS is capable of flying at altitudes between 200 and 20,000 feet, and at airspeeds ranging from 100 to 250 knots. Mission scenarios can include air-to-surface seeker testing, terrain mapping, surface target measurement, air-to-air testing, atmospheric transmission studies, weather data collection, aircraft or missile tracking, background signature measurements, and surveillance. ASETS is fully developed and available to support test programs.

  9. Economic Evaluation of Observatory Solar-Energy System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Long-term economic performance of a commercial solar-energy system was analyzed and used to predict economic performance at four additional sites. Analysis described in report was done to demonstrate viability of design over a broad range of environmental/economic conditions. Topics covered are system description, study approach, economic analysis and system optimization.

  10. Simulating the impact of past and future land cover and climate change on the global hydrological system using PCR-GLOBWB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosmans, J.; Van Beek, L. P.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the influence of both human-induced land cover change and climate change in a series of experiments with a global hydrological model (PCR-GLOBWB 2.0, Sutanudjaja et al., 2014). First, we analyze the impact of land cover changes by applying the static land cover of 1850 and 2000 in two separate experiments that are otherwise subject to the same forcing (CRU-derived daily temperature, precipitation and reference potential evapotranspiration, 1979-2010). This land cover change alone, mainly due to expansion of crop and pasture, results in differences in annual mean discharge of over 1000 m3/s and over 10% in large areas of the world. Evapotranspiration changes reach 30 mm/month. Furthermore, for validation purposes we compare these results to an experiment that includes human effects such as irrigation and reservoirs, as well as to a default experiment with a slightly different land cover parameterization.To investigate the influence of both land cover and climate change over time, we perform longer experiments applying input from the EC-Earth and CESM GCMs to PCR-GLOBWB. This allows us to extend the experiments from 1850 to 2100. We use two greenhouse gas emission scenarios for the 21st century: RCP2.6, a low-end scenario, as well as the high-end RCP8.5 scenario. Daily precipitation, temperature and reference potential evapotranspiration are bias-corrected using the ISI-MIP method (Hempel et al., 2013). First, land cover is fixed at 1850 and PCR-GLOBWB only experiences climate change from 1850 to 2100. Then, land cover is varied according to the historical reconstructions and future projections per RCP (Hurtt et al., 2011). Anthropogenic effects are excluded, so differences between these experiments are only due to land cover change. We analyze changes in discharge over catchment areas as well as evapotranspiration on cell basis. This is the first study with PCR-GLOBWB to evaluate the impact of both climate and land cover change over time for both past

  11. Deployment of an Alternative Closure Cover and Monitoring System at the Mixed Waste Disposal Unit U-3ax/bl at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Levitt, D.G.; Fitzmaurice, T.M.

    2001-02-01

    closure cover provide soil water content data, whereas sensors installed in the lysimeters provide soil water content, soil water potential, soil temperature, and drainage data for a detailed evaluation of the cover performance. Revegetation establishes a stable plant community that maximizes water loss through transpiration and reduces water and wind erosion and ultimately restores the disposal unit to its surrounding Great Basin Desert environment.

  12. Issues in the Evaluation of Artificial Intelligence Systems in Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Perry L.

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the underlying issues in the evaluation of computer systems which apply artificial intelligence in medicine (AIM). Three different levels of evaluation are described: 1) the subjective evaluation of the research contribution of a developmental prototype, 2) the validation of a system's knowledge and performance, 3) the evaluation of the clinical efficacy of an operational system. The paper outlines a number of evaluation issues at each level, and discusses how previous AIM evaluations fit into this framework.

  13. Fusion-fission energy systems evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Teofilo, V.L.; Aase, D.T.; Bickford, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    This report serves as the basis for comparing the fusion-fission (hybrid) energy system concept with other advanced technology fissile fuel breeding concepts evaluated in the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP). As such, much of the information and data provided herein is in a form that meets the NASAP data requirements. Since the hybrid concept has not been studied as extensively as many of the other fission concepts being examined in NASAP, the provided data and information are sparse relative to these more developed concepts. Nevertheless, this report is intended to provide a perspective on hybrids and to summarize the findings of the rather limited analyses made to date on this concept.

  14. Dynamic neural networks for real-time water level predictions of sewerage systems-covering gauged and ungauged sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Yen-Ming; Chang, Li-Chiu; Tsai, Meng-Jung; Wang, Yi-Fung; Chang, Fi-John

    2010-07-01

    In this research, we propose recurrent neural networks (RNNs) to build a relationship between rainfalls and water level patterns of an urban sewerage system based on historical torrential rain/storm events. The RNN allows signals to propagate in both forward and backward directions, which offers the network dynamic memories. Besides, the information at the current time-step with a feedback operation can yield a time-delay unit that provides internal input information at the next time-step to effectively deal with time-varying systems. The RNN is implemented at both gauged and ungauged sites for 5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-min-ahead water level predictions. The results show that the RNN is capable of learning the nonlinear sewerage system and producing satisfactory predictions at the gauged sites. Concerning the ungauged sites, there are no historical data of water level to support prediction. In order to overcome such problem, a set of synthetic data, generated from a storm water management model (SWMM) under cautious verification process of applicability based on the data from nearby gauging stations, are introduced as the learning target to the training procedure of the RNN and moreover evaluating the performance of the RNN at the ungauged sites. The results demonstrate that the potential role of the SWMM coupled with nearby rainfall and water level information can be of great use in enhancing the capability of the RNN at the ungauged sites. Hence we can conclude that the RNN is an effective and suitable model for successfully predicting the water levels at both gauged and ungauged sites in urban sewerage systems.

  15. Open system knowledge framework and its bridge evaluation application

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, S.T.C.

    1994-06-01

    In this paper, we present OPUS, a framework that provides design guidelines for the systematic building of independent, and potentially heterogeneous, knowledge base programs for the domains of large physical structures. The term open-system refers to the integration of several of these programs to solve problems beyond their individual capabilities. The OPUS framework organizes data and knowledge about the domain into three layers. The kernel layer encodes primary domain knowledge into hierarchies of objects, the scenario layer contains autonomous knowledge programs for specific applications, and the utility layer supports system interface and inference methods. OPUS provides a focus for knowledge organization and rapid prototyping, supports multiple schemes of inference and representation, copes with the maintenance and reuse of knowledge, and enables different levels of abstraction and views of knowledge. An OPUS system BFC has been developed to cover wide-ranging applications in bridge evaluation. Examples are taken from this application to illustrate data constructs and reasoning schemes based on the OPUS framework. 50 refs.

  16. Management of land use land cover through the application of remote sensing, geographic information systems and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Praveen

    Deforestation and degradation of forest areas, including those in the Protected Areas (PAs), are major concerns in India. There were 2 broad objectives of the study: the technological objective pertained to the development of state-of-art programs that could serve as Decision Support Systems while finalizing plans and policy interventions, while the other objective aimed at generating geo-spatial data in 2 PAs. A part of the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot, Manas Tiger Reserve (MTR), Assam, India having an area of 2837.12 sq km and an important part of Rajaji-Corbett Tiger Conservation Unit, Rajaji National Park (RNP), Uttarakhand, India, having an area of 820.42 sq km, were taken for the assessment of land use and land cover (LULC) change during 1990--2004. Simulation was undertaken in a smaller area of 1.2 km * 1.2 km right on the fringe of RNP. Three advanced geo-spatial programs---Multi-Algorithm Automation Program (MAAP), Data Automatic Modification Program (DAMP) and Multi-Stage Simulation Program (MUSSIP)---developed by the author were used extensively. Based on the satellite data, MAAP was used for the rapid assessments of LULC of 2004 and 1990; DAMP was used for the spectral modification of the satellite data of the adjacent scenes of 2004 and of 1990; and MUSSIP was used to simulate LULC maps for the future periods (till 2018). These programs produced very high accuracy levels: 91.12% in 2004 and 89.67% in 1990 were obtained for MTR; and 94.87% in 2004 and 94.10% in 1990 were obtained for RNP; 93.40% pixel-to-pixel accuracy and 0.7904 for kappa were achieved for simulation. The annual rate of loss of forests (0.41% in MTR and 1.20% in RNP) and loss of water (1.79% in MTR and 1.69% in RNP) during 1990-2004 is a matter of serious concern. The scenario analysis in the study area for simulation revealed that the deforestation rate of 1.27% per year during 2004--2018 would increase to 2.04% if the human population growth rate is enhanced by 10%. Hence

  17. Effects of terminating cover crops with rolling/crimping and herbicides in a cotton no-till system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In fall of 2008, a field experiment was initiated in central Alabama to study the effects of rolling/crimping and different herbicides with different application rates on cover crops termination rates, cotton population and yield. Results from 2009 and 2010 growing seasons are presented. A roller/cr...

  18. An hierarchical approach to performance evaluation of expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Kavi, Srinu

    1985-01-01

    The number and size of expert systems is growing rapidly. Formal evaluation of these systems - which is not performed for many systems - increases the acceptability by the user community and hence their success. Hierarchical evaluation that had been conducted for computer systems is applied for expert system performance evaluation. Expert systems are also evaluated by treating them as software systems (or programs). This paper reports many of the basic concepts and ideas in the Performance Evaluation of Expert Systems Study being conducted at the University of Southwestern Louisiana.

  19. Evaluation of three commercial microclimate cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadarette, Bruce S.; Decristofano, Barry S.; Speckman, Karen N.; Sawka, Michael N.

    1988-11-01

    Three commercially available microclimate cooling systems were evaluated for their ability to reduce heat stress in men exercising in a hot environment while wearing high insulative, low permeability clothing. The cooling systems were: (1) ILC Dover Model 19 Coolvest (ILC) (2) LSSI Coolhead(LSSI), and (3) Thermacor Cooling vest (THERM). Endurance Time (ET), Heart Rate (HR), rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (TSK), Sweating Rate (SR), Rated Perceived Exertion (RPE) and Thermal Sensation (TS) were measured. The subjects self-terminated on all LSSI tests because of headaches. Statistical analyses were performed on data collected at 60 minutes to have values on all subjects. There were no differences in HR, Tre, SR or TS values among the cooling vests. The subjects' TSK was lower (P less than 0.05) for the LSSI than THERM: and RPE values were higher (P less than 0.05) for LSSI than the other two vests. These data suggest an improved physiological response to exercise heat stress with all three commercial systems with the greatest benefit in performance time provided by the ILC cooling system.

  20. Disposal systems evaluations and tool development : Engineered Barrier System (EBS) evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Liu, Hui-Hai; Steefel, Carl I.; Serrano de Caro, M. A.; Caporuscio, Florie Andre; Birkholzer, Jens T.; Blink, James A.; Sutton, Mark A.; Xu, Hongwu; Buscheck, Thomas A.; Levy, Schon S.; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Halsey, William G.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Wolery, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Key components of the nuclear fuel cycle are short-term storage and long-term disposal of nuclear waste. The latter encompasses the immobilization of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and radioactive waste streams generated by various phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the safe and permanent disposition of these waste forms in geological repository environments. The engineered barrier system (EBS) plays a very important role in the long-term isolation of nuclear waste in geological repository environments. EBS concepts and their interactions with the natural barrier are inherently important to the long-term performance assessment of the safety case where nuclear waste disposition needs to be evaluated for time periods of up to one million years. Making the safety case needed in the decision-making process for the recommendation and the eventual embracement of a disposal system concept requires a multi-faceted integration of knowledge and evidence-gathering to demonstrate the required confidence level in a deep geological disposal site and to evaluate long-term repository performance. The focus of this report is the following: (1) Evaluation of EBS in long-term disposal systems in deep geologic environments with emphasis on the multi-barrier concept; (2) Evaluation of key parameters in the characterization of EBS performance; (3) Identification of key knowledge gaps and uncertainties; and (4) Evaluation of tools and modeling approaches for EBS processes and performance. The above topics will be evaluated through the analysis of the following: (1) Overview of EBS concepts for various NW disposal systems; (2) Natural and man-made analogs, room chemistry, hydrochemistry of deep subsurface environments, and EBS material stability in near-field environments; (3) Reactive Transport and Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) processes in EBS; and (4) Thermal analysis toolkit, metallic barrier degradation mode survey, and development of a Disposal Systems

  1. Distributed Impact Detector System (DIDS) Health Monitoring System Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2010-01-01

    Damage due to impacts from micrometeoroids and orbital debris is one of the most significant on-orbit hazards for spacecraft. Impacts to thermal protection systems must be detected and the damage evaluated to determine if repairs are needed to allow safe re-entry. To address this issue for the International Space Station Program, Langley Research Center and Johnson Space Center technologists have been working to develop and implement advanced methods for detecting impacts and resultant leaks. LaRC funded a Small Business Innovative Research contract to Invocon, Inc. to develop special wireless sensor systems that are compact, light weight, and have long battery lifetimes to enable applications to long duration space structures. These sensor systems are known as distributed impact detection systems (DIDS). In an assessment, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center procured two prototype DIDS sensor units to evaluate their capabilities in laboratory testing and field testing in an ISS Node 1 structural test article. This document contains the findings of the assessment.

  2. Land Cover Change on the Seward Peninsula: The Use of Remote Sensing to Evaluate the Potential Influences of Climate Warming on Historical Vegetation Dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Silapaswan, C.S.; Verbyla, D.L.; McGuire, A.D.

    2001-01-01

    Vegetation on the Seward Peninsula. Alaska, which is characterized by transitions from tundra to boreal forest, may be sensitive to the influences of climate change on disturbance and species composition. To determine the ability to detect decadal-scale structural changes in vegetation, Change Vector Analysis (CVA) techniques were evaluated for Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery of the Seward Peninsula from 1986 to 1999. Scenes were geographically corrected to sub-pixel accuracy and then radiometrically rectified. Between the 1986 and 1992 satellite scenes, the CVA detected changes in direction and magnitude of the two indices (TM Band 4/TM Band 3, TM Band 5). For Row 14, change was detected for 135,518 ha and for Row 15, change was detected for 111,831 ha. Between the 1992 and 1999 scenes, change was detected by CVA for 93,278 ha. CVA results and photo interpretation together show that shrub advance is approximately 100 metres in valleys north of the Bendeleben Mountains and that shrubs have increased along riverbed bottoms. Across Path 78 Row 14 and 15, the unsupervised classification detected that 55% of the pixels changed between 1986 and 1992. Overall, approximately 759,610 ha changed to a class with a more developed canopy and only 268,132 ha changed to a class with a less developed canopy. Thus, the change detection analysis based on the unsupervised classification indicates that land-cover change on the Seward Peninsula was predominantly in the direction of increased shrubbiness. Taken together, our comparison of CVA results, unsupervised classification results, and visual interpretation of aerial photographs suggests that shrub cover may be increasing on the Seward Peninsula, which is consistent with results from experimental warming in tundra. The use of both CVA and unsupervised classification together provided a more powerful interpretation of change than either method alone in transitional regions between tundra and boreal forest.

  3. Evaluating the effect of land use land cover change in a rapidly urbanizing semi-arid watershed on estuarine freshwater inflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, D.; Smith, P.; Popescu, S.

    2006-12-01

    Estuarine freshwater inflows along with their associated nutrient and metal delivery are influenced by the land use/land cover (LULC) and water management practices in the contributing watershed. This study evaluates the effect of rapid urbanization in the San Antonio River Watershed on the amount of freshwater inflow reaching the San Antonio-Guadalupe estuary on the Gulf Coast of Texas. Remotely sensed data from satellite imagery provided a source of reliable data for land use classification and land cover change analysis; while long time series of the geophysical signals of stream flow and precipitation provided the data needed to assess change in flow in the watershed. LULC was determined using LANDSAT (5 TM and 7 ETM) satellite images over 20 years (1985-2003). The LANDSAT images were classified using an ENVI. ISODATA classification scheme. Changes were quantified in terms of the urban expansion that had occurred in past 20 years using an urban index. Streamflow was analyzed using 20 years (1985-2004) of average daily discharge obtained from the USGS gauging station (08188500) closest to the headwaters of the estuary. Baseflow and storm flow were partitioned from total flow using a universally used baseflow separation technique. Precipitation data was obtained from an NCDC station in the watershed. Preliminary results indicate that the most significant change in land use over the 20 year period was an increase in the total amount of impervious area in the watershed. This increase in impervious area was accompanied by an increase in both total streamflow and in baseflow over the same period. The investigation did not show a significant change in total annual precipitation from 1990 to 2004. This suggests that the increase in streamflow was more influenced by LULC than climate change. One explanation for the increase in baseflow may be an increase in return flows resulting from an increase in the total number of wastewater treatment plants in the watershed.

  4. Evaluation of the Effects of Temporary Covered Nitinol Stent Placement in the Prostatic Urethra: Short-Term Study in the Canine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Crisostomo, Veronica; Uson-Gargallo, Jesus

    2007-07-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the effect of temporary stent placement on the canine prostatic urethra. Methods. Retrievable PTFE-covered nitinol stents were placed in the prostatic urethras of 8 beagle dogs under fluoroscopic guidance. Retrograde urethrography was obtained before and after stenting. Retrograde urethrography and endoscopy were performed 1 and 2 months after deployment. The endoscopic degree of hyperplasia was rated on a scale of 0 to 4 (0 absence, 4 = occlusion). On day 60, stents were removed and urethrography was performed immediately before euthanasia. Pathologic analysis was performed to determine the degree of glandular atrophy, periurethral fibrosis, and urethral dilation. Results. Stent deployment was technically successful in 7 animals, and failed in 1 dog due to a narrow urethral lumen. Complete migration was seen in 2 animals at 1 month, and an additional stent was deployed. On day 30, endoscopy showed slight hyperplasia (grade 1) in 3 animals. On day 60, moderate hyperplasia (grade 2) was evidenced in 4 cases. No impairment of urinary flow was seen during follow-up. Retrieval was technically easy to perform, and was successful in all dogs. The major histologic findings were chronic inflammatory cell infiltrates; prostate glandular atrophy, with a mean value of 1.86 (SD 0.90); periurethral fibrosis, with a mean ratio of 29.37 (SD 10.41); and dilatation of the prostatic urethra, with a mean ratio of 6.75 (SD 3.22). Conclusion. Temporary prostatic stent placement in dogs is safe and feasible, causing marked enlargement of the prostatic urethral lumen. Retrievable covered stents may therefore be an option for bladder outlet obstruction management in men.

  5. Directionally solidified composite systems under evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashbrook, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    The directionally solidified eutectic in-situ composites being evaluated for use as turbine materials range from ductile-ductile systems, where both matrix and reinforcement are ductile, to brittle-brittle systems, where both phases are brittle. The alloys most likely to be used in gas turbine engines in the near term are the lamellar ductile-semi ductile alloys gamma prime-delta, Ni3Al-Ni3Nb and gamma/gamma prime-delta Ni,Cr,Cb,Al/Ni3Al-Ni3Nb and the fibrous ductile-brittle alloys M-MC CoTaC or NiTaC and M-M7C3(Co,Cr,Al)-(Cr,Co)7C3. The results of tests are given which indicate that gamma prime strengthened NiTaC alloys and a (Co,Cr,Al)7C3 have greater tensile strength than the strongest superalloys at temperatures up to about 600 C. The gamma prime-delta and gamma/gamma prime-delta alloys in the Ni,Al,Nb(Cr) systems have greater tensile strength than the superalloys at temperatures greater than 800 C. At low stresses fibrous carbide reinforced eutectic alloys have longer lives at high temperatures than the strongest superalloys. Lamellar delta, Ni3Nb reinforced eutectic alloys have longer lives at high temperatures than the strongest superalloys at all stresses. The experience currently being gained in designing with the brittle ceramics SiC and Si3N4 may eventually be applied to ceramic matrix eutectic in-situ composites. However, the refractory metal fiber reinforced brittle-ductile systems may find acceptance as turbine materials before the ceramic-ceramic brittle-brittle systems.

  6. Evaluation of an automatic markup system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghva, Kazem; Condit, Allen; Borsack, Julie

    1995-03-01

    One predominant application of OCR is the recognition of full text documents for information retrieval. Modern retrieval systems exploit both the textual content of the document as well as its structure. The relationship between textual content and character accuracy have been the focus of recent studies. It has been shown that due to the redundancies in text, average precision and recall is not heavily affected by OCR character errors. What is not fully known is to what extent OCR devices can provide reliable information that can be used to capture the structure of the document. In this paper, we present a preliminary report on the design and evaluation of a system to automatically markup technical documents, based on information provided by an OCR device. The device we use differs from traditional OCR devices in that it not only performs optical character recognition, but also provides detailed information about page layout, word geometry, and font usage. Our automatic markup program, which we call Autotag, uses this information, combined with dictionary lookup and content analysis, to identify structural components of the text. These include the document title, author information, abstract, sections, section titles, paragraphs, sentences, and de-hyphenated words. A visual examination of the hardcopy is compared to the output of our markup system to determine its correctness.

  7. An evaluation of an automatic markup system

    SciTech Connect

    Taghva, K.; Condit, A.; Borsack, J.

    1995-04-01

    One predominant application of OCR is the recognition of full text documents for information retrieval. Modern retrieval systems exploit both the textual content of the document as well as its structure. The relationship between textual content and character accuracy have been the focus of recent studies. It has been shown that due to the redundancies in text, average precision and recall is not heavily affected by OCR character errors. What is not fully known is to what extent OCR devices can provide reliable information that can be used to capture the structure of the document. In this paper, the authors present a preliminary report on the design and evaluation of a system to automatically markup technical documents, based on information provided by an OCR device. The device the authors use differs from traditional OCR devices in that it not only performs optical character recognition, but also provides detailed information about page layout, word geometry, and font usage. Their automatic markup program, which they call Autotag, uses this information, combined with dictionary, lookup and content analysis, to identify structural components of the text. These include the document title, author information, abstract, sections, section titles, paragraphs, sentences, and de-hyphenated words. A visual examination of the hardcopy will be compared to the output of their markup system to determine its correctness.

  8. Evaluation of an Adjustable Epidemiologic Information System

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiunn-Shyan Julian; Shih, Fu-Yuan; Chiu, Chan-Hsien; Yeh, Yuan-Lih; Yan, Jer-Jea

    2011-01-01

    Background In order to facilitate public health response and to achieve early control of infectious disease epidemics, an adjustable epidemiologic information system (AEIS) was established in the Taiwan public health network in February 2006. Methodology/Principal Findings The performance of AEIS for the period 2006 through 2008 was evaluated based on a number of response times (RT) and the public health impact. After implementation of the system, the apparent overall shortened RT was mainly due to the shortening of personnel response time (PRT) and the time needed to draft a new questionnaire that incurred as personnel-system interface (PSI); PRT dropped from a fluctuating range of 9.8 ∼28.8 days in the first four months to <10 days in the following months and remained low till 2008 (0.88±1.52 days). The PSIs for newly emerged infectious diseases were 2.6 and 3.4 person-hours for H5N1 in 2007 and chikungunya in 2008, respectively, a much improvement from 1142.5 person-hours for SARS in 2003. The duration of each rubella epidemic cluster was evaluated as public health impact and showed a shortening trend (p = 0.019) that concurred with the shortening of PRT from 64.8±47.3 to 25.2±38.2 hours per cluster (p<0.0001). Conclusions/Significance The first evaluation of the novel instrument AEIS that had been used to assist Taiwan's multi-level government for infectious diseases control demonstrated that it was well integrated into the existing public health infrastructure. It provided flexible tools and computer algorithms with friendly interface for timely data collection, integration, and analysis; as a result, it shortened RTs, filled in gaps of personnel lacking sufficient experiences, created a more efficient flow of response, and identified asymptomatic/mild cases early to minimize further spreading. With further development, AEIS is anticipated to be useful in the application of other acute public health events needing immediate orchestrated data

  9. Multidetector-Row Computed Tomography in the Evaluation of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Performed with Expanded-Polytetrafluoroethylene-Covered Stent-Graft

    SciTech Connect

    Fanelli, Fabrizio Bezzi, Mario; Bruni, Antonio; Corona, Mario; Boatta, Emanuele; Lucatelli, Pierleone; Passariello, Roberto

    2011-02-15

    We assessed, in a prospective study, the efficacy of multidetector spiral computed tomography (MDCT) in the evaluation of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) patency in patients treated with the Viatorr (Gore, Flagstaff, AZ) expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE)-covered stent-graft. Eighty patients who underwent TIPS procedure using the Viatorr self-expanding e-PTFE stent-graft were evaluated at follow-up of 1, 3, 6, and 12 months with clinical and laboratory tests as well as ultrasound-color Doppler (USCD) imaging. In case of varices, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was also performed. In addition, the shunt was evaluated using MDCT at 6 and 12 months. In all cases of abnormal findings and discrepancy between MDCT and USCD, invasive control venography was performed. MDCT images were acquired before and after injection of intravenous contrast media on the axial plane and after three-dimensional reconstruction using different algorithms. MDCT was successfully performed in all patients. No artefacts correlated to the Viatorr stent-graft were observed. A missing correlation between UCSD and MDCT was noticed in 20 of 80 (25%) patients. Invasive control venography confirmed shunt patency in 16 (80%) cases and shunt malfunction in 4 (20%) cases. According to these data, MDCT sensitivity was 95.2%; specificity was 96.6%; and positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were 90.9 and 98.2%, respectively. USCD sensitivity was 90%; specificity was 75%; and PPV and NPV were 54.5 and 95.7%, respectively. A high correlation (K value = 0.85) between MDCT and invasive control venography was observed. On the basis of these results, MDCT shows superior sensitivity and specificity compared with USCD in those patients in whom TIPS was performed with the Viatorr stent-graft. MDCT can be considered a valid tool in the follow-up of these patients.

  10. New Approach to the Problem of Information System Effectiveness Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radecki, Tadeusz

    1976-01-01

    The parameters of effectiveness evaluation of information systems put forward in this paper take account of the fact that both evaluation of the relevance and evaluation of the pertinence of documents are of a continuous character. (Author)

  11. Evaluation of the SYSTRAN Automatic Translation System. Report No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaumier, Jacques; And Others

    The Commission of the European Communities has acquired an automatic translation system (SYSTRAN), which has been put into operation on an experimental basis. The system covers translation of English into French and comprises a dictionary for food science and technology containing 25,000 words or inflections and 4,500 expressions. This report…

  12. EVALUATION OF CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS USING HYDRAULIC HEAD DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Subsurface vertical barriers have been used as components of containment systems to prevent or reduce the impact of containment sources on ground-water resources. Many containment systems also include a low permeability cover to prevent the infiltration-/recharge of precipitatio...

  13. Evaluation of OMV ranging and docking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, M. W.

    1985-01-01

    The Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) will serve as a shuttle-based or permanent space station-based vehicle designed to rendezvous and soft dock with various other free-flying space vehicles for purposes of inspection, support, and retrieval. This study is concerned primarily with the eventual need for the OMV to rendezvous and dock softly with the Edwin P. Hubble Space Telescope (ST). Utilizing the available capabilities of the large microwave anechoic chamber facility at Marshall Space Flight Center for simulating docking target vehicle motions in a free-space environment, a program is being devised for benchmark testing of rendezvous and docking sensor systems proposed for use on the OMV. A testing regimen suitable for evaluating the accuracy and tracking agility in sensing range, range rate, and angle information at close ranges (0 R 30m) has been developed.

  14. Influence of human-climate system feedbacks on predicted 21st century land use/land cover trajectories, fossil fuel emissions, and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, P. E.; Edmonds, J. A.; Collins, W.; Janetos, A. C.; Hurtt, G. C.; Shi, X.; Mao, J.; Thomson, A. M.; Calvin, K. V.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Chini, L. P.

    2012-12-01

    The interaction between human system and climate system models in the current climate change assessment framework is based on one-way coupling, in which estimates of human actions such as land use and land cover change (LULCC), and fossil fuel combustion, are generated by integrated assessment models (IAMs) and passed as forcing functions to Earth system models (ESMs). By neglecting the return flow of information from the physical climate and biogeochemical systems, inconsistencies are inevitably introduced in this one-way coupling approach. We are developing an integrated Earth System Model (iESM) to characterize, address, and minimize these inconsistencies, by merging the capabilities of IAMs and ESMs in a single coupling framework. Here, we have applied the iESM to estimate the impact of two-way interactions between LULCC and climate on the evolution of the coupled human-climate system over the 21st century. Our simulations followed the Reference Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 scenario, a member of the recent Climate Model Intercomparison Project v5 (CMIP5) family of climate system scenarios. We compared a traditional RCP4.5 simulation from the Community Earth System Model v1 (CESM1) coupled climate-biogeochemistry model with an iESM simulation in which the estimation of LULCC dynamics was performed synchronously with the physical climate simulation. As a first step in a series of planned coupling exercises, we evaluated the influence of a very simple feedback mechanism, in which information generated within the physical-biogeochemical model components was passed back to the human dimensions component by way of a set of scalars capturing the effects of changing climate on terrestrial ecosystem productivity. This mechanism provides a signal within the human system component model modifying crop yields, bioenergy potential, and pasture and forest productivity in response to climate change, including changes in temperature, precipitation, CO2 concentrations, and

  15. THE BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY PERFLUOROCARBON TRACER TECHNOLOGY: A PROVEN AND COST EFFECTIVE METHOD TO VERIFY INTEGRITY AND MONITOR LONG TERM PERFORMANCE OF WALLS, FLOORS, CAPS, AND COVER SYSTEMS.

    SciTech Connect

    HEISER, J.; SULLIVAN, T.

    2002-03-11

    Currently, containment system failures are detected by monitoring wells downstream of the waste site. Clearly this approach is inefficient, as the contaminants will have migrated from the disposal area before they are detected. Methods that indicate early cover failure (prior to contaminant release) or predict impending cover failure are needed. The Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Perfluorocarbon Tracer (PFT) technology can measure performance changes and integrity losses as the cover ages. This allows early detection of cover failure or pending failure so that repair or replacement can be made before contaminants leave the disposal cell. The PFT technology has been successfully applied to four subsurface barrier problems, one leak detection problem from underground ducts, and one surface cover problem. Testing has demonstrated that the PFTs are capable of accurately detecting and locating leaks down to fractions of an inch. The PFT technology has several advantages over competing approaches. The ability to simultaneously use multiple PFTs separates it from other gas tracer technologies. Using multiple tracers provides independent confirmation of flaw location, helps to clearly define transport pathways, and can be used for confirmatory testing (e.g., repeat the test using a new tracer). The PFT tests provide a direct measure of flaws in a barrier, whereas other measurements (pressure, moisture content, temperature, subsidence) provide indirect measures that need interpretation. The focus of the six PFT demonstrations has been on engineering aspects of the technology with the intent of finding if a flaw existed in the barrier. Work remains to be done on the scientific basis for this technology. This includes determining PFT diffusion rates through various materials (soils and barrier) as a function of moisture content, determining the effects of barometric pumping on PFT flow for cover systems, and determining wind effects on side slopes of cover systems and

  16. Evaluation and trends of land cover, streamflow, and water quality in the North Canadian River Basin near Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 1968–2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esralew, Rachel A.; Andrews, William J.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Oklahoma City, collected water-quality samples from the North Canadian River at the streamflow-gaging station near Harrah, Oklahoma (Harrah station), since 1968, and at an upstream streamflow-gaging station at Britton Road at Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (Britton Road station), since 1988. Statistical summaries and frequencies of detection of water-quality constituent data from water samples, and summaries of water-quality constituent data from continuous water-quality monitors are described from the start of monitoring at those stations through 2009. Differences in concentrations between stations and time trends for selected constituents were evaluated to determine the effects of: (1) wastewater effluent discharges, (2) changes in land-cover, (3) changes in streamflow, (4) increases in urban development, and (5) other anthropogenic sources of contamination on water quality in the North Canadian River downstream from Oklahoma City. Land-cover changes between 1992 and 2001 in the basin between the Harrah station and Lake Overholser upstream included an increase in developed/barren land-cover and a decrease in pasture/hay land cover. There were no significant trends in median and greater streamflows at either streamflow-gaging station, but there were significant downward trends in lesser streamflows, especially after 1999, which may have been associated with decreases in precipitation between 1999 and 2009 or construction of low-water dams on the river upstream from Oklahoma City in 1999. Concentrations of dissolved chloride, lead, cadmium, and chlordane most frequently exceeded the Criterion Continuous Concentration (a water-quality standard for protection of aquatic life) in water-quality samples collected at both streamflow-gaging stations. Visual trends in annual frequencies of detection were investigated for selected pesticides with frequencies of detection greater than 10 percent in all water samples

  17. Earth orbit navigation study. Volume 2: System evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An overall systems evaluation was made of five candidate navigation systems in support of earth orbit missions. The five systems were horizon sensor system, unkown landmark tracking system, ground transponder system, manned space flight network, and tracking and data relay satellite system. Two reference missions were chosen: a low earth orbit mission and a transfer trajectory mission from low earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit. The specific areas addressed in the evaluation were performance, multifunction utilization, system mechanization, and cost.

  18. Hyperspectral range imaging for transportation systems evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridgelall, Raj; Rafert, J. B.; Atwood, Don; Tolliver, Denver D.

    2016-04-01

    Transportation agencies expend significant resources to inspect critical infrastructure such as roadways, railways, and pipelines. Regular inspections identify important defects and generate data to forecast maintenance needs. However, cost and practical limitations prevent the scaling of current inspection methods beyond relatively small portions of the network. Consequently, existing approaches fail to discover many high-risk defect formations. Remote sensing techniques offer the potential for more rapid and extensive non-destructive evaluations of the multimodal transportation infrastructure. However, optical occlusions and limitations in the spatial resolution of typical airborne and space-borne platforms limit their applicability. This research proposes hyperspectral image classification to isolate transportation infrastructure targets for high-resolution photogrammetric analysis. A plenoptic swarm of unmanned aircraft systems will capture images with centimeter-scale spatial resolution, large swaths, and polarization diversity. The light field solution will incorporate structure-from-motion techniques to reconstruct three-dimensional details of the isolated targets from sequences of two-dimensional images. A comparative analysis of existing low-power wireless communications standards suggests an application dependent tradeoff in selecting the best-suited link to coordinate swarming operations. This study further produced a taxonomy of specific roadway and railway defects, distress symptoms, and other anomalies that the proposed plenoptic swarm sensing system would identify and characterize to estimate risk levels.

  19. Evaluation of geothermal cooling systems for Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    Arizona consumes nearly 50 percent more electricity during the peak summer season of May through part of October, due to the high cooling load met by electrical-driven air conditioning units. This study evaluates two geothermal-driven cooling systems that consume less electricity, namely, absorption cooling and heat pumps. Adsorption cooling requires a geothermal resource above 105{sup 0}C (220{sup 0}F) in order to operate at a reasonable efficiency and capacity. Geothermal resources at these temperatures or above are believed existing in the Phoenix and Tucson areas, but at such depths that geothermal-driven absorption systems have high capital investments. Such capital investments are uneconomical when paid out over only five months of operation each year, but become economical when cascaded with other geothermal uses. There may be other regions of the state, where geothermal resources exist at 105{sup 0}C (220{sup 0}F) or higher at much less depth, such as the Casa Grande/Coolidge or Hyder areas, which might be attractive locations for future plants of the high-technology industries. Geothermal assisted heat pumps have been shown in this study to be economical for nearly all areas of Arizona. They are more economical and reliable than air-to-air heat pumps. Such systems in Arizona depend upon a low-temperature geothermal resource in the narrow range of 15.5 to 26.6{sup 0}C (60 to 80{sup 0}F), and are widely available in Arizona. The state has over 3000 known (existing) thermal wells, out of a total of about 30,000 irrigation wells.

  20. Radioactivity measurement of primordial radionuclides in and dose evaluation from marble and glazed tiles used as covering building materials in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Turhan, Ş; Varinlioğlu, A

    2012-09-01

    Measurements of the natural radioactivity arising from primordial radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) in marble and glazed tile samples used covering building materials in Turkey were carried out by gamma-ray spectrometer with a high purity germanium detector. The mean activity concentrations of the (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in marble and glazed tile samples were found as 8.2, 5.5 and 58.1 Bq kg(-1) and 81.2, 65.4 and 450.1 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The radiation doses received by occupants of buildings in which the sample marble and glazed tiles might be used are estimated using measured activity concentrations of constituent primordial radionuclides and dose conversion factors evaluated by the European Commission from models of tile use. Results obtained are presented for each radionuclide, analysed and compared with relevant national and international legislation, guidance and report, and with the results obtained from other studies. Results show that the use of such decorative building materials in the construction of domestic homes or workplaces in Turkey is unlikely to lead to any significant radiation exposure to the occupants.

  1. A Comparison of a Fully Covered and an Uncovered Segmented Biodegradable Esophageal Stent in a Porcine Model: Preclinical Evaluation of Degradation, Complications, and Tissue Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yadong; Jiao, Chunhua; Cao, Yang; Zhao, Ye; Chen, Yanfang; Fang, Lin; Shi, Ruihua

    2016-01-01

    Aims. This study was to compare the degradation, complications, and tissue reactions of two segmented biodegradable esophageal stents in a porcine model. Methods. Uncovered biodegradable segmented stents and fully covered biodegradable segmented stents (FCBDS) were transplanted into the porcine esophagus lumen. Data on biodegradation, complications, and tissue reactions were collected and compared. Results. All animals kept good general conditions. No severe complications and stents migration occurred. Stents degradation commenced at week 3. Compared with uncovered stents, stents structure breakage and complete stents absorption in FCBDS were postponed for 1-2 weeks. Hyperplasia was prominent at early stage and ameliorated at late stage after stents insertion. Tissue reactions in FCBDS were milder than those in uncovered stents in the early stage. A longer degradation period was present in FCBDS than in uncovered stents, while FCBDS induced tissue reaction at late stage was mild. Conclusions. Biodegradable esophageal stents with a segmented trunk may be further evaluated in refractory benign esophagus strictures. This FCBDS may be advantageous compared with uncovered stents for a longer degradation period. PMID:27022391

  2. An Evaluation Framework for EU Research and Development e-Health Projects' Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavridis, Androklis; Katriou, Stamatia-Ann; Koumpis, Adamantios

    Over the past years it has become evident that an evaluation system was necessary for the European Research and Competitive funded projects which are large and complex structures needing constant monitoring. This is especially so for e-Health projects. The race to complete assignments means that this area is usually neglected. A proposed framework for the evaluation of R & D project systems using ATAM, ISO 14598 and ISO 9126 standards is presented. The evaluation framework covers a series of steps which ensures that the offered system satisfies quality, attributes such as operability, usability and maintainability imposed by the end users. The main advantage of this step by step procedure is that faults in the architecture, software or prototype can be recognised early in the development phase and corrected more rapidly. The system has a common set of attributes against which the various project’s deliverables are assessed.

  3. Special study on vegetative covers. [UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This report describes the findings of a special study on the use of vegetative covers to stabilize tailings piles for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The principal rationale for using plants would be to establish a dynamic system for controlling water balance. Specifically, vegetation would be used to intercept and transpire precipitation to the atmosphere, rather than allowing water to drain into the tailings and mobilize contaminants. This would facilitate compliance with groundwater standards proposed for the UMTRA Project by the Environmental Protection Agency. The goals of the study were to evaluate the feasibility of using vegetative covers on UMTRA Project piles, define the advantages and disadvantages of vegetative covers, and develop general guidelines for their use when such use seems reasonable. The principal method for the study was to analyze and apply to the UMTRA Project the results of research programs on vegetative covers at other US Department of Energy (DOE) waste management facilities. The study also relied upon observations made of existing stabilized piles at UMTRA Project sites where natural vegetation is growing on the rock-covered surfaces. Water balance and erosion models were also used to quantify the long-term performance of vegetative covers planned for the topslopes of stabilized piles at Grand Junction and Durango, Colorado, two UMTRA Project sites where the decision was made during the course of this special study to use vegetative covers. Elements in the design and construction of the vegetative covers at these two sites are discussed in the report, with explanations of the differing features that reflect differing environmental conditions. 28 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Evaluation of Laser Stabilization and Imaging Systems for LCLS-II - Oral Presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, Matthew

    2015-08-19

    This presentation covers data collected on two commercial laser stabilization systems, Guidestar-II and MRC, and two optical imaging systems. Additionally, general information about LCLS-II and how to go about continuing-testing is covered.

  5. Evaluation of the sustainability of contrasted pig farming systems: the procedure, the evaluated systems and the evaluation tools.

    PubMed

    Bonneau, M; de Greef, K; Brinkman, D; Cinar, M U; Dourmad, J Y; Edge, H L; Fàbrega, E; Gonzàlez, J; Houwers, H W J; Hviid, M; Ilari-Antoine, E; Klauke, T N; Phatsara, C; Rydhmer, L; van der Oever, B; Zimmer, C; Edwards, S A

    2014-12-01

    Although a few studies consider the sustainability of animal farming systems along the three classical main pillars (economy, environment and society), most studies on pig farming systems address only one of these pillars. The present paper is the introduction to a series of companion papers presenting the results of a study undertaken within the EU-supported project Q-PorkChains, aiming at building a comprehensive tool for the evaluation of pig farming systems, which is robust to accommodate the large variability of systems existing in Europe. The tool is mostly based on questions to farmers and comprises a total of 37 dimensions distributed along eight themes: Animal Welfare, Animal Health, Breeding Programmes, Environmental Sustainability, Meat Safety, Market Conformity, Economy and Working Conditions. The paper describes the procedure that was used for building the tool, using it on 15 contrasted pig farming systems and analysing the results. The evaluated systems are briefly described and a short overview of the dimensions is provided. Detailed descriptions of the theme-wise tools and results, as well as the results of an integrated evaluation, are available in the companion papers.

  6. Land cover changes and forest landscape evolution (1985-2009) in a typical Mediterranean agroforestry system (high Agri Valley)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoniello, T.; Coluzzi, R.; Imbrenda, V.; Lanfredi, M.

    2015-06-01

    The present study focuses on the transformations of a typical Mediterranean agroforestry landscape of southern Italy (high Agri Valley - Basilicata region) that occurred over 24 years. In this period, the valuable agricultural and natural areas that compose such a landscape were subjected to intensive industry-related activities linked to the exploitation of the largest European onshore oil reservoir. Landsat imagery acquired in 1985 and 2009 were used to detect changes in forest areas and major land use trajectories. Landscape metrics indicators were adopted to characterize landscape structure and evolution of both the complex ecomosaic (14 land cover classes) and the forest/non-forest arrangement. Our results indicate a net increase of 11% of forest areas between 1985 and 2009. The major changes concern increase of all forest covers at the expense of pastures and grasses, enlargement of riparian vegetation, and expansion of artificial areas. The observed expansion of forests was accompanied by a decrease of the fragmentation levels likely due to the reduction of small glades that break forest homogeneity and to the recolonization of herbaceous areas. Overall, we observe an evolution towards a more stable configuration depicting a satisfactory picture of vegetation health.

  7. Land cover changes and forest landscape evolution (1985-2009) in a typical Mediterranean agroforestry system (High Agri Valley)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoniello, T.; Coluzzi, R.; Imbrenda, V.; Lanfredi, M.

    2014-08-01

    The present study focuses on the transformations of a typical Mediterranean agroforestry landscape of southern Italy (High Agri Valley - Basilicata region) occurred during 24 years. In this period, the valuable agricultural and natural areas that compose such a landscape were subjected to intensive industry-related activities linked to the exploitation of the largest European on-shore oil reservoir. Landsat imagery acquired in 1985 and 2009 were used to detect changes in forest areas and major land use trajectories. Landscape metrics indicators were adopted to characterize landscape structure and evolution of both the complex ecomosaic (14 land cover classes) and the Forest/Non Forest arrangement. Our results indicate a net increase of 11% of forest areas between 1985 and 2009. The major changes concern: increase of all forest covers at the expense of pastures and grasses, enlargement of riparian vegetation, expansion of artificial areas. The observed expansion of forests was accompanied by a decrease of the fragmentation levels likely due to the reduction of small glades that break forest homogeneity and to the recolonization of herbaceous areas. Overall, we observe an evolution towards a more stable configuration depicting a satisfactory picture of vegetation health.

  8. Solar energy system performance evaluation report for IBM System 4 at Clinton, Mississippi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The IBM System 4 Solar Energy System is described and evaluated. The system was designed to provide 35 percent of the space heating and 63 percent of the domestic hot water preheating for a single family residence located within the United States. The system consists of 259 square feet of flat plate air collectors, a rock thermal storage containing 5 1/2 ton of rock, heat exchangers, blowers, a 52 gallon preheat tank, controls, and associated plumbing. In general, the performance of the system did not meet design expectations, since the overall design solar fraction was 48 percent and the measured value was 32 percent. Although the measured space heating solar fraction at 32 percent did agree favorably with the design space heating solar fraction at 35 percent, the hot water measured solar fraction at 33 percent did not agree favorably with the design hot water solar fraction of 63 percent. In particular collector array air leakage, dust covered collectors, abnormal hot water demand, and the preheat tank by pass valve problem are main reasons for the lower performance.

  9. The Airspace Concepts Evaluation System Architecture and System Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windhorst, Robert; Meyn, Larry; Manikonda, Vikram; Carlos, Patrick; Capozzi, Brian

    2006-01-01

    The Airspace Concepts Evaluation System is a simulation of the National Airspace System. It includes models of flights, airports, airspaces, air traffic controls, traffic flow managements, and airline operation centers operating throughout the United States. It is used to predict system delays in response to future capacity and demand scenarios and perform benefits assessments of current and future airspace technologies and operational concepts. Facilitation of these studies requires that the simulation architecture supports plug and play of different air traffic control, traffic flow management, and airline operation center models and multi-fidelity modeling of flights, airports, and airspaces. The simulation is divided into two parts that are named, borrowing from classical control theory terminology, control and plant. The control consists of air traffic control, traffic flow management, and airline operation center models, and the plant consists of flight, airport, and airspace models. The plant can run open loop, in the absence of the control. However, undesired affects, such as conflicts and over congestions in the airspaces and airports, can occur. Different controls are applied, "plug and played", to the plant. A particular control is evaluated by analyzing how well it managed conflicts and congestions. Furthermore, the terminal area plants consist of models of airports and terminal airspaces. Each model consists of a set of nodes and links which are connected by the user to form a network. Nodes model runways, fixes, taxi intersections, gates, and/or other points of interest, and links model taxiways, departure paths, and arrival paths. Metering, flow distribution, and sequencing functions can be applied at nodes. Different fidelity model of how a flight transits are can be used by links. The fidelity of the model can be adjusted by the user by either changing the complexity of the node/link network-or the way that the link models how the flights transit

  10. Land cover change detection using a GIS-guided, feature-based classification of Landsat thematic mapper data. [Geographic Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enslin, William R.; Ton, Jezching; Jain, Anil

    1987-01-01

    Landsat TM data were combined with land cover and planimetric data layers contained in the State of Michigan's geographic information system (GIS) to identify changes in forestlands, specifically new oil/gas wells. A GIS-guided feature-based classification method was developed. The regions extracted by the best image band/operator combination were studied using a set of rules based on the characteristics of the GIS oil/gas pads.

  11. An evaluation of Landsat data for input to a state geographic information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, E. M.; Bly, B. G., III; Garber, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a study to evaluate Landsat digital data, categorized by land cover, for input to the Maryland Automated Geographic Information (MAGI) system, the state georeferenced data base, are presented. Good correspondence is found between the MAGI system and Landsat data for six of seven categories: forest, water, crop/pasture, medium-density residential, low-density residential, and transitional (disturbed land, construction). Discrepancies between the results are found for commercial/industrial/institutional areas which are due to differences in interpretative methodologies, not to deficiencies in either data source. It is concluded that Landsat data are suitable for future Maryland land cover inventories, and can also be used to augment MAGI system data.

  12. Manned transportation system study - Evaluation of candidate transportation architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, Nicholas; Klemer, R.; Sooter, C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall evaluation process, the tool developed to perform the evaluation, and the evaluation results in determining the right approach to meet the nation's mannned transportation needs are presented. To address the various considerations, architecture sets consisting of the candidate transportation systems are constructed. As this methodology results in multiple architectures to examine, an architecture evaluation tool was developed to facilitate the evaluation of the architecture attribute values from the system values of the attributes.

  13. Evaluating the Synergistic Use of Low-Altitude AVIRIS and AIRSAR Data for Land Cover Mapping in Northeast Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berglund, Judith; Spruce, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Current land cover maps are needed by Yellowstone National Park (YNP) managers to assist them in protecting and preserving native flora and fauna. Synergistic use of hyperspectral and radar imagery offers great promise for mapping habitat in terms of cover type composition and structure. In response, a study was conducted to assess the utility of combining low-altitude AVIRIS and AIRSAR data for mapping land cover in a portion of northeast YNP. Land cover maps were produced from individual AVIRIS and AIRSAR data sets, as well as from a hybrid data stack of selected AVIRIS and AIRSAR data bands. The three resulting classifications were compared to field survey data and aerial photography to assess apparent benefits of hyperspectral/SAR data fusion for land cover mapping. Preliminary results will be presented.

  14. Evaluating the effects of land use and cover change on the decrease of surface wind speed over China in recent 30 years using a statistical downscaling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Zha, Jinlin; Zhao, Deming

    2016-03-01

    The long-term decrease of surface wind speed (SWS) has been revealed by previous studies in China in recent decades, but the reasons for the SWS decrease remain uncertain. In this paper, we evaluated the effects of land use and cover change (LUCC) on the SWS decrease during 1980-2011 over the Eastern China Plain (ECP) region using a combined method of statistical downscaling and observation minus reanalysis data, which was used to improve the climate prediction of general circulation models and to evaluate the influence of LUCC on climate change. To exclude the potential influence of LUCC on SWS observation, a statistical downscaling model (SDM) was established during 1980-1992 because a lower extent of LUCC occurred during this period than in later periods. The skill of the SDM was checked by comparing the results of different predictor combinations. Then, SDM was used to improve the wind speed data at 10 m above the surface in the ERA-Interim reanalysis data (V10m-ERA) during 1993-2011, which decreased the error in the reanalysis wind speed as far as possible. Then, the difference between the station observed SWS (V10m-OBV) and the downscaled SWS (V10m-SDM) during 1993-2011 (SWSD) was considered the quantitative estimation of the influence of the LUCC on SWS in this period. The V10m-SDM can capture both the large-scale and local characteristics in the observation, and their patterns are very similar. V10m-SDM has better performance in the spatial-temporal changes than does V10m-ERA with respect to V10m-OBV. The impact of LUCC on the SWS was pronounced, the SWSD was -0.24 m s-1 in 1993, and the SWSD reached -0.56 m s-1 in 2011. LUCC could induce a 0.17 m s-1 wind speed decrease per 10 year in the ECP region during 1993-2011. Furthermore, each 10 % rise of the urbanization rate could cause an approximately 0.12 m s-1 decrease in wind speed. Additionally, pressure-gradient force was eliminated as the primary cause of the observed long-term decrease of SWS in ECP by

  15. Applications systems verification and transfer project. Volume 4: Operational applications of satellite snow cover observations. Colorado Field Test Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, B. A.; Leaf, C. F.; Danielson, J. A.; Moravec, G. F.

    1981-01-01

    The study was conducted on six watersheds ranging in size from 277 km to 3460 km in the Rio Grande and Arkansas River basins of southwestern Colorado. Six years of satellite data in the period 1973-78 were analyzed and snowcover maps prepared for all available image dates. Seven snowmapping techniques were explored; the photointerpretative method was selected as the most accurate. Three schemes to forecast snowmelt runoff employing satellite snowcover observations were investigated. They included a conceptual hydrologic model, a statistical model, and a graphical method. A reduction of 10% in the current average forecast error is estimated when snowcover data in snowmelt runoff forecasting is shown to be extremely promising. Inability to obtain repetitive coverage due to the 18 day cycle of LANDSAT, the occurrence of cloud cover and slow image delivery are obstacles to the immediate implementation of satellite derived snowcover in operational streamflow forecasting programs.

  16. EVALUATION OF THE MIDDAS SYSTEM FOR DESIGNING GAC ADSORBERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Micro-Diameter-Depth Adsorption System (MIDDAS) was evaluated for its usefulness in determining equilibrium parameters for adsorption in granular activated carbon (GAC) systems. The system employs a column configuration for determining such parameters, rather than the traditi...

  17. Influence of Cover Type on Silage Quality in Bunker Silos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The quality of silage under reduced oxygen-permeability plastic film systems vs. standard white polyethylene film and tires was evaluated. In six trials (four in whole-plant corn, two in alfalfa), the Silostop two-step covering system (oxygen-barrier film on the side walls and top, woven plastic tar...

  18. Novel bioartificial liver support system: preclinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Patzer, J F; Mazariegos, G V; Lopez, R; Molmenti, E; Gerber, D; Riddervold, F; Khanna, A; Yin, W Y; Chen, Y; Scott, V L; Aggarwal, S; Kramer, D J; Wagner, R A; Zhu, Y; Fulmer, M L; Block, G D; Amiot, B P

    1999-06-18

    Preclinical safety and efficacy evaluation of a novel bioartificial liver support system (BLSS) was conducted using a D-galactosamine canine liver failure model. The BLSS houses a suspension of porcine hepatocytes in a hollow fiber cartridge with the hepatocytes on one side of the membrane and whole blood flowing on the other. Porcine hepatocytes harvested by a collagenase digestion technique were infused into the hollow fiber cartridge and incubated for 16 to 24 hours prior to use. Fifteen purpose-bred male hounds, 1-3 years old, 25-30 kg, were administered a lethal dose, 1.5 g/kg, of D-galactosamine. The animals were divided into three treatment groups: (1b) no BLSS treatment (n = 6); (2b) BLSS treatment starting at 24-26 h post D-galactosamine (n = 5); and (2c) BLSS treatment starting at 16-18 h post D-galactosamine (n = 4). While maintained under isoflurane anesthesia, canine supportive care was guided by electrolyte and invasive physiologic monitoring consisting of arterial pressure, central venous pressure, extradural intracranial pressure (ICP), pulmonary artery pressure, urinary catheter, and end-tidal CO2. All animals were treated until death or death-equivalent (inability to sustain systolic blood pressure > 80 mmHg for 20 minutes despite massive fluid resuscitation and/or dopamine administration), or euthanized at 60 hours. All animals developed evidence of liver failure at 12-24 hours as evidenced by blood pressure lability, elevated ICP, marked hepatocellular enzyme elevation with microscopic massive hepatocyte necrosis and cerebral edema, elevated prothrombin time, and metabolic acidosis. Groups 2b and 2c marginally prolong survival compared with Group 1b (pairwise log rank censored survival time analysis, p = 0.096 and p = 0.064, respectively). Since survival times for Groups 2b and 2c are not significantly different (p = 0.694), the groups were combined for further statistical analysis. Survival times for the combined active treatment Groups 2b and

  19. Applications systems verification and transfer project. Volume 2: Operational applications of satellite snow-cover observations and data-collection systems in the Arizona test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, H. H.

    1981-01-01

    Ground surveys and aerial observations were used to monitor rapidly changing moisture conditions in the Salt-Verde watershed. Repetitive satellite snow cover observations greatly reduce the necessity for routine aerial snow reconnaissance flights over the mountains. High resolution, multispectral imagery provided by LANDSAT satellite series enabled rapid and accurate mapping of snow-cover distributions for small- to medium-sized subwatersheds; however, the imagery provided only one observation every 9 days of about a third of the watershed. Low resolution imagery acquired by the ITOSa dn SMS/GOES meteorological satellite series provides the daily synoptic observation necessary to monitor the rapid changes in snow-covered area in the entire watershed. Short term runoff volumes can be predicted from daily sequential snow cover observations.

  20. Early 21st century climatology of snow cover for the western river basins of the Indus River System: effects of changes on hydrological balance and society.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasson, Shabeh; Lucarini, Valerio; Riaz Khan, Mobushir; Petitta, Marcello; Bolch, Tobias; Gioli, Giovanna

    2014-05-01

    In this study we assess the snow cover and its dynamics for the western river basins of the Indus River System (IRS) and their sub-basins located in Afghanistan, China, India and Pakistan for the period 2001-2012. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) daily snow products from Terra (MOD) and Aqua (MYD) have been first improved and then analysed on seasonal and annual basis against different topographic parameters (aspect, elevation and slope). Our applied cloud filtering technique has reduced the cloud cover from 37% (MOD) and 43% (MYD) to 7%, thus improving snow cover estimates from 7% (MOD) and 5% (MYD) to 14% for the area of interest (AOI) during the validation period (2004). Our results show a decreasing tendency for the annual average snow cover for the westerlies-influenced basins (Upper Indus Basin, Astore, Hunza, Shigar, Shyok) and an increasing tendency for the monsoon-influenced basins (Jhelum, Kabul, Swat and Gilgit). Regarding the seasonal snow cover, decrease during winter and autumn and increase during spring and summer has been found, which is consistent with the observed cooling and warming trends during the respective seasons. Sub-basins at relatively higher latitude/altitude show higher variability than basins at lower latitude/mid-altitude. Northeastern and northwestern aspects feature larger snow cover. The mean regional snow line altitude (SLA) zones range between 3000 and 5000 m a.s.l. for all basins. Our analysis provides an indication of a decrease in the regional SLA zone, thus indicating a change in the water resources of the studied basins, particularly for the Upper Indus Basin (UIB). Such results are consistent with the observed hydro-climate data, recently collected local perceptions and glacier mass balances for the investigated period. Moreover, our analysis suggests some potential for the seasonal stream flow forecast as a significant negative correlation has been detected for the inter-annual variability of winter

  1. A unique control system simulator for the evaluation of pulsed plasma thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahlgren, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    Because of the low thrust characteristics of solid-propellant pulsed plasma thrusters and their operational requirement to operate in a vacuum environment, unique and sensitive test techniques are required. A technique evolved for testing and evaluating pulsed plasma thrusters in an open- or closed-loop system mode employs a unique air bearing platform as a single-axis simulator on which the thruster is mounted. The simulator described was developed to evaluate pulsed plasma thrusters in the low micropound range; however, the simulator can be extended to cover the operational range of currently developed millipound thrusters.

  2. Usability Evaluation of a Web-Based Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Thao

    2012-01-01

    The paper proposes a contingent, learner-centred usability evaluation method and a prototype tool of such systems. This is a new usability evaluation method for web-based learning systems using a set of empirically-supported usability factors and can be done effectively with limited resources. During the evaluation process, the method allows for…

  3. Evaluation Criteria for the Educational Web-Information System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seok, Soonhwa; Meyen, Edward; Poggio, John C.; Semon, Sarah; Tillberg-Webb, Heather

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses how evaluation criteria improve educational Web-information system design, and the tangible and intangible benefits of using evaluation criteria, when implemented in an educational Web-information system design. The evaluation criteria were developed by the authors through a content validation study applicable to…

  4. Decision Support Systems: An Introduction for Program Evaluators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Elizabethann

    1985-01-01

    Decision Support Systems (DSS) are automated information systems designed to aid administrative decision making. A literature review on the design, implementation, and evaluation of DSS, suggests that evaluators act as liasons between designers and managers, identify and collect data for DSS, and evaluate DSS. (Author/EGS)

  5. CoverCAM - a land cover composition change assessment method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A.; Bie, C. D.; Skidmore, A. K.

    2013-12-01

    The cover-composition on a specific piece of land can change over time due to natural and anthropogenic factors. Accurate detection of where and when changes occur requires a method that uses remotely sensed imagery that represents a continuous and consistent record on the state of the green land-cover. Such data are offered through hyper-temporal NDVI-imagery. Until recently, NDVI-images were mainly used for anomaly mapping to monitor the influence of weather on vegetation; the monitoring basically assume that, over time, the land cover composition of a studied area remains static. This study presents a novel cover change assessment method, labelled ';CoverCAM' that extracts from hyper-temporal NDVI-imagery the probabilities that the original land cover composition did change. CoverCAM, unlike all existing change-detection methods, makes adjustments based on seasonal NDVI-anomalies experienced at landscape level. We tested the method by processing SPOT-VGT NDVI-imagery (10-day Maximum Value Composites; 1km pixels) for Andalucía, Spain. CoverCAM requires specification that two time periods are specified: a reference period (we used 2000-04), and a change detection period (we used 2005-10). All images of the reference period were classified using the ISODATA algorithm and by evaluating divergence statistics. The generated map depicts strata (group of polygons), characterized by temporal NDVI and standard deviation (SD) profiles. For the change assessment period, first, mean NDVI-values were calculated by decade and polygon (NDVId,p), and then for each pixel of the polygon its pixel change values specified through the remaining difference between the pixel NDVI and [NDVId,p × the SD value of the stratum for that decade]. The above process was repeated to produce decadal land cover change probability maps, each with its own undefined scale. The decadal change maps were then aggregated to annual change probability maps. This validation was only carried out for

  6. ORE's GENeric Evaluation SYStem: GENESYS 1988-89.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baenen, Nancy; And Others

    GENESYS--GENeric Evaluation SYStem--is a method of streamlining data collection and evaluation through the use of computer technology. GENESYS has allowed the Office of Research and Evaluation (ORE) of the Austin (Texas) Independent School District to evaluate a multitude of contrasting programs with limited resources. By standardizing methods and…

  7. Simplified tools for evaluating domestic ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maansson, L.G.; Orme, M.

    1999-07-01

    Within an International Energy Agency (IEA) project, Annex 27, experts from 8 countries (Canada, France, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, Sweden, UK and USA) have developed simplified tools for evaluating domestic ventilation systems during the heating season. Tools for building and user aspects, thermal comfort, noise, energy, life cycle cost, reliability and indoor air quality (IAQ) have been devised. The results can be used both for dwellings at the design stage and after construction. The tools lead to immediate answers and indications about the consequences of different choices that may arise during discussion with clients. This paper presents an introduction to these tools. Examples applications of the indoor air quality and energy simplified tools are also provided. The IAQ tool accounts for constant emission sources, CO{sub 2}, cooking products, tobacco smoke, condensation risks, humidity levels (i.e., for judging the risk for mould and house dust mites), and pressure difference (for identifying the risk for radon or land fill spillage entering the dwelling or problems with indoor combustion appliances). An elaborated set of design parameters were worked out that resulted in about 17,000 combinations. By using multi-variate analysis it was possible to reduce this to 174 combinations for IAQ. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was made using 990 combinations. The results from all the runs were used to develop a simplified tool, as well as quantifying equations relying on the design parameters. A computerized energy tool has also been developed within this project, which takes into account air tightness, climate, window airing pattern, outdoor air flow rate and heat exchange efficiency.

  8. Vegetation-climate feedback causes reduced precipitation and tropical rainforest cover in CMIP5 regional Earth system model simulation over Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, M.; Smith, B.; Samuelsson, P.; Rummukainen, M.; Schurgers, G.

    2012-12-01

    We applied a coupled regional climate-vegetation model, RCA-GUESS (Smith et al. 2011), over the CORDEX Africa domain, forced by boundary conditions from a CanESM2 CMIP5 simulation under the RCP8.5 future climate scenario. The simulations were from 1961 to 2100 and covered the African continent at a horizontal grid spacing of 0.44°. RCA-GUESS simulates changes in the phenology, productivity, relative cover and population structure of up to eight plant function types (PFTs) in response to forcing from the climate part of the model. These vegetation changes feed back to simulated climate through dynamic adjustments in surface energy fluxes and surface properties. Changes in the net ecosystem-atmosphere carbon flux and its components net primary production (NPP), heterotrophic respiration and emissions from biomass burning were also simulated but do not feed back to climate in our model. Constant land cover was assumed. We compared simulations with and without vegetation feedback switched "on" to assess the influence of vegetation-climate feedback on simulated climate, vegetation and ecosystem carbon cycling. Both positive and negative warming feedbacks were identified in different parts of Africa. In the Sahel savannah zone near 15°N, reduced vegetation cover and productivity, and mortality caused by a deterioration of soil water conditions led to a positive warming feedback mediated by decreased evapotranspiration and increased sensible heat flux between vegetation and the atmosphere. In the equatorial rainforest stronghold region of central Africa, a feedback syndrome characterised by reduced plant production and LAI, a dominance shift from tropical trees to grasses, reduced soil water and reduced rainfall was identified. The likely underlying mechanism was a decline in evaporative water recycling associated with sparser vegetation cover, reminiscent of Earth system model studies in which a similar feedback mechanism was simulated to force dieback of tropical

  9. The Land Use and Land Cover Dichotomy: A Comparison of Two Land Classification Systems in Support of Urban Earth Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAllister, William K.

    2003-01-01

    One is likely to read the terms 'land use' and 'land cover' in the same sentence, yet these concepts have different origins and different applications. Land cover is typically analyzed by earth scientists working with remotely sensed images. Land use is typically studied by urban planners who must prescribe solutions that could prevent future problems. This apparent dichotomy has led to different classification systems for land-based data. The works of earth scientists and urban planning practitioners are beginning to come together in the field of spatial analysis and in their common use of new spatial analysis technology. In this context, the technology can stimulate a common 'language' that allows a broader sharing of ideas. The increasing amount of land use and land cover change challenges the various efforts to classify in ways that are efficient, effective, and agreeable to all groups of users. If land cover and land uses can be identified by remote methods using aerial photography and satellites, then these ways are more efficient than field surveys of the same area. New technology, such as high-resolution satellite sensors, and new methods, such as more refined algorithms for image interpretation, are providing refined data to better identify the actual cover and apparent use of land, thus effectiveness is improved. However, the closer together and the more vertical the land uses are, the more difficult the task of identification is, and the greater is the need to supplement remotely sensed data with field study (in situ). Thus, a number of land classification methods were developed in order to organize the greatly expanding volume of data on land characteristics in ways useful to different groups. This paper distinguishes two land based classification systems, one developed primarily for remotely sensed data, and the other, a more comprehensive system requiring in situ collection methods. The intent is to look at how the two systems developed and how they

  10. Applying Knowledge Management in Teacher Evaluation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essandoh, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Teacher evaluations are underused in public schools, resulting in the loss of knowledge critical to professional development. Knowledge management (KM) theory offers approaches that can lead to improvements in the effectiveness of evaluations and teacher performance. This multiple case study of 9 campuses in an exemplary school district…

  11. Conceptualizing a System for Principal Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrington, Mary Lynne; Sanders, Kellie

    2011-01-01

    A disconnect exists between principal leadership expectations and the actual practice of supervision and evaluation of principals. Increased principal responsibilities and rigorous standards require that a new approach to principal evaluation be considered. The authors provide a framework for a multi-dimensional approach to principal supervision…

  12. Job Evaluation: System Design and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risher, Howard W.

    1990-01-01

    The discussion of the use of systematic job evaluation to determine the value of each campus job and allocation of resources looks at employee perceptions and credibility; alternative methods; selecting and weighting compensable factors; validity and reliability; the computer's role; and job evaluation as a management tool. (MSE)

  13. Systems and methods for circuit lifetime evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaps, Timothy L. (Inventor); Sheldon, Douglas J. (Inventor); Bowerman, Paul N. (Inventor); Everline, Chester J. (Inventor); Shalom, Eddy (Inventor); Rasmussen, Robert D. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Systems and methods for estimating the lifetime of an electrical system in accordance with embodiments of the invention are disclosed. One embodiment of the invention includes iteratively performing Worst Case Analysis (WCA) on a system design with respect to different system lifetimes using a computer to determine the lifetime at which the worst case performance of the system indicates the system will pass with zero margin or fail within a predetermined margin for error given the environment experienced by the system during its lifetime. In addition, performing WCA on a system with respect to a specific system lifetime includes identifying subcircuits within the system, performing Extreme Value Analysis (EVA) with respect to each subcircuit to determine whether the subcircuit fails EVA for the specific system lifetime, when the subcircuit passes EVA, determining that the subcircuit does not fail WCA for the specified system lifetime, when a subcircuit fails EVA performing at least one additional WCA process that provides a tighter bound on the WCA than EVA to determine whether the subcircuit fails WCA for the specified system lifetime, determining that the system passes WCA with respect to the specific system lifetime when all subcircuits pass WCA, and determining that the system fails WCA when at least one subcircuit fails WCA.

  14. An evaluation of the Wyoming gauge system for snowfall measurement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, D.; Kane, D.L.; Hinzman, L.D.; Goodison, B.E.; Metcalfe, J.R.; Louie, P.Y.T.; Leavesley, G.H.; Emerson, D.G.; Hanson, C.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Wyoming snow fence (shield) has been widely used with precipitation gauges for snowfall measurement at more than 25 locations in Alaska since the late 1970s. This gauge's measurements have been taken as the reference for correcting wind-induced gauge undercatch of snowfall in Alaska. Recently, this fence (shield) was tested in the World Meteorological Organization Solid Precipitation Measurement Intercomparison Project at four locations in the United States of America and Canada for six winter seasons. At the Intercomparison sites an octagonal vertical Double Fence with a Russian Tretyakov gauge or a Universal Belfort recording gauge was installed and used as the Intercomparison Reference (DFIR) to provide true snowfall amounts for this intercomparison experiment. The intercomparison data collected were compiled at the four sites that represent a variety of climate, terrain, and exposure. On the basis of these data sets the performance of the Wyoming gauge system for snowfall observations was carefully evaluated against the DFIR and snow cover data. The results show that (1) the mean snow catch efficiency of the Wyoming gauge compared with the DFIR is about 80-90%, (2) there exists a close linear relation between the measurements of the two gauge systems and this relation may serve as a transfer function to adjust the Wyoming gauge records to obtain an estimate of the true snowfall amount, (3) catch efficiency of the Wyoming gauge does not change with wind speed and temperature, and (4) Wyoming gauge measurements are generally compatible to the snowpack water equivalent at selected locations in northern Alaska. These results are important to our effort of determining true snowfall amounts in the high latitudes, and they are also useful for regional hydrologic and climatic analyses.

  15. Installation, operation, and maintenance for the pyramidal optics solar system installed at Yacht Cover, Columbia, South Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Information concerning the installation, operation, and maintenance of the pyramidal Solar System for space heating and domestic hot water is presented. Principles of operation, sequence of installation, and procedures for the operation and maintenance of each subsystem making up the solar system are presented. Troubleshooting charts and maintenance schedules are presented.

  16. A Systems Approach to the Development of an Evaluation System for ESEA Title III Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Marlen; Monnin, Frank J.

    A major activity of any ESEA Title III project is evaluation. This paper suggests evaluation methods especially appropriate to such projects by applying a systems approach to the evaluation design. Evaluation as a system is divided into three subsystems: (1) baseline evaluation, which describes conditions as they exist before project treatment;…

  17. Incorporating Student Performance Measures into Teacher Evaluation Systems. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Jennifer L.; Hamilton, Laura S.; Stecher, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    Many existing teacher evaluation and reward systems do not capture variation in teachers' ability to improve student performance on standardized tests. Improved access to longitudinal data systems that link teachers to students facilitates the development of systems that incorporate student achievement gains into teacher evaluations. However, two…

  18. A Multilevel Evaluation System Using Student-Problem Charts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnisch, Delwyn L.

    A multi-purpose, multi-user evaluation system was designed to improve the quality of the reporting of information gathered in testing and evaluation practices. One part of the system, the reporting system for information resulting from a district standardized testing program, was described. The Student-Problem Package software was modified to…

  19. Evaluation of Computer-Based Procedure System Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Johanna Oxstrand; Katya Le Blanc; Seth Hays

    2012-09-01

    This research effort is a part of the Light-Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, which is a research and development (R&D) program sponsored by Department of Energy (DOE), performed in close collaboration with industry R&D programs, to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. The LWRS program serves to help the U.S. nuclear industry adopt new technologies and engineering solutions that facilitate the continued safe operation of the plants and extension of the current operating licenses. The introduction of advanced technology in existing nuclear power plants may help to manage the effects of aging systems, structures, and components. In addition, the incorporation of advanced technology in the existing LWR fleet may entice the future workforce, who will be familiar with advanced technology, to work for these utilities rather than more newly built nuclear power plants. Advantages are being sought by developing and deploying technologies that will increase safety and efficiency. One significant opportunity for existing plants to increase efficiency is to phase out the paper-based procedures (PBPs) currently used at most nuclear power plants and replace them, where feasible, with computer-based procedures (CBPs). PBPs have ensured safe operation of plants for decades, but limitations in paper-based systems do not allow them to reach the full potential for procedures to prevent human errors. The environment in a nuclear power plant is constantly changing depending on current plant status and operating mode. PBPs, which are static by nature, are being applied to a constantly changing context. This constraint often results in PBPs that are written in a manner that is intended to cover many potential operating scenarios. Hence, the procedure layout forces the operator to search through a large amount of irrelevant information to locate the pieces of information

  20. Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) Tutorial

    SciTech Connect

    C. L. Smith; S. T. Beck; S. T. Wood

    2008-08-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) refers to a set of computer programs that were developed to create and analyze probabilistic risk assessment (PRAs). This volume is the tutorial manual for the SAPHIRE system. In this document, a series of lessons are provided that guide the user through basic steps common to most analyses preformed with SAPHIRE. The tutorial is divided into two major sections covering both basic and advanced features. The section covering basic topics contains lessons that lead the reader through development of a probabilistic hypothetical problem involving a vehicle accident, highlighting the program’s most fundamental features. The advanced features section contains additional lessons that expand on fundamental analysis features of SAPHIRE and provide insights into more complex analysis techniques. Together, these two elements provide an overview into the operation and capabilities of the SAPHIRE software.

  1. Estimating Cloud Cover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this activity was to help students understand the percentage of cloud cover and make more accurate cloud cover observations. Students estimated the percentage of cloud cover represented by simulated clouds and assigned a cloud cover classification to those simulations. (Contains 2 notes and 3 tables.)

  2. Evaluation of a biosolids minimization system

    SciTech Connect

    Bizier, P.A.

    1999-07-01

    The Micronair{trademark} residuals management system has been described by its manufacturer as a zero biosolids system. The system consists of three main parts--RAS screening, inerts removal, and an extremely fine bubble aeration system for the digester. The system's design assumes that trash and other non-biodegradable materials make up the bulk of residuals which would normally be digested. If these materials are removed, then the remaining biological material is assumed to biodegrade to either inerts or dissolved materials. This paper presents additional background on the design and operation of the residuals handling system. In addition, actual data from the facility detailing the operation of the residuals handling system. In addition, actual data from the facility detailing the operation of the Micronair{trademark} system since its initial start-up is provided. Finally, the benefits and drawbacks of the existing system are discussed and points for consideration in future installations identified.

  3. Evaluation of the healing process after implantation of synthetic material called Tegmentum consisting of polyester mesh covered with polyurethane in rat peritoneum.

    PubMed

    Fila, M; Banach, M; Zwoliński, R

    2000-01-01

    Polyester meshes are one of the synthetic prosthetic materials widely applied for the reconstruction of abdominal layers in child and neonatal surgery, cardiosurgery or vascular surgery. Because of the lack or insufficiency of the own, natural material multiple researches are performed in order to find the best material able to replace natural tissue. The most suitable prosthesis ought to be: sterile, non-toxic, soft, flexible, elastic, not very stretchy, durable, easy to operate (cutting, suturing); to create desired shape required while reconstracting, totally resistant to contagion, without any complication after being implanted. Since early seventies many scientists following above requirements have carried out researches to create the most similar prosthesis morphologically and functionally to human tissue but still there is no such an ideal material on the market. Polyester with its derivatives is one of the most commonly applied synthetic substances in surgery. The type of biomaterial highly depends on its purpose e.g.: for vascular prosthesis materials that are resorptive in organism and support tightness (gelatine, albumin, collagen); while for temporal replacement abdominal layers with prosthesis the most suitable is impervious to systemic fluids bacteria etc material, that prevents penetrating the surface of prosthesis by surrounding tissues, adhesions with intestinum or other organs. Tegmentum is a material that posses these features. This is a polyester mesh covered with polyurethane on one side produced by Tricomed S.A. (Łódź). Tegmentum has already been applied to neonates with congenital eventration in Child and Neonatal Ward in the "Szpital Pomnik Matki Polki" hospital in Łódź. PMID:11288603

  4. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation- Abstract 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Porous pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pavers themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between the pavers are backfilled with washed, gra...

  5. Fire safety evaluation system for NASA office/laboratory buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, H. E.

    1986-11-01

    A fire safety evaluation system for office/laboratory buildings is developed. The system is a life safety grading system. The system scores building construction, hazardous areas, vertical openings, sprinklers, detectors, alarms, interior finish, smoke control, exit systems, compartmentation, and emergency preparedness.

  6. Space versus Place in Complex Human-Natural Systems: Spatial and Multi-level Models of Tropical Land Use and Cover Change (LUCC) in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    López-Carr, David; Davis, Jason; Jankowska, Marta; Grant, Laura; López-Carr, Anna Carla; Clark, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The relative role of space and place has long been debated in geography. Yet modeling efforts applied to coupled human-natural systems seemingly favor models assuming continuous spatial relationships. We examine the relative importance of placebased hierarchical versus spatial clustering influences in tropical land use/cover change (LUCC). Guatemala was chosen as our study site given its high rural population growth and deforestation in recent decades. We test predictors of 2009 forest cover and forest cover change from 2001-2009 across Guatemala's 331 municipalities and 22 departments using spatial and multi-level statistical models. Our results indicate the emergence of several socio-economic predictors of LUCC regardless of model choice. Hierarchical model results suggest that significant differences exist at the municipal and departmental levels but largely maintain the magnitude and direction of single-level model coefficient estimates. They are also intervention-relevant since policies tend to be applicable to distinct political units rather than to continuous space. Spatial models complement hierarchical approaches by indicating where and to what magnitude significant negative and positive clustering associations emerge. Appreciating the comparative advantages and limitations of spatial and nested models enhances a holistic approach to geographical analysis of tropical LUCC and human-environment interactions. PMID:24013908

  7. Space versus Place in Complex Human-Natural Systems: Spatial and Multi-level Models of Tropical Land Use and Cover Change (LUCC) in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    López-Carr, David; Davis, Jason; Jankowska, Marta; Grant, Laura; López-Carr, Anna Carla; Clark, Matthew

    2012-03-24

    The relative role of space and place has long been debated in geography. Yet modeling efforts applied to coupled human-natural systems seemingly favor models assuming continuous spatial relationships. We examine the relative importance of placebased hierarchical versus spatial clustering influences in tropical land use/cover change (LUCC). Guatemala was chosen as our study site given its high rural population growth and deforestation in recent decades. We test predictors of 2009 forest cover and forest cover change from 2001-2009 across Guatemala's 331 municipalities and 22 departments using spatial and multi-level statistical models. Our results indicate the emergence of several socio-economic predictors of LUCC regardless of model choice. Hierarchical model results suggest that significant differences exist at the municipal and departmental levels but largely maintain the magnitude and direction of single-level model coefficient estimates. They are also intervention-relevant since policies tend to be applicable to distinct political units rather than to continuous space. Spatial models complement hierarchical approaches by indicating where and to what magnitude significant negative and positive clustering associations emerge. Appreciating the comparative advantages and limitations of spatial and nested models enhances a holistic approach to geographical analysis of tropical LUCC and human-environment interactions. PMID:24013908

  8. Evaluating Performances of Solar-Energy Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    CONC11 computer program calculates performances of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems. Solar thermal power system consists of one or more collectors, power-conversion subsystems, and powerprocessing subsystems. CONC11 intended to aid system designer in comparing performance of various design alternatives. Written in Athena FORTRAN and Assembler.

  9. Design and Installation of a Disposal Cell Cover Field Test

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, C.H.; Waugh, W.J.; Albright, W.H.; Smith, G.M.; Bush, R.P.

    2011-02-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Legacy Management (LM) initiated a cover assessment project in September 2007 to evaluate an inexpensive approach to enhancing the hydrological performance of final covers for disposal cells. The objective is to accelerate and enhance natural processes that are transforming existing conventional covers, which rely on low-conductivity earthen barriers, into water balance covers, that store water in soil and release it as soil evaporation and plant transpiration. A low conductivity cover could be modified by deliberately blending the upper layers of the cover profile and planting native shrubs. A test facility was constructed at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Disposal Site to evaluate the proposed methodology. The test cover was constructed in two identical sections, each including a large drainage lysimeter. The test cover was constructed with the same design and using the same materials as the existing disposal cell in order to allow for a direct comparison of performance. One test section will be renovated using the proposed method; the other is a control. LM is using the lysimeters to evaluate the effectiveness of the renovation treatment by monitoring hydrologic conditions within the cover profile as well as all water entering and leaving the system. This paper describes the historical experience of final covers employing earthen barrier layers, the design and operation of the lysimeter test facility, testing conducted to characterize the as-built engineering and edaphic properties of the lysimeter soils, the calibration of instruments installed at the test facility, and monitoring data collected since the lysimeters were constructed.

  10. Evaluating operating system vulnerability to memory errors.

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Bridges, Patrick G.; Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Mueller, Frank; Fiala, David; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2012-05-01

    Reliability is of great concern to the scalability of extreme-scale systems. Of particular concern are soft errors in main memory, which are a leading cause of failures on current systems and are predicted to be the leading cause on future systems. While great effort has gone into designing algorithms and applications that can continue to make progress in the presence of these errors without restarting, the most critical software running on a node, the operating system (OS), is currently left relatively unprotected. OS resiliency is of particular importance because, though this software typically represents a small footprint of a compute node's physical memory, recent studies show more memory errors in this region of memory than the remainder of the system. In this paper, we investigate the soft error vulnerability of two operating systems used in current and future high-performance computing systems: Kitten, the lightweight kernel developed at Sandia National Laboratories, and CLE, a high-performance Linux-based operating system developed by Cray. For each of these platforms, we outline major structures and subsystems that are vulnerable to soft errors and describe methods that could be used to reconstruct damaged state. Our results show the Kitten lightweight operating system may be an easier target to harden against memory errors due to its smaller memory footprint, largely deterministic state, and simpler system structure.

  11. Construction Costs of Six Landfill Cover Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1998-12-23

    A large-scale field demonstration comparing and contrasting final landfill cover designs has been constructed and is currently being monitored. Four alternative cover designs and two conventional designs (a RCRA Subtitle `D' Soil Cover and a RCRA Subtitle `C' Compacted Clay Cover) were constructed side-by-side for direct comparison. The demonstration is intended to evaluate the various cover designs based on their respective water balance performance, ease and reliability of construction, and cost. This paper provides an overview of the construction costs of each cover design.

  12. Covering the Cost of the Cure: From Hepatitis C to Cancer, New Therapies Are Straining a System Plagued by Inefficiency.

    PubMed

    Sonnenreich, Peter; Geisler, Linda

    2016-09-01

    As researchers devise ever-more-costly therapies and P&T committees try to balance innovation and affordability, managed care experts warn that the struggle to pay the bills could threaten the sustainability of the nation's inefficient health care system. PMID:27630525

  13. 37 CFR 201.17 - Statements of Account covering compulsory licenses for secondary transmissions by cable systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... transmissions of all available FM radio signals, which signals are not electronically processed by the system as separate and discrete signals, an FM radio signal is “generally receivable” if: (i) It is usually carried... FM antenna, at least three consecutive hours each day at the same time each day, five or more days...

  14. Investigating the faculty evaluation system in Iranian Medical Universities

    PubMed Central

    Kamali, Farahnaz; Yamani, Nikoo; Changiz, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: To achieve a valid evaluation of faculty members, it is necessary to develop an inclusive and dynamic system of evaluation addressing all the activities and responsibilities of faculty members. Among these responsibilities, educational activities comprise an important part which needs to be investigated. This study aimed to investigate the current system of evaluating the faculty members’ educational duties. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, a checklist for investigating the current evaluation system and was developed confirmed by a focus group. The data for checklist were collected through a researcher-made questionnaire and interview with eight experts of faculty evaluation that worked in different Iranian Medical Universities. For completion of information, the available documents and records were studied. Finally, the current evaluation system of different universities was depicted. Results: The developed checklist had six themes and 123 subthemes. The extracted themes included: Tools, evaluators, processes, appropriateness of faculty field of work with evaluation, feedback status, and university status regarding decisions made based on faculty evaluation results. As for comprehensiveness, all evaluation items except for evaluation and assessment skills and religiosity from personality traits subtheme were fully investigated. The evaluation tools were not enough for different types of education such as clinical education. In six universities, the feedbacks provided were only for making inter/intra department comparison, and no scientific suggestions were included. The results of evaluations were used only for the faculties’ promotions. Discussion: Suitability between evaluation and performance components is a necessity in every evaluation system. The study showed this does not exist in Iranian Universities. For instance, there was no appropriate tool for the evaluation of clinical education. Also, the results of the faculty

  15. Assessing quality and quantity of groundwater DOC in relation to plant export from different over-winter green-cover treatments in tillage farming systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premrov, Alina; Coxon, Catherine; Hackett, Richard; Richards, Karl

    2010-05-01

    The biogeochemistry of nitrogen is often connected to carbon and C/N dynamics. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) electron donor availability can be related to groundwater denitrification (Buss, et al. 2005). Therefore groundwater nitrate attenuation processes are also frequently linked to carbon availability. In recent years the role of over-winter green cover in tillage farming has been studied extensively. Nevertheless further research on the biogeochemical effect of green cover on soil/sediment and groundwater quality is still needed. In particular plant roots are known to exude different types of organic compounds, but their role in groundwater quality has not been investigated in depth. According to Cannavo et al. (2004a,b), in addition to quantity, the quality of water-extractable soil organic matter (e.g. molecular size/weight) has also an important role for microbial activity. In this study we investigate the effect of over-winter green-cover on potential DOC export to shallow groundwater (2 - 5 m below ground level), located on tillage land in Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland. The experiment includes three over-winter green-cover treatments: natural green-cover, mustard and no-cover (sprayed with herbicide following harvest); and is underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer. The site is equipped with 4 shallow piezometers per treatment (total no. of piezometers is 20, including treatments and surrounding piezometers). In addition to monitoring the quantity of DOC concentrations in shallow groundwater under different green cover treatments over time, an attempt was made to evaluate the quality of dissolved organic matter in shallow groundwater using Excitation Emission Fluorescence Matrix (EEFM) profiles obtained from analyses performed on a Varian Fluorescence Spectrophotometer of a single batch of samples (from all 20 installed piezometers in September 2009). To evaluate the quality of dissolved organic matter in shallow groundwater, computation of the

  16. Multiple layer insulation cover

    DOEpatents

    Farrell, James J.; Donohoe, Anthony J.

    1981-11-03

    A multiple layer insulation cover for preventing heat loss in, for example, a greenhouse, is disclosed. The cover is comprised of spaced layers of thin foil covered fabric separated from each other by air spaces. The spacing is accomplished by the inflation of spaced air bladders which are integrally formed in the cover and to which the layers of the cover are secured. The bladders are inflated after the cover has been deployed in its intended use to separate the layers of the foil material. The sizes of the material layers are selected to compensate for sagging across the width of the cover so that the desired spacing is uniformly maintained when the cover has been deployed. The bladders are deflated as the cover is stored thereby expediting the storage process and reducing the amount of storage space required.

  17. Evaluation of line focus solar central power systems. Volume II. Systems evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-15

    An evaluation was completed to ascertain the applicability of line focus technologies to electrical power applications and to compare their performance and cost potential with point focus central receiver power systems. It was concluded that although the high temperature line focus (SRI) and fixed mirror line focus (GA) concepts duplicate the heat source characteristics and power conversion technology of the central receiver concepts these configurations do not offer a sufficient improvement in cost to warrant full scale development. The systems are, however, less complex than their point focus counterpart and should the central receiver system development falter they provide reasonable technology alternatives. The parabolic trough concept (BDM) was found to provide a low temperature technology alternative to the central receiver concept with promising performance and cost potential. Its continued development is recommended, with special emphasis on lower temperature (< 700/sup 0/F) applications. Finally, a variety of new promising line focus power system configurations were identified for a range of utility and industrial applications and recommendations were made on their implementation. This volume contains the detailed report. (WHK)

  18. Earth orbital teleoperator manipulator system evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, M., III; Shields, N. L., Jr.; Frederick, P. N.; Brye, R.; Malone, T. B.

    1975-01-01

    The performance of an orbital teleoperator system which includes small dextrous servicing manipulators to be used in satellite servicing was examined. System/operator performance testing was implemented and the results of a fine positioning control test using two different manipulator systems varying widely in manipulator configuration and control systems are presented. Fine position control is viewed as representing a fundamental requirement placed on manipulator control. The relationship of position control to more complex tasks which directly represent on-orbit servicing operations are also presented.

  19. Evaluation of a Cyber Security System for Hospital Network.

    PubMed

    Faysel, Mohammad A

    2015-01-01

    Most of the cyber security systems use simulated data in evaluating their detection capabilities. The proposed cyber security system utilizes real hospital network connections. It uses a probabilistic data mining algorithm to detect anomalous events and takes appropriate response in real-time. On an evaluation using real-world hospital network data consisting of incoming network connections collected for a 24-hour period, the proposed system detected 15 unusual connections which were undetected by a commercial intrusion prevention system for the same network connections. Evaluation of the proposed system shows a potential to secure protected patient health information on a hospital network. PMID:26262217

  20. Evaluation of a Cyber Security System for Hospital Network.

    PubMed

    Faysel, Mohammad A

    2015-01-01

    Most of the cyber security systems use simulated data in evaluating their detection capabilities. The proposed cyber security system utilizes real hospital network connections. It uses a probabilistic data mining algorithm to detect anomalous events and takes appropriate response in real-time. On an evaluation using real-world hospital network data consisting of incoming network connections collected for a 24-hour period, the proposed system detected 15 unusual connections which were undetected by a commercial intrusion prevention system for the same network connections. Evaluation of the proposed system shows a potential to secure protected patient health information on a hospital network.