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Sample records for evaluate equine urine

  1. Minor constituents of sabulous material in equine urine.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Espiñeira, M; Escolar, E; Bellanato, J; Rodriguez, M

    1996-05-01

    The secondary constituents accompanying calcite and vaterite (crystalline forms of calcium carbonate) in the sabulous deposits from 140 vesical samples and one renal sample of equine urine were studied by infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Apatitic calcium phosphate, present in 12 per cent of the samples, generally appeared in the form of spherulites with smooth and rough surfaces. Calcium sulphate, clearly detected by IR in 12.7 per cent of the samples, did not have a characteristic structure under SEM, although EDX detected sulphur in the samples. Amorphous silica was observed in one case and had a nodular appearance. Organic fibres were not as common as might have been expected in equine urinary deposits.

  2. Detection of thiazide-based diuretics in equine urine by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Garbís, S D; Hanley, L; Kalita, S

    1998-01-01

    Thiazide-based diuretics are included in the list of banned drugs in the horse-racing industry. One effect of their misuse is increased urine flow, contributing to dilution of other doping agents. Their determination is essential in ensuring compliance to horse-racing regulation. This study evaluates the feasibility of using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) with electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interfaces to analyze thiazidic diuretics in equine urine samples. Existing LC and gas chromatography/MS methods are limited in their applicability to thiazide analysis. Sample preparation, analyte extraction, chromatographic separation, ion-source collision induced dissociation, solvent composition, ionization mode, and ion polarity are discussed. The practicality of LC/MS for this analysis is demonstrated with actual equine administration samples collected at specified time intervals. Detection limits were 270 ng/mL for chlorothiazide, 131 ng/mL for hydrochlorothiazide, and 384 ng/mL for trichlormethiazide.

  3. A high throughput screen for 17 Dermorphin peptides in equine and human urine and equine plasma.

    PubMed

    Steel, Rohan; Timms, Mark; Levina, Vita; Vine, John

    2014-09-01

    The Dermorphins are a family of peptides that act as potent agonists of the opioid μ receptor. Originally identified as a seven amino acid peptide on the skin of the South American Phyllomedusa frog, peptide chemists have since developed a large number of Dermorphin variants, many with superior opioid activity to the original peptide. Dermorphins are unique among the peptide opioid agonists as they appear to have a limited ability to cross the blood brain barrier, producing effects on both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is this ability of Dermorphins to provide central anaesthesia after intravenous or subcutaneous administration that allows their use as analogues of the opioid class of drugs. Recently, illicit use of the Dermorphin peptide in the racing industry has shown the need for an analytical method to control the use of these peptides. We present a high-throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry screen for 17 Dermorphin peptides in equine urine and plasma with limits of detection down to 5 pg/mL. The peptide extraction technique is also suitable for use in human urine.

  4. Determination of flunixin in equine urine and serum by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Gu, X; Meleka-Boules, M; Chen, C L; Ceska, D M; Tiffany, D M

    1997-04-25

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) and a solid-phase extraction method was developed for the determination of flunixin in equine urine and serum. The suitable CE run conditions were described. The factors affecting flunixin recovery rates were investigated and optimum solid-phase extraction conditions for flunixin in equine urine and serum were established. Limits of detection and quantitation were 3.4 and 5.6 ng/ml for serum and 16.9 and 33.1 ng/ml for urine, respectively. The recoveries exceeded 96% for urine and 79% for serum. Urine samples from race horses and urine and serum samples from a mare administrated with flunixin were analyzed with this procedure.

  5. Analysis of corticosteroids in equine urine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tang, P W; Law, W C; Wan, T S

    2001-04-15

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method for the analysis of corticosteroids in equine urine was developed. Corticosteroid conjugates were hydrolysed with beta-glucuronidase; free and enzyme-released corticosteroids were then extracted from the samples with ethyl acetate followed by a base wash. The isolated corticosteroids were detected by LC-MS and confirmed by LC-MS-MS in the positive atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mode. Twenty-three corticosteroids (comprising hydrocortisone, deoxycorticosterone and 21 synthetic corticosteroids), each at 5 ng/ml in urine, could easily be analysed in 10 min.

  6. Immunoaffinity chromatography in the detection of dexamethasone in equine urine.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro Neto, L M; Salvadori, M C; Spinosa, H S

    1997-11-01

    Due to the widespread use of dexamethasone in racing horses, mostly in low doses by intra-articular administration for the treatment of inflammatory processes, a method is developed to detect this drug in horse urine samples using liquid-liquid extraction followed by immunoaffinity chromatography. Liquid chromatography with diode-array detection is used for the identification of the drug. The use of immunoaffinity columns enhances the selectivity of the analysis, and the results show that dexamethasone can be detected up to 28 h after intra-articular administration.

  7. Doping control analysis of anabolic steroids in equine urine by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wong, April S Y; Leung, Gary N W; Leung, David K K; Wan, Terence S M

    2017-09-01

    Anabolic steroids are banned substances in equine sports. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been the traditional technique for doping control analysis of anabolic steroids in biological samples. Although liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has become an important technique in doping control, the detection of saturated hydroxysteroids by LC-MS remains a problem due to their low ionization efficiency under electrospray. The recent development in fast-scanning gas-chromatography-triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) has provided a better alternative with a significant reduction in chemical noise by means of selective reaction monitoring. Herein, we present a sensitive and selective method for the screening of over 50 anabolic steroids in equine urine using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Isolation of bicarbonate from equine urine for isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hülsemann, Frank; Flenker, Ulrich; Machnik, Marc; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2007-12-01

    Sodium bicarbonate administration to horses prior to competition in order to enhance the buffer capacity of the organism is considered as a doping offence. The analysis of the isotopic composition of urinary bicarbonate/CO(2) (TCO(2)) may help to identify an exogenous bicarbonate source, as technical sodium bicarbonate exhibits elevated delta(13)C values compared with urinary total carbon. The isolation of TCO(2) from 60 equine urine samples as BaCO(3) followed by an isotopic analysis shows a significant variability of delta(13)C for TCO(2) of more than 10 per thousand. The delta(13)C of total carbon and TCO(2) seem to reflect different proportions of C3 and C4 plant material in the diet. The isotopic analysis of different mixtures of technical NaHCO(3) and equine urine shows that TCO(2) can be easily isolated without major isotopic fractionation; however, attention has to be paid to the storage time of urine samples, as a shift of delta(13)C of TCO(2) to lower values may occur.

  9. Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometric characterization of Harpagophytum in equine urine and plasma.

    PubMed

    Colas, Cyril; Garcia, Patrice; Popot, Marie-Agnès; Bonnaire, Yves; Bouchonnet, Stéphane

    2006-01-01

    A method has been developed for the analysis and characterization in equine urine and plasma of iridoid glycosides: harpagide, harpagoside and 8-para-coumaroyl harpagide, which are the main active principles of Harpagophytum, a plant with antiinflammatory properties. The method involves liquid chromatography coupled with positive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The addition of sodium or lithium chloride instead of formic acid in the eluting solvent has been studied in order to enhance the signal and to modify the ion's internal energy. Fragmentation pathways and associated patterns are proposed for each analyte. A comparison of three types of mass spectrometer: a 3D ion trap, a triple quadrupole and a linear ion trap, has been conducted. The 3D ion trap was selected for drug screening analysis whereas the linear ion trap was retained for identification and quantitation analysis.

  10. Detection of stanozolol and its metabolites in equine urine by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Andrew R; Suann, Craig J; Dunstan, Anthony J; Mulley, Stephen L; Ridley, Damon D; Stenhouse, Allen M

    2004-11-05

    The equine phase I and phase II metabolism of the synthetic anabolic steroid stanozolol was investigated following its administration by intramuscular injection to a thoroughbred gelding. The major phase I biotransformations were hydroxylation at C16 and one other site, while phase II metabolism in the form of sulfate and beta-glucuronide conjugation was extensive. An analytical procedure was developed for the detection of stanozolol and its metabolites in equine urine using solid phase extraction, acid solvolysis of phase II conjugates and analysis by positive ion electrospray ionization ion trap LC-MS.

  11. Doping control analysis of insulin and its analogues in equine urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ho, Emmie N M; Wan, Terence S M; Wong, April S Y; Lam, Kenneth K H; Stewart, Brian D

    2011-02-25

    Insulin and its analogues have been banned in both human and equine sports owing to their potential for misuse. Insulin administration can increase muscle glycogen by utilising hyperinsulinaemic clamps prior to sports events or during the recovery phases, and increase muscle size by its chalonic action to inhibit protein breakdown. In order to control insulin abuse in equine sports, a method to effectively detect the use of insulins in horses is required. Besides the readily available human insulin and its synthetic analogues, structurally similar insulins from other species can also be used as doping agents. The author's laboratory has previously reported a method for the detection of bovine, porcine and human insulins, as well as the synthetic analogues Humalog (Lispro) and Novolog (Aspart) in equine plasma. This study describes a complementary method for the simultaneous detection of five exogenous insulins and their possible metabolites in equine urine. Insulins and their possible metabolites were isolated from equine urine by immunoaffinity purification, and analysed by nano liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Insulin and its analogues were detected and confirmed by comparing their retention times and major product ions. All five insulins (human insulin, Humalog, Novolog, bovine insulin and porcine insulin), which are exogenous in horse, could be detected and confirmed at 0.05ng/mL. This method was successfully applied to confirm the presence of human insulin in urine collected from horses up to 4h after having been administered a single low dose of recombinant human insulin (Humulin R, Eli Lilly). To our knowledge, this is the first identification of exogenous insulin in post-administration horse urine samples. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Petrographic and geochemic evaluation of equine enteroliths.

    PubMed

    Hassel, D M; Schiffman, P S; Snyder, J R

    2001-03-01

    To characterize the texture, mineralogic features, and chemical features of enteroliths obtained from horses. Enteroliths from 13 horses with colic. Enteroliths were harvested from 13 horses that underwent ventral midline celiotomy for treatment of colic or necropsy because of colonic obstruction and rupture caused by enteroliths. Dietary and environmental history were determined via questionnaires or evaluation of medical records. In 7 horses that underwent surgical treatment for enterolithiasis, samples of colonic contents were obtained via an enterotomy in the pelvic flexure. Colonic concentrations of magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), and potassium (K) were determined. Enteroliths were analyzed via electron microprobe analysis and X-ray diffraction. Enteroliths varied widely regarding degree of porosity, presence and distribution of radiating texture, and composition and size of the central nidus. A distinct concentric banding was identifiable in all enteroliths. Struvite was the predominant component of all enteroliths, although Mg vivianite was identified in 5 enteroliths, and there were variable quantities of Na, S, K, and Ca in the struvite within enteroliths. Despite an abundance of Ca in colonic fluids, Mg-phosphate minerals were preferentially formed, compared with Ca-phosphates (apatite), in equine enteroliths. Enteroliths comprise 2 major Mg phosphates: struvite and Mg vivianite. There is wide variability in macrotexture and ionic concentrations between and within enteroliths.

  13. Detection of singly- and doubly-charged quaternary ammonium drugs in equine urine by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ho, Emmie N M; Kwok, W H; Wong, April S Y; Wan, Terence S M

    2012-01-13

    Quaternary ammonium drugs (QADs) are anticholinergic agents some of which are known to have been abused or misused in equine sports. A recent review of literature shows that the screening methods reported thus far for QADs mainly cover singly-charged QADs. Doubly-charged QADs are extremely polar substances which are difficult to be extracted and poorly retained on reversed-phase columns. It would be ideal if a comprehensive method can be developed which can detect both singly- and doubly-charged QADs. This paper describes an efficient liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for the simultaneous detection and confirmation of 38 singly- and doubly-charged QADs at sub-parts-per-billion (ppb) to low-ppb levels in equine urine after solid-phase extraction. Quaternary ammonium drugs were extracted from equine urine by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using an ISOLUTE(®) CBA SPE column and analysed by LC/MS/MS in the positive electrospray ionisation mode. Separation of the 38 QADs was achieved on a polar group embedded C18 LC column with a mixture of aqueous ammonium formate (pH 3.0, 10 mM) and acetonitrile as the mobile phase. Detection and confirmation of the 38 QADs at sub-ppb to low-ppb levels in equine urine could be achieved within 16 min using selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Matrix interference of the target transitions at the expected retention times was not observed. Other method validation data, including precision and recovery, were acceptable. The method was successfully applied to the analyses of drug-administration samples.

  14. Determination of methandrostenolone and its metabolites in equine plasma and urine by coupled-column liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and confirmation by tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Edlund, P O; Bowers, L; Henion, J

    1989-02-24

    Monitoring steroid use requires an understanding of the metabolism in the species in question and development of sensitive methods for screening of the steroid or its metabolites in urine. Qualitative information for confirmation of methandrostenolone and identification of its metabolites was primarily obtained by coupled-column high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The steroids and a sulphuric acid conjugate were isolated and identified by their daughter ion mass spectra in the urine of both man and the horse following administration of methandrostenolone. Spontaneous hydrolysis of methandrostenolone sulphate gave 17-epimethandrostenolone and several dehydration products. This reaction had a half-life of 16 min in equine urine at 27 degrees C. Mono- and dihydroxylated metabolites were also identified. Several screening methods were evaluated for detection and confirmation of methandrostenolone use including thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. Coupled-column liquid chromatography was used for automated clean-up of analytes difficult to isolate by manual methods. The recovery of methandrostenolone was 101 +/- 3.3% (mean +/- S.D.) at 6.5 ng/ml and both methandrostenolone and 17-epimethandrostenolone were quantified in urine by ultraviolet detection up to six days after a 250-mg intramuscular dose to a horse. The utility of on-line tandem mass spectrometry for confirmation of suspected metabolites is also shown.

  15. Determination of testosterone:epitestosterone ratio after pentafluorophenyldimethylsilyl-trimethylsilyl derivatisation using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in equine urine.

    PubMed

    Choi, M H; Kim, J Y; Chung, B C

    1999-05-01

    A highly specific method is described for measuring the testosterone:epitestosterone ratio in equine urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with stable isotope internal standards. The procedure was based on Serdolit Pad-1 resin extraction, enzymatic hydrolysis, and chemical derivatisation prior to instrumental analysis. The mixed derivatives, 3-trimethylsilyl-17-pentafluorophenyldimethylsilyl ether (3-TMS-17-flophemesyl) testosterone and epitestosterone, were found to have excellent analytical properties. The specificity of the derivatisation method exploits a unique feature of steroids: the selective exchange of the alcoholic flophemesyl ether for the trimethylsilyl ether. The sensitivity and specificity of the mixed 3-TMS-17-flophemesyl derivatives allow adequate determinations of testosterone and epitestosterone, even in urine from mares, in 5 ml samples. The repeatability of testosterone and epitestosterone was 6.2 and 5.7%, respectively, and their reproducibility was in the range of 6.4-8.7%.

  16. Immunoassay detection of drugs in racing horses. IX. Detection of detomidine in equine blood and urine by radioimmunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, T.; Tai, C.L.; Taylor, D.G.; Woods, W.E.; Wang, C.J.; Houtz, P.K.; Tai, H.H.; Weckman, T.J.; Yang, J.M.; Sturma, L.

    1989-02-01

    Detomidine is a potent non-narcotic sedative agent which is currently in the process of being approved for veterinary clinical use in the United States. Since no effective screening method in horses is available for detomidine, we have developed an /sup 125/I radioimmunoassay for detomidine in equine blood and urine as part of a panel of tests for illegal drugs in performance horses. Our /sup 125/I radioimmunoassay has an I-50 for detomidine of approximately 2 ng/ml. Our assay shows limited cross-reactivity with the pharmacodynamically similar xylazine, but does not cross-react with acepromazine, epinephrine, haloperidol or promazine. The plasma kinetic data from clinical (greater than or equal to 5 mg/horse) as well as sub-clinical doses indicate first-order elimination in a dose-dependent manner. Within the first 30 minutes after intravenous (IV) administration of 30 mg/horse, plasma levels peak at approximately 20 ng/ml and then decline with an apparent plasma half-life of 25 minutes. Diuresis can occur with administration of clinical doses of detomidine and this effect was accounted for in the analysis of urine samples. Using this method, administration of 30 mg/horse can be readily detected in equine urine for up to 8 hours after IV injection. Additionally, doses as low as 0.5 mg/horse can be detected for short periods of time in blood and urine with use of this assay. Utilization of this assay by research scientists and forensic analysts will allow for the establishment of proper guidelines and controls regarding detomidine administration to performance horses and assurance of compliance with these guidelines.

  17. Immunoassay detection of drugs in racing horses. XI. ELISA and RIA detection of fentanyl, alfentanil, sufentanil and carfentanil in equine blood and urine.

    PubMed

    Tobin, T; Kwiatkowski, S; Watt, D S; Tai, H H; Tai, C L; Woods, W E; Goodman, J P; Taylor, D G; Weckman, T J; Yang, J M

    1989-01-01

    We have developed and evaluated a one step enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test for sufentanil and a 125I radioimmunoassay test for alfentanil as part of a panel of pre- and post-race tests for narcotic analgesics in racing horses. Our sufentanil ELISA test detects sufentanil with an I-50 of about 0.5 ng/ml. The test is rapid and economical in that it can be read with an inexpensive spectrophotometer, or even by eye. The test readily detects the presence of sufentanil or its metabolites in equine blood and urine from 1 to 24 hours respectively after administration of therapeutic or sub-therapeutic doses of this drug. Our sufentanil assay also cross-reacts with fentanyl, the methylated analogs of fentanyl (designer fentanyls), and carfentanil and detected these drugs in urine for several hours after their administration to horses. It does not, however, cross-react significantly with alfentanil. We have also developed an 125I radioimmunoassay for alfentanil. This test allows detection of alfentanil in blood and urine of horses for up to 4 hours after administration of this drug. As such, these tests are capable of improving the quality and reducing the cost of pre-race and post-race testing for fentanyl, sufentanil, carfentanil and alfentanil and a number of their congeners in racing horses. Similarly, these tests are capable of screening for these drugs in human drug abuse monitoring.

  18. Evaluation of antigen detection kits for diagnosis of equine influenza.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Takashi; Tsujimura, Koji; Kondo, Takashi; Matsumura, Tomio

    2008-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated whether five rapid antigen detection kits for human influenza could be used for the diagnosis of equine influenza (EI). Limiting dilution analyses showed that Directigen Flu A+B and ESPLINE INFLUENZA A&B-N had the highest sensitivities to equine-2 influenza viruses (EIVs) among the kits investigated. From the results of virus detection in nasal swabs taken from horses infected with EIV, these two kits could produce positive results in reasonable agreement with those obtained by virus isolation or RT-PCR, suggesting that these kits could be useful for rapid diagnosis of EI in the field. However, from the viewpoint of specificity for EIV, Espline seems to be superior to Directigen.

  19. The Analysis of Phenylbutazone and Its Active Metabolite, Oxyphenbutazone, in Equine Tissues (Muscle, Kidney, and Liver), Urine, and Serum by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Boison, Joe O; Dowling, Patricia; Matus, Johanna L; Kinar, Jana; Johnson, Ron

    2017-02-01

    This study reports the use of two validated LC with tandem MS (MS/MS) methods to study the residue depletion profile ofphenylbutazone (PBZ) and its metabolite oxyphenbutazone (OXPBZ) from equine serum, urine, and muscle, kidney, and liver tissues. One LC-MS/MS method, with an LOQ of 1.0 ng/mL for PBZ and 2.0 ng/mL for OXPBZ, was used for the analysis of the two drugs in the biological fluids (equine urine and serum); the other LC-MS/MS method, with an LOQ of 0.5 ng/g for PBZ and OXPBZ, was used for the analysis of the drugs in the equine tissue samples. PBZ was administered intravenously to two horses dosed with 8.8 mg/kg PBZ once daily for 4 days and sacrificed humanely at a slaughter plant 7 days after the last drug administration. Urine, serum, and kidney, liver, and muscle tissues were collected from the two horses and shipped on ice to the laboratory and stored at −20°C until analysis. The concentrations of PBZ and OXPBZ residues in the biological fluid and tissue samples collected at slaughter were measured with the two validated LC-MS/MS methods using deuterated internal standards. The results demonstrate that the validated methods are fit for studying the depletion kinetics of PBZ residues in equine tissues and biological fluids.

  20. Evaluation of a standardised radiographic technique of the equine hoof.

    PubMed

    Kummer, M; Lischer, C; Ohlerth, S; Vargas, J; Auer, J

    2004-11-01

    Radiography of the equine hoof is often used to obtain a diagnosis. Quantitative interpretation, especially for research purposes requires high quality and accuracy of radiographs. The purpose of this study was to describe and evaluate a radiographic technique for the lateromedial (LM) and the dorsopalmar (DP) view of the equine hoof. Ten radiographs for each view from one cadaver limb and from both front feet in a standing horse were taken in order to assess repeatability of the radiographic technique. The method requires easy to use adjustable and portable equipment and strictly defined external radio opaque markers on the hoof capsule. The digitalised radiographs were processed and analysed with the software package Metron PX, measuring 13 parameters in the LM view and 10 parameters in the DP view, respectively. Results show that with few exceptions measurements of these parameters revealed a coefficient of variation that was smaller than 0.05. It was concluded that this easy to use standardised radiographic technique ensures excellent accuracy and repeatability for both the LM and DP view. Hence, this method provides an adequate tool for quantitative assessment of the equine hoof, inter- and intraindividually.

  1. Evaluation of equine oocyte developmental competence using polarized light microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bertero, A; Ritrovato, F; Evangelista, F; Stabile, V; Fortina, R; Ricci, A; Revelli, A; Vincenti, L; Nervo, T

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe in vitro-matured equine oocytes with an objective computerized technique that involves the use of a polarized light microscope (PLM) in addition to the subjective morphological evaluation obtained using a classic light microscope (LM). Equine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs, n = 922) were subjected to different in vitro maturation times (24, 36 or 45 h), however, only 36-h matured oocytes were analyzed using CLM. The 36-h matured oocytes that reached maturity were parthenogenetically activated to evaluate the quality and meiotic competence. Average maturation percentages per session in groups 1, 2 and 3 (24-, 36- and 45-h matured oocytes respectively) were 29.31 ± 13.85, 47.01 ± 9.90 and 36.62 ± 5.28%, whereas the average percentages of immature oocytes per session were 28.78 ± 20.17, 7.83 ± 5.51 and 22.36 ± 8.39% respectively. The zona pellucida (ZP) birefringent properties were estimated and correlated with activation outcome. ZP thickness and retardance of the inner layer of the zona pellucida (IL-ZP) were significantly increased in immature oocytes compared with mature oocytes (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01 respectively). The comparison between parthenogenetically activated and non-activated oocytes showed a significant increase in the area and thickness of the IL-ZP in parthenogenetically activated oocytes (P < 0.01). These results show that the 36-h in vitro maturation (IVM) protocol allowed equine oocytes to reach maturity, and PLM observation of ZP can be used to distinguish mature and immature oocytes as well as activated and non-activated oocytes. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  2. Ex vivo spontaneous generation of 19-norandrostenedione and nandrolone detected in equine plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Guan, Fuyu; Uboh, Cornelius E; Soma, Lawrence R; You, Youwen; Li, Xiaoqing; McDonnell, Sue

    2012-01-01

    19-Norandrostenedione (NAED) and nandrolone are anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs). Nandrolone was regarded solely as a synthetic AAS until the 1980s when trace concentrations of apparently endogenous nandrolone were detected in urine samples obtained from intact male horses (stallions). Since then, its endogenous origin has been reported in boars and bulls; endogenous NAED and nandrolone have been identified in plasma and urine samples collected from stallions. More recently, however, it was suggested that NAED and nandrolone detected in urine samples from stallions are primarily artifacts due to the analytical procedure. The present study was undertaken to determine whether NAED and nandrolone detected in plasma and urine samples collected from stallions are truly endogenous or artifacts from sample processing. To answer this question, fresh plasma and urine samples from ≥8 stallions were analyzed for the two AASs, soon after collection, by liquid chromatography hyphenated to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). NAED and nandrolone were not detected in fresh plasma samples but detected in the same samples post storage. Concentrations of both AASs increased with storage time, and the increases were greater at a higher storage temperature (37°C versus 4°C, and ambient temperature versus 4°C). Although NAED was detected in some fresh stallion urine samples, its concentration (<407 pg/mL) was far lower (<0.4%) than that in the same samples post storage (at ambient temperature for 15 days). Nandrolone was not detected in most of fresh urine samples but detected in the same samples post storage. Based on these results, it is concluded that all NAED and nandrolone detected in stored plasma samples of stallions and most of them in the stored urine samples are not from endogenous origins but spontaneously generated during sample storage, most likely from spontaneous decarboxylation of androstenedione-19-oic acid and testosterone-19-oic acid. To our knowledge, it is

  3. Rapid determination of methandrostenolone in equine urine by isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Edlund, O; Bowers, L; Henion, J; Covey, T R

    1989-12-29

    Urine samples were spiked with [17-methyl-2H3]methandrostenolone as internal standard and extracted with a mixture of dichloromethane and cyclohexane. The organic phase was concentrated and injected onto a short octyl-silica column (30 mm x 4.6 mm I.D.) for separation of methandrostenolone and 17-epimethandrostenolone. The effluent from the column was connected to a Sciex TAGA 6000E triple quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an atmospheric pressure ion source for sampling of ions generated by a heated pneumatic nebulizer with corona discharge ionization. This ion source produced abundant [M + H]+ ions and a weak fragment ion due to loss of water. The protonated molecular ions at m/z 301 and 304 for methandrostenolone, 17-epimethandrostenolone and the internal standard were transmitted to the second quadrupole for collision-induced dissociation. Quantification was obtained by selected reaction monitoring of three daughter ions. Methandrostenolone and 17-epimethandrostenolone were separated by liquid chromatography, but gave identical mass spectra. The method detection limit by injection of a urine extract corresponding to 2.8 ml urine was 180 pg/ml at the 99% confidence level. The precision (relative standard deviation) was 3% at the 16 ng/ml level and the linear dynamic range was at least 3 orders of magnitude. Screening for unknown metabolites in urine after administration of methandrostenolone to horses and humans was accomplished by a parent ion scan of m/z 121, a fragment corresponding to the intact A-ring of the steroids.

  4. A broad-spectrum equine urine screening method for free and enzyme-hydrolysed conjugated drugs with ultra performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wong, Colton H F; Tang, Francis P W; Wan, Terence S M

    2011-07-04

    The authors' laboratory at one time employed four liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric (LC/MS) methods for the detection of a large variety of drugs in equine urine. Drug classes covered by these methods included anti-diabetics, anti-ulcers, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, sedatives, corticosteroids, anabolic steroids, sulfur diuretics, xanthines, etc. With the objective to reduce labour and instrumental workload, a new ultra performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC/MS/MS) method has been developed, which encompasses all target analytes detected by the original four LC/MS methods. The new method has better detection limits than the superseded methods. In addition, it covers new target analytes that could not be adequately detected by the four LC/MS methods. The new method involves solid-phase extraction (SPE) of two aliquots of equine urine using two Abs Elut Nexus cartridges. One aliquot of the urine sample is treated with β-glucuronidase before subjecting to SPE. A second aliquot of the same urine sample is processed directly using another SPE cartridge, so that drugs that are prone to decomposition during enzyme hydrolysis can be preserved. The combined eluate is analysed by UPLC/MS/MS using alternating positive and negative electrospray ionisation in the selected-reaction-monitoring mode. Exceptional chromatographic separation is achieved using an UPLC system equipped with a UPLC(®) BEH C18 column (10 cm L×2.1 mm ID with 1.7 μm particles). With this newly developed UPLC/MS/MS method, the simultaneous detection of 140 drugs at ppb to sub-ppb levels in equine urine can be achieved in less than 13 min inclusive of post-run equilibration. Matrix interference for the selected transitions at the expected retention times is minimised by the excellent UPLC chromatographic separation. The method has been validated for recovery and precision, and is being used regularly in the authors' laboratory as an important component of the

  5. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of hypericin for photodynamic therapy of equine sarcoids.

    PubMed

    Martens, A; de Moor, A; Waelkens, E; Merlevede, W; De Witte, P

    2000-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of the photodynamic compound, hypericin, in the treatment of equine sarcoids was evaluated. The in vitro cytotoxicity was assessed using three equine cell lines and the observed phototoxic effect was comparable to that on different highly sensitive human cell lines and significantly influenced by the energy density used although independent of the cell type. The in vivo antitumoural action of photodynamic therapy using hypericin was evaluated on three equine sarcoids in a donkey. Four intratumoural injections were given and the tumours were illuminated daily during 25 days. An 81% reduction in tumour volume was obtained at the end of therapy and 2 months later, a 90% reduction was observed. Further experimental work should be performed, but these results suggest that photodynamic therapy using hypericin has a potential for the non-invasive treatment of equine sarcoids.

  6. Evaluation of efficacy of mineral oil, charcoal, and smectite in a rat model of equine cantharidin toxicosis.

    PubMed

    Qualls, H J; Holbrook, T C; Gilliam, L L; Njaa, B L; Panciera, R J; Pope, C N; Payton, M E

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of orally administered therapeutics for the treatment of cantharidin intoxication has not been evaluated in controlled studies. To develop a model of acute cantharidin intoxication in laboratory rats and to evaluate in this model the relative efficacy of 3 gastrointestinal therapies used to treat equine cantharidin toxicosis. Sixty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats. A blinded, randomized, controlled study was performed on rats surgically implanted with telemetry transmitters for evaluating heart rate, locomotor activity, and body temperature. Orogastric administration of cantharidin was performed within 15 seconds before administration of mineral oil, activated charcoal, or smectite. Negative control groups received therapeutic agents alone. Urine was collected for cantharidin analysis. Rats were sacrificed 24 hours after intoxication, and tissues were collected for histopathologic evaluation. Data analysis included ANOVA procedures and contingency tables. Six of 8 cantharidin-intoxicated rats treated with mineral oil died; bradycardia and hypothermia developed in the animals of this group 0-8 hours after intoxication. Rats treated with mineral oil had higher urine cantharidin concentrations than rats receiving cantharidin alone or with smectite (P = .04). The most severe hypothermia (30.6°C ± 1.0) developed in rats administered mineral oil at 4-8 hours after intoxication, whereas those treated with charcoal (35.2°C ± 0.8) had mean body temperatures higher than all other treatment groups (P = .03). Survival times in the charcoal (P = .16) and smectite (P = .12) treatment groups were not statistically different from negative controls. Mineral oil is often used in the treatment of equine cantharidin toxicosis. Our findings suggest that mineral oil increases cantharidin absorption, worsening morbidity and fatality in rats. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  7. Optimization of solid-phase extraction for the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of harpagoside, 8-para-coumaroyl harpagide, and harpagide in equine plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Colas, Cyril; Garcia, Patrice; Popot, Marie-Agnès; Bonnaire, Yves; Bouchonnet, Stéphane

    2008-02-01

    Solid-phase extraction cartridges among those usually used for screening in horse doping analyses are tested to optimize the extraction of harpagoside (HS), harpagide (HG), and 8-para-coumaroyl harpagide (8PCHG) from plasma and urine. Extracts are analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with multi-step tandem mass spectrometry. The extraction process retained for plasma applies BondElut PPL cartridges and provides extraction recoveries between 91% and 93%, with RSD values between 8 and 13% at 0.5 ng/mL. Two different procedures are needed to extract analytes from urine. HS and 8PCHG are extracted using AbsElut Nexus cartridges, with recoveries of 85% and 77%, respectively (RSD between 7% and 19%). The extraction of HG involves the use of two cartridges: BondElut PPL and BondElut C18 HF, with recovery of 75% and RSD between 14% and 19%. The applicability of the extraction methods is determined on authentic equine plasma and urine samples after harpagophytum or harpagoside administration.

  8. Urine Cytology: Collection, Film Preparation, and Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Vap, Linda M; Shropshire, Sarah B

    2017-01-01

    Cytologic examination of the urine sediment in animals suspected of having urinary tract disease or lower urinary tract masses is one of the best means of distinguishing inflammation, infection, and neoplasia and can help determine if a positive dipstick result for hemoglobin/blood is due to hemorrhage or blood contamination. The quality of the specimen collection and handling plays an important role in the quality of results, the validity of interpretations, and selection of appropriate course of action. The method of sample collection aids localization of pathology. Air dry but do not heat fix, freeze, or expose films to formalin fumes, temperature extremes, or condensation.

  9. ELASTOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF NATURALLY OCCURING TENDON AND LIGAMENT INJURIES OF THE EQUINE DISTAL LIMB.

    PubMed

    Lustgarten, Meghann; Redding, W Rich; Labens, Raphael; Davis, Weston; Daniel, Thomas M; Griffith, Emily; Seiler, Gabriela S

    2015-01-01

    Compression elastography is an ultrasonographic technique that estimates tissue strain and may have utility in diagnosing and monitoring soft tissue injuries in the equine athlete. Recently, elastography has been proven to be a feasible and repeatable imaging modality for evaluating normal tendons and ligaments of the equine distal forelimb. The purposes of this prospective study were to investigate the ability of elastography to detect spontaneously occurring lesions of equine tendons and ligaments diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and gray-scale ultrasound (US) and to characterize the differences in the elastographic appearance of acute vs. chronic injuries. Fifty seven horses with a total of 65 lesions were evaluated. Images were assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Acute lesions were found to be significantly softer (P < 0.0001) than chronic lesions (P < 0.0001) and the stiffness of lesions increased with progression of healing (P = 0.0138). A negative correlation between lesion hypoechogenicity and softness was appreciated with more hypoechoic lesions appearing softer (P = 0.0087) and more hyperechoic regions harder (P = 0.0002). A similar finding occurred with increased signal intensity on short tau inversion recovery (STIR) and proton density (PD) MRI sequences correlating with increased softness on elastography (P = 0.0164). Using US and MRI as references, commonly encountered soft tissue injuries of the equine distal limb could be detected with elastography. However, elastography was limited for detecting small, proximal injuries of the hindlimb proximal suspensory ligament. Elastographic evaluation of equine tendons and ligaments may allow better characterization of lesion chronicity and severity, and sequential examinations may optimize lesion management, rehabilitation, and return to training.

  10. Clinical Evaluation of Xylazine-Butorphanol-Guaifenesin-Ketamine as Short-Term TIVA in Equines

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Bhanu Partap Singh; Sharma, Sandeep Kumar; Sharma, Arvind; Kumar, Adarsh

    2011-01-01

    Xylazine (1.1 mg/kg), butorphanol (0.02 mg/kg), guaifenesin 5% (20 mg/kg), and ketamine (2.2 mg/kg) combinations were able to induce short-term surgical anaesthesia for 23.33 ± 2.57 min in Spiti ponies with excellent to good muscle relaxation and analgesia. Urination and neighing was a constant feature during recovery period. Biphasic P wave, biphasic T wave, and depressed PR segment were common electrocardiographic findings. Biochemical attributes were within physiological limits except a significant increase in ALT values during anaesthesia. The values returned to normal during recovery ruling out any renal or hepatic toxicity. Occasionally, negative T wave, notched P wave, and sinus block were noticed. It is recommended that the anaesthetic combinations xylazine-butorphanol-guaifenesin-ketamine can be safely used for short-term total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) in equines under field conditions. PMID:21647339

  11. Clinical Evaluation of Xylazine-Butorphanol-Guaifenesin-Ketamine as Short-Term TIVA in Equines.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Bhanu Partap Singh; Sharma, Sandeep Kumar; Sharma, Arvind; Kumar, Adarsh

    2011-01-01

    Xylazine (1.1 mg/kg), butorphanol (0.02 mg/kg), guaifenesin 5% (20 mg/kg), and ketamine (2.2 mg/kg) combinations were able to induce short-term surgical anaesthesia for 23.33 ± 2.57 min in Spiti ponies with excellent to good muscle relaxation and analgesia. Urination and neighing was a constant feature during recovery period. Biphasic P wave, biphasic T wave, and depressed PR segment were common electrocardiographic findings. Biochemical attributes were within physiological limits except a significant increase in ALT values during anaesthesia. The values returned to normal during recovery ruling out any renal or hepatic toxicity. Occasionally, negative T wave, notched P wave, and sinus block were noticed. It is recommended that the anaesthetic combinations xylazine-butorphanol-guaifenesin-ketamine can be safely used for short-term total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) in equines under field conditions.

  12. Evaluation of Coomassie blue staining of the acrosome of equine and canine spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Brum, Andrea M; Thomas, Alysia D; Sabeur, Khalida; Ball, Barry A

    2006-02-01

    To evaluate Coomassie blue staining of the acrosome of equine and canine spermatozoa. Spermatozoa of 5 mixed-breed male dogs and 3 Thoroughbred stallions. Various proportions of intact and acrosome-damaged spermatozoa were fixed in 2% phosphate-buffered formaldehyde or 4% paraformaldehyde, smeared onto glass slides, and stained with Coomassie blue stain. Acrosomal status (damaged vs intact) was also assessed by use of flow cytometry after staining with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Pisum sativum agglutinin (FITC-PSA) and propidium iodide. Comparisons were made between percentages of expected and observed acrosome-intact spermatozoa in different proportions of live and flash-frozen samples; the percentages of acrosome-intact spermatozoa as determined by use of Coomassie blue staining and flow cytometry were also compared. Strong correlations were found between the expected and observed distributions of acrosome-intact spermatozoa when fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde (r2 = 0.93 and 0.89 for canine and equine spermatozoa, respectively) as well as between Coomassie blue-stained cells and those stained with FITC-PSA and assessed by use of flow cytometry (r2 = 0.96 and 0.97 for canine and equine spermatozoa, respectively). However, in canine samples that were fixed in 2% phosphate-buffered formaldehyde, these correlations were weak. Staining with Coomassie blue stain was a simple and accurate method to evaluate the acrosome in equine and canine spermatozoa after fixation in 4% paraformaldehyde. This assay should be useful in routine evaluation of semen samples from these species.

  13. Evaluation of an automated urine chemistry reagent-strip analyzer.

    PubMed

    Lott, J A; Johnson, W R; Luke, K E

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated the Miles Inc., Clinitek Atlas Automated Urine Chemistry Analyzer for 11 tests: bilirubin, color, glucose, ketones, leukocyte esterase, nitrite, occult blood, pH, protein, specific gravity, and urobilinogen. The instrument uses a roll of reagent strips affixed to a clear plastic support; urine specimens are automatically pipetted onto these strips. The instrument measures the pads' color using reflectance colorimetry. Specific gravity is measured using a fiberoptic refractive index method. Four hospitals participated in the evaluation, and tests were performed only on fresh urine samples. We found the instrument easy to use; it has walk-away capability with up to 40-specimen loading capacity plus spaces for STATs, calibrators and controls. We found good comparability with chemical tests and other nonreagent strip procedures, as well as good agreement with the Miles Inc. Clinitek 200+ urine chemistry analyzer and visual reading of the Miles Inc. Multistix Reagent Strips. The Clinitek Atlas is rugged and reliable, and is suitable for a high-volume urinalysis laboratory.

  14. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Strategies for the Control of Equine Influenza Virus in the New Zealand Equine Population.

    PubMed

    Rosanowski, S M; Cogger, N; Rogers, C W; Stevenson, M A

    2016-06-01

    New Zealand has never experienced an equine influenza (EI) outbreak. The 2007 outbreak of EI in Australia showed that in a naïve population EI spreads rapidly and substantial efforts (in terms of movement restrictions, mass vaccination and post-vaccination surveillance) were required to achieve eradication. To control EI, it is essential that animal health authorities have well-defined strategies for containment, control and eradication in place before an incursion occurs. A spatially explicit stochastic simulation model, InterSpread Plus, was used to evaluate EI control strategies for the New Zealand situation. The control strategies considered were movement restrictions alone and movement restrictions in combination with one of three vaccination strategies beginning on day 14; suppressive, protective or targeted. The suppressive strategy involved vaccination in a 3 km radius around infected properties, while the protective strategy involved vaccination in a 7-10 km ring around infected properties. Targeted vaccination involved the vaccination of all breeding and racing properties within 20 km of an infected property. Simulations were carried out to determine the impact of timing of vaccination and earlier detection on the size of and duration of the outbreak. All three vaccination strategies implemented on day 14 resulted in between 1028 and 2161 fewer infected properties (P < 0.001), and an epidemic that was between 42 and 90 days shorter (P < 0.001) compared with movement restrictions alone. Any vaccination strategy implemented on day 7 resulted in fewer infected properties, compared with vaccination implemented on days 14 or 21. Overall, the suppressive vaccination strategy resulted in fewer infected properties. Our findings indicate that any vaccination strategy, if combined with complete movement restrictions could be effective for the control of EI, if an outbreak was to occur in New Zealand. If an outbreak were to occur, a simulation model has now been

  15. Ultrasonographic evaluation of equine fetal growth throughout gestation in normal mares using a convex transducer.

    PubMed

    Murase, Harutaka; Endo, Yoshiro; Tsuchiya, Takeru; Kotoyori, Yasumitsu; Shikichi, Mitsumori; Ito, Katsumi; Sato, Fumio; Nambo, Yasuo

    2014-07-01

    It has not been common to perform regular ultrasound examination of the fetus in equine practice, due to the increasing volume of the uterus caused by fetal development. The convex three-dimensional transducer is bulb-shaped and is able to observe wide areas. In addition, its operation is simple, making it easy to create appropriate angles for various indices using a transrectal approach. The aim of this study was to measure Thoroughbred fetal growth indices throughout gestation using a convex transducer and to clarify the detectable period of some indices for clinical use. We demonstrated changes in fetal indices, such as crown rump length (CRL), fetal heart rate (FHR), fetal eye and kidney and the combined thickness of uterus and placenta (CTUP). CTUP increased from 30 weeks of gestation, and FHR peaked at 8 weeks and then decreased to term. CRL could be observed until 13 weeks due to its wide angle, longer than in previous reports. Fetal eye and kidney could be observed from 10 and 28 weeks, respectively, and these increased with pregnancy progress. The present results showed the advantage of transrectal examination using a convex transducer for evaluation of normal fetal development. Although ultrasonographic examination in mid- to late-gestation is not common in equine reproductive practice, our comprehensive results would be a useful basis for equine pregnancy examination.

  16. The detection of piroxicam, tenoxicam and their metabolites in equine urine by electrospray ionisation ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Andrew R; Suann, Craig J; Stenhouse, Allen M

    2004-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted into the metabolism and urinary excretion of orally administered piroxicam and tenoxicam in the horse. The major component detected in urine after the administration of piroxicam was 5'-hydroxypiroxicam, which was detectable up to 24 h post-administration. Unchanged piroxicam was present only as a minor component. In contrast, unchanged tenoxicam was the major component observed after the administration of tenoxicam, being detectable for 72 h post-administration, while 5'-hydroxytenoxicam was a minor component. Phase II beta-glucuronide conjugation in each case was found to be negligible. The ion trap mass spectral characteristics of piroxicam, tenoxicam, 5'-hydroxypiroxicam and 5'-hydroxytenoxicam under electrospray ionisation conditions were examined in some detail.

  17. Survey of Australian equine veterinarians evaluating their biosecurity training and perceptions and opinions about the management of the 2007 equine influenza outbreak.

    PubMed

    Schemann, K; Toribio, J-A L M L; Taylor, M R; Ward, M P; Dhand, N K

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the level of biosecurity training among Australian equine veterinarians and to assess their perceptions of biosecurity and infectious disease risk and their opinions about the management of the 2007 equine influenza (EI) outbreak. Cross-sectional study. A survey was conducted among equine veterinarians attending the 2010 annual conference of the Equine Veterinarians Australia (EVA) in New South Wales, Australia. Data were collected using a self-completed questionnaire and analysed using Fisher's exact tests to assess veterinarians' levels of biosecurity training, their perceptions of infectious disease and views regarding the 2007 EI outbreak management. A total of 46 of the 196 (23.5%) attending veterinarians completed the questionnaire. Significantly greater proportions of recently graduated veterinarians received theoretical and practical biosecurity training at veterinary schools than their older counterparts. The majority of respondents considered their likelihood of spreading infectious diseases from one client's horse to another to be low (84%). More than half (58%) of the veterinarians considered that hand-washing/wearing gloves was very effective in preventing disease spread. However, around one-quarter (27%) reported a degree of reservation about the practicality of performing general biosecurity practices in everyday working life. Overall, veterinarians were satisfied with the EI outbreak response, but had mixed opinions about the control measures and communications used. Levels of biosecurity training and the frequency of biosecurity advice provided by veterinarians have increased over time, although the practicality of biosecurity practices is a concern for some veterinarians. Further investigations of the barriers to the use of various biosecurity practices are required in order to inform training programs. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  18. Equine Pulmonary Cryptococcosis: A Comparative Literature Review and Evaluation of Fluconazole Monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Secombe, C J; Lester, G D; Krockenberger, M B

    2017-04-01

    Cryptococcus is the most common fungal respiratory pathogen in Australian horses, manifesting primarily as pulmonary granulomas. Disease severity at presentation is dependent on the athletic use of the horse. The diagnosis and estimation of disease severity are centred around clinical findings, cytological evaluation of respiratory tract secretions, diagnostic imaging, and antigen titre testing. Both the lateral flow assay and the latex cryptococcal antigen titre are used, and important similarities and differences between species are discussed. Cryptococcus gattii occurs with greater frequency than Cryptococcus neoformans in equine pulmonic cryptococcosis and can be successfully treated with enteral fluconazole monotherapy, with disease severity determining treatment length.

  19. Application of sonoelastography for evaluating the stiffness of equine superficial digital flexor tendon during healing.

    PubMed

    Tamura, N; Kuroda, T; Kotoyori, Y; Fukuda, K; Nukada, T; Kato, T; Kuwano, A; Kasashima, Y

    2017-02-04

    Sonoelastography can assess the inner stiffness of tissues. Sonoelastographic evaluation of injured equine superficial digital flexor tendons (SDFTs) is considered to be useful for assessing the stiffness of a lesion even during late-stage rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the sonoelastographic appearance of injured SDFTs over time from the onset of the injury. Eighteen horses were classified into three groups according to the length of time from injury onset: group A, within two weeks after injury; group B, approximately five months after injury; and group C, approximately nine months after injury. Longitudinal and transverse images of all injured SDFTs were obtained using grey-scale ultrasonography and sonoelastography. Grey-scale and sonoelastographic images were evaluated by two observers using echogenicity-grading and colour-grading systems, respectively. The authors evaluated the interobserver agreement and compared the grades among the three groups. The results indicated almost perfect interobserver agreement. Significant differences were found in the sonoelastography among the three groups, whereas no significant difference was found in the grey-scale ultrasonography between groups B and C. Sonoelastography is a feasible and useful modality to evaluate the equine injured SDFTs in vivo and to distinguish between them among the different phases even during the chronic phase.

  20. Influence of equine conformation on rider oscillation and evaluation of horses for therapeutic riding.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Akihiro; Ohta, Emiko; Ueda, Koichiro; Nakatsuji, Hiroki; Kondo, Seiji

    2008-01-01

    To obtain basic knowledge about selecting horses for therapeutic riding, the influence of equine conformation on rider oscillation and relationships between these factors and the evaluation on horses as the therapeutic riding were studied. Thirty-five riding horses were used. Equine conformation was estimated by 24 indices. Rider oscillation was measured by an accelerometer fixed at the rider's waist. The spatial position of the oscillation was estimated by a double integration of the acceleration. Horses were evaluated for therapeutic riding by a Riding for the Disabled Association instructor as a rider. Evaluations were on a scale of 1 to 5, with 5 being the highest score for 27 items. Horses were classified into 4 groups: the short and narrow (SN), short and wide (SW), tall and narrow (TN), and tall and wide (TW). The frequencies of rider oscillation both at walk and trot were higher (P<0.01), and the vertical (P<0.01) and longitudinal (P<0.05) amplitudes at trot were smaller, on short horses than on tall horses. The vertical amplitude at walk was smaller (P<0.05) and the lateral amplitude at trot was larger (P<0.01) on wide horses than on narrow horses. Short horses could be used for the rider who requires side walkers. Wide horses could be used for relieving muscular tension and for the rider who could not maintain good balance on the horse. Short and wide horses should be suitable for therapeutic riding.

  1. Using Bioacoustical Methodologies to Evaluate Equine Hearing Capabilities and Cognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makepeace, Shawn

    The field of Bioacoustics is an emerging field of science that investigates various aspects of animal audiology and communication. More recently, audiological means have been used to evaluate the cognitive abilities of animals using event related brain potentials (ERP's). The Mismatch Negativity (MMN) component of the ERP is considered a cognitive neuroelectric phenomenon since it is generated in the area of the cortex that is responsible for evaluating sound stimuli including the ability to discriminate. Such discrimination produces a negative-going waveform with a relative latency of about 150-250 msec when elicited with auditory stimuli in human adults. The MMN response is elicited by use of the oddball paradigm in which two different tones are presented in pseudo-random order. The purpose of this study was to determine if elicitation of the MMN is achievable in the horse by use of current equipment in a non-clinical setting such as a barn. During the course of this experiment, it became obvious that the major challenge was the excessive amount of noise that inundated the waveforms thereby making any specific waves even remotely discernible. Attempts were made to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by modifications to the testing unit and the addition of several in-line and digital filters. However, even with these modifications, the MMN response still could not be identifiable within the noise of the waveforms. Therefore, the matter of whether or not the horse elicits a MMN response should be revised to if it is even feasible to elicit a MMN response in these animals.

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of isometamidium-alginate nanoparticles on equine mononuclear and red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sandeep; Chopra, Meenu; Dilbaghi, Neeraj; Manuja, Balvinder K; Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar, Rajender; Rathore, Nitu S; Yadav, Suresh C; Manuja, Anju

    2016-11-01

    Isometamidium hydrochloride (ISMM) is an effective drug for the treatment of trypanosomosis, but it causes local and systemic toxicity. Isometamidium hydrochloride has limited therapeutic index and exhibit considerable variation in their prophylactic activities. We developed a trypanocidal nanoformulation using ISMM and polymers sodium alginate/gum acacia to enhance the efficacy of the drug at lower doses, while minimizing undesirable side effects. It was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy for evaluation of size, morphology, functional groups, etc. In vitro cytotoxicity studies were performed by metabolic resazurin assay at different concentrations of isometamidium-loaded alginate/gum acacia nanoparticles using equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Hemolytic assay revealed significantly less toxicity compared to the conventional drug. The results demonstrate that the developed drug delivery module can be evaluated in suitable animal models to evaluate its potency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of housekeeping genes for quantitative gene expression analysis in the equine kidney

    PubMed Central

    AZARPEYKAN, Sara; DITTMER, Keren E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Housekeeping genes (HKGs) are used as internal controls for normalising and calculating the relative expression of target genes in RT-qPCR experiments. There is no unique universal HKG and HKGs vary among organisms and tissues, so this study aimed to determine the most stably expressed HKGs in the equine kidney. The evaluated HKGs included 18S ribosomal RNA (18S), 28S ribosomal RNA (28S), ribosomal protein L32 (RPL32), β-2-microglobulin (B2M), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), succinate dehydrogenase complex (SDHA), zeta polypeptide (YWHAZ), and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT1). The HKGs expression stability data were analysed with two software packages, geNorm and NormFinder. The lowest stability values for geNorm suggests that YWHAZ and HPRT1 would be most optimal (M=0.31 and 0.32, respectively). Further, these two genes had the best pairwise stability value using NormFinder (geNorm V=0.085). Therefore, these two genes were considered the most useful for RT-qPCR studies in equine kidney. PMID:27974876

  4. Evaluation of Tamm-Horsfall protein and uroplakin III for forensic identification of urine.

    PubMed

    Akutsu, Tomoko; Ikegaya, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Ken; Fukushima, Hisayo; Motani, Hisako; Iwase, Hirotaro; Sakurada, Koichi

    2010-05-01

    In this study, Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP), a major component of urinary protein, and uroplakin III (UPIII), a transmembrane protein widely regarded as a urothelium-specific marker, were evaluated for forensic identification of urine by ELISA and/or immunohistochemistry. THP was detected in urine, but not in plasma, saliva, semen, vaginal fluid, or sweat by the simple ELISA method developed in this study. In addition, most aged urine stains showed positive results. The urine specificity of THP was confirmed by gene expression analysis. Therefore, as reported previously, ELISA detection of THP can be used as a presumptive test for urine identification. UPIII was specific for immunohistochemical staining of cells in centrifuged precipitate of urine. However, ELISA and RT-PCR for UPIII were not specific for urine. UPIII may be applicable for forensic urine identification by immunohistochemistry.

  5. [Evaluation of chromogenic medium Uriselect4 in urine culture].

    PubMed

    Ferjani, Asma; Marzouk, Manel; Idriss, Nadia; Sammoud, Sammoud; Hannachi, Naila; Boukadida, Janel

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the performance and the cost of chromogenic medium Uriselect4 agar with regard to the standard medium for the detection and identification of urinary tract pathogens. A total of 503 clinical urine specimens containing leucocytes greater or equal to 104/mL were analysed prospectively, in parallel by two different persons on blood agar (GS) and Uriselect4 according to the manufacturers' instructions. Of the 503 urine specimens tested, 210 gave a positive culture on Uriselect4 versus 181 on GS. The majority of bacterial species grew on both media; enterobacteria grew on Uriselect4 better than GS. The identification of Escherichia coli (E. coli), Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis), KES group and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) did not require the use of galleries Api and has a gain of 24  h. Positive pure cultures on Uriselect4 corresponding to negative cultures of GS were noted in 17 ases. Conversely, in seven cases a positive pure culture on GS was noted while the corresponding Uriselect4 cultures were negative. The cost of identification on GS (including the cost of galleries Api), was about two times higher than Uriselect4. Uriselect4 medium isolates the most frequent urinary tract pathogens and identify them so almost immediately, with a lower cost.

  6. Lorry drivers' work stress evaluated by catecholamines excreted in urine.

    PubMed Central

    van der Beek, A J; Meijman, T F; Frings-Dresen, M H; Kuiper, J I; Kuiper, S

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To evaluate lorry drivers' work stress by measurement of adrenaline and noradrenaline excreted in the urine, and to find out which factors in their working situation are related to the excretion rates of these catecholamines. METHODS--The urinary excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline of 32 lorry drivers, who also had loading and unloading activities to perform, was studied for one working day and one rest day. Each driver was asked to provide six urine samples on both days. RESULTS--For all samples, except the first (overnight) sample, the excretion rates of both catecholamines on the working day were higher than those on the rest day. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were carried out to find out which factors in the drivers' working situation were related to the excretion rate of the working day. The excretion rate of adrenaline on the rest day, age, and psychosomatic complaints were positively related to the excretion rate on the working day (all P < 0.05). Body mass index and physical workload during loading and unloading were positively related to noradrenaline excretion rate (both P < 0.01). Psychosocial job strain did not significantly contribute to the proportion of variance explained in the excretion rates of both catecholamines. CONCLUSIONS--The excretion rates of adrenaline and, especially, noradrenaline on the working day were higher than those found in earlier studies among professional drivers and insufficient recovery took place after the work was ended. The only association between excretion rate on the working day and work stressors was found for noradrenaline and physical workload. The drivers' sympathoadrenal medullary reactivity to everyday work demands shows the characteristics of sustained activation. PMID:7670621

  7. Microbial evaluation and public health implications of urine as alternative therapy in clinical pediatric cases: health implication of urine therapy.

    PubMed

    Ogunshe, Adenike Adedayo O; Fawole, Abosede Oyeyemi; Ajayi, Victoria Abosede

    2010-05-25

    Cultural means of pediatric treatment during ill health is a mainstay in Africa, and though urine has been known to contain enteric pathogens, urine therapy is still culturally applicable in some health conditions and also advocated as alternative therapy. The study therefore, is to evaluate the microbial contents and safety of urine. Urinary bacteria from cows and healthy children aged 5-11 years were identified by conventional phenotypic methods and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using modified agar disc and well-diffusion methods. A total of 116 bacterial isolates (n = 77 children; n = 39 cows) were identified as Bacillus (10.4%; 5.1%)), Staphylococcus (2.6%; 2.6%), Citrobacter (3.9%; 12.8%), Escherichia coli (36.4%; 23.1%), Klebsiella (7.8%; 12.8%), Proteus (18.2%; 23.1%), Pseudomonas (9.1%; 2.6%), Salmonella (3.9%; 5.1%) and Shigella (7.8%; 12.8%) spp. Antibiotic resistance rates of the Gram-positive bacteria were high (50.0100%), except in Bacillus strains against chloramphenicol, gentamicin and tetracycline (14.3%), while higher resistance rates were recorded among the Gram-negative bacteria except in Citrobacter (0.0%) and Proteus (8.5%) spp. against gentamicin and tetracycline respectively. The Gram-negative bacteria from ito malu (cow urine) were more resistant bacteria except in Citrobacter (20.0%) and Shigella spp. (0.0%) against tetracycline and Proteus spp. (11.1%), (22.2%) against amoxicillin and tetracycline respectively. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) rates recorded in children urinal bacterial species were 37.5-100% (Gram-positive) and 12.5-100% (Gram-negative), while MAR among the cow urinal bacteria was 12.5-75.0% (Gram-positive) and 25.0-100% (Gram-negative). Similar higher resistance rates were also recorded among the Gram-negative bacterial species from urine specimens against the pediatric antibiotic suspensions. The study reported presence of multiple antibiotic-resistant indicator bacteria in human urine and ito

  8. Marketing your equine practice.

    PubMed

    Magnus, Robert P

    2009-12-01

    The take-home message in marketing your equine practice is simple: understand your position in the target market and the buying behavior of your current and prospective customers. Time well spent on analysis and evaluation of options can maximize customer value in the services and products you offer. This allows you to capture profit and to attain your personal and professional goals as an equine practitioner.

  9. Uranium internal exposure evaluation based on urine assay data

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.N.P.

    1984-09-01

    The difficulties in assessing internal exposures to uranium from urine assay data are described. A simplified application of the ICRP-30 and ICRP Lung Model concepts to the estimation of uranium intake is presented. A discussion follows on the development of a computer code utilizing the ICRP-30-based uranium elimination model with the existing urine assay information. The calculated uranium exposures from 1949 through 1983 are discussed. 13 references, 1 table.

  10. Insulins in equine urine: qualitative analysis by immunoaffinity purification and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry for doping control purposes in horse-racing.

    PubMed

    Kuuranne, Tiia; Thomas, Andreas; Leinonen, Antti; Delahaut, Philippe; Bosseloir, Alan; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Insulin is a peptide hormone consisting of two peptide chains (A- and B-chain) that are cross-linked by two disulfide bonds. To obtain improved pharmacokinetic onset of action profiles of insulin treatment in diabetic patients, recombinant long-, intermediate-, and rapid-acting insulin analogs are produced, in which the C-terminal end of the B-chain plays an especially important role.A review of the veterinary literature reveals the low prevalence of equine type I diabetes mellitus, which indicates that the therapeutic use of insulin in racing horses is unlikely. Although there is no unequivocal evidence of an overall performance-enhancing effect of insulin, in human sports the misuse of insulin preparations is reported among elite athletes. The desired effects of insulin include the increase of muscular glycogen prior to sports event or during the recovery phase, in addition to a chalonic action, which increases the muscle size by inhibiting protein breakdown. In the present study urinary insulin was detected in equine samples and differences between equine insulin, human insulin, as well as rapidly acting recombinant insulin variants were examined. The method was based on sample purification by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC), and subsequent analysis by microbore liquid chromatography (LC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using top-down sequencing for the determination of various insulins. Product ion scan experiments of intact proteins and B-chains enabled the differentiation between endogenously produced equine insulin, its DesB30 metabolite, human insulin and recombinant insulin analogs, and the assay allowed the assignment of individual product ions, especially those originating from modified C-termini of B-chains. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The evaluation of three diagnostic tests for the detection of equine influenza nucleoprotein in nasal swabs

    PubMed Central

    Galvin, Pamela; Gildea, Sarah; Nelly, Maura; Quinlivan, Michelle; Arkins, Sean; Walsh, Cathal; Cullinane, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Background Equine influenza (EI) is a highly contagious respiratory disease of horses. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate two rapid antigen detection kits (Directigen or DFA, and Espline) and a commercial ELISA for the detection of EI nucleoprotein in nasal swabs. Method Nasal swab samples from naturally and experimentally infected horses were used to compare the sensitivity and specificity of these assays to virus isolation (VI) and real-time RT-PCR. Results If real-time RT-PCR was considered as the gold standard, the sensitivity of the other tests in field samples was 68% (DFA), 35% (ELISA), 29% (Espline), and 9% (VI). These tests had 100% specificity when compared to real-time RT-PCR. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve indicated that decreasing the cutoff of the ELISA would increase sensitivity with some loss of specificity. In samples from experimentally infected horses, the sensitivity of the tests compared with real-time RT-PCR was 69% (VI), 27% (DFA), 6% (Espline), and 2% (ELISA). The specificity was 100% for Espline and ELISA and 95% for VI and DFA. Conclusions This study illustrated that DFA is the most sensitive antigen detection test evaluated for the diagnosis of EI and that it can detect virus in some subclinical infected and vaccinated horses. The results suggest that DFA is a useful adjunct to laboratory tests and may be effective as a screening test in a quarantine station or similar facility where horses are monitored daily. PMID:24512560

  12. Applied equine genetics

    PubMed Central

    FINNO, C. J.; BANNASCH, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Genome sequencing of the domestic horse and subsequent advancements in the field of equine genomics have led to an explosion in the development of tools for mapping traits and diseases and evaluating gene expression. The objective of this review is to discuss the current progress in the field of equine genomics, with specific emphasis on assembly and analysis of the reference sequence and subsequent sequencing of a Quarter Horse mare; the genomic tools currently available to researchers and their implications in genomic investigations in the horse; the genomics of Mendelian and non-Mendelian traits; the genomics of performance traits and considerations regarding genetic testing in the horse. The whole-genome sequencing of a Quarter Horse mare has provided additional variants within the equine genome that extend past single nucleotide polymorphisms to include insertions/deletions and copy number variants. Equine single nucleotide polymorphism arrays have allowed for the investigation of both simple and complex genetic traits while DNA microarrays have provided a tool for examining gene expression across various tissues and with certain disease conditions. Recently, next-generation sequencing has become more affordable and both whole-genome DNA sequencing and transcriptome-wide RNA sequencing are methodologies that are being applied to equine genomic research. Research in the field of equine genomics continues to expand rapidly as the cost of genotyping and sequencing decreases, resulting in a need for quality bioinformatics software and expertise to appropriately handle both the size and complexity of these data. PMID:24802051

  13. Evaluation of a commercially available human serum amyloid A (SAA) turbidometric immunoassay for determination of equine SAA concentrations.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, S; Kjelgaard-Hansen, M; Hagbard Petersen, H; Jensen, A L

    2006-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether equine serum amyloid A (SAA) concentrations could be measured reliably with a turbidometric immunoassay (TIA) developed for use with human serum. Intra- and inter-assay imprecision were evaluated by multiple measurements on equine serum pools. Assay inaccuracy was determined by linearity under dilution. The assay was subsequently used for measuring SAA concentrations in clinically healthy horses, horses with inflammatory diseases, horses with non-inflammatory diseases, and in horses before and after castration. In pools with low, intermediate and high SAA concentrations, the intra-assay imprecisions were 24.4%, 1.6% and 2.1%, and the inter-assay imprecisions were 33.2%, 4.6% and 6.5%. Slight signs of inaccuracy were observed, but these inaccuracies were negligible when considering the large dynamic range of the SAA response. The assay was able to detect the expected difference in SAA levels in different groups of horses. It was also able to demonstrate the expected dynamic changes in SAA after castration. In conclusion, equine SAA concentrations can be measured reliably using the TIA designed for human SAA.

  14. EVALUATION OF DISPOSABLE DIAPERS FOR QUANTATIVE MEASUREMENTS OF PESTICIDE METABOLITES AND CREATININE IN URINE SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project consisted of a laboratory study to evaluate an extraction and analysis method for quantifying biomarkers of pesticide exposure and creatinine in urine samples collected with commercially-available disposable diapers. For large exposure studies, such as the National ...

  15. EVALUATION OF DISPOSABLE DIAPERS FOR QUANTATIVE MEASUREMENTS OF PESTICIDE METABOLITES AND CREATININE IN URINE SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project consisted of a laboratory study to evaluate an extraction and analysis method for quantifying biomarkers of pesticide exposure and creatinine in urine samples collected with commercially-available disposable diapers. For large exposure studies, such as the National ...

  16. Evaluation and analytical validation of a handheld digital refractometer for urine specific gravity measurement.

    PubMed

    Wyness, Sara P; Hunsaker, Joshua J H; Snow, Taylor M; Genzen, Jonathan R

    2016-08-01

    Refractometers are commonly used to determine urine specific gravity (SG) in the assessment of hydration status and urine specimen validity testing. Few comprehensive performance evaluations are available demonstrating refractometer capability from a clinical laboratory perspective. The objective of this study was therefore to conduct an analytical validation of a handheld digital refractometer used for human urine SG testing. A MISCO Palm Abbe™ refractometer was used for all experiments, including device familiarization, carryover, precision, accuracy, linearity, analytical sensitivity, evaluation of potential substances which contribute to SG (i.e. "interference"), and reference interval evaluation. A manual refractometer, urine osmometer, and a solute score (sum of urine chloride, creatinine, glucose, potassium, sodium, total protein, and urea nitrogen; all in mg/dL) were used as comparative methods for accuracy assessment. Significant carryover was not observed. A wash step was still included as good laboratory practice. Low imprecision (%CV, <0.01) was demonstrated using low and high QC material. Accuracy studies showed strong correlation to manual refractometry. Linear correlation was also demonstrated between SG, osmolality, and solute score. Linearity of Palm Abbe performance was verified with observed error of ≤0.1%. Increases in SG were observed with increasing concentrations of albumin, creatinine, glucose, hemoglobin, sodium chloride, and urea. Transference of a previously published urine SG reference interval of 1.0020-1.0300 was validated. The Palm Abbe digital refractometer was a fast, simple, and accurate way to measure urine SG. Analytical validity was confirmed by the present experiments.

  17. In vitro biomechanical evaluation of four surgical techniques for fusion of equine centrodistal and tarsometatarsal joints.

    PubMed

    Biedrzycki, Adam H; Grant, Barrie G; Nemke, Brett; Morello, Samantha L; Markel, Mark D

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the biomechanical properties of 4 methods for fusion of the centrodistal and tarsometatarsal joints in horses and compare them among each other and with control tarsi. SAMPLE 24 sets of paired tarsi without substantial signs of osteoarthritis harvested from equine cadavers. PROCEDURES Test constructs (n = 6/type) were prepared from 1 tarsus from each pair to represent surgical drilling; 2 medially to laterally placed kerf-cut cylinders (MLKCs); a single large, dorsally applied kerf-cut cylinder (DKC); and a dorsomedially applied locking compression plate (DMLCP). Constructs and their contralateral control tarsi were evaluated in 4-point bending in the dorsoplantar, lateromedial, and mediolateral directions; internal and external rotation; and axial compression. Bending, torsional, and axial stiffness values were calculated. RESULTS Mean stiffness values were consistently lower for surgical drilling constructs than for contralateral control tarsi. Over all biomechanical testing, surgical drilling significantly reduced joint stability. The MLKC constructs had superior biomechanical properties to those of control tarsi for 4-point bending but inferior properties for external and internal rotation. The DMLCP and DKC constructs were superior to control tarsi in dorsoplantar, rotational, and axial compression directions only; DMLCP constructs had no superior stiffness in lateromedial or mediolateral directions. Only the DKC constructs had greater stiffness in the mediolateral direction than did control tarsi. Over all biomechanical testing, DMLCP and DKC constructs were superior to the other constructs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE These biomechanical results suggested that a surgical drilling approach to joint fusion may reduce tarsal stability in horses without clinical osteoarthritis, compared with stability with no intervention, whereas the DMLCP and DKC approaches may significantly enhance stability.

  18. Validation of a Laboratory Method for Evaluating Dynamic Properties of Reconstructed Equine Racetrack Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Setterbo, Jacob J.; Chau, Anh; Fyhrie, Patricia B.; Hubbard, Mont; Upadhyaya, Shrini K.; Symons, Jennifer E.; Stover, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Racetrack surface is a risk factor for racehorse injuries and fatalities. Current research indicates that race surface mechanical properties may be influenced by material composition, moisture content, temperature, and maintenance. Race surface mechanical testing in a controlled laboratory setting would allow for objective evaluation of dynamic properties of surface and factors that affect surface behavior. Objective To develop a method for reconstruction of race surfaces in the laboratory and validate the method by comparison with racetrack measurements of dynamic surface properties. Methods Track-testing device (TTD) impact tests were conducted to simulate equine hoof impact on dirt and synthetic race surfaces; tests were performed both in situ (racetrack) and using laboratory reconstructions of harvested surface materials. Clegg Hammer in situ measurements were used to guide surface reconstruction in the laboratory. Dynamic surface properties were compared between in situ and laboratory settings. Relationships between racetrack TTD and Clegg Hammer measurements were analyzed using stepwise multiple linear regression. Results Most dynamic surface property setting differences (racetrack-laboratory) were small relative to surface material type differences (dirt-synthetic). Clegg Hammer measurements were more strongly correlated with TTD measurements on the synthetic surface than the dirt surface. On the dirt surface, Clegg Hammer decelerations were negatively correlated with TTD forces. Conclusions Laboratory reconstruction of racetrack surfaces guided by Clegg Hammer measurements yielded TTD impact measurements similar to in situ values. The negative correlation between TTD and Clegg Hammer measurements confirms the importance of instrument mass when drawing conclusions from testing results. Lighter impact devices may be less appropriate for assessing dynamic surface properties compared to testing equipment designed to simulate hoof impact (TTD

  19. Metabolic Acidosis or Respiratory Alkalosis? Evaluation of a Low Plasma Bicarbonate Using the Urine Anion Gap.

    PubMed

    Batlle, Daniel; Chin-Theodorou, Jamie; Tucker, Bryan M

    2017-09-01

    Hypobicarbonatemia, or a reduced bicarbonate concentration in plasma, is a finding seen in 3 acid-base disorders: metabolic acidosis, chronic respiratory alkalosis and mixed metabolic acidosis and chronic respiratory alkalosis. Hypobicarbonatemia due to chronic respiratory alkalosis is often misdiagnosed as a metabolic acidosis and mistreated with the administration of alkali therapy. Proper diagnosis of the cause of hypobicarbonatemia requires integration of the laboratory values, arterial blood gas, and clinical history. The information derived from the urinary response to the prevailing acid-base disorder is useful to arrive at the correct diagnosis. We discuss the use of urine anion gap, as a surrogate marker of urine ammonium excretion, in the evaluation of a patient with low plasma bicarbonate concentration to differentiate between metabolic acidosis and chronic respiratory alkalosis. The interpretation and limitations of urine acid-base indexes at bedside (urine pH, urine bicarbonate, and urine anion gap) to evaluate urine acidification are discussed. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fasting versus 24-h urine pH in the evaluation of nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Capolongo, Giovanna; Sakhaee, Khashayar; Pak, Charles Y C; Maalouf, Naim M

    2011-10-01

    An abnormal urinary pH (UpH) represents an important risk factor for nephrolithiasis. In some stone formers, a fasting urine specimen is obtained instead of a 24-h urine collection for stone risk evaluation. We examined the relationship between 24-h and fasting UpH in non-stone forming individuals and stone formers with various etiologies and a wide range of urine pH to test the validity of fasting UpH. Data from 159 subjects was examined in this retrospective study. We included non-stone forming subjects and stone formers with hypercalciuria, distal renal tubular acidosis, idiopathic uric acid nephrolithiasis, or chronic diarrhea. Participants collected a 24-h urine followed by a 2-h fasting urine. For the entire cohort, a significant correlation was seen between fasting and 24-h UpH (r (2) = 0.49, p < 0.001). Fasting pH was significantly higher than 24-h UpH for the entire cohort (6.02 ± 0.63 vs. 5.89 ± 0.51; p < 0.001), and in the subgroups of non-stone formers and stone formers with hypercalciuria or distal renal tubular acidosis. Fasting UpH was >0.2 pH units different from 24-h UpH in 58% of participants. The difference between fasting and 24-h UpH did not correlate with net gastrointestinal alkali absorption or urine sulfate, suggesting that dietary factors alone cannot explain this difference in UpH. Fasting urine pH correlates moderately with 24-h urine pH in a large cohort of individuals. Significant variability between these two parameters is seen in individual patients, emphasizing the cardinal role of 24-h urine collection for evaluating UpH in nephrolithiasis.

  1. Fasting versus 24-h urine pH in the evaluation of nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Capolongo, Giovanna; Sakhaee, Khashayar; Pak, Charles Y. C.

    2014-01-01

    An abnormal urinary pH (UpH) represents an important risk factor for nephrolithiasis. In some stone formers, a fasting urine specimen is obtained instead of a 24-h urine collection for stone risk evaluation. We examined the relationship between 24-h and fasting UpH in non-stone forming individuals and stone formers with various etiologies and a wide range of urine pH to test the validity of fasting UpH. Data from 159 subjects was examined in this retrospective study. We included non-stone forming subjects and stone formers with hypercalciuria, distal renal tubular acidosis, idiopathic uric acid nephrolithiasis, or chronic diarrhea. Participants collected a 24-h urine followed by a 2-h fasting urine. For the entire cohort, a significant correlation was seen between fasting and 24-h UpH (r2 = 0.49, p < 0.001). Fasting pH was significantly higher than 24-h UpH for the entire cohort (6.02 ± 0.63 vs. 5.89 ± 0.51; p < 0.001), and in the subgroups of non-stone formers and stone formers with hypercalciuria or distal renal tubular acidosis. Fasting UpH was >0.2 pH units different from 24-h UpH in 58% of participants. The difference between fasting and 24-h UpH did not correlate with net gastrointestinal alkali absorption or urine sulfate, suggesting that dietary factors alone cannot explain this difference in UpH. Fasting urine pH correlates moderately with 24-h urine pH in a large cohort of individuals. Significant variability between these two parameters is seen in individual patients, emphasizing the cardinal role of 24-h urine collection for evaluating UpH in nephrolithiasis. PMID:21336574

  2. Evaluation of the qualitative and quantitative effectiveness of three media of centrifugation (Maxifreeze, Cushion Fluid Equine, and PureSperm 100) in preparation of fresh or frozen-thawed brown bear spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, M; Alvarez, M; Borragán, S; Martinez-Pastor, F; Chamorro, C A; Alvarez-Rodriguez, M; de Paz, P; Anel, L

    2012-04-01

    Centrifugation is a crucial procedure in sperm cryopreservation protocols of brown bear (Ursus arctos), because the semen must be processed to increase sperm concentration and/or clean urine-contaminated samples. The efficacy of three media for centrifugation (Maxifreeze [IMV technologies, L'Aigle, France], Cushion Fluid Equine (Minitübe, Tiefenbach, Germany), and PureSperm [Nidacon, Gothenburg, Sweden]) on the quality of bear spermatozoa was evaluated. In experiment one, two cushioned media used for protecting against mechanical stress during centrifugation were analyzed. In experiment two, a density gradient based on PureSperm was assessed in relation to the maximum retrieval and the quality of fresh spermatozoa, and the freezability of the spermatozoa selected in this density gradient was studied in experiment three. Finally, the selection of frozen-thawed sperm using PureSperm was analyzed in experiment four. Our results indicate that the use of dense isotonic cushion solutions (Maxifreeze, Cushion Fluid Equine) in centrifugation did not improve the quality of recovered spermatozoa compared with standard centrifugation. However, a density gradient prepared with PureSperm improved the quality of spermatozoa in fresh semen and frozen-thawed semen, but the spermatozoa selected from the fresh sample with this density gradient did not show a better resistance to freezing with this density gradient in comparison with the control sample. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluating the effectiveness of early vaccination in the control and eradication of equine influenza--a modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Garner, M G; Cowled, B; East, I J; Moloney, B J; Kung, N Y

    2011-04-01

    In August 2007, Australia which had previously been free of equine influenza, experienced a large outbreak that lasted approximately 4 months before it was eradicated. The outbreak required a significant national response by government and the horse industries. The main components of the response were movement controls, biosecurity measures, risk-based zoning and, subsequently, vaccination to contain the outbreak. Although not initially used, vaccination became a key element in the eradication program, with approximately 140000 horses vaccinated. Vaccination is recognised as a valuable tool for managing EI in endemically infected countries but there is little experience using it in situations where the objective is disease eradication. Vaccination was undoubtedly an important factor in 2007 as it enabled movements of some horses and associated industry activities to recommence. However, its contribution to containment and eradication is less clear. A premises-level equine influenza model, based on an epidemiological analysis of the 2007 outbreak, was developed to evaluate effectiveness of the mitigation strategies used and to investigate whether vaccination, if applied earlier, would have had an effect on the course of the outbreak. The results indicate that early use of strategic vaccination could have significantly reduced the size of the outbreak. The four vaccination strategies evaluated had, by 1 month into the control program, reduced the number of new infections on average by 60% and the size of the infected area by 8-9%. If resources are limited, a 1 km suppressive ring vaccination around infected premises gave the best results, but with greater vaccination capacity, a 3 km ring vaccination was the most effective strategy. The findings suggest that as well as reducing clinical and economic impacts, vaccination when used with biosecurity measures and movement controls could play an important role in the containment and eradication of equine influenza. Crown

  4. An Evaluation of Some Commercial Test Papers and Tablets for the Determination of Glucose in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Logan, J. E.; Haight, D. E.

    1964-01-01

    The commercial test papers, Tes-Tape, Clinistix, Uristix and Combistix, and the tablet preparation, Clinitest, were evaluated as indicators of glucose in urine by means of a quantitative automated glucose oxidase procedure for glucose determination. The semiquantitative Tes-Tape yielded very low values on urine specimens when compared with the quantitative method. More reliable results could be obtained with this product if the urine specimens were first treated with a mixed bed resin to remove inhibitors of the glucose oxidase peroxidase system. The qualitative test papers, Clinistix, Uristix and Combistix, yielded responses in closer agreement with the automated data, the best performance being obtained with Clinistix. The semiquantitative Clinitest tablets generally yielded more accurate results on a direct urine test than did Tes-Tape, although the Clinitest tablet is designed to measure total reducing substances rather than glucose alone. PMID:14175875

  5. In vivo biotransformation of 17 alpha-methyltestosterone in the horse revisited: identification of 17-hydroxymethyl metabolites in equine urine by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dumasia, M C

    2003-01-01

    The in vivo phase I biotransformation of 17 alpha-methyltestosterone in the horse leads to the formation of a complex mixture of regio- and stereoisomeric C(20)O(2), C(20)O(3) and C(20)O(4) metabolites, excreted in urine as glucuronide and sulphate phase II conjugates. The major pathways of in vivo metabolism are the reduction of the A-ring (di- and tetrahydro), epimerisation at C-17 and oxidations mainly at C-6 and C-16. Some phase I metabolites have been identified previously by positive ion electron ionisation capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/EI + MS) mainly from the characteristic fragmentation patterns of their methyloxime-trimethylsilyl ether (MO-TMS), enol-TMS or TMS ether derivatives. Following oral administration of 17 alpha-methyltestosterone to two castrated thoroughbred male horses, the glucuronic acid conjugates excreted in post-administration urine samples were selectively hydrolysed by E. coli beta-glucuronidase enzymes. Unconjugated metabolites and the steroid aglycones obtained after enzymatic deconjugation were isolated from urine by solid-phase extraction, derivatised as MO-TMS ethers and analysed by GC/EI + MS. In addition to some of the known metabolites previously identified from the characteristic mass spectral fragmentation patterns of 17 alpha-methyl steroids, some isobaric compounds exhibiting a diagnostic loss of 103 mass units from the molecular ions with subsequent losses of trimethylsilanol or methoxy groups and an absence of the classical D-ring fragment ion were detected. From an interpretation of their mass spectra, these compounds were identified as 17-hydroxymethyl metabolites, formed in vivo in the horse by oxidation of the 17-methyl moiety of 17 alpha-methyltestosterone. This study reports on the GC/EI + MS identification of these novel 17-hydroxymethyl C(20)O(3) and C(20)O(4) metabolites of 17 alpha-methyltestosterone excreted in thoroughbred horse urine.

  6. Evaluation of the ARCHITECT urine NGAL assay: assay performance, specimen handling requirements and biological variability.

    PubMed

    Grenier, Frank C; Ali, Salman; Syed, Hina; Workman, Ryan; Martens, Frans; Liao, Ming; Wang, Y; Wong, Pui-Yuen

    2010-04-01

    NGAL (Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin) has emerged as a new biomarker for the identification of acute kidney injury. Reliable clinical evaluations require a simple, robust test method for NGAL, and knowledge of specimen handling and specimen stability characteristics. We evaluated the performance of a new urine NGAL assay on the ARCHITECT analyzer. Assay performance characteristics were evaluated using standard protocols. Urine specimen storage requirements were determined and biological variability was assessed in a self-declared apparently healthy population. Assay performance data showed good precision, sensitivity and lot-to-lot reproducibility. There was good short term 2-8 degrees C sample stability, however, long term storage samples must be kept at -70 degrees C or colder. The largest variance component in a biological variance study was within-day. The ARCHITECT NGAL assay proved to be a precise and reproducible assay for the determination of urine NGAL. Copyright 2009 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapid one step urine test for human chorionic gonadotrophin in evaluating suspected complications of early pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Kingdom, J C; Kelly, T; MacLean, A B; McAllister, E J

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the ability of a sensitive one step urine test to detect human chorionic gonadotrophin in women with suspected complications of early pregnancy. DESIGN--Test on women presenting to accident and emergency department with gynaecological problems over six months. Results were validated using a quantitative assay for human chorionic gonadotrophin in serum and urine. SETTING--Accident and emergency department and gynaecology wards of a university teaching hospital. SUBJECTS--130 unselected women. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Detection of human chorionic gonadotrophin by one step test, presence of ectopic pregnancy, and results of quantitative analysis of chorionic gonadotrophin in serum and urine. RESULTS--79 women had a positive urine test result and 51 a negative result. All 12 women with ectopic pregnancy had a positive test result, although urinary concentration varied from 191 IU/l to 47,800 IU/l. Only one woman, who had a faintly positive result, was found not to be pregnant on subsequent examination. The sensitivity and negative predictive values of the urine test were 100% respectively. 33 women were sent home from the accident and emergency department with normal clinical findings after a negative urine test result. All these women had undetectable concentrations of chorionic gonadotrophin in matched samples of urine and serum. CONCLUSIONS--A simple, rapid one step test for chorionic gonadotrophin should be available for the initial evaluation of emergency gynaecological problems. The additional cost of the test is offset by not admitting those patients whose clinical findings are normal and who have a negative urine test result and by reducing the number of women requiring quantitative assays of chorionic gonadotrophin. Images FIG 1 PMID:2059687

  8. Advances in equine dental radiology.

    PubMed

    Baratt, Robert

    2013-08-01

    Although diagnostic images can be obtained with traditional rare-earth film-screen combinations, digital radiography (DR) has enhanced the ability of the general practitioner to obtain diagnostic radiographs of the equine head. With the widespread availability of DR in equine practices, the practitioner can more readily learn the correct positioning for the various projections of the equine head that are used to evaluate the dentition and sinuses. Digital systems provide rapid processing of the image, enabling the practitioner to correct positioning errors and retake the image without significant delay.

  9. Equine Welfare during Exercise: An Evaluation of Breathing, Breathlessness and Bridles

    PubMed Central

    Mellor, David J.; Beausoleil, Ngaio J.

    2017-01-01

    existing literature on equine cardiorespiratory physiology and athletic performance to evaluate the potential for various types of breathlessness to occur in exercising horses. In addition, we investigate the influence of management factors such as rein and bit use and of respiratory pathology on the likelihood and intensity of equine breathlessness occurring during exercise. In ridden horses, rein use that reduces the jowl angle, sometimes markedly, and conditions that partially obstruct the nasopharynx and/or larynx, impair airflow in the upper respiratory tract and lead to increased flow resistance. The associated upper airway pressure changes, transmitted to the lower airways, may have pathophysiological sequelae in the alveolae, which, in their turn, may increase airflow resistance in the lower airways and impede respiratory gas exchange. Other sequelae include decreases in respiratory minute volume and worsening of the hypoxaemia, hypercapnia and acidaemia commonly observed in healthy horses during strenuous exercise. These and other factors are implicated in the potential for ridden horses to experience three forms of breathlessness—”unpleasant respiratory effort”, “air hunger” and “chest tightness”—which arise when there is a mismatch between a heightened ventilatory drive and the adequacy of the respiratory response. It is not known to what extent, if at all, such mismatches would occur in strenuously exercising horses unhampered by low jowl angles or by pathophysiological changes at any level of the respiratory tract. However, different combinations of the three types of breathlessness seem much more likely to occur when pathophysiological conditions significantly reduce maximal athletic performance. Finally, most horses exhibit clear behavioural evidence of aversion to a bit in their mouths, varying from the bit being a mild irritant to very painful. This in itself is a significant animal welfare issue that should be addressed. A further major

  10. Evaluation of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry for in situ measurement of bone mineral density of equine metacarpi.

    PubMed

    McClure, S R; Glickman, L T; Glickman, N W; Weaver, C M

    2001-05-01

    To determine the accuracy and precision of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) for measuring bone mineral density in horses in situ. Sample Population-12 randomly selected forelimbs from 12 horses. Metacarpi were scanned in 2 planes and DEXA measurements obtained for 6 regions of interest (ROI). Each ROI was isolated and bone density measured by Archimedes' principle. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the correlation between the 2 measurements at each ROI. An additional metacarpus was measured 10 times to determine the coefficient of variation for both techniques. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and bone density were significantly associated at multiple ROI. The addition of age, weight, and soft tissue or bone thickness improved these associations. Repeated measurements had a low coefficient of variation. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry can be used to accurately and precisely measure the bone density in the equine metacarpus. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry appears suitable for serial in vivo measurement of bone density of the equine metacarpus. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry may be used for studies to evaluate the effects of diet or drugs on bone density or density changes from bone remodeling that develop prior to stress fractures.

  11. Evaluation of metaphylactic RNA interference to prevent equine herpesvirus type 1 infection in experimental herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy in horses.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Gillian A; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R; Pusterla, Nicola; Erb, Hollis N; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate metaphylactic RNA interference to prevent equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) infection in experimental herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy in horses and to determine whether horses infected with a neuropathogenic strain of the virus that develop equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM) have differences in viremia. 13 seronegative horses. EHV-1 strain Ab4 was administered intranasally on day 0, and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs [EHV-1 specific siRNAs {n = 7} or an irrelevant siRNA {6}]) were administered intranasally 24 hours before and 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after infection. Physical and neurologic examinations, nasal swab specimens, and blood samples were collected for virus isolation and quantitative PCR assay. Data from the study were combined with data from a previous study of 14 horses. No significant difference was detected in clinical variables, viremia, or detection of EHV-1 in nasal swab specimens of horses treated with the EHV-1 targeted siRNAs (sigB3-siOri2) versus controls. No significant differences in viremia were detected between horses that developed EHM and those that did not. Administration of siRNAs targeted against EHV-1 around the time of EHV-1 infection was not protective with this experimental design. Horses infected with the neuropathogenic EHV-1 strain Ab4 that developed EHM did not have a more pronounced viremia.

  12. Evaluation of the Coat-A-Count sup 125 I fentanyl RIA: Comparison of sup 12 5I RIA and GC/MS-SIM for quantification of fentanyl in case urine specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, V.W.; Caplan, Y.H. )

    1990-09-01

    The Coat-A-Count solid phase {sup 125}I Fentanyl Radioimmunoassay was evaluated with respect to linearity and precision using equine urine fortified with fentanyl and then compared with a gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric method for quantification of fentanyl in urine. The RIA assay was found to be linear over the urine fentanyl concentration range of 0.25 to 7.5 ng/mL and precise with coefficients of variation (CV) ranging from 9.6 to 19.3%. The RIA calibrators, ranging in fentanyl concentrations from 0.25 to 7.5 ng/mL, and controls, at mean fentanyl concentrations of 0.46 and 1.32 ng/mL, were compared by both the RIA and GC/MS methods. The cross-reactivity with the {sup 125}I RIA test was determined for the fentanyl metabolites, norfentanyl and hydroxyfentanyl, and found to be 5% and 35%, respectively. The illicit fentanyl analogs were found to show significant cross-reactivity, ranging from 20 to 100%. The {sup 125}I RIA was compared to GC/MS quantifications of fentanyl in 35 positive and 20 negative case urine specimens.

  13. Equine Piroplasmosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Equine piroplasmosis is an infectious, tick-borne disease caused by the hemoprotozoan parasites Theileria (previously Babesia) equi and Babesia caballi. Piroplasmosis affects all wild and domestic equid species and causes signs related to intravascular hemolysis and associated systemic illness. Infe...

  14. Evaluation of ultrasound velocity in enucleated equine aqueous humor, lens and vitreous body.

    PubMed

    Meister, Ulrike; Ohnesorge, Bernhard; Körner, Daniel; Boevé, Michael H

    2014-10-14

    Sonographic ophthalmic examinations have become increasingly important in veterinary medicine. If the velocity of ultrasound in ocular tissues is known, the A-mode ultrasound method may be used to determine the axial intraocular distances, such as anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, axial length of the vitreous and axial globe length, which are required for intraocular lens (IOL) power calculations. To the authors' knowledge, the velocity of ultrasound in the ocular tissues of the horse was not previously determined. In the present study, 33 lenses, 29 samples of aqueous and 31 of vitreous from 35 healthy equine eyes have been examined. The corresponding ultrasound velocities are reported in dependence of age, temperature, gender and elapsed time after enucleation. The velocity of ultrasound at 36°C in equine aqueous, lens and vitreous are 1529 ±10 m/s, 1654± 29 m/s and 1527 ±16 m/s respectively, and the corresponding conversion factors are 0.998± 0.007, 1.008 ±0.018 and 0.997 ±0.010. A linear increase of the speed of ultrasound with increasing temperature has been determined for aqueous and vitreous. No temperature dependence was found for the speed of ultrasound in the lens. The ultrasound velocity did not significantly differ (95%) on the basis of gender, age or time after enucleation during the first 72 hours after death. Compared to human eyes, the ultrasound velocity in equine lental tissue deviates by one percent. Therefore, axial length measurements obtained with ultrasound velocities for the human eye must be corrected using conversion factors. For the aqueous and vitreous, deviations are below one percent and can be neglected in clinical settings.

  15. Radiographical assessment of interphalangeal rotation in the evaluation of equine digital conformation.

    PubMed

    Caudron, I; Grülke, S; Gabriel, A; Serteyn, D

    1997-01-01

    This study is a part of a work to design a radiographical method to objectively define the conformation of an equine digit and to assess the individual appropriate trimming of a horse. Various angles were measured directly from the phalangeal bones. The authors observed that the bone relief of the sesamoid ligament insertions on the proximal phalanx was an essential landmark to determine the phalangeal alignment. The same angles were measured from specific radiographs and made it possible to quantify the rotation imposed to the proximal phalanx. The authors also noticed that the phalangeal rotation had little influence on the radiographic image of articular asymmetry.

  16. Detection of flunixin in equine urine using high-performance liquid chromatography with particle beam and atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Stanley, S M; Owens, N A; Rodgers, J P

    1995-05-05

    A normal-phase HPLC method combined with particle-beam mass spectrometry (PB-MS) was developed for the analysis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The forty one NSAIDs analysed responded in one or more (electron impact, positive and negative chemical ionisation) modes and highly characteristic spectra were produced. A mixed-mode solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for isolating acidic NSAIDs was developed using the Bond Elut Certify II cartridge. The average recovery was 88.5%. Flunixin, extracted by SPE from urine of a mare to which the meglumine salt had been administered was positively identified by HPLC-PB-MS and HPLC-atmospheric pressure ionization (API) MS methods.

  17. Ionized calcium and cyclic AMP in plasma and urine. Biochemical evaluation in calcium metabolic disease.

    PubMed

    Thode, J

    1990-01-01

    Measurement of ionized calcium and cAMP in plasma and urine are used as sensitive parameters for the evaluation of calcium disorders. Ionized calcium is accepted as the biologically active form of calcium in the extracellular fluid, while urine cAMP provides an in vivo receptor assay for the biologically active parathyroid hormone. When urine is included as part of the calcium metabolic investigation it usually requires 24 h urine collection with a variety of different laboratory tests. Ionized calcium and cAMP are described in the literature in terms of several derived quantities, nomenclatures, and units which are rather unsystematic. The author developed reliable techniques and proposed systematic names and symbols and reference values for these quantities. Due to the lack of guidelines for the collection of urines in calcium metabolic evaluation, the author presented a simplified protocol (4 h standardized urine collection). In clinical investigation plasma and urine cAMP have been used to differentiate idiopathic hypoparathyroidism from pseudohypoparathyroidism (PsHP) based on the results of i.v. injection of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Nephrogenous cAMP has also been used for the detection of primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism with a high nosographic sensitivity (90%) (Broadus). The author showed that measurement of cAMP after i.v. PTH was a reliable and sensitive test to establish the diagnosis of PsHP, and that the urinary cAMP was useful for the diagnosis of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with jejunoileal bypass, but could not confirm the high nosographic sensitivity for the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism. Further data are needed for proper conclusion. Although pursued vigorously the research into idiopathic stone formation using different protocols has not prevented stone recurrence nor indicated where further progress might be made. For the evaluation of recurrent calcium disease, the author proposed a simplified 4 h

  18. Evaluation of the presence of equine viral herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) and equine viral herpesvirus 4 (EHV-4) DNA in stallion semen using polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    PubMed

    Hebia-Fellah, Imen; Léauté, Anne; Fiéni, Francis; Zientara, Stéphan; Imbert-Marcille, Berthe-Marie; Besse, Bernard; Fortier, Guillaume; Pronost, Stephane; Miszczak, Fabien; Ferry, Bénédicte; Thorin, Chantal; Pellerin, Jean-Louis; Bruyas, Jean-François

    2009-06-01

    In the horse, the risk of excretion of two major equine pathogens (equine herpesvirus types 1 (EHV-1) and 4 (EHV-4)) in semen is unknown. The objective of our study was to assess the possible risks for the horizontal transmission of equine rhinopneumonitis herpesviruses via the semen and the effect of the viruses on stallion fertility. Samples of stallion semen (n=390) were gathered from several different sources. Examination of the semen involved the detection of viral DNA using specific PCR. The mean fertility of the stallions whose sperm tested positive for viral DNA and the mean fertility of stallions whose sperm did not contain viral DNA, were compared using the Student's t-test. EHV-4 viral DNA was not detected in any of the semen samples. EHV-1 DNA was identified in 51 of the 390 samples, (13%). One hundred and eighty-two samples came from 6 studs and there was significant difference (p<0.05) among the proportion of stallions whose semen tested positive for viral DNA from 0 to 55% between the studs. There was a significant difference (p<0.014) between the fertility of stallions whose semen tested positive for viral DNA and those whose semen was free from viral DNA. The stallions that excreted the EHV-1 virus in their semen appeared to be more fertile than the non-excretors, but this difference was in fact related to the breeding technique since higher proportion of excretors were found among those whose semen was used fresh rather than preserved by cooling or freezing. In conclusion, this study suggests that the EHV-1 virus may be transmitted via the semen at mating or by artificial insemination as demonstrated with other herpes viruses in other species.

  19. A multiregional Italian cohort of 24-hour urine metabolic evaluation in renal stone formers.

    PubMed

    Esperto, Francesco; Marangella, Martino; Trinchieri, Alberto; Petrarulo, Michele; Miano, Roberto

    2017-09-07

    Nephrolithiasis is a common condition with several studies documenting an increased prevalence over the past four decades. EAU and AUA guidelines recommend 24-hour urine metabolic evaluation in high-risk stone formers. Aim of this study is to retrospectively evaluate the first three years of experience with Lithotest® (Biohealth Italia Srl, Turin, Italy) through the analysis of demographic, clinical and biochemical data collected from a large cohort of patients with kidney stones. We retrospectively analysed data from the LithoCenter database, including data from outpatient consultations, between January 2007 and December 2009 from all over Italy. Lithotest® was performed through a 24-h urine collection and included measurements of urine volume and pH, 24-h excretion of creatinine as well as main cations and anions, including calcium, magnesium sodium potassium, ammonium, uric acid, oxalate, citrate, phosphate, inorganic sulphate and chloride. Urine state of saturation for calcium oxalate (ßCaOx), calcium hydrogen phosphate or brushite (ßbsh) and uric acid (ßUA) were also calculated by means of the computer program Lithorisk. Brand's test for cystinuria was also carried out. Statistical analysis was performed using the S-PSS 22.0 software. The number of patients with data available for analysis was 435, 236 males (54%) and 199 females (46%). Complete 24-h urine measurements were available for all 435 patients. Compared to men, women had significantly lower values for creatinine, irate, oxalate, phosphate, sodium, potassium, magnesium and chloride excretion, whereas 24-hour pH and citrate excretion were higher. No significant differences were found for the other examined variables. ßCaOx and ßUA were significantly higher in men than women, whereas no significant difference was found for ßbsh. There was a direct relationship between calcium and sodium urine excretion. Excessive sodium excretion was recorded in 191 patients (44%) and low urine volumes in 201

  20. Equine preantral follicles obtained via the Biopsy Pick-Up method: histological evaluation and validation of a mechanical isolation technique.

    PubMed

    Haag, K T; Magalhães-Padilha, D M; Fonseca, G R; Wischral, A; Gastal, M O; King, S S; Jones, K L; Figueiredo, J R; Gastal, E L

    2013-03-15

    The aims of this study in mares were to: (1) compare preantral follicle parameters between in vitro Biopsy Pick-Up (BPU) and scalpel blade collection methods and between histological and mechanical isolation processing (experiment 1); (2) histologically evaluate preantral follicles (experiment 2); and (3) compare histological analysis with a previously established mechanical isolation technique using a tissue chopper (experiment 3) for ovarian cortical fragments obtained in vivo using a BPU instrument. In experiment 1, preantral follicles were analyzed (N = 220; 90% primordial and 10% primary). Proportions of primordial and primary follicles did not differ (P > 0.05) between tissue collection (BPU vs. scalpel blade dissection) or processing (mechanical isolation vs. histology) methods. Follicle viability and morphology rates were similar (P > 0.05) between tissue collection methods, but mechanical isolation produced more (P < 0.05) morphologically normal follicles than histology. For experiment 2, preantral follicles (N = 332) were analyzed and primordial and transitional (combined) follicles and oocytes were 36.3 ± 0.3 and 26.1 ± 0.3 μm in diameter, respectively, and primary follicles and oocytes averaged 42.9 ± 1.8 and 31.8 ± 2.1 μm. For experiment 3 (188 preantral follicles), within the same animals, the proportion of primordial versus primary follicles was higher (P < 0.03) for histological analysis (98%) compared to tissue chopper analysis (94%), and number of follicles per mg of tissue was not affected (P > 0.05) by processing methods. In conclusion, most parameters evaluated for preantral follicles were similar between histological and tissue chopper processing techniques; hence, mechanical isolation efficiently dissociated equine preantral follicles from the ovarian cortex. Therefore, the tissue chopper could be used to isolate large numbers of morphologically normal equine preantral follicles for cryopreservation and/or in vitro culture. Copyright

  1. Cytological evaluation and significance of cell cannibalism in effusions and urine cytology.

    PubMed

    Ahmed Wani, Farooq; Bhardwaj, Subhash

    2015-12-01

    Cell cannibalism is believed to be an indicator of high-grade aggressive cancers with increased metastatic potential. It denotes both anaplastic grade and invasiveness and is valuable in assessing tumor behavior. The present study was a 2-year retrospective and 1-year prospective study conducted in the Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Jammu. PAP and MGG stained smears of effusions and urinary cytology were evaluated for cannibalism. Cannibalism was assessed by parameters like cellularity of cannibalism, diameter of cannibalistic cells, chromatin pattern and background of the smears. Of 350 cases evaluated, 260 (74.2%) were benign and 90 (25.8%) were malignant. Cannibalism was absent in all benign cases. Cannibalism was present in 14 ascitic fluids, 7 pleural fluids, 1 pericardial fluid and 3 cases of urine cytology. Comparison of distribution of cannibalism in effusions and urine did not yield statistically significant result (X2=0.8678 and p>0.05). Comparison of other parameters between effusions and urine samples also did not yield significant results. We conclude that cytological parameters of cellular cannibalism are better observed in malignant effusions than in urine cytology but did not reach statistical significance. Cannibalism can be assessed morphologically in malignant body fluids and is an indicator of increased tumour growth.

  2. Real-time RT-PCR for detection of equine influenza and evaluation using samples from horses infected with A/equine/Sydney/2007 (H3N8).

    PubMed

    Foord, Adam J; Selleck, Paul; Colling, Axel; Klippel, Jessica; Middleton, Deborah; Heine, Hans G

    2009-05-28

    Equine influenza (EI) virus (H3N8) was identified in the Australian horse population for the first time in August 2007. The principal molecular diagnostic tool used for detection was a TaqMan real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) assay specific for the matrix (MA) gene of influenza virus type A (IVA). As this assay is not specific for EI, we developed a new EI H3-specific TaqMan assay targeting the haemagglutinin (HA) gene of all recent EI H3 strains. The IVA and the EI H3 TaqMan assays were assessed using in vitro transcribed RNA template, virus culture, diagnostic samples from the outbreak and samples from experimentally infected horses. The EI H3 TaqMan assay had a higher diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) when compared to the IVA TaqMan assay and also when using a conventional PCR for EI H3 as a standard of comparison. The performance of both TaqMan assays was compared with an antigen detection ELISA and virus isolation using nasal swabs collected daily from horses experimentally infected with the outbreak strain A/equine/Sydney/2888-8/2007. The EI H3 TaqMan assay was the most sensitive of the assays, able to detect EI from day 1 or 2 post-challenge, as early as virus isolation, and before clinical signs of disease were observed.

  3. Evaluation of species differences and the effects of storage duration and temperature on the anticollagenase efficacy of canine, feline, and equine serum on in vitro corneal degradation.

    PubMed

    Conway, Emily D; Stiles, Jean; Townsend, Wendy M; Weng, Hsin-Yi

    2015-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate species differences and effects of storage duration and temperature on the anticollagenase efficacy of canine, feline, and equine serum on in vitro corneal degradation. SAMPLES Corneas and serum from dogs, cats, and horses. PROCEDURES Clinically normal corneas from dogs, cats, and horses were harvested within 2 hours after euthanasia. Serum samples from dogs, cats, and horses were collected and pooled by species. Corneal specimens were incubated with collagenase derived from Clostridium histolyticum, 5mM calcium chloride in saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, and feline, canine, or equine serum that had been stored for 0, 30, 90, or 180 days at -20° or -80°C. Following incubation, the corneal weight loss percentage and hydroxyproline concentration in the incubation fluid were calculated and compared among experimental combinations. RESULTS Feline serum was more effective than canine or equine serum for minimizing corneal weight loss. Incubation with feline or equine, but not canine, serum significantly reduced hydroxyproline production. Serum storage duration did not affect corneal weight loss, but the hydroxyproline concentration was greater for corneal specimens that were incubated with serum that was stored for 90 days, compared with that for corneal specimens incubated with serum that was stored for 0, 30, or 180 days. Serum storage temperature did not affect corneal weight loss or hydroxyproline concentration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that serum reduced corneal degradation in vitro, and the duration and temperature at which serum was stored did not affect its anticollagenase efficacy.

  4. Performance evaluation of three on-site adulterant detection devices for urine specimens.

    PubMed

    Peace, Michelle R; Tarnai, Lisa D

    2002-10-01

    The performance of three on-site adulterant detection devices that assess the integrity of urine specimens collected for drug-of-abuse testing was evaluated: the Intect 7, MASK Ultra Screen, and Adultacheck 4. Intect 7 simultaneously tests creatinine, nitrite, glutaraldehyde, pH, specific gravity, and the presence of bleach and pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC). Mask Ultra Screen tests creatinine, nitrite, pH, specific gravity, and oxidants, and Adultacheck 4 tests creatinine, nitrite, glutaraldehyde, and pH. Urine specimens were prepared with the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration regulated analytes at 50% above the cut-off concentrations. Stealth, Urine Luck, Instant Clean ADD-IT-ive, and KLEAR were added individually to the drug-added urine specimens so that their concentrations reflected the "optimum" usage reported in their package inserts and 25% above and below that optimum. Stealth is reported to be peroxidase; Urine Luck is believed to be PCC; Instant Clean ADD-it-ive reportedly contains glutaraldehyde, and Klear is a nitrite. The following diluents/adulterants were added at 25%, 33%, and 50% of the volume of drug-added urine: distilled water, bleach, ammonia, and vinegar. Of the devices tested, Intect 7 proved to be the most sensitive, and it correctly indicated the presence of adulterant or diluent in all samples tested. In order to do so, all indication pads had to be assessed in concert. Adultacheck 4 specifically assesses four characteristics of urine integrity and is therefore very limited in detecting the use of several popular adulterants that are commercially available. Although it correctly assessed the four characteristics, it did not detect the use of Stealth, Urine Luck, or Instant Clean ADD-it-ive. Mask Ultra Screen can potentially detect a broader range of adulterants than Adultacheck 4. However, in practice, it only detected them at levels well above their optimum usage, making it less efficacious than Intect 7. Clearly, the

  5. Susceptibility of Peruvian Mosquitoes to Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    VECTOR/PATHOGEN/HOST INTERACTION, TRANSMISSION Susceptibility of Peruvian Mosquitoes to Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus M. J. TURELL,1 M. L...the Amazon Basin, near Iquitos, Peru, and used in experimental studies to evaluate their susceptibility to strains of eastern equine encephalitis virus...enzootic vector of EEEV in this region. KEY WORDS Peru, eastern equine encephalitis virus, transmission, mosquito Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV

  6. Evaluation of healthy equine eyes by use of retinoscopy, keratometry, and ultrasonographic biometry.

    PubMed

    Grinninger, Petra; Skalicky, Monika; Nell, Barbara

    2010-06-01

    To assess natural variations in degree of refraction, corneal curvature, corneal astigmatism, corneal radius, and intraocular distance of healthy equine eyes. 159 horses with healthy eyes that were admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital for nonophthalmic surgeries. Eyes of horses were examined with a retinoscope prior to anesthesia and with a keratograph and A- and B-scan ultrasonographic biometers during surgery. In addition, manual caliper measurements of horizontal and vertical corneal radii were obtained. Mean +/- SD degree of refraction in the horizontal meridian of eyes was -0.06 +/- 0.68 diopters (D). Vitreous body length and horse age correlated negatively with refraction values. The horizontal corneal radius (15.96 +/- 1.28 mm) was larger than the vertical corneal radius (15.02 +/- 1.09 mm). Accordingly, the vertical corneal curvature (21.56 +/- 1.68 D) was greater than the horizontal corneal curvature (22.89 +/- 1.65 D). Axial globe length (40.52 +/- 2.67 mm), anterior chamber depth (6.35 +/- 0.59 mm), lens thickness (12.30 +/- 0.83 mm), and vitreous body length (21.87 +/- 1.85 mm) were positively correlated with body weight, height, and age. Results of keratograph and caliper measurements correlated well for horizontal corneal diameter but poorly for vertical corneal diameter. Results of A- and B-scan ultrasonography differed by < or = 1 mm in 64% of measured eyes. Results of keratometry and ultrasonographic biometry varied widely. Additional research is needed to validate the keratograph used in our study for measurements in equine eyes.

  7. Development of a model to evaluate laser penetration in the equine using the Nd:YAG laser as a standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Lloyd P.; Blikslager, Anthony T.; Mickel, Paul E.

    1998-07-01

    The Nd:YAG laser is a frequently used laser in correcting equine upper respiratory disorders. Evaluation of this laser and several other lasers ability to penetrate tissue has been based on in vitro studies using portions of the arytenoid cartilage. The parameters measured have routinely been depth and width of crater created from irradiation of tissue. This investigation was performed on cadaver acquired tissue with anticipation of developing a model to conduct future in vivo studies of a similar nature to evaluate and compare different lasers. To perform this power setting, tissue selection and means of acquiring measurements needed to be standardized. Due to its accessibility and anatomic similarity to the arytenoid used in previous studies the rostral nasal septum was chosen as the second tissue for comparison with the arytenoid. Evaluation of the selected energies delivered to the tissues by the Nd:YAG laser were evaluated to set a standard by determining depth and top and bottom diameters of the area ablated. Methods of measurement consisting of standard histologic preparation followed by microscopic evaluation was compared to computer tomography acquired determinations. Statistical analysis supported the hypothesis that the nasal septum is a viable substitute for the arytenoid cartilage for future in vivo studies. It is also easily accessible compared to the arytenoid and evaluation of laser induced lesion parameters either in situ or separate from the animal should not be detrimental to the animal.

  8. Evaluation of urine for Leishmania infantum DNA detection by real-time quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Pessoa-E-Silva, Rômulo; Mendonça Trajano-Silva, Lays Adrianne; Lopes da Silva, Maria Almerice; da Cunha Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Suênia; de Goes, Tayná Correia; Silva de Morais, Rayana Carla; Lopes de Melo, Fábio; de Paiva-Cavalcanti, Milena

    2016-12-01

    The availability of some sorts of biological samples which require noninvasive collection methods has led to an even greater interest in applying molecular biology on visceral leishmaniasis (VL) diagnosis, since these samples increase the safety and comfort of both patients and health professionals. In this context, this work aimed to evaluate the suitability of the urine as a specimen for Leishmania infantum kinetoplast DNA detection by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Subsequent to the reproducibility analysis, the detection limit of the qPCR assay was set at 5fg (~0.025 parasites) per μL of urine. From the comparative analysis performed with a set of diagnostic criteria (serological and molecular reference tests), concordance value of 96.08% was obtained (VL-suspected and HIV/AIDS patients, n=51) (P>0.05). Kappa coefficient (95% CI) indicated a good agreement between the test and the set of diagnostic criteria (k=0.778±0.151). The detection of Leishmania DNA in urine by qPCR was possible in untreated individuals, and in those with or without suggestive renal impairment. Fast depletion of the parasite's DNA in urine after treatment (from one dose of meglumine antimoniate) was suggested by negative qPCR results, thus indicating it as a potential alternative specimen to follow up the efficacy of therapeutic approaches. Even when evaluated in a clinically heterogeneous set of patients, the urine showed good prospect as sample for VL diagnosis by qPCR, also indicating a good negative predictive value for untreated suspected patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. 24-Hour Urine Samples Are More Reproducible Than Spot Urine Samples for Evaluation of Iodine Status in School-Age Children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen; Wu, Yalan; Lin, Laixiang; Tan, Long; Shen, Jun; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Guo, Xiaohui; Wang, Wei; Bian, Jianchao; Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Wanqi

    2016-01-01

    Variation in different urinary measurements for evaluation of iodine status is of concern to clinicians and researchers. This study evaluated variations between urine iodine concentration (UIC), spot and 24-h urine sample creatinine concentrations, and 24-h urine iodine excretion (24-h UIE) in repeated samples from school-age children. Urine samples (24 h and morning spot) were collected on 2 occasions from 981 children in Ningjin and Lingxian counties, China. Samples from Ningjin were collected in October and November 2013, and samples from Lingxian were collected in April and May 2014. Morning spot urine iodine concentration (MUIC), morning spot urine creatinine, 24-h UIC, and 24-h urine creatinine were measured in all samples. The 24-h UIE was calculated by multiplying the 24-h UIC by the 24-h urine volume. In Ningjin County, the 24-h UIC and 24-h UIE did not differ between repeated collections [192 and 172 μg/L, respectively, for 24-h UIC (P = 0.08); 123 and 120 μg/L, respectively, for 24-h UIE (P = 0.56)], whereas the MUIC was lower in November 2013 than in October 2013 (170 and 190 μg/L, respectively; P = 0.034). In Lingxian County, no significant differences were observed in 24-h UIC between the repeated collections (230 and 218 μg/L, respectively; P = 0.79), whereas the 24-h UIE and MUIC were higher in the samples collected in May 2014 than in April 2014 [161 and 155 μg/L, respectively, for 24-h UIE (P = 0.002); 244 and 203 μg/L, respectively, for MUIC (P < 0.001)]. When data from both counties were combined, no difference was observed between repeated 24-h UIC (214 compared with 196 μg/L; P = 0.17) and 24-h UIE (143 compared with 143 μg/d; P = 0.06), but MUICs were lower in the first collection than in the second collection (199 and 207 μg/L, respectively; P = 0.002). The κ values were >0.4 for 24-h UIC and mean UIE, whereas relatively low κ values were observed for MUIC and mean UIE. The 24-h UIC was more accurate and reproducible than the MUIC

  10. Evaluation of Urine as a Clinical Specimen for Diagnosis of Hepatitis A

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Madhuri S.; Chitambar, Shobha D.; Arankalle, Vidya A.; Chadha, Mandeep S.

    2002-01-01

    The present study pertains to the evaluation of urine as a specimen for detection of anti-hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) antibodies. Immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgA capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for hepatitis A were performed on paired serum and urine specimens collected from hepatitis A patients (n = 92), healthy individuals (n = 100), non-A hepatitis patients (n = 70), and patients with nonhepatic diseases (n = 64, including 37 renal disease patients). Hepatitis A patients seropositive for anti-HAV IgM showed 95.65% uropositivity. No false-positive reactions were observed in control groups. The uropositivity of anti-HAV IgM persisted during the convalescent phase of the disease. Anti-HAV IgG uropositivity correlated well with corresponding seropositivity in all groups (P > 0.05 for each). No significant difference between the proportions of serum and urine positivity for anti-HAV IgA was noted (P > 0.05 for each). Using seroreactivity as a “gold standard,” the sensitivity and specificity for anti-HAV IgM, anti-HAV IgG, and anti-HAV IgA tests with urine as a specimen were found to be 95.65 and 100%, 97.76 and 76.47%, and 92.23 and 88.18%, respectively. Urine appears to be comparable to serum for diagnosis of recent and past infection with hepatitis A. PMID:12093683

  11. Evaluation of the NexScreen and DrugCheck Waive RT urine drug detection cups.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Ni; Nelson, Gordon J; McMillin, Gwendolyn A

    2013-01-01

    Urine drug testing is an important tool that is commonly used to assess patient compliance with prescription regimens. Point-of-collection immunoassay devices allow for timely availability of laboratory test results to guide therapy during the same office visit. Two waived immunoassay-based urine drug screen cups were evaluated in this study. The NexScreen cup and the DrugCheck Waive RT cup claim to detect 10-12 drug classes of commonly used and/or abused drugs. This study included a sensitivity and precision challenge with 4-6 replicates at concentrations 0-150% of the manufacture's claimed cutoff, using drug-free urine spiked with purified reference standards. The stability of test results was evaluated by reading the results at intervals between five and 1,440 min. Specificity was evaluated by parallel comparison of pooled patients' specimens, representing 56 patients and 41 known drug compounds. When comparing results to validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry results, false positives were observed in the NexScreen cups for benzodiazepine, methamphetamine, methadone, opiates and tricyclic antidepressant tests, but there were no false negatives. The DrugCheck Waive RT cups showed false negative results for barbiturates and opiates, but no false positives. Overall, the NexScreen cup demonstrated better sensitivity than claimed, whereas the sensitivity of the DrugCheck Waive RT cup did not meet claims.

  12. An Inexpensive, Point-of-Care Urine Test for Bladder Cancer in Patients Undergoing Hematuria Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Abhinav P; Theisen, Kathryn M; Correa, Andres; Meyyappan, Thiagarajan; Apfel, Abraham; Sun, Tao; Tarin, Tatum V; Little, Steven R

    2017-09-08

    Although hematuria (blood in urine) is the most common symptom of bladder cancer, 70-98% of hematuria cases are benign. These hematuria patients unnecessarily undergo costly, invasive, and expensive evaluation for bladder cancer. Therefore, there remains a need for noninvasive office-based tests that can rapidly and reliably rule out bladder cancer in patients undergoing hematuria evaluation. Herein, a clinical assay for matrix metalloproteinases ("Ammps") is presented, which generates a visual signal based on the collagenase activity (in urine of patients) on the Ammps substrates. Ammps substrates are generated by crosslinking gelatin with Fe(II) chelated alginate nanoparticles, which precipitate in urine samples. The cleavage of gelatin-conjugated alginate (Fe(II)) nanoparticles by collagenases generates free-floating alginate (Fe(II)) nanoparticles that participate in Fenton's reaction to generate a visual signal. In a pilot study of 88 patients, Ammps had 100% sensitivity, 85% specificity, and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 100% for diagnosing bladder cancer. This high NPV can be useful in ruling out bladder cancer in patients referred for hematuria evaluation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Evaluation for secondary causes of headache: the role of blood and urine testing.

    PubMed

    Loder, Elizabeth; Cardona, Luzma

    2011-02-01

    Most patients presenting for evaluation of headache meet diagnostic criteria for a benign, primary headache disorder based on history and physical examination findings alone. No further testing is needed in such cases. Additional diagnostic evaluation is needed in cases that do not meet criteria for a primary headache disorder or which are associated with unusual or worrisome features. This article will review secondary causes of headache listed in the International Classification of Headache Disorders-II in which blood and urine testing might aid in diagnosis. We offer recommendations for diagnostic evaluation when these disorders are suspected causes of headache.

  14. Evaluation of clinical performance of a novel urine-based HPV detection assay among women attending a colposcopy clinic

    PubMed Central

    Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.; Gravitt, Patti E.; Dunn, S. Terence; Robbins, David; Brown, David; Allen, Richard A.; Eby, Yolanda J.; Smith, Katie M.; Zuna, Rosemary E.; Zhang, Roy R.; Gold, Michael A.; Schiffman, Mark; Walker, Joan L.; Castle, Philip E.; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing in urine offers a convenient approach for cervical cancer screening but has previously suffered from limited clinical sensitivity. Objectives We evaluated clinical performance of the prototype Trovagene HPV test, a novel polymerase chain reaction assay that targets the E1 region of the HPV genome and detects and amplifies short fragments of cell-free HPV DNA in urine. Study design We conducted a pilot study among seventy two women referred to colposcopy following abnormal screening. Participants provided a urine sample prior to clinician-collected cervical sampling and colposcopically-directed punch biopsy. Trovagene HPV test results on urine samples were compared with cervical and urine testing by Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (LA-HPV) for detection of histologically-confirmed cervical precancerous lesions. Results There was high concordance between urine samples tested by the Trovagene HPV test and corresponding cervical (87.5%) and urine (81.9%) samples tested by LA-HPV. The Trovagene HPV test had high sensitivity (92.3% for detecting CIN2/3, and 100% for CIN3), comparable to LA-HPV testing on cervical samples (96.0% and 100%, respectively), and higher than LA-HPV testing on urine samples (80.8% and 90.0%, respectively). In this referral population, the specificity of the Trovagene urine HPV test was non-significantly lower (29% f CIN2/3 and 25% for CIN3) than corresponding estimates of LA-HPV testing on cervical (36% and 28%, respectively) and urine (42% and 38%, respectively) samples. Conclusions This pilot study suggests that the Trovagene HPV test has high sensitivity for urine-based detection of cervical precancer and merits evaluation in larger studies. PMID:24881489

  15. Evaluation of risk factors associated with clinical improvement and survival of horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Saville, W J; Morley, P S; Reed, S M; Granstrom, D E; Kohn, C W; Hinchcliff, K W; Wittum, T E

    2000-10-15

    To investigate risk factors for use in predicting clinical improvement and survival of horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Longitudinal epidemiologic study. 251 horses with EPM. Between 1992 and 1995, 251 horses with EPM were admitted to our facility. A diagnosis of EPM was made on the basis of neurologic abnormalities and detection of antibody to Sarcocystis neurona or S neurona DNA in CSF. Data were obtained from hospital records and through telephone follow-up interviews. Factors associated with clinical improvement and survival were analyzed, using multivariable logistic regression. The likelihood of clinical improvement after diagnosis of EPM was lower in horses used for breeding and pleasure activities. Treatment for EPM increased the probability that a horse would have clinical improvement. The likelihood of survival among horses with EPM was lower among horses with more severe clinical signs and higher among horses that improved after EPM was diagnosed. Treatment of horses with EPM is indicated in most situations; however, severity of clinical signs should be taken into consideration when making treatment decisions. Response to treatment is an important indicator of survival.

  16. Evaluation of commercial boric acid containing vials for urine culture: low risk of contamination and cost effectiveness considerations.

    PubMed

    Appannanavar, Suma B; Biswal, Manisha; Rajkumari, Nonika; Mohan, Balvinder; Taneja, Neelam

    2013-01-01

    Urine culture is a gold standard in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection. Clean catch midstream urine collection and prompt transportation is essential for appropriate diagnosis. Improper collection and delay in transportation leads to diagnostic dilemma. In developing countries, higher ambient temperatures further complicate the scenario. Here, we have evaluated the role of boric acid as a preservative for urine samples prior to culture in female patients attending outpatient department at our center. Consecutive 104 urine samples were cultured simultaneously in plain uricol (Control-C) and boric acid containing tubes from Becton Dickinson urine culture kit (Boric acid group-BA). In the real-time evaluation, we found that in almost 57% (59/104) of the urine samples tested, it was more effective in maintaining the number of the organisms as compared to samples in the container without any preservative. Our in vitro study of simulated urine cultures revealed that urine samples could be kept up to 12 h before culture in the preservative without any inhibitory effect of boric acid. Though the use of boric acid kit may marginally increase the initial cost but has indirect effects like preventing delays in treatment and avoidance of false prescription of antibiotics. If the man-hours spent on repeat investigations are also taken into consideration, then the economic cost borne by the laboratory would also decrease manifold with the use of these containers.

  17. From a urinalysis strategy to an evaluated urine protein expert system.

    PubMed

    Ivandic, M; Ogurol, Y; Hofmann, W; Guder, W G

    2000-03-01

    Urine single protein analysis has developed into a routine method for the screening and monitoring of kidney diseases. In order to support clinical decision making by an interpretative report, a urine protein expert system (UPES) has been developed. Based on a database containing more than 500 excretion patterns, a modular knowledge base was extracted in production rules and implemented in a modern expert system shell. The resulting interpretation system has been thoroughly verified and validated. After the need of interpretation of the complex findings had been documented in a survey, its usability in routine and its knowledge representation was evaluated in 11 hospitals. A user conference confirmed a high quality level of the reports proposed by UPES. It revealed that the problem of automatic data transfer as well as the common definition of diagnostic terms by laboratorians and clinicians play a crucial role for the use of knowledge-based systems in laboratory medicine.

  18. Elasticity and breaking strength of synthetic suture materials incubated in various equine physiological and pathological solutions.

    PubMed

    Kearney, C M; Buckley, C T; Jenner, F; Moissonnier, P; Brama, P A J

    2014-07-01

    Selection of suture material in equine surgery is often based on costs or subjective factors, such as the surgeon's personal experience, rather than objective facts. The amount of objective data available on durability of suture materials with regard to specific equine physiological conditions is limited. To evaluate the effect of various equine physiological and pathological fluids on the rate of degradation of a number of commonly used suture materials. In vitro material testing. Suture materials were exposed in vitro to physiological fluid, followed by biomechanical analysis. Three absorbable suture materials, glycolide/lactide copolymer, polyglactin 910 and polydioxanone were incubated at 37°C for 7, 14 or 28 days in phosphate-buffered saline, equine serum, equine urine and equine peritoneal fluid from an animal with peritonitis. Five strands of each suture material type were tested to failure in a materials testing machine for each time point and each incubation medium. Yield strength, strain and Young's modulus were calculated, analysed and reported. For all suture types, the incubation time had a significant effect on yield strength, percentage elongation and Young's modulus in all culture media (P<0.0001). Suture type was also shown significantly to influence changes in each of yield strength, percentage elongation and Young's modulus in all culture media (P<0.0001). While the glycolide/lactide copolymer demonstrated the highest Day 0 yield strength, it showed the most rapid degradation in all culture media. For each of the 3 material characteristics tested, polydioxanone showed the least variation across the incubation period in each culture medium. The duration of incubation and the type of fluid have significant effects on the biomechanical properties of various suture materials. These findings are important for evidence-based selection of suture material in clinical cases. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  19. A multisystem approach for development and evaluation of inactivated vaccines for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV).

    PubMed

    Fine, Donald L; Jenkins, Erin; Martin, Shannon S; Glass, Pamela; Parker, Michael D; Grimm, Brad

    2010-02-01

    A multisystem approach was used to assess the efficiency of several methods for inactivation of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) vaccine candidates. A combination of diverse assays (plaque, in vitro cytopathology and mouse neurovirulence) was used to verify virus inactivation, along with the use of a specific ELISA to measure retention of VEEV envelope glycoprotein epitopes in the development of several inactivated VEEV candidate vaccines derived from an attenuated strain of VEEV (V3526). Incubation of V3526 aliquots at temperatures in excess of 64 degrees C for periods >30 min inactivated the virus, but substantially reduced VEEV specific monoclonal antibody binding of the inactivated material. In contrast, V3526 treated either with formalin at concentrations of 0.1% or 0.5% (v/v) for 4 or 24 h, or irradiated with 50 kGy gamma radiation rendered the virus non-infectious while retaining significant levels of monoclonal antibody binding. Loss of infectivity of both the formalin inactivated (fV3526) and gamma irradiated (gV3526) preparations was confirmed via five successive blind passages on BHK-21 cells. Similarly, loss of neurovirulence for fV3526 and gV3526 was demonstrated via intracerebral inoculation of suckling BALB/c mice. Excellent protection against subcutaneous challenge with VEEV IA/B Trinidad donkey strain was demonstrated using a two dose immunization regimen with either fV3526 or gV3526. The combination of in vitro and in vivo assays provides a practical approach to optimize manufacturing process parameters for development of other inactivated viral vaccines.

  20. Comparison of cytologic and histologic evaluations of the conjunctiva in the normal equine eye.

    PubMed

    Bourges-Abella, Nathalie; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Diquelou, Armelle; Guillot, Emilie; Regnier, Alain; Trumel, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    To describe the cells observed in conjunctival brush cytology (CBC) from normal horses and compare these findings with conjunctival structural histology so as to understand which cells are recovered from CBC. This study was divided into three parts. (1) Conjunctival brush smears were collected from 20 healthy horses on both eyes and a differential count on 300 cells was carried out on May Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG) smears. (2) A similar protocol was used for whole eyes from five horses obtained rapidly after death from a slaughterhouse. The eyes were then assessed for conjunctival histology. (3) Cytobrush smears were collected from five healthy horses. Smears were examined after MGG or periodic acid Schiff (PAS) staining. The differential cell count showed a majority of deep and intermediate epithelial cells with very few superficial and goblet cells in both eyes. A stratified columnar to cuboidal epithelium was observed on nearly the whole surface of the conjunctiva. A stratified squamous type was observed at the palpebral and bulbar edges. Areas with highest mucus cell indices were found from the nasal to the temporal edge of the equine inferior conjunctiva in the upper palpebral segment near the fornix and in a part of the nasal fornix. In MGG smears no mucus cells were identified; however, they were numerous in PAS smears (22.6% +/- 11) and were mostly cylindrical cells (42.5% +/- 14.4 PAS positive). Cytobrush smears in the healthy horse are characterized by a majority of polyhedral and cylindrical cells and a few squamous cells. The cylindrical cells may be mucous cells and probably originate from the main stratified columnar to cuboidal epithelium.

  1. Evaluation of the affinity of various species and strains of Staphylococcus to adhere to equine corneocytes.

    PubMed

    Akridge, Heather D; Rankin, Shelley C; Griffeth, Gregory C; Boston, Raymond C; Callori, Nancy E; Morris, Daniel O

    2013-10-01

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain USA 500 predominately colonizes horses and people working with them. Previous studies demonstrate that some Staphylococcus species exhibit higher affinity for corneocytes of specific mammalian species. The objective was to determine the relative affinities of various MRSA strains, meticillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strains and a meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MSSP) for equine corneocytes. We hypothesized that MRSA strain USA 500 would exhibit greater adhesion than other staphylococcal strains tested. Epidemic MRSA strains (USA 100, USA 300, USA 500 and USA 800), two MSSA control strains and an MSSP field strain were tested on corneocytes from 15 client-owned horses. Isolates were incubated with corneocytes in conditions (bacterial concentration of 10(8) colony-forming units/mL for 45 min) recently shown to maximize adherence of S. aureus without competitive interference. A validated image-analysis system was used to quantify the cell surface density of bacterial adhesion. The MSSP strain adhered with significantly higher affinity (P < 0.0015) to corneocytes than did MSSA strains. All MRSA strains other than USA 500 had significantly higher affinity than MSSA strains (P range <0.03 to <0.0015). There were no statistical differences in adhesion between strain USA 500 and the other MRSA strains tested. Meticillin-resistant S. aureus strain USA 500 did not adhere more robustly than other strains of Staphylococcus; therefore, its affinity to colonize horses may not be solely attributed to corneocyte adhesion. Additional studies are required to explain the epidemiological role of this strain as the predominant cause of colonization and infections of horses in North America. © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.

  2. Laboratory and clinical evaluation of on-site urine drug testing.

    PubMed

    Beck, Olof; Carlsson, Sten; Tusic, Marinela; Olsson, Robert; Franzen, Lisa; Hulten, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Products for on-site urine drug testing offer the possibility to perform screening for drugs of abuse directly at the point-of-care. This is a well-established routine in emergency and dependency clinics but further evaluation of performance is needed due to inherent limitations with the available products. Urine drug testing by an on-site product was compared with routine laboratory methods. First, on-site testing was performed at the laboratory in addition to the routine method. Second, the on-site testing was performed at a dependency clinic and urine samples were subsequently sent to the laboratory for additional analytical investigation. The on-site testing products did not perform with assigned cut-off levels. The subjective reading between the presence of a spot (i.e. negative test result) being present or no spot (positive result) was difficult in 3.2% of the cases, and occurred for all parameters. The tests performed more accurately in drug negative samples (specificity 96%) but less accurately for detecting positives (sensitivity 79%). Of all incorrect results by the on-site test the proportion of false negatives was 42%. The overall agreement between on-site and laboratory testing was 95% in the laboratory study and 98% in the clinical study. Although a high degree of agreement was observed between on-site and routine laboratory urine drug testing, the performance of on-site testing was not acceptable due to significant number of false negative results. The limited sensitivity of on-site testing compared to laboratory testing reduces the applicability of these tests.

  3. Evaluation of early cellular influences of bone morphogenetic proteins 12 and 2 on equine superficial digital flexor tenocytes and bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Shannon J.; Santangelo, Kelly S.; Bertone, Alicia L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate early cellular influences of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)12 and BMP2 on equine superficial digital flexor tenocytes (SDFTNs) and equine bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMDMSCs). Animals 9 adult clinically normal horses. Procedures BMDMSCs and SDFTNs were cultured in monolayer, either untreated or transduced with adenovirus encoding green fluorescent protein, adenovirus encoding BMP12, or adenovirus encoding BMP2. Cytomorphologic, cytochemical, immunocytochemical, and reverse transcriptase–quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analyses were performed on days 3 and 6. Genetic profiling for effects of BMP12 was evaluated by use of an equine gene expression microarray on day 6. Results BMDMSCs and SDFTNs had high BMP12 gene expression and remained viable and healthy for at least 6 days. Type l collagen immunocytochemical staining for SDFTNs and tenocyte-like morphology for SDFTNs and BMDMSCs were greatest in BMP12 cells. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, as determined via RT-qPCR assay, and chondroitin sulfate, as determined via gene expression microarray analysis, were upregulated relative to control groups in SDFTN-BMP12 cells. The BMDMSCs and SDFTNs became mineralized with BMP2, but not BMP12. Superficial digital flexor tenocytes responded to BMP12 with upregulation of genes relevant to tendon healing and without mineralization as seen with BMP2. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Targeted equine SDFTNs may respond to BMP12 with improved tenocyte morphology and without mineralization, as seen with BMP2. Bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells may be able to serve as a cell delivery method for BMP12. PMID:20043789

  4. Evaluation of wound healing activity of cow urine ark in diabetic Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Hirapara, Hiren N.; Ghori, Vishal M.; Anovadiya, Ashish P.; Tripathi, Chandrabhanu R.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate wound healing activity of cow urine ark in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 6). Three groups - diabetic control, active control (glibenclamide), and treatment (cow urine ark) were operated for excision wounds (EWs). Rats in these groups received distilled water 1 ml/day, glibenclamide 0.5 mg/kg body weight/day, and cow urine ark 5.5 ml/kg body weight/day orally till complete healing of the EWs. EWs were evaluated for wound contraction on 3rd, 7th, and 11th day and for reepithelization on 11th day. The other three groups were operated for incision wounds (IW) as well as dead space wounds (DW) in the same animal which received the above agents orally for 11 days. IWs were analyzed for wound breaking strength and DWs were analyzed for dry weight, hydroxyproline content, and histology of granulation tissue. Results: EWs showed significantly increased wound closure in the treatment group as compared to the diabetic as well as active control groups at 3rd (P < 0.001) and 11th (P < 0.05) post-wounding day and to the only diabetic control group at 7th (P < 0.01) post-wounding day. IWs showed significant improvement in wound breaking strength in the treatment as compared to diabetic (P < 0.001) and active control (P < 0.01) groups. DWs showed significant increase in hydroxyproline content of granulation tissue in the treatment as compared to diabetic control (P < 0.001) and active control (P < 0.001) groups. Wound breaking strength and hydroxyproline content also significantly increased in the active control group compared to diabetic control (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Granulation tissue dry weight was significantly increased in treatment and active control groups as compared to diabetic control (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Cow urine ark increases granulation tissue formation as well as collagen content. Wound contraction was also significantly

  5. Evaluation of wound healing activity of cow urine ark in diabetic Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Hirapara, Hiren N; Ghori, Vishal M; Anovadiya, Ashish P; Tripathi, Chandrabhanu R

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate wound healing activity of cow urine ark in diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 6). Three groups - diabetic control, active control (glibenclamide), and treatment (cow urine ark) were operated for excision wounds (EWs). Rats in these groups received distilled water 1 ml/day, glibenclamide 0.5 mg/kg body weight/day, and cow urine ark 5.5 ml/kg body weight/day orally till complete healing of the EWs. EWs were evaluated for wound contraction on 3(rd), 7(th), and 11(th) day and for reepithelization on 11(th) day. The other three groups were operated for incision wounds (IW) as well as dead space wounds (DW) in the same animal which received the above agents orally for 11 days. IWs were analyzed for wound breaking strength and DWs were analyzed for dry weight, hydroxyproline content, and histology of granulation tissue. EWs showed significantly increased wound closure in the treatment group as compared to the diabetic as well as active control groups at 3(rd) (P < 0.001) and 11(th) (P < 0.05) post-wounding day and to the only diabetic control group at 7(th) (P < 0.01) post-wounding day. IWs showed significant improvement in wound breaking strength in the treatment as compared to diabetic (P < 0.001) and active control (P < 0.01) groups. DWs showed significant increase in hydroxyproline content of granulation tissue in the treatment as compared to diabetic control (P < 0.001) and active control (P < 0.001) groups. Wound breaking strength and hydroxyproline content also significantly increased in the active control group compared to diabetic control (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Granulation tissue dry weight was significantly increased in treatment and active control groups as compared to diabetic control (P < 0.001). Cow urine ark increases granulation tissue formation as well as collagen content. Wound contraction was also significantly improved. The cow urine ark could be

  6. Evaluation of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for the detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus during vector surveillance.

    PubMed

    Monroy, A M; Scott, T W; Webb, B A

    1996-05-01

    A reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was evaluated for the detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV). EEEV was detected by amplification of a 416-bp PCR product from within the E2 gene. Internal restriction endonuclease digestion and hybridizations to EEEV RNA demonstrated that the PCR product was amplified from EEEV. PCR amplifications from serial dilutions of an EEEV isolate identified by a neutralization test and titered by an infectious assay in cell culture indicated that this RT-PCR assay detected viral RNA at concentrations below 1 plaque forming unit(PFU) per reaction. The performance of the PCR assay in detection of EEEV was compared with an infectious assay detection procedure (IA/IFA) as part of the New Jersey 1993 vector surveillance program. During 1993, 7,007 field-collected Culiseta melanura (Coquillett) were assayed in 522 pools by both RT-PCR and IA/IFA. EEEV was detected in 95 pools by RT-PCR and 17 pools by IA/IFA; all IA/IFA positive pools were also positive by RT-PCR. During the 1993 field season, RT-PCR consistently detected virus at enzootic foci earlier that IA/IFA and in greater numbers of mosquito pools. The data indicated that viral RNA may be present earlier and in more mosquitoes than indicated by IA/IFA.

  7. Comparative evaluation of three surveillance systems for infectious equine diseases in France and implications for future synergies.

    PubMed

    Amat, J P; Hendrikx, P; Tapprest, J; Leblond, A; Dufour, B

    2015-10-01

    It is necessary to assess surveillance systems for infectious animal diseases to ensure they meet their objectives and provide high-quality health information. Each system is generally dedicated to one disease and often comprises various components. In many animal industries, several surveillance systems are implemented separately even if they are based on similar components. This lack of synergy may prevent optimal surveillance. The purpose of this study was to assess several surveillance systems within the same industry using the semi-quantitative OASIS method and to compare the results of the assessments in order to propose improvements, including future synergies. We have focused on the surveillance of three major equine diseases in France. We have identified the mutual and specific strengths and weaknesses of each surveillance system. Furthermore, the comparative assessment has highlighted many possible synergies that could improve the effectiveness and efficiency of surveillance as a whole, including the implementation of new joint tools or the pooling of existing teams, tools or skills. Our approach is an original application of the OASIS method, which requires minimal financial resources and is not very time-consuming. Such a comparative evaluation could conceivably be applied to other surveillance systems, other industries and other countries. This approach would be especially relevant to enhance the efficiency of surveillance activities when resources are limited.

  8. Evaluation of freezing point depression osmolality for classifying random urine specimens defined as substituted under HHS/DOT criteria.

    PubMed

    Cook, Janine Denis; Hannon, Mark W; Vo, Tamdan; Caplan, Yale H

    2002-10-01

    This study evaluates the analytical performance characteristics of freezing point depression osmolality in urine and osmolality as a suitable analytical indicator for determining the concentration of urine specimens submitted for workplace drug testing. Specifically, this study attempted to determine the utility of urine osmolality to serve as an indicator of substitution as defined by HHS/SAMHSA criteria. Urine osmolality was validated by determining the accuracy, precision, analytical sensitivity, reportable range, and reference interval for the method. Osmolality was measured in workplace urine specimens (n = 66) with creatinine concentrations < or = 5.0 mg/dL. Comparing the results with the lower limit of the random urine reference intervals for specific gravity (1.002) and osmolality (50 mOsm/kg), 62% had specific gravities < or = 1.001, 52% had osmolalities < 50 mOsm/kg, and 47% had both a creatinine < or = 5.0 mg/dL, specific gravity < or = 1.001 and an osmolality < 50 mOsm/kg. Urine specimens (n = 311) were collected from 35 volunteers enrolled in a controlled water loading study in which at least 80 oz (2370 mL) of fluid was ingested over a 6-h period. The lowest achieved osmolality was 28 mOsm/kg. Polyuria disorders have produced abnormally low urine osmolalities (lowest reported 18 mOsm/kg) but osmolalities < or = 23 mOsm/kg have resulted in death from water intoxication. An osmolality substitution cut-off to delineate a specimen as inconsistent with normal human urine can be set at some value < 50 mOsm/kg, when used in a population of individuals with urine creatinine concentrations < or = 5.0 mg/dL.

  9. Development, evaluation, and laboratory validation of immunoassays for the diagnosis of equine infectious anemia (EIA) using recombinant protein produced from a synthetic p26 gene of EIA virus.

    PubMed

    Singha, Harisankar; Goyal, Sachin K; Malik, Praveen; Khurana, Sandip K; Singh, Raj K

    2013-12-01

    Equine infectious anemia (EIA)-a retroviral disease caused by equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)-is a chronic, debilitating disease of horses, mules, and donkeys. EIAV infection has been reported worldwide and is recognized as pathogen of significant economic importance to the horse industry. This disease falls under regulatory control program in many countries including India. Control of EIA is based on identification of inapparent carriers by detection of antibodies to EIAV in serologic tests and "Stamping Out" policy. The current internationally accepted test for diagnosis of EIA is the agar gel immune-diffusion test (AGID), which detects antibodies to the major gag gene (p26) product. The objective of this study was to develop recombinant p26 based in-house immunoassays [enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), and AGID] for EIA diagnosis. The synthetic p26 gene of EIAV was expressed in Escherichia coli and diagnostic potential of recombinant p26 protein were evaluated in ELISA and AGID on 7,150 and 1,200 equine serum samples, respectively, and compared with commercial standard AGID kit. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the newly developed ELISA were 100 and 98.6 %, respectively. Whereas, relative sensitivity and specificity of the newly developed AGID were in complete agreement in respect to commercial AGID kit. Here, we have reported the validation of an ELISA and AGID on large number of equine serum samples using recombinant p26 protein produced from synthetic gene which does not require handling of pathogenic EIAV. Since the indigenously developed reagents would be economical than commercial diagnostic kit, the rp26 based-immunoassays could be adopted for the sero-diagnosis and control of EIA in India.

  10. Determination of plutonium in urine: evaluation of electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pietrzak, R.; Kaplan, E.

    1996-11-01

    Mass spectroscopy has the distinct advantage of detecting atoms rather than radioactive decay products for nuclides of low specific activity. Electrothermal vaporization (ETV) is an efficient means of introducing small volumes of prepared samples into an inductively coupled mass spectrometer to achieve the lowest absolute detection limits. The operational characteristics and capabilities of electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled mass spectrometer mass spectroscopy were evaluated. We describe its application as a detection method for determining Pu in urine, in conjunction with a preliminary separation technique to avoid matrix suppression of the signal.

  11. Development and evaluation of aerosol delivery of antivirals for the treatment of equine virus induced respiratory infections

    SciTech Connect

    Martens, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    An aerosol delivery system incorporating the DeVilbiss ultrasonic nebulizer was developed for antiviral chemotherapy of equine viral respiratory infections. The system's delivery capabilities were proven effective by two modes of analysis: (a) a non-destructive, non-invasive radioactive tracer method utilizing a saline solution of DTPA labelled 99mTc and, (b) an invasive-terminal study using fluorescent polystyrene monodispersed latex particles. Particles were efficiently distributed throughout the lung parenchyma with deposition more heavily concentrated in the tracheobronchial region. Amantadine HCl was administered to the lungs of a yearling horse and three yearling Shetland ponies over a single 15-30 minute period with no untoward side effects. Likewise, ribavirin was aerosolized into the respiratory trace of an adult pony and a yearling horse for 15-30 minutes twice a day for three and seven days respectively. Neither the horse nor pony demonstrated signs of clinical illness or other signs of ribavirin toxicity. Attempts to produce a reproducible equine influenza disease model were made. During these studies, the authors were unsuccessful in developing a consistent respiratory disease model. Without this model the efficacy of antiviral compounds cannot be assessed. From the data generated in these studies, the implication of equine influenza viruses as the major single etiological agents responsible for equine respiratory disease is brought into question. Further, the author proposed that equine respiratory disease is a multiple agent-induced disease, which needs extensive investigation.

  12. Development and evaluation of a reverse transcription-insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (RT-iiPCR) assay for detection of equine arteritis virus in equine semen and tissue samples using the POCKIT™ system.

    PubMed

    Carossino, Mariano; Lee, Pei-Yu A; Nam, Bora; Skillman, Ashley; Shuck, Kathleen M; Timoney, Peter J; Tsai, Yun-Long; Ma, Li-Juan; Chang, Hsiao-Fen G; Wang, Hwa-Tang T; Balasuriya, Udeni B R

    2016-08-01

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA), a respiratory and reproductive disease of horses. Most importantly, EAV induces abortion in pregnant mares and can establish persistent infection in up to 10-70% of the infected stallions, which will continue to shed the virus in their semen. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a reverse transcription insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (RT-iiPCR) for the detection of EAV in semen and tissue samples. The newly developed assay had a limit of detection of 10 RNA copies and a 10-fold higher sensitivity than a previously described real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). Evaluation of 125 semen samples revealed a sensitivity and specificity of 98.46% and 100.00%, respectively for the RT-qPCR assay, and 100.00% and 98.33%, respectively for the RT-iiPCR assay. Both assays had the same accuracy (99.2%, k=0.98) compared to virus isolation. Corresponding values derived from testing various tissue samples (n=122) collected from aborted fetuses, foals, and EAV carrier stallions are as follows: relative sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 88.14%, 96.83%, and 92.62% (k=0.85), respectively for the RT-qPCR assay, and 98.31%, 92.06%, and 95.08% (k=0.90), respectively for the RT-iiPCR assay. These results indicate that RT-iiPCR is a sensitive, specific, and a robust test enabling detection of EAV in semen and tissue samples with very considerable accuracy. Even though the RT-qPCR assay showed a sensitivity and specificity equal to virus isolation for semen samples, its diagnostic performance was somewhat limited for tissue samples. Thus, this new RT-iiPCR could be considered as an alternative tool in the implementation of EAV control and prevention strategies.

  13. Evaluation of urine CCA assays for detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Shane, Hillary L; Verani, Jennifer R; Abudho, Bernard; Montgomery, Susan P; Blackstock, Anna J; Mwinzi, Pauline N M; Butler, Sara E; Karanja, Diana M S; Secor, W Evan

    2011-01-25

    Although accurate assessment of the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni is important for the design and evaluation of control programs, the most widely used tools for diagnosis are limited by suboptimal sensitivity, slow turn-around-time, or inability to distinguish current from former infections. Recently, two tests that detect circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) in urine of patients with schistosomiasis became commercially available. As part of a larger study on schistosomiasis prevalence in young children, we evaluated the performance and diagnostic accuracy of these tests--the carbon test strip designed for use in the laboratory and the cassette format test intended for field use. In comparison to 6 Kato-Katz exams, the carbon and cassette CCA tests had sensitivities of 88.4% and 94.2% and specificities of 70.9% and 59.4%, respectively. However, because of the known limitations of the Kato-Katz assay, we also utilized latent class analysis (LCA) incorporating the CCA, Kato-Katz, and schistosome-specific antibody results to determine their sensitivities and specificities. The laboratory-based CCA test had a sensitivity of 91.7% and a specificity of 89.4% by LCA while the cassette test had a sensitivity of 96.3% and a specificity of 74.7%. The intensity of the reaction in both urine CCA tests reflected stool egg burden and their performance was not affected by the presence of soil transmitted helminth infections. Our results suggest that urine-based assays for CCA may be valuable in screening for S. mansoni infections.

  14. Evaluation of Urine CCA Assays for Detection of Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Shane, Hillary L.; Verani, Jennifer R.; Abudho, Bernard; Montgomery, Susan P.; Blackstock, Anna J.; Mwinzi, Pauline N. M.; Butler, Sara E.; Karanja, Diana M. S.; Secor, W. Evan

    2011-01-01

    Although accurate assessment of the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni is important for the design and evaluation of control programs, the most widely used tools for diagnosis are limited by suboptimal sensitivity, slow turn-around-time, or inability to distinguish current from former infections. Recently, two tests that detect circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) in urine of patients with schistosomiasis became commercially available. As part of a larger study on schistosomiasis prevalence in young children, we evaluated the performance and diagnostic accuracy of these tests—the carbon test strip designed for use in the laboratory and the cassette format test intended for field use. In comparison to 6 Kato-Katz exams, the carbon and cassette CCA tests had sensitivities of 88.4% and 94.2% and specificities of 70.9% and 59.4%, respectively. However, because of the known limitations of the Kato-Katz assay, we also utilized latent class analysis (LCA) incorporating the CCA, Kato-Katz, and schistosome-specific antibody results to determine their sensitivities and specificities. The laboratory-based CCA test had a sensitivity of 91.7% and a specificity of 89.4% by LCA while the cassette test had a sensitivity of 96.3% and a specificity of 74.7%. The intensity of the reaction in both urine CCA tests reflected stool egg burden and their performance was not affected by the presence of soil transmitted helminth infections. Our results suggest that urine-based assays for CCA may be valuable in screening for S. mansoni infections. PMID:21283613

  15. Immunoassay screening in urine for synthetic cannabinoids - an evaluation of the diagnostic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Franz, Florian; Angerer, Verena; Jechle, Hanna; Pegoro, Melanie; Ertl, Harald; Weinfurtner, Georg; Janele, David; Schlögl, Christian; Friedl, Matthias; Gerl, Stefan; Mielke, Reinhard; Zehnle, Ralf; Wagner, Matthias; Moosmann, Bjoern; Auwärter, Volker

    2017-08-28

    The abuse of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) as presumed legal alternative to cannabis poses a great risk to public health. For economic reasons many laboratories use immunoassays (IAs) to screen for these substances in urine. However, the structural diversity and high potency of these designer drugs places high demands on IAs regarding cross-reactivity of the antibodies used and detection limits. Two retrospective studies were carried out in order to evaluate the capability of two homogenous enzyme IAs for the detection of currently prevalent SCs in authentic urine samples. Urine samples were analyzed utilizing a 'JWH-018' kit and a 'UR-144' kit. The IA results were confirmed by an up-to-date liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) screening method covering metabolites of 45 SCs. The first study (n=549) showed an 8% prevalence of SCs use (LC-MS/MS analysis) among inpatients of forensic-psychiatric clinics, whereas all samples were tested negative by the IAs. In a second study (n=200) the combined application of both IAs led to a sensitivity of 2% and a diagnostic accuracy of 51% when applying the recommended IA cut-offs. Overall, 10 different currently prevalent SCs were detected in this population. The results can be explained by an insufficient cross-reactivity of the antibodies towards current SCs in combination with relatively high detection limits of the IAs. In light of the presented study data it is strongly recommended not to rely on the evaluated IA tests for SCs in clinical or forensic settings. For IA kits of other providers similar results can be expected.

  16. Evaluation of the role of lower urinary tract disease in cats with urine-marking behavior.

    PubMed

    Tynes, Valarie V; Hart, Benjamin L; Pryor, Patricia A; Bain, Melissa J; Messam, Locksley L McV

    2003-08-15

    To determine whether findings of urinalyses could be used to reliably distinguish gonadectomized cats with urine-marking behavior from those with no problem urination. Case control study. 58 gonadectomized cats (47 males and 11 females) with urine-marking behavior (ie, marking of vertical surfaces) and 39 (26 males and 13 females) without problem urination or urinary tract-associated conditions. Urine was collected by cystocentesis from all cats. Findings of urinalyses of cats with urine-marking behavior were analyzed statistically for sex-related differences and differences between cats that marked vertical surfaces only and those that marked both vertical and horizontal surfaces; findings of urinalyses of control cats were compared between sexes. Subsequently, results of urinalyses of cats with urine-marking behavior were compared with those of control cats. With regard to variables measured via urinalysis, there were no differences between male and female cats within either group. Among cats with urine-marking behavior, there were no differences between those that only marked vertically and those that marked vertically and horizontally. Analyses of data from all cats with urine-marking behavior and control cats revealed no differences that could be associated with urine marking. These data suggest that urine-marking behavior by gonadectomized cats is an aspect of normal behavior. Clinicians are advised to focus on behavioral history of house-soiling cats to differentiate between urine-marking behavior and inappropriate urination; for the latter, urinalysis is appropriate to rule out lower urinary tract disorders.

  17. Urine and Urination

    MedlinePlus

    ... urinary system is healthy, your bladder can hold up to 16 ounces (2 cups) of urine comfortably for 2 to 5 hours. You may have problems with urination if you have Kidney failure Urinary tract infections An enlarged prostate Bladder control problems like ...

  18. Evaluation of cell-free DNA in urine as a marker for bladder cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Zancan, Matelda; Galdi, Francesca; Di Tonno, Fulvio; Mazzariol, Chiara; Orlando, Claudio; Malentacchi, Francesca; Agostini, Marco; Maran, Michela; Del Bianco, Paola; Fabricio, Aline S C; Murer, Bruno; Pianon, Carlo; Gion, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    The diagnosis and follow-up of bladder cancer are mainly based on cystoscopy, an invasive method which could be negative in case of flat malignancies such as carcinoma in situ. Other noninvasive diagnostic methods have not yet given satisfactory results. There is a need for a reliable yet noninvasive method for the detection of bladder cancer. Our aim was to investigate whether cell-free DNA quantified in urine (ucf-DNA) could be a useful marker for the diagnosis of bladder cancer. A standard urine test was performed in 150 naturally voided morning urine samples that were processed to obtain a quantitative evaluation of ucf-DNA. Leukocyturia and/or bacteriuria were found in 18 subjects, who were excluded from the study. Statistical analysis was performed on 45 bladder cancer patients and 87 healthy subjects. Ucf-DNA was extracted from urine samples by a spin column-based method and quantified using four different methods: GeneQuant Pro (Amersham Biosciences, Pittsburg, PA, USA), Quant-iT DNA high-sensitivity assay kit (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA), Real-Time PCR (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA), and NanoDrop 1000 (NanoDrop Technologies, Houston, TX, USA). Median free DNA quantification did not differ statistically between bladder cancer patients and healthy subjects. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was developed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of ucf-DNA quantification for each method. The area under the ROC curve was 0.578 for GeneQuant Pro, 0.573 for the Quant-iT DNA high-sensitivity assay kit, 0.507 for Real-Time PCR, and 0.551 for NanoDrop 1000, which indicated that ucf-DNA quantification by these methods is not able to discriminate between the presence and absence of bladder cancer. No association was found between ucf-DNA quantification and tumor size or tumor focality. In conclusion, ucf-DNA isolated by a spin column-based method and quantified by GeneQuant Pro, Quant-iT DNA high-sensitivity assay kit, Real-Time PCR or Nano

  19. Equine influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Landolt, Gabriele A

    2014-12-01

    For decades the horse has been viewed as an isolated or "dead-end" host for influenza A viruses, with equine influenza virus being considered as relatively stable genetically. Although equine influenza viruses are genetically more stable than those of human lineage, they are by no means in evolutionary stasis. Moreover, recent transmission of equine-lineage influenza viruses to dogs also challenges the horse's status as a dead-end host. This article reviews recent developments in the epidemiology and evolution of equine influenza virus. In addition, the clinical presentation of equine influenza infection, diagnostic techniques, and vaccine recommendations are briefly summarized.

  20. Evaluation of reliability for urine mucopolysaccharidosis screening by dimethylmethylene blue and Berry spot tests.

    PubMed

    Mabe, Paulina; Valiente, Alf; Soto, Vivian; Cornejo, Verónica; Raimann, Erna

    2004-07-01

    The mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) are a group of inherited metabolic disorders resulting from the deficiency of the enzyme responsible for intralysosomal catabolism of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). GAGs are progressively accumulated in multiple tissues and released into the corporal fluids. The first laboratory approximation to MPS diagnosis is the identification of an increased urinary GAG excretion. For this, several semiquantitative and quantitative methods have been developed. The aim of this retrospective statistical study was to evaluate the reliability of MPS urine screening for the semiquantitative Berry spot test (BST) and the quantitative dimethylmethylene blue test (DMB). The 24-h-urine samples (n = 246) were tested through BST, DMB, and for GAG excretion pattern by one-dimensional electrophoresis or thin layer chromatography. the 204 samples that demonstrated a normal GAG excretion pattern were considered as non-MPS samples. Forty-two samples presented an abnormal GAG excretion pattern. Enzyme analysis was available for 31 out of 42 patients (31/42), confirming that all were affected by MPS. Urinary GAG concentrations of MPS patients by DMB were increased 1.04- to 7.1-folds, compared to age-related normal levels. The sensitivity was 100% for DMB and 93.6% for BST. DMB demonstrated a specificity of 74.5%, while BST a specificity of 53.9%. The specificity of MPS screening increased to 84.3%, considering conjunctly DMB and BST. The DMB is a sensitive method, however, inclusion of BST could increase the specificity of MPS urine screening. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Evaluation of occupational exposure in a slide bearings factory on the basis of urine and blood sample analyses.

    PubMed

    Raińska, Emilia; Biziuk, Marek; Jaremin, Bogdan; Głombiowski, Piotr; Fodor, Peter; Bielawski, Leszek

    2007-04-01

    The impact of a slide bearings factory on its workers was examined. Urine and blood samples were collected from 42 workers and six people employed in the offices in the same factory (control group). Concentrations of Al, Cu, Pb and Zn in blood and urine samples were measured twice (before and after chelation therapy) by ICP-MS technique using standard addition method. The essential differences in concentrations of elements for workers and control group were evaluated using non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test. Significant differences between workers and control group were found for Pb in blood and Al in urine samples. The study was also undertaken to indicate correlation between blood and urine element content, workers' ages, their period of work and work section. It was also found that intravenous administration of 1 g of calcium-disodium versanate significantly increased urinary excretion of Pb and Zn, but not Al.

  2. Evaluation of storage and evaporation in the removal efficiency of D-norgestrel and progesterone in human urine.

    PubMed

    Zanchetta, Priscilla Garozi; Heringer, Otávio; Scherer, Rodrigo; Pacheco, Henrique Poltronieri; Gonçalves, Ricardo; Pena, Angelina

    2015-10-01

    Pharmaceuticals are emerging contaminants and it must be noted that approximately 70 % of them are excreted via urine. Therefore, urine usage implies the risk of transfer of pharmaceutical residues to agricultural fields and environment contamination. Thus, this study aimed on the development and validation of a LC-MS/MS method for D-norgestrel (D-NOR) and progesterone (PRO) determination in human urine, as well as the evaluation of the removal efficiency of two methods (storage and evaporation), and the effects of acidification with sulfuric acid. The storage process was evaluated for 6 weeks, while the evaporation was assessed at three different temperatures (50, 75, and 100 °C). All experiments were done with normal urine (pH = 6.0) and acidified urine (pH = 2.0, with sulfuric acid). The results of validation showed good method efficiency. In the second week of storage, higher hormone degradation was observed. In the evaporation method, both D-NOR and PRO were almost completely degraded when the volume was reduced to the lowermost level. Results also indicate that acidification did not affect degradation. Overall, the results showed that combination of two methods can be employed for more efficient hormone removal in urine.

  3. An equine pain face

    PubMed Central

    Gleerup, Karina B; Forkman, Björn; Lindegaard, Casper; Andersen, Pia H

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the existence of an equine pain face and to describe this in detail. Study design Semi-randomized, controlled, crossover trial. Animals Six adult horses. Methods Pain was induced with two noxious stimuli, a tourniquet on the antebrachium and topical application of capsaicin. All horses participated in two control trials and received both noxious stimuli twice, once with and once without an observer present. During all sessions their pain state was scored. The horses were filmed and the close-up video recordings of the faces were analysed for alterations in behaviour and facial expressions. Still images from the trials were evaluated for the presence of each of the specific pain face features identified from the video analysis. Results Both noxious challenges were effective in producing a pain response resulting in significantly increased pain scores. Alterations in facial expressions were observed in all horses during all noxious stimulations. The number of pain face features present on the still images from the noxious challenges were significantly higher than for the control trial (p = 0.0001). Facial expressions representative for control and pain trials were condensed into explanatory illustrations. During pain sessions with an observer present, the horses increased their contact-seeking behavior. Conclusions and clinical relevance An equine pain face comprising ‘low’ and/or ‘asymmetrical’ ears, an angled appearance of the eyes, a withdrawn and/or tense stare, mediolaterally dilated nostrils and tension of the lips, chin and certain facial muscles can be recognized in horses during induced acute pain. This description of an equine pain face may be useful for improving tools for pain recognition in horses with mild to moderate pain. PMID:25082060

  4. Evaluation of a subject-specific finite-element model of the equine metacarpophalangeal joint under physiological load.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Simon M; Whitton, R Chris; Kawcak, Chris E; Stover, Susan M; Pandy, Marcus G

    2014-01-03

    The equine metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint is frequently injured, especially by racehorses in training. Most injuries result from repetitive loading of the subchondral bone and articular cartilage rather than from acute events. The likelihood of injury is multi-factorial but the magnitude of mechanical loading and the number of loading cycles are believed to play an important role. Therefore, an important step in understanding injury is to determine the distribution of load across the articular surface during normal locomotion. A subject-specific finite-element model of the MCP joint was developed (including deformable cartilage, elastic ligaments, muscle forces and rigid representations of bone), evaluated against measurements obtained from cadaver experiments, and then loaded using data from gait experiments. The sensitivity of the model to force inputs, cartilage stiffness, and cartilage geometry was studied. The FE model predicted MCP joint torque and sesamoid bone flexion angles within 5% of experimental measurements. Muscle-tendon forces, joint loads and cartilage stresses all increased as locomotion speed increased from walking to trotting and finally cantering. Perturbations to muscle-tendon forces resulted in small changes in articular cartilage stresses, whereas variations in joint torque, cartilage geometry and stiffness produced much larger effects. Non-subject-specific cartilage geometry changed the magnitude and distribution of pressure and the von Mises stress markedly. The mean and peak cartilage stresses generally increased with an increase in cartilage stiffness. Areas of peak stress correlated qualitatively with sites of common injury, suggesting that further modelling work may elucidate the types of loading that precede joint injury and may assist in the development of techniques for injury mitigation.

  5. Evaluation of a homogenous enzyme immunoassay for the detection of synthetic cannabinoids in urine

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Allan J.; Young, Sheena; Spinelli, Eliani; Martin, Thomas M.; Klette, Kevin L.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The recent emergence and widespread availability of many new synthetic cannabinoids support the need for an accurate and high-throughput urine screen for these new designer drugs. We evaluated performance of the immunalysis homogeneous enzyme immunoassay (HEIA) to sensitively, selectively, and rapidly identify urinary synthetic cannabinoids. Methods 2443 authentic urine samples were analyzed with the HEIA that targets JWH-018 N-pentanoic acid, and a validated LC-MS/MS method for 29 synthetic cannabinoids and metabolites. Semiquantitative HEIA results were obtained, permitting performance evaluation at and around three cutoffs (5, 10 and 20 μg/L), and diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and efficiency determination. Performance challenges at ±25 and ±50% of each cutoff level, cross-reactivity and interferences also were evaluated. Results Sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency of the immunalysis HEIA K2 Spice kit with the manufacturer's recommended 10 μg/L cutoff were 75.6%, 99.6% and 96.8%, respectively, as compared to the reference LC-MS/MS method with limits of detection of 0.1 -10 μg/L. Performance at 5 μg/L was 92.2%, 98.1% and 97.4%, and for the 20 μg/L cutoff were 62.9%, 99.7% and 95.4%. Semi-quantitative results for in-house prepared standards were obtained from 2.5-30 μg/L, and documented acceptable linearity from 5-25 μg/L, with inter-day imprecision <30% (n = 17). Thirteen of 74 synthetic cannabinoids evaluated were classified as highly cross-reactive (≥50% at 10 μg/L); 4 showed moderate cross-reactivity (10–50% at 10 μg/L), 30 low cross-reactivity (<10% at 500 μg/L), and 27 <1% cross-reactivity at 500 μg/L. There was no interference from 102 investigated compounds. Only a mixture containing 1000 μg/L each of buprenorphine/norbuprenorphine produced a positive result above our proposed cutoff (5 μg/L) but below the manufacturer's recommended cutoff concentration (10 μg/L). Conclusion The Immunalysis HEIA K2 Spice kit

  6. Evaluation of a homogenous enzyme immunoassay for the detection of synthetic cannabinoids in urine.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Allan J; Young, Sheena; Spinelli, Eliani; Martin, Thomas M; Klette, Kevin L; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2014-08-01

    The recent emergence and widespread availability of many new synthetic cannabinoids support the need for an accurate and high-throughput urine screen for these new designer drugs. We evaluated performance of the immunalysis homogeneous enzyme immunoassay (HEIA) to sensitively, selectively, and rapidly identify urinary synthetic cannabinoids. 2443 authentic urine samples were analyzed with the HEIA that targets JWH-018 N-pentanoic acid, and a validated LC-MS/MS method for 29 synthetic cannabinoids and metabolites. Semi-quantitative HEIA results were obtained, permitting performance evaluation at and around three cutoffs (5, 10 and 20 μg/L), and diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and efficiency determination. Performance challenges at ±25 and ±50% of each cutoff level, cross-reactivity and interferences also were evaluated. Sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency of the immunalysis HEIA K2 Spice kit with the manufacturer's recommended 10 μg/L cutoff were 75.6%, 99.6% and 96.8%, respectively, as compared to the reference LC-MS/MS method with limits of detection of 0.1-10 μg/L. Performance at 5 μg/L was 92.2%, 98.1% and 97.4%, and for the 20 μg/L cutoff were 62.9%, 99.7% and 95.4%. Semi-quantitative results for in-house prepared standards were obtained from 2.5-30 μg/L, and documented acceptable linearity from 5-25 μg/L, with inter-day imprecision <30% (n = 17). Thirteen of 74 synthetic cannabinoids evaluated were classified as highly cross-reactive (≥50% at 10 μg/L); 4 showed moderate cross-reactivity (10-50% at 10 μg/L), 30 low cross-reactivity (<10% at 500 μg/L), and 27 <1% cross-reactivity at 500 μg/L. There was no interference from 102 investigated compounds. Only a mixture containing 1000 μg/L each of buprenorphine/norbuprenorphine produced a positive result above our proposed cutoff (5 μg/L) but below the manufacturer's recommended cutoff concentration (10 μg/L). The Immunalysis HEIA K2 Spice kit required no

  7. Evaluation of the automated urine particle analyzer UF-1000i screening for urinary tract infection in nonpregnant women.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qingkai; Jiang, Yongmei; Shi, Hua; Zhou, Wei; Zhou, Shengjie; Yang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a widespread disease in women. Urine culture is still the "gold standard" diagnostic test for UTI, but most of them are negative. To reduce unnecessary culture, we evaluated the automated urine particle analyzer UF-1000i screening for UTI in nonpregnant women. The urine specimens submitted to our laboratory were submitted for culture and tested by the Sysmex UF-1000i. Bacteria and white blood cell (WBC) counts were compared to standard urine culture results to assess the best cutoff values. In this study, 272 urine samples were included, of which 98 (36.0%) were culture positive with a bacterial cutoff value of 10 x 10(5) CFU/mL. A combination of bacterial (> 95/microL) and/or WBC count (> 24/microL) provided the best screening for UTI, with a sensitivity of 0.99 and a specificity of 0.82 compared with the urine culture. Sysmex UF-1000i could be used as a screening test for UTI in nonpregnant women. According to the distribution and range of the bacterial scattergram, we could primarily identify and differentiate between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  8. Simple Urine Test to Evaluate Adherence to Oral 5-ASA in Teenagers With Ulcerative Colitis: Proof of Concept.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Alie; Touw, Daan J; van Rheenen, Patrick F

    2017-10-01

    5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is an important maintenance drug for patients with ulcerative colitis. A proportion of the ingested dose is excreted in the urine. Measuring 5-ASA and its metabolites in urine requires mass spectrometry, which is not widely available for this purpose. Urinary 5-ASA can be measured by colorimetry using the serum salicylic acid assay and is a surrogate marker of recent 5-ASA ingestion. We evaluated whether measuring 5-ASA in first morning voids or in random spot urine samples correctly identifies teenagers with poor adherence to oral 5-ASA. Teenagers who were prescribed a current regimen including >40 mg · kg · day of 5-ASA were invited to collect their spot urine with various time lapses since their last presumed 5-ASA ingestion. Classification of adherence was based on a composite method that included a patient-reported adherence scale and 6-thioguanine levels in erythrocytes. Teenagers who were classified as "good adherers" had 66 of 69 (96%; 95% confidence interval 87%-99%) spot urine samples with detectable 5-ASA levels. "Poor adherers" had 30 of 45 (67%; 95% confidence interval 52%-79%) spot urine samples with undetectable 5-ASA levels. The "good adherers" with false-negative urine tests were on a once daily dosing regimen and had collected a spot urine sample shortly before the next dosage. Their first morning voids had detectable 5-ASA levels. Undetectable 5-ASA levels in the first morning void confirms short-term nonadherence to oral 5-ASA.

  9. Urine culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  10. Urine - bloody

    MedlinePlus

    ... and other blood disorders Urinalysis Urinary cytology Urine culture 24-hour urine collection for creatinine, protein, calcium Blood tests such as PT , PTT or INR tests The treatment will depend on the cause of blood in the urine.

  11. Urine odor

    MedlinePlus

    ... rare disease of metabolism. Liver disease and certain metabolic disorders may cause musty-smelling urine. Some conditions that ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Metabolic Disorders Urinalysis Urinary Tract Infections Urine and Urination Browse ...

  12. A prospective field evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay: Detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus antigen in pools of Culiseta melanura

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, T.W.; Olson, J.G.; Lewis, T.E.; Carpenter, J.W.; Lorenz, L.H.; Lembeck, L.A.; Joseph, S.R.; Pagac, B.B.

    1987-01-01

    A prospective field study was conducted to determine the sensitivity and specificity of an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) compared to virus isolation in cell culture for the detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus in naturally infected mosquitoes. A total of 10,811 adult female Culiseta melanura were collected in light traps during 1985 from four locations in Maryland. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus was isolated from 5 of 495 mosquito pools in African green monkey kidney and baby hamster kidney cell cultures. All five virus-infected pools were detected by the EIA, and all 490 uninfected pools were correctly scored as not containing virus. The EIA did not produce false positive or false negative results. Results support the assertion of previous researchers that the antigen detection EIA is a rapid, sensitive, specific, and simple alternative to traditional bioassays for the detection of EEE virus in mosquitoes.

  13. Electroretinogram evaluation of equine eyes with extensive 'bullet-hole' fundic lesions.

    PubMed

    Allbaugh, Rachel A; Ben-Shlomo, Gil; Whitley, R David

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of extensive bullet-hole nontapetal fundic lesions in horses on retinal function as measured by full-field electroretinography (ERG). Full-field ERG was performed on two horses with numerous bullet-hole lesions in the nontapetal fundus of both eyes. The ERG was first recorded from the eye with the more extensive lesions in response to a low-intensity light stimulus (0.03 cd s/m(2) ) that was given at times (T) T = 5, 10, 15, 20 min of dark adaptation. Consecutively, combined rod-cone response was evaluated bilaterally in response to high-intensity light stimulus (3 cd s/m(2) ), followed by cone function evaluation by flicker stimulus (3 cd s/m(2) at 30 Hz). Off-line analysis of the ERG recordings was then performed. Despite extensive bullet-hole lesions in the nontapetal fundus bilaterally in both horses, retinal function as measured by ERG did not show any observable deficits. The b-wave amplitude of the full-field ERG increased continuously from 5 to 20 min of dark adaptation peaking at 446 μv and 377 μv for horse number 1 and 2, respectively. The b-wave amplitudes of the combined rod-cone response were OS- 459 μv and OD- 392 μv for horse number 1 and OS- 491 μv and OD- 608 μv for horse number 2. The amplitude of the flicker ERG for horse number 1 was OS- 86 μv and OD- 110 μv and for horse number 2, OS- 80 μv and OD- 74 μv. Extensive bullet-hole chorioretinal lesions do not appear to compromise outer retinal function in these horses. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  14. Evaluations of buparvaquone as a treatment for equine babesiosis (Babesia equi).

    PubMed

    Zaugg, J L; Lane, V M

    1989-05-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of buparvaquone in eliminating Babesia equi of European origin in carrier horses and in experimentally infected splenectomized ponies. When administered at the rate of 2.5 mg/kg of body weight, IM, 4 times at 96-hour intervals, buparvaquone was effective in eliminating B equi carrier infection in 1 horse. Such results could not be repeated at the same dosage or at 3.5 or 5 mg/kg, IM. Buparvaquone given at the rate of 4 to 6 mg/kg IV and/or IM was therapeutically effective in 4 of 5 acute B equi infections in splenectomized ponies. The treated ponies became carriers.

  15. Evaluation of partial arytenoidectomy as a treatment for equine laryngeal hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Lumsden, J M; Derksen, F J; Stick, J A; Robinson, N E; Nickels, F A

    1994-03-01

    The efficacy of partial arytenoidectomy was assessed in 6 Standardbred horses, with surgically induced laryngeal hemiplegia, at rest (Period A) and during exercise at speeds corresponding to maximum heart rate (Period C) and 75% of maximum heart rate (Period B). Peak expiratory and inspiratory airflow rate (PEF and PIF), and expiratory and inspiratory transupper airway pressure (PUE and PUI) were measured and expiratory and inspiratory impedance (ZE and ZI) were calculated. Simultaneously, tidal breathing flow-volume loops (TBFVL) were acquired using a respiratory function computer. Indices derived from TBFVL included airflow rates at 50 and 25% of tidal volume (EF50, IF50, EF25, and IF25) and the ratios of expiratory to inspiratory flows. Measurements were made before left recurrent laryngeal neurectomy (baseline), 2 weeks after left recurrent laryngeal neurectomy (LRLN) and 16 weeks after left partial arytenoidectomy coupled with bilateral ventriculectomy (ARYT). After LRLN, during exercise Periods B and C, Z1 and the ratio of EF50/IF50 significantly increased and PIF, IF50 and IF25 significantly decreased from baseline values. At 16 weeks after ARYT, Z1 returned to baseline values during Periods B and C. Although PIF, IF50, IF25, PEF/PIF, and EF50/IF50 returned to baseline values during Period B, these indices remained significantly different from baseline measurements during Period C. After ARYT, TBFVL shapes from horses during Period C approached that seen at the baseline evaluation. Partial arytenoidectomy improved upper airway function in exercising horses with surgically induced left laryngeal hemiplegia, although qualitative and quantitative evaluation of TBFVLs suggested that some flow limitation remains at near maximal airflow rates. These results indicate that, although the procedure does not completely restore the upper airway to normal, partial arytenoidectomy is a viable treatment option for failed laryngoplasty and arytenoid chondropathy in the

  16. Transcutaneous ultrasonographic evaluation of the air-filled equine stomach and duodenum following gastroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kihurani, David O G; Carstens, Ann; Saulez, Montague N; Donnellan, Cynthia M B

    2009-01-01

    Gastroscopy with air insufflation was performed in 10 ponies, after which a transcutaneous ultrasound examination of the stomach and duodenum was performed immediately and at 1, 2, and 4 h postgastroscopy, and 24 h after feeding. Stomach measurements included the dorsoventral and craniocaudal dimensions, as well as the stomach depth from the skin surface and stomach wall thickness at the different time periods. Gastric wall folding was observed in one pony, becoming most distinct 2-4 h postgastroscopy. An undulating stomach wall was noted in eight other ponies postgastroscopy. These observations appeared to be a response to the deflation of the stomach as the insufflated air was released gradually. Gas was detected in the duodenum after the gastroscopy. The parameters measured were noted to be useful to evaluate the extent of stomach distension due to air or feed. The ultrasonographic appearance of the stomach can, therefore, be altered by gastroscopy and this should be borne in mind when examining horses with suspected gastric disease.

  17. Evaluation of the long-term oral consequences of equine exodontia in 50 horses.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Neil B; Dixon, Padraic M; Barakzai, Safia Z

    2008-12-01

    The aims of this study were to objectively evaluate and quantify the process of post-extraction cheek teeth (CT) dental drift in horses, and to report on associated disorders of CT wear and long-term periodontal health. Fifty horses that had CT oral extraction because of apical infection were prospectively re-examined and a full oral examination, including measurements of some dental parameters, was performed. Narrowing of the extraction space was noted in all cases with complete closure occurring in 18% of horses. The rate of dental drift was calculated as 15.7% of extraction space/year (range 4-50%) and was not associated with the age at extraction (P=0.78) or frequency of dental care since extraction (P=0.48). There was a significant negative relationship between the rate of dental drift and the duration of time since extraction (P=0.008). Overgrowths were present on the opposite CT row in 98% of horses, including opposite the extracted CT and on the Triadan 06s and 11s. No significant difference was noted in either the number of diastemata (P=0.9) or periodontal disease score (P=0.8) between the extraction and the contralateral cheek tooth rows.

  18. Scintigraphic evaluation of digital circulation during the developmental and acute phases of equine laminitis

    SciTech Connect

    Trout, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    Using nuclear isotopic imaging, digital circulation was sequentially evaluated at 24-hour intervals in 11 control horses and in 9 horses affected with acute laminitis, created by administration of a high-starch ration. Following intra-arterial injection of /sup 99m/Tc macroaggregated albumin into the brachiocephalic trunk, a gamma camera and dedicated nuclear medicine computer were used to acquire static images of the right front foot. Dynamic vascular-phase and static interstitial-phase images were also obtained after jugular vein injection of /sup 99m/Tc diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid. These procedures were performed on standing horses, using either minimal or no tranquilization. The images were quantitatively analyzed for parameters indicative of circulation to the foot as a whole and to specific regions of interest within the foot. There was no evidence of reduced total blood flow to the lamellae during either the developmental or acute phases of laminitis. Although total flow tended to increase throughout the peripheral/external regions of the foot, statistically significant elevations were consistently present only within the lamellae. Changes indicative of decreased total blood flow were noted in the central/internal regions of the foot. These alterations usually occurred coincident with or after the onset of clinical lameness.

  19. Evaluation of the Gen-Probe Chlamydia trachomatis transcription-mediated amplification assay with urine specimens from women.

    PubMed Central

    Pasternack, R; Vuorinen, P; Miettinen, A

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the Gen-Probe Chlamydia trachomatis transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) assay with urine specimens for the detection of C. trachomatis infections in women. The novel test, based on the isothermal amplification of chlamydial RNA, was compared with the Roche Amplicor PCR with urine and cell culture with endocervical specimens. First-catch urine and endocervical swab specimens were collected from a total of 561 patients, of whom 70 (12.3%) were confirmed to have chlamydial infection. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of TMA with urine were 91.4 and 99.6%, respectively, and those of Amplicor PCR were 97.1 and 99.8%, respectively. By repeated analysis of the specimens with discrepant results, the sensitivity of TMA could be increased to 99%, indicating that some methodological improvements in the assay are still to be expected. The sensitivity of PCR could be increased to 100% by the elimination of DNA polymerase inhibitors in a repeated analysis. The sensitivity and specificity of cell culture with cervical specimens were 85.7 and 100%, respectively. The results indicate that TMA with urine specimens from women is a sensitive and specific assay for the detection of C. trachomatis, providing a new noninvasive technique for the screening of chlamydial infections in women. PMID:9041411

  20. Evaluation of a New Surgical Treatment for Equine Hind Limb Proximal Suspensory Desmitis.

    PubMed

    Brokken, Matthew T; Schneider, Robert K; Roberts, Gregory D; Holmes, Shannon P; Gavin, Patrick R; Sampson, Sarah N; Farnsworth, Kelly D; Dahlgren, Linda A

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of a new microfracture and ligament splitting procedure on ligament healing and to examine the usefulness of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for monitoring ligament healing over time using a collagenase model of hind limb proximal suspensory desmitis. Experimental in vivo study. Healthy adult horses (n=6). Horses were free of lameness with normal hind limb proximal suspensory ligaments (PSL). The origin of both hind limb PSL was injected with collagenase and underwent MR imaging 2 weeks later, followed by the microfracture and ligament splitting procedure on 1 limb, with the opposite limb serving as the sham-operated control. Serial lameness and MR examinations were performed. Horses were euthanatized 210 days after surgery, the PSL harvested, and histology, biochemistry, and gene expression performed on both PSL. Collagenase lesions viewed on MR images appeared similar to those seen clinically. Serial MR images demonstrated resolution of abnormal signal intensity and tissue formation in the microfracture sites within the third metatarsal bone. Treated limbs had histologic evidence of connective tissue appearing to originate from the small perforations and blending into the ligament but no statistical differences were identified. Gene expression for cartilage oligomeric matrix protein and decorin were significantly increased in treated compared to control limbs. The microfracture and ligament splitting procedure did incite a tissue response but further clinical investigation is necessary to determine if this tissue remodeling at the bone-ligament interface translates to improved clinical outcome. MR imaging may be useful to follow healing in horses with hind limb proximal suspensory desmitis. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  1. Equine keratomycosis in Switzerland: a retrospective evaluation of 35 horses (January 2000-August 2011).

    PubMed

    Voelter-Ratson, K; Pot, S A; Florin, M; Spiess, B M

    2013-09-01

    Keratomycosis is a severe disease in horses. Geographical differences in fungi causing keratomycosis and susceptibility of the organisms to antifungal drugs exist but few previous publications on this disease originate from Europe. To retrospectively compare the clinical data of 36 eyes with keratomycosis, diagnosed in 35 horses between January 2000 and August 2011 at the Vetsuisse Faculty of Switzerland. Case history, season, prior treatment, clinical appearance, surgical and medical treatment, treatment duration, and globe survival were evaluated. Retrospective case series. Medical records of horses with a definitive cytological or histological diagnosis of keratomycosis were reviewed. Thirty-one of 36 eyes (86.1%) presented with ulcerative keratitis, 2/36 (5.55%) had diffuse corneal infiltration, 2/36 (5.55%) had superficial punctate keratitis and 1/36 (2.8%) had a fluorescein-negative fungal plaque. Two of 6 fungal cultures produced Aspergillus spp. Thirty eyes received medical and surgical treatment, while 3 eyes were treated medically only. In 3 horses the globe was removed at the time of first presentation. Sex, age, prior treatment with antimicrobials or steroids, or type of surgical approach did not significantly influence the outcome. Twenty-three of 36 eyes (63.9%) were at least partially visual, 11/36 eyes (30.5%) were enucleated and 2 horses (2/36 eyes, 5.6%) were subjected to euthanasia. Treatment protocols were compared in the 31 eyes with ulcerative keratitis. In this group, 3/31 globes were immediately enucleated, 16/31 eyes were treated topically with voriconazole or voriconazole/fluconazole and 12/31 with other antifungal drug combinations. The different medication protocols did not significantly affect the outcome. There were no significant differences in outcome between different medical treatment protocols or types of surgical approach. Future studies in central Europe should focus on the identification of fungal pathogens, susceptibility

  2. The evaluation of a nucleoprotein ELISA for the detection of equine influenza antibodies and the differentiation of infected from vaccinated horses (DIVA).

    PubMed

    Galvin, Pamela; Gildea, Sarah; Arkins, Sean; Walsh, Cathal; Cullinane, Ann

    2013-12-01

    Antibodies against equine influenza virus (EIV) are traditionally quantified by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) or single radial haemolysis (SRH). To evaluate an ELISA for the detection of antibodies against influenza nucleoprotein in the diagnosis and surveillance of equine influenza (EI). The ELISA was compared with the SRH and HI tests. Serial serum samples from 203 naturally and 14 experimentally infected horses, from 60 weanlings following primary vaccination with five different vaccines (two whole inactivated vaccines, two ISCOM-based subunit vaccines and a recombinant canarypox virus vaccine) and from 44 adult horses following annual booster vaccination with six different vaccines were analysed. Fewer seroconversions were detected in clinical samples by ELISA than by SRH or HI but ELISA was more sensitive than SRH in naïve foals post-experimental infection. The ELISA did not detect the antibody response to vaccination with the recombinant canarypox virus vaccine confirming the usefulness of the combination of this kit and vaccine to differentiate between naturally infected and vaccinated horses, that is, DIVA. No DIVA capacity was evident with the other vaccines. The results suggest that this ELISA is a useful supplementary test for the diagnosis of EI although less sensitive than HI or SRH. It is an appropriate test for EI surveillance in a naïve population and may be combined with the recombinant canarypox virus vaccine but not with other commercially available subunit vaccines, in a DIVA strategy. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Evaluation of Circulating Cathodic Antigen (CCA) Urine-Tests for Diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Kueté Fouodo, Césaire Joris; Kamwa Ngassam, Romuald Isaka; Sumo, Laurentine; Dongmo Noumedem, Calvine; Kenfack, Christian Mérimé; Gipwe, Nestor Feussom; Nana, Esther Dankoni; Stothard, J. Russell; Rollinson, David

    2012-01-01

    Background The Kato-Katz is the most common diagnostic method for Schistosoma mansoni infection. However, the day-to-day variability in host egg-excretion and its low detection sensitivity are major limits for its use in low transmission zones and after widespread chemotherapy. We evaluated the accuracy of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) urine-assay as a diagnostic tool of S. mansoni. In comparison, a low sensitive CCA test (CCA-L) was assessed. Methodology The study was conducted in three settings: two foci with single S. mansoni infections (settings A and B), and one mixed S. mansoni – S. haematobium focus (setting C). Stool and urine samples were collected from school-children on three consecutive days. Triplicate Kato-Katz readings were performed per stool sample. Each urine sample was tested with one CCA and only the first urine sample was subjected to CCA-L. Urine samples were also examined for S. haematobium eggs using the filtration method and for microhaematuria using urine reagent strips. Overall, 625 children provided three stool and three urine samples. Principal Findings Considering nine Kato-Katz thick smears as ‘reference’ diagnostic test, the prevalence of S. mansoni was 36.2%, 71.8% and 64.0% in settings A, B and C, respectively. The prevalence of S. haematobium in setting C was 12.0%. The sensitivities of single Kato-Katz, CCA and CCA-L from the first stool or urine samples were 58%, 82% and 46% in setting A, 56.8%, 82.4% and 68.8% in setting B, and 49.0%, 87.7% and 55.5% in setting C. The respective specificities were 100%, 64.7% and 100%; 100%, 62.3% and 91.3%; and 100%, 42.5% and 92.0%. Mixed infection with S. haematobium did not influence the CCA test results for S. mansoni diagnosis. Conclusions/Significance Urine CCA revealed higher sensitivity than CCA-L and triplicate Kato-Katz, and produced similar prevalence as nine Kato-Katz. It seems an attractive method for S. mansoni diagnosis. PMID:22860148

  4. Development of a Genetically-Engineered Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus Vaccine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-13

    necrosis. We have evaluated the efficacy of a recombinant vaccinia/VEE virus vaccine (TC-5A) to protect horses against challenge with equine virulent...of horse vaccinees with equine virulent VEE virus 71-180 and vaccinia viruses ........ 27 7. ELISA cross-reactivity of sera from immunized equines ...antibodies in equines after immuniza- tion with TC-83, TC-5A and wild-type vaccinia viruses . .40 5. Body temperature of horses immunized with TC-5A (A

  5. Urine Odor

    MedlinePlus

    ... urine odor. Urine that contains a lot of water and few waste products has little to no odor. If urine becomes highly concentrated — a high level of waste products with little water — your urine may have a strong ammonia odor. ...

  6. Equine Arteritis Virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    03. Nidovirales : 03.004. Arteriviridae : 03.004.0. {03.004.0. unknown} : 03.004.0.01. Arterivirus : 03.004.0.01.001. Equine arteritis virus will be published online. The article details the phenotypic and genotypic makeup of equine arteritis virus (EAV), and summarizes its biological properties....

  7. Evaluation of a new handheld point-of-care blood gas analyser using 100 equine blood samples.

    PubMed

    Bardell, David; West, Eleanor; Senior, J Mark

    2016-07-07

    To determine whether the Enterprise point-of-care blood analysis system (EPOC) produces results in agreement with two other blood gas analysers in regular clinical use (i-STAT and Radiometer ABL77) and to investigate the precision of the new machine when used with equine whole blood. Prospective, randomized, non-blinded, comparative laboratory analyser study. Horses admitted to a university teaching hospital requiring arterial or venous blood gas analysis as part of their routine clinical management. One hundred equine blood samples were run immediately, consecutively and in randomized order on three blood gas analysers. Results of variables common to all three analysers were tested for agreement and compared with guidelines used in human medicine. These require 80% of results from the test analyser to fall within a defined range or percentage of results from the comparator devices to achieve acceptability. Additionally, 21 samples were run twice in quick succession on the EPOC analyser to investigate precision. Agreement targets were not met for haematocrit, haemoglobin and base excess for either i-STAT or ABL77 analysers. EPOC precision targets were not met for partial pressure of carbon dioxide, ionized calcium, haematocrit and haemoglobin. Overall comparative performance of the EPOC was good to excellent for pH, oxygen tension, potassium, bicarbonate and oxygen saturation of haemoglobin, but marginal to poor for other parameters. The EPOC may be useful in performing analysis of equine whole blood, but trend analysis of carbon dioxide tension, ionized calcium, haematocrit and haemoglobin should be interpreted with caution. The EPOC should not be used interchangeably with other blood gas analysers. © 2016 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  8. Evaluation of a new handheld point-of-care blood gas analyser using 100 equine blood samples.

    PubMed

    Bardell, David; West, Eleanor; Mark Senior, J

    2017-02-22

    To determine whether the Enterprise point-of-care blood analysis system (EPOC) produces results in agreement with two other blood gas analysers in regular clinical use (i-STAT and Radiometer ABL77) and to investigate the precision of the new machine when used with equine whole blood. Prospective, randomized, non-blinded, comparative laboratory analyser study. Horses admitted to a university teaching hospital requiring arterial or venous blood gas analysis as part of their routine clinical management. One hundred equine blood samples were run immediately, consecutively and in randomized order on three blood gas analysers. Results of variables common to all three analysers were tested for agreement and compared with guidelines used in human medicine. These require 80% of results from the test analyser to fall within a defined range or percentage of results from the comparator devices to achieve acceptability. Additionally, 21 samples were run twice in quick succession on the EPOC analyser to investigate precision. Agreement targets were not met for haematocrit, haemoglobin and base excess for either i-STAT or ABL77 analysers. EPOC precision targets were not met for partial pressure of carbon dioxide, ionized calcium, haematocrit and haemoglobin. Overall comparative performance of the EPOC was good to excellent for pH, oxygen tension, potassium, bicarbonate and oxygen saturation of haemoglobin, but marginal to poor for other parameters. The EPOC may be useful in performing analysis of equine whole blood, but trend analysis of carbon dioxide tension, ionized calcium, haematocrit and haemoglobin should be interpreted with caution. The EPOC should not be used interchangeably with other blood gas analysers. Copyright © 2016 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the 20% D-methamphetamine requirement for determining illicit use of methamphetamine in urine.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Francis M; Crumpton, Susan; Mitchell, John; Flegel, Ronald R

    2012-07-01

    In urine drug testing, enantiomer analysis is used to determine whether a positive methamphetamine result could be due to use of an over-the-counter (OTC) nasal inhaler containing L-methamphetamine. D-methamphetamine at more than 20% of the total is considered indicative of a source other than an OTC product. This interpretation is based on a 1991 Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Technical Advisory. We performed studies to verify the methamphetamine enantiomer content of current OTC nasal inhalers and to evaluate current laboratory testing capabilities. This study demonstrated that OTC inhalers contain less than 1% D-methamphetamine. A proficiency testing (PT) set for HHS-certified laboratories performing methamphetamine enantiomer testing found D-methamphetamine percentages that were consistently 1 to 3% higher than theoretical due to optical impurity of the derivatizing reagent N-trifluoroacetyl-L-prolyl chloride (L-TPC). The PT results also demonstrate that laboratories can accurately determine 20% D-methamphetamine in samples with total methamphetamine concentrations down to 250 ng/mL. Based on these studies, the guideline of >20% D-methamphetamine is appropriate for interpreting results obtained using current laboratory methods.

  10. [Evaluation of a new ELISA (Bartels) for detection of Legionella pneumophila antigen in urine].

    PubMed

    de Ory, Fernando

    2002-03-01

    Detection of Legionella pneumophila soluble antigens allows rapid diagnosis of pneumonia caused by these bacteria. A new ELISA (Bartels) for antigenuria detection has recently been commercialized. We compared the new ELISA with another well-established ELISA (Binax). To evaluate ELISA-Bartels (Legionella Urinary Antigen, Intracel, Issaquah, Washington, United States), urine samples previously characterized by ELISA Binax (Legionella Urinary Antigen Enzyme Immunoassay Kit, Binax, Portland, Maine, United States) were used. Samples came from Legionella outbreaks (n = 48), from sporadic legionellosis (n = 38), and from children with viral pneumonia (n = 21). Samples from the External Quality Control of Legionella of the European Working Group on Legionella Infections (n = 102) were also tested. Of the samples analyzed, 109 were positive in ELISA-Binax, 2 were equivocal and 98 were negative. Samples showing equivocal results were excluded from the analysis. The sensitivity of ELISA-Bartels in comparison with that of ELISA-Binax was 98.2% (107/109) and specificity was 82.7% (81/98). In the 17 samples that were positive in ELISA-Bartels and negative in ELISA-Binax, 10 were positive in ELISA-Binax after concentration by selective ultrafiltration and 6 further cases showed serology indicating or compatible with recent Legionella infection and were thus classified as true positives. ELISA-Bartels showed good sensitivity and specificity. Sensitivity was even higher than that of ELISA-Binax. Thus, we consider it to be an appropriate method for diagnosis of Legionella pneumonia.

  11. Simulated-use testing of bedpan and urinal washer disinfectors: evaluation of Clostridium difficile spore survival and cleaning efficacy.

    PubMed

    Alfa, Michelle J; Olson, Nancy; Buelow-Smith, Louise

    2008-02-01

    Reusable bedpans and urinals are frequently cleaned and decontaminated using washer-disinfectors (WDs) that may be located in the central processing department (CPD) or on the ward. The objective of this study was to determine how efficiently the WDs provided cleaning and to evaluate the ability of such WDs to kill Clostridium difficile spores. The cleaning efficacy of 2 bedpan/urinal WDs (1 in the ward [ward-WD] and 1 in the CPD [CPD-WD]) were evaluated using simulated-use testing that included an ultraviolet-visible marker (UVM) that is readily removed when exposed to liquid. In addition, a proprietary test object surgical instrument (TOSI) device was used to assess the efficacy of the WDs. Artificial test soil (ATS) and C. difficile spore removal and killing also were evaluated. The removal of approximately 10(6) C. difficile spores and subsequent killing of these spores was assessed using autoclaved stool and/or urine as the soil challenge. Reusable stainless steel bedpans, plastic bedpans, and plastic urinals were assessed. Triplicate testing done on 3 separate days using TOSI devices, UVM, ATS, and stool and urine soils indicated that the ward-WD did not demonstrate adequate cleaning. It was determined that installation errors accounted for the inadequate cleaning. But the ward-WD did not adequately inactivate C. difficile spores even when the installation problems were corrected and the manufacturer-adjusted maximal thermal conditions were used. The CPD-WD was able not only to adequately clean the test devices of organic soil, but also to completely inactivate the 6 logs of C. difficile spores placed in sealed ampules inside the WD. The results of this study indicate that user testing of the efficacy of WDs is critical to ensure appropriate functionality. The currently accepted thermal decontamination parameters for all bedpan WDs (ie, 80 degrees C for 1 minute) are not adequate to eliminate C. difficile spores from bedpans.

  12. Evaluation of separate urine collection and treatment to augment existing wastewater treatment works.

    PubMed

    Wilsenach, J A; van Bragt, W P M; de Been, P; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2005-01-01

    Simultaneous increases in wastewater loads and effluent quality demand improved nutrient removal techniques. A simple technique for nitrogen removal is post-denitrification with methanol. The tradeoff between better effluent vs. methanol consumption is debatable. Methanol dosing is not only un-sustainable in the long term, but the cost of methanol is also becoming increasingly important. Urine contains 80% of the total nitrogen (N) and 50% of the phosphate in wastewater. Separate collection and treatment of urine could improve existing treatment works and diminish the need for post-denitrification. In this paper, a nitritation-denitrification process is proposed where 20-30% of the N in urine is removed with the COD available in urine. The treated urine consists of ammonium-nitrite, which is to be introduced to the anoxic zone of a conventional treatment plant. Optimal denitrification via nitrite is possible with COD from other wastewater sources. The case study presented here shows that 40-50% urine separation and improvement of the flow scheme would improve effluent quality from 19 to 10 g N/m3, which would eliminate the need for post-denitrification.

  13. Customer service in equine veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Blach, Edward L

    2009-12-01

    This article explores customer service in equine veterinary medicine. It begins with a discussion about the differences between customers and clients in veterinary medicine. An overview of the nature of the veterinary-client-patient relationship and its effects on the veterinarian's services sheds light on how to evaluate your customer service. The author reviews a study performed in 2007 that evaluated 24 attributes of customer service and their importance to clients of equine veterinarians in their decision to select a specific veterinarian or hospital. The article concludes with an overview of how to evaluate your customer service in an effort to optimize your service to achieve customer loyalty.

  14. Quantitative Evaluation of Chinese Herb Medicine in the Treatment of Sialorrhea and Frequent Nighttime Urination in Patients with Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chuanhe; Wang, Dandan; Jiang, Wenfei; Liao, Weilong; Gao, Penglin

    2017-01-01

    Aims. To evaluate the efficacy of Lian-Se formula (LSF), one Chinese herb formulation for treating sialorrhea and frequent overnight urination in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. 96 PD patients suffering from sialorrhea and/or frequent nighttime urination were divided into two groups: an LSF group (n = 48) treated with LSF for 6 weeks and a placebo group (n = 48) treated with a placebo formula whose appearance and taste were the same as LSF for 6 weeks. All patients were treated by standard antiparkinsonism medicine according to the PD guideline of China. The changes of the quantity of saliva (QS) (mL), frequency of nighttime urination (FNU) and early sleep activity (ESA), and nocturnal activity (NA) by analyzing actigraphic records as the primary results and the total score of unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) as the secondary results were used to evaluate the clinical efficacy in both groups. Results. There were no significant differences in the baseline values of QS, FNU, NA, ESA, UPDRS total score, and ESS between the two groups. At the end of week 6, the QS, FNU, NA, and ESA in the LSF group showed superior results to those of the placebo group with no differences in the total UPDRS score between the two groups during the investigation. The ESS was significantly improved at the end of week 6 compared with the baseline and the placebo group. Laboratory test results indicated there were no side effects in either group. Conclusion. The findings of LSF treatment have clear clinical effects in patients with sialorrhea and frequent overnight urination. LSF thus appears to be a potential choice as an additional drug that can improve the sialorrhea and frequent overnight urination symptoms of PD patients. PMID:28484503

  15. Evaluation of LSSP-PCR for identification of Leptospira spp. in urine samples of cattle with clinical suspicion of leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Bomfim, Maria Rosa Quaresma; Koury, Matilde Cota

    2006-12-20

    We evaluated the use of low-stringency single specific primer PCR (LSSP-PCR) for genetically typing Leptospira directly from urine samples of cattle with clinical suspicion of leptospirosis. Urine samples obtained from 40 cattle with clinical suspicion of leptospirosis were amplified by specific PCR using the following primers: Internal 1/Internal 2 and G1/G2. The internal primers were designed from the gene sequence of the outer membrane lipoprotein Lip32 from Leptospira kirschneri, strain RM52. The PCR products were amplified with these two pairs of primers, which had approximately 497 and 285bp, respectively, and were subsequently used as a template for LSSP-PCR analysis. The genetic signatures from the leptospires which were present in the urine samples allowed us to make a preliminary identification of the leptospires by comparing the LSSP-PCR profiles obtained directly from urine samples with those from reference leptospires. The LSSP-PCR profiles obtained with the Internal 1 primer or with the G1 primer allowed the grouping of the leptospires into serogroups. LSSP-PCR was found to be a useful and sensitive approach capable of identifying leptospires directly from biological samples without the need for prior bacterial isolation. In conclusion, the LSSP-PCR technique may still be helpful in discriminating serogroups of Leptospira from different animal reservoirs, since the early identification of carrier animals and information on the shedding state are crucial to prevent the spread of leptospiral infection to other animals and humans.

  16. Equine Immunoglobulin and Equine Neutralizing F(ab′)2 Protect Mice from West Nile Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jiannan; Zhao, Yongkun; Wang, Hualei; Qiu, Boning; Cao, Zengguo; Li, Qian; Zhang, Yanbo; Yan, Feihu; Jin, Hongli; Wang, Tiecheng; Sun, Weiyang; Feng, Na; Gao, Yuwei; Sun, Jing; Wang, Yanqun; Perlman, Stanley; Zhao, Jincun; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is prevalent in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, West Asia, and North America, and causes epidemic encephalitis. To date, no effective therapy for WNV infection has been developed; therefore, there is urgent need to find an efficient method to prevent WNV disease. In this study, we prepared and evaluated the protective efficacy of immune serum IgG and pepsin-digested F(ab′)2 fragments from horses immunized with the WNV virus-like particles (VLP) expressing the WNV M and E proteins. Immune equine F(ab′)2 fragments and immune horse sera efficiently neutralized WNV infection in tissue culture. The passive transfer of equine immune antibodies significantly accelerated the virus clearance in the spleens and brains of WNV infected mice, and reduced mortality. Thus, equine immunoglobulin or equine neutralizing F(ab′)2 passive immunotherapy is a potential strategy for the prophylactic or therapeutic treatment of patients infected with WNV. PMID:27999340

  17. Equine Immunoglobulin and Equine Neutralizing F(ab')₂ Protect Mice from West Nile Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jiannan; Zhao, Yongkun; Wang, Hualei; Qiu, Boning; Cao, Zengguo; Li, Qian; Zhang, Yanbo; Yan, Feihu; Jin, Hongli; Wang, Tiecheng; Sun, Weiyang; Feng, Na; Gao, Yuwei; Sun, Jing; Wang, Yanqun; Perlman, Stanley; Zhao, Jincun; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-12-18

    West Nile virus (WNV) is prevalent in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, West Asia, and North America, and causes epidemic encephalitis. To date, no effective therapy for WNV infection has been developed; therefore, there is urgent need to find an efficient method to prevent WNV disease. In this study, we prepared and evaluated the protective efficacy of immune serum IgG and pepsin-digested F(ab')₂ fragments from horses immunized with the WNV virus-like particles (VLP) expressing the WNV M and E proteins. Immune equine F(ab')₂ fragments and immune horse sera efficiently neutralized WNV infection in tissue culture. The passive transfer of equine immune antibodies significantly accelerated the virus clearance in the spleens and brains of WNV infected mice, and reduced mortality. Thus, equine immunoglobulin or equine neutralizing F(ab')₂ passive immunotherapy is a potential strategy for the prophylactic or therapeutic treatment of patients infected with WNV.

  18. Evaluation of the BinaxNOW® Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen test on fresh, frozen and concentrated urine samples in elderly patients with and without community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Saukkoriipi, Annika; Pascal, Thierry; Palmu, Arto A

    2016-02-01

    We evaluated the BinaxNOW® urine antigen test in elderly. For fresh un-concentrated urine samples, the sensitivity for pneumococcal pneumonia was 63% and specificity 97%. After freezing and concentration, the results comparable to positive control line in intensity at 60 min gave high sensitivity (81%) with no loss in specificity (96%).

  19. Urine Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feedback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.

    2009-01-01

    The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a system designed to collect an individual crewmember's void, gently separate urine from air, accurately measure void volume, allow for void sample acquisition, and discharge remaining urine into the Waste Collector Subsystem (WCS) onboard the International Space Station. The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a successor design to the existing Space Shuttle system and will resolve anomalies such as: liquid carry-over, inaccurate void volume measurements, and cross contamination in void samples. The crew will perform an evaluation of airflow at the ISS UMS urinal hose interface, a calibration evaluation, and a full user interface evaluation. o The UMS can be used to facilitate non-invasive methods for monitoring crew health, evaluation of countermeasures, and implementation of a variety of biomedical research protocols on future exploration missions.

  20. Development and evaluation of one-step TaqMan real-time reverse transcription-PCR assays targeting nucleoprotein, matrix, and hemagglutinin genes of equine influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhengchun; Chambers, Thomas M; Boliar, Saikat; Branscum, Adam J; Sturgill, Tracy L; Timoney, Peter J; Reedy, Stephanie E; Tudor, Lynn R; Dubovi, Edward J; Vickers, Mary Lynne; Sells, Stephen; Balasuriya, Udeni B R

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate new TaqMan real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays by the use of the minor groove binding probe to detect a wide range of equine influenza virus (EIV) strains comprising both subtypes of the virus (H3N8 and H7N7). A total of eight rRT-PCR assays were developed, targeting the nucleoprotein (NP), matrix (M), and hemagglutinin (HA) genes of the two EIV subtypes. None of the eight assays cross-reacted with any of the other known equine respiratory viruses. Three rRT-PCR assays (EqFlu NP, M, and HA3) which can detect strains of the H3N8 subtype were evaluated using nasal swabs received for routine diagnosis and swabs collected from experimentally inoculated horses. All three rRT-PCR assays have greater specificity and sensitivity than virus isolation by egg inoculation (93%, 89%, and 87% sensitivity for EqFlu NP, EqFlu M, and EqFlu HA3 assays, respectively). These assays had analytical sensitivities of >or=10 EIV RNA molecules. Comparison of the sensitivities of rRT-PCR assays targeting the NP and M genes of both subtypes with egg inoculation and the Directigen Flu A test clearly shows that molecular assays provide the highest sensitivity. The EqFlu HA7 assay targeting the H7 HA gene is highly specific for the H7N7 subtype of EIV. It should enable highly reliable surveillance for the H7N7 subtype, which is thought to be extinct or possibly still circulating at a very low level in nature. The assays that we developed provide a fast and reliable means of EIV diagnosis and subtype identification of EIV subtypes.

  1. Development and evaluation of a new lateral flow assay for simultaneous detection of antibodies against African Horse Sickness and Equine Infectious Anemia viruses.

    PubMed

    Costa, Sofia; Sastre, Patricia; Pérez, Teresa; Tapia, Istar; Barrandeguy, María; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José M; Sánchez-Matamoros, Almudena; Wigdorovitz, Andrés; Sanz, Antonio; Rueda, Paloma

    2016-11-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) and equine infectious anemia (EIA) are both notifiable equid specific diseases that may present similar clinical signs. Considering the increased global movement of horses and equine products over the past decades, together with the socio-economic impact of previous AHS and EIA outbreaks, there is a clear demand for an early discrimination and a strict control of their transmission between enzootic and AHS/EIA-free regions. Currently, the individual control and prevention of AHS or EIA relies on a series of measures, including the restriction of animal movements, vector control, and the use of several laboratory techniques for viral identification, amongst others. Despite being widely employed in surveillance programmes and in the control of animal movements, the available serological assays can only detect AHS- or EIA-specific antibodies individually. In this work, a duplex lateral flow assay (LFA) for simultaneous detection and differentiation of specific antibodies against AHS virus (AHSV) and EIA virus (EIAV) was developed and evaluated with experimental and field serum samples. The duplex LFA was based on the AHSV-VP7 outer core protein and the EIAV-P26 major core protein. The results indicated that the duplex LFA presented a good analytical performance, detecting simultaneously and specifically antibodies against AHSV and EIAV. The initial diagnostic evaluation revealed a good agreement with results from the AHS and EIA tests prescribed by the OIE, and it highlighted the usefulness of the new AHSV/EIAV duplex LFA for an on-field and point-of-care first diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Evaluation of urine specific gravity as an index of hypotension after spinal anesthesia for cesarean section].

    PubMed

    Sudani, Tomoko; Inoue, Chieko; Nishimura, Kazumi; Takada, Motoshi; Suzuki, Akira; Dohi, Shuji

    2010-04-01

    Although most cesarean sections are done under spinal anesthesia, we often experience severe hypotension. Fluid resuscitation is usually carried out for prevention of hypotension, but it is difficult to assess the suitable infusion volume. We examined whether the urine specific gravity can predict hypotension after spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. Ninety nine patients (ASA 1 or 2) undergoing elective cesarean section were recruited. After dural puncture, we collected the cerebrospinal fluid and injected 2 ml of hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine. Thereafter urethral catheters were inserted, and then we collected the urine sample. The specific gravity of each sample was measured by using refractometer after the operation. There was a good correlation between the urinary output and the urine specific gravity. The minimum systolic blood pressure until delivery, the total dose of ephedrine, and the maximum sensory block level showed a significant, but not particularly strong correlation with the urine specific gravity. We concluded that it was difficult to predict hypotension by using urine specific gravity because the correlation was too weak.

  3. Evaluation of six serological ELISA kits available in Italy as screening tests for equine infectious anaemia surveillance.

    PubMed

    Nardini, Roberto; Autorino, Gian Luca; Issel, Charles J; Cook, R Frank; Ricci, Ida; Frontoso, Raffaele; Rosone, Francesca; Scicluna, Maria Teresa

    2017-04-14

    ELISAs are known to have a higher diagnostic sensitivity than the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) when employed for serological diagnosis of equine infectious anaemia (EIA). For this purpose, an "in-house" and five commercial ELISAs available in Italy were assessed by the National Reference Centre for EIA for their analytic specificity (Sp); precocity, defined as capability of detecting first antibodies produced during a new infection; precision based on repeatability and reproducibility, estimated from the coefficient of variation (CV); accuracy, estimated from multiple K and relative Sp and sensitivity (Se). Two serum panels, positive for non-equine retroviruses and the most frequent equine viruses, were employed to measure analytic Sp. ELISA precocity was also compared to that of one "in-house" and three commercial AGID kits, employing a panel of sera, collected weekly from horses infected with modified EIA viruses. Precision and accuracy were defined using results of a panel containing positive and negative sera examined in an inter-laboratory trial with the participation of the ten Official Laboratories. Furthermore, a questionnaire was used to assess the appropriateness of each kit for routine use. Analytic Sp was 100%, while the 75th percentile of CVs for positive sera varied from 0.4% to 12.73% for repeatability and from 1.6% to 44.87% for reproducibility. Although CV of the negative serum was constantly high, its outcome was unaltered. Relative Se ranged from 98.2% to 100%, relative Sp was constantly 100% and multiple K ranged from 0.95 to 1. Precocity differed among the assays: three kits detected 4.8% and 42.9% positive samples on 21 days post infection (dpi), all assays detected positive samples on 28 dpi, between 47.6% and 95.2%. Precocity of ELISAs was superior to that of the AGIDs except for two assays. In view of the feedback obtained from the questionnaires, all kits were considered appropriate for routine use. All ELISAs having high Se and

  4. Urine Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Urinalysis ; Blood Culture ; Susceptibility Testing ; Bacterial Wound Culture ; Gram Stain ; Urine Protein All content on Lab Tests ... growing at high colony counts is considered a positive urine culture. For clean catch samples that have ...

  5. Amylase - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003607.htm Amylase - urine To use the sharing features on this ... is a test that measures the amount of amylase in urine. Amylase is an enzyme that helps ...

  6. Urine Color

    MedlinePlus

    ... is often caused by medications, certain foods or food dyes. In some cases, though, changes in urine color ... may be caused by: Dyes. Some brightly colored food dyes can cause green urine. Dyes used for some ...

  7. Urination Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Related Conditions Kidneys and Urinary Tract Urine Tests Bedwetting Ultrasound: Renal (Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder) Urinary Tract Infections ( ... Quiz: Urinary System Your Kidneys Your Urinary System Bedwetting Urinary Tract Infections Kidneys and Urinary Tract Urine ...

  8. Evaluation of a Urine Pooling Strategy for the Rapid and Cost-Efficient Prevalence Classification of Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Coulibaly, Jean T.; Bendavid, Eran; N’Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg; Keiser, Jennifer; Bogoch, Isaac I.; Andrews, Jason R.

    2016-01-01

    Background A key epidemiologic feature of schistosomiasis is its focal distribution, which has important implications for the spatial targeting of preventive chemotherapy programs. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of a urine pooling strategy using a point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) cassette test for detection of Schistosoma mansoni, and employed simulation modeling to test the classification accuracy and efficiency of this strategy in determining where preventive chemotherapy is needed in low-endemicity settings. Methodology We performed a cross-sectional study involving 114 children aged 6–15 years in six neighborhoods in Azaguié Ahoua, south Côte d’Ivoire to characterize the sensitivity and specificity of the POC-CCA cassette test with urine samples that were tested individually and in pools of 4, 8, and 12. We used a Bayesian latent class model to estimate test characteristics for individual POC-CCA and quadruplicate Kato-Katz thick smears on stool samples. We then developed a microsimulation model and used lot quality assurance sampling to test the performance, number of tests, and total cost per school for each pooled testing strategy to predict the binary need for school-based preventive chemotherapy using a 10% prevalence threshold for treatment. Principal Findings The sensitivity of the urine pooling strategy for S. mansoni diagnosis using pool sizes of 4, 8, and 12 was 85.9%, 79.5%, and 65.4%, respectively, when POC-CCA trace results were considered positive, and 61.5%, 47.4%, and 30.8% when POC-CCA trace results were considered negative. The modeled specificity ranged from 94.0–97.7% for the urine pooling strategies (when POC-CCA trace results were considered negative). The urine pooling strategy, regardless of the pool size, gave comparable and often superior classification performance to stool microscopy for the same number of tests. The urine pooling strategy with a pool size of 4 reduced the number of tests and total

  9. Evaluation of neurovirulence and biodistribution of Venezuelan equine encephalitis replicon particles expressing herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein D.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Jacek; Adkins, Karissa; Gangolli, Seema; Ren, Jian; Arendt, Heather; DeStefano, Joanne; Obregon, Jennifer; Tummolo, Donna; Natuk, Robert J; Brown, Tom P; Parks, Christopher L; Udem, Stephen A; Long, Deborah

    2007-03-08

    The safety of a propagation-defective Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) replicon particle vaccine was examined in mice. After intracranial inoculation we observed approximately 5% body weight loss, modest inflammatory changes in the brain, genome replication, and foreign gene expression. These changes were transient and significantly less severe than those caused by TC-83, a live-attenuated vaccinal strain of VEEV that has been safely used to immunize military personnel and laboratory workers. Replicon particles injected intramuscularly or intravenously were detected at limited sites 3 days post-administration, and were undetectable by day 22. There was no evidence of dissemination to spinal cord or brain after systemic administration. These results demonstrate that propagation-defective VEEV replicon particles are minimally neurovirulent and lack neuroinvasive potential.

  10. Evaluation of senescence in mesenchymal stem cells isolated from equine bone marrow, adipose tissue, and umbilical cord tissue.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Martin A; Walker, Naomi J; Napoli, Eleonora; Borjesson, Dori L

    2012-01-20

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from adult and neonatal tissues are intensively investigated for their use in regenerative medicine. The purpose of this study was to compare the onset of replicative senescence in MSCs isolated from equine bone marrow (BMSC), adipose tissue (ASC), and umbilical cord tissue (UCMSC). MSC proliferation (cell doubling), senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining, telomere length, Sox-2, and lineage-specific marker expression were assessed for MSCs harvested from tissues of 4 different donors. The results show that before senescence ensued, all cell types proliferated at ∼1 day/cell doubling. BMSCs significantly increased population doubling rate by passage 10 and ceased proliferation after a little >30 total population doublings, whereas UCMSCs and ASCs achieved about 60 to 80 total population doublings. UCMSC and ASCs showed marked β-galactosidase staining after ∼70 population doublings, whereas BMSCs stained positive by ∼30 population doublings. The onset of senescence was associated with a significant reduction in telomere length averaging 10.2 kbp at passage 3 and 4.5 kbp in senescent cultures. MSCs stained intensively for osteonectin at senescence compared with earlier passages, whereas vimentin and low levels of smooth muscle actin were consistently expressed. Sox-2 gene expression was consistently noted in all 3 MSC types. In conclusion, equine BMSCs appear to senesce much earlier than ASCs and UCMSCs. These results demonstrate the limited passage numbers of subcultured BMSCs available for use in research and tissue engineering and suggest that adipose tissue and umbilical cord tissue may be preferable for tissue banking purposes.

  11. Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Image of Culiseta melanura mosquito, photo taken by Jason Williams, reproduced by permission from the Virginia Mosquito Control Association. Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is ...

  12. Protein and microRNA biomarkers from lavage, urine, and serum in military personnel evaluated for dyspnea

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Joseph N.; Brewer, Heather M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Weitz, Karl K.; Morris, Michael J.; Skabelund, Andrew J.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Smith, Richard D.; Cho, Ji -Hoon; Gelinas, Richard

    2014-10-05

    Background: We have identified candidate protein and microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for dyspnea by studying serum, lavage fluid, and urine from military personnel who reported serious respiratory symptoms after they were deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Methods: Forty-seven soldiers with the complaint of dyspnea who enrolled in the STudy of Active Duty Military Personnel for Environmental Dust Exposure (STAMPEDE) underwent comprehensive pulmonary evaluations at the San Antonio Military Medical Center. The evaluation included fiber-optic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. The clinical findings from the STAMPEDE subjects pointed to seven general underlying diagnoses or findings including airway hyperreactivity, asthma, low diffusivity of carbon monoxide, and abnormal cell counts. The largest category was undiagnosed. As an exploratory study, not a classification study, we profiled proteins or miRNAs in lavage fluid, serum, or urine in this group to look for any underlying molecular patterns that might lead to biomarkers. Proteins in lavage fluid and urine were identified by accurate mass tag (database-driven) proteomics methods while miRNAs were profiled by a hybridization assay applied to serum, urine, and lavage fluid. Results: Over seventy differentially expressed proteins were reliably identified both from lavage and from urine in forty-eight dyspnea subjects compared to fifteen controls with no known lung disorder. Six of these proteins were detected both in urine and lavage. One group of subjects was distinguished from controls by expressing a characteristic group of proteins. A related group of dyspnea subjects expressed a unique group of miRNAs that included one miRNA that was differentially overexpressed in all three fluids studied. The levels of several miRNAs also showed modest but direct associations with several standard clinical measures of lung health such as forced vital capacity or gas exchange efficiency. Conclusions: Candidate proteins and mi

  13. Protein and microRNA biomarkers from lavage, urine, and serum in military personnel evaluated for dyspnea

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Joseph N.; Brewer, Heather M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; ...

    2014-10-05

    Background: We have identified candidate protein and microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for dyspnea by studying serum, lavage fluid, and urine from military personnel who reported serious respiratory symptoms after they were deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Methods: Forty-seven soldiers with the complaint of dyspnea who enrolled in the STudy of Active Duty Military Personnel for Environmental Dust Exposure (STAMPEDE) underwent comprehensive pulmonary evaluations at the San Antonio Military Medical Center. The evaluation included fiber-optic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. The clinical findings from the STAMPEDE subjects pointed to seven general underlying diagnoses or findings including airway hyperreactivity, asthma, low diffusivity of carbonmore » monoxide, and abnormal cell counts. The largest category was undiagnosed. As an exploratory study, not a classification study, we profiled proteins or miRNAs in lavage fluid, serum, or urine in this group to look for any underlying molecular patterns that might lead to biomarkers. Proteins in lavage fluid and urine were identified by accurate mass tag (database-driven) proteomics methods while miRNAs were profiled by a hybridization assay applied to serum, urine, and lavage fluid. Results: Over seventy differentially expressed proteins were reliably identified both from lavage and from urine in forty-eight dyspnea subjects compared to fifteen controls with no known lung disorder. Six of these proteins were detected both in urine and lavage. One group of subjects was distinguished from controls by expressing a characteristic group of proteins. A related group of dyspnea subjects expressed a unique group of miRNAs that included one miRNA that was differentially overexpressed in all three fluids studied. The levels of several miRNAs also showed modest but direct associations with several standard clinical measures of lung health such as forced vital capacity or gas exchange efficiency. Conclusions: Candidate proteins

  14. Protein and microRNA biomarkers from lavage, urine, and serum in military personnel evaluated for dyspnea.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joseph N; Brewer, Heather M; Nicora, Carrie D; Weitz, Karl K; Morris, Michael J; Skabelund, Andrew J; Adkins, Joshua N; Smith, Richard D; Cho, Ji-Hoon; Gelinas, Richard

    2014-10-05

    We have identified candidate protein and microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for dyspnea by studying serum, lavage fluid, and urine from military personnel who reported serious respiratory symptoms after they were deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Forty-seven soldiers with the complaint of dyspnea who enrolled in the STudy of Active Duty Military Personnel for Environmental Dust Exposure (STAMPEDE) underwent comprehensive pulmonary evaluations at the San Antonio Military Medical Center. The evaluation included fiber-optic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. The clinical findings from the STAMPEDE subjects pointed to seven general underlying diagnoses or findings including airway hyperreactivity, asthma, low diffusivity of carbon monoxide, and abnormal cell counts. The largest category was undiagnosed. As an exploratory study, not a classification study, we profiled proteins or miRNAs in lavage fluid, serum, or urine in this group to look for any underlying molecular patterns that might lead to biomarkers. Proteins in lavage fluid and urine were identified by accurate mass tag (database-driven) proteomics methods while miRNAs were profiled by a hybridization assay applied to serum, urine, and lavage fluid. Over seventy differentially expressed proteins were reliably identified both from lavage and from urine in forty-eight dyspnea subjects compared to fifteen controls with no known lung disorder. Six of these proteins were detected both in urine and lavage. One group of subjects was distinguished from controls by expressing a characteristic group of proteins. A related group of dyspnea subjects expressed a unique group of miRNAs that included one miRNA that was differentially overexpressed in all three fluids studied. The levels of several miRNAs also showed modest but direct associations with several standard clinical measures of lung health such as forced vital capacity or gas exchange efficiency. Candidate proteins and miRNAs associated with the general diagnosis of

  15. Protein and microRNA biomarkers from lavage, urine, and serum in military personnel evaluated for dyspnea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We have identified candidate protein and microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for dyspnea by studying serum, lavage fluid, and urine from military personnel who reported serious respiratory symptoms after they were deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Methods Forty-seven soldiers with the complaint of dyspnea who enrolled in the STudy of Active Duty Military Personnel for Environmental Dust Exposure (STAMPEDE) underwent comprehensive pulmonary evaluations at the San Antonio Military Medical Center. The evaluation included fiber-optic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. The clinical findings from the STAMPEDE subjects pointed to seven general underlying diagnoses or findings including airway hyperreactivity, asthma, low diffusivity of carbon monoxide, and abnormal cell counts. The largest category was undiagnosed. As an exploratory study, not a classification study, we profiled proteins or miRNAs in lavage fluid, serum, or urine in this group to look for any underlying molecular patterns that might lead to biomarkers. Proteins in lavage fluid and urine were identified by accurate mass tag (database-driven) proteomics methods while miRNAs were profiled by a hybridization assay applied to serum, urine, and lavage fluid. Results Over seventy differentially expressed proteins were reliably identified both from lavage and from urine in forty-eight dyspnea subjects compared to fifteen controls with no known lung disorder. Six of these proteins were detected both in urine and lavage. One group of subjects was distinguished from controls by expressing a characteristic group of proteins. A related group of dyspnea subjects expressed a unique group of miRNAs that included one miRNA that was differentially overexpressed in all three fluids studied. The levels of several miRNAs also showed modest but direct associations with several standard clinical measures of lung health such as forced vital capacity or gas exchange efficiency. Conclusions Candidate proteins and mi

  16. Evaluation of a human on-site urine multidrug test for emergency use with dogs.

    PubMed

    Teitler, Joan B

    2009-01-01

    A rapid, human on-site urine multidrug test was used to screen canine urine samples for the presence of five illegal drugs and drugs from three commonly abused drug classes. Each sample was sent to a toxicology laboratory for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) validation. On-site test results and GC/MS assays confirmed that the human on-site test kit did identify barbiturates, opiates, benzodiazepines, and amphetamines/methamphetamines in urine from dogs that had received these common illicit drugs/drug classes either intravenously and/or orally. However, neither the on-site test kit nor the GC/MS individual assays for marijuana or methadone, a synthetic opiate, were effective in identifying marijuana and methadone in urine from dogs with suspected or known exposure. No index of suspicion was seen for exposure to phencyclidines or cocaine during the study period, and no exposures were indicated by the on-site test results. Overall, the test is a rapid, readily available, affordable, and useful complement to the veterinarian's clinical consideration and professional judgment.

  17. Evaluation of the influence of prostaglandin E2 on recombinant equine interleukin-1beta-stimulated matrix metalloproteinases 1, 3, and 13 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 expression in equine chondrocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jayne T; Arnold, Carolyn E; Alexander, Lee H; Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, Vilma; Venta, Patrick J; Richardson, Dean W; Caron, John P

    2002-07-01

    To determine the effects of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on recombinant equine interleukin (IL)-1beta-stimulated expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP 1, MMP 3, MMP 13) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP 1) in vitro. Cultured equine chondrocytes. Stationary monolayers of first-passage chondrocytes were exposed to graduated concentrations of PGE2 with or without a subsaturating dose (50 pg/ml) of recombinant equine IL-1beta (reIL-1beta) to induce expression of MMP 1, MMP 3, MMP 13, and TIMP 1, followed by RNA isolation and northern blotting. In subsequent experiments, gene expression was similarly quantified from mRNA isolated from cultures pretreated with phenylbutazone to quench endogenous PGE2 synthesis, followed by exposure to reIL-1beta and exogenous PGE2 (5 mg/ml) with appropriate controls. Exogenous PGE2 (10 mg/ml) significantly reduced reIL-1beta-induced expression of MMP 1, MMP 3, MMP 13, and TIMP 1. Abrogation of cytokine induction with this dose of PGE2 was comparable to that for dexamethasone (10(-5) M) control. Similarly, pretreatment with phenylbutazone, followed by exposure to relL-1beta and PGE2 (5 mg/ml), was associated with a reduced expression of the genes of interest, an effect that was significant for MMP 1, MMP 13, and TIMP 1. The MMP and TIMP 1 are important mediators in the pathophysiologic events in osteoarthritis. The potential for physiologically relevant regulation of expression of these genes by PGE2 is a consideration in the use of drugs that inhibit prostanoid synthesis in the treatment of equine arthropathies.

  18. Fallen stock data: An essential source of information for quantitative knowledge of equine mortality in France.

    PubMed

    Tapprest, J; Morignat, E; Dornier, X; Borey, M; Hendrikx, P; Ferry, B; Calavas, D; Sala, C

    2017-09-01

    Quantitative information about equine mortality is relatively scarce, yet it could be of great value for epidemiological purposes. In France, data from rendering plants are centralised in the Fallen Stock Data Interchange database (FSDI), managed by the French Ministry of Agriculture, while individual equine data are centralised in the French equine census database, SIRE, managed by the French horse and riding institute (IFCE). To evaluate whether the combined use of the FSDI and SIRE databases can provide representative and accurate quantitative information on mortality for the French equine population and to propose enhancements of these databases to improve the quality of the resulting demographic information. Descriptive study. Mortality ratios for the French equine population were calculated per year between 2011 and 2014 and temporal variations in equine mortality modelled during the same period. Survival analyses were performed on a sample of equines traceable in both the FSDI and SIRE databases. Estimates of the annual mortality ratios varied from 3.02 to 3.40% depending on the years. Survival rates of equines 2-years-old and over differed according to breed categories with the highest median age at death for the ponies. The weekly description of mortality highlighted marked seasonality of deaths whatever the category of equines. Modelling temporal variations in equine mortality also brought to light excess mortality. Insufficient traceability of equines between the two databases. The FSDI database provided an initial approach to equine death ratios on a national scale and an original description of temporal variations in mortality. Improvement in the traceability of equines between the FSDI and SIRE databases is needed to enable their combined use, providing a representative description of equine longevity and a more detailed description of temporal variations in mortality. © 2017 The Authors. Equine Veterinary Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  19. Equine learning behaviour.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jack; Arkins, Sean

    2007-09-01

    Scientists and equestrians continually seek to achieve a clearer understanding of equine learning behaviour and its implications for training. Behavioural and learning processes in the horse are likely to influence not only equine athletic success but also the usefulness of the horse as a domesticated species. However given the status and commercial importance of the animal, equine learning behaviour has received only limited investigation. Indeed most experimental studies on equine cognitive function to date have addressed behaviour, learning and conceptualization processes at a moderately basic cognitive level compared to studies in other species. It is however, likely that the horses with the greatest ability to learn and form/understand concepts are those, which are better equipped to succeed in terms of the human-horse relationship and the contemporary training environment. Within equitation generally, interpretation of the behavioural processes and training of the desired responses in the horse are normally attempted using negative reinforcement strategies. On the other hand, experimental designs to actually induce and/or measure equine learning rely almost exclusively on primary positive reinforcement regimes. Employing two such different approaches may complicate interpretation and lead to difficulties in identifying problematic or undesirable behaviours in the horse. The visual system provides the horse with direct access to immediate environmental stimuli that affect behaviour but vision in the horse is of yet not fully investigated or understood. Further investigations of the equine visual system will benefit our understanding of equine perception, cognitive function and the subsequent link with learning and training. More detailed comparative investigations of feral or free-ranging and domestic horses may provide useful evidence of attention, stress and motivational issues affecting behavioural and learning processes in the horse. The challenge for

  20. Evaluation of six commercial amphetamine and methamphetamine immunoassays for cross-reactivity to phenylpropanolamine and ephedrine in urine.

    PubMed

    D'Nicuola, J; Jones, R; Levine, B; Smith, M L

    1992-01-01

    We evaluated six commercially available amphetamine (A) and methamphetamine (MA) immunoassays for their relative cross-reactivities to isomers of phenylpropanolamine (PPA) and ephedrine (E) in urine: Syva EMIT, Abbott fluorescence polarization (FPIA), Roche, and Diagnostic Products Corporation (DPC) radioimmunoassays for A and MA. Two stereoisomers of PPA and four stereoisomers of E were tested using (1) drug-free urine spiked at 1,000 mg/L or 100 mg/L of each compound and (2) 60 clinical urine specimens not containing A or MA but having varying amounts of PPA and/or E. Specimens responding greater than the 1-mg/L A or MA cutoff were defined as positive. All specimens spiked at 100 mg/L were negative by all immunoassays. All specimens spiked at 1,000 mg/L were positive by EMIT and negative by FPIA, Roche A, and DPC A; 1,000 mg/L/-E and d-pseudoephedrine were also positive by Roche MA and DPC MA. Three of the 60 clinical specimens tested positive by EMIT and one specimen tested positive by DPC A and DPC MA.

  1. [Urine proteome study for the evaluation of cardiovascular system state after spaceflight in human].

    PubMed

    Pastukhova, L Kh; Kononikhin, A S; Tiĭs, E S; Popova, I A; Dobrokhotov, I V; Ivanisenko, V A; Nikolaev, E N; Larina, I M

    2013-08-01

    In order to find markers to assess the functional state of the cardiovascular system before and after spaceflight (first and seventh day after landing), we analyzed the urine proteome in ten cosmonauts aged of 35 to 51 years who have completed 169 to 199-day spaceflight onboard the ISS. A special sample preparation was performed, followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of the minor proteins was performed on a nano-HPLC Agilent 1100 system (Agilent Technologies Inc., USA) in combination with a LTQ-FT Ultra mass spectrometer (Thermo, Germany). A total of 238 proteins was identified. According to the TIGER database, a tissue origin was established for 129 proteins. We identified 20 proteins related to the cardiovascular system. It was found that changes in cosmonauts' urine proteome comprehensively reflect the adaptive responses of cardiovascular, renal and neuroendocrine systems to long-term microgravity conditions.

  2. Evaluation of a colorimetric reagent strip assay for urine specific gravity.

    PubMed

    Kirschbaum, B B

    1983-06-01

    N-Multistix SG provides a convenient colorimetric assay for the determination of the specific gravity (sp. gr.) of freshly voided urine. When compared with results obtained by standard hydrometry, the colorimetric assay sp. gr. was observed to decrease by as much as 0.010 units as urine pH increased from 5 to 7. Moderate levels of proteinuria that did not alter hydrometer readings effectively raised the colorimetric sp. gr. by 0.005-0.010 units. The colorimetric assay was almost completely insensitive to clinically encountered concentrations of glucose and urea but responded appropriately to monovalent salts. The magnitude of these observed discrepancies places serious limitations on the value of the colorimetric sp. gr. measurement.

  3. Evaluation of mercury in urine as an indicator of exposure to low levels of mercury vapor.

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Joyce S; Williams, Pamela R D; Edwards, Melanie R; Allamneni, Krishna P; Kelsh, Michael A; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Sheehan, Patrick J

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a pooled analysis to investigate the relationship between exposure to elemental mercury in air and resulting urinary mercury levels, specifically at lower air levels relevant for environmental exposures and public health goals (i.e., < 50 microg/m3 down to 1.0 microg/m3). Ten studies reporting paired air and urine mercury data (149 samples total) met criteria for data quality and sufficiency. The log-transformed data set showed a strong correlation between mercury in air and in urine (r = 0.774), although the relationship was best fit by a series of parallel lines with different intercepts for each study R2 = 0.807). Predicted ratios of air to urine mercury levels at 50 microg/m3 air concentration ranged from 1:1 to 1:3, based on the regression line for the studies. Toward the lower end of the data set (i.e., 10 microg/m3), predicted urinary mercury levels encompassed two distinct ranges: values on the order of 20 microg/L and 30-60 microg/L. Extrapolation to 1 microg/m3 resulted in predicted urinary levels of 4-5 and 6-13 microg/L. Higher predicted levels were associated with use of static area air samplers by some studies rather than more accurate personal air samplers. Urinary mercury predictions based primarily on personal air samplers at 1 and 10 microg/m3 are consistent with reported mean (4 microg/L) and upper-bound (20 microg/L) background levels, respectively. Thus, although mercury levels in air and urine are correlated below 50 microg/m3, the impact of airborne mercury levels below 10 microg/m3 is likely to be indistinguishable from background urinary mercury levels. PMID:12676626

  4. Evaluation of Technologies to Prevent Precipitation During Water Recovery from Urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James L., Jr.; Pickering, Karen D.; Adam, Niklas M.; Mitchell, Julie L.; Anderson, Molly S.; Carter, Layne; Muirhead, Dean; Gazda, Daniel B.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) experienced a hardware failure in the Distillation Assembly (DA) in October 2010. Initially the UPA was operated to recover 85% of the water from urine through distillation, concentrating the contaminants in the remaining urine. The DA failed due to precipitation of calcium sulfate (gypsum) which caused a loss of UPA function. The ISS UPA operations have been modified to only recover 70% of the water minimizing gypsum precipitation risk but substantially increasing water resupply needs. This paper describes the feasibility assessment of several technologies (ion exchange, chelating agents, threshold inhibitors, and Lorentz devices) to prevent gypsum precipitation. The feasibility assessment includes the development of assessment methods, chemical modeling, bench top testing, and validation testing in a flight-like ground UPA unit. Ion exchange technology has been successfully demonstrated and has been recommended for further development. The incorporation of the selected technology will enable water recovery to be increased from 70% back to the original 85% and improve the ISS water balance.

  5. Evaluation of abalone β-glucuronidase substitution in current urine hydrolysis procedures.

    PubMed

    Malik-Wolf, Brittany; Vorce, Shawn; Holler, Justin; Bosy, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the potential of abalone β-glucuronidase as a viable and cost effective alternative to current hydrolysis procedures using acid, Helix pomatia β-glucuronidase and Escherichia coli β-glucuronidase. Abalone β-glucuronidase successfully hydrolyzed oxazepam-glucuronide and lorazepam-glucuronide within 5% of the spiked control concentration. Benzodiazepines present in authentic urine specimens were within 20% of the concentrations obtained with the current hydrolysis procedure using H. pomatia β-glucuronidase. JWH 018 N-(5-hydroxypentyl) β-d-glucuronide was hydrolyzed within 10% of the control concentration. Authentic urine specimens showed improved glucuronide cleavage using abalone β-glucuronidase with up to an 85% increase of drug concentration, compared with the results obtained using E. coli β-glucuronidase. The JWH 018 and JWH 073 carboxylic acid metabolites also showed increased drug concentrations of up to 24%. Abalone β-glucuronidase was able to completely hydrolyze a morphine-3-glucuronide control, but only 82% of total morphine was hydrolyzed in authentic urine specimens compared with acid hydrolysis results. Hydrolysis of codeine and hydromorphone varied between specimens, suggesting that abalone β-glucuronidase may not be as efficient in hydrolyzing the glucuronide linkages in opioid compounds compared with acid hydrolysis. Abalone β-glucuronidase demonstrates effectiveness as a low cost option for enzyme hydrolysis of benzodiazepines and synthetic cannabinoids.

  6. Urine Pretreat Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate

  7. Statistical and biological considerations in evaluating drug efficacy in equine strongyle parasites using fecal egg count data.

    PubMed

    Vidyashankar, A N; Hanlon, B M; Kaplan, R M

    2012-04-19

    Anthelmintic resistance (AR) is a serious problem for the control of equine gastrointestinal nematodes, particularly in the cyathostomins. The fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) is the most common method for diagnosing AR and serves as the practical gold standard. However, accurate quantification of resistance and especially accurate diagnosis of emerging resistance to avermectin/milbemycin (A/M) drugs, is hampered by a lack of accepted standards for study design, data analysis, and data interpretation. In order to develop rational evidence-based standards for diagnosis of resistance, one must first take into account the numerous sources of variability, both biological and technical, that affect the measurement of fecal egg counts (FECs). Though usually ignored, these issues can greatly impact the observed efficacy. Thus, to accurately diagnose resistance on the basis of FECRT data, it is important to reduce levels of variability through improved study design, and then deal with inherent variability that cannot be removed, by performing thorough and proper statistical analysis. In this paper we discuss these issues in detail, and provide an explanation of the statistical models and methods that are most appropriate for analyzing these types of data. We also provide several examples using data from laboratory, field, and simulation experiments illustrating the benefits of these approaches. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of sodium bisulphate and phosphoric acid as urine acidifiers for cats.

    PubMed

    Spears, Julie K; Grieshop, Christine M; Fahey, G C

    2003-10-01

    Eighteen cats were used to compare the urine acidifying properties of sodium bisulphate to phosphoric acid. Acidifying agents were added at one of three concentrations (0.4, 0.6, or 0.8%, as-is basis). Cats were offered a commercial diet to determine basal urinary pH, and then again for a 1 week period between blocks 1 and 2. Cats were acclimated to the diets for 6 days, and urine samples were collected on day 7 at 0, 4, and 8 h postfeeding to obtain pre- and postprandial urinary pH. Intakes of diets containing sodium bisulphate tended (P < 0.07) to be lower than intakes of diets containing phosphoric acid. Cats consuming the 0.8% phosphoric acid diet had higher (P < 0.05) food intakes than cats consuming either the 0.4 or 0.6% phosphoric acid-containing diets. There was significant (P = 0.01) linear and quadratic response for food intake in cats consuming the sodium bisulphate-containing diet. Cats consuming the 0.4 and 0.8% phosphoric acid-containing diets tended (P = 0.07) to have higher water intakes than cats consuming the 0.6% phosphoric acid-containing diet. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in urine pH and specific gravity between cats fed the different acidifier types. Cats consuming the 0.6% phosphoric acid-containing diet tended (P = 0.07) to have a higher urine pH 8 h post-feeding than cats consuming the 0.4 and 0.8% phosphoric acid-containing diets. Urine pH was highest at 4 h post-feeding except for cats fed the 0.4% sodium bisulphate- and the 0.6% phosphoric acid-containing diets. No differences (P > 0.05) between acidifiers were found in faecal score or in faecal dry matter and organic matter concentrations. A quadratic response was detected in faecal score for cats consuming the phosphoric acid-containing diets. Cats consuming the 0.6% phosphoric acid diet tended (P = 0.06) to have a lower faecal score than cats consuming the 0.4 and 0.8% phosphoric acid diets. For faecal dry matter, a linear trend was detected in cats consuming the sodium

  9. Citric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to diagnose renal tubular acidosis and evaluate kidney stone disease. Normal Results The normal range is 320 ... tubular acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. The following may decrease urine citric acid levels: ...

  10. Antiherpetic Drugs in Equine Medicine.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Lara K

    2017-04-01

    Since vaccination may not prevent disease, antiherpetic drugs have been investigated for the therapy of several equine herpesviruses. Drug efficacy has been assessed in horses with disease, but most evidence is in vitro, in other species, or empirical. Oral valacyclovir is most often administered in the therapy of equine herpesvirus type-1 (EHV-1) to protect adult horses from equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy, while oral acyclovir is frequently administered for EHV-5 infection in the therapy of equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis. Other antiherpetic drugs are promising but require further investigation. Several topical drugs are also empirically used in the therapy of equine viral keratitis.

  11. Urine Cytology

    MedlinePlus

    ... your bladder. Examining the urine sample in the laboratory Your urine sample is sent to a laboratory for testing by a doctor who specializes in ... can expect to wait for your results. Each laboratory has its own way of describing the results ...

  12. Comparative Evaluation of Inoculation of Urine Samples with the Copan WASP and BD Kiestra InoqulA Instruments.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Jesper; Stendal, Gitta; Gerdes, Cecilie M; Meyer, Christian H; Andersen, Christian Østergaard; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the quantitative results from and quality of the inoculation patterns of urine specimens produced by two automated instruments, the Copan WASP and the BD InoqulA. Five hundred twenty-six urine samples submitted in 10-ml canisters containing boric acid were processed within 30 min on an InoqulA instrument plating 10 μl of specimen, and on two WASP instruments, one plating 1 μl of specimen (WASP-1), and the second plating 10 μl of WASP (WASP-10). All samples were incubated, analyzed, and digitally imaged using the BD Kiestra total lab automation system. The results were evaluated using a quantitative protocol and assessed for the presence or absence of ≥5 distinct colonies. Separate studies were conducted using quality control (QC) organisms to determine the relative accuracy of WASP-1, WASP-10, and InoqulA instruments compared to the results obtained with a calibrated pipette. The results with QC organisms were calculated as the ratios of the counts of the automated instruments divided by the counts for the calibrated pipette (the gold standard method). The ratios for the InoqulA instrument were closest to 1.0, with the smallest standard deviations indicating that compared to a calibrated pipette, the InoqulA results were more accurate than those with the WASP instrument. For clinical samples, the WASP instruments produced higher colony counts and more commensals than the InoqulA instrument, with differences most notable for WASP-1. The InoqulA instrument was significantly better at dispersing organisms with counts of ≥10(5) bacteria/ml of urine than were the WASP-1 and WASP-10 instruments (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the InoqulA quantitative results are more accurate than the WASP results, and, moreover, the number of isolated colonies produced by the InoqulA instrument was significantly greater than that produced by the WASP instrument.

  13. [Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA)].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, A; Meier, H P; Straub, R; Gerber, V

    2009-04-01

    Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) is a reportable, eradicable epizootic disease caused by the equine lentivirus of the retrovirus family which affects equids only and occurs worldwide. The virus is transmitted by blood, mainly by sanguivorous insects. The main symptoms of the disease are pyrexia, apathy, loss of body condition and weight, anemia, edema and petechia. However, infected horses can also be inapparent carriers without any overt signs. The disease is diagnosed by serological tests like the Coggins test and ELISA tests. Presently, Switzerland is offi cially free from EIA. However, Switzerland is permanently at risk of introducing the virus as cases of EIA have recently been reported in different European countries.

  14. Standing equine sinus surgery.

    PubMed

    Barakzai, Safia Z; Dixon, Padraic M

    2014-04-01

    Trephination of the equine sinuses is a common surgical procedure in sedated standing horses. Standing sinus flap surgery has become increasingly popular in equine referral hospitals and offers several advantages over sinusotomy performed under general anesthesia, including reduced patient-associated risks and costs; less intraoperative hemorrhage, allowing better visualization of the operative site; and allows surgeons to take their time. Other minimally invasive surgical procedures include sinoscopic surgery, balloon sinuplasty, and transnasal laser sinonasal fenestration. Despite the procedure used, appropriate indications for surgery, good patient selection, and familiarity with regional anatomy and surgical techniques are imperative for good results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Exposure assessment approach through mycotoxin/creatinine ratio evaluation in urine by GC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Moltó, Juan Carlos; Mañes, Jordi; Berrada, Houda

    2014-10-01

    In this pilot survey human urine samples were analyzed for presence of 15 mycotoxins and some of their metabolites using a novel urinary multi-mycotoxin GC-MS/MS method following salting-out liquid-liquid extraction. Fifty-four urine samples from children and adults residents in Valencia were analyzed for presence of urinary mycotoxin and expressed in gram of creatinine. Three out of 15 mycotoxins were detected namely, HT-2 toxin, nivalenol and deoxynivalenol (DON). 37 samples showed quantifiable values of mycotoxins. Co-occurrence of these contaminants was also observed in 20.4% of assayed samples. DON was the most frequently detected mycotoxin (68.5%) with mean levels of 23.3 μg/g creatinine (range: 2.8-69.1 μg/g creatinine). The levels of urinary DON were used to carry out an exposure assessment approach. 8.1% of total subjects were estimated to exceed the DON provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) (1 μg/kg b.w.). Two out of 9 exposed children exceeded the DON PMTDI thus, making them the most exposed based on the urinary results.

  16. Evaluation of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) replicon-based Outer surface protein A (OspA) vaccines in a tick challenge mouse model of Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Gipson, Clay L; Davis, Nancy L; Johnston, Robert E; de Silva, Aravinda M

    2003-09-08

    Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) virus replicon particles (VRPs) encoding Borrelia burgdorferi Outer surface protein A (OspA) were evaluated for their ability to induce an immune response and provide protection from tick-borne spirochetes. VRPs expressing ospA that accumulated intracellularly (VRP OspA) or that was secreted from host cells (VRP tPA-OspA) were tested. Both VRP OspA and VRP tPA-OspA expressed ospA in immunized mice. Mice vaccinated with VRPs expressing secreted OspA produced significant amounts of anti-OspA antibodies, whereas VRPs expressing intracellular OspA were less immunogenic. The VRP method of delivery induced a Th1 type immune response unlike the recombinant OspA protein in Freund's adjuvant, which induced a mixed (Th1 and Th2) immune response. The VRP tPA-OspA construct induced an immune response that reduced the bacterial load in feeding Ixodes scapularis and blocked transmission to the host. These results indicate that VRPs are capable of providing protection against tick-borne B. burgdorferi, and potentially can be used for developing improved vaccines against Lyme disease.

  17. Evaluation of human urine as a source of nutrients for selected vegetables and maize under tunnel house conditions in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mnkeni, Pearson N S; Kutu, Funso R; Muchaonyerwa, Pardon; Austin, Lorimer M

    2008-04-01

    The introduction of ecological sanitation (ECOSAN) toilets in South Africa has created opportunities for safer sanitation and recycling of human excreta, as fertilizers, in rural and peri-urban areas. A study was carried out to evaluate the fertilizer value of human urine (0 to 400 kg N ha(-1)) for maize and tomato, compared to urea, in a tunnel house. Dry matter yield of both maize and tomato, harvested at 9 and 10 weeks after planting, respectively, increased with increasing N rate (both as urine or urea) up to 200 kg N ha(-1). Urea reduced soil electrical conductivity (EC) whereas urine increased it. Leaf tissue Na, in both crops, also increased with urine application. A follow-up study was carried out with two crops with contrasting sensitivity to salinity and using a wider range of N application (0 to 800 kg N ha(-1)). The results indicated increased root and leaf dry-matter yield of beetroot (tolerant to salinity) with increased urine rates up to the highest rate of 800 kg N ha(-1), whereas the leaf and root dry-matter yield of carrot, which is sensitive to salinity, peaked at the low urine application rate of 50 kg N ha(-1). Soil EC increased with urine application up to 4.64 and 13.35 mS cm(-1), under beetroot and carrot, respectively. Generally the results showed that human urine compared well with urea as a source of N for crops but optimum rates depend on the sensitivity of the crops to soil salinity, which should be monitored where human urine is regularly used for fertilizing crops.

  18. Equine colostral carbohydrates reduce lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Vendrig, J C; Coffeng, L E; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2012-12-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that reactions to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), particularly in the gut, can be partly or completely mitigated by colostrum- and milk-derived oligosaccharides. Confirmation of this hypothesis could lead to the development of new therapeutic concepts. To demonstrate the influence of equine colostral carbohydrates on the inflammatory response in an in vitro model with equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Carbohydrates were extracted from mare colostrum, and then evaluated for their influence on LPS-induced inflammatory responses in PBMCs isolated from the same mares, mRNA expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 was measured as well as the protein levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Equine colostral carbohydrates significantly reduced LPS-induced TNF-alpha protein at both times measured and significantly reduced LPS-induced TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 mRNA expression by PBMCs. Moreover, cell viability significantly increased in the presence of high concentrations of colostral carbohydrates. Carbohydrates derived from equine colostrum reduce LPS-induced inflammatory responses of equine PBMCs. Colostrum and milk-derived carbohydrates are promising candidates for new concepts in preventive and regenerative medicine.

  19. Multicenter Evaluation of an Image Analysis Device (APAS): Comparison Between Digital Image and Traditional Plate Reading Using Urine Cultures.

    PubMed

    Glasson, John; Hill, Rhys; Summerford, Michael; Olden, Dianne; Papadopoulos, Fotula; Young, Stephen; Giglio, Steven

    2017-11-01

    The application of image analysis technologies for the interpretation of microbiological cultures is evolving rapidly. The primary aim of this study was to establish whether the image analysis system named Automated Plate Assessment System (APAS; LBT Innovations Ltd., Australia) could be applied to screen urine cultures. A secondary aim was to evaluate differences between traditional plate reading (TPR) and the reading of cultures from images, or digital plate reading (DPR). A total of 9,224 urine samples submitted for culture to three clinical laboratories, two in Australia and one in the USA, were included in the study. Cultures were prepared on sheep blood and MacConkey agar plates and read by panels of three microbiologists. The plates were then presented to APAS for image capture and analysis, and the images and results were stored for later review. Image analysis of cultures using APAS produced a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 99.0% and 84.5%, respectively. Colonies were detected by APAS on 99.0% of blood agar plates with growth and on 99.5% of MacConkey agar plates. DPR agreed with TPR for colony enumeration on 92.1% of the plates, with a sensitivity of 90.8% and specificity of 92.8% for case designation. However, several differences in the classification of colony morphologies using DPR were identified. APAS was shown to be a reliable screening system for urine cultures. The study also showed acceptable concordance between DPR and TPR for colony detection, enumeration, and case designation.

  20. Electrical conductivity measurements of urine as a new simplified method to evaluate the diuretic activity of medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Luis, Felipe; Abdala, Susana; Dévora, Sandra; Benjumea, Dora; Martín-Herrera, Domingo

    2014-02-03

    Diuretic plants are widely used in traditional medicine in many countries. However, many of these species have not been subjected to experimental studies to confirm that property. In this paper, a simple new method is proposed to evaluate the diuretic activity of plants. We define a new index that takes into account only the volume of urinary excretion and total ion concentration excreted obtained by specific electrical conductivity measurements. Urine was collected in a graduate cylinder during the 8h after Artemisia thuscula (AT), Withania aristata (WA), Smilax canariensis (SC) and HCTZ oral administration to laboratory mice. To obtain the new index Diuretic Power (DP), we measured the specific electrical conductivity (κ) of the fresh urine samples. We calculated the concentration of a NaCl (or KCl) aqueous solution that has the same specific electrical conductivity as the urine sample. We multiplied this concentration by the corresponding urinary excretion volume, thus obtaining the total mEq. of electrolyte excreted "as if all were NaCl (or KCl)". Finally, we divided these mEq. by those corresponding to the control to obtain the DP value. HCTZ showed a 40% increase in DP, with respect to the control group, independently of the doses used, and the studied plants produced an increase between 7 and 28%. DP values were compared with other common indexes, DI and SIi, showing that the variation sequence of the three indexes was the same for HCTZ, WA and SC. A new and easy index, that we called diuretic power (DP), for estimating the diuretic activity of drugs or plants is proposed. It allows us to highlight diuretic effect with respect to a control value of a large amount of drugs or plants that had not been previously experimentally studied. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Review of equine piroplasmosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Equine piroplasmosis is caused by one of two erythrocytic parasites Babesia caballi or Theileria equi. Although the genus of the latter remains controversial the most recent designation, Theileria is utilized in this review. Shared pathogenesis includes tick-borne transmission and erythrolysis leadi...

  2. Evaluation of exposure to phenol: absorption of phenol vapour in the lungs and through the skin and excretion of phenol in urine

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowski, Jerzy K.

    1971-01-01

    Piotrowski, J. K. (1971).Brit. J. industr. Med.,28, 172-178. Evaluation of exposure to phenol: absorption of phenol vapour in the lungs and through the skin and excretion of phenol in urine. Volunteers were exposed to phenol vapour (5 to 25 mg/m3) by inhalation and through the skin, respectively, and the excretion of phenol in urine was examined. The retention of vapour in the lungs decreased from about 80 to 70% in the course of exposure. The absorption of vapour through the whole of the skin was approximately proportional to the concentration of vapour used, the absorption rate being somewhat lower than in the lungs. Almost 100% of the phenol was excreted in the urine within one day. The rate of excretion of phenol in the urine may be used as an exposure test which permits the absorbed dose to be estimated with a precision of about ±2 mg. PMID:5572685

  3. Evaluating the athlete's claim of an unintentional positive urine drug test.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jeffrey M

    2011-07-01

    During a urine drug testing program, an athlete may make a claim that the results of a positive test have arisen from factors that were out of his or her control, and therefore, he or she should not be held responsible for the results. Some of these claims may include classic claims of passive inhalation of marijuana smoke or ingestion of poppy seeds leading to positive tests. In addition, with the proliferation of nutritional supplements on the market, many athletes claim that they accidentally ingested a banned substance contained in one of these. It is important that any sports medicine physician involved with sports drug testing be informed of the data that either support or refute these claims and that he or she contribute to a program wherein adequate education and policy establishment help to limit the likelihood of such claims. This article will review the data to help address these claims.

  4. Sex steroid levels in urine of cattle of different ages: evaluation of abuse control procedures.

    PubMed

    Snoj, Tomaz; Dolenc, Jozica; Kobal, Silvestra

    2014-04-01

    Levels of several natural urinary steroids have been determined in the urine of a large number of animals of different cattle categories in the context of steroid abuse in beef production. Bovine animals of different breeds, sex and age included in the Slovene national residue detection plan for steroid abuse were studied. Urine from 120 males and 174 females was analysed. Urinary boldenone, boldione, androstenedione, equiline, medroxyprogesterone, medroxyprogesterone acetate, melengestrol acetate, progesterone, stanozolol, trenbolone, trenbolone acetate, 17α-ethinylestradiol, 17α-methyltestosterone, epitestosterone, 17β-estradiol, testosterone, and nandrolone were determined by LC-MS/MS. Epitestosterone was found in all bulls; while the proportion of animals containing testosterone and androstenedione increased with age. Testosterone was not detected in bulls less than 5 months of age. Epitestosterone levels, however, were not age dependent. The ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone thus increased with age, from 0.13 ± 0.09 at 1-7 months to 0.42 ± 0.10 at 25-38 months. It was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in bulls above 13 months than in younger animals. In contrast to males, no urinary testosterone was found in females, whereas epitestosterone, androstenedione, progesterone and estradiol were present. The proportion of animals of various age groups in which epitestosterone was detected ranged from 68% to 100%, but the differences were not significant. The presence of both estradiol and progesterone in the same sample was not observed in any animal. The results of this study could be helpful in determining physiological urinary steroid levels in order to provide a baseline for the control of steroid abuse in beef production.

  5. Equine monoclonal antibodies recognize common epitopes on variants of equine infectious anaemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Perryman, L E; O'Rourke, K I; Mason, P H; McGuire, T C

    1990-01-01

    Equine-murine xenohybridoma cells were produced using SP2/0 murine myeloma cells and splenic lymph node cells obtained from horses infected with 10(6) TCID50 of single cloned variants of equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV). The xenohybridomas secreted equine IgG monoclonal antibodies reactive with EIAV in enzyme immunoassays employing purified virus. Seven antibodies were studied in detail. They bound to viral glycoproteins (gp90 or gp45) in radioimmunoprecipitation assays, and reacted with homologous EIAV as well as five other cloned variants of EIAV. When evaluated against a single cloned variant of EIAV (EIAV-WSU5), two antibodies bound to different epitopes on gp90. The five remaining antibodies reacted with the same or overlapping epitopes on gp45. None of the antibodies exhibited viral neutralizing activity. Images Figure 2 PMID:1703988

  6. Activation of equine nuclear transfer oocytes: methods and timing of treatment in relation to nuclear remodeling.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Ho; Love, Linda B; Westhusin, Mark E; Hinrichs, Katrin

    2004-01-01

    Early development of embryos produced by transfer of equine nuclei to bovine cytoplasts is superior to that of intraspecies equine nuclear transfer embryos. This may be related to differences in chromatin remodeling or efficiency of activation between the two oocyte types. The pattern of donor nucleus remodeling was examined in equine-equine and equine-bovine reconstructed oocytes. Chromosome condensation occurred in equine cytoplasts by 2 h but was not seen in bovine cytoplasts until 4 h. We investigated the effect of activation of equine-equine reconstructed oocytes at <30 min or at 2 h after reconstruction. Four activation treatments were evaluated at each time point: injection of sperm extract alone, or in combination with 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP), cytochalasin B, or 1% dimethylsulphoxide. There was no significant difference in normal cleavage rate or average nucleus number of embryos between equine oocytes activated <30 min or at 2 h after reconstruction. The combination of 6-DMAP with sperm extract significantly (P < 0.01) improved cleavage rate compared with the other three treatments. Activation with sperm extract and 6-DMAP 2 h after donor nucleus injection gave the highest cleavage (79%) and the highest cleavage with normal nuclei (40%). Sperm extract and 6-DMAP also effectively activated oocytes parthenogenetically, yielding 83% cleavage and 73% cleavage with normal nuclei. These results indicate that although nuclear remodeling occurs rapidly in equine cytoplasts, early activation does not improve embryonic development after reconstruction.

  7. Evaluation of assays for the identification and quantitation of muconic acid, a benzene metabolite in human urine

    SciTech Connect

    Bartczak, A.; Kline, S.A.; Yu, R.; Weisel, C.P.; Goldstein, B.D.; Witz, G.; Bechtold, W.E.

    1994-12-31

    Muconic acid (MA) is a urinary metabolite of benzene and has been used as a biomarker of exposure to benzene in humans exposed to levels as low as 1 ppm. We have modified a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) based assay for urinary MA by the use of a diode array detector. This modification increases the specificity of the HPLC-based assay by identifying false positives. In addition, we have developed a gas chromatography (GC) based assay that uses a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Both assays identified and quantified MA in human urine at concentrations greater than 40-50 ng/ml. Assay precision was within 10% relative standard deviation for MA concentrations above 90 ng/ml using the HPLC assay and above 40 ng/ml using the GC-FID assay. Quantitative accuracy of the assays was evaluated by determining MA in human urine samples using both methods and also a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) procedure. Numerical correlation among the three assays was good at MA concentrations above 100 ng/ml. 26 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Immunoelectrophoresis - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer called multiple myeloma Kidney disorders such as IgA nephropathy or IgM nephropathy White blood cell cancer ... 19. Read More Cancer Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) IgA nephropathy Immunoelectrophoresis - blood Multiple myeloma Protein urine test ...

  9. Urine Preservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  10. Urine Preservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  11. Urine melanin

    MedlinePlus

    Normally, melanin is not present in urine. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.

  12. Therapeutic potential of Pirfenidone for treating equine corneal scarring.

    PubMed

    Fink, Michael K; Giuliano, Elizabeth A; Tandon, Ashish; Mohan, Rajiv R

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Pirfenidone (PFD) in the treatment of equine corneal fibrosis using an in vitro model. Healthy donor equine corneas were collected and used to generate primary equine corneal fibroblasts (ECFs) by growing cultures in minimal essential medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. Equine corneal myofibroblasts (ECMs), used as a model of equine corneal fibrosis, were produced by growing ECF cultures in serum-free medium containing transforming growth factor β1 (1 ng/mL). Trypan blue viability assays and changes in ECF morphology were utilized to determine the optimal PFD dose for this in vitro model. Trypan blue viability, phase-contrast microscopy, and TUNEL assays were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of PFD. Scratch and MTT assays were used to evaluate the effect of PFD on cellular migration and proliferation. Real-time PCR, immunoblot analysis, and immunocytochemistry were employed to determine the efficacy of PFD to inhibit ECM formation in vitro. Topical PFD application at 200 μg/mL successfully decreased αSMA expression when compared to the TGFβ1 only treatment group (P < 0.01). PFD application ≤ 200 μg/mL did not affect ECF phenotype or cellular viability and did not result in significant cytotoxicity. Pirfenidone safely and effectively inhibits TGFβ1-induced equine corneal fibrosis in vitro. In vivo studies are warranted. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  13. Controlling equine influenza: Traditional to next generation serological assays.

    PubMed

    Kinsley, Rebecca; Scott, Simon D; Daly, Janet M

    2016-05-01

    Serological assays provide an indirect route for the recognition of infectious agents via the detection of antibodies against the infectious agent of interest within serum. Serological assays for equine influenza A virus can be applied for different purposes: diagnosing infections; subtyping isolates; surveillance of circulating strains; and to evaluate the efficacy of vaccines before they reach the market. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and single radial haemolysis (SRH) assays are most commonly used in the equine field. This review outlines how both these assays together with virus neutralization (VN) and ELISA are performed, interpreted and applied for the control of equine influenza, giving the limitations and advantages of each. The pseudotyped virus neutralization assay (PVNA) is also discussed as a promising prospect for the future of equine influenza virus serology.

  14. Update of inactivated equine influenza vaccine strain in Japan

    PubMed Central

    GAMOH, Koichiro; NAKAMURA, Shigeyuki

    2017-01-01

    Japan established a vaccine selection system, in which a committee evaluates veterinary influenza vaccines to determine if the vaccine should be updated. In 2013, it was concluded that the present equine influenza vaccine strains did not have to be updated, but clade 2 (Fc2) viruses of the Florida sublineage should be included. We collected three Fc2 viruses as candidates and conducted comparative tests. Results indicated that A/equine/Carlow/2011 (H3N8) is not suitable, because of its unstable antigenic characteristics. A comparison between A/equine/Richmond/1/2007 (H3N8) (Richmond/07) and A/equine/Yokohama/aq13/2010 (H3N8) (Yokohama/10) in eggs showed that they shared equal growth properties. Immunogenicity test in mice showed that Yokohama/10 induced higher HI antibody titers than Richmond/07. Therefore, we concluded that Yokohama/10 was the most suitable strain. PMID:28163276

  15. Evaluation of twenty-two rapid antigen detection tests in the diagnosis of Equine Influenza caused by viruses of H3N8 subtype.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Takashi; Nemoto, Manabu; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Kondo, Takashi; Matsumura, Tomio; Gildea, Sarah; Cullinane, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Equine influenza (EI) is a highly contagious disease caused by viruses of the H3N8 subtype. The rapid diagnosis of EI is essential to reduce the disease spread. Many rapid antigen detection (RAD) tests for diagnosing human influenza are available, but their ability to diagnose EI has not been systematically evaluated. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of 22 RAD tests in the diagnosis of EI. The 22 RAD tests were performed on fivefold serial dilutions of EI virus to determine their detection limits. The four most sensitive RAD tests (ImmunoAce Flu, BD Flu examan, Quick chaser Flu A, B and ESPLINE Influenza A&B-N) were further evaluated using nasopharyngeal samples collected from experimentally infected and naturally infected horses. The results were compared to those obtained using molecular tests. The detection limits of the 22 RAD tests varied hugely. Even the four RAD tests showing the best sensitivity were 125-fold less sensitive than the molecular techniques. The duration of virus detection in the experimentally infected horses was shorter using the RAD tests than using the molecular techniques. The RAD tests detected between 27% and 73% of real-time RT-PCR-positive samples from naturally infected horses. The study demonstrated the importance of choosing the right RAD tests as only three of 22 were fit for diagnosing EI. It was also indicated that even RAD tests with the highest sensitivity serve only as an adjunct to molecular tests because of the potential for false-negative results. © 2015 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. An evaluation of a new in-house serum and urine ELISA test for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in Thai population.

    PubMed

    Thong-Ngam, Duangporn; Chayanupatkul, Maneerat; Vongchampa, Piya; Hanvivatvong, Orrawadee

    2011-08-01

    Non-invasive tests play significant roles in the test-and-treat approach of Helicobacter pylori management. The detection of Helicobacter pylori antibodies in urine and serum is an easy and inexpensive way to diagnose this infection. In the present study, the authors developed an in-house serum and urine ELISA tests for H. pylori antibodies and evaluated their performance in a Thai population. One hundred thirty eight dyspeptic patients were recruited. All subjects underwent upper endoscopy and one antral biopsy was obtained for rapid urease test, which was used as a standard reference. Urine and serum samples were collected before the procedure to run in-house ELISA test. Thirty (22%) subjects were positive for the rapid urease test and 108 (78%) were negative. Urine and serum optical density were significantly lower in the urease negative group (p = 0.011 and p < 0.001 respectively), while there were no differences in age, gender, or endoscopic findings between the two groups. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, and accuracy of urine and serum ELISA tests were 72% vs. 96.3%, 63.5% vs. 627%, 89.6% vs. 98.5%, 33.3% vs. 40.6%, and 64.5% vs. 69.8% respectively. In-house serum ELISA test for H. pylori antibodies yielded a very good sensitivity with acceptable specificity, whereas urine ELISA was unable to produce satisfactory sensitivity or specificity

  17. Ketones urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones; Ketoacidosis - urine ketones test; Diabetic ketoacidosis - urine ketones test ... Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that ...

  18. Equine recurrent uveitis: Human and equine perspectives.

    PubMed

    Malalana, Fernando; Stylianides, Amira; McGowan, Catherine

    2015-10-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is a spontaneous disease characterised by repeated episodes of intraocular inflammation. The epidemiology of ERU has not been fully elucidated, but the condition appears to be much more common in horses than is recurrent uveitis in humans, especially in certain breeds and geographical regions. Both humans and horses show a similarly altered immune response and a marked autoimmune response as the primary disease pathophysiology. However, an inciting cause is not always clear. Potential inciting factors in horses include microbial agents such as Leptospira spp. Microbial factors and genetic predisposition to the disease may provide clues as to why the horse appears so susceptible to this disease. The aim of this review is to discuss the immunology and genetics of ERU, compare the disease in horses with autoimmune anterior uveitis in humans, and discuss potential reasons for the increased prevalence in the horse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Driving under the influence of drugs -- evaluation of analytical data of drugs in oral fluid, serum and urine, and correlation with impairment symptoms.

    PubMed

    Toennes, Stefan W; Kauert, Gerold F; Steinmeyer, Stefan; Moeller, Manfred R

    2005-09-10

    A study was performed to acquire urine, serum and oral fluid samples in cases of suspected driving under the influence of drugs of abuse. Oral fluid was collected using a novel sampling/testing device (Dräger DrugTest System). The aim of the study was to evaluate oral fluid and urine as a predictor of blood samples positive for drugs and impairment symptoms. Analysis for cannabinoids, amphetamine and its derivatives, opiates and cocaine was performed in urine using the Mahsan Kombi/DOA4-test, in serum using immunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) confirmation and in oral fluid by GC-MS. Police and medical officer observations of impairment symptoms were rated and evaluated using a threshold value for the classification of driving inability. Accuracy in correlating drug detection in oral fluid and serum were >90% for all substances and also >90% in urine and serum except for THC (71.0%). Of the cases with oral fluid positive for any drug 97.1% of corresponding serum samples were also positive for at least one drug; of drug-positive urine samples this were only 82.4%. In 119 of 146 cases, impairment symptoms above threshold were observed (81.5%). Of the cases with drugs detected in serum, 19.1% appeared not impaired which were the same with drug-positive oral fluid while more persons with drug-positive urine samples appeared uninfluenced (32.7%). The data demonstrate that oral fluid is superior to urine in correlating with serum analytical data and impairment symptoms of drivers under the influence of drugs of abuse.

  20. Evaluation of banked urine samples for the detection of circulating anodic and cathodic antigens in Schistosoma mekongi and S. japonicum infections: a proof-of-concept study.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Govert J; Odermatt, Peter; Acosta, Luz; Bergquist, Robert; de Dood, Claudia J; Kornelis, Dieuwke; Muth, Sinuon; Utzinger, Jürg; Corstjens, Paul L A M

    2015-01-01

    In Asia, Schistosoma japonicum is the predominant schistosome species, while Schistosoma mekongi is confined to limited foci in Cambodia and Lao People's Democratic Republic. While the People's Republic of China has been successful in controlling schistosomiasis, the disease remains a major public health issue in other areas. In order to prioritise intervention areas, not only accurate diagnosis is important but also other factors, such as practicality, time-efficiency and cost-effectiveness, since they strongly influence the success of control programmes. To evaluate the highly specific urine-based assays for the schistosome circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) and the circulating anodic antigen (CAA), banked urine samples from Cambodia (n=106) and the Philippines (n=43) were examined by the upconverted phosphor lateral flow (UCP-LF) CAA assay and the point-of-care (POC)-CCA urine assay. Based on 250 μl urine samples, UCP-LF CAA sensitivity outcomes surpassed a single stool examination by the Kato-Katz technique. The banked urine samples in the current study did not allow the evaluation of larger volumes, which conceivably should deliver considerably higher readings. The sensitivity of a single urine POC-CCA was in the same order as that of a single Kato-Katz thick smear examination, while the sensitivity approached that of triplicate Kato-Katz when a combination of both CAA and CCA assays was used. The promising results from the current proof-of-concept study call for larger investigations that will determine the accuracy of the urine-based CCA and CAA assays for S. mekongi and S. japonicum diagnosis.

  1. Equine grass sickness.

    PubMed

    Pirie, R S; Jago, R C; Hudson, N P H

    2014-09-01

    Equine grass sickness (EGS; equine dysautonomia) is a polyneuronopathy affecting both the central and the peripheral nervous systems of horses. As the name implies, EGS almost exclusively affects grazing horses, resulting in the development of a characteristic array of clinical signs, most of which can be attributed to neuronal degeneration in the autonomic and enteric nervous systems. Varying disease severities occur, largely determined by the extent of neuronal degeneration in the myenteric and submucous plexuses of the enteric nervous system. Extensive neuronal degeneration, as seen in acute and subacute forms of EGS, results in intestinal dysmotility, the severity of which is incompatible with survival. In comparison, a proportion of chronic forms of EGS, characterised by less severe neuronal degeneration, will survive. Despite extensive research efforts since EGS was first reported over 100 years ago, the precise aetiology remains elusive. This article reviews much of the scientific literature on EGS, covering epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis, treatment and aetiological hypotheses. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  2. [Evaluation of immunity against Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and dengue in the human population of San Carlos, the Almirante Padilla Island Municipality, Zulia State, Venezuela. 1996].

    PubMed

    Valero, N; Añez, F; Larreal, Y; Arias, J; Rodríguez, Z; Espina, L M

    2001-09-01

    The Insular Municipality of Almirante Padilla, historically, has been affected by Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) epidemics, that have occurred cyclically in the Paez, Mara and Almirante Padilla Municipalities of the State of Zulia. During the last epidemic outbreak (1995), the studies reported a great number of cases of VEE in humans, based on epidemiologic-clinical diagnosis; occupying this municipality, the first place in the attack rate by the virus. At the same time, Dengue has been defined as an endemic illness affecting different regions, whose etiologic agent has previously circulated in the studied zone. In order to evaluate the immunity acquired against these viruses, a serological study was conducted in San Carlos Island. Two hundred and ten blood samples were obtained at random, among individuals of an age range between < 1 and 69 years, with and without antecedents of viral illness symptomatology at the moment of the epidemic outbreak, occurred in 1995. The samples were classified according to sex and age, and analyzed through the test of ELISA for specific IgG antibodies against the VEE and Dengue viruses. From the total of the samples processed, 116 (55.2%) were positive for VEE, affecting uniformly all age-groups with a slight masculine predominance. Likewise, 88 cases (41.9%) were determined positive for Dengue virus, affecting mainly the group ranging from 10 to 19 years. These results let us suggest that the epidemic outbreak occurred in 1995 at the Almirante Padilla Insular Municipality, had a double nature with both viruses being involved in the etiology of febrile cases.

  3. Evaluation of urine marking by cats as a model for understanding veterinary diagnostic and treatment approaches and client attitudes.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Laurie; Hart, Benjamin L; Bain, Melissa; Cliff, Kelly

    2002-11-01

    To obtain information regarding diagnostic and treatment approaches of veterinarians and attitudes and beliefs of clients about a common clinical problem, urine marking in cats. Cohort study. 70 veterinarians providing care for urine-marking cats and 500 owners of urine-marking cats. Veterinarians were interviewed via telephone regarding criteria for diagnosis of urine marking and recommended treatments. Cat owners who responded to recruitment efforts for a clinical trial for urine-marking cats were interviewed via telephone regarding whether and from what sources they sought help to resolve the marking problem. Almost a third of veterinarians did not seem to correctly distinguish between urine marking (spraying) and inappropriate urination. Those that did make this diagnostic distinction reported recommending environmental management and prescribing medication significantly more often that those that did not make this distinction. Seventy-four percent of cat owners sought help from their veterinarians for urine marking; other common sources of information were the Internet and friends. Among those who did not consult a veterinarian, the most frequently cited reason was that they did not think their veterinarian could help. Among cat owners who consulted their veterinarians, 8% reported receiving advice on environmental hygiene and 4% on environmental management (limiting intercat interactions), although veterinarians who correctly diagnosed urine marking reported giving such advice 100 and 83% of the time, respectively. Results may serve as a model for obtaining information critical to developing veterinary continuing education and public outreach programs for animal owners for various diseases.

  4. Equine keratomycosis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Wada, Shinya; Hobo, Seiji; Ode, Hirotaka; Niwa, Hidekazu; Moriyama, Hidekazu

    2013-01-01

    To describe the incidence, clinical progress, visual outcome, and laboratory findings of equine keratomycosis in Japan.  Retrospective study of the medical records of horses clinically and mycologically diagnosed with keratomycosis at the Equine Hospitals of the Japan Racing Association from 2005 to 2011. The diagnosis of keratomycosis was confirmed in eight horses (40.0% of the 20 horses with infectious keratitis from which fungi and/or bacteria were isolated). Fungi recovered from corneal swabs were identified as Aspergillus flavus (4), Aspergillus niger (1), Fusarium solani (1), and Mortierella wolfii (2). All horses were treated medically with topical antifungals, and one horse was also treated surgically. The median of treatment period was 40 days. Two horses were rendered blind in the affected eye and the others retained vision. Equine keratomycosis comprises a considerable portion of infectious keratitis in Japan, and the causative fungi that we isolated had been isolated previously from horses with keratomycosis in other regions with the exception of M. wolfii. Culture and cytological examination of corneal lesions should be immediately performed on eyes with signs of keratitis, particularly on those not improving with antibacterial medication, as early initiation of aggressive antifungal treatment tended to result in better outcome and shorter treatment period. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  5. Evaluation of hydration status by urine, body mass variation and plasma parameters during an official half-marathon.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Emerson R; de Andrade, Marcelo T; Mendes, Thiago T; Ramos, Guilherme P; Maia-Lima, André; Melo, Eliney S; Carvalho, Moisés V; Wilke, Carolina F; Prado, Luciano S; Silami-Garcia, Emerson

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the agreement of urine, body mass variations and plasma parameters to determine the hydration status of 14 male runners (29±4 years and 54.3±5.5 mLO2/kg/min) in an official 21.1 km road race. The mean dry-bulb temperature and air relative humidity during the road race were 25.1±2.1 °C and 54.7±2.2%, respectively. The volume of water ingested by the runners was monitored using marked volumetric plastic bottles provided at the hydration stations located at 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.5, 14.0, 16.0 and 18.5 km from the starting line. Hydration status was assessed using urine specific gravity (USG), urine osmolality (UOSM) and plasma osmolality (POSM). Furthermore, body mass variation (∆BM) was assessed by comparing body mass (BM) immediately prior and after the race. Total sweat was estimated by ∆BM, added water volume ingested and deducted blood volume collected. The sweat rate was calculated through total sweat and total exercise time. The mean water intake was 0.82±0.40 L, and the mean sweat rate and total sweating were 1440.11±182.13 mL/h and 2.67±0.23 L. After the race, the BM reduced by 1.7±0.4 kg. The ∆BM was -2.41±0.47%, and the plasma volume variation was -9.79±4.6% between pre- and post-running measurements. Despite the POSM increased post-race compared to pre-race, the UOSM and USG did not change. No significant correlations were found between POSM variation with UOSM variation (r=-0.08; P=0.71), USG variation (r=-0.11; P=0.78) or ∆BM (r=0.09; P=0.77). In conclusion, this study shows that both ∆BM and ∆POSM indicated a hypohydration state after exercise even though the ∆BM did not correlate significantly with ∆POSM. These results demonstrate that ∆BM is a practical method and can be sufficiently sensitive to evaluate the hydration state, but it should be utilized with caution.

  6. Evaluation of the Cedia heroin metabolite (6-AM) immunoassay with urine specimens from A criminal justice drug-testing program.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Amanda J; Lavins, Eric S; Snyder, Ann

    2005-04-01

    The ability to differentiate illicit from legitimate drug use in a drug-testing program would decrease costs by reducing the number of screening specimens requiring confirmation and also reduce the stigma attached to positive preliminary test results. Because many screening tests for drug detection use immunoassays, increasing the specificity of these tests has been a goal of manufacturers. In this study we evaluated the utility of one such assay, the Cedia heroin metabolite (6-acetylmorphine, 6-AM) assay to reliably detect heroin use. Specimens (N = 525) from a criminal justice drug-testing program were screened with this assay (cutoff concentration = 10 ng/mL 6-AM) and any positive samples were confirmed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis (lower reporting limit for 6-AM = 5 ng/mL). The confirmation rate for the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was 98% (517/525). Specimens contained 6-AM at concentrations ranging from 5 to 16,923 ng/mL (mean = 1251; median = 317). All confirmed specimens also contained morphine (range: 8-222,427 ng/mL; mean = 11,203 ; median = 4134). When challenged with standard drug solutions, the EIA correctly identified drug-free urine and produced positive results (lowest concentration, in ng/mL, that produced a positive result) with morphine at 10,000; oxycodone at 61,000; codeine at 60,000; hydromorphone at 10,000; hydrocodone at 60,000, 6-AM at 10, and pentazocine at 35,000 ng/mL. The Cedia heroin metabolite (6-AM) assay produced a high confirmation rate when challenged with urine specimens and therefore should be a useful tool in forensic toxicology. Potential users should be aware that high concentrations of other opioids (e.g., morphine, oxycodone) and structurally related compounds (e.g., pentazocine) may produce positive results.

  7. Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for direct determination of urinary modified nucleosides. Evaluation of synthetic urine as a surrogate matrix for quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gonzalo, Encarnación; Hernández-Prieto, Raquel; García-Gómez, Diego; Carabias-Martínez, Rita

    2013-12-30

    This work describes the development of a fast and reliable method based on capillary zone electrophoresis coupled with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (CZE-ESI-MS) for the determination of modified nucleosides in untreated human urine. The target compounds were guanine, 1-methyl-guanine, 7-methyl-guanine, 9-methyl-guanine, adenosine, 1-methyl-adenosine, cytidine, guanosine, 7-methyl-guanosine. As internal standards, ribose-2-(13)C-adenosine and 8-(13)C-guanine were used. The CZE separation was carried out in acidic medium (pH 2.5). MS detection with a single quadrupole, with ESI operating in positive-ion mode, was optimized. For the analysis of urine samples, owing to the endogenous character of these analytes different quantification strategies were explored. The standard additions method, matrix-matched calibration in synthetic urine and calibration in pure aqueous medium were compared in order to evaluate the endogenous levels of these compounds in human urine. The results obtained showed that calibration in synthetic urine as a surrogate matrix was an appropriate alternative to the method of standard additions for the accurate quantitation of compounds such as guanine, 1-methyl-guanine, 7-methyl-guanine, adenosine, 1-methyl-adenosine and cytidine by CE-ESI-MS directly in the urine matrix; values in the range 0.1μg/mL for cytidine and 6.4μg/mL for 7mGua, as the lowest and the highest level, were found in untreated urine from healthy volunteers. These results were confirmed by LC-MS/MS detection. It can be concluded that the electrophoretic CZE-ESI-MS methodology offers a valid and reliable alternative for the determination of urinary nucleosides at naturally occurring levels in healthy individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography method for the evaluation of niflumic acid cross-reactivity of two commercial immunoassays for cannabinoids in urine.

    PubMed

    Kovatsi, Leda; Pouliopoulos, Athanasios; Papadaki, Antonia; Samanidou, Victoria; Tsoukali, Heleni

    2010-05-01

    Niflumic acid is a nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory drug widely prescribed in Greece. We recently noticed that this drug cross-reacts for cannabinoids in a kinetic interaction of microparticles in a solution (KIMS) immunoassay method but does not in an enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) immunoassay method. The objective of the study was to develop and validate a high-performance liquid chromatographic method in order to evaluate niflumic acid cross-reactivity in two commercial immunoassays for cannabinoids in urine, both in niflumic acid standards as well as in urine specimens obtained from subjects receiving niflumic acid. Urine niflumic acid standards were prepared in drug-free urine at 13 concentrations ranging from 1.25 to 1000 microg/mL. The standards gave presumptive positive cannabinoids results when analyzed by the KIMS immunoassay method when the concentration was above 2.5 microg/mL. None of the prepared standards gave a false-positive cannabinoid result when analyzed by the EMIT immunoassay method. By applying a 50 ng/mL cutoff for cannabinoids in these assays, all 55 urine specimens collected from the 5 subjects who participated gave negative results by the EMIT and false-positive results by the KIMS immunoassay method. It is concluded that KIMS is more prone to cross-reactions by niflumic acid compared to EMIT. Therefore, all positive screening tests for cannabinoids obtained by KIMS should be confirmed by another technique.

  9. Validation of a heterologous fertilization assay and comparison of fertilization rates of equine oocytes using in vitro fertilization, perivitelline, and intracytoplasmic sperm injections.

    PubMed

    Sessions-Bresnahan, D R; Graham, J K; Carnevale, E M

    2014-07-15

    IVF in horses is rarely successful. One reason for this could be the failure of sperm to fully capacitate or exhibit hyperactive motility. We hypothesized that the zona pellucida (ZP) of equine oocytes prevents fertilization in vitro, and bypassing the ZP would increase fertilization rates. Limited availability of equine oocytes for research has necessitated the use of heterologous oocyte binding assays using bovine oocytes. We sought to validate an assay using bovine oocytes and equine sperm and then to demonstrate that bypassing the ZP using perivitelline sperm injections (PVIs) with equine sperm capacitated with dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine would result in higher fertilization rates than standard IVF in bovine and equine oocytes. In experiment 1, bovine oocytes were used for (1) IVF with bovine sperm, (2) IVF with equine sperm, and (3) intracytoplasmic sperm injections (ICSIs) with equine sperm. Presumptive zygotes were either stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole from 18 to 26 hours at 2-hour intervals or evaluated for cleavage at 56 hours after addition of sperm. Equine sperm fertilized bovine oocytes; however, pronuclei formation was delayed compared with bovine sperm after IVF. The delayed pronuclear formation was not seen after ICSI. In experiment 2, bovine oocytes were assigned to the following five groups: (1) cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) coincubated with bovine sperm; (2) COC exposed to sucrose then coincubated with bovine sperm; (3) COC coincubated with equine sperm; (4) COC exposed to sucrose, and coincubated with equine sperm; and (5) oocytes exposed to sucrose, and 10 to 15 equine sperm injected into the perivitelline (PV) space. Equine sperm tended (P = 0.08) to fertilize more bovine oocytes when injected into the PV space than after IVF. In experiment 3, oocytes were assigned to the following four groups: (1) IVF, equine, and bovine COC coincubated with equine sperm; (2) PVI of equine and bovine oocytes; (3) PVI with equine oocytes

  10. Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Howe, Daniel K; MacKay, Robert J; Reed, Stephen M

    2014-12-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) can be caused by either of 2 related protozoan parasites, Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi, although S. neurona is the most frequent etiologic pathogen. Horses are commonly infected, but clinical disease occurs infrequently; the factors influencing disease occurrence are not well understood. Risk factors for the development of EPM include the presence of opossums and prior stressful health-related events. Attempts to reproduce EPM experimentally have reliably induced antibody responses in challenged horses but have not consistently produced acute neurologic disease. Diagnosis and options for treatment of EPM have improved over the past decade. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Update on equine allergies.

    PubMed

    Fadok, Valerie A

    2013-12-01

    Horses develop many skin and respiratory disorders that have been attributed to allergy. These disorders include pruritic skin diseases, recurrent urticaria, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and reactive airway disease. Allergen-specific IgE has been detected in these horses, and allergen-specific immunotherapy is used to ameliorate clinical signs. The best understood atopic disease in horses is insect hypersensitivity, but the goal of effective treatment with allergen-specific immunotherapy remains elusive. In this review, updates in pathogenesis of allergic states and a brief mention of the new data on what is known in humans and dogs and how that relates to equine allergic disorders are discussed.

  12. Evaluation of Changes in Equine Care and Limb-Related Abnormalities in Working Horses in Jaipur, India, as Part of a Two Year Participatory Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    Whay, Helen R.; Dikshit, Amit K.; Hockenhull, Jo; Parker, Richard M. A.; Banerjee, Anindo; Hughes, Sue I.; Pritchard, Joy C.; Reix, Christine E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found the prevalence of lameness in working horses to be 90–100%. Risk factors for lameness in this important equine population, together with risk-reduction strategies adopted by their owners, are poorly understood. The objective was to uncover risk factors for lameness and limb abnormalities in working horses, by associating clinical lameness examination findings on three occasions over two years with owner reported changes in equine management and work practices over this period. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-one communities of horse owners in Jaipur, India, took part in a participatory intervention (PI) project aiming to reduce risk factors for poor welfare, particularly lameness and limb problems. Associations between quantitative measures of equine lameness/limb abnormalities and reported changes in management and work practices were compared with 21 control (C) communities of owners where no intervention had taken place. Key findings from ‘complete cases’, where the same horse stayed with the same owner for the whole study period (PI group = 73 owners of 83 horses, C group = 58 owners of 66 horses), were that more positive statements of change in equine management and work practices were made by PI group owners than C group owners. A mixed picture of potential risk factors emerged: some reported management improvements, for example reducing the weight of the load for cart animals, were associated with improved limbs and lameness, and others, such as making improvements in shoeing and increasing the age at which their animals started work, with negative outcomes. Conclusions/Significance This study illustrates the complexity and interacting nature of risk factors for lameness in working horses, and highlights the importance of longitudinal investigations that recognise and address this. PI group owners found the project useful and requested similar inputs in future. Our findings demonstrate the value of

  13. Evaluation of an automated assay based on monoclonal anti-human serum amyloid A (SAA) antibodies for measurement of canine, feline, and equine SAA.

    PubMed

    Christensen, M; Jacobsen, S; Ichiyanagi, T; Kjelgaard-Hansen, M

    2012-12-01

    Major acute phase proteins (APPs) have proven diagnostically useful in dogs, cats and horses with routine use facilitated by commercially available automated heterologous assays. An automated assay applicable across all three species would highly facilitate further dissemination of routine use, and the aim of this study was to validate an automated latex agglutination turbidimetric immunoassay based on monoclonal anti-human serum amyloid A (SAA) antibodies for measurement of canine, feline and equine SAA. Serum samples from 60 dogs, 40 cats and 40 horses were included. Intra- and inter-assay imprecision, linearity and detection limit (DL) were determined to assess analytical performance. To assess clinical performance, equine and feline SAA measurements were compared with parallel measurements using a previously validated automated SAA assay in a method comparison setting, and by assessing overlap performance of canine SAA in healthy dogs and diseased dogs with and without systemic inflammation. Intra- and inter-assay CVs ranged between 1.9-4.6% and between 3.0-14.5%, respectively. Acceptable linearity within a clinically relevant range of SAA concentrations was observed for all three species. The DL was 1.06 mg/L. Method comparison revealed acceptable agreement of the two assays measuring feline and equine SAA, and the overlap performance of canine SAA was acceptable. The tested assay measured SAA in canine, feline and equine serum with analytical and overlap performance acceptable for clinical purposes so improving practical aspects of clinical APP application. The monoclonal nature of the antibodies suggests strong, long-term inter-batch performance stability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of changes in equine care and limb-related abnormalities in working horses in Jaipur, India, as part of a two year participatory intervention study.

    PubMed

    Whay, Helen R; Dikshit, Amit K; Hockenhull, Jo; Parker, Richard M A; Banerjee, Anindo; Hughes, Sue I; Pritchard, Joy C; Reix, Christine E

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have found the prevalence of lameness in working horses to be 90-100%. Risk factors for lameness in this important equine population, together with risk-reduction strategies adopted by their owners, are poorly understood. The objective was to uncover risk factors for lameness and limb abnormalities in working horses, by associating clinical lameness examination findings on three occasions over two years with owner reported changes in equine management and work practices over this period. Twenty-one communities of horse owners in Jaipur, India, took part in a participatory intervention (PI) project aiming to reduce risk factors for poor welfare, particularly lameness and limb problems. Associations between quantitative measures of equine lameness/limb abnormalities and reported changes in management and work practices were compared with 21 control (C) communities of owners where no intervention had taken place. Key findings from 'complete cases', where the same horse stayed with the same owner for the whole study period (PI group = 73 owners of 83 horses, C group = 58 owners of 66 horses), were that more positive statements of change in equine management and work practices were made by PI group owners than C group owners. A mixed picture of potential risk factors emerged: some reported management improvements, for example reducing the weight of the load for cart animals, were associated with improved limbs and lameness, and others, such as making improvements in shoeing and increasing the age at which their animals started work, with negative outcomes. This study illustrates the complexity and interacting nature of risk factors for lameness in working horses, and highlights the importance of longitudinal investigations that recognise and address this. PI group owners found the project useful and requested similar inputs in future. Our findings demonstrate the value of exploratory and participatory research methodology in the field of working horse

  15. Urine concentration test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Test is Performed For this test, the specific gravity of urine , urine electrolytes , and/or urine osmolality ... it is tested right away. For urine specific gravity, the health care provider uses a dipstick made ...

  16. Urine 24-hour volume

    MedlinePlus

    ... insipidus - renal Diabetes insipidus - central Diabetes High fluid intake Some forms of kidney disease Use of diuretic medicines Alternative Names Urine volume; 24-hour urine collection; Urine protein - 24 hour Images Urine sample Female urinary tract ...

  17. Potassium urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... test. Alternative Names Urine potassium Images Male urinary system References Batlle D, Chen S, Haque SK. Physiologic principles in the clinical evaluation of electrolyte, water, and acid-base disorders. In: Alpern RJ, Orson WM, Caplan M, eds. Seldin and Giebisch's The Kidney . ...

  18. Development and Oviposition Preference of House Flies and Stable Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in Six Substrates From Florida Equine Facilities.

    PubMed

    Machtinger, E T; Geden, C J; Hogsette, J A; Leppla, N C

    2014-11-01

    House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), (Diptera: Muscidae), common pests on equine facilities, were studied in the laboratory to determine the success and duration of larval development and oviposition preferences on six substrates commonly found on equine facilities. Substrates tested were hay soiled with urine and manure, fresh horse manure, pine shaving bedding soiled with urine and manure (<12 h old), pine shaving bedding soiled with urine and manure (aged >72 h in a manure pile), builders sand bedding soiled with urine and manure aged 3 d, and soil from an overgrazed pasture mixed with urine and manure of variable age. House fly larvae failed to develop into adults in hay, soil, and sand substrates. Stable flies preferred to oviposit on substrates with plant material and not on fresh manure. However, when eggs were added to the substrates, pupariation was maximal in fresh manure and the fresh pine shaving substrate. Stable flies developed in all six equine substrates, but development was less successful on the substrates with soil. In choice tests, fresh manure and the fresh pine shaving substrates were the most attractive for house fly oviposition. These substrates also yielded the greatest number of house fly puparia from artificially added eggs. An understanding of oviposition preferences and differential larval development of house flies and stable flies on these substrates may help develop options for reducing pest populations by effectively managing equine waste and selecting appropriate bedding materials.

  19. Improvement and validation of d-xylose determination in urine and serum as a new tool for the noninvasive evaluation of lactase activity in humans.

    PubMed

    Hermida, Carmen; Martínez-Costa, Oscar H; Corrales, Guillermo; Teruel, Cristina; Sánchez, Valentina; Sánchez, José J; Sarrión, Dolores; Ariza, María J; Codoceo, Rosa; Calvo, Idoya; Fernández-Mayoralas, Alfonso; Aragón, Juan J

    2014-11-01

    The phloroglucinol assay is the current method for d-xylose determination in urine/plasma/serum. However, its sensitivity is limited when low amounts of d-xylose are to be measured, such as in the noninvasive evaluation of intestinal lactase with 4-galactosylxylose (gaxilose). An improved assay was therefore needed. We developed and validated a modified version of the phloroglucinol-based assay for quantification of d-xylose in urine/serum samples. A method for gaxilose determination by gas chromatography (GC) was also optimized. Linearity ranged from 0.125 to 5.0 mg/l (5-200 mg/l in original sample). Accuracy at LOQ (0.125 mg/l) was 0.97/2.49% in spiked urine/serum; for other quality controls (QC), it was <1.27%. Intra- and interassay precision at LOQ were 6.02% and 6.45% for urine, and 8.86% and 10.00%, respectively, for serum; for other QC, precision was <2.15%. Linearity of gaxilose determination by GC was 3.90-195.17 for urine and 9.75-195.17 mg/l for serum with acceptable sensitivity and reproducibility. The method proved adequate for the d-xylose determination in healthy and hypolactasic subjects after oral administration of gaxilose. The modified method provides high sensitivity and robustness for d-xylose quantification in urine/serum for routine clinical use especially in the noninvasive diagnosis of intestinal lactase deficiency with the gaxilose test. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Topical distribution of acyclovir in normal equine skin and equine sarcoids: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Haspeslagh, M; Taevernier, L; Maes, A A; Vlaminck, L E M; De Spiegeleer, B; Croubels, S M; Martens, A M

    2016-06-01

    Topical acyclovir application is an owner-friendly treatment for occult equine sarcoids, without the caustic side-effects other topical treatments have. Variable clinical success rates have been described, but it is not known to what rate and extent acyclovir penetrates in and through equine skin from a topical formulation. In the current study, an in vitro Franz diffusion model was used to determine the permeation parameters for a generic 5% acyclovir cetomacrogol cream for both healthy and sarcoid equine skin. The distribution of acyclovir between different layers of both skin types was also evaluated. While acyclovir penetrated through both skin types, significantly less acyclovir permeated to the deep dermis of sarcoid skin (197.62ng/mm(3)) compared to normal skin (459.41ng/mm(3)). Within sarcoid skin samples, significantly higher acyclovir concentrations were found in the epidermis (983.59ng/mm(3)) compared to the superficial dermis (450.02ng/mm(3)) and the deep dermis. At each sample point, significantly more acyclovir permeated to the receptor fluid through normal skin compared to sarcoid skin, which is reflected in the significantly higher permeation parameters of normal skin. Normal skin was found to be more permissive for acyclovir, but even in sarcoid skin, enough acyclovir reached the deep dermis to treat a Herpes simplex virus infection. In the case of equine sarcoids, the treatment is aimed at the Bovine papillomavirus and no information is available on the susceptibility of the DNA polymerase of this virus for acyclovir. Therefore, further research is needed to determine the efficacy of acyclovir to treat equine sarcoids.

  1. Therapeutics for Equine Endocrine Disorders.

    PubMed

    Durham, Andy E

    2017-04-01

    Equine endocrine disease is commonly encountered by equine practitioners. Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) and equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) predominate. The most logical therapeutic approach in PPID uses dopamine agonists; pergolide mesylate is the most common. Bromocryptine and cabergoline are alternative drugs with similar actions. Drugs from other classes have a poor evidence basis, although cyproheptadine and trilostane might be considered. EMS requires management changes as the primary approach; reasonable justification for use of drugs such as levothyroxine and metformin may apply. Therapeutic options exist in rare cases of diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, hyperthyroidism, and critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Equine Models of Articular Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    McIlwraith, C. Wayne; Fortier, Lisa A.; Frisbie, David D.; Nixon, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    Articular cartilage injuries of the knee and ankle are common, and a number of different methods have been developed in an attempt to improve their repair. Clinically, there are 2 distinct aims of cartilage repair: 1) restoration of joint function and 2) prevention or at least delay of the onset of osteoarthritis. These goals can potentially be achieved through replacement of damaged or lost articular cartilage with tissue capable of functioning under normal physiological environments for an extended period, but limitations of the final repair product have long been recognized and still exist today. Screening of potential procedures for human clinical use is done by preclinical studies using animal models. This article reviews equine chondral defect models that have been recently recognized to have specific advantages for translation into human articular cartilage regeneration. Defect models in the femoropatellar, femorotibial, and tibiotalar joints have been developed. The horse provides the closest approximation to humans in terms of articular cartilage and subchondral bone thickness, and it is possible to selectively leave the entire calcified cartilage layer or completely remove it. The defect on the equine medial femoral condyle emulates medial femoral condylar lesions in humans. Other advantages of the equine model include an ability to use an arthroscope to create lesions and perform second-look arthroscopies, the large lesion size allowing for more tissue for evaluation, and the ability to have controlled exercise and test the ability of the repair to cope with athletic exercise as well as institute rehabilitation regimens. PMID:26069590

  3. Computed tomographic anatomy of the equine foot.

    PubMed

    Claerhoudt, S; Bergman, E H J; Saunders, J H

    2014-10-01

    This study describes a detailed computed tomographic reference of the normal equine foot. Ten forefeet of five adult cadavers, without evidence of orthopaedic disease, were used. Computed tomography (CT) was performed on all feet. Two-millimetre thick transverse slices were obtained, and sagittal and dorsal planes were reformatted. The CT images were matched with the corresponding anatomic slices. The phalanges and the distal sesamoid bone showed excellent detail. The extensor and flexor tendons (including their attachments) could be clearly evaluated. The collateral (sesamoidean) ligaments could be readily located, but were difficult to delineate at their proximal attachment. The distal digital annular ligament could only be distinguished from the deep digital flexor tendon proximal to the distal sesamoid bone, and its proximal attachment could be identified, but not its distal insertion. Small ligaments (impar ligament, chondrosesamoidean, chondrocoronal and chondrocompedal ligaments, axial and abaxial palmar ligaments of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint) were seen with difficulty and not at all slices. The joint capsules could not be delineated from the surrounding soft tissue structures. The lateral and medial proprius palmar digital artery and vein could be visualized occasionally on some slices. The ungular cartilages, corium and hoof wall layering were seen. The nerves, the articular and fibrocartilage of the distal sesamoid bone and the chondroungular ligament could not be assessed. Computed tomography of the equine foot can be of great value when results of radiography and ultrasonography are inconclusive. Images obtained in this study may serve as reference for CT of the equine foot.

  4. Evaluation of fibronectin 1 in one dried blood spot and in urine after rhGH treatment.

    PubMed

    Ferro, P; Ventura, R; Pérez-Mañá, C; Farré, M; Segura, J

    2016-10-07

    Since the appearance of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in the 1980s, its expansion and acquisition through the black market has increased, so the detection of its abuse continues to be a challenge. New biomarkers that are more reliable and sensitive, allowing a larger detection window, are still needed. In this line, Fibronectin 1 (FN1) has been proposed as a potential genetic and protein biomarker of rhGH abuse in peripheral blood lymphocytes, serum, and plasma. However, logistic problems associated with current blood collection in sports drug testing point towards potential new alternative matrices that could be good candidates to be evaluated. Results obtained in this study showed high ELISA FN1 levels in one dried blood spot and in urine samples in ten healthy male volunteers treated with rhGH. Results showed that especially dried blood spots appear as a potential good matrix to detect rhGH abuse by means of FN1 biomarker. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Evaluation of miR-9 and miR-143 expression in urine specimens of sulfur mustard exposed patients.

    PubMed

    Khafaei, Mostafa; Samie, Shahram; Mowla, Seyed Javad; Alvanegh, Akbar Ghorbani; Mirzaei, Behnaz; Chavoshei, Somaye; Dorraj, Ghamar Soltan; Esmailnejad, Mostafa; Tavallaie, Mahmood; Nourani, Mohammadreza

    2015-12-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) or mustard gas is a chemical alkylating agent that causes blisters in the skin (blister gas), burns the eyes and causes lung injury. Some major cellular pathways are involved in the damage caused by mustard gas such as NF-κb signaling, TGF-β signaling, WNT pathway, inflammation, DNA repair and apoptosis. MicroRNAs are non-coding small RNAs (19-25 nucleotides) that are involved in the regulation of gene expression and are found in two forms, extracellular and intracellular. Changes in the levels of extracellular microRNAs are directly associated with many diseases, it is thus common to study the level of extracellular microRNAs as a biomarker to determine the pathophysiologic status. In this study, 32 mustard gas injured patients and 32healthy subjects participated. Comparative evaluation of miR-9 and miR-143 expression in urine samples was performed by Real Time PCR and Graph Pad software. The Mann Whitney t-test analysis of data showed that the expression level of miR-143 and miR-9 had a significant decrease in sulfur mustard individuals with the respective p-value of 0.0480 and 0.0272 compared to normal samples, with an imbalance of several above mentioned pathways. It seems that reducing the expression level of these genes has a very important role in the pathogenicity of mustard gas injured patients.

  6. Equine metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Morgan, R; Keen, J; McGowan, C

    2015-08-15

    Laminitis is one of the most common and frustrating clinical presentations in equine practice. While the principles of treatment for laminitis have not changed for several decades, there have been some important paradigm shifts in our understanding of laminitis. Most importantly, it is essential to consider laminitis as a clinical sign of disease and not as a disease in its own right. Once this shift in thinking has occurred, it is logical to then question what disease caused the laminitis. More than 90 per cent of horses presented with laminitis as their primary clinical sign will have developed it as a consequence of endocrine disease; most commonly equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Given the fact that many horses will have painful protracted and/or chronic recurrent disease, a good understanding of the predisposing factors and how to diagnose and manage them is crucial. Current evidence suggests that early diagnosis and effective management of EMS should be a key aim for practising veterinary surgeons to prevent the devastating consequences of laminitis. This review will focus on EMS, its diagnosis and management.

  7. Equine metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, R.; Keen, J.; McGowan, C.

    2015-01-01

    Laminitis is one of the most common and frustrating clinical presentations in equine practice. While the principles of treatment for laminitis have not changed for several decades, there have been some important paradigm shifts in our understanding of laminitis. Most importantly, it is essential to consider laminitis as a clinical sign of disease and not as a disease in its own right. Once this shift in thinking has occurred, it is logical to then question what disease caused the laminitis. More than 90 per cent of horses presented with laminitis as their primary clinical sign will have developed it as a consequence of endocrine disease; most commonly equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Given the fact that many horses will have painful protracted and/or chronic recurrent disease, a good understanding of the predisposing factors and how to diagnose and manage them is crucial. Current evidence suggests that early diagnosis and effective management of EMS should be a key aim for practising veterinary surgeons to prevent the devastating consequences of laminitis. This review will focus on EMS, its diagnosis and management. PMID:26273009

  8. Ophthalmology in equine ambulatory practice.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Ann E

    2012-04-01

    Equine practitioners examine patient eyes on a daily basis. Indications range from inspection of normal anatomy to treatment of traumatized eyes to workups of sight threatening inflammatory or neoplastic ocular conditions. Assessment of equine eyes requires practitioners to take time to create a good "exam room" in the field and administer appropriate restraint, sedation and/or regional anesthesia to facilitate thorough examination. Accurate diagnosis and treatment of equine eye problems requires skill in ocular surface staining and cytology, and basic proficiency in standing surgery. Expertise in digital photography optimizes client education and case management. As some equine eye problems benefit from intense medical treatment or advanced surgical care, practitioners should be familiar with the options offered at specialty centers, and recognize cases that would benefit from referral. Finally, blindness is not uncommon in horses. Practitioners can counsel clients that own blind horses on the best options for managing sight loss.

  9. Evaluation of three extraction methods for molecular detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection in human urine and serum samples.

    PubMed

    Sarhan, Rania M; Kamel, Hanan H; Saad, Ghada A; Ahmed, Ossama A

    2015-09-01

    The diagnostic techniques based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of Schistosoma spp. DNA in stool, serum, plasma and urine has shown high sensitivity and specificity solving the problems for the low worm burdens and low transmission rates facing the routine microscopic diagnosis. Since PCR assays require efficient unbiased procedures of extraction and purification of nucleic acids. This study compared the efficiencies of simple, manual and feasible DNA extraction methods; a salting out and resin method, phenol/chloroform method to a commercial extraction kit through PCR analysis of human urine and serum samples spiked with known amounts of adult Schistosoma mansoni DNA confirmed by the application on real samples from patients. In artificially spiked urine gradient, the best mean diagnostic performance was that of salting out and resin then phenol/chloroform and last for the commercial kit. All three methods gave positive results in all tested urine samples which insures comparable high efficiency for DNA detection. In artificially spiked serum gradient, the highest mean diagnostic performance was obtained by the kit then salting out and resin and last by phenol chloroform. In patients' urine samples the phenol/chloroform method showed the highest mean diagnostic performance followed by the resin and then the kit. Using patients' serum samples the resin method showed equal mean diagnostic performance with the phenol/chloroform method which was higher compared to the kit. As regards sensitivity from urine samples the resin and phenol/chloroform showed equal results using artificial gradients and patients' samples. In serum samples the resin and phenol/chloroform showed equal results using artificial gradients while the resin showed better results in patients' samples. It is recommended to extract DNA from urine samples and to use the salting out and resin as a manual DNA extraction method from patients' samples for the molecular diagnosis of

  10. Evaluation of tissue PCA3 expression in prostate cancer by RNA in situ hybridization--a correlative study with urine PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG.

    PubMed

    Warrick, Joshua I; Tomlins, Scott A; Carskadon, Shannon L; Young, Allison M; Siddiqui, Javed; Wei, John T; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Kunju, Lakshmi P; Palanisamy, Nallasivam

    2014-04-01

    PCA3 is a prostate-specific non-coding RNA, with utility as a urine-based early detection biomarker. Here, we report the evaluation of tissue PCA3 expression by RNA in situ hybridization in a cohort of 41 mapped prostatectomy specimens. We compared tissue PCA3 expression with tissue level ERG expression and matched pre-prostatectomy urine PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG levels. Across 136 slides containing 138 foci of prostate cancer, PCA3 was expressed in 55% of cancer foci and 71% of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia foci. Overall, the specificity of tissue PCA3 was >90% for prostate cancer and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia combined. Tissue PCA3 cancer expression was not significantly associated with urine PCA3 expression. PCA3 and ERG positivity in cancer foci was positively associated (P<0.01). We report the first comprehensive assessment of PCA3 expression in prostatectomy specimens, and find limited correlation between tissue PCA3 and matched urine in prostate cancer.

  11. Sensitivity evaluation of the Gen-Probe AMP-CT assay by pooling urine samples for the screening of Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital infection.

    PubMed

    Gomes, J P; Viegas, S; Paulino, A; Catry, M A

    2002-08-01

    The sensitivity of two urine pool sizes versus individual testing, to detect Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital infection, was evaluated using the Gen-Probe AMP-CT assay. Thirty-three (33) known polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive urine specimens were combined with 231 fresh first-catch urine (FCU) samples in 33 groups of four and 33 groups of eight, to make up 4X and 8X pooled samples, respectively. Gen-Probe AMP-CT assay was performed on pools as well as on individual samples at the same time. For the discrepant cases, the known positive samples were diluted 1:4 and 1:8 using the manufacturer's dilution buffer and were retested. Additional positive specimens found among fresh FCU samples were also tested by the Amplicor-PCR assay to confirm their positivity. The sensitivities of 8X pooling, 4X pooling and individual testing were 86.5%, 94.3% and 91.9%, respectively. The Gen-Probe AMP-CT assay applied to a 4X urine pooling model was highly sensitive and may be useful for a population based screening programme.

  12. Psychosocial Equine Program for Veterans.

    PubMed

    Ferruolo, David M

    2016-01-01

    Nearly half of all combat veterans suffer from serious psychological disorders and reintegration issues. Veterans shy away from typical talk therapy and are seeking alternative treatments. Equine-facilitated mental health therapy has shown promise in treating veterans with depressive and anxiety disorders and reintegration issues. This article reports on an institutional review board-approved pilot program designed to address the mental health needs of veterans. Furthermore, this article discusses future directions for evolving development of equine treatment programming.

  13. Equine glanders in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Arun, S; Neubauer, H; Gürel, A; Ayyildiz, G; Kusçu, B; Yesildere, T; Meyer, H; Hermanns, W

    1999-03-06

    In the course of an epidemiological study of glanders on a number of Turkish islands in the Sea of Marmara, 1128 horses were examined by using the intracutaneous mallein test. Thirty-five (3-1 per cent) developed an increase in rectal temperature and a swelling at the point of injection. Ten of these horses were killed and glanders was confirmed in five cases by the presence of lesions and by the immunohistological demonstration of the causative agent, Burkholderia mallei. Clinical and pathological findings indicated that in all cases the infection was restricted to the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity with its parasinus, the nostrils and the upper lips. It was confirmed that equine glanders is endemic in Turkey.

  14. Telephone follow-up and self-performed urine pregnancy testing after early medical abortion: a service evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Sharon T; Glasier, Anna; Dewart, Helen; Johnstone, Anne; Burnside, Audrey

    2012-07-01

    Telephone follow-up with a self-performed low-sensitivity urine pregnancy (LSUP) test was introduced at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Scotland, as an alternative to routine ultrasonography for confirming successful abortion at 2 weeks following early medical abortion (<9 weeks' gestation). Women who screened 'positive' at telephone follow-up on the basis of ongoing pregnancy symptoms, scant bleeding or LSUP test result subsequently attended the clinic for a confirmatory ultrasound. A service evaluation was conducted of the first 8 months of telephone follow-up consisting of a review of the numbers choosing this method of follow-up, the proportion successfully contacted and the efficacy for detecting ongoing pregnancies. In the last 3 months of the study, women were surveyed about their satisfaction with this method of follow-up. Opting for telephone follow-up were 476 out of 619 women (77%). Four women (1%) attended the clinic before telephone follow-up because of pain or bleeding. A total of 410 (87%) of the remaining 472 women were successfully contacted by telephone. Sixty women (15%) screened 'positive', three of whom had ongoing pregnancies, and one woman falsely screened 'negative'. The sensitivity of the telephone follow-up was 75% [95% confidence interval (CI) 30.1-95.4], and specificity was 86% (95% CI 82.2-89). The negative predictive value was 99.7% (95% CI 98.4-99.9), and positive predictive value was 5% (95% CI 1.7-13.7). All women surveyed (n=75) would recommend telephone follow-up to a friend. A telephone follow-up and an LSUP test at 2 weeks are effective for detecting ongoing pregnancy, have good follow-up rates and are popular choices for women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors affecting urine specific gravity in apparently healthy cats presenting to first opinion practice for routine evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rishniw, Mark; Bicalho, Rodrigo

    2015-04-01

    Evidence suggests that apparently healthy cats presenting for routine evaluation should have a randomly sampled urine specific gravity (USG) >1.035. A USG <1.035 might reflect inappropriate concentrating ability warranting further investigation. We measured the USG of 1040 apparently healthy cats presenting to first opinion practice in an observational study, using either in-clinic refractometers or measurements provided by reference laboratories, and examined factors that might affect USG. In-clinic refractometers were calibrated using distilled water (specific gravity = 1.000). The USG was >1.030 in 91% of cats and >1.035 in 88% of cats; 121 adult cats (⩾6 months old) and five young cats (<6 months old) had USGs of <1.035. Of these 126 cats, a pathological cause was identified in 27 adult cats - of these, 26 were >9 years old - but no young cats. No cause was identified in 43 adult cats, and further investigation was not pursued in 51 adult cats. Factors that affected USG included age, diet type, sex, fasting status, drinking avidity, refractometer type, and the interaction between sex and diet - increasing dietary moisture content lowered USG only in female cats. Most factors minimally affected USG. The odds of having a USG <1.035 without apparent pathology included age and dietary moisture content. Drinking avidity decreased with increasing dietary moisture content. Our results show that most apparently healthy cats presenting to first-opinion practice should have a USG >1.035. Dietary management strategies to lower USG might be less effective than anticipated, and warrant monitoring of USG to determine efficacy. Older cats with USG <1.035 are more likely to have pathological causes identified, although clinicians are more likely to examine these cats for possible pathology. A lack of stringent refractometer calibration could have caused some errors in estimates of USG by some observers, but would be unlikely to alter markedly the findings.

  16. Equine acquired multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) in 14 horses associated with ingestion of Maple leaves (Acer pseudoplatanus) covered with European tar spot (Rhytisma acerinum).

    PubMed

    van der Kolk, J H; Wijnberg, I D; Westermann, C M; Dorland, L; de Sain-van der Velden, M G M; Kranenburg, L C; Duran, M; Dijkstra, J A; van der Lugt, J J; Wanders, R J A; Gruys, E

    2010-01-01

    This case-series describes fourteen horses suspected of equine acquired multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) also known as atypical myopathy of which seven cases were confirmed biochemically with all horses having had access to leaves of the Maple tree (Acer pseudoplatanus) covered with European tar spot (Rhytisma acerinum). Assessment of organic acids, glycine conjugates, and acylcarnitines in urine was regarded as gold standard in the biochemical diagnosis of equine acquired multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

  17. Serum free light chains, not urine specimens, should be used to evaluate response in light-chain multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Dejoie, Thomas; Corre, Jill; Caillon, Helene; Hulin, Cyrille; Perrot, Aurore; Caillot, Denis; Boyle, Eileen; Chretien, Marie-Lorraine; Fontan, Jean; Belhadj, Karim; Brechignac, Sabine; Decaux, Olivier; Voillat, Laurent; Rodon, Philippe; Fitoussi, Olivier; Araujo, Carla; Benboubker, Lotfi; Fontan, Charlotte; Tiab, Mourad; Godmer, Pascal; Luycx, Odile; Allangba, Olivier; Pignon, Jean-Michel; Fuzibet, Jean-Gabriel; Legros, Laurence; Stoppa, Anne Marie; Dib, Mamoun; Pegourie, Brigitte; Orsini-Piocelle, Frederique; Karlin, Lionel; Arnulf, Bertrand; Roussel, Murielle; Garderet, Laurent; Mohty, Mohamad; Meuleman, Nathalie; Doyen, Chantal; Lenain, Pascal; Macro, Margaret; Leleu, Xavier; Facon, Thierry; Moreau, Philippe; Attal, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Guidelines for monitoring multiple myeloma (MM) patients expressing light chains only (light-chain MM [LCMM]) rely on measurements of monoclonal protein in urine. Alternatively, serum free light chain (sFLC) measurements have better sensitivity over urine methods, however, demonstration that improved sensitivity provides any clinical benefit is lacking. Here, we compared performance of serum and urine measurements in 113 (72κ, 41λ) newly diagnosed LCMM patients enrolled in the Intergroupe Francophone du Myélome (IFM) 2009 trial. All diagnostic samples (100%) had an abnormal κ:λ sFLC ratio, and involved (monoclonal) FLC (iFLC) expressed at levels deemed measurable for monitoring (≥100 mg/L). By contrast, only 64% patients had measurable levels of monoclonal protein (≥200 mg per 24 hours) in urine protein electrophoresis (UPEP). After 1 and 3 treatment cycles, iFLC remained elevated in 71% and 46% of patients, respectively, whereas UPEP reported a positive result in 37% and 18%; all of the patients with positive UPEP at cycle 3 also had elevated iFLC levels. Importantly, elevated iFLC or an abnormal κ:λ sFLC ratio after 3 treatment cycles associated with poorer progression-free survival (P = .006 and P < .0001, respectively), whereas positive UPEP or urine immunofixation electrophoresis (uIFE) did not. In addition, patients with an abnormal κ:λ sFLC ratio had poorer overall survival (P = .022). Finally, early normalization of κ:λ sFLC ratio but not negative uIFE predicted achieving negative minimal residual disease, as determined by flow cytometry, after consolidation therapy (100% positive predictive value). We conclude that improved sensitivity and prognostic value of serum over urine measurements provide a strong basis for recommending the former for monitoring LCMM patients. PMID:27729323

  18. Evaluating Soil Oxygen as a Control on N2O Emissions from Ruminant Urine Patches under Different Irrigation Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, J.; Clough, T. J.; Laubach, J.; Hunt, J.; Venterea, R. T.; Phillips, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    Urine patches from grazing ruminant animals are a significant source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, and irrigation is increasingly used to improve forage quality and yield for grazing cattle. The objective of this study was to test whether irrigation frequency influenced N2O emissions from urine patches on a free-draining grazed pasture soil. It was hypothesized that greater irrigation frequency would increase soil moisture thereby lowering soil oxygen (O2), and that these O2-limited conditions would increase the potential for N2O to be reduced to nitrogen gas (N2), resulting in lower N2O emissions. A field trial tested the effects of two irrigation frequencies and urine deposition on N2O fluxes measured daily for 35 days. Denitrification potential measurements using the acetylene inhibition technique were completed to infer N2O/(N2O+N2) ratios, and soil O2 concentrations were measured continuously at three depths within the soil profile. While a more frequent irrigation treatment resulted in a lower N2O/(N2O+N2) ratio, this did not give rise to lower N2O emissions. Nitrous oxide fluxes were not influenced by irrigation frequency, and approximately 0.09% of the nitrogen applied as urine was emitted as N2O from both irrigation treatments. Neither N2O nor soil O2 varied with individual irrigation events. Soil O2 ranged from 17 to 20% expect following urine deposition, where it temporarily decreased to 13%. Soil O2 measurements failed to explain N2O emissions, but a relationship was derived between N2O fluxes and estimates of soil gas diffusivity (Dp/Do). This work is the first to show how soil O2 concentrations vary under a urine patch and under different irrigation treatments, and supports Dp/Do as robust predictor of N2O emissions in situ.

  19. Equine Assisted Psychotherapy: The Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association's Model Overview of Equine-Based Modalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notgrass, Clayton G.; Pettinelli, J. Douglas

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association's (EAGALA) experiential model called "Equine Assisted Psychotherapy" (EAP). EAGALA's model is based on the Association for Experiential Education's (AEE) tenets and is focused on the learner's experience with horses. Drawing on the historical use of equines in the…

  20. Equine Assisted Psychotherapy: The Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association's Model Overview of Equine-Based Modalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notgrass, Clayton G.; Pettinelli, J. Douglas

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association's (EAGALA) experiential model called "Equine Assisted Psychotherapy" (EAP). EAGALA's model is based on the Association for Experiential Education's (AEE) tenets and is focused on the learner's experience with horses. Drawing on the historical use of equines in the…

  1. The potential and limitations of quantitative electromyography in equine medicine.

    PubMed

    Wijnberg, Inge D; Franssen, Hessel

    2016-03-01

    This review discusses the scope of using (quantitative) electromyography (EMG) in diagnosing myopathies and neuropathies in equine patients. In human medicine, many EMG methods are available for the diagnosis, pathophysiological description and evaluation, monitoring, or rehabilitation of patients, and some of these techniques have also been applied to horses. EMG results are usually combined with other neurophysiological data, ultrasound, histochemistry, biochemistry of muscle biopsies, and clinical signs in order to provide a complete picture of the condition and its clinical course. EMG technology is commonly used in human medicine and has been subject to constant development and refinement since its introduction in 1929, but the usefulness of the technique in equine medicine is not yet widely acknowledged. The possibilities and limitations of some EMG applications for equine use are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pilot study to evaluate 3 hygiene protocols on the reduction of bacterial load on the hands of veterinary staff performing routine equine physical examinations.

    PubMed

    Traub-Dargatz, Josie L; Weese, J Scott; Rousseau, Joyce D; Dunowska, Magdalena; Morley, Paul S; Dargatz, David A

    2006-07-01

    Reduction factors (RFs) for bacterial counts on examiners' hands were compared when performing a standardized equine physical examination, followed by the use of one of 3 hand-hygiene protocols (washing with soap, ethanol gel application, and chlorohexidine-ethanol application). The mean RFs were 1.29 log10 and 1.44 log10 at 2 study sites for the alcohol-gel (62% ethyl alcohol active ingredient) protocols and 1.47 log10 and 1.94 log10 at 2 study sites for the chlorhexidine-alcohol (61% ethyl alcohol plus 1% chlorhexidine active ingredients) protocols, respectively. The RFs were significantly different (P < 0.0001) between the hand-washing group and the other 2 treatment groups (the alcohol-gel and the chlorhexidine-alcohol lotion). The use of alcohol-based gels or chlorhexidine-alcohol hand hygiene protocols must still be proven effective in equine practice settings, but in this study, these protocols were equivalent or superior to hand washing for reduction in bacterial load on the hands of people after they perform routine physical examinations.

  3. Pilot study to evaluate 3 hygiene protocols on the reduction of bacterial load on the hands of veterinary staff performing routine equine physical examinations

    PubMed Central

    Traub-Dargatz, Josie L.; Weese, J. Scott; Rousseau, Joyce D.; Dunowska, Magdalena; Morley, Paul S.; Dargatz, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Reduction factors (RFs) for bacterial counts on examiners’ hands were compared when performing a standardized equine physical examination, followed by the use of one of 3 hand-hygiene protocols (washing with soap, ethanol gel application, and chlorohexidine-ethanol application). The mean RFs were 1.29 log10 and 1.44 log10 at 2 study sites for the alcohol-gel (62% ethyl alcohol active ingredient) protocols and 1.47 log10 and 1.94 log10 at 2 study sites for the chlorhexidine-alcohol (61% ethyl alcohol plus 1% chlorhexidine active ingredients) protocols, respectively. The RFs were significantly different (P < 0.0001) between the hand-washing group and the other 2 treatment groups (the alcohol-gel and the chlorhexidine-alcohol lotion). The use of alcohol-based gels or chlorhexidine-alcohol hand hygiene protocols must still be proven effective in equine practice settings, but in this study, these protocols were equivalent or superior to hand washing for reduction in bacterial load on the hands of people after they perform routine physical examinations. PMID:16898109

  4. Evaluation of equine breeding farm management and preventative health practices as risk factors for development of Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in foals.

    PubMed

    Chaffin, M Keith; Cohen, Noah D; Martens, Ronald J

    2003-02-15

    To determine whether foal management practices, environmental management, and preventative health practices are risk factors for development of Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in foals. Prospective matched case-control study. 2,764 foals on 64 equine breeding farms with 9,991 horses. During 1997, participating veterinarians completed paired data collection forms for comparison; 1 for an affected farm (containing > or = 1 foal with pneumonia caused by R equi) and 1 for a control farm. Information collected pertained to stabling facilities, environmental management, foal husbandry, and preventative equine health practices. Matched farm data compared by use of conditional logistic regression indicated that personnel on affected farms were more likely to attend foal births, test foals for adequacy of passive immunity, administer plasma or other treatments to foals to supplement serum immunoglobulin concentrations, administer hyperimmune plasma prophylactically to foals, vaccinate mares and foals against Streptococcus equi infection, and use multiple anthelmintics in deworming programs. Affected farms were also more likely to have foals that developed other respiratory tract disorders and were approximately 4 times as likely to have dirt floors in stalls used for housing foals as were control farms. Rhodococcus equi pneumonia does not appear to be associated with poor farm management or a lack of attention to preventative health practices. Housing foals in stalls with dirt floors may increase the risk for development of R equi pneumonia.

  5. Greenhouse evaluation and environmental impact assessment of different urine-derived struvite fertilizers as phosphorus sources for plants.

    PubMed

    Antonini, Samantha; Arias, Maria Alejandra; Eichert, Thomas; Clemens, Joachim

    2012-11-01

    A selection of six urine-derived struvite fertilizers generated by innovative precipitation technologies was assessed for their quality and their effectiveness as phosphorus sources for crops. Struvite purity was influenced by drying techniques and magnesium dosage. In a greenhouse experiment, the urine fertilizers led to biomass yields and phosphorus uptakes comparable to or higher than those induced by a commercial mineral fertilizer. Heavy metal concentrations of the different struvite fertilizers were below the threshold limits specified by the German Fertilizer and Sewage Sludge Regulations. The computed loading rates of heavy metals to agricultural land were also below the threshold limits decreed by the Federal Soil Protection Act. Urine-derived struvite contributed less to heavy metal inputs to farmland than other recycling products or commercial mineral and organic fertilizers. When combined with other soil conditioners, urine-derived struvite is an efficient fertilizer which covers the magnesium and more than half of the phosphorus demand of crops. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Samarium-153 therapy for prostate cancer: the evaluation of urine activity, staff exposure and dose rate from patients.

    PubMed

    Parlak, Yasemin; Gumuser, Gul; Sayit, Elvan

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the excretion of Samarium-153-ethylenediaminetetramethylphosphonic acid ((153)Sm-EDTMP) in urine and to calculate the dose rate of its retention in the body as a function of time and the dose received by the skin of laboratory staff's finger. Urine samples were collected from 11 patients after intravenous injection of (153)Sm-EDTMP. The measurements of dose rate were performed. Thermoluminescent dosemeters were used for absorbed dose measurements. Effective half-lives that were calculated from urine sample measurements were found as 7.1±3 h within the first 24 h. Whole body dose rates before collecting urine of patients were 60.0 ± 15.7 µSv h(-1) for within 1 h following (153)Sm-EDTMP administration. The highest finger radiation dose is to the right-hand thumb (3.8 ± 2 mGy). The results of the study imply that patients who recieved (153)Sm-EDTMP therapy should be kept a minumum of 8 h in an isolated room at hospital and that one staff should give therapy at most two patients per week. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Evaluation of diagnostic performance of rK28 ELISA using urine for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Prakash; Bhaskar, Khondaker R H; Hossain, Faria; Khan, Md Anik Ashfaq; Vallur, Aarthy C; Duthie, Malcolm S; Hamano, Shinjiro; Salam, Md Abdus; Huda, M Mamun; Khan, Md Gulam Musawwir; Coler, Rhea N; Reed, Steven G; Mondal, Dinesh

    2016-07-04

    Recombinant fusion proteins are now commonly used to detect circulating antibodies for the serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Asia, Africa and the Americas. Although simple, these tests still require blood collection and their use in remote settings can be limited due to the need of collection devices, serum fractionation instrument and generation of biohazardous waste. The development of an accurate and non-invasive diagnostic algorithm for VL, such as could be achieved with urine, is desirable. We enrolled 87 VL patients and 81 non-VL individuals, including 33 healthy endemic controls, 16 healthy non-endemic controls, 16 disease controls and 16 tuberculosis (TB) patients. We compared the efficacy of recombinant antigens rK28, rK39 and rKRP42 for the diagnosis of VL when either serum or urine were used to develop antibody-detection ELISA. As expected, each of the antigens readily detected antibodies in the serum of VL patients. rK28 ELISA showed the highest sensitivity (98.9 %), followed by rK39 and rKRP42 ELISA (97.7 and 94.4 %, respectively); overall specificity was > 96 %. When urine was used as the test analyte, only a marginal drop in sensitivity was observed, with rK28 ELISA again demonstrating the greatest sensitivity (95.4 %), followed by rK39 and rKRP42 ELISA, respectively. Again, the overall specificity was > 96 %. Our data indicate the potential for using urine in the diagnosis of VL. Detection of antibodies against rK28 demonstrated the greatest sensitivity. Together, our results indicate that rK28-based antibody detection tests using urine could provide a completely non-invasive tool amenable for diagnosis of VL in remote locations.

  8. Urine drainage bags

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000142.htm Urine drainage bags To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine drainage bags collect urine. Your bag will attach ...

  9. Glucose urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Urine sugar test; Urine glucose test; Glucosuria test; Glycosuria test ... After you provide a urine sample, it is tested right away. The health care provider uses a dipstick made with a color-sensitive pad. The ...

  10. Urination - difficulty with flow

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/003143.htm Urination - difficulty with flow To use the sharing features on this page, ... at night? Has the force of your urine flow decreased? Do you have dribbling or leaking urine? ...

  11. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  12. Detection of equine herpesvirus 3 in equine skin lesions by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Kleiboeker, Steven B; Chapman, Rodney K

    2004-01-01

    During a recent breeding season, ulcerative, pustular skin lesions were observed on the external genitalia of 2 mares and 1 stallion within a small herd. Based on the location and description of the skin lesions plus the clinical history, equine coital exanthema, caused by equine herpesvirus 3 (EHV3), was the primary differential diagnosis. Scrapings of skin lesions from the perineum of 2 mares were submitted for diagnostic evaluation. Virus isolation was attempted by inoculation of several cell lines of equine origin, but no cytopathic agent was detected. The skin scrapings were processed for DNA extraction, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was performed for herpesvirus DNA polymerase and DNA-packaging protein (terminase) genes using nested, degenerate primers targeted to conserved regions of the herpesvirus genome. Products of the expected sizes were generated for both assays, and subsequent nucleotide sequencing of the amplification products established that EHV3 had been detected in DNA extracted from the skin lesions. Detection of EHV3 was confirmed using an EHV3-specific PCR assay targeted to the gC gene. Using the novel EHV3 nucleotide sequence identified in this report, a sensitive and specific PCR assay targeted to the highly conserved DNA polymerase gene was developed.

  13. Risk factors for owner-reported occurrence of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in the US equine population.

    PubMed

    Morley, P S; Traub-Dargatz, J L; Benedict, K M; Saville, W J A; Voelker, L D; Wagner, B A

    2008-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a serious and often fatal neurologic disease of horses, but few studies have investigated risk factors. To evaluate operation- and individual-level factors associated with likelihood of the occurrence of EPM. Data were collected as part of a study of the US equine industry from 1,178 operations representing 83.9% of horses and 51.6% of operations with > or =3 horses in 28 states. Probability-based sampling was used to enroll representative operations in a cross-sectional study. Interviews were conducted to collect information regarding health and management of horses. A nested case-control study was used to investigate risk factors among individual horses. Interview data were combined with climate data, human population density, and opossum regional ecology categories. Data were analyzed using logistic regression to identify risk factors for the occurrence of EPM. Owners reported that 95% of EPM cases included in this study were diagnosed by veterinarians. Variables associated with EPM occurrence on premises included opossum regional ecology, reported exposure to small wildlife, climate, terrain, housing, choice of bedding material, method of storing feeds, equine stocking density, and primary use of horses. Among individual horses, age was most strongly associated with disease risk. Associations also were identified with sex, breed, primary use, and participation in competitions. Because the risk of EPM occurrence on operations is closely tied to factors that impact exposure to opossums, their feces, and their environment, controlling these exposures may be important in preventing the occurrence of EPM.

  14. Equine neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis.

    PubMed

    Url, A; Bauder, B; Thalhammer, J; Nowotny, N; Kolodziejek, J; Herout, N; Fürst, S; Weissenböck, H

    2001-04-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) is an inherited, neurodegenerative disorder with fatal outcome in humans. It has also been described in some animal species; this is the first report of NCL in equines. Three horses showed developmental retardation, slow movements and loss of appetite at the age of six months. Neurological symptoms, as well as visual failure in one case, were noticed at the age of 1 year. Due to slowly progressing deterioration, euthanasia was indicated 1.5 years after onset of conspicuous behavior. At necropsy, slight flattening of the gyri and discoloring of the brain was noticed. Histopathology revealed eosinophilic, autofluorescent material in the perikarya of neurons throughout the brain and spinal cord. Identical material was found in neurons of retina, submucous and myenteric ganglia, as well as in glial cells. Immunohistochemistry, using antiserum against subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase, showed positive signals in neurons and glial cells. Electron microscopical studies revealed fingerprint profiles mixed with rectilinear structures in markedly enlarged lysosomes of neurons and renal tubules, and rectilinear structures mixed with curvilinear bodies in macrophages and lymphocytes of lymph nodes. Thus, our study presents the first occurrence of lysosomal storage disease in horses, further characterized by immunohistochemical and electron microscopical investigations as NCL.

  15. Equine herpes myeloencephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Kohn, C W; Fenner, W R

    1987-08-01

    The neurologic form of EHV-1 infection appears to be the result of central nervous system infarction caused by vasculitis, which is initiated in endothelial cells of small blood vessels. The etiologic agent is equine herpesvirus-1, subtype 1. There is some evidence to suggest that the neurologic form of the disease actually results from reactivation of a previous infection. Whether the vasculitis that causes the central nervous system injury is the direct result of the infection or an immune response to the infection has not been determined. The clinical signs are rapid in onset, nonprogressive, and many horses may improve. The diagnosis must often remain tentative, particularly in horses that recover, because there is no single reliable confirmatory test. The prognosis is generally good, although recovery may be slow and incomplete. Supportive therapy is essential, and administration of corticosteroids may be useful. There is no specific therapy for the virus or for the vasculitis. Currently no vaccine can be claimed to protect against the central nervous system form of the disease. Vaccination is recommended, however, to reduce the incidence of respiratory disease, abortion, and neonatal death on the farm. Repeated vaccination is necessary to maintain presumably protective antibody concentrations. Vaccination every 3 to 4 months may decrease the incidence of EHV-1 infection on the farm and therefore may indirectly prevent the occurrence of the neurologic form of the disease.

  16. A Review of Equine Laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickson, Dean A.

    2012-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery in the human was first identified in mid 900's. The procedure as is more commonly practiced now was first reported in 1912. There have been many advances and new techniques developed in the past 100 years. Equine laparoscopy, was first reported in the 1970's, and similarly has undergone much transformation in the last 40 years. It is now considered the standard of care in many surgical techniques such as cryptorchidectomy, ovariectomy, nephrosplenic space ablation, standing abdominal exploratory, and many other reproductive surgeries. This manuscript describes the history of minimally invasive surgery, and highlights many of the techniques that are currently performed in equine surgery. Special attention is given to instrumentation, ligating techniques, and the surgical principles of equine minimally invasive surgery. PMID:23762585

  17. Equine corneal surgery and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Denis, Heidi M

    2004-08-01

    Corneal disease is common in equine ophthalmology and requires vigilant monitoring and appropriate therapy to optimize the outcome. Many equine corneal diseases, particularly those that progress rapidly, may benefit from surgical intervention. These include descemetoceles, deep corneal lacerations and ulcers, corneal perforation/iris prolapse, ulcerative keratitis, corneal stromal abscesses, and corneoscleral neoplasia. Indications for corneal transplantation include optical, tectonic, therapeutic, and cosmetic purposes. Corneal transplantation is most often implemented in equine patients for tectonic and therapeutic reasons when a cornea is compromised by corneal stromal abscess, iris prolapse, or neoplasia. This article provides an outline of when to consider surgical intervention for corneal disease, the procedures available and expected outcomes, and how appropriate early surgical intervention can dramatically improve the end result.

  18. Multicenter Evaluation of the BDProbeTec ET System for Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Urine Specimens, Female Endocervical Swabs, and Male Urethral Swabs

    PubMed Central

    Van Der Pol, Barbara; Ferrero, Dennis V.; Buck-Barrington, Linda; Hook, Edward; Lenderman, Connie; Quinn, Thomas; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Lovchik, Judith; Schachter, Julius; Moncada, Jeanne; Hall, Geraldine; Tuohy, Marion J.; Jones, Robert B.

    2001-01-01

    The performance of the Becton Dickinson BDProbe Tec ET System Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Amplified DNA Assays (BD Biosciences, Sparks, Md.) was evaluated in a multicenter study. Specimens were collected from 2,109 men and women, with or without symptoms, attending sexually transmitted disease, family planning, and obstetrics and gynecology clinics. Both swab and urine samples were collected, and the results obtained from 4,131 specimens were compared to those from culture and the LCx nucleic acid amplification test (Abbott Industries, Abbott Park, Ill.). PCR and cytospin of the culture transport medium with chlamydia direct fluorescent antibody staining were used to adjudicate chlamydia culture-negative results. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated both with and without use of the amplification control (AC), with little apparent difference in the results. Without the AC result, sensitivity for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae were 92.8 and 96.6%, respectively, for cervical swabs and 80.5 and 84.9% for urine from women. C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae sensitivities were 92.5 and 98.5%, respectively, for male urethral swabs and 93.1 and 97.9% for urine from men. This amplified DNA system for simultaneous detection of chlamydial and gonococcal infections demonstrated superior sensitivity compared to chlamydia culture and has performance characteristics comparable to those of other commercially available nucleic acid-based assays for these organisms. PMID:11230419

  19. Evaluation of KIMS immunoassays on a cobas c 501 analyzer for drugs of abuse and ethyl glucuronide testing in urine for forensic abstinence control.

    PubMed

    Neukamm, Merja A; Bahrami, Arsham; Auwärter, Volker; Mehne, Felix M P; Höss, Eva

    2017-08-01

    For the medico-psychological assessment (MPA) during driving licence re-granting in Germany, abstinence control including urine samples is required. In these programmes, even small amounts of markers for drug or alcohol abuse have to be detected. Thus, the concentrations of the target compounds are very low, and, in consequence, the sensitivity of the applied screening method has to be much higher than for clinical use. Modified drugs of abuse and ethyl glucuronide immunoassays on a Roche cobas c 501 analyzer were evaluated for precision, accuracy, onboard calibration stability, cross reactivity, sensitivity, and specificity using authentic urine samples. Precision (intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation (RSD) and accuracy (bias) at three concentrations were 12% or lower for all parameters. The calibrations remained stable (deviations <25%) for at least 28 days for all assays except amphetamines (21 days). Satisfactory cross reactivity was determined for the relevant analytes and also for several new psychoactive substances (NPS). The sensitivity was 100% for all parameters except methadone metabolite EDDP (92%) and fully met the sensitivity criteria for MPA urine testing. The presented kinetic interaction of microparticles in a solution (KIMS) immunoassays on a cobas c 501 thus provide a new method to reliably detect drug or alcohol consumption in abstinence control programmes requiring high sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Evaluation of the new test VERSANT CT/GC DNA 1.0 assay for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in urine specimens.

    PubMed

    Marangoni, Antonella; Foschi, Claudio; Nardini, Paola; D'Antuono, Antonietta; Banzola, Nicoletta; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Cevenini, Roberto

    2012-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) are the two most common sexually transmitted bacterial infections in developed countries. The purpose of the present study was evaluating a new system for CT/GC detection in urine specimens. A total of 700 urine specimens were obtained from patients attending the STD Outpatients Clinic of St. Orsola University Hospital, Bologna, Italy. Samples were tested by VERSANT® CT/GC DNA 1.0 Assay (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc., Tarrytown, NY), a multiplex Real-Time PCR assay, for simultaneous CT/GC detection. Results obtained by VERSANT assay were compared with those obtained by culturing genital secretions of the same patients. Moreover, urine specimens testing positive in VERSANT assay were retested by in-house PCR assays, used as confirmatory tests. VERSANT® CT/GC DNA 1.0 Assay performed with 99.4% and 99.2% of specificity for GC and CT detection, respectively, whereas sensitivity was 100% both for CT and GC. Culture methods were 100% specific, but far less sensitive than VERSANT assay. VERSANT® CT/GC DNA 1.0 Assay demonstrated to be a highly sensitive and specific technique for CT/GC detection.

  1. Evaluation of sulfur isotopic enrichment of urine metabolites for the differentiation of healthy and prostate cancer mice after the administration of (34)S labelled yeast.

    PubMed

    Galilea San Blas, Oscar; Moreno Sanz, Fernando; Herrero Espílez, Pilar; Sainz Menéndez, Rosa María; Mayo Barallo, Juan Carlos; Marchante-Gayón, Juan Manuel; García Alonso, José Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    Sulfur isotopic enrichment of urine metabolites in healthy and prostate cancer mice using (34)S enriched yeast and High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Multicollector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MC-ICP-MS) has been evaluated. A 30 weeks experiment (since the eleventh to the fortieth week of life) was carried out collecting the urine of three healthy mice and three transgenic mice with prostate cancer during 24h after a single oral administration of a (34)S enriched yeast slurry. The isotopic enrichment of different sulphur metabolites was monitored by coupling a C18 reverse phase HPLC column with a multicollector ICP-MS using a membrane desolvating system. Quantification of sulfur in the chromatographic peaks was carried out by post-column isotope dilution using a (33)S enriched spike. Differences between the (34)S enrichment in the urine metabolites of healthy and prostate cancer mice were found from the beginning of the disease. Both populations could be differentiated using a principal component analysis (PCA). Finally, 7 unknown mice were correctly classified in each population using a linear discriminant analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Development and Evaluation of a Molecular Diagnostic Method for Rapid Detection of Histoplasma capsulatum var. farciminosum, the Causative Agent of Epizootic Lymphangitis, in Equine Clinical Samples

    PubMed Central

    Pinchbeck, G. L.; Loughnane, P.; Aklilu, N.; Ashine, T.; Stringer, A. P.; Gordon, L.; Marshall, M.; Christley, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum var. farciminosum, the causative agent of epizootic lymphangitis (EZL), is endemic in parts of Africa. Diagnosis based on clinical signs and microscopy lacks specificity and is a barrier to further understanding this neglected disease. Here, a nested PCR method targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA operon was validated for application to equine clinical samples. Twenty-nine horses with signs of EZL from different climatic regions of Ethiopia were clinically examined. Blood samples and aspirates of pus from cutaneous nodules were taken, along with blood from a further 20 horses with no cutaneous EZL lesions. Among the 29 horses with suspected cases of EZL, H. capsulatum var. farciminosum was confirmed by extraction of DNA from pus and blood samples from 25 and 17 horses, respectively. Positive PCR results were also obtained with heat-inactivated pus (24 horses) and blood (23 horses) spotted onto Whatman FTA cards. Two positive results were obtained among blood samples from 20 horses that did not exhibit clinical signs of EZL. These are the first reports of the direct detection of H. capsulatum var. farciminosum in equine blood and at high frequency among horses exhibiting cutaneous lesions. The nested PCR outperformed conventional microscopic diagnosis, as characteristic yeast cells could be observed only in 14 pus samples. The presence of H. capsulatum var. farciminosum DNA was confirmed by sequencing the cloned PCR products, and while alignment of the ITS amplicons showed very little sequence variation, there was preliminary single nucleotide polymorphism-based evidence for the existence of two subgroups of H. capsulatum var. farciminosum. This molecular diagnostic method now permits investigation of the epidemiology of EZL. PMID:27707938

  3. Development and Evaluation of a Molecular Diagnostic Method for Rapid Detection of Histoplasma capsulatum var. farciminosum, the Causative Agent of Epizootic Lymphangitis, in Equine Clinical Samples.

    PubMed

    Scantlebury, C E; Pinchbeck, G L; Loughnane, P; Aklilu, N; Ashine, T; Stringer, A P; Gordon, L; Marshall, M; Christley, R M; McCarthy, A J

    2016-12-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum var. farciminosum, the causative agent of epizootic lymphangitis (EZL), is endemic in parts of Africa. Diagnosis based on clinical signs and microscopy lacks specificity and is a barrier to further understanding this neglected disease. Here, a nested PCR method targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA operon was validated for application to equine clinical samples. Twenty-nine horses with signs of EZL from different climatic regions of Ethiopia were clinically examined. Blood samples and aspirates of pus from cutaneous nodules were taken, along with blood from a further 20 horses with no cutaneous EZL lesions. Among the 29 horses with suspected cases of EZL, H. capsulatum var. farciminosum was confirmed by extraction of DNA from pus and blood samples from 25 and 17 horses, respectively. Positive PCR results were also obtained with heat-inactivated pus (24 horses) and blood (23 horses) spotted onto Whatman FTA cards. Two positive results were obtained among blood samples from 20 horses that did not exhibit clinical signs of EZL. These are the first reports of the direct detection of H. capsulatum var. farciminosum in equine blood and at high frequency among horses exhibiting cutaneous lesions. The nested PCR outperformed conventional microscopic diagnosis, as characteristic yeast cells could be observed only in 14 pus samples. The presence of H. capsulatum var. farciminosum DNA was confirmed by sequencing the cloned PCR products, and while alignment of the ITS amplicons showed very little sequence variation, there was preliminary single nucleotide polymorphism-based evidence for the existence of two subgroups of H. capsulatum var. farciminosum This molecular diagnostic method now permits investigation of the epidemiology of EZL.

  4. Equine cloning: applications and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Vanderwall, Dirk K; Woods, Gordon L; Roser, Janet F; Schlafer, Donald H; Sellon, Debra C; Tester, David F; White, Kenneth L

    2006-01-01

    Cloning is one of several new assisted reproductive techniques being developed for clinical use in the equine industry. Potential uses of equine cloning include: (1) the preservation of genetics from individual animals that would otherwise not be able to reproduce, such as geldings; (2) the preservation of genetic material of endangered and/or exotic species, such as the Mongolian wild horse (Przewalski's horse); and (3) because of the companion animal role that horses fill for some individuals, it is likely that some horse owners will have individual animals cloned for emotional fulfillment. Although equine cloning has been successful, like other species, it remains a very inefficient process (<3% success). In most species, the inefficiency of cloning results from a high incidence of embryonic, fetal and/or placental developmental abnormalities that contribute to extremely high rates of embryonic loss, abortion and stillbirths throughout gestation and compromised neonatal health after birth. The present review describes some of the ultrasonographic, endocrinological and histopathological characteristics of successful (produced viable offspring) and unsuccessful (resulted in pregnancy failure) cloned equine (mule and horse) pregnancies we have produced. A total of 21 cloned mule pregnancies were established using fetal fibroblast cells, whereas a total of seven cloned horse pregnancies were established using adult cumulus cells. Three of the cloned mule conceptuses were carried to term, resulting in the birth of three healthy clones. This information adds to an accumulating body of knowledge about the outcome of cloned equine pregnancies, which will help to establish when, and perhaps why, many cloned equine pregnancies fail.

  5. Evaluation of a procedure for the simultaneous quantification of 4-ketocyclophosphamide, cyclophosphamide, and Ifosfamide in human urine.

    PubMed

    B'Hymer, C; Cheever, K L

    2010-01-01

    An accurate and precise analysis procedure is presented for the detection and quantification of cyclophosphamide (CP), 4-ketocyclophosphamide (4-keto-CP), a primary metabolite of CP, and ifosfamide (IF) in human urine. CP and IF are common antineoplastic drugs used for the treatment of many types of cancer. Workers in the healthcare field, including nurses and pharmacists who interact with or prepare prescriptions for patients, have potential low-level exposure to the parent drugs; therefore, an analysis procedure is needed. The main focus of this procedure is the quantitation of 4-keto-CP because it is a primary metabolite of CP exposure and stable under physiological conditions. Sample preparation consists of liquid-liquid extraction of urine with ethyl acetate, and the analysis consists of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry for detection of the analytes. Accuracy and precision of this procedure is demonstrated by means of recovery experiments. Recoveries are between 97-105% of theory for the three target analytes at various concentrations (25, 50, 100, and 375 ng/mL for 4-keto-CP; 1, 2, 4, and 15 ng/mL for CP and IF) with relative standard deviations of 8.4% or less. The limit of detection for this procedure is 1 ng/mL for 4-keto-CP, 0.1 ng/mL for CP, and 0.05 ng/mL for IF in urine.

  6. Endothelin mediated contraction of equine laminar veins.

    PubMed

    Keen, J A; Hillier, C; McGorum, B C; Nally, J E

    2008-07-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) may be a key mediator in the pathogenesis of laminitis, but endothelin-mediated responses in the venous microcirculation of the equine foot have yet to be fully characterised. To characterise the response of equine laminar veins to ET-1 and evaluate the ET-1 receptor subtypes that mediate this response. Small veins (150-500 microns) draining the equine digital laminae from healthy horses and ponies subjected to euthanasia at an abattoir were investigated using wire myography. Concentration response curves were constructed for ET-1 in the presence of ETA (BQ123) and ETB (BQ788) receptor antagonists, and L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase blocker. The selective ETB receptor agonist BQ3020 was investigated alone and following incubation with L-NAME, with or without BQ788. Endothelin-1 contraction of laminar veins was significantly inhibited by BQ123 but not by BQ788. In the presence of L-NAME, sensitivity of laminar veins to ET-1 was enhanced 4-fold, and further addition of BQ788 did not alter this increased sensitivity. BQ3020 induced no venoconstriction; however, in the presence of L-NAME, it caused contraction of veins with approximately 30% of the efficacy of ET-1. The action of BQ3020 in the presence of L-NAME was abolished by BQ788. Both ETA and ETB receptors are involved in the net tonic response to ET-1 in normal laminar veins. A population of ETB receptors may be present on the vascular endothelium and on smooth muscle of laminar veins, and the action of ET-1 at these 2 sites is likely to be approximately equal and opposite. Our results clarify the function of the ET-1 receptor subtypes in laminar veins from healthy horses. Further study of ET-1 receptors in laminitic horses is therefore warranted.

  7. Selective therapy in equine parasite control--application and limitations.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, M K; Pfister, K; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G

    2014-05-28

    Since the 1960s equine parasite control has relied heavily on frequent anthelmintic treatments often applied with frequent intervals year-round. However, increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance in cyathostomins and Parascaris equorum are now forcing the equine industry to change to a more surveillance-based treatment approach to facilitate a reduction in treatment intensity. The principle of selective therapy has been implemented with success in small ruminant parasite control, and has also found use in horse populations. Typically, egg counts are performed from all individuals in the population, and those exceeding a predetermined cutoff threshold are treated. Several studies document the applicability of this method in populations of adult horses, where the overall cyathostomin egg shedding can be controlled by only treating about half the horses. However, selective therapy has not been evaluated in foals and young horses, and it remains unknown whether the principle is adequate to also provide control over other important parasites such as tapeworms, ascarids, and large strongyles. One recent study associated selective therapy with increased occurrence of Strongylus vulgaris. Studies are needed to evaluate potential health risks associated with selective therapy, and to assess to which extent development of anthelmintic resistance can be delayed with this approach. The choice of strongyle egg count cutoff value for anthelmintic treatment is currently based more on tradition than science, and a recent publication illustrated that apparently healthy horses with egg counts below 100 eggs per gram (EPG) can harbor cyathostomin burdens in the range of 100,000 luminal worms. It remains unknown whether leaving such horses untreated constitutes a potential threat to equine health. The concept of selective therapy has merit for equine strongyle control, but several questions remain as it has not been fully scientifically evaluated. There is a great need for new and

  8. Evaluation of the One-Step ELISA kit for the detection of buprenorphine in urine, blood, and hair specimens.

    PubMed

    Cirimele, V; Etienne, S; Villain, M; Ludes, B; Kintz, P

    2004-07-16

    A solid-phase enzyme immunoassay involving microtiter plates was recently proposed by International Diagnostic Systems corporation (IDS) to screen for buprenorphine in human serum. The performance of the kit led us to investigate its applicability in other biological matrices such as urine or blood, and also hair specimens. Low concentrations of buprenorphine were detected with the ELISA test and confirmed by HPLC/MS (buprenorphine concentrations measured by HPLC/MS: 0.3 ng/mL in urine, 0.2 ng/mL in blood, and 40 pg/mg in hair). The intra-assay precision values were 8.7% at 1 ng/mL of urine (n = 8), 11.5% at 2 ng/mL in serum (n = 8), and 11.5% at 250 pg/mg of hair (n = 8), respectively. The immunoassay had no cross-reactivity with dihydrocodeine, ethylmorphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, pholcodine, propoxyphene, dextromoramide, dextrometorphan at 1 and 10 mg/L, or codeine, morphine, methadone, and its metabolite EDDP. A 1% cross-reactivity was measured for a norbuprenorphine concentration of 50 ng/mL. Finally, the immunoassay was validated by comparing authentic specimens results with those of a validated HPLC/MS method. From the 136 urine samples tested, 93 were positive (68.4%) after the ELISA screening test (cutoff: 0.5 ng/mL) and confirmed by HPLC/MS (buprenorphine concentrations: 0.3-2036 ng/mL). From the 108 blood or serum samples screened, 27 were positive (25%) after the ELISA test with a cutoff value of 0.5 ng/mL (buprenorphine concentrations: 0.2-13.3 ng/mL). Eighteen hair specimens were positive (72%) after the screening (cutoff: 10 pg/mg) and confirmed by LC/MS (buprenorphine concentrations: 40-360 pg/mg). The ELISA method produced false positive results in less than 21% of the cases, but no false negative results were observed with the immunological test. Four potential adulterants (hypochloride 50 mL/L, sodium nitrite 50 g/L, liquid soap 50 mL/L, and sodium chloride 50 g/L) that were added to 10 positive urine specimens (buprenorphine concentrations in

  9. The role of inflammation and matrix metalloproteinases in equine endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Benali, Silvia; Giannuzzi, Diana; Mantovani, Roberto; Castagnaro, Massimo; Falomo, Maria Elena

    2012-01-01

    Equine endometriosis is a multifactorial disease considered to be a major cause of equine infertility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of histomorphological grading for biopsy-like samples compared to entire uterine wall samples, to examine the association between the degree of endometriosis with animal age, and to investigate the role of inflammation in endometriosis and the expression of different matrix metalloproteinases in equine endometrium. Histomorphological lesions in 35 uterine samples were examined while comparing biopsy-like samples and entire-wall samples. Seventeen uterine samples were stained with antibodies against MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-14, and TIMP-2. The morphologic evaluation results of the biopsy-like tissue and entire-wall samples were significantly correlated. Endometriosis in older mares (>12 years of age) was more severe than in young mares (2~4 years of age), confirming the positive correlation between animal age and disease severity, while inflammation was poorly related to the degree of endometriosis. MMP-2 and MMP-14 were detected in stromal cells, while MMP-9 and TIMP-2 were both found in stromal and glandular epithelial cells. There were no significant differences in MMPs expression between the two groups (young vs. old mares). Additional studies on the activity of MMPs could further define the role of these enzymes in equine endometriosis. PMID:22705739

  10. Assessment of fallen equine data in France and their usefulness for epidemiological investigations.

    PubMed

    Tapprest, Jackie; Borey, Marion; Dornier, Xavier; Morignat, Eric; Calavas, Didier; Hendrikx, Pascal; Ferry, Bénédicte; Sala, Carole

    2016-02-01

    Quantitative information about equine mortality is relatively scarce, yet it could be of great value for epidemiology purposes. Several European projects based on the exploitation of data from rendering plants have been developed to improve livestock surveillance. Similar data are available for equines in France but have never been studied to date. The objective of this research was to evaluate the potential of the French Ministry of Agriculture's Fallen Stock Data Interchange (FSDI) database to provide quantitative mortality information on the French equine population. The quality of FSDI equine data from 2011 to 2014 was assessed using complementary data registered in the French equine census database, SIRE. Despite a perfectible quality, the FSDI database proved to be a valuable source for studying the basal patterns of mortality over time in the French equine population as illustrated by the spatial representation of the number of deaths. However, improvements in the FSDI database are needed, in particular regarding the registration of animal identification numbers, in order to detail equine mortality for epidemiology purposes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. National Equine Forum: Taking up the reins on equine issues.

    PubMed

    2015-04-04

    Gill Harris reports from this year's National Equine Forum, where one of the main themes was the horse industry and government. The forum, held in London on March 5, was attended by more than 200 people with a connection to the equestrian industry. Lord de Mauley, parliamentary undersecretary of state for natural environment and science at Defra, set the course of the proceedings.

  12. Photoluminescence of urine salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordun, O.; Drobchak, O.

    2008-02-01

    Photoexcitation and luminescence spectra of dried urine sample under laser excitation were studied. Luminescence spectra of urine are determined by luminescence of urea which is the main component of urine. The presence of pathological salts in urine leads to the long-wave shifting of maxima of luminescence and to the decreasing of luminescence intensity.

  13. Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis.

    PubMed

    MacKay, R J; Granstrom, D E; Saville, W J; Reed, S M

    2000-12-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of the parasite life cycle, epidemiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of EPM are reviewed. The NAHMS Equine '98 study and a controlled retrospective study from The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine identified a number of risk factors associated with development of the disease. The national annual incidence of EPM was 1% or less depending on the primary use of the animals. Increased disease risk was associated with age (1-5 and > 13 years of age), season (lowest in winter months and increasing with ambient temperature), previous stressful events, the presence of opossums, the use of nonsurface water drinking systems, and failure to restrict wildlife access to feed. Horses that received treatment were 10 times more likely to improve, and those that improved were 50 times more likely to survive. A number of recent studies confirmed that horses can be experimentally infected with S. neurona; however, large numbers of sporocysts are apparently necessary to achieve infection, and clinical signs and abnormal CNS histology are only seen inconsistently. Results suggest that CNS infection and positive CSF immunoblot findings may be transient phenomena among naturally infected horses. Although immunosuppression may be involved in the development of EPM, some element of the immune response seems to be necessary for the development of clinical signs. Use of the standard immunoblot test for the detection of anti-S. neurona antibodies in CSF continues to provide the most useful adjunct to a detailed neurologic examination for the diagnosis of EPM. Test sensitivity and specificity were 89% in 295 horses euthanatized because of neurologic disease, of which 123 were confirmed cases of EPM. The PPV was 85%, and the NVP was 92%. A number of promising new EPM treatments are under investigation. In addition to standard SDZ/PYR therapy, toltrazuril, ponazuril, diclazuril, and NTZ have shown promise as

  14. Electrolytic pretreatment of urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.

  15. Live temperature-sensitive equine influenza virus vaccine: generation of the virus and efficacy in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Brundage-Anguish, L J; Holmes, D F; Hosier, N T; Murphy, B R; Massicott, J G; Appleyard, G; Coggins, L

    1982-05-01

    Temperature-sensitive (ts) reassortants of an equine influenza virus, subtype A-1, were produced by mating a human influenza ts donor virus with an equine influenza A/Cornell/16/74 wild-type virus and by isolating a ts reassortant virus possessing the equine hemagglutinin and neuraminidase surface antigens. Two equine its reassortant clones, 8B1 and 71A1, were produced which had an in vitro shutoff temperature for plaque formation of 38 and 37 C, respectively. The human ts donor virus had ts mutation(s) on the polymerase 3 (P3) and nucleoprotein genes so that a ts equine reassortant virus could have either or both of these ts genes. It was found by complementation analysis that reassortant clone 8B1 had a ts lesion on the P3 gene and clone 71A1 had ts lesions on the nucleoprotein and P3 genes. An analysis of the parental origin of the genes in each ts equine reassortant virus indicated that clone 8B1 received 6 of its 8 genes and clone 71A1, 3 of its 8 from the equine parent virus, the remainder genes being from the human ts donor virus. The growth of both clones was restricted in the lungs of hamsters, but similar to that of the equine wild-type virus in the nasal turbinates. Each virus isolate obtained from the hamster's lungs or nasal turbinates retained the ts phenotype. These findings form the basis for further evaluation of the equine ts reassortant viruses for their level of attenuation and immunogenicity in horses.

  16. Evaluation of biomarkers in plasma, blood, and urine samples from coke oven workers: significance of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed Central

    Ovrebø, S; Haugen, A; Farmer, P B; Anderson, D

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--The aim was to assess the significance of two biomarkers; antibody to benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts and concentration of hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts in samples from a well studied group of coke oven workers. As a measure of exposure we have used 1-hydroxypyrene in urine. METHODS--Urine and blood samples were collected from coke oven workers and a control group. Samples from coke oven plant workers were collected in January and June. 1-Hydroxypyrene was measured in urine by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), antibodies to benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts were measured by ELISA and hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). RESULTS--Mean urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in samples from coke oven workers varied from 1.11 to 5.53 umol/mol creatinine and 0.14 umol/mol creatinine in the control group. Workers at the top side had the highest values of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene. Antibody to benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts did not correlate with either 1-hydroxypyrene nor length of work at the coke oven plant. But antibody concentration in samples collected in January was predictive of the concentration in samples collected in June. A small non-significant increase in hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts was found in samples from coke oven workers relative to the control group when comparing smokers and nonsmokers separately. CONCLUSION--1-Hydroxypyrene correlates well with exposure groups based on job description. Antibodies to benzo(a)-pyrene DNA adducts was related to people and not exposure. Work at a coke oven plant might lead to increased hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts. PMID:8535495

  17. Vector ecology of equine piroplasmosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is a disease of equidae including horses, donkeys, mules and zebras caused by either of two protozoan parasites, Theileria equi or Babesia caballi. These parasites are biologically transmitted between hosts via tick-vectors and although they have inherent differences, they ...

  18. Reviewe: Genetics and genomics in equine exercise physiology: an overview of the new applications of molecular biology as positive and negative markers of performance and health.

    PubMed

    Barrey, E

    2010-11-01

    Equine breeding selection has been developed by applying quantitative genetic methods for calculating the heritability of the complex traits such as performance in racing or sport competitions. With the great development of biotechnologies, equine molecular genetics has come of age. The recent sequencing of the equine genome by an international consortium was a major advance that will impact equine genomics in the near future. With the rapid progress in equine genetics, new applications in early performance evaluation and the detection of disease markers become available. Many new biomolecular tools will change management of horse selection, disease diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this review is to present new developments in equine genetics and genomics for performance evaluation and health markers after a short summary of the previous knowledge about the genetic components of the exercise performance traits.

  19. Quantifying estrogen metabolism: an evaluation of the reproducibility and validity of enzyme immunoassays for 2-hydroxyestrone and 16alpha-hydroxyestrone in urine.

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, R G; Rossi, S C; Fears, T R; Bradlow, H L; Adlercreutz, H; Sepkovic, D; Kiuru, P; Wahala, K; Vaught, J B; Donaldson, J L; Falk, R T; Fillmore, C M; Siiteri, P K; Hoover, R N; Gail, M H

    1997-01-01

    Rapid and simple enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) were recently developed to measure 2-hydroxyestrone and 16alpha-hydroxyestrone in unextracted urine. The balance between these competing estrogen metabolism pathways may serve as a biomarker of breast cancer risk. Before testing these assays in epidemiologic studies, we evaluated their reproducibility, and validity relative to gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Overnight 12-hr urine collections from five midfollicular premenopausal women, five midluteal premenopausal women, and five postmenopausal women were aliquoted and stored at -70 degrees C. Two aliquots from each woman were assayed with the EIAs in a random, blinded order, monthly over 4 months and 1 year later. Reproducibility over 4 months was good for both metabolites in premenopausal women (coefficient of variation = 8-14%) and satisfactory in postmenopausal women (approximately 19%). Reproducibility over 12 months remained good in premenopausal women, but was poor in postmenopausal women, with mean readings increasing 50 to 100%. Wide variation in estrogen metabolite levels enabled a single EIA measurement to characterize individual differences among premenopausal women in midfollicular (intraclass correlation coefficient = 98-99%) and midluteal phase (85-91%). A narrower range in metabolite levels among postmenopausal women reduced discrimination (78-82%). The correlation between EIA and GC-MS measurement was excellent for both metabolites (r>0.9), except for 2-hydroxyestrone in postmenopausal women (r=0.6). Analysis of absolute agreement suggested that both EIAs were less sensitive than GC-MS, and each detected nonspecific background. The low concentration of estrogen metabolites in urine from postmenopausal women may explain the problems with reproducibility and validity in this menstrual group. Accordingly, more sensitive EIAs have been developed and are now being evaluated. PMID:9168003

  20. Design and validation of a simulator for equine joint injections.

    PubMed

    Fox, Victoria; Sinclair, Charlotte; Bolt, David M; Lowe, John; Weller, Renate

    2013-01-01

    Joint injections are commonly used in equine practice for diagnosis and treatment of joint disorders. Performing joint injections is hence an essential skill for equine practitioners. However, opportunities for veterinary students to practice this skill are often scarce in veterinary curricula. The aim of this study was to design and validate an equine joint injection simulator. We hypothesized that the simulator will enhance student ability and confidence in performing joint injections. The simulator was constructed around an equine forelimb skeleton with soft tissues rebuilt using building foam and rubber bands. An electrical circuit including a buzzer, a battery, wire wool in the joints, and a hypodermic needle at the end of the cable was incorporated. If the students placed the needle into the joint correctly, instant auditory feedback was provided by the buzzer. To validate the simulator, 45 veterinary students were allocated to three groups: cadaver limb, textbook, or simulator. Students' ability to perform joint injections was tested and students' opinions were evaluated with a questionnaire. The proportion of students performing a metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint injection correctly was significantly higher in the cadaver (93%) and simulator (76%) groups compared to the textbook group (50%). There was no significant difference between groups for performing a distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint injection correctly. Students rated the learning experience with the cadaver and simulator group high and with the textbook group low. The joint injection simulator represents an affordable teaching aid that allows students to repeatedly practice this skill in their own time with immediate feedback.

  1. Clinical effects of CO2 laser on equine diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindholm, Arne; Svensson, Ulf; Collinder, Eje

    2002-10-01

    CO2 lasers has been used for five years at Malaren Equine Hospital, as an alternative treatment of some equine diseases. The application of CO2 laser has been studied for evaluation of its appropriateness for treatment of the equine diseases sarcoids, lameness in fetlock joints or pulmonary haemorrhage. During the last five years, above 100 equine sarcoids have been removed by laser surgery (CO2 laser) and so far resulting in significantly few recurrences compared with results from usual excision surgery. In one study, acute traumatic arthritis in fetlock joints was treated three times every second day with defocalised CO2 laser. The therapeutic effectiveness of CO2 laser in this study was better than that of the customary therapy with betamethasone plus hyaluronan. During one year, chronic pulmonary bleeders, namely exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage, has been treated with defocalised CO2 laser. Six race horses have been treated once daily during five days. Until now, three of these horses have subsequently been successfully racing and no symptoms of pulmonary haemorrhage have been observed. These studies indicate that CO2 laser might be an appropriate therapy on sarcoids and traumatic arthritis, and probably also on exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage. Other treatments for this pulmonary disease are few.

  2. Evaluation of Toxicant and Carcinogen Metabolites in the Urine of E-Cigarette Users Versus Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Carmella, Steven G.; Kotandeniya, Delshanee; Pillsbury, Makenzie E.; Chen, Menglan; Ransom, Benjamin W. S.; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Thompson, Elizabeth; Murphy, Sharon E.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are rapidly increasing in popularity but little information is available on their potential toxic or carcinogenic effects. Methods: Twenty-eight e-cigarette smokers who had not smoked tobacco cigarettes for at least 2 months provided urine samples which were analyzed by validated methods for a suite of toxicant and carcinogen metabolites including 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and its glucuronides (total NNAL), 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA), 2-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (2-HPMA), 3-hydroxy-1-methylpropylmercapturic acid (HMPMA), S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA), nicotine, and cotinine. Levels of these compounds were compared to those found in cigarette smokers from three previous studies. Results: Levels of 1-HOP, total NNAL, 3-HPMA, 2-HPMA, HMPMA, and SPMA were significantly lower in the urine of e-cigarette users compared to cigarette smokers. Levels of nicotine and cotinine were significantly lower in e-cigarette users compared to cigarette smokers in one study but not in another. Conclusions: With respect to the compounds analyzed here, e-cigarettes have a more favorable toxicity profile than tobacco cigarettes. PMID:25335945

  3. Evaluation of toxicant and carcinogen metabolites in the urine of e-cigarette users versus cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Stephen S; Carmella, Steven G; Kotandeniya, Delshanee; Pillsbury, Makenzie E; Chen, Menglan; Ransom, Benjamin W S; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Thompson, Elizabeth; Murphy, Sharon E; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2015-06-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are rapidly increasing in popularity but little information is available on their potential toxic or carcinogenic effects. Twenty-eight e-cigarette smokers who had not smoked tobacco cigarettes for at least 2 months provided urine samples which were analyzed by validated methods for a suite of toxicant and carcinogen metabolites including 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and its glucuronides (total NNAL), 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA), 2-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (2-HPMA), 3-hydroxy-1-methylpropylmercapturic acid (HMPMA), S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA), nicotine, and cotinine. Levels of these compounds were compared to those found in cigarette smokers from three previous studies. Levels of 1-HOP, total NNAL, 3-HPMA, 2-HPMA, HMPMA, and SPMA were significantly lower in the urine of e-cigarette users compared to cigarette smokers. Levels of nicotine and cotinine were significantly lower in e-cigarette users compared to cigarette smokers in one study but not in another. With respect to the compounds analyzed here, e-cigarettes have a more favorable toxicity profile than tobacco cigarettes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio is a reliable indicator for evaluating complications of chronic kidney disease and progression in IgA nephropathy in China.

    PubMed

    Huan, Lu; Yuezhong, Luo; Chao, Wang; HaiTao, Tu

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the correlation between the albumin-to-creatinine ratio in the urine and 24-hour urine proteinuria and whether the ratio can predict chronic kidney disease progression even more reliably than 24-hour proteinuria can, particularly in primary IgA nephropathy. A total of 182 patients with primary IgA nephropathy were evaluated. Their mean urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and 24-hour proteinuria were determined during hospitalization. Blood samples were also analyzed. Follow-up data were recorded for 44 patients. A cross-sectional study was then conducted to test the correlation between these parameters and their associations with chronic kidney disease complications. Subsequently, a canonical correlation analysis was employed to assess the correlation between baseline proteinuria and parameters of the Oxford classification. Finally, a prospective observational study was performed to evaluate the association between proteinuria and clinical outcomes. Our study is registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, and the registration number is ChiCTR-OCH-14005137. A strong correlation (r=0.81, p<0.001) was found between the ratio and 24-hour proteinuria except in chronic kidney disease stage 5. First-morning urine albumin-to-creatinine ratios of ≥125.15, 154.44 and 760.31 mg/g reliably predicted equivalent 24-hour proteinuria 'thresholds' of ≥0.15, 0.3 and 1.0 g/24 h, respectively. In continuous analyses, the albumin-to-creatinine ratio was significantly associated with anemia, acidosis, hypoalbuminemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyperkalemia, hypercholesterolemia and higher serum cystatin C. However, higher 24-hour proteinuria was only associated with hypoalbuminemia and hypercholesterolemia. Higher tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis scores were also associated with a greater albumin-to-creatinine ratio, as observed in the canonical correlation analysis. Finally, the albumin-to-creatinine ratio and 24-hour proteinuria were associated with

  5. Concepts for the clinical use of stem cells in equine medicine

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Thomas G.; Berg, Lise C.; Betts, Dean H.

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells from various tissues hold great promise for their therapeutic use in horses, but so far efficacy or proof-of-principle has not been established. The basic characteristics and properties of various equine stem cells remain largely unknown, despite their increasingly widespread experimental and empirical commercial use. A better understanding of equine stem cell biology and concepts is needed in order to develop and evaluate rational clinical applications in the horse. Controlled, well-designed studies of the basic biologic characteristics and properties of these cells are needed to move this new equine research field forward. Stem cell research in the horse has exciting equine specific and comparative perspectives that will most likely benefit the health of horses and, potentially, humans. PMID:19119371

  6. An evaluation of the DRI-ETG EIA method for the determination of ethyl glucuronide concentrations in clinical and post-mortem urine.

    PubMed

    Turfus, Sophie C; Vo, Tu; Niehaus, Nadia; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Beyer, Jochen

    2013-06-01

    A commercial enzyme immunoassay for the qualitative and semi-quantitative measurement of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in urine was evaluated. Post-mortem (n=800), and clinical urine (n=200) samples were assayed using a Hitachi 902 analyzer. The determined concentrations were compared with those obtained using a previously published liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of EtG and ethyl sulfate. Using a cut-off of 0.5 µg/ml and LC-MS/MS limit of reporting of 0.1 µg/ml, there was a sensitivity of 60.8% and a specificity of 100% for clinical samples. For post-mortem samples, sensitivity and specificity were 82.4% and 97.1%, respectively. When reducing the cut-off to 0.1 µg/ml, the sensitivity and specificity were 83.3% and 100% for clinical samples whereas for post-mortem samples the sensitivity and specificity were 90.3 % and 88.3 %, respectively. The best trade-offs between sensitivity and specificity for LC-MS/MS limits of reporting of 0.5 and 0.1 µg/ml were achieved when using immunoassay cut-offs of 0.3 and 0.092 µg/ml, respectively. There was good correlation between quantitative results obtained by both methods but analysis of samples by LC-MS/MS gave higher concentrations than by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), with a statistically significant proportional bias (P<0.0001, Deming regression) for both sample types. The immunoassay is reliable for the qualitative and semi-quantitative presumptive detection of ethyl glucuronide in urine. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. RNA extraction from equine samples for equine influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Balasuriya, Udeni B R

    2014-01-01

    The primary goals of this chapter are to discuss common viral RNA isolation and purification methods that are routinely used by various diagnostic laboratories, to highlight the advantages and drawbacks of each method, and to identify the most suitable and reliable method to increase the sensitivity and specificity of RT-PCR assays for the detection of equine influenza virus (EIV) in clinical specimens. Our experiences and review of literature show that magnetic bead-based nucleic extraction methods (manual and automatic) work well for isolation and purification of EIV RNA from nasal swab specimens. Furthermore, most of the information presented in this chapter could be directly applicable to isolation and purification of nucleic acids (both DNA and RNA) from other equine clinical samples.

  8. Evaluation of the illegal use of clenbuterol in Portuguese cattle farms from drinking water, urine, hair and feed samples.

    PubMed

    Ramos, F; Baeta, M L; Reis, J; Silveira, M I N

    2009-06-01

    The recent discovery of clenbuterol contamination in Portuguese food led to the specific inspection of 16 cattle farms for beta-agonists, involving the analysis of a total of 486 samples (78 feed, 106 drinking water, 168 urine and 134 hair). The samples were screened for the beta-agonists: bromobuterol, cimaterol, clenbuterol, clenpenterol, clenproperol, hydroxymethylclenbuterol, mapenterol, salbutamol and terbutaline. Only clenbuterol was found in all analyzed matrices and the most likely method of illegal administration to animals was through drinking water. Of all samples analysed, 14.15% of drinking water were found positive in the range 0.03-3.80 mg l(-1) clenbuterol. Inclusion of hair samples in the Portuguese plan for clenbuterol residue control in live animals is discussed.

  9. High-throughput screening of corticosteroids and basic drugs in horse urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Leung, Gary N W; Chung, Evonne W; Ho, Emmie N M; Kwok, W H; Leung, David K K; Tang, Francis P W; Wan, Terence S M; Yu, Nola H

    2005-10-15

    This paper describes two high-throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) methods for the screening of two important classes of drugs in equine sports, namely corticosteroids and basic drugs, at low ppb levels in horse urine. The method utilized a high efficiency reversed-phase LC column (3.3 cm L x 2.1 mm i.d. with 3 microm particles) to provide fast turnaround times. The overall turnaround time for the corticosteroid screen was 5 min and that for the basic drug screen was 8 min, inclusive of post-run and equilibration times. Method specificity was assessed by analysing a total of 35 negative post-race horse urine samples. No interference from the matrices at the expected retention times of the targeted masses was observed. Inter-day precision for the screening of 19 corticosteroids and 48 basic drugs were evaluated by replicate analyses (n = 10) of a spiked sample on 4 consecutive days. The results demonstrated that both methods have acceptable precision to be used on a routine basis. The performance of these two methods on real samples was demonstrated by their applications to drug administration and positive post-race urine samples.

  10. Gender's equality in evaluation of urine particles: Results of a multicenter study of the Italian Urinalysis Group.

    PubMed

    Manoni, Fabio; Gessoni, Gianluca; Alessio, Maria Grazia; Caleffi, Alberta; Saccani, Graziella; Epifani, Maria Grazia; Tinello, Agostino; Zorzan, Tatiana; Valverde, Sara; Caputo, Marco; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    We performed a multicenter study to calculate the upper reference limits (URL) for urine particle quantification in mid-stream samples by using automated urine analyzers. Two laboratories tested 283 subjects using a Sysmex UF-100, two other laboratories tested 313 subjects using Sysmex UF-1000i, whereas two other laboratories tested 267 subjects using Iris IQ®200. The URLs of UF-100 in females and males were 7.8/μL and 6.7/μL for epithelial cells (EC), 11.1/μL and 9.9/μL for red blood cells (RBC), 10.2/μL and 9.7/μL for white blood cells (WBC), and 0.85/μL and 0.87/μL for cylinders (CAST). The URLs of UF-1000i in females and males were 7.6/μL and 7.1/μL for EC, 12.2/μL and 11.1/μL for RBC, 11.9/μL and 11.7/μL for WBC, and 0.88/μL and 0.86/μL for CAST. The URLs of Iris IQ®200 in females and males were 7.8/μL and 6.6/μL for EC, 12.4/μL and 10.1/μL for RBC, 10.9/μL and 9.9/μL for WBC, and 1.1/μL and 1.0/μL for CAST. The URLs obtained in this study were comparable to the lowest values previously reported in the literature. Moreover, no gender-related difference was observed, and analyzer-specific upper reference limits were very similar. © 2013.

  11. Surveillance of equine respiratory viruses in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Mendez, Andrés; Viel, Laurent; Hewson, Joanne; Doig, Paul; Carman, Susy; Chambers, Thomas; Tiwari, Ashish; Dewey, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and implement an active surveillance program for the early and rapid detection of equine influenza viruses in Ontario. For this purpose, from October 2003 to October 2005, nasopharyngeal swabs and acute and convalescent serum samples were collected from 115 client-owned horses in 23 outbreaks of respiratory disease in Ontario. Sera were paired and tested for antibody to equine influenza 1 (AE1-H7N7), equine influenza 2 (AE2-H3N8), equine herpesvirus 1 and 4 (EHV1 and EHV4), and equine rhinitis A and B (ERAV and ERBV). Overall, the cause-specific morbidity rate of equine influenza virus in the respiratory outbreaks was 56.5% as determined by the single radial hemolysis (SRH) test. The AE2-H3N8 was isolated from 15 horses in 5 outbreaks. A 4-fold increase in antibody levels or the presence of a high titer against ERAV or ERBV was observed in 10 out of 13 outbreaks in which AE2-H3N8 was diagnosed as the primary cause of disease. In conclusion, AE2-H3N8 was found to be an important contributor to equine respiratory viral disease. Equine rhinitis A and B (ERAV and ERBV) represented an important component in the equine respiratory disease of performing horses. PMID:21197227

  12. Evaluation of a new cryptococcal antigen lateral flow immunoassay in serum, cerebrospinal fluid and urine for the diagnosis of cryptococcosis: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hua-Rong; Fan, Li-Chao; Rajbanshi, Bhavana; Xu, Jin-Fu

    2015-01-01

    A new lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) for the detection of cryptococcal antigen was developed. We aimed to systematically review all relevant studies to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the cryptococcal antigen LFA on serum, CSF and urine specimens. We searched public databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Elsevier Science Direct and Cochrane Library for the English-language literature published up to September 2014. We conducted meta-analyses of sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR) and diagnostic odds ratios (DOR) and SROC of LFA in serum and CSF, respectively. The sensitivity of LFA in urine was also analyzed. Subgroup analyses were carried out to analyze the potential heterogeneity. 12 studies were included in this study. The pooled sensitivity and specificity values of LFA in serum were 97.6% (95% CI, 95.6% to 98.9%) and 98.1% (95% CI, 97.4% to 98.6%), respectively. The average PLR of LFA in serum was 43.787 (95% CI, 22.60-84.81) and the NLR was 0.03 (95% CI, 0.01-0.09). The pooled DOR was 2180.30 (95% CI, 868.92-5471.00) and the AUC was 0.9968. The pooled sensitivity and specificity values of LFA in CSF were 98.9% (95% CI, 97.9% to 99.5%) and 98.9% (95% CI, 98.0% to 99.5%), respectively. The average PLR of LFA in serum was 48.83 (95% CI, 21.59-110.40) and the NLR was 0.02 (95% CI, 0.01-0.04). The pooled DOR was 2931.10 (95% CI, 1149.20-7475.90) and the AUC was 0.9974. The pooled sensitivity value of LFA in urine was 85.0% (95% CI, 78.7% to 90.1%). The study demonstrates a very high accuracy of LFA in serum and CSF for the diagnosis of cryptococcosis in patients at risk. LFA in urine can be a promising sample screening tool for early diagnosis of cryptococcosis.

  13. Critical evaluation of ex vivo restoration of carious equine maxillary cheek teeth infundibulae following high-pressure gas and micro-particle abrasion.

    PubMed

    Dixon, P M; Savill, D; Horbyl, A; Reardon, R J M; Liuti, T

    2014-06-01

    Infundibular caries of the equine maxillary cheek teeth is an important disorder that can lead to dental fracture or apical infection. Treatment by removing food debris and carious dental tissue from affected infundibulae using high-pressure abrasion with aluminium hydroxide micro-particles, followed by filling the cleaned defect with endodontic restorative materials is a recommended treatment. However, although anecdotally considered a successful treatment option, there is currently no objective evidence to support this claim. Forty maxillary cheek teeth (CT) that contained 55 infundibulae with caries (mainly grade 2) were extracted post-mortem from 21 adult horses. Five of the CT were sectioned prior to treatment to facilitate visual examination of the carious infundibulae. The remaining carious infundibulae were cleaned using high-pressure abrasion with aluminium hydroxide particles and five CT were sectioned to assess the efficacy of this cleaning process. The remaining 30 CT containing 39 carious infundibulae were then filled with a composite restorative material. The efficacy of this restoration was assessed by computed tomography imaging followed by direct visual examination after sectioning the teeth. Only 46% (18/39) of restored infundibulae, all with shallow (mean 9.6 mm deep) defects, were fully cleaned of food debris and carious material, and filled with restorative material to their full depth. Of these 18, 11 had peripheral defects around the restoration, leaving just 18% (7/39) of restorations without any gross defects. The remaining 54% (21/39) of infundibulae (mean depth of infundibular caries defect, 18.3 mm) still contained food debris and/or carious material in more apical locations, with infundibulae with the deepest caries defects being the least effectively cleaned. The findings of this study indicate that high-pressure micro-particle abrasion is only effective in cleaning food debris from shallow, carious CT infundibulae and consequently

  14. A prospective longitudinal study of naturally infected horses to evaluate the performance characteristics of rapid diagnostic tests for equine influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Read, A J; Arzey, K E; Finlaison, D S; Gu, X; Davis, R J; Ritchie, L; Kirkland, P D

    2012-05-04

    An outbreak of equine influenza (EI) occurred in Australia in 2007. During the laboratory support for this outbreak, real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays and a blocking enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) were used as testing methods to detect infection with the virus. The qRT-PCR and bELISA tests had not been used for EI diagnosis before, so it was not known how soon after infection these tests would yield positive results, or for how long these results would remain positive. To answer these questions, nasal swabs and blood samples were collected daily from a group of 36 naturally infected horses. EI viral RNA was detected in all horses by qRT-PCR from the first to tenth day after clinical signs were evident, and was detected in some horses for up to 34 days. Antibody was detected in the bELISA in some horses by day 3, with a median time to seroconversion of 5 days. The results from this study indicate that viral RNA can be detected from nasal swabs for much longer than infectious virus is thought to be shed from horses. The bELISA detected antibodies against EI virus in all horses for 139 days following infection, but only detected approximately 50% of horses 12 months following infection. Haemagglutination inhibition testing detected antibodies against H3 antigens in all horses for 28 days following infection, but 2 were negative by 35 days following infection. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Five-Country Evaluation of a Point-of-Care Circulating Cathodic Antigen Urine Assay for the Prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Colley, Daniel G.; Binder, Sue; Campbell, Carl; King, Charles H.; Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Erko, Berhanu; Karanja, Diana M. S.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; van Lieshout, Lisette; Rathbun, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated a commercial point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) test for assessing Schistosoma mansoni infection prevalence in areas at risk. Overall, 4,405 school-age children in Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Kenya, and Uganda provided urine for POC-CCA testing and stool for Kato-Katz assays. By latent class analysis, one POC-CCA test was more sensitive (86% versus 62%) but less specific (72% versus ∼100%) than multiple Kato-Katz smears from one stool. However, only 1% of POC-CCA tests in a non-endemic area were false positives, suggesting the latent class analysis underestimated the POC-CCA specificity. Multivariable modeling estimated POC-CCA as significantly more sensitive than Kato-Katz at low infection intensities (< 100 eggs/gram stool). By linear regression, 72% prevalence among 9–12 year olds by POC-CCA corresponded to 50% prevalence by Kato-Katz, whereas 46% POC-CCA prevalence corresponded to 10% Kato-Katz prevalence. We conclude that one urine POC-CCA test can replace Kato-Katz testing for community-level S. mansoni prevalence mapping. PMID:23339198

  16. PBG urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... tested in the lab. This is called a random urine sample. If needed, your health care provider ... For a random urine sample, a negative test result is considered normal. If the test is done on a 24-hour ...

  17. Osmolality urine test

    MedlinePlus

    The osmolality urine test measures the concentration of particles in urine. Osmolality can also be measured using ... different samples. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your specific test results.

  18. Uric acid - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003616.htm Uric acid urine test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The uric acid urine test measures the level of uric acid ...

  19. Leukocyte esterase urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... the urine. This may mean you have a urinary tract infection . If this test is positive, the urine should ... Results Mean An abnormal result indicates a possible urinary tract infection. Alternative Names WBC esterase Images Male urinary system ...

  20. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003752.htm Urine culture - catheterized specimen To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Catheterized specimen urine culture is a laboratory test that looks for germs ...

  1. Urine specific gravity test

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  2. Urine drug screen

    MedlinePlus

    Drug screen -- urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence indicates that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  3. Vector ecology of equine piroplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Scoles, Glen A; Ueti, Massaro W

    2015-01-07

    Equine piroplasmosis is a disease of Equidae, including horses, donkeys, mules, and zebras, caused by either of two protozoan parasites, Theileria equi or Babesia caballi. These parasites are biologically transmitted between hosts via tick vectors, and although they have inherent differences they are categorized together because they cause similar pathology and have similar morphologies, life cycles, and vector relationships. To complete their life cycle, these parasites must undergo a complex series of developmental events, including sexual-stage development in their tick vectors. Consequently, ticks are the definitive hosts as well as vectors for these parasites, and the vector relationship is restricted to a few competent tick species. Because the vector relationship is critical to the epidemiology of these parasites, we highlight current knowledge of the vector ecology of these tick-borne equine pathogens, emphasizing tick transmissibility and potential control strategies to prevent their spread.

  4. Ethics in equine practice economics.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Terry D

    2009-12-01

    Ethics is a valuable standard for the structure of equine practice. It relies on sound moral character, beginning with the leaders in the practice. The leadership in each practice regularly needs to review its role in promoting ethical standards. This is not new information but deserves to be revisited with emphasis at this particular time in our society. Nothing less than commitment to grass root stability offers any hope to reverse those actions.

  5. Urine sample (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A "clean-catch" urine sample is performed by collecting the sample of urine in midstream. Men or boys should wipe clean the head ... water and rinse well. A small amount of urine should initially fall into the toilet bowl before ...

  6. Urination - excessive amount

    MedlinePlus

    ... of urination for an adult is more than 2.5 liters of urine per day. However, this can vary depending on how much water you drink and what your total body water is. This problem is different from needing to urinate often. Polyuria ...

  7. Measurements of (234)U and (238)U in hair, urine, and drinking water among drilled bedrock well water users for the evaluation of hair as a biomonitor of uranium intake.

    PubMed

    Israelsson, Axel; Pettersson, Håkan

    2014-08-01

    Hair is evaluated and compared with urine as a biomonitor for human intake of uranium. Concentrations of U and U and the activity ratio between them are measured in the hair, urine, and drinking water of 24 drilled bedrock well water users in Östergötland, Sweden. The samples are measured with α-spectrometry after radiochemical preparation using liquid-liquid separation with tributylphosphate. The results show that there is a stronger correlation between the uranium concentrations in the drinking water of each subject and the hair of the subject (r = 0.50) than with the urine (r = 0.21). There is also a stronger correlation between the activity ratios of water and hair (r = 0.91) than between water and urine (r = 0.56). These results imply that hair may serve as a robust indicator of chronic uranium intake. One obvious advantage over sampling urine is that hair samples reflect a much longer excretion period: weeks compared to days. The absorbed fraction of uranium, the f value, is calculated as the ratio between the excreted amount of uranium in urine and hair per day and the daily drinking water intake of uranium. The f values stretch from 0.002 to 0.10 with a median of 0.023.

  8. The secretory mechanisms in equine platelets are independent of cytoskeletal polymerization and occur through membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Brunso, L; Segura, D; Monreal, L; Escolar, G; White, J G; Diaz-Ricart, M

    2010-01-01

    Studies in animal models are useful to understand the basic mechanisms involved in hemostasis and the functional differences among species. Ultrastructural observations led us to predict differences in the activation and secretion mechanisms between equine and human platelets. The potential mechanisms involved have been comparatively explored in the present study. Equine and human platelets were activated with thrombin (0.5 U/ml) and collagen (20 µg/ml), for 90 seconds, and samples processed to evaluate: i) ultrastructural changes, by electron microscopy, ii) actin polymerization and cytoskeletal assembly, by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and iii) specific molecules involved in activation and secretion, by western blot. In activated human platelets, centralization of granules, cytoskeletal assembly and fusion of granules with the open canalicular system were observed. In activated equine platelets, granules fused together forming an organelle chain that fused with the surface membrane and released its content directly outside the platelets. Human platelets responded to activation with actin polymerization and the assembly of other contractile proteins to the cytoskeleton. These events were almost undetectable in equine platelets. When exploring the involvement of the synaptosomal-associated protein-23 (SNAP-23), a known regulator of secretory granule/plasma membrane fusion events, it was present in both human and equine platelets. SNAP-23 was shown to be more activated in equine platelets than human platelets in response to activation, especially with collagen. Thus, there are significant differences in the secretion mechanisms between human and equine platelets. While in human platelets, activation and secretion of granules depend on mechanisms of internal contraction and membrane fusion, in equine platelets the fusion mechanisms seem to be predominant.

  9. In search for cross-reactivity to immunophenotype equine mesenchymal stromal cells by multicolor flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    De Schauwer, Catharina; Piepers, Sofie; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R; Demeyere, Kristel; Hoogewijs, Maarten K; Govaere, Jan L J; Braeckmans, Kevin; Van Soom, Ann; Meyer, Evelyne

    2012-04-01

    During recent years, cell-based therapies using mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are reported in equine veterinary medicine with increasing frequency. In most cases, the isolation and in vitro differentiation of equine MSC are described, but their proper immunophenotypic characterization is rarely performed. The lack of a single marker specific for MSC and the limited availability of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for equine MSC in particular, strongly hamper this research. In this study, 30 commercial mAbs were screened with flow cytometry for recognizing equine epitopes using the appropriate positive controls to confirm their specificity. Cross-reactivity was found and confirmed by confocal microscopy for CD45, CD73, CD79α, CD90, CD105, MHC-II, a monocyte marker, and two clones tested for CD29 and CD44. Unfortunately, none of the evaluated CD34 clones recognized the equine epitopes on positive control endothelial cells. Subsequently, umbilical cord blood-derived undifferentiated equine MSC of the fourth passage of six horses were characterized using multicolor flow cytometry based on the selected nine-marker panel of both cell surface antigens and intracytoplasmatic proteins. In addition, appropriate positive and negative controls were included, and the viable single cell population was analyzed by excluding dead cells using 7-aminoactinomycin D. Isolated equine MSC of the fourth passage were found to be CD29, CD44, CD90 positive and CD45, CD79α, MHC-II, and a monocyte marker negative. A variable expression was found for CD73 and CD105. Successful differentiation towards the osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineage was used as additional validation. We suggest that this selected nine-marker panel can be used for the adequate immunophenotyping of equine MSC. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  10. Challenges in detecting substances for equine anti-doping.

    PubMed

    Fragkaki, A G; Kioukia-Fougia, N; Kiousi, P; Kioussi, M; Tsivou, M

    2017-01-14

    The artificial increase of the physical capability of horses using drugs is well known in racing and other equine sports. Both illicit and therapeutic substances are regarded as prohibited substances in competition in most countries. Some countries make distinctions for a few, specific drugs which are, however, allowed for use in other countries. The primary objective in the case of doping control is the detection of any trace of drug exposure, either parent drug or any of its metabolites, using the most powerful analytical methods which are generally based on chromatographic/mass spectrometric techniques. Of major concern in horseracing is the absence of a single organization regulating the anti-doping framework; instead of this, individual racing authorities provide rules and regulations often resulting in variations in the applied doping control programmes of different countries. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature (approximately from 2012 to mid-2016) to highlight the numerous and diverse challenges faced in doping control of racing and equestrian sports, including the detection of designer drugs (anabolic steroids or stimulants) and of other emerging prohibited substances, such as peptides and noble gases in horse urine and plasma. Moreover, the application of 'omics' techniques (especially of metabolomics) deserves attention for establishing possible fingerprints of drug abuse as well as the evolution of instrumental analysis resulting a powerful ally in the fight against doping in equine sports. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Evaluation of Antiradical and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Ethyl Acetate and Butanolic Subfractions of Agelanthus dodoneifolius (DC.) Polhill & Wiens (Loranthaceae) Using Equine Myeloperoxidase and Both PMA-Activated Neutrophils and HL-60 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Boly, Rainatou; Franck, Thierry; Kohnen, Stephan; Lompo, Marius; Guissou, Innocent Pierre; Dubois, Jacques; Serteyn, Didier; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange

    2015-01-01

    The ethyl acetate and n-butanolic subfractions of Agelanthus dodoneifolius were investigated for their antioxidant and antimyeloperoxidase (MPO) activities. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) and dichlorofluorescein- (DCF-) induced fluorescence techniques from phorbol myristate acetate- (PMA-) stimulated equine neutrophils and human myeloid cell line HL-60, respectively. In parallel, the effects of the tested subfractions were evaluated on the total MPO release by stimulated neutrophils and on the specific MPO activity by means of immunological assays. The results showed the potent activity of the butanolic subfraction, at least in respect of the chemiluminescence test (IC50 = 0.3 ± 0.1 µg/mL) and the ELISA and SIEFED assays (IC50 = 2.8 ± 1.2 µg/mL and 1.3 ± 1.0 µg/mL), respectively. However, the ethyl acetate subfraction was found to be the most potent in the DCF assay as at the highest concentration, DCF fluorescence intensity decreases of about 50%. Moreover, we demonstrated that the ethyl acetate subfraction was rich in catechin (16.51%) while it was not easy to identify the main compounds in the butanolic subfraction using the UPLC-MS/MS technique. Nevertheless, taken together, our results provide evidence that Agelanthus dodoneifolius subfractions may represent potential sources of natural antioxidants and of antimyeloperoxidase compounds. PMID:25821497

  12. Development of an antigen-capture ELISA for the detection of equine influenza virus nucleoprotein.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yuanyuan; Guo, Wei; Zhao, Liping; Li, Hongmei; Lu, Gang; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Guibin; Liu, Cuiyun; Xiang, Wenhua

    2011-07-01

    An antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA) was developed for the detection of the equine influenza virus (EIV), employing monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against the A/equine/Xingjiang/2007 (H3N8) nucleoprotein (NP). Immunoglobulin G antibodies were purified and used as capture or detector antibodies. The specificity of the optimized AC-ELISA was evaluated using EIV, equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1), equine herpesvirus 4 (EHV-4), equine arteritis virus (EAV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), resulting in only EIV specimens yielding a strong signal. A minimal concentration of 50 ng/ml EIV protein was detected in Nonidet P40-treated virus preparations. Virus from the nasal swabs of equines infected experimentally were detected from days 3 to 7 post-infection using this AC-ELISA, with results confirmed by virus isolation and multi reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Both H3N8 and H7N7 EIV subtypes were AC-ELISA positive, indicating that this assay is suitable for the detection of all EIV subtypes.

  13. Antimicrobial Evaluation of Bacterial Isolates from Urine Specimen of Patients with Complaints of Urinary Tract Infections in Awka, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ekwealor, Perpetua A.; Ugwu, Malachy C.; Ezeobi, Ifeanyi; Amalukwe, George; Ugwu, Belinda C.; Okezie, Ugochukwu; Stanley, Catherine; Esimone, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) account for one of the major reasons for most hospital visits and the determination of the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of uropathogens will help to guide physicians on the best choice of antibiotics to recommend to affected patients. This study is designed to isolate, characterize, and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the pathogens associated with UTI in Anambra State Teaching Hospital, Amaku, Anambra State, Nigeria. Clean catch urine samples of inpatient and outpatient cases of UTI were collected and bacteriologically analyzed using standard microbiological procedures. Antibiogram was done by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The most prevalent isolates were S. aureus (28%), E. coli (24.6%), and S. saprophyticus (20%). The antibacterial activities of the tested agents were in the order of Augmentin < Ceftazidime < Cefuroxime < Cefixime < Gentamicin < Ofloxacin < Ciprofloxacin < Nitrofurantoin. It was found that all the organisms were susceptible in varying degrees to Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin, and Ofloxacin. It was also observed that all the bacterial species except Streptococcus spp. have a Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Index (MARI) greater than 0.2. For empiric treatment of UTIs in Awka locality, Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin, and Ofloxacin are the first line of choice. PMID:27200093

  14. Detection of efaproxiral (RSR13) and its metabolites in equine by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yi, Rong; Sandhu, Jasmeet; Zhao, Sarah; Lam, Geoffrey; Loganathan, Devan; Morrissey, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Efaproxiral (RSR 13) is an experimental synthetic allosteric modifier of haemoglobin (Hb) that acts by increasing the release of oxygen from Hb to the surrounding tissues. It has been shown to increase maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) in a canine skeletal muscle model. The ability to increase maximal muscle oxygen uptake makes efaproxiral a potential performance-enhancing agent and is therefore prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency. In this study, a method for the detection and elimination of efaproxiral in equine plasma and urine after a 2.5 g intravenous administration of efaproxiral is described. Post administration plasma and urine samples were collected up to 120 h. Efaproxiral was detected up to 120 h in urine and up to 78 h in plasma. In plasma, the peak concentration was 42 µg/ml and detected at 5 min post administration. In urine, the peak concentration was 2.8 mg/ml and detected at 0-1 h post administration. A validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was used for the quantitation of efaproxiral in equine plasma and urine. The limit of detection of the method is 0.05 ng/ml in plasma and 0.1 ng/ml in urine. The method is highly sensitive and specific with good precision, accuracy and recovery. The manuscript also describes the systematic identification of efaproxiral metabolites detected in post administration equine urine samples. The metabolites were identified by use of enhanced mass spectra and enhanced product ion scans. Both positive and negative mode ionizations were utilized for metabolite identification and plausible fragmentation pathways were proposed for the phase 1 metabolite identified. In addition to free efaproxiral, one phase 1 metabolite and two phase 2 metabolites were identified in post administration urine. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2014. Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.

  15. Platelet aggregating material from equine arterial tissue

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, Morris D.

    1983-02-22

    Novel hemostatic agent comprises equine arterial fibrillar collagen in a carrier. The agent is useful for the aggregation of platelets for clinical diagnostic tests and for the clotting of blood, such as for controlling bleeding in warm blooded species. The fibrillar collagen is obtained by extracting homogenized equine arterial tissue with aqueous solutions followed by extensive dialysis.

  16. Equine Management and Production. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This package contains the instructor's manual, instructor's resource package, and student workbook for a 1-year introductory course in equine management and production. The course emphasizes the skills needed to manage small one- or two-horse facilities and to enter postsecondary equine education programs. The instructor's manual presents basic…

  17. Platelet aggregating material from equine arterial tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.D.

    1983-02-22

    Novel hemostatic agent comprises equine arterial fibrillar collagen in a carrier. The agent is useful for the aggregation of platelets for clinical diagnostic tests and for the clotting of blood, such as for controlling bleeding in warm blooded species. The fibrillar collagen is obtained by extracting homogenized equine arterial tissue with aqueous solutions followed by extensive dialysis. No Drawings

  18. Equine Management and Production. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This package contains the instructor's manual, instructor's resource package, and student workbook for a 1-year introductory course in equine management and production. The course emphasizes the skills needed to manage small one- or two-horse facilities and to enter postsecondary equine education programs. The instructor's manual presents basic…

  19. Equine wellness care in ambulatory practice.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Claudia; True, Claudia

    2012-04-01

    Clients want dependable veterinary care and to understand how the services will benefit and meet their horse’s needs. Wellness visits provide ambulatory practitioners with great opportunities to strengthen the doctor-client-patient bond; effective communication with clients during wellness visits, where new literature or facts can be presented, can offer opportunities for demonstrating the value of having the veterinarian maintain a primary role in disease control. The criteria for selecting vaccines, interpreting FECs, and diagnosing dental pathology require the continued need for veterinary involvement. When providing wellness services, veterinarians should discuss those services, the reasons for them, as well as the possibility of adverse reactions. In so doing, the veterinarian is able to clearly distinguish himself or herself from a technician who is merely giving a "shot." Although some of these services can be performed by clients and lay professionals, the knowledge and training that veterinarians bring to these tasks add benefits to the horse beyond the services provided. For example, by targeting treatment and conveying the goals and limitations of FECs and deworming to clients, the speed at which anthelmintic resistance occurs will be diminished, and veterinarians will regain control over equine parasite management. Additional client education, such as demonstrating dental pathology to clients and how veterinary treatment benefits their horse, will not only improve the health of the horse further but also solidify the veterinarian’s role in preventative medicine. While all components of a wellness program were not detailed here, services such as nutritional consultation, blood work, and lameness evaluation should be offered based on the practice’s equine population. With the increasing population of geriatric horses, dentistry, nutrition, blood work, and lameness should be assessed annually or biannually. Each practice has its own set of criteria

  20. Comparative evaluation of seven different sample treatment approaches for large-scale multiclass sport drug testing in urine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Romero, Juan C; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2014-09-26

    Sample preparation is a critical step in large-scale multiclass analysis such as sport drug testing. Due to the wide heterogeneity of the analytes and the complexity of the matrix, the selection of a correct sample preparation method is essential, looking for a compromise between good recoveries for most of the analytes and cleanliness of the extract. In the present work, seven sample preparation procedures based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) (with 5 different cartridges), liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and sorbent-supported liquid extraction (SLE) were evaluated for multiclass sport drug testing in urine. The selected SPE sorbents were polymeric cartridges Agilent PLEXA™ and Oasis HLB™, mixed mode cation and anion exchange cartridges Oasis MAX™ and MCX™, and C18 cartridges. LLE was performed using tert-butyl methyl ether and SLE was carried out using Agilent Chem Elut™ cartridges. To evaluate the proposed extraction procedures, a list of 189 compounds were selected as representative from different groups of doping agents, including 34 steroids, 14 glucocorticosteroids, 24 diuretics and masking agents, 11 stimulants, 9 beta-agonist, 16 beta-blockers, 6 Selective Estrogen Receptors Modulators (SERMs), 24 narcotics and 22 other drugs of abuse/sport drugs. Blank urine samples were spiked at two levels of concentration, 2.5 and 25μgL(-1) and extracted with the different extraction protocols (n=6). The analysis of the extracts was carried out by liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The use of solid-phase extraction with polymer cartridges provided high recoveries for most of the analytes tested and was found the more suitable method for this type of application given the additional advantages such as low sample and solvent consumption along with increased automation and throughput.

  1. Equine influenza diagnosis: sample collection and transport.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Thomas M; Reedy, Stephanie E

    2014-01-01

    In horses, presumptive diagnosis of equine influenza is commonly made on the basis of clinical signs. This alone is insufficient for confirmation of equine influenza, because other equine infectious respiratory diseases can in some degree have similar clinical presentations. Surveillance and control of equine influenza also necessitate detection of subclinical cases. Effective diagnosis of equine influenza virus infection is critically dependent on obtaining adequate specimens of virus-containing respiratory secretions for testing. These specimens are also valuable as sources for isolation of virus strains for antigenic characterization and potential inclusion in vaccines. Both nasal swabs and nasopharyngeal swabs are employed in horses. These differ little in their invasiveness, but nasopharyngeal swabs typically yield more virus than nasal swabs and are superior diagnostic specimens. Methods for obtaining nasopharyngeal swab specimens are described.

  2. Urine pH test

    MedlinePlus

    A urine pH test measures the level of acid in urine. ... pH - urine ... meat products, or cheese can decrease your urine pH. ... to check for changes in your urine acid levels. It may be done to ... more effective when urine is acidic or non-acidic (alkaline).

  3. Nonylphenol Toxicity Evaluation and Discovery of Biomarkers in Rat Urine by a Metabolomics Strategy through HPLC-QTOF-MS

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-Xin; Yang, Xin; Zou, Pan; Du, Peng-Fei; Wang, Jing; Jin, Fen; Jin, Mao-Jun; She, Yong-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Nonylphenol (NP) was quantified using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the urine and plasma of rats treated with 0, 50, and 250 mg/kg/day of NP for four consecutive days. A urinary metabolomic strategy was originally implemented by high performance liquid chromatography time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF-MS) to explore the toxicological effects of NP and determine the overall alterations in the metabolite profiles so as to find potential biomarkers. It is essential to point out that from the observation, the metabolic data were clearly clustered and separated for the three groups. To further identify differentiated metabolites, multivariate analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA), orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), high-resolution MS/MS analysis, as well as searches of Metlin and Massbank databases, were conducted on a series of metabolites between the control and dose groups. Finally, five metabolites, including glycine, glycerophosphocholine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, malonaldehyde (showing an upward trend), and tryptophan (showing a downward trend), were identified as the potential urinary biomarkers of NP-induced toxicity. In order to validate the reliability of these potential biomarkers, an independent validation was performed by using the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based targeted approach. The oxidative stress reflected by urinary 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) levels was elevated in individuals highly exposed to NP, supporting the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction was a result of xenoestrogen accumulation. This study reveals a promising approach to find biomarkers to assist researchers in monitoring NP. PMID:27187439

  4. Evaluation of nandrolone and ractopamine in the urine of veal calves: liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry approach.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, L; Panseri, S; Cannizzo, F T; Biolatti, B; Divari, S; Benevelli, R; Arioli, F; Pavlovic, R

    2017-04-01

    Under European legislation, the use of growth promoters is forbidden in food-producing livestock. The application of unofficial protocols with diverse combinations of veterinary drugs, administered in very low concentrations, hinders reliable detection and subsequent operative prevention. It was observed that nandrolone (anabolic steroid) and ractopamine (β-adrenergic agonist) are occasionally administered to animals, but little is known about their synergic action when they are administered together. Two specific analytical methods based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry have been developed, both of which include hydrolysis of the corresponding conjugates. For the nandrolone method, solid-phase extraction was necessary for the complete elimination of the interferences, while employment of the Quantitation Enhanced Data-Dependent scan mode during MS acquisition of ractopamine enabled the utilization of simple liquid-liquid extraction. The nandrolone method was linear in the range of 0.5-25 ng/mL, while the ractopamine calibration curve was constructed from 0.5 to 1000 ng/mL. The corresponding coefficients of correlations were >0.9907. The lower limit of quantification for both methods was 0.5 ng/mL, followed by overall recoveries >81%. Precisions expressed as relative standard deviations were <17%, while matrix effects were minimal. Urine samples taken at the slaughterhouse from veal calves enrolled in an experimental treatment consisting of intramuscular administration of β-nandrolone-phenylpropionate accompanied with a ractopamine-enriched diet were analysed. Those methods might be useful for studying the elimination patterns of the administered compounds along with characterization of the main metabolic pathways. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Evaluation of the performance of Human Papillomavirus testing in paired urine and clinician-collected cervical samples among women aged over 30 years in Bhutan.

    PubMed

    Tshomo, Ugyen; Franceschi, Silvia; Tshokey, Tshokey; Tobgay, Tashi; Baussano, Iacopo; Tenet, Vanessa; Snijders, Peter J F; Gheit, Tarik; Tommasino, Massimo; Vorsters, Alex; Clifford, Gary M

    2017-04-08

    Urine sampling may offer a less invasive solution than cervical sampling to test for human papillomavirus (HPV) for HPV vaccine impact monitoring. Paired samples of urine and exfoliated cervical cells were obtained for 89 women with history of high-risk (HR) HPV-positive normal cytology in Bhutan. Urine sampling protocol included self-collection of first-void urine immediately into a conservation medium and procedures to optimize DNA yield. Colposcopical abnormalities were biopsied. Two HPV assays were used: a multiplex type-specific PCR (E7-MPG) and a less analytically sensitive GP5+/6+ PCR followed by reverse line blot. HPV positivity for 21 types common to both assays was similar in urine and cells by E7-MPG (62.9% and 57.3%, respectively, p = 0.32) but lower in urine by GP5+/6+ (30.3% and 40.4%, p = 0.05). HPV6/11/16/18 positivity did not significantly differ between urine and cells by either assay. Sensitivity of urine (using cells as gold standard) to detect 21 HPV types was 80% and 58% for E7-MPG and GP5+/6+, respectively, with specificity 61% and 89%. HPV type distribution in urine and cells was similar, regardless of assay. The 5 detected CIN3+ were HR-HPV positive in cells by both assays, compared to 4 and 3 by E7-MPG and GP5+/6+, respectively, in urine samples. For the monitoring of vaccine impact, we demonstrate validity of a urine sampling protocol to obtain HPV prevalence data that are broadly comparable to that from cervical cells. However, detection of HPV in urine varies according to assay sensitivity, presumably because low level infections are frequent.

  6. A Systematic Review of Recent Advances in Equine Influenza Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Paillot, Romain

    2014-01-01

    Equine influenza (EI) is a major respiratory disease of horses, which is still causing substantial outbreaks worldwide despite several decades of surveillance and prevention. Alongside quarantine procedures, vaccination is widely used to prevent or limit spread of the disease. The panel of EI vaccines commercially available is probably one of the most varied, including whole inactivated virus vaccines, Immuno-Stimulating Complex adjuvanted vaccines (ISCOM and ISCOM-Matrix), a live attenuated equine influenza virus (EIV) vaccine and a recombinant poxvirus-vectored vaccine. Several other strategies of vaccination are also evaluated. This systematic review reports the advances of EI vaccines during the last few years as well as some of the mechanisms behind the inefficient or sub-optimal response of horses to vaccination. PMID:26344892

  7. Equine herpesvirus-1 myeloencephalopathy: a review of recent developments.

    PubMed

    Pusterla, Nicola; David Wilson, W; Madigan, John E; Ferraro, Gregory L

    2009-06-01

    Equine herpes myeloencephalopathy (EHM), although a relatively uncommon manifestation of equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) infection, can cause devastating losses on individual farms or boarding stables. Although outbreaks of EHM have been recognized for centuries in domestic horse populations, many aspects of this disease remained poorly characterized. In recent years, an improved understanding of EHM has emerged from experimental studies and from data collected during field outbreaks at riding schools, racetracks and veterinary hospitals throughout North America and Europe. These outbreaks have highlighted the contagious nature of EHV-1 and have prompted a re-evaluation of diagnostic procedures, treatment modalities, preventative measures and biosecurity protocols for the disease. This review concentrates on these and other selected, clinically relevant aspects of EHM.

  8. Prepurchase examination in ambulatory equine practice.

    PubMed

    Werner, Harry W

    2012-04-01

    Prepurchase examination provides a significant opportunity for veterinarians to offer an important professional service to the equine industry. When the service is performed competently and ethically, prospective buyers and sellers will recommend the examining veterinarian to fellow horse owners and professionals. To become comfortable with and skilled at performing prepurchase examinations, a veterinarian must understand the operational challenges associated with this service-and master them. Veterinarians performing prepurchase examinations should address the needs and manage the expectations of the prospective buyer, treat the seller and all parties with professional courtesy, be familiar with the intended use of the horse, competently perform a thorough physical examination, and pay close attention to the medical record and report. Communicate clearly with all parties before, during, and after the examination. Feedback from staff and colleagues is critical to improving and refining the services offered. The veterinarian should work with staff to evaluate the processes used to deliver the prepurchase examination experience to clients and consult with mentors who are skilled in performing these services. Sharing your ideas for improving prepurchase examination with equine colleagues is a service to the veterinary profession and to the horse. Performing a prepurchase examination in the way described may sound like a "tall order," but once patient care and service goals have been established, staff has been trained, and the process has been defined-the challenges become opportunities. The rewards include satisfied clients, reduced liability risk, increased profitability, and the satisfaction of having performed an interesting, valuable task to the best of one’s abilities.

  9. Immunohistochemical studies in equine recurrent uveitis (ERU).

    PubMed

    Romeike, A; Brügmann, M; Drommer, W

    1998-11-01

    Despite extensive clinical research, the etiology of equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is still unknown. After an immunologic pathogenesis was established in recurrent uveitis in humans, a similar pathogenic mechanism was assumed to exist in ERU. To investigate whether immunopathologic mechanisms are involved in ERU, 20 eyes of 15 horses with ERU were examined immunohistochemically with a T cell marker, B cell marker, and anti-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antibodies. Twenty-six eyes of 20 horses were used for investigation of MHC class II antigen expression in normal equine eyes. In 18 eyes of 14 horses, the number of T cells in the inflammatory cell population within the uvea was assessed. In 16/18 eyes (89%), the T lymphocyte fraction was > 70%. This cell population was distributed mostly in a diffuse manner throughout the uvea and also within the mantle zone of follicular lymphocytic aggregates. Foci of B lymphocytes could be found within the center of follicular aggregates in three eyes. The expression of MHC class II antigen on resident ocular cells was evaluated in 10 eyes of six horses with ERU. An increase of MHC class II antigen expression in the trabecular meshwork and on the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium was noted as was a deviant expression on proliferating Müller cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells. The predominance of T cells in the inflammatory infiltrates supports the central role of a cell-mediated immune response. Furthermore, the observation of a deviant MHC class II expression on resident ocular cells suggests that aberrant immune regulation may play a role in the pathogenesis of ERU.

  10. Equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy in Lusitano horses.

    PubMed

    Finno, C J; Higgins, R J; Aleman, M; Ofri, R; Hollingsworth, S R; Bannasch, D L; Reilly, C M; Madigan, J E

    2011-01-01

    Equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy (EDM) is a neurodegenerative disorder that has been previously associated with low vitamin E concentrations. To describe the clinical, electrophysiologic, and pathologic features of EDM in a group of related Lusitano horses. Fifteen Lusitano horses. Neurologic examinations were conducted, and serum vitamin E concentrations were measured. Three neurologically abnormal horses were further evaluated by ophthalmologic examination, electroretinography, electroencephalography, muscle and nerve biopsies, and post-mortem examination. Six horses appeared neurologically normal, 6 were neurologically abnormal, and 3 had equivocal gait abnormalities. Abnormal horses demonstrated ataxia and paresis. An inconsistent menace response was noted in 4 neurologically abnormal horses and in 1 horse with equivocal findings. All horses had low serum vitamin E concentrations (<1.5 ppm). Ophthalmologic examinations, electroretinograms, electroencephalograms, and muscle and peripheral nerve biopsies were unremarkable in 3 neurologically abnormal horses. At necropsy, major neuropathological findings in these horses were bilaterally symmetric, severe, neuro axonal degeneration in the gracilis, cuneatus medialis, cuneatus lateralis, and thoracicus nuclei and bilaterally symmetric axonal loss and demyelination mainly in the dorsolateral and ventromedial tracts of the spinal cord. A diagnosis of EDM was made based on these findings. Pedigree analysis identified 2 sires among the affected horses. Equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes ataxia and, in severe cases, paresis, in young Lusitano horses. The disease appears to have a genetic basis, and although vitamin E deficiency is a common finding, low serum vitamin E concentrations also may occur in apparently unaffected related individuals. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  11. Noninvasive Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis: Development and Evaluation of Two Urine-Based Immunoassays for Detection of Leishmania donovani Infection in India

    PubMed Central

    Ejazi, Sarfaraz Ahmad; Bhattacharya, Pradyot; Bakhteyar, Md. Asjad Karim; Mumtaz, Aquil Ahmad; Pandey, Krishna; Das, Vidya Nand Ravi; Das, Pradeep; Rahaman, Mehebubar; Goswami, Rama Prosad; Ali, Nahid

    2016-01-01

    Background Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL), a severe parasitic disease, could be fatal if diagnosis and treatment is delayed. Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), a skin related outcome, is a potential reservoir for the spread of VL. Diagnostic tests available for VL such as tissue aspiration are invasive and painful although they are capable of evaluating the treatment response. Serological tests although less invasive than tissue aspiration are incompetent to assess cure. Parasitological examination of slit-skin smear along with the clinical symptoms is routinely used for diagnosis of PKDL. Therefore, a noninvasive test with acceptable sensitivity and competency, additionally, to decide cure would be an asset in disease management and control. Methodology/principal findings We describe here, the development of antibody-capture ELISA and field adaptable dipstick test as noninvasive diagnostic tools for VL and PKDL and as a test of cure in VL treatment. Sensitivity and specificity of urine-ELISA were 97.94% (95/97) and 100% (75/75) respectively, for VL. Importantly, dipstick test demonstrated 100% sensitivity (97/97) and specificity (75/75) in VL diagnosis. Degree of agreement of the two methods with tissue aspiration was 98.83% (κ = 0.97) and 100% (κ = 1), for ELISA and dipstick test, respectively. Both the tests had 100% positivity for PKDL (14/14) cases. ELISA and dipstick test illustrated treatment efficacy in about 90% (16/18) VL cases when eventually turned negative after six months of treatment. Conclusions/significance ELISA and dipstick test found immensely effective for diagnosis of VL and PKDL through urine samples thus, may substitute the existing invasive diagnostics. Utility of these tests as indirect methods of monitoring parasite clearance can define infected versus cured. Urine-based dipstick test is simple, sensitive and above all noninvasive method that may help not only in active VL case detection but also to ascertain treatment response

  12. Selenocompounds in juvenile white sturgeon: evaluating blood, tissue, and urine selenium concentrations after a single oral dose.

    PubMed

    Huang, Susie Shih-Yin; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Wang, Wei-Fang; Deng, Dong-Fang; Fadel, James G; Hung, Silas S O

    2012-03-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for all vertebrates, however, at environmental relevant levels, it is a potent toxin. In the San Francisco Bay-Delta, white sturgeon, an ancient Chondrostean fish of high ecological and economic value, is at risk to Se exposure. The present study is the first to examine the uptake, distribution, and excretion of various selenocompounds in white sturgeon. A combined technique of stomach intubation, dorsal aorta cannulation, and urinary catheterization was utilized, in this study, to characterize the short-term effects of Se in the forms of sodium-selenate (Selenate), sodium-selenite (Selenite), selenocystine (SeCys), l-selenomethionine (SeMet), Se-methylseleno-l-cysteine (MSeCys), and selenoyeast (SeYeast). An ecologically relevant dose of Se (∼500 μg/kg body weight) was intubated into groups of 5 juvenile white sturgeon. Blood and urine samples were repeatedly collected over the 48 h post intubation period and fish were sacrificed for Se tissue concentration and distribution at 48 h. The tissue concentration and distribution, blood concentrations, and urinary elimination of Se significantly differ (p ≤ 0.05) among forms. In general, organic selenocompounds maintain higher blood concentrations, with SeMeCys maintaining the highest area under the curve (66.3 ± 8.7 and 9.3 ± 1.0 μg h/ml) and maximum Se concentration in blood (2.3 ± 0.2 and 0.4 ± 0.2 μg/ml) in both the protein and non-protein bound fractions, respectively. Selenate, however, did not result in significant increase of Se concentration, compared with the control, in the protein-bound blood fraction. Regardless of source, Se is preferentially distributed into metabolically active tissues, with the SeMet treated fish achieving the highest concentration in most tissues. In contrast, Selenite has very similar blood concentrations and tissue distribution profile to SeCys and SeYeast. From blood and tissue Se concentrations, Selenate is not stored in blood

  13. Performance evaluation of automated urine microscopy as a rapid, non-invasive approach for the diagnosis of non-gonococcal urethritis

    PubMed Central

    Pond, Marcus J; Nori, Achyuta V; Patel, Sheel; Laing, Ken; Ajayi, Margarita; Copas, Andrew J; Butcher, Philip D; Hay, Phillip; Sadiq, Syed Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Gram-stained urethral smear (GSUS), the standard point-of-care test for non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) is operator dependent and poorly specific. The performance of rapid automated urine flow cytometry (AUFC) of first void urine (FVU) white cell counts (UWCC) for predicting Mycoplasma genitalium and Chlamydia trachomatis urethral infections was assessed and its application to asymptomatic infection was evaluated. Methods Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, determining FVU-UWCC threshold for predicting M. genitalium or C. trachomatis infection was performed on 208 ‘training’ samples from symptomatic patients and subsequently validated using 228 additional FVUs obtained from prospective unselected patients. Results An optimal diagnostic threshold of >29 UWC/µL gave sensitivities and specificities for either infection of 81.5% (95% CI 65.1% to 91.6%) and 85.8% (79.5% to 90.4%), respectively, compared with 86.8% (71.1% to 95%) and 64.7% (56.9% to 71.7%), respectively, for GSUS, using the training set samples. FVU-UWCC demonstrated sensitivities and specificities of 69.2% (95% CI 48.1% to 84.9%) and 92% (87.2% to 95.2%), respectively, when using validation samples. In asymptomatic patients where GSUS was not used, AUFC would have enabled more infections to be detected compared with clinical considerations only (71.4% vs 28.6%; p=0.03). The correlation between UWCC and bacterial load was stronger for M. genitalium compared with C. trachomatis (τ=0.426, p≤0.001 vs τ=0.295, p=0.022, respectively). Conclusions AUFC offers improved specificity over microscopy for predicting C. trachomatis or M. genitalium infection. Universal AUFC may enable non-invasive diagnosis of asymptomatic NGU at the PoC. The degree of urethral inflammation exhibits a stronger association with pathogen load for M. genitalium compared with C. trachomatis. PMID:25614466

  14. Evaluation of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) urine-cassette assay as a survey tool for Schistosoma mansoni in different transmission settings within Bugiri District, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Adriko, M; Standley, C J; Tinkitina, B; Tukahebwa, E M; Fenwick, A; Fleming, F M; Sousa-Figueiredo, J C; Stothard, J R; Kabatereine, N B

    2014-08-01

    Diagnosis of schistosomiasis at the point-of-care (POC) is a growing topic in neglected tropical disease research. There is a need for diagnostic tests which are affordable, sensitive, specific, user-friendly, rapid, equipment-free and delivered to those who need it, and POC is an important tool for disease mapping and guiding mass deworming. The aim of present study was to evaluate the relative diagnostic performance of two urine-circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) cassette assays, one commercially available and the other in experimental production, against results obtained using the standard Kato-Katz faecal smear method (six thick smears from three consecutive days), as a 'gold-standard', for Schistosoma mansoni infection in different transmission settings in Uganda. Our study was conducted among 500 school children randomly selected across 5 schools within Bugiri district, adjacent to Lake Victoria in Uganda. Considering results from the 469 pupils who provided three stool samples for the six Kato-Katz smears, 293 (76%) children had no infection, 109 (23%) were in the light intensity category, while 42 (9%) and 25 (5%) were in the moderate and heavy intensity categories respectively. Following performance analysis of CCA tests in terms of sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values, overall performance of the commercially available CCA test was more informative than single Kato-Katz faecal smear microscopy, the current operational field standard for disease mapping. The current CCA assay is therefore a satisfactory method for surveillance of S. mansoni in an area where disease endemicity is declining due to control interventions. With the recent resolution on schistosomiasis elimination by the 65th World Health Assembly, the urine POC CCA test is an attractive tool to augment and perhaps replace the Kato-Katz sampling within ongoing control programmes.

  15. Complications of equine oral surgery.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Padraic M; Hawkes, Claire; Townsend, Neil

    2008-12-01

    The vast majority of equine oral procedures are dental-related and, unless great care is taken, almost all such procedures have the potential to cause marked short- or long-term damage to other oral structures. This review of the more common complications of oral surgery begins at the rostral oral cavity with procedures of the incisors, and then moves caudally to deal with complications related to procedures of wolf teeth and cheek teeth, including salivary duct disruption and dental sinusitis. Finally, complications associated with maxillary and mandibular fractures are discussed.

  16. VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS IN MAN

    PubMed Central

    Casals, J.; Curnen, Edward C.; Thomas, Lewis

    1943-01-01

    A filterable agent was isolated from the blood and from washings of the upper respiratory passages of a young laboratory worker during a mild, acute, febrile illness. This agent was identified as a strain of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus. Circulating specific complement-fixing and neutralizing antibodies not present in sera withdrawn during the acute phase of illness were demonstrated in sera obtained during convalescence. A fellow laboratory worker who became similarly ill simultaneously also developed during convalescence specific circulating antibodies not present prior to illness. PMID:19871301

  17. Estimation of vitamin B1 excretion in 24-hr urine by assay of first-morning urine.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Kakinoki, Takashi; Shino, Yoshio; Hashimoto, Reiko; Hashizume, Naotaka

    2008-01-01

    Urinary B1 (vitamin B1) excretion is commonly determined in 24-hr urine specimens to obtain an estimate of nutritional status. The aim of our study was to investigate whether B1 in random urine specimens, corrected for the urine creatinine (Cr), can be substituted for B1 in 24-hr urines. Collection of such hour urines is often fraught with errors; an alternative method is described here. All urine specimens voided over 24 hr were collected from 32 healthy adults as were the first-morning urines from 30 healthy Japanese women. The B1 excretion was expressed as the ratio of B1 to Cr. Although the B1 excretion was expressed as the B1/Cr ratio, the B1 excretion varied with the urine volume and the time of urine collection. The B1/Cr ratio in random urine specimens not collected at a fixed time may mislead the evaluation of the nutritional status. We found that the B1/Cr ratio in the first-morning urine correlated significantly with the ratio in 24-hr urines (r=0.970, P<0.001) and also with the concentration of total B1 (B1 plus its phosphate esters) in whole blood (r=0.733, P<0.001). We conclude that the B1/Cr ratio in 24-hr urines could be estimated by measuring the ratio in the first-morning urine.

  18. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Abubacker, Naufal Rizwan Taraganar; Jayaraman, Senthil Manikandan Thirumanilayur; Sivanesan, Magesh Kumar; Mathew, Renu

    2015-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is a rare disorder seen in elderly persons, wherein the urinary bag and the tubing turn in to purple colour. It is usually seen in patients who are on urinary catheters for a long time. Purple coloured urine occurs due to the accumulation of indigo and indirubin, which are the end products of tryptophan metabolism due to the action of sulfatases and phosphatases formed by bacteria like Providencia, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella etc. We present this interesting phenomenon of purple urine in a young male who was on prolonged urinary catheterization. The urine culture was positive for Providencia and constipation was an added risk factor for the purple urine. The urinary catheter and tubing was changed along with a course of antibiotics which lead to the normalization of the urine colour. PMID:26435987

  19. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF AN ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOASSAY (ELISA) METHOD FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID IN HUMAN URINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the development of a 96-microwell high sample capacity ELISA method for measuring 2,4-D in urine; the analysis of 2,4-D in real-world urine samples by both ELISA and GC/MS methods; and compares the ELISA and GC/MS results in several key areas: accuracy, preci...

  20. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF AN ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOASSAY (ELISA) METHOD FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID IN HUMAN URINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the development of a 96-microwell high sample capacity ELISA method for measuring 2,4-D in urine; the analysis of 2,4-D in real-world urine samples by both ELISA and GC/MS methods; and compares the ELISA and GC/MS results in several key areas: accuracy, preci...

  1. Replication kinetics of neurovirulent versus non-neurovirulent equine herpesvirus type 1 strains in equine nasal mucosal explants.

    PubMed

    Vandekerckhove, Annelies P; Glorieux, S; Gryspeerdt, A C; Steukers, L; Duchateau, L; Osterrieder, N; Van de Walle, G R; Nauwynck, H J

    2010-08-01

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is the causative agent of equine herpes myeloencephalopathy, of which outbreaks are reported with increasing frequency throughout North America and Europe. This has resulted in its classification as a potentially emerging disease by the US Department of Agriculture. Recently, it was found that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the viral DNA polymerase gene (ORF30) at aa 752 (N-->D) is associated with the neurovirulent potential of EHV-1. In the present study, equine respiratory mucosal explants were inoculated with several Belgian isolates typed in their ORF30 as D(752) or N(752), to evaluate a possible difference in replication in the upper respiratory tract. In addition, to evaluate whether any observed differences could be attributed to the SNP associated with neurovirulence, the experiments were repeated with parental Ab4 (reference neurovirulent strain), parental NY03 (reference non-neurovirulent strain) and their N/D revertant recombinant viruses. The salient findings were that EHV-1 spreads plaquewise in the epithelium, but plaques never cross the basement membrane (BM). However, single EHV-1-infected cells could be observed below the BM at 36 h post-inoculation (p.i.) for all N(752) isolates and at 24 h p.i. for all D(752) isolates, and were identified as monocytic cells and T lymphocytes. Interestingly, the number of infected cells was two to five times higher for D(752) isolates compared with N(752) isolates at every time point analysed. Finally, this study showed that equine respiratory explants are a valuable and reproducible model to study EHV-1 neurovirulence in vitro, thereby reducing the need for horses as experimental animals.

  2. Purple urine bags.

    PubMed

    Dealler, S F; Belfield, P W; Bedford, M; Whitley, A J; Mulley, G P

    1989-09-01

    Purple urine drainage bags were found in 7 of 71 chronically catheterized elderly women. The purple staining of the bags is due to a violet discoloration (indirubin) of the plastic of the catheter bag and fine blue crystals of indigo in the urine. The colors are formed from the substrate indoxyl sulfate (indican) and all 7 patients had bacteria in the urine that would produce blue colonies on agar enriched with the urine (filter sterilized) of the patients involved. Organisms identified were Providencia or Klebsiella species. Indican excretion was higher in patients with purple urinary catheter bags than in controls.

  3. Culture and characterisation of equine peripheral blood mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Spaas, Jan H; De Schauwer, Catharina; Cornillie, Pieter; Meyer, Evelyne; Van Soom, Ann; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R

    2013-01-01

    Although the use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for the treatment of orthopaedic injuries in horses has been reported, no official guidelines exist that classify a particular cell as an equine MSC. Given the limited characterisation of peripheral blood (PB)-derived equine MSCs in particular, this study aimed to provide more detailed information in relation to this cell type. Mesenchymal stromal cells were isolated from equine PB samples and colony forming unit (CFU) assays as well as population doubling times (PDTs) (from P(0) to P(10)) were performed. Two types of colonies, 'fingerprint' and dispersed, could be observed based on macroscopic and microscopic features. Moreover, after an initial lag phase (as indicated by a negative PDT at P(0) to P(1)) the MSCs divided rapidly as indicated by a positive PDT at all further passages. Immunophenotyping was carried out with trypsin- as well as with accutase-detached MSC to evaluate potential trypsin-sensitive epitope destruction on particular antigens. Isolated MSC were positive for CD29, CD44, CD90 and CD105, and negative for CD45, CD79α, MHC II and a monocyte/macrophage marker, irrespective of the cell detaching agent used. Trilineage differentiation of the MSCs towards osteoblasts, chondroblasts and adipocytes was confirmed using a range of histochemical stains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anatomical location and culture of equine corneal epithelial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Hidekazu; Kasashima, Yoshinori; Kuwano, Atsutoshi; Wada, Shinya

    2014-03-01

    To identify morphologically the locations of equine corneal epithelial stem cells (CESCs) and to culture these cells. We studied the eyes of 12 adult thoroughbred horses. Eye tissues were immunostained for two positive stem cell markers (p63, CK14) and one negative marker (CK3) to identify the locations of CESCs, so we could compare their immunostaining patterns with those of human stem cells previously reported. We compared the proliferation rates and morphological features of epithelial cells isolated from the corneal limbus and central cornea. Undifferentiated cells expressing the same immunostaining pattern as human CESCs were present in the equine corneal limbus. Cultured epithelial cells isolated from the limbus expressed the same immunostaining pattern that CESCs show histologically, but cells isolated from the central cornea did not proliferate and could not be evaluated. Equine CESCs were localized in the epithelial basal layer of the corneal limbus, where melanocytes reside. They could be cultured without loss of their undifferentiated nature. When collecting such stem cells, it may be useful to harvest and culture corneal epithelial tissues in the limbus where melanocytes serve as an indicator of the collecting area. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  5. Effect of dehydration prior to cryopreservation of large equine embryos.

    PubMed

    Barfield, J P; McCue, P M; Squires, E L; Seidel, G E

    2009-08-01

    Cryopreservation of equine embryos>300microm in diameter results in low survival rates using protocols that work well for smaller equine embryos. These experiments tested the potential benefit of incorporating a dehydration step prior to standard cryopreservation procedures. Forty-six, day 7-8, grade 1, equine embryos 300-1350microm in diameter were subjected to one of the following treatments: (A) 2 min in 0.6M galactose, 10min in 1.5M glycerol, slow freeze (n=21); (B) 10min in 1.5M glycerol, slow freeze (n=15); (C) 2min in 0.6M galactose, 10min in 1.5M glycerol, followed by exposure to thaw solutions, then culture medium (n=5); (D) transferred directly to culture medium (n=5). Frozen embryos were thawed and subjected to a three-step cryoprotectant removal. Five embryos from each treatment were evaluated morphologically after 24 and 48h culture (1=excellent, 5=degenerate/dead). All treatments had at least 4/5 embryos with a quality score >or=3 at these time points except treatment B (2/5 at 24h, 1/5 at 48h). Subsequent embryos from treatment A (n=16) or B (n=10) were matched in sets of two for size and treatment, thawed, and immediately transferred in pairs to 13 recipients. Only two recipient mares were pregnant; one received two 400microm embryos from treatment A, and the other one 400 and one 415microm embryo from treatment B. There was no advantage of incorporating a 2min dehydration step into the cryopreservation protocol for large equine embryos.

  6. In vivo confocal microscopy of equine fungal keratitis.

    PubMed

    Ledbetter, Eric C; Irby, Nita L; Kim, Sung G

    2011-01-01

    To describe in vivo corneal confocal microscopy of horses with fungal keratitis and correlate findings with clinical, histopathological, and microbiological evaluations of clinical cases and an ex vivo experimental equine fungal keratitis model. A total of 12 horses with naturally-acquired fungal keratitis and ex vivo equine corneas experimentally infected with clinical fungal isolates. Horses with naturally-acquired fungal keratitis were examined with a modified Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II and Rostock Cornea Module. Confocal microscopy images of clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium solani, and Candida albicans were obtained by examination of in vitro cultures and experimentally infected ex vivo equine corneas. Non-specific in vivo corneal confocal microscopic findings in horses with fungal keratitis included leukocyte infiltrates, activated keratocytes, anterior stromal dendritic cell infiltrates, and vascularization. Linear, branching, hyper-reflective structures that were 2-6 μm in width and 200 to >400 μm in length were detected in all horses with filamentous fungal keratitis. Round to oval hyper-reflective structures that were 2-8 μm in diameter were detected in a horse with yeast fungal keratitis. The in vivo confocal microscopic appearance of the organisms was consistent with fungal morphologies observed during examination of in vitro cultures and infected ex vivo equine corneas. In vivo corneal confocal microscopy is a rapid and non-invasive method of diagnosing fungal keratitis in the horse. This imaging technique is useful for both ulcerative and non-ulcerative fungal keratitis, and is particularly advantageous for confirming the presence of fungi in deep corneal stromal lesions. © 2011 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  7. Preparation of equine isolated hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Bakala, A; Karlik, W; Wiechetek, M

    2003-01-01

    In this study a detailed description of the equine hepatocyte isolation procedure is presented. Livers were obtained from horses slaughtered at the local slaughterhouse. For blood removal and liver preservation the following steps are suggested: perfusion with the oxygenated HBSS (0-2 degrees C, with continuous flow of 500-800 ml/min for 3-6 min), protection from ischemia injury by flushing with ice-cold University of Wisconsin Solution (UW, flow rate of 500-800 ml/min), and finally immersion of the liver lobe in UW solution (2 degrees C) during its transport to the laboratory. For equine isolated hepatocyte preparation a "three-step" perfusion procedure was elaborated: rewarming, chelating and collagenase perfusion. We found optimal cell yield and viability under the following conditions: rewarming with UW (38 degrees C) for 8-14 min, chelating with calcium free Hanks' Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS, 38 degrees C) supplemented with 1 mM ethylene glycol-bis[beta-aminoethyl esther]-N,N,N'N'-tetracetic acid at the flow rate of 450 ml/min for 6 min and enzymatic digestion with HBSS supplemented with 0.1% collagenase at 38 degrees C and 450 ml/min flow rate for 8-27 min. These conditions consistently generated cell harvests of 21 x 10(6)+/-4.86 cells/g of perfused liver tissue with viability of 82.7%+/-10.2.

  8. Equine uveitis: a UK perspective.

    PubMed

    Lowe, R C

    2010-03-01

    Uveitis in the equine population of the UK does not appear to be as prevalent or disastrous as seen across regions of Europe and the USA. Some cases perceived to be recurrent uveitis may be poorly resolved single episodes of uveitis and care should be taken not to make the diagnosis of recurrence without ensuring effective control of the initial episode. Leptospira spp. appear to play only a minor role ERU in the UK which is probably the main reason for the prevalence of the disease being much lower compared to the USA and mainland Europe. Actual data are relatively few on the ground as far as disease surveillance in concerned. This has 2 implications. Firstly unless we are able to effectively monitor the levels of uveitic disease, it will be difficult to pick up early changes in the trend which may allow quicker intervention. Secondly, it is difficult to secure funding for further research if the prevalence of the problem is poorly defined. This may leave the UK equine population at risk should the disease profile suddenly alter for the worse.

  9. Equine influenza - surveillance and control.

    PubMed

    Cullinane, Ann; Elton, Debra; Mumford, Jenny

    2010-11-01

    Equine influenza virus (EIV) is considered the most important respiratory virus of horses because it is highly contagious and has the potential to disrupt major equestrian events. Equine influenza (EI) can be controlled by vaccination but it has been demonstrated repeatedly in the field that antigenic drift impacts on vaccine efficacy. EI surveillance maintains awareness of emergence and international spread of antigenic variants. It not only serves as an early warning system for horse owners, trainers and veterinary clinicians but is fundamental to influenza control programmes based on vaccination. Data on outbreaks of EI and strain characterisation is reviewed annually by an Expert Surveillance Panel (ESP) including representatives from OIE and WHO. This panel makes recommendations on the need to update vaccines based on analysis of evidence of disease in well vaccinated horses, antigenic changes, genetic changes and when possible, experimental challenge data. However, the disparity in the level of surveillance and virus collection in different countries results in potentially biased information about the relative prevalence of different viruses. There is a need for increased surveillance on a global level and a greater awareness of the benefits of updating the vaccines. The vaccine companies have traditionally been slow to respond to the ESP recommendations. Veterinary clinicians have a major role to play in purchasing vaccines with epidemiologically relevant strains and promoting their benefits to their clients. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Equine salmonellosis in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Juffo, Gregory Duarte; Bassuino, Daniele Mariath; Gomes, Danilo Carloto; Wurster, Fabiana; Pissetti, Caroline; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti; Driemeier, David

    2017-03-01

    The Salmonella sp. genus is identified in several species, and the zoonosis it causes is one of the most important types worldwide. The specifics of salmonellosis vary according to the function of the serovar involved, the species affected, age and predisposing factors. However, few cases of equine salmonellosis have been reported. This study presents ten confirmed salmonellosis cases in equines in southern Brazil. Six were adult animals with stress factors preceding the disease, while four were foals, three of which presented with hyperacute manifestations. The main clinical signs were diarrhea, anorexia, and hyperthermia. Lesions varied in distribution and severity, although fibrinonecrotic or necrohemorrhagic enteritis was observed in all animals, mainly in the large intestine (large colon and cecum-8/10) and small intestine (3/10). Substantial liquid content, mainly hemorrhagic, was observed in all animals. The most characteristic microscopic lesion was mucosa necrosis, which is often accompanied by fibrin deposition, followed by necrosis of follicular centers and vascular changes. Bacterial isolation revealed seven isolates. Five were serotyped, and the serovars Typhimurium and Anatum were associated with two cases each, while Muenster was associated with a case whose lesion pattern varied. Immunohistochemical staining was positive in all cases. All diagnoses were based on the clinical history, macroscopic and histological lesions, and the bacterial isolation and/or immunostaining associated with histological lesions.

  11. Equine allogeneic umbilical cord blood derived mesenchymal stromal cells reduce synovial fluid nucleated cell count and induce mild self-limiting inflammation when evaluated in an lipopolysaccharide induced synovitis model.

    PubMed

    Williams, L B; Koenig, J B; Black, B; Gibson, T W G; Sharif, S; Koch, T G

    2016-09-01

    Improvement has been reported following intra-articular (i.a.) injection of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in several species. These observations have led to the use of i.a. MSCs in equine practice with little understanding of the mechanisms by which perceived improvement occurs. To evaluate the effect of i.a. allogeneic umbilical cord blood (CB-) derived MSCs using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced synovitis model. We hypothesised that i.a. CB-MSCs would reduce the inflammatory response associated with LPS injection. Randomised, blinded experimental study. Feasibility studies evaluated i.a. LPS or CB-MSCs alone into the tarsocrural joint. In the principal study, middle carpal joint synovitis was induced bilaterally with LPS and then CB-MSCs were injected into one middle carpal joint. Lameness, routine synovial fluid analysis, and synovial fluid biomarkers were evaluated at 0, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h. LPS injection alone resulted in transient lameness and signs of inflammation. In joints untreated with LPS, injection of 30 million CB-MSCs resulted in mild synovitis that resolved without treatment. Mild (grade 1-2) lameness in the CB-MSC-treated limb was observed in 2 horses and severe lameness (grade 4) in the 3rd, 24 h post injection. Lameness did not correlate with synovitis induced by CB-MSC injection. Simultaneous injection of LPS and CB-MSCs resulted in significant reduction in synovial fluid total nucleated, neutrophil and mononuclear cell numbers compared with contralateral LPS-only joints. No difference was detected in other parameters associated with synovial fluid analysis or in synovial fluid biomarkers. The incidence of lameness was only different from baseline at 8 h, where horses were lame in CB-MSC limbs. Allogeneic CB-MSCs reduced synovial fluid cell populations and stimulated mild self-limiting inflammation in the synovitis model. Continued evaluation of the effects of i.a. CB-MSC therapy on synovitis in horses is needed to evaluate anti- and

  12. Prognosis and impact of equine recurrent uveitis.

    PubMed

    Gerding, J C; Gilger, B C

    2016-05-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is a leading cause of vision loss in horses. To assess the prognosis and impact of ERU on affected horses and their owners by evaluating the signalment, treatment and outcome (including the loss of use, vision assessment and economic loss). Retrospective impact study. Medical records of horses presenting to the North Carolina State University Veterinary Health Complex (NCSU-VHC) with ERU between 1999 and 2014 were reviewed. Signalment, clinical signs, ophthalmic examination findings, treatments and outcomes were evaluated. Owner questionnaires were completed regarding vision, job/role, monetary value, diagnostic and treatment costs, concurrent illness and outcomes. Records of 224 horses (338 eyes) with ERU were reviewed. There was an overrepresentation of Appaloosas (54; 24.1%), Hanoverians (11; 4.9%) and other Warmbloods (13; 5.8%). Ninety-six eyes (28.4%) were diagnosed as blind and 38 eyes (11.2%) with glaucoma on initial evaluation. Leptospirosis titres of serum and/or aqueous humour were obtained in 88 horses and were positive in 40 horses (45.5%), with L. pomona being the most frequently isolated serovar. Globe loss at the NCSU-VHC occurred in 41 ERU eyes (12.1% of total). Owner questionnaires were evaluated in 194 horses (86.6%) and 91 horses (46.9%) were reported blind in the affected eye(s). Fifty-seven horses (29.4%) did not return to their previous role, while 61 (31.4%) performed at a reduced level. Equine recurrent uveitis decreased the monetary value of 164 horses. Twenty-nine horses (14.9%) were euthanised and 37 (19.1%) underwent change in ownership as a direct result of ERU. The impact of ERU is attributed to the high frequency of blindness, globe loss and loss of function. Euthanasia and change of ownership are common sequelae to the progressive nature of ERU. These factors, along with financial costs of the disease, have a significant impact on affected horses and their owners. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  13. Estimation models for the morbidity of the horses infected with equine influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Shigeo; Oki, Hironori; Hasegawa, Telhisa; Ishida, Nobushige

    2008-01-01

    Estimation formulas for the morbidity of horses infected with equine influenza virus by linear regression, logistic regression and probit transformation were developed, using data from the outbreak at the Sha Tin Racing Track in Hong Kong in 1992. Using these formulas, we estimated the equine influenza virus morbidity rates at training centers belonging to the Japan Racing Association (JRA) in October 1997 and in October 1998. In 1998 JRA started a new vaccination program, and every horse must now be vaccinated twice per year. At that time, the vaccine included two US lineage virus strains, the A/equine/Kentucky/81 strain and the A/equine/La Plata/93 (LP93) strain, against equine type-2 influenza viruses; it did not include any EU lineage virus strains, such as A/equine/Suffolk/89 (SF89). Comparing the geometric mean (GM) values of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers between the LP93 strain and the SF89 strain in 1997 and in 1998, they both rose significantly at every age (p<0.05) by Wilcoxon test. Calculations by the simulation models show the morbidity rates for LP93 diminished from 0.439 (linear), 0.423 (logistic) and 0.431 (probit) to 0.276 (linear), 0.265 (logistic) and 0.271 (probit), respectively. On the other hand, the estimated morbidity rates for SF89 diminished only slightly from 0.954 (linear), 0.932 (logistic) and 0.944 (probit) to 0.946 (linear), 0.914 (logistic) and 0.927 (probit), respectively. Our simulation models could estimate the effect of the vaccine on each of the equine virus strains represented by the morbidity of infected horses. Thus, they are useful for vaccine evaluation.

  14. Life cycle comparison of centralized wastewater treatment and urine source separation with struvite precipitation: Focus on urine nutrient management.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Stephanie K L; Boyer, Treavor H

    2015-08-01

    Alternative approaches to wastewater management including urine source separation have the potential to simultaneously improve multiple aspects of wastewater treatment, including reduced use of potable water for waste conveyance and improved contaminant removal, especially nutrients. In order to pursue such radical changes, system-level evaluations of urine source separation in community contexts are required. The focus of this life cycle assessment (LCA) is managing nutrients from urine produced in a residential setting with urine source separation and struvite precipitation, as compared with a centralized wastewater treatment approach. The life cycle impacts evaluated in this study pertain to construction of the urine source separation system and operation of drinking water treatment, decentralized urine treatment, and centralized wastewater treatment. System boundaries include fertilizer offsets resulting from the production of urine based struvite fertilizer. As calculated by the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI), urine source separation with MgO addition for subsequent struvite precipitation with high P recovery (Scenario B) has the smallest environmental cost relative to existing centralized wastewater treatment (Scenario A) and urine source separation with MgO and Na3PO4 addition for subsequent struvite precipitation with concurrent high P and N recovery (Scenario C). Preliminary economic evaluations show that the three urine management scenarios are relatively equal on a monetary basis (<13% difference). The impacts of each urine management scenario are most sensitive to the assumed urine composition, the selected urine storage time, and the assumed electricity required to treat influent urine and toilet water used to convey urine at the centralized wastewater treatment plant. The importance of full nutrient recovery from urine in combination with the substantial chemical inputs required for N recovery

  15. [Equine infectious anemia--a review].

    PubMed

    Haas, Ludwig

    2014-01-01

    This article combines essential facts of equine infectious anemia. Beside etiology and epidemiology, emphasis is put on the clinical course and laboratory diagnosis. Finally, control measures and prophylactic issues are discussed.

  16. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus, Southern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Franco, José G.; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Freier, Jerome E.; Cordova, Dionicio; Clements, Tamara; Moncayo, Abelardo; Kang, Wenli; Gomez-Hernandez, Carlos; Rodriguez-Dominguez, Gabriela; Ludwig, George V.

    2004-01-01

    Equine epizootics of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) occurred in the southern Mexican states of Chiapas in 1993 and Oaxaca in 1996. To assess the impact of continuing circulation of VEE virus (VEEV) on human and animal populations, serologic and viral isolation studies were conducted in 2000 to 2001 in Chiapas State. Human serosurveys and risk analyses indicated that long-term endemic transmission of VEEV occurred among villages with seroprevalence levels of 18% to 75% and that medical personnel had a high risk for VEEV exposure. Seroprevalence in wild animals suggested cotton rats as possible reservoir hosts in the region. Virus isolations from sentinel animals and genetic characterizations of these strains indicated continuing circulation of a subtype IE genotype, which was isolated from equines during the recent VEE outbreaks. These data indicate long-term enzootic and endemic VEEV circulation in the region and continued risk for disease in equines and humans. PMID:15663847

  17. Combined Alphavirus Replicon Particle Vaccine Induces Durable and Cross-Protective Immune Responses against Equine Encephalitis Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Pamela J.; Bakken, Russell R.; Barth, James F.; Lind, Cathleen M.; da Silva, Luis; Hart, Mary Kate; Rayner, Jonathan; Alterson, Kim; Custer, Max; Dudek, Jeanne; Owens, Gary; Kamrud, Kurt I.; Parker, Michael D.; Smith, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Alphavirus replicons were evaluated as potential vaccine candidates for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), or eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) when given individually or in combination (V/W/E) to mice or cynomolgus macaques. Individual replicon vaccines or the combination V/W/E replicon vaccine elicited strong neutralizing antibodies in mice to their respective alphavirus. Protection from either subcutaneous or aerosol challenge with VEEV, WEEV, or EEEV was demonstrated out to 12 months after vaccination in mice. Individual replicon vaccines or the combination V/W/E replicon vaccine elicited strong neutralizing antibodies in macaques and demonstrated good protection against aerosol challenge with an epizootic VEEV-IAB virus, Trinidad donkey. Similarly, the EEEV replicon and V/W/E combination vaccine elicited neutralizing antibodies against EEEV and protected against aerosol exposure to a North American variety of EEEV. Both the WEEV replicon and combination V/W/E vaccination, however, elicited poor neutralizing antibodies to WEEV in macaques, and the protection conferred was not as strong. These results demonstrate that a combination V/W/E vaccine is possible for protection against aerosol challenge and that cross-interference between the vaccines is minimal. IMPORTANCE Three related viruses belonging to the genus Alphavirus cause severe encephalitis in humans: Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV). Normally transmitted by mosquitoes, these viruses can cause disease when inhaled, so there is concern that these viruses could be used as biological weapons. Prior reports have suggested that vaccines for these three viruses might interfere with one another. We have developed a combined vaccine for Venezuelan equine encephalitis, western equine encephalitis, and eastern equine encephalitis expressing the

  18. Urine collection device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, R. B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A urine collection device for females is described. It is comprised of a collection element defining a urine collection chamber and an inlet opening into the chamber and is adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. A drainage conduit is connected to the collection element in communication with the chamber whereby the chamber and conduit together comprise a urine flow pathway for carrying urine generally away from the inlet. A first body of wicking material is mounted adjacent the collection element and extends at least partially into the flow pathway. The device preferably also comprise a vaginal insert element including a seal portion for preventing the entry of urine into the vagina.

  19. Measurement of urinary cauxin in geriatric cats with variable plasma creatinine concentrations and proteinuria and evaluation of urine cauxin-to-creatinine concentration ratio as a predictor of developing azotemia.

    PubMed

    Jepson, Rosanne E; Syme, Harriet M; Markwell, Peter; Miyazaki, Masao; Yamashita, Tetsuro; Elliott, Jonathan

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate urine cauxin immunoreactivity in geriatric cats with variable plasma creatinine concentrations and proteinuria and to assess urinary cauxin-to-creatinine concentration ratio (UC/C) as a predictor of developing azotemia. 188 client-owned geriatric (>or= 9 years of age) cats. A direct immunoassay was developed and validated for the quantification of urinary cauxin relative to a standard curve generated from a urine sample with high cauxin immunoreactivity. Relationships among UC/C, plasma creatinine concentration, and proteinuria were assessed. Nonazotemic cats were recruited and followed for 12 months. Urinary cauxin-to-creatinine concentration ratio was evaluated as a predictor of development of azotemia in these cats. No relationship was evident between UC/C and plasma creatinine concentration. A weak positive correlation was identified between UC/C and urine protein-to-creatinine concentration ratio (r = 0.212). At entry to the longitudinal study, those cats that later developed azotemia had a UC/C that was significantly higher than in those remaining nonazotemic after 12 months. The UC/C did not vary with severity of azotemia but appeared contributory to the feline urinary proteome. High UC/C values were predictive of the geriatric cats in our study developing azotemia. However, it seems unlikely that UC/C will provide additional information about the measurement of urine protein-to-creatinine concentration ratio as a biomarker for the development of azotemia in cats.

  20. In vitro analysis of equine, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells demonstrates differences within age- and gender-matched horses.

    PubMed

    Carter-Arnold, J L; Neilsen, N L; Amelse, L L; Odoi, A; Dhar, M S

    2014-09-01

    Stem cell therapies are used routinely in equine practice. Most published reports characterise stem cells derived from younger horses; however, middle-aged horses are often in athletic performance, and experience degenerative medical conditions. Thus, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from this group should be investigated. To describe differences in in vitro adherence, proliferation and potential for differentiation of equine bone marrow-derived MSCs (equine BMMSCs) harvested from middle-aged (10-13 years old) female donors. Descriptive study of stem cell characteristics. Equine BMMSCs from 6 horses were cultured in vitro and evaluated for viability, proliferation, osteogenesis, chondrogenesis, adipogenesis, cluster-of-differentiation markers and gene expression. Equine BMMSCs from all 6 donors demonstrated fibroblastic, cellular morphology, adherence to plastic and expression of cluster-of-differentiation markers. They varied in their rate of proliferation and trilineage differentiation. The equine BMMSCs of one of 6 donors demonstrated a higher rate of proliferation, enhanced ability for cell passaging and a more robust in vitro differentiation. Comparatively, equine BMMSCs from 2 donors demonstrated a lower rate of proliferation and lack of osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. The results of this study confirm that donor-to-donor variation in equine BMMSCs exists and this variation can be documented using in vitro assays. Subjective assessment suggests that the rate of proliferation tends to correlate with differentiation potential. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  1. Alphaviral equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern, Western and Venezuelan).

    PubMed

    Aréchiga-Ceballos, N; Aguilar-Setién, A

    2015-08-01

    Summary Alphaviral equine encephalomyelitis is a mosquito-borne infection that causes severe neurological disease and fatalities in horses and humans in the Americas. Consequently, the equine alphaviruses (Eastern, Western and Venezuelan) are of considerable concern worldwide and are notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health. In addition, these diseases are considered a potent potential biological weapon, emphasising the need to develop an effective vaccine. Alphaviral equine encephalomyelitis is caused by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV), Western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV) or Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (VEEV), which are related members of the Alphavirus genus in the Togaviridae family. Although related, the three viruses are genetically and antigenically distinct. The disease is characterised by fever, anorexia, depression and clinical signs of encephalomyelitis, and may be fatal in up to 90% of cases, for both humans and horses, particularly in the case of EEE. Surviving horses develop lifelong immunity but may have permanent neuropathology. The aim of this paper is to analyse the scientific information available on the evolution of EEE, WEE and VEE, and any potential vaccines.

  2. Performance Evaluation of Kits for Bisulfite-Conversion of DNA from Tissues, Cell Lines, FFPE Tissues, Aspirates, Lavages, Effusions, Plasma, Serum, and Urine

    PubMed Central

    Meller, Sebastian; Leisse, Annette; Sailer, Verena; Zech, Julie; Mengdehl, Martina; Garbe, Leif-Alexander; Uhl, Barbara; Dietrich, Dimo

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation analyses usually require a preceding bisulfite conversion of the DNA. The choice of an appropriate kit for a specific application should be based on the specific performance requirements with regard to the respective sample material. In this study, the performance of nine kits was evaluated: EpiTect Fast FFPE Bisulfite Kit, EpiTect Bisulfite Kit, EpiTect Fast DNA Bisulfite Kit (Qiagen), EZ DNA Methylation-Gold Kit, EZ DNA Methylation-Direct Kit, EZ DNA Methylation-Lightning Kit (Zymo Research), innuCONVERT Bisulfite All-In-One Kit, innuCONVERT Bisulfite Basic Kit, innuCONVERT Bisulfite Body Fluids Kit (Analytik Jena). The kit performance was compared with regard to DNA yield, DNA degradation, DNA purity, conversion efficiency, stability and handling using qPCR, UV, clone sequencing, HPLC, and agarose gel electrophoresis. All kits yielded highly pure DNA suitable for PCR analyses without PCR inhibition. Significantly higher yields were obtained when using the EZ DNA Methylation-Gold Kit and the innuCONVERT Bisulfite kits. Conversion efficiency ranged from 98.7% (EpiTect Bisulfite Kit) to 99.9% (EZ DNA Methylation-Direct Kit). The inappropriate conversion of methylated cytosines to thymines varied between 0.9% (innuCONVERT Bisulfite kits) and 2.7% (EZ DNA Methylation-Direct Kit). Time-to-result ranged from 131 min (innuCONVERT kits) to 402 min (EpiTect Bisulfite Kit). Hands-on-time was between 66 min (EZ DNA Methylation-Lightning Kit) and 104 min (EpiTect Fast FFPE and Fast DNA Bisulfite kits). Highest yields from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections without prior extraction were obtained using the innuCONVERT Bisulfite All-In-One Kit while the EZ DNA Methylation-Direct Kit yielded DNA with only low PCR-amplifiability. The innuCONVERT Bisulfite All-In-One Kit exhibited the highest versatility regarding different input sample materials (extracted DNA, tissue, FFPE tissue, cell lines, urine sediment, and cellular fractions of

  3. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST INFLUENZA VIRUS IN NON-VACCINATED EQUINES FROM THE BRAZILIAN PANTANAL

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Lucas Gaíva E; Borges, Alice Mamede Costa Marques; Villalobos, Eliana Monteforte Cassaro; Lara, Maria do Carmo Custodio Souza Hunold; Cunha, Elenice Maria Siquetin; de Oliveira, Anderson Castro Soares; Braga, Ísis Assis; Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of antibodies against Equine Influenza Virus (EIV) was determined in 529 equines living on ranches in the municipality of Poconé, Pantanal area of Brazil, by means of the hemagglutination inhibition test, using subtype H3N8 as antigen. The distribution and possible association among positive animal and ranches were evaluated by the chi-square test, spatial autoregressive and multiple linear regression models. The prevalence of antibodies against EIV was estimated at 45.2% (95% CI 30.2 - 61.1%) with titers ranging from 20 to 1,280 HAU. Seropositive equines were found on 92.0% of the surveyed ranches. Equine from non-flooded ranches (66.5%) and negativity in equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) (61.7%) were associated with antibodies against EIV. No spatial correlation was found among the ranches, but the ones located in non-flooded areas were associated with antibodies against EIV. A negative correlation was found between the prevalence of antibodies against EIV and the presence of EIAV positive animals on the ranches. The high prevalence of antibodies against EIV detected in this study suggests that the virus is circulating among the animals, and this statistical analysis indicates that the movement and aggregation of animals are factors associated to the transmission of the virus in the region. PMID:25351542

  4. Prevalence of antibodies against influenza virus in non-vaccinated equines from the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Gaíva e Silva, Lucas; Borges, Alice Mamede Costa Marques; Villalobos, Eliana Monteforte Cassaro; Lara, Maria do Carmo Custodio Souza Hunold; Cunha, Elenice Maria Siquetin; de Oliveira, Anderson Castro Soares; Braga, Isis Assis; Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of antibodies against Equine Influenza Virus (EIV) was determined in 529 equines living on ranches in the municipality of Poconé, Pantanal area of Brazil, by means of the hemagglutination inhibition test, using subtype H3N8 as antigen. The distribution and possible association among positive animal and ranches were evaluated by the chi-square test, spatial autoregressive and multiple linear regression models. The prevalence of antibodies against EIV was estimated at 45.2% (95% CI 30.2 - 61.1%) with titers ranging from 20 to 1,280 HAU. Seropositive equines were found on 92.0% of the surveyed ranches. Equine from non-flooded ranches (66.5%) and negativity in equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) (61.7%) were associated with antibodies against EIV. No spatial correlation was found among the ranches, but the ones located in non-flooded areas were associated with antibodies against EIV. A negative correlation was found between the prevalence of antibodies against EIV and the presence of EIAV positive animals on the ranches. The high prevalence of antibodies against EIV detected in this study suggests that the virus is circulating among the animals, and this statistical analysis indicates that the movement and aggregation of animals are factors associated to the transmission of the virus in the region.

  5. Equine Model for Soft Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, J.E.; Lo, T.; Quinn, K.P.; Fourligas, N.; Georgakoudi, I.; Leisk, G.G.; Mazan, M.; Thane, K.E.; Taeymans, O.; Hoffman, A.M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kirker-Head, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    Soft tissue regeneration methods currently yield suboptimal clinical outcomes due to loss of tissue volume and a lack of functional tissue regeneration. Grafted tissues and natural biomaterials often degrade or resorb too quickly, while most synthetic materials do not degrade. In previous research we demonstrated that soft tissue regeneration can be supported using silk porous biomaterials for at least 18 months in vivo in a rodent model. In the present study, we scaled the system to a survival study using a large animal model and demonstrated the feasibility of these biomaterials for soft tissue regeneration in adult horses. Both slow and rapidly degrading silk matrices were evaluated in subcutaneous pocket and intramuscular defect depots. We showed that we can effectively employ an equine model over six months to simultaneously evaluate many different implants, reducing the number of animals needed. Furthermore, we were able to tailor matrix degradation by varying the initial format of the implanted silk. Finally, we demonstrate ultrasound imaging of implants to be an effective means for tracking tissue regeneration and implant degradation. PMID:25350377

  6. Equine model for soft-tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Bellas, Evangelia; Rollins, Amanda; Moreau, Jodie E; Lo, Tim; Quinn, Kyle P; Fourligas, Nicholas; Georgakoudi, Irene; Leisk, Gary G; Mazan, Melissa; Thane, Kristen E; Taeymans, Olivier; Hoffman, A M; Kaplan, D L; Kirker-Head, C A

    2015-08-01

    Soft-tissue regeneration methods currently yield suboptimal clinical outcomes due to loss of tissue volume and a lack of functional tissue regeneration. Grafted tissues and natural biomaterials often degrade or resorb too quickly, while most synthetic materials do not degrade. In previous research we demonstrated that soft-tissue regeneration can be supported using silk porous biomaterials for at least 18 months in vivo in a rodent model. In the present study, we scaled the system to a survival study using a large animal model and demonstrated the feasibility of these biomaterials for soft-tissue regeneration in adult horses. Both slow and rapidly degrading silk matrices were evaluated in subcutaneous pocket and intramuscular defect depots. We showed that we can effectively employ an equine model over 6 months to simultaneously evaluate many different implants, reducing the number of animals needed. Furthermore, we were able to tailor matrix degradation by varying the initial format of the implanted silk. Finally, we demonstrate ultrasound imaging of implants to be an effective means for tracking tissue regeneration and implant degradation.

  7. Ultrasonographic assessment of the equine palmar tendons

    PubMed Central

    Padaliya, N. R.; Ranpariya, J. J.; Kumar, Dharmendra; Javia, C. B.; Barvalia, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the equine palmar tendon by ultrasonography (USG) in standing the position. Materials and Methods: USG of palmar tendons was performed in 40 adult horses using linear transducer having frequency of 10-18 MHz (e-soate, My Lab FIVE) and L52 linear array transducer (Titan, SonoSite) with frequencies ranging from 8 to 10 MHz. Palmar tendon was divided into 7 levels from distal to accessory carpal bone up to ergot in transverse scanning and 3 levels in longitudinal scanning. Results: The USG evaluation was very useful for diagnosis of affections of the conditions such as chronic bowed tendon, suspensory ligament desmitis, carpal sheath tenosynovitis and digital sheath effusions. The mean cross-sectional area (cm2) of affected tendons was significantly increased in affected than normal tendons. The echogenicity was also found reduced in affected tendons and ligaments along with disorganization of fiber alignment depending on the severity of lesion and injury. Conclusion: USG proved ideal diagnostic tool for diagnosis and post-treatment healing assessment of tendon injuries in horses. PMID:27047074

  8. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2012-01-01

    A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering

  9. Urination and its discontents.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, J

    1994-01-01

    "Urination and Its Discontents" is an attempt to answer why various twentieth-century artists have made works that use or are about urination. Andy Warhol's act of "pissing" onto a canvas in his Oxidation Paintings is related to homosexual "sex clubs," but also to the iconoclasm of Mapplethorpe, Serrano, Duchamp, and Pollock. Freud's idea that civilization began with the renunciation of the "homosexual competition" of urinating on the fire is discussed and compared to Ellis's idealization of the erotics of bodily functions. Weinberg suggests that artists follow Ellis instead of Freud in undermining the boundaries society places on what is clean and dirty and what is sexually permissible.

  10. ELA-DRA polymorphisms are not associated with Equine Arteritis Virus infection in horses from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Kalemkerian, P B; Metz, G E; Peral-Garcia, P; Echeverria, M G; Giovambattista, G; Díaz, S

    2012-12-01

    Polymorphisms at Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes have been associated with resistance/susceptibility to infectious diseases in domestic animals. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate whether polymorphisms of the DRA gene the Equine Lymphocyte Antigen is associated with susceptibility to Equine Arteritis Virus (EAV) infection in horses in Argentina. The equine DRA gene was screened for polymorphisms using Pyrosequencing® Technology which allowed the detection of three ELA-DRA exon 2 alleles. Neither allele frequencies nor genotypic differentiation exhibited any statistically significant (P-values=0.788 and 0.745) differences between the EAV-infected and no-infected horses. Fisher's exact test and OR calculations did not show any significant association. As a consequence, no association could be established between the serological condition and ELA-DRA.

  11. Virucidal effect of commercially available disinfectants on equine group A rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Manabu; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    Although many disinfectants are commercially available in the veterinary field, information on the virucidal effects of disinfectants against equine group A rotavirus (RVA) is limited. We evaluated the performance of commercially available disinfectants against equine RVA. Chlorine- and iodine-based disinfectants showed virucidal effects, but these were reduced by the presence of organic matter. Glutaraldehyde had a virucidal effect regardless of the presence of organic matter, but the effect was reduced by low temperature or short reaction time, or both. Benzalkonium chloride had the greatest virucidal effect among the three quaternary ammonium compounds examined, but its effect was reduced by the presence of organic matter or by low temperature or a short reaction time. These findings will be useful for preventing the spread of equine RVA infection.

  12. Virucidal Effect of Commercially Available Disinfectants on Equine Group A Rotavirus

    PubMed Central

    NEMOTO, Manabu; BANNAI, Hiroshi; TSUJIMURA, Koji; YAMANAKA, Takashi; KONDO, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although many disinfectants are commercially available in the veterinary field, information on the virucidal effects of disinfectants against equine group A rotavirus (RVA) is limited. We evaluated the performance of commercially available disinfectants against equine RVA. Chlorine- and iodine-based disinfectants showed virucidal effects, but these were reduced by the presence of organic matter. Glutaraldehyde had a virucidal effect regardless of the presence of organic matter, but the effect was reduced by low temperature or short reaction time, or both. Benzalkonium chloride had the greatest virucidal effect among the three quaternary ammonium compounds examined, but its effect was reduced by the presence of organic matter or by low temperature or a short reaction time. These findings will be useful for preventing the spread of equine RVA infection. PMID:24681569

  13. Tracer techniques for urine volume determination and urine collection and sampling back-up system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, R. V.

    1971-01-01

    The feasibility, functionality, and overall accuracy of the use of lithium were investigated as a chemical tracer in urine for providing a means of indirect determination of total urine volume by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. Experiments were conducted to investigate the parameters of instrumentation, tracer concentration, mixing times, and methods for incorporating the tracer material in the urine collection bag, and to refine and optimize the urine tracer technique to comply with the Skylab scheme and operational parameters of + or - 2% of volume error and + or - 1% accuracy of amount of tracer added to each container. In addition, a back-up method for urine collection and sampling system was developed and evaluated. This back-up method incorporates the tracer technique for volume determination in event of failure of the primary urine collection and preservation system. One chemical preservative was selected and evaluated as a contingency chemical preservative for the storage of urine in event of failure of the urine cooling system.

  14. Risk of equine infectious disease transmission by non-race horse movements in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hayama, Yoko; Kobayashi, Sota; Nishida, Takeshi; Nishiguchi, Akiko; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2010-07-01

    For determining surveillance programs or infectious disease countermeasures, risk evaluation approaches have been recently undertaken in the field of animal health. In the present study, to help establish efficient and effective surveillance and countermeasures for equine infectious diseases, we evaluated the potential risk of equine infectious disease transmission in non-race horses from the viewpoints of horse movements and health management practices by conducting a survey of non-race horse holdings. From the survey, the non-race horse population was classified into the following five sectors based on their purposes: the equestrian sector, private owner sector, exhibition sector, fattening sector and others. Our survey results showed that the equestrian and private owner sectors had the largest population sizes, and movements between and within these sectors occurred quite frequently, while there was little movement in the other sectors. Qualitative evaluation showed that the equestrian and private owner sectors had relatively high risks of equine infectious disease transmission through horse movements. Therefore, it would be effective to concentrate on these two sectors when implementing surveillance or preventative measures. Special priority should be given to the private owner sector because this sector has not implemented inspection and vaccination well compared with the equestrian sector, which possesses a high compliance rate for these practices. This qualitative risk evaluation focused on horse movements and health management practices could provide a basis for further risk evaluation to establish efficient and effective surveillance and countermeasures for equine infectious diseases.

  15. Biomarkers for equine joint injury and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    McIlwraith, C Wayne; Kawcak, Christopher E; Frisbie, David D; Little, Christopher B; Clegg, Peter D; Peffers, Mandy J; Karsdal, Morten A; Ekman, Stina; Laverty, Sheila; Slayden, Richard A; Sandell, Linda J; Lohmander, L Stefan; Kraus, Virginia B

    2017-09-16

    We report the results of a symposium aimed at identifying validated biomarkers that can be used to complement clinical observations for diagnosis and prognosis of joint injury leading to equine osteoarthritis (OA). Biomarkers might also predict pre-fracture change that could lead to catastrophic bone failure in equine athletes. The workshop was attended by leading scientists in the fields of equine and human musculoskeletal biomarkers to enable cross-disciplinary exchange and improve knowledge in both. Detailed proceedings with strategic planning was written, added to, edited and referenced to develop this manuscript. The most recent information from work in equine and human osteoarthritic biomarkers was accumulated, including the use of personalized healthcare to stratify OA phenotypes, transcriptome analysis of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and meniscal injuries in the human knee. The spectrum of "wet" biomarker assays that are antibody based that have achieved usefulness in both humans and horses, imaging biomarkers and the role they can play in equine and human OA was discussed. Prediction of musculoskeletal injury in the horse remains a challenge, and the potential usefulness of spectroscopy, metabolomics, proteomics, and development of biobanks to classify biomarkers in different stages of equine and human OA were reviewed. The participants concluded that new information and studies in equine musculoskeletal biomarkers have potential translational value for humans and vice versa. OA is equally important in humans and horses, and the welfare issues associated with catastrophic musculoskeletal injury in horses add further emphasis to the need for good validated biomarkers in the horse. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Frequent or urgent urination

    MedlinePlus

    Urgent urination; Urinary frequency or urgency; Urgency-frequency syndrome; Overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome; Urge syndrome ... Also call your provider if: You have urinary frequency or urgency, but you are not pregnant and ...

  17. Clean catch urine sample

    MedlinePlus

    ... specimen; Urine collection - clean catch; UTI - clean catch; Urinary tract infection - clean catch; Cystitis - clean catch ... LE, Norrby SR. Approach to the patient with urinary tract infection. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  18. Urine Tests (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a doctor suspects that a child has a urinary tract infection (UTI) or a health problem that can cause ... to-Creatinine Ratio Kidney Diseases in Childhood Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions Urinary Tract Infections Urine Test: ...

  19. Leucine aminopeptidase - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Leucine aminopeptidase - urine URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ ...

  20. Maple syrup urine disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... People with this condition cannot break down the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. This leads to a ... be done to check for this disorder: Plasma amino acid test Urine organic acid test Genetic testing There ...

  1. Urinating more at night

    MedlinePlus

    ... of diabetes ? Does nighttime urination interfere with your sleep? Tests that may be performed include: Blood sugar (glucose) Blood urea nitrogen Fluid deprivation Osmolality , blood Serum creatinine or creatinine clearance Serum ...

  2. 24-hour urine protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... a blockage of blood vessels, or other causes Multiple myeloma Healthy people may have higher than normal urine ... team. Kidney Tests Read more Lymphoma Read more Multiple Myeloma Read more A.D.A.M., Inc. is ...

  3. Check list of the helminths of equines in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gürler, Ali Tümay; Bölükbaş, Cenk Soner; Açici, Mustafa; Umur, Sinasi

    2010-01-01

    Helminths of equines are one of the most important agents of parasitic diseases. Therefore, many studies have been conducted on helminths of equines in Turkey. In this article, a check list and prevalence rates of helminths of equines in Turkey have been given.

  4. Training Law Enforcement Officials on Responding to Equine Calls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kathleen P.; Stauffer, Gary; Stauffer, Monte; Anderson, Doug; Biodrowski, Kristie

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of equine abuse/neglect cases is an ongoing issue. However, officials responding to equine cases are rarely experienced in handling horses. Therefore, workshops teaching basic horse husbandry were offered to better equip and prepare officials to respond to equine cases. Trainings consisted of both classroom and hands-on sessions.…

  5. Training Law Enforcement Officials on Responding to Equine Calls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kathleen P.; Stauffer, Gary; Stauffer, Monte; Anderson, Doug; Biodrowski, Kristie

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of equine abuse/neglect cases is an ongoing issue. However, officials responding to equine cases are rarely experienced in handling horses. Therefore, workshops teaching basic horse husbandry were offered to better equip and prepare officials to respond to equine cases. Trainings consisted of both classroom and hands-on sessions.…

  6. 9 CFR 317.9 - Labeling of equine products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of equine products. 317.9... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.9 Labeling of equine products. The immediate containers of any equine products shall be labeled to show the kinds of animals...

  7. 9 CFR 317.9 - Labeling of equine products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling of equine products. 317.9... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.9 Labeling of equine products. The immediate containers of any equine products shall be labeled to show the kinds of animals...

  8. A new ELISA for the quantification of equine procalcitonin in plasma as potential inflammation biomarker in horses.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Martin; Kochleus, Christian; Teschner, Dana; Rascher, Daniela; Barton, Ann Kristin; Geerlof, Arie; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Schmid, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Gehlen, Heidrun

    2014-09-01

    In human medicine, procalcitonin (PCT) is a very common and well-established biomarker for sepsis. Even though sepsis is also a leading cause of death in foals and adult horses, up to now, no data about the role of equine PCT in septic horses has been available. Based on monoclonal antibodies targeted against human PCT, we report here the development of a sandwich ELISA for the quantification of equine PCT in equine plasma samples. The ELISA was characterized for intra- and interassay variance and a working range from 25 to 1,000 ng mL(-1) was defined as within this range; both intra- and interassay variances were below 15 %. The target recovery ranged between 73 and 106 %. The ELISA was used to determine the equine PCT concentration in 24 healthy and 5 septic horses to show the potential for clinical evaluation of equine PCT. Significantly different (P = 0.0006) mean equine PCT concentrations were found for the healthy control group and the sepsis group (47 and 8,450 ng mL(-1)).

  9. [Do some conditions contribute to the reemergence of the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in the Colombian Alta Guajira?].

    PubMed

    Ferro, Cristina; De Las Salas, Jorge; González, Martha; Díaz, Alberto; Cabrera, Claudia; Flórez, Zulibeth; Duque, María Clara; Lugo, Ligia; Bello, Betsy

    2015-01-01

    In the last 18 years, epizootics of Venezuelan equine encephalitis have not occurred in places with historic epidemic register (1925-1995) in the Guajira Peninsula, Colombia. To assess if the Guajira Peninsula, Colombia, still maintains the epidemiological conditions for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus reemergence. Research was carried out in places affected by the 1995 epidemic. We evaluated: 1) abundance and seasonal variation of vector mosquito populations; 2) availability of mammals that are potential amplifiers of the virus, and 3) knowledge among the community about the disease and its vectors. Most of the 16 mosquito species were found during the rainy season. Aedes taeniorhynchus and Psorophora confinnis showed direct relation with rainfall and temperature. In contrast, the dominant species, Deinocerites atlanticus , was always present in the collections, regardless of climatic conditions. No IgG antibodies were found in humans younger than 17 years old, goats or bovine sera. One third of those interviewed remembered the last epidemic and had basic understanding of the disease. Only 20% of the families were owners of equines, and 8% was informed of the importance of equine vaccination. Some epidemiological conditions that eventually could help epizootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus reemergence are maintained. However, an abrupt decrease in the number of susceptible equines was found in the area. Apparently, this new condition has not allowed the virus reemergence and is the biggest observed change.

  10. Diarrhea-associated pathogens, lactobacilli and cellulolytic bacteria in equine feces: responses to antibiotic challenge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antibiotics are important to equine medicine, but antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) can lead to poor performance and even mortality. AAD is attributed to disruption of the hindgut microbiota, which permits proliferation of pathogenic microbes. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects o...

  11. Assessment of Equine Fecal Contamination: The Search for Alternative Bacterial Source-tracking Targets

    EPA Science Inventory

    16S rDNA clone libraries were evaluated for detection of fecal source-identifying bacteria from a collapsed equine manure pile. Libraries were constructed using universal eubacterial primers and Bacteroides-Prevotella group-specific primers. Eubacterial sequences indicat...

  12. Assessment of Equine Fecal Contamination: The Search for Alternative Bacterial Source-tracking Targets

    EPA Science Inventory

    16S rDNA clone libraries were evaluated for detection of fecal source-identifying bacteria from a collapsed equine manure pile. Libraries were constructed using universal eubacterial primers and Bacteroides-Prevotella group-specific primers. Eubacterial sequences indicat...

  13. Effects of an Equine Assisted Activities Program on Youth with Emotional Disturbance: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebbins, Tira

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a 10-week Equine Assisted Activities (EAA) program on special education students (aged 9 to 15) identified as Emotionally Disturbed (ED) who were enrolled in an alternative school. A control group of special education students receiving treatment-as-usual was included. The Behavior Assessment Scale for Children,…

  14. Effects of an Equine Assisted Activities Program on Youth with Emotional Disturbance: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebbins, Tira

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a 10-week Equine Assisted Activities (EAA) program on special education students (aged 9 to 15) identified as Emotionally Disturbed (ED) who were enrolled in an alternative school. A control group of special education students receiving treatment-as-usual was included. The Behavior Assessment Scale for Children,…

  15. Development and characterization of an equine infectious anemia virus Env-pseudotyped reporter virus.

    PubMed

    Tallmadge, R L; Brindley, M A; Salmans, J; Mealey, R H; Maury, W; Carpenter, S

    2008-07-01

    We developed a replication-defective reporter virus pseudotyped with the envelope glycoprotein of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). The in vitro host range and neutralization phenotype of EIAV Env-pseudotyped virus were similar to those of replication-competent virus. An EIAV Env pseudovirus will improve antigenic characterization of viral variants and evaluation of lentivirus vaccines.

  16. Evaluation of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine and phenylpropanolamine concentrations in human urine samples and a comparison of the specificity of DRI amphetamines and Abuscreen online (KIMS) amphetamines screening immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Stout, Peter R; Klette, Kevin L; Horn, Carl K

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of two amphetamine class screening reagents to exclude ephedrine (EPH), pseudoephedrine (PSEPH), and phenylpropanolamine (PPA) from falsely producing positive immunoassay screening results. The study also sought to characterize the prevalence and concentration distributions of EPH, PSEPH, and PPA in samples that produced positive amphetamine screening results. Approximately 27,400 randomly collected human urine samples from Navy and Marine Corps members were simultaneously screened for amphetamines using the DRI and Abuscreen online immunoassays at a cutoff concentration of 500 ng/mL. All samples that screened positive were confirmed for amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MTH), 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), EPH, PSEPH, and PPA by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The DRI AMP immunoassay identified 1,104 presumptive amphetamine positive samples, of which only 1.99% confirmed positive for the presence of AMP, MTH, MDA, or MDMA. In contrast, the online AMP reagent identified 317 presumptive amphetamine positives with a confirmation rate for AMP, MTH, MDA, or MDMA of 7.94%. The presence of EPH, PSEPH, or PPA was confirmed in 833 of the 1,104 samples that failed to confirm positive for AMP, MTH, MDA, or MDMA; all of the 833 samples contained PSEPH. When compared to the entire screened sample set, PSEPH was present in approximately 3%, EPH in 0.9%, and PPA in 0.8% of the samples. The results indicate that cross reactivities for EPH, PSEPH, and PPA are greater than reported by the manufacturer of these reagents. The distribution of concentrations indicates that very large concentrations of EPH, PSEPH, and PPA are common.

  17. Fifty years of the British Equine Veterinary Association as a facilitator of progress in equine clinical science.

    PubMed

    Silver, I A; Jeffcott, L B; Rossdale, P D

    2011-09-01

    The British Equine Veterinary Association (BEVA) was established in 1961 and launched the Equine Veterinary Journal (EVJ) in 1968. This review outlines some of the major advances in equine science and practice that have occurred in that time and the role played by the Journal in facilitating those developments. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  18. Successful treatment of an equine preputial fibrosarcoma using 5-fluorouracil/evaluation of the treatment using quantitative PCNA and Ki67 (MIB 1) immunostaining. (case report).

    PubMed

    Roels, S; Ducatelle, R; van De Vijver, B; De Kruif, A

    1998-12-01

    An 18-month-old cross-bred Fjord pony colt presenting a fibrosarcoma of the prepuce with severe infiltrative growth, was treated by topical application of 5-fluorouracil. Biopsies were taken before and after a treatment period of 2 months. As a control, preputial tissue from a healthy horse was biopsied. Tissue sections were stained immunohistochemically for Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) and Proliferation related factor--Ki67 (MIB1). Using computerized quantitative image analysis of these sections, Mitotic index (PCNA), Growth Fraction (Ki67) and total nuclear area percentage of the dermis were calculated. The Mitotic index, growth fraction and total nuclear area percentage were significantly (P < 0.001) reduced at the end of the treatment period compared to the initial biopsy tissue, but they still were significantly higher than the control values, due to a remnant inflammatory reaction to the cytostatic drug. After treatment of the lesion, the pony fully recovered with no visible residual lesions on the prepuce. On follow-up 6 months after treatment, the horse showed no signs of recurrence. The success of the present treatment should encourage further clinical trials in cases of malignant fibrous tumours of skin in horses. The quantitative analysis of cell proliferation in biopsies can be used to evaluate treatment follow-up.

  19. Comparison of platelet counting technologies in equine platelet concentrates.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Caitlin M; Werre, Stephen R; Dahlgren, Linda A

    2015-04-01

    (1) To compare the performance of 4 platelet counting technologies in equine platelet concentrates and (2) to evaluate the ability of the Magellan platelet rich plasma (PRP) system to concentrate equine platelets. Experimental study to assess method agreement. Adult mixed breed horses (n = 32). Acid citrate dextrose-A anti-coagulated whole blood was collected and PRP produced using the Magellan system according to the manufacturer's instructions. Platelets were quantified using 4 counting methods: optical scatter (Advia 2120), impedance (CellDyn 3700), hand counting, and fluorescent antibody flow cytometry. Platelet concentrations were compared using Passing and Bablok regression analyses and mixed model ANOVA. Significance was set at P < .05. Platelet concentrations measured in identical PRP samples were consistently higher for the Advia 2120 than the CellDyn 3700. Systematic and proportional biases were observed between these 2 automated methods when analyzed by regression analysis of the larger sample size. No bias (systematic or proportional) was observed among any of the other counting methods. Despite the bias detected between the 2 automated systems, there were no significant differences on average among the 4 counting methods evaluated, based on the ANOVA. The Magellan system consistently generated high platelet concentrations as well as higher than expected WBC concentrations. The Magellan system delivered desirably high platelet concentrations; however, WBC concentrations may be unacceptably high for some orthopedic applications. All 4 platelet counting methods tested were equivalent on average and therefore suitable for quantifying platelets in equine PRP used for clinical applications. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  20. Decorin-PEI nanoconstruct attenuates equine corneal fibroblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Kevin S; Giuliano, Elizabeth A; Sharma, Ajay; Tandon, Ashish; Rodier, Jason T; Mohan, Rajiv R

    2014-05-01

    To explore (i) the potential of polyethylenimine (PEI) nanoparticles as a vector for delivering genes into equine corneal fibroblasts (ECFs) using green fluorescent protein (GFP) marker gene, (ii) whether PEI nanoparticle-mediated decorin (DCN) gene therapy could be used to inhibit fibrosis in the equine cornea using an in vitro model. Polyethylenimine-DNA nanoparticles were prepared at nitrogen-to-phosphate (N-P) ratio of 15 by mixing 22 kDa linear PEI and a plasmid encoding either GFP or DCN. ECFs were generated from donor corneas as previously described. Initially, GFP was introduced into ECFs using PEI nanoparticles to confirm gene delivery, then DCN was introduced to evaluate for antifibrotic effects. GFP gene delivery was confirmed with real-time qPCR and ELISA. Changes in fibrosis after DCN therapy were quantified by measuring α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) mRNA and protein levels with qPCR, immunostaining, and immunoblotting. Cytotoxicity was determined by evaluating cell morphology, cellular viability, and TUNEL assay. Polyethylenimine-green fluorescent protein-treated cultures showed 2.2 × 10(4) GFP plasmid copies/μg of cellular DNA and 2.1 pg of GFP/100 μL of lysate. PEI-DCN delivery significantly attenuated TGFβ-induced transdifferentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts (2-fold decrease of αSMA mRNA; P = 0.05) and significant inhibition of αSMA (49 ± 14.2%; P < 0.001) in immunocytochemical staining and immunoblotting were found. Furthermore, PEI-DNA nanoparticle delivery did not alter cellular phenotype at 24 h and cellular viability was maintained. Twenty-two kilo dalton Polyethylenimine nanoparticles are safe and effective for equine corneal gene therapy in vitro. PEI-mediated DCN gene delivery is effective at inhibiting TGFβ-mediated fibrosis in this model. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  1. Evaluation of serum and urine fetuin-A levels in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia during and after high-dose methotrexate therapy: Relation to toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ragab, Seham M; Badr, Eman A

    2016-03-01

    Fetuin-A is a multifunctional protein with its urine level was considered as a marker of acute kidney injury. We investigated the serum and urine fetuin-A in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) children during and after high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX). Twenty-two ALL children and 20 matched healthy controls were included. Liver transaminases, serum creatinine, estimated glomular filtration rate (eGFR), creatinine clearance (CrCl), serum β2 microglobulin (B2M), and serum and urine fetuin-A levels were assayed pre and 4 months after the consolidation. Among a subgroup of 15 patients, the investigations were performed 42 hours after the start of the second and the fourth HDMTX infusions. HDMTX was well tolerated. During HDMTX, there was significant decline in serum fetuin-A together with significant rise of urine fetuin-A and B2M levels compared to the control and to the pre-consolidation levels, changes that persisted 4 months after the consolidation despite recovery of the significantly altered renal functions. The second HDMTX-related serum fetuin-A level directly correlated with eGFR and CrCl (r = 0.86, P < 0.0001 and r = 0.67, P = 0.016, respectively). Four months after consolidation, urine fetuin-A directly correlated with serum creatinine (r = 0.54, P = 0.004) and inversely correlated with the eGFR (r = -0.66, P < 0.0001). Significant disturbance in serum and urinary fetuin-A levels, which was related to renal functions, had occurred during HDMTX and persisted for at least 4 months after the consolidation. Serum and urine fetuin-A could be sensitive markers for subtle renal dysfunction in ALL children.

  2. Evaluation of the in vitro growth of urinary tract infection-causing gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in a proposed synthetic human urine (SHU) medium.

    PubMed

    Ipe, Deepak S; Ulett, Glen C

    2016-08-01

    Bacteriuria is a hallmark of urinary tract infection (UTI) and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU), which are among the most frequent infections in humans. A variety of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria are associated with these infections but Escherichia coli contributes up to 80% of cases. Multiple bacterial species including E. coli can grow in human urine as a means to maintain colonization during infections. In vitro bacteriuria studies aimed at modeling microbial growth in urine have utilized various compositions of synthetic human urine (SHU) and a Composite SHU formulation was recently proposed. In this study, we sought to validate the recently proposed Composite SHU as a medium that supports the growth of several bacterial species that are known to grow in normal human urine and/or artificial urine. Comparative growth assays of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Enterococcus faecalis were undertaken using viable bacterial count and optical density measurements over a 48h culture period. Three different SHU formulations were tested in various culture vessels, shaking conditions and volumes and showed that Composite SHU can support the robust growth of gram-negative bacteria but requires supplementation with 0.2% yeast extract to support the growth of gram-positive bacteria. Experiments are also presented that show an unexpected but major influence of P. mirabilis towards the ability to measure bacterial growth in generally accepted multiwell assays using absorbance readings, predicted to have a basis in the release of volatile organic compound(s) from P. mirabilis during growth in Composite SHU medium. This study represents an essential methodological validation of a more chemically defined type of synthetic urine that can be applied to study mechanisms of bacteriuria and we conclude will offer a useful in vitro model to investigate the

  3. Performance evaluation of the Sysmex pocH-100iV Diff hematology analyzer for analysis of canine, feline, equine, and bovine blood.

    PubMed

    Riond, Barbara; Weissenbacher, Stefan; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans

    2011-12-01

    The Sysmex pocH-100iV Diff is an impedance hematology analyzer recently introduced for point-of-care use in veterinary practices in Europe. The purpose of this study was to validate the pocH-100iV Diff for analysis of blood samples from dogs, cats, horses, and cattle. Fresh EDTA-blood samples from healthy and ill dogs (115), cats (94), horses (91), and cattle (78) were analyzed on the pocH-100iV Diff and the Cell-Dyn 3500. Results of the automated WBC differential counts were compared with the manual differential counts for 77 dogs, 65 cats, 40 horses, and 46 cattle. HCT were compared with PCVs obtained by microhematocrit centrifugation. Furthermore, precision, linearity, carry-over, cell aging, and clinical relevance of the pocH-100iV Diff results were assessed. Most of the CBC results obtained by the pocH-100iV Diff correlated well with those of the Cell-Dyn 3500. Slightly low correlation was observed for canine MCV and hemoglobin concentration. Lymphocytes correlated well in horses and cattle, but less well in cats and dogs. The mixed cell population termed "OTHRS" (all granulocytes and monocytes for horses and cattle; neutrophils, monocytes, and basophils for cats and dogs) correlated well in all tested species. The instrument overestimated feline and canine eosinophils. In cats, platelet counts showed a strong negative bias. The overall performance of the pocH-100iV Diff was excellent with the noted limitations. The automated differential count can be used as screening tool in conjunction with evaluation of a blood smear. © 2011 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  4. Risk factors for equine laminitis: a systematic review with quality appraisal of published evidence.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Claire E; Collins, Simon N; Verheyen, Kristien L P; Newton, J Richard

    2012-07-01

    Epidemiological studies into the risk factors for naturally-occurring equine laminitis are limited. There are a small number of such studies, although the results are inconsistent and remain disputed. The reasons for the conflicting results remain unclear. The aim of this review was to critically evaluate previous research in order to identify publications which provide the best evidence of risk factors for naturally-occurring equine laminitis. A systematic review of English language publications was conducted using MEDLINE (1950-2010), CAB Direct (1910-2010) and IVIS (1997-2010). Additional publications were included by searching bibliographies. Search terms included laminitis, equine, risk factors and epidemiology. Publications which compared a case population to a control population and made inferences about parameters as risk factors for naturally-occurring equine laminitis were included. Information was extracted using predefined data fields, including 18 study quality indicators. In total, 17 publications were fully appraised. Six were considered to provide the most reliable information about risk factors for naturally-occurring laminitis. Information on signalment was well researched and there was good evidence for an association with chronic laminitis and increasing age. There remain inconsistent results for many other horse-level risk factors including gender, breed and bodyweight. Previous publications estimating risk factors for equine laminitis were of reasonable quality, although they were limited in the number and scope of the risk factors studied. High-quality, evidence-based studies are needed to identify further risk factors and to establish consensus over previously identified risk factors for different equine populations.

  5. Serological survey of equine viral diseases in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Pagamjav, Ochir; Kobayashi, Keiko; Murakami, Hironobu; Tabata, Yuji; Miura, Yasuo; Boldbaatar, Bazartseren; Sentsui, Hiroshi

    2011-04-01

    Three hundred sera were collected from horses in various parts of Mongolia in 2007 and seroepidemiological surveys for several equine viruses performed on them. Equid herpesvirus 1 and equine rhinitis A virus were prevalent, and equine arteritis virus and equid herpesvirus 3 were detected over a wide area though their rates of antibody-positivity were not high. Equine infectious anemia was distributed locally. The rates of horses antibody-positive for Japanese encephalitis virus and equine influenza virus were low, but these were detected. Bovine coronavirus antibodies were detected at a high rate, but it was not clear whether they were due to horse coronavirus.

  6. Histopathological features of equine superficial, nonhealing, corneal ulcers.

    PubMed

    Hempstead, Julie E; Clode, Alison B; Borst, Luke B; Gilger, Brian C

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate corneal changes associated with chronic, nonhealing, superficial, corneal ulcers in horses via common histopathological stains. Retrospective study. Twenty-four horses diagnosed with chronic, nonhealing, superficial, corneal ulceration. The medical records of horses evaluated at North Carolina State University's Veterinary Teaching Hospital (NCSU-VTH) from 2005 to 2011, diagnosed with a chronic, nonhealing, superficial, corneal ulcer and treated with superficial keratectomy (SK) were reviewed. Inclusion criteria were superficial corneal ulceration, no cellular infiltration via slit-lamp biomicroscopy, no microorganisms evident on corneal cytology, and acquisition of samples for aerobic bacterial and common fungal cultures. Corneal tissue samples were evaluated histopathologically for the presence or absence of a nonadherent epithelial 'lip', epithelial dysmaturity, intraepithelial inflammatory cells, an acellular hyaline zone in the anterior stroma, and stromal inflammatory cells, fibrosis and vascularization. In the majority of analyzed samples, epithelial cells adjacent to the ulcerated site showed nonadherence to the basement membrane and dysmaturity. Intraepithelial inflammatory cell infiltration was uncommon. Histopathological features of an anterior stromal hyaline zone, intrastromal inflammation, fibrosis and vascularization were variably present. The most consistent histopathological characteristics of equine chronic, nonhealing, superficial, corneal ulcers include epithelial nonadherence, epithelial dysmaturity and mild to moderate stromal inflammation; however, one set of histopathological characteristics does not definitively define this syndrome in horses. Additionally, the anterior stromal acellular hyaline zone commonly cited in canine spontaneous chronic corneal epithelial defects (SCCED) is not a consistent finding in equine corneas. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  7. Recent advances in equine reproduction.

    PubMed

    Dawson, F L

    1977-01-01

    Mares rarely ovulate in winter; ovulation is induced by increase in daylight length. Ova accumulate in the oviducts of unserved mares. During pregnancy, corpora lutea accumulate; all regress together at mid pregnancy. Plasma progesterone levels rise and oestrogen levels fall towards the end of pregnancy. Methods are available for early termination of pregnancy and for induction of parturition. Pregnancy can be diagnosed efficiently by rectal examination, and by immunological assay of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin. Service at the foal heat is associated with an increased prevalence of early embryonic death; twinning is the commonest single cause of abortion. Spontaneous prolonged dioestrus is common in summer but may be effectively treated. Bacterial endometritis may result mainly from secondary pathogenic activity by organisms of the normal uterine flora; diagnosis by endometrial smear examination is accurate and methods of treatment have improved. The virus of horse pox has been identified, and the occurrence of equine infection with Mycoplasma has been confirmed. In the male, recent work has emphasized that reproductive function is seasonal. The presence or absence of an undescended testis can now be accurately determined.

  8. Epidemiological study of equine piroplasmosis in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Boldbaatar, Damdinsuren; Xuan, Xuenan; Battsetseg, Badgar; Igarashi, Ikuo; Battur, Banzragch; Batsukh, Zayat; Bayambaa, Badarch; Fujisaki, Kozo

    2005-01-04

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the occurrence of equine piroplasmosis in Mongolia, a country in which the disease occurs epidemically in different climatic conditions. Antibodies to Babesia equi and B. caballi were determined in serum samples of 254 pastured horses in different locations of Mongolia using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with recombinant antigens. One hundred and eighty-five (72.8%) and 102 (40.1%) of all serum samples were positive for B. equi and B. caballi infections, respectively. In addition, 78 (30.7%) samples were positive for both B. equi and B. caballi infections. These results indicate that equine piroplasmosis is widespread in Mongolia. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing an epidemiological study on equine piroplasmosis in different geographic regions in Mongolia.

  9. Equine influenza--a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Cullinane, A; Newton, J R

    2013-11-29

    To date, equine influenza outbreaks have been reported all over the world with the exception of a small number of island nations including New Zealand and Iceland. Influenza is endemic in Europe and North America and is considered to be of potentially major economic significance to the equine industry worldwide. The importation of subclinically infected vaccinated horses, and inadequate quarantine procedures have resulted in several major outbreaks in susceptible populations for example, in Australia (2007) when more than 76,000 horses on over 10,000 properties were reported as infected. This review summarises the current understanding of, and recent research on, equine influenza, including epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, laboratory diagnosis, management and prevention. Recent advances in diagnostic techniques are discussed as are the merits of different vaccination regimes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Aerosol therapy in the equine species.

    PubMed

    Duvivier, D H; Votion, D; Vandenput, S; Lekeux, P

    1997-11-01

    Inhalation therapy plays an increasing role in the management of equine respiratory disorders. This alternative to systematic treatment permits a high concentration of medication to act locally while minimizing side effects and residues. In human medicine, literature in this field is prolific and continuously renewed, whereas in veterinary medicine, applications of aerosol therapy are less extensive. This review considers the principles of action of the different types of devices used for inhalation, i.e., nebulization, metered-dose inhalation and dry powder inhalation, describes the technical and practical requirements for their use in the equine species and considers the advantages and disadvantages of each inhalation device. The pharmacological agents currently administered to horses by inhalation are also discussed. Perspectives of aerosol therapy in the equine species, including aerosols already used in human medicine and their potential applications for horses are described.

  11. Evaluation of the Leukocyte Esterase and Nitrite Urine Dipstick Screening Tests for Detection of Bacteriuria in Women with Suspected Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Semeniuk, Heather; Church, Deirdre

    1999-01-01

    A positive dipstick urinalysis (i.e., leukocyte esterase test and/or nitrite test) did not reliably detect significant bacteriuria in 479 ambulatory women with suspected uncomplicated urinary tract infection; 18.9% of the urine samples that demonstrated significant bacteriuria would have been rejected by the laboratory based on a negative urinalysis screen. PMID:10449505

  12. Right ventricular function during acute exacerbation of severe equine asthma.

    PubMed

    Decloedt, A; Borowicz, H; Slowikowska, M; Chiers, K; van Loon, G; Niedzwiedz, A

    2017-09-01

    Pulmonary hypertension has been described in horses with severe equine asthma, but its effect on the right ventricle has not been fully elucidated. To evaluate right ventricular structure and function after a 1-week period of pulmonary hypertension secondary to acute exacerbation of severe equine asthma. Prospective study. A clinical episode of severe equine asthma was induced experimentally in six susceptible horses. Examinations in remission and on day 7 of the clinical episode included a physical examination with clinical scoring, echocardiography, arterial blood gas measurements, venous blood sampling for cardiac biomarkers, intracardiac pressure measurements, right ventricular and right atrial myocardial biopsies, airway endoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage. After 1 month of recovery, physical examination, echocardiography and cardiac biomarker analysis were repeated. Echocardiographic and pressure measurements were compared with those in 10 healthy control horses. All horses developed clinical signs of acute pulmonary obstruction. Right heart pressures increased significantly. Altered right ventricular function could be detected by tissue Doppler and speckle tracking echocardiography. Cardiac troponin concentrations did not increase significantly, but were highly elevated in one horse which exercised in the paddock prior to sampling. Focal neutrophil infiltration was present in two myocardial samples. Even in remission, asthmatic horses showed a thicker right ventricular wall, an increased left ventricular end-systolic eccentricity index at chordal level and decreased right ventricular longitudinal strain compared with controls. The induced clinical episode was rather mild and the number of horses was limited because of the invasive nature of the study. Pulmonary obstruction in asthmatic horses induces pulmonary hypertension with right ventricular structural and functional changes. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  13. Advanced imaging in equine dental disease.

    PubMed

    Selberg, Kurt; Easley, Jeremiah T

    2013-08-01

    Dental and sinus disorders are relatively common and of major clinical importance in equine medicine. Advanced diagnostic imaging has become an integral part of equine veterinary medicine. Advanced imaging has progressed the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of dental- and sinus-related diseases. As a clinician, it is important to realize the value of advanced diagnostic imaging. Although computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are both significantly more expensive compared with other diagnostic tools, the financial cost of inaccurate diagnosis and treatment can often result in higher overall costs.

  14. Introduction to Equine Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Catherine M; Cottriall, Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    Physical therapy (physiotherapy, or PT) can be broadly defined as the restoration of movement and function and includes assessment, treatment, and rehabilitation. This review outlines the history, definition, and regulation of PT, followed by the core scientific principles of PT. Because musculoskeletal physiotherapy is the predominant subdiscipline in equine PT, encompassing poor performance, back pain syndromes, other musculoskeletal disorders, and some neuromuscular disorders, the sciences of functional biomechanics, neuromotor control, and the sensorimotor system in the spine, pelvis, and peripheral joints are reviewed. Equine PT also may involve PT assessment and treatment of riders.

  15. [Demonstration of Chlamydia from an equine abortion].

    PubMed

    Henning, K; Sachse, K; Sting, R

    2000-02-01

    The isolation and identification of a chlamydial agent from an equine fetus is reported. The fetus was aborted by a mare with respiratory disease and fever in the 9th month of pregnancy. The serum of the mare was investigated by the compliment fixation test. Specific antibodies were detected for chlamydial antigen in a titer of > 1:40 and for equine herpes virus 1 antigen in a titer of 1:32. Pathological lesions were not found in the organs of the fetus. Chlamydiae were detected in the placenta by ELISA and subsequently isolated by cell culture. Using PCR technique the agent was identified as Chlamydophila psittaci.

  16. Evaluation of 2 portable ion-selective electrode meters for determining whole blood, plasma, urine, milk, and abomasal fluid potassium concentrations in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Megahed, A A; Hiew, M W H; Grünberg, W; Constable, P D

    2016-09-01

    Two low-cost ion-selective electrode (ISE) handheld meters (CARDY C-131, LAQUAtwin B-731; Horiba Ltd., Albany, NY) have recently become available for measuring the potassium concentration ([K(+)]) in biological fluids. The primary objective of this study was to characterize the analytical performance of the ISE meters in measuring [K(+)] in bovine whole blood, plasma, urine, milk, and abomasal fluid. We completed 6 method comparison studies using 369 whole blood and plasma samples from 106 healthy periparturient Holstein-Friesian cows, 138 plasma samples from 27 periparturient Holstein-Friesian cows, 92 milk samples and 204 urine samples from 16 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows, and 94 abomasal fluid samples from 6 male Holstein-Friesian calves. Deming regression and Bland-Altman plots were used to characterize meter performance against reference methods (indirect ISE, Hitachi 911 and 917; inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy). The CARDY ISE meter applied directly in plasma measured [K(+)] as being 7.3% lower than the indirect ISE reference method, consistent with the recommended adjustment of +7.5% when indirect ISE methods are used to analyze plasma. The LAQUAtwin ISE meter run in direct mode measured fat-free milk [K(+)] as being 3.6% lower than the indirect ISE reference method, consistent with a herd milk protein percentage of 3.4%. The LAQUAtwin ISE meter accurately measured abomasal fluid [K(+)] compared to the indirect ISE reference method. The LAQUAtwin ISE meter accurately measured urine [K(+)] compared to the indirect ISE reference method, but the median measured value for urine [K(+)] was 83% of the true value measured by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. We conclude that the CARDY and LAQUAtwin ISE meters are practical, low-cost, rapid, accurate point-of-care instruments suitable for measuring [K(+)] in whole blood, plasma, milk, and abomasal fluid samples from cattle. Ion-selective electrode methodology is

  17. Urine Concentration and Pyuria for Identifying UTI in Infants.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Pradip P; Monuteaux, Michael C; Bachur, Richard G

    2016-11-01

    Varying urine white blood cell (WBC) thresholds have been recommended for the presumptive diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) among young infants. These thresholds have not been studied with newer automated urinalysis systems that analyze uncentrifuged urine that might be influenced by urine concentration. Our objective was to determine the optimal urine WBC threshold for UTI in young infants by using an automated urinalysis system, stratified by urine concentration. Retrospective cross-sectional study of infants aged <3 months evaluated for UTI in the emergency department with paired urinalysis and urine culture. UTI was defined as ≥50 000 colony-forming units/mL from catheterized specimens. Test characteristics were calculated across a range of WBC and leukocyte esterase (LE) cut-points, dichotomized into specific gravity groups (dilute <1.015; concentrated ≥1.015). Twenty-seven thousand infants with a median age of 1.7 months were studied. UTI prevalence was 7.8%. Optimal WBC cut-points were 3 WBC/high-power field (HPF) in dilute urine (likelihood ratio positive [LR+] 9.9, likelihood ratio negative [LR‒] 0.15) and 6 WBC/HPF (LR+ 10.1, LR‒ 0.17) in concentrated urine. For dipstick analysis, positive LE has excellent test characteristics regardless of urine concentration (LR+ 22.1, LR‒ 0.12 in dilute urine; LR+ 31.6, LR‒ 0.22 in concentrated urine). Urine concentration should be incorporated into the interpretation of automated microscopic urinalysis in young infants. Pyuria thresholds of 3 WBC/HPF in dilute urine and 6 WBC/HPF in concentrated urine are recommended for the presumptive diagnosis of UTI. Without correction of specific gravity, positive LE by automated dipstick is a reliably strong indicator of UTI. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. The structure and regulation of the Irish equine industries: Links to considerations of equine welfare

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The equine industries in Ireland are vibrant and growing. They are broadly classified into two sectors: Thoroughbred racing, and sports and leisure. This paper describes these sectors in terms of governance, education and training in equine welfare, and available data concerning horse numbers, identification, traceability and disposal. Animal welfare, and specifically equine welfare, has received increasing attention internationally. There is general acceptance of concepts such as animal needs and persons' responsibilities toward animals in their care, as expressed in the 'Five Freedoms'. As yet, little has been published on standards of equine welfare pertaining to Ireland, or on measures to address welfare issues here. This paper highlights the central role of horse identification and legal registration of ownership to safeguard the health and welfare of horses. PMID:21851704

  19. Successful implantation of a decellularized equine pericardial patch into the systemic circulation

    PubMed Central

    Dohmen, Pascal M.; da Costa, Francisco; Lopes, Sergio V.; Vilani, Ricardo; Bloch, Oliver; Konertz, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Background In the past, successful use of decellularized xenogenic tissue was shown in the pulmonary circulation. This study, however, evaluates a newly developed decellularized equine pericardial patch under high pressure circumstances. Material/Methods Seven decellularized equine pericardial scaffolds were implanted into the descending aorta of the juvenile sheep. The implanted patches were oversized to evaluate the durability of the decellularized tissue under high surface tension (Law of Laplace). After 4 months of implantation, all decellularized patches were inspected by gross examination, light microscopy (H&E, Serius red, Gomori, Weigert, and von Kossa straining), and immunohistochemical staining. Results The juvenile sheep showed fast recovery after surgery. There was no mortality during follow-up. At explantation, only limited adhesion was seen at the surgical site. Gross examination showed a smooth and pliable surface without degeneration, as well as absence of aneurysmatic dilatation. Light microscopy showed a well preserved extracellular scaffold with a monolayer of endothelial cells covering the luminal side of the patch. On the outside part of the patch, a well developed neo-vascularization was seen. Host fibroblasts were seen in all layers of the scaffolds. There was no evidence for structural deterioration or calcification of the decellularized equine pericardial scaffolds. Conclusions In the juvenile sheep, decellularized equine tissue showed no structural deterioration, but regeneration and remodeling processes at systemic circulation. PMID:24407027

  20. Osteogenic differentiation of equine cord blood multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells within coralline hydroxyapatite scaffolds in vitro.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, R J; Koch, T G; Betts, D H

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the osteogenic differentiation potential of equine umbilical cord blood-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (CB-MSC) within coralline hydroxyapatite scaffolds cultured in osteogenic induction culture medium. Scaffolds seeded with equine CB-MSC were cultured in cell expansion culture medium (control) or osteogenic induction medium (treatment). Cell viability and distribution were confirmed by the MTT cell viability assay and DAPI nuclear fluorescence staining, respectively. Osteogenic differentiation was evaluated after 10 days using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, alkaline phosphatase activity, and secreted osteocalcin concentration. Cell morphology and matrix deposition were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after 14 days in culture. Cells showed viability and adequate distribution within the scaffold. Successful osteogenic differentiation within the scaffolds was demonstrated by the increased expression of osteogenic markers such as Runx2, osteopontin, osteonectin, collagen IA; increased levels of alkaline phosphatase activity; increased osteocalcin protein secretion and bone-like matrix presence in the scaffold pores upon SEM evaluation. These results demonstrate that equine CB-MSC maintain viability and exhibit osteogenic potential in coralline hydroxyapatite scaffolds when induced in vitro . Equine CB-MSC scaffold constructs deserve further investigation for their potential role as biologically active fillers to enhance bone-gap repair in the horse.

  1. The Human Urine Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R.; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C.; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T.; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S.; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Urine has long been a “favored” biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing

  2. Evaluation of a direct high-capacity target screening approach for urine drug testing using liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Aljona; Stephanson, Niclas Nikolai; Granelli, Ingrid; Villén, Tomas; Beck, Olof

    2012-11-15

    In this study a rapid liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was developed, validated and applied in order to evaluate the potential of this technique for routine urine drug testing. Approximately 800 authentic patient samples were analyzed for amphetamines (amphetamine and methamphetamine), opiates (morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide, morphine-6-glucuronide, codeine and codeine-6-glucuronide) and buprenorphines (buprenorphine and buprenorphine-glucuronide) using immunochemical screening assays and mass spectrometry confirmation methods for comparison. The chromatographic application utilized a rapid gradient with high flow and a reversed phase column with 1.8 μm particles. Total analysis time was 4 min. The mass spectrometer operated with an electrospray interface in positive mode with a resolution power of >10,000 at m/z 956. The applied reporting limits were 100 ng/mL for amphetamines and opiates, and 5 ng/mL for buprenorphines, with lower limits of quantification were 2.8-41 ng/mL. Calibration curves showed a linear response with coefficients of correlation of 0.97-0.99. The intra- and interday imprecision in quantification at the reporting limits were <10% for all analytes but for buprenorphines <20%. Method validation data met performance criteria for a qualitative and quantitative method. The liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was found to be more selective than the immunochemical method by producing lower rates of false positives (0% for amphetamines and opiates; 3.2% for buprenorphines) and negatives (1.8% for amphetamines; 0.6% for opiates; 0% for buprenorphines). The overall agreement between the two screening methods was between 94.2 and 97.4%. Comparison of data with the confirmation (LC-MS) results for all individual 9 analytes showed that most deviating results were produced in samples with low levels of analytes. False negatives were mainly related to failure of detected peak to meet mass accuracy

  3. Diversity of flora used for the cure of equine diseases in selected peri-urban areas of Punjab, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plants have widely been used and documented for their therapeutic potential in many parts of the world. There are, however, few reports on the use of plants for the treatment of diseases of equines. To this end, participatory epidemiology and rapid rural appraisal techniques were used to document the plants having pharmacotherapeutic significance against different ailments of equines in selected population of Punjab, Pakistan. Methods A survey was conducted to interview a total of 450 respondents (150 from each of the districts of Faisalabad, Lahore and Sargodha of Pakistan) to collect information about disease recognition of the equines and their treatment on a well − structured questionnaire. A total of 60 plants belonging to 40 families were documented. An inventory was developed depicting detailed information of plants used in treatment of different conditions of equines. Results The top ten species of plants used were: Allium cepa, Zingiber officinale, Vernonia anthelmintica, Capsicum annum, Brassica campestris, Trachyspermum ammi, Anethum graveolens, Picrorhiza kurroa, Azadirachta indica, and Citrullus colocynthis. Seeds were the most frequently used (n = 16/60) parts, followed by leaves (n = 12/60) and fruits (n = 11/60) of plants. Based on the combination of different parts of plants used in different ratios and variation in their dose or mode of preparation led to a large number of recipes/remedies against wounds, lameness, bronchitis, colic, anorexia, dermatitis, weakness, parasitism (internal & external), fever, heat stress, urine retention, swelling, toxemia, and indigestion. Conclusions This study generated lot of data on phytomedicinal approach for the treatment of ailments in the equines in some selected areas. It would, therefore, be imperative to expand similar studies in other parts of Pakistan and elsewhere. Moreover, use of the documented plants may be validated employing standard scientific procedures, which may have

  4. Urine specific gravity values in clinically healthy young pet ferrets (Mustela furo).

    PubMed

    Eshar, D; Wyre, N R; Brown, D C

    2012-02-01

    To determine urine specific gravity values in clinically healthy pet ferrets and explore possible associations with sex, sampling techniques, hydration status and urine analytes. Sixty-nine entire ferrets of both sexes, under one year of age, were included in this study. Physical examination, complete blood count, blood biochemistry, urine microscopy, urine dipstick and urine specific gravity were performed on all ferrets. Urine specific gravity was determined using a handheld urine refractometer. Statistical analysis was performed to determine urine specific gravity value intervals and to test for associations with sex, sample collection method, packed cell volume, plasma total protein concentrations and urine analytes. Urine specific gravity differed by sex in ferrets as females exhibited a lower urine specific gravity (P<0·001). There was no significant correlation between urine specific gravity, sampling method, packed cell volume/total protein and urine dipstick analytes. Mean urine specific gravity reported in this study was 1·051 for entire males (sd ±9; range 1·034 to 1·070) and 1·042 for entire females (sd ±8; range 1·026 to 1·060). Results of this study may allow clinicians to have a more accurate evaluation of the ability of those animals to concentrate urine by comparing their urine specific gravity results to those obtained from this cohort of clinically healthy animals. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  5. Autologous and Allogeneic Equine Mesenchymal Stem Cells Exhibit Equivalent Immunomodulatory Properties In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Colbath, Aimée C; Dow, Steven W; Phillips, Jennifer N; McIlwraith, C Wayne; Goodrich, Laurie R

    2017-04-01

    The use of allogeneic bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMDMSCs) may provide an effective alternative to autologous BMDMSCs for treatment of equine musculoskeletal injuries. However, concerns have been raised regarding the potential safety and effectiveness of allogeneic BMDMSCs. We conducted studies to assess the immunological properties of equine allogeneic BMDMSCs compared with those of autologous BMDMSCs. For assessment of inherent immunogenicity, the relative ability of allogeneic and autologous BMDMSCs to stimulate spontaneous proliferation of equine lymphocytes was compared. The immunosuppressive activity of the two cell types was evaluated by adding autologous or allogeneic BMDMSCs to activated lymphocytes and assessing suppression of lymphocyte proliferation and IFNγ production. Fifty-six allogeneic and 12 autologous combinations were evaluated. Studies were also done to elucidate mechanisms by which equine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) suppress lymphocyte function. Potential mechanisms evaluated included production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), nitric oxide, transforming growth factor-beta, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. We found that autologous and allogeneic BMDMSCs both induced mild but equivalent levels of spontaneous lymphocyte activation in vitro. In in vitro assays assessing the ability of BMDMSCs to suppress activated lymphocytes, both allogeneic and autologous BMDMSCs suppressed T cell proliferation and IFNγ production to an equal degree. The primary mechanism of equine BMDMSC suppression of T cells was mediated by PGE2. We concluded that allogeneic and autologous BMDMSCs are equivalent in terms of their immunomodulatory properties, and stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells appear to trigger the immunosuppressive properties of MSCs. Therefore, both cell types appear to have equal potency in modulating inflammatory processes related to acute or chronic musculoskeletal injuries in the horse.

  6. Ultrafiltration of equine digital lamellar tissue.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Claire; Collins, Simon N; van Eps, Andrew W; Allavena, Rachel E; Medina-Torres, Carlos E; Pollitt, Christopher C

    2014-11-01

    There are no experimentally validated pharmacological means of preventing laminitis; however, locally acting pharmaceutical agents with the potential to prevent laminitis have been identified. Demonstrating therapeutic drug concentrations in lamellar tissue is essential for evaluating the efficacy of these agents. The aim of this study was to develop an experimental technique for repeatedly sampling lamellar interstitial fluid. A technique for placing ultrafiltration probes was developed in vitro using 15 cadaver limbs. Subsequently, lamellar ultrafiltration probes were placed in one forelimb in six living horses. Interstitial fluid was collected continuously from the probes as ultrafiltrate for 4 (n = 4) or 14 days (n = 2). The rate of ultrafiltrate collection was calculated every 12 h. Biochemical analyses were performed on ultrafiltrate collected on night 1 (12-24 h post-implantation) and night 4 (84-96 h post-implantation). Sections surrounding the probe and control tissue from the contralateral limb were harvested, stained with H&E and Masson's trichrome and scored based on the tissue response to the probe. Ultrafiltration probes were placed in the lamellar tissue in all six horses. Ultrafiltrate was collected from these probes at 55 (30-63) μL/h (median [interquartile range]). Fluid production decreased significantly with time from night 3 onwards (P < 0.05). There was no significant change in the constituents of the ultrafiltrate between nights 1 and 4 (P > 0.05). The technique was well tolerated. This study demonstrates that ultrafiltration can be used to sample equine digital lamellar interstitial fluid, and has potential for measuring lamellar drug levels.

  7. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Al Montasir, Ahmed; Al Mustaque, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is rare disease entity, occurs predominantly in constipated women, chronically catheterized and associated with bacterial urinary infections that produce sulphatase/phosphatase. The etiology is due to indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) or to their mixture that becomes purple. We present a case report of this rare phenomenon occurring in an 86-year-old woman. PMID:24479059

  8. Purple urine bag syndrome.

    PubMed

    Al Montasir, Ahmed; Al Mustaque, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is rare disease entity, occurs predominantly in constipated women, chronically catheterized and associated with bacterial urinary infections that produce sulphatase/phosphatase. The etiology is due to indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) or to their mixture that becomes purple. We present a case report of this rare phenomenon occurring in an 86-year-old woman.

  9. HCG in urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other HCG tests include: HCG in blood serum - qualitative HCG in blood serum - quantitative Pregnancy test ... Urine HCG tests are a common method of determining if a woman is pregnant. The best time to test for pregnancy at home is after you miss your period.

  10. [Purple urine bag syndrome].

    PubMed

    Fain-Ghironi, Nathalie; Le Gonidec, Patricia; Schaeffer, Mathilde

    2003-06-14

    The report of purple discoloration in a urinary drainage system, known as Purple Urine Bag Syndrome (P.U.B.S.) is rarely described in the literature. In an 85 year-old woman, with permanent indwelling urinary catheter, the appearance of purple coloration in the urine collecting bag, without change in the colour of the urine, was observed four times in one year. During these different episodes, a Gram negative lower urinary infection diagnoses. The germs identified were Providencia stuartii and Citrobacter koseri. Symptoms resolved completely after treatment with ceftriaxone. The clinical and biological symptoms usually described in cases of P.U.B.S. are observed in the medical history of this elderly woman: indwelling catheter with delay before onset of coloration greater than 15 days following catheterization, alkaline urinary pH, Gram negative lower urinary tract infection. However, during one of the episodes of PUBS in our patient, Citrobacter koseri was identified, germ not mentioned, as far as we know, in the literature. Moreover, in the published cases, Proteus species was identified as potentially associated with P.U.B.S., but a Proteus mirabilis urinary infection with was diagnosed in our patient, without any purple coloration of the urine in the collection bag.

  11. Evaluation of layered double hydroxide/graphene hybrid as a sorbent in membrane-protected stir-bar supported micro-solid-phase extraction for determination of organochlorine pesticides in urine samples.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Muhammad; Basheer, Chanbasha; Daud, Muhammad; Alsharaa, Abdulnaser

    2017-03-17

    In this work, the potential of layered double hydroxide/graphene (LDH-G) hybrid as a sorbent for extraction and preconcentration of fifteen organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in urine samples was evaluated. The LDH-G hybrid was synthesized by co-precipitation method and it was then characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The sorbent was then employed in membrane-protected stir-bar supported micro-solid-phase extraction (SB-μ-SPE) of OCPs in urine samples. This extraction approach is highly suitable for the samples representing matrix complexity such as urine because the sorbent is effectively protected inside the membrane. The extracted samples were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The factors that affect the performance of SB-μ-SPE were suitably optimized. This method demonstrated good linearity with coefficients of determination up to 0.9996. The limits of detection ranged between 0.22 and 1.38ngmL(-1). The RSD values for intra and inter-day precision were also in a satisfactory range (2.7-9.5%).

  12. Medical records in equine veterinary practice.

    PubMed

    Werner, Susan H

    2009-12-01

    Quality medical records are the cornerstone of successful equine veterinary practice. The scope and integrity of the information contained in a practice's medical records influence the quality of patient care and client service and affect liability risk, practice productivity, and overall practice value.

  13. [Equine-assisted therapy in child psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Ansorge, Jessie; Sudres, Jean-Luc

    2011-01-01

    The use of a horse or pony as a therapeutic tool is often presented in the media as a recent phenomenon. A survey of 103 institutions shows that it is in fact an approach well rooted in child and adolescent psychiatry. However, professionals who use equine-assisted therapy are calling for an assessment to be carried out enabling them to hone their practices.

  14. Equine Management and Production. Vocational Agriculture Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, James A.

    This basic core of instruction for equine management and production is designed to assist instructors in preparing students for successful employment or management of a one- or two-horse operation. Contents include seven instructional areas totaling seventeen units of instruction: (1) Orientation (basic horse production; handling and grooming;…

  15. Mergers and acquisitions involving equine veterinary practices.

    PubMed

    Jackman, Brad R; McCafferty, Owen E

    2009-12-01

    This article discusses mergers and acquisitions involving equine veterinary practices. Combining practices can be professionally and economically advantageous but requires a great deal of thought, planning, and implementation. If due diligence is performed and true business teamwork is undertaken, the benefits can be enormous and rewarding.

  16. Radiological protection in equine radiography and radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yoxall, A T

    1977-10-01

    The principles of radiological protection are summarised and consideration is then given to problems, which may confront the equine practitioner, in the fulfillment of these principles during diagnostic radiography of the limbs, head, and spine of the horse. The place of anaesthesia in such procedures is discussed and the special problems associated with therapeutic radiography of the horse are considered.

  17. Gender shifts in equine veterinary practice.

    PubMed

    Heinke, Marsha L; Sabo, Carol

    2009-12-01

    This article examines gender shifts in equine veterinary practice. A significant gender compensation gap continues across the spectrum of professions, including veterinary medicine. Many styles of practice serve the disparate and sometimes conflicting goals of financial well-being, patient care, and physical family presence.

  18. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Treated With Intravenous Immunoglobulins

    PubMed Central

    Mukerji, Shibani S.; Lam, Alice D.

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 68-year-old man from southeastern Massachusetts presenting with encephalitis due to eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus. Despite the high morbidity and mortality rate of EEE, the patient made a near complete recovery in the setting of receiving early intravenous immunoglobulins. PMID:26740855

  19. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Treated With Intravenous Immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Mukerji, Shibani S; Lam, Alice D; Wilson, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 68-year-old man from southeastern Massachusetts presenting with encephalitis due to eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus. Despite the high morbidity and mortality rate of EEE, the patient made a near complete recovery in the setting of receiving early intravenous immunoglobulins.

  20. Equine Management and Production. Vocational Agriculture Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, James A.

    This basic core of instruction for equine management and production is designed to assist instructors in preparing students for successful employment or management of a one- or two-horse operation. Contents include seven instructional areas totaling seventeen units of instruction: (1) Orientation (basic horse production; handling and grooming;…

  1. New hosts for equine herpesvirus 9.

    PubMed

    Schrenzel, Mark D; Tucker, Tammy A; Donovan, Taryn A; Busch, Martin D M; Wise, Annabel G; Maes, Roger K; Kiupel, Matti

    2008-10-01

    Equine herpesvirus 9 was detected in a polar bear with progressive encephalitis; the source was traced to 2 members of a potential equid reservoir species, Grevy's zebras. The virus was also found in an aborted Persian onager. Thus, the natural host range is extended to 6 species in 3 mammalian orders.

  2. New Hosts for Equine Herpesvirus 9

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Tammy A.; Donovan, Taryn A.; Busch, Martin D.M.; Wise, Annabel G.; Maes, Roger K.; Kiupel, Matti

    2008-01-01

    Equine herpesvirus 9 was detected in a polar bear with progressive encephalitis; the source was traced to 2 members of a potential equid reservoir species, Grevy’s zebras. The virus was also found in an aborted Persian onager. Thus, the natural host range is extended to 6 species in 3 mammalian orders. PMID:18826828

  3. P27-T Evaluation of Fluoromethyl-2,2-difluoro-1-(trifluoromethyl)vinyl Ether (‘Compound A’) Effects on Urine Protein Excretion in Rats Using Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Dong, K.; Minkoff, M. S.; Miller, J. D.; Kharasch, E. D.

    2007-01-01

    Fluoromethyl-2,2-difluoro-1-(trifluoromethyl)vinyl ether (FDVE or “compound A”), a haloalkene degradant of the volatile anesthetic sevoflurane, is nephrotoxic in rats. FDVE bioactivation mediates the toxicity, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms of toxification are unknown. FDVE caused rapid and brisk changes in kidney gene expression, providing potential insights into mechanisms of toxicity, and potential biomarkers for nephrotoxicity.1 Nevertheless, it is unknown whether gene-expression changes are reflected in protein expression, or whether such tissue changes would be reflected in excreted urine proteins. This investigation was to evaluate FDVE effects on urine protein excretion using mass spectrometry. After Animal Use Committee approval, male Fisher 344 rats (250–300 g) housed in individual metabolic cages received a single intraperitoneal injection of 0.25 mmol/kg FDVE, and all urine was collected daily for 1 wk, as described previously.2 The samples were labeled with iTRAQ reagents, and both the 4800 MALDI TOF/TOF Analyzer and the 4000 Q TRAP system (AB/MDS SCIEX) were used to acquire data in MS and MS/MS modes. Data were processed with MarkerView software and ProteinPilot Software (AB/MDS SCIEX). The results demonstrate that FDVE causes certain alterations in urine protein/peptide excretion. Multiple components were differentially expressed in a time-dependent manner. Excretion of several endogenously excreted proteins was rapidly decreased by FDVE. Other native peptides showed increased excretion following FDVE, and then gradually decreased to pre-dose levels. Excretion of a third set of proteins/peptides, minimally or not detectable in controls, was upregulated following FDVE. Further experiments will be conducted to identify the protein/peptide markers using LC MALDI MS/MS and other technologies to further investigate the usefulness of MS for identifying biomarkers for FDVE nephrotoxicity.

  4. Evaluation of chromium and manganese in biological samples (scalp hair, blood and urine) of tuberculosis and diarrhea male human immunodeficiency virus patients.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Talpur, Farah Naz; Arain, Salma; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Kazi, Naveed; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Brahman, Kapil Dev

    2014-01-01

    The consequence of trace elements deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease progression and mortality. This study examined the association between high concentrations of chromium (Cr) and manganese (Mn) in scalp hair, blood, and urine and opportunistic infections in hospitalized patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The study was performed on 62 male HIV+ patients (HIV-1) from different cities of Pakistan. The patients were divided in two groups according to secondary infections (tuberculosis, diarrhea, or high fever). The biological samples (scalp hair, blood and urine) were collected from AIDS patients, and for comparative study 120 healthy subjects (males) of same age group (31 - 45 years), socio-economic status, localities, and dietary habits were also included. The elements in the biological samples were analyzed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology was checked by using certified reference materials (CRMs) and with the values obtained by conventional wet acid digestion method on the same CRMs. The results indicated significantly lower concentrations of Cr and Mn in the biological samples (scalp hair, blood, and urine) of male HIV-1 patients, compared with control subjects. It was observed that the lower levels of these trace elements may be predictors for secondary infections in HIV-1 patients. There was a significant decrease in mean values of Cr and Mn in whole blood and scalp hair, whilst higher concentrations were observed in urine samples of the three groups of AIDS patients as compared to a controlled healthy male group (p < 0.001). Low Cr and Mn levels may be due to increased Cr and Mn losses. These data present guidance to clinicians and other professional investigating deficiencies of Cr and Mn in biological samples of AIDS patients.

  5. The Usefulness of Determining Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin Concentration Excreted in the Urine in the Evaluation of Cyclosporine A Nephrotoxicity in Children with Nephrotic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gacka, Ewa; Życzkowski, Marcin; Bogacki, Rafał; Paradysz, Andrzej; Hyla-Klekot, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The use of cyclosporine (CsA) in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome (NS) contributed to a significant reduction in the amount of corticosteroids used in therapy and its cumulative side effects. One of the major drawbacks of CsA therapy is its nephrotoxicity. Prolonged CsA treatment protocols require sensitive, easily available, and simple to measure biomarkers of nephrotoxicity. NGAL is an antibacterial peptide, excreted by cells of renal tubules in response to their toxic or inflammatory damage. Aim of the Study. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of the NGAL concentration in the urine as a potential biomarker of the CsA nephrotoxicity. Material and Methods. The study was performed on a group of 31 children with NS treated with CsA. The control group consisted of 23 children diagnosed with monosyptomatic enuresis. The relationship between NGAL excreted in urine and the time of CsA treatment, concentration of CsA in blood serum, and other biochemical parameters was assessed. Results. The study showed a statistically significant positive correlation between urine NGAL concentration and serum triglycerides concentration and no correlation between C0 CsA concentration and other observed parameters of NS. The duration of treatment had a statistically significant influence on the NGAL to creatinine ratio. Conclusions. NGAL cannot be used alone as a simple CsA nephrotoxicity marker during NS therapy. Statistically significant correlation between NGAL urine concentration and the time of CsA therapy indicates potential benefits of using this biomarker in the monitoring of nephrotoxicity in case of prolonged CsA therapy.

  6. The Usefulness of Determining Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin Concentration Excreted in the Urine in the Evaluation of Cyclosporine A Nephrotoxicity in Children with Nephrotic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The use of cyclosporine (CsA) in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome (NS) contributed to a significant reduction in the amount of corticosteroids used in therapy and its cumulative side effects. One of the major drawbacks of CsA therapy is its nephrotoxicity. Prolonged CsA treatment protocols require sensitive, easily available, and simple to measure biomarkers of nephrotoxicity. NGAL is an antibacterial peptide, excreted by cells of renal tubules in response to their toxic or inflammatory damage. Aim of the Study. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of the NGAL concentration in the urine as a potential biomarker of the CsA nephrotoxicity. Material and Methods. The study was performed on a group of 31 children with NS treated with CsA. The control group consisted of 23 children diagnosed with monosyptomatic enuresis. The relationship between NGAL excreted in urine and the time of CsA treatment, concentration of CsA in blood serum, and other biochemical parameters was assessed. Results. The study showed a statistically significant positive correlation between urine NGAL concentration and serum triglycerides concentration and no correlation between C0 CsA concentration and other observed parameters of NS. The duration of treatment had a statistically significant influence on the NGAL to creatinine ratio. Conclusions. NGAL cannot be used alone as a simple CsA nephrotoxicity marker during NS therapy. Statistically significant correlation between NGAL urine concentration and the time of CsA therapy indicates potential benefits of using this biomarker in the monitoring of nephrotoxicity in case of prolonged CsA therapy. PMID:28115789

  7. Origin of intact lactoferrin and its DNA-binding fragments found in the urine of human milk-fed preterm infants. Evaluation by stable isotopic enrichment.

    PubMed

    Hutchens, T W; Henry, J F; Yip, T T; Hachey, D L; Schanler, R J; Motil, K J; Garza, C

    1991-03-01

    The origin of intact (78-kD) lactoferrin found in the urine of human milk-fed preterm infants was investigated using human milk containing proteins enriched with [13C]leucine and [15N2]lysine or [2H4]lysine. Mothers of infants selected for the study were infused i.v. with [13C] leucine and [15N2]lysine or [2H4]lysine to label milk proteins. The labeled milk was collected from each mother, pooled, fortified with a lyophilized human milk fraction, and fed to her preterm infant by continuous orogastric infusion for a period of 48 h. Urine was collected from each infant for 96 h. Intact lactoferrin (78 kD) and DNA-binding lactoferrin fragments (51 and 39 kD) were purified from the urine by affinity chromatography on columns of immobilized single-stranded DNA-agarose. The concentration and isotopic enrichment of the intact lactoferrin and DNA-binding fragments were determined separately after their isolation by high-performance reverse-phase (phenyl) chromatography. Mass spectral analyses indicated that the isotopic enrichment of the purified urinary lactoferrin was 87 to 100% of that in the labeled human milk lactoferrin. Similar results were obtained for the isolated DNA-binding lactoferrin fragments. The ratios of isotopically labeled leucine to lysine in the purified milk lactoferrins and urinary lactoferrins were similar for each mother/infant pair. Isotopically labeled lysine, added to the milk as free amino acid, was not incorporated into the purified urinary lactoferrin. These results demonstrate that undegraded (78-kD) lactoferrin of maternal origin is absorbed by the gut and excreted intact in the urine of preterm infants; nearly all of the urinary lactoferrin was of maternal origin. The possible immunoregulatory functions of the absorbed intact, maternal lactoferrin are discussed.

  8. Advanced urine toxicology testing.

    PubMed

    Tenore, Peter L

    2010-10-01

    Urine toxicology screening testing is an important standard of care in the addiction and pain treatment setting, offering a reproducible, unbiased, and accurate laboratory test to monitor patients and provide objective support for clinical observations. It has been shown that physicians do not have proficiency in the ordering or interpretation of these tests. This article is an attempt to respond to that need. Current antibody-based enzymatic immunoassays (EIAs) used for urine toxicology screening are useful to detect classes of drugs (ex., opiate) but cannot determine which specific drug (ex., morphine) is present. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy can determine exactly which drugs are present, allowing prescribed (or illicit) opiates and benzodiazepines to be identified. This article will discuss principles and details of opiate and benzodiazepine EIA and gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy urine toxicology testing. The approach to detecting patients attributing positive opiate EIAs to prescription opiates who are using heroin or other opioids will be reviewed. Cases of controlled prescription drugs that do not produce the expected positive urine tests (ex., oxycodone producing negative opiate screening tests) will be discussed. How to differentiate codeine from heroin and the role of poppy seeds in toxicology will be examined. The case of an anti-depressant drug that produces false-positive benzodiazepine results and antibiotics that cause positive opiate urine toxicology results will be reviewed. Common benzodiazepines (ex., clonazepam and lorazepam) that do not reliably produce positive benzodiazepine EIAs will be discussed. The approach to detection and management of all these types of toxicology cases will be reviewed, and it is hoped that the analyses presented will impart an adequate information base to medical providers and staff members of drug treatment and pain centers, enabling them to order and interpret these tests in the clinic more

  9. High-performance liquid chromatographic method for profiling 2-oxo acids in urine and its application in evaluating vitamin status in rats.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Nakata, Chifumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    B-group vitamins are involved in the catabolism of 2-oxo acids. To identify the functional biomarkers of B-group vitamins, we developed a high-performance liquid chromatographic method for profiling 2-oxo acids in urine and applied this method to urine samples from rats deficient in vitamins B1 and B6 and pantothenic acid. 2-Oxo acids were reacted with 1,2-diamino-4,5-methylenebenzene to produce fluorescent derivatives, which were then separated using a TSKgel ODS-80Ts column with 30 mmol/L of KH2PO4 (pH 3.0):acetonitrile (7:3) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Vitamin B1 deficiency increased urinary levels of all 2-oxo acids, while vitamin B6 deficiency only increased levels of sum of 2-oxaloacetic acid and pyruvic acid, and pantothenic acid deficiency only increased levels of 2-oxoisovaleric acid. Profiles of 2-oxo acids in urine samples might be a non-invasive way of clarifying the functional biomarker of B-group vitamins.

  10. Evaluation of toxic metals in biological samples (scalp hair, blood and urine) of steel mill workers by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Hassan I; Kazi, Tasneem G; Jamali, Mohammad K; Kazi, Gul H; Arain, Mohammad B; Jalbani, Nusrat; Shar, Ghulam Q; Sarfaraz, Raja A

    2006-10-01

    The determination of toxic metals in the biological samples of human beings is an important clinical screening procedure. This study aimed to assess the possible influence of environmental exposure on production workers (PW) and quality control workers (QCW) of a steel mill, all male subjects aged 25-55 years. In this investigation, the concentrations of Pb, Cd, Ni and Cr were determined in biological samples (blood, urine and scalp hair samples) from these steel mill workers in relation to controlled unexposed healthy subjects of the same age group. After pre-treatment with nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide, the samples were digested via a microwave oven, and for comparison purposes, the same samples were digested by the conventional wet acid digestion method. The samples digested were subjected to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). To assess the reliability of these methods, critical factors, such as detection limit(s), calibration range(s), accuracy and precision, were studied. Quality control for these procedures was established with certified sample of human hair, urine and whole blood. The results indicate that the level of lead, cadmium and nickel in scalp hair, blood and urine samples were significantly higher in both groups of exposed workers (QW and PW) than those of the controls. The possible connection of these elements with the etiology of disease is discussed. The results also show the need for immediate improvements in workplace ventilation and industrial hygiene practices.

  11. Evaluation of coupling reversed phase, aqueous normal phase, and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with Orbitrap mass spectrometry for metabolomic studies of human urine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Creek, Darren J; Barrett, Michael P; Blackburn, Gavin; Watson, David G

    2012-02-21

    In this study, we assessed three liquid chromatographic platforms: reversed phase (RP), aqueous normal phase (ANP), and hydrophilic interaction (HILIC) for the analysis of polar metabolite standard mixtures and for their coverage of urinary metabolites. The two zwitterionic HILIC columns showed high-quality chromatographic performance for metabolite standards, improved separation for isomers, and the greatest coverage of polar metabolites in urine. In contrast, on the reversed phase column, most metabolites eluted very rapidly with little or no separation. Using an Exactive Orbitrap mass spectrometer with a HILIC liquid chromatographic platform, approximately 970 metabolite signals with repeatable peak areas (relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤ 25%) could be putatively identified in human urine, by elemental composition assignment within a 3 ppm mass error. The ability of the methodology for the verification of nonmolecular ions, which arise from adduct formation, and the possibility of distinguishing isomers could also be demonstrated. Careful examination of the raw data and the use of masses for predicted metabolites produced an extension of the metabolite list for human urine.

  12. Replication and immunogenicity of swine, equine, and avian h3 subtype influenza viruses in mice and ferrets.

    PubMed

    Baz, Mariana; Paskel, Myeisha; Matsuoka, Yumiko; Zengel, James; Cheng, Xing; Jin, Hong; Subbarao, Kanta

    2013-06-01

    Since it is difficult to predict which influenza virus subtype will cause an influenza pandemic, it is important to prepare influenza virus vaccines against different subtypes and evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of candidate vaccines in preclinical and clinical studies prior to a pandemic. In addition to infecting humans, H3 influenza viruses commonly infect pigs, horses, and avian species. We selected 11 swine, equine, and avian H3 influenza viruses and evaluated their kinetics of replication and ability to induce a broadly cross-reactive antibody response in mice and ferrets. The swine and equine viruses replicated well in the upper respiratory tract of mice. With the exception of one avian virus that replicated poorly in the lower respiratory tract, all of the viruses replicated in mouse lungs. In ferrets, all of the viruses replicated well in the upper respiratory tract, but the equine viruses replicated poorly in the lungs. Extrapulmonary spread was not observed in either mice or ferrets. No single virus elicited antibodies that cross-reacted with viruses from all three animal sources. Avian and equine H3 viruses elicited broadly cross-reactive antibodies against heterologous viruses isolated from the same or other species, but the swine viruses did not. We selected an equine and an avian H3 influenza virus for further development as vaccines.

  13. Replication and Immunogenicity of Swine, Equine, and Avian H3 Subtype Influenza Viruses in Mice and Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Baz, Mariana; Paskel, Myeisha; Matsuoka, Yumiko; Zengel, James; Cheng, Xing; Jin, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Since it is difficult to predict which influenza virus subtype will cause an influenza pandemic, it is important to prepare influenza virus vaccines against different subtypes and evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of candidate vaccines in preclinical and clinical studies prior to a pandemic. In addition to infecting humans, H3 influenza viruses commonly infect pigs, horses, and avian species. We selected 11 swine, equine, and avian H3 influenza viruses and evaluated their kinetics of replication and ability to induce a broadly cross-reactive antibody response in mice and ferrets. The swine and equine viruses replicated well in the upper respiratory tract of mice. With the exception of one avian virus that replicated poorly in the lower respiratory tract, all of the viruses replicated in mouse lungs. In ferrets, all of the viruses replicated well in the upper respiratory tract, but the equine viruses replicated poorly in the lungs. Extrapulmonary spread was not observed in either mice or ferrets. No single virus elicited antibodies that cross-reacted with viruses from all three animal sources. Avian and equine H3 viruses elicited broadly cross-reactive antibodies against heterologous viruses isolated from the same or other species, but the swine viruses did not. We selected an equine and an avian H3 influenza virus for further development as vaccines. PMID:23576512

  14. 24-hour urine copper test

    MedlinePlus

    ... associated with providing a urine sample. Alternative Names Quantitative urinary copper Images Copper urine test References McPherson ... for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis ...

  15. Immunogenicity and clinical protection against equine influenza by gene-based DNA vaccination of ponies

    PubMed Central

    Ault, Alida; Zajac, Alyse M.; Kong, Wing-Pui; Gorres, J. Patrick; Royals, Michael; Wei, Chih-Jen; Bao, Saran; Yang, Zhi-yong; Reedy, Stephanie E.; Sturgill, Tracy L.; Page, Allen E.; Donofrio-Newman, Jennifer; Adams, Amanda A.; Balasuriya, Udeni B.R.; Horohov, David W.; Chambers, Thomas M.; Nabel, Gary J.; Rao, Srinivas S.

    2012-01-01

    Equine influenza A (H3N8) virus is a leading cause of infectious respiratory disease in horses causing widespread morbidity and economic losses. As with influenza in other species, equine influenza strains continuously mutate, requiring constant re-evaluation of current vaccines and development of new vaccines. Current inactivated (killed) vaccines, while efficacious, only offer limited protection against multiple strains and require frequent boosts. Ongoing research into new vaccine technologies, including gene-based vaccines, aims to increase the neutralization potency, breadth, and duration of protective immunity of new or existing vaccines. In these hypothesis-generating experiments, we demonstrate that a DNA vaccine expressing the hemagglutinin protein of equine H3N8 influenza virus generates homologous and heterologous immune responses, and protects against clinical disease and viral replication following homologous H3N8 infection in horses. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a needle-free delivery device is as efficient and effective as conventional parenteral injection using a needle and syringe. The observed trends in this study drive the hypothesis that DNA vaccines offer a safe, effective, and promising alternative approach for veterinary vaccines against influenza, and applicable to combat equine influenza. PMID:22449425

  16. Influence of the uterine environment on the development of in vitro-produced equine embryos.

    PubMed

    Smits, Katrien; Govaere, Jan; Peelman, Luc J; Goossens, Karen; de Graaf, Dirk C; Vercauteren, Dries; Vandaele, Leen; Hoogewijs, Maarten; Wydooghe, Eline; Stout, Tom; Van Soom, Ann

    2012-02-01

    The necessity for early interaction between the embryo and the oviductal and/or uterine environment in the horse is reflected by several striking differences between equine embryos that develop in vivo and those produced in vitro. Better understanding of the salient interactions may help to improve the efficiency of in vitro equine embryo production. In an initial experiment, cleavage-stage in vitro-produced (IVP) equine embryos were transferred into the uterus of recipient mares that had ovulated recently to determine whether premature placement in this in vivo environment would improve subsequent development. In a second experiment, an important element of the uterine environment was mimicked by adding uterocalin, a major component of the endometrial secretions during early pregnancy, to the culture medium. Intrauterine transfer of cleavage-stage IVP equine embryos yielded neither ultrasonographically detectable pregnancies nor day 7 blastocysts, indicating that the uterus is not a suitable environment for pre-compact morula stage horse embryos. By contrast, exposure to uterocalin during IVP improved capsule formation, although it did not measurably affect the development or expression of a panel of genes known to differ between in vivo and in vitro embryos. Further studies are required to evaluate whether uterocalin serves purely as a carrier protein or more directly promotes improved capsule development.

  17. Chaetomiaceae Fungi, Novel Pathogens of Equine Neurotropic Phaeohyphomycosis.

    PubMed

    Plumlee, Quinci; Meason-Smith, Courtney; Dieterly, Alexandra; Gomez, Gabriel; Porter, Brian F; Rodrigues Hoffmann, Aline

    2017-09-01

    Many previously unrecognized fungi are emerging as potential pathogens. One such group is dematiaceous fungi of the Chaetomiaceae family (phylum Ascomycota, class Sordariomycetes). These fungi are rare causes of opportunistic, neurotropic phaeohyphomycosis in humans but are not known to cause similar infections in animals. The aims of this study were to investigate equine hyphal mycotic encephalitis, characterize key histopathologic features, and classify causative organisms with molecular diagnostic techniques. Seven cases were evaluated by histopathology. Panfungal PCR targeting the ribosomal RNA large subunit coding region and the noncoding internal transcribed spacer-2 region was performed on DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of affected brain, and the resulting sequences were queried against published fungal genomes. Affected animals ranged from 8 to 22 years of age and presented with neurologic signs. Macroscopic lesions within affected brains included multifocal hemorrhage, focal swelling of the thalamus with red and yellow discoloration, and focal cerebral malacia. Major histologic findings included multifocal discrete foci of necrosis, neutrophilic to granulomatous inflammation, vasculitis, and intralesional fungal hyphae variably affecting the cerebrum, thalamus, and brainstem. DNA sequences in 4 cases showed > 98% homology with species within the Chaetomiaceae family, including Acrophialophora fusispora, Acrophialophora levis, and Chaetomium strumarium. Histomorphologically, Chaetomiaceae fungi were 7 to 10 μm wide, septate, parallel walled, and nonpigmented, with dichotomous branching in affected horses. This case series is the first report of equine mycotic encephalitis caused by members of the Chaetomiaceae family, previously reported as rare emerging pathogens in humans.

  18. Benzimidazole resistance in equine cyathostomins in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Garg, Rajat; Kumar, Saroj; Banerjee, P S; Ram, Hira; Prasad, A

    2016-03-15

    Benzimidazole resistance is a major hindrance to the control of equine cyathostominosis throughout the world. There is a paucity of knowledge on the level of benzimidazole resistance in small strongyles of horses in India. In the present study, allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) that detects F200Y mutation of the isotype 1 β-tubulin gene and faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) were used for detecting benzimidazole resistance in equine cyathostomin populations in different agro-climatic zones of Uttar Pradesh, India. Results of the FECRT revealed prevalence of benzimidazole resistance in cyathostomins in an intensively managed equine farm in the mid-western plain (FECR=27.5%, LCI=0) and in working horses (extensively managed) at three locations in central plains of Uttar Pradesh (FECR=75.7-83.6%, LCI=29-57%). Post-treatment larval cultures revealed the presence of exclusively cyathostomin larvae. Genotyping of cyathostomin larvae by AS-PCR revealed that the frequency of homozygous resistant (rr) individuals and the resistant allele frequency was significantly higher (p<0.001) in the intensively managed farm in the mid-western plain and in working horses at two locations in central plains of the state. The resistant allele (r) frequency in cyathostomins was significantly higher (p<0.05) in Vindhyan and Tarai and Bhabar zones of Uttar Pradesh. The prevalence of benzimidazole resistant allele (r) was significantly higher (p<0.05) in cyathostomins of intensively managed horses (allelic frequency-0.35) as compared to extensively managed horses (allelic frequency-0.22). The widespread prevalence of benzimidazole resistant alleles in equine cyathostomins in Uttar Pradesh, India, necessitates immediate replacement of the drugs of benzimidazole group with other unrelated effective anthelmintics for management and control of equine cyathostomins.

  19. 77 FR 7588 - Antiparasitic Drug Use and Resistance in Ruminants and Equines; Public Meeting; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Antiparasitic Drug Use and Resistance in Ruminants and... meeting entitled ``Antiparasitic Drug Use and Resistance in Ruminants and Equines.'' The purpose of the..., tools for the evaluation of antiparasitic resistance, evaluation of the effectiveness of drugs against...

  20. Sensitivity of the VecTest antigen assay for eastern equine encephalitis and western equine encephalitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Nasci, Roger S; Gottfried, Kristy L; Burkhalter, Kristen L; Ryan, Jeffrey R; Emmerich, Eva; Davé, Kirti

    2003-12-01

    VecTest assays for detecting eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEE) and western equine encephalitis virus (WEE) antigen in mosquito pools were evaluated to determine their sensitivity and specificity by using a range of EEE, WEE, St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLE), and West Nile virus (WN) dilutions as well as individual and pooled mosquitoes containing EEE or WEE. The EEE test produced reliable positive results with samples containing > or = 5.3 log10 plaque-forming units (PFU) of EEE/ml, and the WEE test produced reliable positive results with samples containing > or = 4.7 log10 PFU WEE/ml. Both assays detected the respective viral antigens in single virus-positive mosquitoes and in pools containing a single positive mosquito and 49 negative specimens. The SLE and WN assays also contained on the dipsticks accurately detected their respective viruses. No evidence was found of cross reaction or false positives in any of the tests. The VecTest assays were less sensitive than the EEE- and WEE-specific TaqMan reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Vero cell plaque assay, but appear to be useful for detecting arboviruses in mosquito-based arbovirus surveillance programs.

  1. Urine Test Strips to Exclude Cerebral Spinal Fluid Blood

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    presence of hemoglobin. Bilirubin theoretically shows more promise for differentiating traumatic lumbar puncture from subarachnoid hemorrhage , with...Keywords: CSF, subarachnoid hemorrhage , lumbar puncture, urine test strip Preferred Citation: Marshall RA, Hejamanowski C. Urine Test Strips to Exclude...their breakdown products in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is essential for the evaluation of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in headache patients. Current

  2. Annotation of the Protein Coding Regions of the Equine Genome.

    PubMed

    Hestand, Matthew S; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S; Coleman, Stephen J; Zeng, Zheng; Liu, Jinze; Orlando, Ludovic; MacLeod, James N

    2015-01-01

    Current gene annotation of the horse genome is largely derived from in silico predictions and cross-species alignments. Only a small number of genes are annotated based on equine EST and mRNA sequences. To expand the number of equine genes annotated from equine experimental evidence, we sequenced mRNA from a pool of forty-three different tissues. From these, we derived the structures of 68,594 transcripts. In addition, we identified 301,829 positions with SNPs or small indels within these transcripts relative to EquCab2. Interestingly, 780 variants extend the open reading frame of the transcript and appear to be small errors in the equine reference genome, since they are also identified as homozygous variants by genomic DNA resequencing of the reference horse. Taken together, we provide a resource of equine mRNA structures and protein coding variants that will enhance equine and cross-species transcriptional and genomic comparisons.

  3. Annotation of the Protein Coding Regions of the Equine Genome

    PubMed Central

    Hestand, Matthew S.; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S.; Coleman, Stephen J.; Zeng, Zheng; Liu, Jinze; Orlando, Ludovic; MacLeod, James N.

    2015-01-01

    Current gene annotation of the horse genome is largely derived from in silico predictions and cross-species alignments. Only a small number of genes are annotated based on equine EST and mRNA sequences. To expand the number of equine genes annotated from equine experimental evidence, we sequenced mRNA from a pool of forty-three different tissues. From these, we derived the structures of 68,594 transcripts. In addition, we identified 301,829 positions with SNPs or small indels within these transcripts relative to EquCab2. Interestingly, 780 variants extend the open reading frame of the transcript and appear to be small errors in the equine reference genome, since they are also identified as homozygous variants by genomic DNA resequencing of the reference horse. Taken together, we provide a resource of equine mRNA structures and protein coding variants that will enhance equine and cross-species transcriptional and genomic comparisons. PMID:26107351

  4. Association between urine osmolality and specific gravity in dogs and the effect of commonly measured urine solutes on that association.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Jennifer A; Beaufrere, Hugues; Acierno, Mark J

    2013-12-01

    To determine the association between urine osmolality and specific gravity (USG) in dogs and to evaluate the effect of commonly measured urine solutes on that association. 60 dogs evaluated by an internal medicine service. From each dog, urine was obtained by cystocentesis and USG was determined with a refractometer. The sample was divided, and one aliquot was sent to a diagnostic laboratory for urinalysis and the other was frozen at -80°C until osmolality was determined. Urine samples were thawed and osmolality was measured in duplicate with a freezing-point depression osmometer. The correlation between mean urine osmolality and USG was determined; the effect of pH, proteinuria, glucosuria, ketonuria, bilirubinuria, and hemoglobinuria on this relationship was investigated with multiple regression analysis. The Pearson correlation coefficient between urine osmolality and USG was 0.87. The final multivariable regression model for urine osmolality included USG and the presence of ketones; ketonuria had a small negative association with urine osmolality. Results indicated a strong linear correlation between osmolality and USG in urine samples obtained from dogs with various pathological conditions, and ketonuria had a small negative effect on that correlation.

  5. Hydrocortisone levels in the urine and blood of horses treated with ACTH.

    PubMed

    Caloni, F; Spotti, M; Villa, R; Mariani, C; Montana, M; Pompa, G

    1999-07-01

    An investigation was undertaken to demonstrate whether therapeutic treatment with ACTH raises hydrocortisone (cortisol) levels in horse urine above the limit (1000 ng/ml) established by the International Conference of Racing Authorities with the aim of controlling the abuse of cortisol and ACTH in equine sports. ACTH (200 iu) was administered i.m. to 3 Thoroughbred horses; urine and blood samples were collected at intervals afterwards and analysed by an immunoenzymatic system (ELISA) and HPLC-MS. To ascertain post exercise cortisol levels in untreated horses, 101 urine and 103 serum samples were taken from horses immediately after racing and analysed by ELISA. The peak urine level of cortisol, detected 8 h after ACTH administration, was around 600 ng/ml using either ELISA or HPLC-MS. The peak serum cortisol concentration was found to be around 250 ng/ml by ELISA, but consistently less by HPLC-MS. Mean cortisol levels in post race horses were 135.1+/-72.1 ng/ml in urine and 90.1+/-41.7 ng/ml in serum. High levels of the metabolite 20beta-dihydrocortisol in urine and the cortisol precursor 11beta-desoxycortisol in serum were found. The latter showed high cross-reactivity with cortisol on ELISA. In our experiment, treatment with ACTH 200 iu i.m. did not raise urinary cortisol levels above the 1000 ng/ml threshold proposed by the ICRA.

  6. Reproduction of Venezulean Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus at Low Ionic Strength

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-02-28

    AD/A-006 206 REPRODUCTION OF VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS AT LOW IONIC STRENGTH T.M. Sokolova, et al Army Medical Research Institute of... Reproduction of Venezuelan equine encephalo- Translation myelitis virus at low ionic strength 6. PERFORM4ING ORG. REPORT NU14BER II!LTT, 0491 7. AUTHOR(a... REPRODUCTION OF VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS AT LOW IONIC STRFNGTH Article by T. M. Sokolova, I. B. Tazulakhova, S. S. Grigoryan and F. I. e v

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of equine solar penetration wounds.

    PubMed

    del Junco, Carolina I Urraca; Mair, Tim S; Powell, Sarah E; Milner, Peter I; Font, Alex F; Schwarz, Tobias; Weaver, Martin P

    2012-01-01

    The magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features, signalment, clinical history and outcome of 55 horses with a penetrating sole injury were evaluated. Our aim was to describe MR imaging findings within the hoof capsule, assess the utility of the technique and give recommendations for the optimal MR imaging protocol to evaluate such injuries. Data from five equine hospitals were analyzed retrospectively. The tract was more likely to be visualized in animals scanned within the first week postinjury. There was no significant predisposition based on breed, age, or gender. T2*W transverse sequences were the most useful for assessment of solar penetrations due to their orientation perpendicular to the deep digital flexor tendon, the reduced scanning time, and the T2* capability of enhancing magnetic susceptibility caused by hemorrhage.

  8. Quantification of equine immunoglobulin A in serum and secretions by a fluorescent bead-based assay.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, Christiane L; Babasyan, Susanna; Freer, Heather; Wagner, Bettina

    2017-06-01

    Only few quantitative reports exist about the concentrations and induction of immunoglobulin A (IgA) in mucosal secretions of horses. Despite this, it is widely assumed that IgA is the predominant immunoglobulin on mucosal surfaces in the horse. Here, two new monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against equine IgA, clones 84-1 and 161-1, were developed and characterized in detail. Both IgA mAbs specifically bound monomeric and dimeric equine IgA in different applications, such as Western blots and fluorescent bead-based assays. Cross-reactivity with other equine immunoglobulin isotypes was not observed. The new IgA mAb 84-1 was used in combination with the previously characterized anti-equine IgA mAb BVS2 for the development and validation of a fluorescent bead-based assay to quantify total IgA in equine serum and various secretions. The IgA assay's linear detection ranged from 64pg/ml to 1000ng/ml. For the quantification of IgA in serum or in secretions an IgA standard was purified from serum or nasal wash fluid (secretory IgA), respectively. The different standards were needed for accurate IgA quantification in the respective samples taking the different signal intensities of monomeric and dimeric IgA on the florescent bead-based assay into account. IgA was quantified by the bead-based assay established here in different equine samples of healthy adult individuals. In serum the median total IgA was 0.45mg/ml for Thoroughbred horses (TB, n=10) and 1.16mg/ml in Icelandic horses (ICH, n=12). In nasopharyngeal secretions of TB (n=7) 0.13mg/ml median total IgA was measured, and 0.25mg/ml for ICH (n=12). Saliva of ICH (n=6) contained a median of 0.15mg/ml, colostrum of Warmbloods (n=8) a median of 1.89mg/ml IgA. Compared to IgG1 and IgG4/7 quantified in the same samples, IgA appeared as the major immunoglobulin isotype in nasopharyngeal secretions and saliva while it is a minor isotype in serum and colostrum. The newly developed monoclonal antibodies against equine IgA and the

  9. Cancer detection by native fluorescence of urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masilamani, Vadivel; Vijmasi, Trinka; Al Salhi, Mohammad; Govindaraj, Kanagaraj; Vijaya-Raghavan, Ayanam Parthasarathy; Antonisamy, Belavendra

    2010-09-01

    Because cancer is a dreaded disease, a number of techniques such as biomarker evaluation, mammograms, colposcopy, and computed tomography scan are currently employed for early diagnosis. Many of these are specific to a particular site, invasive, and often expensive. Hence, there is a definite need for a simple, generic, noninvasive protocol for cancer detection, comparable to blood and urine tests for diabetes. Our objective is to show the results of a novel study in the diagnosis of several cancer types from the native or intrinsic fluorescence of urine. We use fluorescence emission spectra (FES) and stokes shift spectra (SSS) to analyze the native fluorescence of the first voided urine samples of healthy controls (N=100) and those of cancer patients (N=50) of different etiology. We show that flavoproteins and porphyrins released into urine can act as generic biomarkers of cancer with a specificity of 92%, a sensitivity of 76%, and an overall accuracy of 86.7%. We employ FES and SSS for rapid and cost-effective quantification of certain intrinsic biomarkers in urine for screening and diagnosis of most common cancer types with an overall accuracy of 86.7%.

  10. Equine cloning: in vitro and in vivo development of aggregated embryos.

    PubMed

    Gambini, Andrés; Jarazo, Javier; Olivera, Ramiro; Salamone, Daniel F

    2012-07-01

    The production of cloned equine embryos remains highly inefficient. Embryo aggregation has not yet been tested in the equine, and it might represent an interesting strategy to improve embryo development. This study evaluated the effect of cloned embryo aggregation on in vitro and in vivo equine embryo development. Zona-free reconstructed embryos were individually cultured in microwells (nonaggregated group) or as 2- or 3-embryo aggregates (aggregated groups). For in vitro development, they were cultured until blastocyst stage and then either fixed for Oct-4 immunocytochemical staining or maintained in in vitro culture where blastocyst expansion was measured daily until Day 17 or the day on which they collapsed. For in vivo assays, Day 7-8 blastocysts were transferred to synchronized mares and resultant vesicles, and cloned embryos were measured by ultrasonography. Embryo aggregation improved blastocyst rates on a per well basis, and aggregation did not imply additional oocytes to obtain blastocysts. Embryo aggregation improved embryo quality, nevertheless it did not affect Day 8 and Day 16 blastocyst Oct-4 expression patterns. Equine cloned blastocysts expanded and increased their cell numbers when they were maintained in in vitro culture, describing a particular pattern of embryo growth that was unexpectedly independent of embryo aggregation, as all embryos reached similar size after Day 7. Early pregnancy rates were higher using blastocysts derived from aggregated embryos, and advanced pregnancies as live healthy foals also resulted from aggregated embryos. These results indicate that the strategy of aggregating embryos can improve their development, supporting the establishment of equine cloned pregnancies.

  11. Characterization and evaluation of two-dimensional microfluidic chip-HPLC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for quantitative analysis of 7-aminoflunitrazepam in human urine.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hsin-Yu; Lin, Shu-Ling; Chan, Shen-An; Fuh, Ming-Ren

    2010-10-01

    Microfluidic chip-based high-performance-liquid-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (chip-HPLC-MS) has been widely used in proteomic research due to its enhanced sensitivity. We employed a chip-HPLC-MS system for determining small molecules such as drug metabolites in biological fluids. This chip-HPLC-MS system integrates a microfluidic switch, a 2-dimensional column design including an enrichment column (160 nL) for sample pre-concentration and an analytical column for chromatographic separation, as well as a nanospray emitter on a single polyimide chip. In this study, a relatively large sample volume (500 nL) was injected into the enrichment column for pre-concentration and an additional 4 μL of the initial mobile phase was applied to remove un-retained components from the sample matrix prior to chromatographic separation. The 2-dimensional column design provides the advantages of online sample concentration and reducing matrix influence on MS detection. 7-Aminoflunitrazepam (7-aminoFM2), a major metabolite of flunitrazepam (FM2), was determined in urine samples using the integrated chip-HPLC-MS system. The linear range was 0.1-10 ng mL(-1) and the method detection limit (signal-to-noise ratio of 3) was 0.05 ng mL(-1) for 7-aminoFM2. After consecutive liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE), the chip-HPLC-MS exhibited high correlation between 7-aminoFM2 spiked Milli-Q water and 7-aminoFM2 spiked urine samples. This system also showed good precision (n = 5) and recovery for spiked urine samples at the levels of 0.1, 1.0, and 10 ng mL(-1). Intra-day and inter-day precision were 2.0-7.1% and 4.3-6.0%, respectively. Clinical urine samples were also analyzed by this chip-HPLC-MS system and acceptable relative differences (-1.3 to -13.0%) compared with the results using a GC-MC method were determined. Due to its high sensitivity and ease of operation, the chip-HPLC-MS system can be utilized for the determination of small molecules such

  12. Sensitivity and specificity of the circulating cathodic antigen rapid urine test in the diagnosis of Schistosomiasis mansoni infection and evaluation of morbidity in a low- endemic area in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Fernanda Teixeira; Fidelis, Thiago André; Pereira, Thiago Almeida; Otoni, Alba; Queiroz, Leonardo Campos; Amâncio, Frederico Figueiredo; Antunes, Carlos Maurício; Lambertucci, José Roberto

    2017-01-01

    The Kato-Katz technique is the standard diagnostic test for Schistosoma mansoni infection in rural areas. However, the utility of this method is severely limited by the day-to-day variability in host egg excretion in the stool. In high-transmission areas, the point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) urine assay has proven to be a reliable test. However, investigations of the reliability of the POC-CCA assay in low-transmission regions are under way. This study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the POC-CCA assay and the morbidity of schistosomiasis in a low-endemic area in Brazil. Pains City is a low-transmission zone for schistosomiasis. A total of 300 subjects aged 7-76 years were randomly selected for the POC-CCA cassette test. For S. mansoni diagnosis, three stool samples on six slides were compared with one urine sample for each subject. The sensitivity and specificity in the absence of a gold standard were calculated using latent class analysis. Clinical examinations and abdominal ultrasounds were performed in 181 volunteers to evaluate morbidity associated with schistosomiasis. The sensitivity and specificity of the Kato-Katz technique were 25.6% and 94.6%, respectively. By contrast, the sensitivity and specificity of the POC-CCA assay were 68.1% and 72.8%, respectively. Hepatosplenic schistosomiasis was diagnosed in two patients (1.1%). Overall, the POC-CCA urine assay proved to be a useful test for diagnosing S. mansoni in a low-endemic area in Brazil. Severe clinical forms of schistosomiasis can be present even in such low-endemic areas.

  13. Urine Galactomannan-to-Creatinine Ratio for Detection of Invasive Aspergillosis in Patients with Hematological Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Reischies, Frederike M J; Raggam, Reinhard B; Prattes, Juergen; Krause, Robert; Eigl, Susanne; List, Agnes; Quehenberger, Franz; Strenger, Volker; Wölfler, Albert; Hoenigl, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Galactomannan (GM) testing of urine specimens may provide important advantages, compared to serum testing, such as easy noninvasive sample collection. We evaluated a total of 632 serial urine samples from 71 p