Science.gov

Sample records for evaluate subjective impression

  1. Internal carotid artery stenosis: accuracy of subjective visual impression for evaluation with digital subtraction angiography and contrast-enhanced MR angiography.

    PubMed

    U-King-Im, Jean Marie; Graves, Martin J; Cross, Justin J; Higgins, Nicholas J; Wat, Josephine; Trivedi, Rikin A; Tang, Tjun; Howarth, Simon P S; Kirkpatrick, Peter J; Antoun, Nagui M; Gillard, Jonathan H

    2007-07-01

    To prospectively determine, for both digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography, the accuracy of subjective visual impression (SVI) in the evaluation of internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis, with objective caliper measurements serving as the reference standard. Local ethics committee approval and written informed patient consent were obtained. A total of 142 symptomatic patients (41 women, 101 men; mean age, 70 years; age range, 44-89 years) suspected of having ICA stenosis on the basis of Doppler ultrasonographic findings underwent both DSA and contrast-enhanced MR angiography. With each modality, three independent neuroradiologists who were blinded to other test results first visually estimated and subsequently objectively measured stenoses. Diagnostic accuracy and percentage misclassification for correct categorization of 70%-99% stenosis were calculated for SVI, with objective measurements serving as the reference standard. Interobserver variability was determined with kappa statistics. After exclusion of arteries that were unsuitable for measurement, 180 vessels remained for analysis with DSA and 159 vessels remained for analysis with contrast-enhanced MR angiography. With respect to 70%-99% stenosis, SVI was associated with average misclassification of 8.9% for DSA (8.9%, 7.8%, and 10.0% for readers A, B, and C, respectively) and of 11.7% for contrast-enhanced MR angiography (11.3%, 8.8%, and 15.1% for readers A, B, and C, respectively). Negative predictive values were excellent (92.3%-100%). Interobserver variability was higher for SVI (DSA, kappa = 0.62-0.71; contrast-enhanced MR angiography, kappa = 0.57-0.69) than for objective measurements (DSA, kappa = 0.75-0.80; contrast-enhanced MR angiography, kappa = 0.66-0.72). SVI alone is not recommended for evaluation of ICA stenosis with both DSA and contrast-enhanced MR angiography. SVI may be acceptable as an initial screening tool to exclude the

  2. Randomized controlled within-subject evaluation of digital and conventional workflows for the fabrication of lithium disilicate single crowns. Part I: digital versus conventional unilateral impressions.

    PubMed

    Benic, Goran I; Mühlemann, Sven; Fehmer, Vincent; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Sailer, Irena

    2016-11-01

    Trials comparing the overall performance of fully digital and conventional workflows in reconstructive dentistry are needed. The purpose of the first part of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to determine whether optical impressions produce different results from conventional impressions with respect to time efficiency and patient and operator perceptions of the clinical workflow. Three digital impressions and 1 conventional impression were made in each of 10 participants according to a randomly generated sequence. The digital systems were Lava COS, iTero, and Cerec Bluecam. The conventional impression was made with the closed-mouth technique and polyvinyl siloxane material. The time needed for powdering, impressions, and interocclusal record was recorded. Patient and clinician perceptions of the procedures were rated by means of visual analog scales. The paired t test with Bonferroni correction was applied to detect differences (α=.05/6=.0083). The mean total working time ±standard deviation amounted to 260 ±66 seconds for the conventional impression, 493 ±193 seconds for Lava, 372 ±126 seconds for iTero, and 357 ±55 seconds for Cerec. The total working time for the conventional impression was significantly lower than that for Lava and Cerec. With regard to the working time without powdering, the differences between the methods were not statistically significant. The patient rating (very uncomfortable=0; comfortable=100) measured 61 ±34 for conventional impression, 71 ±18 for Lava, 66 ±20 for iTero, and 48 ±18 for Cerec. The differences were not statistically significant. The clinician rating (simple=0; very difficult=100) was 13 ±13 for the conventional impression, 54 ±27 for Lava, 22 ±11 for iTero, and 36 ±23 for Cerec. The differences between the conventional impression and Lava and between iTero and Lava were statistically significant. The conventional impression was more time-effective than the digital impressions. In terms of

  3. Evaluation of dimensional stability of autoclavable elastomeric impression material.

    PubMed

    Surendra, G P; Anjum, Ayesha; Satish Babu, C L; Shetty, Shilpa

    2011-03-01

    Impressions are important sources of cross contamination between patients and dental laboratories. As a part of infection control impressions contaminated with variety of micro-organisms via blood and oral secretions should be cleaned and disinfected or sterilized before being handled in dental laboratory. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of autoclaving on dimensional stability of elastomeric impression material (polyvinyl siloxane-Affinis). In this in vitro study standardized stainless steel die as per ADA specification number 19 was fabricated. Polyvinyl siloxane (Affinis) light body and putty viscosity elastomeric impression materials were used. A total of 40 impressions of the stainless steel die were made and numeric coding system was used to identify the samples. Measurements were made using a measuring microscope. Distance between the cross lines CD and C'D' reproduced in the impression were measured before autoclaving, immediately after autoclaving and 24 hours after autoclaving and dimensional change was calculated. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. The mean difference in dimensional change between the three groups was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). However the results revealed that there was higher mean dimensional change immediately after autoclaving when compared to the other 2 time intervals. It is desirable to delay the casting of an autoclavable elastomeric impression material by about 24 hours. Though disinfection of impression is routinely followed autoclaving of impression is an effective method of sterilization.

  4. Torque resistance of impression copings after direct implant impression: An in vitro evaluation of impression materials with and without adhesive.

    PubMed

    Auroy, Pascal; Nicolas, Emanuel; Bedouin, Yvan

    2017-01-01

    No data are available on the ability of an impression coping to resist the manual placement of an abutment replica (implant analog) during prosthodontic laboratory procedures after a direct (pick-up) impression. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the torque resistance of impression copings after a direct impression, that is, the amount of rotational torque sufficient to induce irreversible displacement of impression copings in the impression material bulk once the impression has been made. A reference model with 5 abutment replicas was constructed. Five impression copings were screwed onto the abutment replicas, and standardized impressions were made. A controlled twisting force was applied to each impression coping. A torque tester recorded the torque variation. Three elastomeric impression materials were tested. ANOVA and the Tukey test (α=.05) were performed using an average of 30 measurements per impression material, with and without adhesive. ANOVA and the Tukey test results showed that the adhesive, cohesive, and mechanical bonds between the impression coping and the impression material depended greatly on the type of material and that the average rupture threshold of these bonds was statistically significantly different in pairwise comparisons (P<.05). The curve analysis showed that when the impression materials are used with adhesives, the deformation of the interface is irreversible beyond 5 Ncm of torque. The polyether impression material is the direct impression material that showed the highest breakdown threshold for adhesive bonding when used without an adhesive. The use of an adhesive on impression copings leads to irreversible deformation of the interface at torque stresses well below the adhesive bond threshold of the same materials used without an adhesive. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. EVALUATION OF IMPRESSED ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE CATHODIC PROTECTION

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Electromotive couples consisting of 0.064 in. x 24 in. x 24 in. bare 7075-T6 aluminum cathodes and 0.064 in. x 2 in. x 3 in. RC-70 titanium or...such a manner that it opposed the galvanic current. In a series of tests wherein the impressed voltage and current was varied from specimen to specimen

  6. Blinded evaluation of the effects of hyaluronic acid filler injections on first impressions.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Steven H; Arkins, John P; Gal, Thomas J

    2010-11-01

    Facial appearance has profound influence on the first impression that is projected to others. To determine the effects that complete correction of the nasolabial folds (NLFs) with hyaluronic acid (HA) filler has on the first impression one makes. Twenty-two subjects received injections of HA filler into the NLFs. Photographs of the face in a relaxed pose were taken at baseline, optimal correction visit, and 4 weeks after optimal correction. Three hundred four blinded evaluators completed a survey rating first impression on various measures of success for each photo. In total, 5,776 first impressions were recorded, totaling 46,208 individual assessments of first impression. Our findings indicate a significant improvement in mean first impression in the categories of dating success, attractiveness, financial success, relationship success, athletic success, and overall first impression at the optimal correction visit. At 4 weeks after the optimal correction visit, significance was observed in all categories measured: social skills, academic performance, dating success, occupational success, attractiveness, financial success, relationship success, athletic success, and overall first impression. Full correction of the NLFs with HA filler significantly and positively influences the first impression an individual projects. © 2010 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  7. Electronic evaluation for video commercials by impression index.

    PubMed

    Kong, Wanzeng; Zhao, Xinxin; Hu, Sanqing; Vecchiato, Giovanni; Babiloni, Fabio

    2013-12-01

    How to evaluate the effect of commercials is significantly important in neuromarketing. In this paper, we proposed an electronic way to evaluate the influence of video commercials on consumers by impression index. The impression index combines both the memorization and attention index during consumers observing video commercials by tracking the EEG activity. It extracts features from scalp EEG to evaluate the effectiveness of video commercials in terms of time-frequency-space domain. And, the general global field power was used as an impression index for evaluation of video commercial scenes as time series. Results of experiment demonstrate that the proposed approach is able to track variations of the cerebral activity related to cognitive task such as observing video commercials, and help to judge whether the scene in video commercials is impressive or not by EEG signals.

  8. Comparison of digital and conventional impression techniques: evaluation of patients' perception, treatment comfort, effectiveness and clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Yuzbasioglu, Emir; Kurt, Hanefi; Turunc, Rana; Bilir, Halenur

    2014-01-30

    The purpose of this study was to compare two impression techniques from the perspective of patient preferences and treatment comfort. Twenty-four (12 male, 12 female) subjects who had no previous experience with either conventional or digital impression participated in this study. Conventional impressions of maxillary and mandibular dental arches were taken with a polyether impression material (Impregum, 3 M ESPE), and bite registrations were made with polysiloxane bite registration material (Futar D, Kettenbach). Two weeks later, digital impressions and bite scans were performed using an intra-oral scanner (CEREC Omnicam, Sirona). Immediately after the impressions were made, the subjects' attitudes, preferences and perceptions towards impression techniques were evaluated using a standardized questionnaire. The perceived source of stress was evaluated using the State-Trait Anxiety Scale. Processing steps of the impression techniques (tray selection, working time etc.) were recorded in seconds. Statistical analyses were performed with the Wilcoxon Rank test, and p < 0.05 was considered significant. There were significant differences among the groups (p < 0.05) in terms of total working time and processing steps. Patients stated that digital impressions were more comfortable than conventional techniques. Digital impressions resulted in a more time-efficient technique than conventional impressions. Patients preferred the digital impression technique rather than conventional techniques.

  9. Comparison of digital and conventional impression techniques: evaluation of patients’ perception, treatment comfort, effectiveness and clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare two impression techniques from the perspective of patient preferences and treatment comfort. Methods Twenty-four (12 male, 12 female) subjects who had no previous experience with either conventional or digital impression participated in this study. Conventional impressions of maxillary and mandibular dental arches were taken with a polyether impression material (Impregum, 3 M ESPE), and bite registrations were made with polysiloxane bite registration material (Futar D, Kettenbach). Two weeks later, digital impressions and bite scans were performed using an intra-oral scanner (CEREC Omnicam, Sirona). Immediately after the impressions were made, the subjects’ attitudes, preferences and perceptions towards impression techniques were evaluated using a standardized questionnaire. The perceived source of stress was evaluated using the State-Trait Anxiety Scale. Processing steps of the impression techniques (tray selection, working time etc.) were recorded in seconds. Statistical analyses were performed with the Wilcoxon Rank test, and p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results There were significant differences among the groups (p < 0.05) in terms of total working time and processing steps. Patients stated that digital impressions were more comfortable than conventional techniques. Conclusions Digital impressions resulted in a more time-efficient technique than conventional impressions. Patients preferred the digital impression technique rather than conventional techniques. PMID:24479892

  10. In Vitro Comparative Evaluation of Different Types of Impression Trays and Impression Materials on the Accuracy of Open Tray Implant Impressions: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sonam; Balakrishnan, Dhanasekar

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. For a precise fit of multiple implant framework, having an accurate definitive cast is imperative. The present study evaluated dimensional accuracy of master casts obtained using different impression trays and materials with open tray impression technique. Materials and Methods. A machined aluminum reference model with four parallel implant analogues was fabricated. Forty implant level impressions were made. Eight groups (n = 5) were tested using impression materials (polyether and vinylsiloxanether) and four types of impression trays, two being custom (self-cure acrylic and light cure acrylic) and two being stock (plastic and metal). The interimplant distances were measured on master casts using a coordinate measuring machine. The collected data was compared with a standard reference model and was statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA. Results. Statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between the two impression materials. However, the difference seen was small (36 μm) irrespective of the tray type used. No significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed between varied stock and custom trays. Conclusions. The polyether impression material proved to be more accurate than vinylsiloxanether impression material. The rigid nonperforated stock trays, both plastic and metal, could be an alternative for custom trays for multi-implant impressions when used with medium viscosity impression materials. PMID:28348595

  11. In Vitro Comparative Evaluation of Different Types of Impression Trays and Impression Materials on the Accuracy of Open Tray Implant Impressions: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sonam; Narayan, Aparna Ichalangod; Balakrishnan, Dhanasekar

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. For a precise fit of multiple implant framework, having an accurate definitive cast is imperative. The present study evaluated dimensional accuracy of master casts obtained using different impression trays and materials with open tray impression technique. Materials and Methods. A machined aluminum reference model with four parallel implant analogues was fabricated. Forty implant level impressions were made. Eight groups (n = 5) were tested using impression materials (polyether and vinylsiloxanether) and four types of impression trays, two being custom (self-cure acrylic and light cure acrylic) and two being stock (plastic and metal). The interimplant distances were measured on master casts using a coordinate measuring machine. The collected data was compared with a standard reference model and was statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA. Results. Statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between the two impression materials. However, the difference seen was small (36 μm) irrespective of the tray type used. No significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed between varied stock and custom trays. Conclusions. The polyether impression material proved to be more accurate than vinylsiloxanether impression material. The rigid nonperforated stock trays, both plastic and metal, could be an alternative for custom trays for multi-implant impressions when used with medium viscosity impression materials.

  12. Evaluation of accuracy of direct transfer snapon impression coping closed tray impression technique and direct transfer open tray impression technique: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, T; Manimaran, P

    2013-09-01

    Accuracy of the implant impression technique is one of the key factor determining the strain free fit of the prosthesis fabricated which influences the treatment success. Two implant impression techniques namely the closed tray technique with transfer coping and open tray technique were evaluated for accuracy with stone casts obtained from them. Casts were evaluated using a custom constructed bar on strain gage (SYSCOM) and abutment coordinates using Coordinate Measuring Machine (TESA micro-HITE). The statistical analysis with one way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney tests show that the casts obtained with open tray technique were accurate than the casts of closed tray technique (significance P < 0.001). Direct transfer impression technique with less number of components ensures the high accuracy of transfer of implant positions from master cast to the laboratory cast compared to the indirect transfer impression technique.

  13. Evaluation of transfer impressions for osseointegrated implants at various angulations.

    PubMed

    Assuncao, Wirley Gonçalves; Filho, Humberto Gennari; Zaniquelli, Osvaldo

    2004-12-01

    The accuracy of impressions that transfer the relationship of the implant to the metal framework of the prosthesis continues to be a problem. This study was designed to evaluate the accuracy of the transfer process under variable conditions with regard to implant analog angulations, impression materials, and techniques. Replicas (n = 60) of a metal matrix (control) containing four implants at 90 degrees , 80 degrees , 75 degrees , and 65 degrees in relation to the horizontal surface were obtained by using three impression techniques: T1-indirect technique with conical copings in closed trays; T2-direct technique with square copings in open trays; and T3-square copings splinted with autopolymerizing acrylic resin; and four elastomers: "P"-polysulfide; "I"-polyether; "A"-addition silicone; and "Z"-condensation silicone. The values of the implant analog angulations were assessed by a profilometer to the nearest 0.017 degrees , then submitted to analysis of variance for comparisons at significance of 5% (P < .05). For implant analog at 90 degrees , the material "A" associated with T2 and material "Z" with T3 behaved differently (P < .05) from all groups. At 80 degrees , all materials behaved differently (P < .01) with T1. At 75 degrees , when T1 was associated, materials "P" and "A" showed similar behavior, as well as materials "I" and "Z"; however, "P" and "A" were different from "I" and "Z" (P < .01). When T3 was associated, all experimental groups behaved differently among them (P < .01). At 65 degrees , the materials "P" and "Z" behaved differently (P < .01) from the control group with T1, T2, and T3; the materials "I" and "A" behaved differently from the control group (P < .01) when T1 and T2, respectively, were associated. The more perpendicular the implant analog angulation is in relation to the horizontal surface, the more accurate the impression. The best materials were material "I" and "A" and the most satisfactory technique was technique 3.

  14. Evaluation of the precision of three implant transfer impression techniques using two elastomeric impression materials.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Tamer Mohamed Nasr; Elgendy, Mohamed Nabeel Mohamed; Kashef, Nahed Ahmed; Halim, Maha Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    A master cast representing a completely edentulous mandible was fabricated in polyurethane resin and had four implants secured to the anterior interforaminal area. Impressions were made using six technique-material combinations. Ten definitive casts were fabricated for each technique. Linear distances between implants were measured using a traveling microscope. There was no statistically significant difference between the direct unsplinted and splinted techniques (P > .05), while the indirect technique was statistically significantly different from the other two techniques (P < .05). There was no statistically significant difference between the two impression materials.

  15. Evaluation of the occlusal contact of crowns fabricated with the bite impression method.

    PubMed

    Makino, Sachi; Okada, Daizo; Shin, Chiharu; Ogura, Reiko; Ikeda, Masaomi; Miura, Hiroyuki

    2013-09-30

    In prosthodontic treatment, reconstruction of a proper occlusal contact relationship is very important as well as reconstruction of a proper interproximal relationship and marginal fitness. Unfortunately, occlusal relationships are sometimes lost in the process of occlusal adjustment of crowns. The purpose of this study was to compare the occlusal contacts of single crown fabricated by two different types of impression techniques. Nine subjects, whose molars required treatment with crown restoration, were enrolled in this study. Full cast crowns were fabricated using two types of impression techniques: the conventional impression method (CIM) and the bite impression method (BIM). The occlusal contacts of crowns were precisely evaluated at the following stages: after occlusal adjustment on the articulator (Step 0), before occlusal adjustment in the mouth (Step 1), after occlusal adjustment at the intercuspal position (Step 2), and after occlusal adjustment during lateral and protrusive excursions (Step 3). The number of occlusal contacts of the crowns on the functional cusps fabricated with BIM was significantly greater than that with CIM after occlusal adjustment. For this reason, the crowns fabricated with BIM might have a more functionally desirable occlusal surface compared to the crowns fabricated with CIM.

  16. An evaluation of student and clinician perception of digital and conventional implant impressions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang J; Macarthur, Robert X; Gallucci, German O

    2013-11-01

    The accuracy and efficiency of digital implant impressions should match conventional impressions. Comparisons should be made with clinically relevant data. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the difficulty level and operator's perception between dental students and experienced clinicians when making digital and conventional implant impressions. Thirty experienced dental professionals and 30 second-year dental students made conventional and digital impressions of a single implant model. A visual analog scale (VAS) and multiple-choice questionnaires were used to assess the participant's perception of difficulty, preference, and effectiveness. Wilcoxon signed-rank test within the groups and Wilcoxon rank-sum test between the groups were used for statistical analysis (α=.05). On a 0 to 100 VAS, the student group scored a mean difficulty level of 43.1 (±18.5) for the conventional impression technique and 30.6 (±17.6) for the digital impression technique (P=.006). The clinician group scored a mean (standard deviation) difficulty level of 30.9 (±19.6) for conventional impressions and 36.5 (±20.6) for digital impressions (P=.280). Comparison between groups showed a mean difficulty level with the conventional impression technique significantly higher in the student group (P=.030). The digital impression was not significantly different between the groups (P=.228). Sixty percent of the students preferred the digital impression and 7% the conventional impression; 33% expressed no preference. In the clinician group, 33% preferred the digital impression and 37% the conventional impression; 30% had no preference. Seventy-seven percent of the student group felt most effective with digital impressions, 10% with conventional impressions, and 13% with either technique, whereas 40% of the clinician group chose the digital impression as the most effective technique, 53% the conventional impression, and 7% either technique. The conventional impression was more difficult to

  17. [Attention to the impression cytology in the evaluation of ocular surface tumors].

    PubMed

    Li, B; Liang, Q F

    2016-10-11

    Impression cytology (IC) has been widely used as a method for evaluating the ocular surface and superficial cells layers in the diagnosis and follow-up after treatment of several ocular surface tumors of both epithelial and melanocytic origin. Compared with exfoliative cytology with spatula, IC is less traumatic to the patient's eye. It provides a precise location of the area being studied and allows accurate observation of the cells the way they exist in vivo. The additional advantage of IC is the preservation of limbal stem cells responsible for continuous corneal epithelium renewal. In certain cases, ophthalmologists may prefer interventions less invasive than surgical biopsy such as impression cytology for both initial diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of the treatment for ocular surface lesions. The purpose of this article is to comment the effect for the diagnosis and management of ocular surface tumors and to discuss the requirement for further investigation on the subject. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 721-723).

  18. In vivo evaluation of inter-operator reproducibility of digital dental and conventional impression techniques

    PubMed Central

    Kamimura, Emi; Tanaka, Shinpei; Takaba, Masayuki; Tachi, Keita; Baba, Kazuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the inter-operator reproducibility of three-dimensional (3D) images of teeth captured by a digital impression technique to a conventional impression technique in vivo. Materials and methods Twelve participants with complete natural dentition were included in this study. A digital impression of the mandibular molars of these participants was made by two operators with different levels of clinical experience, 3 or 16 years, using an intra-oral scanner (Lava COS, 3M ESPE). A silicone impression also was made by the same operators using the double mix impression technique (Imprint3, 3M ESPE). Stereolithography (STL) data were directly exported from the Lava COS system, while STL data of a plaster model made from silicone impression were captured by a three-dimensional (3D) laboratory scanner (D810, 3shape). The STL datasets recorded by two different operators were compared using 3D evaluation software and superimposed using the best-fit-algorithm method (least-squares method, PolyWorks, InnovMetric Software) for each impression technique. Inter-operator reproducibility as evaluated by average discrepancies of corresponding 3D data was compared between the two techniques (Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Results The visual inspection of superimposed datasets revealed that discrepancies between repeated digital impression were smaller than observed with silicone impression. Confirmation was forthcoming from statistical analysis revealing significantly smaller average inter-operator reproducibility using a digital impression technique (0.014± 0.02 mm) than when using a conventional impression technique (0.023 ± 0.01 mm). Conclusion The results of this in vivo study suggest that inter-operator reproducibility with a digital impression technique may be better than that of a conventional impression technique and is independent of the clinical experience of the operator. PMID:28636642

  19. Accuracy evaluation of intraoral optical impressions: A clinical study using a reference appliance.

    PubMed

    Atieh, Mohammad A; Ritter, André V; Ko, Ching-Chang; Duqum, Ibrahim

    2017-09-01

    Trueness and precision are used to evaluate the accuracy of intraoral optical impressions. Although the in vivo precision of intraoral optical impressions has been reported, in vivo trueness has not been evaluated because of limitations in the available protocols. The purpose of this clinical study was to compare the accuracy (trueness and precision) of optical and conventional impressions by using a novel study design. Five study participants consented and were enrolled. For each participant, optical and conventional (vinylsiloxanether) impressions of a custom-made intraoral Co-Cr alloy reference appliance fitted to the mandibular arch were obtained by 1 operator. Three-dimensional (3D) digital models were created for stone casts obtained from the conventional impression group and for the reference appliances by using a validated high-accuracy reference scanner. For the optical impression group, 3D digital models were obtained directly from the intraoral scans. The total mean trueness of each impression system was calculated by averaging the mean absolute deviations of the impression replicates from their 3D reference model for each participant, followed by averaging the obtained values across all participants. The total mean precision for each impression system was calculated by averaging the mean absolute deviations between all the impression replicas for each participant (10 pairs), followed by averaging the obtained values across all participants. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA (α=.05), first to assess whether a systematic difference in trueness or precision of replicate impressions could be found among participants and second to assess whether the mean trueness and precision values differed between the 2 impression systems. Statistically significant differences were found between the 2 impression systems for both mean trueness (P=.010) and mean precision (P=.007). Conventional impressions had higher accuracy with a mean trueness of 17.0

  20. Evaluation of Physical Properties of Tissue Conditioning Materials as used in Functional Impression - A Lab Study.

    PubMed

    Shylesh, Kumar B S; Hallikerimath, R B; Rajeev, V V; Ganesh, S; Meenakshi, S

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the basic physical properties of 3 commonly available tissue-conditioning materials to gain knowledge for their clinical use as impression materials. A total of 60 samples were prepared and each sample was mixed and prepared according to manufacture direction. Finally five specimens of each tissue conditioners were subjected for each of the above test at different time duration. The study showed that all the materials underwent water loss from the time of mixing to 24 hr & became hard. The plasticity of coecomfort & viscogel decreased from the time of mixing upto 1hr & 2hr respectively & again increased after that till 24 hrs, but the softone showed decreased plasticity after 30 min till 24hrs. Softone & coecomfort at 30 min showed better flow & more plasticity than that of viscogel. The dimensional accuracy of softone & viscogel at 30min is better than that of coecomfort. Thus softone at 30 min after mixing has better Dimensional accuracy, Plasticity and Flow; suitable for making functional impression then that of Coe-comfort and Viscogel. How to cite this article: Shylesh K B S, Hallikerimath R B, Rajeev V V, Ganesh S, Meenakshi S. Evaluation of Physical Properties of Tissue Conditioning Materials as used in Functional Impression - A Lab Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):20-27.

  1. Evaluation of Physical Properties of Tissue Conditioning Materials as used in Functional Impression - A Lab Study

    PubMed Central

    Shylesh, Kumar B S; Hallikerimath, R B; Rajeev, V V; Ganesh, S; Meenakshi, S

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to identify the basic physical properties of 3 commonly available tissue-conditioning materials to gain knowledge for their clinical use as impression materials. Materials & Methods: A total of 60 samples were prepared and each sample was mixed and prepared according to manufacture direction. Finally five specimens of each tissue conditioners were subjected for each of the above test at different time duration. Results & Conclusion: The study showed that all the materials underwent water loss from the time of mixing to 24 hr & became hard. The plasticity of coecomfort & viscogel decreased from the time of mixing upto 1hr & 2hr respectively & again increased after that till 24 hrs, but the softone showed decreased plasticity after 30 min till 24hrs. Softone & coecomfort at 30 min showed better flow & more plasticity than that of viscogel. The dimensional accuracy of softone & viscogel at 30min is better than that of coecomfort. Thus softone at 30 min after mixing has better Dimensional accuracy, Plasticity and Flow; suitable for making functional impression then that of Coe-comfort and Viscogel. How to cite this article: Shylesh K B S, Hallikerimath R B, Rajeev V V, Ganesh S, Meenakshi S. Evaluation of Physical Properties of Tissue Conditioning Materials as used in Functional Impression - A Lab Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):20-27. PMID:24155598

  2. Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Three Immersion Chemical Disinfectants on Clinically Derived Poly(Vinyl Siloxane) Impressions.

    PubMed

    Jeyapalan, Vidhya; Krishnan, Chitra Shankar; Ramasubramanian, Hariharan; Sampathkumar, Jayakrishnakumar; Azhagarasan, N S; Krishnan, Madhusudan

    2016-07-06

    To comparatively evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of freshly prepared electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) with that of 2.4% glutaraldehyde (GA) and 1% sodium hypochlorite (SH) on clinically derived poly vinyl siloxane (PVS) impressions. Four clinically derived PVS impressions each were obtained from 10 subjects. One impression from each subject was randomly kept as control (group I), without disinfection. The remaining three impressions were randomly disinfected by immersion in either 2.4% GA (group II), 1% SH (group III), or freshly prepared EOW (group IV). The samples were subjected to microbial culture individually on brain heart infusion (BHI) agar medium. The organisms isolated were confirmed by visual examination and gram staining. Mean colony forming units (CFU) were counted, log10 reduction obtained and compared. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA, followed by multiple comparisons using Tukey-HSD post hoc tests (p < 0.05). Streptococci, Staphylococci, Pseudomonas, Candida, Proteus, Klebsiella, and E. coli were isolated from all impressions including the controls, except those disinfected by EOW. All three disinfectants showed significant reduction in CFU and log10 reduction values as compared to the controls. EOW showed significantly higher reduction in log10 values compared to GA and SH, whereas GA and SH showed similar reductions. EOW, GA, and SH showed kill rates of 100%, 99.60%, and 99.82%, respectively. EOW showed significant antimicrobial efficacy as evidenced by reduction in log10 values when used as an immersion disinfectant for PVS impressions when compared with the results obtained using GA and SH. These results need further investigation. EOW shows high antimicrobial efficacy when used as an immersion disinfectant as compared to GA and SH for clinically derived PVS impressions. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  3. Modified cytotoxicity evaluation of elastomeric impression materials while polymerizing with reduced exposure time.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jae-Sung; Lee, Sang-Bae; Kim, Chong-Kwan; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2012-12-01

    Cytotoxicity evaluation is an important step in biocompatibility assessment of dental impression materials. Previously, cytotoxicity evaluations were carried out on already set ('set') impression materials for contact time or extraction time of 24 h or longer in duration. However, clinically, dental impression materials are in contact with oral tissue while they are being set ('polymerizing'), for no longer than 10 min. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the difference in results between 'polymerizing' and 'set' forms of impression materials as well as the difference in results between longer duration of contact or extraction time (12 or 24 h) and shorter duration of time (15 or 30 min). Seven dental impression materials of different chemical compositions were tested. Two commonly used in vitro tests were used-test on extraction and test by direct contact. Both 'polymerizing' and 'set' forms of impression materials were used with different durations of extraction and contact (15 min, 30 min, 12 h and 24 h). There were significant (p < 0.05) differences of cell viability and cell proliferation between the 'polymerizing' and 'set' impression materials. Also, significant (p < 0.05) differences were noted with variance in duration of time. In light of the results, it is recommended to use a 'polymerizing' state of dental impression material for cytotoxicity evaluation, with 15 or 30 min of contact between cell and dental impression materials and an extraction time of 15 or 30 min that is more reflective of clinical situations.

  4. Comparative evaluation of the effects of implant position, impression material, and tray type on implant impression accuracy.

    PubMed

    Gökçen-Rohlig, Bilge; Ongül, Değer; Sancakli, Erkan; Sermet, Bülent

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of implant position, impression, and tray material on the accuracy of implant impressions of edentulous arches with multiple implants. Four experimental groups were produced; medium-viscosity polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) was used in 3 groups and polyether was used in 1 group. In PVS groups, different tray types were used; metal stock trays, custom acrylic tray, and full-arch perforated plastic trays. In polyether group, custom acrylic trays were used. The discrepancies in 3 dimensions were measured. The casts obtained exhibited small deviations (7.50-9.71 µm) from the master cast. There was no statistically significant difference between the polyether and PVS groups. Similarly, different tray materials did not produce any statistically significant discrepancies within the PVS groups. There was no significant difference among the groups when the accuracy of anterior implants were compared, but within-the-group comparisons showed that except group 1 (GR1), the posterior implants demonstrated more accuracy than anterior ones. Polyether and PVS can safely be used for the impressions of the edentulous arches with multiple implants and different tray types produce similar accuracy results.

  5. Radiodensity evaluation of dental impression materials in comparison to tooth structures

    PubMed Central

    FONSECA, Rodrigo Borges; BRANCO, Carolina Assaf; HAITER-NETO, Francisco; GONÇALVES, Luciano de Souza; SOARES, Carlos José; CARLO, Hugo Lemes; SINHORETI, Mário Alexandre Coelho; CORRER-SOBRINHO, Lourenço

    2010-01-01

    In the most recent decades, several developments have been made on impression materials' composition, but there are very few radiodensity studies in the literature. It is expected that an acceptable degree of radiodensity would enable the detection of small fragments left inside gingival sulcus or root canals. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the radiodensity of different impression materials, and to compare them to human and bovine enamel and dentin Material and Methods Twenty-five impression materials, from 5 classes, were studied: addition and condensation silicones, polyether, polysulfides and alginates. Five 1-mm-thick samples of each material and tooth structure were produced. Each sample was evaluated 3 times (N=15), being exposed to x-ray over a phosphor plate of Digora digital system, and radiodensity was obtained by the software Digora for Windows 2.5 Rev 0. An aluminum stepwedge served as a control. Data were subjected to Kruskal- Wallis and Dunn's method (α=0.05). Results Different materials and respective classes had a different behavior with respect to radiodensity. Polysulfides showed high values of radiodensity, comparable to human enamel (p>0.05), but not to bovine enamel (p<0.05). Human dentin was similar only to a heavybody addition silicon material, but bovine dentin was similar to several materials. Generally, heavybody materials showed higher radiodensity than light-body ones (p<0.05). Conclusion Impression materials' radiodensity are influenced by composition, and almost all of them would present a difficult detection against enamel or dentin background in radiographic examinations. PMID:21085802

  6. Accuracy and stability of impression materials subjected to chemical disinfection - a literature review.

    PubMed

    Kotsiomiti, E; Tzialla, A; Hatjivasiliou, K

    2008-04-01

    Disinfection of impressions by immersion or spraying with disinfecting solutions is considered nowadays mandatory for effective infection control. The purpose of this review was to examine existing evidence on the effects that chemical disinfection may have on critical qualities of impressions, namely dimensional accuracy and stability over time. A PubMed search was conducted to include original laboratory research articles written in English, published between 1980 and 2005 in peer-reviewed journals and investigating the effect of chemical disinfection, by immersion or spraying, on the dimensional changes that the impression materials experience after setting. Studies were also sought manually, by tracing the references cited in the retrieved articles. The reports on dimensional changes of disinfected impression materials, although rather numerous, are difficult to compare and analyze because of variations of the experimental design. The investigations broadly agree that the disinfection process does not generally affect the dimensional integrity of the impressions, in spite of the statistically significant differences occasionally found. However, the immersion in the disinfecting solution encourages water absorption phenomena in the case of the so-called hydrophilic impression materials, especially after the long-term immersion. Chemical interactions between impressions and disinfectants may occur, but they do not appear to influence the dimensional behaviour of the former. The overall effect of the disinfection is influenced not only by the changes experienced by the impression per se, but also by the alterations of the acrylic tray containing the impression and of the gypsum product poured in it.

  7. Clinical Evaluation of Different Pre-impression Preparation Procedures of Dental Arch

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Nitin; Arora, Monika; Gupta, Naveen; Agarwal, Manisha; Verma, Rohit; Rathod, Pankaj

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bubbles and voids on the occlusal surface impede the actual intercuspation and pre-impression preparation aims to reduce the incidence of air bubbles and voids as well as influences the quality of occlusal reproduction and actual clinical intercuspation in the articulator. The study was undertaken to determine the influence of different pre-impression preparation procedures of antagonistic dental arch on the quality of the occlusal reproduction of the teeth in irreversible hydrocolloid impressions and to determine most reliable pre-impression preparation method to reduce the incidence of air bubbles. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 subjects were selected having full complement of mandibular teeth from second molar to second molar with well demarcated cusp height. 200 impressions were made with irreversible hydrocolloid material. The impressions were divided into five groups of 40 impressions each and each group had one specific type of pre-impression preparation. All the impressions were poured in die stone. A stereomicroscope with graduated eyepiece was used to count the number of bubbles on the occlusal surface of premolars and molars. The mean and standard deviations were calculated for each group. Mann–Whitney U-test was applied to find the significant difference between different groups. Results: Least bubbles were found in the group in which oral cavity was dried by saliva ejector and fluid hydrocolloid was finger painted onto the occlusal surfaces immediately before the placement of impression tray in the mouth. Conclusion: It was found that finger painting the tooth surfaces with fluid hydrocolloid immediately before the placement of loaded impression tray in the mouth was the most reliable method. The oral cavity can be cleared more easily of excess saliva by vacuum suction rather than by use of an astringent solution. PMID:26229376

  8. Evaluation of accuracy of complete-arch multiple-unit abutment-level dental implant impressions using different impression and splinting materials.

    PubMed

    Buzayan, Muaiyed; Baig, Mirza Rustum; Yunus, Norsiah

    2013-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the accuracy of multiple-unit dental implant casts obtained from splinted or nonsplinted direct impression techniques using various splinting materials by comparing the casts to the reference models. The effect of two different impression materials on the accuracy of the implant casts was also evaluated for abutment-level impressions. A reference model with six internal-connection implant replicas placed in the completely edentulous mandibular arch and connected to multi-base abutments was fabricated from heat-curing acrylic resin. Forty impressions of the reference model were made, 20 each with polyether (PE) and polyvinylsiloxane (PVS) impression materials using the open tray technique. The PE and PVS groups were further subdivided into four subgroups of five each on the bases of splinting type: no splinting, bite registration PE, bite registration addition silicone, or autopolymerizing acrylic resin. The positional accuracy of the implant replica heads was measured on the poured casts using a coordinate measuring machine to assess linear differences in interimplant distances in all three axes. The collected data (linear and three-dimensional [3D] displacement values) were compared with the measurements calculated on the reference resin model and analyzed with nonparametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney). No significant differences were found between the various splinting groups for both PE and PVS impression materials in terms of linear and 3D distortions. However, small but significant differences were found between the two impression materials (PVS, 91 μm; PE, 103 μm) in terms of 3D discrepancies, irrespective of the splinting technique employed. Casts obtained from both impression materials exhibited differences from the reference model. The impression material influenced impression inaccuracy more than the splinting material for multiple-unit abutment-level impressions.

  9. An evaluation of impression techniques for osseointegrated implants.

    PubMed

    Spector, M R; Donovan, T E; Nicholls, J I

    1990-04-01

    A passive fit between osseointegrated implants and the prosthesis they will support has been advocated. An experimental model was developed to test the accuracy of three impression techniques and the components used to make the transfer records. Statistically, no significant difference was found between the three methods tested. From this initial study, it appears that further work is needed to isolate techniques that will predictably provide accurate registration of the position of endosseous implants.

  10. An evaluation of DNA yield, DNA quality and bite registration from a dental impression wafer.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Mark A; Song, Fengyu; Parks, Edwin T; Eckert, George J; Dean, Jeffrey A; Windsor, L Jack

    2007-09-01

    The authors determined the amount and quality of the DNA captured by a bite impression wafer and analyzed any inaccuracies in the impression wafer. The authors made bite registrations for subjects aged 7 to 12 years by using a dental impression wafer (Toothprints, Kerr, Orange, Calif.), obtained an oral rinse sample, took cheek cells by using buccal swabs and made an alginate impression to pour a stone model. They extracted and quantified the DNA from the dental impression wafer, mouthwash and buccal swabs by using the Quant-iT PicoGreen (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, Calif.) assay and a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. They compared the stone models and imprints from the wafer. The average amounts of DNA determined by using Quant-iT PicoGreen from the buccal swab, mouthwash and dental impression wafer samples were 113.61, 509.57 and 1.03 micrograms, respectively. The average amounts of DNA determined by using RT-PCR from the buccal swab, mouthwash and dental impression wafer samples were 11.5240, 22.2540 and 0.0279 mug, respectively. The bite registrations and stone models had an average of 14 percent of mismatches. The dental impression wafers captured DNA but not in high quantities. They did not produce an accurate representation of the dentition. The dental impression wafers captured enough DNA to permit amplification. The accuracy of the bite registration was not sufficient for identification purposes. Therefore, dental impression wafers may be useful only as a reservoir for DNA.

  11. Automatic comparison and evaluation of impressions left by a firearm on fired cartridge cases.

    PubMed

    Riva, Fabiano; Champod, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Recent years have been characterized by a series of publications in the field of firearms investigation questioning the reliability and objectivity of such examination. This research investigates new solutions to decrease the subjective component affecting the evaluation that follows the comparison of impressions left by a firearm on the surface of spent cartridge cases. An automatic comparison system based on 3D measurements has been developed and coupled to a bivariate evaluative model allowing assigning likelihood ratios. Based on a dataset of 79 pistols (all SIG Sauer 9 mm Luger caliber), the system shows a very high discriminating power and the LRs that it provides are very indicative of the true state under both the prosecution and the defense propositions. For example, likelihood ratios exceeding a billion are predominantly obtained when impressions originating from the same source are compared. The system is also characterized by relatively low rates (≤ 1%) of misleading evidence depending on the firearm considered. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. An in vitro evaluation of impression techniques for multiple internal- and external-connection implant prostheses.

    PubMed

    Vigolo, Paolo; Mutinelli, Sabrina; Fonzi, Fulvio; Stellini, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the accuracy of three different impression techniques, using polyether impression material, to obtain a precise definitive cast for a multiple-unit implant restoration with internal- or external-connection implants. Two reference resin models, one with four internal-connection implants (RRMI) and one with four external-connection implants (RRME), were fabricated. The longitudinal axes of all implants diverged by 15 to 20 degrees from the midline toward the labial/buccal. Six groups of 15 specimens each (45 RRMI, 45 RRME) were made with medium-consistency polyether: nonmodified square impression copings (NMIC and NMEC groups), square impression copings joined together with autopolymerizing acrylic resin before the impression procedure (RIC and REC groups), and square impression copings that were airborne particle-abraded and coated with impression adhesive (MIC and MEC groups). A single calibrated examiner evaluated the positional accuracy of the implant replica heads with a profile projector. These measurements were compared to the measurements calculated on the RRMI and RRME, which served as controls. All differences between the distances measured on the RRMI and on the RRME and those measured on the definitive casts of the six groups were transformed into the differences in microns each 1,000 μm of length (per mil difference) and statistically analyzed. Considering anterior and posterior per mil median differences together, the highest precision of the definitive casts was in the groups MEC, REC, and RIC. Within the limitations of this study, splinted square impression copings (RIC and REC) and airborne particle-abraded and coated (MIC and MEC) impression techniques showed greater accuracy in replicating the control models (RRMI and RRME) than the nonmodified technique (NMIC and NMEC). The definitive casts of the model with internal-connection implants achieved the highest precision with splinted square impression copings (RIC).

  13. An evaluation of impression techniques for multiple internal connection implant prostheses.

    PubMed

    Vigolo, Paolo; Fonzi, Fulvio; Majzoub, Zeina; Cordioli, Giampiero

    2004-11-01

    Movement of impression copings inside the impression material using an open-tray impression technique during clinical and laboratory phases may cause inaccuracy in transferring the 3-dimensional spatial orientation of implants intraorally to the definitive cast. Consequently the restoration may require corrective procedures. This in vitro study evaluated the accuracy of 3 different impression techniques using polyether impression material to obtain a precise definitive cast for a multi-unit implant restoration with multiple internal connection implants. A reference acrylic resin model with 4 internal connection implants (3i Implant Innovations) was fabricated. Forty-five medium-consistency polyether impressions (Impregum Penta) of this model were made with square impression copings using an open-tray technique. Three groups of 15 specimens each were made with different impression techniques: in the first group, nonmodified square impression copings were used (NM group); in the second group, square impression copings were used and joined together with autopolymerizing acrylic resin before the impression procedure (R [resin] group); and in the third group, square impression copings previously airborne-particle abraded and coated with the manufacturer-recommended impression adhesive were used (M [modified] group). Matching implant replicas were screwed into the square impression copings in the impressions. Impressions were poured with ADA type IV stone (New Fujirock). A single calibrated examiner blinded to the nature of the impression technique used examined all definitive casts to evaluate the positional accuracy (mum) of the implant replica heads using a profile projector (at original magnification x10). These measurements were compared to the measurements calculated on the reference resin model which served as control. Data were analyzed with a 1-way analysis of variance at alpha=.05, followed by the Student Newman-Keuls test (alpha=.05). The data obtained with

  14. Digital versus conventional implant impressions for partially edentulous arches: An evaluation of accuracy.

    PubMed

    Marghalani, Amin; Weber, Hans-Peter; Finkelman, Matthew; Kudara, Yukio; El Rafie, Khaled; Papaspyridakos, Panos

    2017-09-16

    To the authors' knowledge, while accuracy outcomes of the TRIOS scanner have been compared with conventional impressions, no available data are available regarding the accuracy of digital impressions with the Omnicam and True Definition scanners versus conventional impressions for partially edentulous arches. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the accuracy of digital implant impressions using 2 different intraoral scanners (IOSs) with that of conventional impressions for partially edentulous arches. Two partially edentulous mandibular casts with 2 implant analogs with a 30-degree angulation from 2 different implant systems (Replace Select RP; Nobel Biocare and Tissue level RN; Straumann) were used as controls. Sixty digital models were made from these 2 definitive casts in 6 different groups (n=10). Splinted implant-level impression procedures followed by digitization were used to produce the first 2 groups. The next 2 groups were produced by digital impression with Omnicam. The last 2 groups were produced by digital impression with the True Definition scanner. Accuracy was evaluated by superimposing the digital files of each test group onto the digital file of the controls with inspection software. The difference in 3-dimensional (3D) deviations (median ±interquartile range) among the 3 impression groups for Nobel Biocare was statistically significant among all groups (P<.001), except for the Omnicam (20 ±4 μm) and True Definition (15 ±6 μm) groups; the median ±interquartile range for the conventional group was 39 ±18 μm. The difference in 3D deviations among the 3 impression groups for Straumann was statistically significant among all groups (P=.003), except for the conventional impression (22 ±5 μm) and True Definition (17 ±5 μm) groups; the median ±interquartile range for the Omnicam group was 26 ±15 μm. The difference in 3D deviations between the 2 implant systems was significant for the Omnicam (P=.011) and conventional (P<.001

  15. Evaluation of properties of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials mixed with disinfectant liquids.

    PubMed

    Amalan, Arul; Ginjupalli, Kishore; Upadhya, Nagaraja

    2013-01-01

    Addition of disinfectant to irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials can eliminate the disinfection step to avoid dimensional changes associated with it. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of various disinfectant mixing liquids on the properties of commercially available irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials. Four commercially available irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials (Zelgan, Vignette, Tropicalgin, and Algitex) were mixed with disinfectant liquid containing chlorhexidine (0.1 and 0.2%) and sodium hypochlorite (0.1 and 0.5%). After mixing with disinfectant liquids, materials were evaluated for pH changes during gelation, gelation time, flow, gel strength, permanent deformation and detail reproduction. Significant changes in gelation time were observed in irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials upon mixing with disinfectant liquids. In general, chlorhexidine increased the gelation time, whereas sodium hypochlorite reduced it. However, no significant changes in the flow were observed both with chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite. Gel strength was found to decrease when mixed with chlorhexidine, whereas an increase in gel strength was observed upon mixing with sodium hypochlorite. Permanent deformation of the most irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials was below the specification limit even after mixing with disinfectant liquids. Sodium hypochlorite significantly reduced the surface detail reproduction, whereas no change in detail reproduction was observed with chlorhexidine. Chlorhexidine solution can be used to mix irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials in regular dental practice as it did not significantly alter the properties. This may ensure effective disinfection of impressions.

  16. Evaluation of properties of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials mixed with disinfectant liquids

    PubMed Central

    Amalan, Arul; Ginjupalli, Kishore; Upadhya, Nagaraja

    2013-01-01

    Background: Addition of disinfectant to irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials can eliminate the disinfection step to avoid dimensional changes associated with it. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of various disinfectant mixing liquids on the properties of commercially available irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials. Materials and Methods: Four commercially available irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials (Zelgan, Vignette, Tropicalgin, and Algitex) were mixed with disinfectant liquid containing chlorhexidine (0.1 and 0.2%) and sodium hypochlorite (0.1 and 0.5%). After mixing with disinfectant liquids, materials were evaluated for pH changes during gelation, gelation time, flow, gel strength, permanent deformation and detail reproduction. Results: Significant changes in gelation time were observed in irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials upon mixing with disinfectant liquids. In general, chlorhexidine increased the gelation time, whereas sodium hypochlorite reduced it. However, no significant changes in the flow were observed both with chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite. Gel strength was found to decrease when mixed with chlorhexidine, whereas an increase in gel strength was observed upon mixing with sodium hypochlorite. Permanent deformation of the most irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials was below the specification limit even after mixing with disinfectant liquids. Sodium hypochlorite significantly reduced the surface detail reproduction, whereas no change in detail reproduction was observed with chlorhexidine. Conclusion: Chlorhexidine solution can be used to mix irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials in regular dental practice as it did not significantly alter the properties. This may ensure effective disinfection of impressions. PMID:23878566

  17. [Evaluation of conjunctival epithelium of filtering blebs by impression cytology].

    PubMed

    Muniesa, M J; González, S; Buetas, P; López, S; Sánchez, C; Matias-Guiu, X

    2014-06-01

    To study the ocular surface in filtering blebs using impression cytology, comparing the bleb side and areas outside the bleb edges. Twelve filtering blebs of 8 patients were included: 4 cases of trabeculectomy without mitomycin C (MMC), 6 cases of trabeculectomy with MMC, and 2 cases of non-penetrating glaucoma surgery. Impression cytology specimens were taken from filtering blebs as well as outside the bleb area. A classification scale from 0 to 3 was used to describe the distribution of epithelial cells and the density of goblet cells. Grade 0 indicated cohesive epithelial cells and abundant goblet cells; and the grade 3 indicated loss of epithelial cohesion and absence of goblet cells. The mean grade of cytology in filtering blebs was 2.4 ± 0.9, and in the outside bleb area of 0.8 ± 0.3 (P<.001). These differences were independent of the use of MMC (P=.48). The large majority (83%) of filtering blebs showed a decrease in epithelial cohesion and absence of goblet cells. Outside the bleb area, 100% of the cases had cohesive epithelial cells with different grades of goblet cells. The conjunctival epithelium overlying the filtering blebs showed significant changes that consisted of increased intercellular spaces and loss of goblet cells. These increased intercellular spaces could explain the trans-epithelial pathway of aqueous humor. The least amount of mucin due to loss of goblet cells could contribute to increase the risk of infection in filtering blebs. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of effect of tray space on the accuracy of condensation silicone, addition silicone and polyether impression materials: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Varun; Aeran, Himanshu

    2012-09-01

    Optimal thickness of impression materials in the custom tray in order to get the most accurate impression. To investigate the effect of different tray spacer thickness on the accuracy and the dimensional stability of impressions made from monophasic condensation silicone, addition silicone and polyether impression materials. Three different types of elastomeric monophasic impression materials were used for making the impression of a master die with tray having tray spacer thickness of 2, 4 and 6 mm. Each type of impression was poured in die stone after 1 h. Each cast was analyzed by a travelling microscope and compared with the master die. The data was tabulated and subjected to statistical evaluation. The results of the study indicated that the impressions made from 2 to 4 mm spaced trays produced more accurate stone casts when compared to 6 mm spaced tray. No statistical significant differences were observed between the accuracy and dimensional stability of the three materials tested. Minimum changes were observed when the cast was poured after 1 h and the tray space was 2 mm for all the materials tested. It is therefore advisable not to exceed tray space of 2 mm.

  19. First Impressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coen, Frank

    1969-01-01

    The unreliability of first impressions and subjective judgments is the subject of both Jane Austen's "Pride and Prejudice" and Lionel Trilling's "Of This Time, Of That Place"; consequently, the works are worthwhile parallel studies for high school students. Austen, by means of irony and subtle characterization, dramatizes the…

  20. Personal evaluation structure of environmental sounds: experiments of subjective evaluation using subjects' own terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Keiji; Kojima, Takaya; Hirate, Kotaroh; Yasuoka, Masahito

    2004-10-01

    In this study, we conducted an experiment to investigate the evaluation structure that lies at the basis of peoples' psychological evaluation of environmental sounds. In the experiment, subjects were given cards on each of which a name of one of the environmental sounds in the specified context is written. Then they did the following three tasks: (1) to sort the cards into groups by the similarity of their impressions of the imagined sounds; (2) to name each group with the word that best represented their overall impression of the group; and (3) to evaluate all sounds on the cards using the words obtained in the previous task. These tasks were done twice: once assuming they heard the sounds at ease inside their homes and once while walking outside in a resort theme park. We analysed the similarity of imagined impression between the sounds with a cluster analysis and clusters of sounds were produced, namely, sounds labelled "natural," "transportation," and so on. A principal component analysis revealed the three major factors of the evaluation structure for both contexts and they were interpreted as preference, activity and sense of daily life.

  1. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Clinical Global Impression for Schizoaffective Disorder Scale

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, David G; Revicki, Dennis A; Canuso, Carla M; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Fu, Dong-Jing; Alphs, Larry; Ishak, K. Jack; Bartko, John J; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The Clinical Global Impression for Schizoaffective Disorder scale is a new rating scale adapted from the Clinical Global Impression scale for use in patients with schizoaffective disorder. The psychometric characteristics of the Clinical Global Impression for Schizoaffective Disorder are described. Design: Content validity was assessed using an investigator questionnaire. Inter-rater reliability was determined with 12 sets of videotaped interviews rated independently by two trained individuals. Test-retest reliability was assessed using 30 randomly selected raters from clinical trials who evaluated the same videos on separate occasions two weeks apart. Convergent and divergent validity and effect size were evaluated by comparing scores between the Clinical Global Impression for Schizoaffective Disorder and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and Young Mania Rating Scale scales using pooled patient data from two clinical trials. Clinical Global Impression for Schizoaffective Disorder scores were then linked to corresponding Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores. Results: Content validity was strong. Inter-rater agreement was good to excellent for most scales and subscales (intra-class correlation coefficient ≥0.50). Test-retest showed good reproducibility, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.444 to 0.898. Spearman correlations between Clinical Global Impression for Schizoaffective Disorder domains and corresponding symptom scales were 0.60 or greater, and effect sizes for Clinical Global Impression for Schizoaffective Disorder overall and domain scores were similar to Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Young Mania Rating Scale, and 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression scores. Raters anticipated that the scale might be less effective in distinguishing negative from depressive symptoms, and, in fact, the results here may reflect that clinical reality. Conclusion

  2. First Impressions and Professor Reputation: Influence on Student Evaluations of Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchert, Stephanie; Laws, Eric L.; Apperson, Jennifer M.; Bregman, Norman J.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effects of professor reputation versus first impressions on student evaluations of instruction. Students in 19 Psychology courses completed course evaluation surveys either before meeting the instructor or 2 weeks into the semester. Both groups then completed the course evaluation again at the end of the semester. Unlike…

  3. Comparison of colposcopic impression based on live colposcopy and evaluation of static digital images

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Angela H.; Gold, Michael A.; Schiffman, Mark; Smith, Katie; Zuna, Rosemary; Dunn, S. Terence; Gage, Julia C.; Walker, Joan; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the agreement and compare diagnostic accuracy of colposcopic impressions from live colposcopy versus evaluation of static digital images. Methods Live impressions and corresponding static images obtained during colposcopy of 690 women were independently compared. Diagnostic accuracy was calculated for colposcopic impressions from both methods, varying hypothetical thresholds for colposcopically-directed cervical biopsies (acetowhitening or worse, low-grade or worse, high-grade or worse). Stratified analyses investigated the impact of referral cytology, HPV16 infection, and age on colposcopic impression. Results Overall agreement between live and static colposcopic visualization was 43.0% (κ = 0.20; 95%CI: 0.14-0.26) over normal, acetowhitening, low-grade, and high-grade impressions. Classification of acetowhitening or worse impressions showed the highest agreement (92.2%; κ = 0.39, 95%CI: 0.21-0.57); both methods achieved >95% sensitivity for CIN2+. Agreement between live and static colposcopic visualization was 69.3% for rating low-grade or worse impressions (κ = 0.23, 95%CI: 0.14-0.33) and 71% when rating high-grade impressions (κ = 0.33, 95%CI: 0.24-0.42). Live colposcopic impressions were more likely to be rated low-grade or worse (p-value < 0.01, OR = 3.5, 95%CI: 2.4-5.0), yielding higher sensitivity for CIN2+ at this threshold than static image assessment (95.4% vs. 79.8%, p-value <0.01). Overall, colposcopic impressions were more likely rated high-grade on live assessment among women referred with high-grade cytology (OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.8-6.4), significantly improving the sensitivity for CIN2+ (66.3% vs. 48.5%, p-value < 0.01). Conclusion Colposcopic impressions of acetowhitening or worse are highly sensitive for identifying cervical precancers and reproducible on static image-based pattern recognition. PMID:27015261

  4. Evaluation of impression accuracy for a four-implant mandibular model--a digital approach.

    PubMed

    Stimmelmayr, Michael; Erdelt, Kurt; Güth, Jan-Frederik; Happe, Arndt; Beuer, Florian

    2012-08-01

    Implant-supported prosthodontics requires precise impressions to achieve a passive fit. Since the early 1990s, in vitro studies comparing different implant impression techniques were performed, capturing the data mostly mechanically. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of three different impression techniques digitally. Dental implants were inserted bilaterally in ten polymer lower-arch models at the positions of the first molars and canines. From each original model, three different impressions (A, transfer; B, pick-up; and C, splinted pick-up) were taken. Scan-bodies were mounted on the implants of the polymer and on the lab analogues of the stone models and digitized. The scan-body in position 36 (FDI) of the digitized original and master casts were each superimposed, and the deviations of the remaining three scan-bodies were measured three-dimensionally. The systematic error of digitizing the models was 13 μm for the polymer and 5 μm for the stone model. The mean discrepancies of the original model to the stone casts were 124 μm (±34) μm for the transfer technique, 116 (±46) μm for the pick-up technique, and 80 (±25) μm for the splinted pick-up technique. There were statistically significant discrepancies between the evaluated impression techniques (p ≤ 0.025; ANOVA test). The splinted pick-up impression showed the least deviation between original and stone model; transfer and pick-up techniques showed similar results. For better accuracy of implant-supported prosthodontics, the splinted pick-up technique should be used for impressions of four implants evenly spread in edentulous jaws.

  5. Impression cytology in the evaluation of ocular surface tumors: review article.

    PubMed

    Barros, Jeison de Nadai; Almeida, Simone Ribeiro Araújo de; Lowen, Marcia Serva; Cunha, Marcelo Carvalho da; Gomes, José Álvaro Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Impression cytology (IC) has been widely used as a method for evaluating the ocular surface and superficial cells layers in the diagnosis and follow-up after treatment of several ocular surface tumors of both epithelial and melanocytic origin. Information regarding this can be found in the English-language literature since 1992. Using either cellulose acetate or Biopore membranes for specimen collection, a high correlation has been found between IC and tissue histology. Compared with exfoliative cytology with spatula, IC is less traumatic to the patient's eye, provides a precise location of the area being studied, and allows accurate observation of the cells the way they exist in vivo. The additional advantage of IC is the preservation of limbal stem cells responsible for continuous corneal epithelium renewal; these can be affected after incisional or excisional biopsy at the corneoscleral limbus, which is the most frequent site of appearance of tumors in the stratified epithelium. Treatment for ocular surface squamous neoplasia has historically included surgery, but nonsurgical interventions have also been adopted. Hence, in certain cases, ophthalmologists may prefer interventions less invasive than surgical biopsy such as of impression cytology for both initial diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of treatment for ocular surface lesions. Nevertheless, it should be considered that IC may be less helpful if the results conflict with the clinical picture or if the clinical diagnosis is uncertain and results are negative. In such cases, surgical biopsy is required for accurate diagnosis. The purpose of this review is to examine the published literature on the utilization of IC for the diagnosis and management of ocular surface tumors and to discuss the requirement for further investigation on the subject.

  6. An evaluation of dimensional accuracy of one-step and two-step impression technique using addition silicone impression material: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Pande, Neelam A; Parkhedkar, R D

    2013-09-01

    The study is aimed to evaluate the dimensional accuracy, the effect of undercut of two different configurations and the elastic recovery of addition silicone impression material assessed indirectly, by measuring the dimensions on stone models recorded from the impression of the master model, using one-step and two-step impression technique, for addition silicone impression materials. Measurements are taken to evaluate horizontal or linear and vertical dimensional changes, of the abutment V and abutment C from the stainless steel model. Heavy body/light body material is used for making one-step impression technique in a custom tray. Putty/light body is used for taking two-step technique in a stock metal tray. Improved die stone is used for pouring the impression. The different 11 locations on the dies produced by two different techniques are measured microscopically on image analyzer and compared with those of stainless steel model. Anova test was applied to test the differences of mean values of inter and intra abutment measurements, to calculate p value. Unpaired t test was applied to calculate t value. Results showed less deviation of stone models produced by one-step technique from stainless steel model, whereas the deviation of stone models produced by two-step is comparatively more. (p < 0.01). This difference of deviation is significantly less in one-step as compared to two-step technique. One-step is sufficiently dimensionally accurate than two-step technique in conjunction with addition silicone impression material. They have the best elastic recovery from the two undercut configurations.

  7. An evaluation of the fit of metal-ceramic restorations made with an autoclaved silicone-based impression material.

    PubMed

    Kollefrath, Ralf; Savary, Marcel; Schwela, Jörg

    2010-07-01

    To demonstrate the clinical feasibility of autoclaving certain silicone impression materials in order to avoid potential cross-contamination during handling, transport, and subsequent processing. Semicritical devices are recommended to be treated at least with high-level disinfectants or actually steam sterilized at 134°C. To date dental impressions have been disinfected rather than sterilized, so the question remains should they be sterilized before being sent to the dental laboratory? Two identical impressions per case were made of metal-ceramic crown and fixed partial denture preparations on the same patient using addition type polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impression materials (AFFINIS,® Coltene/Whaledent AG, 9450 Altstätten, Switzerland) in different trays. The first impression (IMPx1) was cleaned and treated with an intermediate-level disinfectant (FD 322--Fast Disinfection Spray, Dürr Dental, 74321 Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany). The second impression (IMPx2) was cleaned, treated with an intermediate-level disinfectant as with IMPx1, subjected to a computer tomography (CT) scan with a dimensional resolution of ± 10 µm, steam sterilized, and then subjected to a second CT scan. The dimensional changes of the second impression after steam sterilization were calculated by comparing the overlay of the two CT scans and expressed by color coding of the impression graphics. After the second scan, the impression was sent to a dental laboratory to fabricate a metal-ceramic crown or metal-ceramic fixed partial denture restoration to the one produced from the first impression (IMPx1) subjected only to disinfection. This process was repeated for four clinical cases. Impressions made with AFFINIS® silicone impression materials in a rigid reinforced polycarbonate impression tray or in a metal dual-arch tray can be autoclaved. The overall dimensional stability of the impressions and the quality of single crowns and small fixed partial dentures made using IMPx2 was not

  8. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity and dimensional alterations of alginate impression disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Semensato, Ana Paula Nocentini; Crosariol, Sonia Khouri; Marchini, Leonardo

    2009-09-01

    This paper offers a quantitative evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of eight different disinfection procedures for irreversible hydrocolloid impressions and the dimensional changes induced by them. Samples were collected immediately after impressions, after the disinfection procedures and over casts and analyzed for bacterial growth. Control, enzyme solutions, acetic acid and ultraviolet irradiation samples showed bacterial growth. Chlorhexidine and 1% sodium hypochlorite presented adequate antimicrobial activity, while 2% sodium hypochlorite solution showed the best results. Dimensional changes were similar to those of the controls in all the tested agents. The results indicated 2% hypochlorite was the most appropriate disinfectant tested.

  9. Subjective Evaluation of Life Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontana, Alan F.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Surveyed medical/surgical patients concerning life events during the preceding year. Subjective evaluations of events were obtained for dimensions of desirability, adjustment, anticipation, and control. Psychological impairment was associated with subjective evaluations, specifically desirability and adjustment. Inclusion of anticipation and…

  10. In vitro evaluation of prosthodontic impression on natural dentition: a comparison between traditional and digital techniques

    PubMed Central

    MALAGUTI, G.; ROSSI, R.; MARZIALI, B.; ESPOSITO, A.; BRUNO, G.; DARIOL, C.; DI FIORE, A.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives The aim of this in vitro study is to evaluate the marginal and internal fit of zirconia core crowns manufactured following different digital and traditional workflows. Methods A 6° taper shoulder prepared abutment tooth was used to produce 20 zirconia core crowns using four different scanning techniques: scanned directly with the extraoral lab scanner, scanned with intraoral scanner, dental impressions using individual dental tray and polyether, dental casts from a polyether impressions. Marginal and internal fits were evaluated with digital photography and the silicone replica method. Results Medium marginal gaps were 76,00 μm ± 28.9 for extraoral lab scanner, 80.50 μm ± 36,2 for intraoral scanner, 88.10 μm ± 34,8 for dental impression scan and 112,4 μm ± 37,2 for dental cast scan. Medium internal gaps were 23.20 μm ± 10,3 for extraoral lab scanner, 16.20 μm ± 8.3 for intraoral scanner, 27.20 μm ± 16.7 for dental impression scan and 30.20 μm ± 12.7 for dental cast scan. Conclusion Internal gap were extensively lower than 70 μm described in literature. Marginal fit was higher than ideal values for all the techniques but within the limit of clinical success. Intraoral scanners obtained the best results for internal gap. PMID:28280529

  11. Impression management during evaluation and psychological reactions post-donation of living kidney donors.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Lee; Melchert, Timothy P; Anderson, Rebecca C

    2014-08-01

    Many healthcare providers have been concerned about the extent to which potential kidney donors use impression management or concealment of important information regarding their medical history, current functioning, or other circumstances that could affect whether they are accepted as donors. To date, however, there has been very little empirical examination of these questions. It is also not known whether donors' use of impression management pre-donation is related to their reactions and adjustment post-donation. This study surveyed 76 individuals who had donated a kidney one to six yr previously regarding their use of impression management and their concealing of information during their psychological evaluations. They were also asked about their reactions to the donation and whether they would make the same decision again. In addition, 21 of these donors participated in focus groups that explored these questions in depth. Many of the kidney donors reported that they possessed very strong motivation to donate and consequently used impression management in their interactions with medical professionals pre-donation. Very few donors, however, indicated that they concealed information during their pre-donation evaluations. The donors' psychological reactions post-donation were generally positive, and nearly all indicated that they would make the same decision again. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Impression evaluation and laboratory use for single-unit crowns: Findings from The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Michael S; Litaker, Mark S; George, Ashley J; Durand, Scott; Malekpour, Sepideh; Marshall, Don G; Meyerowitz, Cyril; Carter, Lauren; Gordan, Valeria V; Gilbert, Gregg H

    2017-08-16

    Objectives were to determine the likelihood that a clinician accepts an impression for a single-unit crown and document crown remake rates. The authors developed a questionnaire that asked dentists about techniques used to fabricate single-unit crowns. The authors showed dentists photographs of 4 impressions and asked them to accept or reject each impression. The authors correlated answers with dentist and practice characteristics. Other questions pertained to laboratory use and crown remake rates. The response rate was 83% (1,777 of 2,132 eligible dentists). Of the 4 impressions evaluated, 3 received consistent responses, with 85% agreement. One impression was more equivocal; 52% accepted the impression. The likelihood of accepting an impression was associated significantly with the clinician's sex, race, ethnicity, and practice busyness. Clinicians produced 18 crowns per month on average, and 9% used in-office milling. Most dentists (59%) reported a remake rate of less than 2%, whereas 17% reported a remake rate greater than 4%. Lower remake rates were associated significantly with more experienced clinicians, optical impressions, and not using dual-arch trays. Although dentists were largely consistent in their evaluation of impressions (> 85%), nonclinical factors were associated with whether an impression was accepted or rejected. Lower crown remake rates were associated with more experienced clinicians, optical impressions, and not using dual-arch trays. These results provide a snapshot of clinical care considerations among a diverse group of dentists. Clinicians can compare their own remake rates and impression evaluation techniques with those in this sample when developing best practice protocols. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Method and apparatus for non-destructive evaluation of composite materials with cloth surface impressions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madras, Eric I. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method and related apparatus for nondestructive evaluation of composite materials by determination of the quantity known as Integrated Polar Backscatter, which avoids errors caused by surface texture left by cloth impressions by identifying frequency ranges associated with peaks in a power spectrum for the backscattered signal, and removing such frequency ranges from the calculation of Integrated Polar Backscatter for all scan sites on the composite material is presented.

  14. Comparative Evaluation of Dimensional Accuracy of Elastomeric Impression Materials when Treated with Autoclave, Microwave, and Chemical Disinfection

    PubMed Central

    Kamble, Suresh S; Khandeparker, Rakshit Vijay; Somasundaram, P; Raghav, Shweta; Babaji, Rashmi P; Varghese, T Joju

    2015-01-01

    Background: Impression materials during impression procedure often get infected with various infectious diseases. Hence, disinfection of impression materials with various disinfectants is advised to protect the dental team. Disinfection can alter the dimensional accuracy of impression materials. The present study was aimed to evaluate the dimensional accuracy of elastomeric impression materials when treated with different disinfectants; autoclave, chemical, and microwave method. Materials and Methods: The impression materials used for the study were, dentsply aquasil (addition silicone polyvinylsiloxane syringe and putty), zetaplus (condensation silicone putty and light body), and impregum penta soft (polyether). All impressions were made according to manufacturer’s instructions. Dimensional changes were measured before and after different disinfection procedures. Result: Dentsply aquasil showed smallest dimensional change (−0.0046%) and impregum penta soft highest linear dimensional changes (−0.026%). All the tested elastomeric impression materials showed some degree of dimensional changes. Conclusion: The present study showed that all the disinfection procedures produce minor dimensional changes of impression material. However, it was within American Dental Association specification. Hence, steam autoclaving and microwave method can be used as an alternative method to chemical sterilization as an effective method. PMID:26435611

  15. Comparative Evaluation of Dimensional Accuracy of Elastomeric Impression Materials when Treated with Autoclave, Microwave, and Chemical Disinfection.

    PubMed

    Kamble, Suresh S; Khandeparker, Rakshit Vijay; Somasundaram, P; Raghav, Shweta; Babaji, Rashmi P; Varghese, T Joju

    2015-09-01

    Impression materials during impression procedure often get infected with various infectious diseases. Hence, disinfection of impression materials with various disinfectants is advised to protect the dental team. Disinfection can alter the dimensional accuracy of impression materials. The present study was aimed to evaluate the dimensional accuracy of elastomeric impression materials when treated with different disinfectants; autoclave, chemical, and microwave method. The impression materials used for the study were, dentsply aquasil (addition silicone polyvinylsiloxane syringe and putty), zetaplus (condensation silicone putty and light body), and impregum penta soft (polyether). All impressions were made according to manufacturer's instructions. Dimensional changes were measured before and after different disinfection procedures. Dentsply aquasil showed smallest dimensional change (-0.0046%) and impregum penta soft highest linear dimensional changes (-0.026%). All the tested elastomeric impression materials showed some degree of dimensional changes. The present study showed that all the disinfection procedures produce minor dimensional changes of impression material. However, it was within American Dental Association specification. Hence, steam autoclaving and microwave method can be used as an alternative method to chemical sterilization as an effective method.

  16. Accuracy of 3D white light scanning of abutment teeth impressions: evaluation of trueness and precision

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jin-Hun; Kim, Hae-Young; Kim, Ji-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of digitizing dental impressions of abutment teeth using a white light scanner and to compare the findings among teeth types. MATERIALS AND METHODS To assess precision, impressions of the canine, premolar, and molar prepared to receive all-ceramic crowns were repeatedly scanned to obtain five sets of 3-D data (STL files). Point clouds were compared and error sizes were measured (n=10 per type). Next, to evaluate trueness, impressions of teeth were rotated by 10°-20° and scanned. The obtained data were compared with the first set of data for precision assessment, and the error sizes were measured (n=5 per type). The Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to evaluate precision and trueness among three teeth types, and post-hoc comparisons were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction (α=.05). RESULTS Precision discrepancies for the canine, premolar, and molar were 3.7 µm, 3.2 µm, and 7.3 µm, respectively, indicating the poorest precision for the molar (P<.001). Trueness discrepancies for teeth types were 6.2 µm, 11.2 µm, and 21.8 µm, respectively, indicating the poorest trueness for the molar (P=.007). CONCLUSION In respect to accuracy the molar showed the largest discrepancies compared with the canine and premolar. Digitizing of dental impressions of abutment teeth using a white light scanner was assessed to be a highly accurate method and provided discrepancy values in a clinically acceptable range. Further study is needed to improve digitizing performance of white light scanning in axial wall. PMID:25551007

  17. Accuracy of 3D white light scanning of abutment teeth impressions: evaluation of trueness and precision.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jin-Hun; Kim, Hae-Young; Kim, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Woong-Chul

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of digitizing dental impressions of abutment teeth using a white light scanner and to compare the findings among teeth types. To assess precision, impressions of the canine, premolar, and molar prepared to receive all-ceramic crowns were repeatedly scanned to obtain five sets of 3-D data (STL files). Point clouds were compared and error sizes were measured (n=10 per type). Next, to evaluate trueness, impressions of teeth were rotated by 10°-20° and scanned. The obtained data were compared with the first set of data for precision assessment, and the error sizes were measured (n=5 per type). The Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to evaluate precision and trueness among three teeth types, and post-hoc comparisons were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction (α=.05). Precision discrepancies for the canine, premolar, and molar were 3.7 µm, 3.2 µm, and 7.3 µm, respectively, indicating the poorest precision for the molar (P<.001). Trueness discrepancies for teeth types were 6.2 µm, 11.2 µm, and 21.8 µm, respectively, indicating the poorest trueness for the molar (P=.007). In respect to accuracy the molar showed the largest discrepancies compared with the canine and premolar. Digitizing of dental impressions of abutment teeth using a white light scanner was assessed to be a highly accurate method and provided discrepancy values in a clinically acceptable range. Further study is needed to improve digitizing performance of white light scanning in axial wall.

  18. [Evaluation of cervical discrepancy of gold crowns in stone dies from various impression materials].

    PubMed

    Mantovani, A V; Stephano, C B; Roselino, R F; Roselino, R B; Campos, G M

    1990-01-01

    A stainless steel master die simulating a dental preparation for crown was used to make 3 gold castings from wax patterns obtained in 3 different ways: a) directly from the naked master die; b) from the same master die with a copper coping 30 microns thick; and c) with a similar copper coping, but 40 microns thick. The discrepancies of fit of the 3 master gold crowns were evaluated in 99 stones dies (33 for each casting) obtained from 11 different elastomeric impression materials (3 replicae of each). The results showed that: 1) stone dies with no coping presented a medium discrepancy of 284 microns, inadequate for clinical use; 2) the 30 microns and 40 microns copings presented medium discrepancies of 18 and 9 microns respectively, both suitable for clinical use. Thus, the use of copings tend to equalize the cervical discrepancy of fit of gold crowns, whatever be the elastomeric impression material used.

  19. Clinical evaluation of CAD/CAM metal-ceramic posterior crowns fabricated from intraoral digital impressions.

    PubMed

    Tamim, Hazem; Skjerven, Henrik; Ekfeldt, Anders; Rønold, Hans Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this in vivo study was to evaluate the accuracy of metal-ceramic crowns fabricated using computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) in conjunction with intraoral digital impressions. Fifty patients in a general practice participated in the study. Patients were provided with crowns fabricated from digital impressions taken with an intraoral chairside scanner. Prior to crown insertion, the marginal integrity, esthetics, and occlusal and articulation contacts were evaluated using California Dental Association (CDA) criteria. The precementation space of the crowns was evaluated with the replica technique. No adjustments were needed for any of the interproximal contact points. Adjustments of occlusion and articulation contacts were needed in 20% of the restorations. Clinical evaluation of the marginal integrity showed satisfactory results according to the CDA criteria. The 50 silicone replicas showed a median precementation space of 46 μm at the marginal measurement location, 94 μm at the midaxial location, and 185 μm at the centro-occlusal location. The precementation spaces of the crowns were within the acceptable range for CAD/CAM restorations.

  20. A comparative evaluation of the dimensional stability of three different elastomeric impression materials after autoclaving - an invitro study.

    PubMed

    Thota, Kiran Kumar; Jasthi, Sujana; Ravuri, Rajyalakshmi; Tella, Suchita

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of autoclaving on the dimensional stability of three different elastomeric impression materials at three different time intervals. Standardized stainless steel master die as per ADA specification number 19 was fabricated. The impression materials used for the study were condensation silicone (GP1), addition silicone (GP2) and polyether (GP3). A total of 45 samples of the stainless steel die were made (n = 45), that is 15 samples for each group. Impression materials were mixed according to the manufacturer's instructions and were loaded into the mold to make an impression of the die. Impressions were identified with the help of numerical coding system and measurements were made using stereomicroscope (MAGNUS MSZ-Bi) of 0.65x magnification with the help of image analysis software (IMACE PRO-INSIGHT VERSION.The results were subjected to statistical analysis using one way analysis of variance and student t-test for comparison between the groups. Within the limitations of the study statistically significant dimensional changes were observed for all the three impression materials at three different time intervals but this change was not clinically significant. It is well-known fact that all impressions should be disinfected to avoid possible transmission of infectious diseases either by direct contact or cross contamination. Immersion and spray disinfection as well as various disinfection solutions have been tested and proven to be effective for this purpose. But for elastomeric impression materials these methods have proven to be ineffective as they do not prevent cross contamination among the dental team. So autoclaving was one of the most effective sterilization procedure for condensation silicone and addition silicone. Since polyether is hydrophilic it is better to disinfect the impressions as recommended by the manufacturer or by immersion or spray atomization.

  1. A Comparative Evaluation of the Dimensional Stability of Three Different Elastomeric Impression Materials after Autoclaving – An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Thota, Kiran Kumar; Ravuri, Rajyalakshmi; Tella, Suchita

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the Study: The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of autoclaving on the dimensional stability of three different elastomeric impression materials at three different time intervals. Materials and Methods: Standardized stainless steel master die as per ADA specification number 19 was fabricated. The impression materials used for the study were condensation silicone (GP1), addition silicone (GP2) and polyether (GP3). A total of 45 samples of the stainless steel die were made (n = 45), that is 15 samples for each group. Impression materials were mixed according to the manufacturer’s instructions and were loaded into the mold to make an impression of the die. Impressions were identified with the help of numerical coding system and measurements were made using stereomicroscope (MAGNUS MSZ-Bi) of 0.65x magnification with the help of image analysis software (IMACE PRO-INSIGHT VERSION.The results were subjected to statistical analysis using one way analysis of variance and student t-test for comparison between the groups. Results: Within the limitations of the study statistically significant dimensional changes were observed for all the three impression materials at three different time intervals but this change was not clinically significant. Conclusion: It is well-known fact that all impressions should be disinfected to avoid possible transmission of infectious diseases either by direct contact or cross contamination. Immersion and spray disinfection as well as various disinfection solutions have been tested and proven to be effective for this purpose. But for elastomeric impression materials these methods have proven to be ineffective as they do not prevent cross contamination among the dental team. So autoclaving was one of the most effective sterilization procedure for condensation silicone and addition silicone. Since polyether is hydrophilic it is better to disinfect the impressions as recommended by the manufacturer or by immersion or spray

  2. An evaluation of three implant level impression techniques for single tooth implant.

    PubMed

    Daoudi, M Firas; Setchell, Derrick J; Searson, Lloyd J

    2004-03-01

    This laboratory study investigated the hypotheses that there is no difference between three implant level impression techniques using vinyl polysiloxane impression material. The tested techniques were 1)- the repositioning technique. 2)-The pickup technique. 3)- The pickup technique with the impression copings splinted to the impression trays with autopolymerising acrylic resin. The Reflex Microscope was used for 3D measurement of distances and angles. Analysis of variance and Tukey's multiple comparisons test were applied to analyse the data. The results showed significant differences in implant analogue position with the repositioning and the pickup (unsplinted) impression techniques from the master model. Alarming rotational errors were recorded with the repositioning and the pickup (unsplinted) techniques. However, connecting the impression coping to the impression tray improves the accuracy of the pickup impression technique.

  3. Evaluation of the accuracy of different transfer impression techniques for multiple implants.

    PubMed

    Faria, Júlio César Brigolini de; Silva-Concílio, Laís Regiane; Neves, Ana Christina Claro; Miranda, Milton Edson; Teixeira, Marcelo Lucchesi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of three implant transfer impression techniques. Four groups (n = 5) were defined, according to the technique: TC - tapered copings without splint; SC - square copings without splint; SCS - square copings splinted with dental floss and acrylic resin, and CG (control group) - master model with four external hexagonal implants and a superstructure. Individual trays and polyether were used for the impression. All casts were checked for their fit into the master superstructure; for this, all four screws were placed in the implants. Digital photos were taken and images were analyzed using UTHSCSA ImageTool software. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way analysis of variance and Student's t test (p < 0.05). The means and standard deviation were (µm): CG = 2.03 ± 0.00, TC = 14.74 ± 3.41, SC = 12.08 ± 2.56, and SCS = 6.51 ± 0.09. The control group was found to be statistically different from the TC and SC groups. Within the limitations of this study, all groups presented clinically acceptable standard gap values, and the SCS group showed no statistical difference in relation to the CG (control group), demonstrating more accuracy and fidelity to transfer implants.

  4. Effects of accessibility and subjective relevance on the use of piecemeal and category information in impression formation.

    PubMed

    Köpetz, Catalina; Kruglanski, Arie W

    2008-05-01

    Three studies investigated the process by which categorical and individuating information impacts impression formation. The authors assumed that (a) both types of information are functionally equivalent in serving as evidence for interpersonal judgments and (b) their use is determined by their accessibility and perceived applicability to the impression's target. The first study constituted an extended replication of Pavelchak's experiment, and it showed that its results, initially interpreted to suggest the primacy in impression formation of category over trait information, may have been prompted by differential accessibility of the category versus trait information in some experimental conditions of the original research. Studies 2 and 3 additionally explored the role of informational accessibility manipulated in different ways. Study 3 demonstrated also that the effect of accessibility is qualified by the information's apparent relevance to the judgmental target.

  5. Reliability of antagonistic arch impression in dental prostheses: clinical evaluation of different preimpression preparation procedures.

    PubMed

    Scotti, R; Lugli, M; D'Elia, A

    1995-08-01

    This study compared the influence of different methods of preimpression preparation on the quality of occlusal reproduction in irreversible hydrocolloid impressions. A total of 30 impressions of the lower dental arch of a patient were made with five different preimpression preparation procedures. Stone casts were made and analyzed. Critical comparison showed that the preimpression preparation influenced the quality of the occlusal surface of the cast. Fingerpainting the occlusal surface with fluid hydrocolloid before positioning the loaded impression tray, associated with use of a saliva ejector, reduced the incidence of macroscopic defects on the occlusal surface of the impressions.

  6. Evaluation of the accuracy, precision and validity of hydrophilic vinyl polysiloxane impression material for bite mark analysis.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Sujatha S; Rakesh, N; Kaushik, Atul; Devaraju, D; Kumar, B S Nanda

    2011-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the accuracy, precision and validity of hydrophilic Vinyl Poly Siloxane [VPS] impression material for bite mark documentation and analysis. Medium body VPS impressions of maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth among thirty subjects were taken and dental stone casts prepared. Hollow volume overlays were made and metric analysis was done using advanced imaging software like Adobe Photoshop - 9 and Image J. These values were compared to the measurements taken from bite mark impressions of the same 30 individuals on wax wafers using light body VPS material. The mean differences in the parameters measured by the different techniques were compared using Intra Class Correlation Coefficients [ICCC]. Additionally validity parameters such as sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value were computed.

  7. Evaluation of the accuracy, precision and validity of hydrophilic vinyl polysiloxane impression material for bite mark analysis

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Sujatha S.; Rakesh, N.; Kaushik, Atul; Devaraju, D.; Kumar, B.S. Nanda

    2011-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the accuracy, precision and validity of hydrophilic Vinyl Poly Siloxane [VPS] impression material for bite mark documentation and analysis. Medium body VPS impressions of maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth among thirty subjects were taken and dental stone casts prepared. Hollow volume overlays were made and metric analysis was done using advanced imaging software like Adobe Photoshop - 9 and Image J. These values were compared to the measurements taken from bite mark impressions of the same 30 individuals on wax wafers using light body VPS material. The mean differences in the parameters measured by the different techniques were compared using Intra Class Correlation Coefficients [ICCC]. Additionally validity parameters such as sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value were computed. PMID:27857665

  8. Assessment of custom and standard, self-adapted mouthguards in terms of comfort and users subjective impressions of their protective function.

    PubMed

    Gawlak, Dominika; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, Elżbieta; Mańka-Malara, Katarzyna; Kamiński, Tomasz

    2015-04-01

    Various sports disciplines involve some risk of injury. Orofacial injuries constitute 4-18% of all sports-related injuries. Mouthguards are an effective method of preventing injuries and their consequences during various sports activities, especially cycling, football, basketball, handball, skiing, and hockey. Mouthguards can cause discomfort when placed in the oral cavity, in particular due to the fact that a minimal thickness of 4 mm in the labial region is necessary to reduce the impact force of an injury. The objective was to provide user's general clinical assessment of custom mouthguards made from various polymer materials and with various technologies (thermoforming pressing, traditional flasking, injection molding) and of standard 'boil and bite' mouthguards available on the market in terms of general comfort and their subjective impressions of the protective function. In total, 168 mouthguards (five types of custom mouthguards and three types of standard 'boil and bite' mouthguards) were assessed by 21 athletes practicing various disciplines, who were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding general comfort and subjective impressions of protective function based on a 5-point scale. Custom mouthguards made with the injection technique from ethyl vinyl acetate received the best scores due to the high level of comfort and the sense of protection they provided. Custom mouthguards, especially those fabricated with the injection molding technique of Corflex Orthodontic, were shown to be superior to standard mouthguards in terms of their comfort and users' subjective impressions of their protective function. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Impression Management in the Ethical Self-Presentation of Offenders Undergoing Presentence Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Terrill R.; Boik, Robert J.

    1978-01-01

    Ethical choices were assessed for offenders instructed to produce favorable versus unfavorable impressions. Pronounced impression management effects were obtained for prosocial and antisocial responses, and high scores on a dimension of change defined by these variables were related to sociopathic features on the MMPI. (Author)

  10. Evaluation of accuracy of casts of multiple internal connection implant prosthesis obtained from different impression materials and techniques: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Pujari, Malesh; Garg, Pooja; Prithviraj, D R

    2014-04-01

    Movement of impression copings inside the impression material using a direct (open tray) impression technique during clinical and laboratory phases may cause inaccuracy in transferring the 3-dimensional spatial orientation of implants intraorally to the cast. Consequently, the prosthesis may require corrective procedures. This in vitro study evaluated the accuracy of 3 different impression techniques using polyether and vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) impression material to obtain a precise cast for multiple internal connection implants. A reference acrylic resin model with 4 internal connection implants was fabricated. Impressions of the reference model were made using 3 different techniques and 2 different impression materials. The study consisted of 24 specimens divided into 6 groups of 4 each. Impressions were poured with ADA type IV stone (Kalrock, Kalabhai Karson Pvt Ltd, Mumbai, India). All casts were evaluated for the positional accuracy (mm) of the implant replica heads using a profile projector. These measurements were compared to the measurements calculated on the reference resin model, which served as a control. Data were analyzed with 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni multiple comparison procedures to evaluate group means. The results revealed significant difference for anterior implant distance between the 2 impression materials (P < .01) and also among the 3 different techniques (P < .05). The lowest mean variation was found with the polyether impression material and the splinted technique. For posterior implants, the results suggested no significant difference between the 2 impression materials (P ≥ .05). Although results were not statistically significant, the polyether impression material showed the lowest mean variation as compared to the VPS impression material. However, there was a significant difference among the 3 different techniques (P < .05). Among the 3 different techniques, the lowest mean variation between 2 posterior

  11. I care, even after the first impression: Facial appearance-based evaluations in healthcare context.

    PubMed

    Mattarozzi, Katia; Colonnello, Valentina; De Gioia, Francesco; Todorov, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that healthcare providers' implicit biases may contribute to healthcare disparities. Independent research in social psychology indicates that facial appearance-based evaluations affect social behavior in a variety of domains, influencing political, legal, and economic decisions. Whether and to what extent these evaluations influence approach behavior in healthcare contexts warrants research attention. Here we investigate the impact of facial appearance-based evaluations of trustworthiness on healthcare providers' caring inclination, and the moderating role of experience and information about the social identity of the faces. Novice and expert nurses rated their inclination to provide care when viewing photos of trustworthy-, neutral-, and untrustworthy-looking faces. To explore whether information about the target of care influences caring inclination, some participants were told that they would view patients' faces while others received no information about the faces. Both novice and expert nurses had higher caring inclination scores for trustworthy-than for untrustworthy-looking faces; however, experts had higher scores than novices for untrustworthy-looking faces. Regardless of a face's trustworthiness level, experts had higher caring inclination scores for patients than for unidentified individuals, while novices showed no differences. Facial appearance-based inferences can bias caring inclination in healthcare contexts. However, expert healthcare providers are less biased by these inferences and more sensitive to information about the target of care. These findings highlight the importance of promoting novice healthcare professionals' awareness of first impression biases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluating the marginal fit of zirconia copings with digital impressions with an intraoral digital scanner.

    PubMed

    An, Shinyoung; Kim, Sungtae; Choi, Hyunmin; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Moon, Hong-Seok

    2014-11-01

    Digital impression systems have been developed to overcome the disadvantages associated with conventional impression methods. The purpose of this study was to compare the marginal fit of zirconia copings designed with the use of an iTero digital scanner with those designed by the conventional impression technique. Thirty identical cast, base-metal dies from 1 maxillary central incisor prepared for a ceramic crown restoration were fabricated. For the conventional impression group (CI), base metal dies (n=10) were replicated as stone dies by means of a conventional impression technique with polyvinyl siloxane material. For the iTero with polyurethane group (iP), base metal dies (n=10) were replicated as polyurethane dies with the iTero digital impression system. For the iTero with no dies group (iNo), base metal dies (n=10) were scanned with the iTero digital impression system, but no dies were fabricated. For each group, 10 zirconia copings were fabricated based on the stone dies (CI group), polyurethane dies (iP group), or stereolithography files (iNo group). The marginal gap of each specimen was measured with a light microscope at ×50 magnification. One-way analysis of variance and the Tukey honestly significant difference test were used for statistical analysis (α=.05). Statistically significant differences were found between the CI group and iP group (P<.05) and between the CI group and iNo group (P<.05). The marginal gap between the restoration and definitive cast base metal die was greater in the groups that used the digital impression method than in the group that used the conventional impression method. However, the marginal discrepancies of all of the groups were clinically acceptable. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of factors affecting the accuracy of impressions using quantitative surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, I K; DeLong, R; Pintado, M R; Malik, R

    1995-01-01

    Impression material goes from a plastic to an elastic state during setting. Movement of the impression and excessive seating pressure during this transition can cause distortion in the impressions. The purpose of this study is to determine if the impression distortion is related to movement during setting or to distortion of the putty phase in the two-step impressioning technique. A master model of a maxillary quadrant of teeth was impressed using four different procedures: 1) one-step technique without movement (1S-NM); 2) one-step technique with movement (1S-M); 3) two-step technique without movement (2S-NM); and 4) two-step technique with movement (2S-M). An artificial oral environment and surface analysis technique of the Minnesota Dental Research Center for Biomaterials and Biomechanics were used to produce the impressions and measure their accuracy. A digitized image of the first premolar of the master model was aligned with a digitized image of the first premolar of each epoxy model using AnSur. The root mean squared difference (RMS) between the aligned images is a measure of the distortion. The corresponding RMS values for the different methods were: 1S-NM = 23.7 +/- 9.21; 1S-M = 20.4 +/- 3.9; 2S-NM = 20.5 +/- 7.7; 2S-M = 21.3 +/- 4.4. Statistical analysis using a two-way analysis of variance showed no difference at the 0.05 level of significance. Pairwise comparison using the Tukey method showed that neither technique (one-step vs two-step) nor movement is a significant factor. These results showed that low seating pressure will not cause any greater distortions in the two-step impression technique than in the one-step technique, and minor movement during the setting of the impression material will no cause distortion.

  14. Good Impressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Geraldine; Pulsifer, Mary

    1986-01-01

    An art activity featuring ballerinas in classic poses and costumes was extended by a visit to an exhibit on Edgar Degas. Hearing impaired students shared their impressions of another traveling exhibit with French students via computers. (CL)

  15. The influence of non-linear frequency compression on the perception of music by adults with a moderate to sever hearing loss: subjective impressions.

    PubMed

    Uys, Marinda; Pottas, Lidia; Vinck, Bart; van Dijk, Catherine

    2012-12-01

    To date, the main direction in frequency-lowering hearing aid studies has been in relation to speech perception abilities. With improvements in hearing aid technology, interest in musical perception as a dimension that could improve hearing aid users' quality of life has grown. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of non-linear frequency compression (NFC) on hearing aid users' subjective impressions of listening to music. DESIGN & SAMPLE: A survey research design was implemented to elicit participants' (N=40) subjective impressions of musical stimuli with and without NFC. The use of NFC significantly improved hearing aid users' perception of the musical qualities of overall fidelity, tinniness and reverberance. Although participants preferred to listen to the loudness, fullness, crispness, naturalness and pleasantness of music with the use of NFC, these benefits were not significant. The use of NFC can increase hearing aid users' enjoyment and appreciation of music. Given that a relatively large percentage of hearing aid users express a loss of enjoyment of music, audiologists should not ignore the possible benefits of NFC, especially if one takes into account that previous research indicates speech perception benefits with this technology.

  16. Comparison of impression materials for direct multi-implant impressions.

    PubMed

    Wee, A G

    2000-03-01

    Given that meticulous implant prosthodontic procedures are recommended to obtain the best possible intraoral fit, impression materials that are suitable for use with a direct impression technique warrant further investigation. This in vitro study compared the amount of torque required to rotate a square impression coping in an impression and evaluated the accuracy of solid implant casts fabricated from different impression materials. Two direct transfer implant impressions were made using 8 impression materials; the torque required to rotate an impression coping in the impressions was calculated. Ten direct transfer implant impressions were made from the master model and poured in a die stone (Resin Rock) for 3 of the 8 initial impression material groups. Linear distances between steel balls placed on each abutment replica were measured with a traveling microscope to determine distortion in the impression procedure for each group. Data were analyzed (P =.05) with ANOVA and Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch multiple range test for post hoc. With a 1-way ANOVA, average torque values among the material groups differed significantly (P =.001). Polyether (medium consistency) was found to produce the highest overall torque values, followed by addition silicone (high consistency), and then polysulfide (medium consistency). Statistically significant difference was also found among the 3 material groups' mean absolute cast error using a 1-way ANOVA (P =.0086). Implant casts made from polyether (medium) or addition silicone (high) impressions were significantly more accurate than casts made from polysulfide medium impressions. On the basis of the results of this study, the use of either polyether (medium) or addition silicone (high) impression is recommended for direct implant impressions.

  17. Subjective Evaluation Of A Perceptual Quality Metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Charles F.

    1981-12-01

    A major problem which has plagued image processing has been the lack of an effective image quality measure. It is well known that common measures which are mathematical and analytically tractable do not correlate with human subjective evaluation. This paper presents the results of a subjective evaluation on twelve versions of a black and white image (the SPIE GIRL) and the rank ordering obtained with three computational measures. It was found that a measure based on a model of the human visual system compared to the subjective evaluation with a correlation of .92.

  18. Accuracy of impressions with different impression materials in angulated implants.

    PubMed

    Reddy, S; Prasad, K; Vakil, H; Jain, A; Chowdhary, R

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the dimensional accuracy of the resultant (duplicative) casts made from two different impression materials (polyvinyl siloxane and polyether) in parallel and angulated implants. Three definitive master casts (control groups) were fabricated in dental stone with three implants, placed at equi-distance. In first group (control), all three implants were placed parallel to each other and perpendicular to the plane of the cast. In the second and third group (control), all three implants were placed at 10° and 15 o angulation respectively to the long axis of the cast, tilting towards the centre. Impressions were made with polyvinyl siloxane and polyether impression materials in a special tray, using a open tray impression technique from the master casts. These impressions were poured to obtain test casts. Three reference distances were evaluated on each test cast by using a profile projector and compared with control groups to determine the effect of combined interaction of implant angulation and impression materials on the accuracy of implant resultant cast. Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference in dimensional accuracy of the resultant casts made from two different impression materials (polyvinyl siloxane and polyether) by closed tray impression technique in parallel and angulated implants. On the basis of the results of this study, the use of both the impression materials i.e., polyether and polyvinyl siloxane impression is recommended for impression making in parallel as well as angulated implants.

  19. Age, cumulative trauma and stressful life events, and post-traumatic stress symptoms among older adults in prison: do subjective impressions matter?

    PubMed

    Maschi, Tina; Morgen, Keith; Zgoba, Kristen; Courtney, Deborah; Ristow, Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    The aging prison population in the United States presents a significant public health challenge with high rates of trauma and mental health issues that the correctional system alone is ill-prepared to address. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of age, objective, and subjective measures of trauma and stressful life events and post-traumatic stress symptoms among older adults in prison. Data were gathered from 334 prisoners (aged 55+) housed in the New Jersey Department of Corrections, as of September 2010. An anonymous self-report, self-administered survey was mailed to the total population of 1,000 prisoners aged 55 years and older. Objective and subjective trauma was measured using the Life Stressors Checklist-Revised (LSC-R), and post-traumatic stress symptoms were measured using the Civilian Version of the Post-traumatic Stress Scale. Results of a path analysis revealed that past year subjective impressions of traumatic and stressful life events had a positive and significant relationship to current post-traumatic stress symptoms. Age was found to have a significant and inverse relationship to subjective traumatic and stressful life events. That is, younger participants reported higher levels of cumulative traumatic and stressful life events and past year subjective ratings of being bothered by these past events. These findings have significance for interdisciplinary/interprofessional practice and appropriate institutional and community care, including reentry planning of older adults in the criminal justice system.

  20. An evaluation of elastomeric impression materials based on surface compressive strength.

    PubMed

    Omori, K; Arikawa, H; Inoue, K

    2001-04-01

    The setting times of seven commercially available elastomeric impression materials were determined using Wilson's reciprocating rheometer at temperatures 23 +/- 0.5 or 32 +/- 0.5 degrees C. The surface compressive strength and depression of these materials after setting time were measured using a rheometer (Fudoh). Each material was mixed according to the mixing proportion (base/accelerator or catalyst ratio) recommended by the manufacturer. The surface compressive strength and the depression of each material were measured by using a method which pressed the material to the edge of a sensitive rod (2.0 mm in diameter) connected to a load cell. In the case of silicone impression materials (additional type) at a temperature of 23 +/- 0.5 degrees C, the surface compressive strength and the depression of these materials were extremely stable after the setting time. However, the surface compressive strength of other materials except additional type materials increased markedly after setting time and the depression corresponding to the surface compressive strength decreased. These increased largely with the increase, in pressing speed to the sensitive rod. At 450 s from the setting time of all materials, there was an adequate correlation (r = 0.84) between measured values and theoretical values derived using the theory of elasticity.

  1. Evaluation of shrinkage polymerization and temperature of different acrylic resins used to splinting transfer copings in indirect impression technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Ana Paula G. O.; Karam, Leandro Z.; Galvão, José R.; Kalinowski, Hypolito J.

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was evaluate the shrinkage polymerization and temperature of different acrylic resins used to splinting transfer copings in indirect impression technique. Two implants were placed in an artificial bone, with the two transfer copings joined with dental floss and acrylic resins; two dental resins are used. Measurements of deformation and temperature were performed with Fiber Braggs grating sensor for 17 minutes. The results revealed that one type of resin shows greater values of polymerization shrinkage than the other. Pattern resins did not present lower values of shrinkage, as usually reported by the manufacturer.

  2. Good appearance of food gives an appetizing impression and increases cerebral blood flow of frontal pole in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Ken Ichiro; Amitani, Haruka; Adachi, Ryo; Morimoto, Toshiki; Kido, Megumi; Taruno, Yuka; Ogata, Keizaburo; Amitani, Marie; Asakawa, Akihiro; Inui, Akio

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of food appearance on appetite and on left-frontal pole blood flow in healthy young subjects. The iEat, a new form of foods with good appearance and greater softness was hypothesized to have the better effects to the subjects than blender-processed foods. The effect on appetite and left-frontal pole blood flow using hemoencephalography was assessed while participants were viewing the slideshows of two kinds of foods respectively. The slideshows were used to control the showing time and other variables. The pictures of iEat foods stimulated both of them more than the blender-processed ones. The measurement of cerebral blood flow could be a useful method to monitor the cognitive and emotional aspects of feeding behavior that are important for humans. Like iEat, the foods that look as good as ordinary food yet are softer can be used for people with poor appetite and eating difficulties to ordinary food.

  3. Out of sight but not out of mind: unseen affective faces influence evaluations and social impressions.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Eric; Siegel, Erika; White, Dominique; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2012-12-01

    Using Continuous Flash Suppression (CFS), we demonstrated in four experiments that affective information extracted from unseen faces influences both affective and personality judgments of neutral faces. In four experiments, participants judged neutral faces as more pleasant or unpleasant (Studies 1 and 2) or as more or less trustworthy, likable, and attractive (Study 3) or as more or less competent or interpersonally warm (Study 4) when paired with unseen smiling or scowling faces compared to when paired with unseen neutral faces. These findings suggest that affective influences are a normal part of everyday experience and provide evidence for the affective foundations consciousness. Affective misattribution arises even when affective changes occur after a neutral stimulus is presented, demonstrating that these affective influences cannot be explained as a simple semantic priming effect. These findings have implications for understanding the constructive nature of experience, as well as the role of affect in social impressions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Out of Sight but Not Out of Mind: Unseen Affective Faces Influence Evaluations and Social Impressions

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Eric; Siegel, Erika; White, Dominique; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2016-01-01

    Using Continuous Flash Suppression (CFS), we demonstrated in four experiments that affective information extracted from unseen faces influences both affective and personality judgments of neutral faces. In four experiments, participants judged neutral faces as more pleasant or unpleasant (Studies 1 and 2) or as more or less trustworthy, likable, and attractive (Study 3) or as more or less competent or interpersonally warm (Study 4) when paired with unseen smiling or scowling faces compared to when paired with unseen neutral faces. These findings suggest that affective influences are a normal part of everyday experience and provide evidence for the affective foundations consciousness. Affective misattribution arises even when affective changes occur after a neutral stimulus is presented, demonstrating that these affective influences cannot be explained as a simple semantic priming effect. These findings have implications for understanding the constructive nature of experience, as well as the role of affect in social impressions. PMID:22506501

  5. Voting for a personality: Do first impressions and self-evaluations affect voting decisions?

    PubMed

    Koppensteiner, Markus; Stephan, Pia

    2014-08-01

    Participants were asked to assess their own personality (i.e. Big Five scales), the personality of politicians shown in brief silent video clips, and the probability that they would vote for these politicians. Response surface analyses (RSA) revealed noteworthy effects of self-ratings and observer-ratings of openness, agreeableness, and emotional stability on voting probability. Furthermore, the participants perceived themselves as being more open, more agreeable, more emotionally stable, and more extraverted than the average politician. The study supports previous findings that first impressions affect decision making on important issues. Results also indicate that when only nonverbal information is available people prefer political candidates they perceive as having personality traits they value in themselves.

  6. A new method for the evaluation of the accuracy of full-arch digital impressions in vitro.

    PubMed

    Güth, Jan-Frederik; Edelhoff, Daniel; Schweiger, Josef; Keul, Christine

    2016-09-01

    Introducing a new approach to evaluate the accuracy of digital impression methods for full-arch scans, avoiding "best-fit alignment." A lower jaw model with a straight metal bar between the second molars of both quadrants was directly digitized using an intraoral scanner (True Definition, TRD, n = 12) and indirectly digitized (D810, CON, n = 12) after impression and plaster cast. A dataset of the bar from a coordinate measuring machine served as reference (REF). Datasets obtained from test groups were analyzed using inspection software to determine the aberration of the bar length, the linear shift (in X-, Y-, Z-axis) and the angle deviation (α overall, α coronal, α horizontal) caused by the digitalization method. Mann-Whitney U and unpaired two-sample Student's t test were implemented to detect differences. The level of significance was set at 5 %. Concerning the bar length, no significant differences were found between groups. In view of the linear shift, CON showed significantly higher values than TRD in Y-axis (p = 0.003) and in Z-axis (p = 0.040). Regarding the angle measurement, TRD showed significant smaller values than CON for α overall (p = 0.006) and for α coronal (p = 0.005). This in vitro study shows that intraoral scanning systems seem to show the same or even higher accuracy than the conventional impression with subsequent indirect digitalization. Intraoral scanners have proven excellent accuracy for single teeth or small spans. However, insufficient data is available about their accuracy for full-arch scans. The presented new approach seems to be suitable to precisely analyze differences in the accuracy of different digitalization methods without using best-fit alignment.

  7. A comparative evaluation of tray spacer thickness and repeat pour on the accuracy of monophasic polyvinyl siloxane impression material: in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Yadav, Deepti; Yadav, Reena; Arora, Aman

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the effect of various tray spacer thickness and subsequent repeated pours on the accuracy and dimensional stability of the impression made from monophasic polyvinyl siloxane material. Custom trays with different spacer thickness (2, 4 and 6 mm) were used for making an impression of a master model simulating 3 unit fixed partial denture with monophasic polyvinyl siloxane material. These impressions were poured with die stone and repoured. Distance between the reference points were measured and subjected to statistical analysis. Casts obtained from 1 st , 2 nd and 3 rd pour of the impression in 2, 4 and 6 mm spacer thickness tray have similar dimensional accuracy amongst each other and with the master model except in molar diameter and inter-abutment distances of cast obtained from 6 mm spacer thickness tray. The vertical distance of stone dies were decreased, whereas horizontal distance increased as the thickness of impression material is increased. There were statistically non-significant changes occurring among the repeated pours in 2, 4 and 6 mm spacer thickness. 2 and 4 mm spacer thickness are acceptable for making an impression for three unit fixed partial denture with monophasic polyvinyl siloxane material and it was not affected by two subsequent (1 st and 2 nd) repeated pours.

  8. Positive control for cytotoxicity evaluation of dental vinyl polysiloxane impression materials using sodium lauryl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jae-Sung; Lee, Sang-Bae; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2014-11-01

    Vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) is elastomeric dental impression material which, despite having very few reports of adverse reactions, has shown high levels of cytotoxicity that is difficult to be interpreted without referencing to the positive control material. Therefore, in this study, positive control VPS was developed using sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) for the reference of cytotoxicity test. The positive control VPS with SLS was formed with a different proportion of SLS (0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 wt%) added to the base. The cytotoxicity test was then carried out using the extractions or dilutions of the extractions from each of the test samples using murine fibroblast cells (L929). The final product of positive control VPS behaved similar to commercially available VPS; being initially liquid-like and then becoming rubber-like. Ion chromatography showed that the level of SLS released from the product increased as the proportion of added SLS increased, consequently resulting in an increased level of cytotoxicity. Also, the commercially available VPS was less cytotoxic than the positive control VPS with more or equal to 2 wt% of SLS. However, even the VPS with the highest SLS (16 wt%) did not cause oral mucosa irritation during the animal study. The positive control VPS was successfully produced using SLS, which will be useful in terms of providing references during in vitro cytotoxicity testing.

  9. Evaluation of digital dental models obtained from dental cone-beam computed tomography scan of alginate impressions

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Tingting; Lee, Sang-Mi; Hou, Yanan; Chang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the dimensional accuracy of digital dental models obtained from the dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan of alginate impressions according to the time elapse when the impressions are stored under ambient conditions. Methods Alginate impressions were obtained from 20 adults using 3 different alginate materials, 2 traditional alginate materials (Alginoplast and Cavex Impressional) and 1 extended-pour alginate material (Cavex ColorChange). The impressions were stored under ambient conditions, and scanned by CBCT immediately after the impressions were taken, and then at 1 hour intervals for 6 hours. After reconstructing three-dimensional digital dental models, the models were measured and the data were analyzed to determine dimensional changes according to the elapsed time. The changes within the measurement error were regarded as clinically acceptable in this study. Results All measurements showed a decreasing tendency with an increase in the elapsed time after the impressions. Although the extended-pour alginate exhibited a less decreasing tendency than the other 2 materials, there were no statistically significant differences between the materials. Changes above the measurement error occurred between the time points of 3 and 4 hours after the impressions. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that digital dental models can be obtained simply from a CBCT scan of alginate impressions without sending them to a remote laboratory. However, when the impressions are not stored under special conditions, they should be scanned immediately, or at least within 2 to 3 hours after the impressions are taken. PMID:27226958

  10. Subjective evaluation of HEVC in mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Ray; Kalva, Hari

    2013-03-01

    Mobile compute environments provide a unique set of user needs and expectations that designers must consider. With increased multimedia use in mobile environments, video encoding methods within the smart phone market segment are key factors that contribute to positive user experience. Currently available display resolutions and expected cellular bandwidth are major factors the designer must consider when determining which encoding methods should be supported. The desired goal is to maximize the consumer experience, reduce cost, and reduce time to market. This paper presents a comparative evaluation of the quality of user experience when HEVC and AVC/H.264 video coding standards were used. The goal of the study was to evaluate any improvements in user experience when using HEVC. Subjective comparisons were made between H.264/AVC and HEVC encoding standards in accordance with Doublestimulus impairment scale (DSIS) as defined by ITU-R BT.500-13. Test environments are based on smart phone LCD resolutions and expected cellular bit rates, such as 200kbps and 400kbps. Subjective feedback shows both encoding methods are adequate at 400kbps constant bit rate. However, a noticeable consumer experience gap was observed for 200 kbps. Significantly less H.264 subjective quality is noticed with video sequences that have multiple objects moving and no single point of visual attraction. Video sequences with single points of visual attraction or few moving objects tended to have higher H.264 subjective quality.

  11. Dinosaur Impressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taquet, Philippe

    1998-09-01

    Perhaps you are a paleontologist or have always wondered what it is like to be one. Or you are fascinated by fossils and like to read about the origins and natural history of dinosaurs. Or maybe you are an avid traveler and reader of travelogues. If you are any of these things, then this book is for you. Originally published in 1994 in French, Dinosaur Impressions is the engaging account of thirty years of travel and paleontological exploration by Philippe Taquet, one of the world's most noted paleontologists. Dr. Taquet takes the reader on a surprisingly far-flung tour ranging from the Provence countryside to the Niger desert, from the Brazilian bush to the Mongolian Steppes, and from the Laos jungle to the Moroccan mountains in search of dinosaur bones and what they have to tell us about a vanished world. With wry humor and lively anecdotes, Dr. Taquet retraces the history of paleontological research, along the way discussing the latest theories of dinosaur existence and extinction. Elegantly translated by Kevin Padian, Dinosaur Impressions provides a unique, thoughtful perspective not often encountered in American- and English-language works. This insightful, first-hand account of an exceptional career is also a travelogue par excellence that will enthrall enthusiasts and general readers alike. Philippe Taquet is the Director of the National Museum of Natural History in Paris and is a member of the French Academy of Sciences. Kevin Padian is a professor in the Department of Integrative Biology and Curator of the Museum of Paleontology at the University of California, Berkeley. He is also the editor of The Beginning of the Age of Dinosaurs (Cambridge, 1986) and The Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs (1997).

  12. Comparison of two impression techniques for auricular prosthesis: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Kasim; Mani, U M; Seenivasan, M K; Vaidhyanathan, A K; Veeravalli, P T

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to compare the accuracy of a new impression technique, the triple-layer impression technique (TLIT), with the conventional impression technique (CIT) to fabricate an auricular prosthesis. Fifteen male subjects (aged 22-45 yr) were selected. Ten markings were made on the subject's ear (super aurale [sa], sub aurale [sba], pre aurale [pra], post aurale [poa], A, A1, B, B1, C, and C1) and five measurements (sa-sba, pra-poa, A-A1, B-B1, and C-C1) were made. Custom-made trays were used to record impression in CIT and TLIT. Impressions were made using alginate, and models were cast with type IV gypsum product. Markings were transferred on the cast. Measurements were rechecked on the models. Distribution analysis of difference in measurements between the two impression techniques and the subject's actual values was evaluated. Sign test was used to analyze the statistical significance. Statistically significant differences were found in measurements A-A1, B-B1, and C-C1 between the two techniques when compared with the subject's actual dimensions (p < 0.01). TLIT was found to produce accurate models when compared with CIT. The TLIT used in the study was cost effective, less technique sensitive, and tailor made to reduce chairside orientation time during wax try-in appointments for rehabilitating patients, especially those with unilateral auricular defects.

  13. Evaluation of effectiveness of microwave irradiation for disinfection of silicone elastomeric impression material.

    PubMed

    Bhasin, Abhilasha; Vinod, V; Bhasin, Vinny; Mathew, Xavier; Sajjan, Suresh; Ahmed, Syed Tauqheer

    2013-06-01

    Use of domestic microwave oven has been suggested as a method of disinfecting a number of dental materials used in dental practice. This study was done to analyse the effect of microwave irradiation on vinyl polysiloxane putty impression material (3M ESPE, Express™ STD) contaminated with test organisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans. 180 square shaped specimens of addition silicon putty material were prepared and divided into 3 groups for three test organisms. The 3 groups were subdivided into 4 subgroups (n = 15) for different exposure parameters (control group 5, 6 and 7 min exposure at 650 W. The specimens were contaminated using standard inoculums of test organism and then were irradiated using domestic microwaves. Broth cultures of the control and test group specimens were plated on selective media culture plates. Colonies formed were counted. Data analyses included Kruskal-Walli's ANOVA and Mann-Whitney's tests. Nil values shows complete elimination of C. albicans and P. aeruginosa after 5, 6 and 7 min exposure. Staphylococcus aureus showed colonies with the mean value of 7.6 × 10(3) ± 2.3 × 10(3), 4.6 × 10(3) ± 2.6 × 10(3) after 5 and 6 min respectively and nil values after 7 min exposure. 5 min exposure caused complete elimination of C. albicans and P. aeruginosa strains, while 7 min exposure eliminated S. aureus completely.

  14. Evaluation of the marginal fit of single-unit, complete-coverage ceramic restorations fabricated after digital and conventional impressions: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tsirogiannis, Panagiotis; Reissmann, Daniel R; Heydecke, Guido

    2016-09-01

    In existing published reports, some studies indicate the superiority of digital impression systems in terms of the marginal accuracy of ceramic restorations, whereas others show that the conventional method provides restorations with better marginal fit than fully digital fabrication. Which impression method provides the lowest mean values for marginal adaptation is inconclusive. The findings from those studies cannot be easily generalized, and in vivo studies that could provide valid and meaningful information are limited in the existing publications. The purpose of this study was to systematically review existing reports and evaluate the marginal fit of ceramic single-tooth restorations after either digital or conventional impression methods by combining the available evidence in a meta-analysis. The search strategy for this systematic review of the publications was based on a Population, Intervention, Comparison, and Outcome (PICO) framework. For the statistical analysis, the mean marginal fit values of each study were extracted and categorized according to the impression method to calculate the mean value, together with the 95% confidence intervals (CI) of each category, and to evaluate the impact of each impression method on the marginal adaptation by comparing digital and conventional techniques separately for in vitro and in vivo studies. Twelve studies were included in the meta-analysis from the 63 identified records after database searching. For the in vitro studies, where ceramic restorations were fabricated after conventional impressions, the mean value of the marginal fit was 58.9 μm (95% CI: 41.1-76.7 μm), whereas after digital impressions, it was 63.3 μm (95% CI: 50.5-76.0 μm). In the in vivo studies, the mean marginal discrepancy of the restorations after digital impressions was 56.1 μm (95% CI: 46.3-65.8 μm), whereas after conventional impressions, it was 79.2 μm (95% CI: 59.6-98.9 μm) No significant difference was observed regarding

  15. A Sensitive Measurement for Estimating Impressions of Image-Contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Mie; Matouge, Shingo; Mori, Toshifumi; Suzuki, Noboru; Kasuga, Masao

    We have investigated Kansei Content that appeals maker's intention to viewer's kansei. An SD method is a very good way to evaluate subjective impression of image-contents. However, because the SD method is performed after subjects view the image-contents, it is difficult to examine impression of detailed scenes of the image-contents in real time. To measure viewer's impression of the image-contents in real time, we have developed a Taikan sensor. With the Taikan sensor, we investigate relations among the image-contents, the grip strength and the body temperature. We also explore the interface of the Taikan sensor to use it easily. In our experiment, a horror movie is used that largely affects emotion of the subjects. Our results show that there is a possibility that the grip strength increases when the subjects view a strained scene and that it is easy to use the Taikan sensor without its circle base that is originally installed.

  16. Use of Clinical UV Chamber to Disinfect Dental Impressions: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sakshi; Kumar, Varun; Gupta, Neelu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Dental impressions are potential source of infection in a prosthodontic practice. Risk of transmission of infection through saliva, blood etc is considered as hazard for both dentist as well as dental auxiliary staff. A number of methods are currently employed for disinfecting the impressions which are technique sensitive and time consuming. This study focuses on disinfecting impression using dental UV chamber which is commonly employed for storing sterilized instruments. Aim The aim of this invitro study was to evaluate the use of clinical UV chamber to disinfect various impression materials at different time intervals and its comparison with 2% glutaraldehyde using standard immersion technique. Materials and Methods Total sample size of 180 specimens was taken from three different impression materials. The impressions were made from 30 dentulous subjects. A total of ten impressions were made for each impression material i.e. alginate, addition silicone and polyether impression material. Six punch samples were taken from each impression. Out of 6 punch sample, one was kept as control, second was disinfected by immersing in freshly prepared 2% glutaraldehyde solution for 10 minutes and remaining four were exposed to UV rays for 3 minutes, 6 minutes, 10 minutes and 15 minutes using dental UV chamber. Amount of disinfection achieved was evaluated by counting the colonies over the culture plates with the help of digital colony. Results The results showed that the mean CFUs for alginate were found to be i.e. 11797.40 ± 5989.73 (mean ± SD). The mean CFUs for addition silicone impression material was found 7095.40 with a standard deviation of 4268.83 and the mean CFUs for polyether impression material was found to be 2168.92 ± 1676 (mean ± SD). Conclusion For alginate and addition silicone impression material, disinfection was achieved on exposure to UV rays for a period of 10 minutes. However, for polyether impression material 3 minutes of exposure to

  17. Can we undo our first impressions?: The role of reinterpretation in reversing implicit evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Thomas C.; Ferguson, Melissa J.

    2015-01-01

    Little work has examined whether implicit evaluations can be effectively “undone” after learning new revelations. Across 7 experiments, participants fully reversed their implicit evaluation of a novel target person after reinterpreting earlier information. Revision occurred across multiple implicit evaluation measures (Experiments 1a and 1b), and only when the new information prompted a reinterpretation of prior learning versus did not (Experiment 2). The updating required active consideration of the information, as it emerged only with at least moderate cognitive resources (Experiment 3). Self-reported reinterpretation predicted (Experiment 4) and mediated (Experiment 5) revised implicit evaluations beyond the separate influence of how thoughtfully participants considered the new information in general. Finally, the revised evaluations were durable three days later (Experiment 6). We discuss how these results inform existing theoretical models, and consider implications for future research. PMID:25798625

  18. Can we undo our first impressions? The role of reinterpretation in reversing implicit evaluations.

    PubMed

    Mann, Thomas C; Ferguson, Melissa J

    2015-06-01

    Little work has examined whether implicit evaluations can be effectively "undone" after learning new revelations. Across 7 experiments, participants fully reversed their implicit evaluation of a novel target person after reinterpreting earlier information. Revision occurred across multiple implicit evaluation measures (Experiments 1a and 1b), and only when the new information prompted a reinterpretation of prior learning versus did not (Experiment 2). The updating required active consideration of the information, as it emerged only with at least moderate cognitive resources (Experiment 3). Self-reported reinterpretation predicted (Experiment 4) and mediated (Experiment 5) revised implicit evaluations beyond the separate influence of how thoughtfully participants considered the new information in general. Finally, the revised evaluations were durable 3 days later (Experiment 6). We discuss how these results inform existing theoretical models, and consider implications for future research. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. [EVALUATION OF CHANGES OF GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS OF ALGINATE DENTAL IMPRESSIONS DUE TO THE INFLUENCE OF CHEMICAL AND MICROWAVE DISINFECTION METHOD USING 3D TECHNOLOGIES].

    PubMed

    Nespraydko, V P; Shevchuk, V A; Michaylov, A A; Lyseyko, N V

    2015-01-01

    This clinical and laboratory study evaluated the effect of two methods of disinfection in different modes at the volume changes of alginate dental impressions and plaster models poured from them, as compared to the same parameters of plastic master models (PMM), using three-dimensional non-contact laser scanner and software. Immersion chemical disinfection for 15 min, microwave disinfection at 354 W for 10 minutes and combined disinfection with the power of 319 W for 4 minutes did not significantly affect the volumetric dimensional accuracy of the alginate impressions (P > 0.05).

  20. [Potential of impression cytology in diagnosis and evaluation of efficacy of pharmacological correction of dry eye syndrome associated with contact lens wearing].

    PubMed

    Egorova, G B; Fedorova, A A; Mitichkina, T S

    2012-01-01

    Potential of impression cytology in diagnosis and evaluation of efficacy of pharmacological correction of dry eye syndrome (DES) associated with contact lens wearing was studied. When wearing contact lenses for a long time DES with tear film instability and reduction of tear production occurs in more than 50% patients. Morphological changes of epithelium of tarsal and bulbar conjunctiva manifest consequently. Impression cytology reveals structural damage of epithelium with keratinization signs and decrease of goblet cells density down to total absence. After tear substitution therapy tear break-up time increased by 65,3% and total tear production by 11,4%. In control impression cytology of tarsal and bulbar conjunctiva during tear substitution therapy the following changes were revealed: recovery of goblet cells density and differentiation, recovery of epithelial structure and reduction of epithelium keratinization.

  1. Teaching Effectiveness, Impression Management, and Dysfunctional Behavior: Student Evaluation of Teaching Control Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumbley, D. Larry; Reichelt, Kenneth J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Student evaluation of teaching (SET) questionnaires are used in many countries, although much current research questions the validity of these surveys. US research indicates that more than 90 percent of academic accounting departments use this performance measurement. This paper aims to focus on the validity of SET data.…

  2. Teaching Effectiveness, Impression Management, and Dysfunctional Behavior: Student Evaluation of Teaching Control Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumbley, D. Larry; Reichelt, Kenneth J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Student evaluation of teaching (SET) questionnaires are used in many countries, although much current research questions the validity of these surveys. US research indicates that more than 90 percent of academic accounting departments use this performance measurement. This paper aims to focus on the validity of SET data.…

  3. Botulinum toxin a can positively impact first impression.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Steven H; Lieberman, Elliot D; Thakkar, Nirav N; Larimer, Karen A; Anstead, Amy

    2008-06-01

    BACKGROUND First impression is influenced by facial appearance and improved by cosmetic surgery. OBJECTIVE We wanted to determine if treatment with botulinum toxin A (BTxnA) would improve first impression. MATERIALS AND METHODS Women received BTxnA in the forehead. Photos were taken prior to, and 1 week after, final BTxnA injection in smiling and relaxed poses. Photos were divided into books with each subject represented only once. Evaluators completed a survey rating first impression on various measures of success for each photo. RESULTS No differences were seen for social skills, financial, or relationship success scales. A significant decrease in first impression scores between treatment photos was seen for academic performance and occupational success. However, analysis of between-subject effects found that "smile/relax" accounted for the decreased score in both scales. Significant increases in first impression scores were seen for dating success, attractiveness, and athletic success scales where smile/relax and BTxnA contributed significantly to the improved scores. CONCLUSIONS BTxnA improved first impression scores for dating success, attractiveness, and athletic success scales. Academic performance and occupational success scores were not affected by BTxnA when the smile/relax variable was included. The smile/relax variable was a more important predictor for academic performance and occupational success scores.

  4. Pressure produced on the residual maxillary alveolar ridge by different impression materials and tray design: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Subash M; Mohan, Chenthil Arun; Vijitha, D; Balasubramanian, R; Satish, A; Kumar, Mahendira

    2013-12-01

    Increased ridge resorption may occur due to inappropriate pressure applied during final impression making phase of complete denture fabrication. This study was done to evaluate the pressure applied on the residual ridge while making impressions with two tray designs (with and without spacer) using, zinc oxide eugenol and light body polyvinyl siloxane impression material. Five edentulous subjects were randomly selected. For each of the five subjects four maxillary final impressions were made and were labelled as, Group A-Impression made with tray without spacer using zinc oxide eugenol impression, Group B-Impression made with tray with spacer using zinc oxide eugenol impression material, Group C-Impression made with tray without spacer using light body polyvinyl siloxane impression material, Group D-Impression made with tray with spacer using light body polyvinyl siloxane impression material. During the impression procedure a closed hydraulic system was used to remotely measure the pressures produced in three areas. The pressure produced were calibrated according to the micro strain record. Statistical comparisons of readings were done using t test and ANOVA. The acquired data revealed that ZOE produced an average pressures value of 26.534 and 72.05 microstrain, while light body PVS produced 11.430 and 37.584 microstrain value with and without spacer respectively. Significantly high values were recorded on the vault of the palate when using trays without spacer. The use of light body polyvinyl siloxane and zinc oxide eugenol impression material showed insignificant difference. Within the limitations of this study, tray design has a significantly effected on the pressures produced, while the impression materials does not have any significant difference.

  5. Clinical marginal fit of zirconia crowns and patients' preferences for impression techniques using intraoral digital scanner versus polyvinyl siloxane material.

    PubMed

    Sakornwimon, Nawapat; Leevailoj, Chalermpol

    2017-09-01

    The use of digital intraoral scanners is increasing; however, evidence of its precision in making crown impressions clinically remains scarce. Patients should also feel more comfortable with digital impressions, but only a few studies evaluating this subject have been performed. The purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate the marginal fit of monolithic zirconia crowns and patients' preferences for digital impressions versus polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impressions. Sixteen participants with indications for single molar crowns were included. After crown preparation, digital impressions by intraoral scanner and PVS impressions were made. The participants were asked to complete a 6-item questionnaire with a visual analog scale related to perceptions of each of the following topics: time involved, taste/smell, occlusal registration, size of impression tray/scanner, gag reflex, and overall preference. Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing monolithic zirconia crowns were fabricated from both impressions. The crowns were evaluated intraorally, and a blinded examiner measured the marginal discrepancy of silicone replicas under a stereomicroscope. Intraexaminer reliability was evaluated by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient. Data for patients' preferences and marginal discrepancies were analyzed using the paired t test (α=.05). Visual analog scale scores for digital impressions were statistically significantly higher than those for PVS impressions in every topic (P<.05), except for occlusal registration. The results showed excellent reliability of the examiner with an intraclass correlation coefficient of .996. No significant difference was found in marginal discrepancies between the PVS group and the digital group on all sides (P>.05). No differences were found in the clinical marginal fit of zirconia crowns fabricated from either digital impressions compared with PVS impressions. Furthermore, patients' satisfaction with digital

  6. Corrective Primary Impression Technique

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Aquaviva; Dua, Neha; Herekar, Manisha

    2010-01-01

    The article describes a simple, quick and corrective technique for making the preliminary impression. It records the extensions better as compared to the impressions made using only impression compound. This technique is accurate and gives properly extended custom tray. Any deficiencies seen in the compound primary impression are corrected using this technique hence, this technique is called as a “corrective primary impression technique”. PMID:20502648

  7. First Impressions From Faces.

    PubMed

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A

    2017-06-01

    Although cultural wisdom warns 'don't judge a book by its cover,' we seem unable to inhibit this tendency even though it can produce inaccurate impressions of people's psychological traits and has significant social consequences. One explanation for this paradox is that first impressions of faces overgeneralize our adaptive impressions of categories of people that those faces resemble (including babies, familiar or unfamiliar people, unfit people, emotional people). Research testing these 'overgeneralization' hypotheses elucidates why we form first impressions from faces, what impressions we form, and what cues influence these impressions. This article focuses on commonalities in impressions across diverse perceivers. However, brief attention is given to individual differences in impressions and impression accuracy.

  8. Transoral decompression evaluated by cine-mode magnetic resonance imaging: a case of basilar impression accompanied by Chiari malformation.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, T; Koshu, K; Ogawa, A; Yoshimoto, T

    1991-06-01

    Cine-mode magnetic resonance imaging provides simultaneous images of cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics. A patient with a basilar impression accompanied by a Chiari malformation and von Recklinghausen's disease who underwent transoral decompression is reported. Preoperative cine-mode magnetic resonance imaging visualized an associated obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid pulsatile flow at the level of the foramen magnum. Tonsilar herniation (Chiari I malformation) and hydrocephalus were also present. Postoperatively, the obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid flow was resolved concomitant with the correction of the cervicomedullary angulation. On the basis of observations made by magnetic resonance imaging, the surgical treatment of basilar impression accompanied by Chiari malformation is briefly discussed.

  9. The effect of a range of disinfectants on the dimensional accuracy of some impression materials.

    PubMed

    Jagger, D C; Al Jabra, O; Harrison, A; Vowles, R W; McNally, L

    2004-12-01

    In this study the dimensional accuracy of two model materials; dental stone and plaster of Paris, reproduced from three commonly used impression materials; alginate, polyether and addition-cured silicone, retained by their adhesives in acrylic resin trays and exposed to four disinfectant solutions was evaluated. Ninety casts were used to investigate the effect of the four disinfectants on the dimensional accuracy of alginate, polyether and addition-cured silicone impression material. For each impression material 30 impressions were taken, half were poured in dental stone and half in plaster of Paris. The disinfectants used were Dimenol, Perform-ID, MD-520, and Haz-tabs. Measurements were carried out using a High Precision Reflex Microscope. For the alginate impressions only those disinfected by 5-minute immersion in Haz-tabs solution and in full-strength MD 520 were not adversely affected by the disinfection treatment. All polyether impressions subjected to immersion disinfection exhibited a clinically acceptable expansion. Disinfected addition-cured silicone impressions produced very accurate stone casts. Those disinfected by spraying with fill-strength Dimenol produced casts that were very similar to those left as controls, but those treated by immersion disinfection exhibited negligible and clinically acceptable expansion. The results of the studied demonstrated that the various disinfection treatments had different effects on the impression materials. It is important that an appropriate disinfectant is used for each type of impression material.

  10. Visual Impression of Lighting from a Window and a Ceiling: the Effect of Their Compound Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Sangpil; Ishida, Taiichiro; Iwai, Wataru

    This study was conducted to examine how our visual impression of the lighting space will change when the ratio of the amount of daylight from a window to light from an entire ceiling is changed. In order to evaluate the subjective impression of illuminance distribution for lighting conditions, this study adopted an experimental method using two scale models. The standard box was lit by only the light from the entire ceiling, and the evaluation box was lit by the light from the window and the light from the entire ceiling. Subjects were asked to rate their overall impression for the state of light in the evaluation box by comparing with standard box. Our findings indicate that the compound ratio of 20 to 40% from the window and 80 to 60% from the ceiling would be beneficial in terms of psychological impression for ordinal office spaces.

  11. [Echocardiographic evaluation of HIV-positive subjects].

    PubMed

    Minardi, G; Di Segni, M; Boccardi, L; Pucci, E; Giovannini, E

    1991-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the prevalence and the type of cardiac abnormalities in patients with HIV infection. Echocardiographic examination (M-mode, two-dimensional and Doppler) was performed in 51 patients (40 male, 11 female), whose mean age was 29 +/- 10 years; 48 of them (94%) were intravenous drug addicts, 3 (6%) homosexuals. Diagnosis was AIDS in 19 (37%) patients, AIDS related complex in 19 (37%) and asymptomatic infection in 13 (26%). Echocardiography was normal in 13 subjects. Pericardial effusion was found in 19 patients (in 8 of them, this was the only cardiac abnormality). Valve vegetations were found in 16 patients (3 of them had pericardial effusion, 5 had ventricular dilatation or wall motion abnormalities, 1 had both pericardial and myocardial impairment). Myocardial dysfunction was found in 18 patients: 11 had left ventricular dilatation (5 with wall hypokinesia), 1 had right ventricular enlargement, 1 had biventricular dilatation and 5 had only wall motion abnormalities (diffuse or localized). During the follow-up 9 patients died: 8 had AIDS, 1 was asymptomatic. Eight subjects died during hospitalization (none because of cardiac causes) and one at home for sudden unexplained death. Echocardiography had displayed myocardial dysfunction in 6 of them, thickened pericardium in 1 and was normal in 2. Pathologic examination (performed in 8 subjects) showed cardiac enlargement in 3 subjects, thickened pericardium in 2 and valve vegetation in 1. One subject had histopathologic diagnosis of myocarditis and 7 had non specific histologic abnormalities. The study shows a cardiac involvement in 75% of HIV infected patients: 35% had myocardial dysfunction, 37% pericardial disease, 31% infective endocarditis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. First impressions count.

    PubMed

    Turner, Jonathan W; Moazzez, Rebecca; Banerjee, Avijit

    2012-09-01

    The art and craft of recording intra-oral anatomy successfully with dental impressions relies on the interaction of three critical factors--the 'golden triangle of impression-taking': an appreciation of the anatomical features to be recorded, the material used to take the impression and the clinical handling/operative technique applied. This paper aims to discuss the three factors and their inter-relationships, detailing clinical tips for successful, reproducible and consistent outcomes. Obtaining accurate dental impressions is the key to success in a wide range of clinical restorative procedures. This paper offers clinical advice to practitioners to plan and then take predictable, good quality impressions for their restorative cases.

  13. Dimensional accuracy of 2-stage putty-wash impressions: influence of impression trays and viscosity.

    PubMed

    Balkenhol, Markus; Ferger, Paul; Wöstmann, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of the impression tray and viscosity of the wash material on the dimensional accuracy of impressions taken using a 2-stage putty-wash technique. Identically shaped metal stock trays (MeTs) and disposable plastic stock trays (DiTs) were used for taking impressions (n = 10) of a mandibular cast (4 abutments) with 2 different impression materials. Dies were poured and the relative diameter deviation was calculated after measurement. Zero viscosity of the materials was determined. Dimensional accuracy was significantly affected when DiTs were used. Lower-viscosity wash materials led to more precise impressions.

  14. Digital Versus Conventional Impressions in Fixed Prosthodontics: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ahlholm, Pekka; Sipilä, Kirsi; Vallittu, Pekka; Jakonen, Minna; Kotiranta, Ulla

    2016-08-02

    To conduct a systematic review to evaluate the evidence of possible benefits and accuracy of digital impression techniques vs. conventional impression techniques. Reports of digital impression techniques versus conventional impression techniques were systematically searched for in the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, and Web of Science. A combination of controlled vocabulary, free-text words, and well-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria guided the search. Digital impression accuracy is at the same level as conventional impression methods in fabrication of crowns and short fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). For fabrication of implant-supported crowns and FDPs, digital impression accuracy is clinically acceptable. In full-arch impressions, conventional impression methods resulted in better accuracy compared to digital impressions. Digital impression techniques are a clinically acceptable alternative to conventional impression methods in fabrication of crowns and short FDPs. For fabrication of implant-supported crowns and FDPs, digital impression systems also result in clinically acceptable fit. Digital impression techniques are faster and can shorten the operation time. Based on this study, the conventional impression technique is still recommended for full-arch impressions. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  15. Quantifying the impact cosmetic make-up has on age perception and the first impression projected.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Steven H; Cho, Katherine; Siracusa, Mary; Gutierrez-Borst, Selika

    2015-04-01

    First impressions are lasting, consequential and defined as the immediate judgment made of another from zero acquaintance. Multiple studies have reported the benefits of cosmetic make-up. We set out to investigate the psychosocial and aesthetic effects of cosmetic make-up in order to better understand why women wear it. Twenty-seven women were recruited in order to examine the effects of cosmetic make-up on first impressions. The photographs of individual subjects wearing the control cosmetics, their own make-up, and no make-up were randomly assigned to three binders (A, B, and C). Three hundred evaluators participated (100 evaluators per book) and completed a 10-point First Impression Scale for each of the 27 photos in their binder. Statistical analysis of the collected data was conducted in SPSS using two-tailed t-tests to determine the statistical significance of the differences between first impressions of Own Make-up vs No Make-up, No Make-up vs Control Make-up, and Own Makeup vs Control Make-up. There was a significant difference in improvement in all pairings across all 8 categories in the First Impressions questionnaire particularly in perceived age between own make-up, no make-up, control make-up (41, 42, 38; P<0.001). Our study evaluated the first impressions, age perception, self-esteem, and the quality of life impact that cosmetic makeup has on women's appearance and confidence. Subjects wearing cosmetic make-up appeared 4 years younger than those wearing no make-up. And the control cosmetic make-up subjects on average projected a 37% better first impression than subjects wearing no make-up. We objectively quantified and qualified the benefits of applying cosmetic make-up. Make-up can reduce the perceived age, improve the first impression projected and increase the self-esteem of those who apply it.

  16. Accuracy of Multiple Pour Cast from Various Elastomer Impression Methods.

    PubMed

    Haralur, Satheesh B; Saad Toman, Majed; Ali Al-Shahrani, Abdullah; Ali Al-Qarni, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    The accurate duplicate cast obtained from a single impression reduces the profession clinical time, patient inconvenience, and extra material cost. The stainless steel working cast model assembly consisting of two abutments and one pontic area was fabricated. Two sets of six each custom aluminum trays were fabricated, with five mm spacer and two mm spacer. The impression methods evaluated during the study were additional silicone putty reline (two steps), heavy-light body (one step), monophase (one step), and polyether (one step). Type IV gypsum casts were poured at the interval of one hour, 12 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours. The resultant cast was measured with traveling microscope for the comparative dimensional accuracy. The data obtained were subjected to Analysis of Variance test at significance level <0.05. The die obtained from two-step putty reline impression techniques had the percentage of variation for the height -0.36 to -0.97%, while diameter was increased by 0.40-0.90%. The values for one-step heavy-light body impression dies, additional silicone monophase impressions, and polyether were -0.73 to -1.21%, -1.34%, and -1.46% for the height and 0.50-0.80%, 1.20%, and -1.30% for the width, respectively.

  17. Accuracy of Multiple Pour Cast from Various Elastomer Impression Methods

    PubMed Central

    Saad Toman, Majed; Ali Al-Shahrani, Abdullah; Ali Al-Qarni, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    The accurate duplicate cast obtained from a single impression reduces the profession clinical time, patient inconvenience, and extra material cost. The stainless steel working cast model assembly consisting of two abutments and one pontic area was fabricated. Two sets of six each custom aluminum trays were fabricated, with five mm spacer and two mm spacer. The impression methods evaluated during the study were additional silicone putty reline (two steps), heavy-light body (one step), monophase (one step), and polyether (one step). Type IV gypsum casts were poured at the interval of one hour, 12 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours. The resultant cast was measured with traveling microscope for the comparative dimensional accuracy. The data obtained were subjected to Analysis of Variance test at significance level <0.05. The die obtained from two-step putty reline impression techniques had the percentage of variation for the height −0.36 to −0.97%, while diameter was increased by 0.40–0.90%. The values for one-step heavy-light body impression dies, additional silicone monophase impressions, and polyether were −0.73 to −1.21%, −1.34%, and −1.46% for the height and 0.50–0.80%, 1.20%, and −1.30% for the width, respectively. PMID:28096815

  18. Client Use of Impression Management in Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Ward M.; And Others

    Analogue studies have demonstrated that clients who have been instructed to try to deliberately produce certain impressions in their counselors are able to create those impressions reliably and to affect the counselors' evaluations of the clients. It has not been demonstrated, however, that actual clients engage in strategic self-presentation with…

  19. Subjective Impressions Do Not Mirror Online Reading Effort: Concurrent EEG-Eyetracking Evidence from the Reading of Books and Digital Media

    PubMed Central

    Kretzschmar, Franziska; Pleimling, Dominique; Hosemann, Jana; Füssel, Stephan; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In the rapidly changing circumstances of our increasingly digital world, reading is also becoming an increasingly digital experience: electronic books (e-books) are now outselling print books in the United States and the United Kingdom. Nevertheless, many readers still view e-books as less readable than print books. The present study thus used combined EEG and eyetracking measures in order to test whether reading from digital media requires higher cognitive effort than reading conventional books. Young and elderly adults read short texts on three different reading devices: a paper page, an e-reader and a tablet computer and answered comprehension questions about them while their eye movements and EEG were recorded. The results of a debriefing questionnaire replicated previous findings in that participants overwhelmingly chose the paper page over the two electronic devices as their preferred reading medium. Online measures, by contrast, showed shorter mean fixation durations and lower EEG theta band voltage density – known to covary with memory encoding and retrieval – for the older adults when reading from a tablet computer in comparison to the other two devices. Young adults showed comparable fixation durations and theta activity for all three devices. Comprehension accuracy did not differ across the three media for either group. We argue that these results can be explained in terms of the better text discriminability (higher contrast) produced by the backlit display of the tablet computer. Contrast sensitivity decreases with age and degraded contrast conditions lead to longer reading times, thus supporting the conclusion that older readers may benefit particularly from the enhanced contrast of the tablet. Our findings thus indicate that people's subjective evaluation of digital reading media must be dissociated from the cognitive and neural effort expended in online information processing while reading from such devices. PMID:23405265

  20. Subjective impressions do not mirror online reading effort: concurrent EEG-eyetracking evidence from the reading of books and digital media.

    PubMed

    Kretzschmar, Franziska; Pleimling, Dominique; Hosemann, Jana; Füssel, Stephan; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In the rapidly changing circumstances of our increasingly digital world, reading is also becoming an increasingly digital experience: electronic books (e-books) are now outselling print books in the United States and the United Kingdom. Nevertheless, many readers still view e-books as less readable than print books. The present study thus used combined EEG and eyetracking measures in order to test whether reading from digital media requires higher cognitive effort than reading conventional books. Young and elderly adults read short texts on three different reading devices: a paper page, an e-reader and a tablet computer and answered comprehension questions about them while their eye movements and EEG were recorded. The results of a debriefing questionnaire replicated previous findings in that participants overwhelmingly chose the paper page over the two electronic devices as their preferred reading medium. Online measures, by contrast, showed shorter mean fixation durations and lower EEG theta band voltage density--known to covary with memory encoding and retrieval--for the older adults when reading from a tablet computer in comparison to the other two devices. Young adults showed comparable fixation durations and theta activity for all three devices. Comprehension accuracy did not differ across the three media for either group. We argue that these results can be explained in terms of the better text discriminability (higher contrast) produced by the backlit display of the tablet computer. Contrast sensitivity decreases with age and degraded contrast conditions lead to longer reading times, thus supporting the conclusion that older readers may benefit particularly from the enhanced contrast of the tablet. Our findings thus indicate that people's subjective evaluation of digital reading media must be dissociated from the cognitive and neural effort expended in online information processing while reading from such devices.

  1. Surface roughness of polyvinyl siloxane impression materials following chemical disinfection, autoclave and microwave sterilization.

    PubMed

    Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah

    2013-05-01

    Autoclave sterilization and microwave sterilization has been suggested as the effective methods for the disinfection of elastomeric impressions, but subjecting elastomeric impressions to extreme temperature may have adverse effects on critical properties of the elastomers. To evaluate the effect of chemical disinfection as well as autoclave and microwave sterilization on the surface roughness of elastomeric impression materials. The surface roughness of five commercially available polyvinyl siloxane impression materials (Coltene President, Affinis Perfect impression, Aquasil, 3M ESPE Express and GC Exafast) were evaluated after subjecting them to chemical disinfection, autoclaving and microwave sterilization using a Talysurf Intra 50 instrument. Twenty specimens from each material were fabricated and divided into four equal groups, three experimental and one control (n=25). The differences in the mean surface roughness between the treatment groups were recorded and statistically analyzed. No statistically significant increase in the surface roughness was observed when the specimens were subjected to chemical disinfection and autoclave sterilization, increase in roughness and discoloration was observed in all the materials when specimens were subjected to microwave sterilization. Chemical disinfection did not have a significant effect but, since it is less effective, autoclave sterilization can be considered effective and autoclaving did not show any specimen discoloration as in microwave sterilization. Microwave sterilization may be considered when impressions are used to make diagnostic casts. A significant increase in surface roughness may produce rougher casts, resulting in rougher tissue surfaces for denture and cast restorations. Autoclave sterilization of vinyl polysiloxane elastomeric impressions for 5 minutes at 134°C at 20 psi may be considered an effective method over chemical disinfection and microwave sterilization, because chemical disinfection does

  2. The neural dynamics of updating person impressions

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yang; Todorov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Person perception is a dynamic, evolving process. Because other people are an endless source of social information, people need to update their impressions of others based upon new information. We devised an fMRI study to identify brain regions involved in updating impressions. Participants saw faces paired with valenced behavioral information and were asked to form impressions of these individuals. Each face was seen five times in a row, each time with a different behavioral description. Critically, for half of the faces the behaviors were evaluatively consistent, while for the other half they were inconsistent. In line with prior work, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) was associated with forming impressions of individuals based on behavioral information. More importantly, a whole-brain analysis revealed a network of other regions associated with updating impressions of individuals who exhibited evaluatively inconsistent behaviors, including rostrolateral PFC, superior temporal sulcus, right inferior parietal lobule and posterior cingulate cortex. PMID:22490923

  3. The neural dynamics of updating person impressions.

    PubMed

    Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Cai, Yang; Todorov, Alexander

    2013-08-01

    Person perception is a dynamic, evolving process. Because other people are an endless source of social information, people need to update their impressions of others based upon new information. We devised an fMRI study to identify brain regions involved in updating impressions. Participants saw faces paired with valenced behavioral information and were asked to form impressions of these individuals. Each face was seen five times in a row, each time with a different behavioral description. Critically, for half of the faces the behaviors were evaluatively consistent, while for the other half they were inconsistent. In line with prior work, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) was associated with forming impressions of individuals based on behavioral information. More importantly, a whole-brain analysis revealed a network of other regions associated with updating impressions of individuals who exhibited evaluatively inconsistent behaviors, including rostrolateral PFC, superior temporal sulcus, right inferior parietal lobule and posterior cingulate cortex.

  4. Basilar impression in children.

    PubMed

    Teodori, J B; Painter, M J

    1984-12-01

    Ataxia is a common neurologic sign in childhood. Basilar impression due to bony abnormalities of the craniovertebral junction is an uncommon but readily treatable cause of ataxia in children. Two children who had neck stiffness, ataxia, nystagmus, and corticospinal tract signs are described. Basilar impression was recognized only after specific radiologic studies were performed. Both children were treated surgically with good results.

  5. Very first impressions.

    PubMed

    Bar, Moshe; Neta, Maital; Linz, Heather

    2006-05-01

    First impressions of people's personalities are often formed by using the visual appearance of their faces. Defining how quickly these impressions can be formed has critical implications for understanding social interactions and for determining the visual properties used to shape them. To study impression formation independent of emotional cues, threat judgments were made on faces with a neutral expression. Consequently, participants' judgments pertained to the personality rather than to a certain temporary emotional state (e.g., anger). The results demonstrate that consistent first impressions can be formed very quickly, based on whatever information is available within the first 39 ms. First impressions were less consistent under these conditions when the judgments were about intelligence, suggesting that survival-related traits are judged more quickly. The authors propose that low spatial frequencies mediate this swift formation of threat judgments and provide evidence that supports this hypothesis. 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  6. ETI: Our first impressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Albert A.; Johnson, Joel T.

    2000-06-01

    Despite scant or ambiguous information, people are capable of developing comprehensive and detailed impressions. Consequently, if the detection of an electromagnetically-active civilization is announced, many people will rapidly form impressions of what the extraterrestrials and their civilization are "like". First impressions are crucial, not only because of their immediate psychological, social, and political consequences on Earth, but because they can influence the future of interstellar communication. Initial impressions will rest less on hard data than on the nature and tone of the "evidence" that is gleaned from the transmission; the interpretation and dissemination of this evidence; and the hard wiring, psychological programming, cultural conditioning, and social influence processes that shape human perception. We consider how dispositional inferences, implicit theories of personality, negatively toned or adverse information, physical appearance, prior expectations, the confirmation bias, and thinking and unthinking approaches to attitude formation are likely to affect human impressions of ETI.

  7. Age, Cumulative Trauma and Stressful Life Events, and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms among Older Adults in Prison: Do Subjective Impressions Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maschi, Tina; Morgen, Keith; Zgoba, Kristen; Courtney, Deborah; Ristow, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aging prison population in the United States presents a significant public health challenge with high rates of trauma and mental health issues that the correctional system alone is ill-prepared to address. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of age, objective, and subjective measures of trauma and stressful…

  8. Age, Cumulative Trauma and Stressful Life Events, and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms among Older Adults in Prison: Do Subjective Impressions Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maschi, Tina; Morgen, Keith; Zgoba, Kristen; Courtney, Deborah; Ristow, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aging prison population in the United States presents a significant public health challenge with high rates of trauma and mental health issues that the correctional system alone is ill-prepared to address. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of age, objective, and subjective measures of trauma and stressful…

  9. Tissue conditioning materials as functional impression materials.

    PubMed

    Chander, Satinder; Hill, Mark; Moore, Derek; Morrow, Leean

    2007-06-01

    There has been much written on the subject of tissue conditioner materials. In the context of functional impressions however there exists a lack of consensus opinion. In this article various aspects of functional impression materials have been considered. These include the effects of powder to liquid mixing ratio (P/L) on the visco elastic properties, effects on the surface hardness of dental stone when these materials are cast, undercut reproducibility, compressibility and dimensional stability. Definitive conclusions are difficult to draw however it seems the evidence supports the use of tissue conditioners as functional impression materials.

  10. Impression block with orientator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilin, V. I.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2015-02-01

    Tool review, namely the impression block, applied to check the shape and size of the top of fish as well as to determine the appropriate tool for fishing operation was realized. For multiple application and obtaining of the impress depth of 3 cm and more, the standard volumetric impression blocks with fix rods are used. However, the registered impress of fish is not oriented in space and the rods during fishing are in the extended position. This leads to rods deformation and sinking due to accidental impacts of impression block over the borehole irregularity and finally results in faulty detection of the top end of fishing object in hole. The impression blocks with copy rods and fixed magnetic needle allow estimating the object configuration and fix the position of magnetic needle determining the position of the top end of object in hole. However, the magnetic needle fixation is realized in staged and the rods are in extended position during fishing operations as well as it is in standard design. The most efficient tool is the impression block with copy rods which directs the examined object in the borehole during readings of magnetic needles data from azimuth plate and averaging of readings. This significantly increases the accuracy of fishing toll direction. The rods during fishing are located in the body and extended only when they reach the top of fishing object.

  11. Effect of variation of impression material combinations, dual arch tray types, and sequence of pour on the accuracy of working dies: “An in vitro study”

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Nagam Raja; Reddy, Jakranpally Sathya; Padmaja, Bramha Josyula Indira; Reddy, Budigi Madan Mohan; Sunil, Motupalli; Reddy, Bommireddy Tejeswar

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the accuracy of dies made from dual arch impressions using different sectional dual arch trays, combinations of elastomeric impression materials, and the sequence of pour of dies. Subjects and Methods: The dual arch impression materials were grouped into three groups depending on the combination of impression materials used and each group is subdivided into four subgroups. A sample size of 8 in each subgroup yielding a total 96 impressions will be made into three groups of 32 each (Group I, II, and III). Group I constitute impressions made using monophase (M) impression material, Group II constitute impressions made using combination of heavy body and light body (HL), and Group III constitute impressions made using combination of putty and light body (PL). Dies obtained were evaluated with a travelling microscope to measure the buccolingual width of the tooth at the margin by using the sharp corners of the notches as reference points. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive analysis namely mean and standard deviation, one-way analysis of variance test. Results: The results obtained in this study indicate that though not statistically significant, the metal dual arch trays performed better when compared to the plastic trays in reproducing die dimensions. Conclusions: From the results obtained, dies poured from combination of heavy body and light body impressions using plastic or metal dual arch trays showed least variation in bucco-lingual dimension from master model. PMID:27141172

  12. Prior Subject Interest, Students' Evaluations, And Instructional Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Marsh, H W; Cooper, T L

    1981-01-01

    Students' Prior Subject Interest in a course showed similar correlations with student ratings of instructional effectiveness in two university settings (N = 1102 classes). Correlations between Prior Subject Interest and different dimensions of instructional effectiveness varied from approximately zero to .44. Though these correlations were not high, Prior Subject Interest predicted student ratings better than any of 15 other student/course/instructor characteristics considered (e.g., Expected Grade, Class Size, Workload/Difficulty, Teacher Rank). Instructor self-evaluations of their own teaching effectiveness (N = 329 classes) were also positively correlated with both their own and their students' perceptions of Prior Subject Interest; the dimensions that were most highly correlated -- particularly Learning/Value -- were the same as observed with student ratings. Since both student and instructor self evaluations were similarly related to Prior Subject Interest, it appears that this variable actually affects instructional effectiveness in a way that is accurately reflected in the student ratings.

  13. Accuracy of implant impressions without impression copings: a three-dimensional analysis.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Joo-Hyun; Son, Yong-Ha; Han, Chong-Hyun; Kim, Sunjai

    2011-06-01

    Implant impressions without impression copings can be used for cement-retained implant restorations. A comparison of the accuracy of implant impressions with and without impression copings is needed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the dimensional accuracy of implant definitive casts that are fabricated by implant impressions with and without impression copings. An acrylic resin maxillary model was fabricated, and 3 implant replicas were secured in the right second premolar, first, and second molars. Two impression techniques were used to fabricate definitive casts (n=10). For the coping group (Group C), open tray impression copings were used for the final impressions. For the no-coping group (Group NC), cementable abutments were connected to the implant replicas, and final impressions were made assuming the abutments were prepared teeth. Computerized calculation of the centroids and long axes of the implant or stone abutment replicas was performed. The Mann-Whitney U test analyzed the amount of linear and rotational distortion between groups (α =.05). At the first molar site, Group NC showed significantly greater linear distortion along the Y-axis, with a small difference between the groups (Group C, 7.8 ± 7.4 μm; Group NC, 19.5 ± 12.2). At the second molar site, increased distortion was noted in Group NC for every linear and rotational variable, except for linear distortion along the Z-axis. Implant impression with open tray impression copings produced more accurate definitive casts than those fabricated without impression copings, especially those with greater inter-abutment distance. Copyright © 2011 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Three-dimensional evaluation of the repeatability of scanned conventional impressions of prepared teeth generated with white- and blue-light scanners.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jin-Hun; Choi, Byeong-Yeol; Kim, Chong-Myeong; Kim, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Hae-Young; Kim, Woong-Chul

    2015-10-01

    Digital scanning is increasingly used in prosthodontics. Three-dimensional (3D) evaluations that compare the repeatability of the blue-light scanner with that of the white-light scanner are required. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the repeatability of conventional impressions of abutment teeth digitized with white- and blue-light scanners and compare the findings for different types of abutment teeth. Impressions of the canine, premolar, and molar abutment teeth were made and repeatedly scanned with each scanner type to obtain 5 sets of 3D data for each tooth. Point clouds were compared, and error sizes per tooth and scanner type were measured (n=10). One-way ANOVA with Tukey honest significant differences multiple comparison and independent t tests were performed to evaluate repeatability (α=.05). Repeatability (mean ±SD) of the white- and blue-light scanners for canine, premolar, and molar teeth was statistically significant (means: P=.001, P<.001, P<.001; ±SD: P<.001, P<.001, P=.003). Means of discrepancies with the white-light scanner (P<.001) were 5.8 μm for the canine, 5.9 μm for the premolar, and 8.6 μm for the molar teeth and 4.4 μm, 2.9 μm, and 3.2 μm, respectively, with the blue-light scanner (P<.001). Corresponding SDs of discrepancies with the white-light scanner (P<.001) were 15.9 μm for the canine, 23.2 μm for the premolar, and 14.6 μm for the molar teeth and 9.8 μm, 10.6 μm, and 11.2 μm, respectively, with the blue-light scanner (P=.73). On evaluation of the digitized abutment tooth impressions, the blue-light scanner exhibited greater repeatability than the white-light scanner. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of implant angulation, material selection, and impression technique on impression accuracy: a preliminary laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Rutkunas, Vygandas; Sveikata, Kestutis; Savickas, Raimondas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary laboratory study was to evaluate the effects of 5- and 25-degree implant angulations in simulated clinical casts on an impression's accuracy when using different impression materials and tray selections. A convenience sample of each implant angulation group was selected for both open and closed trays in combination with one polyether and two polyvinyl siloxane impression materials. The influence of material and technique appeared to be significant for both 5- and 25-degree angulations (P < .05), and increased angulation tended to decrease impression accuracy. The open-tray technique was more accurate with highly nonaxially oriented implants for the small sample size investigated.

  16. Forming impressions from incongruent traits.

    PubMed

    Casselden, P A; Hampson, S E

    1990-08-01

    The factors that affect the ease with which impressions are formed from incongruent trait pairs are investigated. In Experiments 1 and 2, trait pairs that were both descriptively and evaluatively congruent, as well as ones that were only evaluatively congruent, were found to be more imaginable and to be perceived as more frequently co-occurring than incongruent trait pairs. In Experiment 3, response latency provided a converging measure of ease of imaginability. Experiment 4 examined written descriptions of targets described by these trait pairs, and found more attempts to integrate the congruent than the incongruent pairs. These findings are discussed in terms of the relation between laypersons' impressions of personality and formal personality assessment.

  17. Subjective quality evaluation of the upcoming HEVC video compression standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanhart, Philippe; Rerabek, Martin; De Simone, Francesca; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2012-10-01

    High Effciency Video Coding (HEVC) is the latest attempt by ISO/MPEG and ITU-T/VCEG to define the next generation compression standard beyond H.264/MPEG-4 Part 10 AVC. One of the major goals of HEVC is to provide effcient compression for resolutions beyond HDTV. However, the subjective evaluations that led to the selection of technologies were bound to HDTV resolution. Moreover, performance evaluation metrics to report effciency results of this standard are mainly based on PSNR, especially for resolutions beyond HDTV. This paper provides subjective evaluation results to assess the performance of the current HEVC codec for resolutions beyond HDTV.

  18. [Impression technics in implantology].

    PubMed

    Vanheusden, A

    2001-01-01

    The implant-borne prostheses have become an integral part of the oral rehabilitation procedures. The aim of this article is to describe the most current impression techniques for oral implant prosthetics used at the University of Liège, Belgium. Impression protocols adapted to various prosthetic procedures are described step-by-step through several clinical cases. Emphasis is put on the means necessary for achieving a precise adaptation and a passive fit of the final prosthetic suprastructure.

  19. Impression formation: the role of expressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Riggio, R E; Friedman, H S

    1986-02-01

    This research examined the effects of personality/social skills and individual differences in expressive style on impression formation. Particular attention was given to the role of nonverbal behaviors in the formation of initial impressions. Sixty-two subjects were measured on self-report personality and communication skill scales, on posed emotional sending ability, and on physical attractiveness. Subjects were then videotaped while giving a spontaneous "explanation." Trained coders measured five separate nonverbal cue factors displayed by the subjects in the videotapes. Groups of untrained judges viewed the tapes and rated their impressions of the subjects on scales of likability, speaking effectiveness, and expressivity-confidence. Male subjects who were nonverbally skilled and extraverted tended to display more outwardly focused and fluid expressive behaviors, and made more favorable impressions on judges, than did males who scored low on the measures of nonverbal skills and extraversion. Females who were nonverbally skilled displayed more facial expressiveness, which led to more favorable initial impressions. Sex differences may reflect basic differences in the acquisition and use of expressive nonverbal cues by males and females.

  20. Statistical Analysis for Subjective and Objective Evaluations of Dental Drill Sounds.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tomomi; Kuwano, Sonoko; Ebisu, Shigeyuki; Hayashi, Mikako

    2016-01-01

    The sound produced by a dental air turbine handpiece (dental drill) can markedly influence the sound environment in a dental clinic. Indeed, many patients report that the sound of a dental drill elicits an unpleasant feeling. Although several manufacturers have attempted to reduce the sound pressure levels produced by dental drills during idling based on ISO 14457, the sound emitted by such drills under active drilling conditions may negatively influence the dental clinic sound environment. The physical metrics related to the unpleasant impressions associated with dental drill sounds have not been determined. In the present study, psychological measurements of dental drill sounds were conducted with the aim of facilitating improvement of the sound environment at dental clinics. Specifically, we examined the impressions elicited by the sounds of 12 types of dental drills in idling and drilling conditions using a semantic differential. The analysis revealed that the impressions of dental drill sounds varied considerably between idling and drilling conditions and among the examined drills. This finding suggests that measuring the sound of a dental drill in idling conditions alone may be insufficient for evaluating the effects of the sound. We related the results of the psychological evaluations to those of measurements of the physical metrics of equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure levels (LAeq) and sharpness. Factor analysis indicated that impressions of the dental drill sounds consisted of two factors: "metallic and unpleasant" and "powerful". LAeq had a strong relationship with "powerful impression", calculated sharpness was positively related to "metallic impression", and "unpleasant impression" was predicted by the combination of both LAeq and calculated sharpness. The present analyses indicate that, in addition to a reduction in sound pressure level, refining the frequency components of dental drill sounds is important for creating a comfortable sound

  1. The subjective evaluation of noise from light aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, K. P.

    1976-01-01

    A study was conducted in which subjects evaluated the sounds of a light aircraft and a motorcycle. Particular emphasis was placed on examining the duration of the sounds. Thirty subjects gave annoyance ratings to a total of 50 sounds, with peak levels between 65 and 85dB(A). It was found that aircraft and motorcycles have differing optimum duration corrections. The conventional duration correction used in the calculation of EPNL is far from being the optimum for light aircraft.

  2. Initial Evaluation of a Subjective Bayesian Diagnostic System

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, David H.; Kestly, John J.; Greist, John H.; Jensen, Norman M.

    1971-01-01

    A computer-aided diagnostic system using subjectively estimated probabilities for symptom—disease relationships is described and applied to a sample of 200 cases divided among hypothyroid, euthyroid, and hyperthyroid diagnoses. The subjective system is evaluated by comparing it with one using actuarial probabilities developed in standard fashion and one using separate actuarial probabilities for suspected hypothyroid and suspected hyperthyroid categories. Analysis of the data indicates that the subjective model's developmental cost and time requirement is much lower, while it performs as well as either actuarial model. PMID:4937847

  3. Burger or yogurt? Indulgent consumption in impression management contexts.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yin-Hui; Huang, Molly C-J; Chuang, Shih-Chieh; Ju, Ying Rung

    2015-10-01

    We conducted three studies to investigate indulgent choice in settings with and without impression management by public-private manipulation with evaluation. Study 1 showed that the participants were less indulgent under public scrutiny due to the employment of impression management. Study 2 focused on the impression management context to test the moderate effect of self-consciousness in two impression managed contexts. Study 3 focused on context without impression management to test the moderate effects of self-awareness on choices. We found that depending on differences in primed personality, individuals tended to make choices other than those they favoured privately when anticipating that others might form impressions of them based on the decisions made. The findings of all three studies support our basic prediction that people are less indulgent under impression management and suggest that people tend to manage their impression by eating healthier (less indulgently) in public. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  4. Clinical accuracy outcomes of closed-tray and open-tray implant impression techniques for partially edentulous patients.

    PubMed

    Gallucci, German O; Papaspyridakos, Panos; Ashy, Linah M; Kim, Go Eun; Brady, Nicholas J; Weber, Hans-Peter

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare the accuracy outcomes of open- and closed-tray implant impressions for partially edentulous patients. Eleven partially edentulous spaces in seven patients with two existing implants for fixed partial dentures were included. Group I (closed-tray) and group II (open-tray) were compared using microcomputed tomography scanning. No statistically significant differences were found between the closed- and open-tray techniques (P = .317). The subjective evaluation of patient comfort showed no differences with either impression technique. There were no differences seen between open- and closed-tray impression techniques in partially edentulous patients when implants had less than 10 degrees of angulation.

  5. Correlation of impression removal force with elastomeric impression material rigidity and hardness.

    PubMed

    Walker, Mary P; Alderman, Nick; Petrie, Cynthia S; Melander, Jennifer; McGuire, Jacob

    2013-07-01

    Difficult impression removal has been linked to high rigidity and hardness of elastomeric impression materials. In response to this concern, manufacturers have reformulated their materials to reduce rigidity and hardness to decrease removal difficulty; however, the relationship between impression removal and rigidity or hardness has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a positive correlation between impression removal difficulty and rigidity or hardness of current elastomeric impression materials. Light- and medium-body polyether (PE), vinylpolysiloxane (VPS), and hybrid vinyl polyether siloxane (VPES) impression materials were tested (n = 5 for each material/consistency/test method). Rigidity (elastic modulus) was measured via tensile testing of dumbbell-shaped specimens (Die C, ASTM D412). Shore A hardness was measured using disc specimens according to ASTM D2240-05 test specifications. Impressions were also made of a custom stainless steel model using a custom metal tray that could be attached to a universal tester to measure associated removal force. Within each impression material consistency, one-factor ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc analyses (α = 0.05) were used to compare rigidity, hardness, and removal force of the three types of impression materials. A Pearson's correlation (α = 0.05) was used to evaluate the association between impression removal force and rigidity or hardness. With medium-body materials, VPS exhibited significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) rigidity and hardness than VPES or PE, while PE impressions required significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) removal force than VPS or VPES impressions. With light-body materials, VPS again demonstrated significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) hardness than VPES or PE, while the rigidity of the light-body materials did not significantly differ between materials (p > 0.05); however, just as with the medium-body materials, light-body PE impressions required significantly higher (p

  6. Evaluating the results of stress urinary incontinence surgery with objective and subjective outcome measures.

    PubMed

    Diez-Itza, I; Espuña-Pons, M

    2014-09-01

    To assess the outcomes of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) surgery using objective and subjective measures in women with pure SUI and mixed urinary incontinence (MUI). The degree of correlation between the different outcome measures was also evaluated for both groups. A multicentre prospective cohort study of women who underwent surgery for SUI. A standardized cough stress test was used as the objective outcome measure, and specific items of the Epidemiology of Prolapse and Incontinence Questionnaire were used as the subjective outcome measure. The International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form (ICIQ-UI SF) and the Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I) questionnaires were used for global assessment. Kappa test was used to measure the degree of correlation between the outcome measures. The participants were categorized into two groups before surgery: pure SUI (n=116) and MUI (n=161). Six months after surgery, the cure rate of the SUI component was high in both groups according to the objective and subjective outcome measures. Global assessment showed lower cure rates. The degree of agreement between objective and subjective outcome measures was moderate (kappa 0.541, p<0.001) for women with pure SUI, and fair (kappa 0.377, p<0.001) for women with MUI. Correlation between the change in ICIQ-UI SF score (pre to post surgery) and the degree of satisfaction (PGI-I) was significant (p<0.01) for both the pure SUI group (0.43) and the MUI group (0.48). Both objective and subjective cure rates are high for women with pure SUI and MUI following SUI surgery in Spain. The degree of agreement between different outcome measures varies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. How the adoption of impression management goals alters impression formation.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Bryan; Poposki, Elizabeth M

    2010-11-01

    Five experiments (N = 390) tested the hypothesis that adopting an impression management goal leads the impression manager to view an interaction partner as having less of the trait he or she is attempting to express. This hypothesis was confirmed for the impression management goals of appearing introverted, extraverted, smart, confident, and happy. Experiment 2 shows that adoption of the impression goal could alter judgments even when participants could not act on the goal. Experiment 3 provides evidence that adopting an impression management goal prompted a comparison mind-set and that this comparison mind-set activation mediated target judgments. Experiment 4 rules out a potential alternative explanation and provides more direct evidence that comparison of the impression manager's self-concept mediates the impression of the target. Experiment 5 eliminates a potential confound and extends the effect to another impression goal. These experiments highlight the dynamic interplay between impression management and impression formation.

  8. Preliminary silicone putty casts: diagnosis to final impression for complete dentures.

    PubMed

    Kinderknecht, K E; Dominici, J T; Clark, E P

    1996-04-01

    Silicone putty casts are useful for articulating existing dentures for evaluation and problem solving before relining procedures are performed or a new prosthesis is made. Tissue health may require significant modification of the existing dentures and treatment with tissue-conditioning material before final impressions are made. This practical procedure uses a functional impression that substitutes for a quality preliminary impression and combines tissue conditioning, a functional impression, silicone putty cast, custom final impression tray, and a final impression for a complete denture.

  9. A Comparative Evaluation of Accuracy of the Dies Affected by Tray Type, Material Viscosity, and Pouring Sequence of Dual and Single Arch Impressions- An In vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Rahul S.; Shah, Rupal J.; Chhajlani, Rahul; Saklecha, Bhuwan; Maru, Kavita

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The clinician’s skill, impression techniques, and materials play a very important role in recording fine details in an impression for accuracy of fixed partial denture prosthesis. Impression of prepared teeth and of the opposing arch can be recorded simultaneously by dual-arch trays, while the full arch metal trays are used for impressions of prepared teeth in one arch. Aim To measure and compare the accuracy of working dies made from impressions with metal and plastic dual arch trays and metal full arch trays, for two viscosities of impression material and by changing the sequence of pour of working and non-working sides. Materials and Methods A balanced design with independent samples was used to study the three variables (tray type, impression material viscosity, and pouring sequence). An impression made by dual arch trays and single arch trays were divided in to three groups (Group A-plastic dual arch tray, Group B-metal dual arch tray, Group C-full arch metal stock tray). Out of these three groups, two groups (Group A and B) were subdivided in to four subgroups each and one group (Group C) was subdivided in to two subgroups. A sample size of 30 was used in each subgroup yielding a total 300 impressions in three groups or ten subgroups. Impressions were made of a machined circular stainless steel die. All three dimensions (Occlusogingival, Mesiodistal, and Buccolingual) of the working dies as well as stainless steel standard die were measured three times, and the mean was used for the three standard sample values to which all working dies means were compared. Statistical analysis used for this study was a 3-factor analysis of variance with hypothesis testing at α =0.05. Results With respect to the selection of impression material viscosity statistically significant differences were found in the dies for the buccolingual and mesiodistal dimensions. Metal dual arch trays were slightly more accurate in the mesiodistal dimension in comparison to the

  10. A Comparative Evaluation of Accuracy of the Dies Affected by Tray Type, Material Viscosity, and Pouring Sequence of Dual and Single Arch Impressions- An In vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Poonam R; Kulkarni, Rahul S; Shah, Rupal J; Chhajlani, Rahul; Saklecha, Bhuwan; Maru, Kavita

    2017-04-01

    The clinician's skill, impression techniques, and materials play a very important role in recording fine details in an impression for accuracy of fixed partial denture prosthesis. Impression of prepared teeth and of the opposing arch can be recorded simultaneously by dual-arch trays, while the full arch metal trays are used for impressions of prepared teeth in one arch. To measure and compare the accuracy of working dies made from impressions with metal and plastic dual arch trays and metal full arch trays, for two viscosities of impression material and by changing the sequence of pour of working and non-working sides. A balanced design with independent samples was used to study the three variables (tray type, impression material viscosity, and pouring sequence). An impression made by dual arch trays and single arch trays were divided in to three groups (Group A-plastic dual arch tray, Group B-metal dual arch tray, Group C-full arch metal stock tray). Out of these three groups, two groups (Group A and B) were subdivided in to four subgroups each and one group (Group C) was subdivided in to two subgroups. A sample size of 30 was used in each subgroup yielding a total 300 impressions in three groups or ten subgroups. Impressions were made of a machined circular stainless steel die. All three dimensions (Occlusogingival, Mesiodistal, and Buccolingual) of the working dies as well as stainless steel standard die were measured three times, and the mean was used for the three standard sample values to which all working dies means were compared. Statistical analysis used for this study was a 3-factor analysis of variance with hypothesis testing at α =0.05. With respect to the selection of impression material viscosity statistically significant differences were found in the dies for the buccolingual and mesiodistal dimensions. Metal dual arch trays were slightly more accurate in the mesiodistal dimension in comparison to the plastic trays in reference of tray selection and

  11. Comparative evaluation of pressure generated on a simulated maxillary oral analog by impression materials in custom trays of different spacer designs: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Sakshi; Gupta, Narendra Kumar; Tandan, Amrit; Dwivedi, Ravi; Gupta, Swati; Agarwal, Garima

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Literature reveals that masticatory load on denture bearing tissues through complete dentures should be maximum on primary stress bearing areas and least on relief area in accordance with the histology of underlying tissues. A study to validate the existing beliefs was planned to compare the pressure on mucosa using selective pressure technique and minimal pressure technique, with the incorporation of two different impression materials utilizing the pressure sensors during secondary impression procedure. Materials and Methods: The study was performed using a maxillary analog. Three pressure sensors were imbedded in the oral analog, one in the mid palatine area and the other two in the right and left ridge crest. Custom trays of two different configurations were fabricated. The two impression materials tested were light body and zinc oxide eugenol. A total of 40 impressions were made. A constant weight of 1 kg was placed, and the pressure was recorded as initial and end pressures. Results: A significant difference in the pressure produced using different impression materials was found (P < 0.001). Light body vinyl polysiloxane produced significantly lesser pressure than zinc oxide eugenol impression materials. The presence of relief did affect the magnitude of pressure at various locations. Conclusion: All impression materials produced pressure during maxillary edentulous impression making. Tray modification is an important factor in changing the amount of pressure produced. The impression materials used also had a significant role to play on the pressures acting on the tissues during impression procedure. Clinical Implication: Light body VPS impression material may be recommended to achieve minimal pressure on the denture bearing tissues in both selective as well as minimal pressure techniques. PMID:27041902

  12. Comparative evaluation of pressure generated on a simulated maxillary oral analog by impression materials in custom trays of different spacer designs: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Sakshi; Gupta, Narendra Kumar; Tandan, Amrit; Dwivedi, Ravi; Gupta, Swati; Agarwal, Garima

    2016-01-01

    Literature reveals that masticatory load on denture bearing tissues through complete dentures should be maximum on primary stress bearing areas and least on relief area in accordance with the histology of underlying tissues. A study to validate the existing beliefs was planned to compare the pressure on mucosa using selective pressure technique and minimal pressure technique, with the incorporation of two different impression materials utilizing the pressure sensors during secondary impression procedure. The study was performed using a maxillary analog. Three pressure sensors were imbedded in the oral analog, one in the mid palatine area and the other two in the right and left ridge crest. Custom trays of two different configurations were fabricated. The two impression materials tested were light body and zinc oxide eugenol. A total of 40 impressions were made. A constant weight of 1 kg was placed, and the pressure was recorded as initial and end pressures. A significant difference in the pressure produced using different impression materials was found (P < 0.001). Light body vinyl polysiloxane produced significantly lesser pressure than zinc oxide eugenol impression materials. The presence of relief did affect the magnitude of pressure at various locations. All impression materials produced pressure during maxillary edentulous impression making. Tray modification is an important factor in changing the amount of pressure produced. The impression materials used also had a significant role to play on the pressures acting on the tissues during impression procedure. Light body VPS impression material may be recommended to achieve minimal pressure on the denture bearing tissues in both selective as well as minimal pressure techniques.

  13. Alginate impressions: A practical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Nandini, V Vidyashree; Venkatesh, K Vijay; Nair, K Chandrasekharan

    2008-01-01

    The choice of an impression material for a particular situation depends on the treatment being provided, operator preference, and so on. Even with the introduction of more advanced and more accurate rubber base impression materials, irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials have stood the test of time. This article gives a detailed perspective of how best to make alginate impressions. PMID:20142882

  14. Effectiveness of mouthrinses and oral prophylaxis on reduction of microorganisms count in irreversible hydrocolloid impression: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Dolanchanpa; Sen, Saibal Kumar; Ghosh, Soumitra; Bhattacharyya, Jayanta; Goel, Preeti

    2013-12-01

    Dental impressions, contaminated with saliva, blood, plaque, are potential source of infection. All impressions should be disinfected after their removal from mouth to prevent cross contamination. Different methods have been tried to disinfect the commonly used irreversible hydrocolloid impression material, but they have been shown to influence the dimensional stability and surface detail of the impression which ultimately affects the precision of the final prosthesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of pre-procedural oral prophylaxis and mouthrinses in reducing the overall microbial load intraorally as well as on alginate impression surface. A total of 60 positive cases selected from 100 subjects who were partially edentulous and above 18 years of age and without medical or pharmacotherapy histories were studied over a period of 18 months, from outpatient clinic of Department of Prosthodontics, GNIDSR. Alginate impressions, before and after prophylaxis were examined microbiologically for the persistence of test microorganisms on the untreated (control group) and the impressions made after treatment. The data were statistically analyzed by the Student t test to assess the effectiveness of the procedure and also the comparative effectiveness of oral prophylaxis and commonly used mouthrinses. The results showed that the impressions were safer when made after oral prophylaxis and/or mouthrinses.

  15. [Elastomeric impression materials].

    PubMed

    Levartovsky, S; Folkman, M; Alter, E; Pilo, R

    2011-04-01

    Elastomeric impression materials are in common use. The impression taken should be highly precise, thus, requiring specific care when manipulatingthese materials. There are 4 groups of elastomers; polysulfide, condensation silicone, addition silicone and polyether; each differ in their setting mechanism and their physical and chemical properties. This review elaborates the major properties of elastomers and its implications on their use. The impression material is inserted into the patient's mouth in a viscous state and transforms into viscoelastic state, upon withdrawal, influencing the residual deformation. The requirements are minimal residual deformation or maximal elastic recovery. As the mouth is a wet environment a major consideration is hydrophilicity. The wettability which is estimated by measuring either the contact angle of a droplet of water and the substrate post setting or the contact angle of a droplet of impression material and the wet tooth pre setting, determines the interaction of the material with both mouth fluids and gypsum. As the primary end target is to obtain a model depicting accurately the oral details, an attention to the impressions' compatibility with gypsum should also be given. Many studies were conducted to get a thorough understanding of the hydrophilic properties of each material, and the mechanism utilized, such as surfactants in hydrophilic PVS. Polyether is the only material that is truly hydrophilic; it exhibits the lowest contact angle, during and after setting. Recent studies show that during setting the Polyether hydrophilicity is increased compared to the condition after setting. Dimensional stability, a crucial property of the impression, is affected by the physical and chemical attributes of the material, such as its tear strength. Polysulfide has the highest tear strength. Tear Strength is affected by two major parameters, viscosity, a built-in property, and how fast the impression is pulled out of the mouth, the

  16. Web-based evaluation of Parkinson's disease subjects: objective performance capacity measurements and subjective characterization profiles.

    PubMed

    Kondraske, George V; Stewart, R Malcolm

    2008-01-01

    Parkinson's Disease (PD) is classified as a progressively degenerative movement disorder, affecting approximately 0.2% of the population and resulting in decreased performance in a wide variety of activities of daily living. Motivated by needs associated with the conduct of multi-center clinical trials, early detection, and the optimization of routine management of individuals with PD, we have developed a three-tiered approach to evaluation of PD and other neurologic diseases/disorders. One tier is characterized as 'web-based evaluation', consisting of objective performance capacity tests and subjective questionnaires that target history and symptom evaluation. Here, we present the initial evaluation of three representative, self-administered, objective, web-based performance capacity tests (simple visual-hand response speed, rapid alternating movement quality, and upper extremity neuromotor channel capacity). Twenty-one subjects (13 with PD, 8 without neurologic disease) were evaluated. Generally good agreement was obtained with lab-based tests executed with an experienced test administrator. We conclude that objective performance capacity testing is a feasible component of a web-based evaluation for PD, providing a sufficient level of fidelity to be useful.

  17. A Comparative Evaluation of Dimensional Accuracy and Surface Detail Reproduction of Four Hydrophilic Vinyl Polysiloxane Impression Materials Tested Under Dry, Moist, and Wet Conditions-An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Nagrath, Rahul; Lahori, Manesh; Agrawal, Manjari

    2014-12-01

    Vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) impression materials have application in a wide variety of situations in both fixed and removable prosthodontics. A major limitation of VPS impression materials is their hydrophobicity. There are two aspects of this problem, the wettability of the polymerized impression by dental gypsum materials and the ability of the unpolymerized material to wet intraoral tissues. To address this problem, manufacturers have added surfactants and labelled these new products as "hydrophilic vinyl polysiloxane." The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare dimensional accuracy and surface detail reproduction of four hydrophilic VPS impression materials, when used under dry, moist, and wet conditions. A total of 180 samples were made of stainless steel die similar to as described in ADA sp. no. 19. The die was scored with three horizontal and two vertical lines. Impressions were made under dry, moist and wet conditions. Dimensional accuracy was measured by comparing the length of the middle horizontal line in each impression to the same line on the metal die, by using Universal Length Measuring machine. A 2-way ANOVA was performed on the percentage change data for measured lengths of the 4 impression materials under the 3 conditions to evaluate dimensional accuracy. Surface detail was evaluated in two ways: (1) by use of criteria similar to ADA sp. no. 19 for detail reproduction, and (2) by use of a method that categorized the impressions as satisfactory or unsatisfactory based on their surface characteristics: presence of pits, voids, or roughness. Pearson X2 (α = 0.05) was used to compare surface detail reproduction results. Conditions (dry, moist, and wet) did not cause significant adverse effects on the dimensional accuracy of all the four material. With both surface detail analyses, dry, moist, and wet conditions had a significant effect on the detail reproduction of all the four materials (P < 0.05). The study concluded that the

  18. Subjective evaluation criterion for selecting affective features and modeling highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Liyuan; Yu, Hua; Huang, Qingming; Ye, Qixiang; Divakaran, Ajay

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a subjective evaluation criterion which is a guide for selecting affective features and modeling highlights. Firstly, the database of highlights ground truth is established, and both the randomness of the data set and the preparation of the subjects are considered. Secondly, commonly used affective features including visual, audio and editing features are extracted to express the highlights. Thirdly, subjective evaluation criterion is proposed based on the analysis of the average error method and pairwise comparisons method, especially the rationality of this criterion in our specific application is explained clearly according to the three detailed issues. Finally, evaluation experiments are designed on tennis and table tennis as examples. Based on the experiments, we prove that previous works on affective features and linear model highlights are effective. Furthermore, 82.0% (79.3%) affective accuracy is obtained fully automatically by computer which is a marvelous highlights ranking result. This result shows the subjective evaluation criterion is well designed for selecting affective features and modeling highlights.

  19. Subjective and Objective Methods of Evaluating Social Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemi, Farrokh

    1987-01-01

    Trade-offs are implicit in choosing a subjective or objective method for evaluating social programs. The differences between Bayesian and traditional statistics, decision and cost-benefit analysis, and anthropological and traditional case systems illustrate trade-offs in choosing methods because of limited resources. (SLD)

  20. Using the Subjective Probability Model to Evaluate Academic Debate Arguments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Mike; Kellermann, Kathy

    1988-01-01

    Explores the worth of high impact/low probability arguments as "real world" policy arguments. Evaluates four National Debate Tournament (NDT) final round disadvantages by students using the subjective probability model. Finds that although NDT disadvantages were perceived to be a technically sound form of argumentation, they were not…

  1. Linking automatic evaluation to mood and information processing style: consequences for experienced affect, impression formation, and stereotyping.

    PubMed

    Chartrand, Tanya L; van Baaren, Rick B; Bargh, John A

    2006-02-01

    According to the feelings-as-information account, a person's mood state signals to him or her the valence of the current environment (N. Schwarz & G. Clore, 1983). However, the ways in which the environment automatically influences mood in the first place remain to be explored. The authors propose that one mechanism by which the environment influences affect is automatic evaluation, the nonconscious evaluation of environmental stimuli as good or bad. A first experiment demonstrated that repeated brief exposure to positive or negative stimuli (which leads to automatic evaluation) induces a corresponding mood in participants. In 3 additional studies, the authors showed that automatic evaluation affects information processing style. Experiment 4 showed that participants' mood mediates the effect of valenced brief primes on information processing. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Linking Automatic Evaluation to Mood and Information Processing Style: Consequences for Experienced Affect, Impression Formation, and Stereotyping

    PubMed Central

    Chartrand, Tanya L.; van Baaren, Rick B.; Bargh, John A.

    2009-01-01

    According to the feelings-as-information account, a person’s mood state signals to him or her the valence of the current environment (N. Schwarz & G. Clore, 1983). However, the ways in which the environment automatically influences mood in the first place remain to be explored. The authors propose that one mechanism by which the environment influences affect is automatic evaluation, the nonconscious evaluation of environmental stimuli as good or bad. A first experiment demonstrated that repeated brief exposure to positive or negative stimuli (which leads to automatic evaluation) induces a corresponding mood in participants. In 3 additional studies, the authors showed that automatic evaluation affects information processing style. Experiment 4 showed that participants’ mood mediates the effect of valenced brief primes on information processing. PMID:16478316

  3. Benefit From Directional Microphone Hearing Aids: Objective and Subjective Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee-Sung; Jin, Sun Hwa; Choi, Ji Eun; Cho, Yang-Sun; Hong, Sung Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to find and compare the effect of directional (DIR) processing of two different hearing aids via both subjective and objective methods, to determine the association between the results of the subjective and objective evaluations, and to find out individual predictive factors influencing the DIR benefit. Methods Twenty-six hearing aid users fitted unilaterally with each two different experimental hearing aid performed modified Korean Hearing in Noise Test (K-HINT) in three DIR conditions; omnidirectional (OMNI) mode, OMNI plus noise reduction feature, fixed DIR mode. In order to determine benefits from DIR benefit within a hearing aid and compare performance of the DIR processing between hearing aids, a subjective questionnaire was administrated on speech quality (SQ) and discomfort in noise (DN) domain. Correlation analysis of factors influencing DIR benefit was accomplished. Results Benefits from switching OMNI mode to DIR mode within both hearing aids in K-HINT were about 2.8 (standard deviation, 3.5) and 2.1 dB SNR (signal to ratio; SD, 2.5), but significant difference in K-HINT results between OMNI and OMNI plus noise reduction algorithm was not shown. The subjective evaluation resulted in the better SQ and DN scores in DIR mode than those in OMNI mode. However, the difference of scores on both SQ and DN between the two hearing aids with DIR mode was not statistically significant. Any individual factors did not significantly affect subjective and objective DIR benefits. Conclusion DIR benefit was found not only in the objective measurement performed in the laboratory but also in the subjective questionnaires, but the subjective results was failed to have significant correlation with the DIR benefit obtained in the K-HINT. Factors influencing individual variation in perceptual DIR benefit were still hard to explain. PMID:26330918

  4. Benefit From Directional Microphone Hearing Aids: Objective and Subjective Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee-Sung; Moon, Il Joon; Jin, Sun Hwa; Choi, Ji Eun; Cho, Yang-Sun; Hong, Sung Hwa

    2015-09-01

    The aims of this study were to find and compare the effect of directional (DIR) processing of two different hearing aids via both subjective and objective methods, to determine the association between the results of the subjective and objective evaluations, and to find out individual predictive factors influencing the DIR benefit. Twenty-six hearing aid users fitted unilaterally with each two different experimental hearing aid performed modified Korean Hearing in Noise Test (K-HINT) in three DIR conditions; omnidirectional (OMNI) mode, OMNI plus noise reduction feature, fixed DIR mode. In order to determine benefits from DIR benefit within a hearing aid and compare performance of the DIR processing between hearing aids, a subjective questionnaire was administrated on speech quality (SQ) and discomfort in noise (DN) domain. Correlation analysis of factors influencing DIR benefit was accomplished. Benefits from switching OMNI mode to DIR mode within both hearing aids in K-HINT were about 2.8 (standard deviation, 3.5) and 2.1 dB SNR (signal to ratio; SD, 2.5), but significant difference in K-HINT results between OMNI and OMNI plus noise reduction algorithm was not shown. The subjective evaluation resulted in the better SQ and DN scores in DIR mode than those in OMNI mode. However, the difference of scores on both SQ and DN between the two hearing aids with DIR mode was not statistically significant. Any individual factors did not significantly affect subjective and objective DIR benefits. DIR benefit was found not only in the objective measurement performed in the laboratory but also in the subjective questionnaires, but the subjective results was failed to have significant correlation with the DIR benefit obtained in the K-HINT. Factors influencing individual variation in perceptual DIR benefit were still hard to explain.

  5. Randomized controlled trial comparing direct intraoral digitization and extraoral digitization after impression taking.

    PubMed

    Quaas, Sebastian; Loos, René; Rudolph, Heike; Luthardt, Ralph G

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the correspondence of intraoral digitization (ID) with extraoral digitization (ED) after impression taking. One-stage putty-and wash impressions and ID were carried out in a randomized order for 10 subjects. The impressions were used to make casts, which were then subjected to ED. ID datasets were aligned to create computer-aided design reference models. Deviations between ID and ED were calculated. The mean positive and negative deviations were 37.7 and -48.4 µm, respectively, for one quadrant. The results showed that the ID system is well suited for the acquisition of single-tooth restorations and is of limited suitability for the acquisition of small multiple unit restorations.

  6. A subjective study to evaluate video quality assessment algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshadrinathan, Kalpana; Soundararajan, Rajiv; Bovik, Alan C.; Cormack, Lawrence K.

    2010-02-01

    Automatic methods to evaluate the perceptual quality of a digital video sequence have widespread applications wherever the end-user is a human. Several objective video quality assessment (VQA) algorithms exist, whose performance is typically evaluated using the results of a subjective study performed by the video quality experts group (VQEG) in 2000. There is a great need for a free, publicly available subjective study of video quality that embodies state-of-the-art in video processing technology and that is effective in challenging and benchmarking objective VQA algorithms. In this paper, we present a study and a resulting database, known as the LIVE Video Quality Database, where 150 distorted video sequences obtained from 10 different source video content were subjectively evaluated by 38 human observers. Our study includes videos that have been compressed by MPEG-2 and H.264, as well as videos obtained by simulated transmission of H.264 compressed streams through error prone IP and wireless networks. The subjective evaluation was performed using a single stimulus paradigm with hidden reference removal, where the observers were asked to provide their opinion of video quality on a continuous scale. We also present the performance of several freely available objective, full reference (FR) VQA algorithms on the LIVE Video Quality Database. The recent MOtion-based Video Integrity Evaluation (MOVIE) index emerges as the leading objective VQA algorithm in our study, while the performance of the Video Quality Metric (VQM) and the Multi-Scale Structural SIMilarity (MS-SSIM) index is noteworthy. The LIVE Video Quality Database is freely available for download1 and we hope that our study provides researchers with a valuable tool to benchmark and improve the performance of objective VQA algorithms.

  7. Airbag Impressions in Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera shows where the rover's airbags left impressions in the martian soil. The drag marks were made after the rover successfully landed at Meridiani Planum and its airbags were retracted. The rover can be seen in the foreground.

  8. Airbag Impressions in Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera shows where the rover's airbags left impressions in the martian soil. The drag marks were made after the rover successfully landed at Meridiani Planum and its airbags were retracted. The rover can be seen in the foreground.

  9. Virtual First Impressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergren, Martha Dewey

    2005-01-01

    Frequently, a nurse's first and only contact with a graduate school, legislator, public health official, professional organization, or school nursing colleague is made through e-mail. The format, the content, and the appearance of the e-mail create a virtual first impression. Nurses can manage their image and the image of the profession by…

  10. Impressions of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Agnes

    2005-01-01

    I was early arriving for an appointment with the superintendent at the school where I would begin my first year as an elementary school principal. While I waited, I reflected on my first teaching job, where I had formed my first and most lasting impressions of leadership from the principal. Now it was my turn to be a principal, and I aspired to…

  11. Virtual First Impressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergren, Martha Dewey

    2005-01-01

    Frequently, a nurse's first and only contact with a graduate school, legislator, public health official, professional organization, or school nursing colleague is made through e-mail. The format, the content, and the appearance of the e-mail create a virtual first impression. Nurses can manage their image and the image of the profession by…

  12. Clinical evaluation comparing the fit of all-ceramic crowns obtained from silicone and digital intraoral impressions based on wavefront sampling technology.

    PubMed

    Pradíes, Guillermo; Zarauz, Cristina; Valverde, Arelhys; Ferreiroa, Alberto; Martínez-Rus, Francisco

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the fit of ceramic crowns fabricated from conventional silicone impressions with the fit of ceramic crowns fabricated from intraoral digital impressions. Twenty-five participants with 30 posterior teeth with a prosthetic demand were selected for the study. Two crowns were made for each preparation. One crown was fabricated from an intraoral digital impression system (IDI group) and the other crown was fabricated from a conventional two-step silicone impression (CI group). To replicate the interface between the crown and the preparation, each crown was cemented on its corresponding clinical preparation with ultra-flow silicone. Each crown was embedded in acrylic resin to stabilise the registered interface and then cut in 2mm thick slices in a buco-lingual orientation. The internal gap was determined as the vertical distance from the internal surface of the crown to the prepared tooth surface at four points (marginal gap, axial gap, crest gap, and occlusal fossa gap) using stereomicroscopy with a magnification of 40×. Data was analysed by using Wilcoxon signed rank test (α=0.05). Internal adaptation values were significantly affected by the impression technique (p=0.001). Mean marginal gap was 76.33 ± 65.32 μm for the crowns of the IDI group and 91.46 ± 72.17 μm for the CI group. All-ceramic crowns fabricated from intraoral digital impressions with wavefront sampling technology demonstrated better internal fit than crowns manufactured from silicone impressions. Impressions obtained from an intraoral digital scanner based on wavefront sampling technology can be used for manufacturing ceramic crowns in the normal clinical practice with better results than conventional impressions with elastomers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of temperature changes on the dimensional stability of elastomeric impression materials.

    PubMed

    Kambhampati, Sujan; Subhash, Vaddavalli; Vijay, Chellagulla; Das, Aruna

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changed dimensions of dies obtained from impressions made with different combinations of addition sillicones which were subjected to variations in storage temperature. 45 die stone models were obtained of 45 impressions of which 15 each were stored at three different storage temperatures(25°C, 37°C and 42°C). 15 impressions each were made using one impression technique. The measurements of the dies made from the impressions were measured with the help of Profile Projector with a accuracy of 0.001mm. The results were statistically analyzed. The results indicated the significant decrease in dimensions when the storage temperature reduced from the mouth temperature. As compared to this there was a marginal increase in overall dimensions of all variables when storage temperature increased. More changes were seen in putty/light body combination followed by monophase and least in heavy/light body combination. How to cite the article: Kambhampati S, Subhash V, Vijay C, Das A. Effect of temperature changes on the dimensional stability of elastomeric impression materials. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):12-9.

  14. Effect of temperature changes on the dimensional stability of elastomeric impression materials

    PubMed Central

    Kambhampati, Sujan; Subhash, Vaddavalli; Vijay, Chellagulla; Das, Aruna

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changed dimensions of dies obtained from impressions made with different combinations of addition sillicones which were subjected to variations in storage temperature. Materials & Methods: 45 die stone models were obtained of 45 impressions of which 15 each were stored at three different storage temperatures(25°C, 37°C and 42°C). 15 impressions each were made using one impression technique. The measurements of the dies made from the impressions were measured with the help of Profile Projector with a accuracy of 0.001mm. Results: The results were statistically analyzed. The results indicated the significant decrease in dimensions when the storage temperature reduced from the mouth temperature. As compared to this there was a marginal increase in overall dimensions of all variables when storage temperature increased. Conclusion: More changes were seen in putty/light body combination followed by monophase and least in heavy/light body combination. How to cite the article: Kambhampati S, Subhash V, Vijay C, Das A. Effect of temperature changes on the dimensional stability of elastomeric impression materials. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):12-9. PMID:24653597

  15. Evaluation of marginal and internal gaps of metal ceramic crowns obtained from conventional impressions and casting techniques with those obtained from digital techniques.

    PubMed

    Rai, Rathika; Kumar, S Arun; Prabhu, R; Govindan, Ranjani Thillai; Tanveer, Faiz Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Accuracy in fit of cast metal restoration has always remained as one of the primary factors in determining the success of the restoration. A well-fitting restoration needs to be accurate both along its margin and with regard to its internal surface. The aim of the study is to evaluate the marginal fit of metal ceramic crowns obtained by conventional inlay casting wax pattern using conventional impression with the metal ceramic crowns obtained by computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique using direct and indirect optical scanning. This in vitro study on preformed custom-made stainless steel models with former assembly that resembles prepared tooth surfaces of standardized dimensions comprised three groups: the first group included ten samples of metal ceramic crowns fabricated with conventional technique, the second group included CAD/CAM-milled direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) crowns using indirect scanning, and the third group included DMLS crowns fabricated by direct scanning of the stainless steel model. The vertical marginal gap and the internal gap were evaluated with the stereomicroscope (Zoomstar 4); post hoc Turkey's test was used for statistical analysis. One-way analysis of variance method was used to compare the mean values. Metal ceramic crowns obtained from direct optical scanning showed the least marginal and internal gap when compared to the castings obtained from inlay casting wax and indirect optical scanning. Indirect and direct optical scanning had yielded results within clinically acceptable range.

  16. Sonographic evaluation of the plantar fascia in asymptomatic subjects.

    PubMed

    Gadalla, N; Kichouh, M; Boulet, C; Machiels, F; De Mey, J; De Maeseneer, M

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the appearance of the plantar fascia in asymptomatic subjects. Thirty-one asymptomatic subjects were examined by 2 musculoskeletal radiologists. The plantar fascia was evaluated for thickness, echogenicity, vascularity on power Doppler, rupture, fluid adjacent to the fascia, andcalcifications. The study included 14 men and 17 women (age, 17-79 years; mean, 45 years). The mean thickness of the plantar fascia in men was 3.7 mm (range 2.5-7 mm), and in women 3.5 mm (range, 1.7-5.1 mm). The thickness was greater than 4 mm in 4 men (bilateral in 2). The mean thickness of fascias thicker than 4 mm in men was 5.4 mm (range, 4.3-7 mm). The thickness was greater than 4 mm in 5 women ( bilateral in 4). The mean thickness of fascias thicker than 4 mm in women was 4.7 mm (range, 4.2-5.1 mm). There was no statistically significant difference between men and women and between both heels. Hypoechogenicity was observed in 3 men (bilateral in 2), and in 5 women (bilateral in 6). Hypervascularity, rupture, fluid adjacent to the fascia, and calcifications were not observed. A thickness greater than 4 mm and hypoechogenicity, are common in the plantar fascia of asymptomatic subjects. Findings that were not seen in asymptomatic subjects include a thickness greater than 7 mm, hypervascularity on power Doppler, rupture, fluid adjacent to the fascia, and calcifications.

  17. Evaluating the Subjective Straight Ahead Before and After Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, D. J.; Wood, S. J.; Reschke, M. F.; Clement, G.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. This joint European Space Agency/NASA pre- and post-flight study investigates the influence of exposure to microgravity on the subjective straight ahead (SSA) in crewmembers returning from long-duration expeditions to the International Space Station (ISS). The SSA is a measure of the internal representation of body orientation and to be influenced by stimulation of sensory systems involved in postural control. The use of a vibrotactile sensory aid to correct the representation of body tilted relative to gravity is also tested as a countermeasure. This study addresses the sensorimotor research gap to "determine the changes in sensorimotor function over the course of a mission and during recovery after landing." Research Plans. The ISS study will involve eight crewmembers who will participate in three pre-flight sessions (between 120 and 60 days before launch) and then three post-flight sessions on R plus 0/1 day, R plus 4 days, and R plus 8 days. Sixteen control subjects were also tested during three sessions to evaluate the effects of repeated testing and to establish normative values. The experimental protocol includes measurements of gaze and arm movements during the following tasks: (1) Near & Far Fixation: The subject is asked to look at actual targets in the true straight-ahead direction or to imagine these targets in the dark. Targets are located at near distance (arm's length) and far distance (beyond 2 meters). This task is successively performed with the subject's body aligned with the gravitational vertical, and with the subject's body tilted in pitch relative to the gravitational vertical using a tilt chair. Measures are then compared with and without a vibrotactile sensory aid that indicates how far one has tilted relative to the vertical; (2) Eye and Arm Movements: The subject is asked to look and point in the SSA direction in darkness and then make horizontal and vertical eye or arm movements, relative to Earth coordinates (allocentric

  18. Meteorologic factors and subjective sleep continuity: a preliminary evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Juhi; Grandner, Michael; Crittenden, Crista; Smith, Michael T.; Perlis, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    Little research has been undertaken to evaluate whether environmental factors other than bright light influence the individual’s ability to initiate and maintain sleep. In the present analyses, nine meteorologic variables were evaluated for their possible relationship to self-reported sleep continuity in a sample of 43 subjects over a period of 105 days. In this preliminary analysis, high barometric pressure, low precipitation, and lower temperatures were significantly correlated with good sleep continuity. Interestingly, ambient light and lunar phase were not found to be strongly associated sleep diary measures.

  19. Determining the accuracy of stock and custom tray impression/casts.

    PubMed

    Millstein, P; Maya, A; Segura, C

    1998-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of casts made from stock tray and custom tray impressions using polysiloxane impression material. The results indicate that all casts distort but that impressions made from custom trays were more accurate and consistent in reproduction than were stock tray impressions.

  20. Dimensional Accuracy of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic VPS Impression Materials Using Different Impression Techniques - An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Pilla, Ajai; Pathipaka, Suman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The dimensional stability of the impression material could have an influence on the accuracy of the final restoration. Vinyl Polysiloxane Impression materials (VPS) are most frequently used as the impression material in fixed prosthodontics. As VPS is hydrophobic when it is poured with gypsum products, manufacturers added intrinsic surfactants and marketed as hydrophilic VPS. These hydrophilic VPS have shown increased wettability with gypsum slurries. VPS are available in different viscosities ranging from very low to very high for usage under different impression techniques. Aim To compare the dimensional accuracy of hydrophilic VPS and hydrophobic VPS using monophase, one step and two step putty wash impression techniques. Materials and Methods To test the dimensional accuracy of the impression materials a stainless steel die was fabricated as prescribed by ADA specification no. 19 for elastomeric impression materials. A total of 60 impressions were made. The materials were divided into two groups, Group1 hydrophilic VPS (Aquasil) and Group 2 hydrophobic VPS (Variotime). These were further divided into three subgroups A, B, C for monophase, one-step and two-step putty wash technique with 10 samples in each subgroup. The dimensional accuracy of the impressions was evaluated after 24 hours using vertical profile projector with lens magnification range of 20X-125X illumination. The study was analyzed through one-way ANOVA, post-hoc Tukey HSD test and unpaired t-test for mean comparison between groups. Results Results showed that the three different impression techniques (monophase, 1-step, 2-step putty wash techniques) did cause significant change in dimensional accuracy between hydrophilic VPS and hydrophobic VPS impression materials. One-way ANOVA disclosed, mean dimensional change and SD for hydrophilic VPS varied between 0.56% and 0.16%, which were low, suggesting hydrophilic VPS was satisfactory with all three impression techniques. However, mean

  1. Dimensional Accuracy of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic VPS Impression Materials Using Different Impression Techniques - An Invitro Study.

    PubMed

    Basapogu, Sreeramulu; Pilla, Ajai; Pathipaka, Suman

    2016-02-01

    The dimensional stability of the impression material could have an influence on the accuracy of the final restoration. Vinyl Polysiloxane Impression materials (VPS) are most frequently used as the impression material in fixed prosthodontics. As VPS is hydrophobic when it is poured with gypsum products, manufacturers added intrinsic surfactants and marketed as hydrophilic VPS. These hydrophilic VPS have shown increased wettability with gypsum slurries. VPS are available in different viscosities ranging from very low to very high for usage under different impression techniques. To compare the dimensional accuracy of hydrophilic VPS and hydrophobic VPS using monophase, one step and two step putty wash impression techniques. To test the dimensional accuracy of the impression materials a stainless steel die was fabricated as prescribed by ADA specification no. 19 for elastomeric impression materials. A total of 60 impressions were made. The materials were divided into two groups, Group1 hydrophilic VPS (Aquasil) and Group 2 hydrophobic VPS (Variotime). These were further divided into three subgroups A, B, C for monophase, one-step and two-step putty wash technique with 10 samples in each subgroup. The dimensional accuracy of the impressions was evaluated after 24 hours using vertical profile projector with lens magnification range of 20X-125X illumination. The study was analyzed through one-way ANOVA, post-hoc Tukey HSD test and unpaired t-test for mean comparison between groups. Results showed that the three different impression techniques (monophase, 1-step, 2-step putty wash techniques) did cause significant change in dimensional accuracy between hydrophilic VPS and hydrophobic VPS impression materials. One-way ANOVA disclosed, mean dimensional change and SD for hydrophilic VPS varied between 0.56% and 0.16%, which were low, suggesting hydrophilic VPS was satisfactory with all three impression techniques. However, mean dimensional change and SD for hydrophobic VPS

  2. The effect of impression technique and implant angulation on the impression accuracy of external- and internal-connection implants.

    PubMed

    Mpikos, Pavlos; Kafantaris, Nikolaos; Tortopidis, Dimitrios; Galanis, Christos; Kaisarlis, George; Koidis, Petros

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of impression technique and implant angulation on the impression accuracy of external- and internal-connection implants using a novel experimental device. An experimental device was designed and fabricated to make in vitro impressions by means of open- and closed-tray techniques. Impressions of eight implants with two different connections (four external-hex and four internal-hex) at three angulations (0, 15, and 25 degrees) were made using a medium-consistency polyether material. Evaluation of implant impression accuracy was carried out by directly measuring the difference in coordinate values between the implant body/impression coping positioned on the base and the impression coping/laboratory analog positioned in the impression using a touch-probe coordinate measuring machine. Experimental data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance. The significance level of all hypothesis testing procedures was set at P<.05. The results showed that: (1) for implants with external connections, impression accuracy is not significantly affected by the impression technique, implant angulation, or their interaction; and (2) for implants with internal connections, impression accuracy is significantly affected only by implant angulation: Impression inaccuracy was greater at the 25-degree implant angulation. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, the open- and closed-tray techniques had no effect on the accuracy of multiple implant impressions. The interaction between impression technique and implant angulation was also not significant. However, implant angulation significantly affected the impression accuracy when implants with internal connections were used.

  3. Investigation of Method for Changing Impression of Musical Piece by Changing its Tempo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumoto, Makoto; Okamatsu, Keita; Matsuo, Kazuhisa

    We propose a simple method that changes impression of musical piece by changing its tempo and investigate psycho-physiological effects of the method with listening experiment. In the experiment, 8 subjects listened same musical pieces with various tempi, and analysis of heartbeat and Semantic-Differential method were used. In 6 out of 10 adjective pairs, inverted-U shapes were observed, and peak tempi of them were different. Moreover, “relaxed” evaluation might be related to listener's heart rate in rest. These results suggest possibility of constructing novel media player that changes impression of musical piece.

  4. Tool for Taking Clay Impressions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Clay impression of small parts taken with tool consisting of hollow tube closed at one end. Slots at other end admit part short distance into tube. Impression used to make silicone rubber mold for examination.

  5. Surface Decoration: And Impressed Pots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchcock, Jan Hoag

    1978-01-01

    The pots described in this article evolved through a process of pressing objects into clay pieces for textural impressions and arranging these impressed pieces together for an overall pattern. (Author)

  6. Impression techniques for implant dentistry.

    PubMed

    Chee, W; Jivraj, S

    2006-10-07

    The object of making an impression in implant dentistry is to accurately relate an analogue of the implant or implant abutment to the other structures in the dental arch. This is affected by use of an impression coping which is attached to the implant or implant abutment. This impression coping is incorporated in an impression - much as a metal framework is 'picked up' in a remount impression for fixed prosthodontics. With implant copings the coping is usually attached to the implant or abutment with screws. The impression material used is usually an elastomeric impression material; the two types most widely used and shown to be the most appropriate are polyether and polyvinyl siloxane impression materials.

  7. Tool for Taking Clay Impressions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Clay impression of small parts taken with tool consisting of hollow tube closed at one end. Slots at other end admit part short distance into tube. Impression used to make silicone rubber mold for examination.

  8. A subjective evaluation of synthesized STOL airplane noises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, C. A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A magnitude-estimation experiment was conducted to evaluate the subjective annoyance of the noise generated by possible future turbofan STOL aircraft as compared to that of several current CTOL aircraft. In addition, some of the units used to scale the magnitude of aircraft noise were evaluated with respect to their applicability to STOL noise. Twenty test subjects rated their annoyance to a total of 119 noises over a range of 75 PNdb to 105 PNdb. Their subjective ratings were compared with acoustical analysis of the noises in terms of 28 rating scale units. The synthesized STOL noises of this experiment were found to be slightly more annoying than the conventional CTOL noises at equal levels of PNL and EPNL. Over the range of levels investigated the scaling units, with a few exceptions, were capable of predicting the points of equal annoyance for all of the noises with plus or minus 3 dB. The inclusion of duration corrections, in general, improved the predictive capabilities of the various scaling units; however, tone corrections reduced their predictive capabilities.

  9. Subjective evaluation of a 3D videoconferencing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizek, Hadi; Brunnström, Kjell; Wang, Kun; Andrén, Börje; Johanson, Mathias

    2014-03-01

    A shortcoming of traditional videoconferencing systems is that they present the user with a flat, two-dimensional image of the remote participants. Recent advances in autostereoscopic display technology now make it possible to develop video conferencing systems supporting true binocular depth perception. In this paper, we present a subjective evaluation of a prototype multiview autostereoscopic video conferencing system and suggest a number of possible improvements based on the results. Whereas methods for subjective evaluation of traditional 2D videoconferencing systems are well established, the introduction of 3D requires an extension of the test procedures to assess the quality of depth perception. For this purpose, two depth-based test tasks have been designed and experiments have been conducted with test subjects comparing the 3D system to a conventional 2D video conferencing system. The outcome of the experiments show that the perception of depth is significantly improved in the 3D system, but the overall quality of experience is higher in the 2D system.

  10. Substance Use as Impression Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Mark J.; Getz, J. Greg

    1996-01-01

    Examines the function of substance use as an impression management tactic. Introductory psychology students (n=377) responded to a survey instrument measuring self-monitoring, perceived success in impression management, interaction anxiety, and self-esteem. Results suggest that alcohol use may serve an impression management function. (JPS)

  11. Substance Use as Impression Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Mark J.; Getz, J. Greg

    1996-01-01

    Examines the function of substance use as an impression management tactic. Introductory psychology students (n=377) responded to a survey instrument measuring self-monitoring, perceived success in impression management, interaction anxiety, and self-esteem. Results suggest that alcohol use may serve an impression management function. (JPS)

  12. Audiologic and subjective evaluation of Baha(®) Attract device.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Carbonell, Tomàs; Pla-Gil, Ignacio; Redondo-Martínez, Jaume; Morant-Ventura, Antonio; García-Callejo, Francisco Javier; Marco-Algarra, Jaime

    2017-01-20

    We included 9 patients implanted with Baha(®) Attract. All our patients were evaluated by free field tonal audiometry, free field verbal audiometry and free field verbal audiometry with background noise, all the tests were performed with and without the device. To evaluate the subjective component of the implantation, we used the Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI) and Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB). The auditive assessment with the device showed average auditive thresholds of 35.8dB with improvements of 25.8dB over the previous situation. Speech reception thresholds were 37dB with Baha(®) Attract, showing improvements of 23dB. Maximum discrimination thresholds showed an average gain of 60dB with the device. Baha(®) Attract achieves auditive improvements in patients for whom it is correctly indicated, with a consequent positive subjective evaluation. This study shows the attenuation effect in transcutaneous transmission, that prevents the device achieving greater improvements.

  13. Why most people disapprove of me: experience sampling in impression formation.

    PubMed

    Denrell, Jerker

    2005-10-01

    Individuals are typically more likely to continue to interact with people if they have a positive impression of them. This article shows how this sequential sampling feature of impression formation can explain several biases in impression formation. The underlying mechanism is the sample bias generated when the probability of interaction depends on current impressions. Because negative experiences decrease the probability of interaction, negative initial impressions are more stable than positive impressions. Negative initial impressions, however, are more likely to change for individuals who are frequently exposed to others. As a result, systematic differences in interaction patterns, due to social similarity or proximity, will produce systematic differences in impressions. This mechanism suggests an alternative explanation of several regularities in impression formation, including a negativity bias in impressions of outgroup members, systematic differences in performance evaluations, and more positive evaluations of proximate others.

  14. You want to give a good impression? Be honest! Moral traits dominate group impression formation.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Marco; Sacchi, Simona; Rusconi, Patrice; Cherubini, Paolo; Yzerbyt, Vincent Y

    2012-03-01

    Research has shown that warmth and competence are core dimensions on which perceivers judge others and that warmth has a primary role at various phases of impression formation. Three studies explored whether the two components of warmth (i.e., sociability and morality) have distinct roles in predicting the global impression of social groups. In Study 1 (N= 105) and Study 2 (N= 112), participants read an immigration scenario depicting an unfamiliar social group in terms of high (vs. low) morality, sociability, and competence. In both studies, participants were asked to report their global impression of the group. Results showed that global evaluations were better predicted by morality than by sociability or competence-trait ascriptions. Study 3 (N= 86) further showed that the effect of moral traits on group global evaluations was mediated by the perception of threat. The importance of these findings for the impression-formation process is discussed.

  15. Clinical Fit of Partial Removable Dental Prostheses Based on Alginate or Polyvinyl Siloxane Impressions.

    PubMed

    Fokkinga, Wietske A; Witter, Dick J; Bronkhorst, Ewald M; Creugers, Nico H

    The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical fit of metal-frame partial removable dental prostheses (PRDPs) based on custom trays used with alginate or polyvinyl siloxane impression material. Fifth-year students of the Nijmegen Dental School made 25 correct impressions for 23 PRDPs for 21 patients using alginate, and 31 correct impressions for 30 PRDPs for 28 patients using polyvinyl siloxane. Clinical fit of the framework as a whole and of each retainer separately were evaluated by calibrated supervisors during framework try-in before (first evaluation) and after (second evaluation) possible adjustments (score 0 = poor fit, up to score 3 = good fit). Framework fit and fit of the denture base were evaluated at delivery (third evaluation). Finally, postinsertion sessions were evaluated and total number of sessions needed, sore spots, adjustments to the denture base, and reported food-impaction were recorded. No significant differences in clinical fit (of the framework as a whole, for the retainers, or for the denture base) were found between the groups in the three evaluation sessions. Differences were not found for postinsertion sessions with one exception: in the alginate group, four subjects reported food impaction, versus none in the polyvinyl siloxane group. Clinical fit of metal-frame PRDPs based on impressions with custom trays combined with alginate or polyvinyl siloxane was similar.

  16. Online subjective testing for consumer-photo quality evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Michele A.; McKnight, Patrick; Quartuccio, Jacob; Nicholas, David; Jaladi, Ramesh; Corriveau, Philip

    2016-07-01

    We take a look at crowdsourcing for subjective image quality evaluation using real image stimuli with nonsimulated distortions. Our aim is to scale the task of subjectively rating images while ensuring maximal data validity and accuracy. While previous work has begun to explore crowdsourcing for quality assessment, it has either used images that are not representative of popular consumer scenarios or used crowdsourcing to collect data without comparison to experiments in a controlled environment. Here, we address the challenges imposed by the highly variable online environment, using stimuli that are subtle and more complex than has traditionally been used in quality assessment experiments. In a series of experiments, we vary different design parameters and demonstrate how they impact the subjective responses obtained. Of the parameters examined are stimulus display mode, study length, stimulus habituation, and content homogeneity/heterogeneity. Our method was tested on a database that was rated in a laboratory test previously. Once our design parameters were chosen, we rated a database of consumer photographs and are making this data available to the research community.

  17. Oscillometry complements spirometry in evaluation of subjects following toxic inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Kenneth I.; Turetz, Meredith; Liu, Mengling; Shao, Yongzhao; Kazeros, Angeliki; Parsia, Sam; Caplan-Shaw, Caralee; Friedman, Stephen M.; Maslow, Carey B.; Marmor, Michael; Goldring, Roberta M.

    2015-01-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) destruction released dust and fumes into the environment. Although many community members developed respiratory symptoms, screening spirometry was usually normal. We hypothesised that forced oscillation testing would identify functional abnormalities undetected by spirometry and that symptom severity would relate to magnitude of abnormalities measured by oscillometry. A symptomatic cohort (n=848) from the Bellevue Hospital WTC Environmental Health Center was evaluated and compared to an asymptomatic cohort (n=475) from the New York City Department of Health WTC Health Registry. Spirometry and oscillometry were performed. Oscillometry measurements included resistance (R5) and frequency dependence of resistance (R5−20). Spirometry was normal for the majority of subjects (73.2% symptomatic versus 87.6% asymptomatic, p<0.0001). In subjects with normal spirometry, R5 and R5−20 were higher in symptomatic versus asymptomatic subjects (median (interquartile range) R5 0.436 (0.206) versus 0.314 (0.129) kPa·L−1·s−1, p<0.001; R5−20 0.075 (0.085) versus 0.004 (0.042) kPa·L−1·s−1, p<0.0001). In symptomatic subjects, R5 and R5−20 increased with increasing severity and frequency of wheeze (p<0.05). Measurement of R5–20 correlated with the presence and severity of symptoms even when spirometry was within normal limits. These findings are in accord with small airway abnormalities as a potential explanation of the respiratory symptoms. PMID:27730155

  18. Oscillometry complements spirometry in evaluation of subjects following toxic inhalation.

    PubMed

    Berger, Kenneth I; Turetz, Meredith; Liu, Mengling; Shao, Yongzhao; Kazeros, Angeliki; Parsia, Sam; Caplan-Shaw, Caralee; Friedman, Stephen M; Maslow, Carey B; Marmor, Michael; Goldring, Roberta M; Reibman, Joan

    2015-10-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) destruction released dust and fumes into the environment. Although many community members developed respiratory symptoms, screening spirometry was usually normal. We hypothesised that forced oscillation testing would identify functional abnormalities undetected by spirometry and that symptom severity would relate to magnitude of abnormalities measured by oscillometry. A symptomatic cohort (n=848) from the Bellevue Hospital WTC Environmental Health Center was evaluated and compared to an asymptomatic cohort (n=475) from the New York City Department of Health WTC Health Registry. Spirometry and oscillometry were performed. Oscillometry measurements included resistance (R5) and frequency dependence of resistance (R5-20). Spirometry was normal for the majority of subjects (73.2% symptomatic versus 87.6% asymptomatic, p<0.0001). In subjects with normal spirometry, R5 and R5-20 were higher in symptomatic versus asymptomatic subjects (median (interquartile range) R5 0.436 (0.206) versus 0.314 (0.129) kPa·L(-1)·s(-1), p<0.001; R5-20 0.075 (0.085) versus 0.004 (0.042) kPa·L(-1)·s(-1), p<0.0001). In symptomatic subjects, R5 and R5-20 increased with increasing severity and frequency of wheeze (p<0.05). Measurement of R5-20 correlated with the presence and severity of symptoms even when spirometry was within normal limits. These findings are in accord with small airway abnormalities as a potential explanation of the respiratory symptoms.

  19. [Comparative evaluation of the shrinkage of addition-type silicone impression material using hand-mix and cartridge-mix technique].

    PubMed

    Lampé, István; Hegedús, Csaba

    2002-12-01

    Impression materials show shrink during polymerisation. The average shrinkage of C-silicon impression materials is 0.6-1% after 24 hours. The A-silicons show 0.15-0.2% shrinkage after 24 hours. Like in other chemical reactions, the ratio of the ingredients and the mixing can strongly effect the final properties of the polymerised material. In their study the authors compared the shrinkage of Promodent ASK low-viscosity A-type silicon impression material using hand mix and cartridge mix technique. The measurements were carried out according to ADA 19 specifications. The statistical analysis of the results did not show significant differences in the shrinkage between the two mix techniques after 30 minutes, 24 hours and 72 hours.

  20. Chemical enhancement of footwear impressions in blood deposited on fabric--evaluating the use of alginate casting materials followed by chemical enhancement.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, Kevin J; NicDaéid, Niamh; Savage, Kathleen A; Bandey, Helen

    2010-12-01

    Most footwear marks made in blood on a surface such as fabric tend to be enhanced in situ rather than physically recovered using a lifting technique prior to enhancement. This work reports on the use of an alginate material to recover the impressed footwear marks made in blood and deposited on a range of fabric types and colours. The lifted marks were then enhanced using acid black 1 and leuco crystal violet with excellent results. This presents a new method for the lifting and recovery of blood impressions in situ from crime scene followed by subsequent mark enhancement of the lifted impression. Copyright © 2010 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. [Impressibility of schizophrenic patients].

    PubMed

    Bazhin, E F; Korneva, T V; Lomachenkov, A S

    1978-01-01

    The authors studied the abilities to identify emotional states according to the acustico-phonetical symptoms of speech in 160 schizophrenic patients and 80 normals. These studies were performed with the aid of a specially elaborated tape recorder test. It was established that difficulties in accomplishing these tasks were found in schizophrenic patients with paranoid symptomatology. Patients with other clinical states, including sufficiently expressed specific disturbances in the emotional sphere, extremely subtly differentiated the emotional state of the announcers. These data are considered as proof of preserved impressive abilities in the majority of schizophrenic patients. The significance of these factors for the organization of psychosocial influences are discussed.

  2. Dental impression materials.

    PubMed

    Perry, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    It is clear that many impression materials are available to the veterinary dentist. They each have different inherent properties, handling characteristics, and indications for use. A thorough understanding of these concepts is essential if the veterinarian and laboratory technician are to produce meaningful and accurate reproductions of oral structures. New products are constantly being introduced to the dental market, with fantastic claims for ease of use and reproduction of detail. The reader is urged to seek independent research findings when assessing such claims, and make decisions founded in the highest possible levels of evidence.

  3. Objective and Subjective Evaluation of Reflecting and Diffusing Surfaces in Auditoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Trevor John

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The performance of reflectors and diffusers used in auditoria have been evaluated both objectively and subjectively. Two accurate systems have been developed to measure the scattering from surfaces via the cross correlation function. These have been used to measure the scattering from plane panels, curved panels and quadratic residue diffusers (QRDs). The scattering measurements have been used to test theoretical prediction methods based on the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff integral equation. Accurate prediction methods were found for all surfaces tested. The limitations of the more approximate methods have been defined. The assumptions behind Schroeder's design of the QRD have been tested and the local reacting admittance assumption found to be valid over a wide frequency range. It was found that the QRD only produces uniform scattering at low frequencies. For an on-axis source the scattering from a curved panel was as good as from a QRD. For an oblique source the QRD produced much more uniform scattering than the curved panel. The subjective measurements evaluated the smallest perceivable change in the early sound field, the part most influenced by reflectors and diffusers. A natural sounding simulation of a concert hall field within an anechoic chamber was used. Standard objective parameters were reasonable values when compared to values found in real halls and subjective preference measurements. A difference limen was measured for early lateral energy fraction (.048 +/-.005); inter aural cross correlation (.075 +/-.008); clarity index (.67 +/-.13 dB); and centre time (8.6 +/- 1.6 ms). It was found that: (i) when changes are made to diffusers and reflectors, changes in spatial impression will usually be larger than those in clarity; and (ii) acousticians can gain most by paying attention to lateral sound in auditoria. It was also found that: (i) diffuse reflections in the early sound field

  4. Impression cytology diagnosis of ulcerative eyelid malignancy.

    PubMed

    Sen, S; Lyngdoh, A D; Pushker, N; Meel, R; Bajaj, M S; Chawla, B

    2015-02-01

    The utility of impression cytology in ocular diseases has predominantly been restricted to the diagnosis of dry eye, limbal stem cell deficiency and conjunctival neoplasias. Its role in malignant eyelid lesions remains largely unexplored. Although scrape cytology is more popular for cutaneous lesions, impression cytology, being non-traumatic, has an advantage in small and delicate areas such as the eyelid. The present study has been designed to evaluate its role in the diagnosis and management of malignant eyelid lesions. Thirty-two histopathologically proven malignant eyelid lesions diagnosed over a 2-year period, including 13 basal cell carcinomas, 11 sebaceous carcinomas, four squamous cell carcinomas, two malignant melanomas and two poorly differentiated carcinomas, formed the study group. The results of impression cytology were compared with those of histopathology in the study group and with an age- and sex-matched group of benign cases as controls. The sensitivity of impression cytology was 84% (27/32) for the diagnosis of malignancy and 28% (9/32) for categorization of the type of malignancy. Impression cytology is a simple, useful, non-invasive technique for the detection of malignant ulcerative eyelid lesions. It is especially useful as a follow-up technique for the detection of recurrences. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Assessing the clarity of friction ridge impressions.

    PubMed

    Hicklin, R Austin; Buscaglia, JoAnn; Roberts, Maria Antonia

    2013-03-10

    The ability of friction ridge examiners to correctly discern and make use of the ridges and associated features in finger or palm impressions is limited by clarity. The clarity of an impression relates to the examiner's confidence that the presence, absence, and attributes of features can be correctly discerned. Despite the importance of clarity in the examination process, there have not previously been standard methods for assessing clarity in friction ridge impressions. We introduce a process for annotation, analysis, and interchange of friction ridge clarity information that can be applied to latent or exemplar impressions. This paper: (1) describes a method for evaluating the clarity of friction ridge impressions by using color-coded annotations that can be used by examiners or automated systems; (2) discusses algorithms for overall clarity metrics based on manual or automated clarity annotation; and (3) defines a method of quantifying the correspondence of clarity when comparing a pair of friction ridge images, based on clarity annotation and resulting metrics. Different uses of this approach include examiner interchange of data, quality assurance, metrics, and as an aid in automated fingerprint matching.

  6. Accuracy of Digital Impressions and Fitness of Single Crowns Based on Digital Impressions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xin; Lv, Pin; Liu, Yihong; Si, Wenjie; Feng, Hailan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the accuracy (precision and trueness) of digital impressions and the fitness of single crowns manufactured based on digital impressions were evaluated. #14-17 epoxy resin dentitions were made, while full-crown preparations of extracted natural teeth were embedded at #16. (1) To assess precision, deviations among repeated scan models made by intraoral scanner TRIOS and MHT and model scanner D700 and inEos were calculated through best-fit algorithm and three-dimensional (3D) comparison. Root mean square (RMS) and color-coded difference images were offered. (2) To assess trueness, micro computed tomography (micro-CT) was used to get the reference model (REF). Deviations between REF and repeated scan models (from (1)) were calculated. (3) To assess fitness, single crowns were manufactured based on TRIOS, MHT, D700 and inEos scan models. The adhesive gaps were evaluated under stereomicroscope after cross-sectioned. Digital impressions showed lower precision and better trueness. Except for MHT, the means of RMS for precision were lower than 10 μm. Digital impressions showed better internal fitness. Fitness of single crowns based on digital impressions was up to clinical standard. Digital impressions could be an alternative method for single crowns manufacturing. PMID:28793417

  7. Display Factors and Subjective Evaluation of Dynamic Text Display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Joey C. Y.; Chan, Alan H. S.

    2009-01-01

    Communications technology has exploded in past decades, leading to the question of which display method is the best to deliver electronic text messages. Many of these systems employ cathode ray tubes, liquid crystal displays, gas plasma displays, or light-emitting diodes as the output device. In order to overcome the limitations of screen size of the display units, numerous means of presenting dynamic display on screens have been invented. There are many factors that affect the readability of electronic text. This paper reviews some related empirical studies concerning the various display methods of dynamic text presentation, such as text display type, character type, text display direction, and text/background color combination, highlighting method and validity of highlighting. The subjective evaluation questionnaire is also discussed. According to the readability and preference ratings of the subjects given under different conditions, the best display method and color for comprehending the delivered messages were investigated. General recommendations of displaying dynamic information are made for the large display units which have been widely used for delivering important messages.

  8. Subjective memory evaluation before and after temporal lobe epilepsy surgery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chin-Wei; Hayman-Abello, Brent; Hayman-Abello, Susan; Derry, Paul; McLachlan, Richard S

    2014-01-01

    Subjective memory (SM), a self-evaluation of memory, in contrast to objective memory (OM) measured by neuropsychological testing, is less well studied in patients with epilepsy. We assessed SM before and after temporal lobectomy. The Frequency of Forgetting 10 scale (FOF-10), developed to evaluate SM in dementia, was given before and one year after temporal lobectomy. Reliability and validity for use in epilepsy were first assessed. Measures of depression (CES-D) and neuroticism (PANAS) were done before and after surgery as well as complete neuropsychological assessment of OM. Correlation analysis between FOF-10 results and all the other variables was implemented. In 48 patients the FOF-10 was reliable and valid showing high internal consistency in all items (Cronbach's alpha >0.82) and high reproducibility (p<0.01). The FOF-10 also correlated with the memory assessment clinics self rating scale (MAC-S) (p<0.01). FOF-10 scores improved or were unchanged postoperatively in 28 patients (58%) and worsened in 20 (42%). The FOF-10 did not significantly correlate with memory scores from neuropsychological testing but did correlate with perceived word finding difficulty (p<0.001) and postoperative depression (p<0.05). A reduction in number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) after surgery distinguished those with improved postoperative SM. No correlation was found between SM and neuroticism, side of surgery or number of seizures. The FOF-10 is a brief and reliable measure of subjective memory in patients with epilepsy. Perceived memory impairment reflects more emotional state, language problems and quantity of AEDs than actual defects in memory function. These results would potentially be useful in presurgical counselling and management of memory issues after temporal lobe surgery.

  9. The dimensional accuracy of polyvinyl siloxane impression materials using two different impression techniques: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Nirmala; Nandeeshwar, D B

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the linear dimensional changes of the three representative polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impression materials and to compare the accuracy of single mix with double mix impression technique. A study mold was prepared according to revised American Dental Association specification number 19 for nonaqueous elastic dental impression materials. Three PVS impression materials selected were Elite-HD, Imprint(™) II Garant, Aquasil Ultra Heavy. Two impression techniques used were single mix and double mix impression technique. A total of 60 specimens were made and after 24 h the specimens were measured using profile projector. The data were analyzed using one-way analyses of variance analysis and significant differences were separated using Student's Newman-Keul's test. When all the three study group impression materials were compared for double mix technique, the statistically significant difference was found only between Imprint(™) II Garantand Elite-HD (P < 0.05). Similarly, using single mix technique, statistically significant difference were found between Elite-HD and Imprint(™) II Garant (P < 0.05) and also between Aquasil Ultra Heavy and Elite-HD (P < 0.05). When the linear dimensional accuracy of all three impression material in double mix impression technique and single mix impression technique were compared with the control group, Imprint(™) II Garant showed the values more nearing to the values of master die, followed by Aquasil Ultra Heavy and Elite-HD respectively. Among the impression materials Imprint(™) II Garant showed least dimensional change. Among the impression techniques, double mix impression technique showed the better results.

  10. The dimensional accuracy of polyvinyl siloxane impression materials using two different impression techniques: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Nirmala; Nandeeshwar, D. B.

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the Study: To evaluate and compare the linear dimensional changes of the three representative polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impression materials and to compare the accuracy of single mix with double mix impression technique. Methodology: A study mold was prepared according to revised American Dental Association specification number 19 for nonaqueous elastic dental impression materials. Three PVS impression materials selected were Elite-HD, Imprint™ II Garant, Aquasil Ultra Heavy. Two impression techniques used were single mix and double mix impression technique. A total of 60 specimens were made and after 24 h the specimens were measured using profile projector. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed using one-way analyses of variance analysis and significant differences were separated using Student's Newman–Keul's test. Results: When all the three study group impression materials were compared for double mix technique, the statistically significant difference was found only between Imprint™ II Garantand Elite-HD (P < 0.05). Similarly, using single mix technique, statistically significant difference were found between Elite-HD and Imprint™ II Garant (P < 0.05) and also between Aquasil Ultra Heavy and Elite-HD (P < 0.05). When the linear dimensional accuracy of all three impression material in double mix impression technique and single mix impression technique were compared with the control group, Imprint™ II Garant showed the values more nearing to the values of master die, followed by Aquasil Ultra Heavy and Elite-HD respectively. Conclusion: Among the impression materials Imprint™ II Garant showed least dimensional change. Among the impression techniques, double mix impression technique showed the better results. PMID:26929515

  11. Objective analysis of impressed chisel toolmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Spotts, Ryan; Chumbley, L. Scott

    2015-08-06

    Historical and recent challenges to the practice of comparative forensic examination have created a driving force for the formation of objective methods for toolmark identification. In this study, fifty sequentially manufactured chisels were used to create impression toolmarks in lead (500 toolmarks total). An algorithm previously used to statistically separate known matching and nonmatching striated screwdriver marks and quasi-striated plier marks was used to evaluate the chisel marks. Impression toolmarks, a more complex form of toolmark, pose a more difficult test for the algorithm that was originally designed for striated toolmarks. Lastly, results show in this instance that the algorithm can separate matching and nonmatching impression marks, providing further validation of the assumption that toolmarks are identifiably unique.

  12. Objective analysis of impressed chisel toolmarks

    DOE PAGES

    Spotts, Ryan; Chumbley, L. Scott

    2015-08-06

    Historical and recent challenges to the practice of comparative forensic examination have created a driving force for the formation of objective methods for toolmark identification. In this study, fifty sequentially manufactured chisels were used to create impression toolmarks in lead (500 toolmarks total). An algorithm previously used to statistically separate known matching and nonmatching striated screwdriver marks and quasi-striated plier marks was used to evaluate the chisel marks. Impression toolmarks, a more complex form of toolmark, pose a more difficult test for the algorithm that was originally designed for striated toolmarks. Lastly, results show in this instance that the algorithmmore » can separate matching and nonmatching impression marks, providing further validation of the assumption that toolmarks are identifiably unique.« less

  13. Complete arch implant impression technique.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junping; Rubenstein, Jeffrey E

    2012-06-01

    When making a definitive impression for an arch containing multiple implants, there are many reported techniques for splinting impression copings. This article introduces a splint technique that uses the shim method, which has been demonstrated to reduce laboratory and patient chair time, the number of impression copings and laboratory analogs needed, and the ultimate cost. Copyright © 2012 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Statistical Analysis for Subjective and Objective Evaluations of Dental Drill Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Tomomi; Kuwano, Sonoko; Ebisu, Shigeyuki; Hayashi, Mikako

    2016-01-01

    The sound produced by a dental air turbine handpiece (dental drill) can markedly influence the sound environment in a dental clinic. Indeed, many patients report that the sound of a dental drill elicits an unpleasant feeling. Although several manufacturers have attempted to reduce the sound pressure levels produced by dental drills during idling based on ISO 14457, the sound emitted by such drills under active drilling conditions may negatively influence the dental clinic sound environment. The physical metrics related to the unpleasant impressions associated with dental drill sounds have not been determined. In the present study, psychological measurements of dental drill sounds were conducted with the aim of facilitating improvement of the sound environment at dental clinics. Specifically, we examined the impressions elicited by the sounds of 12 types of dental drills in idling and drilling conditions using a semantic differential. The analysis revealed that the impressions of dental drill sounds varied considerably between idling and drilling conditions and among the examined drills. This finding suggests that measuring the sound of a dental drill in idling conditions alone may be insufficient for evaluating the effects of the sound. We related the results of the psychological evaluations to those of measurements of the physical metrics of equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure levels (LAeq) and sharpness. Factor analysis indicated that impressions of the dental drill sounds consisted of two factors: “metallic and unpleasant” and “powerful”. LAeq had a strong relationship with “powerful impression”, calculated sharpness was positively related to “metallic impression”, and “unpleasant impression” was predicted by the combination of both LAeq and calculated sharpness. The present analyses indicate that, in addition to a reduction in sound pressure level, refining the frequency components of dental drill sounds is important for creating

  15. Hydrophilic vinyl polysiloxane impression materials.

    PubMed

    Sadan, Avishai

    2005-06-01

    VPS impression materials that contain a surfactant cannot be considered as hydrophilic, rather they are probably less hydrophobic. More VPS products that contain surfactants are expected to be introduced to the market. It is yet to be proven that surfactant-containing VPS materials have a better wettability than polyether-based impression materials. The current data still indicates that polyethers are more hydrophilic. The less hydrophobic behavior of the surfactant-containing VPS may provide a significant advantage in clinical practice. Due to this advantage, the author suggests that clinicians using VPS as their preferred elastomeric impression material should consider switching to surfactant-containing VPS impression materials.

  16. Pneumatic impression: Improving dental arch impression with an inflatable balloon.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Lokendra

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this impression technique is to overcome the problem associated with restricted mouth opening in association with high arched palate by employing pneumatic impression technique using latex balloon. A stock tray was modified with auto polymerizing acrylic resin. On the modified tray, a latex balloon was attached with aid of cyanoacrylate. The outlet of the balloon was then connected to a clinical sphygmomanometer bulb with the rubber pipe for air passage which would aid in inflating the balloon. The prepared tray assembly was then equipped for recording the impression. An adequate amount of addition polysiloxane impression material, sufficient to cover the entire area of the balloon was loaded onto the tray. The balloon was then inflated with the help of a sphygmomanometer bulb which transferred the air only in one direction. On completion of setting time of the impression material, the air pressure was relieved by deflating of balloon which helped in the easy removal of the impression. The impression was subsequently removed from the oral cavity and disinfected. This novel technique was helpful for recording impression in patients presenting with restricted mouth opening and high arched palate.

  17. An alternative impression technique for individuals with special care needs.

    PubMed

    Topouzelis, Nikolaos; Kotsiomiti, Eleni; Arhakis, Aristidis

    2010-01-01

    Impression making may be complicated in individuals with limited ability to cooperate with caregivers. An alternative technique for obtaining full-arch casts from sectional preliminary impressions is described. The technique is a modification of the procedure advocated for impression making in subjects with limited mouth opening. A pair of partial stock trays is selected to fit the right and left side of the arch. Two sectional irreversible hydrocolloid impressions are made separately. The first cast is placed into the second impression prior to pouring, to obtain a cast of the complete arch. The procedure was used during the treatment of an uncooperative young patient with Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome and provided a simple and reliable means to obtain the diagnostic cast of the mandibular teeth. It is recommended not only for uncooperative patients, but also for patients with special needs; such as those with anatomical restrictions, functional impairment, and movement disorders.

  18. Single-Subject Evaluation: A Tool for Quality Assurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuehring, Elane M.; Pascone, Anne B.

    1986-01-01

    The use of single-subject designs in peer review, in utilization review, and in other quality-assurance audits is encouraged. Presents an overview of the methodologies of single-subject designs and quality assurance, and provides examples of cases in which single-subject techniques furnished relevant quality assurance documentation. (Author/ABB)

  19. Implant overdenture impressions using a dynamic impression concept

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byung-Kil; Park, Sang-Hun; Lee, Cheong-Hee

    2014-01-01

    A dynamic impression is a functional impression that records the functional movement of the patient's own muscle and muscle attachment. This process reduces the number of random factors. This article describes a method for making a special tray using a dynamic impression concept that was made from provisional dentures used for implant healing. The individual tray is used to make a wash-impression to record the features of the mucosa in detail. The main advantage of this technique is that it provides a functional relationship of the implant components to the supporting tissues without overextension because provisional denture had been used for 2 months and the border length of individual tray was nearly the same as that of provisional denture. The delivery of the prosthesis constructed using this impression technique is time-saving because there is no need for border molding and there are fewer post-insertion appliance adjustments. PMID:24605209

  20. Making a Great First Impression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenson, Renee

    2007-01-01

    Managers and business owners often base hiring decisions on first impressions. That is why it is so important to teach students to make a great first impression--before they go on that first job interview. Managers do not have unrealistic expectations, they just want to hire people who they believe can develop into valuable employees. A nice…

  1. Making a Great First Impression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenson, Renee

    2007-01-01

    Managers and business owners often base hiring decisions on first impressions. That is why it is so important to teach students to make a great first impression--before they go on that first job interview. Managers do not have unrealistic expectations, they just want to hire people who they believe can develop into valuable employees. A nice…

  2. Comparison of Dimensional Accuracies Using Two Elastomeric Impression Materials in Casting Three-dimensional Tool Marks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate two types of impression materials which were frequently used for casting three-dimensional tool marks in China, namely (i) dental impression material and (ii) special elastomeric impression material for tool mark casting. The two different elastomeric impression materials were compared under equal conditions. The parameters measured were dimensional accuracies, the number of air bubbles, the ease of use, and the sharpness and quality of the individual characteristics present on casts. The results showed that dental impression material had the advantage of special elastomeric impression material in casting tool marks in crime scenes; hence, it combined ease of use, dimensional accuracy, sharpness and high quality.

  3. Artist Impression of Hot

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-14

    This image shows an artist's impression of the 10 hot Jupiter exoplanets studied using the Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes. From top left to lower left, these planets are WASP-12b, WASP-6b, WASP-31b, WASP-39b, HD 189733b, HAT-P-12b, WASP-17b, WASP-19b, HAT-P-1b and HD 209458b. The colors of the planets are for illustration purposes only. There is little scientific data on color with the exception of HD 189733b, which became known as the "blue planet." The planets are also depicted with a variety of different cloud properties. The wind patterns shown on these 10 planets, which resemble the visible structures on Jupiter, are based on theoretical models. The illustrations are to scale with each other. HAT-P-12b, the smallest of these planets, is approximately the size of Jupiter, while WASP-17b, the largest one in the sample, is almost twice the size. The hottest planets within the sample are portrayed with a glowing night side. This effect is strongest on WASP-12b, the hottest exoplanet in the sample, but also visible on WASP-19b and WASP-17b. It is also known that several of the planets exhibit strong Rayleigh scattering. This effect causes the blue hue of the daytime sky and the reddening of the sun at sunset on Earth. It is also visible as a blue edge on the planets WASP-6b, HD 189733b, HAT-P-12b and HD 209458b. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20056

  4. [The effect of impression formation on memory of trait words: relation between coding and retrieval process].

    PubMed

    Takaoka, M

    2000-08-01

    Three experiments investigated the effect of impression formation of a person on the recall and recognition of trait words. The subjects were assigned to one of four groups: Impression, Memory, Impression-Memory, and Incidental groups. Each subject performed an orienting task followed by free recall and recognition tests. In a recall test, false recall of antonyms of targets occurred more often in the Memory group than in the Impression group. There was no difference in the correct recall. In a multiple choice recognition test and a yes-no recognition test, false recognition to antonyms of targets occurred more often in the Memory group than in the Impression group. Hit to targets occurred more often in the Impression group than in the Memory group. These results were interpreted as showing that formation of an impression for a person had different effects for recall and recognition tests. The results were discussed in terms of a relation between encoding and retrieval processes.

  5. Impression Formation and Role Fulfillment: A "Holistic Reference" Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, E. Tory; Rholes, William S.

    1976-01-01

    Previous approaches to impression formation from verbal information are discussed. A "holistic reference" approach is presented which proposes that a person first calls to mind the reference of the verbal description as a whole, and then evaluates that reference. (Editor)

  6. Evaluation of subjective thermal strain in different kitchen working environments using subjective judgment scales.

    PubMed

    Haruyama, Yasuo; Muto, Takashi; Matsuzuki, Hiroe; Ito, Akiyoshi; Tomita, Shigeru; Muto, Shigeki; Haratani, Takashi; Seo, Akihiko; Ayabe, Makoto; Katamoto, Shizuo

    2010-01-01

    To elucidate the subjective thermal strain of workers in kitchen working environments, we performed a cross-sectional study involving 991 workers in 126 kitchen facilities in Japan, using a self-reporting questionnaire survey and subjective judgment scales (SJS). The ambient temperature, mean radiant temperature (MRT), and wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index were measured in 10 kitchen facilities of the 126 kitchens. The association of SJS with the types of kitchen was estimated by multiple logistic regression models. Of the 991 kitchen workers, 809 (81%) responded to the questionnaire survey. Compared with the electric kitchens, the proportion of workers who perceived the room temperature as hot to very hot was significantly higher, and the ambient temperature, MRT, and WBGT were significantly higher in the gas kitchens. Compared with the electric kitchens, workers in gas kitchens had a more than fivefold (males) and tenfold (females) higher SJS adjusted for confounding factors (male odds ratio (OR), 5.13; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.65-15.9; and female OR, 10.9; 95%CI, 3.89-30.5). Although SJS was affected by some confounding factors, our results suggest that workers in gas kitchens might be exposed to a higher heat strains than those in electric kitchens.

  7. Evaluation of multiple muscle loads through multi-objective optimization with prediction of subjective satisfaction level: illustration by an application to handrail position for standing.

    PubMed

    Chihara, Takanori; Seo, Akihiko

    2014-03-01

    Proposed here is an evaluation of multiple muscle loads and a procedure for determining optimum solutions to ergonomic design problems. The simultaneous muscle load evaluation is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem, and optimum solutions are obtained for each participant. In addition, one optimum solution for all participants, which is defined as the compromise solution, is also obtained. Moreover, the proposed method provides both objective and subjective information to support the decision making of designers. The proposed method was applied to the problem of designing the handrail position for the sit-to-stand movement. The height and distance of the handrails were the design variables, and surface electromyograms of four muscles were measured. The optimization results suggest that the proposed evaluation represents the impressions of participants more completely than an independent use of muscle loads. In addition, the compromise solution is determined, and the benefits of the proposed method are examined.

  8. Using Subjective Teacher Evaluations to Examine Principals' Personnel Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Master, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Teacher evaluation is at the center of current education policy reform. Most evaluation systems rely at least in part on principals' assessments of teachers, and their discretionary judgments carry substantial weight. However, we know relatively little about what they value when determining evaluations and high stakes personnel decisions. The…

  9. Changing the bonding force of impression tray to edentulous maxillary jaw simulator with impression valve system: in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Akpinar, Y Z; Yilmaz, B; Tatar, N; Demirtag, Z

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an impression valve system (IVS) on the bonding force between an impression tray and an edentulous maxillary jaw. In this in vitro study, a polyether-coated maxillary jaw simulator (PM) was used to model an edentulous maxillary jaw. The IVS was placed into individual impression trays. An irreversible hydrocolloid impression was taken of the PM when the IVS was open and closed. The impression tray bonding force was measured using a digital dynamometer. Student's t-test was used to determine the significance of the difference between these two groups. The impression tray was more easily separated from the PM when the IVS was open (108 ± 3.9 N). The separation was more difficult when the IVS was closed (153.7 ± 14.2 N). The difference between these two findings (P = 0.000) was significant. The use of an IVS facilitates the removal of the impression tray from the mouth when taking impressions from an edentulous maxillary jaw.

  10. Enhancement of muddy footwear impressions.

    PubMed

    Theeuwen, A B; van Barneveld, S; Drok, J W; Keereweer, I; Lesger, B; Limborgh, J C; Naber, W M; Schrok, R; Velders, T

    2001-06-01

    Methods for chemical enhancement of muddy footwear impressions were compared in order to differentiate between utilisation at the scene of crime, the local (regional) police laboratory and the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI)

  11. Accuracy of stone casts obtained by different impression materials.

    PubMed

    Faria, Adriana Cláudia Lapria; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira; Macedo, Ana Paula; Mattos, Maria da Gloria Chiarello de; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria

    2008-01-01

    Several impression materials are available in the Brazilian marketplace to be used in oral rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of different impression materials used for fixed partial dentures following the manufacturers' instructions. A master model representing a partially edentulous mandibular right hemi-arch segment whose teeth were prepared to receive full crowns was used. Custom trays were prepared with auto-polymerizing acrylic resin and impressions were performed with a dental surveyor, standardizing the path of insertion and removal of the tray. Alginate and elastomeric materials were used and stone casts were obtained after the impressions. For the silicones, impression techniques were also compared. To determine the impression materials' accuracy, digital photographs of the master model and of the stone casts were taken and the discrepancies between them were measured. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and Duncan's complementary test. Polyether and addition silicone following the single-phase technique were statistically different from alginate, condensation silicone and addition silicone following the double-mix technique (p < or = .05), presenting smaller discrepancies. However, condensation silicone was similar (p > or = .05) to alginate and addition silicone following the double-mix technique, but different from polysulfide. The results led to the conclusion that different impression materials and techniques influenced the stone casts' accuracy in a way that polyether, polysulfide and addition silicone following the single-phase technique were more accurate than the other materials.

  12. Subjective evaluations of recent productions of television with stereophonic sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskell, P. S.

    1983-03-01

    A series of subjective tests were conducted to assess the improvement given by stereophonic sound with television in comparison to the conventional monophonic equivalent. The test material consisted of extracts from eight, recently produced, television stereo programs. They represented the wide range of BBC television program output and, since some types of program were new to television stereo, their production by this means was obviously experimental. Both technically and nontechnically qualified people took part in the tests but, with a few exceptions, they returned similar subjective responses. The tests showed a marked preference for the stereo presentation. Of the eight program extracts, five gained an average of two subjective grades of improvement. These items fell into the categories of music, sport and science fiction. The remaining program only benefitted marginally from stereo. The subjects' criticisms have suggested some modification of production techniques and it can be expected that as these are refined, viewers' enjoyment of television programs will be further enhanced by the television stereo presentation.

  13. 43 CFR 3420.1-1 - Lands subject to evaluation for leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lands subject to evaluation for leasing...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COMPETITIVE LEASING Competitive Leasing § 3420.1-1 Lands subject to evaluation for leasing. All lands subject to coal...

  14. 43 CFR 3420.1-1 - Lands subject to evaluation for leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lands subject to evaluation for leasing...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COMPETITIVE LEASING Competitive Leasing § 3420.1-1 Lands subject to evaluation for leasing. All lands subject to coal...

  15. 43 CFR 3420.1-1 - Lands subject to evaluation for leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lands subject to evaluation for leasing...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COMPETITIVE LEASING Competitive Leasing § 3420.1-1 Lands subject to evaluation for leasing. All lands subject to coal...

  16. 48 CFR 1252.216-70 - Evaluation of offers subject to an economic price adjustment clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... subject to an economic price adjustment clause. 1252.216-70 Section 1252.216-70 Federal Acquisition... Text of Provisions and Clauses 1252.216-70 Evaluation of offers subject to an economic price adjustment... Subject to an Economic Price Adjustment Clause (OCT 1994) Offers shall be evaluated without an amount...

  17. 48 CFR 1252.216-70 - Evaluation of offers subject to an economic price adjustment clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... subject to an economic price adjustment clause. 1252.216-70 Section 1252.216-70 Federal Acquisition... Text of Provisions and Clauses 1252.216-70 Evaluation of offers subject to an economic price adjustment... Subject to an Economic Price Adjustment Clause (OCT 1994) Offers shall be evaluated without an amount...

  18. 48 CFR 1252.216-70 - Evaluation of offers subject to an economic price adjustment clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... subject to an economic price adjustment clause. 1252.216-70 Section 1252.216-70 Federal Acquisition... Text of Provisions and Clauses 1252.216-70 Evaluation of offers subject to an economic price adjustment... Subject to an Economic Price Adjustment Clause (OCT 1994) Offers shall be evaluated without an amount...

  19. 43 CFR 3420.1-1 - Lands subject to evaluation for leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lands subject to evaluation for leasing...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COMPETITIVE LEASING Competitive Leasing § 3420.1-1 Lands subject to evaluation for leasing. All lands subject to coal...

  20. Are Course Evaluations Subject to a Halo Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darby, Jenny A.

    2007-01-01

    Many course evaluations, including those used in schools by OfStEd, colleges and universities, employ a number of scales as a means of evaluating various aspects of the educational experience of the student. It tends to be assumed that students consider the scales independently. This article argues that students are influenced by a "halo effect"…

  1. Are Course Evaluations Subject to a Halo Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darby, Jenny A.

    2007-01-01

    Many course evaluations, including those used in schools by OfStEd, colleges and universities, employ a number of scales as a means of evaluating various aspects of the educational experience of the student. It tends to be assumed that students consider the scales independently. This article argues that students are influenced by a "halo effect"…

  2. Qualitative Evaluation of Teacher Training, Academic Subject Teachers Section.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Swedish Board of Education, Stockholm.

    This newsletter reports on project KUL-A, an evaluation of the procedure and effectiveness of teacher training in Sweden. The newsletter contains descriptions of the educational process in Sweden, descriptions of instruments for testing the effectiveness of teacher training, and a brief summary of the evaluations to this time. It is indicated that…

  3. Appearing smart: the impression management of intelligence, person perception accuracy, and behavior in social interaction.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Nora A

    2007-03-01

    Intelligence is an important trait that affects everyday social interaction. The present research utilized the ecological perspective of social perception to investigate the impression management of intelligence and strangers' evaluations of targets' intelligence levels. The ability to effectively portray an impression of intelligence to outside judges as well as interaction partners was appraised and the effect of impression management on the accurate judgment of intelligence was assessed. In addition, targets' behavior was studied in relation to impression management, perceived intelligence, and actual measured intelligence. Impression-managing targets appeared more intelligent to video judges but not to their interaction partner as compared to controls. The intelligence quotient (IQ) of impression-managing targets was more accurately judged than controls' IQ. Impression-managing targets displayed distinct nonverbal behavioral patterns that differed from controls. Looking while speaking was a key behavior: It significantly correlated with IQ, was successfully manipulated by impression-managing targets, and contributed to higher perceived intelligence ratings.

  4. Auditory and visual spatial impression: Recent studies of three auditoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Andy; Cabrera, Densil

    2004-10-01

    Auditory spatial impression is widely studied for its contribution to auditorium acoustical quality. By contrast, visual spatial impression in auditoria has received relatively little attention in formal studies. This paper reports results from a series of experiments investigating the auditory and visual spatial impression of concert auditoria. For auditory stimuli, a fragment of an anechoic recording of orchestral music was convolved with calibrated binaural impulse responses, which had been made with the dummy head microphone at a wide range of positions in three auditoria and the sound source on the stage. For visual stimuli, greyscale photographs were used, taken at the same positions in the three auditoria, with a visual target on the stage. Subjective experiments were conducted with auditory stimuli alone, visual stimuli alone, and visual and auditory stimuli combined. In these experiments, subjects rated apparent source width, listener envelopment, intimacy and source distance (auditory stimuli), and spaciousness, envelopment, stage dominance, intimacy and target distance (visual stimuli). Results show target distance to be of primary importance in auditory and visual spatial impression-thereby providing a basis for covariance between some attributes of auditory and visual spatial impression. Nevertheless, some attributes of spatial impression diverge between the senses.

  5. Qualitative Evaluation of Teacher Service, Academic Subject Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Swedish Board of Education, Stockholm.

    This newsletter briefly describes the philosophy and work of project KULT-A, the evaluation of teacher service in Sweden; the latter is a follow-up to project KUL-A, evaluation of teacher training. The project's approach is reported as an effort to find which factors will in a specific context cause a teacher to feel more satisfied with his work.…

  6. Evaluating the Subjective Straight Ahead Before and After Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, D. J.; Wood, S. J.; Reschke, M. F.; Clement, G.

    2017-01-01

    This joint European Space Agency (ESA) - NASA study will address adaptive changes in spatial orientation related to the subjective straight ahead and the use of a vibrotactile sensory aid to reduce perceptual errors. The study will be conducted before and after long duration expeditions to the International Space Station (ISS) to examine how spatial processing of target location is altered following exposure to microgravity. This study addresses the sensorimotor research gap to "determine the changes in sensorimotor function over the course of a mission and during recovery after landing."

  7. Disinfection of bacterially contaminated hydrophilic PVS impression materials.

    PubMed

    Estafanous, Emad Wadie; Palenik, Charles John; Platt, Jeffrey A

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated disinfection of bacterially contaminated hydrophilic polyvinylsiloxane (PVS) and polyether impressions. Four light-bodied PVS (Examix, Genie, Take 1, Aquasil) and one polyether (Impregum) impression materials were evaluated using three disinfectants (EcoTru [EnviroSystems], ProSpray [Certol], and bleach [diluted 1:9]) as spray and immersion disinfections for 10-minute exposures. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442, Salmonella choleraesius ATCC 10708, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 was the microbial challenge. Test specimens were prepared using aluminum molds with ten tapered cones. Mucin covered each cone, followed by 0.01 mL of each bacterium. Impressions were made using low viscosity impression material that was injected over the cones and filled custom trays. One-half of the impressions were spray disinfected, while the others underwent immersion disinfection. Trays that were contaminated but not disinfected served as positive controls, while those not bacterially contaminated or disinfected served as negative controls. The impressions were poured with Silky Rock Die Stone, and after setting, two cones were placed within a sterile capsule and triturated into powder. Four milliliters of TRIS buffer (0.05 M, pH 7.0) containing sodium thiosulfate (0.0055% w/v) were poured in each tube. After mixing, the solution was serially diluted and spread-plated onto selective agars. After incubation, colony counting occurred. No viable bacteria transferred to casts from either spray- or immersion-disinfected impressions. Negative controls produced no microbial colonies. Positive controls produced on average 3.35 × 10(5) bacterial cells. Results suggest the methods used could disinfect contaminated impression materials. Microbial transfer from nondisinfected impressions to cones approached 33.5%. © 2011 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  8. Effects of Exposure to Advertisements on Audience Impressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Sato, Mie; Kasuga, Masao; Nagao, Yoshihide; Shono, Toru; Norose, Yuka; Oku, Ritsuya; Nogami, Akira; Miyazawa, Yoshitaka

    This study investigated effects of listening and/or watching commercial-messages (CMs) on audience impressions. We carried out experiments of TV advertisements presentation in conditions of audio only, video only, and audio-video. As results, we confirmed the following two effects: image-multiple effect, that is, the audience brings to mind various images that are not directly expressed in the content, and marking-up effect, that is, the audience concentrates on some images that are directly expressed in the content. The image-multiple effect, in particular, strongly appeared under the audio only condition. Next, we investigated changes in the following seven subjective responses; usage image, experience, familiarity, exclusiveness, feeling at home, affection, and willingness to buy, after exposure to advertisements under conditions of audio only and audio-video. As a result, noting that the image-multiple effect became stronger as the evaluation scores of the responses increased.

  9. 21 CFR 872.6570 - Impression tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Impression tube. 872.6570 Section 872.6570 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6570 Impression tube. (a) Identification. An impression tube is a device consisting of a hollow copper tube intended to take an impression of a single...

  10. 21 CFR 872.6570 - Impression tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Impression tube. 872.6570 Section 872.6570 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6570 Impression tube. (a) Identification. An impression tube is a device consisting of a hollow copper tube intended to take an impression of a single...

  11. 21 CFR 872.6570 - Impression tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Impression tube. 872.6570 Section 872.6570 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6570 Impression tube. (a) Identification. An impression tube is a device consisting of a hollow copper tube intended to take an impression of a single...

  12. 21 CFR 872.6570 - Impression tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Impression tube. 872.6570 Section 872.6570 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6570 Impression tube. (a) Identification. An impression tube is a device consisting of a hollow copper tube intended to take an impression of a single...

  13. 21 CFR 872.6570 - Impression tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Impression tube. 872.6570 Section 872.6570 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6570 Impression tube. (a) Identification. An impression tube is a device consisting of a hollow copper tube intended to take an impression of a single...

  14. An alternative impression technique for mobile teeth.

    PubMed

    Lampraki, Evangelia; Chochlidakis, Konstantinos M; Rossopoulos, Evangelos; Ercoli, Carlo

    2016-10-01

    The impression technique described combines elastomeric impression materials and irreversible hydrocolloid to make an accurate preliminary impression of extremely mobile and misaligned teeth. Upon setting, the materials are removed from the mouth in 3 different directions and reassembled extraorally. This technique provides an alternative, easy, accurate, and safe way to make a preliminary impression of mobile, periodontally involved teeth.

  15. Evaluation of Occupational Cold Environments: Field Measurements and Subjective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    OLIVEIRA, A. Virgílio M.; GASPAR, Adélio R.; RAIMUNDO, António M.; QUINTELA, Divo A.

    2014-01-01

    The present work is dedicated to the study of occupational cold environments in food distribution industrial units. Field measurements and a subjective assessment based on an individual questionnaire were considered. The survey was carried out in 5 Portuguese companies. The field measurements include 26 workplaces, while a sample of 160 responses was considered for the subjective assessment. In order to characterize the level of cold exposure, the Required Clothing Insulation Index (IREQ) was adopted. The IREQ index highlights that in the majority of the workplaces the clothing ensembles worn are inadequate, namely in the freezing chambers where the protection provided by clothing is always insufficient. The questionnaires results show that the food distribution sector is characterized by a female population (70.6%), by a young work force (60.7% are less than 35 yr old) and by a population with a medium-length professional career (80.1% in this occupation for less than 10 yr). The incidence of health effects which is higher among women, the distribution of protective clothing (50.0% of the workers indicate one garment) and the significant percentage of workers (>75%) that has more difficulties in performing the activity during the winter represent other important results of the present study. PMID:24583510

  16. Evaluation of occupational cold environments: field measurements and subjective analysis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A Virgílio M; Gaspar, Adélio R; Raimundo, António M; Quintela, Divo A

    2014-01-01

    The present work is dedicated to the study of occupational cold environments in food distribution industrial units. Field measurements and a subjective assessment based on an individual questionnaire were considered. The survey was carried out in 5 Portuguese companies. The field measurements include 26 workplaces, while a sample of 160 responses was considered for the subjective assessment. In order to characterize the level of cold exposure, the Required Clothing Insulation Index (IREQ) was adopted. The IREQ index highlights that in the majority of the workplaces the clothing ensembles worn are inadequate, namely in the freezing chambers where the protection provided by clothing is always insufficient. The questionnaires results show that the food distribution sector is characterized by a female population (70.6%), by a young work force (60.7% are less than 35 yr old) and by a population with a medium-length professional career (80.1% in this occupation for less than 10 yr). The incidence of health effects which is higher among women, the distribution of protective clothing (50.0% of the workers indicate one garment) and the significant percentage of workers (>75%) that has more difficulties in performing the activity during the winter represent other important results of the present study.

  17. Evaluating the Role of Content in Subjective Video Quality Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Vrgovic, Petar

    2014-01-01

    Video quality as perceived by human observers is the ground truth when Video Quality Assessment (VQA) is in question. It is dependent on many variables, one of them being the content of the video that is being evaluated. Despite the evidence that content has an impact on the quality score the sequence receives from human evaluators, currently available VQA databases mostly comprise of sequences which fail to take this into account. In this paper, we aim to identify and analyze differences between human cognitive, affective, and conative responses to a set of videos commonly used for VQA and a set of videos specifically chosen to include video content which might affect the judgment of evaluators when perceived video quality is in question. Our findings indicate that considerable differences exist between the two sets on selected factors, which leads us to conclude that videos starring a different type of content than the currently employed ones might be more appropriate for VQA. PMID:24523643

  18. Comparative analysis of 4 impression techniques for implants.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Leonardo Moreira; Guedes, Carlos Gramani

    2007-06-01

    This in vitro study investigated 4 impression techniques to determine their dimensional accuracy in comparison with a standard technique. A master metal framework with 2 inner hex implants (SIN; Sistema de Implante Nacional Ltda., Sao Paulo, Brazil) was used as a standard for the comparisons. Sixty master casts were prepared to evaluate 4 impression techniques: (1) indirect impression technique with tapered transfer copings, (2) direct impression technique with unsplinted squared transfer copings, (3) direct impression technique with squared transfer copings splinted with acrylic resin, and (4) direct impression technique with squared transfer copings with acrylic resin splints sectioned 17 minutes after setting and welded with the same resin. A profile projector was used to measure the distance between the copings attached to the analogs. Mean distances (mm) were calculated from 3 measurements for each sample in the master casts and in the master metal framework. Analysis of variance and the Tukey HSD test were used for statistical analysis of data (alpha = 0.05). The results for the direct technique with squared transfer copings with acrylic resin splints sectioned and welded after setting were not significantly different from results for the master metal framework. Considering the methodology used and the results obtained, the direct impression technique with squared transfer copings with acrylic resin splints sectioned and welded after setting had better results than the other techniques studied.

  19. Automated Tools for Subject Matter Expert Evaluation of Automated Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, David M.; Bejar, Isaac I.; Sax, Anne

    2004-01-01

    As automated scoring of complex constructed-response examinations reaches operational status, the process of evaluating the quality of resultant scores, particularly in contrast to scores of expert human graders, becomes as complex as the data itself. Using a vignette from the Architectural Registration Examination (ARE), this article explores the…

  20. Automated Tools for Subject Matter Expert Evaluation of Automated Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, David M.; Bejar, Isaac I.; Sax, Anne

    2004-01-01

    As automated scoring of complex constructed-response examinations reaches operational status, the process of evaluating the quality of resultant scores, particularly in contrast to scores of expert human graders, becomes as complex as the data itself. Using a vignette from the Architectural Registration Examination (ARE), this article explores the…

  1. Accuracy of implant impression techniques.

    PubMed

    Assif, D; Marshak, B; Schmidt, A

    1996-01-01

    Three impression techniques were assessed for accuracy in a laboratory cast that simulated clinical practice. The first technique used autopolymerizing acrylic resin to splint the transfer copings. The second involved splinting of the transfer copings directly to an acrylic resin custom tray. In the third, only impression material was used to orient the transfer copings. The accuracy of stone casts with implant analogs was measured against a master framework. The fit of the framework on the casts was tested using strain gauges. The technique using acrylic resin to splint transfer copings in the impression material was significantly more accurate than the two other techniques. Stresses observed in the framework are described and discussed with suggestions to improve clinical and laboratory techniques.

  2. Users' subjective evaluation of electronic vision enhancement systems.

    PubMed

    Culham, Louise E; Chabra, Anthony; Rubin, Gary S

    2009-03-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to elicit the users' responses to four electronic head-mounted devices (Jordy, Flipperport, Maxport and NuVision) and (2) to correlate users' opinion with performance. Ten patients with early onset macular disease (EOMD) and 10 with age-related macular disease (AMD) used these electronic vision enhancement systems (EVESs) for a variety of visual tasks. A questionnaire designed in-house and a modified VF-14 were used to evaluate the responses. Following initial experience of the devices in the laboratory, every patient took home two of the four devices for 1 week each. Responses were re-evaluated after this period of home loan. No single EVES stood out as the strong preference for all aspects evaluated. In the laboratory-based appraisal, Flipperport typically received the best overall ratings and highest score for image quality and ability to magnify, but after home loan there was no significant difference between devices. Comfort of device, although important, was not predictive of rating once magnification had been taken into account. For actual performance, a threshold effect was seen whereby ratings increased as reading speed improved up to 60 words per minute. Newly diagnosed patients responded most positively to EVESs, but otherwise users' opinion could not be predicted by age, gender, diagnosis or previous CCTV experience. User feedback is essential in our quest to understand the benefits and shortcoming of EVESs. Such information should help guide both prescribing and future development of low vision devices.

  3. Odor Impression Prediction from Mass Spectra.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Yuji; Nakamoto, Takamichi

    2016-01-01

    The sense of smell arises from the perception of odors from chemicals. However, the relationship between the impression of odor and the numerous physicochemical parameters has yet to be understood owing to its complexity. As such, there is no established general method for predicting the impression of odor of a chemical only from its physicochemical properties. In this study, we designed a novel predictive model based on an artificial neural network with a deep structure for predicting odor impression utilizing the mass spectra of chemicals, and we conducted a series of computational analyses to evaluate its performance. Feature vectors extracted from the original high-dimensional space using two autoencoders equipped with both input and output layers in the model are used to build a mapping function from the feature space of mass spectra to the feature space of sensory data. The results of predictions obtained by the proposed new method have notable accuracy (R≅0.76) in comparison with a conventional method (R≅0.61).

  4. Monolithic zirconia and digital impression: case report.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, F; Brauner, E; Pignatiello, G; Mencio, F; Rosella, D; Papi, P; Di Carlo, T; Giovannetti, A; Pompa, G; Di Carlo, S

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present a clinical case of a full arch prosthetic rehabilitation on natural teeth, combining both digital work-flow and monolithic zirconia. Digital impression was taken with an intraoral optical scanner (CS3500, Carestream Dental, Atlanta, GA, USA). A prosthetic rehabilitation was realized on natural teeth using monolithic zirconia from 1.6 to 1.4 and from 2.7 to 2.4 frameworks, while in the aesthetic area (from 2.3 to 1.3), technicians left on the structure a 0.8 mm vestibular space for ceramic layering. The combination of digital impression technology and the use of the monolithic zirconia had demonstrated the delivery of the final prosthetic device in a quick time without the need to remodel functional or aesthetic areas. The digital work-flow combines intraoral optical impression techniques and CAD/CAM technology, in order to achieve a fully digital and successful way to deliver prosthetic restorations to patients, providing aesthetics and function in shorter intervals of time. The clinical outcome of this study was satisfactory but a long-term evaluation is needed.

  5. Odor Impression Prediction from Mass Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Nakamoto, Takamichi

    2016-01-01

    The sense of smell arises from the perception of odors from chemicals. However, the relationship between the impression of odor and the numerous physicochemical parameters has yet to be understood owing to its complexity. As such, there is no established general method for predicting the impression of odor of a chemical only from its physicochemical properties. In this study, we designed a novel predictive model based on an artificial neural network with a deep structure for predicting odor impression utilizing the mass spectra of chemicals, and we conducted a series of computational analyses to evaluate its performance. Feature vectors extracted from the original high-dimensional space using two autoencoders equipped with both input and output layers in the model are used to build a mapping function from the feature space of mass spectra to the feature space of sensory data. The results of predictions obtained by the proposed new method have notable accuracy (R≅0.76) in comparison with a conventional method (R≅0.61). PMID:27326765

  6. Objective and subjective evaluation of the acoustic comfort in classrooms.

    PubMed

    Zannin, Paulo Henrique Trombetta; Marcon, Carolina Reich

    2007-09-01

    The acoustic comfort of classrooms in a Brazilian public school has been evaluated through interviews with 62 teachers and 464 pupils, measurements of background noise, reverberation time, and sound insulation. Acoustic measurements have revealed the poor acoustic quality of the classrooms. Results have shown that teachers and pupils consider the noise generated and the voice of the teacher in neighboring classrooms as the main sources of annoyance inside the classroom. Acoustic simulations resulted in the suggestion of placement of perforated plywood on the ceiling, for reduction in reverberation time and increase in the acoustic comfort of the classrooms.

  7. The effect of a range of disinfectants on the dimensional accuracy and stability of some impression materials.

    PubMed

    Jagger, D C; Vowles, R W; McNally, L; Davis, F; O'Sullivan, D J

    2007-03-01

    Disinfection of dental impressions should be considered as a routine procedure in dental surgeries and dental laboratories. Disinfectants can have deleterious effects on some properties of impression materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dimensional accuracy and dimensional stability of a model dental stone, reproduced from five commonly used impression materials (Aquasil soft putty/Aquasil Ultra LV; Aquasil Monophase; Aquasil Ultra Heavy; Impregum F and Provil putty/Provil Light CD wash) retained by their adhesives in acrylic resin trays and exposed to three disinfectant solutions (Perform ID; Haz-Tabs and MD 520). Two hundred models were used to investigate the effect of the three disinfectants on the dimensional accuracy of the five impression materials. Five impressions were taken for each impression material for each disinfection treatment group. Measurements were carried out using a High Precision Reflex Microscope. All materials demonstrated a percentage change in dimensions when subjected to no disinfection when compared to the brass master die and all materials demonstrated a percentage change in dimension when subjected to the different disinfection procedures. The results of this study have demonstrated that for all of the materials investigated, the changes in dimensional stability were small in the order of microns. These changes may however be of clinical significance for procedures requiring a high degree of accuracy, for example fixed prosthodontics. The materials respond differently depending on the disinfectant used and it may therefore be appropriate that manufacturers recommend the use of particular disinfectants for their products in order to ensure optimum dimensional accuracy and stability.

  8. The influence of tray space and repeat pours on the accuracy of monophasic polyvinylsiloxane impression.

    PubMed

    Rajapur, Anand; Dixit, Santosh; Hoshing, Chetan; Raikar, Sonal P

    2012-11-01

    While literature demonstrates that the optimum accuracy is obtained with the custom trays, the use of stock trays for elastomeric impressions appears to be popular in general practice. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of thickness of impression material on the dimensional accuracy of impressions made from monophasic polyvinylsiloxane impression material. This study also studies the dimensional stability of the impressions poured at different time intervals. A metal model simulating two abutment teeth was fabricated along with reference lines inscribed on them. Custom impression trays were fabricated with spacer thickness of 2, 4 and 6 mm. impressions were made using monophasic polyvinyl siloxane impression material. The impressions were poured and stone models were obtained. The dimensional accuracy of the impressions were determined indirectly by measuring the dimensional changes of the recovered stone models. The dimensional stability was also evaluated by pouring the impressions at time intervals of 1 hour, 24 hours and 7 days. The obtained data was statistically analyzed. The results of the study indicated that the impressions made from 2 and 4 mm tray space produced more accurate stone models when compared to 6 mm tray space. There was no significant deviation in the mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions when impressions were made using impression trays with 2, 4 and 6 mm tray spacers. There was a significant decrease in interabutment distance (p = 0.001) and height of the abutment (p = 0.024) when impressions were made using impression trays with a tray space of 6 mm. There were no significant differences found among the stone models obtained from 1 hour, 24 hours and 1 week pour times. The mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions of the abutments were not affected by the variations in thickness of impression material. There was a decrease in the height of the abutment which was clinically not significant. As the thickness of the impression

  9. Subjective preference evaluation of sound fields by performing singers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noson, Dennis

    2003-08-01

    A model of the auditory process is proposed for performing singers, which incorporates the added signal from bone conduction, as well as the psychological distance for subjective preference of the performer from the acoustic sound field of the stage. The explanatory power of previous scientific studies of vocal stage acoustics has been limited by a lack of an underlying theory of performer preference. Ando's theory, using the autocorrelation function (ACF) for parametrizing temporal factors, was applied to interpretation of singer sound field preference determined by the pair comparison method. Melisma style singing (no lyrics) was shown to increase the preferred delay time of reflections from a mean of 14 ms with lyrics to 23 ms without (p<0.05). The extent of the shift in preferred time delay was shown to be directly related to minima of the effective duration of the running ACF, (τe)min, calculated from each singer's voice. Voice matching experiments for singers demonstrated a strong overestimate of the voice outside the head compared with the singer's own voice (22.4 dB overestimate, p<0.01). Individual singer melisma singing delay preferences were compared for ``ah'' versus ``hum'' syllables, and the increased delay preference (41 ms) was shown to be correlated with (τe)min (r2<0.68, p<0.01). When the proposed bone conduction model was applied, using the measured overestimate of sound level of the singer's own voice for each singer (9.9 dB mean overestimate difference between ``ah'' and ``hum,'' p<0.01), the relationship of singer preference to (τe)min was improved (r2=0.97, p<0.01). Thesis advisor: Yoichi Ando Copies of this thesis are available from the author by inquiry at BRC Acoustics, 1741 First Avenue South, Seattle, WA 98134 USA. E-mail address: dnoson@brcacoustics.com

  10. Clinical efficacy of polyvinyl siloxane impression materials using the one-step two-viscosity impression technique.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Sami; Schwedhelm, E Ricardo; Heindl, Harald; Mancl, Lloyd; Raigrodski, Ariel J

    2015-08-01

    Impression making is a challenging clinical procedure for both patients and dentists. The purpose of this clinical study was to compare a recently introduced fast-setting polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impression material with heavy body/light body (HB/LB) combination (Imprint 4; 3M ESPE) (experimental group) with a conventional PVS impression material with HB/LB combination (Imprint 3; 3M ESPE) (control group), using the 1-step 2-viscosity impression technique. Two definitive impressions (1 of each material combination) were made of 20 crown preparations from 20 participants. The quality of impressions was rated by 3 evaluators (clinical evaluator, clinical operator, and dental technician) and by the patients for the level of comfort and taste of the impression materials. The order in which the 2 impressions were made with each material combination was randomized for each crown preparation. A paired t test for paired means and McNemar test for paired proportions were used for statistical comparisons (α=.05). Participants rated the comfort of the impression making with the experimental group significantly higher than that with the control group (P=.001). No significant differences were found in participants' rating for the taste of the impression materials (P=.46). The viscosity for tray material was rated as significantly better for the control group by the clinical operator (P=.004). The readability of the impression and visibility around the finish line were rated as significantly better for the experimental group than for the control group (P<.001). Except for the ease of removal of the stone (RS), the ratings for the 2 groups by the dental technician were similar. The ease of RS was rated as significantly better for the experimental group (P<.001). Eleven dies from the control and 9 from the experimental group were selected for fabrication of the definitive crowns (P=.65). Within the limitations of this clinical study, no significant differences were found in the

  11. Effects of Music on Image Impression and Relationship between Impression and Physical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Keiko; Mitsukura, Yasue

    Auditory information plays an integral role in AV media because even identical images are perceived differently when they are matched with different music. However, we now present a few studies in which the changes in subjective perceptions were analyzed on the basis of the physical properties of the perceived items. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of music on image impression in terms of the physical properties of images. In this paper, we first elucidate the changes in subjective impressions when the image is presented by itself and when it is presented with music. Secondly, to clarify the relation between the impression of an image or music and physical properties, we compare the different image or music perceptions with each other and also compare their respective physical properties, which include color information, structural information, and frequency characteristics. As a result, the color information of an image containing green or saturation colors and the power of the music were strongly correlated with adjectives expressing activity. Moreover, the entropy of saturation correlated with words expressing spatial extent.

  12. Disclose or not? Effect of impression management tactics on hireability of persons with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Sung, Connie; Lin, Chien-Chun; Connor, Annemarie; Chan, Fong

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of assertive impression management (IM) tactics, such as personal storytelling and self-promotion, on job interview outcomes of people with epilepsy. Specifically, the effect of IM on interviewers' subjective impressions and evaluation of hireability of job candidates with epilepsy were examined. Ninety-nine master's level graduate students majoring in business or human resources were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions to view one of three 15-min video clips of a job applicant interviewing for a technical computer sales position. The three experimental conditions were (1) job applicant who did not disclose any disability, (2) job applicant with epilepsy who did not use IM tactics, and (3) job applicant with epilepsy who used IM tactics. After watching the job interview video portraying the experimental conditions, participants were asked to rate the job applicant in terms of general impression and hireability for the described position. The use of IM was found to have a significant effect on job interview outcomes (p < 0.01). Post hoc comparisons indicated that the average rating of business/human resources students on both general impression and hireability for the job applicant with epilepsy and IM condition were significantly higher than for the job applicant with epilepsy who did not use IM condition. Furthermore, mediation analysis revealed that general impression is a mediator for the relationship between IM and interview outcomes. This study demonstrates that IM has a significant and positive effect on job interview outcomes for persons with epilepsy. IM can be used as a powerful strategy for empowering people with epilepsy to combat disability stigma, and offset negative perceptions of employers about the potential of this population to be productive workers. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  13. Subjective Quality Information: Effects of Patient Experience Outcomes and Display Formats on Evaluation and Choice Intentions.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Martin; Renner, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the impact of subjective quality information in the form of aggregate patient experience outcomes on respondent evaluation and intended choice of hospitals. We compared clinical performance-based quality measures (i.e., wound infection rates) with participant evaluations and choice intentions when they were additionally provided with subjective quality information (i.e., patient experience outcomes in different display formats). Results suggest that patient experience outcomes significantly affected the evaluations and choice intentions. Additionally, we found significant effects of subjective information display formats. Limitations, directions for future research, and implications for publishing subjective quality information in health care markets are discussed.

  14. Harmony between Colors and Fragrances: Effect on Dimensions of Impressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Kumiko; Saito, Miho

    The objective of this study is to extract dimensions in impressions of colors and fragrances, and to examine their harmonious relationship. Experiment A: One hundred subjects were requested to describe their impressions of eight fragrances, and to select harmonious/disharmonious colors from color charts. Experiment B: One hundred subjects described their impression of 18 colors and each color's degree of harmonization with each of the eight fragrances. In addition, we combined the results of Experiment A and Experiment B, and conducted several analyses. The factor analysis revealed the MILD factor and CLEAR factor for the dimensions of each fragrance, color, and combination of color and fragrance. The multiple regression analysis revealed the following tendency: the smaller the distance between colors and fragrances on the dimensions, the greater is the rise in harmony; conversely, the greater the distance, the greater is the disharmony.

  15. 47 CFR 73.7001 - Services subject to evaluation by point system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Services subject to evaluation by point system... Channels § 73.7001 Services subject to evaluation by point system. (a) A point system will be used to... major changes to existing facilities, on reserved channels. (b) A point system will be used to...

  16. 48 CFR 3052.216-70 - Evaluation of offers subject to an economic price adjustment clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... subject to an economic price adjustment clause. 3052.216-70 Section 3052.216-70 Federal Acquisition... Evaluation of offers subject to an economic price adjustment clause. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3016.203... Economic Price Adjustment Clause (JUN 2006) Offers shall be evaluated without adding an amount for an...

  17. Children's Impressions of Television Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wartella, Ellen

    This research study examines the types of social behaviors portrayed by families in various television series and explores children's impressions of the TV family members. Content analysis of nine family-oriented TV series was employed to describe the ranges of behaviors of fathers, mothers and children on television. Eleven shows from each series…

  18. Impression Smear Agreement with Acetate Tape Preparation for Cytologic Sampling.

    PubMed

    Layne, Elizabeth A; Zabel, Sonja

    Cutaneous cytologic sampling techniques are used to detect bacteria, yeast, and inflammatory cells for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring. Studies have examined slide evaluation techniques, ear swab cytology staining methods, and observer variations; few studies compare common clinical sampling techniques. The primary aim of this study was to measure detection of microorganisms and neutrophils by impression smear compared to acetate tape preparation; comparison of agreement between two acetate tape staining methods was a secondary aim. Thirty lesions consistent with superficial pyoderma were sampled via impression smear and acetate tape preparation. Acetate tape preparations were either stained with modified Romanowksy stain solutions two and three or solution three alone. Impression smears were stained in the standard manner. Bacteria, yeast, and neutrophils were evaluated using a semi-quantitative scale [0-4]. Quantities were aggregated and compared using Cohen's kappa to measure agreement between methods. When impression smears were compared to acetate tape, the lowest agreement occurred for neutrophils, with impression smears detecting more neutrophils. Comparison of acetate tape staining methods had the highest agreement for yeast detection. Sampling technique and staining method did not differ for detection of bacteria. Impression smears detected more neutrophils, and yeast detection appeared equivalent for acetate tape staining methods.

  19. In vivo precision of conventional and digital methods for obtaining quadrant dental impressions.

    PubMed

    Ender, Andreas; Zimmermann, Moritz; Attin, Thomas; Mehl, Albert

    2016-09-01

    Quadrant impressions are commonly used as alternative to full-arch impressions. Digital impression systems provide the ability to take these impressions very quickly; however, few studies have investigated the accuracy of the technique in vivo. The aim of this study is to assess the precision of digital quadrant impressions in vivo in comparison to conventional impression techniques. Impressions were obtained via two conventional (metal full-arch tray, CI, and triple tray, T-Tray) and seven digital impression systems (Lava True Definition Scanner, T-Def; Lava Chairside Oral Scanner, COS; Cadent iTero, ITE; 3Shape Trios, TRI; 3Shape Trios Color, TRC; CEREC Bluecam, Software 4.0, BC4.0; CEREC Bluecam, Software 4.2, BC4.2; and CEREC Omnicam, OC). Impressions were taken three times for each of five subjects (n = 15). The impressions were then superimposed within the test groups. Differences from model surfaces were measured using a normal surface distance method. Precision was calculated using the Perc90_10 value. The values for all test groups were statistically compared. The precision ranged from 18.8 (CI) to 58.5 μm (T-Tray), with the highest precision in the CI, T-Def, BC4.0, TRC, and TRI groups. The deviation pattern varied distinctly depending on the impression method. Impression systems with single-shot capture exhibited greater deviations at the tooth surface whereas high-frame rate impression systems differed more in gingival areas. Triple tray impressions displayed higher local deviation at the occlusal contact areas of upper and lower jaw. Digital quadrant impression methods achieve a level of precision, comparable to conventional impression techniques. However, there are significant differences in terms of absolute values and deviation pattern. With all tested digital impression systems, time efficient capturing of quadrant impressions is possible. The clinical precision of digital quadrant impression models is sufficient to cover a broad variety of

  20. Impressed by impression management: Newcomer reactions to ingratiated supervisors.

    PubMed

    Foulk, Trevor A; Long, David M

    2016-10-01

    Organizational newcomers are unfamiliar with many aspects of their workplace and look for information to help them reduce uncertainty and better understand their new environment. One aspect critical to newcomers is the disposition of their supervisor-the person who arguably can impact the newcomer's career the most. To form an impression of their new supervisor, newcomers look to social cues from coworkers who have interpersonal contact with the supervisor. In the present research, we investigate the ways newcomers use observed ingratiation-a common impression management strategy whereby coworkers try to appear likable (Schlenker, 1980)-to form impressions of a supervisor's warmth. Research on social influence cannot easily account for how third parties will interpret ingratiation, as the behaviors linked to ingratiation suggest something positive about the target, yet the unsavory aspects of the behavior imply it may not have the same effects as other positive behaviors. Our findings suggest that newcomers are unique in that they are motivated to learn about their new supervisor, and are prone to ignore those unsavory aspects and infer something positive about a supervisor targeted with ingratiation. Our findings also suggest that this effect can be weakened based on the supervisor's response. In other words, newcomers rely less on evidence from a coworker's ingratiation in the presence of direct behaviors from the supervisor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Accuracy of five implant impression technique: effect of splinting materials and methods

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung-Bum

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dimensional stability of splinting material on the accuracy of master casts. MATERIALS AND METHODS A stainless steel metal model with 6 implants embedded was used as a master model. Implant level impressions were made after square impression copings were splinted using 5 different techniques as follows. (1) Splinted with autopolymerizing resin and sectioned, reconnected to compensate polymerization shrinkage before the impression procedure. (2) Splinted with autopolymerizing resin just before impression procedure. (3) Primary impression made with impression plaster and secondary impression were made over with polyether impression material. (4) Splinted with impression plaster. (5) Splinted with VPS bite registration material. From master model, 5 impressions and 5 experimental casts, total 25 casts were made for each of 5 splinting methods. The distortion values of each splinting methods were measured using coordinate measuring machine, capable of recordings in the x-, y-, z-axes. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a confidence level of 95% was used to evaluate the data and Tukey's studentized range test was used to determine significant differences between the groups. RESULTS Group 1 showed best accuracy followed by Group 3 & 4. Group 2 and 5 showed relatively larger distortion value than other groups. No significant difference was found between group 3, 4, 5 in x-axis, group 2, 3, 4 in y-axis and group 1, 3, 4, 5 in z-axis (P<.0001). CONCLUSION Both Splinting impression copings with autopolymerizing resin following compensation of polymerization shrinkage and splinting method with impression plaster can enhance the accuracy of master cast and impression plaster can be used simple and effective splinting material for implant impression procedure. PMID:22259700

  2. Impressions of Counselors as a Function of Counselor Physical Attractiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Jean A.

    1978-01-01

    Research assessed the effects of counselor physical attractiveness and inter-actions between attractiveness and counselor subject sex. It is suggested that sex of counselor and client may play a more important role independently and in conjunction with attractiveness than does attractiveness alone in influencing impressions and expectations.…

  3. Impressions of a Disclosing Other Following Own Disclosing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Richard L.; And Others

    The effects of an instigator's and a respondent's disclosure on impressions of the revealing respondent were examined in a pair of experiments. The first experiment assessed the effects of both own and other's disclosure on a participant perceiver. After meeting a confederate partner, female undergraduate subjects (N=83) were induced to make an…

  4. Intraoral Digital Impression Technique: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ting-Shu, Su; Jian, Sun

    2015-06-01

    With the techniques of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) being applied in the field of prosthodontics, a concept of intraoral digital impressions was put forward in the early 1980s. It has drawn comprehensive attention from dentists and has been used for dental prosthesis fabrication in a number of cases. This new digital impression technique is expected to bring about absolute digitization to the mode of prosthodontics. A few published articles have indicated that dental prostheses fabricated from intraoral digital impressions have exhibited remarkable advantages over those from conventional impressions in several respects. The present review discusses intraoral digital impression techniques in terms of the following aspects: (1) categories and principles of intraoral digital impression devices currently available; (2) operating characteristics of the devices; and (3) comparison of the manipulation, accuracy, and repeatability between intraoral digital impression and conventional impression.

  5. Dental Impression Materials and Techniques.

    PubMed

    Punj, Amit; Bompolaki, Despoina; Garaicoa, Jorge

    2017-10-01

    Dental impression making is the process of creating a negative form of the teeth and oral tissues, into which gypsum or other die materials can be processed to create working analogues. Contemporary dentistry generates new information every year and digital dentistry is becoming established and influential. Although dentists should stay abreast of new technologies, some of the conventional materials and time-tested techniques remain widely used. It is important to review the impression-making process to ensure that practitioners have up-to-date information about how to safely and effectively capture the exact form of the oral tissues to provide optimal patient management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Adaptation Gap on Users' Variation of Impression about Artificial Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Takanori; Yamada, Seiji

    We describe an ``adaptation gap'' that indicates the differences between the functions of artificial agents users expect before starting their interactions and the functions they perceive after the interactions. We investigated the effects of this adaptation gap on users' impressions of the artificial agents because any variations in impressions before and after the start of an interaction determine whether the user feels that this agent is worth continuing an interaction. The results showed that the positive or negative signs of the adaptation gap and the subjective impression scores of the agents before the experiment affected the final users' impressions of the agents significantly.

  7. [Quality and subjectivity in the evaluation of health services and programs].

    PubMed

    Uchimura, Kátia Yumi; Bosi, Maria Lúcia Magalhães

    2002-01-01

    This essay focuses on the evaluation of health programs and services, emphasizing the subjectivity emerging from the evaluation process. The text is a theoretical construction that targets the various meanings of evaluation, the influence of the positivist paradigm on the field of health program and service evaluation, the polysemous nature of the term "quality", and its close overlapping with subjectivity. In addition, the authors highlight the importance of studies that incorporate the perspectives of social actors into the evaluation processes, recommending qualitative social research methodology as a productive instrument.

  8. Traumatic basilar impression: case report.

    PubMed

    Kuroiwa, T; Tanabe, H; Hasegawa, T; Ohta, T

    1995-07-01

    A very rare case of traumatic basilar impression is reported. The patient, a 57-year-old man, was hit on the head vertically in the parietal region. X ray of the cervical spine and computed tomography (CT) scans showed intracranial indentation of the atlas and the odontoid process with a depressed fracture around the foramen magnum. There are no previous reports about this type of fracture.

  9. [Familial occurrence of basilar impression].

    PubMed

    Da Silva, J A; Da Silva, E B; de Souza, M B

    1978-09-01

    The authors studied nine members of the same family; two among them received surgical treatment for basilar impression and Arnold-Chiari malformation. In the other members of the family, several signs and symptoms of central nervous disease were observed. All patients had the apex of the odontoid apophysis above McGregor's line, 4 mm in the case 9, and 10 mm or more in the others.

  10. "Leer-ics" or Lyrics: Teenage Impressions of Rock 'n' Roll.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinsky, Lorraine E.; Rosenbaum, Jill L.

    1987-01-01

    This study compared adults' impressions of rock music with those of teenagers and found vast differences. Youths reported hearing subjects relating to their lives such as "growing up" while adults heard more references to sex and violence. Perhaps the differing impressions reflect differences in learning, experience, and literary…

  11. Forming impressions: effects of facial expression and gender stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Hack, Tay

    2014-04-01

    The present study of 138 participants explored how facial expressions and gender stereotypes influence impressions. It was predicted that images of smiling women would be evaluated more favorably on traits reflecting warmth, and that images of non-smiling men would be evaluated more favorably on traits reflecting competence. As predicted, smiling female faces were rated as more warm; however, contrary to prediction, perceived competence of male faces was not affected by facial expression. Participants' female stereotype endorsement was a significant predictor for evaluations of female faces; those who ascribed more strongly to traditional female stereotypes reported the most positive impressions of female faces displaying a smiling expression. However, a similar effect was not found for images of men; endorsement of traditional male stereotypes did not predict participants' impressions of male faces.

  12. Deciphering indented impressions on plastic.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sharon; Klein, Asne; Chaikovsky, Alan

    2003-07-01

    The questioned document laboratory is often called upon to decipher writing that has been erased, obliterated, or that has faded. In cases like these, the original writing is no longer legible to the naked eye, but may be enhanced using various light sources. Certain remnants of the ink's components absorb into the substrate's fibers and can be visualized, usually as luminescence or absorbance. A case is described here that involved the theft of a credit card. An empty plastic credit card holder was found in the possession of a suspect, and as submitted for examination. Indented impressions could be discerned on its clear plastic window and presumably originated from the credit card that had been held in the envelope. These indented impressions were deciphered in the hope that they would reveal enough details from the credit card to establish a connection between the plastic envelope and the stolen credit card. With methods generally utilized in the toolmarks and materials laboratory and the photography laboratory of the Israel Police, most of the indented impressions on the plastic were deciphered and a connection between the plastic envelope and the stolen credit card was demonstrated.

  13. An evaluation study on a university general education subject in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L; Yu, Lu

    2017-02-01

    This study evaluated a university general education subject on leadership and intrapersonal development ("Tomorrow's Leaders", TL) offered at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) based on an online survey using the Student Feedback Questionnaire (SFQ). At the end of the first semester of the 2013/2014 academic year, 725 Year-1 students completed the online questionnaire. Results showed that the students generally had positive ratings on both the subject attributes and the qualities of teachers. The majority of the participants perceived the subject as beneficial to their holistic development and leadership competencies. Students from the Faculty of Health and Social Sciences (FHSS) and the Faculty of Applied Science and Textiles (FAST) had more favorable evaluation of the subject than students from the Faculty of Construction and Environment (FCE). Students' perceived benefit of the subject was significantly predicted by the subject attributes and teacher attributes. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  14. 21 CFR 872.3660 - Impression material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Impression material. 872.3660 Section 872.3660...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3660 Impression material. (a) Identification. Impression material is a device composed of materials such as alginate or polysulfide intended to be...

  15. 21 CFR 872.3660 - Impression material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Impression material. 872.3660 Section 872.3660...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3660 Impression material. (a) Identification. Impression material is a device composed of materials such as alginate or polysulfide intended to be...

  16. 21 CFR 872.3660 - Impression material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3660 Impression material. (a) Identification. Impression material is a device composed of materials such as alginate or polysulfide intended to be placed... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Impression material. 872.3660 Section 872.3660...

  17. A Model of Client Impression Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodden, Jack L.; Winer, Jane L.

    1978-01-01

    The model describes the clients' impression-formation process, describes changes in client impressions as therapy progresses, and suggests the relevance of client impressions for therapy outcome. An attempt at empirical validation by using a clinical population lent some support to certain aspects of the proposed model. (Author)

  18. The Historical Evolution of Dental Impression Materials.

    PubMed

    Papadiochos, Ioannis; Papadiochou, Sofia; Emmanouil, Ioannis

    The concept of impression making process in dentistry began in the mid 1800s. Dentists realized that the construction of a prosthetic restoration required both a detailed capture of the oral tissues along with stone cast fabrications. To accomplish these goals, impression materials were essential. Beeswax represents the first impression material, while important bechmarks during the historical evolution of dental impression materials are considered to be the introduction of dental trays in the early 1800s and the invention of the gutta-percha, thermoplastic resins and plaster of Paris. The double (corrective) impression technique, along with the functional impression concept that was established after mid 1800s, are also identified as pivotal innovations. During the 20th century, the advances in material development slowed significantly since the majority of the current impression materials had already been invented. However, the introduction of elastomeric impression materials in the field of prosthodontics that offered the advantages of accuracy and dimensional stability substantially upgraded both the impression accuracy and the quality of the final restoration. Presently, the dental practitioner has access to a variety of impression materials and should be aware of their properties, indications and limitations as well. Futhermore, while continuous attempts are being made to enhance these materials, the ideal impression material has yet to be developed. The purpose of this article was to provide a comprehensive review about the historical development of impression dental materials. Copyright American Academy of the History of Dentistry.

  19. Is subjective outcome evaluation related to objective outcome evaluation? Insights from a longitudinal study in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2014-06-01

    Empirical studies investigating the inter-relationships among subjective outcomes and objective outcomes are sparse in the scientific literature. This study examined the relationship between these 2 forms of outcome evaluation data in Chinese adolescents, utilizing longitudinal data. In Wave 3 and Wave 4 of a randomized group trial, 2,784 Chinese secondary school students responded to the Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale (CPYDS) assessing objective outcome at pretest (Wave 3) and posttest (Wave 4). Students in the experimental schools also responded to a measure of client satisfaction assessing the subjective outcome of a positive youth development program at posttest (Wave 4). Subjective outcome evaluation measures (eg, process, program, and effectiveness) at Wave 3 were significantly correlated with CPYDS scores at Wave 4 and difference scores. Subjective outcome evaluation measures also predicted changes in the objective outcome evaluation measures scores across time. The present findings replicated the previous findings that subjective outcome and objective outcome evaluation findings were intimately related, and subjective outcome measures predicted posttest measures and their changes over time. The present study suggests that subjective outcome evaluation findings may yield useful information regarding program effectiveness in youth work settings. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Normative Perceptions and Past-year Consequences as Predictors of Subjective Evaluations and Weekly Drinking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Jennifer E.; Read, Jennifer P.; Colder, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    Problem drinking during the college years continues to be an important area of study. Subjective evaluations of consequences have recently been demonstrated to predict future drinking behavior; however, what predicts those evaluations is yet unknown. Social Learning Theory (SLT) provides a guiding framework in this study with primary aims to investigate whether individual differences in past experience with and normative perceptions of alcohol consequences predict subjective evaluations (i.e., the extent to which consequences are perceived as negative, aversive, or severe) and weekly drinking behavior. We also test whether evaluations mediate the influence of past consequences and norms on weekly drinking behavior. Following a baseline assessment, participants (N=96 regularly drinking college students, 52% female) completed ten weekly web-based surveys on previous week alcohol use, consequences, and subjective evaluations of those consequences. A series of hierarchical linear models were used to test hypotheses. Most mediational pathways were not supported – weekly level evaluations do not appear to fully explain the effect of norms or past experience on weekly level drinking behavior. However, results demonstrated that normative perceptions of and past experience with consequences were associated with both weekly drinking behavior and subjective evaluations, and evaluations remained significant predictors of alcohol use behavior after accounting for these important between-person influences. Findings support the importance placed by SLT on cognition in drinking behavior, and suggest that norms for consequences and subjective evaluations may be appropriate targets of intervention in college students. PMID:23899424

  1. Formal Operational Reasoning and the Primacy Effect in Impression Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmquist, Wendy Jean

    1979-01-01

    Results showed that when information about a target individual was presented in two internally consistent blocks which were mutually contradictory, impressions produced by concrete operational adolescents contained a significantly greater proportion of evaluative statements in the same evaluative direction as the first block of information…

  2. Subjective Performance Evaluation in the Public Sector: Evidence from School Inspections. CEE DP 135

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Iftikhar

    2012-01-01

    Performance measurement in the public sector is largely based on objective metrics, which may be subject to gaming behaviour. This paper investigates a novel subjective performance evaluation system where independent inspectors visit schools at very short notice, publicly disclose their findings and sanction schools rated fail. First, I…

  3. Predictable definitive impressions for multiple indirect restorations using a modified putty and wash impression procedure.

    PubMed

    Leong, Elvin W J; Cheng, Ansgar C; Khin, Neo Tee; Lee, Helena; Leong, Daylene J M

    2007-12-01

    Accurate impression-making is essential for the construction of accurately fitting indirect restorations. The putty and wash impression technique using an elastomeric impression material is a popular method. A modified technique is presented that ensures predictable registration of multiple tooth preparations in the dental arch in a single impression.

  4. Subject global evaluation and subject satisfaction using injectable poly-L-lactic acid versus human collagen for the correction of nasolabial fold wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Brown, Spencer A; Rohrich, Rod J; Baumann, Leslie; Brandt, Fredric S; Fagien, Steven; Glazer, Scott; Kenkel, Jeffrey M; Lowe, Nicholas J; Monheit, Gary D; Narins, Rhoda S; Rendon, Marta I; Werschler, William Philip

    2011-04-01

    This is a report of the secondary endpoints, Subject Global Evaluation (overall improvement) and Subject Satisfaction scores, from a study designed to examine the efficacy of injectable poly-L-lactic acid for the correction of nasolabial fold wrinkles over 25 months. A randomized, subject-blinded, parallel-group, multicenter clinical study was conducted to compare the effects of injectable poly-L-lactic acid with those of human collagen for the treatment of nasolabial fold wrinkles at 13 months following the last treatment. Injectable poly-L-lactic acid-treated subjects were followed for 25 months. From month 3 through month 13 following the last treatment, injectable poly-L-lactic acid-treated subjects (n = 116) reported significantly higher Subject Global Evaluation scores compared with human collagen-treated subjects (n = 117; p < 0.001). Overall Subject Global Evaluation scores for injectable poly-L-lactic acid-treated subjects were 99 percent at week 3, 91 percent at month 13, and 81 percent at month 25 (all times following the last treatment). In contrast, for human collagen-treated subjects, overall Subject Global Evaluation scores declined by 84 percent, from 96 percent at week 3 to 15 percent at month 13. Subject Satisfaction scores were significantly different (p < 0.01) between treatment groups beginning week 3 and continuing through month 13. Overall Subject Satisfaction scores were maintained for over 80 percent of injectable poly-l-lactic acid-treated subjects (n = 106) at month 25 after the last treatment. Treatment of nasolabial fold wrinkles with injectable poly-l-lactic acid resulted in statistically significantly higher Subject Global Evaluation and Subject Satisfaction scores compared with human collagen at 13 months. Injectable poly-l-lactic acid-treated subjects maintained improvements for up to 25 months after treatment.

  5. Notification: Evaluation of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Research on Human Subjects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    October 22, 2012. The purpose of this memorandum is to notify you that the Office of Inspector General (OIG) plans to begin an evaluation of the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Research on Human Subjects.

  6. Effect of implant angulation, connection length, and impression material on the dimensional accuracy of implant impressions: an in vitro comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Roberto; Gherlone, Enrico Felice; Calesini, Gaetano; Zarone, Fernando

    2010-05-01

    With regard to implant-supported prostheses, to date no technique has been proven to guarantee a completely passive fit of prosthetic frameworks. Several clinical variables may affect the precision of impressions, particularly in the presence of implants. To compare the accuracy of implant impressions made with different materials, lengths of impression coping connections, and not parallel position of the implants. A calibrated testing device allowing reproducible standardized positions was used. Two control groups of master models and eight experimental groups with predetermined undercuts were used to make addition silicon and polyether implant impressions by means of the open-tray pick-up technique. Four reference distances were evaluated on each study cast by using a profile projector and a standardized measurement protocol. The data were statistically analyzed by means of three-factor analysis of variance. The impressions made in the presence of angulated implants were significantly less accurate than the ones made with parallel implants. The tested addition silicon resulted advantageous in presence of nonparallel implants whereas the polyether achieved the best results with parallel implants and standard impression copings. The angulation of the implants may cause strains of impressions, probably because of the higher forces required for the impression removal. Moreover, undercuts negatively affected the impression accuracy. More accurate casts were obtained using the tested addition silicon in the presence of nonparallel implants and using a standard length connection of the copings in the presence of parallel implants, respectively.

  7. Evaluation of surface detail reproduction, dimensional stability and gypsum compatibility of monophase polyvinyl-siloxane and polyether elastomeric impression materials under dry and moist conditions.

    PubMed

    Vadapalli, Sriharsha Babu; Atluri, Kaleswararao; Putcha, Madhu Sudhan; Kondreddi, Sirisha; Kumar, N Suman; Tadi, Durga Prasad

    2016-01-01

    This in vitro study was designed to compare polyvinyl-siloxane (PVS) monophase and polyether (PE) monophase materials under dry and moist conditions for properties such as surface detail reproduction, dimensional stability, and gypsum compatibility. Surface detail reproduction was evaluated using two criteria. Dimensional stability was evaluated according to American Dental Association (ADA) specification no. 19. Gypsum compatibility was assessed by two criteria. All the samples were evaluated, and the data obtained were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson's Chi-square tests. When surface detail reproduction was evaluated with modification of ADA specification no. 19, both the groups under the two conditions showed no significant difference statistically. When evaluated macroscopically both the groups showed statistically significant difference. Results for dimensional stability showed that the deviation from standard was significant among the two groups, where Aquasil group showed significantly more deviation compared to Impregum group (P < 0.001). Two conditions also showed significant difference, with moist conditions showing significantly more deviation compared to dry condition (P < 0.001). The results of gypsum compatibility when evaluated with modification of ADA specification no. 19 and by giving grades to the casts for both the groups and under two conditions showed no significant difference statistically. Regarding dimensional stability, both impregum and aquasil performed better in dry condition than in moist; impregum performed better than aquasil in both the conditions. When tested for surface detail reproduction according to ADA specification, under dry and moist conditions both of them performed almost equally. When tested according to macroscopic evaluation, impregum and aquasil performed significantly better in dry condition compared to moist condition. In dry condition, both the materials performed almost equally. In

  8. A multiple-baseline evaluation of the treatment of subjective tinnitus with relaxation training and biofeedback.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, C A; Blanchard, E B; Parnes, S M

    1987-12-01

    Six subjects with subjective tinnitus received training in relaxation techniques and EMG and thermal biofeedback in a multiple-baseline across-subjects design. Daily tinnitus disturbance and sleep disturbance diaries were kept throughout. Audiological and psychological evaluations were made at various treatment phases. At posttreatment assessment, subjects also completed global ratings of their perceived improvement in ability to cope with the tinnitus, stress caused by the tinnitus, and severity of the tinnitus, as well as their overall satisfaction with the treatment. Ratings on the global scales were generally very positive. By way of contrast, the daily diary results revealed little if any treatment effect. The implications of these disparate results are discussed.

  9. Impression cytology of the conjunctival epithelium in patients with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Dursun, D; Demirhan, B; Oto, S; Aydin, P

    2000-11-01

    To assess ocular surface changes in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), to compare the results with the degree of corneo-conjunctival calcium deposits, and to determine whether precipitation of calcium salts predisposes ocular surface modifications. Impression cytology from 50 CRF patients on regular haemodialysis and 22 age and sex matched control subjects were studied. Specimens were obtained from the temporal bulbar conjunctiva using cellulose acetate filter paper. The samples were fixed in 95% ethanol, stained with the periodic acid Schiff (PAS) stain, and evaluated by light microscopy and were graded by a masked observer. Corneo-conjunctival calcification was graded by the Porter and Crombie classification. In the study group, three patients (6%) disclosed grade 0, 14 patients (28%) grade 1, and 33 patients (66%) grade 2-3 cytological changes. There was a statistically significant difference between the patient and the control groups (p= 0.0007), but no correlation could be found between the impression cytology grades and the calcium deposit grades (p=0.62). The ocular surfaces of CRF patients differ significantly from those of normal individuals, and it can be detected using impression cytology. These data suggest that the severity of conjunctival changes are not related to the presence or extent of calcium deposition.

  10. Supplemental subjective testing to evaluate the performance of image and video quality estimators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciaramello, Frank M.; Reibman, Amy R.

    2011-03-01

    The subjective tests used to evaluate image and video quality estimators (QEs) are expensive and time consuming. More problematic, the majority of subjective testing is not designed to find systematic weaknesses in the evaluated QEs. As a result, a motivated attacker can take advantage of these systematic weaknesses to gain unfair monetary advantage. In this paper, we draw on some lessons of software testing to propose additional testing procedures that target a specific QE under test. These procedures supplement, but do not replace, the traditional subjective testing procedures that are currently used. The goal is to motivate the design of objective QEs which are better able to accurately characterize human quality assessment.

  11. Postlecture evaluation of a positive youth development subject for university students in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the postlecture evaluation by the students taking a course (Tomorrow's Leaders) that attempted to promote their leadership qualities and intrapersonal competencies at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University in Hong Kong. Except for the last lecture, students were invited to respond to a 12-item postlecture questionnaire after each lecture. Results showed that the students had positive perceptions of the subject, class, and teacher attributes, and they had positive global evaluation of the teacher and the subject. The postlecture evaluation questionnaire was found to possess good psychometric properties. Multiple regression analyses showed that subject, class, and teacher attributes were predictive of global evaluation of the lecture and the teacher. In conjunction with other evaluation findings, the present findings strongly suggest that students had positive perceptions of the attributes and benefits of "Tomorrow's Leaders."

  12. Evaluation of Subjective Measurement Systems with Focus on Workmanship Scratches and Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, Jesse

    2011-02-24

    The presence of workmanship defects at the Kansas City Plant (KCP) is not a new problem nor is it an easy one to remedy. The lack of well defined parameters, subjective evaluations, and operator dependency makes this problem difficult to analyze. At the time of project assignment, workmanship defects comprised approximately 50% of all non-conformance reports for internally produced products. Not all of these non-conformances result in product rejections, thus inferring that inconsistency in evaluations were present. The purpose of this study was to identify a method for evaluating an operator’s ability to properly characterize subjective defects. Since the scope of the project was limited to no funding, scratch depth was selected as the only criteria to evaluate. It was determined that the introduction of a reference standard coupled with a predefined gate-sorting technique approved by the customer can statistically improve an operators ability to perform subjective evaluations.

  13. Do guidelines on first impression make sense? Implementation of a chest pain guideline in primary care: a systematic evaluation of acceptance and feasibility

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most guidelines concentrate on investigations, treatment, and monitoring instead of patient history and clinical examination. We developed a guideline that dealt with the different aetiologies of chest pain by emphasizing the patient's history and physical signs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the guideline's acceptance and feasibility in the context of a practice test. Methods The evaluation study was nested in a diagnostic cross-sectional study with 56 General Practitioners (GPs) and 862 consecutively recruited patients with chest pain. The evaluation of the guideline was conducted in a mixed method design on a sub-sample of 17 GPs and 282 patients. Physicians' evaluation of the guideline was assessed via standardized questionnaires and case record forms. Additionally, practice nursing staff and selected patients were asked for their evaluation of specific guideline modules. Quantitative data was analyzed descriptively for frequencies, means, and standard deviations. In addition, two focus groups with a total of 10 GPs were held to gain further insights in the guideline implementation process. The data analysis and interpretation followed the standards of the qualitative content analysis. Results The overall evaluation of the GPs participating in the evaluation study regarding the recommendations made in the chest pain guideline was positive. A total of 14 GPs were convinced that there was a need for this kind of guideline and perceived the guideline recommendations as useful. While the long version was partially criticized for a perceived lack of clarity, the short version of the chest pain guideline and the heart score were especially appreciated by the GPs. However, change of clinical behaviour as consequence of the guideline was inconsistent. While on a concrete patient related level, GPs indicated to have behaved as the guideline recommended, the feedback on a more general level was heterogeneous. Several suggestions to improve

  14. Evaluation of surface detail reproduction, dimensional stability and gypsum compatibility of monophase polyvinyl-siloxane and polyether elastomeric impression materials under dry and moist conditions

    PubMed Central

    Vadapalli, Sriharsha Babu; Atluri, Kaleswararao; Putcha, Madhu Sudhan; Kondreddi, Sirisha; Kumar, N. Suman; Tadi, Durga Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This in vitro study was designed to compare polyvinyl-siloxane (PVS) monophase and polyether (PE) monophase materials under dry and moist conditions for properties such as surface detail reproduction, dimensional stability, and gypsum compatibility. Materials and Methods: Surface detail reproduction was evaluated using two criteria. Dimensional stability was evaluated according to American Dental Association (ADA) specification no. 19. Gypsum compatibility was assessed by two criteria. All the samples were evaluated, and the data obtained were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson's Chi-square tests. Results: When surface detail reproduction was evaluated with modification of ADA specification no. 19, both the groups under the two conditions showed no significant difference statistically. When evaluated macroscopically both the groups showed statistically significant difference. Results for dimensional stability showed that the deviation from standard was significant among the two groups, where Aquasil group showed significantly more deviation compared to Impregum group (P < 0.001). Two conditions also showed significant difference, with moist conditions showing significantly more deviation compared to dry condition (P < 0.001). The results of gypsum compatibility when evaluated with modification of ADA specification no. 19 and by giving grades to the casts for both the groups and under two conditions showed no significant difference statistically. Conclusion: Regarding dimensional stability, both impregum and aquasil performed better in dry condition than in moist; impregum performed better than aquasil in both the conditions. When tested for surface detail reproduction according to ADA specification, under dry and moist conditions both of them performed almost equally. When tested according to macroscopic evaluation, impregum and aquasil performed significantly better in dry condition compared to moist condition. In dry

  15. Valence processing of first impressions in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex: a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chi-Lin; Wang, Min-Ying; Hu, Jon-Fan

    2016-05-25

    Previous studies have suggested that the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) plays a central role in processing first impressions; however, little is known about how dmPFC processes different valences of first impressions. Moreover, it is still unclear as to whether the dmPFC shows lateralization or only induces different levels of activation when processing positive and negative impressions. To address these questions in the present study, the brain activities for the impression judgments expressed by participants were measured with near-infrared spectroscopy. For each real facial picture, participants were asked to evaluate their first impressions on a scale from 'bad' to 'good' using a keyboard. The results showed that although the right dmPFC has a higher sensitivity in processing impressions, both the hemispheres of dmPFC showed a significant trend where the activation of positive impressions was higher than the negative ones. Accordingly, it is proposed that the dmPFC acts as a single mechanism responsible for delineating the processing of first impressions rather than two lateralized systems. Therefore, a 'positivity dominance hypothesis' is also proposed, which states that dmPFC in both hemispheres have a higher sensitivity and priority for positive impressions than negative ones. The present study provides valuable findings with respect to the role of the dmPFC in the processes of first impression formation.

  16. A comparative study to determine the wettability and castability of different elastomeric impression materials.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G Vivekananda; Reddy, N Simhachalam; Itttigi, Jayaprkash; Jagadeesh, K N

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the wettability of different hydrophilic and hydrophobic elastomeric impression materials and the gypsum castability. The wettability was evaluated by determining the contact angles of different elastomeric impression materials. The contact angle was determined by placing a drop of aqueous solution of calcium sulfate dihydrate on the flat surface of impression material and specimens were measured using a profile projector. Gypsum castability was determined by counting the number of voids formed in the die stone cast made from the impressions of a aluminum die. The voids were counted using an diopter magnifying lens. Polyether, different viscosities of polyvinyl siloxane, and condensation silicone impression materials exhibited low contact angle values and least number of voids in the die stone cast when compared with polysulfide impression material. There was significant correlation between the contact angle and voids formed in the die stone casts when fabricating die stone casts from various elastomeric impression material impressions. Accurate reproduction of prepared tooth or edentulous arch is of clinical importance in the fabrication of a fixed or removable prosthesis. Inaccuracies in the replication processes will ultimately have an adverse effect on the fit and adaptation of final restoration. The interaction is determined in part by hydrophilic and hydrophobic nature of the elastomeric impression material. Inadequate wetting of an impression results in voids in the stone casts.

  17. The Clinical Global Impressions Scale

    PubMed Central

    Targum, Steven D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This paper reviews the potential value in daily clinical practice of an easily applied research tool, the Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) Scale, for the nonresearcher clinician to quantify and track patient progress and treatment response over time. Method: The instrument is described and sample patient scenarios are provided with scoring rationales and a practical charting system. Conclusion: The CGI severity and improvement scales offer a readily understood, practical measurement tool that can easily be administered by a clinician in a busy clinical practice setting. PMID:20526405

  18. Transoral surgery for basilar impression.

    PubMed

    Pásztor, E; Vajda, J; Piffkó, P; Horváth, M

    1980-12-01

    A patient with basilar impression presented with a progressive myelopathy due to odontoid invagination. It was thought that a posterior decompression would be hazardous; therefore, the inferior clivus, odontoid process, and anterior arch of the atlas were removed transorally. We have found that, even with symptoms of long duration, marked improvement can be expected when the operation is targeted to the actual abnormality. In such cases, analysis of craniocervical tomograms will show the direction of medullary compression and thus indicate the correct surgical approach.

  19. Evaluating Medication Response in ADHD: Cognitive, Behavioral, and Single-Subject Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, James B.; Hoeppner, Jo-Ann B.; DeWitt, Mary Beth; Coury, Daniel L.; Ritacco, David G.; Trommer, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    A technique is presented for evaluating methylphenidate (MPH) effects on core behavioral symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at the single-subject level of analysis. Case-study results and multivariate analyses suggests systematic evaluation of behavior and cognitive MPH dose-response relationships could lead to more accurate MPH…

  20. Evaluating Medication Response in ADHD: Cognitive, Behavioral, and Single-Subject Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, James B.; Hoeppner, Jo-Ann B.; DeWitt, Mary Beth; Coury, Daniel L.; Ritacco, David G.; Trommer, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    A technique is presented for evaluating methylphenidate (MPH) effects on core behavioral symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at the single-subject level of analysis. Case-study results and multivariate analyses suggests systematic evaluation of behavior and cognitive MPH dose-response relationships could lead to more accurate MPH…

  1. The Objective and Subjective Evaluation of Multichannel Expansion in Wide Dynamic Range Compression Hearing Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plyler, Patrick N.; Lowery, Kristy J.; Hamby, Hilary M.; Trine, Timothy D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of multichannel expansion on the objective and subjective evaluation of 20 listeners fitted binaurally with 4-channel, digital in-the-ear hearing instruments were investigated. Method: Objective evaluations were conducted in quiet using the Connected Speech Test (CST) and in noise using the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) at 40,…

  2. The Objective and Subjective Evaluation of Multichannel Expansion in Wide Dynamic Range Compression Hearing Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plyler, Patrick N.; Lowery, Kristy J.; Hamby, Hilary M.; Trine, Timothy D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of multichannel expansion on the objective and subjective evaluation of 20 listeners fitted binaurally with 4-channel, digital in-the-ear hearing instruments were investigated. Method: Objective evaluations were conducted in quiet using the Connected Speech Test (CST) and in noise using the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) at 40,…

  3. Method and Application for Dynamic Comprehensive Evaluation with Subjective and Objective Information

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dinglin; Zhao, Xianglian

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to deal with more complicated evaluation situations, scientists have focused their efforts on dynamic comprehensive evaluation research. How to make full use of the subjective and objective information has become one of the noteworthy content. In this paper, a dynamic comprehensive evaluation method with subjective and objective information is proposed. We use the combination weighting method to determine the index weight. Analysis hierarchy process method is applied to dispose the subjective information, and criteria importance through intercriteria correlation method is used to handle the objective information. And for the time weight determination, we consider both time distance and information size to embody the principle of esteeming the present over the past. And then the linear weighted average model is constructed to make the evaluation process more practicable. Finally, an example is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of this method. Overall, the results suggest that the proposed method is reasonable and effective. PMID:24386176

  4. Evaluation of nitric oxide metabolites in a group of subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Caimi, Gregorio; Hopps, Eugenia; Montana, Maria; Noto, Davide; Canino, Baldassare; Lo Presti, Rosalia; Averna, Maurizio R

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the concentration of metabolites (NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-)) of nitric oxide (NO) in metabolic syndrome (MS). We enrolled 106 subjects (45 women and 61 men) with MS of which 43 (14 women and 27 men) with diabetes mellitus and 63 (31 women and 32 men) without diabetes mellitus, and 54 subjects (19 women and 35 men) as control group. The nitric oxide metabolites (nitrite+nitrate=NOx) were evaluated employing the Griess reagent. In the whole group of MS subjects was evident, in comparison with control group, a significant increase in NOx. The same finding was also present between control group and diabetic subjects with MS and between control group and nondiabetic subjects with MS. No difference was observed between the two subgroups (diabetic and nondiabetic subjects with MS) about NOx. Contrasting information were obtained examining the linear regression among NOx, age, anthropometric profile, blood pressure values and glycometabolic pattern of subjects with MS. In MS subjects we found a significant increase in NOx not influenced by diabetes mellitus. The NOx is a parameter that must be considered in MS keeping in mind that its behavior is related to chronic inflammation that accompanies this clinical condition. Copyright © 2012 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Consideration of Cognitive Complexity and Primacy - Recency Effects in Impression Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petronko, Michael R.; Perin, Charles T.

    1970-01-01

    Classifies subjects as cognitively simple" or cognitively complex" and notes that the latter are much nore successful at reconciling inconsistent information than are the former, whose impressions are formed by the information which makes the greatest impact. (RW)

  6. A Consideration of Cognitive Complexity and Primacy - Recency Effects in Impression Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petronko, Michael R.; Perin, Charles T.

    1970-01-01

    Classifies subjects as cognitively simple" or cognitively complex" and notes that the latter are much nore successful at reconciling inconsistent information than are the former, whose impressions are formed by the information which makes the greatest impact. (RW)

  7. Enhancing the authenticity of assessments through grounding in first impressions.

    PubMed

    Humă, Bogdana

    2015-09-01

    This article examines first impressions through a discursive and interactional lens. Until now, social psychologists have studied first impressions in laboratory conditions, in isolation from their natural environment, thus overseeing their discursive roles as devices for managing situated interactional concerns. I examine fragments of text and talk in which individuals spontaneously invoke first impressions of other persons as part of assessment activities in settings where the authenticity of speakers' stances might be threatened: (1) in activities with inbuilt evaluative components and (2) in sequential contexts where recipients have been withholding affiliation to speakers' actions. I discuss the relationship between authenticity, as a type of credibility issue related to intersubjective trouble, and the characteristics of first impression assessments, which render them useful for dealing with this specific credibility concern. I identify four features of first impression assessments which make them effective in enhancing authenticity: witness positioning (Potter, 1996, Representing reality: Discourse, rhetoric and social construction, Sage, London), (dis)location in time and space, automaticity, and extreme formulations (Edwards, 2003, Analyzing race talk: Multidisciplinary perspectives on the research interview, Cambridge University Press, New York). © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Similarity to the self influences cortical recruitment during impression formation

    PubMed Central

    Leshikar, Eric D.; Cassidy, Brittany S.; Gutchess, Angela H.

    2015-01-01

    Prior work has shown that whether or not someone is similar to the self influences person memory—a type of self-reference effect for others. In this study, we were interested in understanding the neural regions supporting the generation of impressions and subsequent memory for targets who vary in similarity to the self. Participants underwent fMRI scanning while forming positive or negative impressions of face-behavior pairs. We tested participants’ memory for their generated impressions, and then back-sorted the impression trials (encoding) into different levels of self-similarity (high, medium, low) using a self-similarity post-test that came after recognition. Extending prior behavioral work, our data confirmed our hypothesis that memory would be highest for self-similar others and lowest for self-dissimilar others. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activity increased with self-similarity (high > medium > low) to targets, regardless of later memory for them. An analysis of regions supporting impression memory revealed a double dissociation within medial temporal lobe regions: for similar others, amygdala recruitment supported memory, whereas for dissimilar others, hippocampal activation supported memory. These results suggest that self-similarity influences evaluation and memory for targets, but also affects the underlying neural resources engaged when thinking about others who vary in self-similarity. PMID:26558615

  9. Similarity to the self influences cortical recruitment during impression formation.

    PubMed

    Leshikar, Eric D; Cassidy, Brittany S; Gutchess, Angela H

    2016-04-01

    Prior work has shown that whether or not someone is similar to the self influences person memory--a type of self-reference effect for others. In this study, we were interested in understanding the neural regions supporting the generation of impressions and subsequent memory for targets who vary in similarity to the self. Participants underwent fMRI scanning while forming positive or negative impressions of face-behavior pairs. We tested participants' memory for their generated impressions and then back-sorted the impression trials (encoding) into different levels of self-similarity (high, medium, low) using a self-similarity posttest that came after recognition. Extending prior behavioral work, our data confirmed our hypothesis that memory would be highest for self-similar others and lowest for self-dissimilar others. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activity increased with self-similarity (high > medium > low) to targets, regardless of later memory for them. An analysis of regions supporting impression memory revealed a double dissociation within medial temporal lobe regions: for similar others, amygdala recruitment supported memory, whereas for dissimilar others, hippocampal activation supported memory. These results suggest that self-similarity influences evaluation and memory for targets but also affects the underlying neural resources engaged when thinking about others who vary in self-similarity.

  10. Comparison of intraoral scanning and conventional impression techniques using 3-dimensional superimposition

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Ye-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study is to evaluate the appropriate impression technique by analyzing the superimposition of 3D digital model for evaluating accuracy of conventional impression technique and digital impression. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty-four patients who had no periodontitis or temporomandibular joint disease were selected for analysis. As a reference model, digital impressions with a digital impression system were performed. As a test models, for conventional impression dual-arch and full-arch, impression techniques utilizing addition type polyvinylsiloxane for fabrication of cast were applied. 3D laser scanner is used for scanning the cast. Each 3 pairs for 25 STL datasets were imported into the inspection software. The three-dimensional differences were illustrated in a color-coded map. For three-dimensional quantitative analysis, 4 specified contact locations(buccal and lingual cusps of second premolar and molar) were established. For twodimensional quantitative analysis, the sectioning from buccal cusp to lingual cusp of second premolar and molar were acquired depending on the tooth axis. RESULTS In color-coded map, the biggest difference between intraoral scanning and dual-arch impression was seen (P<.05). In three-dimensional analysis, the biggest difference was seen between intraoral scanning and dual-arch impression and the smallest difference was seen between dual-arch and full-arch impression. CONCLUSION The two- and three-dimensional deviations between intraoral scanner and dual-arch impression was bigger than full-arch and dual-arch impression (P<.05). The second premolar showed significantly bigger three-dimensional deviations than the second molar in the three-dimensional deviations (P>.05). PMID:26816576

  11. The impact of motivation on race-based impression formation.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianyi; Cardenas-Iniguez, Carlos; Correll, Joshua; Cloutier, Jasmin

    2016-01-01

    Affective biases toward racial out-group members, characterized by White perceivers' negative evaluations of Black individuals, prevail in U.S. culture. Such affective associations have been found to guide race-based impression formation. Accordingly, individuals may strive to resolve inconsistencies when perceiving targets violating their expectations. The current study focuses on the impact of evaluative incongruence on the activity of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) - a brain region previously shown to support impression formation. When asking participants to form impressions of positively and negatively evaluated Black and White individuals, we found preferential dmPFC activity in response to individuals paired with information that violates race-based affective associations. Importantly, individual differences in internal motivation to respond without prejudice (IMS) were found to shape the extent to which dmPFC activity indexes the interactive effects of race and affective associations during impression formation. Specifically, preferential dmPFC activity in response to evaluatively incongruent targets (i.e., Black-positive & White-negative) was present among participants with lower, but not those with higher, levels of IMS. Implications and future directions are discussed in the context of dmPFC involvement in social cognition.

  12. Vinyl polysiloxane impression material in removable prosthodontics. Part 1: edentulous impressions.

    PubMed

    Massad, Joseph J; Cagna, David R

    2007-08-01

    Recent advances in impression materials and stock edentulous impression trays have resulted in simplified approaches to impression making in removable prosthodontics. Once considered an absolute necessity, it is now possible to avoid the need for custom impression trays. In an effort to achieve reliable master casts in a single appointment, new and innovative procedures are now available. This article, the first in a 3-part series, will review historical information, basic concepts, materials considerations, and philosophic approaches to impression making in complete-denture therapy. A modem technique using readily available impression materials will be described and illustrated so readers can consider the benefits of incorporation into their daily management of edentulous patients.

  13. Vinyl polysiloxane impression material in removable prosthodontics. Part 1: Edentulous impressions.

    PubMed

    Massad, Joseph J; Cagna, David R

    2009-02-01

    Recent advances in impression materials and stock edentulous impression trays have resulted in simplified approaches to impression making in removable prosthodontics. Once considered an absolute necessity, it is now possible to avoid the need for custom impression trays. In an effort to achieve reliable master casts in a single appointment, new and innovative procedures are now available. This article, the first in a 3-part series, will review historical information, basic concepts, materials considerations, and philosophic approaches to impression making in complete-denture therapy. A modern technique using readily available impression materials will be described and illustrated so readers can consider the benefits of incorporation into their daily management of edentulous patients.

  14. Effects of radiofrequency glow discharge on impression material surface wettability.

    PubMed

    Hesby, R M; Haganman, C R; Stanford, C M

    1997-04-01

    Argon radiofrequency glow discharge (RGD) may simultaneously sterilize and improve surface wettability of impression materials. The purpose of this study was to define RGD technical parameters that influence the surface wettability of impression material (optimization phase). Definition of RGD was followed by an assessment of these optimized RGD parameters on the wettability of four impression materials either uncontaminated or contaminated with saliva, compared with conventional liquid disinfection (application phase). For the optimization phase, addition silicone samples were cast against glass with 10 samples per group/parameter (n = 210). Parameters evaluated were duration of exposure, sample shape and angle, position within the RGD chamber, and argon gas delivery pressure. Changes in surface wettability were determined with contact angle measurements. For the application phase, standardized RGD parameters (90 degrees to the plasma flow, flat, 60 seconds, 5 psi) were used on four groups of impression materials with (n = 120 samples, 30 per material) or without (n = 120 samples, 30 per material) prior saliva contamination. RGD treatment of a polyvinyl siloxane impression material significantly (p < 0.0001) reduced contact angle measurements from 63 +/- 1 to 13 +/- 4 degrees, regardless of the parameter evaluated. For the application phase, results indicated different responses to RGD relative to nontreated controls. With all materials treated with RGD or disinfectant exposure, the finest 20 microns standard line was reproduced at x10 magnification with the American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association Specification 19 test die (Sabri Enterprise, Downers Grove, Ill.; n = 80, 10 samples per group). These results suggest RGD selectively alters impression material surface wettability.

  15. Effectiveness evaluation of objective and subjective weighting methods for aquifer vulnerability assessment in urban context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Madhumita; Sahoo, Satiprasad; Dhar, Anirban; Pradhan, Biswajeet

    2016-10-01

    Groundwater vulnerability assessment has been an accepted practice to identify the zones with relatively increased potential for groundwater contamination. DRASTIC is the most popular secondary information-based vulnerability assessment approach. Original DRASTIC approach considers relative importance of features/sub-features based on subjective weighting/rating values. However variability of features at a smaller scale is not reflected in this subjective vulnerability assessment process. In contrast to the subjective approach, the objective weighting-based methods provide flexibility in weight assignment depending on the variation of the local system. However experts' opinion is not directly considered in the objective weighting-based methods. Thus effectiveness of both subjective and objective weighting-based approaches needs to be evaluated. In the present study, three methods - Entropy information method (E-DRASTIC), Fuzzy pattern recognition method (F-DRASTIC) and Single parameter sensitivity analysis (SA-DRASTIC), were used to modify the weights of the original DRASTIC features to include local variability. Moreover, a grey incidence analysis was used to evaluate the relative performance of subjective (DRASTIC and SA-DRASTIC) and objective (E-DRASTIC and F-DRASTIC) weighting-based methods. The performance of the developed methodology was tested in an urban area of Kanpur City, India. Relative performance of the subjective and objective methods varies with the choice of water quality parameters. This methodology can be applied without/with suitable modification. These evaluations establish the potential applicability of the methodology for general vulnerability assessment in urban context.

  16. Evaluation of the bone mineral density of the subjects with avascular necrosis of hip joint

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Mohammad Taghi; Nodoshan, Seyed Mohammad Mousavi

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The head of femur is deformed in subjects with Leg Calve Perthes Disease (LCPD). It may be due to an increase in loads applied on the hip, decrease in hip joint containment and decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) of femur. Unfortunately there is not enough evidence regarding BMD of femur in subjects with LCPD. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate BMD in subjects with Perthes disease. Method Two subjects with LCPD participated in this study. The BMD and Young modulus of elasticity (E) of different parts of femur of both Perthes and sound sides were evaluated by use of Mimics software. The difference between BMD of femur in both sides of each subject was compared by use of two sample t test. Results There was no difference between the BMD and E modulus of femur in Perthes and sound sides in both subjects (p-value>0.05). Conclusion As there is no difference between the BMD of femur in Perthes side, it can be concluded that the deformation of femur in these subjects may not be due to a change in BMD. PMID:27920812

  17. Subjective outcome evaluation of a positive youth development program in Hong Kong: profiles and correlates.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hing Keung; Shek, Daniel T L

    2010-02-12

    Secondary school students (n = 33,867 from 213 secondary schools) responded to a subjective outcome evaluation form to assess their views of the program, workers (teachers and/or social workers), and perceived effectiveness of the program. Results showed that high proportions of the respondents had positive perceptions of the program and the instructors, and more than four-fifths of the respondents regarded the program as helpful to them. While schools admitting students with different academic abilities and hours did not differ in the subjective outcome evaluation ratings, subjective evaluation ratings for workers were highest, followed by ratings for the program and perceived effectiveness. The present study replicates the previously reported findings and provides additional support for the effectiveness of the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes) in Hong Kong.

  18. [The global impression technic in fixed dentures].

    PubMed

    Lamy, M; Mainjot, A

    2001-01-01

    The global impression technique allows to obtain in a single stage the impression of the abutment as well as their neighboring teeth. This technique often requires the placement of one or two retraction cords in the sulcus. The impression technique herein described is the double mix method. This method is based on the use of two elastomers with different viscosities, but from the same group thus allowing a simultaneous polymerization.

  19. Universal paradigms for predictable final impressions.

    PubMed

    Vakay, Rena T; Kois, John C

    2005-03-01

    The master blueprint for indirect restorations is the final impression. The challenge for the clinician is to establish a protocol that ensures a predictably excellent final impression. The purpose of this article is to provide a protocol that integrates the many detailed steps of impression making, from patient comfort to dental laboratory communication. Understanding the biology of the dentogingival junction, dental materials and their interactions, and proper technique all contribute to the final results.

  20. Disinfection effect of dental impression tray adhesives.

    PubMed

    Bensel, Tobias; Pollak, Rita; Stimmelmayr, Michael; Hey, Jeremias

    2013-03-01

    Iatrogenic infections are serious problems in dental offices. Impression tray adhesives are delivered in glass containers with a fixed brush attached inside the cap. Using the brush for application of the impression tray adhesive on a contaminated impression tray or prostheses, pathogen transmission by replacing the cap with the brush is possible. Bacterial strains (patient strains and in vitro strains) were supervaccinated on Columbia agar. The bacterial solution was diluted with TSB and aerobically grown, and starting concentration was 1 × 10(7) cfu/ml. The stock solution was placed on Columbia agar. Alginate, polyether, and silicon impression tray adhesives were applied to the center of the particular blood agar plates and incubated for 48 h. The expansion of the inhibition zone assays were measured using a microscope. Twenty-one different bacterial strains were selected in the saliva samples of 20 patients. The growth inhibition for alginate impression tray adhesive was 1.1 % (±0.3) of the patient strains. The overgrowth of polyether impression tray adhesive was 30.6 % (±9.3) and for silicon impression tray adhesive 11.8 % (±5.0). In in vitro strains, alginate impression tray adhesive performed an inhibition of 0.7 % (±0.3). The overgrowth of polyether impression tray adhesive was 7.0 % (±1.6) and for silicon impression tray adhesive was 6.5 % (±1.3). Using the fixed brush for application of the impression tray adhesive on multiple patients, a cross-contamination cannot be ruled out. An application of the impression tray adhesive with a pipette and a single-use brush would eliminate the contamination.

  1. Pilot study on accuracy and dimensional stability of impression materials using industrial CT technology.

    PubMed

    Steinhäuser-Andresen, Stefanie; Detterbeck, Andreas; Funk, Christoph; Krumm, Michael; Kasperl, Stefan; Holst, Alexandra; Hirschfelder, Ursula

    2011-03-01

    Using computed tomography, scan impressions can be saved and edited as virtual data. The aim of this study was to evaluate the parameters influencing different impression materials and impression trays and their relevance with regard to accuracy and dimensional stability. Two alginate impressions (Zhermack Hydrogum®5 and Kaniedenta Tetrachrom®) and a polyether impression (3MEspe Impregum™) were each combined with two acrylic trays (3M Espe Position Tray™ and Profimed Opti-Tray) and CT scanned immediately after impression at the Fraunhofer Institute Development Center for X-ray Technology (EZRT) in Fürth, Germany. Each impression was digitized 10 times on the same day, 3 times after 2 days and twice after 6 days, thus determining the dimensional stability of the various materials. An acrylic model was digitized with a high-resolution µCT research scanner to be used as a reference for assessing the accuracy of the impression materials. For graphic and statistical analysis, VGStudio Max® was used. Both alginate impressions were less dimensionally stable than the polyether impression material. The Zhermack Hydrogum®5 alginate impression resulted in more deviation (151 µm) after 6 days than the Kaniedenta Tetrachrom® impression. The polyether scans showed a mean deviation of 73 µm. The accuracy of both alginates was similarly precise (mean value: Hydrogum®5 0.129 ± 0.021 mm, Tetrachrom® 0.137 ± 0.002 mm). The type of tray had limited influence on the results of the alginate impressions, while the accuracy of the Impregum™ impression depended on the tray combination chosen. The accuracy of the alginate impressions is sufficient for clinical use in orthodontics and produced, with correct storage, acceptable results even after 2 days. Hydrogum®5 impressions proved to be slightly more accurate than the reference material but less dimensionally stable than the Tetrachrom® impressions. The 3M Espe Position Tray™ seemed to be more practical due to a

  2. An alternative impression technique for complete dentures.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Burak; Özçelik, Tuncer Burak

    2014-02-01

    This article describes a technique for creating adequate space for an even thickness of polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impression material at the periphery during complete denture impression making. A PVS border molding material is injected around the borders of a custom tray, a 17-μm-thick stretch wrap film is folded into 4 layers, and a tray-shaped piece slightly larger than the size of the custom tray is placed on the tray covering the borders. After the border molding procedure is completed, the film is removed and the definitive impression completed with a medium-viscosity PVS impression material.

  3. Impression Management Messages and Reactions to Organizational Reward Allocations: The Mediating Influence of Fairness and Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tata, Jasmine; Rhodes, Susan R.

    1996-01-01

    Examines relationships among impression-management messages, evaluations of reward allocations (fairness and responsibility), and reaction to rewards (anger, approval of manager, and overall job satisfaction). Finds that impression-management messages directly influence fairness and responsibility, and indirectly influence anger and approval. (SR)

  4. A fuzzy MCDM model with objective and subjective weights for evaluating service quality in hotel industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoraghi, Nima; Amiri, Maghsoud; Talebi, Golnaz; Zowghi, Mahdi

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making (FMCDM) model by integrating both subjective and objective weights for ranking and evaluating the service quality in hotels. The objective method selects weights of criteria through mathematical calculation, while the subjective method uses judgments of decision makers. In this paper, we use a combination of weights obtained by both approaches in evaluating service quality in hotel industries. A real case study that considered ranking five hotels is illustrated. Examples are shown to indicate capabilities of the proposed method.

  5. [Comparasion of clinical and technical operating time of full-crown restorations between traditional and Triple-tray impression techniques].

    PubMed

    Xing, Yan-xi; Peng, Dong; Wang, Yu-guang

    2012-02-18

    To compare the difference of clinical and technical processes of full-crown restorations by using traditional and Triple-tray impression techniques, consumed materials and time estimated in every procedure of these two methods. Four veteran clinicians were selected to carry out full-crown restorative treatment for 124 patients (130 crowns). From one impression, dentists could make casts of prepared teeth and the opposing dentition and register the interocclusal relationship.After tooth preparation,Impregum Penta polyether impression was fabricated for 76 cases(80 crowns) by Triple-tray method and 48 cases (50 crowns)by conventional method. During the whole processes, the consumption of impression materials and plaster, the time of fitting on the articulator, manufacturing procedure and try-in in clinical practice were recorded. The differences of material and time consumption in every procedure of these two methods were evaluated by Independent-Samples t test. The consumption of impression materials and plaster of Triple-tray impression technique was significantly less than that of traditional impression technique(P<0.01), and average time in every procedure of Triple-tray impression technique was remarkablely reduced compared with that of the traditional impression technique (P<0.01). Triple-tray impression technique reduces operating costs and the possibility of error. Compared with traditional impression technique, Triple-tray impression technique could reduce the consumption of time and materials in clinical and technical processes.

  6. Brief report: Impression formation in high-functioning autism: role of nonverbal behavior and stereotype activating information.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Caroline; Dratsch, Thomas; Vogeley, Kai; Bente, Gary

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about whether stereotypes influence social judgments of autistic individuals, in particular when they compete with tacit face-to-face cues. We compared impression formation of 17 subjects with high-functioning autism (HFA) and 17 age-, gender- and IQ-matched controls. Information about the profession of a job applicant served as stereotype activating information. The target person's nonverbal behavior was presented as a computer animation showing two virtual characters in interaction. Contrary to our hypothesis, HFA participants were as sensitive to nonverbal cues as controls. Moreover, HFA showed a tendency to evaluate persons more positively. This might indicate a routine HFA apply in impression formation in order to compensate for their deficit in intuitive understanding of nonverbal communication cues.

  7. Effect of different impression materials and techniques on the dimensional accuracy of implant definitive casts

    PubMed Central

    Ebadian, Behnaz; Rismanchian, Mansor; Dastgheib, Badrosadat; Bajoghli, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Different factors such as impression techniques and materials can affect the passive fit between the superstructure and implant. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different impression materials and techniques on the dimensional accuracy of implant definitive casts. Materials and Methods: Four internal hex implants (Biohorizons Ø4 mm) were placed on a metal maxillary model perpendicular to the horizontal plane in maxillary lateral incisors, right canine and left first premolar areas. Three impression techniques including open tray, closed tray using ball top screw abutments and closed tray using short impression copings and two impression materials (polyether and polyvinyl siloxane) were evaluated (n = 60). The changes in distances between implant analogues in mediolateral (x) and anteroposterior (y) directions and analogue angles in x/z and y/z directions in the horizontal plane on the definitive casts were measured by coordinate measuring machine. The data were analyzed by multivariate two-way analysis of variance and one sample t-test (α = 0.05). Results: No statistical significant differences were observed between different impression techniques and materials. However, deviation and distortion of definitive casts had a significant difference with the master model when short impression copings and polyvinyl siloxane impression material were used (P < 0.05). In open tray technique, there was a significant difference in the rotation of analogs compared with the master model with both impression materials (P < 0.05). Conclusion: There was no difference between open and closed tray impression techniques; however, less distortion and deviation were observed in the open tray technique. In the closed tray impression technique, ball top screw was more accurate than short impression copings. PMID:25878678

  8. Vinyl polysiloxane impression material in removable prosthodontics. Part 2: immediate denture and reline impressions.

    PubMed

    Cagna, David R; Massad, Joseph J

    2009-01-01

    Accurate impressions are important elements in both the fabrication and maintenance phases of complete denture therapy. For patients possessing nonrestorable, periodontally hopeless residual dentitions, immediate denture therapy is often the treatment of choice. An impression procedure capable of accurately registering functional vestibular anatomy facilitates successful therapy. For complete dentures currently in function, periodic assessment and correction of fit extends long-term prosthesis performance. To maintain optimal tissue-base relationships, use of specialized impressions, and subsequent laboratory reline procedures is often indicated. For both of these impression procedures (i.e., immediate denture impressions and denture reline impressions), vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) impression material offers distinct advantages. Part 2 of this article series reports on the use of VPS for immediate denture and reline impression procedures.

  9. Vinyl polysiloxane impression material in removable prosthodontics. Part 2: Immediate denture and reline impressions.

    PubMed

    Cagna, David R; Massad, Joseph J

    2007-09-01

    Accurate impressions are important elements in both the fabrication and maintenance phases of complete denture therapy. For patients possessing nonrestorable, periodontally hopeless residual dentitions, immediate denture therapy is often the treatment of choice. An impression procedure capable of accurately registering functional vestibular anatomy facilitates successful therapy. For complete dentures currently in function, periodic assessment and correction of fit extends long-term prosthesis performance. To maintain optimal tissue-base relationships, use of specialized impressions, and subsequent laboratory reline procedures is often indicated. For both of these impression procedures (ie, immediate denture impressions and denture reline impressions), vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) impression material offers distinct advantages. Part 2 of this article series reports on the use of VPS for immediate denture and reline impression procedures.

  10. In vitro study on the dimensional accuracy of selected materials for monophase elastic impression making.

    PubMed

    Piwowarczyk, Andree; Ottl, Peter; Büchler, Alfred; Lauer, Hans-Christoph; Hoffmann, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated the dimensional accuracy of various impression materials for monophase elastic impression making. To isolate this parameter, a direct measurement of the impressions was made without taking the model material into consideration. A total of eight materials were tested; six impression materials were addition-curing silicones, and two were polyether impression materials. All materials were processed according to the manufacturers' instructions. A specially developed precision mold made of stainless steel served as basis for measuring the elastomeric impression materials. Using a stereomicroscope at a temperature of 23.0 +/- 1.0 degrees C and with a precision linear adjustment and lathe, sights were set on the marking points of customized posts. The measurement was performed after the earliest time possible for fabricating the model according to the manufacturer (time 1) and after 90 minutes (time 2). In a one-way analysis of variance, multiple average comparisons of dimensional accuracy were made (P < or = .05) between the impression materials under investigation. Under the conditions of this study, the impression materials tested demonstrated a very high dimensional accuracy. The arithmetic means of the dimensional changes ranged from -11 to 19 microns for both measuring times. Since as a rule, no significant dimensional changes occurred for the different impression materials between time 1 and time 2, this time interval for fabricating a model can be recommended.

  11. Does aging impair first impression accuracy? Differentiating emotion recognition from complex social inferences.

    PubMed

    Krendl, Anne C; Rule, Nicholas O; Ambady, Nalini

    2014-09-01

    Young adults can be surprisingly accurate at making inferences about people from their faces. Although these first impressions have important consequences for both the perceiver and the target, it remains an open question whether first impression accuracy is preserved with age. Specifically, could age differences in impressions toward others stem from age-related deficits in accurately detecting complex social cues? Research on aging and impression formation suggests that young and older adults show relative consensus in their first impressions, but it is unknown whether they differ in accuracy. It has been widely shown that aging disrupts emotion recognition accuracy, and that these impairments may predict deficits in other social judgments, such as detecting deceit. However, it is unclear whether general impression formation accuracy (e.g., emotion recognition accuracy, detecting complex social cues) relies on similar or distinct mechanisms. It is important to examine this question to evaluate how, if at all, aging might affect overall accuracy. Here, we examined whether aging impaired first impression accuracy in predicting real-world outcomes and categorizing social group membership. Specifically, we studied whether emotion recognition accuracy and age-related cognitive decline (which has been implicated in exacerbating deficits in emotion recognition) predict first impression accuracy. Our results revealed that emotion recognition accuracy did not predict first impression accuracy, nor did age-related cognitive decline impair it. These findings suggest that domains of social perception outside of emotion recognition may rely on mechanisms that are relatively unimpaired by aging.

  12. Towards high dynamic range extensions of HEVC: subjective evaluation of potential coding technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanhart, Philippe; Řeřábek, Martin; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports the details and results of the subjective evaluations conducted at EPFL to evaluate the responses to the Call for Evidence (CfE) for High Dynamic Range (HDR) and Wide Color Gamut (WCG) Video Coding issued by Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG). The CfE on HDR/WCG Video Coding aims to explore whether the coding efficiency and/or the functionality of the current version of HEVC standard can be signi_cantly improved for HDR and WCG content. In total, nine submissions, five for Category 1 and four for Category 3a, were compared to the HEVC Main 10 Profile based Anchor. More particularly, five HDR video contents, compressed at four bit rates by each proponent responding to the CfE, were used in the subjective evaluations. Further, the side-by-side presentation methodology was used for the subjective experiment to discriminate small differences between the Anchor and proponents. Subjective results shows that the proposals provide evidence that the coding efficiency can be improved in a statistically noticeable way over MPEG CfE Anchors in terms of perceived quality within the investigated content. The paper further benchmarks the selected objective metrics based on their correlations with the subjective ratings. It is shown that PSNR-DE1000, HDRVDP- 2, and PSNR-Lx can reliably detect visible differences between the proposed encoding solutions and current HEVC standard.

  13. Evaluation of Chair-Side Assays in High Microbiological Caries-Risk Subjects.

    PubMed

    Saravia, Marta Estela; Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; Lucisano, Marília Pacífico; Echevarría, Andrea Uribe; Echevarría, Jorge Uribe; Nelson-Filho, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the commercial chair-side assays Saliva-Check Mutans and ClinproTM Cario L-PopTM in high microbiological caries-risk dental students compared with conventional semi-quantitative colony counting culture-based technique as the reference method. Saliva samples from 93 subjects of both sexes aged 18-26 years were seeded (Köhler and Bratthall method) on plates containing SB-20M culture medium method and 12 subjects with high caries risk were selected. These 12 individuals were subjected to determination of caries risk using two commercial rapid detection chair-side assays (Saliva-Check Mutans and ClinproTM Cario L-PopTM) according to the manufacturers' instructions. The results were analyzed by the Kappa correlation test using SAS statistical software. There was a perfect agreement (Kappa=1) among the three caries risk evaluation methods - chair-side assays and semi-quantitative CFU count (control) - in all subjects. The results suggest that the commercial chair-side assays evaluated in this study may be practical and useful to identify high microbiological caries-risk subjects.

  14. Does immediate dentin sealing influence the polymerization of impression materials?

    PubMed Central

    Ghiggi, Paula Cristine; Steiger, Arno Kieling; Marcondes, Maurem Leitão; Mota, Eduardo Gonçalves; Burnett, Luiz Henrique; Spohr, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of the following study is to evaluate the interaction between the resin materials used in immediate dentin sealing (IDS) techniques and impression materials with two different techniques to eliminate the oxygen-inhibition layer. Materials and Methods: The occlusal dentin surface of 35 human molars was exposed. The teeth were used in two Groups: Group 1 – Impression with Express XT; Group 2 – Impression with Impregum. Groups 1 and 2 were divided into 14 subgroups: Groups 1a and 2a – Control groups; 1b and 2b – IDS with Clearfil SE Bond (CSE); 1c and 2c – IDS with CSE + additional polymerization with glycerin jelly; 1d and 2d – IDS with CSE + alcohol; 1e and 2e – IDS with CSE and Protect Liner F (PLF); 1f and 2f – IDS with CSE and PLF + additional polymerization with glycerin jelly; and 1g and 2g – IDS with CSE and PLF + alcohol. Five teeth were used in each experimental group, and the tooth surface was photographed using a digital camera. Results: Small quantity of unpolymerized impression material remained attached to the CSE or to the PLF in Groups 1b and 1e. Groups 1c and 1d prevented the interaction. Small quantity of polymerized impression material remained attached to the CSE or to the PLF for Groups 2b and 2e. The same interaction was observed for Groups 2c and 2d. For Groups 2c and 2f, no interactions were observed. Conclusion: Resin materials interacted with impression materials. The application of glycerin jelly and alcohol prevented the interaction of CSE with Express XT and PLF with Impregum; however, these treatments were not completely effective in preventing the interaction of CSE with Impregum and PLF with Express XT. PMID:25202218

  15. Effect of splinting in accuracy of two implant impression techniques.

    PubMed

    de Avila, Erica Dorigatti; de Matos Moraes, Fernanda; Castanharo, Sabrina Maria; Del'Acqua, Marcelo Antonialli; de Assis Mollo, Francisco

    2014-12-01

    Because there is no consensus in the literature about the need for a splint between copings, the aim of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the accuracy of 2 impression techniques for implant-supported prostheses. A master cast was fabricated with four parallel implant abutment analogs and a passive framework. Two groups with 5 casts each were formed: Group 1 (squared impression copings with no splint: S) and Group 2 (splinted squared impression copings, using metal drill burs and Pattern resin: SS). The impression material used was polyvinyl siloxane with open trays for standard preparation of the casts. For each cast, the framework was positioned, and a titanium screw was tightened with 10 N·cm torque in analog A, after which measurements of the abutment-framework interface gaps were performed at analogs C and D. This process was repeated for analog D. These measurements were analyzed using software. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a confidence interval of 95% was used to analyze the data. Significant differences were detected between S and SS in relation to the master cast (P ≤ 0.05). The median values of the abutment-framework interface gaps were as follows: master cast: 39.64 μm; squared impression copings with no splint: 205.86 μm; splinted squared impression copings: 99.19 μm. Under the limitations of this study, the technique presented for Group 2 produces better results compared with the technique used for Group 1.

  16. Testing thermal comfort of trekking boots: an objective and subjective evaluation.

    PubMed

    Arezes, P M; Neves, M M; Teixeira, S F; Leão, C P; Cunha, J L

    2013-07-01

    The study of the thermal comfort of the feet when using a specific type of shoe is of paramount importance, in particular if the main goal of the study is to attend to the needs of users. The main aim of this study was to propose a test battery for thermal comfort analysis and to apply it to the analysis of trekking boots. Methodologically, the project involves both objective and subjective evaluations. An objective evaluation of the thermal properties of the fabrics used in the boots was developed and applied. In addition, the thermal comfort provided when using the boots was also assessed both subjective and objectively. The evaluation of the thermal comfort during use, which was simulated in a laboratory environment, included the measurement of the temperature and moisture of the feet. The subjective assessment was performed using a questionnaire. From the results obtained, it was possible to define an optimal combination of fabrics to apply to trekking boots by considering the provided thermal insulation, air permeability and wicking. The results also revealed that the subjective perception of thermal comfort appears to be more related to the increase in temperature of the feet than to the moisture retention inside the boot. Although the evaluation of knits used in the boots indicated that a particular combination of fibres was optimal for use in the inner layer, the subjective and objective evaluation of thermal comfort revealed that the evaluation provided by users did not necessarily match the technical assessment data. No correlation was observed between the general comfort and specific thermal comfort assessments. Finally, the identification of thermal discomfort by specific foot areas would be useful in the process of designing and developing boots.

  17. 48 CFR 1252.216-70 - Evaluation of offers subject to an economic price adjustment clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation of offers subject to an economic price adjustment clause. 1252.216-70 Section 1252.216-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES...

  18. Subjective Evaluations of Alcohol-Related Consequences among College Students: Experience with Consequences Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavens, Eleanor L.; Leffingwell, Thad R.; Miller, Mary Beth; Brett, Emma I.; Lombardi, Nathaniel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Research suggests college students rate some alcohol-related consequences less negatively than others, yet it is unclear how or when these differences in perception develop. The current study compared college students' subjective evaluations of alcohol-related consequences that they had and had not experienced in order to test the…

  19. Evaluation of a Group-Based Trauma Recovery Program in Gaza: Students' Subjective Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Ian; Abdullah, Ghassan

    2012-01-01

    Internationally, evaluation of group-based trauma recovery programs has relied upon normative outcome measures, with no studies systematically analyzing children's subjective experience for program development. In contrast, the current study explored children's experience of a Gazan recovery program "in their own words." Twenty-four…

  20. Forensic Child Sexual Abuse Evaluations: Assessing Subjectivity and Bias in Professional Judgements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Mark D.; Sandoval, Jose Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Evaluators examining the same evidence often arrive at substantially different conclusions in forensic assessments of child sexual abuse (CSA). This study attempts to identify and quantify subjective factors that contribute to such disagreements so that interventions can be devised to improve the reliability of case decisions. Methods:…

  1. Forensic Child Sexual Abuse Evaluations: Assessing Subjectivity and Bias in Professional Judgements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Mark D.; Sandoval, Jose Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Evaluators examining the same evidence often arrive at substantially different conclusions in forensic assessments of child sexual abuse (CSA). This study attempts to identify and quantify subjective factors that contribute to such disagreements so that interventions can be devised to improve the reliability of case decisions. Methods:…

  2. Applying Generalizability Theory To Evaluate Treatment Effect in Single-Subject Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefebvre, Daniel J.; Suen, Hoi K.

    An empirical investigation of methodological issues associated with evaluating treatment effect in single-subject research (SSR) designs is presented. This investigation: (1) conducted a generalizability (G) study to identify the sources of systematic and random measurement error (SRME); (2) used an analytic approach based on G theory to integrate…

  3. Qualitative Evaluation of Teacher Training, Subject Teacher Line, KUL-A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marklund, Sixten; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This document describes a project designed to evaluate the training of subject matter teachers in Sweden. The purpose of the project is to acquire information about the training system and to use this knowledge as a base for reform of teacher preparation. The project began in 1970 and is expected to continue through 1975. The first year was…

  4. Subjective Outcome and Objective Outcome Evaluation Findings: Insights from a Chinese Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: As there are few studies examining the relationship between subjective and objective outcome evaluation findings, this study investigated the linkage between these two types of outcomes in the Chinese culture. Method: In an experimental study, 3,298 Chinese secondary school students responded to the Chinese Positive Youth Development…

  5. Evaluating Standards-Based Assessment Rubrics in a Postgraduate Public Health Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kite, James; Phongsavan, Philayrath

    2017-01-01

    Standards-based assessment rubrics are recognised as an important tool for ensuring clear criteria in higher education. Most of the available evidence on rubrics comes from studies with face-to-face undergraduate students. Our study evaluated the introduction of rubrics into a postgraduate subject that included both online and face-to-face…

  6. Factorial validity of a subjective outcome evaluation tool for implementers of a positive youth development program.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L; Yu, Lu

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the dimensionality of the subjective outcome evaluation tool assessing the views of program implementers in the context of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong. For illustration purpose, both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed to examine the factor structure of the instrument. Subjective outcome evaluation findings were collected from 1,170 program implementers who implemented the Grade 7 level program. A validated subjective outcome evaluation scale was used to assess the views of the program implementers. Conceptually, the scale was designed to assess program implementers' perceptions about program content, implementer qualities, and program effectiveness after completion of the program. Exploratory factor analyses showed that 3 factors were abstracted from the scale and they were stable across 2 random subsamples. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that there was support for a higher-order factor model containing 3 primary factors and 1 second-order factor, and that evidence supporting factorial invariance was found. The 3 subscales were also shown to be reliable with acceptable internal consistency. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided support for the factorial validity of the subjective outcome evaluation tool designed for program implementers in the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. In vitro investigation of the integration depth of oral fluids and disinfectants into alginate impressions.

    PubMed

    Surna, Rimas; Junevicius, Jonas; Rutkauskas, Evaldas

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is to prove that oral cavity fluids diffuse into alginate mass of impressions. In addition, the information is presented on the subject that disinfectants used for alginate impressions disinfection not only diffuse into alginate mass but penetrate deeper than oral cavity fluids. Three examination groups were formed for the research, the results of which evidenced how deeply oral cavity fluids and disinfectants 'Alpha Guard GF' and 'Orbis' could possibly diffuse into alginate impression material 'Kromopan 100'. In the first examination group ten impressions from the upper jaw dental arch and mucosa were taken, firstly colouring oral cavity fluids with a special colouring tablet MIRA-2-TON (Hager Werken). Cuts were randomly selected from impressions and scanned aiming to establish the depth of the coloured oral cavity fluid penetration. In the second and the third examination groups taken alginate impressions were accordingly soaked in 'Alpha Guard GF' and 'Orbis' with pigment and later randomly selected cuts were scanned in the same manner as in the first research group. RESULTS. The research results establish that coloured dental cavity fluids maximum diffuse into alginate impression is up to 540 microm with the presence of 95% of discolouring while disinfectants 'Alpha Guard GF' and 'Orbis' accordingly diffuse into alginate mass up to 710 microm and 870 microm with the presence of 95% of discolouring. CONCLUSIONS. The results obtained show that disinfectants using them according to the recommendations of a manufacturer, diffuse into alginate mass deeper than oral cavity fluids at the time of impressions taking.

  8. TRENDS IN COMPLETE DENTURE IMPRESSIONS IN PAKISTAN.

    PubMed

    Vohra, Fahim; Rashid, Haroon; Hanif, Ayesha; Ghani, Siti Mariam Ab; Najeeb, Shariq

    2015-01-01

    Multiple materials and techniques have been reported for complete denture impressions in literature. The aim of the study was to assess the trends in complete denture impression materials and techniques among general dental practitioners (GDP) and specialists (SP) in Pakistan. In this cross-sectional study, self-designed-structured questionnaires were distributed among 500 dentists in Pakistan. The three-part questionnaire enquired about the demographic features, preferred impression materials, impression techniques and related procedures commonly used in their clinical practice. A comparison between the responses of SP and GDP was also drawn. Frequency distribution and Chi-square test were performed to compare the responses. A total of 294 questionnaires were completed at a response rate of 58.8%. 75% of GDP used alginate for primary impressions and 66% of SP preferred impression compound for the same. A majority of both SP and GDP favoured the used of custom trays (SP 81%, GDP 85%) and selective pressure technique (SP 84%, GDP 53%) for final impression. However, 85% of GDP used zinc-oxide eugenol and 62% of SP favoured elastomeric materials for the same. Most of the SP and GDP used chemical cured resin custom trays (SP 54%, GDP 75%), however, 86% of SP used spaced trays and almost 60% of GDP preferred close-fitting trays. The practice of GDP and SP with regards to CD impression materials and techniques differed significantly. Continued education and training for GDP and SP with respect to procedures and techniques related to CD is recommended.

  9. A Classroom Exercise in Impression Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrenberg, Joy L.

    1987-01-01

    A classroom exercise for teaching students how to examine aspects of their own impression-formation processes is described. The data generated can be used to stimulate discussion about the origins of implicit personality theories, person prototypes, and the accuracy of first impressions. (Author/DH)

  10. A Teacher's Impressions of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Anne

    1987-01-01

    Reports the impressions of an 11th-grade world cultures teacher who visited European Russia and Uzbekistan in August, 1985. Ten major impressions are detailed, among them are (1) the poverty, (2) the sloppiness, (3) the pervasive presence of Lenin, and (4) the cultural importance of the Babushka, the Russian word for grandmother. (JDH)

  11. 21 CFR 872.3660 - Impression material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Impression material. 872.3660 Section 872.3660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... on a preformed impression tray and used to reproduce the structure of a patient's teeth and gums....

  12. 21 CFR 872.3660 - Impression material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Impression material. 872.3660 Section 872.3660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... on a preformed impression tray and used to reproduce the structure of a patient's teeth and gums....

  13. An evaluation of the hemiplegic subject based on the Bobath approach. Part II: The evaluation protocol.

    PubMed

    Corriveau, H; Guarna, F; Dutil, E; Riley, E; Arsenault, A B; Drouin, G

    1988-01-01

    A protocol of evaluation of the hemiplegic patient based on the Bobath approach to treatment is presented. Six parameters are evaluated: sensorium, muscle tone, reflex activity, active movement, postural reactions and pain. The first and last of these are included because of their possible effects on the motor recovery process of the hemiplegic patient. The other four are directly borrowed from the Bobath modality of treatment. For each of these parameters, the procedures are given for its evaluation along with its respective rating scales. These scales are of an ordinal nature ranging from 0 to 3. It is suggested that this new evaluation protocol is fully compatible with the therapeutic modality developed by Bobath and as well is adequate to quantify patient progress in the principle aspects treated by this well used rehabilitation approach.

  14. Evaluation of upper extremity robot-assistances in subacute and chronic stroke subjects

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Robotic systems are becoming increasingly common in upper extremity stroke rehabilitation. Recent studies have already shown that the use of rehabilitation robots can improve recovery. This paper evaluates the effect of different modes of robot-assistances in a complex virtual environment on the subjects' ability to complete the task as well as on various haptic parameters arising from the human-robot interaction. Methods The MIMICS multimodal system that includes the haptic robot HapticMaster and a dynamic virtual environment is used. The goal of the task is to catch a ball that rolls down a sloped table and place it in a basket above the table. Our study examines the influence of catching assistance, pick-and-place movement assistance and grasping assistance on the catching efficiency, placing efficiency and on movement-dependant parameters: mean reaching forces, deviation error, mechanical work and correlation between the grasping force and the load force. Results The results with groups of subjects (23 subacute hemiparetic subjects, 10 chronic hemiparetic subjects and 23 control subjects) showed that the assistance raises the catching efficiency and pick-and-place efficiency. The pick-and-place movement assistance greatly limits the movements of the subject and results in decreased work toward the basket. The correlation between the load force and the grasping force exists in a certain phase of the movement. The results also showed that the stroke subjects without assistance and the control subjects performed similarly. Conclusions The robot-assistances used in the study were found to be a possible way to raise the catching efficiency and efficiency of the pick-and-place movements in subacute and chronic subjects. The observed movement parameters showed that robot-assistances we used for our virtual task should be improved to maximize physical activity. PMID:20955566

  15. Arterial Carboxyhemoglobin Measurement Is Useful for Evaluating Pulmonary Inflammation in Subjects with Interstitial Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yu; Shinkai, Masaharu; Kanoh, Soichiro; Fujikura, Yuji; K Rubin, Bruce; Kawana, Akihiko; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Objective The arterial concentration of carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb) in subjects with inflammatory pulmonary disease is higher than that in healthy individuals. We retrospectively analyzed the relationship between the CO-Hb concentration and established markers of disease severity in subjects with interstitial lung disease (ILD). Methods The CO-Hb concentration was measured in subjects with newly diagnosed or untreated ILD and the relationships between the CO-Hb concentration and the serum biomarker levels, lung function, high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings, and the uptake in gallium-67 ((67)Ga) scintigraphy were evaluated. Results Eighty-one non-smoking subjects were studied (mean age, 67 years). Among these subjects, (A) 17 had stable idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), (B) 9 had an acute exacerbation of IPF, (C) 44 had stable non-IPF, and (D) 11 had an exacerbation of non-IPF. The CO-Hb concentrations of these subjects were (A) 1.5±0.5%, (B) 2.1±0.5%, (C) 1.2±0.4%, and (D) 1.7±0.5%. The CO-Hb concentration was positively correlated with the serum levels of surfactant protein (SP)-A (r=0.38), SP-D (r=0.39), and the inflammation index (calculated from HRCT; r=0.57) and was negatively correlated with the partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood (r=-0.56) and the predicted diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (r=-0.61). The CO-Hb concentrations in subjects with a negative heart sign on (67)Ga scintigraphy were higher than those in subjects without a negative heart sign (1.4±0.5% vs. 1.1±0.3%, p=0.018). Conclusion The CO-Hb levels of subjects with ILD were increased, particularly during an exacerbation, and were correlated with the parameters that reflect pulmonary inflammation.

  16. Imaging first impressions: distinct neural processing of verbal and nonverbal social information.

    PubMed

    Kuzmanovic, Bojana; Bente, Gary; von Cramon, D Yves; Schilbach, Leonhard; Tittgemeyer, Marc; Vogeley, Kai

    2012-03-01

    First impressions profoundly influence our attitudes and behavior toward others. However, little is known about whether and to what degree the cognitive processes that underlie impression formation depend on the domain of the available information about the target person. To investigate the neural bases of the influence of verbal as compared to nonverbal information on interpersonal judgments, we identified brain regions where the BOLD signal parametrically increased with increasing strength of evaluation based on either short text vignettes or mimic and gestural behavior. While for verbal stimuli the increasing strength of subjective evaluation was correlated with increased neural activation of precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex (PC/PCC), a similar effect was observed for nonverbal stimuli in the amygdala. These findings support the assumption that qualitatively different cognitive operations underlie person evaluation depending upon the stimulus domain: while the processing of nonverbal person information may be more strongly associated with affective processing as indexed by recruitment of the amygdala, verbal person information engaged the PC/PCC that has been related to social inferential processing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Improving the performance of predicting users' subjective evaluation characteristics to reduce their fatigue in IEC.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shangfei; Takagi, Hideyuki

    2005-01-01

    Users' fatigue is the biggest technological hurdle facing Interactive Evolutionary Computation (IEC). This paper introduces the idea of "absolute scale" and "neighbour scale" to improve the performance of predicting users' subjective evaluation characteristics in IEC, and thus it will accelerate EC convergence and reduce users' fatigue. We experimentally evaluate the effect of the proposed method using two benchmark functions. The experimental results show that the convergence speed of IEC using the proposed predictor, which learns from absolute evaluation data, is much faster than the conventional one, which learns from relative data, especially in early generations. Also, IEC with predictors that use recent data are more effective than those which use all past data.

  18. Evaluation of the effects of subject thickness on the exposure index in digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Takaki, Takeshi; Takeda, Kazuki; Murakami, Seiichi; Ogawa, Haruhisa; Ogawa, Masato; Sakamoto, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    The exposure index (EI) was proposed as a new X-ray dose index by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and has since been implemented as an international standard. The EI is calculated by use of an approximation equation under IEC-specified calibration conditions. However, several factors encountered in clinical practice, including the patient's body thickness and the tube voltage, differ with regard to these calibration conditions. We, therefore, require a solid water phantom-based function that can incorporate the IEC-specified conditions and different subject thicknesses to evaluate the effects of subject thickness on the EI. Here, we assumed average thicknesses of 10 cm for a child, 15 cm for slender patients, and 21 cm for an average adult abdomen and we evaluated errors, that are included in the EI, which were calculated by use of the function. Our results suggested that the EI depends on the subject thickness. At the 21-cm thickness (average adult abdomen), the display EI exhibited a small error level. In contrast, EI values calculated from the calibration conditions exhibited maximum errors that were as high as 34 % at the lower subject thicknesses (10 and 15 cm), suggesting a significant influence of the subject thickness on the EI. In conclusion, the EI should be used cautiously during the examination of children and thin patients, with a complete understanding of the discrepancy revealed by our study results.

  19. The Effect of Disinfectants and a Surface Wetting Agent on the Wettability of Elastomeric Impression Materials: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Lad, Pritam P; Gurjar, Minal; Gunda, Sachin; Gurjar, Vivek; Rao, Nandan K

    2015-06-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of two commercially available chemical disinfectants namely sodium hypochlorite and glutaraldehyde and a surface wetting agent on the wettability of three high precision elastomeric impression materials, addition silicone, condensation silicone and polyether. Three different types of elastomeric impression materials commonly used in prosthodontic practice were selected. The glutaraldehyde and sodium hypochloride solutions were employed to disinfect the impressions made with the above-mentioned elastomeric impression materials. True Blue surface wetting agent was selected. GBX contact angle analyzer was used to measure advancing and receding contact angle. The results of this study have demonstrated that the polyether impression material was the most hydrophilic of all the materials, followed by hydrophilic addition silicone. Condensation silicone was least hydrophilic. All materials showed improvement in the wettability when a topical surfactant was used. The short term disinfection of the three elastomeric impression materials does not affect the wettability of these impression materials.

  20. Echocardiographic evaluation of female centrifuge subjects for chronic changes in cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Albery, W B

    1999-06-01

    High sustained G exposure as experienced in flying high performance aircraft can affect cardiac function. Numerous studies, mostly on male pilots, have evaluated the chronic effects of exposure to high G. To date, none of these studies has revealed significant positive findings in cardiac function as a result of long-term high G exposure. A longitudinal study was conducted on six female centrifuge panel members who did not have a history of significant high +Gz exposure. Baseline echocardiographic studies were conducted prior to any +Gz exposure on the Dynamic Environment Simulator (DES) centrifuge. The echocardiograms were repeated after each panel member completed approximately 100 3-min high G (up to 9 G) exposures over the period of 7 mo. These follow-up echos were performed after all six subjects had been exposed to at least 6 h (cumulative) of sustained acceleration > 3 G. The women were protected with the COMBAT EDGE positive pressure breathing G protection ensemble. Each subject served as her own control. All studies were evaluated independently by a cardiologist who was blinded to the order in which the echos were performed. Although complete echocardiographic studies were performed, only the parameters identified as significant in prior studies were evaluated. No significant differences were found between the initial and follow-up echo parameters. We found no significant differences in cardiac function after at least 6 and up to 17 h (cumulative) of exposure to G > 3 in women. These subjects will be monitored during a longitudinal study throughout their centrifuge subject career.

  1. Intraoral Digital Impressioning for Dental Implant Restorations Versus Traditional Implant Impression Techniques.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Brian L

    2015-01-01

    Over the course of the past two to three decades, intraoral digital impression systems have gained acceptance due to high accuracy and ease of use as they have been incorporated into the fabrication of dental implant restorations. The use of intraoral digital impressions enables the clinician to produce accurate restorations without the unpleasant aspects of traditional impression materials and techniques. This article discusses the various types of digital impression systems and their accuracy compared to traditional impression techniques. The cost, time, and patient satisfaction components of both techniques will also be reviewed.

  2. Evaluation of dental age and associated developmental anomalies in subjects with impacted mandibular canines.

    PubMed

    Jain, Shikha; Shetty, K Sadashiva; Jain, Shweta; Jain, Sachin; Prakash, A T; Agrawal, Mamta

    2015-07-01

    To assess the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the rate of dental development and the occurrence of selected developmental anomalies related to shape, number, structure, and position of teeth between subjects with impacted mandibular canines and those with normally erupted canines. Pretreatment records of 42 subjects diagnosed with mandibular canines impaction (impaction group: IG) were compared with those of 84 subjects serving as a control reference sample (control group: CG). Independent t-tests were used to compare mean dental ages between the groups. Intergroup differences in distribution of subjects based on the rate of dental development and occurrence of selected dental anomalies were assessed using χ(2) tests. Odds of late, normal, and early developers and various categories of developmental anomalies between the IG and the CG were evaluated in terms of odds ratios. Mean dental age for the IG was lower than that for the CG in general. Specifically, this was true for girls (P < .05). Differences in the distribution of the subjects based on the rate of dental development and occurrence of positional anomalies also reached statistical significance (P < .05). The IG showed a higher frequency of late developers and positional anomalies compared with controls (odds ratios 3.00 and 2.82, respectively; P < .05). The null hypothesis was rejected. We identified close association of female subjects in the IG with retarded dental development compared with the female orthodontic patients. Increased frequency of positional developmental anomalies was also remarkable in the IG.

  3. Subjective audio quality evaluation of embedded-optimization-based distortion precompensation algorithms.

    PubMed

    Defraene, Bruno; van Waterschoot, Toon; Diehl, Moritz; Moonen, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Subjective audio quality evaluation experiments have been conducted to assess the performance of embedded-optimization-based precompensation algorithms for mitigating perceptible linear and nonlinear distortion in audio signals. It is concluded with statistical significance that the perceived audio quality is improved by applying an embedded-optimization-based precompensation algorithm, both in case (i) nonlinear distortion and (ii) a combination of linear and nonlinear distortion is present. Moreover, a significant positive correlation is reported between the collected subjective and objective PEAQ audio quality scores, supporting the validity of using PEAQ to predict the impact of linear and nonlinear distortion on the perceived audio quality.

  4. Do dental impression materials play a role in cross contamination?

    PubMed

    Matalon, Shlomo; Eini, Amir; Gorfil, Colin; Ben-Amar, Ariel; Slutzky, Hagay

    2011-01-01

    Dentists are required to institute infectious control procedures. Dental impression materials possessing antimicrobial properties may aid in reducing the risk of cross contamination since impression materials might play a role as carriers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of four impression materials. Four impression materials--Orthoprint, Impregum Penta, Aquasil Ultra Monophase, and Permlastic--were evaluated by the direct contact test. The materials were tested in contact with Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Candida albicans. The materials were mixed; allowed to set; and examined immediately and after aging for 24, 48, and 72 hours and 1 week. Two-way ANOVA, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey multiple comparison procedures were applied to the results. Impregum Penta presented the broadest antibacterial spectrum of all the materials tested. There was a complete growth inhibition of S aureus and S epidermidis, and it sustained this ability for at least 7 days. It also showed an antifungal effect by partially inhibiting the growth of C albicans, a quality that was seen only immediately after setting. Aquasil Ultra showed an antifungal effect only immediately after setting. Permlastic showed a complete growth inhibition when in contact with C albicans and sustained this ability for at least 7 days. No significant antimicrobial properties were recorded for Orthoprint. When in contact with E faecalis, no significant antibacterial properties were recorded for any of the materials. None of the tested materials exhibited a long-lasting or complete antibacterial and antifungal property. Therefore, disinfection of impressions is essential.

  5. Study of the potential cytotoxicity of dental impression materials.

    PubMed

    Roberta, Tiozzo; Federico, Magagna; Federica, Boraldi; Antonietta, Croce Maria; Sergio, Bortolini; Ugo, Consolo

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cytotoxicity of tow types of impression dental materials: polyethers (Impregum Penta, Permadyne Penta Heavy and Light) and vinyl polysiloxanes (Elite Mono Tray, Medium, Low viscosity and Elite H-D Putty). Their cytotoxic effects were studied by indirect and direct tests. The indirect tests were performed by incubating impression materials in serum free cell culture medium to prepare the soluble extracts. Balb/c 3T3 cells were incubated with extract dilutions (25, 50, 75 and 100%) for 24 h. The extracts of polyether materials caused a decrease of cellular viability, evaluated by light microscopy, by cell counting and by MTT test. The extracts of vinyl polysiloxanes materials induced a slight effect on cellular number and viability. The direct tests were performed by placing the impression materials in the centre of Petri dishes while Balb/c 3T3 were settling. The cellular proliferation was drastically reduced by polyethers and it was unaffected by the presence of vinyl polysiloxanes. These results show that: (a) the polyether materials are more toxic than vinyl polysiloxanes in our experimental conditions, (b) the impression materials are cytotoxic to the same degree in all assay methods.

  6. Subjective evaluation with FAA criteria: A multidimensional scaling approach. [ground track control management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreifeldt, J. G.; Parkin, L.; Wempe, T. E.; Huff, E. F.

    1975-01-01

    Perceived orderliness in the ground tracks of five A/C during their simulated flights was studied. Dynamically developing ground tracks for five A/C from 21 separate runs were reproduced from computer storage and displayed on CRTS to professional pilots and controllers for their evaluations and preferences under several criteria. The ground tracks were developed in 20 seconds as opposed to the 5 minutes of simulated flight using speedup techniques for display. Metric and nonmetric multidimensional scaling techniques are being used to analyze the subjective responses in an effort to: (1) determine the meaningfulness of basing decisions on such complex subjective criteria; (2) compare pilot/controller perceptual spaces; (3) determine the dimensionality of the subjects' perceptual spaces; and thereby (4) determine objective measures suitable for comparing alternative traffic management simulations.

  7. Subjective evaluation with FAA criteria: A multidimensional scaling approach. [ground track control management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreifeldt, J. G.; Parkin, L.; Wempe, T. E.; Huff, E. F.

    1975-01-01

    Perceived orderliness in the ground tracks of five A/C during their simulated flights was studied. Dynamically developing ground tracks for five A/C from 21 separate runs were reproduced from computer storage and displayed on CRTS to professional pilots and controllers for their evaluations and preferences under several criteria. The ground tracks were developed in 20 seconds as opposed to the 5 minutes of simulated flight using speedup techniques for display. Metric and nonmetric multidimensional scaling techniques are being used to analyze the subjective responses in an effort to: (1) determine the meaningfulness of basing decisions on such complex subjective criteria; (2) compare pilot/controller perceptual spaces; (3) determine the dimensionality of the subjects' perceptual spaces; and thereby (4) determine objective measures suitable for comparing alternative traffic management simulations.

  8. Evaluation of an Indoor Sonic Boom Subjective Test Facility at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loubeau, Alexandra; Rathsam, Jonathan; Klos, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    A sonic boom simulator at NASA Langley Research Center has been constructed for research on human response to low-amplitude sonic booms heard indoors. Research in this facility will ultimately lead to development of a psychoacoustic model for single indoor booms. The first subjective test was designed to explore indoor human response to variations in sonic boom rise time and amplitude. Another goal was to identify loudness level variability across listener locations within the facility. Finally, the test also served to evaluate the facility as a laboratory research tool for studying indoor human response to sonic booms. Subjects listened to test sounds and were asked to rate their annoyance relative to a reference boom. Measurements of test signals were conducted for objective analysis and correlation with subjective responses. Results confirm the functionality of the facility and effectiveness of the test methods and indicate that loudness level does not fully describe indoor annoyance to the selected sonic boom signals.

  9. Subjective evaluation of a concert hall's acoustics using a free-format-type questionnaire and comparison with objective measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okano, Toshiyuki; Beranek, Leo L.

    2002-11-01

    A free-format type of audiences' judgment of the acoustical properties of a hall and music critics' writings were used as the basis for this study. These subjective responses are related to the Dai-Ichi Seimei Hall in Tokyo. This hall is an oval-shaped, one-balcony space, seating 767 persons. Its primary use is for various types of chamber music and solo-instrument performances. Eight acoustical attributes were investigated, ''reverberation,'' ''clarity,'' ''loudness,'' ''intimacy,'' ''spaciousness,'' ''balance,'' ''localization,'' and ''timbre,'' plus ''general impression.'' Subjective comments about these attributes were obtained. Objective measurements were made in the hall and are compared with those made in several similar-sized halls of two shapes. In the rear seats of two oval-shaped halls the strength factor GE (determined in the first 80 ms of the impulse response) was greater than the GE found in the rear seats of similar-sized rectangular halls. The subjective results and the objective measurements were closely correlated, especially for reverberation, clarity, and warmth (a subcomponent of timbre). It was suggested that the greater strength GE in the rear seats made the hall seem smaller and thus more intimate. The subjective comments also confirmed the hall's wide applicability, indicating that the acoustical characteristics used for its design were well chosen.

  10. Forming impressions of facial attractiveness is mandatory.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Kay L; Palermo, Romina; Rhodes, Gillian

    2017-03-28

    First impressions of social traits, such as attractiveness, from faces are often claimed to be made automatically, given their speed and reliability. However, speed of processing is only one aspect of automaticity. Here we address a further aspect, asking whether impression formation is mandatory. Mandatory formation requires that impressions are formed about social traits even when this is task-irrelevant, and that once formed, these impressions are difficult to inhibit. In two experiments, participants learned what new people looked like for the purpose of future identification, from sets of images high or low in attractiveness. They then rated middle-attractiveness images of each person, for attractiveness. Even though instructed to rate the specific images, not the people, their ratings were biased by the attractiveness of the learned images. A third control experiment, with participants rating names, demonstrated that participants in Experiments 1 and 2 were not simply rating the people, rather than the specific images as instructed. These results show that the formation of attractiveness impressions from faces is mandatory, thus broadening the evidence for automaticity of facial impressions. The mandatory formation of impressions is likely to have an important impact in real-world situations such as online dating sites.

  11. [Protective performance and subjective evaluation of N95 filtering-facepiece respirators].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lu-man; Yu, Yan-yan; Rong, Yi; Cui, Xiu-qing; Wang, Xin-yan; Lu, Wei; Tao, Ying; Chen, Wei-hong

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the protective performance of N95 filtering-facepiece respirators (FFRs) used widely in China and to investigate participants' subjective evaluation about them. Four models (A1, A2, B1, B2) of N95 FFRs from two manufactures were chosen to measure the filter penetration and inhalation resistance. Inward leakage was measured by Condensation Nuclei Counting method (CNC) in 50 participants selected using the Chinese respirator fit test panel. Each participant was asked subjective feelings after wearing a respirator by questionnaire survey. The filter penetration and inhalation resistance of four FFRs complied with national standard (GB 2626-2006). The geometric mean fit factors (GMFFs) for four models were 20.9, 14.6, 74.0, 49.1 and there passing rates were 4%, 4%, 42%, 10%. All of four models had bad seal performance, especially the passing rate of A1 and A2 were lower than 10%. The self-feelings about the resistance for FFRs had no significant difference (P > 0.05). The results indicated that B (B1 and B2) has a better fit than A (A1 and A2) according to participants' subject evaluation (P < 0.05). The folding style respirator (B2) was significant more comfortable than the cup style respirator (B1). The subjective feeling of respirators leakage by participant was poor consistent with objective inward leakage test. The kappa index was 0.067 (95%CI: -0.029∼0.163, P = 0.18) and the consistent rate was 50%. The poor seal performance was the biggest problem of N95 FFRs in Chinese market. Respirators should be resigned or improved rely on Chinese facial features. Dust workers should choice a fit respirator according to the result of objective leakage test rather than subjective feeling of leakage.

  12. Expert viewing protocol performance study: the case of subjective evaluation of HDR coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baroncini, Vittorio; Baroncini, Giacomo; Topiwala, Pankaj

    2016-09-01

    This paper tries to examine the results of a subjective evaluation experiment, made by means of the new Expert Viewing Protocol, recently approved by ITU-R Study Group 6 [1]. The EVP subjective test was designed and performed to compare different HDR coding technologies during an MPEG meeting (San Diego, CA, February 2016) [2]. Thanks to the wide and enthusiastic participation of the MPEG experts to the subjective evaluation experiment, it was possible to collect data from a total of sixteen viewers; this allowed to perform a sort of "validation" of the performance of the EVP. The ITU-R Recommendation states that tests with nine viewers is sufficient to get acceptable results from an EVP experiment. In our case, having data from 16 viewers, it was possible to compute the MOS and the Confidence Interval data as if it were a standard subjective assessment experiment (which typically requires more viewers). This allowed a sort of "validation" of the results obtained using results from 9 experts only vs. the results obtained using the data from the 16 viewers. The analysis of the raw data showed a rather good conversion of the EVP results towards the results obtained using the full viewers' data set. The results of the EVP evaluation of MPEG HDR content was described in details in a previous paper [3], to which we defer for details on the EVP protocol procedure and rules. This paper instead tries to answer to a demand for further clarification on the "context" and "limitations of use" of the EVP when performed in alternative to a formal subjective experiment trial.

  13. Investigation of the effects of storage time on the dimensional accuracy of impression materials using cone beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Alkurt, Murat; Yeşıl Duymus, Zeynep; Dedeoglu, Numan

    2016-10-01

    The storage conditions of impressions affect the dimensional accuracy of the impression materials. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of storage time on dimensional accuracy of five different impression materials by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Polyether (Impregum), hydrocolloid (Hydrogum and Alginoplast), and silicone (Zetaflow and Honigum) impression materials were used for impressions taken from an acrylic master model. The impressions were poured and subjected to four different storage times: immediate use, and 1, 3, and 5 days of storage. Line 1 (between right and left first molar mesiobuccal cusp tips) and Line 2 (between right and left canine tips) were measured on a CBCT scanned model, and time dependent mean differences were analyzed by two-way univariate and Duncan's test (α=.05). For Line 1, the total mean difference of Impregum and Hydrogum were statistically different from Alginoplast (P<.05), while Zetaflow and Honigum had smaller discrepancies. Alginoplast resulted in more difference than the other impressions (P<.05). For Line 2, the total mean difference of Impregum was statistically different from the other impressions. Significant differences were observed in Line 1 and Line 2 for the different storage periods (P<.05). The dimensional accuracy of impression material is clinically acceptable if the impression material is stored in suitable conditions.

  14. Investigation of the effects of storage time on the dimensional accuracy of impression materials using cone beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The storage conditions of impressions affect the dimensional accuracy of the impression materials. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of storage time on dimensional accuracy of five different impression materials by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS Polyether (Impregum), hydrocolloid (Hydrogum and Alginoplast), and silicone (Zetaflow and Honigum) impression materials were used for impressions taken from an acrylic master model. The impressions were poured and subjected to four different storage times: immediate use, and 1, 3, and 5 days of storage. Line 1 (between right and left first molar mesiobuccal cusp tips) and Line 2 (between right and left canine tips) were measured on a CBCT scanned model, and time dependent mean differences were analyzed by two-way univariate and Duncan's test (α=.05). RESULTS For Line 1, the total mean difference of Impregum and Hydrogum were statistically different from Alginoplast (P<.05), while Zetaflow and Honigum had smaller discrepancies. Alginoplast resulted in more difference than the other impressions (P<.05). For Line 2, the total mean difference of Impregum was statistically different from the other impressions. Significant differences were observed in Line 1 and Line 2 for the different storage periods (P<.05). CONCLUSION The dimensional accuracy of impression material is clinically acceptable if the impression material is stored in suitable conditions. PMID:27826388

  15. Randomized controlled clinical trial on the three-dimensional accuracy of fast-set impression materials.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Heike; Quaas, Sebastian; Haim, Manuela; Preißler, Jörg; Walter, Michael H; Koch, Rainer; Luthardt, Ralph G

    2013-06-01

    The use of fast-setting impression materials with different viscosities for the one-stage impression technique demands precise working times when mixing. We examined the effect of varying working time on impression precision in a randomized clinical trial. Focusing on tooth 46, three impressions were made from each of 96 volunteers, using either a polyether (PE: Impregum Penta H/L DuoSoft Quick, 3 M ESPE) or an addition-curing silicone (AS: Aquasil Ultra LV, Dentsply/DeTrey), one with the manufacturer's recommended working time (used as a reference) and two with altered working times. All stages of the impression-taking were subject to randomization. The three-dimensional precision of the non-standard working time impressions was digitally analyzed compared to the reference impression. Statistical analysis was performed using multivariate models. The mean difference in the position of the lower right first molar (vs. the reference impression) ranged from ±12 μm for PE to +19 and -14 μm for AS. Significantly higher mean values (+62 to -40 μm) were found for AS compared to PE (+21 to -26 μm) in the area of the distal adjacent tooth. Fast-set impression materials offer high precision when used for single tooth restorations as part of a one-stage impression technique, even when the working time (mixing plus application of the light- and heavy-body components) diverges significantly from the manufacturer's recommended protocol. Best accuracy was achieved with machine-mixed heavy-body/light-body polyether. Both materials examined met the clinical requirements regarding precision when the teeth were completely syringed with light material.

  16. Subjective soundscapes qualitative research in the experience and evaluation of environmental noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flick, Uwe

    2004-05-01

    If the subjective experience and evaluation of environmental noise shall be considered and integrated into the current soundscape research, the use of qualitative research methods used in sociology and psychology will become necessary. A triangulation of research methods for measuring objective noise and for the subjective evaluation of noises and sounds on the background of subjective meanings of health and healthy living will be a fruitful way to a more comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon of soundscapes in the context of health and quality of life. In this contribution, a selection of qualitative research methods will be presented that allows for analyzing subjective experiences with environmental noise. Interviews focusing on narratives of episodes and situations (e.g., the episodic interview, Flick, 2002) will be outlined. Issues of how to assess the quality of qualitative research and its results will be addressed and finally the benefits and limits of the triangulation of different methods (e.g., interviews and focus groups or interviews and physical measures) will be discussed. Research experiences from the author's recent studies on health concepts of health professionals will be used for illustration.

  17. Subjectively Evaluated Effects of Domestic Violence on Well-Being in Clinical Populations

    PubMed Central

    Poutiainen, Marika; Holma, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Effects of domestic violence are reflected in victims' physical, psychological, and sexual health as well as in victims' subjective evaluations of health or subjective well-being. The principal aim of this study was to study the extent to which the consequences of domestic violence are reflected in patients' subjectively evaluated well-being, life management, and sense of security in an emergency department, a maternity department, and a reception unit of a psychiatric hospital. A questionnaire on the effects of domestic violence was administered to 530 patients. 61 patients reported either current or previous domestic violence that affected their current well-being and life management. Domestic violence was reported to have an effect on subjective well-being and sense of security: the more recent or frequent the experience of violence was, the greater was considered its impact on well-being and sense of security. Routine inquiry can uncover hidden cases of abuse and hence would be of great benefit in the healthcare context. Early identification of abuse victims can prevent further harm caused by violence. PMID:23476806

  18. Design and evaluation of vibratory shoe on balance control for elderly subjects: technical note.

    PubMed

    Aboutorabi, Atefeh; Arazpour, Mokhtar; Farahmand, Farzam; Bahramizadeh, Mahmood; Fadayevatan, Reza; Abdollahi, Ehsan

    2017-03-22

    Aging often results in a decline in somatosensory function, and such changes are associated with diminished motor performance. Input noise can enhance sensory and motor function through a mechanism known as stochastic resonance (SR). This paper describes the development and testing of a new vibrating shoe to possibly assist the elderly patients in controlling their balance and decreasing their falling risks. The new vibrating shoe was evaluated to ascertain its ability to generate appropriate random and nonlinear vibrations. The vibratory shoe performance in two young subjects with decreased foot sensation and two elderly subjects in different static and dynamic balance situations was also evaluated. The postural control, expressed by the stability index (SI), was significantly affected by SR in the older subjects. The vibrating motors could be recommended as a suitable solution for dynamic balance situations. Moreover, the new vibrating shoe could improve the age-related balance impairments in elderly subjects with balance deficiencies and others with impaired foot sensations. Implications for rehabilitations Older adults exhibited decreased postural stability. Noise signal improves sensation and proprioception in older people. New shoe with vibrating motors can operate in different dynamic situations.

  19. A new module for quantitative evaluation of repellent efficacy using human subjects.

    PubMed

    Klun, J A; Debboun, M

    2000-01-01

    A new module for quantitative evaluation of arthropod repellents in human subjects was designed, constructed, and protocols for use of the module were developed. Doses of 3 arthropod repellents, 1-[3-cyclohexen-1-ylcarbonyl] piperidine (AI3-35765), 1-[3-cyclohexen-1-ylcarbonyl]-2-methylpiperidine (AI3-37220), and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet), were evaluated using the mosquito, Anopheles stephensi Liston. Biting responses to varied doses of the repellents on human skin were quantified, and the effectiveness of the 3 repellents was compared. The new module consists of 6 test cells and permits the simultaneous comparison of up to 5 repellent doses or chemical types and a control using a complete randomized block design with minimal treatment interaction and with > or = 6 replicates per human subject.

  20. Helping adolescents with greater psychosocial needs: subjective outcome evaluation based on different cohorts.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L; Lee, Tak Yan

    2012-01-01

    The Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes) is designed to help students with greater psychosocial needs. This paper examines nine sets of subjective outcome evaluation data collected from 2005 to 2009 (n = 60, 241 participants). Based on the consolidated data with schools as units, results showed that participants generally had positive perceptions of the program, implementers, and benefits of the program. The subjective outcome evaluation instrument was found to be internally consistent. Multiple regression analysis revealed that perceived qualities of the program and the program implementers predicted perceived effectiveness of the program. The present study provides support for the effectiveness of the Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong.

  1. Motivational influences on impression formation: outcome dependency, accuracy-driven attention, and individuating processes.

    PubMed

    Neuberg, S L; Fiske, S T

    1987-09-01

    How might being outcome dependent on another person influence the processes that one uses to form impressions of that person? We designed three experiments to investigate this question with respect to short-term, task-oriented outcome dependency. In all three experiments, subjects expected to interact with a young man formerly hospitalized as a schizophrenic, and they received information about the person's attributes in either written profiles or videotapes. In Experiment 1, short-term, task-oriented outcome dependency led subjects to use relatively individuating processes (i.e., to base their impressions of the patient on his particular attributes), even under conditions that typically lead subjects to use relatively category-based processes (i.e., to base their impressions on the patient's schizophrenic label). Moreover, in the conditions that elicited individuating processes, subjects spent more time attending to the patient's particular attribute information. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the attention effects in Experiment 1 were not merely a function of impression positivity and that outcome dependency did not influence the impression formation process when attribute information in addition to category-level information was unavailable. Finally, Experiment 3 manipulated not outcome dependency but the attentional goal of forming an accurate impression. We found that accuracy-driven attention to attribute information also led to individuating processes. The results of the three experiments indicate that there are important influences of outcome dependency on impression formation. These results are consistent with a model in which the tendency for short-term, task-oriented outcome dependency to facilitate individuating impression formation processes is mediated by an increase in accuracy-driven attention to attribute information.

  2. Subjective Sexual Well-Being in Chilean Adults: Evaluation of a Predictive Model.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Daniela; Lillo, Sebastián; Vera-Villarroel, Pablo

    2016-05-18

    Research on sexuality has traditionally focused on sexual satisfaction, with studies into subjective sexual well-being being a recent phenomenon. This study sought to evaluate the relationship between sexual behavior, happiness, health, and subjective sexual well-being. The data were collected from 862 people aged between 18 and 50 years in Santiago, Chile, and were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. The results showed that sexual behavioral indicators (sexual frequency, sexual caresses, and touching), happiness, and perception of health taken as a whole predicted 47.4% of subjective sexual well-being (SSWB). Analysis of the four items of subjective sexual well-being separately showed that the dimension of physical satisfaction was associated with three variables of sexual behavior indicators with a prediction percentage of 33.5%, whereas emotional satisfaction was associated with three variables of sexual behavior indicators and happiness, with a percentage of prediction of 43.3%. Satisfaction with sexual function was associated with perception of health and one sexual behavior indicator, with a prediction percentage of 29.2% of this variable. The importance of sex was associated with three sexual behavior variables that predicted 26.2% of this variable. The results confirm that subjective sexual well-being can be predicted and that its four dimensions present a different behavior compared to the study predictors.

  3. Series: Practical Evaluation of Clinical Image Quality (3): Subjective Evaluation of Image Quality in Digital Radiography Systems.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Reiji

    In the environment of picture archiving and communication system (PACS), the subjective evaluation of medical image quality is performed using an image display monitor. Commonly, PACS and its image viewer can handle digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) format image files that are displayed as 8-bit grayscale images in the monitor. However, the original grayscale of DICOM image is between 10-bit to 16-bit depth. Therefore, in order for DICOM images to be displayed in the monitor by PACS image viewer, they need to be converted into 8-bit depth grayscale. This conversion indicates that the original characteristics of DICOM images are altered when they are displayed in the monitor by PACS image viewer. Moreover, image data interpolation to match the image matrix for the resolution of the monitor also alters the characteristics of images. For these reasons, it is a must to recognize the influential factors of image display settings for the subjective evaluation of medical image quality.

  4. The O-ring universal impression technique.

    PubMed

    Hussaini, Souheil

    2008-10-01

    Recording the implant position for master cast fabrication for multiple implant systems may require a large inventory of impression copings. A technique is described whereby implant impression-making procedures can be modified to be more universal to all implant systems. This makes the procedure more cost-effective by simply incorporating the use of a rubber O-ring on the abutment or fixture mount, which then eliminates the use of a transfer coping. This technique can be applied at the time of surgery for indexing as well as during the final impression appointment.

  5. Sport fans' impressions of gay male athletes.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jamonn; Cothren, Denise; Rogers, Ross; Kistler, Lindsay; Osowski, Anne; Greenauer, Nathan; End, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sport fans' impressions of gay male athletes. Participants formed impressions of a fictional athlete from their favorite team after reading a short scenario about the player. The scenarios described the athlete as being gay or straight, and either becoming a distraction or not causing a distraction to the team. While males' ratings of the athlete did not significantly differ, female fans formed significantly more positive impressions of the gay male player than the straight athlete. These results are discussed in terms of the ingroup bias and the shifting culture of homophobia in sport.

  6. 21 CFR 872.3670 - Resin impression tray material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... custom impression tray for use in cases in which a preformed impression tray is not suitable, such as the... and gums is made. The resin impression tray material is applied to this preliminary study model...

  7. Evaluation of a broadband textile monopole antenna performance for subject-specific on-body applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, H. A.; Abdulmalek, M.; Soh, P. J.; Vandenbosch, G. A. E.

    2017-01-01

    The human body characteristics with different dimensions and tissue properties are one of the major factors in influencing the on-body radio propagation channel characteristics. A broadband textile monopole antenna operating at 2.45 GHz is evaluated to validate its performance on different subjects' characteristics. The results show that the textile monopole antenna is sufficiently robust against the variations introduced by the body up to 0.9 and 0.2% changes in the antenna's impedance matching level and resonant frequency shift when evaluated 10 mm from the body.

  8. Confronting Subjective Criteria in the Evaluation of Computer-Based Critiquing Advice

    PubMed Central

    Rothschild, Michael A.; Miller, Perry L.; Fisher, Paul R.; Weltin, Gregory G.; Swett, Henry A.

    1988-01-01

    There is a need for formal evaluation in the development of any computer-based expert systems. This may be quite difficult when judging a critiquing system, that is, a system which responds to a proposed management strategy with an explanatory prose discussion of the advisability of that approach. DxCON is an expert system which produces prose critiques discussing the radiologic workup of obstructive jaundice. This paper briefly describes DxCON, and then focuses on a study performed to validate its knowledge. The need to confront subjective as well as objective criteria in the evaluation of expert critiquing systems is explored.

  9. Accuracy of a self-perforating impression tray for dental implants.

    PubMed

    Marotti, Juliana; Tortamano, Pedro; Castilho, Tatiana R R N; Steagall, Washington; Wolfart, Stefan; Haselhuhn, Klaus

    2014-10-01

    Difficulties are involved in impression making with conventional open impression trays. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of transferring implant impressions with a self-perforating impression tray. A reference model of a mandible was fabricated, and 4 implants were placed in the regions of the first premolars and lateral incisors (implants 1, 2, 3, 4). Ten impressions of the reference model with polyvinyl siloxane were made for each group; control (conventional open impression tray) and test (self-perforating impression tray; Miratray Implant). A metal bar was screw-retained on implant 1, and the gaps generated at the vestibular face of implants 3 and 4 were measured by optical microcopy. The 2-way ANOVA and least square difference post hoc test were used (α=.05). Higher mean (±SD) values were obtained for the test group than for the control group for both implants: implant 3: 150 ±84 μm for the test group, 73 ±63 μm for the control group (P=.019); implant 4: 129 ±65 μm for the test group, 62 ±61 μm for the control group (P=.04). The self-perforating impression tray provided less accuracy than the conventional open tray. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The relationship between digital model accuracy and time-dependent deformation of alginate impressions.

    PubMed

    Alcan, Toros; Ceylanoğlu, Cenk; Baysal, Bekir

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effects of different storage periods of alginate impressions on digital model accuracy. A total of 105 impressions were taken from a master model with three different brands of alginates and were poured into stone models in five different storage periods. In all, 21 stone models were poured and immediately were scanned, and 21 digital models were prepared. The remaining 84 impressions were poured after 1, 2, 3, and 4 days, respectively. Five linear measurements were made by three researchers on the master model, the stone models, and the digital models. Time-dependent deformation of alginate impressions at different storage periods and the accuracy of traditional stone models and digital models were evaluated separately. Both the stone models and the digital models were highly correlated with the master model. Significant deformities in the alginate impressions were noted at different storage periods of 1 to 4 days. Alginate impressions of different brands also showed significant differences between each other on the first, third, and fourth days. Digital orthodontic models are as reliable as traditional stone models and probably will become the standard for orthodontic clinical use. Storing alginate impressions in sealed plastic bags for up to 4 days caused statistically significant deformation of alginate impressions, but the magnitude of these deformations did not appear to be clinically relevant and had no adverse effect on digital modeling.

  11. Subjective evaluations of alcohol expectancies and their relevance to drinking game involvement in female college students.

    PubMed

    Zamboanga, Byron L; Bean, Jessica L; Pietras, Alison C; Pabón, Lizette C

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether subjective evaluations of alcohol expectancies mediate the association between perceived drinking expectancies and participation in drinking games (DGs). Participation in DGs facilitates heavy drinking; therefore, we also examined the association between DG participation and alcohol-related problems. This cross-sectional study included 187 female athletes from an all-women's college in the Northeastern United States. Respondents completed self-report questionnaires in small groups who reported on their alcohol use, drinking expectancies, and number of DGs played with their teammates during the semester. A mediation effect emerged for subjective evaluation of liquid courage expectancy but not for increased sociability and cognitive/behavioral impairment expectancies. Although perceived expectancies of cognitive/behavioral impairment were associated negatively with DG participation, positive subjective evaluations of this expectancy were related positively with DG participation. Finally, participation in DG was associated positively with alcohol-related problems. Findings are consistent with notions of social learning and utility theories and sheds light on the link between alcohol expectancies and participation in DGs among female student athletes. Results also highlight the health risks associated with DG involvement. Intervention programs aimed at decreasing the prevalence of DG participation might consider addressing students' perceptions about the desirability of liquid courage expectancies.

  12. Tear evaluation of subjects wearing rigid gas permeable contact lens for six months: the Asian context.

    PubMed

    Mohd-Ali, B; Leong, S F; Abdul-Mutalib, H; Mohidin, N

    2011-01-01

    Asians are known to have different tear characteristics compared to Caucasians that may affect contact lens wear. There are scanty research studies that have evaluated tears during continuous wear contact lens in Asia. The present study aims to evaluate changes in tears in subjects wearing continuous wear rigid gas permeable contact lens (CWRGP) for 6 months. Thirty five neophyte subjects (21 females, 14 females) were recruited for this study. Subjects were fitted with CWRGP lenses with Dk of 163 on both eyes. Tear was evaluated using Phenol red thread test (PRT), tear break up time (TBUT) test and tear meniscus height (TMH) measurement. Non parametric and parametric analyses were used to compare the parameters. Values at baseline (BL) and six months (6M) were as follow: PRT, BL=19.10 ± 3.86 mm, 6M= 21.02 ± 4.27 mm, TBUT, BL= 8.58 ± 4.90 sec, 6M=8.08 ± 5.32 sec, TMH, BL= 0.38 ± 0.12 mm, 6M= 0.34 ± 0.07 mm. Statistical analysis showed significant difference in tear volume for PRT only at 6 months (p=0.007). Our analysis showed minimal change in the tear characteristics after six months of CWRGP lens wear, which indicated low impact of CWRGP contact lens on tears characteristics of Asian eyes. However, careful monitoring is required to prevent development of adverse events during contact lens wear.

  13. Medium-viscosity polyether impression material: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ritter, A V; Swift, E J

    2000-11-01

    Polyethers are elastomeric materials commonly used for making precision impressions. They are hydrophilic, which facilitates the contact of the unset material with the intraoral tissue and the wetting of the impression by cast materials. The final hardness of this new impression material is reduced in an attempt to overcome rigidity of the set impression. A case is described involving the restoration of a fractured maxillary premolar and a single-phase impression technique using the new polyether impression material.

  14. Subjective evaluation of H.265/HEVC based dynamic adaptive video streaming over HTTP (HEVC-DASH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irondi, Iheanyi; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2015-02-01

    The Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH) standard is becoming increasingly popular for real-time adaptive HTTP streaming of internet video in response to unstable network conditions. Integration of DASH streaming techniques with the new H.265/HEVC video coding standard is a promising area of research. The performance of HEVC-DASH systems has been previously evaluated by a few researchers using objective metrics, however subjective evaluation would provide a better measure of the user's Quality of Experience (QoE) and overall performance of the system. This paper presents a subjective evaluation of an HEVC-DASH system implemented in a hardware testbed. Previous studies in this area have focused on using the current H.264/AVC (Advanced Video Coding) or H.264/SVC (Scalable Video Coding) codecs and moreover, there has been no established standard test procedure for the subjective evaluation of DASH adaptive streaming. In this paper, we define a test plan for HEVC-DASH with a carefully justified data set employing longer video sequences that would be sufficient to demonstrate the bitrate switching operations in response to various network condition patterns. We evaluate the end user's real-time QoE online by investigating the perceived impact of delay, different packet loss rates, fluctuating bandwidth, and the perceived quality of using different DASH video stream segment sizes on a video streaming session using different video sequences. The Mean Opinion Score (MOS) results give an insight into the performance of the system and expectation of the users. The results from this study show the impact of different network impairments and different video segments on users' QoE and further analysis and study may help in optimizing system performance.

  15. No Second Chance to Make a First Impression: The "Thin-Slice" Effect on Instructor Ratings and Learning Outcomes in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samudra, Preeti G.; Min, Inah; Cortina, Kai S.; Miller, Kevin F.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has found strong and persistent effects of instructor first impressions on student evaluations. Because these studies look at real classroom lessons, this finding fits two different interpretations: (1) first impressions may color student experience of instruction regardless of lesson quality, or (2) first impressions may provide…

  16. No Second Chance to Make a First Impression: The "Thin-Slice" Effect on Instructor Ratings and Learning Outcomes in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samudra, Preeti G.; Min, Inah; Cortina, Kai S.; Miller, Kevin F.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has found strong and persistent effects of instructor first impressions on student evaluations. Because these studies look at real classroom lessons, this finding fits two different interpretations: (1) first impressions may color student experience of instruction regardless of lesson quality, or (2) first impressions may provide…

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound evaluation of "healthy" joints in young subjects with severe haemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Di Minno, M N D; Iervolino, S; Soscia, E; Tosetto, A; Coppola, A; Schiavulli, M; Marrone, E; Ruosi, C; Salvatore, M; Di Minno, G

    2013-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography (US) are increasingly used in haemophilia A (HA) to detect early joint changes. A total of 40 clinically asymptomatic joints, never involved by bleeding events ["healthy joints" (HJ)], were evaluated by MRI and, in parallel, by US in 20 young subjects with severe HA (22.45 ± 2.72 years old; no history of arthritides, of viral infections or of inhibitors against factor VIII). The same joints were evaluated in 20 matched non-haemophilic (no-HA) subjects (mean age 23.90 ± 2.31 years, P = 0.078 vs. HA subjects). US images were obtained with specific probe positions according to validated procedures. A validated US score and progressive (P-MRI) and additive (A-MRI) MRI scores were employed for data collection and analysis. The US score was higher in HA than in no-HA subjects (3.40 ± 1.72 vs. 0.80 ± 1.10, P < 0.001). Taking into account only moderate/severe alterations, joint effusion was found in 55% of HA and in 5% of no-HA joints (P < 0.001); synovial hypertrophy was found in 20% of HA and in none of the no-HA joints; cartilage erosion was found in 30% of HA and in none of no-HA joints. MRI examinations confirmed these findings and the US score correlated with the A-MRI (r = 0.732, P < 0.001) and with the P-MRI (r = 0.598, P < 0.001) scores. MRI and US data significantly correlated as to effusion (r = 0.819, P = 0.002), synovial hypertrophy (r = 0.633, P = 0.036) and cartilage erosion (r = 0.734, P = 0.010). Despite inherent limitations, joint US examination identified subclinical abnormalities of HJ in young subjects with severe HA.

  18. Enhancement of footwear impressions in blood.

    PubMed

    Theeuwen, A B; van Barneveld, S; Drok, J W; Keereweer, I; Limborgh, J C; Naber, W M; Velders, T

    1998-07-20

    Methods for chemical enhancement of footwear impressions in blood were compared in order to make a separation between utilization at the scene of crime, the local (regional) police laboratory and the Dutch Forensic Science Laboratory (DFSL).

  19. Muscle fatigue evaluation of astronaut upper limb based on sEMG and subjective assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zu, Xiaoqi; Zhou, Qianxiang; Li, Yun

    2012-07-01

    All movements are driven by muscle contraction, and it is easy to cause muscle fatigue. Evaluation of muscle fatigue is a hot topic in the area of astronaut life support training and rehabilitation. If muscle gets into fatigue condition, it may reduce work efficiency and has an impact on psychological performance. Therefore it is necessary to develop an accurate and usable method on muscle fatigue evaluation of astronaut upper limb. In this study, we developed a method based on surface electromyography (sEMG) and subjective assessment (Borg scale) to evaluate local muscle fatigue. Fifteen healthy young male subjects participated in the experiment. They performed isometric muscle contractions of the upper limb. sEMG of the biceps brachii were recorded during the entire process of isotonic muscle contraction and Borg scales of muscle fatigue were collected in certain times. sEMG were divided into several parts, and then mean energy of each parts were calculated by the one-twelfth band octave method. Equations were derived based on the relationship between the mean energy of sEMG and Borg scale. The results showed that cubic curve could describe the degree of local muscle fatigue, and could be used to evaluate and monitor local muscle fatigue during the entire process.

  20. What is healthy food? Objective nutrient profile scores and subjective lay evaluations in comparison.

    PubMed

    Bucher, T; Müller, B; Siegrist, M

    2015-12-01

    To date, it is unclear how consumers evaluate the healthiness of individual foods and meals and how consumers' perceptions are related to expert opinions. This knowledge is essential for efficient communication of nutrition information with the goal of promoting healthy eating. This study used the fake food buffet method to investigate health perceptions of selected meals and of 54 individual foods and beverages. Lay consumers' subjective healthiness evaluations of meals and foods were compared to objective nutrient profile scores, which were previously shown to correlate highly with expert opinions. The results show that nutrition profile scores and lay evaluations were highly correlated, which indicates that lay people used similar criteria as experts to evaluate the healthiness of foods. However, lay consumers tended to neglect the amount of saturated fat, protein and sodium for their judgments. Also, it was found that while lay consumers were quite able to evaluate single food products, they had difficulties in evaluating entire meals. Future interventions should focus particularly on educating the consumer about the negative effects of diets high in salt and saturated fat and they should improve the consumer's abilities to evaluate entire meals.

  1. A simplified impression technique for dental implants.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Robert E

    2002-03-01

    Dental implants have been considered an acceptable form of dental treatment since the early 1980s. A number of studies have been published describing impression techniques for dental implants. Many of the techniques described are so complex that they may seem daunting to the average restorative dentist. Most general practitioners do not wish to attempt to restore dental implants. This article describes a very simple, yet extremely accurate, technique for making impressions of dental implant fixtures.

  2. Subjective evaluation of MPEG-2 video with and without B frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cermak, Gregory W.; Tweedy, Ernest P.

    1999-11-01

    Two studies examined the effect of B-frames on subjective quality of MPEG-2 video. One study used consumer judgments in a variant of the standard CCIR Recommendation 500-5 procedure for collecting subjective evaluations. The other study used the judgments of a single expert in adjusting the bit rate necessary for MPEG-2 without B-frames to be subjectively equal to MPEG-2 with B-frames at a given bit rate. The results of the two studies were qualitatively similar. Summary of results: Picture quality improved with increase in bit rate until a saturation point was reached. The introduction of B-frames improved picture quality, especially for difficult source material. This was more noticeable at the lower bit rates (e.g., 3 Mb/s). The difference in bit rate between MPEG-2 with and without B-frames varied substantially with the source material. For example, for basketball, 5 Mb/s with B-frames was subjectively equal to 8 Mb/s without B-frames, but for other material the difference was near zero.

  3. Subjective evaluation of temporal fluctuation of sound source and sound field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atagi, Junko

    2002-06-01

    Physical properties and subjective evaluation of the tiime-variant sound field were investigated. Physical properties were analyzed by the autocorrelation function (ACF). Three temporal factors are extracted from the ACF: (i) effective duration, taue, which is ten-percentile delay of the envelope of the ACF; (ii) the delay of the first peak of the ACF, tau1; and (iii) its amplitude, phi1. The results showed that the physical properties of the time-variant sound field are identified by taue and the envelope of the ACF of the sound field. In the second part, physical properties and subjective annoyance of traffic noise were investigated. It was found that the physical properties are identified by the temporal factors tau1 and taue of the traffic noise. Paired-comparison tests on subjective annoyance of the traffic noise were also conducted. It was found that the subjective annoyance is associated with the temporal factors tau1 and taue of the traffic noise. Thesis advisor: Yoichi Ando Copies of this thesis written in English can be obtained from Junko Atagi, 6813 Mosonou, Saijo-cho, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0024, Japan. E-mail address: atagi\\@urban.ne.jp.

  4. The evaluation of singing voice accuracy: a comparison between subjective and objective methods.

    PubMed

    Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline; Lévêque, Yohana; Schön, Daniele; Giovanni, Antoine; Morsomme, Dominique

    2013-03-01

    Vocal accuracy of a sung performance can be evaluated by two methods: acoustic analyses and subjective judgments. Acoustic analyses have been presented as a more reliable solution but both methods are still used for the evaluation of singing voice accuracy. This article presents a first time direct comparison of these methods. One hundred sixty-six untrained singers were asked to sing the popular song "Happy birthday." These recordings constituted the database analyzed. Acoustic analyses were performed to quantify the pitch interval deviation, number of contour errors, and number of tonality modulations for each recording. Additionally, 18 experts in singing voice or music rated the global pitch accuracy of these performances. A high correlation occurred between acoustic measurements and subjective rating. The total model of acoustic analyses explained 81% of the variance of the judges' scores. Their rating was influenced by both tonality modulations and pitch interval deviation. This study highlights the congruence between objective and subjective measurements of vocal accuracy within this first time comparison. Our results confirm the relevance of the pitch interval deviation criterion in vocal accuracy assessment. Furthermore, the number of tonality modulations is also a salient criterion in perceptive rating and should be taken into account in studies using acoustic analyses. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Preliminary impression techniques for microstomia patients

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, K. Aswini; Bhat, Vinaya; Nair, K. Chandrasekheran; Suresh, Reshma

    2016-01-01

    The Prosthetic rehabilitation of microstomia patients presents difficulties at all the stages. The difficulty starts with the preliminary impression making. This is due to the tongue rigidity and the decreased oral opening. A maximum oral opening which is smaller than the size of the tray can make prosthetic treatment challenging. Due to the restricted mouth opening, insertion and removal of the impression trays is extremely cumbersome and various modifications of the trays have been used in the past. Among these are the flexible trays and the sectional trays used with different modes of reassembling the segments extra orally after the impression is made. This article reviews the literature published from 1971 to 2015 concerning preliminary impression techniques used in making impressions for patients with microstomia based on various tray designs. An electronic search was performed across three databases (PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scolar) for relevant citations. The keywords/combinations used for the search were microstomia, limited/constricted/restricted mouth opening/oral access, trismus, sectional trays, impressions and prosthetic/prosthodontic rehabilitation. The search was limited to papers written in English which resulted in a total of 45 related articles of which 17 articles were included for discussion of this review. PMID:27621540

  6. Preliminary impression techniques for microstomia patients.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K Aswini; Bhat, Vinaya; Nair, K Chandrasekheran; Suresh, Reshma

    2016-01-01

    The Prosthetic rehabilitation of microstomia patients presents difficulties at all the stages. The difficulty starts with the preliminary impression making. This is due to the tongue rigidity and the decreased oral opening. A maximum oral opening which is smaller than the size of the tray can make prosthetic treatment challenging. Due to the restricted mouth opening, insertion and removal of the impression trays is extremely cumbersome and various modifications of the trays have been used in the past. Among these are the flexible trays and the sectional trays used with different modes of reassembling the segments extra orally after the impression is made. This article reviews the literature published from 1971 to 2015 concerning preliminary impression techniques used in making impressions for patients with microstomia based on various tray designs. An electronic search was performed across three databases (PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scolar) for relevant citations. The keywords/combinations used for the search were microstomia, limited/constricted/restricted mouth opening/oral access, trismus, sectional trays, impressions and prosthetic/prosthodontic rehabilitation. The search was limited to papers written in English which resulted in a total of 45 related articles of which 17 articles were included for discussion of this review.

  7. Subjective and objective evaluation of sense of space for vehicle occupants based on anthropometric data.

    PubMed

    Hiamtoe, Pitarn; Steinhardt, Florian; Köhler, Uwe; Bengler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    At present, the number of the vehicle requirements has been continuously increasing. These requirements can be related to the customer as well as the technical requirements. Among these, the "feeling of space" of the occupants inside the vehicles can be regarded as one of the most important factors. In this respect, the driver and passengers should be able to experience positive feeling of space inside the vehicle. There are numerous factors that can influence the sense of space inside the vehicle. These include geometry (vehicle dimensions), light exposure, ambient lights, colors, material selection and material surface. Depending on the selection, the sense of space can be dramatically influenced by these factors. In general, human feeling is subjective and cannot be measured by any instrument. The measure can nevertheless be carried out by utilizing the method of subjective evaluation. Throughout the experiments, the method of evaluation is developed and the factors which can influence the interior feeling are analyzed. In this process, psychological perception, architectural aspects and anthropometry are considered and knowledge from the other domains is transferred in the form of a multidisciplinary approach. The experiments with an aim to evaluate the overall sense of space in the vehicle are carried out based on the physical mock up of BMW 1 series (E87). The space perception with different interior dimensions and anthropometric data of test persons are also analyzed. The use of Computer Aided Technology was shown by CATIA V5, PCMAN and RAMSIS. The results show a good correlation between the subjective evaluation and the geometric values.

  8. Principal components analysis of an evaluation of the hemiplegic subject based on the Bobath approach.

    PubMed

    Corriveau, H; Arsenault, A B; Dutil, E; Lepage, Y

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation based on the Bobath approach to treatment has previously been developed and partially validated. The purpose of the present study was to verify the content validity of this evaluation with the use of a statistical approach known as principal components analysis. Thirty-eight hemiplegic subjects participated in the study. Analysis of the scores on each of six parameters (sensorium, active movements, muscle tone, reflex activity, postural reactions, and pain) was evaluated on three occasions across a 2-month period. Each time this produced three factors that contained 70% of the variation in the data set. The first component mainly reflected variations in mobility, the second mainly variations in muscle tone, and the third mainly variations in sensorium and pain. The results of such exploratory analysis highlight the fact that some of the parameters are not only important but also interrelated. These results seem to partially support the conceptual framework substantiating the Bobath approach to treatment.

  9. Multilingual subjective methodology and evaluation of low-rate digital voice processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimolitsas, Spiros; Corcoran, Franklin L.; Baraniecki, Marion R.; Phipps, John G., Jr.

    The methodology and results for a multilingual evaluation of source encoding algorithms operating at 16 kbit/s are presented. The evaluation was conducted in three languages (English, French, and Madarin), using listener opinion subjective assessments to determine whether 'toll-quality' performance is possible at 16 kbit/s. The study demonstrated that toll-quality voice is indeed possible at 16 kbit/s, and that several of the methods evaluated are more robust under high bit error conditions than either 32- or 64-kbit/s encoding. Thus, 16-kbit/s voice coding technology is currently suitable for many applications with the public-switched telephone network, including the next generation of digital circuit multiplication equipment, and integrated services digital network videotelephony.

  10. Effect of disinfection on irreversible hydrocolloid and alternative impression materials and the resultant gypsum casts.

    PubMed

    Suprono, Montry S; Kattadiyil, Mathew T; Goodacre, Charles J; Winer, Myron S

    2012-10-01

    Many new products have been introduced and marketed as alternatives to traditional irreversible hydrocolloid materials. These alternative materials have the same structural formula as addition reaction silicone, also known as vinyl polysiloxane (VPS), impression materials. Currently, there is limited in vitro and in vivo research on these products, including on the effects of chemical disinfectants on the materials. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a spray disinfecting technique on a traditional irreversible hydrocolloid and 3 new alternative impression materials in vitro. The tests were performed in accordance with the American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association (ANSI/ADA) Specification Nos. 18 and 19. Under standardized conditions, 100 impressions were made of a ruled test block with an irreversible hydrocolloid and 3 alternative impression materials. Nondisinfected irreversible hydrocolloid was used as the control. The impressions were examined for surface detail reproduction before and after disinfection with a chloramine-T product. Type III and Type V dental stone casts were evaluated for linear dimensional change and gypsum compatibility. Comparisons of linear dimensional change were analyzed with 2-way ANOVA of mean ranks with the Scheffé post hoc comparisons (α=.05). Data for surface detail reproduction were analyzed with the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank procedure and gypsum compatibility with the Kruskal-Wallis Rank procedure (α=.05). The alternative impression materials demonstrated significantly better outcomes with all 3 parameters tested. Disinfection with chloroamine-T did not have any effect on the 3 alternative impression materials. The irreversible hydrocolloid groups produced the most variability in the measurements of linear dimensional change. All of the tested materials were within the ADA's acceptable limit of 1.0% for linear dimensional change, except for the disinfected irreversible hydrocolloid

  11. Accuracy of 3 different impression techniques for internal connection angulated implants.

    PubMed

    Tsagkalidis, George; Tortopidis, Dimitrios; Mpikos, Pavlos; Kaisarlis, George; Koidis, Petros

    2015-10-01

    Making implant impressions with different angulations requires a more precise and time-consuming impression technique. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the accuracy of nonsplinted, splinted, and snap-fit impression techniques of internal connection implants with different angulations. An experimental device was used to allow a clinical simulation of impression making by means of open and closed tray techniques. Three different impression techniques (nonsplinted, acrylic-resin splinted, and indirect snap-fit) for 6 internal-connected implants at different angulations (0, 15, 25 degrees) were examined using polyether. Impression accuracy was evaluated by measuring the differences in 3-dimensional (3D) position deviations between the implant body/impression coping before the impression procedure and the coping/laboratory analog positioned within the impression, using a coordinate measuring machine. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA. Means were compared with the least significant difference criterion at P<.05. Results showed that at 25 degrees of implant angulation, the highest accuracy was obtained with the splinted technique (mean ±SE: 0.39 ±0.05 mm) and the lowest with the snap-fit technique (0.85 ±0.09 mm); at 15 degrees of angulation, there were no significant differences among splinted (0.22 ±0.04 mm) and nonsplinted technique (0.15 ±0.02 mm) and the lowest accuracy obtained with the snap-fit technique (0.95 ±0.15 mm); and no significant differences were found between nonsplinted and splinted technique at 0 degrees of implant placement. Splinted impression technique exhibited a higher accuracy than the other techniques studied when increased implant angulations at 25 degrees were involved. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Extended stereopsis evaluation of professional and amateur soccer players and subjects without soccer background

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Jan; Tong, Jie; Hornegger, Joachim; Schmidt, Michael; Eskofier, Björn; Michelson, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Stereopsis is one of several visual depth cues. It has been evaluated for athletes of different types of sports in the past. However, most studies do not cover the full range of stereopsis performance. Therefore, we propose computer-supported stereopsis tests that provide an extended assessment and analysis of stereopsis performance including stereo acuity and response times. By providing stationary and moving stimuli they cover static and dynamic stereopsis, respectively. The proposed stereopsis tests were used to compare professional and amateur soccer players with subjects without soccer background. The soccer players could not perform significantly (p ≤ 0.05) superior than the subjects without soccer background. However, the soccer players showed significantly (p ≤ 0.01) superior choice reaction times for monocular stimuli. The results are in congruence with previous findings in literature. PMID:25368596

  13. [COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE SUBJECTIVE EFFECTS OF DEXTROAMPHETAMINE, METHYLPHENIDATE AND PLACEBO].

    PubMed

    TETREAULT, L

    1964-07-11

    The subjective effects of dextroamphetamine, methylphenidate and placebo were evaluated in 16 medical students during the period just prior to their final oral examinations. The subjects served as their own controls. The order of administration of the three medications for each student was randomized, and a double-blind technique was used throughout. A questionnaire method was employed for the collection of results, which proved to be a useful and effective means. It demonstrated that dextroamphetamine, methylphenidate and placebo were statistically different from one another with regard to their effect on efficiency of studying, fatigue, duration of sleep and appetite. There were also significant differences in the number of side effects caused by the three medications. The stimulants, however, did not increase the number of study hours, nor was their use recommended by the students when preparing for important examinations.

  14. Extended stereopsis evaluation of professional and amateur soccer players and subjects without soccer background.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Jan; Tong, Jie; Hornegger, Joachim; Schmidt, Michael; Eskofier, Björn; Michelson, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Stereopsis is one of several visual depth cues. It has been evaluated for athletes of different types of sports in the past. However, most studies do not cover the full range of stereopsis performance. Therefore, we propose computer-supported stereopsis tests that provide an extended assessment and analysis of stereopsis performance including stereo acuity and response times. By providing stationary and moving stimuli they cover static and dynamic stereopsis, respectively. The proposed stereopsis tests were used to compare professional and amateur soccer players with subjects without soccer background. The soccer players could not perform significantly (p ≤ 0.05) superior than the subjects without soccer background. However, the soccer players showed significantly (p ≤ 0.01) superior choice reaction times for monocular stimuli. The results are in congruence with previous findings in literature.

  15. Multi-attribute subjective evaluations of manual tracking tasks vs. objective performance of the human operator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siapkaras, A.

    1977-01-01

    A computational method to deal with the multidimensional nature of tracking and/or monitoring tasks is developed. Operator centered variables, including the operator's perception of the task, are considered. Matrix ratings are defined based on multidimensional scaling techniques and multivariate analysis. The method consists of two distinct steps: (1) to determine the mathematical space of subjective judgements of a certain individual (or group of evaluators) for a given set of tasks and experimental conditionings; and (2) to relate this space with respect to both the task variables and the objective performance criteria used. Results for a variety of second-order trackings with smoothed noise-driven inputs indicate that: (1) many of the internally perceived task variables form a nonorthogonal set; and (2) the structure of the subjective space varies among groups of individuals according to the degree of familiarity they have with such tasks.

  16. Influences of differences in tray design and impression material on impression pressure at edentulous mandible.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Sayumi; Kawara, Misao; Iida, Takashi; Iwasaki, Masatoshi; Komiyama, Osamu

    2017-08-31

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of tray design and impression material on impression pressure in a clinical simulation model of an edentulous mandible. Two types of polyvinylsiloxane elastomer, one type of polyether elastomer, and one type of alginate were used. The three tray types had no relief, 0.36 mm of relief, or 1.4 mm of relief, with or without escape holes. Impression pressure was measured at the median alveolar crest, the bilateral alveolar crests corresponding to molars, and the bilateral buccal shelves. Impression pressure significantly differed in relation to tray design and sensor position. In trays without escape holes, impression pressure was highest at the median alveolar crest and lowest at the buccal shelves, for all impression materials. However, impression material had no significant effects on impression pressure. Our results suggest that bite-pressure load on alveolar crests can be alleviated by making an impression with a tray that has relief and escape holes, while applying pressure to buccal shelves and almost no pressure to alveolar crests.

  17. Category Accessibility and Impression Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, E. Tory; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The present study examined the immediate and delayed effects of unobtrusive exposure to personality trait terms (e.g., "reckless,""persistent") on subjects' subsequent judgments and recollection of information about another person. The implications of individual and situational variation in the accessibility of different categories for judgments…

  18. Category Accessibility and Impression Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, E. Tory; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The present study examined the immediate and delayed effects of unobtrusive exposure to personality trait terms (e.g., "reckless,""persistent") on subjects' subsequent judgments and recollection of information about another person. The implications of individual and situational variation in the accessibility of different categories for judgments…

  19. Preserving subject variability in group fMRI analysis: performance evaluation of GICA vs. IVA.

    PubMed

    Michael, Andrew M; Anderson, Mathew; Miller, Robyn L; Adalı, Tülay; Calhoun, Vince D

    2014-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) is a widely applied technique to derive functionally connected brain networks from fMRI data. Group ICA (GICA) and Independent Vector Analysis (IVA) are extensions of ICA that enable users to perform group fMRI analyses; however a full comparison of the performance limits of GICA and IVA has not been investigated. Recent interest in resting state fMRI data with potentially higher degree of subject variability makes the evaluation of the above techniques important. In this paper we compare component estimation accuracies of GICA and an improved version of IVA using simulated fMRI datasets. We systematically change the degree of inter-subject spatial variability of components and evaluate estimation accuracy over all spatial maps (SMs) and time courses (TCs) of the decomposition. Our results indicate the following: (1) at low levels of SM variability or when just one SM is varied, both GICA and IVA perform well, (2) at higher levels of SM variability or when more than one SMs are varied, IVA continues to perform well but GICA yields SM estimates that are composites of other SMs with errors in TCs, (3) both GICA and IVA remove spatial correlations of overlapping SMs and introduce artificial correlations in their TCs, (4) if number of SMs is over estimated, IVA continues to perform well but GICA introduces artifacts in the varying and extra SMs with artificial correlations in the TCs of extra components, and (5) in the absence or presence of SMs unique to one subject, GICA produces errors in TCs and IVA estimates are accurate. In summary, our simulation experiments (both simplistic and realistic) and our holistic analyses approach indicate that IVA produces results that are closer to ground truth and thereby better preserves subject variability. The improved version of IVA is now packaged into the GIFT toolbox (http://mialab.mrn.org/software/gift).

  20. Preserving subject variability in group fMRI analysis: performance evaluation of GICA vs. IVA

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Andrew M.; Anderson, Mathew; Miller, Robyn L.; Adalı, Tülay; Calhoun, Vince D.

    2014-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) is a widely applied technique to derive functionally connected brain networks from fMRI data. Group ICA (GICA) and Independent Vector Analysis (IVA) are extensions of ICA that enable users to perform group fMRI analyses; however a full comparison of the performance limits of GICA and IVA has not been investigated. Recent interest in resting state fMRI data with potentially higher degree of subject variability makes the evaluation of the above techniques important. In this paper we compare component estimation accuracies of GICA and an improved version of IVA using simulated fMRI datasets. We systematically change the degree of inter-subject spatial variability of components and evaluate estimation accuracy over all spatial maps (SMs) and time courses (TCs) of the decomposition. Our results indicate the following: (1) at low levels of SM variability or when just one SM is varied, both GICA and IVA perform well, (2) at higher levels of SM variability or when more than one SMs are varied, IVA continues to perform well but GICA yields SM estimates that are composites of other SMs with errors in TCs, (3) both GICA and IVA remove spatial correlations of overlapping SMs and introduce artificial correlations in their TCs, (4) if number of SMs is over estimated, IVA continues to perform well but GICA introduces artifacts in the varying and extra SMs with artificial correlations in the TCs of extra components, and (5) in the absence or presence of SMs unique to one subject, GICA produces errors in TCs and IVA estimates are accurate. In summary, our simulation experiments (both simplistic and realistic) and our holistic analyses approach indicate that IVA produces results that are closer to ground truth and thereby better preserves subject variability. The improved version of IVA is now packaged into the GIFT toolbox (http://mialab.mrn.org/software/gift). PMID:25018704

  1. Dimensional Changes of Alginate Dental Impression Materials-An Invitro Study.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Manisha M; Thombare, Ram U

    2015-08-01

    Dentists are always looking ahead for more dimensionally stable material for accurate and successful fabrication of prosthesis in this competitive world. Arrival of newer materials and increased material market puts dentists in dilemma for selection of material. The study evaluated the effect of variations in time of pour and temperature on dimensional stability of three brands of commercially available alginates. Velplast, Marieflex & Zelgan alginate impression materials were evaluated by measuring dimensional accuracy of the master cast. A die was prepared and mounted on the apparatus for the ease of impression making. The prepared casts were categorized into five groups and made up of three brands of alginate impression material with variation in time of pour viz: immediate, 20&40 minutes interval and with varying temperature of 25(0)C, 30(0)C & 40(0)C. Impressions showed least distortion at varying degrees of temperature for 20 minutes, but the values obtained by storing of alginate impressions for 20 minutes at 30(0)C were found to be nearly accurate than the values obtained by storing of impression at 40(0)C. However, storing showed shrinkage of impressions. Marieflex showed better accuracy in comparison with other two materials. Maintenance of temperature and humidity play key role during storage & transport to prevent distortion. But the study suggests immediate pouring which will minimize the distortion. The manipulation instructions, temperature of mixing water, environment & water powder ratio also plays key role in minimizing the distortion.

  2. Influence of retentive areas associated to onlay preparations on the dimensional stability of silicone impression materials.

    PubMed

    Yatsuda, Regis A; Lima, Adriano F; Yatsuda, Regiane; Cavalcanti, Andrea N; Capp, Cláudia I; Novelli, Moacyr D; de Cara, Antonio A

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of retentive areas on onlay preparations on the dimensional alterations in condensation and addition silicone materials. A standard model with an onlay preparation was made. Each impression material was used through the double or simultaneous impression technique (n=25), resulting in a hundred impressions of the same model. Impressions were poured with type IV dental stone. Digital images were taken with a light microscope and the distances between the reference points created on the plaster dies were compared with the ones on the standard model. In the occlusal, mesial-medium and mesial-cervical segments, the double impression (DI) with condensation silicone presented similar values compared to the standard model. The values of the addition silicone with DI were similar to the standard model only in the mesial-occlusal segment. In the other segments (distal-cervical, distal-medium and distal-occlusal), all groups were statistically different from the control. It could be concluded that addition and condensation silicone impressions provided plaster dies with significant dimensional alterations in most of the evaluated areas when compared to the standard model. The retentive areas related to the onlay preparation influenced the dimensional stability of the addition and condensation silicone impressions.

  3. Dimensional Changes of Alginate Dental Impression Materials-An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Thombare, Ram U

    2015-01-01

    Background Dentists are always looking ahead for more dimensionally stable material for accurate and successful fabrication of prosthesis in this competitive world. Arrival of newer materials and increased material market puts dentists in dilemma for selection of material. Aim The study evaluated the effect of variations in time of pour and temperature on dimensional stability of three brands of commercially available alginates. Materials and Methods Velplast, Marieflex & Zelgan alginate impression materials were evaluated by measuring dimensional accuracy of the master cast. A die was prepared and mounted on the apparatus for the ease of impression making. The prepared casts were categorized into five groups and made up of three brands of alginate impression material with variation in time of pour viz: immediate, 20&40 minutes interval and with varying temperature of 250C, 300C & 400C. Results Impressions showed least distortion at varying degrees of temperature for 20 minutes, but the values obtained by storing of alginate impressions for 20 minutes at 300C were found to be nearly accurate than the values obtained by storing of impression at 400C. However, storing showed shrinkage of impressions. Conclusion Marieflex showed better accuracy in comparison with other two materials. Maintenance of temperature and humidity play key role during storage & transport to prevent distortion. But the study suggests immediate pouring which will minimize the distortion. The manipulation instructions, temperature of mixing water, environment & water powder ratio also plays key role in minimizing the distortion. PMID:26436059

  4. Face value: amygdala response reflects the validity of first impressions.

    PubMed

    Rule, Nicholas O; Moran, Joseph M; Freeman, Jonathan B; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D E; Ambady, Nalini

    2011-01-01

    The human amygdala responds to first impressions of people as judged from their faces, such as normative judgments about the trustworthiness of strangers. It is unknown, however, whether amygdala responses to first impressions can be validated by objective criteria. Here, we examined amygdala responses to faces of Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) where real-world outcomes could be measured objectively by the amounts of profits made by each CEO's company. During fMRI scanning, participants made incidental judgments about the symmetry of each CEO's face. After scanning, participants rated each CEO's face on leadership ability. Parametric analyses showed that greater left amygdala response to the CEOs' faces was associated with higher post-scan ratings of the CEOs' leadership ability. In addition, greater left amygdala response was also associated with greater profits made by the CEOs' companies and this relationship was statistically mediated by external raters' perceptions of arousal. Thus, amygdala response reflected both subjective judgments and objective measures of leadership ability based on first impressions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimation of stature from hand impression: a nonconventional approach.

    PubMed

    Ahemad, Nasir; Purkait, Ruma

    2011-05-01

    Stature is used for constructing a biological profile that assists with the identification of an individual. So far, little attention has been paid to the fact that stature can be estimated from hand impressions left at scene of crime. The present study based on practical observations adopted a new methodology of measuring hand length from the depressed area between hypothenar and thenar region on the proximal surface of the palm. Stature and bilateral hand impressions were obtained from 503 men of central India. Seventeen dimensions of hand were measured on the impression. Linear regression equations derived showed hand length followed by palm length are best estimates of stature. Testing the practical utility of the suggested method on latent prints of 137 subjects, a statistically insignificant result was obtained when known and estimated stature derived from latent prints was compared. The suggested approach points to a strong possibility of its usage in crime scene investigation, albeit the fact that validation studies in real-life scenarios are performed.

  6. Evaluation of the Efficacy and Safety of Ramelteon in Subjects with Chronic Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Zammit, Gary; Erman, Milton; Wang-Weigand, Sherry; Sainati, Stephen; Zhang, Jeffrey; Roth, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate efficacy and safety of ramelteon (MT1/MT2-receptor agonist) in subjects with chronic primary insomnia. Methods: Randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of nightly ramelteon treatment (8 mg or 16 mg) in adults (N=405) with primary chronic insomnia (DSM-IV-TR). Latency to persistent sleep (LPS), TST, sleep efficiency, wake time after sleep onset, and number of awakenings were measured by polysomnography. Subject-reported measures were also assessed. Results: LPS at Week 1 (primary measure) was significantly shorter with ramelteon 8 mg (32.2 min) or 16 mg (28.9 min) vs placebo (47.9 min; p <0.001). Significant improvements in LPS were maintained at Weeks 3 and 5. TST was significantly longer with both doses of ramelteon at Week 1 (p <0.001) vs placebo. Subject-reported sleep latency was significantly shorter with ramelteon 8 mg at Weeks 1, 3, and 5 (p <0.001) and ramelteon 16 mg at Weeks 1 and 3 (p ≤0.050) vs placebo. Wake time after sleep onset and number of awakenings were not significantly different with ramelteon 8 mg or 16 mg treatment vs placebo. Subjective TST was significantly longer with ramelteon 8 mg at Weeks 1, 3, and 5 (p ≤0.050) and ramelteon 16 mg at Week 1 (p = 0.003) vs placebo. Ramelteon had no clinically meaningful effect on sleep architecture, next-morning psychomotor tasks, alertness, or ability to concentrate. No withdrawal or rebound effects were observed. Conclusions: Ramelteon reduced LPS over 5 weeks of treatment in subjects with chronic insomnia, with no clinically meaningful sleep architecture alterations, next-morning residual pharmacologic effects, and no evidence of rebound insomnia or withdrawal. No numerical differences were observed between the 2 doses of ramelteon. Citation: Zammit G; Erman M; Wang-Weigand S; Sainati S; Zhang J; Roth T. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of ramelteon in subjects with chronic insomnia. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(5):495-504. PMID:17803013

  7. Correlation between objective and subjective evaluation of profile in bimaxillary protrusion patients after orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Ping; Li, Wei-ran

    2015-07-01

    To correlate the objective cephalometric measurements with subjective facial esthetics in patients with bimaxillary protrusion. The sample consisted of 60 Asian-Chinese patients with bimaxillary protrusion who met the inclusion criteria. The facial esthetics of posttreatment profile and the change of profile on standardized lateral photographs were rated by a panel of 10 orthodontists and a panel of 10 lay persons with bimaxillary protrusion. All of the pretreatment and posttreatment cephalograms were digitized and traced. Twenty-five cephalometric measurements were constructed and analyzed. Correlations between the subjective facial esthetic scores and each cephalometric measurement were evaluated. The cephalometric measurements correlated with the facial esthetic scores of posttreatment profile given by the orthodontist and the lay persons were basically the same. For the evaluation of posttreatment profile in bimaxillary protrusion patients, the upper and lower lip to E-line, upper and lower incisor tip to AP plane, Pg-NB distance, mentolabial angle, and sulcus depth correlated significantly with the esthetic score. For the evaluation of profile change during orthodontic treatment, retraction of upper incisor relative to AP plane or the perpendicular line through sella (line Y), change of upper incisor inclination, change of mentolabial sulcus depth, and retraction of lips relative to E-line were correlated positively with the esthetic value. Cephalometric measurements of lip position, incisor position, and chin morphology were key parameters correlated to facial esthetics.

  8. Explaining the subjective well-being of urban and rural Chinese: income, personal concerns, and societal evaluations.

    PubMed

    Han, Chunping

    2015-01-01

    This study makes an integrated investigation of how subjective well-being is associated with income, personal concerns, and societal evaluations and how these social and psychological correlates of subjective well-being are contextualized within a country. Data used for the empirical analysis come from a nationally representative sample survey conducted in China in 2009. It is found that subjective well-being is independently linked to income, personal concerns, and societal evaluations. Comparisons of urban and rural Chinese further reveal that income, structural attributions of inequality, and evaluations of governance are related to subjective well-being among both groups. Nevertheless, different sets of other evaluative correlates of subjective well-being between urban and rural people stand out, which is conjectured to be related to the long-time institutional, economic, and social segmentation of the two groups. This study has contributed to both the subjective well-being theories and the understanding of the consequences of social inequality.

  9. Accuracy of multi-unit implant impression: traditional techniques versus a digital procedure.

    PubMed

    Menini, Maria; Setti, Paolo; Pera, Francesco; Pera, Paolo; Pesce, Paolo

    2017-09-30

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of different impression techniques on multiple implants. A master cast simulating a jaw with four implants was used. Eight impression techniques were tested: open tray-polyether#1, open tray plus splint of impression copings with acrylic resin-polyether#1, closed tray-polyether#1, open tray-polyether#2, open tray-splint-polyether#2, closed tray-polyether#2, open tray-impression plaster, and digital impression (DI). Five impressions of the master cast were taken with each traditional impression (TI) technique, pouring 35 sample casts. Three different clinicians took 5 DI each (n = 15). A three-dimensional coordinate measurement machine (CMM) was used to measure implant angulation and inter-implant distances on TI casts. TI data and DI Standard Tessellation Language datasets were compared with the master cast. The best and the worst impressions made with TI and DI were selected to fabricate four milled titanium frameworks. Passive fit was evaluated through Sheffield test, screwing each framework on the master cast. Gaps between framework-implant analogs were measured through a stereomicroscope (×40 magnification). Statistically significant differences in accuracy were found comparing the different impression techniques by CMM (p < 0.01). DI performed the best, while TI techniques revealed a greater variability in the results. Sheffield test revealed a mean gap of 0.022 ± 0.023 mm (the best TI), 0.063 ± 0.059 mm (the worst TI), 0.015 ± 0.011 mm (the best DI), and 0.019 ± 0.015 mm (the worst DI). Within the limits of this in vitro study, the digital impression showed better accuracy compared to conventional impressioning. The digital impression might offer a viable alternative to traditional impressions for fabrication of full-arch implant-supported prostheses with satisfactory passive fit.

  10. Surface detail reproduction and dimensional accuracy of molds: influence of disinfectant solutions and elastomeric impression materials.

    PubMed

    Guiraldo, Ricardo D; Berger, Sandrine B; Siqueira, Ronaldo Mt; Grandi, Victor H; Lopes, Murilo B; Gonini-Júnior, Alcides; Caixeta, Rodrigo V; de Carvalho, Rodrigo V; Sinhoreti, Mário Ac

    2017-04-01

    This study compared the surface detail reproduction and dimensional accuracy of molds after disinfection using 2% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate or 0.2% peracetic acid to those of molds that were not disinfected, for four elastomeric impression materials: polysulfide (Light Bodied Permlastic), polyether (Impregum Soft), polydimethylsiloxane (Oranwash L) andpolyvinylsiloxane (Aquasil Ultra LV). The molds were prepared on a matrix by applying pressure, using a perforated metal tray. The molds were removed following polymerization and either disinfected (by soaking in one of the solutions for 15 minutes) or not disinfected. The samples were thus divided into 16 groups (n=5). Surface detail reproduction and dimensional accuracy were evaluated using optical microscopy to assess the 20-μm line over its entire 25 mm length. The dimensional accuracy results (%) were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the means were compared by Tukey's test (a=5%). The 20-μm line was completely reproduced by all elastomeric impression materials, regardless of disinfection procedure. There was no significant difference between the control group and molds disinfected with peracetic acid for the elastomeric materials Impregum Soft (polyether) and Aquasil Ultra LV (polyvinylsiloxane). The high-level disinfectant peracetic acid would be the choice material for disinfection. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  11. Evaluating Abstract Art: Relation between Term Usage, Subjective Ratings, Image Properties and Personality Traits.

    PubMed

    Lyssenko, Nathalie; Redies, Christoph; Hayn-Leichsenring, Gregor U

    2016-01-01

    One of the major challenges in experimental aesthetics is the uncertainty of the terminology used in experiments. In this study, we recorded terms that are spontaneously used by participants to describe abstract artworks and studied their relation to the second-order statistical image properties of the same artworks (Experiment 1). We found that the usage frequency of some structure-describing terms correlates with statistical image properties, such as PHOG Self-Similarity, Anisotropy and Complexity. Additionally, emotion-associated terms correlate with measured color values. Next, based on the most frequently used terms, we created five different rating scales (Experiment 2) and obtained ratings of participants for the abstract paintings on these scales. We found significant correlations between descriptive score ratings (e.g., between structure and subjective complexity), between evaluative and descriptive score ratings (e.g., between preference and subjective complexity/interest) and between descriptive score ratings and statistical image properties (e.g., between interest and PHOG Self-Similarity, Complexity and Anisotropy). Additionally, we determined the participants' personality traits as described in the 'Big Five Inventory' (Goldberg, 1990; Rammstedt and John, 2005) and correlated them with the ratings and preferences of individual participants. Participants with higher scores for Neuroticism showed preferences for objectively more complex images, as well as a different notion of the term complex when compared with participants with lower scores for Neuroticism. In conclusion, this study demonstrates an association between objectively measured image properties and the subjective terms that participants use to describe or evaluate abstract artworks. Moreover, our results suggest that the description of abstract artworks, their evaluation and the preference of participants for their low-level statistical properties are linked to personality traits.

  12. Evaluating Abstract Art: Relation between Term Usage, Subjective Ratings, Image Properties and Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Lyssenko, Nathalie; Redies, Christoph; Hayn-Leichsenring, Gregor U.

    2016-01-01

    One of the major challenges in experimental aesthetics is the uncertainty of the terminology used in experiments. In this study, we recorded terms that are spontaneously used by participants to describe abstract artworks and studied their relation to the second-order statistical image properties of the same artworks (Experiment 1). We found that the usage frequency of some structure-describing terms correlates with statistical image properties, such as PHOG Self-Similarity, Anisotropy and Complexity. Additionally, emotion-associated terms correlate with measured color values. Next, based on the most frequently used terms, we created five different rating scales (Experiment 2) and obtained ratings of participants for the abstract paintings on these scales. We found significant correlations between descriptive score ratings (e.g., between structure and subjective complexity), between evaluative and descriptive score ratings (e.g., between preference and subjective complexity/interest) and between descriptive score ratings and statistical image properties (e.g., between interest and PHOG Self-Similarity, Complexity and Anisotropy). Additionally, we determined the participants’ personality traits as described in the ‘Big Five Inventory’ (Goldberg, 1990; Rammstedt and John, 2005) and correlated them with the ratings and preferences of individual participants. Participants with higher scores for Neuroticism showed preferences for objectively more complex images, as well as a different notion of the term complex when compared with participants with lower scores for Neuroticism. In conclusion, this study demonstrates an association between objectively measured image properties and the subjective terms that participants use to describe or evaluate abstract artworks. Moreover, our results suggest that the description of abstract artworks, their evaluation and the preference of participants for their low-level statistical properties are linked to personality traits

  13. Electrodiagnostic evaluation of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome regarding the presence of subjective and physical findings.

    PubMed

    Radovic, Diana; Lazovic, Milica; Nikolic, Dejan; Radosavljevic, Natasa; Hrkovic, Marija

    2014-03-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the changes of median nerve conduction velocities by electrodiagnostic procedure in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients with and without present subjective and physical findings. We have evaluated 116 patients that were diagnosis with CTS. Subjective findings: weakness, numbness and night pain were analyzed. Further physical findings were evaluated: Tinels sign, muscles hypotrophy and weakness according to muscle manual test (MMT). Duration of complaints was evaluated as well. Electroneurographic findings included: estimation of median nerve motor terminal latency (mMTL), sensory velocity (mSV) and motor velocity (mMV). Significantly longer complaints were present in patients who experienced night pain (p=0.015) and those with muscles weakness on MMT (p=0.016). Statistically significant increase for mMTL values was noticed for patients with Tinels sign (p=0.045), present muscles hypotrophy (p=0.001) and weakness on MMT (p=0.001). There is significant decrease for mMV in group with present Tinels sign (p=0.048), muscle hypotrophy (p=0.003) and weakness on MMT (p=0.002), and for mSV in group with present muscle hypotrophy (p=0.008) and group with weakness on MMT (p=0.019). Multivariate logistic regressional analysis shown that only for hypotrophy, mMTL variable presents significant independent contributor (p=0.009). For the diagnosis confirmation and treatment planning along with elecroneurography it is necessary to evaluate patients with CTS clinically, since different clinical manifestations are correlating in different degree with electroneurographic findings.

  14. Nondestructive Evaluation Tests Performed on Space Shuttle Leading- Edge Materials Subjected to Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Martin, Richard E.; Bodis, James R.

    2005-01-01

    In support of the space shuttle Return To Flight efforts at the NASA Glenn Research Center, a series of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) tests were performed on reinforced carbon/carbon (RCC) composite panels subjected to ballistic foam impact. The impact tests were conducted to refine and verify analytical models of an external tank foam strike on the space shuttle leading edge. The NDE tests were conducted to quantify the size and location of the resulting damage zone as well as to identify hidden damage.

  15. Stroke following appendectomy under general anesthesia in a patient with basilar impression.

    PubMed

    Zotter, H; Zenz, W; Gallistl, S; Zohrer, B; Lindbichler, F

    2000-11-01

    We report a boy who developed a vertebral stroke immediately after an appendectomy. Basilar impression was diagnosed eight years after this event when skull roentgenograms revealed basilar impression with high standing tip of the odontoid. We speculate that muscle relaxation and cervical hyperextension during intubation in the presence of basilar impression resulted in vertebral artery dissection and stroke. We suggest that patients with vertebral stroke and no obvious risk factors should be evaluated for the presence of malformations of the craniovertebral junction to be able to take precautions against excessive neck movement during intubation.

  16. An evaluation of the hemiplegic subject based on the Bobath approach. Part III. A validation study.

    PubMed

    Arsenault, A B; Dutil, E; Lambert, J; Corriveau, H; Guarna, F; Drouin, G

    1988-01-01

    Sixty-two hemiplegic subjects were treated with the Bobath approach for a period of three months. During this time they were evaluated on three occasions. The testing battery consisted of a Bobath evaluation, the Brunnstrom scale, the Fugl-Meyer test, the Upper Extremity Functional Test (UEFT) and the Present Pain Intensity (PPI) of the McGill pain questionnaire. A Friedman analysis of variance showed that, except for pain, all the protocols used disclosed significant progress (p less than 0.001) over time in terms of motor recovery. Except for pain, the results of the Bobath evaluation were significantly correlated (Spearman's Rho, p less than 0.001) with the results of the other testing procedures. It is concluded that the new Bobath evaluation proposed in a previous paper is as sensitive in depicting progress in motor recovery over time as are the other testing procedures used. Furthermore, this new evaluation seems to be measuring similar properties to the other tests. However, pain (PPI) appears not to be an important dependent variable.

  17. Dimensional stability of silicone-based impression materials.

    PubMed

    Fano, V; Gennari, P U; Ortalli, I

    1992-03-01

    This study attempts to demonstrate that the polymerization reaction is not the only factor that affects the shrinkage of silicone-based impression materials because evaporation of the constituents also contributes to the shrinkage. These factors can be evaluated by the study of time-dependent dimensional changes. This is shown both by chemical kinetics and by experimental testing of condensation and addition polymerizing impression materials with different viscosities. Comparison of the different materials shows that the two contributions, polymerization shrinkage, and evaporation shrinkage, can be assessed separately by analysis of the time-dependent shrinkage diagrams. The instability due to the polymerization reaction is complete after a few hours, but the contribution of the constituent evaporation, if present, can have a significant long-term role.

  18. Cervicovertebral anomalies and basilar impression in Goldenhar syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gosain, A K; McCarthy, J G; Pinto, R S

    1994-03-01

    Although previously unreported, neurologic compromise may occur secondary to anomalies of the cervical spine in the oculoauriculovertebral spectrum. Medical records and cephalograms were reviewed from 18 patients with classic Goldenhar syndrome and from 18 normal adults. One patient, a 22-year-old man, had experienced a 5-year history of progressive neurologic compromise from basilar impression; the remaining 17 patients were asymptomatic. Radiographic evidence of cervicovertebral fusion was documented in 11 of 18 patients (61 percent). Fusion occurred at every cervical level other than the atlantoaxial joint. Radiographic indices that characterize the cranial base were not significantly different between asymptomatic Goldenhar patients and normal adults. Posterior inclination of the odontoid with respect to the foramen magnum appears to be the best indicator that a patient is at risk for basilar impression. Careful radiographic evaluation may indicate which patients require more careful surveillance with periodic neurologic examination and CT and/or MRI scans.

  19. Pre- and post-set hydrophilicity of elastomeric impression materials.

    PubMed

    Michalakis, Konstantinos X; Bakopoulou, Athina; Hirayama, Hiroshi; Garefis, Dimitris P; Garefis, Pavlos D

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the hydrophilicity of one polyether, four poly(vinyl siloxanes), and one condensation silicone before and after setting under simulated clinical conditions, and to correlate the findings to the contact angle values of these materials. The hydrophilicity before and after setting, as well as the contact angle values of the elastomeric impression materials were evaluated. Part I: A freshly extracted tooth, which was prepared for a full coverage restoration, was kept in saliva for 15 minutes and was then rinsed for 10 seconds. Impressions were taken without any drying of the tooth. A total of ten samples were taken for each material. The specimens were evaluated at a 10x magnification for defects. Part II: After the evaluation, the impressions were poured with a type IV dental stone and were left for 1 hour before separation. The stone specimens were then evaluated at a 10x magnification for negative voids. A total of 60 specimens were tested. Part III: Sixty identical 10 x 10 x 4 mm(2) plastic molds were used for the fabrication of the impression material specimens. Contact angle measurements of each specimen were made 1 hour after separation from the plastic mold. A calibrated pipette was used to place a drop (0.05 ml) of saturated calcium sulfate dehydrate onto each specimen. Digital images were taken for each specimen, and contact angle values were measured with appropriate software. Part I: One-way ANOVA revealed significant differences among the materials (F = 15.526, p < 0.0005). Polyether had the fewest voids. The poly(vinyl siloxanes) did not present any significant differences among them, according to Tukey's HSD test (p < 0.05). Part II: One-way ANOVA revealed significant differences among the materials (F = 46.164, p < 0.0005). Polyether (Impregum) was the material which produced stone specimens with the fewest voids. Part III: One-way ANOVA indicated significant differences among the elastomeric impression materials (F = 494.918, p < 0

  20. Photographic and videographic assessment of the smile: objective and subjective evaluations of posed and spontaneous smiles.

    PubMed

    Walder, Joan F; Freeman, Katherine; Lipp, Mitchell J; Nicolay, Olivier F; Cisneros, George J

    2013-12-01

    Esthetic considerations play an increasingly important role in patient care, and clinicians need a methodology that includes imaging techniques to capture the dynamic nature of the smile. Photographs of the posed smile are routinely used to guide diagnosis and treatment, but there is no standardized and validated method for recording the dynamic smile. The purposes of this study were to (1) determine whether a posed smile is reproducible, (2) compare visual and verbal cues in eliciting a smile, and (3) compare the diagnostic value of videography and photography in evaluating a patient's smile. The smiles of 22 subjects were simultaneously photographed and videotaped on 2 separate occasions. For objective comparisons, measurements of the smile were obtained from 8 × 10 color still photographs and selected digitized video images. A panel consisting of a layperson, an oral surgeon, an orthodontist, and a prosthodontist subjectively assessed the reproducibility of the smile, posed vs spontaneous smiles, and the diagnostic value of video vs still images. Objective measurements showed that the posed smile can be reliably reproduced, whether captured by videography or still photography. However, subjectively, the panel members detected differences between the posed smiles taken on different days 80% of the time. The clinician panel members expressed a strong preference for videography over photography and for the spontaneous over the posed smiles. This study emphasizes the need to continue to investigate and standardize the methods of eliciting and recording a smile of diagnostic quality. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Personality, culture, and subjective well-being: emotional and cognitive evaluations of life.

    PubMed

    Diener, Ed; Oishi, Shigehiro; Lucas, Richard E

    2003-01-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB), people's emotional and cognitive evaluations of their lives, includes what lay people call happiness, peace, fulfillment, and life satisfaction. Personality dispositions such as extraversion, neuroticism, and self-esteem can markedly influence levels of SWB. Although personality can explain a significant amount of the variability in SWB, life circumstances also influence long-term levels. Cultural variables explain differences in mean levels of SWB and appear to be due to objective factors such as wealth, to norms dictating appropriate feelings and how important SWB is considered to be, and to the relative approach versus avoidance tendencies of societies. Culture can also moderate which variables most influence SWB. Although it is challenging to assess SWB across societies, the measures have some degree of cross-cultural validity. Although nations can be evaluated by their levels of SWB, there are still many open questions in this area.

  2. Links between subjective assessments and objective metrics for steering, and evaluation of driver ratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nybacka, Mikael; He, Xuxin; Su, Zhicheng; Drugge, Lars; Bakker, Egbert

    2014-05-01

    During the development of new vehicles, finding correlation links between subjective assessments (SA) and objective metrics (OM) is an important part of the vehicle evaluation process. Studying different correlation links is important in that the knowledge gained can be used at the front end of development, during testing and when creating new systems. Both SA from expert drivers using a rating scale of 1-10 and OM from different tests measured by a steering robot were collected using standard testing protocols at an automotive manufacturer. The driver ratings were evaluated and the correlations were analysed using regression analysis and neural networks through a case study approach. Links were identified and were compared with related research.

  3. Linear dimensional stability of elastomeric impression materials over time.

    PubMed

    Garrofé, Analía B; Ferrari, Beatriz A; Picca, Mariana; Kaplan, Andrea E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the linear dimensional stability of different elastomeric impression materials over time. A metal mold was designed with its custom trays, which were made of thermoplastic sheets (Sabilex sheets 0.125 mm thick). Three impressions were taken of it with each of the following: the polyvinylsiloxane Examix-GC-(AdEx), Aquasil-Dentsply-(AdAq) and Panasil-Kettenbach-(AdPa), and the polydimethylsiloxane Densell-Dental Medrano-(CoDe), Speedex-Coltene-(CoSp) and Lastic-Kettenbach-(CoLa). All impressions were taken with putty and light-body materials using a one-step technique. Standardized digital photographs were taken at different time intervals (0, 15, 30, 60, 120 minutes; 24 hours; 7 and 14 days), using an "ad-hoc" device, and analyzed using software (Image Tool) by measuring the distance between lines previously made at the top of the mold. The results were analyzed by ANOVA for repeated measures. The initial and final values for mean and SD were: AdEx: 1.32 (0.01) and 1.31 (0.00); AdAq: 1.32 (0.00) and 1.32 (0.00), AdPa: 1.327 (0.006) and 1.31 (0.00); CoDe: 1.32 (0.00) and 1.32 (0.01); CoSp: 1.327 (0.006) and 1.31 (0.00), CoLa: 1.327 (0.006) and 1.303 (0.006). Statistical evaluation showed that both material and time have significant effects. Under the conditions in this study we conclude that time would significantly affect the lineal dimensional stability of elastomeric impression materials.

  4. The study of surgical image quality evaluation system by subjective quality factor method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian J.; Xuan, Jason R.; Yang, Xirong; Yu, Honggang; Koullick, Edouard

    2016-03-01

    GreenLightTM procedure is an effective and economical way of treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH); there are almost a million of patients treated with GreenLightTM worldwide. During the surgical procedure, the surgeon or physician will rely on the monitoring video system to survey and confirm the surgical progress. There are a few obstructions that could greatly affect the image quality of the monitoring video, like laser glare by the tissue and body fluid, air bubbles and debris generated by tissue evaporation, and bleeding, just to name a few. In order to improve the physician's visual experience of a laser surgical procedure, the system performance parameter related to image quality needs to be well defined. However, since image quality is the integrated set of perceptions of the overall degree of excellence of an image, or in other words, image quality is the perceptually weighted combination of significant attributes (contrast, graininess …) of an image when considered in its marketplace or application, there is no standard definition on overall image or video quality especially for the no-reference case (without a standard chart as reference). In this study, Subjective Quality Factor (SQF) and acutance are used for no-reference image quality evaluation. Basic image quality parameters, like sharpness, color accuracy, size of obstruction and transmission of obstruction, are used as subparameter to define the rating scale for image quality evaluation or comparison. Sample image groups were evaluated by human observers according to the rating scale. Surveys of physician groups were also conducted with lab generated sample videos. The study shows that human subjective perception is a trustworthy way of image quality evaluation. More systematic investigation on the relationship between video quality and image quality of each frame will be conducted as a future study.

  5. Self-Esteem and Impression Management Explanations for Self-Serving Biases.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Paul

    1990-08-01

    Individuals from diverse societies and cultures have been found to take credit for successful outcomes and deny responsibility for failures (Tedeschi, Lindskold, & Rosenfeld, 1985). The results of previous research suggest that both self-esteem and impression management processes may underlie the occurrence of these self-serving attributions. The present experiment assessed the mediating role of these alternative theoretical explanations for the self-serving bias. The subjects, American female students, succeeded or failed on a word association task and had their attributions assessed on a bogus lie-detector apparatus or on paper-and-pencil scales. This assessment was under conditions of low, medium, or high audience evaluation. An analysis of both primary and ancillary dependent measures generally supported the position of self-esteem theory.

  6. A predictable and accurate technique with elastomeric impression materials.

    PubMed

    Barghi, N; Ontiveros, J C

    1999-08-01

    A method for obtaining more predictable and accurate final impressions with polyvinylsiloxane impression materials in conjunction with stock trays is proposed and tested. Heavy impression material is used in advance for construction of a modified custom tray, while extra-light material is used for obtaining a more accurate final impression.

  7. How To Achieve Better Impressions in Computer-Mediated Communication?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yuliang; Ginther, Dean

    This paper presents a review of the literature on impression formation in face-to-face (FtF) and computer-mediated communication (CMC) and provides impression management recommendations for CMC users in a variety of environments. The first section provides an introduction to impression formation. Factors affecting impression formation in FtF and…

  8. 21 CFR 872.6880 - Preformed impression tray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preformed impression tray. 872.6880 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6880 Preformed impression tray. (a) Identification. A preformed impression tray is a metal or plastic device intended to hold impression material...

  9. Patients' preferences when comparing analogue implant impressions using a polyether impression material versus digital impressions (Intraoral Scan) of dental implants.

    PubMed

    Wismeijer, Daniel; Mans, Ronny; van Genuchten, Michiel; Reijers, Hajo A

    2014-10-01

    The primary objective of this clinical study was to assess the patients' perception of the difference between an analogue impression approach on the one hand and an intra-oral scan (IO scan) on the other when restoring implants in the non-aesthetic zone. A second objective was to analyse the difference in time needed to perform these two procedures. Thirty consecutive patients who had received 41 implants (Straumann tissue level) in the non-aesthetic zone in an implant-based referral practice setting in the Netherlands. As they were to receive crown and or bridge work on the implants, in one session, the final impressions were taken with both an analogue technique and with an intraoral scan. Patients were also asked if, directly after the treatment was carried out, they would be prepared to fill out a questionnaire on their perception of both techniques. The time involved following these two procedures was also recorded. The preparatory activities of the treatment, the taste of the impression material and the overall preference of the patients were significantly in favour of the IO scan. The bite registration, the scan head and gag reflex positively tended to the IO scan, but none of these effects were significant. The overall time involved with the IO scan was more negatively perceived than the analogue impression. Overall less time was involved when following the analogue impression technique than with the IO scan. The overall preference of the patients in our sample is significantly in favour of the approach using the IO scan. This preference relates mainly to the differences between the compared approaches with respect to taste effects and their preparatory activities. The patients did perceive the duration of IO scan more negatively than the analogue impression approach. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Functional MRI evaluation of supplementary motor area language dominance in right- and left-handed subjects.

    PubMed

    Dalacorte, Amauri; Portuguez, Mirna Wetters; Maurer das Neves, Carlos Magno; Anes, Maurício; Dacosta, Jaderson Costa

    2012-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive brain imaging technique widely used in the evaluation of the brain function that provides images with high temporal and spatial resolution. Investigation of the supplementary motor area (SMA) function is critical in the pre-surgical evaluation of neurological patients, since marked individual differences and complex overlapping with adjacent cortical areas exist, and it is important to spare the SMA from lesions when adjacent cortical tissue is surgically removed. We used fMRI to assess the activity of SMA in six right-handed and six left-handed healthy volunteers when a task requiring silent repetition of a series of words was given. Brain activation areas in each of the subjects were localized according to the standard Talairach coordinate space, and the individual voxels for each map were compared after 3D sagittal images were created and SMA was delimited. Quantitative analysis of hemispheric and bilateral SMA activation was described as mean ± standard deviation of hot points/total points. The results show that the language task induced bilateral SMA activation. Left SMA activation was significantly higher than right SMA activation in both right-handed and left-handed subjects.

  11. Cytogenomic Evaluation of Subjects with Syndromic and Nonsyndromic Conotruncal Heart Defects

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Karen Regina; Mergener, Rafaella; Huber, Janaina; Campos Pellanda, Lucia; Riegel, Mariluce

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable advances in the detection of genomic abnormalities in congenital heart disease (CHD), the etiology of CHD remains largely unknown. CHD is the most common birth defect and is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality, and conotruncal defects constitute 20% of all CHD cases. We used array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) to retrospectively study 60 subjects with conotruncal defects and identify genomic imbalances. The DNA copy number variations (CNVs) detected were matched with data from genomic databases, and their clinical significance was evaluated. We found that 38.3% (23/60) of CHD cases possessed genomic imbalances. In 8.3% (5/60) of these cases, the imbalances were causal or potentially causal CNVs; in 8.3% (5/60), unclassified CNVs were identified; and in 21.6% (13/60), common variants were detected. Although the interpretation of the results must be refined and there is not yet a consensus regarding the types of CHD cases in which array-CGH should be used as a first-line test, the identification of these CNVs can assist in the evaluation and management of CHD. The results of such studies emphasize the growing importance of the use of genome-wide assays in subjects with CHD to increase the number of genomic data sets associated with this condition. PMID:26137477

  12. Electromyographic Evaluation of the Effect of Lined Dentures on Masticatory Muscle Activity in Edentulous Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Shitij; Gaur, Abhishek; Dupare, Arun; Rastogi, Shiksha; Kamatagi, Laxmikant

    2015-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to examine changes in relative electromyographic (EMG) activities of temporal and masseter muscles after relining the dentures with silicone and acrylic-resin based denture liners. Materials and Methods Conventional complete dentures were fabricated for 20 edentulous patients. One month after completing adjustments of the dentures, electromyography of the masseter and temporalis muscle during maximum intercuspation was recorded. The dentures were then relined with a silicone denture liner and after an adaptation period of one month, were again subjected for electromyographic evaluation. Further, the dentures were relined with acrylic denture liner and subjected to electromyographic evaluation. Data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15.0. Intergroup comparisons were done using ANOVA followed by post-hoc assessments using Tukey HSD test. Results Mean amplitude and duration with conventional dentures was found to be significantly lower as compared to silicone lined and acrylic lined dentures for all the comparisons. Statistically, no significant difference between silicone lined and acrylic lined dentures was observed for any of the comparisons. Conclusion Within the limitations of this experimental design, it was concluded that relining significantly increases electromyographic activity of the masseter and temporalis muscles. Thus, resulting in an improved biting force, chewing efficiency and masticatory performance. There were no significant differences between silicone and acrylic based denture liners for both electromyographic variables. PMID:26436054

  13. [Design of standard voice sample text for subjective auditory perceptual evaluation of voice disorders].

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-rang; Sun, Yan-yan; Xu, Wen

    2010-09-01

    To design a speech voice sample text with all phonemes in Mandarin for subjective auditory perceptual evaluation of voice disorders. The principles for design of a speech voice sample text are: The short text should include the 21 initials and 39 finals, this may cover all the phonemes in Mandarin. Also, the short text should have some meanings. A short text was made out. It had 155 Chinese words, and included 21 initials and 38 finals (the final, ê, was not included because it was rarely used in Mandarin). Also, the text covered 17 light tones and one "Erhua". The constituent ratios of the initials and finals presented in this short text were statistically similar as those in Mandarin according to the method of similarity of the sample and population (r = 0.742, P < 0.001 and r = 0.844, P < 0.001, respectively). The constituent ratios of the tones presented in this short text were statistically not similar as those in Mandarin (r = 0.731, P > 0.05). A speech voice sample text with all phonemes in Mandarin was made out. The constituent ratios of the initials and finals presented in this short text are similar as those in Mandarin. Its value for subjective auditory perceptual evaluation of voice disorders need further study.

  14. Physician empathy and subjective evaluation of medical treatment outcome in trauma surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Steinhausen, Simone; Ommen, Oliver; Thüm, Sonja; Lefering, Rolf; Koehler, Thorsten; Neugebauer, Edmund; Pfaff, Holger

    2014-04-01

    To analyze whether patients' perception of their medical treatment outcome is higher among patients who experienced a higher empathy by trauma surgeons during their stay in hospital. 127 patients were surveyed six weeks after discharge from the trauma surgical general ward. Subjective evaluation of medical treatment outcome was measured with the corresponding scale from the Cologne Patient Questionnaire. Clinical empathy was assessed by using the CARE measure. The influence of physician empathy and control variables on a dichotomized index of subjective evaluation of medical treatment outcome was identified with a logistic regression. 120 patients were included in the logistic regression analysis. Compared to patients with physician empathy ratings of less than 30 points, patients with ratings of 41 points or higher have a 20-fold higher probability to be in the group with a better medical treatment outcome on the CPQ-scale (α-level<.001, R(2) 46.9). Findings emphasize the importance of a well-functioning relationship between physician and patient even in a surgical setting where the focus is mostly on the bare medical treatment. Communication trainings i.e. in surgical education can be an effective way to improve the ability to show empathy with patients' concerns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An evaluation of the safety and efficacy of bimatoprost for eyelash growth in pediatric subjects

    PubMed Central

    Borchert, Mark; Bruce, Suzanne; Wirta, David; Yoelin, Steven G; Lee, Sungwook; Mao, Cheri; VanDenburgh, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Evaluate the safety and effectiveness of bimatoprost 0.03% for treatment of eyelash hypotrichosis in a pediatric population. Patients and methods This multicenter, randomized, double-masked, parallel-group study was conducted at seven sites in the US and Brazil. Subjects with eyelash hypotrichosis caused by chemotherapy or alopecia areata (aged 5–17 years) or healthy adolescents aged 15–17 years were enrolled (N=71). Subjects applied bimatoprost 0.03% or vehicle to upper eyelid margins once nightly for 4 months and were followed for 1 month post-treatment. Eyelash prominence was assessed using the validated 4-grade Global Eyelash Assessment scale with photonumeric guide. Changes in eyelash length, thickness, and darkness were measured by digital image analysis. Safety was assessed by adverse events and ophthalmic observations. Results Eyelash prominence improved in a significantly greater proportion of subjects treated with bimatoprost compared with vehicle at month 4 (70.8% versus 26.1%; P<0.001). This benefit was sustained at month 5 post-treatment assessment. Digital image analysis measures were significantly improved with bimatoprost. Significant treatment benefits with bimatoprost versus vehicle were evident among the healthy adolescents but not in the postchemotherapy or alopecia areata subgroups. The safety profile of bimatoprost was consistent with previous studies in adults. Conclusion Bimatoprost was safe and well tolerated in pediatric subjects with eyelash hypotrichosis. In this study with limited sample size, subgroup analyses showed that treatment was effective in healthy adolescents with no concurrent contributing medical condition, but not in those with eyelash hypotrichosis due to chemotherapy or alopecia areata. PMID:27022239

  16. Evaluation of nasal IgA secretion in normal subjects by nasal spray and aspiration.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Chisa; Kido, Hiroshi; Sawabuchi, Takako; Mizuno, Dai; Hayama, Masaki; Yanagawa, Hiroaki; Takeda, Noriaki

    2009-06-01

    Nasal washing (NW) is a popular method for collecting human nasal lavage fluid. However, for NW the subject must be trained, and the method is unsuitable for field studies on untrained subjects. To overcome this problem, we have developed an easy and painless method, a nasal spray and aspiration (NSA) method. This method is different from NW in that the nasal cavity is misted over with saline, and the nasal lavage fluid is aspirated from the nostrils through a silicon tube. First, nasal lavage fluid was obtained twice by NSA with an interval of a week between lavages to evaluate intraindividual variability, and the IgA and protein levels in the nasal lavage fluid were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and bicinchoninic acid assay, respectively. Next, the IgA value determined by NSA was compared with that by NW in another 12 normal subjects 2 days after NSA. In 10 normal subjects, mean volume of saline sprayed into the nose was 0.46+/-0.15 ml (mean+/-S.D.). Mean volume of aspirated nasal lavage fluid containing both sprayed saline and nasal secretion was 0.44+/-0.37 ml. The mean IgA level/mg protein in the nasal lavage fluid determined by NSA was 112+/-18 microg/mg protein at the first and 99+/-20 at the second times of measurement, being highly reproducible. The mean value by NSA was 114+/-19 microg/mg protein, being almost the same as that by NW of 99+/-27. These findings suggest that the IgA level/mg protein in nasal lavage fluid determined by NSA instead of NW might be useful for assessing the variability of nasal IgA secretion.

  17. An evaluation of the safety and efficacy of bimatoprost for eyelash growth in pediatric subjects.

    PubMed

    Borchert, Mark; Bruce, Suzanne; Wirta, David; Yoelin, Steven G; Lee, Sungwook; Mao, Cheri; VanDenburgh, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Evaluate the safety and effectiveness of bimatoprost 0.03% for treatment of eyelash hypotrichosis in a pediatric population. This multicenter, randomized, double-masked, parallel-group study was conducted at seven sites in the US and Brazil. Subjects with eyelash hypotrichosis caused by chemotherapy or alopecia areata (aged 5-17 years) or healthy adolescents aged 15-17 years were enrolled (N=71). Subjects applied bimatoprost 0.03% or vehicle to upper eyelid margins once nightly for 4 months and were followed for 1 month post-treatment. Eyelash prominence was assessed using the validated 4-grade Global Eyelash Assessment scale with photonumeric guide. Changes in eyelash length, thickness, and darkness were measured by digital image analysis. Safety was assessed by adverse events and ophthalmic observations. Eyelash prominence improved in a significantly greater proportion of subjects treated with bimatoprost compared with vehicle at month 4 (70.8% versus 26.1%; P<0.001). This benefit was sustained at month 5 post-treatment assessment. Digital image analysis measures were significantly improved with bimatoprost. Significant treatment benefits with bimatoprost versus vehicle were evident among the healthy adolescents but not in the postchemotherapy or alopecia areata subgroups. The safety profile of bimatoprost was consistent with previous studies in adults. Bimatoprost was safe and well tolerated in pediatric subjects with eyelash hypotrichosis. In this study with limited sample size, subgroup analyses showed that treatment was effective in healthy adolescents with no concurrent contributing medical condition, but not in those with eyelash hypotrichosis due to chemotherapy or alopecia areata.

  18. Accuracy of Digital vs. Conventional Implant Impressions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang J.; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Gianneschi, Grace E.; Gallucci, German O.

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of digital impressions greatly influences the clinical viability in implant restorations. The aim of this study is to compare the accuracy of gypsum models acquired from the conventional implant impression to digitally milled models created from direct digitalization by three-dimensional analysis. Thirty gypsum and 30 digitally milled models impressed directly from a reference model were prepared. The models were scanned by a laboratory scanner and 30 STL datasets from each group were imported to an inspection software. The datasets were aligned to the reference dataset by a repeated best fit algorithm and 10 specified contact locations of interest were measured in mean volumetric deviations. The areas were pooled by cusps, fossae, interproximal contacts, horizontal and vertical axes of implant position and angulation. The pooled areas were statistically analysed by comparing each group to the reference model to investigate the mean volumetric deviations accounting for accuracy and standard deviations for precision. Milled models from digital impressions had comparable accuracy to gypsum models from conventional impressions. However, differences in fossae and vertical displacement of the implant position from the gypsum and digitally milled models compared to the reference model, exhibited statistical significance (p<0.001, p=0.020 respectively). PMID:24720423

  19. Giving the wrong impression: food and beverage brand impressions delivered to youth through popular movies

    PubMed Central

    Skatrud-Mickelson, Monica; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; MacKenzie, Todd A.; Sutherland, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Marketing on television showcases less-healthful options, with emerging research suggesting movies promote similar products. Given the obesity epidemic, understanding advertising to youth should be a public health imperative. The objective of this study was to estimate youth impressions to food and beverages delivered through movies. Methods Impressions were calculated by dividing US receipts annually into average movie ticket prices, then multiplying this by the number of brand appearances. Examination by ratings, product types and ages were conducted by Spearman rank correlation coefficient tests. Results Youth in the USA saw over 3 billion food, beverage or food–retail establishment (FRE) impressions on average, annually from 1996 to 2005. Those aged 12–18 viewed over half of all impressions, with PG-13-rated movies containing 61.5% of impressions. There were no significant trends in brand appearances by food, beverage or FRE impressions over the decade, although there was a decreasing trend in R-rated impressions for both foods (P< 0.01) and beverages (P< 0.01), but not FREs (P= 0.08). Conclusions Movies promote billions of food and beverage impressions annually to youth. Given the public health crisis of obesity, future research should further investigate these trends, as well as the potential association of these unhealthy exposures in youth. PMID:22076600

  20. Influence of tray rigidity and impression technique on accuracy of polyvinyl siloxane impressions.

    PubMed

    Hoyos, Alex; Soderholm, Karl-Johan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how tray rigidity and impression technique affect the accuracy of polyvinyl siloxane impressions. Disposable plastic trays and metallic Rim-Lock trays were used in combination with a heavy/light body technique or with two different putty-wash techniques. For each technique-tray combination, 10 impressions were made of a master cast with two steel abutments representing the mandibular right first premolar and second molar, between which a steel rod was placed at the ridge level. Each steel abutment had five marks, while the steel rod in between the two abutments had only one mark, which served as a reference point. With a universal measuring microscope, the x-, y-, and z-coordinates were recorded for each mark on the master cast and impressions. The distances between the different marks and the reference point on the impressions were calculated and compared with those of the master cast. All techniques used with the plastic trays had distances that were significantly different from the master cast (P < .05), while for the metal trays, it was only the heavy/light body technique that resulted in distances that were significantly different from the master cast (P < .05). Plastic trays produced less accurate impressions than metal trays. When metal trays were used, putty-based impressions were dimensionally better than heavy/light body impressions.

  1. Giving the wrong impression: food and beverage brand impressions delivered to youth through popular movies.

    PubMed

    Skatrud-Mickelson, Monica; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; MacKenzie, Todd A; Sutherland, Lisa A

    2012-06-01

    Marketing on television showcases less-healthful options, with emerging research suggesting movies promote similar products. Given the obesity epidemic, understanding advertising to youth should be a public health imperative. The objective of this study was to estimate youth impressions to food and beverages delivered through movies. Impressions were calculated by dividing US receipts annually into average movie ticket prices, then multiplying this by the number of brand appearances. Examination by ratings, product types and ages were conducted by Spearman rank correlation coefficient tests. Youth in the USA saw over 3 billion food, beverage or food-retail establishment (FRE) impressions on average, annually from 1996 to 2005. Those aged 12-18 viewed over half of all impressions, with PG-13-rated movies containing 61.5% of impressions. There were no significant trends in brand appearances by food, beverage or FRE impressions over the decade, although there was a decreasing trend in R-rated impressions for both foods (P< 0.01) and beverages (P< 0.01), but not FREs (P= 0.08). Movies promote billions of food and beverage impressions annually to youth. Given the public health crisis of obesity, future research should further investigate these trends, as well as the potential association of these unhealthy exposures in youth.

  2. Comparison of implant cast accuracy of multiple implant impression technique with different splinting materials: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Sunantha; Dorairaj, Jayachandran; Mohan, Jayashree; Simon, Paul

    2016-01-01

    An accurate and passive fit of implant framework prosthesis, as well as the successful surgical operation is suggested as one of the critical requirements for long-term implant success. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the accuracy of the master cast using open tray impression technique with conventional and novel splinting materials. A mandibular reference model with four ADIN implants was done. Ten custom trays were fabricated using the light curable resin sheets. Medium body polyether impression material was used. These trays were randomly divided between the two groups, with five trays in each group. Impression techniques were divided into two groups namely: Group A: Direct impression technique with open tray impression copings splinted with autopolymerizing acrylic resin (GC pattern resin). Group B: Direct impression technique with open tray impression copings splinted with Pro-temp TM 4 (bis-GMA) syringable temporization material. Thus, final impressions were made. Total of 10 master casts were fabricated. Evaluation of casts using Dynascope-Vision Engineering, TESA microhite two- dimension and coordinate measuring machine were used. Statistical comparisons were made using ANOVA test and post-hoc test. Same amount of deviation values obtained with resin splinted and bis-GMA splinted impression copings. The master cast obtained by both the splinting material exhibits no difference from the reference model. So bis-GMA can be used, which is easy to handle, less time consuming, less technique sensitive, rigid, and readily available material in clinics.

  3. Comparison of implant cast accuracy of multiple implant impression technique with different splinting materials: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, Sunantha; Dorairaj, Jayachandran; Mohan, Jayashree; Simon, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: An accurate and passive fit of implant framework prosthesis, as well as the successful surgical operation is suggested as one of the critical requirements for long-term implant success. Objective: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the accuracy of the master cast using open tray impression technique with conventional and novel splinting materials. Methodology: A mandibular reference model with four ADIN implants was done. Ten custom trays were fabricated using the light curable resin sheets. Medium body polyether impression material was used. These trays were randomly divided between the two groups, with five trays in each group. Impression techniques were divided into two groups namely: Group A: Direct impression technique with open tray impression copings splinted with autopolymerizing acrylic resin (GC pattern resin). Group B: Direct impression technique with open tray impression copings splinted with Pro-temp TM 4 (bis-GMA) syringable temporization material. Thus, final impressions were made. Total of 10 master casts were fabricated. Evaluation of casts using Dynascope-Vision Engineering, TESA microhite two- dimension and coordinate measuring machine were used. Results: Statistical comparisons were made using ANOVA test and post-hoc test. Same amount of deviation values obtained with resin splinted and bis-GMA splinted impression copings. Conclusion: The master cast obtained by both the splinting material exhibits no difference from the reference model. So bis-GMA can be used, which is easy to handle, less time consuming, less technique sensitive, rigid, and readily available material in clinics. PMID:27141167

  4. Similarity to the Self Affects Memory for Impressions of Others

    PubMed Central

    Leshikar, Eric D.; Gutchess, Angela H.

    2017-01-01

    The present studies investigated whether similarity to the self influenced memory for impressions of others. We predicted that similarity to the self would facilitate impression memory for others, paralleling the self-reference effect found when information is processed relative to the self. We were interested in how the initial valence of the impression, whether positive or negative, affected impression memory. Across two experiments, participants formed impressions while viewing faces paired with traits and behaviors. After recognition, participants rated the self-descriptiveness of the studied traits allowing impression memory to be sorted into high-, medium-, and low-self-similarity. For positive impressions, similar others were remembered better than dissimilar others. For negative impressions, similar others were remembered more poorly than dissimilar others. These results illustrate that similarity to the self has multifaceted effects on person memory, leading to memory enhancement in the case of people given positive impressions, but reducing memory for people associated with negative impressions. PMID:28936392

  5. Accuracy of three implant impression techniques with different impression materials and stones.

    PubMed

    Chang, Won-Gun; Vahidi, Farhad; Bae, Kwang-Hak; Lim, Bum-Soon

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of casts made using three different impression techniques to obtain an accurate definitive cast for fabrication of multiple-implant prostheses. Twelve experimental groups were formed combining the following conditions: three impression techniques, two impression materials, and two cast materials. The main effects of the three factors were analyzed by three-way analysis of variance using the full factorial general linear model between factors. The results showed that there were no significant differences in mean values for the transferred dimensions between the control and experimental groups. None of the measurements in the horizontal plane of the definitive casts demonstrated significant differences among the impression techniques with different impression and cast materials (P > .01).

  6. Beware of Selfies: The Impact of Photo Type on Impression Formation Based on Social Networking Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Krämer, Nicole C.; Feurstein, Markus; Kluck, Jan P.; Meier, Yannic; Rother, Marius; Winter, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Users of social networking sites such as Facebook frequently post self-portraits on their profiles. While research has begun to analyze the motivations for posting such pictures, less is known about how selfies are evaluated by recipients. Although producers of selfies typically aim to create a positive impression, selfies may also be regarded as narcissistic and therefore fail to achieve the intended goal. The aim of this study is to examine the potentially ambivalent reception of selfies compared to photos taken by others based on the Brunswik lens model Brunswik (1956). In a between-subjects online experiment (N = 297), Facebook profile mockups were shown which differed with regard to picture type (selfie vs. photo taken by others), gender of the profile owner (female vs. male), and number of individuals within a picture (single person vs. group). Results revealed that selfies were indeed evaluated more negatively than photos taken by others. Persons in selfies were rated as less trustworthy, less socially attractive, less open to new experiences, more narcissistic and more extroverted than the same persons in photos taken by others. In addition, gender differences were observed in the perception of pictures. Male profile owners were rated as more narcissistic and less trustworthy than female profile owners, but there was no significant interaction effect of type of picture and gender. Moreover, a mediation analysis of presumed motives for posting selfies revealed that negative evaluations of selfie posting individuals were mainly driven by the perceived motivation of impression management. Findings suggest that selfies are likely to be evaluated less positively than producers of selfies might suppose. PMID:28261129

  7. Beware of Selfies: The Impact of Photo Type on Impression Formation Based on Social Networking Profiles.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Nicole C; Feurstein, Markus; Kluck, Jan P; Meier, Yannic; Rother, Marius; Winter, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Users of social networking sites such as Facebook frequently post self-portraits on their profiles. While research has begun to analyze the motivations for posting such pictures, less is known about how selfies are evaluated by recipients. Although producers of selfies typically aim to create a positive impression, selfies may also be regarded as narcissistic and therefore fail to achieve the intended goal. The aim of this study is to examine the potentially ambivalent reception of selfies compared to photos taken by others based on the Brunswik lens model Brunswik (1956). In a between-subjects online experiment (N = 297), Facebook profile mockups were shown which differed with regard to picture type (selfie vs. photo taken by others), gender of the profile owner (female vs. male), and number of individuals within a picture (single person vs. group). Results revealed that selfies were indeed evaluated more negatively than photos taken by others. Persons in selfies were rated as less trustworthy, less socially attractive, less open to new experiences, more narcissistic and more extroverted than the same persons in photos taken by others. In addition, gender differences were observed in the perception of pictures. Male profile owners were rated as more narcissistic and less trustworthy than female profile owners, but there was no significant interaction effect of type of picture and gender. Moreover, a mediation analysis of presumed motives for posting selfies revealed that negative evaluations of selfie posting individuals were mainly driven by the perceived motivation of impression management. Findings suggest that selfies are likely to be evaluated less positively than producers of selfies might suppose.

  8. Modified functional impression technique for complete dentures.

    PubMed

    Malachias, Alexandre; Paranhos, Helena de Freitas Oliveira; da Silva, Cláudia Helena Lovato; Muglia, Valdir Antônio; Moreto, Carla

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the use of a removable acrylic resin tray handle that can be easily attached to custom impression trays to produce an improved peripheral sealing zone. This device can be indicated to develop functional impressions for complete dentures using the patient-conducted muscular motion technique. In upper trays, the handle is fixed in the midline with acrylic resin, while in lower trays the centrally positioned handle is removed before border molding. This removable handle allows patient's suction and free tongue movements. Final impression is carried out in two stages: peripheral sealing (low fusion compound) and recording of the main supporting region of the denture (zinc oxide and eugenol paste). All border records are obtained from the patient's own movements (handle suction and tongue motion). The removable handle is simple to use, is reusable, can be adapted to any individual acrylic resin trays and allows accurate registration of the peripheral sealing zone (border tissues).

  9. Gagging during impression making: techniques for reduction.

    PubMed

    Farrier, Sarah; Pretty, Iain A; Lynch, Christopher D; Addy, Liam D

    2011-04-01

    In everyday dental practice one encounters patients who either believe themselves, or subsequently prove themselves, to be gaggers. Gagging is most frequently experienced during impression making, but is also reported during the taking of radiographs, in the placement of restorations in posterior teeth and, in some individuals, the insertion of a finger for examination purposes. This paper describes some techniques that can easily be mastered by clinicians that may help both operator and patient avoid this unpleasant occurrence. Techniques such as acupressure, the adaptation of trays, or even the use of alternative impression materials and breathing techniques all have their place, and clinicians may have to try several of these, perhaps in conjunction, in order to assist their patients. A significant number of patients attend for dental treatment that require impressions, and for those with gagging problems it can be a horrendous experience. Being able to make the procedure less of an ordeal is better for all involved.

  10. Congenital basilar impression: correlated neurological syndromes.

    PubMed

    Bassi, P; Corona, C; Contri, P; Paiocchi, A; Loiero, M; Mangoni, A

    1992-01-01

    A series of 8 cases operated on for symptomatic basilar impression associated with occipitalization of the atlas is reported (with or without atlantoaxial dislocation). Symptoms of onset (such as the frequent association between nuchal pain and vertigo) are emphasized and analyzed in relation to the pathogenetic mechanism that underlies the multiform symptomatology of the basilar impression. The diagnostic workup for basilar impression foresees X-rays, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. The most important diagnostic problem is that of considering the possible existence of such a pathology in the presence of very common symptoms such as nuchal pain and vertigo. The surgical treatment has certainly been useful both to improve and to stabilize the symptomatology mainly when there is atlantoaxial dislocation. In fact in these cases the symptomatology is more severe and progressive for the alteration of the transverse ligament of the atlas secondary to abnormal mechanical stimuli.

  11. Conjunctival impression cytology in computer users.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Bansal, R; Khare, A; Malik, K P S; Malik, V K; Jain, K; Jain, C

    2013-01-01

    It is known that the computer users develop the features of dry eye. To study the cytological changes in the conjunctiva using conjunctival impression cytology in computer users and a control group. Fifteen eyes of computer users who had used computers for more than one year and ten eyes of an age-and-sex matched control group (those who had not used computers) were studied by conjunctival impression cytology. Conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) results in the control group were of stage 0 and stage I while the computer user group showed CIC results between stages II to stage IV. Among the computer users, the majority ( > 90 %) showed stage III and stage IV changes. We found that those who used computers daily for long hours developed more CIC changes than those who worked at the computer for a shorter daily duration. © NEPjOPH.

  12. Effect of impression technique on bond strength.

    PubMed

    Su, Jiaping; Hobson, Ross S; McCabe, John F

    2004-01-01

    If the effects of surface preparation (eg, acid etching, laser preparation, crystal growth) are to be investigated on the same tooth from which the bond strength is recorded, a method of surface replication is required that does not affect the subsequent bond. This study investigated the effect of 2 different methods of taking impressions on bond strength. Three groups of 11 mandibular incisors were used. The labial enamel was etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 30 seconds. Group A (control) had no impression taken; in group B (silicone), impressions were taken with silicone impression material before bonding; in group C (polyether), an impression was taken with polyether before bonding. After the impressions were taken, GAC brackets (A Company, San Diego, Calif) were bonded to the labial surfaces of the etched enamel with Transbond XT light-cured composite (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif). Teeth with bonded brackets were stored in water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours, and then bond strength was measured on a testing machine. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was also recorded. The lowest bond strength was found after silicone replication (mean [standard deviation]: 8.6 [1.7] MPa) and the highest in the control group (21.2 [4.0] MPa). There was no significant difference between the control group and the polyether replication group (19.1 [4.7] MPa). The surface detail replications of polyether and silicone were found to be identical. It was concluded that polyether had no significant effect on bond strength and was suitable for surface replication before bonding. Polyether allows replication of the enamel surface without a significant effect on bond strength, and this technique could be used to examine the relationship between enamel preparation techniques and subsequent bond strength between composite and enamel.

  13. Perceiving active listening activates the reward system and improves the impression of relevant experiences.

    PubMed

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Sugawara, Sho K; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tokutake, Kentaro; Mochizuki, Yukiko; Anme, Tokie; Sadato, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    Although active listening is an influential behavior, which can affect the social responses of others, the neural correlates underlying its perception have remained unclear. Sensing active listening in social interactions is accompanied by an improvement in the recollected impressions of relevant experiences and is thought to arouse positive feelings. We therefore hypothesized that the recognition of active listening activates the reward system, and that the emotional appraisal of experiences that had been subject to active listening would be improved. To test these hypotheses, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on participants viewing assessments of their own personal experiences made by evaluators with or without active listening attitude. Subjects rated evaluators who showed active listening more positively. Furthermore, they rated episodes more positively when they were evaluated by individuals showing active listening. Neural activation in the ventral striatum was enhanced by perceiving active listening, suggesting that this was processed as rewarding. It also activated the right anterior insula, representing positive emotional reappraisal processes. Furthermore, the mentalizing network was activated when participants were being evaluated, irrespective of active listening behavior. Therefore, perceiving active listening appeared to result in positive emotional appraisal and to invoke mental state attribution to the active listener.

  14. Tensile bond strength between custom tray and elastomeric impression material.

    PubMed

    Maruo, Yukinori; Nishigawa, Goro; Oka, Morihiko; Minagi, Shogo; Irie, Masao; Suzuki, Kazuomi

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how to achieve sufficient and stable adhesive strength between impression material and tray. Impression materials were molded between autopolymerizing resin columns, and tensile strength was measured as a function of these factors: tray storage time (1, 2, 4, 7, and 10 days), adhesive drying time (0, 1, 5, 10, and 15 minutes), and tray surface roughness (air abrasion, bur-produced roughness, and no treatment). Tensile bond strength was not affected by tray storage time throughout the entire evaluation period of 10 days. As for tray adhesive drying time, Reprosil and Exaimplant yielded extremely low values for drying times of 10 minutes or less (P<0.05), while Imprint II and Impregum were not influenced by drying time. Vinyl polysiloxane achieved the highest adhesive strength with bur-produced roughness, which was significantly higher than with air abrasion or no treatment (P<0.05), whereas polyether achieved the lowest value with bur-produced roughness (P<0.05). It was concluded that surface treatment of custom tray should be adapted to the type of impression material used to achieve optimum bond strength.

  15. Effect of Time on Gypsum-Impression Material Compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, John Boram

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of dental gypsum with three recently introduced irreversible hydrocolloid (alginate) alternatives. The test materials were Alginot® (Kerr™), Position Penta Quick® (3M ESPE™) and Silgimix ® (Sultan Dental™). The irreversible hydrocolloid impression material, Jeltrate Plus antimicrobial® (Dentsply Caulk™) served as the control. Materials and Methods: Testing of materials was conducted in accordance with ANSI/ADA Specification No. 18 for Alginate Impression Materials. Statistical Analysis: The 3-Way ANOVA test was used to analyze measurements between different time points at a significance level of (p < 0.05). Outcome: It was found that there was greater compatibility between gypsum and the alternative materials over time than the traditional irreversible hydrocolloid material that was tested. A statistically significant amount of surface change/incompatibility was found over time with the combination of the dental gypsum products and the control impression material (Jeltrate Plus antimicrobial®).

  16. Examination of the Position Accuracy of Implant Abutments Reproduced by Intra-Oral Optical Impression

    PubMed Central

    Odaira, Chikayuki; Kobayashi, Takuya; Kondo, Hisatomo

    2016-01-01

    An impression technique called optical impression using intraoral scanner has attracted attention in digital dentistry. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the optical impression, comparing a virtual model reproduced by an intraoral scanner to a working cast made by conventional silicone impression technique. Two implants were placed on a master model. Working casts made of plaster were fabricated from the master model by silicone impression. The distance between the ball abutments and the angulation between the healing abutments of 5 mm and 7 mm height at master model were measured using Computer Numerical Control Coordinate Measuring Machine (CNCCMM) as control. Working casts were then measured using CNCCMM, and virtual models via stereo lithography data of master model were measured by a three-dimensional analyzing software. The distance between ball abutments of the master model was 9634.9 ± 1.2 μm. The mean values of trueness of the Lava COS and working casts were 64.5 μm and 22.5 μm, respectively, greater than that of control. The mean of precision values of the Lava COS and working casts were 15.6 μm and 13.5 μm, respectively. In the case of a 5-mm-height healing abutment, mean angulation error of the Lava COS was greater than that of the working cast, resulting in significant differences in trueness and precision. However, in the case of a 7-mm-height abutment, mean angulation errors of the Lava COS and the working cast were not significantly different in trueness and precision. Therefore, distance errors of the optical impression were slightly greater than those of conventional impression. Moreover, the trueness and precision of angulation error could be improved in the optical impression using longer healing abutments. In the near future, the development of information technology could enable improvement in the accuracy of the optical impression with intraoral scanners. PMID:27706225

  17. Three-dimensional accuracy of implant and abutment level impression techniques: effect on marginal discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Alikhasi, Marzieh; Siadat, Hakimeh; Monzavi, Abbas; Momen-Heravi, Fatemeh

    2011-12-01

    Impression techniques should precisely represent the 3-dimensional status of implants to allow for the fabrication of passively fitting prostheses and subsequently the elimination of strain on supporting implant components and surrounding bone. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of an abutment level impression method with that of an implant level (direct and indirect) impression method using polyether impression material to obtain precise definitive casts and prostheses. A reference acrylic resin dentoform with 2 internal connection implants (Implantium) was made. A total of 21 medium-consistency polyether impressions of the dentoform, including 7 direct implant level, 7 indirect implant level, and 7 abutment level (after 2 straight abutments were secured), were made. Impressions were poured with American Dental Association (ADA) type IV stone, and the positional accuracy of the implant replica heads and abutment analogs in each dimension of x-, y-, and z-axes, as well as angular displacement (Δθ), was evaluated using a coordinate measuring machine. Noble alloy 3-unit castings were fabricated and seated on the abutments in 3 groups; marginal discrepancies were measured at 4 points between prostheses and abutments. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test, 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Kruskal-Wallis tests. In comparisons of different impression techniques, only significant statistical Δθ differences were noted between the abutment level method and other techniques (P < .001). Results of this study reveal that although the implant level impression method could better transfer the angular position of the implants (Δθ), the impression method could not affect Δy, Δx, and Δz coordinates of the implants or marginal discrepancy of the 3-unit fixed partial dentures (FPD).

  18. Analysis of three-dimensional distortion of two impression materials in the transfer of dental implants.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, María L; Elias, Augusto; Vizcarrondo, Carlos E Toro; Psoter, Walter J

    2010-04-01

    In dental implant restorations, a lack of passivity may be associated with mechanical failure. Passivity can be compromised during impression making. The purpose of this study was to compare the distortion of mechanically mixed polyether and hydrophilic addition silicone impression materials, and to evaluate the effect of intercoping distance on distortion. Twenty impressions (10 polyether and 10 silicone) were made from a single mandibular definitive cast with 5 abutment analogs using standardized laboratory and technique protocols. The direct impression technique and mechanical mixing were used. A precision measuring machine established spatial coordinates of the impression copings in 3 dimensions, with the operator blinded to materials. Linear distances (concentricity) and angular inclinations (perpendicularity, parallelism) were calculated to measure impression distortion relative to the positions/angulations of the implants in the definitive cast. Distortion differences between materials and implant intercoping distances were tested using 2-factor ANOVA with an interaction term. A Bonferroni 2-sided test was used (alpha=.05). No significant difference was found between the impression materials for parallelism (P=.91) and concentricity (P=.85). For perpendicularity, the silicone material had an average of 0.643 degrees less distortion (P=.004). With respect to intercoping distances, no significant differences were found for perpendicularity (P=.234), parallelism (P=.114), or concentricity (P=.346). An interaction term for material and coping distance was not significant. Hydrophilic addition silicone and polyether impression materials have similar distortion effects for transfer procedures when using the direct impression technique and machine mixing. Silicone demonstrated superiority for perpendicularity distortion, though of a magnitude unlikely to have clinical significance. Copyright 2010 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry

  19. Comparison of the accuracy of plastic and metal stock trays for implant impressions.

    PubMed

    Del'acqua, Marcelo Antonialli; de Avila, Érica Dorigatti; Amaral, Ângela Líbia Chagas; Pinelli, Lígia Antunes Pereira; de Assis Mollo, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the dimensional accuracy of two impression techniques (tapered and splinted) with two stock trays (plastic and metal) for implant-supported prostheses. A master cast with four parallel abutment analogs and a passive framework were fabricated. Polyvinyl siloxane impression material was used for all impressions with two metal stock trays and two plastic stock trays (closed and open trays). Four groups (tapered plastic, splinted plastic, tapered metal, and splinted metal) and a control group (master cast) were tested (n = 5 for each group). After the framework was seated on each of the casts, one abutment screw was tightened, and the marginal gap between the abutment and framework on the other side was measured with a stereomicroscope. The measurements were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance on ranks test followed by the Dunn method. The mean values (± standard deviations) for the abutment/framework interface gaps were: master cast, 32 ± 2 Μm; tapered metal, 44 ± 10 Μm; splinted metal, 69 ± 28 Μm; tapered plastic, 164 ± 58 Μm; splinted plastic, 128 ± 47 Μm. No significant difference was detected between the master cast, tapered metal, and splinted metal groups or between the tapered and splinted plastic groups. In this study, the rigidity of the metal stock tray ensured better results than the plastic stock tray for implant impressions with a high-viscosity impression material (putty). Statistically similar results were obtained using tapered impression copings and splinted squared impression copings. The tapered impression copings technique and splinted squared impression copings technique with a metal stock tray produced precise casts with no statistically significant difference in interface gaps compared to the master cast.

  20. Effect of mixing techniques on bacterial attachment and disinfection time of polyether impression material

    PubMed Central

    Guler, Umut; Budak, Yasemin; Ruh, Emrah; Ocal, Yesim; Canay, Senay; Akyon, Yakut

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was 2-fold. The first aim was to evaluate the effects of mixing technique (hand-mixing or auto-mixing) on bacterial attachment to polyether impression materials. The second aim was to determine whether bacterial attachment to these materials was affected by length of exposure to disinfection solutions. Materials and Methods: Polyether impression material samples (n = 144) were prepared by hand-mixing or auto-mixing. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used in testing. After incubation, the bacterial colonies were counted and then disinfectant solution was applied. The effect of disinfection solution was evaluated just after the polymerization of impression material and 30 min after polymerization. Differences in adherence of bacteria to the samples prepared by hand-mixing and to those prepared by auto-mixing were assessed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. For evaluating the efficiency of the disinfectant, Kruskal-Wallis multiple comparisons test was used. Results: E. coli counts were higher in hand-mixed materials (P < 0.05); no other statistically significant differences were found between hand- and auto-mixed materials. According to the Kruskal-Wallis test, significant differences were found between the disinfection procedures (Z > 2.394). Conclusion: The methods used for mixing polyether impression material did not affect bacterial attachment to impression surfaces. In contrast, the disinfection procedure greatly affects decontamination of the impression surface. PMID:24966729