Science.gov

Sample records for evaluating breast cancer

  1. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Breast Cancer What is Breast Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made up ... tumors form in the breast tissue. Who Gets Breast Cancer? Breast cancer is one of the most common ...

  2. Evaluating Serum Markers for Hormone Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schummer, Michèl; Thorpe, Jason; Giraldez, Maria; Bergan, Lindsay; Tewari, Muneesh; Urban, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in females worldwide. Death rates have been declining, largely as a result of early detection through mammography and improved treatment, but mammographic screening is controversial because of over-diagnosis of breast disease that might not require treatment, and under-diagnosis of cancer in women with dense breasts. Breast cancer screening could be improved by pairing mammography with a tumor circulating marker, of which there are currently none. Given genomic similarities between the basal breast cancer subtype and serous ovarian cancer, and given our success in identifying circulating markers for ovarian cancer, we investigated the performance in hormone receptor-negative breast cancer detection of both previously identified ovarian serum markers and circulating markers associated with transcripts that were differentially expressed in breast cancer tissue compared to healthy breast tissue from reduction mammaplasties. Methods We evaluated a total of 15 analytes (13 proteins, 1 miRNA, 1 autoantibody) in sera drawn at or before breast cancer surgery from 43 breast cancer cases (28 triple-negative—TN—and 15 hormone receptor-negative—HRN—/ HER2-positive) and 87 matched controls. Results In the analysis of our whole cohort of breast cancer cases, autoantibodies to TP53 performed significantly better than the other selected 14 analytes showing 25.6% and 34.9% sensitivity at 95% and 90% specificity respectively with AUC: 0.7 (p<0.001). The subset of 28 TN cancers showed very similar results. We observed no correlation between anti-TP53 and the 14 other markers; however, anti-TP53 expression correlated with Body-Mass-Index. It did not correlate with tumor size, positive lymph nodes, tumor stage, the presence of metastases or recurrence. Conclusion None of the 13 serum proteins nor miRNA 135b identified women with HRN or TN breast cancer. TP53 autoantibodies

  3. Breast cancer practice guidelines: evaluation and quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Edge, S B

    1997-11-01

    The utility of practice guidelines in breast cancer management remains unproved. This paper examines the scope and goals of published guidelines and their utility in the process of breast cancer treatment quality improvement. Although existing breast cancer guidelines vary widely in scope and intent, they provide a framework for meaningful quality-of-care evaluation. Among the few comprehensive breast cancer guideline programs are those developed by the Ontario Cancer Treatment Practice Guidelines Initiative, the Revlon/UCLA Breast Center, the Association of Community Cancer Centers (ACCC), the Society of Surgical Oncology (SSO), and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN). Ultimately, guidelines will prove useful only if they are utilized as part of a comprehensive program to improve quality, cost-effectiveness, and outcomes. To accomplish this, they must include mechanisms for revision and evaluation. The evaluation of guideline utility in quality improvement, particularly in breast cancer care, is a complex long-term process, which should include input from practitioners, institutions, payors, and government.

  4. Evaluation of diffusion models in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Panek, Rafal; Borri, Marco; Orton, Matthew; O'Flynn, Elizabeth; Morgan, Veronica; Giles, Sharon L; deSouza, Nandita; Leach, Martin O; Schmidt, Maria A

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the microvascular pseudodiffusion effects resulting with non-monoexponential behavior are present in breast cancer, taking into account tumor spatial heterogeneity. Additionally, methodological factors affecting the signal in low and high diffusion-sensitizing gradient ranges were explored in phantom studies. The effect of eddy currents and accuracy of b-value determination using a multiple b-value diffusion-weighted MR imaging sequence were investigated in test objects. Diffusion model selection and noise were then investigated in volunteers (n = 5) and breast tumor patients (n = 21) using the Bayesian information criterion. 54.3% of lesion voxels were best fitted by a monoexponential, 26.2% by a stretched-exponential, and 19.5% by a biexponential intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model. High correlation (0.92) was observed between diffusion coefficients calculated using mono- and stretched-exponential models and moderate (0.59) between monoexponential and IVIM (medians: 0.96/0.84/0.72 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s, respectively). Distortion due to eddy currents depended on the direction of the diffusion gradient and displacement varied between 1 and 6 mm for high b-value images. Shift in the apparent diffusion coefficient due to intrinsic field gradients was compensated for by averaging diffusion data obtained from opposite directions. Pseudodiffusion and intravoxel heterogeneity effects were not observed in approximately half of breast cancer and normal tissue voxels. This result indicates that stretched and IVIM models should be utilized in regional analysis rather than global tumor assessment. Cross terms between diffusion-sensitization gradients and other imaging or susceptibility-related gradients are relevant in clinical protocols, supporting the use of geometric averaging of diffusion-weighted images acquired with diffusion-sensitization gradients in opposite directions.

  5. What Is Breast Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research? Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer What Is Breast Cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... spread, see our section on Cancer Basics . Where breast cancer starts Breast cancers can start from different parts ...

  6. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... age 35, and having dense breasts. Symptoms of breast cancer may include a lump in the breast, a ...

  7. Imaging in evaluation of response to neoadjuvant breast cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ollivier, L; Balu-Maestro, C; Leclère, J

    2005-01-01

    The role of imaging for patients treated with neoadjuvant therapy for breast cancer is not only to evaluate the therapeutic response in terms of tumour shrinkage, but also to predict the histological response to chemotherapy, which is correlated to survival. Surgery and histopathological analysis after neoadjuvant therapy allow for an objective assessment of the accuracy of imaging techniques in evaluating response. The aim of this study is to compare the value of the different conventional and functional imaging techniques for determining response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer treatment. PMID:16154816

  8. Breast Retraction Assessment: an objective evaluation of cosmetic results of patients treated conservatively for breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Pezner, R.D.; Patterson, M.P.; Hill, L.R.; Vora, N.; Desai, K.R.; Archambeau, J.O.; Lipsett, J.A.

    1985-03-01

    Breast Retraction Assessment (BRA) is an objective evaluation of the amount of cosmetic retraction of the treated breast in comparison to the untreated breast in patients who receive conservative treatment for breast cancer. A clear acrylic sheet supported vertically and marked as a grid at 1 cm intervals is employed to perform the measurements. Average BRA value in 29 control patients without breast cancer was 1.2 cm. Average BRA value in 27 patients treated conservatively for clinical Stage I or II unilateral breast cancer was 3.7 cm. BRA values in breast cancer patients ranged from 0.0 to 8.5 cm. Patients who received a local radiation boost to the primary tumor bed site had statistically significantly less retraction than those who did not receive a boost. Patients who had an extensive primary tumor resection had statistically significantly more retraction than those who underwent a more limited resection. In comparison to qualitative forms of cosmetic analysis, BRA is an objective test that can quantitatively evaluate factors which may be related to cosmetic retraction in patients treated conservatively for breast cancer.

  9. Diffusion-weighted MRI evaluation of breast cancer extension.

    PubMed

    Long-Hua, Qiu; Qin, Xiao; Wen-Tao, Yang; Feng, Tang; Kun-Wei, Shen; Bin, Wu; Ya-Jia, Gu

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) to accurately measure breast cancer extension. The extensions of 59 breast lesions were investigated on DW images and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps and compared to the pathological exams. Three groups were observed: accurate, overdiagnosis, and false negative. There were no significant differences seen in accurate or false-negative group when b was 500 and 1000 s/mm(2) when two lesions in the overdiagnosis group at both b values. DWI and the ADC value have potential for evaluating cancer extension. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Breast cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... idea of what to expect in the future. Breast cancer stages range from 0 to IV. The higher the ... is based on many factors, including: Type of breast cancer Stage of the cancer (staging is a tool your ...

  11. Immunohistochemical evaluation of ROCK activation in invasive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chih-Yi; Chang, Zee-Fen; Lee, Hsiao-Hui

    2015-12-01

    Two isoforms of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK), ROCKI and ROCKII, play an important role in many cellular processes. Despite the accumulating evidence showing that ROCK could be a potential cancer therapeutic target, the relevant tumor types to ROCK activation are not well clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ROCK activation status in different tumor types of breast cancer. We evaluated the immunoreactivities of phosphorylation-specific antibodies of ROCKI and ROCKII to inform their kinase activation in 275 of breast carcinoma tissues, including 56 of carcinoma in situ, 116 of invasive carcinoma, and 103 of invasive carcinoma with metastasis. ROCKII activation signal detected in nucleus was significantly correlated with tumor metastasis, while ROCKI and cytosolic ROCKII activation signals made no significant difference in that metastasis. Furthermore, nuclear ROCKII activation signal was associated with poor clinical outcome and correlated with late tumor stage, low expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR), overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and high Ki67 labeling index. Nuclear ROCKII activation signal might contribute to the tumor metastasis in breast cancer. Differences in ROCK activation that underlie the phenotypes of breast cancer could enhance our understanding for the use of ROCK inhibitors in cancer therapy.

  12. Incremental cancer detection using breast ultrasonography versus breast magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Plaxco, Jeri S; Wei, Wei; Huo, Lei; Candelaria, Rosalind P; Kuerer, Henry M; Yang, Wei T

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the incremental cancer detection rate (ICDR) using bilateral whole-breast ultrasonography (BWBUS) vs dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in patients with primary breast cancer. Methods: A retrospective database search in a single institution identified 259 patients with breast cancer diagnosed from January 2011 to August 2014 who underwent mammography, BWBUS and MRI before surgery. Patient characteristics, tumour characteristics and lesions seen on each imaging modality were recorded. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for each modality were calculated. ICDRs according to index tumour histology and receptor status were also evaluated. The effect of additional cancer detection on surgical planning was obtained from the medical records. Results: A total of 266 additional lesions beyond 273 index malignancies were seen on at least 1 modality, of which 121 (45%) lesions were malignant and 145 (55%) lesions were benign. MRI was significantly more sensitive than BWBUS (p = 0.01), while BWBUS was significantly more accurate and specific than MRI (p < 0.0001). Compared with mammography, the ICDRs using BWBUS and MRI were significantly higher for oestrogen receptor-positive and triple-negative cancers, but not for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive cancers. 22 additional malignant lesions in 18 patients were seen on MRI only. Surgical planning remained unchanged in 8 (44%) of those 18 patients. Conclusion: MRI was more sensitive than BWBUS, while BWBUS was more accurate and specific than MRI. MRI-detected additional malignant lesions did not change surgical planning in almost half of these patients. Advances in knowledge: BWBUS may be a cost-effective and practical tool in breast cancer staging. PMID:27384241

  13. Incremental cancer detection using breast ultrasonography versus breast magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    He, Hongying; Plaxco, Jeri S; Wei, Wei; Huo, Lei; Candelaria, Rosalind P; Kuerer, Henry M; Yang, Wei T

    2016-09-01

    To compare the incremental cancer detection rate (ICDR) using bilateral whole-breast ultrasonography (BWBUS) vs dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in patients with primary breast cancer. A retrospective database search in a single institution identified 259 patients with breast cancer diagnosed from January 2011 to August 2014 who underwent mammography, BWBUS and MRI before surgery. Patient characteristics, tumour characteristics and lesions seen on each imaging modality were recorded. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for each modality were calculated. ICDRs according to index tumour histology and receptor status were also evaluated. The effect of additional cancer detection on surgical planning was obtained from the medical records. A total of 266 additional lesions beyond 273 index malignancies were seen on at least 1 modality, of which 121 (45%) lesions were malignant and 145 (55%) lesions were benign. MRI was significantly more sensitive than BWBUS (p = 0.01), while BWBUS was significantly more accurate and specific than MRI (p < 0.0001). Compared with mammography, the ICDRs using BWBUS and MRI were significantly higher for oestrogen receptor-positive and triple-negative cancers, but not for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive cancers. 22 additional malignant lesions in 18 patients were seen on MRI only. Surgical planning remained unchanged in 8 (44%) of those 18 patients. MRI was more sensitive than BWBUS, while BWBUS was more accurate and specific than MRI. MRI-detected additional malignant lesions did not change surgical planning in almost half of these patients. BWBUS may be a cost-effective and practical tool in breast cancer staging.

  14. Adherence evaluation of endocrine treatment in breast cancer: methodological aspects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Current studies on adherence to endocrine therapy in breast cancer patients suffer from methodological limitations due to a lack of well-validated methods for assessing adherence. There is no gold standard for measuring adherence. The aim of our study was to compare four different approaches for evaluating adherence to anastrozole therapy for breast cancer with regard to concordance between methods. Methods Outpatients with early breast cancer treated with anastrozole completed the multi-method assessment of adherence. We implemented a self-report scale (the Simplified Medication Adherence Questionnaire), physician- ratings, refill records and determination of anastrozole serum concentration. Results Comparison of the four approaches using Spearman rank correlation revealed poor concordance across all methods reflecting weak correlations of 0.2-0.4. Considering this data incomparability across methods, we still observed high adherence rates of 78%-98% across measures. Conclusion Our findings contribute to the growing body of knowledge on the impact that methodological aspects exert on the results of adherence measurement in breast cancer patients receiving endocrine treatment. Our findings suggest that the development and validation of instruments specific to patients receiving endocrine agents is imperative in order to arrive at a more accurate assessment and to subsequently obtain more precise estimates of adherence rates in this patient population. PMID:23066928

  15. Does Skeletal Muscle Mass Influence Breast Cancer? Evaluating Mammary Tumorigenesis and Progression Genetically Hyper-Muscular Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    1-0424 TITLE: Does Skeletal Muscle Mass Influence Breast Cancer ? Evaluating Mammary Tumorigenesis and Progression in...SUBTITLE Does Skeletal Muscle Mass Influence Breast Cancer ? Evaluating Mammary 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Tumorigenesis and Progression in Genetically...activity independently reduce breast cancer . Conversely, obesity and insulin resistance are associated with increased breast cancer incidence

  16. Evaluation of the BT-1 serum assay for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Whitehurst, M M; Aldenderfer, P H; Sooy, M M; Strelkauskas, A J

    1999-01-01

    The BT-1 assay which identifies a novel breast tumor associated serum analyte was performed for 143 patients previously diagnosed with breast cancer. Mucin tumor markers CA15-3/CA27-29 values were available for 50 patients and there was very minor overlap between patients positive by both tests. Patients' follow-up clinical status at sample draw was compared to BT-1 assay results. 27% of patients originally diagnosed as Stage II and 20% patients originally diagnosed as Stage III who were evaluated 'no disease' had positive BT-1 values. 8% patients diagnosed as Stage II had negative BT-1 results in samples drawn within 90 days of chemotherapy initiation, whereas 23% of patients diagnosed as Stage III cancer were BT-1 test positive within 90 days of chemotherapy initiation. 50% of patients tested before initial breast cancer surgery had positive BT-1 values, suggesting that the BT-1 assay may be useful in identification women with more advanced disease at diagnosis.

  17. Breast Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... from starting. Risk-reducing surgery . General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  18. Breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2016-08-17

    Essential facts Breast cancer is the most common cancer in the UK, with around 60,000 new cases diagnosed each year, according to the charity Breast Cancer Care. Over a lifetime, women have a one in eight risk of developing it.

  19. Evaluation of a breast and colon cancer survivorship program.

    PubMed

    McCollum, Kennon H; Wood, Felecia G; Auriemma, Kimberly

    2014-04-01

    This article describes a cancer survivorship program that addressed quality of life (QOL) changes related to chemotherapy. The program focused on adult breast and colon cancer survivors at a community oncology practice in the southeastern United States, and consisted of an educational visit designed to identify and address QOL changes that occurred as a result of chemotherapy. The QOL of Cancer Survivors (QOL-CS) survey administered before and after the visit analyzed QOL metrics, which were combined with program evaluation data to assess physical, psychosocial, social, and spiritual well-being changes that may have occurred as a result of program participation. Differences in QOL-CS scores did not represent statistically significant changes in QOL for program participants. However, program evaluation responses identified perceived changes in QOL as a result of participating in cancer treatment and a subsequent cancer survivorship program, which demonstrated clinical significance for program participants. Physical, psychosocial, social, and spiritual well-being measures were affected by program participation. Improvement in distress related to the initial cancer diagnosis and family distress were the most significant reported changes, and male gender and advanced age were associated with improved psychosocial well-being.

  20. Breast cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... is performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  1. Automation of immunohistochemical evaluation in breast cancer using image analysis

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Keerthana; Tiwari, Avani; Ilanthodi, Sandhya; Prabhu, Gopalakrishna; Pai, Muktha

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To automate breast cancer diagnosis and to study the inter-observer and intra-observer variations in the manual evaluations. METHODS: Breast tissue specimens from sixty cases were stained separately for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2/neu). All cases were assessed by manual grading as well as image analysis. The manual grading was performed by an experienced expert pathologist. To study inter-observer and intra-observer variations, we obtained readings from another pathologist as the second observer from a different laboratory who has a little less experience than the first observer. We also took a second reading from the second observer to study intra-observer variations. Image analysis was carried out using in-house developed software (TissueQuant). A comparison of the results from image analysis and manual scoring of ER, PR and HER-2/neu was also carried out. RESULTS: The performance of the automated analysis in the case of ER, PR and HER-2/neu expressions was compared with the manual evaluations. The performance of the automated system was found to correlate well with the manual evaluations. The inter-observer variations were measured using Spearman correlation coefficient r and 95% confidence interval. In the case of ER expression, Spearman correlation r = 0.53, in the case of PR expression, r = 0.63, and in the case of HER-2/neu expression, r = 0.68. Similarly, intra-observer variations were also measured. In the case of ER, PR and HER-2/neu expressions, r = 0.46, 0.66 and 0.70, respectively. CONCLUSION: The automation of breast cancer diagnosis from immunohistochemically stained specimens is very useful for providing objective and repeatable evaluations. PMID:21611095

  2. Endoscopic Breast Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-02-05

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  3. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... recommendations for ovarian ablation . Hormonal therapy for metastatic breast cancer Hormonal therapies are also commonly used to treat ...

  4. Feasibility Evaluation of Radioimmunoguided Surgery of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Ananth; Reilly, Raymond M.; Holloway, Claire M. B.; Caldwell, Curtis B.

    2012-01-01

    Breast-conserving surgery involves completely excising the tumour while limiting the amount of normal tissue removed, which is technically challenging to achieve, especially given the limited intraoperative guidance available to the surgeon. This study evaluates the feasibility of radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS) to guide the detection and delineation of tumours intraoperatively. The 3D point-response function of a commercial gamma-ray-detecting probe (GDP) was determined as a function of radionuclide (131I, 111In, 99mTc), energy-window threshold, and collimator length (0.0–3.0-cm). This function was used to calculate the minimum detectable tumour volumes (MDTVs) and the minimum tumour-to-background activity concentration ratio (T:B) for effective delineation of a breast tumour model. The GDP had larger MDTVs and a higher minimum required T:B for tumour delineation with 131I than with 111In or 99mTc. It was shown that for 111In there was a benefit to using a collimator length of 0.5-cm. For the model used, the minimum required T:B required for effective tumour delineation was 5.2 ± 0.4. RIGS has the potential to significantly improve the accuracy of breast-conserving surgery; however, before these benefits can be realized, novel radiopharmaceuticals need to be developed that have a higher specificity for cancerous tissue in vivo than what is currently available. PMID:22518303

  5. Prospective Evaluation of Risk Factors for Male Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Richesson, Douglas A.; Gierach, Gretchen L.; Lacey, James V.; Park, Yikyung; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2008-01-01

    Most risk factors for male breast cancer have been derived from retrospective studies that may reflect selective recall. In the prospective National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study, we studied 324 920 men, among whom 121 developed breast cancer. Men who reported a first-degree relative with breast cancer had an increased risk of breast cancer (relative risk [RR] = 1.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19 to 3.09). Among the medical conditions examined, a new finding emerged regarding increased male breast cancer risk associated with a history of a bone fracture (RR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.24 to 3.91). Obesity was positively related to risk (RR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.10 to 2.91, for body mass indices of ≥30 vs <25 kg/m2) and physical activity inversely related, even after adjustment for body mass index. Smokers were at somewhat elevated risk, although trends with smoking characteristics were inconsistent. Alcohol consumption was not related to risk. The identified risk factors show some commonalities with female breast cancer and indicate the importance of hormonal mechanisms. Differences in risk factors may reflect unique mechanisms associated with androgens and their ratio to bioavailable estrogens. PMID:18840816

  6. [The role of cancer registries in the evaluation of breast cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Schaffer, P; Renaud, R; Gairard, B; Guldenfels, C

    1996-01-01

    Cancer registries are necessary to evaluate the efficacy of cancer screening programmes. They provide early indicators of screening efficacy, needed to correct certain campaign failings without waiting for the mortality data, available only 7 to 10 years after the beginning of the screening. They allow to mesure the screening effect not only on the screened women, but also on the entire target population. They also allow to mesure the negative and deleterious effects of the screening. Finally, they are essential to all cost/efficacy study. The evaluation of the breast cancer screening programme in the French department of Bas-Rhin by the cancer Registry showed very quickly the interest of the mesures concerning the quality assurance programme and to estimate on the first screen results basis, that it will be difficult to reduce the mortality by breast cancer to 25%.

  7. [Evaluation of modalities for recurrent breast cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Tohnosu, N; Onoda, S; Okuyama, K; Koide, Y; Awano, T; Kinoshita, H; Matsubara, H; Sano, T; Nakaichi, H; Isono, K

    1990-12-20

    Of 342 breast cancer patients radically operated on in the Second Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Chiba University during 1965-1988, treatment for 75 recurrent patients were evaluated by the initial modes of recurrence. The modes of recurrence were classified into distant metastases, local lymph node recurrence (axillary, parasternal and supraclavicular nodes) and chest wall recurrence according to the General Rules for Clinical and Pathological Recording of Breast Cancer. Of 75 recurrent patients, distant metastases were seen as common as 77.3%, followed by recurrences of local lymph nodes (14.7%) and chest wall (8.0%). The number of patients in each mode of recurrence increased in relation to increase in the size of tumor and the number of metastatic lymph nodes at the time of the first operation. Histologically, scirrhous carcinoma was most common in chest wall recurrence. 2-year disease-free survival rates of distant metastases, local lymph node recurrence and chest wall recurrence were 44.6%, 24.2% and 16.7%, respectively. 5-year survival of bone metastasis with chemo-endocrine therapy was as significantly favorable as 60%, compared to chemo- or radiotherapy alone (p less than 0.01). However, 5-year survival of lung metastasis with or without endocrine therapy revealed no significant difference. Local lymph node recurrence with the combination of resection, radio- and/or chemotherapy produced a trend toward showing more favorable survival than that without resection.

  8. Development, Optimization and Evaluation of CAD System for Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    in the laboratory of Digital Medical Imaging Program (DMIP) in the cancer research institute. It helped trainees to set up perceptive understanding on...mammography for breast cancer diagnosis. The trainees were given a series of lectures on the basic principle of mammography, medical imaging , image

  9. Development and Evaluation of a Theory-Based Physical Activity Guidebook for Breast Cancer Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallance, Jeffrey K.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Taylor, Lorian M.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Mackey, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This study's objective was to develop and evaluate the suitability and appropriateness of a theory-based physical activity (PA) guidebook for breast cancer survivors. Guidebook content was constructed based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) using salient exercise beliefs identified by breast cancer survivors in previous research. Expert…

  10. Development and Evaluation of a Theory-Based Physical Activity Guidebook for Breast Cancer Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallance, Jeffrey K.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Taylor, Lorian M.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Mackey, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This study's objective was to develop and evaluate the suitability and appropriateness of a theory-based physical activity (PA) guidebook for breast cancer survivors. Guidebook content was constructed based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) using salient exercise beliefs identified by breast cancer survivors in previous research. Expert…

  11. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... how early the cancer was diagnosed. Left untreated, breast cancer can spread to other parts of the body, including internal organs. This could cause serious health problems or be fatal. It is very important to get treatment as soon as possible.Living with cancer during ...

  12. Learning about Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Breast Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast ... Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast cancer? Breast cancer is a common disease. Each year, ...

  13. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Oncology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier; 2014. Last Medical Review: June 1, 2016 Last Revised: August 18, 2016 Breast Cancer Treatment Surgery for Breast Cancer Radiation for Breast Cancer Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer Hormone ...

  14. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  15. Axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer patients: sonographic evaluation*

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Denise Joffily Pereira da Costa; Elias, Simone; Nazário, Afonso Celso Pinto

    2014-01-01

    Axillary staging of patients with early-stage breast cancer is essential in the treatment planning. Currently such staging is intraoperatively performed, but there is a tendency to seek a preoperative and less invasive technique to detect lymph node metastasis. Ultrasonography is widely utilized for this purpose, many times in association with fine-needle aspiration biopsy or core needle biopsy. However, the sonographic criteria for determining malignancy in axillary lymph nodes do not present significant predictive values, producing discrepant results in studies evaluating the sensitivity and specificity of this method. The present study was aimed at reviewing the literature approaching the utilization of ultrasonography in the axillary staging as well as the main morphological features of metastatic lymph nodes. PMID:25741091

  16. Evaluate Risk/Benefit of Nab Paclitaxel in Combination With Gemcitabine and Carboplatin Compared to Gemcitabine and Carboplatin in Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer (or Metastatic Triple Negative Breast Cancer)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-30

    Breast Tumor; Breast Cancer; Cancer of the Breast; Estrogen Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; HER2- Negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Metastatic Breast Cancer; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  17. Evaluation of breast cancer awareness among female university students in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Muhammad A; Hassali, Mohamed A; Shafie, Asrul A; Awaisu, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among women of all ethnic and age groups in Malaysia. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, symptoms and methods of screening among female university students and their perception towards the disease treatment outcomes. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from February to March 2008 at Universiti Sains Malaysia. Two hundred participants from 10 randomly selected faculties were interviewed face to face by a trained pharmacist using a validated questionnaire. In addition to their demographic characteristics, participants were required to answer 22 questions concerning knowledge of breast cancer and five questions related to their perception of breast cancer management and treatment outcomes. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15. The mean age of the respondents was 26.7 (SD=1.9) years. The results showed that the vast majority of the female university students had inadequate knowledge of breast cancer. The mean total knowledge score of the students was 60.7%. Indian students had significantly less knowledge of breast cancer compared to their Chinese and Malay counterparts (p<0.05). However, more than two third of the students were aware of breast self examination (BSE) and clinical breast examination (CBE) recommendations. Furthermore, the students had positive perceptions towards the treatment outcomes of breast cancer. This study has highlighted the need of a breast cancer awareness campaign, which should also stress the importance of early detection and reporting of breast cancer.

  18. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  19. Marker evaluation of human breast and bladder cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Mayall, B.H.; Carroll, P.R.; Chen, Ling-Chun; Cohen, M.B.; Goodson, W.H. III; Smith, H.S.; Waldman, F.M. )

    1990-11-02

    We are investigating multiple markers in human breast and bladder cancers. Our aim is to identify markers that are clinically relevant and that contribute to our understanding of the disease process in individual patients. Good markers accurately assess the malignant potential of a cancer in an individual patient. Thus, they help identify those cancers that will recur, and they may be used to predict more accurately time to recurrence, response to treatment, and overall prognosis. Therapy and patient management may then be optimized to the individual patient. Relevant markers reflect the underlying pathobiology of individual tumors. As a tissue undergoes transformation from benign to malignant, the cells lose their differentiated phenotype. As a generalization, the more the cellular phenotype, cellular proliferation and cellular genotype depart from normal, the more advanced is the tumor in its biological evolution and the more likely it is that the patient has a poor prognosis. We use three studies to illustrate our investigation of potential tumor markers. Breast cancers are labeled in vivo with 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) to give a direct measure of the tumor labeling index. Bladder cancers are analyzed immunocytochemically using an antibody against proliferation. Finally, the techniques of molecular genetics are used to detect allelic loss in breast cancers. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Recurrent Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... you may have received after your first breast cancer diagnosis was intended to kill any cancer cells that ... 35 at the time of their original breast cancer diagnosis, face a higher risk of recurrent breast cancer. ...

  1. Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Category Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis If you’ve been diagnosed with breast ... cancer or how fast it’s growing. Types of Breast Cancer There are several types of breast cancer. The ...

  2. A Study Evaluating INIPARIB in Combination With Chemotherapy to Treat Triple Negative Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-17

    Estrogen Receptor Negative (ER-Negative) Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor Negative (PR-Negative) Breast Cancer; Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 Negative (HER2-Negative) Breast Cancer; Brain Metastases

  3. Breast Cancer -- Male

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  4. Breast Cancer Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer Breast Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the Overview/ ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  5. Clinical utility of breast-specific gamma imaging for evaluating disease extent in the newly diagnosed breast cancer patient.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Minhao; Johnson, Nathalie; Gruner, Sam; Ecklund, G W; Meunier, Paul; Bryn, Sally; Glissmeyer, Margie; Steinbock, Kari

    2009-02-01

    Breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI) is a functional imaging modality that has comparable sensitivity but superior specificity compared with magnetic resonance imaging, yielding fewer false-positive results and thereby improving clinical management of the newly diagnosed breast cancer patient. A retrospective review was performed from 2 community-based breast imaging centers of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients in whom BSGI was performed as part of the imaging work-up. A total of 138 patients (69 invasive ductal carcinoma, 20 invasive lobular carcinoma, 32 ductal carcinoma in situ, and 17 mixtures of invasive ductal carcinoma, invasive lobular carcinoma, or ductal carcinoma in situ and other) were reviewed. Twenty-five patients (18.1%) had a positive BSGI study at a site remote from their known cancer or more extensive disease than detected from previous imaging. Fifteen patients (10.9%) were positive for a synchronous or more extensive malignancy in the same or contralateral breast. Five patients had benign findings on pathology, 5 benign on ultrasound follow-up (false-positive rate, 7.2%). Findings converted 7 patients to mastectomy, 1 patient to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and 7 patients were found to have previously undetected contralateral cancer. The positive predictive value for BSGI was 92.9%. BSGI detected additional or more extensive malignancy in the same or contralateral breast in 10.9% of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. Only 7.2% incurred an additional work-up. BSGI provides accurate evaluation of remaining breast tissue in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients with few false-positive readings.

  6. Evaluation of Breast Cancer Cases Diagnosed In the Breast Cancer Screening Program In the Near East University Hospital of North Cyprus

    PubMed Central

    Durdiyeva, Muhabbet Koralp; Besim, Hasan; Arslan, Kalbim; Özkayalar, Hanife; Yılmaz, Güliz; Mocan, Gamze Kuzey; Bulakbaşı, Nail

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study is about determination and eveluation of the breast cancer cases which were diagnosed during the early diagnosis and screening programs covering a three years of digital mammography images at the Near East University Hospital. Materials and Methods This study covers 2136 women patients who applied to the early diagnosis and screening program of the Near East University Hospital between July 2010 and July 2013. The mamographic images were re evaluated retrospectively according to ACR’s (The American College of Radiology) BİRADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System). The mamographic results as required were correlated with breast ultrasound (US) and compared with the pathologic results of materials obtained by surgery or biopsy. The results were analyzed statistically in comparison with the literature data. Results The women who were screened aged between 34–73 years with a median of 53.5 (SD = 27.5). Suspected malignancy were evaluated in 54 patients, which 42 of them were diagnosed BIRADS 4 and 12 patients BIRADS 5 and 21 patients were correleted breast cancer based on histopathologic examination. 17 patients had the breast-conserving surgery and 4 patients were treated with mastectomy. Conclusion Breast cancers that are detected at early stages by breast cancer screening tests are more likely to be smaller and still confined to the breast resulting in more simple operations and more succesfull treatment. Promoting the breast cancer screening and registration programs in our country will help to control the desease at our region.

  7. Evaluation of Breast Cancer Cases Diagnosed In the Breast Cancer Screening Program In the Near East University Hospital of North Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Durdiyeva, Muhabbet Koralp; Besim, Hasan; Arslan, Kalbim; Özkayalar, Hanife; Yılmaz, Güliz; Mocan, Gamze Kuzey; Bulakbaşı, Nail

    2015-01-01

    This study is about determination and eveluation of the breast cancer cases which were diagnosed during the early diagnosis and screening programs covering a three years of digital mammography images at the Near East University Hospital. This study covers 2136 women patients who applied to the early diagnosis and screening program of the Near East University Hospital between July 2010 and July 2013. The mamographic images were re evaluated retrospectively according to ACR's (The American College of Radiology) BİRADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System). The mamographic results as required were correlated with breast ultrasound (US) and compared with the pathologic results of materials obtained by surgery or biopsy. The results were analyzed statistically in comparison with the literature data. The women who were screened aged between 34-73 years with a median of 53.5 (SD = 27.5). Suspected malignancy were evaluated in 54 patients, which 42 of them were diagnosed BIRADS 4 and 12 patients BIRADS 5 and 21 patients were correleted breast cancer based on histopathologic examination. 17 patients had the breast-conserving surgery and 4 patients were treated with mastectomy. Breast cancers that are detected at early stages by breast cancer screening tests are more likely to be smaller and still confined to the breast resulting in more simple operations and more succesfull treatment. Promoting the breast cancer screening and registration programs in our country will help to control the desease at our region.

  8. Evaluation of variation in the phosphoinositide-3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha oncogene and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, K N; Garcia-Closas, M; Fredericksen, Z; Kosel, M; Pankratz, V S; Hopper, J L; Dite, G S; Apicella, C; Southey, M C; Schmidt, M K; Broeks, A; Van ‘t Veer, L J; Tollenaar, R A E M; Fasching, P A; Beckmann, M W; Hein, A; Ekici, A B; Johnson, N; Peto, J; dos Santos Silva, I; Gibson, L; Sawyer, E; Tomlinson, I; Kerin, M J; Chanock, S; Lissowska, J; Hunter, D J; Hoover, R N; Thomas, G D; Milne, R L; Pérez, JI Arias; González-Neira, A; Benítez, J; Burwinkel, B; Meindl, A; Schmutzler, R K; Bartrar, C R; Hamann, U; Ko, Y D; Brüning, T; Chang-Claude, J; Hein, R; Wang-Gohrke, S; Dörk, T; Schürmann, P; Bremer, M; Hillemanns, P; Bogdanova, N; Zalutsky, J V; Rogov, Y I; Antonenkova, N; Lindblom, A; Margolin, S; Mannermaa, A; Kataja, V; Kosma, V-M; Hartikainen, J; Chenevix-Trench, G; Chen, X; Peterlongo, P; Bonanni, B; Bernard, L; Manoukian, S; Wang, X; Cerhan, J; Vachon, C M; Olson, J; Giles, G G; Baglietto, L; McLean, C A; Severi, G; John, E M; Miron, A; Winqvist, R; Pylkäs, K; Jukkola-Vuorinen, A; Grip, M; Andrulis, I; Knight, J A; Glendon, G; Mulligan, A M; Cox, A; Brock, I W; Elliott, G; Cross, S S; Pharoah, P P; Dunning, A M; Pooley, K A; Humphreys, M K; Wang, J; Kang, D; Yoo, K-Y; Noh, D-Y; Sangrajrang, S; Gabrieau, V; Brennan, P; McKay, J; Anton-Culver, H; Ziogas, A; Couch, F J; Easton, D F

    2011-01-01

    Background: Somatic mutations in phosphoinositide-3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) are frequent in breast tumours and have been associated with oestrogen receptor (ER) expression, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 overexpression, lymph node metastasis and poor survival. The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between inherited variation in this oncogene and risk of breast cancer. Methods: A single-nucleotide polymorphism from the PIK3CA locus that was associated with breast cancer in a study of Caucasian breast cancer cases and controls from the Mayo Clinic (MCBCS) was genotyped in 5436 cases and 5280 controls from the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) study and in 30 949 cases and 29 788 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Results: Rs1607237 was significantly associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer in MCBCS, CGEMS and all studies of white Europeans combined (odds ratio (OR)=0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95–0.99, P=4.6 × 10−3), but did not reach significance in the BCAC replication study alone (OR=0.98, 95% CI 0.96–1.01, P=0.139). Conclusion: Common germline variation in PIK3CA does not have a strong influence on the risk of breast cancer PMID:22033276

  9. Evaluation of carbonic anhydrase IX as a therapeutic target for inhibition of breast cancer invasion and metastasis using a series of in vitro breast cancer models

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Carol; Meehan, James; Mullen, Peter; Supuran, Claudiu; Dixon, J. Michael; Thomas, Jeremy S.; Winum, Jean-Yves; Lambin, Philippe; Dubois, Ludwig; Pavathaneni, Nanda-Kumar; Jarman, Edward J.; Renshaw, Lorna; Um, InHwa; Kay, Charlene; Harrison, David J.; Kunkler, Ian H.; Langdon, Simon P.

    2015-01-01

    Triple negative, resistant or metastatic disease are major factors in breast cancer mortality, warranting novel approaches. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is implicated in survival, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells and inhibition provides an innovative therapeutic strategy. The efficacy of 5 novel ureido-substituted sulfamate CAIX inhibitors were assessed in increasingly complex breast cancer models, including cell lines in normoxia and hypoxia, 3D spheroids and an ex-vivo explant model utilizing fresh biopsy tissue from different breast cancer subtypes. CAIX expression was evaluated in a tissue microarray (TMA) of 92 paired lymph node and primary breast cancers and 2 inhibitors were appraised in vivo using MDA-MB-231 xenografts. FC11409B, FC9398A, FC9403, FC9396A and S4 decreased cell proliferation and migration and inhibited 3D spheroid invasion. S4, FC9398A and FC9403A inhibited or prevented invasion into collagen. FC9403A significantly reversed established invasion whilst FC9398A and DTP348 reduced xenograft growth. TMA analysis showed increased CAIX expression in triple negative cancers. These data establish CAIX inhibition as a relevant therapeutic goal in breast cancer, targeting the migratory, invasive, and metastatic potential of this disease. The use of biopsy tissue suggests efficacy against breast cancer subtypes, and should provide a useful tool in drug testing against invasive cancers. PMID:26259239

  10. Screening for Chemical Contributions to Breast Cancer Risk: A Case Study for Chemical Safety Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Janet M.; Dairkee, Shanaz H.; Fenton, Suzanne E.; Johnson, Dale; Navarro, Kathleen M.; Osborne, Gwendolyn; Rudel, Ruthann A.; Solomon, Gina M.; Zeise, Lauren; Janssen, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background Current approaches to chemical screening, prioritization, and assessment are being reenvisioned, driven by innovations in chemical safety testing, new chemical regulations, and demand for information on human and environmental impacts of chemicals. To conceptualize these changes through the lens of a prevalent disease, the Breast Cancer and Chemicals Policy project convened an interdisciplinary expert panel to investigate methods for identifying chemicals that may increase breast cancer risk. Methods Based on a review of current evidence, the panel identified key biological processes whose perturbation may alter breast cancer risk. We identified corresponding assays to develop the Hazard Identification Approach for Breast Carcinogens (HIA-BC), a method for detecting chemicals that may raise breast cancer risk. Finally, we conducted a literature-based pilot test of the HIA-BC. Results The HIA-BC identifies assays capable of detecting alterations to biological processes relevant to breast cancer, including cellular and molecular events, tissue changes, and factors that alter susceptibility. In the pilot test of the HIA-BC, chemicals associated with breast cancer all demonstrated genotoxic or endocrine activity, but not necessarily both. Significant data gaps persist. Conclusions This approach could inform the development of toxicity testing that targets mechanisms relevant to breast cancer, providing a basis for identifying safer chemicals. The study identified important end points not currently evaluated by federal testing programs, including altered mammary gland development, Her2 activation, progesterone receptor activity, prolactin effects, and aspects of estrogen receptor β activity. This approach could be extended to identify the biological processes and screening methods relevant for other common diseases. Citation Schwarzman MR, Ackerman JM, Dairkee SH, Fenton SE, Johnson D, Navarro KM, Osborne G, Rudel RA, Solomon GM, Zeise L, Janssen S. 2015

  11. Evaluation of Social Support, Quality of Life, and Body Image in Women with Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Spatuzzi, Roberta; Vespa, Anna; Lorenzi, Primo; Miccinesi, Guido; Ricciuti, Marcello; Cifarelli, Wanda; Susi, Marina; Fabrizio, Tommaso; Ferrari, Maria G; Ottaviani, Marica; Giulietti, Maria V; Merico, Fabiana; Aieta, Michele

    2016-02-01

    This study was aimed at comparing the quality of life, body image, and perceived social support in women with breast cancer surgery. Patients receiving breast-conserving surgery (BCS) (n = 72), mastectomy alone (n = 44), and mastectomy with breast reconstruction (n = 41) were evaluated using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), the EORTC Breast Cancer Module (QLQ-BR23), the Body Image Scale (BIS) and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). The results indicated that the BCS group had a better body image compared with the other 2 groups and better role functioning compared with the mastectomy-alone group. In the reconstruction group, body image correlated with perceived social support, especially from family and significant others. These results suggest that a positive perception of a supportive social network can help women with breast reconstruction to better cope with the psychological effects of surgery on their body image.

  12. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Breast Cancer KidsHealth > For Kids > Breast Cancer Print A A ... for it when they are older. What Is Breast Cancer? The human body is made of tiny building ...

  13. Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men ... usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. Other breast symptoms can include Dimpled ...

  14. Breast Cancer Trends

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast Cancer Funding: Young Breast Cancer Survivors Funding: Breast Cancer Genomics Statistics Rates by Race and Ethnicity Rates by State Risk by Age Trends What CDC Is Doing Research African American Women and Mass Media Campaign Public Service Announcements Print ...

  15. Breast Cancer Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    FACTS FOR LIFE Breast Cancer Surgery The goal of breast cancer surgery is to remove the whole tumor from the breast. Some lymph nodes ... might still be in the body. Types of breast cancer surgery There are two types of breast cancer ...

  16. Initial evaluation of inflammatory breast cancer with fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography

    PubMed Central

    Sager, Sait; Asa, Sertac; Doner, Rana Kaya; Leblebici, Cem; Halac, Metin

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive form of locally advanced breast cancer. We present here 18F FDG PET/CT findings of two patients with IBC. These patients were referred to the Nuclear Medicine department for staging of IBC. FDG PET/CT images showed diffuse infiltration of breasts with multiple lymph nodes and multiple metastases in whole-body PET/CT images. FDG PET provides additional information regarding lymph nodes or distant metastases in the initial evaluation of IBC. PMID:23599596

  17. Simulations and phantom evaluations of magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) for breast cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadleir, Rosalind J.; Sajib, Saurav Z. K.; Kim, Hyung Joong; Kwon, Oh In; Woo, Eung Je

    2013-05-01

    MREIT is a new imaging modality that can be used to reconstruct high-resolution conductivity images of the human body. Since conductivity values of cancerous tissues in the breast are significantly higher than those of surrounding normal tissues, breast imaging using MREIT may provide a new noninvasive way of detecting early stage of cancer. In this paper, we present results of experimental and numerical simulation studies of breast MREIT. We built a realistic three-dimensional model of the human breast connected to a simplified model of the chest including the heart and evaluated the ability of MREIT to detect cancerous anomalies in a background material with similar electrical properties to breast tissue. We performed numerical simulations of various scenarios in breast MREIT including assessment of the effects of fat inclusions and effects related to noise levels, such as changing the amplitude of injected currents, effect of added noise and number of averages. Phantom results showed straightforward detection of cancerous anomalies in a background was possible with low currents and few averages. The simulation results showed it should be possible to detect a cancerous anomaly in the breast, while restricting the maximal current density in the heart below published levels for nerve excitation.

  18. CE-Magnetic Resonance Mammography for the evaluation of the contralateral breast in patients with diagnosed breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pediconi, Federica; Venditti, Fiammetta; Padula, Simona; Roselli, Antonella; Moriconi, Enrica; Giacomelli, Laura; Catalano, Carlo; Passariello, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the role of contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Mammography (MRM) in the evaluation of the contralateral breast in patients with recently diagnosed breast cancer. Fifty patients with proved unilateral breast cancer, with a negative contralateral breast at physical examination, ultrasound and mammography, were studied with a 1.5 T magnet (Siemens, Vision Plus, Germany). A bilateral breast surface coil was used. Dynamic 3D Flash T1-weighted sequences were acquired in the axial plane before and 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 minutes after the administration of 0.1 mmol/kg of Gd-BOPTA at a flow rate of 2 ml/s followed by 10 ml of saline. The level of suspicion was reported on a scale from 0 to 5 following the BI-RADS classification, based on lesion morphology and kinetic features. The results were compared with the histological findings after biopsy or surgery. Fourteen out of 50 patients (28%) had contralateral lesions identified on MRM. Biopsy was performed in four of them for suspicious lesions (BI-RADS 4) while 10 patients underwent surgery because of highly suggestive malignant lesions (BI-RADS 5). Histology diagnosed three fibroadenomas, 5 ductal carcinomas in situ, 2 lobular carcinomas in situ, 3 invasive ductal carcinomas and 1 invasive lobular carcinoma. Contrast-enhanced MRM yielded no false negative and three false positives. Our results demonstrate a very good accuracy of Magnetic Resonance Mammography in the detection of synchronous contralateral cancer in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer. Therefore, contrast-enhanced MRM could be introduced to screen patients with proven breast cancer before they undergo surgery.

  19. Evaluation of effect of self-examination and physical examination on breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Lotfi Mohammad; Mahmoud, Noori; Miller, Anthony B; Iraj, Harrirchi; Mohsen, Mirzaei; Majid, Jafarizadea; Reza, Sadeghian Mohammad; Mojgan, Minosepehr

    2015-08-01

    Breast cancer is the number one cancer of women in the world. More than 90% of breast cancers can be cured with early diagnosis followed by effective multimodality treatment. The efficacy of screening by breast self-examination (BSE) and breast physical examination (BPx) is best evaluated using randomized screening trials. A total of 12,660 women aged 35-64 years, 6330 in the intervention group and 6330 in the control group, were randomly selected from four areas of Yazd city, I.R. of Iran. The number of detected cancers along with kind of cancer, staging of cancer, the route of detected cancer and the number of deaths during the first 5 years of the study were collected and analyzed. No significance difference between the two groups was seen in respect to socio-demographic and socio-economic variables (P > 0.05). Subjects in the intervention group had a response rate of 83.5% for attending the health center and 80.2% for visiting the assigned surgeon. A total of 31 and 13 new cases of breast cancer were identified in the intervention and control groups, respectively, of which 48.5% of cases in the intervention group were <50 yr of age. A significant difference between the cumulative incidence of breast cancer in the two groups with a ratio of 2.4 was observed. BSE & BPx have a significant effect in detecting breast cancers at early stages (<3) suggesting they are effective screening tests with high availability and low costs that can be applied at the community level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prospective longitudinal evaluation of a symptom cluster in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Stacy D; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Butt, Zeeshan; Sweet, Jerry J; Cella, David; Wagner, Lynne I

    2014-04-01

    Symptom cluster research expands cancer investigations beyond a focus on individual symptoms in isolation. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of sleep, fatigue, depression, anxiety, and perceived cognitive impairment in patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Patient-reported outcome measures were administered prior to chemotherapy, at Cycle 4 Day 1, and six months after initiating chemotherapy. Participants were divided into four groups and assigned a symptom cluster index (SCI) score based on the number/severity of symptoms reported at enrollment. Participants (N = 80) were mostly women (97.5%) with Stage II (69.0%) breast cancer, 29-71 years of age. Scores on all measures were moderately-highly correlated across all time points. There were time effects for all symptoms, except sleep quality (nonsignificant trend), with most symptoms worsening during chemotherapy, although anxiety improved. There were no significant group × time interactions; all four SCI groups showed a similar trajectory of symptoms over time. Worse performance status and quality of life were associated with higher SCI score over time. With the exception of anxiety, the coherence of the symptom cluster was supported by similar patterns of severity and change over time in these symptoms (trend for sleep quality). Participants with higher SCI scores prior to chemotherapy continued to experience greater symptom burden during and after chemotherapy. Early assessment and intervention addressing this symptom cluster (vs. individual symptoms) may have a greater impact on patient performance status and quality of life for patients with higher SCIs. Copyright © 2014 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Economic evaluation of using a genetic test to direct breast cancer chemoprevention in white women with a previous breast biopsy.

    PubMed

    Green, Linda E; Dinh, Tuan A; Hinds, David A; Walser, Bryan L; Allman, Richard

    2014-04-01

    Tamoxifen therapy reduces the risk of breast cancer but increases the risk of serious adverse events including endometrial cancer and thromboembolic events. The cost effectiveness of using a commercially available breast cancer risk assessment test (BREVAGen™) to inform the decision of which women should undergo chemoprevention by tamoxifen was modeled in a simulated population of women who had undergone biopsies but had no diagnosis of cancer. A continuous time, discrete event, mathematical model was used to simulate a population of white women aged 40-69 years, who were at elevated risk for breast cancer because of a history of benign breast biopsy. Women were assessed for clinical risk of breast cancer using the Gail model and for genetic risk using a panel of seven common single nucleotide polymorphisms. We evaluated the cost effectiveness of using genetic risk together with clinical risk, instead of clinical risk alone, to determine eligibility for 5 years of tamoxifen therapy. In addition to breast cancer, the simulation included health states of endometrial cancer, pulmonary embolism, deep-vein thrombosis, stroke, and cataract. Estimates of costs in 2012 US dollars were based on Medicare reimbursement rates reported in the literature and utilities for modeled health states were calculated as an average of utilities reported in the literature. A 50-year time horizon was used to observe lifetime effects including survival benefits. For those women at intermediate risk of developing breast cancer (1.2-1.66 % 5-year risk), the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the combined genetic and clinical risk assessment strategy over the clinical risk assessment-only strategy was US$47,000, US$44,000, and US$65,000 per quality-adjusted life-year gained, for women aged 40-49, 50-59, and 60-69 years, respectively (assuming a price of US$945 for genetic testing). Results were sensitive to assumptions about patient adherence, utility of life while taking tamoxifen

  2. Evaluation of 89Zr-pertuzumab in Breast Cancer Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Pertuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to HER2 and is used in combination with another HER2–specific monoclonal antibody, trastuzumab, for the treatment of HER2+ metastatic breast cancer. Pertuzumab binds to an HER2 binding site distinct from that of trastuzumab, and its affinity is enhanced when trastuzumab is present. We aim to exploit this enhanced affinity of pertuzumab for its HER2 binding epitope and adapt this antibody as a PET imaging agent by radiolabeling with 89Zr to increase the sensitivity of HER2 detection in vivo. Here, we investigate the biodistribution of 89Zr-pertuzumab in HER2–expressing BT-474 and HER2–nonexpressing MDA-MB-231 xenografts to quantitatively assess HER2 expression in vivo. In vitro cell binding studies were performed resulting in retained immunoreactivity and specificity for HER2–expressing cells. In vivo evaluation of 89Zr-pertuzumab was conducted in severely combined immunodeficient mice, subcutaneously inoculated with BT-474 and MDA-MB-231 cells. 89Zr-pertuzumab was systemically administered and imaged at 7 days postinjection (p.i.) followed by terminal biodistribution studies. Higher tumor uptake was observed in BT-474 compared to MDA-MB-231 xenografts with 47.5 ± 32.9 and 9.5 ± 1.7% ID/g, respectively at 7 days p.i (P = 0.0009) and blocking studies with excess unlabeled pertuzumab showed a 5-fold decrease in BT-474 tumor uptake (P = 0.0006), confirming the in vivo specificity of this radiotracer. Importantly, we observed that the tumor accumulation of 89Zr-pertuzumab was increased in the presence of unlabeled trastuzumab, at 173 ± 74.5% ID/g (P = 0.01). Biodistribution studies correlate with PET imaging quantification using max SUV (r = 0.98, P = 0.01). Collectively, these results illustrate that 89Zr-pertuzumab as a PET imaging agent may be beneficial for the quantitative and noninvasive assessment of HER2 expression in vivo especially for patients undergoing trastuzumab therapy. PMID:25058168

  3. Evaluation of a virtual dialogue method for breast cancer patient education.

    PubMed

    Harless, William G; Zier, Marcia A; Harless, Michael G; Duncan, Robert C; Braun, Mary Ann; Willey, Shawna; Isaacs, Claudine; Warren, Robert D

    2009-08-01

    Virtual dialogue--a voice-activated, interactive computer model that enables a user to have an individual virtual conversation with a real person--was evaluated as a method to educate women about breast cancer. Virtual dialogues with breast cancer experts were developed and used in a field study by women with and without the disease to assess the method's effectiveness. In a clinical setting, subjects engaged in one-on-one virtual dialogues with an oncologist and a breast surgeon, and completed automated pre-post instruments developed to measure the feasibility of the method, and subjects' knowledge gain and acceptance of the method. Seventy women, 39 with breast cancer and 31 without the disease, participated. The data demonstrated the feasibility and acceptance of the method, and significant learning gain across all subjects. Virtual dialogues with knowledgeable health professionals can be a new and effective method for educating women about breast cancer. Virtual dialogues may systematically comfort patients while providing them with comprehensive and reliable basic information about breast cancer. The method may also give health care providers more time to address their patients' specific concerns.

  4. Features of Undiagnosed Breast Cancers at Screening Breast MR Imaging and Potential Utility of Computer-Aided Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Seo, Mirinae; Cho, Nariya; Bae, Min Sun; Koo, Hye Ryoung; Kim, Won Hwa; Lee, Su Hyun; Chu, Ajung

    2016-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the features of undiagnosed breast cancers on prior screening breast magnetic resonance (MR) images in patients who were subsequently diagnosed with breast cancer, as well as the potential utility of MR-computer-aided evaluation (CAE). Between March 2004 and May 2013, of the 72 consecutive pairs of prior negative MR images and subsequent MR images with diagnosed cancers (median interval, 32.8 months; range, 5.4-104.6 months), 36 (50%) had visible findings (mean size, 1.0 cm; range, 0.3-5.2 cm). The visible findings were divided into either actionable or underthreshold groups by the blinded review by 5 radiologists. MR imaging features, reasons for missed cancer, and MR-CAE features according to actionability were evaluated. Of the 36 visible findings on prior MR images, 33.3% (12 of 36) of the lesions were determined to be actionable and 66.7% (24 of 36) were underthreshold; 85.7% (6 of 7) of masses and 31.6% (6 of 19) of non-mass enhancements were classified as actionable lesions. Mimicking physiologic enhancements (27.8%, 10 of 36) and small lesion size (27.8%, 10 of 36) were the most common reasons for missed cancer. Actionable findings tended to show more washout or plateau kinetic patterns on MR-CAE than underthreshold findings, as the 100% of actionable findings and 46.7% of underthreshold findings showed washout or plateau (p = 0.008). MR-CAE has the potential for reducing the number of undiagnosed breast cancers on screening breast MR images, the majority of which are caused by mimicking physiologic enhancements or small lesion size.

  5. Breast Cancer Disparities

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  6. Imaging in the evaluation and follow-up of early and advanced breast cancer: When, why, and how often?

    PubMed

    Bychkovsky, Brittany L; Lin, Nancy U

    2017-02-01

    Imaging in the evaluation and follow-up of patients with early or advanced breast cancer is an important aspect of cancer care. The role of imaging in breast cancer depends on the goal and should only be performed to guide clinical decisions. Imaging is valuable if a finding will change the course of treatment and improve outcomes, whether this is disease-free survival, overall survival or quality-of-life. In the last decade, imaging is often overused in oncology and contributes to rising healthcare costs. In this context, we review the data that supports the appropriate use of imaging for breast cancer patients. We will discuss: 1) the optimal use of staging imaging in both early (Stage 0-II) and locally advanced (Stage III) breast cancer, 2) the role of surveillance imaging to detect recurrent disease in Stage 0-III breast cancer and 3) how patients with metastatic breast cancer should be followed with advanced imaging.

  7. Evaluation of the pathological response and prognosis following neoadjuvant chemotherapy in molecular subtypes of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Dong, Xiaoqiu; Li, Rongguo; Ma, Xiao; Song, Jian; Li, Yingjie; Zhang, Dongwei

    2015-01-01

    The pathological complete response of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer correlates with the prognosis for survival. Tumors may have different prognoses according to their molecular subtypes. This study was performed to evaluate the relevance of the pathological response and prognosis following neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the molecular subtypes of breast cancer. A consecutive series of 88 patients with operable breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy was analyzed. Patients were classified into four molecular subtypes based on the immunohistochemistry profile of the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2, and Ki-67. The histological response was assessed according to Miller-Payne grading (MPG) and Residual Disease in Breast and Nodes (RDBN). Ten patients (11.4%) achieved a pathological complete response, assessed according to RDBN. The pathological complete response rate was 13.6% according to MPG. Patients with the triple-negative subtype were more likely to achieve a pathological complete response than those with luminal A breast cancer (P=0.03). MPG and RDBN are independent predictors of distant disease-free survival and local recurrence-free survival, but do not predict overall survival. Ki-67, size of invasive carcinoma, lymph nodes, molecular subtypes, MPG, and RDBN are important predictors of distant disease-free survival, local recurrence-free survival, and overall survival. MPG and RDBN were similarly related to the patient's prognosis. MPG was more suitable for evaluation of distant disease-free survival, and RDBN was more suitable for evaluation of local recurrence-free survival. Survival following neoadjuvant chemotherapy correlated with the pathological reaction rather than the molecular subtype of breast cancer. The molecular subtype of breast cancer was not correlated with pathological response in patients who did not achieve a pathological complete response.

  8. Breast cancer in men

    MedlinePlus

    ... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...

  9. Breast Cancer Education for Navajo Women: a Pilot Study Evaluating a Culturally Relevant Video

    PubMed Central

    Teufel-Shone, Nicolette I.; Baldwin, Julie A.; Sandoval, Nellie; Robinson, Frances

    2010-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated a culturally specific video designed to teach Navajo women about breast cancer treatment options. Fourteen Navajo women diagnosed with breast cancer and 26 healthcare providers participated in a mixed-method evaluation that documented their perceptions immediately and 6 months after viewing the video. After initial viewing, women reported reduced anxiety about treatment and interest in support groups. Six months later, women said the video prompted them to seek more information from printed sources and their provider. Younger Navajo women who were 44 to 51 years old were more likely to attend support groups than women who were 55–67 years. Providers corroborated the positive effects of the video. The providers believed the video encouraged patients to seek information about breast cancer and to ask questions about treatment plans and side effects. A culturally relevant video for Navajo women can be an effective teaching tool and can enhance patient–provider communication. PMID:20111913

  10. Breast cancer in systemic lupus.

    PubMed

    Bernatsky, S; Ramsey-Goldman, R; Petri, M; Urowitz, M B; Gladman, D D; Fortin, P F; Ginzler, E; Romero-Diaz, J; Peschken, C; Jacobsen, S; Hanly, J G; Gordon, C; Nived, O; Yelin, E H; Isenberg, D; Rahman, A; Bae, S-C; Joseph, L; Witte, T; Ruiz-Irastorza, G; Aranow, C; Kamen, D; Sturfeldt, G; Foulkes, W D; Hansen, J E; St Pierre, Y; Raymer, P Chrétien; Tessier-Cloutier, B; Clarke, A E

    2017-03-01

    Objective There is a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) versus the general population. We assessed a large sample of SLE patients, evaluating demographic and clinical characteristics and breast cancer risk. Methods We performed case-cohort analyses within a multi-center international SLE sample. We calculated the breast cancer hazard ratio (HR) in female SLE patients, relative to demographics, reproductive history, family history of breast cancer, and time-dependent measures of anti-dsDNA positivity, cumulative disease activity, and drugs, adjusted for SLE duration. Results There were 86 SLE breast cancers and 4498 female SLE cancer-free controls. Patients were followed on average for 7.6 years. Versus controls, SLE breast cancer cases tended to be white and older. Breast cancer cases were similar to controls regarding anti-dsDNA positivity, disease activity, and most drug exposures over time. In univariate and multivariate models, the principal factor associated with breast cancers was older age at cohort entry. Conclusions There was little evidence that breast cancer risk in this SLE sample was strongly driven by any of the clinical factors that we studied. Further search for factors that determine the lower risk of breast cancer in SLE may be warranted.

  11. False-negative results of breast MR computer-aided evaluation in patients with breast cancer: correlation with clinicopathologic and radiologic factors.

    PubMed

    Shin, YunKyung; Sohn, Yu-Mee; Seo, Mirinae; Han, Kyunghwa

    To investigate clinicopathologic and radiologic factors associated with false-negative results of magnetic resonance computer aided evaluation (MR-CAE) of breast MR imaging (MRI) in breast cancer patients. A total of 135 breast cancer patients who underwent preoperative breast MR-CAE were included. False-negative and true-positive MR-CAE results were compared in terms of clinicopathologic and radiologic features. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate independent factors associated with false-negative results. Six of 135 cancer patients (4.4%) were false negative on MRI. Breast cancer with false-negative results on MR-CAE was classified as a lower BI-RADS category on breast ultrasound than true-positive results on MR-CAE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Economic evaluation of the prevention and treatment of breast cancer--present status and open issues.

    PubMed

    Imai, Hirohisa; Kuroi, Katsumasa; Ohsumi, Shozo; Ono, Michikazu; Shimozuma, Kojiro

    2007-01-01

    More effective methods of preventing and treating breast cancer are being sought by clinicians every day, and new drugs and interventions for overcoming this cancer are being energetically evaluated. At present, there are wide treatment options and many different objectives for breast cancer. These circumstances led us to seek information about the relative costs of the different medical options for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer and to try to ascertain whether one course of action is more efficient than other courses. Economic evaluation of healthcare is indispensable for selection of the best alternatives among medical interventions which are becoming more diverse day after day. The total medical expenditure continues to rise each year and some sort of evaluation from an objective and external viewpoint is required to provide the information with which to suppress this rise. This paper surveys the three major reports published on this topic to date, for the purpose of demonstrating the importance and necessity of performing an economic analysis of the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. The three reports to be surveyed pertain to: (1) cost-effectiveness analysis of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with lymph node negative breast cancer, (2) cost utility analysis of first-line hormonal therapy in advanced breast cancer, namely comparison of two aromatase inhibitors to tamoxifen, and (3) cost-effectiveness analysis of tamoxifen in the prevention of breast cancer. In addition, this paper discusses the advantages, limitations and perspective for the future of the economic evaluation of healthcare for breast cancer. (1) The authors concluded that if the average risk of all women of undergoing recurrence after this therapy is assumed to be 4% per year, adjuvant chemotherapy is definitely of benefit for node-negative, estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer patients. They additionally stated that this benefit decreases markedly if the changes in

  13. Evaluation of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Response with Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Locally Advanced Invasive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Orbay, Özge; Balcı, Pınar; Durak, Merih Guray; Demirkan, Binnaz; Saydam, Serdar

    2014-01-01

    Objective The reliability of traditional methods such as physical examination, ultrasonography (US) and mammography is limited in determining the type of treatment response in patients with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) application for locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is gaining popularity in the evaluation of NAC response. This study aimed to compare NAC response as determined by dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI in patients with LABC to histopathology that is the gold standard; and evaluate the compatibility of MRI, mammography and US with response types. Materials and Methods The US, mammography and MRI findings of 38 patients who received NAC with a diagnosis of locally advanced breast cancer and surgical treatment were retrospectively analyzed and compared to histopathology results. Type of response to treatment was determined according to the “Criteria in Solid Tumors Response Evolution 1.1” by mammography, US and MRI criteria. The relationship between response types as defined by all three imaging modalities and histopathology were evaluated, and the correlation of response type as detected by MRI and pathological response and histopathological type of breast cancer was further determined. For statistical analysis, the chi-square, paired t test, correlation and kappa tests were used. Results There is a statistical moderate positive correlation between response type according to pathology and MRI (kappa: 0.63). There was a weak correlation between response type according to mammography or US and according to pathology (kappa: 0.2). When the distribution of treatment response by MRI is stratified according to histopathological types, partial response was higher in all histopathological types similar to the type of pathologic response. When compared with pathology MRI detected treatment response accurately in 84.2% of the patients. Conclusion Dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI appears to

  14. Coded aperture coherent scatter imaging for breast cancer detection: a Monte Carlo evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmanan, Manu N.; Morris, Robert E.; Greenberg, Joel A.; Samei, Ehsan; Kapadia, Anuj J.

    2016-03-01

    It is known that conventional x-ray imaging provides a maximum contrast between cancerous and healthy fibroglandular breast tissues of 3% based on their linear x-ray attenuation coefficients at 17.5 keV, whereas coherent scatter signal provides a maximum contrast of 19% based on their differential coherent scatter cross sections. Therefore in order to exploit this potential contrast, we seek to evaluate the performance of a coded- aperture coherent scatter imaging system for breast cancer detection and investigate its accuracy using Monte Carlo simulations. In the simulations we modeled our experimental system, which consists of a raster-scanned pencil beam of x-rays, a bismuth-tin coded aperture mask comprised of a repeating slit pattern with 2-mm periodicity, and a linear-array of 128 detector pixels with 6.5-keV energy resolution. The breast tissue that was scanned comprised a 3-cm sample taken from a patient-based XCAT breast phantom containing a tomosynthesis- based realistic simulated lesion. The differential coherent scatter cross section was reconstructed at each pixel in the image using an iterative reconstruction algorithm. Each pixel in the reconstructed image was then classified as being either air or the type of breast tissue with which its normalized reconstructed differential coherent scatter cross section had the highest correlation coefficient. Comparison of the final tissue classification results with the ground truth image showed that the coded aperture imaging technique has a cancerous pixel detection sensitivity (correct identification of cancerous pixels), specificity (correctly ruling out healthy pixels as not being cancer) and accuracy of 92.4%, 91.9% and 92.0%, respectively. Our Monte Carlo evaluation of our experimental coded aperture coherent scatter imaging system shows that it is able to exploit the greater contrast available from coherently scattered x-rays to increase the accuracy of detecting cancerous regions within the breast.

  15. Minimal breast cancer: evaluation of histology and biological marker expression

    PubMed Central

    Dublin, E A; Millis, R R; Smith, P; Bobrow, L G

    1999-01-01

    Ninety-eight minimal breast cancers (MBCs) diagnosed between 1975 and 1990, and all originally considered to be invasive were found, on review, to form three groups: (a) 28 predominantly invasive carcinomas ≤10 mm (‘predominant invasive’); (b) 48 predominantly ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions with definite foci of invasion each ≤10 mm (‘predominant DCIS’); and (c) 22 DCIS without evidence of invasion (‘pure DCIS’). Tumour histology and immunohistochemical expression of Ki-67, c-erbB2, p53, oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and Bcl-2 were compared. The major finding was the contrasting features in the two invasive groups, with significant differences in their extent of invasion (P < 0.0001), tumour grade (P = 0.03), DCIS type (P = 0.008) and in marker expression. In the predominant invasive group, the infiltrative component was usually greater than 5 mm, low-grade and associated with well-differentiated DCIS. Expression of Ki-67, c-erbB2 and p53 was generally low, and that of ER, PR and Bcl-2 high. The predominant DCIS group in contrast had a much smaller, commonly high-grade, invasive component, usually with poorly differentiated DCIS and the reverse pattern of marker expression. Although not significant, survival of patients in the predominant invasive group was slightly better. These findings suggest that invasive MBCs should perhaps be treated as separate entities, in order to aid more appropriate selection of treatment. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10408407

  16. Compliance with the commission on cancer quality of breast cancer care measures: self-evaluation advised.

    PubMed

    Lodrigues, William; Dumas, Judy; Rao, Madhu; Lilley, Lisa; Rao, Roshni

    2011-01-01

    To provide evaluations of cancer care quality, the Commission on Cancer and the National Quality Forum (NQF) established three breast cancer treatment quality measures. Programs that submit data to the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) can receive feedback on their compliance with these quality measures, and perform comparisons with other member institutions. Data received by a county hospital from the NCDB revealed poor compliance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of submitted data, identify contributing factors and initiate processes to improve. Reported 2004 NCDB quality measure compliance was 26% for radiation, 61.4% for chemotherapy, and 21.3% for hormonal therapy. Retrospective treatment review was performed. Data collected included: patient demographics, pathology, final surgical intervention, adjuvant treatment, and quality measure compliance. Sources included two electronic records, an electronic results depository, two paper charts, a pharmacy data base, and a "shadow chart." Applicability of and compliance with these quality measures was noted. Of 540 records reviewed, 132 met final study criteria. Actual compliance differed significantly from NCDB rates and were found to be 97% for radiation, 98% for chemotherapy, and 88% for hormonal therapy. Process analysis revealed the need for tumor registry staff to evaluate all sources of data. A significant problem was neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and the requirement to submit NCDB data within 6 months of initial diagnosis. Processes and education initiated for tumor registry staff, medical records personnel, physicians, and other care providers resulted in significantly improved 2007 compliance of data submitted to the NCDB. Prior to public reporting, institutions should perform NQF quality measure compliance assessments, confirm accuracy, and initiate educational processes/imperatives.

  17. Evaluating the performance of National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) breast and ovarian genetic/familial high risk assessment referral criteria for breast cancer women in an Asian surgical breast clinic

    PubMed Central

    Borje, Eillen; Allen, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Globally, resources for genomic services vary. Current National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) breast and ovarian genetic/familial high risk assessment criteria for further genetic risk evaluation are useful, but lack specificity for reliably excluding patients with low a priori risk. This may result in patient overload in lesser-equipped genetics clinics. Since we use Manchester and the Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm (BOADICEA) risk assessment models in our genetics clinic to determine whether genetic testing is warranted, we chose Manchester and BOADICEA as the reference standard to compare how the NCCN breast and ovarian genetic/familial high risk assessment criteria for further genetic risk evaluation performs against these two risk assessment models in referring breast cancer patients for genetic evaluation. Methods Breast cancer patients diagnosed from 2009–2011 were assessed using the NCCN criteria, Manchester and BOADICEA. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were used to compare the NCCN criteria versus the Manchester and BOADICEA scoring systems in identifying high-risk patients. Results A total of 666 patients were included in the study. Percentages of high-risk patients resulting from Manchester and BOADICEA were 1.80% and 2.55%, respectively. Among the NCCN criteria, breast cancer and ≥1 close relatives with breast cancer at ≤50 years of age correlated best with Manchester and/or BOADICEA (c-statistic =0.831) with a false negative rate of 1.0%. Conclusions Breast cancer at any age and ≥1 close relative with breast cancer at ≤50 years of age exhibited the highest correlation with Manchester and/or BOADICEA, promising greater specificity compared to the other NCCN criteria for segregating high risk, Asian breast cancer patients for referral to a genetics clinic, nevertheless recognizing the inherent limitations of the scoring systems. PMID

  18. Developing a utility decision framework to evaluate predictive models in breast cancer risk estimation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yirong; Abbey, Craig K.; Chen, Xianqiao; Liu, Jie; Page, David C.; Alagoz, Oguzhan; Peissig, Peggy; Onitilo, Adedayo A.; Burnside, Elizabeth S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Combining imaging and genetic information to predict disease presence and progression is being codified into an emerging discipline called “radiogenomics.” Optimal evaluation methodologies for radiogenomics have not been well established. We aim to develop a decision framework based on utility analysis to assess predictive models for breast cancer diagnosis. We garnered Gail risk factors, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and mammographic features from a retrospective case-control study. We constructed three logistic regression models built on different sets of predictive features: (1) Gail, (2) Gail + Mammo, and (3) Gail + Mammo + SNP. Then we generated receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for three models. After we assigned utility values for each category of outcomes (true negatives, false positives, false negatives, and true positives), we pursued optimal operating points on ROC curves to achieve maximum expected utility of breast cancer diagnosis. We performed McNemar’s test based on threshold levels at optimal operating points, and found that SNPs and mammographic features played a significant role in breast cancer risk estimation. Our study comprising utility analysis and McNemar’s test provides a decision framework to evaluate predictive models in breast cancer risk estimation. PMID:26835489

  19. Evaluation of breast cancer susceptibility using improved genetic algorithms to generate genotype SNP barcodes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-Hong; Lin, Yu-Da; Chuang, Li-Yeh; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Genetic association is a challenging task for the identification and characterization of genes that increase the susceptibility to common complex multifactorial diseases. To fully execute genetic studies of complex diseases, modern geneticists face the challenge of detecting interactions between loci. A genetic algorithm (GA) is developed to detect the association of genotype frequencies of cancer cases and noncancer cases based on statistical analysis. An improved genetic algorithm (IGA) is proposed to improve the reliability of the GA method for high-dimensional SNP-SNP interactions. The strategy offers the top five results to the random population process, in which they guide the GA toward a significant search course. The IGA increases the likelihood of quickly detecting the maximum ratio difference between cancer cases and noncancer cases. The study systematically evaluates the joint effect of 23 SNP combinations of six steroid hormone metabolisms, and signaling-related genes involved in breast carcinogenesis pathways were systematically evaluated, with IGA successfully detecting significant ratio differences between breast cancer cases and noncancer cases. The possible breast cancer risks were subsequently analyzed by odds-ratio (OR) and risk-ratio analysis. The estimated OR of the best SNP barcode is significantly higher than 1 (between 1.15 and 7.01) for specific combinations of two to 13 SNPs. Analysis results support that the IGA provides higher ratio difference values than the GA between breast cancer cases and noncancer cases over 3-SNP to 13-SNP interactions. A more specific SNP-SNP interaction profile for the risk of breast cancer is also provided.

  20. Analytical and clinical evaluation of a new tumor marker in breast cancer: CA 27.29.

    PubMed

    Correale, M; Abbate, I; Gargano, G; Catino, A; Dragone, C D; Musci, M D; Serio, G; Paradiso, A; De Lena, M

    1992-01-01

    Evaluation of a radioimmunoassay for a new tumor marker, named CA 27.29, recently proposed for use in breast cancer patients, is reported in this study. After considering the analytical performance, the clinical study was directed to a control group of 66 apparently healthy subjects (Controls), a group of 25 women with benign breast disease (BBD) and a group of 164 breast cancer patients divided into primary before any treatment (M-), in follow-up with no evidence of disease (NED) and presence of metastases (M+). When compared to CA 15.3, our results showed similar sensitivity of both markers with a slightly lower specificity for CA 27.29. In some cases, however, CA 27.29 elevation appears earlier than CA 15.3 as a sign of metastases. We thus propose their associated use.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: breast cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancers . A small percentage of all breast cancers cluster in families. These cancers are described as hereditary ... will develop breast cancer . Some breast cancers that cluster in families are associated with inherited mutations in ...

  2. Evaluation of Social Support, Quality of Life, and Body Image in Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Spatuzzi, Roberta; Vespa, Anna; Lorenzi, Primo; Miccinesi, Guido; Ricciuti, Marcello; Cifarelli, Wanda; Susi, Marina; Fabrizio, Tommaso; Ferrari, Maria G.; Ottaviani, Marica; Giulietti, Maria V.; Merico, Fabiana; Aieta, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background This study was aimed at comparing the quality of life, body image, and perceived social support in women with breast cancer surgery. Patients and Methods Patients receiving breast-conserving surgery (BCS) (n = 72), mastectomy alone (n = 44), and mastectomy with breast reconstruction (n = 41) were evaluated using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), the EORTC Breast Cancer Module (QLQ-BR23), the Body Image Scale (BIS) and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Results The results indicated that the BCS group had a better body image compared with the other 2 groups and better role functioning compared with the mastectomy-alone group. In the reconstruction group, body image correlated with perceived social support, especially from family and significant others. Conclusion These results suggest that a positive perception of a supportive social network can help women with breast reconstruction to better cope with the psychological effects of surgery on their body image. PMID:27051393

  3. Evaluation of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in normal and breast tumor tissues and their link with breast cancer prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Furrer, Daniela; Lemieux, Julie; Côté, Marc-André; Provencher, Louise; Laflamme, Christian; Barabé, Frédéric; Jacob, Simon; Michaud, Annick; Diorio, Caroline

    2016-12-01

    Amplification of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) gene is associated with worse prognosis and decreased overall survival in breast cancer patients. The HER2 gene contains several polymorphisms; two of the best-characterized HER2 polymorphisms are Ile655Val and Ala1170Pro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between these two HER2 polymorphisms in normal breast and breast cancer tissues and known breast cancer prognostic factors in a retrospective cohort study of 73 women with non-metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer. HER2 polymorphisms were assessed in breast cancer tissue and normal breast tissue using TaqMan assay. Ala1170Pro polymorphism in normal breast tissue was associated with age at diagnosis (p = 0.007), tumor size (p = 0.004) and lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.06). Similar significant associations in cancer tissues were observed. No association between the Ile655Val polymorphism and prognostic factors were observed. However, we found significant differences in the distribution of Ile655Val (p = 0.03) and Ala1170Pro (p = 0.01) genotypes between normal breast and breast tumor tissues. This study demonstrates that only the Ala1170Pro polymorphism is associated with prognostic factors in HER2-positive breast cancer patients. Moreover, our results suggest that both HER2 polymorphisms could play a significant role in carcinogenesis in non-metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer women.

  4. Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... or to other parts of the body. Where breast cancer begins in men Everyone is born with a ... skin around the nipple. Inherited genes that increase breast cancer risk Some men inherit abnormal (mutated) genes from ...

  5. Breast cancer staging

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  6. Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... En Español Category Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis Breast cancer is sometimes ... cancer screening is so important. Learn more. Can Breast Cancer Be Found Early? Breast cancer is sometimes found ...

  7. Lessons Learned from the Initial 100 Patient Experience with Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping in the Evaluation of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fuhrman, George M.; Burch, Ernest G.; Farr, Gist H.; King, Tari A.; Farkas, Emily; Bolton, John S.

    2000-01-01

    The initial reports of sentinel lymph node mapping for breast cancer currently appearing in the surgical literature are demonstrating the practicality and accuracy of the technique to evaluate patients for axillary nodal disease. We reviewed our initial 100 patient experience with sentinel node mapping to evaluate our ability to employ this technique in breast cancer patients. We combined a peritumoral injection of a radioactive substance and blue dye. Each sentinel node was evaluated with frozen section analysis, hematoxylin and eosin staining, and, if still negative, five re-cuts were taken from deeper levels of the node and evaluated for immunohistochemical evidence of cytokeratin staining. Sentinel node(s) were identified in all but two patients with 51% demonstrating metastasis. We have demonstrated the ability to accurately perform sentinel node mapping in the evaluation of our breast cancer patients. This exciting advance should become a standard part of breast cancer surgery. PMID:21765657

  8. [Evaluation of the extent of movement of the shoulder after breast cancer treatment].

    PubMed

    Silvia, Silvia H; Godoy, José M

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of breast cancer generally involves quadrantectomy and mastectomy followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy depending on indication. The object of the present study was to verify the extent of movement of the shoulder after breast cancer treatment and the influence of the type of surgery (quadrantectomy and mastectomy). A total of 90 women submitted to surgery for breast cancer in the Region of Catanduva, Brazil and a control group of 20 women without surgical compromise were evaluated. The extents of bilateral flexion and abduction movements of the shoulders were assessed by goniometry. The non-matched student t-test and Fisher exact test were utilized for statistical analysis with an alpha error of up to 5% being considered acceptable. Differences of 20 degrees or more in the extent of movement of the shoulders of women submitted to surgery were seen in 47.7% of the cases for flexion and in 56.6% for abduction. The compromise to the movement of the shoulder in the control group was less than 20 degrees in 9 (45%) of the women. On comparing the incidence of alterations in the movements of the arms of women submitted to surgery with the control group, a significant difference was identified for both limbs (p-value < 0.01). The articular mobility of both arms of patients submitted to treatment for breast cancer can be affected.

  9. Participant Evaluation of Teleconference Support for African American Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Heiney, Sue; Adams, Swann Arp; Wells, Linda M.; Johnson, Hiluv; King, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    Background African American women with breast cancer face obstacles such as transportation and family obligations when attending standard support groups. Teleconference Support circumvents barriers such as transportation to participation but few evaluations have been reported about teleconference support. Objective The purpose of this paper is to describe the format of a teleconference group and to provide a descriptive account of the participants' feedback about a teleconference group intervention. Interventions/Methods A descriptive design was used. Participants completed the Overall Support Group evaluation tool at the end of the tenth group session. Results Teleconference group participants' feedback indicated that they perceived they had gained knowledge about breast cancer and coping. The participants expressed that the group helped them to reach out and ask for support and improved family and work relationships. Also, participants rated the group highly for the presence of therapeutic factors. On a scale of 1-4 with 4 being the highest, mean scores ranged from 3.97 to 3.56. Conclusions The participants gave high ratings of satisfaction in terms of knowledge gained, leadership style and benefits. The participants perceived that the group increased their knowledge about cancer, improved family connections and increased their ability to deal with their cancer. Implications for Practice Utilizing teleconferencing technology to deliver a support group to African American breast cancer patients is a beneficial method to reach a disadvantaged population that may be unable to attend face-to-face groups. PMID:21760497

  10. Breast and ovarian cancer risk evaluation in families with a disease-causing mutation in BRCA1/2.

    PubMed

    Beristain, Elena; Ibáñez, Berta; Vergara, Itziar; Martínez-Bouzas, Cristina; Guerra, Isabel; Tejada, Maria Isabel

    2010-06-01

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 confer high risks of breast and ovarian cancer, and their identification allows genetic testing of at-risk relatives. However, estimates of these risks illustrate controversies, depending on the published series. The penetrance, the earlier onset of the disease and the effect of mutations on the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer were evaluated in 344 females belonging to 34 families from the Basque Country in Spain, in which BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations were transmitted. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to derive cumulative probability curves for breast and ovarian cancer by mutation status, birth cohort and mutation position, and significance of the differences was assessed using the log-rank test. The estimated probability for breast cancer by age 70 is about 64% in BRCA1 and 69% in BRCA2, whereas the probability of developing ovarian cancer is about 37% and 25% for BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively. There is a marginally significant higher risk of developing ovarian cancer in BRCA1 families than in BRCA2 families. The effect of birth cohort on breast cancer cumulative incidence presents an increased risk for females born after 1966 and a decreased risk for those born before 1940. There is no association between mutation position and breast cancer; however, ovarian cancer is associated to BRCA1, presenting exon 11 as an ovarian cluster. These results are important for the breast and ovarian cancer diagnosis and prevention in at-risk families.

  11. [Immediate breast reconstruction for breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Daigo; Tanaka, Yoshihito; Tsubota, Yu; Sueoka, Noriko; Endo, Kayoko; Ogura, Tsunetaka; Nagumo, Yoshinori; Kwon, A-Hon

    2014-11-01

    We performed immediate breast reconstruction after nipple-sparing mastectomy or skin-sparing mastectomy and evaluated the reconstruction procedure, cosmesis, and complications. Among the 30 patients included in the study, 6 received latissimus dorsi flaps, 1 received a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap, 7 received deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps, 1 received an implant, and 15 received tissue expanders. In addition, the results were excellent in 25 patients, good in 3 patients, and poor in 2 patients. As the number of patients with breast cancer is increasing, the demand for breast reconstruction will increase. Therefore, it is essential to choose an appropriate method of breast reconstruction for each case.

  12. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... With Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Prevention en español Cáncer de mama You may have heard about special events, like walks or races, to raise money for breast cancer research. Or maybe you've seen people wear ...

  13. Evaluation of Breast Cancer Risk Levels and Its Relation with Breast Self-Examination Practices in Women

    PubMed Central

    Kutlu, Ruhuşen; Biçer, Ümmiye

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was performed to determine the breast cancer risk levels and its relation with the frequency of breast self-examination practices in women who were 20 years old and over. Materials and Methods This descriptive study was conducted on 867 women, who were 20 years old and over presenting to a family medicine outpatient clinic for any reasons. The participants filled in the “Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Form” which is recommended to assess the risk of breast cancer by the Ministry of Health. The participants’ risk levels have been classified as low, medium, high, and the highest risk. Results The mean age of the participating women was 38.2±13.4 years, 69.7% (n=604) were married, 54.8% (n=475) were housewives, 33.9% (n=294) were working, 42.7% were graduated from primary school. The average risk score of the patients for breast cancer was 131.26 ±45.11 (50–325). As a result of this study, 87.3% (n=757) of the women were identified as having a low breast cancer risk, 12.6% (n=109) medium and 0.1% (n=1) of them were identified as having a high risk. The data demonstrated that 75.5% (n=655) of the women weren’t doing breast self-examination (BSE). The rate of previous breast USG or mammography screening was 33.7% (n=292). There were no statistical relations between the breast cancer risk levels and BSE (p=0.396). Conclusion The risk of developing breast cancer was low among the women in the study group and breast self-examination rates were insufficient. In addition to training women by emphasizing the importance of breast self-examination in early diagnosis, the breast cancer risk questionnaire - an easy to implement, simple and costless tool - is recommended to be administered in the primary health care centers. PMID:28331766

  14. Evaluation of kinesthetic sense and hand function in women with breast cancer-related lymphedema

    PubMed Central

    Karadibak, Didem; Yavuzsen, Tugba

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the functional ability and kinesthetic sense of the hands of women with breast cancer-related lymphedema. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-seven women experiencing lymphedema after breast surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy were included. The patients were divided into two groups: women with hand edema (HE+, n = 29) and without hand edema (HE−, n = 28) after breast cancer treatment. Arm edema severity, hand size, functional mobility and kinesthetic sense of the hand, and daily living skills were evaluated. [Results] The mean age of the patients was 55.8 years. In both groups, functional mobility, kinesthetic sense, and daily living skills decreased significantly with increasing edema severity. However, there was no significant difference between groups with respect to functional mobility or daily living skills. The kinesthetic sense of the hand was better in the HE− group than the HE+ group. There was a significant negative relationship between the severity of edema and hand function. [Conclusion] Breast cancer-related lymphedema can negatively impact women’s functional mobility and kinesthetic sense of the hands as well as daily living skills. PMID:26180295

  15. Evaluation of the Diagnostic Power of Thermography in Breast Cancer Using Bayesian Network Classifiers

    PubMed Central

    Nicandro, Cruz-Ramírez; Efrén, Mezura-Montes; María Yaneli, Ameca-Alducin; Enrique, Martín-Del-Campo-Mena; Héctor Gabriel, Acosta-Mesa; Nancy, Pérez-Castro; Alejandro, Guerra-Hernández; Guillermo de Jesús, Hoyos-Rivera; Rocío Erandi, Barrientos-Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death among women worldwide. There are a number of techniques used for diagnosing this disease: mammography, ultrasound, and biopsy, among others. Each of these has well-known advantages and disadvantages. A relatively new method, based on the temperature a tumor may produce, has recently been explored: thermography. In this paper, we will evaluate the diagnostic power of thermography in breast cancer using Bayesian network classifiers. We will show how the information provided by the thermal image can be used in order to characterize patients suspected of having cancer. Our main contribution is the proposal of a score, based on the aforementioned information, that could help distinguish sick patients from healthy ones. Our main results suggest the potential of this technique in such a goal but also show its main limitations that have to be overcome to consider it as an effective diagnosis complementary tool. PMID:23762182

  16. Evaluation of the diagnostic power of thermography in breast cancer using Bayesian network classifiers.

    PubMed

    Nicandro, Cruz-Ramírez; Efrén, Mezura-Montes; María Yaneli, Ameca-Alducin; Enrique, Martín-Del-Campo-Mena; Héctor Gabriel, Acosta-Mesa; Nancy, Pérez-Castro; Alejandro, Guerra-Hernández; Guillermo de Jesús, Hoyos-Rivera; Rocío Erandi, Barrientos-Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death among women worldwide. There are a number of techniques used for diagnosing this disease: mammography, ultrasound, and biopsy, among others. Each of these has well-known advantages and disadvantages. A relatively new method, based on the temperature a tumor may produce, has recently been explored: thermography. In this paper, we will evaluate the diagnostic power of thermography in breast cancer using Bayesian network classifiers. We will show how the information provided by the thermal image can be used in order to characterize patients suspected of having cancer. Our main contribution is the proposal of a score, based on the aforementioned information, that could help distinguish sick patients from healthy ones. Our main results suggest the potential of this technique in such a goal but also show its main limitations that have to be overcome to consider it as an effective diagnosis complementary tool.

  17. An evaluation of genetic heterogeneity in 145 breast-ovarian cancer families

    SciTech Connect

    Narod, S.A.; Ford, D.; Devilee, P.; Barkardottir, R.B.; Lynch, H.T.; Smith, S.A.; Ponder, B.A.J.; Weber, B.L.; Garber, J.E.; Birch, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The breast-ovary cancer-family syndrome is a dominant predisposition to cancer of the breast and ovaries which has been mapped to chromosome region 17q12-q21. The majority, but not all, of breast-ovary cancer families show linkage to this susceptibility locus, designated BRCA1. We report the results of a linkage analysis of 145 families with both breast and ovarian cancer. These families contain either a total of three or more cases of early-onset (before age 60 years) breast cancer or ovarian cancer. All families contained at least one case of ovarian cancer. Overall, an estimated 76% of the 145 families are linked to the BRCA1 locus. None of the 13 families with cases of male breast cancer appear to be linked, but it is estimated that 92% (95% confidence interval 76%-100%) of families with no male breast cancer and with two or more ovarian cancers are linked to BRCA1. These data suggest that the breast-ovarian cancer-family syndrome is genetically heterogeneous. However, the large majority of families with early-onset breast cancer and with two or more cases of ovarian cancer are likely to be due to BRCA1 mutations. 39 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Quantitative Ultrasonic Evaluation of Radiation-Induced Late Tissue Toxicity: Pilot Study of Breast Cancer Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Tian; Zhou Jun; Yoshida, Emi J.; Woodhouse, Shermian A.; Schiff, Peter B.; Wang, Tony J.C.; Lu Zhengfeng; Pile-Spellman, Eliza; Zhang Pengpeng; Kutcher, Gerald J.

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the use of advanced ultrasonic imaging to quantitatively evaluate normal-tissue toxicity in breast-cancer radiation treatment. Methods and Materials: Eighteen breast cancer patients who received radiation treatment were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved clinical study. Radiotherapy involved a radiation dose of 50.0 to 50.4 Gy delivered to the entire breast, followed by an electron boost of 10.0 to 16.0 Gy delivered to the tumor bed. Patients underwent scanning with ultrasound during follow-up, which ranged from 6 to 94 months (median, 22 months) postradiotherapy. Conventional ultrasound images and radio-frequency (RF) echo signals were acquired from treated and untreated breasts. Three ultrasound parameters, namely, skin thickness, Pearson coefficient, and spectral midband fit, were computed from RF signals to measure radiation-induced changes in dermis, hypodermis, and subcutaneous tissue, respectively. Ultrasound parameter values of the treated breast were compared with those of the untreated breast. Ultrasound findings were compared with clinical assessment using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) late-toxicity scores. Results: Significant changes were observed in ultrasonic parameter values of the treated vs. untreated breasts. Average skin thickness increased by 27.3%, from 2.05 {+-} 0.22mm to 2.61 {+-} 0.52mm; Pearson coefficient decreased by 31.7%, from 0.41 {+-} 0.07 to 0.28 {+-} 0.05; and midband fit increased by 94.6%, from -0.92 {+-} 7.35 dB to 0.87 {+-} 6.70 dB. Ultrasound evaluations were consistent with RTOG scores. Conclusions: Quantitative ultrasound provides a noninvasive, objective means of assessing radiation-induced changes to the skin and subcutaneous tissue. This imaging tool will become increasingly valuable as we continue to improve radiation therapy technique.

  19. Evaluating Teaching Techniques in the Hmong Breast and Cervical Cancer Health Awareness Project

    PubMed Central

    Lor, Maichou; Bowers, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer health disparities are a reality for Hmong women who are often diagnosed at a later stage, have low literacy, and experienced care that is not culturally appropriate. Lack of attention to cultural appropriateness and literacy levels of cancer screening materials may contribute to disproportionately low levels of cancer screening among Hmong women. Purpose To evaluate the Hmong Health Awareness Project (HHAP), a program designed to create awareness and acceptance of breast and cervical cancer screening, and to examine participants’ perceptions of the utility of the content of the workshops. Methods Hmong researchers partnered with three Midwestern Hmong community centers to implement six workshops. Three teaching techniques: pictographs, videos, and hands-on activities were utilized to teach Hmong participants about cancer screening. Participants included 150 Hmong (male=30, female = 120). Teach back method was used to assess participants’ understanding of cancer screening throughout the workshops. Qualitative data were collected in focus groups to assess the feasibility of teaching methods and participants’ perceptions of the utility of the content of the workshops. Directed content analysis was used to analyze participants’ responses. Results The three teaching techniques were helpful in increasing the Hmong people’s understanding about breast and cervical cancer screening. Nearly all participants perceived an increased in their understanding, greater acceptance of cancer screening, and increased willingness to be screened. Men expressed support for screening after the workshops. Conclusion Findings can guide future interventions to improve health communications and screening and reduce diagnostic disparities among Hmong and immigrant populations. PMID:24488558

  20. Prognosis of invasive breast cancer after adjuvant therapy evaluated with VEGF microvessel density and microvascular imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Wei, Xi; Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Jin

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ultrasonographic microvascular imaging in the evaluation of prognosis of patients with invasive breast cancer treated by adjuvant therapies. A total of 121 patients with invasive breast cancer underwent ultrasonographic contrast-enhanced imaging, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) staining, and microvessel density (MVD) counts. The parameters of microvascular imaging and the expression of VEGF and MVD in primary breast cancer were calculated. The correlation between these factors and the overall and progression-free survival rate were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Among 121 cases, the positive VEGF cases were 75 and negative ones were 46. The cut point of 52.3 was calculated by the regressive curve for MVD counts. The data showed the mean intensity (MI) was positively associated with both the MVD counts (r = .51, p < .001) and VEGF expression (r = .35, p < .001). For the prognosis of patients, high VEGF expression and MVD counts were associated with reduced progressive and survival times (PFS, p = .032 and p = .034; OS, p = .041 and p = .038, respectively). The correlation between parameters of microvascular imaging, VEGF expressive status, and the MVD counts were established. The cut point of mean intensity (MI = 40) was used to investigate as an independent predictor for PFS (p = .021) and OS (p = .025), respectively, due to a strong correlation between MVD counts and VEGF expression in patients with invasive breast cancer. The microvascular imaging could be a visual and helpful tool to predict the prognosis of patients with invasive breast cancer treated by adjuvant therapies.

  1. Evaluation of expert criteria for preoperative magnetic resonance imaging of newly diagnosed breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Carolyn E; Tumyan, Lusine; Gonser, Laura; Shaw, Sara L; Vora, Lalit; Paz, I Benjamin; Ellenhorn, Joshua D I; Yim, John H

    2014-08-01

    Despite 2 randomized trials reporting no reduction in operations or local recurrence at 1 year, preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used in diagnostic workup of breast cancer. We evaluated 5 utilization criteria recently proposed by experts. Of women (n = 340) newly diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer who underwent bilateral MRI, most (69.4%) met at least 1 criterion before MRI: mammographic density (44.4%), under consideration for partial breast irradiation (PBI) (19.7%), genetic-familial risk (12.9%), invasive lobular carcinoma (11.8%), and multifocal/multicentric disease (10.6%). MRI detected occult malignant lesion or extension of index lesion in 21.2% of index, 3.3% of contralateral, breasts. No expert criterion was associated with MRI-detected malignant lesion, which associated instead with pre-MRI plan of lumpectomy without PBI (48.2% of subjects): Odds Ratio 3.05, 95% CI 1.57-5.91 (p adjusted for multiple hypothesis testing = 0.007, adjusted for index-vs-contralateral breast and covariates). The expert guidelines were not confirmed by clinical evidence.

  2. Evaluation of breast cancer chemotherapy efficacy with multifractal spectrum analysis of magnetic resonance image.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Hu, Wen-yong; Liu, Li-zhi; Pang, Ya-chun; Shao, Yuan-zhi

    2014-01-01

    Multifractal spectrum analysis of dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) breast MR images was used to establish a new quantitative analysis method for solid tumor blood perfusion and to explore its applicability in evaluating efficacy of breast cancer chemotherapy. Five randomly selected patients suffering from newly diagnosed malignant breast nodule lesions were enrolled in this study, and four of them were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Their DCE breast MR images were collected before and after treatment. Chemotherapeutic efficacy was analyzed using international response evaluation criteria for solid tumors (RECIST). Sandbox method for statistical number density was employed to measure and calculate multifractal spectra of DCE breast MR images with spatiotemporal characteristics. Multifractal spectral data of malignant lesions before and after chemotherapy were compared. Multifractal spectra of malignant lesions show an asymmetric bell-shape. Chemotherapy efficacy was assessed to be partial remission (PR) for three patients and their multifractal spectral width significantly increased after chemotherapy while to be stable disease (SD) for other patient and of her changed slightly. Multifractal spectral width correlates with blood-supply condition of tumor lesion before and after chemotherapy, providing a potential suitable characteristic parameter for evaluating chemotherapeutic efficacy quantitatively.

  3. Evaluation of Breast Cancer Stem Cells and Intratumor Stemness Heterogeneity in Triple-negative Breast Cancer as Prognostic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fang; Cao, Lulu; Sun, Zijia; Jin, Juan; Fang, Hehui; Zhang, Wenwen; Guan, Xiaoxiang

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a tumor subtype with aggressive behavior and poor clinical outcome for lacking effective therapies. Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) have been suggested to have tumor-initiating properties, but it remains unclear whether their presence contributes to the increased aggressiveness and poor prognosis of TNBC. Also, the breast cancers display frequent inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity, which adds the complexity in diagnosis and predicting prognosis. Here we investigated the clinical relevance and prognostic value of the BCSC markers, CD44+/CD24-, aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A1 (ALDH1A1) and CD133 in 88 TNBC cases. We found that a few patients displayed spatial heterogeneity of the BCSC markers in expression, which was defined as intratumor stemness heterogeneity (ITSH) below. There was no significant correlation between any BCSC marker alone or ITSH and progression-free survival (PFS). Interestingly, the combined BCSC phenotype by CD44+/CD24- and ALDH1A1 was significantly associated with worse PFS (P = 0.009). Further stratification analysis revealed that this combined BCSC phenotype was an independent prognostic factor for PFS in some subgroups. In conclusion, we demonstrated the existence of ITSH in TNBC and found that the ITSH as well as a single BCSC marker was not significantly associated with survival, whereas combing the analysis of BCSC markers could improve prognostic value. Our findings may lead to an improvement of prognostic indicators in TNBC. PMID:27994520

  4. Comparative Evaluation of Nimesulide-Loaded Nanoparticles for Anticancer Activity Against Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Sengel-Turk, Ceyda Tuba; Hascicek, Canan; Bakar, Filiz; Simsek, Elif

    2017-02-01

    Recent clinical and epidemiological researches have declared that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents may display as antineoplastic agents and indicate pro-apoptotic and antiproliferative effects on cancer cells. The major purpose of this research was to develop a novel poly(ethyleneglycol)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG-b-PCL) nano-sized particles encapsulated with nimesulide (NMS), a selective COX-2 inhibitor, and to evaluate its anticancer activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. NMS-encapsulated PEG-b-PCL nanoparticles were fabricated using three different production techniques: (i) by emulsion-solvent evaporation using a high shear homogenizer, (ii) by emulsion-solvent evaporation using an ultrasonicator, and (iii) by nanoprecipitation. Nanoparticles were evaluated with respect to the entrapment efficiency, size characteristics, drug release rates, thermal behavior, cell viability assays, and apoptosis. The resulting nanoparticles were found to be spherical shapes with negative surface charges. The average diameter of all nanoparticles ranged between 148.5 and 307.2 nm. In vitro release profiles showed that all nanoparticles exhibited a biphasic release pattern. NMS-loaded PEG-b-PCL nanoparticles demonstrated significant anticancer activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner, and the effects of nanoparticles on cell proliferation were significantly affected by the preparation techniques. The nanoparticles developed in this work displayed higher potential for the NMS delivery against breast cancer treatment for the future.

  5. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    MedlinePlus

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  6. Green Tea and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Anna H; Butler, Lesley M

    2014-01-01

    The identification of modifiable lifestyle factors that could reduce the risk of breast cancer is a research priority. Despite the enormous chemo preventive potential of green tea and compelling evidence from animal studies, its role in breast cancer development in humans is still unclear. Part of the uncertainty is related to the relatively small number of epidemiological studies on green tea and breast cancer and that the overall results from case-control studies and prospective cohort studies are discordant. In addition, the mechanisms by which green tea intake may influence risk of breast cancer in humans remains not well studied. We review the human studies that have evaluated the relationship between green tea intake and four biomarkers (sex steroid hormones, mammographic density, insulin-like growth factor, adiponectin) that are believed to be important in breast cancer development. Results from these biomarker studies are also inconclusive. Limitations of human studies and areas of further investigations are discussed. PMID:21538855

  7. Breast cancer patient stories project.

    PubMed

    Tanna, Nuttan; Buijs, Helene; Pitkin, Joan; Reichert, Robert

    2012-12-01

    It is estimated that there are almost half a million women living with or beyond a breast cancer diagnosis in the UK, often referred to as the breast cancer survivor population. We report on the setting up of a dedicated breast cancer and menopause symptoms service (BCMS), and present results from research undertaken with breast cancer survivors with the aim of obtaining their perspectives on the BCMS service. An action-oriented approach incorporating improvement science methodology has been used to help develop and drive changes to support a high standard of NHS patient care delivery for women with breast cancer within the BCMS setting. Evaluation was undertaken of this innovative service using qualitative methodology, and included discussion within a focus group setting, patient consent to record discussion, followed by thematic analysis of transcription. Women who have survived breast cancer identified a need for specialist support to help improve their quality of life, which is also affected by menopause type symptomology. This support can be provided within the BCMS service setting. Our recommendations are that the BCMS service model is incorporated into any regional or national breast cancer patient pathway and service redesign work in place. Breast cancer survivors would support the setting up of a BCMS service, and would actively help raise awareness and market this service.

  8. Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-12

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  9. A Phase II study of olaparib in breast cancer patients: biological evaluation from a 'window of opportunity' trial.

    PubMed

    Roviello, Giandomenico; Milani, Manuela; Gobbi, Angela; Dester, Martina; Cappelletti, Maria Rosa; Allevi, Giovanni; Aguggini, Sergio; Ravelli, Andrea; Gussago, Francesca; Cocconi, Alessandra; Zanotti, Laura; Senti, Chiara; Strina, Carla; Bottini, Alberto; Generali, Daniele

    2016-10-01

    The OLTRE trial (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02681562) is an open-label, 'window of opportunity' Phase II controlled trial to evaluate the biological activity of olaparib in locally advanced triple-negative breast cancer compared with other subtypes of locally advanced breast cancer patients carrying germinal BRCA mutation receiving olaparib with the same treatment approach. The primary end point is to investigate the correlation between baseline gene and protein expression profile in order to identify possible predictive markers of response to olaparib. The OLTRE trial is expected to identify the surrogate markers of the biological activity of olaparib in the treatment of patients with triple-negative breast cancer.

  10. Designing and Psychometric Evaluation of Adjustment to Illness Measurement Inventory for Iranian Women With Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hajian, Sepideh; Mehrabi, Esmat; Simbar, Masoumeh; Houshyari, Mohammad; Zayeri, Farid; Hajian, Parastoo

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer diagnosis for everybody may be perceived as crisis and breast cancer, as the most common malignancy in women, can influence their well-being and multiple aspects of their health. So understanding that how women in various contexts and communities adjust to the illness is necessary to facilitate this adjustment and improve their quality of life. Objectives The aim of this study was to: 1) identify the core components of coping strategies to adjust to the illness in Iranian women with breast cancer perspective, 2) to develop and determine psychometric properties of a native self-report instrument to assess coping behaviors and measure the degree of adjustment with the breast cancer. Methods The present exploratory mixed method study was conducted in two consecutive stages: 1) the hermeneutic phenomenological study was done to explore the life experiences of coping styles to adjust with the breast cancer using in-depth interviews with patients that lead to item generation; 2) psychometric properties (validity and reliability) of the instrument were evaluated recruiting 340 eligible women. The item pool was reduced systematically and resulted in a 49-item instrument. Results From the qualitative stage, item pool containing 78 items related to coping strategies to adjust with the breast cancer. After eliminating unwanted statements from the results, qualitative and quantitative face and content validity, the 10 factors extracted employing construct validity were: feeling of guilt, abstention-diversion, role preservation and seeking support, efforts for threat control, confronting, fear and anxiety, role wasting, maturation and growth, isolation, and fatalism. These factors accounted for the 59.1% of variance observed. The Cronbach reliability test was carried out and alpha value of 10 factors was calculated from 0.78 to 0.87 confirming all factors were internally consistent. The scale’s stability was tested using the test-retest method. Conclusions

  11. Family History of Breast Cancer, Breast Density, and Breast Cancer Risk in a U.S. Breast Cancer Screening Population.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Thomas P; Sprague, Brian L; Bissell, Michael C S; Miglioretti, Diana L; Buist, Diana S M; Braithwaite, Dejana; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2017-06-01

    Background: The utility of incorporating detailed family history into breast cancer risk prediction hinges on its independent contribution to breast cancer risk. We evaluated associations between detailed family history and breast cancer risk while accounting for breast density.Methods: We followed 222,019 participants ages 35 to 74 in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium, of whom 2,456 developed invasive breast cancer. We calculated standardized breast cancer risks within joint strata of breast density and simple (1(st)-degree female relative) or detailed (first-degree, second-degree, or first- and second-degree female relative) breast cancer family history. We fit log-binomial models to estimate age-specific breast cancer associations for simple and detailed family history, accounting for breast density.Results: Simple first-degree family history was associated with increased breast cancer risk compared with no first-degree history [Risk ratio (RR), 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0-2.1 at age 40; RR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.7 at age 50; RR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.6 at age 60; RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5 at age 70). Breast cancer associations with detailed family history were strongest for women with first- and second-degree family history compared with no history (RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.2 at age 40); this association weakened in higher age groups (RR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.88-1.5 at age 70). Associations did not change substantially when adjusted for breast density.Conclusions: Even with adjustment for breast density, a history of breast cancer in both first- and second-degree relatives is more strongly associated with breast cancer than simple first-degree family history.Impact: Future efforts to improve breast cancer risk prediction models should evaluate detailed family history as a risk factor. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(6); 938-44. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Male Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yalaza, Metin; İnan, Aydın; Bozer, Mikdat

    2016-01-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease, accounting for less than 1% of all breast cancer diagnoses worldwide. Although breast carcinomas share certain characteristics in both genders, there are notable differences. Most studies on men with breast cancer are very small. Thus, most data on male breast cancer are derived from studies on females. However, when a number of these small studies are grouped together, we can learn more from them. This review emphasizes the incidence, etiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, pathology, survival, and prognostic factors related to MBC.

  13. Evaluation of apoptosis-induction by newly synthesized phthalazine derivatives in breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Arif, Jamal M; Kunhi, Muhammad; Bekhit, Adnan A; Subramanian, Manogaran P; Al-Hussein, Khalid; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y; Al-Khodairy, Fahad M

    2006-01-01

    Newly synthesized phthalazine derivatives including copper and platinum complexes were evaluated for cytotoxicity in human breast cancer cell lines. The cells were incubated with the compounds (100 microM) for 72 h and cytotoxicity, apoptosis and DNA content were measured by flow cytometery. Our results suggest that the parent (H1-2), copper (C1-2)- and platinum (P1-2)-derivatized compounds were relatively more active in inducing apoptosis and cell killing in both human breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 cells being the more sensitive. Other compounds showed weak or no response towards these parameters except H-5 causing 40% apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. Addition of copper or platinum in the structures generally reduced the apoptotic potential. Possible roles for structure activity relationships are discussed.

  14. Preoperative axillary lymph node evaluation in breast cancer patients by breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): Can breast MRI exclude advanced nodal disease?

    PubMed

    Hyun, Su Jeong; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in preoperative evaluation of axillary lymph node metastasis (ALNM) in breast cancer patients and to assess whether breast MRI can be used to exclude advanced nodal disease. A total of 425 patients were included in this study and breast MRI findings were retrospectively reviewed. The diagnostic performance of breast MRI for diagnosis of ALNM was evaluated in all patients, patients with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), and those without NAC (no-NAC). We evaluated whether negative MRI findings (cN0) can exclude advanced nodal disease (pN2-pN3) using the negative predictive value (NPV) in each group. The sensitivity and NPV of breast MRI in evaluation of ALNM was 51.3 % (60/117) and 83.3 % (284/341), respectively. For cN0 cases on MRI, pN2-pN3 manifested in 1.8 % (6/341) of the overall patients, 0.4 % (1/257) of the no-NAC group, and 6 % (5/84) of the NAC group. The NPV of negative MRI findings for exclusion of pN2-pN3 was higher for the no-NAC group than for the NAC group (99.6 % vs. 94.0 %, p = 0.039). Negative MRI findings (cN0) can exclude the presence of advanced nodal disease with an NPV of 99.6 % in the no-NAC group. • Breast MRI can be used to exclude advanced nodal disease (pN2-3). • Negative MRI allows breast cancer patients to avoid unnecessary axillary surgery (98.2 %). • Negative MRI findings exclude 99.6 % of pN2-pN3 in the no-NAC group. • Negative MRI findings exclude 96.0 % of pN2-pN3 in the NAC group.

  15. Evaluation of Synthetic Isoflavones on Cell Proliferation, Estrogen Receptor Binding Affinity, and Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Danyetta D.; Díaz-Cruz, Edgar S.; Landini, Serena; Kim, Young-Woo; Brueggemeier, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Natural isoflavones have demonstrated numerous pharmacological activities in breast cancer cells, including antiproliferative activities and binding affinities for estrogen receptors (ERs). Chemical modifications on the isoflavone ring system have been prepared and explored for the development of new therapeutics for hormone-dependent breast cancer. The antiproliferative actions of the synthesized isoflavones on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were examined, as well as cytotoxicity, interaction with estrogen receptors, and proapoptotic activity. The compounds were screened in the absence and in the presence of estradiol to evaluate whether or not estradiol could rescue cell proliferation on MCF-7 cells. Several compounds were able to inhibit cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, and compounds containing the bulky 7-phenylmethoxy substituent resulted in cell toxicity not only in MCF-7 cells but also in MDA-MB-231 cells. Selected synthetic isoflavones were able to bind to estrogen receptor with low affinity. Apoptotic pathways were also activated by these compounds in breast cancer cells. The majority of the compounds can bind to both ERs. With low affinity, and their effects on hormone-independent breast cancer cells suggest that their ability to inhibit cell growth in breast cancer cells is not exclusively mediated by ERs. Thus, the synthetic trisubstituted isoflavones act on multiple signaling pathways leading to activation of mechanisms of cell death and ultimately affecting breast cancer cell survival. PMID:17962013

  16. Antitumor evaluation of two selected Pakistani plant extracts on human bone and breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Engel, Nadja; Ali, Iftikhar; Adamus, Anna; Frank, Marcus; Dad, Akber; Ali, Sajjad; Nebe, Barbara; Atif, Muhammad; Ismail, Muhammad; Langer, Peter; Ahmad, Viqar Uddin

    2016-07-26

    The medicinal plants Vincetoxicum arnottianum (VSM), Berberis orthobotrys (BORM), Onosma hispida (OHRM and OHAM) and Caccinia macranthera (CMM) are used traditionally in Pakistan and around the world for the treatment of various diseases including cancer, dermal infections, uterine tumor, wounds etc. The present study focuses on the investigation of the selected Pakistani plants for their potential as anticancer agents on human bone and breast cancer cell lines in comparison with non-tumorigenic control cells. The antitumor evaluation was carried out on human bone (MG-63, Saos-2) and breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, BT-20) in contrast to non-tumorigenic control cells (POB, MCF-12A) via cell viability measurements, cell cycle analysis, Annexin V/PI staining, microscopy based methods as well as migration/invasion determination, metabolic live cell monitoring and western blotting. After the first initial screening of the plant extracts, two extracts (BORM, VSM) revealed the highest potential with regard to its antitumor activity. Both extracts caused a significant reduction of cell viability in the breast and bone cancer cells in a concentration dependent manner. The effect of VSM is achieved primarily by inducing a G2/M arrest in the cell cycle and the stabilization of the actin stress fibers leading to reduced cell motility. By contrast BORM's cytotoxic properties were caused through the lysosomal-mediated cell death pathway indicated by an upregulation of Bcl-2 expression. The antitumor evaluation of certain medicinal plants presented in this study identified the methanolic root extract of Berberis orthobotrys and the methanolic extract of Vincetoxicum arnottianum as promising sources for exhibiting the antitumor activity. Therefore, the indigenous use of the herbal remedies for the treatment of cancer and cancer-related diseases has a scientific basis. Moreover, the present study provides a base for phytochemical investigation of the plant extracts.

  17. Comprehensive evaluation of the incidence of late effects in five-year survivors of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lash, Timothy L.; Thwin, Soe Soe; Yood, Marianne Ulcickas; Geiger, Ann M.; Bosco, Jaclyn; Quinn, Virginia P.; Field, Terry S.; Pawloski, Pamala A.; Silliman, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Late effects of breast cancer affect the quality of survivorship. Using administrative data, we compared the occurrence of almost all ICD9 codes among older breast cancer survivors to that among a matched comparison cohort to generate new hypotheses. Methods Breast cancer patients sixty-five years or older diagnosed 1990–1994 in six integrated care settings and who survived at least five years were matched with a cohort of women without a history of breast cancer on care setting, age, and calendar time. We collected data on the occurrence of incident ICD9 codes beginning six years after the breast cancer diagnosis date and continuing to year fifteen, and comparable data for the matched woman. We calculated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associating breast cancer survivorship with incidence of each ICD9 code. We used semi-Bayes methods to address multiple comparisons. Results Older breast cancer survivors had about the same occurrence of diseases and conditions six to fifteen years after breast cancer diagnosis as comparable women. The median of 564 adjusted hazard ratios equaled 1.06, with interquartile range 0.92 to 1.3. The distribution of hazard ratios pertaining to cancer-related ICD codes was shifted towards positive associations, and the distribution pertaining to cardiovascular-related ICD codes was shifted towards negative associations. Conclusions In this hypothesis scanning study, we observed little difference in the occurrence of non-breast cancer-related diseases and conditions among older, long-term breast cancer survivors and comparable women without a history of breast cancer. PMID:24584822

  18. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... red, or inflamed. Inflammatory breast cancer is rare, accounting for 1 to 5 percent of all breast ... Publications Site Map Digital Standards for NCI Websites POLICIES Accessibility Comment Policy Disclaimer FOIA Privacy & Security Reuse & ...

  19. Male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Reis, Leonardo Oliveira; Dias, Fernando Gf; Castro, Marcos As; Ferreira, Ubirajara

    2011-06-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease. However, as global populace ages, there is a trend to MBC increasing. Although aetiology is still unclear, constitutional, environmental, hormonal (abnormalities in estrogen/androgen balance) and genetic (positive family history, Klinefelter syndrome, mutations in BRCA1 and specially BRCA2) risk factors are already known. Clinic manifestation is painless hard and fixed nodule in the subareolar region in 75% of cases, with nipple commitment earlier than in women. Breast cancer has similar prognostic factors in males and females, among which axillary adenopathy (present in 40-55% cases) is the most important one. Although mammography, ultrasonography and scintigraphy can be useful tools in diagnosis; clinical assessment, along with a confirmatory biopsy, remains the main step in the evaluation of men with breast lesions. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma is the most frequent histological type. The established standard of care is modified radical mastectomy followed by tamoxifen for endocrine-responsive positive disease, although other options are being explored. While similarities between breast cancer in males and females exist, it is not appropriate to extrapolate data from female disease to the treatment of male. There is a need for specific multi-institutional trials to better understanding of clinicopathologic features and establishment of optimal therapy for this disease.

  20. Cloud-Based Service Information System for Evaluating Quality of Life after Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Hao-Yun; Wu, Wen-Hsiung; Liang, Tyng-Yeu; Lee, King-The; Hou, Ming-Feng; Shi, Hon-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although recent studies have improved understanding of quality of life (QOL) outcomes of breast conserving surgery, few have used longitudinal data for more than two time points, and few have examined predictors of QOL over two years. Additionally, the longitudinal data analyses in such studies rarely apply the appropriate statistical methodology to control for censoring and inter-correlations arising from repeated measures obtained from the same patient pool. This study evaluated an internet-based system for measuring longitudinal changes in QOL and developed a cloud-based system for managing patients after breast conserving surgery. Methods This prospective study analyzed 657 breast cancer patients treated at three tertiary academic hospitals. Related hospital personnel such as surgeons and other healthcare professionals were also interviewed to determine the requirements for an effective cloud-based system for surveying QOL in breast cancer patients. All patients completed the SF-36, Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30) and its supplementary breast cancer measure (QLQ-BR23) at baseline, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years postoperatively. The 95% confidence intervals for differences in responsiveness estimates were derived by bootstrap estimation. Scores derived by these instruments were interpreted by generalized estimating equation before and after surgery. Results All breast cancer surgery patients had significantly improved QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 subscale scores throughout the 2-year follow-up period (p<0.05). During the study period, QOL generally had a negative association with advanced age, high Charlson comorbidity index score, tumor stage III or IV, previous chemotherapy, and long post-operative LOS. Conversely, QOL was positively associated with previous radiotherapy and hormone therapy. Additionally, patients with high scores for preoperative QOL tended to have high scores for QLQ-C30, QLQ-BR23 and SF-36 subscales. Based on the results of

  1. Living as a Breast Cancer Survivor

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Breast Cancer Survivor Follow up Care After Breast Cancer Treatment Many women are relieved or excited to ... Menopausal Hormone Therapy After Breast Cancer More In Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer Risk and Prevention Early Detection ...

  2. Treating Male Breast Cancer by Stage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men Treating Breast Cancer in Men Treatment of Breast Cancer in Men, by Stage Because there have been ... Doctor About Breast Cancer in Men? More In Breast Cancer In Men About Breast Cancer in Men Causes, ...

  3. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  4. Do We Know What Causes Breast Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research? Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer How Does Breast Cancer Form? Changes or mutations in DNA can cause ... please see our Content Usage Policy . More In Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer Risk and Prevention Early Detection ...

  5. Surgery for Breast Cancer in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men Treating Breast Cancer in Men Surgery for Breast Cancer in Men The thought of surgery can be ... Doctor About Breast Cancer in Men? More In Breast Cancer In Men About Breast Cancer in Men Causes, ...

  6. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Menopause Map Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July 2010 Download PDFs English ... G. Komen Foundation What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  7. Evaluation of health benefits and harms of the breast cancer screening programme in the Basque Country using discrete event simulation.

    PubMed

    Arrospide, Arantzazu; Rue, Montserrat; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T; Comas, Merce; Larrañaga, Nerea; Sarriugarte, Garbiñe; Mar, Javier

    2015-10-12

    Since the breast cancer screening programme in the Basque Country (BCSPBC) was started in 1996, more than 400,000 women aged 50 to 69 years have been invited to participate. Based on epidemiological observations and simulation techniques it is possible to extend observed short term data into anticipated long term results. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the programme through 2011 by quantifying the outcomes in breast cancer mortality, life-years gained, false positive results, and overdiagnosis. A discrete event simulation model was constructed to reproduce the natural history of breast cancer (disease-free, pre-clinical, symptomatic, and disease-specific death) and the actual observed characteristics of the screening programme during the evaluated period in the Basque women population. Goodness-of-fit statistics were applied for model validation. The screening effects were measured as differences in benefits and harms between the screened and unscreened populations. Breast cancer mortality reduction and life-years gained were considered as screening benefits, whereas, overdiagnosis and false positive results were assessed as harms. Results for a single cohort were also obtained. The screening programme yielded a 16 % reduction in breast cancer mortality and a 10 % increase in the incidence of breast cancer through 2011. Almost 2 % of all the women in the programme had a false positive result during the evaluation period. When a single cohort was analysed, the number of deaths decreased by 13 %, and 4 % of screen-detected cancers were overdiagnosed. Each woman with BC detected by the screening programme gained 2.5 life years due to early detection corrected by lead time. Fifteen years after the screening programme started, this study supports an important decrease in breast cancer mortality due to the screening programme, with reasonable risk of overdiagnosis and false positive results, and sustains the continuation of the breast cancer

  8. Evaluation of the complexity of postoperative care following breast and gynecologic cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Meloni Rosa, Teresa Celina; Dias de Souza, João Paulo; Sarian, Luis Otávio; Soares, Fabiano Miguel; Morais, Sirlei Siani; Mauricette Derchain, Sophie Françoise

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the complexity of postoperative care required by women who had undergone breast or gynecologic cancer surgery, using the Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28. An observational, longitudinal study was carried out on 83 women admitted postoperatively to the Intensive Care Unit of the Center for Women's Integrated Healthcare. The results of this study show that women diagnosed with gynecologic cancer had a significantly higher mean Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28 score compared with women who had been diagnosed with breast cancer (P = .01). Women who underwent gynecologic surgery had a significantly higher mean Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28 score than women who had breast surgery (P = .03). Most of the activities performed by staff during the postoperative intensive care unit period involved only basic care procedures. Only advanced age and hypertension were related to death during the postoperative period. In conclusion, from the nursing standpoint, the complexity of care required in the intensive care unit during the postoperative period was moderate. Women aged 80 years or older were at the highest risk of death during this period.

  9. Evaluation of the nutritional status and tumor characteristics in premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Vasiljević, N; Pecelj-Gec, M; Jorga, J; Nikolić-Vukosavljević, D; Branković-Magić, M; Marinković, J; Mitrović, L

    1998-01-01

    Evaluation of the nutritional status, fat tissue distribution, and tumor characteristics was carried out in patients with primary breast cancer. The patients were classified into two groups according to their menopause: premenopausal and postmenopausal. Breast cancer prevalence was considerably higher in postmenopausal patients (61%). The patients' nutritional status was shown through the body mass index. Based on this indicator, the patients were characterized as nonobese and obese. In the premenopausal group, there was no significant difference between these categories, whereas the number of obese patients was significantly higher (80%) in the postmenopausal group. The analysis of tumor parameters as related to menopause and body size did not yield any significant differences. However, the estrogen receptor content was significantly higher in postmenopausal patients (p < 0.0001). Distribution of fat tissue of the android type was higher in obese postmenopausal women than in premenopausal ones (77%). The investigation showed that the breast cancer incidence odds are 3.5 times higher in obese postmenopausal than in premenopausal patients.

  10. Evaluation of 19 susceptibility loci of breast cancer in women of African ancestry.

    PubMed

    Huo, Dezheng; Zheng, Yonglan; Ogundiran, Temidayo O; Adebamowo, Clement; Nathanson, Katherine L; Domchek, Susan M; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Simon, Michael S; John, Esther M; Hennis, Anselm; Nemesure, Barbara; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Leske, M Cristina; Ambs, Stefan; Niu, Qun; Zhang, Jing; Cox, Nancy J; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I

    2012-04-01

    Multiple breast cancer susceptibility loci have been identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in populations of European and Asian ancestry using array chips optimized for populations of European ancestry. It is important to examine whether these loci are associated with breast cancer risk in women of African ancestry. We evaluated 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 19 loci in a pooled case-control study of breast cancer, which included 1509 cases and 1383 controls. Cases and controls were enrolled in Nigeria, Barbados and the USA; all women were of African ancestry. We found significant associations for three SNPs, which were in the same direction and of similar magnitude as those reported in previous fine-mapping studies in women of African ancestry. The allelic odds ratios were 1.24 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.47; P = 0.018] for the rs2981578-G allele (10q26/FGFR2), 1.34 (95% CI: 1.10-1.63; P = 0.0035) for the rs9397435-G allele (6q25) and 1.12 (95% CI: 1.00-1.25; P = 0.04) for the rs3104793-C allele (16q12). Although a significant association was observed for an additional index SNP (rs3817198), it was in the opposite direction to prior GWAS studies. In conclusion, this study highlights the complexity of applying current GWAS findings across racial/ethnic groups, as none of GWAS-identified index SNPs could be replicated in women of African ancestry. Further fine-mapping studies in women of African ancestry will be needed to reveal additional and causal variants for breast cancer.

  11. Evaluation of 19 susceptibility loci of breast cancer in women of African ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Dezheng; Zheng, Yonglan; Ogundiran, Temidayo O.; Adebamowo, Clement; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Simon, Michael S.; John, Esther M.; Hennis, Anselm; Nemesure, Barbara; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Leske, M.Cristina; Ambs, Stefan; Niu, Qun; Zhang, Jing; Cox, Nancy J.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple breast cancer susceptibility loci have been identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in populations of European and Asian ancestry using array chips optimized for populations of European ancestry. It is important to examine whether these loci are associated with breast cancer risk in women of African ancestry. We evaluated 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 19 loci in a pooled case–control study of breast cancer, which included 1509 cases and 1383 controls. Cases and controls were enrolled in Nigeria, Barbados and the USA; all women were of African ancestry. We found significant associations for three SNPs, which were in the same direction and of similar magnitude as those reported in previous fine-mapping studies in women of African ancestry. The allelic odds ratios were 1.24 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04–1.47; P = 0.018] for the rs2981578-G allele (10q26/FGFR2), 1.34 (95% CI: 1.10–1.63; P = 0.0035) for the rs9397435-G allele (6q25) and 1.12 (95% CI: 1.00–1.25; P = 0.04) for the rs3104793-C allele (16q12). Although a significant association was observed for an additional index SNP (rs3817198), it was in the opposite direction to prior GWAS studies. In conclusion, this study highlights the complexity of applying current GWAS findings across racial/ethnic groups, as none of GWAS-identified index SNPs could be replicated in women of African ancestry. Further fine-mapping studies in women of African ancestry will be needed to reveal additional and causal variants for breast cancer. PMID:22357627

  12. An evaluation tool for myofascial adhesions in patients after breast cancer (MAP-BC evaluation tool): Development and interrater reliability.

    PubMed

    De Groef, An; Van Kampen, Marijke; Vervloesem, Nele; De Geyter, Sophie; Dieltjens, Evi; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Neven, Patrick; Geraerts, Inge; Devoogdt, Nele

    2017-01-01

    To develop a tool to evaluate myofascial adhesions objectively in patients with breast cancer and to investigate its interrater reliability. 1) Development of the evaluation tool. Literature was searched, experts in the field of myofascial therapy were consulted and pilot testing was performed. 2) Thirty patients (63% had a mastectomy, 37% breast-conserving surgery and 97% radiotherapy) with myofascial adhesions were evaluated using the developed tool by 2 independent raters. The Weighted Kappa (WK) and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated. 1) The evaluation tool for Myofascial Adhesions in Patients with Breast Cancer (MAP-BC evaluation tool) consisted of the assessment of myofascial adhesions at 7 locations: axillary and breast region scars, musculi pectorales region, axilla, frontal chest wall, lateral chest wall and the inframammary fold. At each location the degree of the myofascial adhesion was scored at three levels (skin, superficial and deep) on a 4-points scale (between no adhesions and very stiff adhesions). Additionally, a total score (0-9) was calculated, i.e. the sum of the different levels of each location. 2) Interrater agreement of the different levels separately was moderate for the axillary and mastectomy scar (WK 0.62-0.73) and good for the scar on the breast (WK >0.75). Moderate agreement was reached for almost all levels of the non-scar locations. Interrater reliability of the total scores was the highest for the scars (ICC 0.82-0.99). At non-scar locations good interrater reliability was reached, except for the inframammary fold (ICC = 0.71). The total scores of all locations of the MAP-BC evaluation tool had good to excellent interrater reliability, except for the inframammary fold which only reached moderate reliability.

  13. An evaluation tool for myofascial adhesions in patients after breast cancer (MAP-BC evaluation tool): Development and interrater reliability

    PubMed Central

    De Groef, An; Van Kampen, Marijke; Vervloesem, Nele; De Geyter, Sophie; Dieltjens, Evi; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Neven, Patrick; Geraerts, Inge; Devoogdt, Nele

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To develop a tool to evaluate myofascial adhesions objectively in patients with breast cancer and to investigate its interrater reliability. Methods 1) Development of the evaluation tool. Literature was searched, experts in the field of myofascial therapy were consulted and pilot testing was performed. 2) Thirty patients (63% had a mastectomy, 37% breast-conserving surgery and 97% radiotherapy) with myofascial adhesions were evaluated using the developed tool by 2 independent raters. The Weighted Kappa (WK) and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated. Results 1) The evaluation tool for Myofascial Adhesions in Patients with Breast Cancer (MAP-BC evaluation tool) consisted of the assessment of myofascial adhesions at 7 locations: axillary and breast region scars, musculi pectorales region, axilla, frontal chest wall, lateral chest wall and the inframammary fold. At each location the degree of the myofascial adhesion was scored at three levels (skin, superficial and deep) on a 4-points scale (between no adhesions and very stiff adhesions). Additionally, a total score (0–9) was calculated, i.e. the sum of the different levels of each location. 2) Interrater agreement of the different levels separately was moderate for the axillary and mastectomy scar (WK 0.62–0.73) and good for the scar on the breast (WK >0.75). Moderate agreement was reached for almost all levels of the non-scar locations. Interrater reliability of the total scores was the highest for the scars (ICC 0.82–0.99). At non-scar locations good interrater reliability was reached, except for the inframammary fold (ICC = 0.71). Conclusions The total scores of all locations of the MAP-BC evaluation tool had good to excellent interrater reliability, except for the inframammary fold which only reached moderate reliability. PMID:28598978

  14. [Evaluation of the quality of life in patients with breast cancer at different TNM stages after standardized treatment].

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong; Huang, Yuan; Tao, Ping; Li, Hui; Wang, Qiong; Li, Hui; Li, Jia-yuan

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the quality of life (QOL) in patients with breast cancer at different TNM stages and to estimate the value of EuroQol Five Dimension Indicator (EQ-5D) in measuring QOL among Chinese breast cancer patients. A survey with Quality of Life Instruments for Cancer Patients-Breast Cancer (QLICP-BR) and EQ-5D was undertaken in breast cancer patients who had completed their standardized treatment (except for the endocrine treatment) six months ago. Chi-square test, one-way ANOVA, and covariance analysis were used to evaluate the possible factors influencing the QOL of breast cancer patients. Simultaneously, with the results of Quality of Life Instruments for Cancer Patients-General Module (QLICP-GM, which is included in QLICP-BR.) and the total scores of QLICP-BR as standard, we conducted Pearson correlation analysis to evaluate the value of EQ-5D. A total of 178 female breast cancer survivors were collected from March 2010 to September 2010. There were 47 cases (26.4%) at stage 0 and I, 81 cases (45.5%) at stage II, and 50 cases (28.1%) at stage III and IV. The total standardized score of QLICP-BR was 72.55 ± 3.10 in patients at stage 0 and I, 64.09 ± 2.69 in patients at stage II and 58.21 ± 3.00 in patients at stage III and IV. The total standardized score of QLICP-BR and social domain of patients at stage 0 and I were higher than patients at stage II (all P < 0.05). The total standardized score of QLICP-BR, specific domain of breast cancer, psychological, social and physical domains of patients at stage 0 and I were higher than patients at stage III and IV (all P < 0.05). Covariance analysis showed that QOL standardized scores were significantly different across TNM stages when age, degree of education, birth place (metropolis or rural), occupation, domestic income, and medical insurance were controlled (P = 0.002). Correlation analysis indicated that EQ-5D has a positive correlation with QLICP-GM and QLICP-BR (all P < 0.05). QOL of patients with early

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of residual tumors in breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: surgical implications.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Juan; Li, Gongjie; Sheng, Fugeng; Qiao, Penggang; Zhang, Hongtao; Xing, Xudong

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to guide breast cancer surgery with breast conservation for large tumors with a substantially reduced size after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). To evaluate the value of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) for measuring residual tumor size and enhancement patterns following preoperative NAC. Eighty-nine patients with breast cancer underwent breast DCE-MRI; 38 patients (39 lesions) were treated with NAC and examined for residual disease following therapy. Two patients were excluded because surgery had been performed >2 weeks after the final MR examination. Thus, we correlated the DCE-MRI results of 36 patients (37 lesions) with postoperative histopathological findings. Residual disease was confirmed by more enhancement compared to normal glandular tissue at the initial tumor site. Residual tumor size on DCE-MRI was compared with postoperative pathology findings. Tumor enhancement patterns on DCE-MRI were analyzed and correlated with pathological classification. MRI revealed 34 cases of residual tumors, with two false positives and one false negative. Pathological and MR measurements were correlated (r = 0.793). The correlation of mass enhancement size (r = 0.87, n = 14) with pathology and DCE-MRI was higher than for non-mass-like enhancement (NME) (r = 0.735, n = 23). The distribution of pathologic classification was significantly different between different MRI enhancement patterns (P = 0.006). Mass enhancement had higher cellularity than NME. MRI is useful for evaluating residual carcinoma following NAC. Mass enhancement with higher cellularity after NAC can be evaluated more accurately, which is suitable for evaluating lumpectomy. However, other approaches are required for NME, which has lower cellularity. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.

  16. Evaluating teaching techniques in the Hmong breast and cervical cancer health awareness project.

    PubMed

    Lor, Maichou; Bowers, Barbara

    2014-06-01

    Cancer health disparities are a reality for Hmong women who are often diagnosed at a later stage and have low literacy and experienced care that are not culturally appropriate. Lack of attention to cultural appropriateness and literacy levels of cancer screening materials may contribute to disproportionately low levels of cancer screening among Hmong women. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the Hmong Health Awareness Project (HHAP), a program designed to create awareness and acceptance of breast and cervical cancer screening, and to examine participants' perceptions of the utility of the content of the workshops. Hmong researchers partnered with three Midwestern Hmong community centers to implement six workshops. Three teaching techniques: pictographs, videos, and hands-on activities were utilized to teach Hmong participants about cancer screening. Participants included 150 Hmong (male participants = 30 and female participants = 120). Teach-back method was used to assess the participants' understanding of cancer screening throughout the workshops. Qualitative data were collected in focus groups to assess the feasibility of teaching methods and participants' perceptions of the utility of the content of the workshops. Directed content analysis was used to analyze participants' responses. The three teaching techniques were helpful in increasing the Hmong people's understanding about breast and cervical cancer screening. Nearly, all participants perceived an increased in their understanding, greater acceptance of cancer screening, and increased willingness to be screened. Men expressed support for screening after the workshops. Findings can guide future interventions to improve health communications and screening and reduce diagnostic disparities among Hmong and immigrant populations.

  17. Evaluation of E6 and E7 mRNA expression in HPV DNA positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Frega, A; Lorenzon, L; Bononi, M; De Cesare, A; Ciardi, A; Lombardi, D; Assorgi, C; Gentile, M; Moscarini, M; Torrisi, M R; French, D

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have suggested a possible role for HPV in the pathogenesis of the breast cancer. We investigated the presence of the HPV DNA in breast cancers and non malignant disease breast tissues by the use of a standard HPV detection method (INNO-Lipa HPV), in order to detect HPV DNA in metastatic nodes, to investigate a possible cervical HPV co-infection, and to evaluate the E6/E7 mRNA expression in HPV DNA positive breast cancer tissues. The rate of HPV infection was significantly higher in the cancer group than in controls (9/31 vs. 0/12, p = 0.04). One out of eight metastatic axillary nodes was positive for HPV infection; 2/3 of the positive HPV breast cancer patients were co-infected at the cervical site. The role of the virus in breast oncogenesis is still unclear, since our analysis failed in demonstrating the expression of viral E6 and E7 in positive HPV positive breast tumor tissues.

  18. Multiple primary breast and thyroid cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Ron, E.; Curtis, R.; Hoffman, D. A.; Flannery, J. T.

    1984-01-01

    The occurrence of breast and thyroid multiple primary cancers was evaluated using data from the Connecticut Tumor Registry. The study population consisted of 1618 women with primary thyroid cancer and 39,194 women with primary breast cancer diagnosed between 1935 and 1978. Thirty-four thyroid cancer patients subsequently developed breast cancer and 24 breast cancer patients later had thyroid cancer. A significantly elevated risk of thyroid cancer following breast cancer (SIR = 1.68) and breast cancer following thyroid cancer (SIR = 1.89) was demonstrated. The finding was even more notable when compared with the risks obtained for other sites. The elevated risk was particularly evident in women under 40 years of age at time of diagnosis of the first cancer. Analysis by histologic type revealed that the highest risk of second primary breast cancer was found among patients with follicular or mixed papillary-follicular thyroid cancer. Women under age 40 with follicular carcinoma had a 10-fold risk of developing breast cancer (4 observed, 0.4 expected). An enhanced risk of second primary tumours was evident for the entire period after treatment of the first primary, although it was highest within one year after diagnosis of the first primary. This may be due to the close medical surveillance of cancer patients which would increase early diagnosis of second tumours. Our findings suggest that breast and thyroid cancer may share common aetiologic features. PMID:6691901

  19. Multiple primary breast and thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Ron, E; Curtis, R; Hoffman, D A; Flannery, J T

    1984-01-01

    The occurrence of breast and thyroid multiple primary cancers was evaluated using data from the Connecticut Tumor Registry. The study population consisted of 1618 women with primary thyroid cancer and 39,194 women with primary breast cancer diagnosed between 1935 and 1978. Thirty-four thyroid cancer patients subsequently developed breast cancer and 24 breast cancer patients later had thyroid cancer. A significantly elevated risk of thyroid cancer following breast cancer (SIR = 1.68) and breast cancer following thyroid cancer (SIR = 1.89) was demonstrated. The finding was even more notable when compared with the risks obtained for other sites. The elevated risk was particularly evident in women under 40 years of age at time of diagnosis of the first cancer. Analysis by histologic type revealed that the highest risk of second primary breast cancer was found among patients with follicular or mixed papillary-follicular thyroid cancer. Women under age 40 with follicular carcinoma had a 10-fold risk of developing breast cancer (4 observed, 0.4 expected). An enhanced risk of second primary tumours was evident for the entire period after treatment of the first primary, although it was highest within one year after diagnosis of the first primary. This may be due to the close medical surveillance of cancer patients which would increase early diagnosis of second tumours. Our findings suggest that breast and thyroid cancer may share common aetiologic features.

  20. Automated skin segmentation in ultrasonic evaluation of skin toxicity in breast cancer radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yi; Tannenbaum, Allen; Chen, Hao; Torres, Mylin; Yoshida, Emi; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yuefeng; Curran, Walter; Liu, Tian

    2013-11-01

    Skin toxicity is the most common side effect of breast cancer radiotherapy and impairs the quality of life of many breast cancer survivors. We, along with other researchers, have recently found quantitative ultrasound to be effective as a skin toxicity assessment tool. Although more reliable than standard clinical evaluations (visual observation and palpation), the current procedure for ultrasound-based skin toxicity measurements requires manual delineation of the skin layers (i.e., epidermis-dermis and dermis-hypodermis interfaces) on each ultrasound B-mode image. Manual skin segmentation is time consuming and subjective. Moreover, radiation-induced skin injury may decrease image contrast between the dermis and hypodermis, which increases the difficulty of delineation. Therefore, we have developed an automatic skin segmentation tool (ASST) based on the active contour model with two significant modifications: (i) The proposed algorithm introduces a novel dual-curve scheme for the double skin layer extraction, as opposed to the original single active contour method. (ii) The proposed algorithm is based on a geometric contour framework as opposed to the previous parametric algorithm. This ASST algorithm was tested on a breast cancer image database of 730 ultrasound breast images (73 ultrasound studies of 23 patients). We compared skin segmentation results obtained with the ASST with manual contours performed by two physicians. The average percentage differences in skin thickness between the ASST measurement and that of each physician were less than 5% (4.8 ± 17.8% and -3.8 ± 21.1%, respectively). In summary, we have developed an automatic skin segmentation method that ensures objective assessment of radiation-induced changes in skin thickness. Our ultrasound technology offers a unique opportunity to quantify tissue injury in a more meaningful and reproducible manner than the subjective assessments currently employed in the clinic. Copyright © 2013 World

  1. AUTOMATED SKIN SEGMENTATION IN ULTRASONIC EVALUATION OF SKIN TOXICITY IN BREAST CANCER RADIOTHERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yi; Tannenbaum, Allen; Chen, Hao; Torres, Mylin; Yoshida, Emi; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yuefeng; Curran, Walter; Liu, Tian

    2013-01-01

    Skin toxicity is the most common side effect of breast cancer radiotherapy and impairs the quality of life of many breast cancer survivors. We, along with other researchers, have recently found quantitative ultrasound to be effective as a skin toxicity assessment tool. Although more reliable than standard clinical evaluations (visual observation and palpation), the current procedure for ultrasound-based skin toxicity measurements requires manual delineation of the skin layers (i.e., epidermis-dermis and dermis-hypodermis interfaces) on each ultrasound B-mode image. Manual skin segmentation is time consuming and subjective. Moreover, radiation-induced skin injury may decrease image contrast between the dermis and hypodermis, which increases the difficulty of delineation. Therefore, we have developed an automatic skin segmentation tool (ASST) based on the active contour model with two significant modifications: (i) The proposed algorithm introduces a novel dual-curve scheme for the double skin layer extraction, as opposed to the original single active contour method. (ii) The proposed algorithm is based on a geometric contour framework as opposed to the previous parametric algorithm. This ASST algorithm was tested on a breast cancer image database of 730 ultrasound breast images (73 ultrasound studies of 23 patients). We compared skin segmentation results obtained with the ASST with manual contours performed by two physicians. The average percentage differences in skin thickness between the ASST measurement and that of each physician were less than 5% (4.8 ± 17.8% and −3.8 ± 21.1%, respectively). In summary, we have developed an automatic skin segmentation method that ensures objective assessment of radiation-induced changes in skin thickness. Our ultrasound technology offers a unique opportunity to quantify tissue injury in a more meaningful and reproducible manner than the subjective assessments currently employed in the clinic. PMID:23993172

  2. Carboplatin and Eribulin Mesylate in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-30

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  3. Evaluation of tumour markers as differential diagnostic tool in patients with suspicion of liver metastases from breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liska, Vaclav; Holubec, Lubos; Treska, Vladislav; Vrzalova, Jindra; Skalicky, Tomas; Sutnar, Alan; Kormunda, Stanislav; Bruha, Jan; Vycital, Ondrej; Finek, Jindrich; Pesta, Martin; Pecen, Ladislav; Topolcan, Ondrej

    2011-04-01

    The liver is the site of breast cancer metastasis in 50% of patients with advanced disease. Tumour markers have been demonstrated as being useful in follow-up of patients with breast cancer, in early detection of recurrence of breast cancer after radical surgical treatments, and in assessing oncologic therapy effect, but no study has been carried out on their usefullness in distinguishing benign liver lesions from breast cancer metastases. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the importance of tumour markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen CA19-9 (CA19-9), thymidine kinase (TK), tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA), tissue polypeptide-specific antigen (TPS) and cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA 21-1) in differential diagnosis between benign liver lesions and liver metastases of breast cancer. The study includes 3 groups: 22 patients with liver metastases of breast cancer; 39 patients with benign liver lesions (hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia, liver cyst, hepatocellular adenoma); and 21 patients without any liver disease or lesion that were operated on for benign extrahepatic diseases (groin hernia, varices of lower limbs) as a control group. The serum levels of tumour markers were assessed by means of immunoanalytical methods. Preoperative serum levels of CYFRA 21-1, TPA, TPS and CEA were significantly higher in patients with liver metastases of breast cancer in contrast to healthy controls and patients with benign liver lesions (p-value<0.05). Serum levels of CA19-9 and TK were higher in patients with malignancy in comparison with benign liver disease and healthy controls but these differences were not statistically significant. Tumour markers CEA, CYFRA 21-1, TPA and TPS can be recommended as a good tool for differential diagnosis between liver metastases of breast cancer and benign liver lesions.

  4. Breast cancer statistics, 2011.

    PubMed

    DeSantis, Carol; Siegel, Rebecca; Bandi, Priti; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including trends in incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 230,480 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 39,520 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2011. Breast cancer incidence rates were stable among all racial/ethnic groups from 2004 to 2008. Breast cancer death rates have been declining since the early 1990s for all women except American Indians/Alaska Natives, among whom rates have remained stable. Disparities in breast cancer death rates are evident by state, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity. While significant declines in mortality rates were observed for 36 states and the District of Columbia over the past 10 years, rates for 14 states remained level. Analyses by county-level poverty rates showed that the decrease in mortality rates began later and was slower among women residing in poor areas. As a result, the highest breast cancer death rates shifted from the affluent areas to the poor areas in the early 1990s. Screening rates continue to be lower in poor women compared with non-poor women, despite much progress in increasing mammography utilization. In 2008, 51.4% of poor women had undergone a screening mammogram in the past 2 years compared with 72.8% of non-poor women. Encouraging patients aged 40 years and older to have annual mammography and a clinical breast examination is the single most important step that clinicians can take to reduce suffering and death from breast cancer. Clinicians should also ensure that patients at high risk of breast cancer are identified and offered appropriate screening and follow-up. Continued progress in the control of breast cancer will require sustained and increased efforts to provide high-quality screening, diagnosis, and treatment to all segments of the population.

  5. A Systems Biology Approach to Evaluate Ezrin as a Therapeutic Target in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    cancers. Existing breast cancer therapies target proteins whose effects are limited to certain subsets of breast cancer patients. We hypothesize that...characterization of the major cross-reacting allergens from the pollen of Parthenium hysterophorus". Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India 1989...allergen in Parthenium pollen . J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 98:903-912. Neetu Gupta, P. Sriramarao, R. Kori, and P. V. Subba Rao. 1995. Immunochemical

  6. Evaluation of VP-16 and the combination of adriamycin and vincristine in advanced breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Eagan, R T; Ahmann, D L; Bisel, H F

    1976-01-01

    39 previously treated patients with metastatic breast cancer were treated in a partially randomized study evaluating VP-16 and the combination of Vincristine (VCR) and Adriamycin (ADR). Of the 19 patients treated with VP-16 initially, two had partial remissions. No responses were noted in eleven patients who corssed-over after failing VCR plus ADR. Of the 20 patients treated with VCR plus ADR initially, four patients had partial responses. An additional 2/15 patients responded on crossover after failing initially on VP-16. No significant differences in time to last follow-up or death could be detected between the two treatment programs.

  7. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    FENGA, CONCETTINA

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals are defined environmental factors for breast cancer, particularly at young ages. However, the mechanisms by which occupational factors can promote breast cancer initiation and progression remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, the evaluation of occupational factors for breast cancer, particularly in the workplace, also remains to be explained. The present review summarizes the occupational risk factors and the associated mechanisms involved in breast cancer development, in order to highlight new environmental exposures that could be correlated to breast cancer and to provide new insights for breast cancer prevention in the occupational settings. Furthermore, this review suggests that there is a requirement to include, through multidisciplinary approaches, different occupational exposure risks among those associated with breast cancer development. Finally, the design of new epigenetic biomarkers may be useful to identify the workers that are more susceptible to develop breast cancer. PMID:26998264

  8. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fenga, Concettina

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals are defined environmental factors for breast cancer, particularly at young ages. However, the mechanisms by which occupational factors can promote breast cancer initiation and progression remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, the evaluation of occupational factors for breast cancer, particularly in the workplace, also remains to be explained. The present review summarizes the occupational risk factors and the associated mechanisms involved in breast cancer development, in order to highlight new environmental exposures that could be correlated to breast cancer and to provide new insights for breast cancer prevention in the occupational settings. Furthermore, this review suggests that there is a requirement to include, through multidisciplinary approaches, different occupational exposure risks among those associated with breast cancer development. Finally, the design of new epigenetic biomarkers may be useful to identify the workers that are more susceptible to develop breast cancer.

  9. Tumour markers in breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Cove, D. H.; Woods, K. L.; Smith, S. C.; Burnett, D.; Leonard, J.; Grieve, R. J.; Howell, A.

    1979-01-01

    The clinical usefulness of 8 potential tumour markers has been evaluated in 69 patients with Stage I and II breast cancer and 57 patients with Stage III and IV. Serum CEA concentrations were raised in 13% of patients with local and 65% of those with advanced breast cancer. In patients with clinical evidence of progression or regression of tumour, serum CEA levels changed appropriately in 83% of cases. Taking 4 of the markers (carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), lactalbumin, alpha subunit and haptoglobin) serum concentrations of one or more were raised in 33% of patients with local disease and 81% of those with advanced breast cancer. However, marker concentrations were often only marginally raised, and are unlikely to provide sensitive guide to tumour burden. CEA, lactalbumin and alpha subunit were detectable in 68%, 43% and 40% respectively of extracts of primary breast cancers. PMID:92331

  10. Unusual Horner's Syndrome in Recurrent Breast Cancer: Evaluation Using (18)F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Kim, Tae Sung; Kim, Seok-Ki

    2017-03-01

    (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is a widely used imaging modality in the initial diagnosis of cancer, treatment response evaluation and detection of recurrence. Herein, we present the case of a 39-year-old female who presented right ptosis on the follow-up of breast cancer after surgery. Clinicians suspected Horner's syndrome, and the patient underwent FDG PET/CT for the evaluation of recurrence that could cause Horner's syndrome. FDG PET/CT demonstrated a focal hypermetabolic lesion in the right cervicothoracic junction area, corresponding to the preganglionic cervical sympathetic trunk. A subsequent needle biopsy was done, and the lesion was confirmed as metastatic ductal carcinoma. In this case, we could detect the exact location of the recurring lesion that caused Horner's syndrome using FDG PET/CT.

  11. Evaluation of Melatonin Effect on Human Breast Cancer Stem Cells Using a Threedimensional Growth Method of Mammospheres.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Juliana Ramos; da Silva Kavagutti, Mayume; de Medeiros, Felipe Arthur Faustino; de Campos Zuccari, Debora Aparecida Pires

    2017-01-01

    The high rates of women&#039;s death from breast cancer occur due to acquired resistance by patients to certain treatments, enabling the recurrence and/or tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. It has been demonstrated that the presence of cancer stem cells in human tumors, as responsible for recurrence and resistance to therapy. Studies have identified OCT4 as responsible for self-renewal and maintenance of pluripotency of stem cells. Thus, it is interesting to study potential drugs that target this specific population in breast cancer. Melatonin, appears to have oncostatic effects on cancer cells, however, little is known about its therapeutic effect on cancer stem cells. Evaluate the viability and the expression of OCT4 in breast cancer stem cells, MCF-7 and MDA-MB- 231, after melatonin treatment. The cells were grown in a 3-dimensional model of mammospheres, representing the breast cancer stem cell population and treated or not with melatonin. The cell viability of mammospheres were evaluated by MTT assay and the OCT4 expression, a cancer stem cells marker, was verified by immunocitochemistry. Our results demonstrated that the melatonin treatment decreased the cell viability of MCF-7 and MDAMB- 231 mammospheres. Furthermore, it was observed that in both cell lines, the expression of OCT4 was decreased in melatonin-treated cells compared to the control group. This fact suggests that melatonin is effective against breast cancer stem cells inhibiting the cell viability via OCT 4. Based on that, we believe that melatonin has a high potential to be used as an alternative treatment for breast cancer. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. A cosmetic evaluation of breast cancer treatment: A randomized study of radiotherapy boost technique

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, Sylvie . E-mail: sylvie.vass@ssss.gouv.qc.ca; Bairati, Isabelle

    2005-08-01

    Purpose: To compare cosmetic results of two different radiotherapy (RT) boost techniques used in the treatment of breast cancer after whole breast radiotherapy and to identify factors affecting cosmetic outcomes. Methods and Materials: Between 1996 and 1998, 142 patients with Stage I and II breast cancer were treated with breast conservative surgery and adjuvant RT. Patients were then randomly assigned to receive a boost dose of 15 Gy delivered to the tumor bed either by iridium 192, or a combination of photons and electrons. Cosmetic evaluations were done on a 6-month basis, with a final evaluation at 36 months after RT. The evaluations were done using a panel of global and specific subjective scores, a digitized scoring system using the breast retraction assessment (BRA) measurement, and a patient's self-assessment evaluation. As cosmetic results were graded according to severity, the comparison of boost techniques was done using the ordinal logistic regression model. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) are presented. Results: At 36 months of follow-up, there was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to the global subjective cosmetic outcome (OR = 1.40; 95%CI = 0.69-2.85, p = 0.35). Good to excellent scores were observed in 65% of implant patients and 62% of photon/electron patients. At 24 months and beyond, telangiectasia was more severe in the implant group with an OR of 9.64 (95%CI = 4.05-22.92, p < 0.0001) at 36 months. The only variable associated with a worse global cosmetic outcome was the presence of concomitant chemotherapy (OR = 3.87; 95%CI = 1.74-8.62). The BRA value once adjusted for age, concomitant chemotherapy, and boost volume showed a positive association with the boost technique. The BRA value was significantly greater in the implant group (p 0.03). There was no difference in the patient's final self-assessment score between the two groups. Three variables were statistically associated with

  13. Minimal breast cancer: a clinical appraisal.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, T G; Donegan, W L; Burg, E A

    1977-01-01

    Eighty-five patients with a diagnosis of minimal breast cancer were evaluated. The predominant lesion was intraductal carcinoma, and axillary metastases occurred in association with minimal breast cancer in seven of 96 cases. One death occurred due to minimal breast cancer. Bilateral mammary carcinoma was evident in 24% and bilateral minimal breast cancer in 13% of the patients. The component lesions of minimal breast cancer have varied biologic activity, but prognosis is good with a variety of operations. The multifocal nature of minimal breast cancer and the potential for metastases should be recognized. Therapy should include removal of the entire mammary parenchyma and low axillary nodes. The high incidence of bilateral malignancy supports elective contralateral biopsy at the time of therapy for minimal breast cancer. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:203233

  14. BREAST CANCER AND EXERCISE

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2008-03-19

    Prevent Osteoporosis and Osteoporotic Fractures; Improve Quality of Life; Improve Weight Control, and Muscular and Cardiovascular Fitness; Help the Patients to Return to Working Life; Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence; Prevent Other Diseases and Reduce All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Primary Breast Cancer.

  15. Global breast cancer seasonality.

    PubMed

    Oh, Eun-Young; Ansell, Christine; Nawaz, Hamayun; Yang, Chul-Ho; Wood, Patricia A; Hrushesky, William J M

    2010-08-01

    Human breast cancer incidence has seasonal patterns that seem to vary among global populations. The aggregate monthly frequency of breast cancer diagnosis was collected and examined for 2,921,714 breast cancer cases diagnosed across 64 global regions over spans from 2 to 53 years. Breast cancer is consistently diagnosed more often in spring and fall, both in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, regardless of presumable menopausal status (50). This seasonality is increasingly more prominent as population distance from the equator increases and this latitude dependence is most pronounced among women living in rural areas. Moreover, the overall annual incidence (2005-2006), per 100,000 population, of breast cancer increased as the latitude of population residence increased. These data make it clear that human breast cancer discovery occurs non-randomly throughout each year with peaks near both equinoxes and valleys near both solstices. This stable global breast cancer seasonality has implications for better prevention, more accurate screening, earlier diagnosis, and more effective treatment. This complex latitude-dependent breast cancer seasonality is clearly related to predictable local day/night length changes which occur seasonally. Its mechanism may depend upon seasonal sunlight mediation of vitamin D and seasonal mediation of nocturnal melatonin peak level and duration.

  16. Evaluation of serum estrogen-DNA adducts as potential biomarkers for breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Pruthi, Sandhya; Yang, Li; Sandhu, Nicole P; Ingle, James N; Beseler, Cheryl L; Suman, Vera J; Cavalieri, Ercole L; Rogan, Eleanor G

    2012-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether the ratio of estrogen-DNA adducts to their respective metabolites and conjugates in serum differed between women with early-onset breast cancer and those with average or high risk of developing breast cancer. Serum samples from women at average risk (n=63) or high risk (n=80) for breast cancer (using Gail model) and women newly diagnosed with early breast cancer (n=79) were analyzed using UPLC-MS/MS. Adduct ratios were statistically compared among the three groups, and the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (AUC) was used to identify a diagnostic cut-off point. The median adduct ratio in the average-risk group was significantly lower than that of both the high-risk group and the breast cancer group (p values<0.0001), and provided good discrimination between those at average versus high risk of breast cancer (AUC=0.84, 95% CI 0.77-0.90). Sensitivity and specificity were maximized at an adduct ratio of 77. For women in the same age and BMI group, the odds of being at high risk for breast cancer was 8.03 (95% CI 3.46-18.7) times higher for those with a ratio of at least 77 compared to those with a ratio less than 77. The likelihood of being at high risk for breast cancer was significantly increased for those with a high adduct ratio relative to those with a low adduct ratio. These findings suggest that estrogen-DNA adducts deserve further study as potential biomarkers for risk of developing breast cancer.

  17. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in a male

    PubMed Central

    Rubio Hernández, María Caridad; Díaz Prado, Yenia Ivet; Pérez, Suanly Rodríguez; Díaz, Ronald Rodríguez; Aleaga, Zaili Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Male breast cancer, which represents only 1% of all breast cancers, is occasionally associated with a family history of breast cancer. Sporadic male breast cancers presenting with another primary breast cancer are extremely rare. In this article, we report on a 70-year-old male patient with bilateral multifocal and synchronous breast cancer and without a family history of breast cancer. PMID:24319497

  18. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  19. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... spread outside the breast . In stage IB , small clusters of breast cancer cells (larger than 0.2 ... centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters. Small clusters of breast cancer cells (larger than 0.2 ...

  20. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance Among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    the Witness model will be tailored for breast cancer survivors and the peer interventionists (breast cancer survivors and lay health advisors) will be...by a lay health advisor; 4) discussion of concerns and myths about breast cancer and screening /surveillance that are prevalent among AAW; 5) review...Breast cancer screening surveillance Breast cancer screening Treatment/Time of Treatment intention /adherence & physician recommendation

  1. An Evaluation of Algorithms for Identifying Metastatic Breast, Lung, or Colorectal Cancer in Administrative Claims Data.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Joanna L; Engel-Nitz, Nicole M; Teitelbaum, April; Gomez Rey, Gabriel; Kallich, Joel D

    2015-07-01

    Administrative health care claims data are used for epidemiologic, health services, and outcomes cancer research and thus play a significant role in policy. Cancer stage, which is often a major driver of cost and clinical outcomes, is not typically included in claims data. Evaluate algorithms used in a dataset of cancer patients to identify patients with metastatic breast (BC), lung (LC), or colorectal (CRC) cancer using claims data. Clinical data on BC, LC, or CRC patients (between January 1, 2007 and March 31, 2010) were linked to a health care claims database. Inclusion required health plan enrollment ≥3 months before initial cancer diagnosis date. Algorithms were used in the claims database to identify patients' disease status, which was compared with physician-reported metastases. Generic and tumor-specific algorithms were evaluated using ICD-9 codes, varying diagnosis time frames, and including/excluding other tumors. Positive and negative predictive values, sensitivity, and specificity were assessed. The linked databases included 14,480 patients; of whom, 32%, 17%, and 14.2% had metastatic BC, LC, and CRC, respectively, at diagnosis and met inclusion criteria. Nontumor-specific algorithms had lower specificity than tumor-specific algorithms. Tumor-specific algorithms' sensitivity and specificity were 53% and 99% for BC, 55% and 85% for LC, and 59% and 98% for CRC, respectively. Algorithms to distinguish metastatic BC, LC, and CRC from locally advanced disease should use tumor-specific primary cancer codes with 2 claims for the specific primary cancer >30-42 days apart to reduce misclassification. These performed best overall in specificity, positive predictive values, and overall accuracy to identify metastatic cancer in a health care claims database.

  2. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Balance › Breast Cancer and Bone Loss Fact Sheet Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  3. Evaluating beauty care provided by the hospital to women suffering from breast cancer: qualitative aspects.

    PubMed

    Amiel, Philippe; Dauchy, Sarah; Bodin, Julie; Cerf, Céline; Zenasni, Franck; Pezant, Elisabeth; Teller, Anne-Marie; André, Fabrice; DiPalma, Mario

    2009-07-01

    Cancer patients are offered more and more access to beauty care during their stay in the hospital. This kind of intervention has not been evaluated yet. Primary objective of our research was to determine what type of evaluation strategy to be implemented (as a supportive care with quality of life and/or medical benefits; as a service providing immediate comfort); intermediate objective was to investigate in scientific terms (psychological, sociological) the experience of beauty care by patients. Sixty patients (all users of beauty care provided by hospital, 58 female, most of them treated for breast cancer, two male, mean age 53 years) and 11 nurses and physicians, from four French cancer centres were included. We used direct observation and semi-structured interviews, conducted by a sociologist and a psychologist; different types of beauty care were concerned. All the interviewed patients were satisfied. Patients appreciated acquiring savoir-faire on how to use make-up and on personal image enhancement. Psychological and social well-being benefits were mentioned. The beauty care was not alleged to be reducing the side effects of the treatments, but it had helped patients to accept or bear the burden of them. Providing care beyond that which is directly curative was appreciated by the patients as a sign that they were treated as a "whole" person. The survey brings valuable clues concerning beauty care experience by cancer patients; it suggests the relevance of quantitative evaluation of the immediate and long-term effects on the quality of life.

  4. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk: 2003 Workshop In February 2003, the National ... the development of breast cancer. Important Information about Breast Cancer Risk Factors At present, the factors known to ...

  5. Breast cancer and depression.

    PubMed

    Somerset, Wendy; Stout, Steven C; Miller, Andrew H; Musselman, Dominique

    2004-07-01

    Major depression and depressive symptoms, although commonly encountered in patients with medical illnesses, are frequently underdiagnosed and undertreated in women with breast cancer. Depression and its associated symptoms diminish quality of life, adversely affect compliance with medical therapies, and reduce survival. Treatment of depression in women with breast cancer improves their dysphoria and other depressive symptoms, enhances quality of life, and may increase longevity. In this review, studies that investigate pathophysiologic alterations in patients with cancer and comorbid depression are discussed, and the few studies on treatment of depression and related symptoms in women with breast cancer are examined.

  6. Evaluation of the quality of life of women treated due to breast cancer using amputation or breast conserving surgery in the early postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, Andrzej; Licznerska, Bernardeta; Rhone, Piotr

    2015-04-01

    Selection of the treatment method in breast cancer patients and its consequences may affect their quality of life through somatic, psychical, and social factors. The aim of the study was early evaluation of the quality of life of women after mastectomy vs. breast conserving surgery. The study included 100 women aged 31 to 79 years (mean: 57) who underwent surgery due to breast cancer (amputation: 52; breast conserving surgery: 48 women) at the Cancer Centre in Bydgoszcz in 2014. The QLQ C-30 and QLQ BR-23 questionnaires were used to evaluate the quality of life of the patients 3 months after surgery. In the Global Health Status/QoL domain, the mean score for women after amputation and breast conserving surgery was 49 and 53, respectively; for Physical Functioning, the scores were 70 and 75, and for Role Functioning, 62 and 68, respectively. For Cognitive Functioning, the mean score was 74 and 73; for Emotional Functioning - 62 and 68, and for Social Functioning 64 and 60, respectively. The difference in the arm symptoms domain was significant at 46 and 33 points, respectively (p = 0.004). The patients treated with breast conserving surgery had a better body image than women after amputation - the mean score was 52 and 66, respectively (p = 0.01). With respect to Global Health Status/QoL and Physical Functioning, the quality of life of women in the early postoperative period was similar in women after breast amputation and those who underwent breast conserving surgery. Patients treated with breast conserving surgery had a better score for body image, while those who underwent amputation more often suffered from arm symptoms, such as pain, oedema, and problems with raising of the limb.

  7. Evaluation of Peripheral Blood Smear for Myelodysplasia in Breast Cancer Patients who Received Adjuvant Antracycline.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Hasan; Akca, Zeki; Teke, Havva Uskudar; Ugur, Hediye

    2011-12-01

    Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN) account for approximately 10% to 20% of all cases of AML (acute myeloid leukemia), MDS (myelodysplastic syndrome) and MDS/MPN (myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasms), MDS, and MDS/MPN. In our study, we evaluated peripheral blood smear samples and hemogram values in breast cancer patients who were receiving adjuvant anthracycline regimens and were in remission. A total of 78 patients receiving anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy treatment from Kayseri Research and Training Hospital and Mersin State Hospital were enrolled in the study. Their adjuvant treatments had been completed at least 18 months prior to the study. Two patients complained of anemia (2.2%) (Hb<11 mg/dl), leukopenia was observed in seven patients (7.7%) (leukocytes<4000/ mm(3)), and thrombocytopenia was observed in four patients (4.4%) (PLT<150.000/mm(3)). In the blood smear samples, the following were observed: ovalomacrocytes (14%), macrocytes (37%), acanthocytes (1%), stomatocytes (12%), teardrops (12%), nucleated erythrocytes (1%), basophilic stippling (14%), and Howell-Jolly bodies (1%). Additionally, hypo-granulation (38%), Pelger-Huet abnormalities (26%), hypersegmentation (20%), immature granulocytes (8%), and blasts (6%) were observed. We also confirmed the presence of giant platelets (50%) and platelet hypogranulation (19%). According to the peripheral blood smear assessments in our study, we suggest that breast cancer patients should be evaluated for MDS in the early stages, starting from month 18, even if the automated blood counts are normal.

  8. Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reasonable Accommodations (RA) Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Finding Breast Cancer Early Can Save Lives Disabilities & Breast Cancer Screening ...

  9. Preparation and preclinical evaluation of (131) I-trastuzumab for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kameswaran, Mythili; Gota, Vikram; Ambade, Rajwardhan; Gupta, Sudeep; Dash, Ashutosh

    2017-01-01

    Trastuzumab that targets the human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) is known to benefit patients with HER2+ metastatic breast cancer. The objective was to explore the potential of (131) I-trastuzumab for treatment of breast cancers. Radioiodination of trastuzumab was carried out by chloramine-T method, purified by using PD-10 column, and characterized by size exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography on a gel column. In vitro studies were carried out in HER2+ cells to determine the specificity of the radioimmunoconjugate. Uptake and retention of (131) I-trastuzumab were determined by biodistribution studies in tumor-bearing non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency and normal severe combined immunodeficiency mice. The radiochemical purity (RCP) of (131) I-trastuzumab was 98 ± 0.4% with retention time of 17 minutes by high-performance liquid chromatography. In vitro stability studies exhibited RCP of more than 90% in serum at 37°C after 120 hours of radioiodination. In vitro cell binding with (131) I-trastuzumab in HER2+ cells showed binding of 28% to 35% which was inhibited significantly, with unlabeled trastuzumab confirming its specificity. Kd value of (131) I-trastuzumab was 0.5 nM, while its immunoreactivity was more than 80%. Uptake of more than 12% and retention were observed in the tumors up to 120 hours p.i. (131) I-trastuzumab prepared in-house-exhibited RCP of more than 98%, excellent immunoreactivity, affinity to HER2+ cell lines and good tumor uptake thereby indicating its potential for further evaluation in HER2+ breast cancers.

  10. Evaluating a Decision Aid for Improving Decision Making in Patients with Early-stage Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Sarah T; Newman, Lisa; Griggs, Jennifer J; Kosir, Mary Ann; Katz, Steven J

    2016-04-01

    Early-stage breast cancer patients face a series of complex treatment decisions, with the first typically being choice of locoregional treatment. There is a need for tools to support patients in this decision-making process. We developed an innovative, online locoregional treatment tool based on International Patient Decision Aids Standards criteria. We evaluated its impact on patient knowledge about treatment and appraisal of decision making in a pilot study using a clinical sample of newly diagnosed, breast cancer patients who were randomized to view the decision aid website first or complete a survey prior to viewing the decision aid. Differences in knowledge and decision appraisal between the two groups were compared using t-tests and chi-square tests. Computer-generated preferences for treatment were compared with patients' stated preferences using chi-square tests. One hundred and one newly diagnosed patients were randomized to view the website first or take a survey first. Women who viewed the website first had slightly higher, though not significantly, knowledge about surgery (p = 0.29) and reconstruction (p = 0.10) than the survey-first group. Those who viewed the website first also appraised their decision process significantly more favorably than did those who took the survey first (p < 0.05 for most decision outcomes). There was very good concordance between computer-suggested and stated treatment preferences. This pilot study suggests that an interactive decision tool shows promise for supporting early-stage breast cancer patients with complicated treatment decision making.

  11. The Evaluation of Cancer Testis Gene PIWIL2 Expression Levels as a New Prognostic Biomarker for Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sarvestani, Fatima M; Safaei, Akbar; Talei, Abdolrasoul; Dianatpour, Mehdi

    2016-08-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer and foremost reason of death resulting from malignancy among women worldwide. In recent years, it has been reported that a group of genes named cancer testis genes (CTg) express in adult immune privileged sites and some embryonic tissues. Likewise, it has been demonstrated that CTgs express aberrantly in various tumors and play essential roles in both initiation and development of cancers. In this study, PIWIL2, one member of CTgs, which has an indispensable role in spermatogenesis and tumorigenesis, was examined as an efficient prognostic and diagnostic biomarker in breast cancer. It is worth mentioning that the expression study of PIWIL2 by qPCR on breast cancer samples was performed for the first time, since this approach is much more sensitive than western blot, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry. To investigate the expression status of PIWIL2 in breast cancer, 72 fresh cancerous and normal adjacent specimens from 44 patients who had undergone surgery in Shahid Faghihi Hospital were used. None of the patients had received chemotherapy. The relationships between the PIWIL2 status and the clinicopathological parameters were ultimately determined. It was ascertained that the expression rates of PIWIL2 in cancerous breast tissues were related to patients' age, tumor stage, tumor size, tumor grade, and lymph node involvement (p < 0.05). The PIWIL2 gene could be considered as an efficient prognostic biomarker in breast cancer.

  12. [A patient with thyroid cancer evaluated according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors during treatment for breast cancer recurrence in hepatic and cervical lymph nodes].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Keiko; Enomoto, Takumo; Oshida, Sayuri; Habiro, Takeyoshi; Hatate, Kazuhiko; Sengoku, Norihiko; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2013-11-01

    We describe a case of a 69-year-old woman who underwent left breast-preserving surgery and axillary dissection for left-sided breast cancer at 60 years of age. The histopathological diagnosis was papillotubular carcinoma, luminal A (pathological T1N0M0).In the eighth year after surgery, computed tomography (CT) revealed recurrence in the liver and cervical lymph node metastasis. The patient did not respond to 3 months of treatment with letrozole (progressive disease [PD]). Six courses of chemotherapy with epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (EC) were administered. Subsequently, the attending physician was replaced while the patient was receiving paclitaxel( PTX).After 4 courses of treatment with PTX, the liver metastasis disappeared (complete response [CR]).However, the cervical lymph nodes did not shrink (PD).The cytological diagnosis was papillary thyroid cancer with associated cervical lymph node metastasis. Total thyroidectomy and D3b cervical lymph node dissection were performed. The pathological diagnosis was pEx0T1bN1Mx, pStage IVA disease. Replacement of the attending physician is a critical turning point for patients. During chemotherapy or hormone therapy for breast cancer, each organ should be evaluated according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST).In the case of our patient, thyroid cancer was diagnosed according to RECIST. Cancer specialists should bear in mind that the treatment policy may change dramatically depending on the results of RECIST assessment.

  13. Breast reconstruction after breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Serletti, Joseph M; Fosnot, Joshua; Nelson, Jonas A; Disa, Joseph J; Bucky, Louis P

    2011-06-01

    After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe the mental, emotional, and physical benefits of reconstruction in breast cancer patients. 2. Compare the most common techniques of reconstruction in patients and detail benefits and risks associated with each. 3. Outline different methods of reconstruction and identify the method considered best for the patient based on timing of the procedures, body type, adjuvant therapies, and other coexisting conditions. 4. Distinguish between some of the different flaps that can be considered for autologous reconstruction. Breast cancer is unfortunately a common disease affecting millions of women, often at a relatively young age. Reconstruction following mastectomy offers women an opportunity to mollify some of the emotional and aesthetic effects of this devastating disease. Although varying techniques of alloplastic and autologous techniques are available, all strive to achieve the same goal: the satisfactory reformation of a breast mound that appears as natural as possible without clothing and at the very least is normal in appearance under clothing. This article summarizes the various approaches to breast reconstruction and offers a balanced view of the risks and benefits of each, all of which in the end offer the opportunity for excellent and predictable results with a high degree of patient satisfaction.

  14. Evaluation of monoclonal antibodies for the development of breast cancer immunotoxins

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn, M.J.; Ring, D.; Frankel, A.

    1985-03-01

    Eighty-five antibodies recognizing breast cancer-selective antigens were conjugated to ricin toxin A-chain using a disulfide linkage. The cytotoxicities of the resulting immunotoxins were determined on breast cancer cells and normal human fibroblasts. Twenty-four antibodies formed immunotoxins that were toxic to at least one breast cancer cell line at concentrations of 10 nM or less but were nontoxic to human fibroblast lines used as negative controls. Some of the breast tumor-selective immunotoxins were as toxic as a conjugate between monoclonal anti-transferrin receptor and ricin toxin A-chain (50% inhibition of cellular protein synthesis at approximately 0.1 nM). Another set of four immunotoxins were indiscriminately toxic to human breast tumor cell lines, two human fibroblast cell lines, and a human lymphoblastoid line. Several of the antibodies the toxin conjugates of which specifically killed breast cancer cell lines may be useful in cancer therapy, since they show a wide range of binding to individual breast tumors and cell lines and a limited range of binding to normal tissue types.

  15. MR mammography using diffusion-weighted imaging in evaluating breast cancer: a correlation with proliferation index.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Cristina; Clauser, Paola; Girometti, Rossano; Linda, Anna; Cimino, Elisa; Puglisi, Fabio; Zuiani, Chiara; Bazzocchi, Massimo

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate whether the variation of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values obtained with DWI can predict elevated levels of Ki67 proliferation index and aggressive subtypes in patients with breast cancer. Breast MRI studies of 115 patients (mean age 57.3 years, range 36-81 years) with a biopsy-proven breast cancers were evaluated in this retrospective IRB-approved study. Examinations were performed on a 1.5 T magnet and included a Single-Shot Echoplanar DWI sequence with b values of 0 and 1000 s/mm(2). For each target lesion, ADC was measured. ADC values were compared considering Ki67 status (≥20 % or <20 %), histology, grade (G1, G2 or G3) and clinical-pathological classification (Luminal A, Luminal B HER2-positive, Luminal B HER-2 negative, HER-2 enriched and Triple Negative). Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for comparisons and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were obtained. Inter- and intra-reader variability was evaluated in a subset of 40 patients, using interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots. Of 115 lesions, 53 (46.1 %) were assessed as Ki67 positive and 62 (53.9 %) as Ki67 negative. ADC values were significantly (p < 0.0001) lower in Ki67-positive patients (median 0.86 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s; interquartile range 0.75-0.92) compared to Ki67-negative (median 1.03 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s; interquartile range 0.92-1.13). Median ADC was also lower in G2 and G3 cancer and in the Luminal B Her2-negative subtype (p = 0.0015). No differences were found when evaluating histology. ROC curve showed a sensitivity and specificity of 83.0 and 66.1 %, respectively, when using a cutoff of 0.95 s/mm(2) to differentiate Ki67-positive from Ki67-negative cancers. Inter- and intra-reader variability was moderate (ICC = 0.623; ICC = 0.548, respectively). No systematic differences were identified with Bland-Altman plots. Lower ADC values are associated with elevated Ki67 proliferation index and more

  16. Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    which is a study of 3131 human tumor samples and cancer cell lines including 243 breast samples. Tumorscape showed that PAK1 is located in an...chromosome 11q of human tumor samples and cancer cell lines that exhibit highest level of PAK1 amplification divided according to cancer type...breast, non-small cell (NSC) lung, ovarian (Ov), small cell lung (SCL), melanoma (Mel) and esophageal squamous (Esq). PAK1 and CCND1 1oci are marked . B

  17. Oxalate induces breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Castellaro, Andrés M; Tonda, Alfredo; Cejas, Hugo H; Ferreyra, Héctor; Caputto, Beatriz L; Pucci, Oscar A; Gil, German A

    2015-10-22

    Microcalcifications can be the early and only presenting sign of breast cancer. One shared characteristic of breast cancer is the appearance of mammographic mammary microcalcifications that can routinely be used to detect breast cancer in its initial stages, which is of key importance due to the possibility that early detection allows the application of more conservative therapies for a better patient outcome. The mechanism by which mammary microcalcifications are formed is still largely unknown but breast cancers presenting microcalcifications are more often associated with a poorer prognosis. We combined Capillary Electrochromatography, histology, and gene expression (qRT-PCR) to analyze patient-matched normal breast tissue vs. breast tumor. Potential carcinogenicity of oxalate was tested by its inoculation into mice. All data were subjected to statistical analysis. To study the biological significance of oxalates within the breast tumor microenvironment, we measured oxalate concentration in both human breast tumor tissues and adjoining non-pathological breast tissues. We found that all tested breast tumor tissues contain a higher concentration of oxalates than their counterpart non-pathological breast tissue. Moreover, it was established that oxalate induces proliferation of breast cells and stimulates the expression of a pro-tumorigenic gene c-fos. Furthermore, oxalate generates highly malignant and undifferentiated tumors when it was injected into the mammary fatpad in female mice, but not when injected into their back, indicating that oxalate does not induce cancer formation in all types of tissues. Moreover, neither human kidney-epithelial cells nor mouse fibroblast cells proliferate when are treated with oxalate. We found that the chronic exposure of breast epithelial cells to oxalate promotes the transformation of breast cells from normal to tumor cells, inducing the expression of a proto-oncogen as c-fos and proliferation in breast cancer cells

  18. Development and Evaluation of Computer-Based Versions of the Decision Board for Early Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    develop a decision aid for women with breast cancer. Patient Education and Counselling 1999, 37:283-29 1. 8. Levine MN, Bramwell VH, Pritchard KI...likelihood of their occurrence: often, All patient education cards and a smaller repro- sometimes, or rarely. Information about the results duction of the...choice between two adjuvant chemotherapy regimens: A pilot study to develop a decision aid for women with breast cancer. Patient Education and

  19. A nomogram based on mammary ductoscopic indicators for evaluating the risk of breast cancer in intraductal neoplasms with nipple discharge.

    PubMed

    Lian, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Qi; Zhang, An-Qin; Zhang, Jiang-Yu; Han, Xiao-Rong; Yu, Hai-Yun; Xie, Si-Mei

    2015-04-01

    Mammary ductoscopy (MD) is commonly used to detect intraductal lesions associated with nipple discharge. This study investigated the relationships between ductoscopic image-based indicators and breast cancer risk, and developed a nomogram for evaluating breast cancer risk in intraductal neoplasms with nipple discharge. A total of 879 consecutive inpatients (916 breasts) with nipple discharge who underwent selective duct excision for intraductal neoplasms detected by MD from June 2008 to April 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. A nomogram was developed using a multivariate logistic regression model based on data from a training set (687 cases) and validated in an independent validation set (229 cases). A Youden-derived cut-off value was assigned to the nomogram for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Color of discharge, location, appearance, and surface of neoplasm, and morphology of ductal wall were independent predictors for breast cancer in multivariate logistic regression analysis. A nomogram based on these predictors performed well. The P value of the Hosmer-Lemeshow test for the prediction model was 0.36. Area under the curve values of 0.812 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.763-0.860) and 0.738 (95 % CI 0.635-0.841) was obtained in the training and validation sets, respectively. The accuracies of the nomogram for breast cancer diagnosis were 71.2 % in the training set and 75.5 % in the validation set. We developed a nomogram for evaluating breast cancer risk in intraductal neoplasms with nipple discharge based on MD image findings. This model may aid individual risk assessment and guide treatment in clinical practice.

  20. Three-dimensional dose evaluation in breast cancer patients to define decision criteria for adaptive radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zegers, Catharina M L; Baeza, Jose A; van Elmpt, Wouter; Murrer, Lars H P; Verhoeven, Karolien; Boersma, Liesbeth; Verhaegen, Frank; Nijsten, Sebastiaan M J J G

    2017-08-29

    Dose-guided adaptive radiation therapy (DGART) is the systematic evaluation and adaptation of the dose delivery during treatment for an individual patient. The aim of this study is to define quantitative action levels for DGART by evaluating changes in 3D dose metrics in breast cancer and correlate them with clinical expert evaluation. Twenty-three breast cancer treatment plans were evaluated, that were clinically adapted based on institutional IGRT guidelines. Reasons for adaptation were variation in seroma, hematoma, edema, positioning or problems using voluntary deep inspiration breath hold. Sixteen patients received a uniform dose to the breast (clinical target volume 1; CTV1). Six patients were treated with a simultaneous integrated boost to CTV2. The original plan was copied to the CT during treatment (re-CT) or to the stitched cone-beam CT (CBCT). Clinical expert evaluation of the re-calculated dose distribution and extraction of dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters were performed. The extreme scenarios were evaluated, assuming all treatment fractions were given to the original planning CT (pCT), re-CT or CBCT. Reported results are mean ± SD. DVH results showed a mean dose (Dmean) difference between pCT and re-CT of -0.4 ± 1.4% (CTV1) and -1.4 ± 2.1% (CTV2). The difference in V95% was -2.6 ± 4.4% (CTV1) and -9.8 ± 8.3% (CTV2). Clinical evaluation and DVH evaluation resulted in a recommended adaptation in 17/23 or 16/23 plans, respectively. Applying thresholds on the DVH parameters: Dmean CTV, V95% CTV, Dmax, mean lung dose, volume exceeding 107% (uniform dose) or 90% (SIB) of the prescribed dose enabled the identification of patients with an assumed clinically relevant dose difference, with a sensitivity of 0.89 and specificity of 1.0. Re-calculation on CBCT imaging identified the same plans for adaptation as re-CT imaging. Clinical expert evaluation can be related to quantitative DVH parameters on re-CT or CBCT imaging to select

  1. Use of a panel of novel genes for differentiating breast cancer from non-breast tissues.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Neil; O'Donovan, Norma; Foley, Deirdre; Hill, Arnold D K; McDermott, Enda; O'Higgins, Niall; Duffy, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Existing serum markers for breast cancer such as CA 15-3, BR 27.29 and CEA lack sensitivity and specificity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of new putative breast-specific markers for differentiating breast cancer from non-breast tissues. Expression of mammaglobin A (MGA), B726P, small breast epithelial mucin (SBEM) and MUC1 was measured by RT-PCR. MGA mRNA was detected in 86/162 (60%) breast cancers but in only 1/32 (3%) non-breast tissues; B726P was detected in 44/108 (41%) breast cancers but in none of 20 non-breast tissues, while SBEM was present in 52/103 (51%) breast cancers but in only 1/26 non-breast cancer tissues. In contrast to these novel markers, the established breast cancer marker MUC1 was detected in 72/99 (73%) breast cancers and in 22/32 (59%) of non-breast tissues. Combining MGA with B726P separated breast cancer from non-breast tissue with a sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 95% while combining MGA with SBEM differentiated breast cancer from non-breast tissues with a sensitivity of 76% and a specificity of 89%. Genes such as MGA, B726P and SBEM that are expressed relatively exclusively in breast tissue are potential new markers for breast cancer.

  2. Role of FDG-PET/CT in evaluating surgical outcomes of operable breast cancer--usefulness for malignant grade of triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Masahiro; Shigematsu, Hideo; Tsutani, Yasuhiro; Emi, Akiko; Masumoto, Norio; Ozaki, Shinji; Kadoya, Takayuki; Okada, Morihito

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) for speculating the malignant level and prognostic value of operable breast cancers. Of 578 consecutive patients with primary invasive breast cancer who underwent curative surgery between 2005 and 2010, 311 patients (53.8%) who received FDG-PET/CT before initial therapy were examined. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis showed the cutoff value of the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) to predict cancer recurrence was 3.8 in all patients and 8.6 in patients with the triple-negative subtype, respectively. In all patients, 3-year DFS rates were 98.8% for patients with a tumor of SUVmax ≤ 3.8 and 91.6% for patients with a tumor of SUVmax > 3.8 (p < 0.001). High value of SUVmax was significantly associated with large tumor size (p < 0.001), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.040), high nuclear grade (p < 0.001), lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.032), negative hormone receptor status (p < 0.001), and positive HER2 status (p = 0.014). Based on the results of multivariate Cox analysis in all patients, high SUVmax (p = 0.001) and negative hormone receptor status (p = 0.005) were significantly associated with poor prognosis. In patients with triple-negative subtype, 3-year DFS rates were 90.9% for patients with a tumor of SUVmax ≤ 8.6 and 42.9% for patients with a tumor of SUVmax > 8.6 (p = 0.002), and high SUVmax was the only significant independent prognostic factor (p = 0.047). FDG-PET/CT is useful for predicting malignant behavior and prognosis in patients with operable breast cancer, especially the triple-negative subtype. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation the consistency of location of moist desquamation and skin high dose area for breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy after breast conservative surgery.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Min; Huang, Eng-Yen; Liang, Ji-An; Meng, Fan-Yun; Chang, Gia-Hsin; Tsao, Min-Jen

    2013-03-06

    To evaluate whether the location of moist desquamation matches high dose area for breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) after breast conservative surgery. One hundred and nine breast cancer patients were enrolled to this study. Their highest skin dose area (the hot spot) was estimated from the treatment planning. We divided the irradiated field into breast; sternal/parasternal; axillary; and inframammary fold areas. The location for moist desquamation was recorded to see if it matches the hot spot. We also analyzed other possible risk factors which may be related to the moist desquamation. Forty-eight patients with 65 locations developed moist desquamation during the RT course. Patients with larger breast sizes and easy to sweat are two independent risk factors for moist desquamation. The distribution of moist desquamation occurred most in the axillary area. All nine patients with the hot spots located at the axillary area developed moist desquamation at the axillary area, and six out of seven patients with the hot spots located at the inframammary fold developed moist desquamation there. The majority of patients with moist desquamation over the breast or sternal/parasternal areas had the hot spots located at these areas. For a patient with moist desquamation, if a hot spot is located at the axillary or inframammary fold areas, it is very likely to have moist desquamation occur there. On the other hand, if moist desquamation occurs over the breast or sternal/parasternal areas, we can highly expect these two areas are also the hot spot locations.

  4. Docosahexaenoic Acid in Preventing Recurrence in Breast Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-20

    Benign Breast Neoplasm; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Paget Disease of the Breast; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  5. Evaluation issues in the Swedish Two-County Trial of breast cancer screening: An historical review

    PubMed Central

    Tabar, Laszlo; Chen, Tony Hsiu-Hsi; Hsu, Chen-Yang; Wu, Wendy Yi-Ying; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng; Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia; Fann, Jean Ching-Yuan; Beckmann, Kerri; Smith, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To summarize debate and research in the Swedish Two-County Trial of mammographic screening on key issues of trial design, endpoint evaluation, and overdiagnosis, and from these to infer promising directions for the future. Methods A cluster-randomized controlled trial of the offer of breast cancer screening in Sweden, with a single screen of the control group at the end of the screening phase forms the setting for a historical review of investigations and debate on issues of design, analysis, and interpretation of results of the trial. Results There has been considerable commentary on the closure screen of the control group, ascertainment of cause of death, and cluster randomization. The issues raised were researched in detail and the main questions answered in publications between 1989 and 2003. Overdiagnosis issues still remain, but methods of estimation taking full account of lead time and of non-screening influences on incidence (taking place mainly before 2005) suggest that it is a minor phenomenon. Conclusion Despite resolution of issues relating to this trial in peer-reviewed publications dating from years, or even decades ago, issues that already have been addressed continue to be raised. We suggest that it would be more profitable to concentrate efforts on current research issues in breast cancer diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. PMID:27098311

  6. Data mining approach to evaluating the use of skin surface electropotentials for breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Sree, S Vinitha; Ng, E Y K; Acharya, U Rajendra

    2010-02-01

    The Biofield Diagnostic System (BDS) uses a score formed with measured skin surface electropotentials and a prior Level Of Suspicion (LOS) value (predicted by the physician based on the patient's ultrasound or mammography results) to calculate a revised Post-BDS LOS to indicate the presence of breast cancer. The demographic details, BDS test results, and the recorded electropotential values form a potentially useful dataset, which can be further explored with data mining tools to extract important information that can be used to improve the current predictive accuracy of the device. According to the proposed data mining framework, the BDS dataset with 291 cases was first pre-processed to remove outliers and then used to select relevant and informative features for classifier development and finally to evaluate the capability of the built classifiers in detecting the presence of the disease. Two popular feature selection techniques, namely, the filter and wrapper methods, were used in parallel for feature selection. A few statistical inference based classifiers and neural networks were used for classification. The proposed technique significantly improved the BDS prediction accuracy. Also, the use of prior LOS and, hence, the Post-BDS LOS, associates a mild subjective interpretation to the current prediction methodology used by BDS. However, the feature subset selected in our analysis that gave the best accuracy did not use either of these features. This result indicates the possibility of using BDS as a better objective assessment tool for breast cancer detection.

  7. Evaluation of intravenous 6-thioguanine as first-line chemotherapy in women with metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ingle, J N; Twito, D I; Suman, V J; Krook, J E; Maillard, J A; Windschitl, H E; Marschke, R F

    1997-02-01

    6-Thioguanine (6-TG) is a purine analog that has marked variability in plasma concentration after oral administration. Following the development of a multiple-day i.v. regimen, we performed a phase II trial of this agent as first-line chemotherapy in women with metastatic breast cancer. Forty-one patients with measurable (31 patients) or evaluable (10 patients) disease were entered into this trial. 6-TG was administered i.v. over a 10 min period daily for 5 consecutive days, with a planned cycle length of 35 days. The daily dosage level was 55 mg/m2 in the first 15 patients, but this was increased to 65 mg/m2 in the remaining patients due to inadequate myelosuppression at the lower dose. Six patients, all with measurable disease, achieved a complete response (CR) (two patients) or a partial response (PR) (four patients). Three responses occurred at the 55 mg/m2 level and three at the 65 mg/m2 level. The 95% confidence interval (CI) for the true response rate among patients with measurable disease was 6-39%. The median time to progression was 140 days and median survival time was 460 days. The regimen was well tolerated. We conclude that 6-TG, as given in this study, has limited activity as first-line chemotherapy for women with metastatic breast cancer.

  8. Targeting Breast Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Mu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is the leading cause of breast cancer-associated deaths. Despite the significant improvement in current therapies in extending patient life, 30–40% of patients may eventually suffer from distant relapse and succumb to the disease. Consequently, a deeper understanding of the metastasis biology is key to developing better treatment strategies and achieving long-lasting therapeutic efficacies against breast cancer. This review covers recent breakthroughs in the discovery of various metastatic traits that contribute to the metastasis cascade of breast cancer, which may provide novel avenues for therapeutic targeting. PMID:26380552

  9. Breast Cancer in Young Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... NPCR 2017 CDC National Cancer Conference Stay Informed Breast Cancer in Young Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Syndicate this page Marleah's family history of breast cancer was her motivation for pursuing a career where ...

  10. Broccoli Sprout Extract in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-14

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  11. Breast Cancer In Women

    Cancer.gov

    This infographic shows the Breast Cancer Subtypes in Women. It’s important for guiding treatment and predicting survival. Know the Science: HR = Hormone receptor. HR+ means tumor cells have receptors for the hormones estrogen or progesterone, which can promote the growth of HR+ tumors. Hormone therapies like tamoxifen can be used to treat HR+ tumors. HER2 = Human epidermal growth Factor receptor, HER2+ means tumor cells overexpress (make high levels of) a protein, called HE2/neu, which has been shown to be associated with certain aggressive types of breast cancer. Trastuzumab and some other therapies can target cells that overexpress HER2. HR+/HER2, aka “LuminalA”. 73% of all breast cancer cases: best prognosis, most common subtype for every race, age, and poverty level. HR-/HER2, aka “Triple Negative”: 13% of all breast cancer cases, Worst prognosis, Non-Hispanic blacks have the highest rate of this subtype at every age and poverty level. HR+/HER2+, aka “Luminal B”, 10% of all breast cancer cases, little geographic variation by state. HR-/HER2+, aka”HER2-enriched”, 5% of all breast cancer cases, lowest rates for all races and ethnicities. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  12. Prospective evaluation of alcohol consumption and the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Cybulski, Cezary; Lubinski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Lynch, Henry T; Randall, Susan Armel; Neuhausen, Susan L; Senter, Leigha; Friedman, Susan; Ainsworth, Peter; Singer, Christian; Foulkes, William D; Narod, Steven A; Sun, Ping; Kotsopoulos, Joanne

    2015-06-01

    Given the adverse effect of alcohol in the development of breast cancer among women in the general population, we evaluated whether a similar association exists among women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. Information regarding baseline daily alcohol consumption was abstracted from a research questionnaire for 3067 BRCA mutation carriers enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Women were followed biennially until the date of the last follow-up questionnaire, date of breast cancer diagnosis, date of prophylactic bilateral mastectomy, or date of death. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for invasive breast cancer associated with alcohol consumed at or prior to completion of the baseline questionnaire. After a mean of 5.4 years of follow-up, we observed 259 incident cases of primary invasive breast cancer. Compared with non-users, the adjusted RRs were 1.06 (95 % CI 0.78-1.44) for ever use and 1.08 (0.79-1.47) for current alcohol use. For women in the highest versus lowest quintile of cumulative alcohol consumption, the RR was 0.94 (95 % CI 0.63-1.40; P trend = 0.65). Our findings suggest that alcohol consumption is not a risk factor for breast cancer among women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation.

  13. Breast size, handedness and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, C C; Trichopoulos, D

    1991-01-01

    Bra cup size and handedness were studied as possible risk factors for breast cancer. Data for 3918 cases and 11,712 controls from 7 centres were used to examine the association of handedness with laterality of breast cancer; data for 2325 cases and 7008 controls from 4 centres were used to assess the relation of bra cup size to breast cancer risk. There was a suggestive (P about 0.10) association of handedness with breast cancer laterality: odds ratio of a left-handed (or ambidextrous) woman having a left-sided cancer 1.22 (95% CI 0.96-1.56). Handedness may affect the lateral occurrence of breast cancer, although this tumour is in general more common in the left breast, possibly because this breast is usually slightly larger. Premenopausal women who do not wear bras had half the risk of breast cancer compared with bra users (P about 0.09), possibly because they are thinner and likely to have smaller breasts. Among bra users, larger cup size was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (P about 0.026), although the association was found only among postmenopausal women and was accounted for, in part, by obesity. These data suggest that bra cup size (and conceivably mammary gland size) may be a risk factor for breast cancer.

  14. Evaluation of ACMG-Guideline-Based Variant Classification of Cancer Susceptibility and Non-Cancer-Associated Genes in Families Affected by Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Kara N.; Hart, Steven N.; Vijai, Joseph; Schrader, Kasmintan A.; Slavin, Thomas P.; Thomas, Tinu; Wubbenhorst, Bradley; Ravichandran, Vignesh; Moore, Raymond M.; Hu, Chunling; Guidugli, Lucia; Wenz, Brandon; Domchek, Susan M.; Robson, Mark E.; Szabo, Csilla; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Offit, Kenneth; Couch, Fergus J.; Nathanson, Katherine L.

    2016-01-01

    Sequencing tests assaying panels of genes or whole exomes are widely available for cancer risk evaluation. However, methods for classification of variants resulting from this testing are not well studied. We evaluated the ability of a variant-classification methodology based on American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) guidelines to define the rate of mutations and variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in 180 medically relevant genes, including all ACMG-designated reportable cancer and non-cancer-associated genes, in individuals who met guidelines for hereditary cancer risk evaluation. We performed whole-exome sequencing in 404 individuals in 253 families and classified 1,640 variants. Potentially clinically actionable (likely pathogenic [LP] or pathogenic [P]) versus nonactionable (VUS, likely benign, or benign) calls were 95% concordant with locus-specific databases and Clinvar. LP or P mutations were identified in 12 of 25 breast cancer susceptibility genes in 26 families without identified BRCA1/2 mutations (11%). Evaluation of 84 additional genes associated with autosomal-dominant cancer susceptibility identified LP or P mutations in only two additional families (0.8%). However, individuals from 10 of 253 families (3.9%) had incidental LP or P mutations in 32 non-cancer-associated genes, and 9% of individuals were monoallelic carriers of a rare LP or P mutation in 39 genes associated with autosomal-recessive cancer susceptibility. Furthermore, 95% of individuals had at least one VUS. In summary, these data support the clinical utility of ACMG variant-classification guidelines. Additionally, evaluation of extended panels of cancer-associated genes in breast/ovarian cancer families leads to only an incremental clinical benefit but substantially increases the complexity of the results. PMID:27153395

  15. Quiz: How much do you know about breast cancer? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... breast cancer late stage breast cancer locally advanced breast cancer Stage III breast cancer is early stage breast cancer late stage breast cancer locally advanced breast cancer Stage IV breast cancer is early stage breast cancer ...

  16. Thyroid function in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ditsch, Nina; Liebhardt, Susanne; Von Koch, Franz; Lenhard, Miriam; Vogeser, Michael; Spitzweg, Christine; Gallwas, Julia; Toth, Bettina

    2010-05-01

    Recent studies indicate a possible relationship between hypothyroidism and breast cancer in vivo. In addition, oestrogen-like effects of thyroid hormones on breast cancer cell growth are seen in vitro. Therefore, this study evaluated thyroid function in breast cancer patients, women with benign breast tumour and healthy controls. Breast cancer patients (n=65), women with carcinoma in situ (n=13) or benign breast tumour (n=27), and healthy controls (n=38) were included in the study. Thyroid history was reported. Thyroid hormones (fT4, fT3, TSH) and thyroid antibodies (TPO, TRAK and TG) were determined. Statistical analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney U and Fisher's exact test (p<0.005 significant). fT3 and fT4 levels were highest in breast cancer patients, and differed significantly from controls (fT3 and fT4: p<0.001) as well as from patients with benign breast tumour (fT3: p=0.021; fT4: p=0.017). TSH was highest in the control group without reaching significance. With regard to TRAK antibodies, breast cancer patients showed the highest levels differing significantly from women with benign breast tumours (p=0.048). Significant differences in fT3/fT4 as well as TRAK levels were observed among breast cancer patients, women with benign breast tumours and healthy controls. Further studies using larger patient groups are part of ongoing research.

  17. Evaluation of the Metasin assay for intraoperative assessment of sentinel lymph node metastases in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Smith, G J; Hodges, E; Markham, H; Zhang, S; Cutress, R I

    2017-02-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the preferred surgical technique for staging the axilla in clinically node-negative breast cancer. Accurate intraoperative staging allows for the immediate performance of an axillary clearance in node-positive patients. We assessed the Metasin assay for the intraoperative analysis of SLNs in a prospective evaluation of 250 consecutive patients undergoing intraoperative SLN analysis at the Breast Unit, University Hospital, Southampton, UK. Metasin uses a quantitative reverse transcription PCR to detect two markers of metastasis: cytokeratin 19 (CK19) an epithelial marker and mammaglobin (MGB) a breast specific marker. Metasin results were compared with the results from routine paraffin block histopathology. Metasin was robust, with a failure rate of <1%, and demonstrated excellent accuracy and reproducibility. The average turnaround time for the Metasin assay was 42 min, the largest variable being the number of nodes assayed. A total of 533 SLNs were evaluated with 75 patients testing positive for MGB and/or CK19. Based on the analysis of individual SLNs, the overall concordance between Metasin and histology was 92.3% (sensitivity 88.7%, specificity 92.9%). When adjusted for tissue allocation bias, the concordance was 93.8% (sensitivity 89.8%, specificity 94.6%). In this evaluation, 57/250 patients (23%) proceeded to axillary clearance based on Metasin results and were considered spared a second operative procedure. Metasin has proven to be an accurate, reproducible and reliable laboratory test. The analysis time is acceptable for intraoperative use, and in comparison to routine histology demonstrates acceptable concordance, sensitivity and specificity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. A Qualitative Evaluation of a Faith-Based Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention for African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Alicia K.; Berrios, Nerida; Darnell, Julie S.; Calhoun, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a formative evaluation of a CDC Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 faith-based breast and cervical cancer early detection and prevention intervention for African American women living in urban communities. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of women (N = 94) recruited from each church…

  19. A Qualitative Evaluation of a Faith-Based Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention for African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Alicia K.; Berrios, Nerida; Darnell, Julie S.; Calhoun, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a formative evaluation of a CDC Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 faith-based breast and cervical cancer early detection and prevention intervention for African American women living in urban communities. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of women (N = 94) recruited from each church…

  20. Evaluation of Feasibility for a Case-Control Study of Adrenal Androgen Production in Postmenopausal Women With Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    responsiveness of adrenal hormones to ACTH stimulation in healthy postmenopausal women. We also evaluated variation in natural killer cell cytotoxicity in...stimulation. Other hormones measured and natural killer cell cytotoxictiy did not change significantly after ACTH. Future analyses will attempt to...case-control study that uses adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation tests to determine if postmenopausal women who develop breast cancer secrete

  1. Continuity of Information for Breast Cancer Patients: The Development, Use and Evaluation of a Multidisciplinary Care-Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wersch, A.; Bonnema, J.; Prinsen, B.; Pruyn, J.; Wiggers, Th.; van Geel, A. N.

    1997-01-01

    A multidisciplinary care protocol was developed to achieve continuity and integration of information. The protocol integrates medical, nursing, and a variety of extramural events and activities into a comprehensive description of 15 "moments" in the care of breast cancer surgery patients. Implementation and evaluation are reported and…

  2. An Evaluation of Stereoscopic Digital Mammography for Earlier Detection of Breast Cancer and Reduced Rate of Recall

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    for finding 2 3 4 3. BIRADS Category for patient: Comments: 03/26/05 APPENDIX D SDM DATA FORM D - BIOPSY PATIENT STUDY NUMBER: DATE OF BIOPSY...31 Jul 2005 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER An Evaluation of Stereoscopic Digital Mammography for Earlier Detection of Breast Cancer and...3 Introduction .................................................................................... 4 B o dy

  3. Bridging the age gap in breast cancer: evaluation of decision support interventions for older women with operable breast cancer: protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Collins, Karen; Reed, Malcolm; Lifford, Kate; Burton, Maria; Edwards, Adrian; Ring, Alistair; Brain, Katherine; Harder, Helena; Robinson, Thompson; Cheung, Kwok Leung; Morgan, Jenna; Audisio, Riccardo; Ward, Susan; Richards, Paul; Martin, Charlene; Chater, Tim; Pemberton, Kirsty; Nettleship, Anthony; Murray, Christopher; Walters, Stephen; Bortolami, Oscar; Armitage, Fiona; Leonard, Robert; Gath, Jacqui; Revell, Deirdre; Green, Tracy; Wyld, Lynda

    2017-07-31

    While breast cancer outcomes are improving steadily in younger women due to advances in screening and improved therapies, there has been little change in outcomes among the older age group. It is inevitable that comorbidities/frailty rates are higher, which may increase the risks of some breast cancer treatments such as surgery and chemotherapy, many older women are healthy and may benefit from their use. Adjusting treatment regimens appropriately for age/comorbidity/frailty is variable and largely non-evidence based, specifically with regard to rates of surgery for operable oestrogen receptor-positive disease and rates of chemotherapy for high-risk disease. This multicentre, parallel group, pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) (2015-18) reported here is nested within a larger ongoing 'Age Gap Cohort Study' (2012-18RP-PG-1209-10071), aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a complex intervention of decision support interventions to assist in the treatment decision making for early breast cancer in older women. The interventions include two patient decision aids (primary endocrine therapy vs surgery/antioestrogen therapy and chemotherapy vs no chemotherapy) and a clinical treatment outcomes algorithm for clinicians. National and local ethics committee approval was obtained for all UK participating sites. Results from the trial will be submitted for publication in international peer-reviewed scientific journals. 115550. European Union Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials (EudraCT) number 2015-004220-61;Pre-results. Sponsor's Protocol Code Number Sheffield Teaching Hospitals STH17086. ISRCTN 32447*. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Cutaneous manifestations of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Antoinette R

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer may present with cutaneous symptoms. The skin manifestations of breast cancer are varied. Some of the more common clinical presentations of metastatic cutaneous lesions from breast cancer will be described. Paraneoplastic cutaneous dermatoses have been reported as markers of breast malignancy and include erythema gyratum repens, acquired ichthyosis, dermatomyositis, multicentric reticulohistiocytosis, and hypertrichosis lanuginosa acquisita. Mammary Paget's disease, often associated with an underlying breast cancer, and Cowden syndrome, which has an increased risk of breast malignancy, each have specific dermatologic findings. Recognition of these distinct cutaneous signs is important in the investigation of either newly diagnosed or recurrent breast cancer.

  5. Atlas-based segmentation in breast cancer radiotherapy: Evaluation of specific and generic-purpose atlases.

    PubMed

    Ciardo, Delia; Gerardi, Marianna Alessandra; Vigorito, Sabrina; Morra, Anna; Dell'acqua, Veronica; Diaz, Federico Javier; Cattani, Federica; Zaffino, Paolo; Ricotti, Rosalinda; Spadea, Maria Francesca; Riboldi, Marco; Orecchia, Roberto; Baroni, Guido; Leonardi, Maria Cristina; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara Alicja

    2017-04-01

    Atlas-based automatic segmentation (ABAS) addresses the challenges of accuracy and reliability in manual segmentation. We aim to evaluate the contribution of specific-purpose in ABAS of breast cancer (BC) patients with respect to generic-purpose libraries. One generic-purpose and 9 specific-purpose libraries, stratified according to type of surgery and size of thorax circumference, were obtained from the computed tomography of 200 BC patients. Keywords about contralateral breast volume and presence of breast expander/prostheses were recorded. ABAS was validated on 47 independent patients, considering manual segmentation from scratch as reference. Five ABAS datasets were obtained, testing single-ABAS and multi-ABAS with simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE). Center of mass distance (CMD), average Hausdorff distance (AHD) and Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) between corresponding ABAS and manual structures were evaluated and statistically significant differences between different surgeries, structures and ABAS strategies were investigated. Statistically significant differences between patients who underwent different surgery were found, with superior results for conservative-surgery group, and between different structures were observed: ABAS of heart, lungs, kidneys and liver was satisfactory (median values: CMD<2 mm, DSC≥0.80, AHD<1.5 mm), whereas chest wall, breast and spinal cord obtained moderate performance (median values: 2 mm ≤ CMD<5 mm, 0.60 ≤ DSC<0.80, 1.5 mm ≤ AHD<4 mm) and esophagus, stomach, brachial plexus and supraclavicular nodes obtained poor performance (median CMD≥5 mm, DSC<0.60, AHD≥4 mm). The application of STAPLE algorithm generally yields higher performance and the use of keywords improves results for breast ABAS. The homogeneity in the selection of atlases based on multiple anatomical and clinical features and the use of specific-purpose libraries can improve ABAS performance with respect to

  6. Stages of Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... in lymph and help fight infection and disease. Clusters of lymph nodes are found near the breast ... the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller. Small clusters of cancer cells (larger than 0.2 millimeter ...

  7. Breast Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... in lymph and help fight infection and disease. Clusters of lymph nodes are found near the breast ... the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller. Small clusters of cancer cells (larger than 0.2 millimeter ...

  8. Breast Cancer in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... men may have radiation after surgery. Since most breast cancers in men are hormone receptor-positive, hormone therapy (with tamoxifen) is often used depending on the stage. Chemotherapy may be given before tamoxifen. For men ...

  9. Obesity and Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fortner, Renée T; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf

    The relationship between adiposity and breast cancer risk and prognosis is complex, with associations that differ depending on when body size is assessed (e.g., pre- vs. postmenopausal obesity) and when breast cancer is diagnosed (i.e., pre- vs. postmenopausal disease). Further, the impact of obesity on risk differs by tumor hormone receptor status (e.g., estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor) and, among postmenopausal women, use of exogenous hormones (i.e., hormone replacement therapy (HRT)). In the context of these complexities, this review focuses on associations between childhood and adolescent adiposity, general adiposity, weight changes (i.e., loss and gain), abdominal adiposity, and breast cancer risk and survival. Finally, we discuss potential mechanisms linking adiposity to breast cancer.

  10. The breast cancer conundrum.

    PubMed

    Adams, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    For decades, rates of breast cancer have been going up faster in rich countries than in poor ones. Scientists are beginning to understand more about its causes but unanswered questions remain. Patrick Adams reports.

  11. Breast Cancer - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Breast Cancer URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/breastcancer.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  12. Evaluation of the prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in triple-negative breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Tian; Ruan, Miao; Yang, Wentao; Shui, Ruohong

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) may be associated with clinical outcome in triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs). However, lacking of standardized methodologies in TILs evaluation has hindered its application in clinical practice. To evaluate the prognostic role of TILs scored by methods recommended by International TILs Working Group 2014, we performed a retrospective study of TILs in 425 primary invasive TNBCs in a Chinese population with a median follow-up of 4 years. Intratumoral TILs (iTILs) and stromal TILs (sTILs) were scored respectively. The associations between TILs and disease-free survival (DFS), distant disease-free survival (DDFS) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated with COX models. ITILs were not associated with prognosis. Higher sTILs were associated with better prognosis; for every 10% increase in sTILs, a 5% reduction of risk of recurrence or death (P < 0.001), 5% reduction of risk of distant recurrence (P < 0.001), and 4% reduction of risk of death (P = 0.002) were observed. Multivariate analysis confirmed sTILs to be an independent prognostic marker. 3.5% of TNBCs had more than 50% lymphocytes (lymphocyte-predominant breast cancer, LPBC), and associations between LPBC status and prognosis were observed but did not reach statistical significance. TNBCs with more than 20% sTILs had a significantly better prognosis than the patients with no more than 20% sTILs. In conclusion, our study indicated that sTILs scored by methods recommended by International TILs Working Group 2014 were associated with the prognosis of TNBCs. STILs could be an independent prognostic biomarker in TNBCs, increasing sTILs predicting better prognosis. PMID:27323808

  13. Evaluating the Relationship between Body Size and Body Shape with the Risk of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zagami, Samira Ebrahimzadeh; Golmakani, Nahid; Shandiz, Fatemeh Homaei; Saki, Azadeh

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aims to determine the relationship between body size and body shape with the risk of breast cancer. Methods In this case control study, 480 women participated (240 women with breast cancer in case group and 240 healthy women in control group). After completing the interview form, the weight, height, waist circumference, hip circumference and breast size, were measured. The data were analyzed using statistical test by SPSS11.5. Results The present study showed that the mean of hip circumference were significantly different in both groups (p=0.036). The size of the breast was statistically significant between the two groups. Thyroid type, one of the body shapes, was more seen in the case group than control group (p<0.001). Conclusion This study revealed that the risk of breast cancer increases with increased hip circumference. In addition, the results indicate that body shape may be a useful predictor in determining the risk of breast cancer. More studies should be designed to address this subject. PMID:24223241

  14. Breast cancer following ovarian cancer in BRCA mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Gangi, Alexandra; Cass, Ilana; Paik, Daniel; Barmparas, Galinos; Karlan, Beth; Dang, Catherine; Li, Andrew; Walsh, Christine; Rimel, Bobbie J; Amersi, Farin F

    2014-12-01

    BRCA mutation carriers are at increased risk of developing breast cancer. However, the incidence of breast cancer after a diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), one of the tubal/peritoneal cancers collectively referred to as pelvic serous carcinomas, is not well known. Optimal breast cancer surveillance and detection for these patients have also not been well characterized. To determine the incidence of breast cancer after a diagnosis of EOC and to evaluate the need for breast cancer surveillance for these patients. A retrospective database review of 364 patients who underwent BRCA mutation testing for EOC (stages I-IV) between 1998 and 2012 at an academic medical center with gynecologic and breast cancer centers. Incidence of breast cancer and methods of surveillance. Of 364 patients, 135 (37.1%) were found to carry a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. The mean age of patients at diagnosis of EOC was 49.5 years (range, 28-89 years). Of the 135 patients, 12 (8.9%) developed breast cancer. The median time from diagnosis of EOC to diagnosis of breast cancer was 50.5 months. Annual mammography was performed for 80 patients (59.3%), with annual magnetic resonance imaging of the breasts performed for 60 patients (44.4%). Thirteen patients (9.6%) underwent a bilateral prophylactic mastectomy at a median of 23 months following EOC diagnosis. Breast cancer was most commonly diagnosed by mammography for 7 of the 12 patients (58.3%), 3 (25.0%) of whom had a palpable mass and 2 (16.7%) of whom had incidental breast cancer detected during a prophylactic mastectomy. Seven patients with breast cancer (58.3%) underwent a bilateral mastectomy. All patients had early-stage breast cancer (stages 0-II). Four patients (33.3%) received adjuvant chemotherapy. At a median follow-up of 6.3 years, 4 of the 12 patients (33.3%) died of recurrent EOC after a diagnosis of breast cancer. The overall 10-year survival rate for the entire cohort of 135 patients was 17.0%. The risk of

  15. Dietary Fat, Eicosanoids and Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    eicosanoid balance, and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. The study objectives are to: 1) evaluate the effects of total fat and omega -3 fatty acid ...Dietary fat, omega -3 fatty acids , eicosanoids, sex hormones 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: U 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a...Eicosanoids, and Breast Cancer Risk”, is a dietary intervention aimed at evaluating the effects of total fat intake and omega -3 fatty acids on breast

  16. Qualitative evaluation of care plans for Canadian breast and head-and-neck cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Collie, K.; McCormick, J.; Waller, A.; Railton, C.; Shirt, L.; Chobanuk, J.; Taylor, A.; Lau, H.; Hao, D.; Walley, B.; Kapusta, B.; Joy, A.A.; Carlson, L.E.; Giese–Davis, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Survivorship care plans (scps) have been recommended as a way to ease the transition from active cancer treatment to follow-up care, to reduce uncertainty for survivors in the management of their ongoing health, and to improve continuity of care. The objective of the demonstration project reported here was to assess the value of scps for cancer survivors in western Canada. Methods The Alberta CancerBridges team developed, implemented, and evaluated scps for 36 breast and 21 head-and-neck cancer survivors. For the evaluation, we interviewed 12 of the survivors, 9 nurses who delivered the scps, and 3 family physicians who received the scps (n = 24 in total). We asked about satisfaction, usefulness, emotional impact, and communication value. We collected written feedback from the three groups about positive aspects of the scps and possible improvements (n = 85). We analyzed the combined data using qualitative thematic analysis. Results Survivors, nurses, and family physicians agreed that scps could ease the transition to survivorship partly by enhancing communication between survivors and care providers. Survivors appreciated the individualized attention and the comprehensiveness of the plans. They described positive emotional impacts, but wanted a way to ensure that their physicians received the scps. Nurses and physicians responded positively, but expressed concern about the time required to implement the plans. Suggestions for streamlining the process included providing survivors with scp templates in advance, auto-populating the templates for the nurses, and creating summary pages for physicians. Conclusions The results suggest ways in which scps could help to improve the transition to cancer survivorship and provide starting points for larger feasibility studies. PMID:24523618

  17. Contralateral Breast Cancers: Independent Cancers or Metastases?

    PubMed

    Begg, Colin B; Ostrovnaya, Irina; Geyer, Felipe C; Papanastasiou, Anastasios D; Ng, Charlotte Ky; Sakr, Rita; Bernstein, Jonine L; Burke, Kathleen A; King, Tari A; Piscuoglio, Salvatore; Mauguen, Audrey; Orlow, Irene; Weigelt, Britta; Seshan, Venkatraman E; Morrow, Monica; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2017-09-16

    A cancer in the contralateral breast in a woman with a previous or synchronous breast cancer is typically considered to be an independent primary tumor. Emerging evidence suggests that in a small subset of these cases the second tumor represents a metastasis. We sought to investigate the issue using massively parallel sequencing targeting 254 genes recurrently mutated in breast cancer. We examined the tumor archives at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center for the period 1995-2006 to identify cases of contralateral breast cancer where surgery for both tumors was performed at the Center. We report results from 49 patients successfully analyzed by a targeted massively parallel sequencing assay. Somatic mutations and copy number alterations were defined by state-of-the-art algorithms. Clonal relatedness was evaluated by statistical tests specifically designed for this purpose. We found evidence that the tumors in contralateral breasts were clonally related in 3 cases (6%) on the basis of matching mutations at codons where somatic mutations are rare. Clinical data and the presence of similar patterns of gene copy number alterations were consistent with metastasis for all 3 cases. In 3 additional cases there was a solitary matching mutation at a common PIK3CA locus. The results suggest that a subset of contralateral breast cancers represent metastases rather than independent primary tumors. Massively parallel sequencing analysis can provide important evidence to clarify the diagnosis. However, given the inter-tumor mutational heterogeneity in breast cancer, sufficiently large gene panels need to be employed to define clonality convincingly in all cases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 UICC.

  18. Implementation and evaluation of an Asbru-based decision support system for adjuvant treatment in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Eccher, Claudio; Seyfang, Andreas; Ferro, Antonella

    2014-11-01

    The domain of cancer treatment is a promising field for the implementation and evaluation of a protocol-based clinical decision support system, because of the algorithmic nature of treatment recommendations. However, many factors can limit such systems' potential to support the decision of clinicians: technical challenges related to the interoperability with existing electronic patient records and clinical challenges related to the inherent complexity of the decisions, often collectively taken by panels of different specialists. In this paper, we evaluate the performances of an Asbru-based decision support system implementing treatment protocols for breast cancer, which accesses data from an oncological electronic patient record. Focusing on the decision on the adjuvant pharmaceutical treatment for patients affected by early invasive breast cancer, we evaluate the matching of the system's recommendations with those issued by the multidisciplinary panel held weekly in a hospital. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The preservation of minor pectoralis muscle in axillary dissection for breast cancer: functional and cosmetic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Merson, M; Pirovano, C; Balzarini, A; Luini, A; Biasi, S; Galimberti, V; Genitoni, V; Muscolino, G; Veronesi, P

    1992-06-01

    We have evaluated, in two groups of 50 patients each submitted to axillary dissection for breast cancer (10 mastectomies and 90 conservative procedures), the advantage of the preservation of the minor pectoralis muscle. This muscle was preserved in one group and removed in the other. Whereas in the immediate postoperative period complications (shoulder pain, functional impairment, quantity or duration of serum drainage from the axilla) were the same in the two groups, at longer follow-up (more than 6 months after surgery) the patients whose pectoralis minor muscle was preserved showed a reduction in the incidence of partial atrophy and fibrosis of the pectoralis major muscle. Patients treated with conservation of the pectoralis minor muscle showed this atrophy in 6% of cases vs 54% observed in the other patients. This fact may be related to disruption of the pectoral nerves, which are in close contact with the pectoralis minor during their course from the brachial plexus to the pectoralis major muscle.

  20. Evaluation of Breast Cancer Knowledge Among Health Promoters in Mexico Before and After Focused Training

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Nancy L.; Kouri, Elena M.; Ornelas, Héctor Arreola; Méndez, Oscar; Valladares, Laura Magaña

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Breast cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Mexico. We assessed the effectiveness of a train-the-trainer program in two Mexican states in improving knowledge among professional and nonprofessional community health workers. Materials and Methods. We worked with local organizations to develop and implement a train-the-trainer program to improve breast cancer knowledge among community health workers, including professional health promoters (PHPs) who were trained and then trained nonprofessional community health promoters (CHPs). We surveyed participants before and after training that included in-person and online classes and again approximately 3 months later. We used paired t tests and chi-square tests to compare survey responses at the different times. We also used logistic regression to assess whether promoter characteristics were associated with greater improvements in breast cancer knowledge after training. Results. Overall, 169 PHPs (mean age, 36 years) completed training and provided a 10-hour training course to 2,651 CHPs, who also completed the pre- and post-training survey. For both PHPs and CHPs, post-training surveys demonstrated increases in an understanding of breast cancer as a problem; an understanding of screening, treatment, and insurance coverage issues; and knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, symptoms, and what constitutes a family history of breast cancer (all p < .05). These improvements were maintained 3 to 6 months after training. Conclusion. Train-the-trainer programs hold promise for leveraging community health workers, who far outnumber other health professionals in many low- and middle-income countries, to engage in health promotion activities for cancer and other noncommunicable diseases. PMID:25232041

  1. Evaluation of KiSS1 as a Prognostic Biomarker in North Indian Breast Cancer Cases.

    PubMed

    Singh, Richa; Bhatt, Madan Lal Brahma; Singh, Saurabh Pratap; Kumar, Vijay; Goel, Madhu Mati; Mishra, Durga Prasad; Kumar, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the commonest female cancer worldwide and its propensity to metastasize negatively impacts on therapeutic outcome. Several clinicopathological parameters with prognostic/predictive significance have been associated with metastatic suppressor expression levels. The role of metastatic suppressor gene (MSG) KiSS1 in breast cancer remains unclear. Our goal was to investigate the possible clinical significance of KiSS1 breast cancer. The study was conducted on 87 histologically proven cases of breast cancer and background normal tiisue. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to investigate KiSS1 at gene and protein levels, respectively, for correlation with several patient characteristics including age, family history, hormonal receptor status, stage, tumor size, nodal involvement and metastatic manifestation and finally with median overall survival (OS). Our study revealed (i) KiSS1 levels were generally elevated in breast cancer vs normal tissue (< 0.05). (ii) however, a statistically significant lower expression of KiSS1 was observed in metastatic vs non metastatic cases (P = 0.04). (iii) KiSS1 levels strongly correlated with T,N,M category, histological grade and advanced stage (<0.001) but not other studied parameters. (iv) Lastly, a significant correlation between expression of KiSS1 and median OS was found (P = 0.04). Conclusively, less elevated KiSS1 expression is a negative prognostic factor for OS, advancing tumor stage, axillary lymph node status, metastatic propensity and advancing grade of the breast cancer patient. Patients with negative KiSS1 expression may require a more intensive therapeutic strategy.

  2. Evaluation of breast cancer knowledge among health promoters in Mexico before and after focused training.

    PubMed

    Keating, Nancy L; Kouri, Elena M; Ornelas, Héctor Arreola; Méndez, Oscar; Valladares, Laura Magaña; Knaul, Felicia Marie

    2014-10-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Mexico. We assessed the effectiveness of a train-the-trainer program in two Mexican states in improving knowledge among professional and nonprofessional community health workers. We worked with local organizations to develop and implement a train-the-trainer program to improve breast cancer knowledge among community health workers, including professional health promoters (PHPs) who were trained and then trained nonprofessional community health promoters (CHPs). We surveyed participants before and after training that included in-person and online classes and again approximately 3 months later. We used paired t tests and chi-square tests to compare survey responses at the different times. We also used logistic regression to assess whether promoter characteristics were associated with greater improvements in breast cancer knowledge after training. Overall, 169 PHPs (mean age, 36 years) completed training and provided a 10-hour training course to 2,651 CHPs, who also completed the pre- and post-training survey. For both PHPs and CHPs, post-training surveys demonstrated increases in an understanding of breast cancer as a problem; an understanding of screening, treatment, and insurance coverage issues; and knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, symptoms, and what constitutes a family history of breast cancer (all p < .05). These improvements were maintained 3 to 6 months after training. Train-the-trainer programs hold promise for leveraging community health workers, who far outnumber other health professionals in many low- and middle-income countries, to engage in health promotion activities for cancer and other noncommunicable diseases. ©AlphaMed Press.

  3. Additional Value of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging to Evaluate Prognostic Factors of Breast Cancer: Correlation with the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Kyung; Cho, Kyu Ran; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Woo, Ok Hee; Cho, Sung Bum; Bae, Jeoung Won

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with diverse prognoses. The main prognostic determinants are lymph node status, tumor size, histological grade, and biological factors, such as hormone receptors, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), Ki-67 protein levels, and p53 expression. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can be used to measure the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) that provides information related to tumor cellularity and the integrity of the cell membranes. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether ADC measurements could provide information on the prognostic factors of breast cancer. A total of 71 women with invasive breast cancer, treated consecutively, who underwent preoperative breast MRIs with DWI at 3.0 Tesla and subsequent surgery, were prospectively included in this study. Each DWI was acquired with b values of 0 and 1000 s/mm(2). The mean ADC values of the lesions were measured, including the entire lesion on the three largest sections. We performed histopathological analyses for the tumor size, lymph node status, histological grade, hormone receptors, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), Ki-67, p53, and molecular subtypes. The associations with the ADC values and prognostic factors of breast cancer were evaluated using the independent-samples t test and the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). A low ADC value was associated with lymph node metastasis (P < 0.01) and with high Ki-67 protein levels (P = 0.03). There were no significant differences in the ADC values among the histological grade (P = 0.48), molecular subtype (P = 0.51), tumor size (P = 0.46), and p53 protein level (P = 0.62). The pre-operative use of the 3.0 Tesla DWI could provide information about the lymph node status and tumor proliferation for breast cancer patients, and could help determine the optimal treatment plan.

  4. Breast Cancer and Posttraumatic Growth

    PubMed Central

    İnan, Figen Şengün; Üstün, Besti

    2014-01-01

    The current methods for early diagnosis and increased treatment options have improved survival rates in breast cancer. Breast cancer diagnosis effects individuals in physical, psychological and social dimensions either positively or negatively. In the literature, usually the negative effects encountered in the period after the diagnosis of breast cancer are mostly described, with limited data on the positive effects. Nevertheless, the identification of positive changes and defining its determinants is important in supporting and strengthening posttraumatic growth in this group. The objective of this review is to explain posttraumatic growth and its determinants in breast cancer during the post-treatment period in accordance with the relevant literature. In our evaluation, it was noticed that breast cancer survivors experience posttraumatic growth in the post-treatment period, but the literature is limited in explaining the nature of posttraumatic growth and its determinants. Both qualitative and quantitative research that will provide in-depth information on the subject, explaining culture-specific posttraumatic growth and related factors, are required. PMID:28331647

  5. Antiproliferative Evaluation of Isofuranodiene on Breast and Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Lambertucci, Catia; Maggi, Filippo; Papa, Fabrizio; Santinelli, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    The anticancer activity of isofuranodiene, extracted from Smyrnium olusatrum, was evaluated in human breast adenocarcinomas MDA-MB 231 and BT 474, and Caucasian prostate adenocarcinoma PC 3 cell lines by MTS assay. MTS assay showed a dose-dependent growth inhibition in the tumor cell lines after isofuranodiene treatment. The best antiproliferative activity of the isofuranodiene was found on PC 3 cells with an IC50 value of 29 μM, which was slightly less than the inhibition against the two breast adenocarcinoma cell lines with IC50 values of 59 and 55 μM on MDA-MB 231 and BT 474, respectively. Hoechst 33258 assay was performed in order to study the growth inhibition mechanism in prostate cancer cell line; the results indicate that isofuranodiene induces apoptosis. Overall, the understudy compound has a good anticancer activity especially towards the PC 3. On the contrary, it is less active on Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) and human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) appearing as a good candidate as a potential natural anticancer drug with low side effects. PMID:24967427

  6. Human Breast Cancer Histoid

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Pavinder; Ward, Brenda; Saha, Baisakhi; Young, Lillian; Groshen, Susan; Techy, Geza; Lu, Yani; Atkinson, Roscoe; Taylor, Clive R.; Ingram, Marylou

    2011-01-01

    Progress in our understanding of heterotypic cellular interaction in the tumor microenvironment, which is recognized to play major roles in cancer progression, has been hampered due to unavailability of an appropriate in vitro co-culture model. The aim of this study was to generate an in vitro 3-dimensional human breast cancer model, which consists of cancer cells and fibroblasts. Breast cancer cells (UACC-893) and fibroblasts at various densities were co-cultured in a rotating suspension culture system to establish co-culture parameters. Subsequently, UACC-893, BT.20, or MDA.MB.453 were co-cultured with fibroblasts for 9 days. Co-cultures resulted in the generation of breast cancer histoid (BCH) with cancer cells showing the invasion of fibroblast spheroids, which were visualized by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of sections (4 µm thick) of BCH. A reproducible quantitative expression of C-erbB.2 was detected in UACC-893 cancer cells in BCH sections by IHC staining and the Automated Cellular Imaging System. BCH sections also consistently exhibited qualitative expression of pancytokeratins, p53, Ki-67, or E-cadherin in cancer cells and that of vimentin or GSTPi in fibroblasts, fibronectin in the basement membrane and collagen IV in the extracellular matrix. The expression of the protein analytes and cellular architecture of BCH were markedly similar to those of breast cancer tissue. PMID:22034518

  7. Evaluation of the current knowledge limitations in breast cancer research: a gap analysis

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Alastair; Brennan, Keith; Cox, Angela; Gee, Julia; Harcourt, Diana; Harris, Adrian; Harvie, Michelle; Holen, Ingunn; Howell, Anthony; Nicholson, Robert; Steel, Michael; Streuli, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Background A gap analysis was conducted to determine which areas of breast cancer research, if targeted by researchers and funding bodies, could produce the greatest impact on patients. Methods Fifty-six Breast Cancer Campaign grant holders and prominent UK breast cancer researchers participated in a gap analysis of current breast cancer research. Before, during and following the meeting, groups in seven key research areas participated in cycles of presentation, literature review and discussion. Summary papers were prepared by each group and collated into this position paper highlighting the research gaps, with recommendations for action. Results Gaps were identified in all seven themes. General barriers to progress were lack of financial and practical resources, and poor collaboration between disciplines. Critical gaps in each theme included: (1) genetics (knowledge of genetic changes, their effects and interactions); (2) initiation of breast cancer (how developmental signalling pathways cause ductal elongation and branching at the cellular level and influence stem cell dynamics, and how their disruption initiates tumour formation); (3) progression of breast cancer (deciphering the intracellular and extracellular regulators of early progression, tumour growth, angiogenesis and metastasis); (4) therapies and targets (understanding who develops advanced disease); (5) disease markers (incorporating intelligent trial design into all studies to ensure new treatments are tested in patient groups stratified using biomarkers); (6) prevention (strategies to prevent oestrogen-receptor negative tumours and the long-term effects of chemoprevention for oestrogen-receptor positive tumours); (7) psychosocial aspects of cancer (the use of appropriate psychosocial interventions, and the personal impact of all stages of the disease among patients from a range of ethnic and demographic backgrounds). Conclusion Through recommendations to address these gaps with future research, the

  8. Stereotactic Image-Guided Navigation During Breast Reconstruction in Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-12

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  9. Preinvasive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sgroi, Dennis C.

    2014-01-01

    Preinvasive breast cancer accounts for approximately one-third of all newly diagnosed breast cancer cases in the United States and constitutes a spectrum of neoplastic lesions with varying degrees of differentiation and clinical behavior. High-throughput genetic, epigenetic, and gene-expression analyses have enhanced our understanding of the relationship of these early neoplastic lesions to normal breast tissue, and they strongly suggest that preinvasive breast cancer develops and evolves along two distinct molecular genetic and biological pathways that correlate with tumor grade. Although unique epigenetic and gene-expression changes are not observed in the tumor epithelial compartment during the transition from preinvasive to invasive disease, distinct molecular alterations are observed in the tumor-stromal and myoepithelial cells. This suggests that the stromal and myoepithelial microenvironment of preinvasive breast cancer actively participates in the transition from preinvasive to invasive disease. An improved understanding of the transition from preinvasive to invasive breast cancer will pave the way for novel preventative and therapeutic strategies. PMID:19824828

  10. Yazd Breast Cancer Project Profile; A Community Based Trial for the Evaluation of Self-Examination and Physical Examination of the Breast Cancer Disease.

    PubMed

    Miller, Anthony B; Harirchi, Iraj; Lotfi, Mohammad Hassan; Noori, Mahmoud; Mirzaei, Mohsen; Jafarizadea, Majid; Sadeghian, Mohammad Reza; Minosepehr, Mojgan

    2015-11-01

    There is some evidence to suggest that a benefit might be derived from a program that incorporated both annual physical examination of the breast (BPx) and the teaching of breast self-examination (BSE). Current investigation presents the profile of a multicenter community based intervention for evaluating the effect of BSE+BPx on the reduction of morbidity and mortality due to breast cancer amongst women residing in urban areas of Yazd (Iran) from 2008 to 2018. There were three distinctive phases in this trial with 10 years duration: pilot phase with the duration of 1 year, active intervention phase with 4 rounds of annual screening of BPx+BSE and follow up phase with 5 years duration. Tools of enquiry included a pre-tested questionnaire, repeated annual physical examination of the breast and more importantly mammography, sonography, and fine needle aspiration (FNA). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percent, mean (SD), tests of chi-square and student t-test with 95% confidence level. Comparison of socio-demographic and socio-economic factors such as age, age at marriage, family size, number of live births, occupation, education level, total family income and marital status showed that no significant difference was seen between the groups (P>0.05). A response rate of 84.5% was seen by participants of the experiment group visiting the health centers for the first BPx. Our results showed that except for the education and marital status, the difference in other main demographic and socio-economic factors between the groups were not significant, and the response rate of individuals in the experiment group was at an acceptable level.

  11. Yazd Breast Cancer Project Profile; A Community Based Trial for the Evaluation of Self-Examination and Physical Examination of the Breast Cancer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Anthony B; Harirchi, Iraj; Lotfi, Mohammad Hassan; Noori, Mahmoud; Mirzaei, Mohsen; Jafarizadea, Majid; Sadeghian, Mohammad Reza; Minosepehr, Mojgan

    2015-01-01

    There is some evidence to suggest that a benefit might be derived from a program that incorporated both annual physical examination of the breast (BPx) and the teaching of breast self-examination (BSE). Current investigation presents the profile of a multicenter community based intervention for evaluating the effect of BSE+BPx on the reduction of morbidity and mortality due to breast cancer amongst women residing in urban areas of Yazd (Iran) from 2008 to 2018. There were three distinctive phases in this trial with 10 years duration: pilot phase with the duration of 1 year, active intervention phase with 4 rounds of annual screening of BPx+BSE and follow up phase with 5 years duration. Tools of enquiry included a pre-tested questionnaire, repeated annual physical examination of the breast and more importantly mammography, sonography, and fine needle aspiration (FNA). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percent, mean (SD), tests of chi-square and student t-test with 95% confidence level. Comparison of socio-demographic and socio-economic factors such as age, age at marriage, family size, number of live births, occupation, education level, total family income and marital status showed that no significant difference was seen between the groups (P>0.05). A response rate of 84.5% was seen by participants of the experiment group visiting the health centers for the first BPx. Our results showed that except for the education and marital status, the difference in other main demographic and socio-economic factors between the groups were not significant, and the response rate of individuals in the experiment group was at an acceptable level. PMID:26538783

  12. Evaluation of Modified Categorical Data Fuzzy Clustering Algorithm on the Wisconsin Breast Cancer Dataset

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The early diagnosis of breast cancer is an important step in a fight against the disease. Machine learning techniques have shown promise in improving our understanding of the disease. As medical datasets consist of data points which cannot be precisely assigned to a class, fuzzy methods have been useful for studying of these datasets. Sometimes breast cancer datasets are described by categorical features. Many fuzzy clustering algorithms have been developed for categorical datasets. However, in most of these methods Hamming distance is used to define the distance between the two categorical feature values. In this paper, we use a probabilistic distance measure for the distance computation among a pair of categorical feature values. Experiments demonstrate that the distance measure performs better than Hamming distance for Wisconsin breast cancer data. PMID:27022504

  13. Impact of tissue sampling on accuracy of Ki67 immunohistochemistry evaluation in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Besusparis, Justinas; Plancoulaine, Benoit; Rasmusson, Allan; Augulis, Renaldas; Green, Andrew R; Ellis, Ian O; Laurinaviciene, Aida; Herlin, Paulette; Laurinavicius, Arvydas

    2016-08-30

    Gene expression studies have identified molecular subtypes of breast cancer with implications to chemotherapy recommendations. For distinction of these types, a combination of immunohistochemistry (IHC) markers, including proliferative activity of tumor cells, estimated by Ki67 labeling index is used. Clinical studies are frequently based on IHC performed on tissue microarrays (TMA) with variable tissue sampling. This raises the need for evidence-based sampling criteria for individual IHC biomarker studies. We present a novel tissue sampling simulation model and demonstrate its application on Ki67 assessment in breast cancer tissue taking intratumoral heterogeneity into account. Whole slide images (WSI) of 297 breast cancer sections, immunohistochemically stained for Ki67, were subjected to digital image analysis (DIA). Percentage of tumor cells stained for Ki67 was computed for hexagonal tiles super-imposed on the WSI. From this, intratumoral Ki67 heterogeneity indicators (Haralick's entropy values) were extracted and used to dichotomize the tumors into homogeneous and heterogeneous subsets. Simulations with random selection of hexagons, equivalent to 0.75 mm circular diameter TMA cores, were performed. The tissue sampling requirements were investigated in relation to tumor heterogeneity using linear regression and extended error analysis. The sampling requirements were dependent on the heterogeneity of the biomarker expression. To achieve a coefficient error of 10 %, 5-6 cores were needed for homogeneous cases, 11-12 cores for heterogeneous cases; in mixed tumor population 8 TMA cores were required. Similarly, to achieve the same accuracy, approximately 4,000 nuclei must be counted when the intratumor heterogeneity is mixed/unknown. Tumors of low proliferative activity would require larger sampling (10-12 TMA cores, or 6,250 nuclei) to achieve the same error measurement results as for highly proliferative tumors. Our data show that optimal tissue sampling for

  14. Quantitative ultrasound evaluation of tumor cell death response in locally advanced breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Papanicolau, Naum; Falou, Omar; Zubovits, Judit; Dent, Rebecca; Verma, Sunil; Trudeau, Maureen; Boileau, Jean Francois; Spayne, Jacqueline; Iradji, Sara; Sofroni, Ervis; Lee, Justin; Lemon-Wong, Sharon; Yaffe, Martin; Kolios, Michael C; Czarnota, Gregory J

    2013-04-15

    Quantitative ultrasound techniques have been recently shown to be capable of detecting cell death through studies conducted on in vitro and in vivo models. This study investigates for the first time the potential of early detection of tumor cell death in response to clinical cancer therapy administration in patients using quantitative ultrasound spectroscopic methods. Patients (n = 24) with locally advanced breast cancer received neoadjuvant chemotherapy treatments. Ultrasound data were collected before treatment onset and at 4 times during treatment (weeks 1, 4, and 8, and preoperatively). Quantitative ultrasound parameters were evaluated for clinically responsive and nonresponding patients. Results indicated that quantitative ultrasound parameters showed significant changes for patients who responded to treatment, and no similar alteration was observed in treatment-refractory patients. Such differences between clinically and pathologically determined responding and nonresponding patients were statistically significant (P < 0.05) after 4 weeks of chemotherapy. Responding patients showed changes in parameters related to cell death with, on average, an increase in mid-band fit and 0-MHz intercept of 9.1 ± 1.2 dBr and 8.9 ± 1.9 dBr, respectively, whereas spectral slope was invariant. Linear discriminant analysis revealed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 83.3% for distinguishing nonresponding patients by the fourth week into a course of chemotherapy lasting several months. This study reports for the first time that quantitative ultrasound spectroscopic methods can be applied clinically to evaluate cancer treatment responses noninvasively. The results form a basis for monitoring chemotherapy effects and facilitating the personalization of cancer treatment.

  15. Effects of Breast Cancer Fatalism on Breast Cancer Awareness among Nursing Students in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kulakci, Hulya; Ayyildiz, Tulay Kuzlu; Yildirim, Nuriye; Ozturk, Ozlem; Topan, Aysel Kose; Tasdemir, Nurten

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and leading cause of death worldwide, including in Turkey. High perceptions of cancer fatalism are associated with lower rates of participation in screening for breast cancer. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of breast cancer fatalism and other factors on breast cancer awareness among nursing students in Turkey. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at three universities in the Western Black Sea region. The sample was composed of 838 nursing students. Data were collected by Personal Information Form, Powe Fatalism Inventory (PFI) and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS). Breast cancer fatalism perception of the students was at a low level. It was determined that students' seriousness perception was moderate, health motivation, BSE benefits and BSE self-efficacy perceptions were high, and BSE barriers and sensitivity perceptions were low. In addition, it was determined that students awareness of breast cancer was affected by breast cancer fatalism, class level, family history of breast cancer, knowledge on BSE, source of information on BSE, frequency of BSE performing, having breast examination by a healthcare professional within the last year and their health beliefs. In promoting breast cancer early diagnosis behaviour, it is recommended to evaluate fatalism perceptions and health beliefs of the students and to arrange training programs for this purpose.

  16. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix. PMID:24281093

  17. Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    against viruses and bacteria (17, 18). T cells from breast cancer patients are known to have impaired effector functions and are skewed towards TREG...heterogeneous disease with varied presentation, morphology and clinical behavior. Currently, the risk of BC progression is evaluated based on

  18. Breast Cancer Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The BioScan System was developed by OmniCorder Technologies, Inc. at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The system is able to locate cancerous lesions by detecting the cancer's ability to recruit a new blood supply. A digital sensor detects infrared energy emitted from the body and identifies the minute differences accompanying the blood flow changes associated with cancerous cells. It also has potential use as a monitoring device during cancer treatment. This technology will reduce the time taken to detect cancerous cells and allow for earlier intervention, therefore increasing the overall survival rates of breast cancer patients.

  19. Overdetection in breast cancer screening: development and preliminary evaluation of a decision aid

    PubMed Central

    Hersch, Jolyn; Jansen, Jesse; Barratt, Alexandra; Irwig, Les; Houssami, Nehmat; Jacklyn, Gemma; Thornton, Hazel; Dhillon, Haryana; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop, pilot and refine a decision aid (ahead of a randomised trial evaluation) for women around age 50 facing their initial decision about whether to undergo mammography screening. Design Two-stage mixed-method pilot study including qualitative interviews (n=15) and a randomised comparison using a quantitative survey (n=34). Setting New South Wales, Australia. Participants Women aged 43–59 years with no personal history of breast cancer. Interventions The decision aid provides evidence-based information about important outcomes of mammography screening over 20 years (breast cancer mortality reduction, overdetection and false positives) compared with no screening. The information is presented in a short booklet for women, combining text and visual formats. A control version produced for the purposes of comparison omits the overdetection-related content. Outcomes Comprehension of key decision aid content and acceptability of the materials. Results Most women considered the decision aid clear and helpful and would recommend it to others. Nonetheless, the piloting process raised important issues that we tried to address in iterative revisions. Some participants found it hard to understand overdetection and why it is of concern, while there was often confusion about the distinction between overdetection and false positives. In a screening context, encountering balanced information rather than persuasion appears to be contrary to people's expectations, but women appreciated the opportunity to become better informed. Conclusions The concept of overdetection is complex and new to the public. This study highlights some key challenges for communicating about this issue. It is important to clarify that overdetection differs from false positives in terms of its more serious consequences (overtreatment and associated harms). Screening decision aids also must clearly explain their purpose of facilitating informed choice. A staged approach to development and

  20. Accuracy of clinical evaluation of locally advanced breast cancer in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Prati, Raquel; Minami, Christina A; Gornbein, Jeff A; Debruhl, Nanette; Chung, Debbie; Chang, Helena R

    2009-03-15

    Physical examination (PE), mammography (MG), breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET), and pathologic evaluation are used to assess primary breast cancer. To the authors' knowledge, their accuracy has not been well studied in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Accuracies of each modality in tumor and lymph node assessment in patients with T3/T4 tumors receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy were compared. Forty-five patients of a prospective clinical trial studying T3-T4M0 tumors were included. Patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy: docetaxel/carboplatin with or without trastuzumab before and/or after surgery (depending on HER-2/neu status and randomization). Tumor measurements by PE, MG, and MRI and lymph node status by PE and PET were obtained before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Concordance among different clinical measurements was assessed and compared with the tumor and lymph node staging by pathology. Spearman correlation (r) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used to measure the accuracy of measurements among all modalities and between modalities and pathologic tumor size. Compared with the tumor size measured by PE, MRI was more accurate than MG at baseline (r=0.559, RMSE=35.4% vs r=0.046, RMSE=66.1%). After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, PE correlated better with pathology than MG or MRI (r=0.655, RMSE=88.6% vs r=0.146, RMSE=147.1% and r=0.364, RMSE=92.6%). Axillary lymph node assessment after neoadjuvant chemotherapy demonstrated high specificity but low sensitivity by PET and PE. Findings suggested that MRI was a more accurate imaging study at baseline for T3/T4 tumor, and PE correlated best with pathology finding. PET and PE both correctly predicted positive axillary lymph nodes but not negative lymph nodes. Copyright (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.

  1. Oral contraceptives and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K H; Millard, P S

    1996-10-01

    The Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer conducted a meta-analysis of data from 10 cohort and 44 case-control studies of the association between combined oral contraceptive (OC) use and breast cancer. 53,297 women with breast cancer and 100,239 women with no breast cancer from 25 countries worldwide were studied. Current OC users faced a 24% increased risk of developing breast cancer (confidence interval = 1.15-1.33). This risk fell steadily after cessation and reached 0 at 10 years and thereafter. Use of OCs with higher doses were associated with a greater risk of breast cancer than medium or low-dose OCs. The number of excess cancers in women while using OCs and up to 10 years after OC cessation stood at 0.5/10,000 women 16-19 years old, 1.5/10,000 women 20-24 years old, and 4.7/10,000 women 25-29 years old. The elevated risk of developing breast cancer did not differ by country of origin, ethnic background, reproductive history, or family history of breast cancer. OC users had less clinically advanced breast cancer than never-users who had breast cancer. This finding plus the moderate reduced risk of breast cancer more than 10 years after OC cessation suggest that OCs may effect earlier diagnosis of existing breast cancer instead of causing new breast cancers. The findings of this meta-analysis along with a plausible biologic mechanism (estrogen stimulates breast cancer cells) suggest a causal relationship between OC use and breast cancer. They also indicate that the risk is small, decreases with time, and is lower among low-dose OC users. It is reassuring that the breast cancers found among OC users is less clinically advanced than those found in never-users.

  2. Evaluation of an Automated Information Extraction Tool for Imaging Data Elements to Populate a Breast Cancer Screening Registry.

    PubMed

    Lacson, Ronilda; Harris, Kimberly; Brawarsky, Phyllis; Tosteson, Tor D; Onega, Tracy; Tosteson, Anna N A; Kaye, Abby; Gonzalez, Irina; Birdwell, Robyn; Haas, Jennifer S

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer screening is central to early breast cancer detection. Identifying and monitoring process measures for screening is a focus of the National Cancer Institute's Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR) initiative, which requires participating centers to report structured data across the cancer screening continuum. We evaluate the accuracy of automated information extraction of imaging findings from radiology reports, which are available as unstructured text. We present prevalence estimates of imaging findings for breast imaging received by women who obtained care in a primary care network participating in PROSPR (n = 139,953 radiology reports) and compared automatically extracted data elements to a "gold standard" based on manual review for a validation sample of 941 randomly selected radiology reports, including mammograms, digital breast tomosynthesis, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The prevalence of imaging findings vary by data element and modality (e.g., suspicious calcification noted in 2.6% of screening mammograms, 12.1% of diagnostic mammograms, and 9.4% of tomosynthesis exams). In the validation sample, the accuracy of identifying imaging findings, including suspicious calcifications, masses, and architectural distortion (on mammogram and tomosynthesis); masses, cysts, non-mass enhancement, and enhancing foci (on MRI); and masses and cysts (on ultrasound), range from 0.8 to1.0 for recall, precision, and F-measure. Information extraction tools can be used for accurate documentation of imaging findings as structured data elements from text reports for a variety of breast imaging modalities. These data can be used to populate screening registries to help elucidate more effective breast cancer screening processes.

  3. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  4. Understanding your breast cancer risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000830.htm Understanding your breast cancer risk To use the sharing features on this page, ... you can do to help prevent breast cancer. Risk Factors You Cannot Control Risk factors you cannot ...

  5. Computerized Cognitive Retraining in Improving Cognitive Function in Breast Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-02

    Cancer Survivor; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  6. Cardiac Rehabilitation Program in Improving Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Stage 0-III Breast Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-17

    Cancer Survivor; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  7. Evaluation of Feasibility for a Case-Control Study of Pituitary-Ovarian Function in Premenopausal Women with Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    feasibility of a case-control study that uses gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation tests to evaluate sensitivity of the hypothalamic...determine the safety and feasibility of conducting a case-control study that uses gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnHR) stimulation tests to evaluate...women. The full-scale study will determine if: 1) the anterior pituitary of pre-menopausal women with breast cancer secretes more luteinizing hormone (LH

  8. MR elastography of breast cancer: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Alexia L; Kugel, Jennifer L; Rossman, Phillip J; Manduca, Armando; Hartmann, Lynn C; Ehman, Richard L

    2002-06-01

    Motivated by the long-recognized value of palpation in detecting breast cancer, we tested the feasibility of a technique for quantitatively evaluating the mechanical properties of breast tissues on the basis of direct MR imaging visualization of acoustic waves. The prototypic elasticity imaging technique consists of a device for generating acoustic shear waves in tissue, an MR imaging-based method for imaging the propagation of these waves, and an algorithm for processing the wave images to generate quantitative images depicting tissue stiffness. After tests with tissue-simulating phantom materials and breast cancer specimens, we used the prototypic breast MR elastography technique to image six healthy women and six patients with known breast cancer. Acoustic shear waves were clearly visualized in phantoms, breast cancer specimens, healthy volunteers, and patients with breast cancer. The elastograms of the tumor specimens showed focal areas of high shear stiffness. MR elastograms of healthy volunteers revealed moderately heterogeneous mechanical properties, with the shear stiffness of fibroglandular tissue measuring slightly higher than that of adipose tissue. The elastograms of patients with breast cancer showed focal areas of high shear stiffness corresponding to the locations of the known tumors. The mean shear stiffness of breast carcinoma was 418% higher than the mean value of surrounding breast tissues. The results confirm the hypothesis that the prototypic breast MR elastographic technique can quantitatively depict the elastic properties of breast tissues in vivo and reveal high shear elasticity in known breast tumors. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential applications of MR elastography, such as detecting breast carcinoma and characterizing suspicious breast lesions.

  9. Are diet quality scores after breast cancer diagnosis associated with improved breast cancer survival?

    PubMed Central

    Izano, Monika A.; Fung, Teresa T.; Chiuve, Stephanie S; Hu, Frank B.; Holmes, Michelle D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found that diets rich in fruits and vegetables are associated with reduced breast cancer mortality. However, these eating patterns do not necessarily reflect overall diet quality. The association of breast cancer mortality with a priori defined dietary scores, which are based on recommended dietary guidelines and reflect diet quality, has not been evaluated. We hypothesized that diet quality indices based on recommended guidelines are associated with decreased risk of breast cancer and non-breast cancer mortality in breast cancer survivors. Methods We examined the association between the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score, and the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010, and the risk of breast cancer mortality and total mortality among women from the Nurses’ Health Study diagnosed with breast cancer. Results Adherence to DASH-style and AHEI-2010 diets were associated with reduced risk of non-breast cancer mortality (comparing the fifth quintile with the first quintile RR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.53–0.99, p-trend = 0.03 for DASH, and RR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.42–0.77, p-trend <0.0001 for AHEI-2010). Diet scores were not significantly associated with breast cancer mortality. Conclusions Our findings suggest that adherence to a higher quality diet after breast cancer diagnosis does not considerably change the risk of breast cancer death and recurrence. However, healthy dietary choices after breast cancer were associated with reduced risk of non-breast cancer mortality in women with breast cancer. PMID:23909725

  10. Germline BRCA mutation evaluation in a prospective triple-negative breast cancer registry: implications for hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer syndrome testing.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Priyanka; Klemp, Jennifer R; Kimler, Bruce F; Mahnken, Jonathan D; Geier, Larry J; Khan, Qamar J; Elia, Manana; Connor, Carol S; McGinness, Marilee K; Mammen, Joshua M W; Wagner, Jamie L; Ward, Claire; Ranallo, Lori; Knight, Catherine J; Stecklein, Shane R; Jensen, Roy A; Fabian, Carol J; Godwin, Andrew K

    2014-06-01

    NCCN guidelines recommend genetic testing for all triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients aged ≤60 years. However, due to the lack of prospective information in unselected patients, these guidelines are not uniformly adopted by clinicians and insurance carriers. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of BRCA mutations and evaluate the utility of NCCN guidelines in unselected TNBC population. Stage I-IV TNBC patients were enrolled on a prospective registry at academic and community practices. All patients underwent BRCA1/2 testing. Significant family history (SFH) was defined >1 relative with breast cancer at age ≤50 or ≥1 relative with ovarian cancer. Mutation prevalence in the entire cohort and subgroups was calculated. 207 TNBC patients were enrolled between 2011 and 2013. Racial/ethnic distribution: Caucasian (80 %), African-American (14 %), Ashkenazi (1 %). Deleterious BRCA1/2 mutations were identified in 15.4 % (32/207) of patients (BRCA1:11.1 %, BRCA2:4.3 %). SFH reported by 36 % of patients. Mutation prevalence in patients with and without SFH was 31.6 and 6.1 %, respectively. When assessed by age at TNBC diagnosis, the mutation prevalences were 27.6 % (≤50 years), 11.4 % (51-60 years), and 4.9 % (≥61 years). Using SFH or age ≤50 as criteria, 25 and 34 % of mutations, respectively, were missed. Mutation prevalence in patients meeting NCCN guidelines was 18.3 % (32/175) and 0 % (0/32) in patients who did not meet guidelines (p = .0059). In this unselected academic and community population with negligible Ashkenazi representation, we observed an overall BRCA mutation prevalence rate of 15.4 %. BRCA testing based on NCCN guidelines identified all carriers supporting its routine application in clinical practice for TNBC.

  11. A statistical framework for evaluating neural networks to predict recurrent events in breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorunescu, Florin; Gorunescu, Marina; El-Darzi, Elia; Gorunescu, Smaranda

    2010-07-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women today. Sometimes, breast cancer can return after primary treatment. A medical diagnosis of recurrent cancer is often a more challenging task than the initial one. In this paper, we investigate the potential contribution of neural networks (NNs) to support health professionals in diagnosing such events. The NN algorithms are tested and applied to two different datasets. An extensive statistical analysis has been performed to verify our experiments. The results show that a simple network structure for both the multi-layer perceptron and radial basis function can produce equally good results, not all attributes are needed to train these algorithms and, finally, the classification performances of all algorithms are statistically robust. Moreover, we have shown that the best performing algorithm will strongly depend on the features of the datasets, and hence, there is not necessarily a single best classifier.

  12. Local transdermal therapy to the breast for breast cancer prevention and DCIS therapy: preclinical and clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Oukseub; Ivancic, David; Allu, Subhashini; Shidfar, Ali; Kenney, Kara; Helenowski, Irene; Sullivan, Megan E; Muzzio, Miguel; Scholtens, Denise; Chatterton, Robert T; Bethke, Kevin P; Hansen, Nora M; Khan, Seema A

    2015-12-01

    Women at high risk of breast cancer and those with carcinoma in situ need non-toxic, well-tolerated preventive interventions. One promising approach is drug delivery through the breast skin (local transdermal therapy, LTT). Our goal was to test novel drugs for LTT, to establish that LTT is applicable to non-steroidal drugs. Athymic nude rats were treated with oral tamoxifen, transdermal 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) or endoxifen gel applied daily to the axillary mammary gland for 6 weeks (Study 1). Study 2 was identical to Study 1, testing transdermal telapristone acetate (telapristone) gel versus subcutaneous implant. At euthanasia, mammary glands and blood were collected. In Study 3, consenting women requiring mastectomy were randomized to diclofenac patch applied to the abdomen or the breast for 3 days preoperatively. At surgery, eight tissue samples per breast were collected from predetermined locations, along with venous blood. Drug concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. Mammary tissue concentrations of 4-OHT, endoxifen, and telapristone were significantly higher in the axillary glands of the gel-treated animals, compared to inguinal glands or to systemically treated animals. Plasma concentrations were similar in gel and systemically treated animals. The clinical trial showed significantly higher mammary concentrations when diclofenac was applied to the breast skin versus the abdominal skin, but concentrations were variable. These results demonstrate that lipophilic drugs can be developed for LTT; although the nude rat is suitable for testing drug permeability, delivery is systemic. In human, however, transdermal application to the breast skin provides local delivery.

  13. Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Treating Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-13

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Male Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  14. Development of a patient-oriented tool for evaluating the quality of breast cancer information on the internet.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wen-Chin; Bath, Peter A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a tool for evaluating the quality of breast cancer information on the Internet from the perspective of patients and their families. A specific tool, Breast Cancer tool (BC tool), was developed based on the information needs of women with breast cancer and their families reported in the literature. The BC tool and other 3 generic tools (HON, IQ tool, Discern) were used to assess 40 breast cancer websites. The reliability and validity of each tool was examined and the time spent reviewing the websites was measured. The four tools were shown to have acceptable reliability (Cronbach's alpha>0.7), convergent validity, especially the BC tool which was capable of distinguishing whether a website offers sufficient information for women and their families. However, the BC tool took more time than the other tools to use, suggesting relatively low feasibility. The results of this study reinforce the importance of developing specific tools from perspectives of patients and their family members.

  15. Hormones and Breast Cancer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    OHE 1 hypothesis are cancer patients and lacto- vegetarians . The evidence is rather clear that certain sparse. Schneider and co-workers used a Both of... Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Giske Ursin, M.D., Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Southern California School of Medicine Los Angeles...TYPE AND DATES COVERED I October 1997 Final (30 Sep 94 - 29 Sep 97) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Hormones and Breast Cancer DAMD17-94-J

  16. Vasopressin and Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-09-01

    receptors7:on-breast cancer cells represents a way in which these peptides might influence cancer cell pathophysiology. However, the expression of...National Institutes of Health . In the conduct of research utilIzing recombinant DNA, the nvestigator(s) adhered to the NIH G.idelines for Research...possible autocrine/paracrine role for this peptide in cancer cells. In support of this hypothesis vasopressin was shown to have a growth-promoting influence

  17. Pregnancy associated breast cancer and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Doğer, Emek; Calışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and radiotherapy after delivery. Even though early stage breast cancers have similar prognosis, advanced stage breast cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and lactation have poorer prognosis than similar stage breast cancers diagnosed in non-pregnant women. Women who desire to become pregnant after treatment of breast cancer will have many conflicts. Although the most common concern is recurrence of breast cancer due to pregnancy, the studies conducted showed that pregnancy has no negative effect on breast cancer prognosis. In this review we search for the frequency of breast cancer during pregnancy, the histopathological findings, risk factor, diagnostic and treatment modalities. We reviewed the literature for evidence based findings to help consult the patients on the outcome of breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy and lactation, and also inform the patients who desire to become pregnant after breast cancer according to current evidences.

  18. Pregnancy associated breast cancer and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Doğer, Emek; Çalışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and radiotherapy after delivery. Even though early stage breast cancers have similar prognosis, advanced stage breast cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and lactation have poorer prognosis than similar stage breast cancers diagnosed in non-pregnant women. Women who desire to become pregnant after treatment of breast cancer will have many conflicts. Although the most common concern is recurrence of breast cancer due to pregnancy, the studies conducted showed that pregnancy has no negative effect on breast cancer prognosis. In this review we search for the frequency of breast cancer during pregnancy, the histopathological findings, risk factor, diagnostic and treatment modalities. We reviewed the literature for evidence based findings to help consult the patients on the outcome of breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy and lactation, and also inform the patients who desire to become pregnant after breast cancer according to current evidences. PMID:24592003

  19. Evaluating Survivorship Experiences and Needs Among Rural African American Breast Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Adams, Natasia; Gisiger-Camata, Silvia; Hardy, Claudia M; Thomas, Tammi F; Jukkala, Angela; Meneses, Karen

    2015-10-24

    Disparities in cancer survivorship exist among specific populations of breast cancer survivors, specifically rural African American breast cancer survivors (AA-BCS). While effective survivorship interventions are available to address and improve quality of life, interventions must be culturally tailored for relevance to survivors. Here, we report the results of our formative research using focus groups and in-depth interview to better understand unique rural AA-BCS survivorship experiences and needs in the Alabama Black Belt. Surveys were used to gather sociodemographic and cancer treatment data. Fifteen rural AA-BCS shared their experiences and concerns about keeping their cancer a secret, lack of knowledge about survivorship, lingering symptoms, religion and spirituality, cancer surveillance, and general lack of survivorship education and support. Rural AA-BCS were unwilling to share their cancer diagnosis, preferring to keep it a secret to protect family and friends. Quality-of-life issues like lymphedema body image and sexuality were not well understood. They viewed spirituality and religion as essential in coping and accepting cancer. Participants also discussed the importance of and barriers to maintaining health through regular check-ups. They needed social support from family and friends and health care providers. Overall, rural AA-BCS expressed their need for knowledge about survivorship self-management by providing a vivid picture of the realities of cancer survival based on shared concerns for survivorship support and education within the context of culture.

  20. Affluence and Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, Steven; Green, Sheryl; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E

    2016-09-01

    High income, high socioeconomic status, and affluence increase breast cancer incidence. Socioeconomic status in USA breast cancer studies has been assessed by block-group socioeconomic measures. A block group is a portion of a census tract with boundaries that segregate, as far as possible, socioeconomic groups. In this study, we used US Census income data instead of block groups to gauge socioeconomic status of breast cancer patients in relationship with incidence, prognostic markers, and survival. US state breast cancer incidence and mortality data are from the U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group, United States Cancer Statistics: 1999-2011. Three-Year-Average Median Household Income by State, 2010 to 2012, is from the U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2011 to 2013 Annual Social and Economic Supplements. County incomes are from the 2005-2009 American Community Survey of the U.S. Census Bureau. The American Community Survey is an ongoing statistical survey that samples a small percentage of the population yearly. Its purpose is to provide communities the information they need to plan investments and services. Breast cancer county incidence and survival data are from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) data base. We analyzed SEER data from 198 counties in California, Connecticut, Georgia, Hawaii, Iowa, New Mexico, Utah, and Washington. SEER uses the Collaborative Stage (CS) Data Collection System. We have retained the SEER CS variables. There was a significant relationship of income with breast cancer incidence in 50 USA states and the District of Columbia in White women (r = 0.623, p < 0.001). There was a significant relationship between node involvement and income in Whites in 198 USA counties. Income was significantly correlated with 5-year relative survival in Whites with localized breast cancer. Income was not correlated with 5-year survival of Black race (p = 0.364) or other races (p = 0

  1. Preclinical evaluation of the AR inhibitor enzalutamide in triple-negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Caiazza, Francesco; Murray, Alyson; Madden, Stephen F; Synnott, Naoise C; Ryan, Elizabeth J; O'Donovan, Norma; Crown, John; Duffy, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is present in approximately 80% of invasive breast cancer patients and in up to 30% of patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Therefore, our aim was to investigate the targeting of AR as a possible hormonal approach to the treatment of TNBC. Analysis of 2091 patients revealed an association between AR expression and poor overall survival, selectively in patients with the basal subtype of breast cancer, the vast majority of which are TNBC. IC50 values for the second-generation anti-androgen enzalutamide across 11 breast cancer cell lines varied from 4 µM to >50 µM. The activity of enzalutamide was similar in TN and non-TN cell lines but was dependent on the presence of AR. Enzalutamide reduced clonogenic potential and cell growth in a 3D matrix in AR-positive cells. In addition, enzalutamide also inhibited cell migration and invasion in an AR-dependent manner. Enzalutamide appeared to mediate these processes through down-regulation of the transcription factors AP-1 and SP-1. The first-generation anti-androgen flutamide similarly blocked cell growth, migration and invasion. AR-positive TNBC cells clustered separately from AR-negative cells based on an androgen-related gene expression signature, independently of TNBC subtype. We conclude that targeting of the AR with drugs such as enzalutamide may provide an alternative treatment strategy for patients with AR-positive TNBC. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  2. Prospective evaluation of radiation-induced skin toxicity in a race/ethnically diverse breast cancer population.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jean L; Takita, Cristiane; Reis, Isildinha M; Zhao, Wei; Lee, Eunkyung; Nelson, Omar L; Hu, Jennifer J

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated predictors of radiation-induced skin toxicity in a prospective study of a tri-racial/ethnic breast cancer population. We evaluated patient demographics, tumor characteristics, and treatment variables in the first 392 patients in a prospective study assessing radiation-induced skin toxicity. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate potential predictors of skin toxicity. The study consists of 59 non-Hispanic whites (NHW; 15%), 241 Hispanic Whites (HW; 62%), 79 black or African Americans (AA; 20%), and 13 others (3%). Overall, 48% developed grade 0-1 skin toxicity, 49.8% grade 2, and 2.2% grade 3 by the National Cancer Institute's Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) scale. Twenty-one percent developed moist desquamation. In multivariate analysis, higher body mass index (BMI; OR = 2.09; 95%CI = 1.15, 3.82), higher disease stage (OR = 1.82; 95%CI = 1.06, 3.11), ER-positive/PR-negative status (OR = 2.74; 95%CI = 1.26, 5.98), and conventionally fractionated regimens (OR = 3.25; 95%CI = 1.76, 6.01) were significantly associated with higher skin toxicity grade after adjustment for age, race, ethnicity, ER status, and breast volume. B MI specifically predicted for moist desquamation, but not degree of erythema. In this racially and ethnically diverse cohort of breast cancer patients receiving radiation to the intact breast, risk factors including BMI, disease stage, and conventionally fractionated radiation predicted for higher skin toxicity grade, whereas age, race, ethnicity, and breast volume did not. BMI specifically predicted for moist desquamation, suggesting that preventive measures to address this particular outcome should be investigated. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A Prospective Longitudinal Clinical Trial Evaluating Quality of Life After Breast Conserving Surgery and High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Garsa, Adam A.; Ferraro, Daniel J.; DeWees, Todd A.; Deshields, Teresa L.; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Cyr, Amy E.; Naughton, Michael; Aft, Rebecca; Gillanders, William E.; Eberlein, Timothy; Matesa, Melissa A.; Ochoa, Laura L.; Zoberi, Imran

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To prospectively examine quality of life (QOL) of patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy. Methods And Materials Between March 2004 and December 2008, 151 patients with early-stage breast cancer were enrolled in a phase II prospective clinical trial. Eligible patients included those with Tis-T2 tumors measuring ≤ 3 cm excised with negative surgical margins, with no nodal involvement. Patients received 3.4 Gy bid to a total dose of 34 Gy. QOL was measured using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 version 3.0 and QLQ-BR23 questionnaires. The QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 were evaluated pretreatment, 6-8 weeks, 3-4 months, 6-8 months, 1 year and 2 years after treatment. RESULTS The median follow-up was 55 months. Breast symptom scores remained stable in the months after treatment, and they significantly improved 6-8 months after treatment. Scores for emotional functioning, social functioning, and future perspective showed significant improvement 2 years after treatment. Symptomatic fat necrosis was associated with several changes in QOL, including increased pain, breast symptoms, systemic treatment side effects, dyspnea, and fatigue, as well as decreased role functioning, emotional functioning, and social functioning. Conclusions HDR multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy was well tolerated with no significant detrimental effect on measured QOL scales/items through 2 years of follow-up. Compared to pretreatment scores, there was improvement in breast symptoms, emotional functioning, social functioning and future perspective 2 years after treatment. PMID:24161428

  4. A Prospective Longitudinal Clinical Trial Evaluating Quality of Life After Breast-Conserving Surgery and High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Garsa, Adam A.; Ferraro, Daniel J.; DeWees, Todd A.; Deshields, Teresa L.; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Cyr, Amy E.; Naughton, Michael; Aft, Rebecca; Gillanders, William E.; Eberlein, Timothy; Matesa, Melissa A.; Ochoa, Laura L.; Zoberi, Imran

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To prospectively examine quality of life (QOL) of patients with early stage breast cancer treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between March 2004 and December 2008, 151 patients with early stage breast cancer were enrolled in a phase 2 prospective clinical trial. Eligible patients included those with Tis-T2 tumors measuring ≤3 cm excised with negative surgical margins and with no nodal involvement. Patients received 3.4 Gy twice daily to a total dose of 34 Gy. QOL was measured using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30, version 3.0, and QLQ-BR23 questionnaires. The QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 questionnaires were evaluated during pretreatment and then at 6 to 8 weeks, 3 to 4 months, 6 to 8 months, and 1 and 2 years after treatment. Results: The median follow-up was 55 months. Breast symptom scores remained stable in the months after treatment, and they significantly improved 6 to 8 months after treatment. Scores for emotional functioning, social functioning, and future perspective showed significant improvement 2 years after treatment. Symptomatic fat necrosis was associated with several changes in QOL, including increased pain, breast symptoms, systemic treatment side effects, dyspnea, and fatigue, as well as decreased role functioning, emotional functioning, and social functioning. Conclusions: HDR multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy was well tolerated, with no significant detrimental effect on measured QOL scales/items through 2 years of follow-up. Compared to pretreatment scores, there was improvement in breast symptoms, emotional functioning, social functioning, and future perspective 2 years after treatment.

  5. NUCKS overexpression in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Drosos, Yiannis; Kouloukoussa, Mirsini; Østvold, Anne Carine; Grundt, Kirsten; Goutas, Nikos; Vlachodimitropoulos, Dimitrios; Havaki, Sophia; Kollia, Panagoula; Kittas, Christos; Marinos, Evangelos; Aleporou-Marinou, Vassiliki

    2009-01-01

    Background NUCKS (Nuclear, Casein Kinase and Cyclin-dependent Kinase Substrate) is a nuclear, DNA-binding and highly phosphorylated protein. A number of reports show that NUCKS is highly expressed on the level of mRNA in several human cancers, including breast cancer. In this work, NUCKS expression on both RNA and protein levels was studied in breast tissue biopsies consisted of invasive carcinomas, intraductal proliferative lesions, benign epithelial proliferations and fibroadenomas, as well as in primary cultures derived from the above biopsies. Specifically, in order to evaluate the level of NUCKS protein in correlation with the histopathological features of breast disease, immunohistochemistry was employed on paraffin sections of breast biopsies of the above types. In addition, NUCKS expression was studied by means of Reverse Transcription PCR (RT-PCR), real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western immunoblot analyses in the primary cell cultures developed from the same biopsies. Results The immunohistochemical Results showed intense NUCKS staining mostly in grade I and II breast carcinomas compared to normal tissues. Furthermore, NUCKS was moderate expressed in benign epithelial proliferations, such as adenosis and sclerosing adenosis, and highly expressed in intraductal lesions, specifically in ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS). It is worth noting that all the fibroadenoma tissues examined were negative for NUCKS staining. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR showed an increase of NUCKS expression in cells derived from primary cultures of proliferative lesions and cancerous tissues compared to the ones derived from normal breast tissues and fibroadenomas. This increase was also confirmed by Western immunoblot analysis. Although NUCKS is a cell cycle related protein, its expression does not correlate with Ki67 expression, neither in tissue sections nor in primary cell cultures. Conclusion The results show overexpression of the NUCKS protein in a number of non malignant breast lesions and

  6. Diet and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bradlow, H Leon; Sepkovic, Daniel W

    2002-06-01

    The preponderance of evidence suggests a role for fat and alcohol as risk factors for breast cancer. The role of milk is more controversial with some studies suggesting that milk is a risk factor and others that consumption of milk is protective against breast cancer. No other major nutrient appears to play a significant role in increasing breast cancer risk. On the other hand, there is increasing evidence that a variety of micronutrients and hormones appear to have significant anticancer activity. These range from steroids such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its analysis to indoles, isothiocyanates, and isoflavone derivatives. These compounds act directly by interfering with cyclins and promoting apoptosis as well as indirectly by altering estrogen metabolism in a favorable direction. These effects are not merely theoretical actions in cell culture and tissue explants; they have been demonstrated in human patients as a range of studies have demonstrated.

  7. Evaluation of the association between quantitative mammographic density and breast cancer occurred in different quadrants.

    PubMed

    Chan, Siwa; Chen, Jeon-Hor; Li, Shunshan; Chang, Rita; Yeh, Darh-Cherng; Chang, Ruey-Feng; Yeh, Lee-Ren; Kwong, Jessica; Su, Min-Ying

    2017-04-17

    To investigate the relationship between mammographic density measured in four quadrants of a breast with the location of the occurred cancer. One hundred and ten women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer that could be determined in one specific breast quadrant were retrospectively studied. Women with previous cancer/breast surgery were excluded. The craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral oblique (MLO) mammography of the contralateral normal breast were used to separate a breast into 4 quadrants: Upper-Outer (UO), Upper-Inner (UI), Lower-Outer (LO), and Lower-Inner (LI). The breast area (BA), dense area (DA), and percent density (PD) in each quadrant were measured by using the fuzzy-C-means segmentation. The BA, DA, and PD were compared between patients who had cancer occurring in different quadrants. The upper-outer quadrant had the highest BA (37 ± 15 cm(2)) and DA (7.1 ± 2.9 cm(2)), with PD = 20.0 ± 5.8%. The order of BA and DA in the 4 separated quadrants were: UO > UI > LO > LI, and almost all pair-wise comparisons showed significant differences. For tumor location, 67 women (60.9%) had tumor in UO, 16 (14.5%) in UI, 7 (6.4%) in LO, and 20 (18.2%) in LI quadrant, respectively. The estimated odds and the 95% confidence limits of tumor development in the UO, UI, LO and LI quadrants were 1.56 (1.06, 2.29), 0.17 (0.10, 0.29), 0.07 (0.03, 0.15), and 0.22 (0.14, 0.36), respectively. In these 4 groups of women, the order of quadrant BA and DA were all the same (UO > UI > LO > LI), and there was no significant difference in BA, DA or PD among them (all p > 0.05). Breast cancer was most likely to occur in the UO quadrant, which was also the quadrant with highest BA and DA; but for women with tumors in other quadrants, the density in that quadrant was not the highest. Therefore, there was no direct association between quadrant density and tumor occurrence.

  8. Review of hormonal treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Abdulkareem, I H; Zurmi, I B

    2012-01-01

    This critical review focuses on the role of steroid hormones and their receptors in the development and treatment of breast cancer, with special reference to estrogen receptors, as well as mechanisms of receptor-ligand interactions, response or resistance to hormonal therapy against breast cancer, in conjunction with other modalities like surgery and chemotherapy. Tamoxifen is used in hormonal treatment of breast cancer for up to five years, depending on the presentation. However, there have been recent developments in hormonal therapy of breast cancer in the last ten years, with the introduction of many different alternative therapies for this condition. A critical review of published articles in Pubmed/Medline, Athens, AJOL, NHS Evidence, Science Direct and Google, relating to hormonal treatment of breast cancer, was undertaken, in order to evaluate the mechanisms of estrogen receptor-ligand interactions, their involvement in the etio-pathogenesis of breast cancer, resistance of breast cancer cells to anti-hormonal agents, as well as ways of treating breast cancer using anti-hormone drugs like tamoxifen. Although tamoxifen is the established drug for hormonal treatment of breast cancer, cases of hormone resistance breast cancer have been described recently in the literature. This can happen from the beginning, or during treatment. Therefore, we aim to examine the causes of resistance to hormonal treatment with a view to understand the options of tackling this problem, and suggest other novel alternative hormonal therapies that can be tried, which may overtake tamoxifen in the future. We also seek to emphasize that hormonal therapy has a definite place in the treatment of breast cancer along with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, as the disease is often considered to be multi-systemic even from the beginning.

  9. Virtual Weight Loss Program in Maintaining Weight in African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-19

    Cancer Survivor; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  10. Evaluating the Implementation of a Translational Peer-Delivered Stress Management Program for Spanish-Speaking Latina Breast Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Nápoles, Anna María; Santoyo-Olsson, Jasmine; Stewart, Anita L; Ortiz, Carmen; García-Jímenez, Maria

    2017-03-08

    Information is needed on implementation processes involved in translating evidence-based interventions (EBIs) into health disparity communities. In an RCT, Nuevo Amanecer, a cognitive-behavioral stress management (CBSM) program delivered by breast cancer survivors (compañeras) in community settings to Spanish-speaking Latina breast cancer survivors, was effective in improving quality of life and decreasing breast cancer concerns and depressive and bodily symptoms. Using mixed methods, we evaluated the processes of implementing Nuevo Amanecer. Program delivery was assessed by direct observation. Treatment receipt was assessed by participants' mastery and homework completion. Perceived benefits, quality, ease of use, usefulness of components, and suggested improvements were evaluated through participant surveys and semi-structured interviews of participants and compañeras. Eighty percent of women completed six or more of eight sessions. Observer ratings of program delivery indicated compañeras demonstrated fidelity 80-90% of the time for three components (e.g., following the manual), but only 10% for two components (e.g., modeling skills). Regarding treatment receipt, most participants completed all homework. Knowledge and skills mastery was high (mostly >85%). In program evaluations, 93% indicated the program helped them cope with breast cancer "quite a bit/extremely." Participants reported improved self-management skills and knowledge. Suggested improvements were to add more sessions to practice cognitive-behavioral coping skills and simplify exercises and homework. We conclude that CBSM programs can be delivered in community settings by trained peers with high fidelity, acceptability, and perceived usefulness. Results provided some areas where the program could be improved. Our rigorous evaluation illustrates methods for evaluating processes of translating EBIs for community implementation.

  11. Evaluation of the Impact of Nurses’ Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors on Utilization from Breast Cancer Early Diagnosis Methods

    PubMed Central

    Koç, Zeliha; Çelebi, Pınar; Memiş, Ayşegül; Sağlam, Zeynep; Beyhan, Figen

    2014-01-01

    Objective This descriptive study was designed to determine the impact of nurses’ healthy lifestyle behaviors on utilization from breast cancer early diagnosis methods. Materials and Methods The study was carried out with 236 (41.7%) nurses who agreed to participate out of 565 nurses who work in a university hospital from February 12th to February 15th 2011. Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale was collected by using a questionnaire consisting of 41 questions. The Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale was improved by Walker, Sechrist and Pender (1987) and was adapted to Turkish by Esin (1997). The data was evaluated by percentage calculation, one -way ANOVA, t-test and Tukey’s test. Results The mean Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale score was 129.09±19.82, the mean scores subscale scores of self-actualization, health responsibility, exercise, nutrition, interpersonal support and stress management were 38.52±6.28, 24.95±5.39, 9.41±3.24, 16.99±3.29, 21.22±3.39 and 17.99±3.66 respectively. It was found that Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale total score was higher in nurses with sufficient level of breast cancer knowledge (F=13.115, p=0.000), who perform regular BSE (t=3.191, p=0.002) and who attended training on breast cancer (t=3030, p=0.003). Conclusion It was determined that although the mean total score of nurse’s Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale and their information on breast cancer prevention were above average, the utilization of breast cancer early detection services was not at the expected levels.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro evaluation of exquisite targeting SPIONs-PEG-HER in HER2+ human breast cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamzehalipour Almaki, Javad; Nasiri, Rozita; Idris, Ani; Majid, Fadzilah Adibah Abdul; Salouti, Mojtaba; Wong, Tet Soon; Dabagh, Shadab; Marvibaigi, Mohsen; Amini, Neda

    2016-03-01

    A stable, biocompatible and exquisite SPIONs-PEG-HER targeting complex was developed. Initially synthesized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were silanized using 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APS) as the coupling agent in order to allow the covalent bonding of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to the SPIONs to improve the biocompatibility of the SPIONs. SPIONs-PEG were then conjugated with herceptin (HER) to permit the SPIONs-PEG-HER to target the specific receptors expressed over the surface of the HER2+ metastatic breast cancer cells. Each preparation step was physico-chemically analyzed and characterized by a number of analytical methods including AAS, FTIR spectroscopy, XRD, FESEM, TEM, DLS and VSM. The biocompatibility of SPIONs-PEG-HER was evaluated in vitro on HSF-1184 (human skin fibroblast cells), SK-BR-3 (human breast cancer cells, HER+), MDA-MB-231 (human breast cancer cells, HER-) and MDA-MB-468 (human breast cancer cells, HER-) cell lines by performing MTT and trypan blue assays. The hemolysis analysis results of the SPIONs-PEG-HER and SPIONs-PEG did not indicate any sign of lysis while in contact with erythrocytes. Additionally, there were no morphological changes seen in RBCs after incubation with SPIONs-PEG-HER and SPIONs-PEG under a light microscope. The qualitative and quantitative in vitro targeting studies confirmed the high level of SPION-PEG-HER binding to SK-BR-3 (HER2+ metastatic breast cancer cells). Thus, the results reflected that the SPIONs-PEG-HER can be chosen as a favorable biomaterial for biomedical applications, chiefly magnetic hyperthermia, in the future.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro evaluation of exquisite targeting SPIONs-PEG-HER in HER2+ human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Almaki, Javad Hamzehalipour; Nasiri, Rozita; Idris, Ani; Majid, Fadzilah Adibah Abdul; Salouti, Mojtaba; Wong, Tet Soon; Dabagh, Shadab; Marvibaigi, Mohsen; Amini, Neda

    2016-03-11

    A stable, biocompatible and exquisite SPIONs-PEG-HER targeting complex was developed. Initially synthesized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were silanized using 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APS) as the coupling agent in order to allow the covalent bonding of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to the SPIONs to improve the biocompatibility of the SPIONs. SPIONs-PEG were then conjugated with herceptin (HER) to permit the SPIONs-PEG-HER to target the specific receptors expressed over the surface of the HER2+ metastatic breast cancer cells. Each preparation step was physico-chemically analyzed and characterized by a number of analytical methods including AAS, FTIR spectroscopy, XRD, FESEM, TEM, DLS and VSM. The biocompatibility of SPIONs-PEG-HER was evaluated in vitro on HSF-1184 (human skin fibroblast cells), SK-BR-3 (human breast cancer cells, HER+), MDA-MB-231 (human breast cancer cells, HER-) and MDA-MB-468 (human breast cancer cells, HER-) cell lines by performing MTT and trypan blue assays. The hemolysis analysis results of the SPIONs-PEG-HER and SPIONs-PEG did not indicate any sign of lysis while in contact with erythrocytes. Additionally, there were no morphological changes seen in RBCs after incubation with SPIONs-PEG-HER and SPIONs-PEG under a light microscope. The qualitative and quantitative in vitro targeting studies confirmed the high level of SPION-PEG-HER binding to SK-BR-3 (HER2+ metastatic breast cancer cells). Thus, the results reflected that the SPIONs-PEG-HER can be chosen as a favorable biomaterial for biomedical applications, chiefly magnetic hyperthermia, in the future.

  14. Use of four biomarkers to evaluate the risk of breast cancer subtypes in the women's contraceptive and reproductive experiences study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Huiyan; Wang, Yaping; Sullivan-Halley, Jane; Weiss, Linda; Marchbanks, Polly A; Spirtas, Robert; Ursin, Giske; Burkman, Ronald T; Simon, Michael S; Malone, Kathleen E; Strom, Brian L; McDonald, Jill A; Press, Michael F; Bernstein, Leslie

    2010-01-15

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that some hormone-related risk factors in breast cancer differentially influence risk for disease subtypes classified by the status of the estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER/PR). However, it remains unclear whether human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) or p53 expression status further differentiates these exposure-risk group associations. We evaluated the associations of oral contraceptive (OC) use and reproductive factors with incident invasive breast cancer subtypes among 1,197 population-based cases and 2,015 controls from the Los Angeles County or Detroit components of the Women's Contraceptive and Reproductive Experiences Study. Case-control comparisons by ER/PR/HER2/p53 status were conducted by multivariable polychotomous unconditional logistic regression methods. We found that OC use was not associated with any breast cancer subtype as defined by ER/PR/HER2/p53 status, except for a 2.9-fold increased risk of so-called triple-negative tumors (ER(-)/PR(-)/HER2(-)) among women of 45 to 64 years of age who started OC use before age 18. Parity was associated with a decreased risk of luminal A (ER(+) or PR(+), HER2(-)), luminal B (ER(+) or PR(+)/HER2(+)), and ER(-)/PR(-)/HER2(+) tumors. Age at first full-term pregnancy was positively associated with luminal A tumors among older women. Neither of these reproductive factors was associated with triple-negative tumors. Long duration of breast-feeding lowered the risk of triple-negative and luminal A tumors. p53 status did not define further differential risk patterns. Our findings offer evidence of differences in the hormone-related risk factors between triple-negative cancers and other ER/PR/HER2-defined subtypes of breast cancer.

  15. Performance indicators evaluation of the population-based breast cancer screening programme in Northern Portugal using the European Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Bento, Maria José; Gonçalves, Guilherme; Aguiar, Ana; Castro, Clara; Veloso, Vitor; Rodrigues, Vítor

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the first 10 years of operation of the population-based breast cancer screening programme implemented in the Northern Region of Portugal, using selected recommended standard performance indicators. Data from women aged 50-69 screened with two-view mammography, biennially, in the period 2000-2009, were included. Main performance indicators were compared with the recommended levels of the European Guidelines. A total of 202,039 screening examinations were performed, 71,731 (35.5%) in the initial screening and 130,308 (64.5%) in the subsequent screening. Coverage rate by examination reached 74.3% of the target population, in the last period evaluated. Recall rates were 8.1% and 2.4% and cancer detection rates were 4.4/1000 and 2.9/1000 respectively, for initial and subsequent screenings. The breast cancer detection rate, expressed as a multiple of the background expected incidence was 3.1 in initial screen and 2.2 in subsequent screen. The incidence of invasive interval cancers met the desirable recommended levels both the first and second years since last screening examination, in the initial and subsequent screenings. Invasive tumours <15mm were 50.4% and 53.8% of the invasive cancers detected in initial and subsequent screenings. Less favourable size, grading and biomarkers expression were found in interval cancers compared to screen-detected cancers. Breast cancer screening programme in the Northern Region of Portugal was well accepted by the population. Most of the performance indicators were consistent with the desirable levels of the European Guidelines, which indicate an effective screening programme. Future research should verify the consistency of some of these results by using updated information from a larger population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Inflammatory Breast Cancer from Metastatic Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Achariyapota, Vuthinun; Chuangsuwanich, Tuenjai

    2016-01-01

    Metastases to the breast from tumors other than breast carcinomas are extremely rare and represent only 0.2–1.3% of all diagnosed malignant breast tumors. Furthermore, while the most common sites for advanced ovarian cancer metastases are the liver, lung, and pleura, metastasis to the breast from a primary ovarian cancer is uncommon and has only been reported in 0.03–0.6% of all breast cancers. Here we describe a case report of a 50-year-old female patient with a rare case of breast metastases from an advanced ovarian cancer, presenting as inflammatory breast cancer. Our observations emphasize the clinical importance of distinguishing between primary and metastatic breast cancer during diagnosis for the purpose of appropriate prognosis and treatment. PMID:27047697

  17. Accuracy of Clinical Evaluation of Locally Advanced Breast Cancer in Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Prati, Raquel; Minami, Christina A.; Gornbein, Jeff A.; Debruhl, Nanette; Chung, Debbie; Chang, Helena R.

    2009-01-01

    Physical examination (PE), mammography (MG), breast MRI, FDG-PET and pathologic evaluation are used to assess primary breast cancer. Their accuracy has not been well studied in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Accuracies of each modality in tumor and nodal assessment in patients with T3/4 tumors receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy were compared. METHODS 45 patients of a prospective clinical trial studying T3-T4M0 tumors were included. Patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy: docetaxel/carboplatin with or without trastuzumab before and/or after surgery (depending on HER-2/neu status and randomization). Tumor measurements by PE, MG, and MRI and nodal status by PE and PET were obtained before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Concordance among different clinical measurements was assessed and compared with the tumor and nodal staging by pathology. Spearman corr (r) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used to measure the accuracy of measurements among all modalities and between modalities and pathological tumor size. RESULTS Comparing to the tumor size measured by PE, MRI was more accurate than MG at baseline (r 0.559, RMSE 35.4% vs. r 0.046, RMSE 66.1%). After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, PE correlated better with pathology than MG or MRI (r 0.655, RMSE 88.6% vs. r 0.146, RMSE 147.1% and r 0.364, RMSE 92.6%). Axillary nodal assessment after neoadjuvant chemotherapy showed high specificity but low sensitivity by PET and PE. CONCLUSION Findings suggested that MRI was a more accurate imaging study at baseline for T3/T4 tumor and PE correlated best with pathology finding. PET and PE both correctly predicted positive axillary nodes but not negative nodes. PMID:19156919

  18. Breast cancer after chest radiation therapy for childhood cancer.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, Chaya S; Chou, Joanne F; Wolden, Suzanne L; Bernstein, Jonine L; Malhotra, Jyoti; Novetsky Friedman, Danielle; Mubdi, Nidha Z; Leisenring, Wendy M; Stovall, Marilyn; Hammond, Sue; Smith, Susan A; Henderson, Tara O; Boice, John D; Hudson, Melissa M; Diller, Lisa R; Bhatia, Smita; Kenney, Lisa B; Neglia, Joseph P; Begg, Colin B; Robison, Leslie L; Oeffinger, Kevin C

    2014-07-20

    The risk of breast cancer is high in women treated for a childhood cancer with chest irradiation. We sought to examine variations in risk resulting from irradiation field and radiation dose. We evaluated cumulative breast cancer risk in 1,230 female childhood cancer survivors treated with chest irradiation who were participants in the CCSS (Childhood Cancer Survivor Study). Childhood cancer survivors treated with lower delivered doses of radiation (median, 14 Gy; range, 2 to 20 Gy) to a large volume (whole-lung field) had a high risk of breast cancer (standardized incidence ratio [SIR], 43.6; 95% CI, 27.2 to 70.3), as did survivors treated with high doses of delivered radiation (median, 40 Gy) to the mantle field (SIR, 24.2; 95% CI, 20.7 to 28.3). The cumulative incidence of breast cancer by age 50 years was 30% (95% CI, 25 to 34), with a 35% incidence among Hodgkin lymphoma survivors (95% CI, 29 to 40). Breast cancer-specific mortality at 5 and 10 years was 12% (95% CI, 8 to 18) and 19% (95% CI, 13 to 25), respectively. Among women treated for childhood cancer with chest radiation therapy, those treated with whole-lung irradiation have a greater risk of breast cancer than previously recognized, demonstrating the importance of radiation volume. Importantly, mortality associated with breast cancer after childhood cancer is substantial. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  19. Accelerated Radiation Therapy After Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-21

    Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  20. Getting Beyond Impressions: An Evaluation of Engagement with Breast Cancer-related Facebook Content.

    PubMed

    Theiss, Sunita Kapahi; Burke, Rachel M; Cory, Janine L; Fairley, Temeika L

    2016-11-01

    Reaching young adults with health messages has been a documented challenge in public health. Public health researchers have initiated studies to assess how social media are changing health communication. In 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched social media-based health education initiatives on Facebook to increase knowledge of breast health and breast cancer among women under age 45 and those at higher risk for developing the disease. The current study used digital analytics and metrics to describe the impact of these social media efforts on health communication. Engagement rate was calculated by taking the average engagement rate for 574 posts published by the CDC Breast Cancer Facebook page in multiple categories, including CDC campaign specificity, content type, time of day, and year posted. Linear regression was used to model the effect of campaign content. Engagement rate (ER) was highest for content shared for the Know:BRCA campaign posts (ER=6.4), followed by the non-campaign related posts (ER=5.5), and the Bring Your Brave posts (ER=4.6). Overall engagement rate decreased from 2014-2016. Photos consistently produced the most significant engagement rate overall. We found that users were more likely to click, share, comment, or like the content of the post that had photos. These data suggest that that branded, visual content is more effective in facilitating engagement. These findings will be used to adjust both free and paid social media efforts for the CDC Breast Cancer Facebook page.

  1. Real-Time MRI Navigated Ultrasound for Preoperative Tumor Evaluation in Breast Cancer Patients: Technique and Clinical Implementation.

    PubMed

    Park, Ah Young; Seo, Bo Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) navigated ultrasound is an image fusion technique to display the results of both MRI and ultrasonography on the same monitor. This system is a promising technique to improve lesion detection and analysis, to maximize advantages of each imaging modality, and to compensate the disadvantages of both MRI and ultrasound. In evaluating breast cancer stage preoperatively, MRI and ultrasound are the most representative imaging modalities. However, sometimes difficulties arise in interpreting and correlating the radiological features between these two different modalities. This pictorial essay demonstrates the technical principles of the real-time MRI navigated ultrasound, and clinical implementation of the system in preoperative evaluation of tumor extent, multiplicity, and nodal status in breast cancer patients.

  2. Early detection of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Nettles-Carlson, B

    1989-01-01

    Timely, comprehensive screening for breast cancer is a major, though often overlooked, component of primary health care for women. This article reviews the scientific rationale for screening and outlines the current recommendations of the American Cancer Society and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force regarding the use of mammography, clinical breast examination (CBE), and breast self-examination (BSE). Nursing interventions to decrease barriers to effective screening are discussed, and an expanded role of nurses in breast cancer screening is proposed.

  3. Diet and breast cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mourouti, Niki; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Papavagelis, Christos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2015-02-01

    Breast cancer occurs as a result between genes-diet interactions. Concerning diet, only alcohol is widely recognized for being most consistently associated with breast cancer risk. The purpose of this review is to report through a systematic way the current scientific evidence relating breast cancer and diet, through original-research studies published in English language during the last decade, assessing the consumption of specific foodstuffs/food-nutrients in relation to the disease. The available literature suggests that soy food intake seems to be inversely associated with the disease, while no association seems to be reported for dietary carbohydrates and dietary fiber intake. The consumption of dietary fat, is probably suggestive of an increase in breast cancer risk, while studies evaluating the role of fruit/vegetable, meat as well as dietary patterns and breast cancer risk, provide inconsistent results. Diet seems to be modestly associated with the disease, highlighting the need for more studies to be conducted.

  4. A prospective evaluation of clinical and genetic predictors of weight changes in breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Sadim, Maureen; Xu, Yanfei; Selig, Katharina; Paulus, Julie; Uthe, Regina; Agarwl, Surbhi; Dubin, Iram; Oikonomopoulou, Panagiota; Zaichenko, Lesya; McCandlish, Silvia Aki; Van Horn, Linda; Mantzoros, Christos; Ankerst, Donna Pauler; Kaklamani, Virginia G

    2017-07-01

    Postdiagnosis weight gain in patients with breast cancer has been associated with increased cancer recurrence and mortality. This study was designed to identify risk factors for weight gain and create a predictive model to identify a high-risk population for targeted interventions. The weight of 393 patients with breast cancer from the Northwestern Robert H. Lurie Cancer Center was measured over a 2-year period from diagnosis, with body mass index (BMI) change over 18 months as the primary endpoint. Demographics, clinical factors, treatment methods, as well as tumor characteristics were also recorded; and a lifestyle questionnaire was conducted. Blood samples were genotyped for 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms in FTO, adiponectin pathway genes (ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1), and FNDC5. Serum leptin, adiponectin, and irisin levels also were measured. Mean ± standard deviation 18-month BMI changes were 0.68 ± 1.42, 0.98 ± 1.62, 0.79 ± 1.74, and -0.44 ± 1.58 kg/m(2) for patients ages <40, 40 to 49, 50 to 59, and ≥60 years, respectively. The optimal multivariable model for 18-month BMI change contained the predictors age, height, and endocrine therapy, but only age was statistically significant, with a 0.04 kg/m(2) increase in 18-month BMI change per younger year of age. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in ADIPOR1, FTO, and FNDC5 were associated with 18-month BMI change, and the first 2 remained significant after adjusting for the optimal clinical model (all P < .05). Women age 60 years and younger at the time of breast cancer diagnosis who have an obesity genetic risk model are at increased risk for weight gain after treatment and should be targeted for weight-maintenance interventions. Cancer 2017;123:2413-21. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  5. Breast cancer evaluation by fluorescent dot detection using combined mathematical morphology and multifractal techniques

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is very accurate method for measuring HER2 gene copies, as a sign of potential breast cancer. This method requires small tissue samples, and has a high sensitivity to detect abnormalities from a histological section. By using multiple colors, this method allows the detection of multiple targets simultaneously. The target parts in the cells become visible as colored dots. The HER-2 probes are visible as orange stained spots under a fluorescent microscope while probes for centromere 17 (CEP-17), the chromosome on which the gene HER-2/neu is located, are visible as green spots. Methods The conventional analysis involves the scoring of the ratio of HER-2/neu over CEP 17 dots within each cell nucleus and then averaging the scores for a number of 60 cells. A ratio of 2.0 of HER-2/neu to CEP 17 copy number denotes amplification. Several methods have been proposed for the detection and automated evaluation (dot counting) of FISH signals. In this paper the combined method based on the mathematical morphology (MM) and inverse multifractal (IMF) analysis is suggested. Similar method was applied recently in detection of microcalcifications in digital mammograms, and was very successful. Results The combined MM using top-hat and bottom-hat filters, and the IMF method was applied to FISH images from Molecular Biology Lab, Department of Pathology, Wielkoposka Cancer Center, Poznan. Initial results indicate that this method can be applied to FISH images for the evaluation of HER2/neu status. Conclusions Mathematical morphology and multifractal approach are used for colored dot detection and counting in FISH images. Initial results derived on clinical cases are promising. Note that the overlapping of colored dots, particularly red/orange dots, needs additional improvements in post-processing. PMID:21489192

  6. NatHER: protocol for systematic evaluation of trends in survival among patients with HER2-positive advanced breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Korner, Eli J; Morris, Anne; Allen, Isabel Elaine; Hurvitz, Sara; Beattie, Mary S; Kalesan, Bindu

    2015-10-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is an aggressive form of breast cancer and is historically associated with poor outcomes compared with HER2-negative MBC. Since 1998, four drugs have been globally approved for the targeted treatment of HER2-positive MBC. Additional advances in patient care-such as improved breast cancer screening, HER2 testing, and supportive care-have also occurred. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine whether there has been a cumulative change in survival over time in patients with HER2-positive advanced breast cancer based on results from interventional clinical trials (ICTs) and observational studies and to compare outcomes across these types of studies. A systematic search of Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials will be performed. Two investigators will independently assess each abstract for inclusion. English language reports of ICTs and observational studies that include patients with HER2-positive advanced breast cancer from 1987 onwards will be considered. The primary outcome of interest is overall survival; secondary outcomes include progression-free survival and safety. Data on clinical outcomes, as well as on study design, study population, treatment/intervention, methodological quality, and outcomes, will be extracted using a structured codebook developed by the authors for this study. Standard and cumulative random effects meta-analysis will be performed to derive pooled risk estimates, both overall and by study design, controlling for covariates such as aggregate demographic and clinical characteristics of patients, treatment/intervention, and study characteristics. Heterogeneity of studies will be evaluated using the I(2) statistic. Differences in risk estimates by quality characteristics will be performed using meta-regression. This study will evaluate current and evolving trends in survival associated with

  7. Use of mTOR inhibitors in the treatment of breast cancer: an evaluation of factors that influence patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Jerusalem, Guy; Rorive, Andree; Collignon, Joelle

    2014-01-01

    Many systemic treatment options are available for advanced breast cancer, including endocrine therapy, chemotherapy, anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) therapy, and other targeted agents. Recently, everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, combined with exemestane, an aromatase inhibitor, has been approved in Europe and the USA for patients suffering from estrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer previously treated by a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor, based on the results of BOLERO-2 (Breast cancer trials of OraL EveROlimus). This study showed a statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in median progression-free survival. Results concerning the impact on overall survival are expected in the near future. This clinically oriented review focuses on the use of mTOR inhibitors in breast cancer. Results reported with first-generation mTOR inhibitors (ridaforolimus, temsirolimus, everolimus) are discussed. The current and potential role of mTOR inhibitors is reported according to breast cancer subtype (estrogen receptor-positive HER2-negative, triple-negative, and HER2-positive ER-positive/negative disease). Everolimus is currently being evaluated in the adjuvant setting in high-risk estrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative early breast cancer. Continuing mTOR inhibition or alternatively administering other drugs targeting the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B-mTOR pathway after progression on treatments including an mTOR inhibitor is under evaluation. Potential biomarkers to select patients showing a more pronounced benefit are reviewed, but we are not currently using these biomarkers in routine practice. Subgroup analysis of BOLERO 2 has shown that the benefit is consistent in all subgroups and that it is impossible to select patients not benefiting from addition of everolimus to exemestane. Side effects and impact on quality of life are other important issues discussed

  8. Breast cancer epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, J L; Berkowitz, G S

    1988-10-15

    The various risk factors for breast cancer have been recognized for many years. A table lists these established breast cancer risk factors together with the approximate magnitude of the increase in risk associated with them. Breast cancer incidence rates increase with age throughout the life span in Western countries, although the rate of increase is greater up to age 50 years than after 50 years. Breast cancer is more common among women in upper rather than lower social classes, among women who never have been married, among women living in urban areas, among women living in the northern US than in the southern US, and among whites than blacks, at least among those over age 50. Women in North American and Northern European countries have the highest risk for breast cancer, women in Southern European and Latin American countries are at intermediate risk, and women in Africa and Asian countries have the lowest risk. Yet, rapid rates of increase in incident rates have been noted in recent years in many Asian, Central European, and some South American countries. The later the age at which a woman has her 1st full-term pregnancy, the higher her risk for breast cancer; the earlier the age at menarche and the later the age at menopause the higher the risk; and among women who have a premenopausal oophorectomy, the earlier the age at which this occurs the lower the risk. Among postmenopausal women, obesity is associated with an increase in risk. Lactation is negatively associated with subsequent breast cancer risk. Some current research is considering potential risk factors that have not been well studied in the past, including alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, caffeine consumption, exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), emotional stress, exposure to electric power, and lack of physical activity. Other areas of current research reviewed here include radiation, mammographic parenchymal patterns, a high-fat diet, use of oral contraceptives (OCs), use of estrogen

  9. Dietary Seaweed and Early Breast Cancer: A Randomized Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Breast Cancer Treatment Related Lymphedema Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on breast cancer treatment related... lymphedema . Role: PI Direct Costs $10,000 Susan G. Komen Foundation 1998-2000 Brown Seaweed as a Breast Cancer Preventive Purpose...Butler WM. Can hyperbaric oxygen therapy reduce breast cancer treatment-related lymphedema ? A pilot study. Journal of Women’s Health 2004;13(9):1008

  10. [Radiotherapy of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Hennequin, C; Barillot, I; Azria, D; Belkacémi, Y; Bollet, M; Chauvet, B; Cowen, D; Cutuli, B; Fourquet, A; Hannoun-Lévi, J M; Leblanc, M; Mahé, M A

    2016-09-01

    In breast cancer, radiotherapy is an essential component of the treatment. After conservative surgery for an infiltrating carcinoma, radiotherapy must be systematically performed, regardless of the characteristics of the disease, because it decreases the rate of local recurrence and by this way, specific mortality. Partial breast irradiation could not be proposed routinely but only in very selected and informed patients. For ductal carcinoma in situ, adjuvant radiotherapy must be also systematically performed after lumpectomy. After mastectomy, chest wall irradiation is required for pT3-T4 tumours and if there is an axillary nodal involvement, whatever the number of involved lymph nodes. After neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and mastectomy, in case of pN0 disease, chest wall irradiation is recommended if there is a clinically or radiologically T3-T4 or node positive disease before chemotherapy. Axillary irradiation is recommended only if there is no axillary surgical dissection and a positive sentinel lymph node. Supra and infra-clavicular irradiation is advised in case of positive axillary nodes. Internal mammary irradiation must be discussed case by case, according to the benefit/risk ratio (cardiac toxicity). Dose to the chest wall or the breast must be between 45-50Gy with a conventional fractionation. A boost dose over the tumour bed is required if the patient is younger than 60 years old. Hypofractionation (42.5 Gy in 16 fractions, or 41.6 Gy en 13 or 40 Gy en 15) is possible after tumorectomy and if a nodal irradiation is not mandatory. Delineation of the breast, the chest wall and the nodal areas are based on clinical and radiological evaluations. 3D-conformal irradiation is the recommended technique, intensity-modulated radiotherapy must be proposed only in case of specific clinical situations. Respiratory gating could be useful to decrease the cardiac dose. Concomitant administration of chemotherapy in unadvised, but hormonal treatment could be start with

  11. Pertuzumab, Trastuzumab, and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Patients With HER2-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-23

    HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Breast Adenocarcinoma; Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma

  12. Supporting models to transition breast cancer survivors to primary care: formative evaluation of a cancer care Ontario initiative.

    PubMed

    Grant, Maria; De Rossi, Stefanie; Sussman, Jonathan

    2015-05-01

    Many breast cancer (BC) survivors continue to be seen by specialists for routine follow-up care despite growing evidence that transitioning appropriate BC survivors to primary care is safe and effective. We describe the formative evaluation of an initiative involving the development and implementation of sustainable models of follow-up care for BC survivors across 14 Regional Cancer Centers (RCC) in Ontario, Canada. After extensive consultation, each RCC received catalyst funding for the initiative. Detailed work plans were developed locally and submitted to Cancer Care Ontario. Each region had a designated lead and support from primary care. Funding could be used to develop any aspect of the model. Formative evaluation of each model was conducted with descriptive analysis of the model created, including summative description of how resources were used, the number of survivors transitioned, and preliminary results from patient surveys of experience at transition. Each region developed a unique model that included clearly identified structures and processes of care. All regions used survivorship care plans and patient education materials. Three main models of follow-up care were developed: (1) direct to primary care, (2) transition clinic, and (3) shared care. A total of 3,418 BC survivors transitioned between March 2012 and September 2013. Patient experience surveys were distributed by 12 regions, gathering responses from 752 BC survivors, with 85% reporting that they felt adequately prepared for the transition. Using the approach described, wide-scale transition of appropriate BC survivors from oncology-led practice is feasible over a fairly short timeframe. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  13. Estimation of health state utilities in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seon-Ha; Jo, Min-Woo; Ock, Minsu; Lee, Hyeon-Jeong; Lee, Jong-Won

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to determine the utility of breast cancer health states using the standard gamble (SG) and visual analog scale (VAS) methods in the Korean general population. Materials and methods Eight hypothetical breast cancer health states were developed based on patient education material and previous publications. Data from 509 individuals from the Korean general population were used to evaluate breast cancer health states using the VAS and the SG methods, which were obtained via computer-assisted personal interviews. Mean utility values were calculated for each human papillomavirus (HPV)-related health state. Results The rank of health states was identical between two valuation methods. SG values were higher than VAS values in all health states. The utility values derived from SG were 0.801 (noninvasive breast cancer with mastectomy and followed by reconstruction), 0.790 (noninvasive breast cancer with mastectomy only), 0.779 (noninvasive breast cancer with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy), 0.731 (invasive breast cancer with surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy), 0.610 (locally advanced breast cancer with radical mastectomy with radiation therapy), 0.587 (inoperable locally advanced breast cancer), 0.496 (loco-regional recurrent breast cancer), and 0.352 (metastatic breast cancer). Conclusion Our findings might be useful for economic evaluation of breast cancer screening and interventions in general populations. PMID:28352159

  14. Breast cancer screening with digital breast tomosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Skaane, Per

    2017-01-01

    To give an overview of studies comparing full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in breast cancer screening. The implementation of tomosynthesis in breast imaging is rapidly increasing world-wide. Experimental clinical studies of relevance for DBT screening have shown that tomosynthesis might have a great potential in breast cancer screening, although most of these retrospective reading studies are based on small populations, so that final conclusions are difficult to draw from individual reports. Several retrospective studies and three prospective trials on tomosynthesis in breast cancer screening have been published so far, confirming the great potential of DBT in mammography screening. The main results of these screening studies are presented. The retrospective screening studies from USA have all shown a significant decrease in the recall rate using DBT as adjunct to mammography. Most of these studies have also shown an increase in the cancer detection rate, and the non-significant results in some studies might be explained by a lack of statistical power. All the three prospective European trials have shown a significant increase in the cancer detection rate. The retrospective and the prospective screening studies comparing FFDM and DBT have all demonstrated that tomosynthesis has a great potential for improving breast cancer screening. DBT should be regarded as a better mammogram that could improve or overcome limitations of the conventional mammography, and tomosynthesis might be considered as the new technique in the next future of breast cancer screening.

  15. Evaluation of the efficiency of biofield diagnostic system in breast cancer detection using clinical study results and classifiers.

    PubMed

    Subbhuraam, Vinitha Sree; Ng, E Y K; Kaw, G; Acharya U, Rajendra; Chong, B K

    2012-02-01

    The division of breast cancer cells results in regions of electrical depolarisation within the breast. These regions extend to the skin surface from where diagnostic information can be obtained through measurements of the skin surface electropotentials using sensors. This technique is used by the Biofield Diagnostic System (BDS) to detect the presence of malignancy. This paper evaluates the efficiency of BDS in breast cancer detection and also evaluates the use of classifiers for improving the accuracy of BDS. 182 women scheduled for either mammography or ultrasound or both tests participated in the BDS clinical study conducted at Tan Tock Seng hospital, Singapore. Using the BDS index obtained from the BDS examination and the level of suspicion score obtained from mammography/ultrasound results, the final BDS result was deciphered. BDS demonstrated high values for sensitivity (96.23%), specificity (93.80%), and accuracy (94.51%). Also, we have studied the performance of five supervised learning based classifiers (back propagation network, probabilistic neural network, linear discriminant analysis, support vector machines, and a fuzzy classifier), by feeding selected features from the collected dataset. The clinical study results show that BDS can help physicians to differentiate benign and malignant breast lesions, and thereby, aid in making better biopsy recommendations.

  16. Evaluation of a Partnership Approach to Translating Research on Breast Cancer and the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Van Olphen, Juliana; Ottoson, Judith; Green, Lawrence; Barlow, Janice; Koblick, Kathy; Hiatt, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Background The growing literature on community-based participatory research (CBPR) suggests that a participatory approach benefits science in important ways. However there have been few formal evaluations of a CBPR approach itself, and few standards developed to assist in such efforts. Objectives This evaluation used CBPR guidelines developed by Green and colleagues to evaluate the participatory approach of the Community Outreach and Translation Core (COTC) of the Bay Area Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Center (BABCERC) in translating scientific findings from two key projects to the public. Method To assess key stakeholders’ perceptions of alignment between the projects and the guidelines, four COTC members, four researchers, and four community members rated the projects on each of the 26 guidelines. These data were triangulated with transcripts from interviews with the same participants and a focus group with a subset of the participants. Results The participatory approach by the COTC resulted in many important benefits including improved relationships among diverse stakeholders, knowledge generation, increased sensitivity and propriety of the research, and increased community support of research. However, several atypical features of this collaboration—for example, the basic and etiological nature of the science being undertaken, and the multiple communities (lay and activist/advocate) involved—resulted in different levels and qualities of participation among stakeholders. Conclusions Further research should focus on the adaptation of participatory research principles for different kinds of community partners and on the development and refinement of standards and tools to assist in evaluating the process and outcome of participatory research. PMID:20208222

  17. Novel nanosystem to enhance the antitumor activity of lapatinib in breast cancer treatment: Therapeutic efficacy evaluation.

    PubMed

    Huo, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Shi-Jiang; Wang, Zhi-Qi; Zuo, Wen-Shu; Liu, Ping; Pang, Bo; Liu, Kai

    2015-10-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the therapeutic performance of polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles towards the delivery of lapatinib (LPT) in breast cancers. We have successfully developed the lapatinib-loaded polymer-lipid hybrid nanosystem and showed its therapeutic potential in in vitro and in vivo models of breast cancer. The nanoformulations consisted of a polymeric core (poly[lactide-co-glycolide]-D-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate [PLGA-TPGS]), which was then enveloped by a PEGylated lipid layer (DSPE-PEG) (PLPT) to maintain the structural integrity. The PLPT formulation controlled the drug release in pH 7.4 conditions and accelerated the release at pH 5.5 conditions. The PLPT showed a remarkable cellular internalization and efficiently killed the MCF-7 cancer cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, LPT-loaded nanoparticles effectively induced apoptosis of cancer cells than compared to free LPT. Pharmacokinetic data suggested that nanoparticles could significantly enhance the blood circulation time of LPT by reducing the uptake by a reticuloendothelial system (RES). The prolonged blood circulation of PLPT could allow the preferential accumulation of drug in the tumor tissues. Importantly, PLPT significantly reduced the tumor burden of cancerous mice and effectively controlled the tumor cell proliferation. TUNEL assay further showed a greater apoptosis of tumor tissues in the PLPT treated mice group. Our results suggest that the use of a hybrid system may allow a decrease in the dosage regimen without the loss of therapeutic effect. Overall, lapatinib-loaded hybrid nanoparticles hold great potential for achieving an optimal therapeutic effect in breast cancer treatment. The present anticancer drug delivery system could be potentially applied for the treatment of other cancers.

  18. Novel nanosystem to enhance the antitumor activity of lapatinib in breast cancer treatment: Therapeutic efficacy evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Shi-Jiang; Wang, Zhi-Qi; Zuo, Wen-Shu; Liu, Ping; Pang, Bo; Liu, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the therapeutic performance of polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles towards the delivery of lapatinib (LPT) in breast cancers. We have successfully developed the lapatinib-loaded polymer-lipid hybrid nanosystem and showed its therapeutic potential in in vitro and in vivo models of breast cancer. The nanoformulations consisted of a polymeric core (poly[lactide-co-glycolide]-D-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate [PLGA–TPGS]), which was then enveloped by a PEGylated lipid layer (DSPE-PEG) (PLPT) to maintain the structural integrity. The PLPT formulation controlled the drug release in pH 7.4 conditions and accelerated the release at pH 5.5 conditions. The PLPT showed a remarkable cellular internalization and efficiently killed the MCF-7 cancer cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, LPT-loaded nanoparticles effectively induced apoptosis of cancer cells than compared to free LPT. Pharmacokinetic data suggested that nanoparticles could significantly enhance the blood circulation time of LPT by reducing the uptake by a reticuloendothelial system (RES). The prolonged blood circulation of PLPT could allow the preferential accumulation of drug in the tumor tissues. Importantly, PLPT significantly reduced the tumor burden of cancerous mice and effectively controlled the tumor cell proliferation. TUNEL assay further showed a greater apoptosis of tumor tissues in the PLPT treated mice group. Our results suggest that the use of a hybrid system may allow a decrease in the dosage regimen without the loss of therapeutic effect. Overall, lapatinib-loaded hybrid nanoparticles hold great potential for achieving an optimal therapeutic effect in breast cancer treatment. The present anticancer drug delivery system could be potentially applied for the treatment of other cancers. PMID:26177628

  19. Overdetection in breast cancer screening: development and preliminary evaluation of a decision aid.

    PubMed

    Hersch, Jolyn; Jansen, Jesse; Barratt, Alexandra; Irwig, Les; Houssami, Nehmat; Jacklyn, Gemma; Thornton, Hazel; Dhillon, Haryana; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2014-09-25

    To develop, pilot and refine a decision aid (ahead of a randomised trial evaluation) for women around age 50 facing their initial decision about whether to undergo mammography screening. Two-stage mixed-method pilot study including qualitative interviews (n=15) and a randomised comparison using a quantitative survey (n=34). New South Wales, Australia. Women aged 43-59 years with no personal history of breast cancer. The decision aid provides evidence-based information about important outcomes of mammography screening over 20 years (breast cancer mortality reduction, overdetection and false positives) compared with no screening. The information is presented in a short booklet for women, combining text and visual formats. A control version produced for the purposes of comparison omits the overdetection-related content. Comprehension of key decision aid content and acceptability of the materials. Most women considered the decision aid clear and helpful and would recommend it to others. Nonetheless, the piloting process raised important issues that we tried to address in iterative revisions. Some participants found it hard to understand overdetection and why it is of concern, while there was often confusion about the distinction between overdetection and false positives. In a screening context, encountering balanced information rather than persuasion appears to be contrary to people's expectations, but women appreciated the opportunity to become better informed. The concept of overdetection is complex and new to the public. This study highlights some key challenges for communicating about this issue. It is important to clarify that overdetection differs from false positives in terms of its more serious consequences (overtreatment and associated harms). Screening decision aids also must clearly explain their purpose of facilitating informed choice. A staged approach to development and piloting of decision aids is recommended to further improve understanding of

  20. Spectrophotometer and ultrasound evaluation of late toxicity following breast-cancer radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, E J; Chen, H; Torres, M A; Curran, W J; Liu, T

    2011-10-01

    Radiation-induced normal-tissue toxicities are common, complex, and distressing side effects that affect 90% of patients receiving breast-cancer radiotherapy and 40% of patients post radiotherapy. In this study, the authors investigated the use of spectrophotometry and ultrasound to quantitatively measure radiation-induced skin discoloration and subcutaneous-tissue fibrosis. The study's purpose is to determine whether skin discoloration correlates with the development of fibrosis in breast-cancer radiotherapy. Eighteen breast-cancer patients were enrolled in our initial study. All patients were previously treated with a standard course of radiation, and the median follow-up time was 22 months. The treated and untreated breasts were scanned with a spectrophotometer and an ultrasound. Two spectrophotometer parameters-melanin and erythema indices-were used to quantitatively assess skin discoloration. Two ultrasound parameters-skin thickness and Pearson coefficient of the hypodermis-were used to quantitatively assess severity of fibrosis. These measurements were correlated with clinical assessments (RTOG late morbidity scores). Significant measurement differences between the treated and contralateral breasts were observed among all patients: 27.3% mean increase in skin thickness (p < 0.001), 34.1% mean decrease in Pearson coefficient (p < 0.001), 27.3% mean increase in melanin (p < 0.001), and 22.6% mean increase in erythema (p < 0.001). All parameters except skin thickness correlated with RTOG scores. A moderate correlation exists between melanin and erythema; however, spectrophotometer parameters do not correlate with ultrasound parameters. Spectrophotometry and quantitative ultrasound are objective tools that assess radiation-induced tissue injury. Spectrophotometer parameters did not correlate with those of quantitative ultrasound suggesting that skin discoloration cannot be used as a marker for subcutaneous fibrosis. These tools may prove useful

  1. Spectrophotometer and ultrasound evaluation of late toxicity following breast-cancer radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, E. J.; Chen, H.; Torres, M. A.; Curran, W. J.; Liu, T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced normal-tissue toxicities are common, complex, and distressing side effects that affect 90% of patients receiving breast-cancer radiotherapy and 40% of patients post radiotherapy. In this study, the authors investigated the use of spectrophotometry and ultrasound to quantitatively measure radiation-induced skin discoloration and subcutaneous-tissue fibrosis. The study’s purpose is to determine whether skin discoloration correlates with the development of fibrosis in breast-cancer radiotherapy.Methods : Eighteen breast-cancer patients were enrolled in our initial study. All patients were previously treated with a standard course of radiation, and the median follow-up time was 22 months. The treated and untreated breasts were scanned with a spectrophotometer and an ultrasound. Two spectrophotometer parameters—melanin and erythema indices—were used to quantitatively assess skin discoloration. Two ultrasound parameters—skin thickness and Pearson coefficient of the hypodermis—were used to quantitatively assess severity of fibrosis. These measurements were correlated with clinical assessments (RTOG late morbidity scores).Results: Significant measurement differences between the treated and contralateral breasts were observed among all patients: 27.3% mean increase in skin thickness (p < 0.001), 34.1% mean decrease in Pearson coefficient (p < 0.001), 27.3% mean increase in melanin (p < 0.001), and 22.6% mean increase in erythema (p < 0.001). All parameters except skin thickness correlated with RTOG scores. A moderate correlation exists between melanin and erythema; however, spectrophotometer parameters do not correlate with ultrasound parameters.Conclusions: Spectrophotometry and quantitative ultrasound are objective tools that assess radiation-induced tissue injury. Spectrophotometer parameters did not correlate with those of quantitative ultrasound suggesting that skin discoloration cannot be used as a marker for

  2. Surveying Breast Cancer's Genomic Landscape.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    An in-depth analysis has produced the most comprehensive portrait to date of the myriad genomic alterations involved in breast cancer. In sequencing the whole genomes of 560 breast cancers and combining this information with published data from another 772 breast tumors, the research team uncovered several new genes and mutational signatures that potentially influence this disease.

  3. Ultrasound in Detecting Taxane-Induced Neuropathy in Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-15

    Peripheral Neuropathy; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  4. Evaluation of Conceptual Framework for Recruitment of African American Patients With Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Heiney, Sue P.; Adams, Swann Arp; Wells, Linda M.; Johnson, Hiluv

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To describe the Heiney-Adams Recruitment Framework (H-ARF); to delineate a recruitment plan for a randomized, behavioral trial (RBT) based on H-ARF; and to provide evaluation data on its implementation. Data Sources All data for this investigation originated from a recruitment database created for an RBT designed to test the effectiveness of a therapeutic group convened via teleconference for African American women with breast cancer. Data Synthesis Major H-ARF concepts include social marketing and relationship building. The majority of social marketing strategies yielded 100% participant recruitment. Greater absolute numbers were recruited via Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act waivers. Using H-ARF yielded a high recruitment rate (66%). Conclusions Application of H-ARF led to successful recruitment in an RBT. The findings highlight three areas that researchers should consider when devising recruitment plans: absolute numbers versus recruitment rate, cost, and efficiency with institutional review board–approved access to protected health information. Implications for Nursing H-ARF may be applied to any clinical or population-based research setting because it provides direction for researchers to develop a recruitment plan based on the target audience and cultural attributes that may hinder or help recruitment. PMID:20439201

  5. [Evaluation and classification of drug therapy for breast cancer with bone-only metastasis].

    PubMed

    Meng, X Y; Song, S T

    2017-03-23

    Skeleton is one of the most common metastatic organs for breast cancer, which has a better prognosis than visceral metastases. Bone-only metastasis was defined"non-measurable" in the RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) criteria, and was excluded by clinical trials. However, patients with bone-only metastasis are also in need of effective treatment to prolong survival. Endocrine therapy is the most important treatment for bone metastatic patients. Tumor response of bone metastases can be determined objectively by bone-window CT. Effective treatment should be continued if the symptoms are relieved or osteogenesis is observed. Osteoblastic change in bone-window CT is a sign of improvement after treatment. Endocrine therapy is proper for ER-positive patients. The patients with initial osteoblastic metastasis should not be treated with salvage chemotherapy or anti-HER2 treatment, only if osteolytic metastasis or visceral metastasis is observed. Bishosphonates are just auxiliary drugs in bone metastasis, which should not be abused.

  6. Endocrinological and clinical evaluation of two doses of formestane in advanced breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Bajetta, E.; Zilembo, N.; Buzzoni, R.; Noberasco, C.; Di Leo, A.; Bartoli, C.; Merson, M.; Sacchini, V.; Moglia, D.; Celio, L.

    1994-01-01

    Formestane is a selective inhibitor of oestrogen synthesis by aromatase enzymes and induces disease regression in breast cancer patients. This phase II randomised study was carried out to determine whether there were any differences in the effects of two different doses of formestane on oestradiol (E2) serum levels and to evaluate the corresponding clinical activity in post-menopausal patients with positive or unknown oestrogen receptor status pretreated or not for advanced disease. Furthermore, possible drug interference with adrenal steroidogenesis was assessed by measuring 17-hydroxycorticosteroid (17-OHCS) urinary levels. A total of 143 patients entered the study and were randomly assigned to receive formestane 250 mg (72 patients) or formestane 500 mg (71 patients), both given i.m. every 2 weeks. In comparison with baseline, E2 serum levels decreased by an average of 40% after only 15 days and remained unchanged thereafter, with no difference being observed between the two doses. The values of 17-OHCS remained unchanged during treatment in both groups. Objective responses were 28% (19/69) in the 250 mg and 46% (31/68) in the 500 mg group. In conclusion, the two formestane doses were equally effective in reducing E2 levels without affecting adrenal function, and in inducing a considerable percentage of clinical responses. PMID:8018527

  7. [Infertility, fertility treatment and breast cancer risk].

    PubMed

    Riskin-Mashiah, Shlomit

    2013-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in Israel and throughout the world. It is the leading cause of death from cancer in women. The cause of breast cancer is unknown; however gynecological history and hormonal factors have a major impact on the risk to develop breast cancer. Infertility affects 15-20% of couples in developed countries and most of them will need fertility treatment. The variety of fertility treatments and their use has been widespread during the last 50 years and especially since the introduction of in vitro fertilization. During fertility treatment, and depending on the type of treatment, there is ovarian hyperstimulation with maturation of several follicles and higher than normal estradiol levels. This article reviews the leading studies that evaluated the possible link between fertility treatment and the development of breast cancer. Most studies showed no association between fertility drugs and breast cancer. Whereas other researchers demonstrated a possible link between some fertility drugs and increased risk for breast cancer in certain subgroups. Therefore, larger studies with longer follow-up periods and better control for all possible confounding factors are needed in order to confirm the safety of fertility treatments in the long run. The combination of infertility and fertility treatment might cause harm, such as an increased risk for breast cancer Therefore, one has to consider carefully, together with the woman, the need for fertility treatment and give the lowest possible dosage for the shortest duration in order to minimize the risk.

  8. Breast cancer screening and biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Mai

    2009-01-01

    Annual screening mammograms have been shown to be cost-effective and are credited for the decline in mortality of breast cancer. New technologies including breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may further improve early breast cancer detection in asymptomatic women. Serum tumor markers such as CA 15-3, carcinoembyonic antigen (CEA), and CA 27-29 are ordered in the clinic mainly for disease surveillance, and not useful for detection of localized cancer. This review will discuss blood-based markers and breast-based markers, such as nipple/ductal fluid, with an emphasis on biomarkers for early detection of breast cancer. In the future, it is likely that a combination approach to simultaneously measure multiple markers would be most successful in detecting early breast cancer. Ideally, such a biomarker panel should be able to detect breast cancer in asymptomatic patients, even in the setting of normal mammogram and physical examination results.

  9. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Harry Mahtani analyzes the gas content of nutrient media from Bioreactor used in research on human breast cancer. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  10. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Harry Mahtani analyzes the gas content of nutrient media from Bioreactor used in research on human breast cancer. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  11. Genetic epidemiology of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Thompson, W D

    1994-07-01

    It has been recognized for some time that a family history of breast cancer is associated rather strongly with a woman's own risk of developing the disease. Recent segregation analyses of population-based data on familial patterns provide evidence for a rare autosomal dominant allele that increases a carrier's susceptibility to breast cancer. The estimated proportion of breast cancer patients who carry this allele declines sharply with age at diagnosis. Empirical estimates of the risk associated with particular patterns of family history of breast cancer indicate the following: (1) having any first-degree relative with breast cancer increases a woman's risk of breast cancer 1.5-3-fold, depending on age, (2) having multiple first degree relatives affected is associated with particularly elevated risks, (3) having a second-degree relative affected increases the risk by approximately 50%, (4) affected family members on the maternal side and the paternal side contribute similarly to the risk, (5) a family history of breast cancer is associated with bilateral disease, and (6) breast cancer in males is associated with breast cancer in female relatives in much the same way as is breast cancer in women. Ovarian cancer clearly has been shown to be associated with breast cancer in families, and genetic linkage has provided strong evidence for a breast-ovarian cancer gene located somewhere on chromosome 17q. At the population level, having a first degree relative with ovarian cancer may be at least as predictive of a woman's risk for developing breast cancer as is having a second-degree relative with breast cancer. Considerably weaker evidence points to a possible familial relationship between breast and endometrial cancer and between breast cancer in women and prostatic cancer in males. The clinical applications of the genetic epidemiology of breast cancer are complicated by uncertainty as to the efficacy of mammographic screening in women under the age of 50. For the vast

  12. Detection and Evaluation of Early Breast Cancer via Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Studies of Mouse Models and Clinical Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    5 Feb 2007 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Detection and Evaluation of Early Breast Cancer via Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Studies of...Page Introduction…………………………………………………………….………..….. 4 Body………………………………………………………………………………….. 5 Key Research Accomplishments...11 Appendices…………………………………………………………………………… 12 4 INTRODUCTION Women diagnosed with breast cancer today have significantly better

  13. Psychometric Evaluation of the Chinese Breast Cancer Prevention Trial Symptom Scale.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ching-Fen; Tsai, Pei-Shan; Liu, Chien-Liang; Lin, Yen-Kuang; Ling, You-Li; Tseng, Ing-Jy; Liao, Yuan-Mei

    2017-05-05

    Women with breast cancer experience a wide spectrum of symptoms after diagnosis and treatment. Symptoms experienced by this specific population might not be fully assessed using available traditional Chinese-language symptom measures. The aim of this study was to examine the latent constructs and psychometric properties of the Chinese Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (C-BCPT) Symptom Scale. Two hundred women with breast cancer were recruited in Taiwan. Psychometric properties, including construct validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability, of the C-BCPT Symptom Scale were tested after translating the original instrument. A 21-item C-BCPT Symptom Scale, with 7 extracted factors accounting for 72.26% of the total variance, resulted from an exploratory factor analysis. Construct validity was confirmed by significant correlations between scores on the C-BCPT Symptom Scale and the Taiwan-version Short Form-36 Health Survey (r = -0.49 to -0.53)/Greene Climacteric Scale (r = 0.81). Reliability coefficients for the overall scale/6 extracted factors (Cronbach's α = 0.72-0.88) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.77-0.94) of the translated instrument were satisfactory, whereas 1 reliability coefficient for 1 extracted factor was inadequate (Cronbach's α = 0.57). An interpretable structure with preliminary acceptable psychometric properties of the C-BCPT Symptom Scale was obtained; the C-BCPT can help traditional Chinese-speaking healthcare professionals perform adequate assessments of the symptoms experienced by women with breast cancer. The C-BCPT Symptom Scale can be used in clinical practice and research to assess symptoms experienced by this specific population or effects of related interventions.

  14. Comparison of automated breast volume scanning and hand- held ultrasound in the detection of breast cancer: an analysis of 5,566 patient evaluations.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo Jung; Cha, Joo Hee; Kim, Hak Hee; Shin, Hee Jung; Kim, Hyunji; Chae, Eun Young; Hong, Min Ji

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy and effectiveness of automated breast volume scanning (ABVS) and hand-held ultrasound (HHUS) in the detection of breast cancer in a large population group with a long-term follow-up, and to investigate whether different ultrasound systems may influence the estimation of cancer detection. Institutional review board approval was obtained for this retrospective study, and informed consent was waived. From September 2010 to August 2011, a total of 1,866 ABVS and 3,700 HHUS participants, who underwent these procedures at our institute, were included in this study. Cancers occurring during the study and subsequent follow-up were evaluated. The reference standard was a combination of histology and follow-up imaging (≥12 months). The recall rate, cancer detection yield, diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were calculated with exact 95% confidence intervals. The recall rate was 2.57 per 1,000 (48/1,866) for ABVS and 3.57 per 1,000 (132/3,700) for HHUS, with ? significant difference (p=0.048). The cancer detection yield was 3.8 per 1,000 for ABVS and 2.7 per 1,000 for HHUS. The diagnostic accuracy was 97.7% for ABVS and 96.5% for HHUS with statistical significance (p=0.018). The specificity of ABVS and HHUS were 97.8%, 96.7%, respectively (p=0.022). ABVS shows a comparable diagnostic performance to HHUS. ABVS is an effective supplemental tool for mammography in breast cancer detection in a large population.

  15. Evaluation of the perceptions and cosmetic satisfaction of breast cancer patients undergoing totally implantable vascular access device (TIVAD) placement.

    PubMed

    Liberale, Gabriel; El Houkayem, Michel; Viste, Claire; Bouazza, Fikri; Moreau, Michel; El Nakadi, Issam; Veys, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    Totally implantable vascular access devices (TIVADs) are widely used to administer chemotherapy to cancer patients. While great progress has been made with respect to breast surgical reconstruction to take into account both aesthetics and patients' perceptions of body integrity, these aspects have not been considered with regard to the impact of TIVAD. In order to address this practice gap, we have adapted our TIVAD implantation technique to improve cosmetic results. The aim of this study was to assess breast cancer patients' comfort level and aesthetic satisfaction with regard to TIVAD insertion. Patients with breast cancer admitted for chemotherapy at an outpatient clinic completed a previously validated survey evaluating three main domains: symptoms (pain, discomfort) related to the TIVAD itself in daily activity, information received before and during the surgical procedure, and cosmetic aspects regarding the port insertion site (scar, port, and catheter location). Between September 2010 and June 2011, 232 patients were evaluated. Cosmetic satisfaction with scar location was high (93.3 %). Information given to patients before and during the procedure had a major impact on both symptom perception in daily activity and on cosmetic satisfaction. Obtaining a more aesthetic scar by placing the TIVAD in the deltopectoral groove contributed to a high rate of cosmetic satisfaction. Furthermore, the relevance of information given to patients before and/or during surgery had a major impact on symptom perception. Therefore, we suggest including a pre-operative information session in the care pathway.

  16. Azacitidine in Treating Patients With Triple Negative Stage I-IV Invasive Breast Cancer That Can Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-02-05

    Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  17. Mindfulness Meditation or Survivorship Education in Improving Behavioral Symptoms in Younger Stage 0-III Breast Cancer Survivors (Pathways to Wellness)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-21

    Cancer Survivor; Early-Stage Breast Carcinoma; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  18. Evaluation of the Dutch BRCA1/2 clinical genetic center referral criteria in an unselected early breast cancer population.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Alexandra J; de Ruiter, Karen; van 't Veer, Laura J; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Verhoef, Senno; Schmidt, Marjanka K

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic value of the Dutch Clinical Genetic Center (CGC) referral guidelines for BRCA1/2 mutation testing in 903 early breast cancer patients, unselected for family history, diagnosed in a cancer hospital before the age of 50 years in 1974-2002; most prevalent Dutch pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutations had been analyzed on coded DNA in a research setting. Forty-nine (5.4%) of the patients were proven to be BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. We found that 78% and 69% of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers identified met the criteria for referral to the CGC based on age, family history and synchronous multiple tumors; reflected by a combined sensitivity of 75.5% and specificity of 63.2%. More than half of the BRCA1 mutation carriers, that is, 58% had a triple-negative tumor. The highest AUC was obtained by shifting the age at diagnosis threshold criterion from 40 to 35 years and by adding a 'triple-negative breast cancer' criterion with an age threshold of 45 years; the specificity increased to 71.2%, whereas the sensitivity remained the same; that is, a referral of fewer patients will lead to the identification of at least the same number of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Two-thirds of the BRCA1/2 mutation carriers identified in this research setting had been referred for counseling and testing. Our results indicate that, awaiting a possibly more extended mutation screening of all breast cancer patients, the triple-negative status of a breast cancer should be added to the CGC referral criteria.

  19. Evaluation of body esteem and mental health in patients with breast cancer after mastectomy

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Mohammad; Shahbazi, Sara; Ghodusi, Mansureh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Mastectomy in patients with breast cancer can severely affect their body esteem. It also changes the emotions and attitudes of patients toward their body and causes psychological reactions such as depression, anxiety, and stress. Aims: This study was conducted with the aim of assessing correlation between body esteem and mental health in patients with breast cancer after mastectomy. Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive study. One hundred patients with breast cancer after mastectomy were selected by convenience sampling from Seyed Al Shohada Hospital in Isfahan. Data gathering tools were questionnaires of body esteem and SCL-25 mental health and were analyzed by SPSS-PC (v.17). Results: According to the score of body esteem (2.80) and the overall average score for body esteem (36.46), patients had low body esteem. About dimensions of the mental health, the highest average was associated with depressive disorders. According to the results of the Spearman correlation coefficient, there was a direct linear relationship between body esteem and mental health. Conclusion: Considering the impact of mastectomy on body esteem and mental health and the relationship between the variables, nurses take steps for identifying and referring patients to the counseling centers to prevent psychological disorder aspects. PMID:26903758

  20. Co-loaded paclitaxel/rapamycin liposomes: Development, characterization and in vitro and in vivo evaluation for breast cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Eloy, Josimar O.; Petrilli, Raquel; Topan, José Fernando; Antonio, Heriton Marcelo Ribeiro; Barcellos, Juliana Palma Abriata; Chesca, Deise L.; Serafini, Luciano Neder; Tiezzi, Daniel G.; Lee, Robert J.; Marchetti, Juliana Maldonado

    2016-01-01

    Paclitaxel and rapamycin have been reported to act synergistically to treat breast cancer. Albeit paclitaxel is available for breast cancer treatment, the most commonly used formulation in the clinic presents side effects, limiting its use. Furthermore, both drugs present pharmacokinetics drawbacks limiting their in vivo efficacy and clinic combination. As an alternative, drug delivery systems, particularly liposomes, emerge as an option for drug combination, able to simultaneously deliver co-loaded drugs with improved therapeutic index. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop and characterize a co-loaded paclitaxel and rapamycin liposome and evaluate it for breast cancer efficacy both in vitro and in vivo. Results showed that a SPC/Chol/DSPE-PEG (2000) liposome was able to co-encapsulate paclitaxel and rapamycin with suitable encapsulation efficiency values, nanometric particle size, low polydispersity and neutral zeta potential. Taken together, FTIR and thermal analysis evidenced drug conversion to the more bioavailable molecular and amorphous forms, respectively, for paclitaxel and rapamycin. The pegylated liposome exhibited excellent colloidal stability and was able to retain drugs encapsulated, which were released in a slow and sustained fashion. Liposomes were more cytotoxic to 4T1 breast cancer cell line than the free drugs and drugs acted synergistically, particularly when co-loaded. Finally, in vivo therapeutic evaluation carried out in 4T1-tumor-bearing mice confirmed the in vitro results. The co-loaded paclitaxel/rapamycin pegylated liposome better controlled tumor growth compared to the solution. Therefore, we expect that the formulation developed herein might be a contribution for future studies focusing on the clinical combination of paclitaxel and rapamycin. PMID:26836480

  1. Co-loaded paclitaxel/rapamycin liposomes: Development, characterization and in vitro and in vivo evaluation for breast cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Eloy, Josimar O; Petrilli, Raquel; Topan, José Fernando; Antonio, Heriton Marcelo Ribeiro; Barcellos, Juliana Palma Abriata; Chesca, Deise L; Serafini, Luciano Neder; Tiezzi, Daniel G; Lee, Robert J; Marchetti, Juliana Maldonado

    2016-05-01

    Paclitaxel and rapamycin have been reported to act synergistically to treat breast cancer. Albeit paclitaxel is available for breast cancer treatment, the most commonly used formulation in the clinic presents side effects, limiting its use. Furthermore, both drugs present pharmacokinetics drawbacks limiting their in vivo efficacy and clinic combination. As an alternative, drug delivery systems, particularly liposomes, emerge as an option for drug combination, able to simultaneously deliver co-loaded drugs with improved therapeutic index. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop and characterize a co-loaded paclitaxel and rapamycin liposome and evaluate it for breast cancer efficacy both in vitro and in vivo. Results showed that a SPC/Chol/DSPE-PEG (2000) liposome was able to co-encapsulate paclitaxel and rapamycin with suitable encapsulation efficiency values, nanometric particle size, low polydispersity and neutral zeta potential. Taken together, FTIR and thermal analysis evidenced drug conversion to the more bioavailable molecular and amorphous forms, respectively, for paclitaxel and rapamycin. The pegylated liposome exhibited excellent colloidal stability and was able to retain drugs encapsulated, which were released in a slow and sustained fashion. Liposomes were more cytotoxic to 4T1 breast cancer cell line than the free drugs and drugs acted synergistically, particularly when co-loaded. Finally, in vivo therapeutic evaluation carried out in 4T1-tumor-bearing mice confirmed the in vitro results. The co-loaded paclitaxel/rapamycin pegylated liposome better controlled tumor growth compared to the solution. Therefore, we expect that the formulation developed herein might be a contribution for future studies focusing on the clinical combination of paclitaxel and rapamycin.

  2. Heterogeneity in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Polyak, Kornelia

    2011-10-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease. There is a high degree of diversity between and within tumors as well as among cancer-bearing individuals, and all of these factors together determine the risk of disease progression and therapeutic resistance. Advances in technologies such as whole-genome sequencing and functional viability screens now allow us to analyze tumors at unprecedented depths. However, translating this increasing knowledge into clinical practice remains a challenge in part due to tumor evolution driven by the diversity of cancer cell populations and their microenvironment. The articles in this Review series discuss recent advances in our understanding of breast tumor heterogeneity, therapies tailored based on this knowledge, and future ways of assessing and treating heterogeneous tumors.

  3. Hormones, Women and Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... diagnosed? The most common way to find breast cancer is through a breast exam or mammogram (x-ray). Some women at high risk may need a screening MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan, which is more sensitive than a mammogram. ...

  4. Partial breast irradiation for early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Margot; Hickey, Brigid E; Francis, Daniel P; See, Adrienne M

    2014-06-18

    Breast conserving therapy for women with breast cancer consists of local excision of the tumour (achieving clear margins) followed by radiation therapy (RT). RT is given to sterilize tumour cells that may remain after surgery to decrease the risk of local tumour recurrence. Most true recurrences occur in the same quadrant as the original tumour. Whole breast RT may not protect against the development of a new primary cancer developing in other quadrants of the breast. In this Cochrane Review, we investigated the role of delivering radiation to a limited volume of the breast around the tumour bed (partial breast irradiation: PBI) sometimes with a shortened treatment duration (accelerated partial breast irradiation: APBI). To determine whether PBI/APBI is equivalent to or better than conventional or hypofractionated WBRT after breast conservation therapy for early-stage breast cancer. We searched the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group Specialised Register (07 November 2013), CENTRAL (2014, Issue 3), MEDLINE (January 1966 to 11 April 2014), EMBASE (1980 to 11 April 2014), CINAHL (11 April 2014) and Current Contents (11 April 2014). Also we searched the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register, the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (07 November 2013) and US clinical trials registry (www.clinicaltrials.gov) (22 April 2014). We searched for grey literature: Open Grey (23 April 2014), reference lists of articles, a number of conference proceedings and published abstracts, and did not apply any language restrictions. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) without confounding and evaluating conservative surgery plus PBI/APBI versus conservative surgery plus whole breast RT. We included both published and unpublished trials. Three review authors (ML, DF and BH) performed data extraction and resolved any disagreements through discussion. We entered data into Review Manager for analysis. BH and ML assessed trials

  5. Mammographic phenotypes of breast cancer risk driven by breast anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gastounioti, Aimilia; Oustimov, Andrew; Hsieh, Meng-Kang; Pantalone, Lauren; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2017-03-01

    Image-derived features of breast parenchymal texture patterns have emerged as promising risk factors for breast cancer, paving the way towards personalized recommendations regarding women's cancer risk evaluation and screening. The main steps to extract texture features of the breast parenchyma are the selection of regions of interest (ROIs) where texture analysis is performed, the texture feature calculation and the texture feature summarization in case of multiple ROIs. In this study, we incorporate breast anatomy in these three key steps by (a) introducing breast anatomical sampling for the definition of ROIs, (b) texture feature calculation aligned with the structure of the breast and (c) weighted texture feature summarization considering the spatial position and the underlying tissue composition of each ROI. We systematically optimize this novel framework for parenchymal tissue characterization in a case-control study with digital mammograms from 424 women. We also compare the proposed approach with a conventional methodology, not considering breast anatomy, recently shown to enhance the case-control discriminatory capacity of parenchymal texture analysis. The case-control classification performance is assessed using elastic-net regression with 5-fold cross validation, where the evaluation measure is the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic. Upon optimization, the proposed breast-anatomy-driven approach demonstrated a promising case-control classification performance (AUC=0.87). In the same dataset, the performance of conventional texture characterization was found to be significantly lower (AUC=0.80, DeLong's test p-value<0.05). Our results suggest that breast anatomy may further leverage the associations of parenchymal texture features with breast cancer, and may therefore be a valuable addition in pipelines aiming to elucidate quantitative mammographic phenotypes of breast cancer risk.

  6. Pharmacokinetically Guided Everolimus in Patients With Breast Cancer, Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors, or Kidney Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-09

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Insulinoma; Mucositis; Oral Complications; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Somatostatinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer

  7. [Occult multicentric breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Vtorushin, S V; Zab'ialova, M V; Glushchenko, S A; Perel'muter, V M; Slonimskaia, E M

    2009-01-01

    The study included 92 patients with invasive ductal breast cancer (T2-4N0-2M0-1). In 38 cases, tumor growth was unicentric while histologically identifiable ones as multicentric in 44. Multicentricity mostly occurred in cases of macroscopically-identifiable nodes located in the central segments of the breast. Clinically-identifiable nodes of multicentric tumor growth measured more than 3 cm. Multicentric tumors were mostly grade III, featured lower expression of sex hormone receptors and positive Her2 status.

  8. What Happens After Treatment for Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men After Treatment What Happens After Treatment for Breast Cancer in Men? For many men with breast cancer, ... Breast Cancer in Men Stops Working More In Breast Cancer In Men About Breast Cancer in Men Causes, ...

  9. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    predictors of surveillance and follow-up care is Baldwin’s Afrocentric model for describing AA women’s participation in breast and cervical cancer screening...African American women’s participation in breast and cervical cancer early detection and screening. Adv Nurs Sci. 1996;19(2):27Y42. 28. Marin G. Subjective...AD_________________ Award Number: DAMD17-03-1-0454 TITLE: Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance

  10. Educating Normal Breast Mucosa to Prevent Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    1 Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0059 TITLE: Educating normal breast mucosa to prevent breast cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Keith L Knutson...SUBTITLE Educating Normal Breast Mucosa to Prevent Breast Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0059 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0059 5c...Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Breast cancer develops from breast mucosa and breast mucosa has intact immune system to

  11. Breast-Conserving Surgery Followed by Radiation Therapy With MRI-Detected Stage I or Stage II Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2011-12-07

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  12. Evaluation of a single-isocenter technique for axillary radiotherapy in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    van Beek, Suzanne; De Jaeger, Katrien; Mijnheer, Ben; van Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a technique for axillary radiotherapy that minimizes the risk of radiation-induced damage to the surrounding normal tissue (i.e., arm, shoulder, lung, esophagus, and spinal cord) while keeping the risk of a nodal recurrence to a minimum. A planning study was performed in 20 breast cancer patients. The target volume of the axillary treatment encompassed the periclavicular and axillary lymph node areas. The 3-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) information in this study was used to outline the lymph node areas and the organs at risk (i.e., the esophagus, spinal cord, brachial plexus, and lung). A conventional AP-PA technique (with a transmission plate placed in the AP beam) was evaluated. In addition, a new single-isocenter technique consisting of AP/PA fields using a gantry rotation of +/-20 degrees and a medial AP segment was developed. Both techniques were compared by evaluation of the calculated dose distributions and the dose-volume histograms of the target volume and surrounding organs at risk. The field borders and humeral shielding were redefined based on the 3D anatomical references. Adapting the humeral shielding reduced the irradiated volume by 19% and might contribute to a reduction of the incidence of arm edema and impairment of shoulder function. The maximum radiation dose in the esophagus and spinal cord was reduced by more than 50% using the single-isocenter technique. The difference between both techniques with respect to the mean doses in the target volume and lung, and the maximum dose in brachial plexus, was not statistically significant. Moreover, the single-isocenter technique allowed a fast and easy treatment preparation and reduced the execution time considerably (with approximately 10 minutes per fraction).

  13. Evaluation of a Single-Isocenter Technique for Axillary Radiotherapy in Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Beek, Suzanne van Jaeger, Katrien de; Mijnheer, Ben |; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a technique for axillary radiotherapy that minimizes the risk of radiation-induced damage to the surrounding normal tissue (i.e., arm, shoulder, lung, esophagus, and spinal cord) while keeping the risk of a nodal recurrence to a minimum. A planning study was performed in 20 breast cancer patients. The target volume of the axillary treatment encompassed the periclavicular and axillary lymph node areas. The 3-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) information in this study was used to outline the lymph node areas and the organs at risk (i.e., the esophagus, spinal cord, brachial plexus, and lung). A conventional AP-PA technique (with a transmission plate placed in the AP beam) was evaluated. In addition, a new single-isocenter technique consisting of AP/PA fields using a gantry rotation of {+-}20 deg. and a medial AP segment was developed. Both techniques were compared by evaluation of the calculated dose distributions and the dose-volume histograms of the target volume and surrounding organs at risk. The field borders and humeral shielding were redefined based on the 3D anatomical references. Adapting the humeral shielding reduced the irradiated volume by 19% and might contribute to a reduction of the incidence of arm edema and impairment of shoulder function. The maximum radiation dose in the esophagus and spinal cord was reduced by more than 50% using the single-isocenter technique. The difference between both techniques with respect to the mean doses in the target volume and lung, and the maximum dose in brachial plexus, was not statistically significant. Moreover, the single-isocenter technique allowed a fast and easy treatment preparation and reduced the execution time considerably (with approximately 10 minutes per fraction)

  14. Getting beyond impressions: an evaluation of engagement with breast cancer-related Facebook content

    PubMed Central

    Theiss, Sunita Kapahi; Burke, Rachel M.; Cory, Janine L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Reaching young adults with health messages has been a documented challenge in public health. Public health researchers have initiated studies to assess how social media are changing health communication. In 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched social media-based health education initiatives on Facebook to increase knowledge of breast health and breast cancer among women under age 45 and those at higher risk for developing the disease. The current study used digital analytics and metrics to describe the impact of these social media efforts on health communication. Methods Engagement rate was calculated by taking the average engagement rate for 574 posts published by the CDC Breast Cancer Facebook page in multiple categories, including CDC campaign specificity, content type, time of day, and year posted. Linear regression was used to model the effect of campaign content. Results Engagement rate (ER) was highest for content shared for the Know:BRCA campaign posts (ER =6.4), followed by the non-campaign related posts (ER=5.5), and the Bring Your Brave posts (ER =4.6). Overall engagement rate decreased from 2014–2016. Photos consistently produced the most significant engagement rate overall. Conclusions We found that users were more likely to click, share, comment, or like the content of the post that had photos. These data suggest that that branded, visual content is more effective in facilitating engagement. These findings will be used to adjust both free and paid social media efforts for the CDC Breast Cancer Facebook page. PMID:27840816

  15. You, Your Teenage Daughter and Breast Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brateman, Libby

    1991-01-01

    Discusses breast cancer and teenagers, focusing on how parents can introduce the subject and encourage breast self-examination. The article provides information on breast cancer statistics, mammography, and American Cancer Society services. (SM)

  16. How Is Breast Cancer in Men Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging How Is Breast Cancer in Men Diagnosed? Medical history and physical exam ... in Men Survival Rates, by Stage More In Breast Cancer In Men About Breast Cancer in Men Causes, ...

  17. You, Your Teenage Daughter and Breast Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brateman, Libby

    1991-01-01

    Discusses breast cancer and teenagers, focusing on how parents can introduce the subject and encourage breast self-examination. The article provides information on breast cancer statistics, mammography, and American Cancer Society services. (SM)

  18. Axillary Lymph Nodes and Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... nodes . The axillary nodes are the first place breast cancer is likely to spread. During breast surgery, some ... if cancer cells are present. This helps determine breast cancer stage and guide treatment. So, it is more ...

  19. Breast cancer fear in African American breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Lynette M; Thomas, Sheila; Parker, Veronica; Mayo, Rachel; Wetsel, Margaret Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe breast cancer fear according to phase of survivorship, determine whether breast cancer fear levels differed among survivorship phases, and determine the relationship between fear and age in African-American breast cancer survivors. The study utilized secondary data analysis from the study, Inner Resources as Predictors of Psychological Well-Being in AABCS. A new subscale entitled, "Breast Cancer Fear" was adapted from the Psychological Well Being Subscale by Ferrell and Grant. There was no significant difference between fear and phase of survivorship. There was a significant positive relationship between age and fear.

  20. Advancing Breast Cancer Survivorship among African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Yoo, Wonsuk; Whitehead, Mary S.; Smith, Selina A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Advances have occurred in breast cancer survivorship but, for many African American women, challenges and gaps in relevant information remain. Methods This article identifies opportunities to address disparities in breast cancer survival and quality of life, and thereby to increase breast cancer survivorship among African American women. Results For breast cancer survivors, common side effects, lasting for long periods after cancer treatment, include fatigue, loss of strength, difficulty sleeping, and sexual dysfunction. For addressing physical and mental health concerns, a variety of interventions have been evaluated, including exercise and weight training, dietary interventions, yoga and mindfulness-based stress reduction, and support groups or group therapy. Obesity has been associated with breast cancer recurrence and poorer survival. Relative to white survivors, African American breast cancer survivors are more likely to be obese and less likely to engage in physical activity, although exercise improves overall quality of life and cancer-related fatigue. Considerable information exists about the effectiveness of such interventions for alleviating distress and improving quality of life among breast cancer survivors, but few studies have focused specifically on African American women with a breast cancer diagnosis. Studies have identified a number of personal factors that are associated with resilience, increased quality of life, and positive adaptation to a breast cancer diagnosis. Conclusions There is a need for a better understanding of breast cancer survivorship among African American women. Additional evaluations of interventions for improving the quality of life and survival of African American breast cancer survivors are desirable. PMID:26303657

  1. Advancing breast cancer survivorship among African-American women.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Steven S; Yoo, Wonsuk; Whitehead, Mary S; Smith, Selina A

    2015-09-01

    Advances have occurred in breast cancer survivorship but, for many African-American women, challenges and gaps in relevant information remain. This article identifies opportunities to address disparities in breast cancer survival and quality of life, and thereby to increase breast cancer survivorship among African-American women. For breast cancer survivors, common side effects, lasting for long periods after cancer treatment, include fatigue, loss of strength, difficulty sleeping, and sexual dysfunction. For addressing physical and mental health concerns, a variety of interventions have been evaluated, including exercise and weight training, dietary interventions, yoga and mindfulness-based stress reduction, and support groups or group therapy. Obesity has been associated with breast cancer recurrence and poorer survival. Relative to white survivors, African-American breast cancer survivors are more likely to be obese and less likely to engage in physical activity, although exercise improves overall quality of life and cancer-related fatigue. Considerable information exists about the effectiveness of such interventions for alleviating distress and improving quality of life among breast cancer survivors, but few studies have focused specifically on African-American women with a breast cancer diagnosis. Studies have identified a number of personal factors that are associated with resilience, increased quality of life, and positive adaptation to a breast cancer diagnosis. There is a need for a better understanding of breast cancer survivorship among African-American women. Additional evaluations of interventions for improving the quality of life and survival of African-American breast cancer survivors are desirable.

  2. Reproduction and Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Hanf, Volker; Hanf, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Summary Reproduction is doubtlessly one of the main biological meanings of life. It is therefore not surprising that various aspects of reproduction impact on breast cancer risk. Various developmental levels may become targets of breast tumorigenesis. This review follows the chronologic sequence of events in the life of a female at risk, starting with the intrauterine development. Furthermore, the influence of both contraceptive measures and fertility treatment on breast cancer development is dealt with, as well as various pregnancy-associated factors, events, and perinatal outcomes. Finally, the contribution of breast feeding to a reduced breast cancer risk is discussed. PMID:25759622

  3. Perceived Versus Objective Breast Cancer, Breast Cancer Risk in Diverse Women

    PubMed Central

    Fehniger, Julia; Livaudais-Toman, Jennifer; Karliner, Leah; Kerlikowske, Karla; Tice, Jeffrey A.; Quinn, Jessica; Ozanne, Elissa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Prior research suggests that women do not accurately estimate their risk for breast cancer. Estimating and informing women of their risk is essential for tailoring appropriate screening and risk reduction strategies. Methods: Data were collected for BreastCARE, a randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate a PC-tablet based intervention providing multiethnic women and their primary care physicians with tailored information about breast cancer risk. We included women ages 40–74 visiting general internal medicine primary care clinics at one academic practice and one safety net practice who spoke English, Spanish, or Cantonese, and had no personal history of breast cancer. We collected baseline information regarding risk perception and concern. Women were categorized as high risk (vs. average risk) if their family history met criteria for referral to genetic counseling or if they were in the top 5% of risk for their age based on the Gail or Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium Model (BCSC) breast cancer risk model. Results: Of 1,261 participants, 25% (N=314) were classified as high risk. More average risk than high risk women had correct risk perception (72% vs. 18%); 25% of both average and high risk women reported being very concerned about breast cancer. Average risk women with correct risk perception were less likely to be concerned about breast cancer (odds ratio [OR]=0.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.2–0.4) while high risk women with correct risk perception were more likely to be concerned about breast cancer (OR=5.1; 95%CI=2.7–9.6). Conclusions: Many women did not accurately perceive their risk for breast cancer. Women with accurate risk perception had an appropriate level of concern about breast cancer. Improved methods of assessing and informing women of their breast cancer risk could motivate high risk women to apply appropriate prevention strategies and allay unnecessary concern among average risk women. PMID:24372085

  4. Breast Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Natascia; Woditschka, Stephan; Reed, L. Tiffany; Nakayama, Joji; Mayer, Musa; Wetzel, Maria; Steeg, Patricia S.

    2014-01-01

    Despite important progress in adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapies, metastatic disease often develops in breast cancer patients and remains the leading cause of their deaths. For patients with established metastatic disease, therapy is palliative, with few breaks and with mounting adverse effects. Many have hypothesized that a personalized or precision approach (the terms are used interchangeably) to cancer therapy, in which treatment is based on the individual characteristics of each patient, will provide better outcomes. Here, we discuss the molecular basis of breast cancer metastasis and the challenges in personalization of treatment. The instability of metastatic tumors remains a leading obstacle to personalization, because information from a patient’s primary tumor may not accurately reflect the metastasis, and one metastasis may vary from another. Furthermore, the variable presence of tumor subpopulations, such as stem cells and dormant cells, may increase the complexity of the targeted treatments needed. Although molecular signatures and circulating biomarkers have been identified in breast cancer, there is lack of validated predictive molecular markers to optimize treatment choices for either prevention or treatment of metastatic disease. Finally, to maximize the information that can be obtained, increased attention to clinical trial design in the metastasis preventive setting is needed. PMID:23895915

  5. Report: Evaluation on diagnosis significance of single high frequency Ultrasonography and mammography and combination on Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huifang; Wang, Bo; Ding, Changmao; Yu, Zhan; Gao, Jianbo

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the diagnosis significance of single high-frequency ultrasonography and mammography and combination therapy of both on breast cancer. 352 cases of female breast cancer patients were selected from The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from January 2012 to December 2014. Among the 352 patients, 124 patients had only performed high-frequency ultrasonography detection, 102 cases of patients were only conducted mammography, and 126 patients had applied the combination detection of high-frequency ultrasonography and mammography. The coincidence rate of single mammography detection was 79.4%, the misdiagnosis rate was 10.8%, and the missed diagnosis rate was 9.8%; the coincidence rate of single high frequency ultrasonography detection was 83.9%, the misdiagnosis rate was 11.5%, the missed diagnosis rate was 4.6%; the coincidence rate of combination of high frequency ultrasonography detection was 89.7%, the misdiagnosis rate was 6.3%, the missed diagnosis rate was 4.0%. The detection rate and missed diagnosis rate of combination diagnosis had statistical difference with single high frequency ultrasonography and single mammography. There was no statistical difference on misdiagnosis rate. mammography and high frequency ultrasonography respectively had their own advantages. The combination application of both had better diagnosis complementary, and could significantly improved the detection rate and accuracy rate on breast cancer, and decreased the misdiagnosis rate and missed diagnosis rate.

  6. Development and evaluation of a web-based breast cancer cultural competency course for primary healthcare providers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To develop and evaluate a continuing medical education (CME) course aimed at improving healthcare provider knowledge about breast cancer health disparities and the importance of cross-cultural communication in provider-patient interactions about breast cancer screening. Methods An interactive web-based CME course was developed and contained information about breast cancer disparities, the role of culture in healthcare decision making, and demonstrated a model of cross-cultural communication. A single group pre-/post-test design was used to assess knowledge changes. Data on user satisfaction was also collected. Results In all, 132 participants registered for the CME with 103 completing both assessments. Differences between pre-/post-test show a significant increase in knowledge (70% vs. 94%; p < .001). Ninety-five percent of participants agreed that the web based training was an appropriate tool to train healthcare providers about cultural competency and health disparities. Conclusion There was an overall high level of satisfaction among all users. Users felt that learning objectives were met and the web-based format was appropriate and easy to use and suggests that web-based CME formats are an appropriate tool to teach cultural competency skills. However, more information is needed to understand how the CME impacted practice behaviors. PMID:21843344

  7. [Factors affecting adherence of breast cancer patients to adjuvant hormonal therapy and validation of the evaluation method].

    PubMed

    Iwai, Masaru; Fuchikami, Hiromi; Mizuno, Yoshio; Takeda, Naoko; Inoue, Yuko; Seto, Hiroshi; Kudo, Takuya; Sato, Kazuhiko

    2014-07-01

    The long-term use of hormonal therapy is important for the treatment of patients with breast cancer. Therefore, we evaluated the methods used for measuring adherence and examined factors that influence compliance. Our goal was to improve overall adherence to the treatment. Retrospective analyses by using electronic medical records and questionnaires were performed on 294 patients with breast cancer. The patients were classified into 2 groups based on the mean number of days when a dose was missed over a period of 28 days: group A(range, 0-3 days, n=272)and group B (range, B4 days, n=22). Factors that may influence adherence, including age, duration of hormonal therapy, the drug administered in hormonal therapy, the surgical method, axillary lymph node dissection, and adjuvant chemotherapy, were compared between both groups. The adherence rates calculated from electronic medical records and questionnaires were similar. The proportion of patients younger than 50 years was 30% in group A and 50% in group B(p<0.05). Additionally, there was a difference in the duration of hormone therapy(752 days vs 981 days in groups A and B, respectively; p< 0.05). Additional factors that are related to low-risk cancer-related procedures, such as breast conserving surgery, may also be linked to poor adherence. Young age and long duration of hormonal therapy are possibly related to poor adherence. Therefore, pharmacists should identify and manage these patients to increase adherence.

  8. Self-evaluation of Adjuvant Chemotherapy-Related Adverse Effects by Patients With Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Montemurro, Filippo; Mittica, Gloria; Cagnazzo, Celeste; Longo, Virginia; Berchialla, Paola; Solinas, Gianfranca; Culotta, Paola; Martinello, Rossella; Foresto, Manuela; Gallizioli, Simona; Calori, Adele; Grasso, Bruna; Volpone, Chiara; Bertola, Gisella; Parola, Gisella; Tealdi, Giancarla; Giuliano, Piero Luigi; Aglietta, Massimo; Ballari, Anna Maria

    2016-04-01

    Patient perspective on chemotherapy-related adverse effects is being increasingly acknowledged both in experimental clinical trials and in clinical practice. To evaluate a 10-item, paper questionnaire derived from the US National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4.0 for patient-reported chemotherapy-related adverse effects. Prospective, single-arm study of 604 women with breast cancer receiving standard adjuvant chemotherapy conducted at 11 outpatient oncology clinics at academic and nonacademic Italian hospitals between January 2011 and October 2013. The CTCAE version 4.0 definitions of grade of severity for nausea, vomiting, constipation, anorexia, dysgeusia, diarrhea, fatigue, pain, paresthesia, and dyspnea were translated into Italian and rephrased. Questionnaires were administered after the first and third cycle of chemotherapy. Adverse effect information was also extracted from the medical records to compare with patient-reported data. Differences in adverse effect-reporting between paired questionnaires and agreement between patient and physician adverse effect-reporting (grade 0 vs grade ≥1) were studied. Linear regression was used to study the effect of the number of patients enrolled at each institution on the magnitude of discrepancy in adverse effect-reporting between patients and physicians. A total of 604 women (median age, 53.4 years; interquartile range, 45.0-62.7 years) were enrolled. The number of patients enrolled at each site varied between 6 and 236. Three patients withdrew consent prior to starting the first cycle of adjuvant chemotherapy. After cycle 1 of adjuvant chemotherapy, 596 patient questionnaires were collected, and 581 patient questionnaires were collected after cycle 3. Of the questionnaires collected, 594 and 573 had corresponding questionnaire results extracted from medical records at the same time point. The median (interquartile range) percentage of completed questionnaire

  9. Indicators based on registers and administrative data for breast cancer: routine evaluation of oncologic care pathway can be implemented.

    PubMed

    Andreano, Anita; Anghinoni, Emanuela; Autelitano, Mariangela; Bellini, Aldo; Bersani, Maurizio; Bizzoco, Sabrina; Cavalieri d'Oro, Luca; Decarli, Adriano; Lucchi, Silvia; Mannino, Salvatore; Panciroli, Emerico; Rebora, Paola; Rognoni, Magda; Sampietro, Giuseppe; Villa, Marco; Zocchetti, Carlo; Zucchi, Alberto; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Russo, Antonio Giampiero

    2016-02-01

    Assuring the best standards of care - in a sustainable way - in chronic diseases as breast cancer is nowadays an important challenge for any health system. The aim of this study was to present the methodology used to define a set of quality indicators, computable from administrative data for the pathway of care of breast cancer, and its application at a population level. The cohort of 2007-2009 incident cases of breast cancer was identified through a network of six cancer registers in Northern Italy. Cases of sarcoma and lymphoma, patients with multiple primary cancers and those metastatic at diagnosis were excluded; 9614 women were retained for the analysis. For each indicator, the sub-cohort of women eligible for the diagnostic/therapeutic procedures was identified and calculations were performed through record linkage between the cohort and sources of health information. Data on potential available confounders or prognostic factors were also collected. For a few indicators, such as cyto-histological assessment before surgery (62%) and intensive follow-up (79%), deviation from recommendations was evident. Younger patients (≤50 years) more frequently needed a short term re-intervention, while older patients less frequently underwent reconstructive surgery and received palliative care. Several indicators had a great variability across hospitals. In some cases, this heterogeneity appeared to be related to the hospital size, with high-volume hospitals being more compliant to guidelines. It is possible to evaluate the quality of cancer care delivered in clinical practice in recent years, in order to implement interventions aimed to improve adherence to international standards of care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. MARIA M4: clinical evaluation of a prototype ultrawideband radar scanner for breast cancer detection

    PubMed Central

    Preece, Alan W.; Craddock, Ian; Shere, Mike; Jones, Lyn; Winton, Helen L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. A microwave imaging system has been developed as a clinical diagnostic tool operating in the 3- to 8-GHz region using multistatic data collection. A total of 86 patients recruited from a symptomatic breast care clinic were scanned with a prototype design. The resultant three-dimensional images have been compared “blind” with available ultrasound and mammogram images to determine the detection rate. Images show the location of the strongest signal, and this corresponded in both older and younger women, with sensitivity of >74%, which was found to be maintained in dense breasts. The pathway from clinical prototype to clinical evaluation is outlined. PMID:27446970

  11. MARIA M4: clinical evaluation of a prototype ultrawideband radar scanner for breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Preece, Alan W; Craddock, Ian; Shere, Mike; Jones, Lyn; Winton, Helen L

    2016-07-01

    A microwave imaging system has been developed as a clinical diagnostic tool operating in the 3- to 8-GHz region using multistatic data collection. A total of 86 patients recruited from a symptomatic breast care clinic were scanned with a prototype design. The resultant three-dimensional images have been compared "blind" with available ultrasound and mammogram images to determine the detection rate. Images show the location of the strongest signal, and this corresponded in both older and younger women, with sensitivity of [Formula: see text], which was found to be maintained in dense breasts. The pathway from clinical prototype to clinical evaluation is outlined.

  12. Evaluation of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Response in Women with Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Using Ultrasound Elastography1

    PubMed Central

    Falou, Omar; Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Prematilake, Sameera; Sofroni, Ervis; Papanicolau, Naum; Iradji, Sara; Jahedmotlagh, Zahra; Lemon-Wong, Sharon; Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Rakovitch, Eileen; Zubovits, Judit; Spayne, Jacqueline; Dent, Rebecca; Trudeau, Maureen; Boileau, Jean Francois; Wright, Frances C; Yaffe, Martin J; Czarnota, Gregory J

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Ultrasound elastography is a new imaging technique that can be used to assess tissue stiffness. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of ultrasound elastography for monitoring treatment response of locally advanced breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant therapy. METHODS: Fifteen women receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy had the affected breast scanned before, 1, 4, and 8 weeks following therapy initiation, and then before surgery. Changes in elastographic parameters related to tissue biomechanical properties were then determined and compared to clinical and pathologic tumor response after mastectomy. RESULTS: Patients who responded to therapy demonstrated a significant decrease (P < .05) in strain ratios and strain differences 4 weeks after treatment initiation compared to non-responding patients. Mean strain ratio and mean strain difference for responders was 81 ± 3% and 1 ± 17% for static regions of interest (ROIs) and 81 ± 3% and 6 ± 18% for dynamic ROIs, respectively. In contrast, these parameters were 102±2%, 110±17%, 101±4%, and 109±30% for non-responding patients, respectively. Strain ratio using static ROIs was found to be the best predictor of treatment response, with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity obtained 4 weeks after starting treatment. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that ultrasound elastography can be potentially used as an early predictor of tumor therapy response in breast cancer patients. PMID:23418613

  13. Evaluation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy response in women with locally advanced breast cancer using ultrasound elastography.

    PubMed

    Falou, Omar; Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Prematilake, Sameera; Sofroni, Ervis; Papanicolau, Naum; Iradji, Sara; Jahedmotlagh, Zahra; Lemon-Wong, Sharon; Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Rakovitch, Eileen; Zubovits, Judit; Spayne, Jacqueline; Dent, Rebecca; Trudeau, Maureen; Boileau, Jean Francois; Wright, Frances C; Yaffe, Martin J; Czarnota, Gregory J

    2013-02-01

    Ultrasound elastography is a new imaging technique that can be used to assess tissue stiffness. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of ultrasound elastography for monitoring treatment response of locally advanced breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant therapy. Fifteen women receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy had the affected breast scanned before, 1, 4, and 8 weeks following therapy initiation, and then before surgery. Changes in elastographic parameters related to tissue biomechanical properties were then determined and compared to clinical and pathologic tumor response after mastectomy. Patients who responded to therapy demonstrated a significant decrease (P < .05) in strain ratios and strain differences 4 weeks after treatment initiation compared to non-responding patients. Mean strain ratio and mean strain difference for responders was 81 ± 3% and 1 ± 17% for static regions of interest (ROIs) and 81 ± 3% and 6 ± 18% for dynamic ROIs, respectively. In contrast, these parameters were 102±2%, 110±17%, 101±4%, and 109±30% for non-responding patients, respectively. Strain ratio using static ROIs was found to be the best predictor of treatment response, with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity obtained 4 weeks after starting treatment. These results suggest that ultrasound elastography can be potentially used as an early predictor of tumor therapy response in breast cancer patients.

  14. Preclinical and Clinical Evaluation of Intraductally Administered Agents in Early Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stearns, Vered; Mori, Tsuyoshi; Jacobs, Lisa K.; Khouri, Nagi F.; Gabrielson, Edward; Yoshida, Takahiro; Kominsky, Scott L.; Huso, David L.; Jeter, Stacie; Powers, Penny; Tarpinian, Karineh; Brown, Regina J.; Lange, Julie R.; Rudek, Michelle A.; Zhang, Zhe; Tsangaris, Theodore N.; Sukumar, Saraswati

    2013-01-01

    Most breast cancers originate in the epithelial cells lining the breast ducts. Intraductal administration of cancer therapeutics would lead to high drug exposure to ductal cells and eliminate preinvasive neoplasms while limiting systemic exposure. We performed preclinical studies in N-methyl-N’-nitrosourea–treated rats to compare the effects of 5-fluorouracil, carboplatin, nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel, and methotrexate to the previously reported efficacy of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) on treatment of early and established mammary tumors. Protection from tumor growth was observed with all five agents, with extensive epithelial destruction present only in PLD-treated rats. Concurrently, we initiated a clinical trial to establish the feasibility, safety, and maximum tolerated dose of intraductal PLD. In each eligible woman awaiting mastectomy, we visualized one ductal system and administered dextrose or PLD using a dose-escalation schema (2 to 10 mg). Intraductal administration was successful in 15 of 17 women with no serious adverse events. Our preclinical studies suggest that several agents are candidates for intraductal therapy. Our clinical trial supports the feasibility of intraductal administration of agents in the outpatient setting. If successful, administration of agents directly into the ductal system may allow for “breast-sparing mastectomy” in select women. PMID:22030751

  15. Periodontal disease may associate with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Söder, Birgitta; Yakob, Maha; Meurman, Jukka H; Andersson, Leif C; Klinge, Björn; Söder, Per-Östen

    2011-06-01

    The main purpose was to evaluate the association between periodontal disease and the incidence of breast cancer in a prospective study of 3273 randomly selected subjects aged 30-40 years at baseline. Breast cancer incidence was registered from 1985 to 2001 according to the WHO International Classification of Diseases criteria. At baseline, 1676 individuals also underwent a clinical oral examination (Group A) whereas 1597 subjects were not clinically examined but were registered (Group B). The associations between breast cancer, periodontal disease, and missing molars were determined using multiple logistic regression models with several background variables and known risk factors for cancer. In total 26 subjects in group A and 15 subjects in group B had breast cancer. The incidence of breast cancer was 1.75% in subjects who had periodontal disease and/or any missing molars, and 0 in subjects who had periodontal disease but had no missing molars. For periodontally healthy subjects with no missing teeth the breast cancer incidence was 1%. For group B the respective incidence was 0.94%. Female gender (odds ratio (OR) 13.08) and missing any molar in the mandible (OR 2.36) were explanatory variables for breast cancer. Of the subjects with periodontal disease and any missing molars in the mandible 5.5% had breast cancer in comparison to 0.5% of the subjects who had periodontal disease but no missing molars in the mandible (P < 0.02). Chronic periodontal disease indicated by missing molars seemed to associate statistically with breast cancer.

  16. The Relationship between Adiponectin and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Erbay, Burcu; Yılmaz, Tonguç Utku; Eraldemir, Ceyla; Üren, Nihal; Tiryaki, Çağrı; Ergül, Emel; Utkan, Zafer

    2016-01-01

    Objective Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women worldwide. It is indicated that increased body mass index elevates the risk of developing breast cancer, worsens prognosis, and decreases survival. Several polymorphisms of adiponectin have been shown to affect serum levels of adiponectin and their association with breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the adiponectin 45T/G and 276 G/T gene polymorphism and breast cancer in the East Marmara region. Materials and Methods A case-control study was performed in 97 patients with breast cancer and 101 controls in East Marmara in order to evaluate the prevalence of adiponectin gene polymorphism at positions 45 and 276. Patients with familial breast cancer and those who had received chemotherapy or radiotherapy were excluded from the study. Adiponectin gene polymorphisms were investigated using polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results Adiponectin 45T/G gene genotype frequencies of TT, TG, and GG were 61.9%, 37.1%, and 1% in patients with breast cancer, and 67.3%, 30.7%, and 2% in the control group, respectively. Adiponectin 276G/T gene genotype frequencies of GG, GT, and TT were 45.4%, 45.4%, and 9.3% in patients with breast cancer and 55.4%, 39.6%, and 5.0% in the control group, respectively. Conclusion Our study showed that adiponectin 45T/G and 276 G/T gene polymorphism is not associated with breast cancer risk in patients from the East Marmara region.

  17. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Robert Richmond extracts breast cell tissue from one of two liquid nitrogen dewars. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  18. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Breast tissue specimens in traditional sample dishes. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  19. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Breast tissue specimens in traditional sample dishes. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  20. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Robert Richmond extracts breast cell tissue from one of two liquid nitrogen dewars. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  1. Dietary Isoflavones and Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Ziaei, Samira; Halaby, Reginald

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the deadliest neoplasm in women globally, resulting in a significant health burden. In many cases, breast cancer becomes resistant to chemotherapy, radiation, and hormonal therapies. It is believed that genetics is not the major cause of breast cancer. Other contributing risk factors include age at first childbirth, age at menarche, age at menopause, use of oral contraceptives, race and ethnicity, and diet. Diet has been shown to influence breast cancer incidence, recurrence, and prognosis. Soy isoflavones have long been a staple in Asian diets, and there appears to be an increase, albeit modest, compared to Asian populations, in soy consumption among Americans. Isoflavones are phytoestrogens that have antiestrogenic as well as estrogenic effects on breast cancer cells in culture, in animal models, and in clinical trials. This study will investigate anticancer and tumor promoting properties of dietary isoflavones and evaluate their effects on breast cancer development. Furthermore, this work seeks to elucidate the putative molecular pathways by which these phytochemicals modulate breast cancer risk by synergizing or antagonizing the estrogen receptor (ER) and in ER-independent signaling mechanisms. PMID:28930233

  2. Partial breast irradiation for early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Brigid E; Lehman, Margot; Francis, Daniel P; See, Adrienne M

    2016-07-18

    Breast-conserving therapy for women with breast cancer consists of local excision of the tumour (achieving clear margins) followed by radiotherapy (RT). RT is given to sterilize tumour cells that may remain after surgery to decrease the risk of local tumour recurrence. Most true recurrences occur in the same quadrant as the original tumour. Whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT) may not protect against the development of a new primary cancer developing in other quadrants of the breast. In this Cochrane review, we investigated the delivery of radiation to a limited volume of the breast around the tumour bed (partial breast irradiation (PBI)) sometimes with a shortened treatment duration (accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI)). To determine whether PBI/APBI is equivalent to or better than conventional or hypo-fractionated WBRT after breast-conserving therapy for early-stage breast cancer. We searched the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group Specialized Register (4 May 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2015, Issue 5), MEDLINE (January 1966 to 4 May 2015), EMBASE (1980 to 4 May 2015), CINAHL (4 May 2015) and Current Contents (4 May 2015). We searched the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register (5 May 2015), the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (4 May 2015) and ClinicalTrials.gov (17 June 2015). We searched for grey literature: OpenGrey (17 June 2015), reference lists of articles, several conference proceedings and published abstracts, and applied no language restrictions. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) without confounding, that evaluated conservative surgery plus PBI/APBI versus conservative surgery plus WBRT. Published and unpublished trials were eligible. Two review authors (BH and ML) performed data extraction and used Cochrane's 'Risk of bias' tool, and resolved any disagreements through discussion. We entered data into Review Manager 5 for analysis. We included

  3. [Organized breast cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Rouëssé, Jacques; Sancho-Garnier, Hélèn

    2014-02-01

    Breast screening programs are increasingly controversial, especially regarding two points: the number of breast cancer deaths they avoid, and the problem of over-diagnosis and over-treatment. The French national breast cancer screening program was extended to cover the whole country in 2004. Ten years later it is time to examine the risk/benefit ratio of this program and to discuss the need for change. Like all forms of cancer management, screening must be regularly updated, taking into account the state of the art, new evidence, and uncertainties. All screening providers should keep themselves informed of the latest findings. In the French program, women aged 50-74 with no major individual or familial risk factors for breast cancer are offered screening mammography and clinical breast examination every two years. Images considered non suspicious of malignancy by a first reader are re-examined by a second reader. The devices and procedures are subjected to quality controls. Participating radiologists (both public and private) are required to read at least 500 mammographies per year. The program's national participation rate was 52.7 % in 2012. When individual screening outside of the national program is taken into account (nearly 15 % of women), coverage appears close to the European recommendation of 65 %. Breast cancer mortality has been falling in France by 0.6 % per year for over 30 years, starting before mass screening was implemented, and by 1.5 % since 2005. This decline can be attributed in part to earlier diagnosis and better treatment, so that the specific impact of screening cannot easily be measured. Over-treatment, defined as the detection and treatment of low-malignancy tumors that would otherwise not have been detected in a person's lifetime, is a major negative effect of screening, but its frequency is not precisely known (reported to range from 1 % to 30 %). In view of these uncertainties, it would be advisable to modify the program in order to

  4. Evaluating survivorship care plans: results of a randomized, clinical trial of patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Grunfeld, Eva; Julian, Jim A; Pond, Gregory; Maunsell, Elizabeth; Coyle, Douglas; Folkes, Amy; Joy, Anil A; Provencher, Louise; Rayson, Daniel; Rheaume, Dorianne E; Porter, Geoffrey A; Paszat, Lawrence F; Pritchard, Kathleen I; Robidoux, André; Smith, Sally; Sussman, Jonathan; Dent, Susan; Sisler, Jeffrey; Wiernikowski, Jennifer; Levine, Mark N

    2011-12-20

    An Institute of Medicine report recommends that patients with cancer receive a survivorship care plan (SCP). The trial objective was to determine if an SCP for breast cancer survivors improves patient-reported outcomes. Women with early-stage breast cancer who completed primary treatment at least 3 months previously were eligible. Consenting patients were allocated within two strata: less than 24 months and ≥ 24 months since diagnosis. All patients were transferred to their own primary care physician (PCP) for follow-up. In addition to a discharge visit, the intervention group received an SCP, which was reviewed during a 30-minute educational session with a nurse, and their PCP received the SCP and guideline on follow-up. The primary outcome was cancer-related distress at 12 months, assessed by the Impact of Event Scale (IES). Secondary outcomes included quality of life, patient satisfaction, continuity/coordination of care, and health service measures. Overall, 408 survivors were enrolled through nine tertiary cancer centers. There were no differences between groups on cancer-related distress or on any of the patient-reported secondary outcomes, and there were no differences when the two strata were analyzed separately. More patients in the intervention than control group correctly identify their PCP as primarily responsible for follow-up (98.7% v 89.1%; difference, 9.6%; 95% CI, 3.9 to 15.9; P = .005). The results do not support the hypothesis that SCPs are beneficial for improving patient-reported outcomes. Transferring follow-up to PCPs is considered an important strategy to meet the demand for scarce oncology resources. SCPs were no better than a standard discharge visit with the oncologist to facilitate transfer.

  5. Facilitated peer support in breast cancer: a pre- and post-program evaluation of women's expectations and experiences of a facilitated peer support program.

    PubMed

    Power, Sinead; Hegarty, Josephine

    2010-01-01

    Peer support programs are associated with the provision of emotional, informational, and appraisal support. The benefits of peer support for women with breast cancer include reduced social isolation, enhanced coping, and access to information. The aim of this study was to conduct a pre- and post-program evaluation of a 7-week facilitated breast cancer peer support program in a cancer support house. Women with primary breast cancer (n = 8) participated in pre- and post-program focus groups. The interviews were recorded and were transcribed verbatim by the researcher. The data were analyzed using content analysis. Eight themes were identified. The key themes emerging from the pre and post programme focus groups included: The need for mutual identification; Post-treatment isolation; Help with moving on; The impact of hair loss; Consolidation of information; Enablement/empowerment; The importance of the cancer survivor; Mutual sharing. It is essential that facilitated peer support programs are tailored to meet the support needs of women with breast cancer. There is a particular need to facilitate mutual sharing and support for hair loss within these programs. Implications for practice emerging from this study include the importance of pre- and post-program evaluations in identifying whether peer support programs meet the expectations of women with breast cancer, the need for peer/professional programs to support women with treatment-induced hair loss, the importance of including cancer survivors in support programs, and the need to allow more informal sharing to occur in facilitated peer support programs.

  6. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    High magnification view of human primary breast tumor cells after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. The arrow points to bead surface indicating breast cancer cells (as noted by the staining of tumor cell intermediate filaments). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  7. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    High magnification view of human primary breast tumor cells after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. The arrow points to bead surface indicating breast cancer cells (as noted by the staining of tumor cell intermediate filaments). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  8. Genistein Programming Against Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACIDS, *GENES, *DIET, *ESTROGENS, *SOY PROTEIN, *BREAST CANCER, RATS , CHEMICALS, MOLECULES, ENZYMES, PROTEINS, SENSITIVITY, WOMEN, SENSE ORGANS, ASIA, MAMMARY GLANDS, METHYLATION, ANDROGENS, TRANSFERASES.

  9. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Badsberg, Jens Henrik; Osler, Merete

    2014-05-01

    Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast cancer. This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio-demography and co-morbid conditions. Multivariable analyses were performed by Cox's proportional hazard models. Two years after treatment, 81% of patients were still part of the work force, 10% of which were unemployed. Increasing duration of unemployment before breast cancer was associated with an adjusted HR = 4.37 (95% CI: 3.90-4.90) for unemployment after breast cancer. Other risk factors for unemployment included low socioeconomic status and demography, while adjuvant therapy did not increase the risk of unemployment. Duration of unemployment before breast cancer was the most important determinant of unemployment after breast cancer treatment. This allows identification of a particularly vulnerable group of patients in need of rehabilitation.

  10. Evaluation of the impact of National Breast Cancer Foundation-funded research.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Claire; Butler, Linda; Butt, Alison J; Jones, Teresa H; Hanney, Stephen R

    2014-03-03

    To evaluate the impact of the National Breast Cancer Foundation's (NBCF's) research investment. Surveys based on the Payback Framework were sent to chief investigators involved in research funded by the NBCF during 1995-2012; a bibliometric analysis of NBCF-funded publications in 2006-2010 was conducted; and a purposive, stratified sample of case studies was obtained. Research impact on knowledge production, the research system, informing policy, product development and broader health and economic benefits. Of 242 surveys sent, 153 (63%) were returned. The average impact of journals in which NBCF publications appeared was double that of world publications. Seventy surveys (46%) reported career progression, and 185 higher degrees were obtained or expected, including 121 PhDs. One hundred and one grants (66%) produced tools that built capacity across the research system, and research teams leveraged an additional $1.40 in funding for every dollar invested. Fifteen applied grants and one basic grant impacted on policy. Ten basic and four applied grants led to the development of drugs, prognostic tools or diagnostic technologies. Twenty applied and two basic grants led to changes in practice and behaviour of health care staff, consumers and the public, with further impacts anticipated. Case studies provided illustrations of high impact. NBCF's strategy of investing in a mixed portfolio of research areas and mechanisms encouraged a broad range of impacts across all Payback categories. The impacts from basic research tended to focus on knowledge production and drug development; while applied research generated greater impacts within the other Payback categories. The funding of shared infrastructure stimulated impact across the research system.

  11. Evaluation of trichodynia (hair pain) during chemotherapy or tamoxifen treatment in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kanti, V; Nuwayhid, R; Lindner, J; Hillmann, K; Bangemann, N; Kleine-Tebbe, A; Blume-Peytavi, U; Garcia Bartels, N

    2016-01-01

    In women receiving antineoplastic therapy, hair loss is often accompanied by distressing hair or scalp sensations, such as hair pain (trichodynia) and pruritus. A scientific approach to objectively evaluate the course and characteristics of these unpleasant sensations is of great importance for the establishment of treatment strategies. An observational cohort study was conducted in 34 female breast cancer patients, postoperatively undergoing chemotherapy (group C, n = 17) or endocrine therapy with tamoxifen (group T, n = 17). For 28 weeks after therapy initiation, patients experiencing hair pain and/or scalp pruritus were required to complete a specially developed diary, based on a modification of pain questionnaires. Sensations were journalized in terms of time of onset, duration, intensity on a numeric rating scale, dependence on touching the scalp or hair and character of the sensation, chosen from given descriptors or using own words. In group C, all patients who completed the questionnaire experienced hair and scalp sensations: 87% both trichodynia and pruritus, 13% trichodynia only. Reported intensities ranged between 1 and 10. In group T, 31% of participants reported hair and scalp sensations: 12% both trichodynia and pruritus, 12% pruritus only, 7% trichodynia only. Intensities were rated between 1 and 5. No sensations were reported after week 11 in either group. Hair and scalp sensations in group C were significantly more common, lasted longer, and were of greater intensity and more differentiated qualities than in group T. The occurrence of trichodynia in chemotherapy patients corresponded with the onset and duration of hair loss, thus suggesting a possible correlation. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  12. Evaluation Frequency of Merkel Cell Polyoma, Epstein-Barr and Mouse Mammary Tumor Viruses in Patients with Breast Cancer in Kerman, Southeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Reza, Malekpour Afshar; Reza, Mollaie Hamid; Mahdiyeh, Lashkarizadeh; Mehdi, Fazlalipour; Hamid, Zeinali Nejad

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Roles of the Epstein-Barr, Merkel cell polyoma and mouse mammary tumor viruses in breast carcinogenesis are still controversial although any relationship would clearly be important for breast cancer etiology, early detection and prevention. In the present study associations between EBV, MMTV and Merkel cell polyoma virus and breast cancer in 100 Iranian patients were evaluated using paraffin-embedded tissues. EBER RNA and expression of p53 and large T antigen were evaluated by real time PCR and CD34, p63, HER2, PR and ER markers were studied by immunohistochemistry. EBV was detected in 8/100 (8%), MMTV in 12/100 (12%), MPy in 3/100 (3%) and EBER RNA in 18/100 (18%) cases. None of the control samples demonstrated any of the viruses. p53 was suppressed in EBV, MPy and MMTV positive samples. The large T antigen rate was raised in MPy positive samples. Our results showed that EBV, MMTV and the Merkel cell polyoma virus are foundwith some proportion of breast cancers in our patients, suggesting that these viruses might have a significant role in breast cancer in Kerman, southeast of Iran.

  13. An ultrasonographic evaluation of skin thickness in breast cancer patients after postmastectomy radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Wong, Sharon; Kaur, Amarjit; Back, Michael; Lee, Khai Mun; Baggarley, Shaun; Lu, Jiade Jay

    2011-01-24

    To determine the usefulness of ultrasonography in the assessment of post radiotherapy skin changes in postmastectomy breast cancer patients. Patients treated for postmastectomy radiotherapy in National University Hospital (NUH) and Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH), Singapore between January 2004- December 2005 was recruited retrospectively. Ultrasound scan was performed on these Asian patients who had been treated to a total dose of 46-50 Gy with 1 cm bolus placed on the skin. The ultrasound scans were performed blinded to the RTOG scores, and the skin thickness of the individually marked points on the irradiated chest wall was compared to the corresponding points on the non-irradiated breast. The mean total skin thickness inclusive of the epidermis and the dermis of the right irradiated chest wall was 0.1712 mm (± 0.03392 mm) compared with the contra-lateral non-irradiated breast which was 0.1845 mm (± 0.04089 mm; p = 0.007). The left irradiated chest wall had a mean skin thickness of 0.1764 mm (± 0.03184 mm) compared with the right non-irradiated breast which was 0.1835 mm (± 0.02584 mm; p = 0.025). These independent t-tests produced a significant difference of reduced skin thickness on the right irradiated chest wall, p = 0.007 (p < 0.05) and left irradiated chest wall p = 0.025 (p < 0.025) in comparison to the non-irradiated skin thickness investigating chronic skin reactions. Patients with grade 2 acute skin toxicity presented with thinner skin as compared to patients with grade 1 (p = 0.006). This study has shown that there is a statistically significant difference between the skin thicknesses of the irradiated chest wall and the contra-lateral non-irradiated breast and a predisposition to chronic reactions was found in patients with acute RTOG scoring of grade1 and grade 2.

  14. Amphiphysin and Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-01

    condition appears to represent a novel entity within the emerging family of neurological autoimmune paraneoplastic syndromes , conditions in which...We have recently identified a new human syndrome characterized by breast cancer, autoimmunity directed against the neuronal protein in amphiphysin...and Stiff-Man syndrome (SMS). SMS is a rare disease of the central nervous system characterized by progressive rigidity of the body musculature. This

  15. Erythropoietin and Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author( s ) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position...CONTRACT NUMBER Erythropoietin and Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1-0737 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT...NUMBER Arthur J. Sytkowski, MD 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING

  16. Preclinical evaluation of cyclin dependent kinase 11 and casein kinase 2 survival kinases as RNA interference targets for triple negative breast cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kren, Betsy T; Unger, Gretchen M; Abedin, Md J; Vogel, Rachel I; Henzler, Christine M; Ahmed, Khalil; Trembley, Janeen H

    2015-01-01

    Targeted therapies for aggressive breast cancers like triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) are needed. The use of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to disable expression of survival genes provides a tool for killing these cancer cells. Cyclin dependent kinase 11 (CDK11) is a survival protein kinase that regulates RNA transcription, splicing and mitosis. Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a survival protein kinase that suppresses cancer cell death. Eliminating the expression of these genes has potential therapeutic utility for breast cancer. Expression levels of CDK11 and CK2 mRNAs and associated proteins were examined in breast cancer cell lines and tissue arrays. RNA expression levels of CDC2L1, CDC2L2, CCNL1, CCNL2, CSNK2A1, CSNK2A2, and CSNK2B genes in breast cancer subtypes were analyzed. Effects following transfection of siRNAs against CDK11 and CK2 in cultured cells were examined by viability and clonal survival assays and by RNA and protein measures. Uptake of tenfibgen (TBG) nanocapsules by TNBC cells was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. TBG nanocapsules delivered siRNAs targeting CDK11 or CK2 in mice carrying TNBC xenograft tumors. Transcript cleavage and response parameters were evaluated. We found strong CDK11 and CK2 mRNA and protein expression in most human breast cancer cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of TNBC patient tissues showed 100% of tumors stained positive for CDK11 with high nuclear intensity compared to normal tissue. The Cancer Genome Atlas analysis comparing basal to other breast cancer subtypes and to normal breast revealed statistically significant differences. Down-regulation of CDK11 and/or CK2 in breast cancer cells caused significant loss of cell viability and clonal survival, reduced relevant mRNA and protein expression, and induced cell death changes. TBG nanocapsules were taken up by TNBC cells both in culture and in xenograft tumors. Treatment with TBG- siRNA to CDK11 or TBG- siRNA to CK2αα' nanocapsules induced

  17. Breast cancer risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Ciszewski, Tomasz; Łopacka-Szatan, Karolina; Miotła, Paweł; Starosławska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual's life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence. PMID:26528110

  18. Multiparametric Evaluation of Treatment Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer Using Integrated PET/MR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jane; Shih, Tiffany Ting-Fang; Yen, Ruoh-Fang

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether integrated PET/MR system can predict the treatment response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) early in the course of breast cancer treatment. Fourteen women with newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer (median age, 54.5 years) were recruited. Each participant underwent 2 PET/MR studies. Study 1 was pre-NAC; study 2 was early in NAC treatment (after the first or second cycle). PET parameters included SUVmax and total lesion glycolysis (TLG). MRI parameters included choline signal-to-noise ratio (ChoSNR), peak enhancement ratio (PER), and the minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmin). The pathologic response was categorized as a pathologic complete response or residual cellularity of less than 10% (group 1) and residual cellularity of 10% or greater (group 2). The accuracy of the NAC response prediction was obtained by receiver operating characteristic analysis. Group 1 showed a greater reduction of SUVmax (percentage change, [INCREMENT]% SUVmax, P = 0.013; area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC], 0.898), TLG ([INCREMENT]%TLG, P = 0.018; AUC = 0.878), and PER ([INCREMENT]% PER, P = 0.035; AUC = 0.837) than did group 2. The ChoSNR, ADCmin, [INCREMENT]%ChoSNR, and [INCREMENT]%ADCmin did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. The hybrid markers, [INCREMENT]%SUVmax/[INCREMENT]%ADCmin (AUC = 0.976) and [INCREMENT]%TLG/[INCREMENT]%ADCmin (AUC = 0.905), showed greater accuracy in predicting NAC response than the individual PET/MR parameters. The PET/MR parameters can predict the NAC response early in the course of breast cancer treatment. The hybrid markers more accurately predicted treatment response than the individual PET/MR parameters.

  19. Independent Association of Lobular Involution and Mammographic Breast Density With Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Vachon, Celine M.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Vierkant, Robert A.; Anderson, Stephanie S.; Brandt, Kathleen R.; Visscher, Daniel W.; Reynolds, Carol; Frost, Marlene H.; Hartmann, Lynn C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Lobular involution, or age-related atrophy of breast lobules, is inversely associated with breast cancer risk, and mammographic breast density (MBD) is positively associated with breast cancer risk. Methods To evaluate whether lobular involution and MBD are independently associated with breast cancer risk in women with benign breast disease, we performed a nested cohort study among women (n = 2666) with benign breast disease diagnosed at Mayo Clinic between January 1, 1985, and December 31, 1991 and a mammogram available within 6 months of the diagnosis. Women were followed up for an average of 13.3 years to document any breast cancer incidence. Lobular involution was categorized as none, partial, or complete; parenchymal pattern was classified using the Wolfe classification as N1 (nondense), P1, P2 (ductal prominence occupying <25%, or >25% of the breast, respectively), or DY (extremely dense). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess associations of lobular involution and MBD with breast cancer risk were estimated using adjusted Cox proportional hazards model. All tests of statistical significance were two-sided. Results After adjustment for MBD, having no or partial lobular involution was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer than having complete involution (none: HR of breast cancer incidence = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.39 to 4.94; partial: HR of breast cancer incidence = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.03 to 2.53; Ptrend = .002). Similarly, after adjustment for involution, having dense breasts was associated with higher risk of breast cancer than having nondense breasts (for DY: HR of breast cancer incidence = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.03 to 2.73; for P2: HR of breast cancer incidence = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.20 to 3.21; for P1: HR of breast cancer incidence = 1.23, 95% CI = 0.67 to 2.26; Ptrend = .02). Having a combination of no involution and dense breasts was associated with higher risk of breast cancer than having complete involution and nondense

  20. Relationship between sentinel lymph nodes and postoperative tangential fields in early breast cancer, evaluated using SPECT/CT

    PubMed Central

    Wadasaki, Koichi; Nishibuchi, Ikuno

    2015-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) demonstrates the precise location of the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in patients with breast cancer. We evaluated the relationship between SLNs and postoperative tangential fields by using SPECT/CT images. Subjects included 72 patients with early breast cancer who underwent SPECT/CT of the SLNs and received whole-breast irradiation with tangential fields after partial mastectomy. The SLN locations evaluated by using SPECT/CT images were entered into the treatment-planning CT image with a 5-mm-diameter sphere. A 15-mm-diameter sphere including the 5-mm treatment margin around the SLNs was defined as PTV-SLN. The PTV-SLN doses with tangential irradiation were evaluated and expressed as the percentage of the prescribed dose. In 69 patients, SLNs were detected by using SPECT/CT; 68 SLNs were located at axillary lymph node Level I, and one was located at Level II. A total of 62 SLNs (90%) were determined to be located inside the tangential fields on the digitally reconstructed radiography (DRR) images. The median doses of SLN center, mean PTV-SLN dose, and PTV-SLN D95 (the minimum dose delivered to 95% of the volume) were 94.1% (range, 15.3–101.9%), 93.7% (range, 29.3–104.0%) and 84.8% (range, 6.8–99.8%). The D95 for the SLNs with treatment margins were ≤90% of the prescribed doses in more than half of the cases. Modification of the individual treatment fields seemed to be necessary to ensure coverage of the SLNs in whole-breast irradiation. PMID:26062810

  1. Evaluation of Women over 20 Years Living in the Province of Samsun in Terms of Risk of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aker, Servet; Öz, Hatice; Tunçel, Ebru Kaynar

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess women aged over 20 living in the province of Samsun in terms of risk of breast cancer. Materials and Methods The study population of this descriptive research consisted of 410,377 women aged over 20 living within the administrative borders of the province of Samsun. Stratified systematic sampling was employed in the selection of an 800-member sample. A questionnaire was used drawn up by the authors and inquiring into women’s demographic characteristics and risk factors for breast cancer. Surveys were performed between 01.04.2013 and 30.06.2013 at face-to-face interviews at individuals’ home addresses. The Gail model was used in calculating women’s risk levels for breast cancer. Results 3.1% of women had a first-degree relative (mother, sister or daughter) with a history of breast cancer; 1.4% of women had a history of breast cancer and 8.0% a history of benign breast changes, while 50.4% of women who had entered the menopause were overweight or obese. We determined that 11.3% of women had a high risk of contracting breast cancer within the following 5 years. Conclusion Determining the distribution of risk factors for breast cancer is important in terms of identifying the at-risk group and will represent the basis for developing future programs.

  2. An Evaluation of Hepatotoxicity in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Injection Doxorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Damodar, G; Smitha, T; Gopinath, S; Vijayakumar, S; Rao, YA

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hepatic dysfunction in the cancer unit has a significant impact on patient outcomes. The therapeutic application of anthracycline antibiotics are limited by side-effects mainly myelosuppression, chronic cardiotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity. Aim: To assess the risk of Hepatotoxicity in breast cancer patients receiving Inj. Doxorubicin. Subjects and Methods: The investigation was a prospective study that was conducted in cancer patients receiving Inj. Doxorubicin doses of 50 mg/m2, and 75 mg/m2 at a South Indian tertiary care hospital. Sample collection was carried out from pre-chemotherapy to 4th cycle. Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), direct bilirubin and total bilirubin were assessed to determine hepatotoxicity. Data were analyzed using unpaired t-test, Pearson correlation using Graph-Pad Prism version 5.00 for Windows, Graph-Pad Software, San Diego, California, USA, www.graphpad.com. Results: Breast cancer patients comprised 37% (49/132) of the total female cancer patient population, of which 46 patients with a mean age of 46.6 (13.4) years were included and 30.4% (14/46) patients were developed hepatotoxicity. The mean standard deviation of SGOT, SGPT, direct bilirubin, total bilirubin in the pre-chemotherapy cycle to fourth chemotherapy cycle were found to be 21.97 (5.798) U/L and 181.3 (103.6) U/L, 23.17 (6.237) U/L and 147.6 (90.9) U/L, 0.1351 (0.1186) mg/dL and 0.5445 (0.4587) mg/dL, 0.3094 (1.346) mg/dL and 2.7163 (1.898) mg/dL simultaneously where P < 0.05 which were statistically significant. Conclusion: There exist a strong correlation between the use of Inj. Doxorubicin and risk for developing hepatotoxicity. The health-care professionals dealing with breast cancer patients need to have awareness for hepatotoxicity with the use of Inj. Doxorubicin therapy. PMID:24669335

  3. Breast-feeding after breast cancer in childbearing women.

    PubMed

    Camune, Barbara; Gabzdyl, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    According to the American Cancer Society in 2007, about 178,000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer each year in the United States. Of these, 25% have tumors in their childbearing years and may desire future opportunities for pregnancy and lactation. Although there is a multitude of options related to preserving fertility, little is known about the residual effects of breast cancer treatment and the ability to breast-feed afterward. This article describes the epidemiological relationship between breast cancer and pregnancy and lactation. Basic types of treatment for breast cancer including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation are reviewed. Practical information on how to support breast-feeding after breast cancer is included.

  4. [Preventability estimates for colorectal and breast cancer in Germany. A methodological evaluation of the risk factors alcohol and overweight].

    PubMed

    Wienecke, A; Knorpp, L; Stegmüller, K; Kroke, A

    2013-03-01

    Population attributable fractions (PAFs) for the risk factors alcohol intake and overweight in the German population were calculated to estimate the preventability of colorectal and breast cancer attributable to these risk factors. Estimates were based on national alcohol consumption and overweight prevalence data in the German population. Comparative analyses were used to evaluate the variation of PAF estimates according to changes in the calculation parameters. PAFs quantify the preventive potential that could result from removing or reducing the risk factor exposure, respectively. Postmenopausal breast cancer was estimated to be preventable by 13-23% if the population were normal weight. Among German men, 10-25% of colon cancers were attributable to alcohol consumption and 7-13% of colorectal cancers to overweight. The comparative analyses demonstrated that preventability estimates vary considerably with the chosen data (risk estimates, reference categories) for PAF calculation and can differ by up to 50%. Thus, data selection should be evidence based, for example, based on meta-analyses, in order to increase the validity of preventability estimates.

  5. Rosuvastatin in Treating Women With Cardiovascular Complications Who Are Undergoing Chemotherapy For Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-25

    Cardiovascular Complications; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  6. Vascular and Cognitive Assessments in Patients With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy After Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-20

    Cognitive/Functional Effects; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  7. Pathways to Breast Cancer Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer remains a deadly disease, even with all the recent technological advancements. Early intervention has made an impact, but an overwhelmingly large number of breast cancer patients still live under the fear of “recurrent” disease. Breast cancer recurrence is clinically a huge problem and one that is largely not well understood. Over the years, a number of factors have been studied with an overarching aim of being able to prognose recurrent disease. This paper attempts to provide an overview of our current knowledge of breast cancer recurrence and its associated challenges. Through a survey of the literature on cancer stem cells (CSCs), epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), various signaling pathways such as Notch/Wnt/hedgehog, and microRNAs (miRNAs), we also examine the hypotheses that are currently under investigation for the prevention of breast cancer recurrence. PMID:23533807

  8. Breast cancer statistics and markers.

    PubMed

    Donepudi, Mallika Siva; Kondapalli, Kasturi; Amos, Seelam Jeevan; Venkanteshan, Pavithra

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the familiar diseases in women. Incidence and mortality due to cancer, particularly breast cancer has been increasing for last 50 years, even though there is a lacuna in the diagnosis of breast cancer at early stages. According to World Health Organization (WHO) 2012 reports, breast cancer is the leading cause of death in women, accounting 23% of all cancer deaths. In Asia, one in every three women faces the risk of breast cancer in their lifetime as per reports of WHO 2012. Here, the review is been focused on different breast cancer markers, that is, tissue markers (hormone receptors, human epidermal growth factor-2, urokinase plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor, p53 and cathepsin D), genetic markers (BRAC1 and 2 and gene expression microarray technique, etc.), and serum markers (CA 15.3, BR 27.29, MCA, CA 549, carcinoembryonic antigen, oncoproteins, and cytokeratins) used in present diagnosis, but none of the mentioned markers can diagnose breast cancer at an early stage. There is a disquieting need for the identification of best diagnosing marker, which can be able to diagnose even in early stage of breast carcinogenesis.

  9. Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Older Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-14

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  10. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for breast cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  11. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... outcomes: the NSABP Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) P–2 trial. JAMA 2006; 295(23):2727– ... and Bowel Project Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) P-2 Trial: Preventing breast cancer. Cancer Prevention ...

  12. Economic evaluation of the breast cancer screening programme in the Basque Country: retrospective cost-effectiveness and budget impact analysis.

    PubMed

    Arrospide, Arantzazu; Rue, Montserrat; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T; Comas, Merce; Soto-Gordoa, Myriam; Sarriugarte, Garbiñe; Mar, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer screening in the Basque Country has shown 20 % reduction of the number of BC deaths and an acceptable overdiagnosis level (4 % of screen detected BC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the breast cancer early detection programme in the Basque Country in terms of retrospective cost-effectiveness and budget impact from 1996 to 2011. A discrete event simulation model was built to reproduce the natural history of breast cancer (BC). We estimated for lifetime follow-up the total cost of BC (screening, diagnosis and treatment), as well as quality-adjusted life years (QALY), for women invited to participate in the evaluated programme during the 15-year period in the actual screening scenario and in a hypothetical unscreened scenario. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated with the use of aggregated costs. Besides, annual costs were considered for budget impact analysis. Both population level and single-cohort analysis were performed. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was applied to assess the impact of parameters uncertainty. The actual screening programme involved a cost of 1,127 million euros and provided 6.7 million QALYs over the lifetime of the target population, resulting in a gain of 8,666 QALYs for an additional cost of 36.4 million euros, compared with the unscreened scenario. Thus, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was 4,214€/QALY. All the model runs in the probabilistic sensitivity analysis resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio lower than 10,000€/QALY. The screening programme involved an increase of the annual budget of the Basque Health Service by 5.2 million euros from year 2000 onwards. The BC screening programme in the Basque Country proved to be cost-effective during the evaluated period and determined an affordable budget impact. These results confirm the epidemiological benefits related to the centralised screening system and support the continuation of the programme.

  13. Targeting SH2 domains in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Morlacchi, Pietro; Robertson, Fredika M; Klostergaard, Jim; McMurray, John S

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is among the most commonly diagnosed cancer types in women worldwide and is the second leading cause of cancer-related disease in the USA. SH2 domains recruit signaling proteins to phosphotyrosine residues on aberrantly activated growth factor and cytokine receptors and contribute to cancer cell cycling, metastasis, angiogenesis and so on. Herein we review phosphopeptide mimetic and small-molecule approaches targeting the SH2 domains of Grb2, Grb7 and STAT3 that inhibit their targets and reduce proliferation in in vitro breast cancer models. Only STAT3 inhibitors have been evaluated in in vivo models and have led to tumor reduction. Taken together, these studies suggest that targeting SH2 domains is an important approach to the treatment of breast cancer.

  14. Evaluation of Therapy Management and Patient Compliance in Postmenopausal Patients with Hormone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer Receiving Letrozole Treatment: The EvaluateTM Study

    PubMed Central

    Fasching, P. A.; Fehm, T.; Kellner, S.; de Waal, J.; Rezai, M.; Baier, B.; Baake, G.; Kolberg, H.-C.; Guggenberger, M.; Warm, M.; Harbeck, N.; Würstlein, R.; Deuker, J.-U.; Dall, P.; Richter, B.; Wachsmann, G.; Brucker, C.; Siebers, J. W.; Fersis, N.; Kuhn, T.; Wolf, C.; Vollert, H.-W.; Breitbach, G.-P.; Janni, W.; Landthaler, R.; Kohls, A.; Rezek, D.; Noesslet, T.; Fischer, G.; Henschen, S.; Praetz, T.; Heyl, V.; Kühn, T.; Krauß, T.; Thomssen, C.; Kümmel, S.; Hohn, A.; Tesch, H.; Mundhenke, C.; Hein, A.; Rauh, C.; Bayer, C. M.; Jacob, A.; Schmidt, K.; Belleville, E.; Hadji, P.; Wallwiener, D.; Grischke, E.-M.; Beckmann, M. W.; Brucker, S. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The EvaluateTM study (Evaluation of therapy management and patient compliance in postmenopausal hormone receptor-positive breast cancer patients receiving letrozole treatment) is a prospective, non-interventional study for the assessment of therapy management and compliance in the routine care of postmenopausal women with invasive hormone receptor-positive breast cancer receiving letrozole. The parameters for inclusion in the study are presented and discussed here. Material and Methods: Between January 2008 and December 2009 a total of 5045 patients in 310 study centers were recruited to the EvaluateTM study. Inclusion criteria were hormone receptor-positive breast cancer and adjuvant treatment or metastasis. 373 patients were excluded from the analysis for various reasons. Results: A total of 4420 patients receiving adjuvant treatment and 252 patients with metastasis receiving palliative treatment were included in the study. For 4181 patients receiving adjuvant treatment, treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole commenced immediately after surgery (upfront). Two hundred patients had initially received tamoxifen and started aromatase inhibitor treatment with letrozole at 1–5 years after diagnosis (switch), und 39 patients only commenced letrozole treatment 5–10 years after diagnosis (extended endocrine therapy). Patient and tumor characteristics were within expected ranges, as were comorbidities and concurrent medication. Conclusion: The data from the EvaluateTM study will offer a good overview of therapy management in the routine care of postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Planned analyses will look at therapy compliance and patient satisfaction with how information is conveyed and the contents of the conveyed information. PMID:25568468

  15. Evaluation of the postoperative breast.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, E B

    1992-01-01

    With widespread use of mammography for breast cancer screening, the number of surgical procedures has also increased. Overlapping with radiographic signs of malignancy, including masses, areas of asymmetric density and architectural distortion, microcalcifications, and skin thickening, postsurgical changes may make mammographic evaluation difficult. After tumor excision and irradiation where breast alterations are more profound and prolonged, the task of distinguishing recurrent tumor from scarring or fat necrosis is even more challenging. Mammograms after breast conservation therapy for carcinoma or after cosmetic surgery require correlation with physical findings and the surgical procedures that were performed. Responses of tissue to lumpectomy and radiation, such as breast edema and skin thickening, are most pronounced 6 to 12 months after treatment, gradually resolving within 1 to 3 years. Carefully tailored mammographic studies will promote the dual goal of early detection of local tumor recurrence and avoidance of misinterpreting postoperative and irradiation changes as malignancy. Sequential examinations should begin with a postoperative preradiation mammogram for residual carcinoma, particularly when microcalcifications have been present, followed by the baseline postradiation examination at 6 months with the next study 6 months later (1 year after initial treatment). Mammograms of the treated breast may be performed at intervals of 6 months until radiographic stability has been recognized. Annual studies thereafter are suggested. The contralateral, unaffected breast should be evaluated mammographically according to screening guidelines or clinical concerns. Mammograms performed after cosmetic and reconstructive procedures should be correlated with the surgical techniques and clinical history. Modified views for silicone implants can maximize visualization of breast parenchyma. Ultrasonography is a useful complement to mammography in demonstrating the

  16. An evaluation of early or delayed adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal patients with advances breast cancer undergoing oophorectomy: a later analysis.

    PubMed

    Ahmann, D L; Green, S J; Bisel, H F; Ingle, J N; Hahn, R G; Lee, R A; Edmonson, J H

    1982-08-01

    In 1977 we reported our results of an ongoing randomized clinical trial evaluating early or delayed adjuvant chemotherapy utilizing 5-flourouracil, cytoxan and prednisone in premenopausal patients with recurrent or advanced breast cancer. At that time the group receiving early systemic chemotherapy was shown to have an improved progression-free interval and appeared to have a trend toward improved survival. The results of subsequent analysis after over 4 more years of follow-up indicate however, that while early employment of systemic chemotherapy does indeed prolong the progression-free interval, and while this advantage has been maintained, there is no survival advantage shown for either group of patients.

  17. High resolution microendoscopy with structured illumination and Lugol's iodine staining for evaluation of breast cancer architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbs, Jessica; Kyrish, Matthew; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Grant, Benjamin; Kuerer, Henry; Yang, Wei; Tkaczyk, Tomasz; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2016-03-01

    Intraoperative margin assessment to evaluate resected tissue margins for neoplastic tissue is performed to prevent reoperations following breast-conserving surgery. High resolution microendoscopy (HRME) can rapidly acquire images of fresh tissue specimens, but is limited by low image contrast in tissues with high optical scattering. In this study we evaluated two techniques to reduce out-of-focus light: HRME image acquisition with structured illumination (SI-HRME) and topical application of Lugol's Iodine. Fresh breast tissue specimens from 19 patients were stained with proflavine alone or Lugol's Iodine and proflavine. Images of tissue specimens were acquired using a confocal microscope and an HRME system with and without structured illumination. Images were evaluated based on visual and quantitative assessment of image contrast. The highest mean contrast was measured in confocal images stained with proflavine. Contrast was significantly lower in HRME images stained with proflavine; however, incorporation of structured illumination significantly increased contrast in HRME images to levels comparable to that in confocal images. The addition of Lugol's Iodine did not increase mean contrast significantly for HRME or SI-HRME images. These findings suggest that structured illumination could potentially be used to increase contrast in HRME images of breast tissue for rapid image acquisition.

  18. Evaluation of glycophenotype in breast cancer by quantum dot-lectin histochemistry.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Camila G; Cabral Filho, Paulo E; Tenório, Denise P L; Santos, Beate S; Beltrão, Eduardo I C; Fontes, Adriana; Carvalho, Luiz B

    2013-01-01

    Cell surface glycoconjugates play an important role in differentiation/dedifferentiation processes and lectins are employed to evaluate them by several methodologies. Fluorescent probes are considered a valuable tool because of their ability to provide a particular view, and are more detailed and sensitive in terms of cell structure and molecular content. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the expression and distribution of glycoconjugates in normal human breast tissue, and benign (fibroadenoma), and malignantly transformed (invasive ductal carcinoma) breast tissues. For this, we used mercaptosuccinic acid-coated Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs) conjugated with concanavalin A (Con A) or Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA I) lectins to detect α-D-glucose/mannose and L-fucose residues, respectively. The QD-lectin conjugates were evaluated by hemagglutination activity tests and carbohydrate inhibition assays, and were found to remain functional, keeping their fluorescent properties and carbohydrate recognition ability. Fluorescence images showed that different regions of breast tissue expressed particular types of carbohydrates. While the stroma was preferentially and intensely stained by QD-Con A, ductal cells were preferentially labeled by QD-UEA I. These results indicate that QD-lectin conjugates can be used as molecular probes and can help to elucidate the glycoconjugate profile in biological processes.

  19. Evaluation of glycophenotype in breast cancer by quantum dot-lectin histochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Camila G; Cabral Filho, Paulo E; Tenório, Denise PL; Santos, Beate S; Beltrão, Eduardo IC; Fontes, Adriana; Carvalho, Luiz B

    2013-01-01

    Cell surface glycoconjugates play an important role in differentiation/dedifferentiation processes and lectins are employed to evaluate them by several methodologies. Fluorescent probes are considered a valuable tool because of their ability to provide a particular view, and are more detailed and sensitive in terms of cell structure and molecular content. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the expression and distribution of glycoconjugates in normal human breast tissue, and benign (fibroadenoma), and malignantly transformed (invasive ductal carcinoma) breast tissues. For this, we used mercaptosuccinic acid-coated Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs) conjugated with concanavalin A (Con A) or Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA I) lectins to detect α-D-glucose/mannose and L-fucose residues, respectively. The QD-lectin conjugates were evaluated by hemagglutination activity tests and carbohydrate inhibition assays, and were found to remain functional, keeping their fluorescent properties and carbohydrate recognition ability. Fluorescence images showed that different regions of breast tissue expressed particular types of carbohydrates. While the stroma was preferentially and intensely stained by QD-Con A, ductal cells were preferentially labeled by QD-UEA I. These results indicate that QD-lectin conjugates can be used as molecular probes and can help to elucidate the glycoconjugate profile in biological processes. PMID:24324334

  20. Pilot Implementation of Breast Cancer Early Detection Programs in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Murillo, Raúl; Díaz, Sandra; Sánchez, Oswaldo; Perry, Fernando; Piñeros, Marion; Poveda, César; Salguero, Edgar; Osorio, Dimelza

    2008-01-01

    Summary Breast cancer is increasing in developing countries, and Colombia has a double burden from cervical and breast cancer. Suitable guidelines for breast cancer early detection are needed, and the Breast Health Global Initiative provides a favorable framework for breast cancer control in low resource nations. The Colombian National Cancer Institute developed evidence-based guidelines for breast cancer early detection in which coordinated early detection in symptomatic women and hospital-based screening in women aged 50–69 are recommended. A pilot project to evaluate programmatic approaches (opportunistic screening) was designed, and it is expected that organized hospital-based screening for breast cancer will represent a move towards population-based screening in the near future in accordance with country specific conditions. PMID:20824017

  1. An evaluation protocol for subtype-specific breast cancer event prediction.

    PubMed

    Sontrop, Herman M J; Verhaegh, Wim F J; Reinders, Marcel J T; Moerland, Perry D

    2011-01-01

    In recent years increasing evidence appeared that breast cancer may not constitute a single disease at the molecular level, but comprises a heterogeneous set of subtypes. This suggests that instead of building a single monolithic predictor, better predictors might be constructed that solely target samples of a designated subtype, which are believed to represent more homogeneous sets of samples. An unavoidable drawback of developing subtype-specific predictors, however, is that a stratification by subtype drastically reduces the number of samples available for their construction. As numerous studies have indicated sample size to be an important factor in predictor construction, it is therefore questionable whether the potential benefit of subtyping can outweigh the drawback of a severe loss in sample size. Factors like unequal class distributions and differences in the number of samples per subtype, further complicate comparisons. We present a novel experimental protocol that facilitates a comprehensive comparison between subtype-specific predictors and predictors that do not take subtype information into account. Emphasis lies on careful control of sample size as well as class and subtype distributions. The methodology is applied to a large breast cancer compendium involving over 1500 arrays, using a state-of-the-art subtyping scheme. We show that the resulting subtype-specific predictors outperform those that do not take subtype information into account, especially when taking sample size considerations into account.

  2. Carbon-11-methionine and PET in evaluation of treatment response of breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Huovinen, R.; Leskinen-Kallio, S.; Någren, K.; Lehikoinen, P.; Ruotsalainen, U.; Teräs, M.

    1993-01-01

    Uptake of L-methyl-11C-methionine (11C-methionine) in breast cancer metastases was studied with positron emission tomography (PET). Eight patients with soft tissue metastases were studied twice: before the onset of chemotherapy (4), hormonal therapy (3) or radiotherapy (1) and 3-14 weeks later. The radioactivity concentration of the low molecular weight fraction of venous plasma samples separated by fast gel filtration was used as input function. The input corrected uptake rate of 11C-methionine (Ki) in breast cancer metastases before the treatment ranged between 0.035 and 0.186 1 min-1 and the standardised uptake value (SUV) between 2.0 and 11.4. The uptake of 11C-methionine into the metastases decreased when clinical objective stability or regression of the metastases was later obtained and increased in cases where progressive disease was seen during treatment. We conclude that metabolic changes in the amino acid metabolism detected by PET precede the clinical response, and may be of clinical value in predicting the treatment response. Images Figure 1 PMID:8471437

  3. Evaluation of biomarker changes after administration of various neoadjuvant chemotherapies in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Guangchao; Han, Yu; Liu, Cun; Chen, Liansheng; Ding, Butong; Xuan, Shijin; Liu, Xianqiang; Ma, Guohui; Gao, Jun; Tian, Xingsong

    2015-01-01

    To assess the changes in estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and Ki-67 expression in breast cancer patients after various neoadjuvant chemotherapies. Data from 138 locally advanced breast cancer patients with histological diagnoses were reviewed. Seventy patients (group 1) were given 4 cycles of 500 mg/m2 cyclophosphamide and 50 mg/m2 pirarubicin every 21 days. Sixty-eight patients (group 2) were given 4 cycles of 500 mg/m2 cyclophosphamide and 75 mg/m2 docetaxel every 21 days. The biomarker changes of the operated tumor tissues were compared with the initial core biopsies. ER, PR, HER2 and Ki-67 expression changed by 28.6%, 22.9%, 17.1% and 54.3%, respectively, after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in group 1 and 16.2%, 22.1%, 13.2% and 70.6%, respectively, after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in group 2. There were significant differences between the groups regarding ER and Ki-67 status changes, and these changes can be used to inform treatment strategies. PMID:25755795

  4. An Evaluation Protocol for Subtype-Specific Breast Cancer Event Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Sontrop, Herman M. J.; Verhaegh, Wim F. J.; Reinders, Marcel J. T.; Moerland, Perry D.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years increasing evidence appeared that breast cancer may not constitute a single disease at the molecular level, but comprises a heterogeneous set of subtypes. This suggests that instead of building a single monolithic predictor, better predictors might be constructed that solely target samples of a designated subtype, which are believed to represent more homogeneous sets of samples. An unavoidable drawback of developing subtype-specific predictors, however, is that a stratification by subtype drastically reduces the number of samples available for their construction. As numerous studies have indicated sample size to be an important factor in predictor construction, it is therefore questionable whether the potential benefit of subtyping can outweigh the drawback of a severe loss in sample size. Factors like unequal class distributions and differences in the number of samples per subtype, further complicate comparisons. We present a novel experimental protocol that facilitates a comprehensive comparison between subtype-specific predictors and predictors that do not take subtype information into account. Emphasis lies on careful control of sample size as well as class and subtype distributions. The methodology is applied to a large breast cancer compendium involving over 1500 arrays, using a state-of-the-art subtyping scheme. We show that the resulting subtype-specific predictors outperform those that do not take subtype information into account, especially when taking sample size considerations into account. PMID:21760900

  5. Development and evaluation of a culturally tailored educational video: changing breast cancer-related behaviors in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Judy H; Liang, Wenchi; Schwartz, Marc D; Lee, Marion M; Kreling, Barbara; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S

    2008-12-01

    This study developed and evaluated a culturally tailored video guided by the health belief model to improve Chinese women's low rate of mammography use. Focus-group discussions and an advisory board meeting guided the video development. A 17-min video, including a soap opera and physician-recommendation segment, was made in Chinese languages. A pretest/posttest pilot was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the video in changing knowledge, beliefs, and screening intentions among Chinese women (age >or= 40) who were nonadherent to current National Cancer Institute's mammography guidelines (n=52). The results showed that the video significantly increased these women's screening intentions, knowledge, perceived risk for breast cancer, and perceived benefits of mammography. Chinese immigrant women were less likely to hold an Eastern view of health care and report barriers to screening after viewing the video. This video might have the potential to increase adherence to mammography screening in Chinese women.

  6. Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Velasco-Velázquez, Marco A.; Homsi, Nora; De La Fuente, Marisol; Pestell, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) constitute a subpopulation of tumor cells that express stem cell-associated markers and have a high capacity for tumor generation in vivo. Identification of BCSCs from tumor samples or breast cancer cell lines has been based mainly on CD44+/CD24−/low or ALDH+ phenotypes. BCSCs isolation has allowed the analysis of the molecular mechanisms involved in their origin, self-renewal, differentiation into tumor cells, resistance to radiation therapy and chemotherapy, and invasiveness and metastatic ability. Molecular genetic analysis using knockout animals and inducible transgenics have identified NF-κB, c-Jun, p21CIP1, and Forkhead-like-protein Dach1 in BCSC expansion and fate. Clinical analyses of BCSCs in breast tumors have found a correlation between the proportion of BCSCs and poor prognosis. Therefore, new therapies that specifically target BCSCs are an urgent need. We summarize recent evidence that partially explain the biological characteristics of BCSCs. PMID:22249027

  7. Fulvestrant and/or Anastrozole in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage II-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-29

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  8. Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.

  9. Quantitative evaluation of DNMT3B promoter methylation in breast cancer patients using differential high resolution melting analysis.

    PubMed

    Naghitorabi, M; Mohammadi Asl, J; Mir Mohammad Sadeghi, H; Rabbani, M; Jafarian-Dehkordi, A; Javanmard, Haghjooye S

    2013-07-01

    DNA methylation plays an important role in carcinogenesis through epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes. Aberrant methylation usually results from changes in the activity of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). Some studies show that the overexpression of the DNMTs may lead to aberrant methylation of tumor suppressor genes. Also the overexpression of DNMTs may be related to methylation status of their genes. Due to limited number of studies on DNMT3B promoter methylation, this study was performed to quantitatively measure the methylation level of DNMT3B gene in archival formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues from breast cancer patients. Using differential high resolution melting analysis (D-HRMA) technology, the methylation level of DNMT3B gene promoter was quantified in 98 breast cancer FFPE tissues and also 10 fresh frozen normal tissue samples. Statistical analyses used for analyzing the correlation between the methylation and clinical variables. All the normal samples were found to be methylated at the DNMT3B promoter (the average methylation level 3.34%). Patients were identified as hypo-methylated (mean methylation level 0.8%), methylated (mean methylation level 2.48%) and hyper-methylated (mean methylation level 10.5%). Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between the methylation status and the sample type, cancer type and tumor size. Also the methylation level was significantly associated with histologic grade. It is concluded that quantification of DNMT3B promoter methylation might be used as a reliable and sensitive diagnostic and prognostic tool in breast cancer. Also D-HRMA is demonstrated as a rapid and cost effective method for quantitative evaluation of promoter methylation.

  10. Benign Breast Disease: Toward Molecular Prediction of Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    cancer risk in women with radial scars in benign breast biopsies. Breast cancer Research and Treatment . Published online May 22, 2007... scars and involution. We explored the link between centrosome amplification, COX-2 expression and breast cancer outcomes and are currently exploring...5. Radial Scars The significance of radial scars to subsequent risk of breast cancer has been debated. Radial scars (RS) are benign breast

  11. New Technologies in Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Thill, Marc; Baumann, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Since breast-conserving surgery has become the gold standard for early breast cancer, the development of less radical or less burdensome technologies has been pressed for in order to preserve the patient from unnecessary harm through the operative procedure. Different technical approaches are under evaluation, and some of them are already being used in the clinical setting. The aim of this article is to present a perspective on future breast cancer surgery by shedding light on the current innovative and new techniques. PMID:24647775

  12. Evaluation of STAT3 Signaling in ALDH+ and ALDH+/CD44+/CD24− Subpopulations of Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Li; Hutzen, Brian; Lee, Hsiu-Fang; Peng, Zhengang; Wang, Wenlong; Zhao, Chongqiang; Lin, Huey-Jen; Sun, Duxin; Li, Pui-Kai; Li, Chenglong; Korkaya, Hasan; Wicha, Max S.; Lin, Jiayuh

    2013-01-01

    Background STAT3 activation is frequently detected in breast cancer and this pathway has emerged as an attractive molecular target for cancer treatment. Recent experimental evidence suggests ALDH-positive (ALDH+), or cell surface molecule CD44-positive (CD44+) but CD24-negative (CD24−) breast cancer cells have cancer stem cell properties. However, the role of STAT3 signaling in ALDH+ and ALDH+/CD44+/CD24− subpopulations of breast cancer cells is unknown. Methods and Results We examined STAT3 activation in ALDH+ and ALDH+/CD44+/CD24− subpopulations of breast cancer cells by sorting with flow cytometer. We observed ALDH-positive (ALDH+) cells expressed higher levels of phosphorylated STAT3 compared to ALDH-negative (ALDH−) cells. There was a significant correlation between the nuclear staining of phosphorylated STAT3 and the expression of ALDH1 in breast cancer tissues. These results suggest that STAT3 is activated in ALDH+ subpopulations of breast cancer cells. STAT3 inhibitors Stattic and LLL12 inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation, reduced the ALDH+ subpopulation, inhibited breast cancer stem-like cell viability, and retarded tumorisphere-forming capacity in vitro. Similar inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation, and breast cancer stem cell viability were observed using STAT3 ShRNA. In addition, LLL12 inhibited STAT3 downstream target gene expression and induced apoptosis in ALDH+ subpopulations of breast cancer cells. Furthermore, LLL12 inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation and tumor cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and suppressed tumor growth in xenograft and mammary fat pad mouse models from ALDH+ breast cancer cells. Similar in vitro and tumor growth in vivo results were obtained when ALDH+ cells were further selected for the stem cell markers CD44+ and CD24−. Conclusion These studies demonstrate an important role for STAT3 signaling in ALDH+ and ALDH+/CD44+/CD24− subpopulations of breast cancer cells which may have cancer stem cell properties and suggest

  13. Hereditary breast cancer in Jews.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Wendy S

    2004-01-01

    A family history of breast cancer poses higher risks for Jewish versus non-Jewish women, particularly for early-onset breast cancer. This appears to be due in large part to the high prevalence (2.5%) of three BRCA1 and BRCA2 founder mutations in Ashkenazi Jews. About 4 to 8% of non-Jewish male breast cancer cases versus 19% of Jewish male breast cancer cases carry germline BRCA mutations. Jewish women are disproportionately impacted by BRCA mutations throughout life, with a 10% carrier rate for breast cancer diagnosed at any age and a 21 to 30% carrier rate for breast cancer diagnosed by age 40. Comparable rates in non-Jewish populations are 6.1% for breast cancer diagnosed before age 50. Lifetime penetrance estimates based on genotyping of probands have ranged widely in Jewish and non-Jewish populations. However, a study of 1008 Jewish women with breast cancer which extended genotyping to relatives found high penetrance rates with considerably smaller standard errors. This study and studies of early-onset incident breast cancer in non-Jews have found that at least half of high-risk cases would be missed by family history screening alone. While the carrier rate in non-Jewish populations is too low to consider genetic screening, the carrier rate in Ashkenazi Jews is high and genetic screening poses fewer technical barriers. The high genetic attributable cancer risks of Ashkenazi BRCA founder mutations, the sobering lethality of ovarian and early onset breast cancers, and the increasing clarity about effectiveness of medical interventions make imperative further dialogue and research to keep guidelines for genetic screening up to date.

  14. Randomized phase III trial evaluating the role of weight loss in adjuvant treatment of overweight and obese women with early breast cancer (Alliance A011401): study design.

    PubMed

    Ligibel, Jennifer A; Barry, William T; Alfano, Catherine; Hershman, Dawn L; Irwin, Melinda; Neuhouser, Marian; Thomson, Cynthia A; Delahanty, Linda; Frank, Elizabeth; Spears, Patty; Paskett, Electra D; Hopkins, Judith; Bernstein, Vanessa; Stearns, Vered; White, Julia; Hahn, Olwen; Hudis, Clifford; Winer, Eric P; Wadden, Thomas A; Goodwin, Pamela J

    2017-01-01

    Excess body weight is a poor prognostic factor in women with early breast cancer, but the effect of weight loss on the risk of breast cancer recurrence and mortality in women who are overweight or obese at the time of breast cancer diagnosis has not been evaluated. The Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology Breast Cancer Weight Loss trial, also known as A011401, is testing the impact of a telephone-based weight loss program on invasive disease-free survival in 3136 women with a body mass index ≥27 kg/m(2) who have recently been diagnosed with stage II-III, HER-2 negative breast cancer. Secondary outcomes of the trial include the impact of the weight loss intervention on overall survival, body weight, physical activity, dietary intakes, incidence of comorbidities, serum biomarkers and patient reported outcomes. Participants are randomized 1:1 to a 2-year, telephone-based weight loss intervention or to an education control group. The intervention is delivered through 42 telephone calls, delivered by health coaches based at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. Calls are supplemented by an intervention workbook, as well as a number of tools to help facilitate weight loss. Intervention goals include loss of 10% of baseline body weight, achieved through caloric restriction and increased physical activity. This large-scale study testing the impact of purposeful weight loss after cancer diagnosis on the risk of breast cancer recurrence and mortality has the potential to make weight loss programs a standard part of breast cancer treatment.

  15. Can Smog Raise Breast Cancer Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_164495.html Can Smog Raise Breast Cancer Risk? Exposure to fine-particle air pollution linked ... have dense breasts, a known risk factor for breast cancer, new research suggests. "It appears that women who ...

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... spread outside the breast . In stage IB , small clusters of breast cancer cells (larger than 0.2 ... centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters. Small clusters of breast cancer cells (larger than 0.2 ...

  17. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... spread outside the breast . In stage IB , small clusters of breast cancer cells (larger than 0.2 ... centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters. Small clusters of breast cancer cells (larger than 0.2 ...

  18. General Information about Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... spread outside the breast . In stage IB , small clusters of breast cancer cells (larger than 0.2 ... centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters. Small clusters of breast cancer cells (larger than 0.2 ...

  19. Evaluation of superficial dosimetry between treatment planning system and measurement for several breast cancer treatment techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Akino, Yuichi; Das, Indra J.; Bartlett, Gregory K.; Zhang Hualin; Thompson, Elizabeth; Zook, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: Dosimetric accuracy in radiation treatment of breast cancer is critical for the evaluation of cosmetic outcomes and survival. It is often considered that treatment planning systems (TPS) may not be able to provide accurate dosimetry in the buildup region. This was investigated in various treatment techniques such as tangential wedges, field-in-field (FF), electronic compensator (eComp), and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods: Under Institutional Review Board (IRB) exemption, radiotherapy treatment plans of 111 cases were retrospectively analyzed. The distance between skin surface and 95% isodose line was measured. For measurements, Gafchromic EBT2 films were used on a humanoid unsliced phantom. Multiple layers of variable thickness of superflab bolus were placed on the breast phantom and CT scanned for planning. Treatment plans were generated using four techniques with two different grid sizes (1 Multiplication-Sign 1 and 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 2.5 mm{sup 2}) to provide optimum dose distribution. Films were placed at different depths and exposed with the selected techniques. A calibration curve for dose versus pixel values was also generated on the same day as the phantom measurement was conducted. The DICOM RT image, dose, and plan data were imported to the in-house software. On axial plane of CT slices, curves were drawn at the position where EBT2 films were placed, and the dose profiles on the lines were acquired. The calculated and measured dose profiles were separated by check points which were marked on the films before irradiation. The segments of calculated profiles were stretched to match their resolutions to that of film dosimetry. Results: On review of treatment plans, the distance between skin and 95% prescribed dose was up to 8 mm for plans of 27 patients. The film measurement revealed that the medial region of phantom surface received a mere 45%-50% of prescribed dose. For wedges, FF, and eComp techniques, region around the

  20. Radiation-induced breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Finnerty, N.A.; Buzdar, A.U.; Blumenschein, G.R.

    1984-06-01

    Between 1975 and 1983, sixteen patients with a history of irradiation at an early age to the head, neck, or chest areas for a variety of conditions in whom breast cancer subsequently developed were seen at out institute. The median latent period between the irradiation and the development of breast cancer was 420 months. The distribution of patients by stage of the disease and the median age at diagnosis of this subgroup was similar to the breast cancer observed in the general population. The subsequent course of this disease was also similar to the breast cancer observed in the general population. A substantial number of women have been exposed to irradiation at a young age, and these women are at a higher risk of having breast cancer develop. These women should be closely observed to discover the disease in an early curable stage.

  1. [Can breast cancer be prevented?].

    PubMed

    Vatten, L J

    1991-05-30

    More than six-fold variation in incidence between countries, an increasing incidence among immigrants to high incidence areas, and a general increase in the incidence of breast cancer within countries, are factors which suggest a potential for prevention. Reproductive factors such as early menarche, late age at first full term birth, nulliparity, and late age at menopause increase risk of breast cancer, but manipulation of any one of these factors does not seem to be a realistic preventive tool. Nevertheless, the future possibility of using tamoxifen as a chemopreventive agent against breast cancer is discussed, particularly in relation to women at increased risk due to familial clustering. Alcohol consumption by young women, and overweight among postmenopausal women may also increase the incidence of breast cancer. Consequently, reduced alcohol intake by young women, and weight reduction among overweight women after menopause may reduce the risk of breast cancer.

  2. [Therapeutic advances in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Pestalozzi, B C

    2006-04-01

    The treatment of breast cancer has made significant improvements during the past ten years. For early breast cancer with a clinically negative axilla sentinel node biopsy has become the preferred approach. For endocrine therapy of postmenopausal patients the selective aromatase inhibitors have become standard in metastatic as well as in early breast cancer. Trastuzumab (Herceptin) plays an important role in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer in the metastatic and since 2005 also in the adjuvant setting. When chemotherapy is used to treat metastatic breast cancer drug combinations are superior to monotherapy only in terms of response rates. By contrast, in the adjuvant setting combination drug therapy is the standard. New methods of tissue analysis including expression patterns of mRNA and proteins are promising research strategies to further advance the field.

  3. Economic evaluation of eribulin as second-line treatment for metastatic breast cancer in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Gabriel; Majethia, Unnati; Breeze, Janis L; Kontoudis, Ilias; Park, Jeongae

    2016-01-01

    Background Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is associated with poor prognosis, particularly for those patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2)-negative tumor. Similar to the rest of the world, treatment options are limited in South Korea following first-line chemotherapy with anthracyclines and/or taxanes. This study examined the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of eribulin in South Korean patients with HER2-negative MBC who have progressed after usage of at least one chemotherapeutic regimen for advanced disease (second-line therapy). Methods A partition survival model was developed from the perspective of the South Korean health care system. The economic impact of introducing eribulin as second-line therapy for HER2-negative MBC was compared to that of capecitabine and vinorelbine. The analysis estimated incremental cost per life-year (LY), that is, cost-effectiveness, and cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), that is, cost-utility, of eribulin for management of HER2-negative MBC in South Korea. The model accounted for overall survival, progression-free survival, drug costs, grade 3/4 adverse events, and health care utilization. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to identify uncertainty in the results of the economic evaluation. Results Second-line eribulin was associated with greater benefits in terms of LY and QALY, compared to capecitabine and vinorelbine. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was ₩10.5M (approximately USD 9,200) per LY, and the incremental cost-utility ratio was ₩17M (approximately USD 14,800) per QALY in the basecase analysis. The incremental cost-utility ratio ranged from ₩12M (USD 10,461) to ₩27M (USD 23,538) per QALY in the deterministic sensitivity analysis. In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, >99% of the simulations were below ₩50M (USD 42,300), and the lower and upper 95% confidence intervals were ₩3M (USD 2,600) and ₩24M (USD 20,900) per QALY

  4. Economic evaluation of eribulin as second-line treatment for metastatic breast cancer in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Gabriel; Majethia, Unnati; Breeze, Janis L; Kontoudis, Ilias; Park, Jeongae

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is associated with poor prognosis, particularly for those patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2)-negative tumor. Similar to the rest of the world, treatment options are limited in South Korea following first-line chemotherapy with anthracyclines and/or taxanes. This study examined the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of eribulin in South Korean patients with HER2-negative MBC who have progressed after usage of at least one chemotherapeutic regimen for advanced disease (second-line therapy). A partition survival model was developed from the perspective of the South Korean health care system. The economic impact of introducing eribulin as second-line therapy for HER2-negative MBC was compared to that of capecitabine and vinorelbine. The analysis estimated incremental cost per life-year (LY), that is, cost-effectiveness, and cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), that is, cost-utility, of eribulin for management of HER2-negative MBC in South Korea. The model accounted for overall survival, progression-free survival, drug costs, grade 3/4 adverse events, and health care utilization. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to identify uncertainty in the results of the economic evaluation. Second-line eribulin was associated with greater benefits in terms of LY and QALY, compared to capecitabine and vinorelbine. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was ₩10.5M (approximately USD 9,200) per LY, and the incremental cost-utility ratio was ₩17M (approximately USD 14,800) per QALY in the basecase analysis. The incremental cost-utility ratio ranged from ₩12M (USD 10,461) to ₩27M (USD 23,538) per QALY in the deterministic sensitivity analysis. In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, >99% of the simulations were below ₩50M (USD 42,300), and the lower and upper 95% confidence intervals were ₩3M (USD 2,600) and ₩24M (USD 20,900) per QALY, respectively. There currently exist

  5. Evaluation of the interval cancer rate and its determinants on the Girona Health Region's early breast cancer detection program.

    PubMed

    Renart-Vicens, Gemma; Puig-Vives, Montserrat; Albanell, Joan; Castañer, Francesc; Ferrer, Joana; Carreras, Miquel; Tarradas, Joan; Sala, Maria; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael

    2014-08-01

    The main aim of this study is to estimate the rate of false negative and true IC on the Program for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer (PEDBC) run by the Girona Health Region (GHR) and compare the clinicopathological characteristics of these tumors with those detected within the same program. A retrospective cohort study including all women participating on the Girona PEDBC between 2000 and 2006, with negative mammography screening. The IC included are those detected between the first and second round of screening and between the second and third round. We identified a total of 43 IC, representing an incidence rate of 0.70 cases per 1,000 screened women. Of the 43 probable IC, we were able to classify a total of 22 (51.2%) cases. Of these 22 cases, 54.5% were classified as true interval tumors, 13.6% false negatives, 18.2% occult tumors and the remaining 13.6% minimal sign.We found significant differences in some clinicopathological characteristics of the IC comparing with the tumors detected within the program during the same period. The IC rate for the PEDBC is within the expected parameters, with a high proportion of cases of true interval cancers (54.5%) and a low proportion of false negatives (13.6%). The results show that the proportional incidence of IC is within the limits set by European Guidelines. Furthermore, it has been confirmed that IC display more aggressive clinicopathological characteristics than screening breast cancers.

  6. Impact of breast cancer awareness month on detection of breast cancer in a private hospital.

    PubMed

    Karabay, Onder; Hasbahceci, Mustafa; Kadioglu, Huseyin

    2017-01-01

    Objective Breast cancer awareness month increases public awareness in association with increased rates of screening and new diagnoses. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of breast cancer awareness month on primary diagnosis of breast cancer. Methods Asymptomatic women with the intention of breast cancer screening were included. The non-BCAM (Breast cancer awareness month) group were screened from February to September 2016 and the BCAM group during October 2016. Ultrasound and mammography were performed in all women and in those aged ≥ 40 years, respectively. A BIRADS (Breast Imaging Reporting And Data Systems) score of ≥4 and solid palpable masses without features suggestive of malignancy and/or the physician's preference were regarded as indications for histopathological analysis. Requirement for histopathological analysis and detection of breast cancer were identified as the main variables. Results There were 198 women with a mean age of 49.3 ± 9.5 years. Sixty-nine and 129 women were in the non-BCAM and BCAM groups, respectively. Percutaneous biopsy was performed in seven (10.1%) and three patients (2.3%) in the non-BCAM and BCAM groups, respectively ( P = 0.035). Pathological examinations were benign. Conclusion Although public awareness campaigns lead to increased rates of screening, they may lose their impact on detecting breast cancer because of widespread use of routine screening programs.

  7. An ultrasonographic evaluation of skin thickness in breast cancer patients after postmastectomy radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To determine the usefulness of ultrasonography in the assessment of post radiotherapy skin changes in postmastectomy breast cancer patients. Methods Patients treated for postmastectomy radiotherapy in National University Hospital (NUH) and Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH), Singapore between January 2004- December 2005 was recruited retrospectively. Ultrasound scan was performed on these Asian patients who had been treated to a total dose of 46-50 Gy with 1 cm bolus placed on the skin. The ultrasound scans were performed blinded to the RTOG scores, and the skin thickness of the individually marked points on the irradiated chest wall was compared to the corresponding points on the non-irradiated breast. Results The mean total skin thickness inclusive of the epidermis and the dermis of the right irradiated chest wall was 0.1712 mm (± 0.03392 mm) compared with the contra-lateral non-irradiated breast which was 0.1845 mm (± 0.04089 mm; p = 0.007). The left irradiated chest wall had a mean skin thickness of 0.1764 mm (± 0.03184 mm) compared with the right non-irradiated breast which was 0.1835 mm (± 0.02584 mm; p = 0.025). These independent t-tests produced a significant difference of reduced skin thickness on the right irradiated chest wall, p = 0.007 (p < 0.05) and left irradiated chest wall p = 0.025 (p < 0.025) in comparison to the non-irradiated skin thickness investigating chronic skin reactions. Patients with grade 2 acute skin toxicity presented with thinner skin as compared to patients with grade 1 (p = 0.006). Conclusions This study has shown that there is a statistically significant difference between the skin thicknesses of the irradiated chest wall and the contra-lateral non-irradiated breast and a predisposition to chronic reactions was found in patients with acute RTOG scoring of grade1 and grade 2. PMID:21261940

  8. Nanoparticle-enhanced MRI to evaluate radiation delivery to the regional lymphatics for patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Shannon M; Harisinghani, Mukesh G; Katkar, Amol; Napolitano, Brian; Wolfgang, John; Taghian, Alphonse G

    2010-07-15

    At present, radiation (RT) fields are based largely, and often solely, on bony anatomy. Recent efforts have been taken to better define lymphatic regions for RT planning. Lymphotrophic nanoparticle-enhanced MRI (LN-MRI) allows for accurate identification of malignant and benign lymph nodes. We sought to evaluate RT delivery to lymphatics for breast cancer using LN-MRI. Twenty-three patients with breast cancer underwent LN-MRI. MRIs were anatomically registered to a reference CT; benign and malignant lymph nodes were contoured. Standard RT fields were planned and dose calculated to prescribe 45-50 Gy. Lymphatic regions were contoured on CT. Coverage of LN-MRI lymph nodes by RT fields and contoured lymphatics were assessed. Eighty-one percent of all lymph nodes defined by LN-MRI were covered by the 45-Gy isodose line; 82% of malignant and 79% of benign. The 50-Gy isodose line only encompassed 60% of LN-MRI defined lymph nodes-64% of malignant and 59% of benign. For nodal volumes contoured in the absence of a margin, 86% of actual lymph nodes were within contoured volumes. When a 5-mm expansion was added, 99% were included. LN-MRI is a useful tool to delineate the location of breast regional lymphatics. These results suggest less than desired coverage of lymph nodes using standard RT fields and that a margin may be advisable when defining nodal volumes by CT. The use of IMRT and RT in lieu of surgery makes accurate definition of the location of breast regional lymphatics of paramount importance. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Nanoparticle-Enhanced MRI to Evaluate Radiation Delivery to the Regional Lymphatics for Patients With Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, Shannon M.; Harisinghani, Mukesh G.; Katkar, Amol; Napolitano, Brian; Wolfgang, John; Taghian, Alphonse G.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: At present, radiation (RT) fields are based largely, and often solely, on bony anatomy. Recent efforts have been taken to better define lymphatic regions for RT planning. Lymphotrophic nanoparticle-enhanced MRI (LN-MRI) allows for accurate identification of malignant and benign lymph nodes. We sought to evaluate RT delivery to lymphatics for breast cancer using LN-MRI. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three patients with breast cancer underwent LN-MRI. MRIs were anatomically registered to a reference CT; benign and malignant lymph nodes were contoured. Standard RT fields were planned and dose calculated to prescribe 45-50 Gy. Lymphatic regions were contoured on CT. Coverage of LN-MRI lymph nodes by RT fields and contoured lymphatics were assessed. Results: Eighty-one percent of all lymph nodes defined by LN-MRI were covered by the 45-Gy isodose line; 82% of malignant and 79% of benign. The 50-Gy isodose line only encompassed 60% of LN-MRI defined lymph nodes-64% of malignant and 59% of benign. For nodal volumes contoured in the absence of a margin, 86% of actual lymph nodes were within contoured volumes. When a 5-mm expansion was added, 99% were included. Conclusions: LN-MRI is a useful tool to delineate the location of breast regional lymphatics. These results suggest less than desired coverage of lymph nodes using standard RT fields and that a margin may be advisable when defining nodal volumes by CT. The use of IMRT and RT in lieu of surgery makes accurate definition of the location of breast regional lymphatics of paramount importance.

  10. Follow-up of breast cancer in primary care vs specialist care: results of an economic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Grunfeld, E; Gray, A; Mant, D; Yudkin, P; Adewuyi-Dalton, R; Coyle, D; Cole, D; Stewart, J; Fitzpatrick, R; Vessey, M

    1999-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing primary-care-centred follow-up of breast cancer patients with the current standard practice of specialist-centred follow-up showed no increase in delay in diagnosing recurrence, and no increase in anxiety or deterioration in health-related quality of life. An economic evaluation of the two schemes of follow-up was conducted concurrent with the RCT. Because the RCT found no difference in the primary clinical outcomes, a cost minimization analysis was conducted. Process measures of the quality of care such as frequency and length of visits were superior in primary care. Costs to patients and to the health service were lower in primary care. There was no difference in total costs of diagnostic tests, with particular tests being performed more frequently in primary care than in specialist care. Data are provided on the average frequency and length of visits, and frequency of diagnostic testing for breast cancer patients during the follow-up period. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10098764

  11. What Are the Key Statistics about Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Men What Are the Key Statistics About Breast Cancer in Men? The American Cancer Society estimates for ... Treatment in Breast Cancer in Men? More In Breast Cancer In Men About Breast Cancer in Men Causes, ...

  12. Addition of Carboplatin to Neoadjuvant Therapy for Triple-negative and HER2-positive Early Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-12

    Tubular Breast Cancer Stage II; Mucinous Breast Cancer Stage II; Breast Cancer Female NOS; Invasive Ductal Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Cancer Stage III; HER-2 Positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer Stage IV; Inflammatory Breast Cancer

  13. Carboplatin and Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Veliparib in Treating Patients With Stage IIB-IIIC Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-10

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  14. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Assessing Affect Reactivity and Regulation in Patients With Stage 0-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-27

    Healthy Subject; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  15. Breast cancer (metastatic)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Median survival from metastatic breast cancer is 12 months without treatment, but young people can survive up to 20 years with the disease, whereas in other metastatic cancers this would be considered unusual. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of first-line hormonal treatment? What are the effects of second-line hormonal treatment in women who have not responded to tamoxifen? What are the effects of first-line chemotherapy? What are the effects of first-line chemotherapy in combination with a monoclonal antibody? What are the effects of second-line chemotherapy? What are the effects of treatments for bone metastases? What are the effects of treatments for spinal cord metastases? What are the effects of treatments for cerebral or choroidal metastases? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 77 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: first-line hormonal treatment using anti-oestrogens (tamoxifen), ovarian ablation, progestins, selective aromatase inhibitors, or combined gonadorelin analogues plus tamoxifen; second-line hormonal treatment using progestins or selective aromatase inhibitors; first-line non-taxane combination chemotherapy; first-line taxane-based combination chemotherapy; first-line high- versus low-dose standard chemotherapy

  16. Evaluation of a Marker Clip System in Sonographically Guided Core Needle Biopsy for Breast Cancer Localization Before and After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Schulz-Wendtland, R.; Dankerl, P.; Bani, M. R.; Fasching, P. A.; Heusinger, K.; Lux, M. P.; Jud, S. M.; Rauh, C.; Bayer, C. M.; Schrauder, M. G.; Beckmann, M. W.; Uder, M.; Brehm, B.; Loehberg, C. R.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The placement of intramammary marker clips has proven to be helpful for tumor localization in patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy and breast-conserving surgery. The purpose of our study was to investigate the feasibility of using a clip marker system for breast cancer localization and its influence on the imaging assessment of treatment responses after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Patients and Methods Between March and June 2015, a total of 25 patients (n = 25), with a suspicion of invasive breast cancer with diameters of at least 2 cm (cT2), underwent preoperative sonographically guided core needle biopsy using a single-use breast biopsy system (HistoCore™) and intramammary clip marking using a directly adapted clip system based on the established O-Twist Marker™, before their scheduled preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Localization of the intramammary marker clip was controlled by sonography and digital breast tomosynthesis. Results Sonography detected no dislocation of intrammammary marker clips in 20 of 25 patients (80 %), while digital breast tomosynthesis showed accurate placement without dislocation in 24 patients (96 %) (p < 0.05). There was no evidence of significant clip migration during preoperative follow-up imaging after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. No complication related to the clip marking was noted and there was no difficulty in evaluating the treatment response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Among the breast-conserving surgeries performed, no cases were identified in which intraoperative loss of the marker clip had occurred. Conclusion Our study underscores the importance of intramammary marking clip systems before neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Placement of marker clips is advised to facilitate accurate tumor bed localization. With regard to digital breast tomosynthesis, its development continues to improve the quality of diagnostics and the therapy of breast cancer particularly for small breast cancer tumors or in

  17. Optimal breast cancer pathology manifesto.

    PubMed

    Tot, T; Viale, G; Rutgers, E; Bergsten-Nordström, E; Costa, A

    2015-11-01

    This manifesto was prepared by a European Breast Cancer (EBC) Council working group and launched at the European Breast Cancer Conference in Glasgow on 20 March 2014. It sets out optimal technical and organisational requirements for a breast cancer pathology service, in the light of concerns about variability and lack of patient-centred focus. It is not a guideline about how pathology services should be performed. It is a call for all in the cancer community--pathologists, oncologists, patient advocates, health administrators and policymakers--to check that services are available that serve the needs of patients in a high quality, timely way.

  18. Breastfeeding and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Brinton, L A; Potischman, N A; Swanson, C A; Schoenberg, J B; Coates, R J; Gammon, M D; Malone, K E; Stanford, J L; Daling, J R

    1995-05-01

    A population-based case-control study of breast cancer with a focus on premenopausal women under 45 years of age, conducted in three geographic regions of the United States, enabled the evaluation of risk in relation to varying breastfeeding practices. Among premenopausal parous women (1,211 cases, 1,120 random-digit-dialing controls), a history of breastfeeding for two or more weeks was associated with a relative risk (RR) of 0.87 (95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 0.7-1.0). This relationship was not altered substantially by removing from the reference group women who had problems with breastfeeding in the first two weeks, including those with insufficient milk production. Risk was not related substantially to number of children breastfed or length of breastfeeding, although a relatively low risk was observed among those breastfeeding for the longest duration examined (RR = 0.67, CI = 0.4-1.1 for an average period per child of 72 or more weeks). Women who began to breastfeed at a young age (< 22 years) experienced the greatest reduction in risk, but other timing parameters (e.g., interval since first or last breastfeeding) were not predictive of risk. Risks were not modified substantially by age or menopause status, although the number of menopausal subjects examined was limited. Use of medications to stop breast milk was unrelated to risk (RR = 1.04). The results of this study do not support the notion that breastfeeding substantially reduces breast cancer risk; however, this may reflect the fact that most of our study subjects breastfed only for limited periods of time (average breastfeeding per child of 30 weeks). Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship of breastfeeding to breast cancer risk, and to determine possible etiologic mechanisms underlying any observed associations.

  19. Breast Tissue Composition and Susceptibility to Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Lisa J.; Bronskill, Michael; Yaffe, Martin J.; Duric, Neb; Minkin, Salomon

    2010-01-01

    Breast density, as assessed by mammography, reflects breast tissue composition. Breast epithelium and stroma attenuate x-rays more than fat and thus appear light on mammograms while fat appears dark. In this review, we provide an overview of selected areas of current knowledge about the relationship between breast density and susceptibility to breast cancer. We review the evidence that breast density is a risk factor for breast cancer, the histological and other risk factors that are associated with variations in breast density, and the biological plausibility of the associations with risk of breast cancer. We also discuss the potential for improved risk prediction that might be achieved by using alternative breast imaging methods, such as magnetic resonance or ultrasound. After adjustment for other risk factors, breast density is consistently associated with breast cancer risk, more strongly than most other risk factors for this disease, and extensive breast density may account for a substantial fraction of breast cancer. Breast density is associated with risk of all of the proliferative lesions that are thought to be precursors of breast cancer. Studies of twins have shown that breast density is a highly heritable quantitative trait. Associations between breast density and variations in breast histology, risk of proliferative breast lesions, and risk of breast cancer may be the result of exposures of breast tissue to both mitogens and mutagens. Characterization of breast density by mammography has several limitations, and the uses of breast density in risk prediction and breast cancer prevention may be improved by other methods of imaging, such as magnetic resonance or ultrasound tomography. PMID:20616353

  20. Exercise in Targeting Metabolic Dysregulation in Stage I-III Breast or Prostate Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-12

    Cancer Survivor; No Evidence of Disease; Obesity; Overweight; Prostate Carcinoma; Sedentary Lifestyle; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  1. Exercise Intervention in Targeting Adiposity and Inflammation With Movement to Improve Prognosis in Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-19

    Cancer Survivor; Central Obesity; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Postmenopausal; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  2. Curing Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sledge, George W

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancer is generally considered incurable, and this colors doctor-patient interactions for patients with metastatic disease. Although true for most patients, there appear to be important exceptions, instances where long-term disease-free survival occurs. Although these instances are few in number, they suggest the possibility of cure. How will we move toward cure for a much larger population of patients with metastatic disease? This article outlines a potential research agenda that might move us toward that distant goal. Copyright © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  3. [Breast cancer in elderly].

    PubMed

    Diab, Sami G

    2007-10-01

    The question of the breast cancer in elderly is enlightened by two constituted epidemiological data bases in the United-States: the data basis of San Antonio and the SEER (Surveillance Epidemology and End Results) which represent a follow-up of 26% of the American population. The listed data allow an approach of the clinical and biological constituents according to the age of the disease as well as the factors of comorbidity. The informations relative to the therapeutic choices are more fragmentary and must be developed first and foremost during the programs. double dagger.

  4. High Intratumoral Stromal Content Defines Reactive Breast Cancer as a Low-risk Breast Cancer Subtype.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Jennifer B; Shahmoradgoli, Maria; Liu, Wenbin; Ju, Zhenlin; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Perou, Charles M; Sahin, Aysegul A; Welm, Alana; Oesterreich, Steffi; Sikora, Matthew J; Brown, Robert E; Mills, Gordon B

    2016-10-15

    The current study evaluated associative effects of breast cancer cells with the tumor microenvironment and its influence on tumor behavior. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue and matched protein lysates were evaluated from two independent breast cancer patient datasets (TCGA and MD Anderson). Reverse-phase protein arrays (RPPA) were utilized to create a proteomics signature to define breast tumor subtypes. Expression patterns of cell lines and normal breast tissues were utilized to determine markers that were differentially expressed in stroma and cancer cells. Protein localization and stromal contents were evaluated for matched cases by imaging. A subtype of breast cancers designated "Reactive," previously identified by RPPA that was not predicted by mRNA profiling, was extensively characterized. These tumors were primarily estrogen receptor (ER)-positive/human EGF receptor (HER)2-negative, low-risk cancers as determined by enrichment of low-grade nuclei, lobular or tubular histopathology, and the luminal A subtype by PAM50. Reactive breast cancers contained high numbers of stromal cells and the highest extracellular matrix content typically without infiltration of immune cells. For ER-positive/HER2-negative cancers, the Reactive classification predicted favorable clinical outcomes in the TCGA cohort (HR, 0.36; P < 0.05). A protein stromal signature in breast cancers is associated with a highly differentiated phenotype. The stromal compartment content and proteins are an extended phenotype not predicted by mRNA expression that could be utilized to subclassify ER-positive/HER2-negative breast cancers. Clin Cancer Res; 22(20); 5068-78. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Breast Cancer: Epidemiology and Etiology.

    PubMed

    Tao, ZiQi; Shi, Aimin; Lu, Cuntao; Song, Tao; Zhang, Zhengguo; Zhao, Jing

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer, the most frequently occurring cancer in women, is a major public health problem, with 1,384,155 estimated new cases worldwide with nearly 459,000 related deaths. Breast cancer is highly heterogeneous in its pathological characteristics, some cases showing slow growth with excellent prognosis, while others being aggressive tumors. Current predictions and statistics suggest that both worldwide incidence of breast cancer and related mortality are on the rise. According to 2012 GLOBOCAN statistics, nearly 1.7 million women were diagnosed with breast cancer with 522,000 related deaths-an increase in breast cancer incidence and related mortality by nearly 18 % from 2008. According to American Cancer Society, one in eight women in the United States will develop breast cancer in her lifetime. It has been predicted that the worldwide incidence of female breast cancer will reach approximately 3.2 million new cases per year by 2050. These numbers reflect the magnitude of breast cancer incidence, its effect on society worldwide and the need for urgency for preventive and treatment measures. While technological advances in medical sciences and health care have made it possible to detect the disease early and to start the treatment early on to prevent the progress of the disease into a metastatic state, there are several unanswered questions with regard to the molecular mechanisms that underlie the aggressiveness of certain forms of this disease. Epidemiological studies suggest that addressing socio economical issues is utmost important, so that all women have equal access to medical care from screening to advanced treatment, and only such decisive action can help reduce the worldwide burden of breast cancer.

  6. Biomarkers in Tissue Samples From Patients With Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Treated With Zoledronic Acid

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-06-07

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  7. Neo-adjuvant Therapy With Anastrozole Plus Pazopanib in Stage II and III ER+ Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-24

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer

  8. Clinicopathologic characteristics of breast cancer in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Chin, Sheray Nicole; Green, Cheryl; Strachan, Georgiana Gordon; Wharfe, Gilian

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Jamaican women. This study assessed the clinicopathologic features of cases in a hospital-based specialist clinic in Kingston, Jamaica. A retrospective chart review was performed for the 2-year study period and relevant clinical and surgico-pathologic data were recorded and analyzed. Median age of the 121 breast cancer patients was 52 years (range 22-84, IQR 20) and there was 1 case of male breast cancer. Most patients (65%) were referred from the surgical service after definitive breast cancer surgery, 20% were referred for pre-operative systemic therapy, and 15% had a diagnosis of metastatic disease. The surgico-pathologic group comprised 78 women who were referred for adjuvant therapy. The majority had presented with a palpable breast lump (91%), with median tumour size 3.5cm (range 0.4-13, IQR 4). Most tumours were node positive (56%). Approximately one-third of patients had stage III disease (33%). Most women presented with large palpable tumours and had lymph node involvement confirmed on surgicopathological evaluation, indicative of limited early breast cancer detection. A national screening mammography programme is recommended for detection of earlier lesions. Pre-operative systemic therapy should be considered as an option for eligible patients.

  9. Quantifying the natural history of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tan, K H X; Simonella, L; Wee, H L; Roellin, A; Lim, Y-W; Lim, W-Y; Chia, K S; Hartman, M; Cook, A R

    2013-01-01

    Background: Natural history models of breast cancer progression provide an opportunity to evaluate and identify optimal screening scenarios. This paper describes a detailed Markov model characterising breast cancer tumour progression. Methods: Breast cancer is modelled by a 13-state continuous-time Markov model. The model differentiates between indolent and aggressive ductal carcinomas in situ tumours, and aggressive tumours of different sizes. We compared such aggressive cancers, that is, which are non-indolent, to those which are non-growing and regressing. Model input parameters and structure were informed by the 1978–1984 Ostergotland county breast screening randomised controlled trial. Overlaid on the natural history model is the effect of screening on diagnosis. Parameters were estimated using Bayesian methods. Markov chain Monte Carlo integration was used to sample the resulting posterior distribution. Results: The breast cancer incidence rate in the Ostergotland population was 21 (95% CI: 17–25) per 10 000 woman-years. Accounting for length-biased sampling, an estimated 91% (95% CI: 85–97%) of breast cancers were aggressive. Larger tumours, 21–50 mm, had an average sojourn of 6 years (95% CI: 3–16 years), whereas aggressive ductal carcinomas in situ took around half a month (95% CI: 0–1 month) to progress to the invasive ⩽10 mm state. Conclusion: These tumour progression rate estimates may facilitate future work analysing cost-effectiveness and quality-adjusted life years for various screening strategies. PMID:24084766

  10. Aromatase, Aromatase Inhibitors, and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chumsri, Saranya; Howes, Timothy; Bao, Ting; Sabnis, Gauri; Brodie, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Estrogens are known to be important in the growth of breast cancers in both pre- and postmenopausal women. As the number of breast cancer patients increases with age, the majority of breast cancer patients are postmenopausal women. Although estrogens are no longer made in the ovaries after menopause, peripheral tissues produce sufficient concentrations to stimulate tumor growth. As aromatase catalyzes the final and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of estrogen, inhibitors of this enzyme are effective targeted therapy for breast cancer. Three aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are now FDA approved and have been shown to be more effective than the antiestrogen tamoxifen and are well tolerated. AIs are now a standard treatment for postmenopausal patients. AIs are effective in adjuvant and first-line metastatic setting. This review describes the development of AIs and their current use in breast cancer. Recent research focuses on elucidating mechanisms of acquired resistance that may develop in some patients with long term AI treatment and also on innate resistance. Preclinical data in resistance models demonstrated that the crosstalk between ER and other signaling pathways particularly MAPK and PI3K/Akt is an important resistant mechanism. Blockade of these other signaling pathways is an attractive strategy to circumvent the resistance to AI therapy in breast cancer. Several clinical trials are ongoing to evaluate the role of these novel targeted therapies to reverse resistance to AIs. PMID:21335088

  11. Features of aggressive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Arpino, Grazia; Milano, Monica; De Placido, Sabino

    2015-10-01

    Aggressive breast cancer is a term commonly used in literature to describe breast cancer with a poor prognosis. Identifying and understanding the factors associated with aggressiveness could be helpful to the management of patients with breast cancer. Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, both clinically and biologically, which may be responsible for the wide range of survival durations for patients with metastatic disease. The goal of this study was to identify the factors most often described in association with aggressive metastatic breast cancer (MBC). A systematic review was performed by querying PubMed from January 1, 2012 to June 1, 2014 for "metastatic breast cancer" ("aggressive" or "poor prognosis" or "high risk"). The level of evidence to support each potential prognostic factor of aggressive MBC was also reviewed. The identified factors were grouped into 3 principle categories: clinical, biological, and patient related. Because patient-related factors may not be indicative of inherent cancer aggressiveness, this review focused only on clinical and biological factors. The factors with the highest levels of evidence to support associations with survival in metastatic breast cancer were visceral metastases, number of metastatic sites, disease-free interval, presence of CTCs, triple-negative disease, and tumour grade. Identification of these factors and understanding their contribution to the aggressiveness of MBC and disease progression may lead to more personalized treatment in this patient population. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Oncolytic virotherapy of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hartkopf, Andreas D; Fehm, Tanja; Wallwiener, Diethelm; Lauer, Ulrich M

    2011-10-01

    The use of replication competent viruses that selectively target and destroy cancer cells has rapidly evolved over the past decade and numerous innovative oncolytic viruses have been created. Many of these promising anti-cancer agents have recently entered into clinical trials (including those on breast cancer) and demonstrated encouraging safety and efficacy. Virotherapeutic strategies are thus of considerable interest to combat breast cancer in both (i) the primary disease situation in which relapse should be avoided as good as possible and (ii) in the metastatic situation which remains incurable to date. Here, we summarize data from preclinical and clinical trials using oncolytic virotherapy to treat breast cancer. This includes strategies to specifically target breast cancer cells, to arm oncolytic viruses with additional therapeutic transgenes and an outlining of future challenges when translating these promising therapeutics "from bench to bedside".

  13. American Indian Breast Cancer Project: Educational Development and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Felicia Schanche; Casken, John

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of Pathways to Health, a breast cancer education program targeting American Indian women in California. Discusses initial focus group results concerning belief in breast cancer risk, barriers to cancer screening and treatment, culturally sensitive issues, and illness beliefs. Describes…

  14. Molecular basis of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Al-Mansouri, Layla J; Alokail, Majed S

    2006-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in women and represents the second leading cause of cancer death among women after lung cancer. A common phenotypic abnormality of breast cancer cells is dysregulation of cell cycle control. The transformation of normal cell to a cancer cell appears to depend on mutation in genes that normally control cell cycle progression, thus leading to loss of the regulatory cell growth. We summarize here the molecular regulation of mammary carcinoma with regards to the most prominent oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes and their outcome in terms of cellular prognosis, and tumor development.

  15. Genetic evaluation of BRCA1-A complex genes with triple-negative breast cancer susceptibility in Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yi-Zi; Qiao, Feng; Yao, Ling; Cao, Zhi-Gang; Ye, Fu-Gui; Wu, Jiong; Hu, Xin; Wang, Bin; Shao, Zhi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background The tumor suppressor BRCA1 plays a pivotal role in maintaining genomic stability and tumor suppression. The BRCA1-A complex is required for recruitment of BRCA1 to DNA damage sites, DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint control. Since germline mutations of BRCA1 often lead to breast tumors that are triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) type, we aimed to investigate whether genetic deficiency in genes of the BRCA1-A complex is associated with risk to TNBC development. Results We found that rs7250266 in the promoter region of NBA1 confers a decreased risk to TNBC development, but not to non-TNBC susceptibility. In addition, the haplotypes containing two polymorphisms rs7250266 and rs2278256 are associated with a lower chance of TNBC development specifically. Our studies also showed that the protective alleles of rs7250266 (C > G) and rs2278256 (T > C) down-regulate promoter activity of NBA1 in mammary epithelial cells. Methods We investigated associations between the BRCA1-A complex genes and TNBC developing risk in first case-control study of Chinese Han Women population including 414 patients with TNBC and 354 cancer-free controls. We detected 37 common variants in ABRAXAS, RAP80, BRE, BRCC36 and NBA1/MERIT40 genes encoding the BRCA1-A complex and evaluated their genetic susceptibility to the risk of TNBC. An additional cohort with 652 other types of breast cancer (non-TNBC) cases and 890 controls was used to investigate the associations between TNBC-specific SNPs genotype and non-TNBCs susceptibility. Conclusions Genetic variants in NBA1 may be an important genetic determinant of TNBC susceptibility. Further investigation and validation of these SNPs in larger cohorts may facilitate in predication and prevention of TNBC and in counseling individuals for risk of TNBC development. PMID:26848770

  16. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Darbre, P D

    2005-09-01

    Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer.

  17. Approach to inflammatory breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Molckovsky, Andrea; Fitzgerald, Barbara; Freedman, Orit; Heisey, Ruth; Clemons, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To review the definition, clinical presentation, and management of inflammatory breast cancer in primary care. SOURCES OF INFORMATION Relevant research and review articles, as well as personal experience of the authors practising in a specialized locally advanced breast cancer program at a comprehensive cancer centre. Evidence is levels II and III. MAIN MESSAGE Inflammatory breast cancer is a rare disease that typically presents with a rapidly enlarging erythematous breast, often with no discernable breast mass. Identification of warning signs and recognition of clinical symptoms are crucial to prompt diagnosis and appropriate referral. Management in the primary care setting includes treatment of symptoms, psychosocial support, regular surveillance and follow-up, as well as palliative care. CONCLUSION Family physicians are usually the entry point to the health care system and are well positioned to assess inflammation of the breast and recognize the warning signs of an underlying inflammatory breast cancer. They are also important members of the team that provides support for breast cancer patients and their families during treatment, follow-up, and end-of-life care. PMID:19155362

  18. Evaluation of 3D-CRT, IMRT and VMAT radiotherapy plans for left breast cancer based on clinical dosimetric study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiyun; Chen, Xinde; He, Zhijian; Li, Jun

    2016-12-01

    This paper aims to compare dosimetric differences based on three types of radiotherapy plans for postoperative left breast cancer. In particular, based on a clinical dosimetric study, the three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), intensity- modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and VMAT plans were implemented on 15 cases of postoperative patients with left breast cancer with prescription doses of 5000cGy. Dose volume histogram (DVH) was used to analyze each evaluation index of clinical target volume (CTV) and organs at risk (OARs). Except for homogeneous index (HI), D2, each CTV evaluation index of 3D-CRT plan was inferior to IMRT and VMAT plans (P<0.05). Compared with the VMAT plans, IMRT has a statistical significance only in Dmean, V95 (P<0.05). On the contrary, Dmean pertaining to the VMAT plan is much closer to the prescription dose with a V95 coverage rate as high as 97.44%. For the infected lung, V5, V10 of 3D-CRT were the lowest (P<0.05), while V20, V30 were the highest (P<0.05) among the three types of plans. Here, the V5, V10 of infected lung were slightly higher (P<0.05) for the VMAT and IMRT plans. Each evaluation index of the contralateral lung and heart in 3D-CRT was the lowest (P<0.05). D1 of contralateral breast was lower in both IMRT and VMAT plans, which were 1770.89±121.16cGy and 1839.92±92.77cGy, respectively. While D1 of the spinal cord in IMRT and VMAT plans was higher, which were 1990.12±61.52cGy and 1927.38±43.67cGy, respectively. When the radiation dose of 500-1500cGy was delivered to the normal tissues, 3D-CRT significantly shows the lowest volume, VMAT is relatively higher. Monitor Units (MU) and treatment time (T) of VMAT were the least, only 49.33% and 55.86% of those of IMRT. The three types of plans can meet the clinical dosimetry demands of postoperative radiotherapy for left breast cancer. The target of IMRT and VMAT plans has a better conformity, and the VMAT plan takes the advantages of less MU and treatment time

  19. 5-Alkynyl-2'-deoxyuridines: Chromatography-free synthesis and cytotoxicity evaluation against human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Meneni, Srinivasarao; Ott, Ingo; Sergeant, Craig D.; Sniady, Adam; Gust, Ronald; Dembinski, Roman

    2007-01-01

    Starting with 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine, a series of 5-alkynyl-2'-deoxyuridines (with n-propyl, cyclopropyl, 1-hydroxycyclohexyl, p-tolyl, p-tert-butylphenyl, p-pentylphenyl, and trimethylsilyl alkyne substituents) have been synthesized via the palladium-catalyzed (Sonogashira) coupling reaction followed by a simplified isolation protocol (76–94% yield). The cytotoxic activity of modified nucleosides against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells has been determined in vitro. 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine, the only nucleoside in the series containing a terminal acetylene, is the most potent inhibitor with IC50 (μM) 0.4 ± 0.3 for MCF-7 and 4.4 ± 0.4 for MDA-MB-231. PMID:17336074

  20. Evaluating the role of nab-paclitaxel (Abraxane) in women with aggressive metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ciruelos, Eva; Jackisch, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Nab-paclitaxel (Abraxane(®)) is an albumin-bound form of paclitaxel that utilizes the natural properties of albumin to improve paclitaxel delivery to the tumor. It is licensed for use in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) at a dose of 260 mg/m(2) Q3W based on its superior therapeutic index versus conventional paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2) Q3W demonstrated in a Phase III study. In a post-hoc analysis, nab-paclitaxel treatment was associated with rapid and dramatic tumor responses in patients with poor prognostic factors (visceral dominant disease, ≥3 metastatic lesions), suggesting it may be a preferred treatment for these patients. Moreover, significant efficacy has been seen with nab-paclitaxel 100 and 150 mg/m(2) QW 3/4, suggesting it may be possible to tailor use of this agent in the future.

  1. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Time-lapse exposure depicts Bioreactor rotation. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  2. Breast Cancer Center Support Grant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-01

    may make potential referral candidates more receptive when medical professionals approach them about being tested. Currently, there are barriers to...1985;253:1908-13. (39) Parazzini F, La Vecchia C, Negri E, Franceschi S, Tozzi L. Family history of breast, ovarian and endometrial cancer and risk of...Raloxifene reduces the risk of breast cancer and may decrease the risk of endometrial cancer in post- menopausal women. Two year findings from the

  3. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Time-lapse exposure depicts Bioreactor rotation. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  4. The Biology of Breast Cancer Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cause of brain metastases, diagnosed in 10 to 15% of breast cancer patients and found at autopsy in 20 to 30...Relatively little is known about how breast cancer cells metastasize to the brain , and what phenotypes characterize these cells. This is due in...breast cancer brain metastases, using intra-carotid artery injection of breast cancer cells into nude mice.

  5. Copanlisib, Letrozole, and Palbociclib in Treating Patients With Hormone Receptor Positive HER2 Negative Stage I-IV Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-17

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Multifocal Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  6. Prospective Study Evaluating the Impact of Tissue Confirmation of Metastatic Disease in Patients With Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Eitan; Miller, Naomi; Geddie, William; Freedman, Orit; Kassam, Farrah; Simmons, Christine; Oldfield, Maria; Dranitsaris, George; Tomlinson, George; Laupacis, Andreas; Tannock, Ian F.; Clemons, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Decisions about treatment for women with metastatic breast cancer are usually based on the estrogen (ER), progesterone (PgR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status of the primary tumor. Retrospective data suggest that discordance between primary and metastatic lesions leads to detrimental outcome. This prospective study investigated receptor status of primary tumors and metastases in the same patient and assessed the impact of discordance on patient management and survival. Patients and Methods Biopsies of suspected metastases were analyzed for ER, PgR, and HER2. Primary tumors and metastases were analyzed using similar methodology. The treating oncologist indicated a treatment plan before and after biopsy to determine whether the result influenced management. Patients were followed up for progression or death. Results Of 121 women undergoing biopsy, 80% could be analyzed for receptor status. Discordance in ER, PgR, and HER2 between the primary and the metastasis was 16%, 40%, and 10%, respectively. Biopsy led to a reported change of management in 14% of women (95% CI, 8.4% to 21.5%). Fine-needle aspiration and biopsy of bone led to reduced ability to analyze receptors. After a median follow-up of 12 months, there were no trends for an association between receptor discordance and either time to treatment failure or overall survival. Conclusion Biopsy of metastases is technically feasible. Clinicians alter immediate management in one of seven patients on the basis of results of the biopsy, and discordance is not then associated with detrimental effects on outcome. Tissue confirmation should be considered in women with breast cancer and suspected metastatic recurrence. PMID:22124102

  7. Scintigraphic evaluation of functional hepatic mass in patients with advanced breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Virgolini, I.; Kornek, G.; Höbart, J.; Li, S. R.; Raolerer, M.; Bergmann, H.; Scheithauer, W.; Pantev, T.; Angelberger, P.; Sinzinger, H.

    1993-01-01

    Recent studies suggest a high specificity of 99mTc-galactosyl neoglycoalbumin (99mTc-NGA) receptor scanning in vivo by providing both morphological and functional diagnosis of liver disease. In 22 patients with advanced breast cancer 99mTc-NGA (150 MBq; 50 nmol) was exclusively trapped by the liver, the images showing 'cold spots' in areas of liver metastases formation. A two-tailed analysis was performed: the time activity curves recorded for the liver and precordial area were subjected to a kinetic receptor-calculating model allowing an estimation of the NGA-receptor concentration of the liver (i.e. hepatic binding protein, HBP) as well as calculation of the residual functional liver volume (RFLV) via the S.P.E.C.T.-study. In breast cancer patients with liver metastases a significantly (P < 0.01) lower HBP-concentration was estimated (0.65 +/- 0.16 vs 0.82 +/- 0.17 mumol l-1) as evidenced by a lower 99mTc-NGA-accumulation in the liver resulting also in a significantly (P < 0.001) lower RFLV (739 +/- 348 vs 1336 +/- 184 ml). In four amonafide-treated patients (800 mg m-2 intravenous infusion over 3 h) approximately one week after one chemotherapy cycle a significant (P < 0.05) increase in HBP-concentration (0.56 +/- 0.10 vs 0.72 +/- 0.06 mumol l-1) of the liver was found corresponding with an increase in RVLF (546 +/- 297 vs 670 +/- 265 ml). These regulatory mechanisms at the HBP level measured in vivo provide further evidence that 99mTc-NGA should have promise as a clinically useful receptor radiopharmaceutical for both quantification of liver function and assessment of liver morphology. PMID:8353045

  8. Measuring decision quality: psychometric evaluation of a new instrument for breast cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Sepucha, Karen R; Belkora, Jeffrey K; Chang, Yuchiao; Cosenza, Carol; Levin, Carrie A; Moy, Beverly; Partridge, Ann; Lee, Clara N

    2012-06-08

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the acceptability, feasibility, reliability and validity of a new decision quality instrument that assesses the extent to which patients are informed and receive treatments that match their goals. Cross-sectional mail survey of recent breast cancer survivors, providers and healthy controls and a retest survey of survivors. The decision quality instrument includes knowledge questions and a set of goals, and results in two scores: a breast can