Science.gov

Sample records for evaluating environmental consequences

  1. Evaluating environmental consequences of producing herbaceous crops for bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.B.

    1995-12-31

    The environmental costs and benefits of producing bioenergy crops can be measured both in kterms of the relative effects on soil, water, and wildlife habitat quality of replacing alternate cropping systems with the designated bioenergy system, and in terms of the quality and amount of energy that is produced per unit of energy expended. While many forms of herbaceous and woody energy crops will likely contribute to future biofuels systems, The Dept. of Energy`s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP), has chosen to focus its primary herbaceous crops research emphasis on a perennial grass species, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), as a bioenergy candidate. This choice was based on its high yields, high nutrient use efficiency, and wide geographic distribution, and also on its poistive environmental attributes. The latter include its positive effects on soil quality and stabiity, its cover value for wildlife, and the lower inputs of enerty, water, and agrochemicals required per unit of energy produced. A comparison of the energy budgets for corn, which is the primary current source of bioethanol, and switchgrass reveals that the efficiency of energy production for a perennial grass system can exceed that for an energy intensive annual row crop by as much as 15 times. In additions reductions in CO{sub 2} emission, tied to the energetic efficiency of producing transportation fuels, are very efficient with grasses. Calculated carbon sequestration rates may exceed those of annual crops by as much as 20--30 times, due in part to carbon storage in the soil. These differences have major implications for both the rate and efficiency with which fossil energy sources can be replaced with cleaner burning biofuels.

  2. Long-term consequences of non-intentional flows of substances: Modelling non-intentional flows of lead in the Dutch economic system and evaluating their environmental consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Elshkaki, Ayman Voet, Ester van der; Holderbeke, Mirja van; Timmermans, Veerle

    2009-06-15

    Substances may enter the economy and the environment through both intentional and non-intentional flows. These non-intentional flows, including the occurrence of substances as pollutants in mixed primary resources (metal ores, phosphate ores and fossil fuels) and their presence in re-used waste streams from intentional use may have environmental and economic consequences in terms of pollution and resource availability. On the one hand, these non-intentional flows may cause pollution problems. On the other hand, these flows have the potential to be a secondary source of substances. This article aims to quantify and model the non-intentional flows of lead, to evaluate their long-term environmental consequences, and compare these consequences to those of the intentional flows of lead. To meet this goal, the model combines all the sources of non-intentional flows of lead within one model, which also includes the intentional flows. Application of the model shows that the non-intentional flows of lead related to waste streams associated with intentional use are decreasing over time, due to the increased attention given to waste management. However, as contaminants in mixed primary resources application, lead flows are increasing as demand for these applications is increasing.

  3. Evaluating environmental and economic consequences of alternative pest management strategies: results of modeling workshops

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Richard L.; Andrews, Austin K.; Auble, Gregor T.L.; Ellison, Richard A.; Hamilton, David B.; Roelle, James E.; McNamee, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    The model conceptualized at the first workshop simulates the effect of corn agrecosystem decisions on crop production, economic returns, and environmental indicators. The model is composed of five interacting submodels: 1) a Production Strategies submodel which makes decisions concerning tillage, planting, fertilizer and pesticide applications, and harvest; 2) a Hydrology/Chemical Transport submodel which represents soil hydrology, erosion, and concentrations of fertilizers and pesticides in the soil, runoff, surface waters, and percolation; 3) a Vegetation submodel which simulates growth of agricultural crops (corns and soybeans) and weeds; 4) a Pests submodel which calculates pest population levels and resulting crop damage; and 5) an Environmental Effects submodel which calculates indicators of potential fish kills, human health effects, and wildlife habitat. The most persistent data gaps encountered in quantifying the model were coefficients to relate environmental consequences to alternative pest management strategies. While the model developed in the project is not yet accurate enough to be used for real-world decisions about the use of pesticides on corn, it does contain the basic structure upon which such a model could be built. More importantly at this stage of development, the project has shown that very complex systems can be modeled in short periods of time and that the process of building such models increases understanding among disciplinary specialists and between diverse institutional interests. This process can be useful to EPA as the agency cooperates with other institutions to meet its responsibilities in less costly ways. Activities at the second 2 1/2-day workshop included a review of the model, incorporation of necessary corrections, simulation of policy scenarios, and examination of techniques to address remaining institutional conflicts. Participants were divided into three groups representing environmental, production or industry, and

  4. An evaluation on the environmental consequences of residual CFCs from obsolete household refrigerators in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiangyang; Duan, Huabo; Li, Jinhui

    2011-03-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) contained in household refrigerators consist mainly of CFC-11 and CFC-12, which will be eventually released into the environment. Consequentially, environmental releases of these refrigerants will lead to ozone depletion and contribute significantly to the greenhouse effect, if waste refrigerators are not disposed of properly. In the present paper, the potential release of residual CFCs and their substitutes from obsolete household refrigerators in China is examined, and their contributions to ozone depletion and greenhouse effect are compared with those of other recognized ozone-depleting substances (ODS) and greenhouse gases (GHGs). The results imply that annual potential amounts of released residual CFC-11 and CFC-12 will reach their maximums at 4600 and 2300 tons, respectively in 2011, and then decrease gradually to zero until 2020. Meanwhile, the amounts of their most widely used substitutes HCFC-141b and HFC-134a will keep increasing. Subsequently, the contribution ratio of these CFCs and their substitutes to ozone depletion will remain at 25% through 2011, and reach its peak value of 34% by 2018. The contribution to greenhouse effect will reach its peak value of 0.57% by 2010. Moreover, the contribution ratio of these CFCs to the total global release of CFCs will steadily increase, reaching its peak of 15% by 2018. Thus, this period from 2010 to 2018 is a crucial time during which residual CFCs and their substitutes from obsolete household refrigerators in China will contribute significantly to ozone depletion.

  5. An evaluation on the environmental consequences of residual CFCs from obsolete household refrigerators in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Xiangyang; Duan Huabo; Li Jinhui

    2011-03-15

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) contained in household refrigerators consist mainly of CFC-11 and CFC-12, which will be eventually released into the environment. Consequentially, environmental releases of these refrigerants will lead to ozone depletion and contribute significantly to the greenhouse effect, if waste refrigerators are not disposed of properly. In the present paper, the potential release of residual CFCs and their substitutes from obsolete household refrigerators in China is examined, and their contributions to ozone depletion and greenhouse effect are compared with those of other recognized ozone-depleting substances (ODS) and greenhouse gases (GHGs). The results imply that annual potential amounts of released residual CFC-11 and CFC-12 will reach their maximums at 4600 and 2300 tons, respectively in 2011, and then decrease gradually to zero until 2020. Meanwhile, the amounts of their most widely used substitutes HCFC-141b and HFC-134a will keep increasing. Subsequently, the contribution ratio of these CFCs and their substitutes to ozone depletion will remain at 25% through 2011, and reach its peak value of 34% by 2018. The contribution to greenhouse effect will reach its peak value of 0.57% by 2010. Moreover, the contribution ratio of these CFCs to the total global release of CFCs will steadily increase, reaching its peak of 15% by 2018. Thus, this period from 2010 to 2018 is a crucial time during which residual CFCs and their substitutes from obsolete household refrigerators in China will contribute significantly to ozone depletion.

  6. 40 CFR 1502.16 - Environmental consequences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Environmental consequences. 1502.16 Section 1502.16 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.16 Environmental consequences. This section forms the scientific and analytic basis for...

  7. 40 CFR 1502.16 - Environmental consequences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental consequences. 1502.16 Section 1502.16 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.16 Environmental consequences. This section forms the scientific and analytic basis for...

  8. Global consequences of US environmental policies

    SciTech Connect

    Sedjo, R.A. )

    1993-04-01

    Attempts to quantify the financial and social benefits and costs, and their critiques, of habitat protection, have missed a major element: the global environmental consequences. In a global economy linked by international trade a significant reduction in timber harvests in on region will probably precipitate actions in other regions that may be detrimental to the global environment. These reactions would offset most or all of the alleged environmental benefits. The author uses the spotted owl controversy in the Pacific Northwest to illustrate his points. Global aspects of employment, marketing evaluations, fossil fuel implications are all discussed. The author feels that responses from environmentally responsible citizens would be influenced if it was more widely known that in a global system, domestic habitat protection and land-use decisions involved substantial environmental costs elsewhere.

  9. [Evaluation of the psychological consequences of environmental catastrophes: a feasibility study based on the 1992 floods in the Vaucluse].

    PubMed

    Verger, P; Rotily, M; Baruffol, E; Boulanger, N; Vial, M; Sydor, G; Pirard, P; Bard, D

    1999-01-01

    -correlations between the various psychological scales used in this study were highly significant (p < 10-4). There was some degree of association between some psychometric scales and exposure. This pilot study shows that a cross-sectional study of the long-term psychological consequences of an environmental disaster could be carried out several years after the event but that the feasibility of such a study depends ultimately on its acceptance by the public and the relevant authorities. It underlines the need to collect exposure data immediately after the event and enabled us to identify and to adapt the tools required for this kind of evaluation. It should encourage public health decision-makers to support such evaluation and to improve the psychological and social support available to people exposed to floods.

  10. Population consequences of environmental sex reversal.

    PubMed

    Cotton, Samuel; Wedekind, Claus

    2009-02-01

    When sex determination in a species is predominantly genetic but environmentally reversible, exposure to (anthropogenic) changes in the environment can lead to shifts in a population's sex ratio. Such scenarios may be common in many fishes and amphibians, yet their ramifications remain largely unexplored. We used a simple model to study the (short-term) population consequences of environmental sex reversal (ESR). We examined the effects on sex ratios, sex chromosome frequencies, and population growth and persistence after exposure to environmental forces with feminizing or masculinizing tendencies. When environmental feminization was strong, X chromosomes were driven to extinction. Analogously, extinction of normally male-linked genetic factors (e.g., Y chromosomes) was caused by continuous environmental masculinization. Although moderate feminization was beneficial for population growth in the absence of large viability effects, our results suggest that the consequences of ESR are generally negative in terms of population size and the persistence of sex chromosomes. Extreme sex ratios resulting from high rates of ESR also reduced effective population sizes considerably. This may limit any evolutionary response to the deleterious effects of ESR. Our findings suggest that ESR changes population growth and sex ratios in some counter-intuitive ways and can change the predominant factor in sex determination from genetic to fully environmental, often within only a few tens of generations. Populations that lose genetic sex determination may quickly go extinct if the environmental forces that cause sex reversal cease.

  11. Environmental consequences of energy production: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1989-01-01

    The Seventeenth Annual Illinois Energy conference entitled Environmental consequences of Energy Production was held in Chicago, Illinois on October 19-20, 1989. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for exchange of information on the technical, economic and institutional issues surrounding energy production and related environmental problems. The conference program was developed by a planning committee which included Illinois energy and environmental specialists from the major sectors including energy industries, environmental organizations, research universities, utility companies, federal, state and local government agencies, and public interest groups. The conference included presentations on four major topic areas. The issue areas were: urban pollution: where are we now and what needs to be done in the future; the acid rain problem: implications of proposed federal legislation on the Midwest; global warming: an update on the scientific debate; and strategies to minimize environmental damage. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual presentations. (FL)

  12. Truth or Consequences in Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    1980-01-01

    Presents an external review of the evaluation process involved in evaluating the national 4-H program. Focuses on issues and lessons relevant to evaluation and research in general. Discusses specific problems encountered in the 4-H national evaluation. (CS)

  13. Truth or Consequences in Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the process employed in evaluating the national 4-H program. Holds that the evaluation design was influenced by political, rather than methodological, concerns. Takes examples from the 4-H evaluation to illustrate dilemmas that have emerged in current evaluation process and theory. (Author/GC)

  14. Understanding the Relationship between Christian Orthodoxy and Environmentalism : The Mediating Role of Perceived Environmental Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truelove, Heather Barnes; Joireman, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated the hypothesis that people who strongly adhere to Christian orthodoxy may be less proenvironmental to the extent that they are less aware of the biospheric consequences of environmental problems (biospheric AC) but that they may be more proenvironmental than others to the extent that they are more aware of the egoistic…

  15. Blowback: Consequences of Evaluation for Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Ernest R.

    2008-01-01

    Drug studies are often cited as the best exemplars of evaluation design. However, many of these studies are seriously biased in favor of positive findings for the drugs evaluated, even to the point where dangerous effects are hidden. In spite of using randomized designs and double blinding, drug companies have found ways of producing the results…

  16. Social and Environmental Consequences of Technology Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, A. Emerson

    1993-01-01

    Tools for studying the social and environmental effects of technology include case studies, community-based studies involving real local problems, role playing, cost-benefit analysis, technology assessment, and lab experiments. (SK)

  17. Environmental Consequences of Urbanization in Permafrost Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khilimonyuk, D.; Brouchkov, A.

    2010-03-01

    Introduction Most of northern cities are anthropo-natural systems with domination of anthropogenic components. The environmental framework of the permafrost zone is very insignificant, with green belts being represented by small parks and public gardens. Modern northern cities of Russia represent territories with dense and compact residential buildings having simple configuration to reduce heat loss under severe climatic conditions. In earlier settlements such buildings alternate quite often with private one-storey houses. The typical modern and old cities were investigated for study of its environmental impact. Purpose The goal of this presentation is analysis of main environmental problems in permafrost areas of Northern Russian territories using data of city infrastructure and permafrost and environmental processes monitoring for old and new developing cities. Results It was found that primary anthropogenic changes of cities' environments are following: soil devastation, change of surface water and groundwater, stationary and dynamic loads, pollution, change of thermal state of soils, accumulation of occupation layer, waste dumping. It is practically impossible to preserve natural permafrost conditions. Therefore we can observe in all cities of the permafrost zone degradation or, more rarely, aggradation of permafrost grounds depending on natural and permafrost conditions, construction principles, density and age of constructions, development of the territory and many other factors. The degree of change in various natural components of various permafrost zones varies, depending on the initial natural conditions in which economic activity is carried out, its type and duration. This entails various ecologic situations ranging from normal to crisis or disaster. Conclusion Significant changes of geocryological and an ecological situation are marked only at dense modern multi-storey building city territories. In these cases there is a degradation of permafrost soils

  18. Evaluating Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokking, K.; van Aert, L.; Meijberg, W.; Kaskens, A.

    This book is the English version of "Evaluating Environmental Education" which was developed and financed by the Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on the purpose of evaluation, evaluation of environmental education programs, and outlines the 13-step…

  19. Some Environmental Consequences of Large Igneous Provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, M. F.

    2009-12-01

    The formation of large igneous provinces (LIPs)—continental flood basalts, ‘volcanic’ margins, and oceanic plateaus—may impact the atmosphere, oceans, and biosphere by rapidly releasing huge amounts of particulates, magmatic volatiles (CO2, SO2, Cl, F, etc.), and potentially volatiles (CO2, CH4, SO2, etc.) from intruded sediments (e.g., carbonates, organic-rich shales, evaporites). A key factor affecting the magnitude of volatile release is whether eruptions are subaerial or marine; hydrostatic pressure inhibits vesiculation and degassing of relatively soluble volatile components (H2O, S, Cl, F) in deep water submarine eruptions, although low solubility components (CO2, noble gases) are mostly degassed even at abyssal depths. Directly or indirectly, such injections may cause changes in the atmosphere/ocean system that can lead to perturbations of atmosphere/ocean chemistry, circulation, ecology, and biological productivity. These changes can be global in extent, particularly if environmental conditions were at or near a threshold state or tipping point. LIPs may have been responsible for some of the most dramatic and rapid changes in the global environment. For example, between ~145 and ~50 Ma, the global ocean was characterized by chemical and isotopic variations (especially in C and Sr isotope ratios, trace metal concentrations, and biocalcification), relatively high temperatures, high relative sea level, episodic deposition of black shales (oceanic anoxic events), high production of hydrocarbons, mass extinctions of marine organisms, and radiations of marine flora and fauna. Temporal correlations between the intense pulses of igneous activity associated with LIP formation and environmental changes suggest more than pure coincidence. The 1783-84 eruption of Laki on Iceland provides the only historical record of the type of volcanism that constructs transient LIPs. Although Laki produced a basaltic lava flow representing only ~1% of the volume of a typical

  20. Health and environmental consequences of the world trade center disaster.

    PubMed Central

    Landrigan, Philip J; Lioy, Paul J; Thurston, George; Berkowitz, Gertrud; Chen, L C; Chillrud, Steven N; Gavett, Stephen H; Georgopoulos, Panos G; Geyh, Alison S; Levin, Stephen; Perera, Frederica; Rappaport, Stephen M; Small, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    The attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) created an acute environmental disaster of enormous magnitude. This study characterizes the environmental exposures resulting from destruction of the WTC and assesses their effects on health. Methods include ambient air sampling; analyses of outdoor and indoor settled dust; high-altitude imaging and modeling of the atmospheric plume; inhalation studies of WTC dust in mice; and clinical examinations, community surveys, and prospective epidemiologic studies of exposed populations. WTC dust was found to consist predominantly (95%) of coarse particles and contained pulverized cement, glass fibers, asbestos, lead, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated furans and dioxins. Airborne particulate levels were highest immediately after the attack and declined thereafter. Particulate levels decreased sharply with distance from the WTC. Dust pH was highly alkaline (pH 9.0-11.0). Mice exposed to WTC dust showed only moderate pulmonary inflammation but marked bronchial hyperreactivity. Evaluation of 10,116 firefighters showed exposure-related increases in cough and bronchial hyperreactivity. Evaluation of 183 cleanup workers showed new-onset cough (33%), wheeze (18%), and phlegm production (24%). Increased frequency of new-onset cough, wheeze, and shortness of breath were also observed in community residents. Follow-up of 182 pregnant women who were either inside or near the WTC on 11 September showed a 2-fold increase in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants. In summary, environmental exposures after the WTC disaster were associated with significant adverse effects on health. The high alkalinity of WTC dust produced bronchial hyperreactivity, persistent cough, and increased risk of asthma. Plausible causes of the observed increase in SGA infants include maternal exposures to PAH and particulates. Future risk of mesothelioma may be increased, particularly among workers and

  1. Energy and Environmental Consequences of Transportation: Indicators of Sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.

    1997-07-01

    The rapid motorization of world transportation systems puts growing emphasis on controlling transportation`s direct and indirect impacts on the global environment, in other words, on achieving sustainability in transport. In 1950, the world contained 70 million motor vehicles, of which 70% were in the United States. Today the world`s motor vehicle fleet exceeds 600 million,of which less than one-third are in the U.S. Outside of the U.S., motor vehicle stocks are growing twice as fast (Davis & McFarlin, 1996, tables 1.1 & 1.2). With this explosive growth of motorized transport comes a compelling need to control its concomitant pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and fossil fuel consumption. Large scale indicators of transportation`s performance with respect to sustainability are therefore becoming increasingly important for monitoring trends and evaluating the effectiveness of policies at national and international scales. A recent survey by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (U. S. DOT/BTS, 1 996) of data on transportation`s environmental consequences in the U.S., found that reasonable indicators exist for energy use and for certain of transportation`s environmental impacts. Statistics on air pollutant emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy use are adequate for developing rigorous indicators of at least emissions and energy use. Much less is known about noise generation, water and groundwater pollution, solid waste,land-use and habitat impacts.

  2. Developmental thyroid hormone disruption: prevalence, environmental contaminants and neurodevelopmental consequences.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Mary E; Rovet, Joanne; Chen, Zupei; Koibuchi, Noriyuki

    2012-08-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for growth and development and particularly brain development. There are numerous environmental agents that lead to marginal reductions of circulating TH. Although it is clear that severe developmental hypothyroidism is profoundly detrimental to neurodevelopment, there is less information regarding the consequences of modest degrees of thyroid. The impact of low level TH disruptions induced by environmental contaminants has not been defined. This paper is a synopsis from four invited speakers who presented at the 13th International Neurotoxicology Association meeting held in Xi'an, China during the summer of 2011. An overview of the role of TH in brain development and a review of human and animal data on the neurological sequelae of disruption of the thyroid axis in the pre- and early post-natal periods were presented by Mary Gilbert and Joanne Rovet. Iodine deficiency, a common cause of TH insufficiency and mental retardation in many countries, including China, was addressed by Zupei Chen. In this presentation the current incidence of iodine deficiency and neurological outcome in China and the efficacy of recently implemented iodinization programs to eliminate this cause of mental retardation were reviewed. Joanne Rovet described the impact of TH disruption during pregnancy and under conditions of congenital hypothyroidism. Children born with normal thyroid function, but who experienced TH insufficiency in the womb, display subtle cognitive impairments and abnormalities in brain imaging. Despite early detection and treatment, deficiencies also exist in children born with thyroid disorders. Different patterns of cognitive effects result from prenatal versus postnatal TH insufficiency. Mary Gilbert reported on the effects of environmental contaminants with thyroid disrupting action on brain development in animals. Results of neurophysiological, behavioral, structural and molecular alterations that accompany modest perturbations of

  3. Unintended environmental consequences and co-benefits of economic restructuring.

    PubMed

    Liang, Sai; Xu, Ming; Suh, Sangwon; Tan, Raymond R

    2013-11-19

    Current economic restructuring policies have ignored unintended environmental consequences and cobenefits, the understanding of which can provide foundations for effective policy decisions for green economy transformation. Using the input-output life cycle assessment model and taking China as an example, we find that household consumption, fixed capital formation, and export are main drivers to China's environmental impacts. At the product scale, major contributors to environmental impacts vary across different types of impacts. Stimulating the development of seven strategic emerging industries will cause unintended consequences, such as increasing nonferrous metal ore usage, terrestrial acidification, photochemical oxidant formation, human toxicity, and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Limiting the surplus outputs in the construction materials industry and metallurgy industry may only help mitigate some of the environmental impacts caused by China's regulated pollutants, with little effect on reducing other impacts, such as marine eutrophication, terrestrial acidification, photochemical oxidant formation, and particulate matter formation. However, it will bring cobenefits by simultaneously reducing mineral ore usage, human toxicity, marine ecotoxicity, and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Sustainable materials management and integrated policy modeling are possible ways for policy-making to avoid unintended consequences and effectively utilize cobenefits.

  4. Host manipulation in the face of environmental changes: Ecological consequences

    PubMed Central

    Labaude, Sophie; Rigaud, Thierry; Cézilly, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Several parasite species, particularly those having complex life-cycles, are known to induce phenotypic alterations in their hosts. Most often, such alterations appear to increase the fitness of the parasites at the expense of that of their hosts, a phenomenon known as “host manipulation”. Host manipulation can have important consequences, ranging from host population dynamics to ecosystem engineering. So far, the importance of environmental changes for host manipulation has received little attention. However, because manipulative parasites are embedded in complex systems, with many interacting components, changes in the environment are likely to affect those systems in various ways. Here, after reviewing the ecological importance of manipulative parasites, we consider potential causes and consequences of changes in host manipulation by parasites driven by environmental modifications. We show that such consequences can extend to trophic networks and population dynamics within communities, and alter the ecological role of manipulative parasites such as their ecosystem engineering. We suggest that taking them into account could improve the accuracy of predictions regarding the effects of global change. We also propose several directions for future studies. PMID:26835252

  5. College students' evaluations of alcohol consequences as positive and negative.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Megan E; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2011-12-01

    Alcohol expectancy, motivation, and consequences measures assume a known valence of 'positive' and 'negative' outcomes. However, different individuals may rate the same consequences of alcohol use as good or bad. The current study examines the extent to which: (a) college students rate researcher-defined positive consequences as good and researcher-defined negative consequences as bad, and (b) these evaluations predict alcohol use and problems after controlling for previous use. In longitudinal self-reports via web-surveys across the first three semesters of college, students (N=600; 54% women) reported their alcohol use and problems, experienced consequences, and evaluations of those consequences. Contrary to the generally-accepted valence of positive consequences, Fun/Social consequences were viewed as neutral or negative by 22% (having more fun) to 73% (relieving boredom) of participants. Over half of participants evaluated each of the Relaxation, Sex, and Image consequences items as neutral or negative. Consistent with the generally-accepted valence of negative consequences, Physical/Behavioral consequences were viewed by the majority as negative, although 11% (getting in trouble with police/authorities) to 34% (doing/saying something embarrassing) of students rated these consequences as neutral or positive. Independent of levels of previous drinking, more positive evaluations of Fun/Social consequences prospectively predicted frequency, quantity, and maximum drinks. Less negative evaluations of Physical/Behavioral consequences predicted more alcohol problems. There is variation in the evaluations of consequences among college students, and understanding characteristics of those who view consequences as positive or negative may have implications for future alcohol-related behaviors and problems.

  6. Environmental consequences of impact cratering events as a function of ambient conditions on Earth.

    PubMed

    Kring, David A

    2003-01-01

    The end of the Mesozoic Era is defined by a dramatic floral and faunal turnover that has been linked with the Chicxulub impact event, thus leading to the realization that impact cratering can affect both the geologic and biologic evolution of Earth. However, the environmental consequences of an impact event and any subsequent biological effects rely on several factors, including the ambient environmental conditions and the extant ecosystem structures at the time of impact. Some of the severest environmental perturbations of the Chicxulub impact event would not have been significant in some periods of Earth history. Consequently, the environmental and biological effects of an impact event must be evaluated in the context in which it occurs.

  7. Environmental consequences of rapid urbanization in zhejiang province, East china.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuchao; Yue, Wenze; Xu, Honghui; Wu, Jingsheng; He, Yue

    2014-07-11

    Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China). Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With rapid urban sprawl, a significant Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect has emerged. During extreme heat events in summer, the UHI effect significantly exacerbates nocturnal heat stress in highly urbanized areas. Taking a long-term view, urbanization also causes additional hot days and hot degree days in urban areas. Urbanization also imposes a heavy burden on local and regional air quality in ZJP. Degraded visibility and an increase in haze days are observed at most meteorological stations, especially in the three urban clusters. The results show that urbanization has led to serious environmental problems in ZJP, not only on the city scale, but also on the regional scale. Maintaining a balance between the continuing process of urbanization and environmental sustainability is a major issue facing the local government.

  8. Environmental Consequences of Rapid Urbanization in Zhejiang Province, East China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuchao; Yue, Wenze; Xu, Honghui; Wu, Jingsheng; He, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China). Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With rapid urban sprawl, a significant Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect has emerged. During extreme heat events in summer, the UHI effect significantly exacerbates nocturnal heat stress in highly urbanized areas. Taking a long-term view, urbanization also causes additional hot days and hot degree days in urban areas. Urbanization also imposes a heavy burden on local and regional air quality in ZJP. Degraded visibility and an increase in haze days are observed at most meteorological stations, especially in the three urban clusters. The results show that urbanization has led to serious environmental problems in ZJP, not only on the city scale, but also on the regional scale. Maintaining a balance between the continuing process of urbanization and environmental sustainability is a major issue facing the local government. PMID:25019266

  9. 38 CFR 21.6058 - Consequences of evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluation. 21.6058 Section 21.6058 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Pension Recipients Evaluation § 21.6058 Consequences of evaluation. (a) Eligible veteran may choose to participate. If VA finds, based on the evaluation, that achievement of a vocational goal by the veteran...

  10. Environmental chemicals impacting the thyroid: targets and consequences.

    PubMed

    Zoeller, R Thomas

    2007-09-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is essential for normal brain development, but the specific actions of TH differ across developmental time and brain region. These actions of TH are mediated largely by a combination of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) isoforms that exhibit specific temporal and spatial patterns of expression during animal and human brain development. In addition, TR action is influenced by different cofactors, proteins that directly link the TR protein to functional changes in gene expression. Considering the importance of TH signaling in development, it is important to consider environmental chemicals that may interfere with this signaling. Recent research indicates that environmental chemicals can interfere with thyroid function and with TH signaling. The key issues are to understand the mechanism by which these chemicals act and the dose at which they act, and whether adaptive responses intrinsic to the thyroid system can ameliorate potential adverse consequences (i.e., compensate). In addition, several recent studies show that TRs may be unintended targets of chemicals manufactured for industrial purposes to which humans and wildlife are routinely exposed. Polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, bisphenol-A, and specific halogenated derivatives and metabolites of these compounds have been shown to bind to TRs and perhaps have selective effects on TR functions. A number of common chemicals, including polybrominated biphenyls and phthalates, may also exert such effects. When we consider the importance of TH in brain development, it will be important to pursue the possibilities that these chemicals-or interactions among chemical classes-are affecting children's health by influencing TH signaling in the developing brain.

  11. Evaluation of Economic and Social Consequences of Cooperative Extension Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Science and Education Administration.

    This report describes the cooperative extension system and evaluates the consequences of its educational programs. An executive summary provides an overview of the contents: background, highlights of findings related to consequences, interpretations, and implications for the future. Following an introduction, chapter 2 discusses extension in terms…

  12. Evaluating Environmental Chemistry Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hites, Ronald A.

    2001-01-01

    A director of the Indiana University Center for Environmental Science Research reviews textbooks on environmental chemistry. Highlights clear writing, intellectual depth, presence of problem sets covering both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the material, and full coverage of the topics of concern. Discusses the director's own approach…

  13. Environmental consequences of the Retsof Salt Mine roof collapse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    In 1994, the largest salt mine in North America, which had been in operation for more than 100 years, catastrophically flooded when the mine ceiling collapsed. In addition to causing the loss of the mine and the mineral resources it provided, this event formed sinkholes, caused widespread subsidence to land, caused structures to crack and subside, and changed stream flow and erosion patterns. Subsequent flooding of the mine drained overlying aquifers, changed the groundwater salinity distribution (rendering domestic wells unusable), and allowed locally present natural gas to enter dwellings through water wells. Investigations including exploratory drilling, hydrologic and water-quality monitoring, geologic and geophysical studies, and numerical simulation of groundwater flow, salinity, and subsidence have been effective tools in understanding the environmental consequences of the mine collapse and informing decisions about management of those consequences for the future. Salt mines are generally dry, but are susceptible to leaks and can become flooded if groundwater from overlying aquifers or surface water finds a way downward into the mined cavity through hundreds of feet of rock. With its potential to flood the entire mine cavity, groundwater is a constant source of concern for mine operators. The problem is compounded by the viscous nature of salt and the fact that salt mines commonly lie beneath water-bearing aquifers. Salt (for example halite or potash) deforms and “creeps” into the mined openings over time spans that range from years to centuries. This movement of salt can destabilize the overlying rock layers and lead to their eventual sagging and collapse, creating permeable pathways for leakage of water and depressions or openings at land surface, such as sinkholes. Salt is also highly soluble in water; therefore, whenever water begins to flow into a salt mine, the channels through which it flows increase in diameter as the surrounding salt dissolves

  14. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE WORLD TRADE CENTER DISASTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) created an acute environmental disaster of enormous magnitude. This study characterizes the environmental exposures resulting from destruction of the WTC and assesses their effects on health. Methods include ambient air sampling; analyse...

  15. Environmental Consequences of Nanotechnologies: Nanoparticle Dispersion in Aqueous Media: SOP-T-1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    ER D C/ EL S R- 15 -2 Environmental Consequences of Nanotechnologies Nanoparticle Dispersion in Aqueous Media: SOP-T-1 En vi ro nm en...Consequences of Nanotechnologies Scientific Operating Procedure SOP-T-1 Jessica G. Coleman, Alan J. Kennedy, and Ashley R. Harmon Environmental...EQT) Research Program titled “Environmental Consequences of Nanotechnologies .” Procedures link to the ERDC NanoGRID (Guidance for Risk Informed

  16. Environmental Consequences of Big Nasty Impacts on the Early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahnle, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    The geological record of the Archean Earth is spattered with impact spherules from a dozen or so major cosmic collisions involving Earth and asteroids or comets (Lowe, Byerly 1986, 2015). Extrapolation of the documented deposits suggests that most of these impacts were as big or bigger than the Chicxulub event that famously ended the reign of the thunder lizards. As the Archean impacts were greater, the environmental effects were also greater. The number and magnitude of the impacts is bounded by the lunar record. There are no lunar craters bigger than Chicxulub that date to Earth's mid-to-late Archean. Chance dictates that Earth experienced ~10 impacts bigger than Chicxulub between 2.5 Ga and 3.5 Ga, the biggest of which were ~30-100X more energetic than Chicxulub. To quantify the thermal consequences of big impacts on old Earth, we model the global flow of energy from the impact into the environment. The model presumes that a significant fraction of the impact energy goes into ejecta that interact with the atmosphere. Much of this energy is initially in rock vapor, melt, and high speed particles. (i) The upper atmosphere is heated by ejecta as they reenter the atmosphere. The mix of hot air, rock vapor, and hot silicates cools by thermal radiation. Rock raindrops fall out as the upper atmosphere cools. (ii) The energy balance of the lower atmosphere is set by radiative exchange with the upper atmosphere and with the surface, and by evaporation of seawater. Susequent cooling is governed by condensation of water vapor. (iii) The oceans are heated by thermal radiation and rock rain and cooled by evaporation. Surface waters become hot and salty; if a deep ocean remains it is relatively cool. Subsequently water vapor condenses to replenish the oceans with hot fresh water (how fresh depending on continental weathering, which might be rather rapid under the circumstances). (iv) The surface temperature of dry land is presumed to be the same as the lower atmosphere. A

  17. Environmental Consequences of Big Nasty Impacts on the Early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The geological record of the Archean Earth is spattered with impact spherules from a dozen or so major cosmic collisions involving Earth and asteroids or comets (Lowe, Byerly 1986, 2015). Extrapolation of the documented deposits suggests that most of these impacts were as big or bigger than the Chicxulub event that famously ended the reign of the thunder lizards. As the Archean impacts were greater, the environmental effects were also greater. The number and magnitude of the impacts is bounded by the lunar record. There are no lunar craters bigger than Chicxulub that date to Earth's mid-to-late Archean. Chance dictates that Earth experienced no more than approximately 10 impacts bigger than Chicxulub between 2.5 billion years and 3.5 2.5 billion years, the biggest of which were approximately30-100 times more energetic, comparable to the Orientale impact on the Moon (1x10 (sup 26) joules). To quantify the thermal consequences of big impacts on old Earth, we model the global flow of energy from the impact into the environment. The model presumes that a significant fraction of the impact energy goes into ejecta that interact with the atmosphere. Much of this energy is initially in rock vapor, melt, and high speed particles. (i) The upper atmosphere is heated by ejecta as they reenter the atmosphere. The mix of hot air, rock vapor, and hot silicates cools by thermal radiation. Rock raindrops fall out as the upper atmosphere cools. (ii) The energy balance of the lower atmosphere is set by radiative exchange with the upper atmosphere and with the surface, and by evaporation of seawater. Susequent cooling is governed by condensation of water vapor. (iii) The oceans are heated by thermal radiation and rock rain and cooled by evaporation. Surface waters become hot and salty; if a deep ocean remains it is relatively cool. Subsequently water vapor condenses to replenish the oceans with hot fresh water (how fresh depending on continental weathering, which might be rather rapid

  18. Environmental Consequences of Big Nasty Impacts on the Early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The geological record of the Archean Earth is spattered with impact spherules from a dozen or so major cosmic collisions involving Earth and asteroids or comets (Lowe, Byerly 1986, 2015). Extrapolation of the documented deposits suggests that most of these impacts were as big or bigger than the Chicxulub event that famously ended the reign of the thunder lizards. As the Archean impacts were greater, the environmental effects were also greater. The number and magnitude of the impacts is bounded by the lunar record. There are no lunar craters bigger than Chicxulub that date to Earth's mid-to-late Archean. Chance dictates that Earth experienced no more than approximately 10 impacts bigger than Chicxulub between 2.5 billion years and 3.5 billion years, the biggest of which were approximately 30-100 times more energetic, comparable to the Orientale impact on the Moon (1x10 (sup 26) joules). To quantify the thermal consequences of big impacts on old Earth, we model the global flow of energy from the impact into the environment. The model presumes that a significant fraction of the impact energy goes into ejecta that interact with the atmosphere. Much of this energy is initially in rock vapor, melt, and high speed particles. (i) The upper atmosphere is heated by ejecta as they reenter the atmosphere. The mix of hot air, rock vapor, and hot silicates cools by thermal radiation. Rock raindrops fall out as the upper atmosphere cools. (ii) The energy balance of the lower atmosphere is set by radiative exchange with the upper atmosphere and with the surface, and by evaporation of seawater. Susequent cooling is governed by condensation of water vapor. (iii) The oceans are heated by thermal radiation and rock rain and cooled by evaporation. Surface waters become hot and salty; if a deep ocean remains it is relatively cool. Subsequently water vapor condenses to replenish the oceans with hot fresh water (how fresh depending on continental weathering, which might be rather rapid

  19. Environmental Compliance. Program Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fardig, Diane

    This report provides formative-evaluation information about the processes followed by Florida's Orange County Public Schools (OCPS) to comply with national, state, and local governmental environmental regulations. Specifically, the report examines the effectiveness of the Environmental Compliance (EC) team, which monitors OCPS response to…

  20. [Epidemiological research on environmental health risks and their economic consequences].

    PubMed

    Haucke, F; Holle, R; Wichmann, H E

    2009-12-01

    In environmental health research, methods for quantitative analysis of human population studies data are gaining importance. In recent years, it has been realized that they can also provide an important link to the economic view on environmental health effects. In this review, fundamental concepts and methods from environmental epidemiology and health economics are presented and it is shown how they can be linked in order to support environmental policy decisions. In addition, the characteristics of environmental epidemiology and the role of epidemiologic studies in risk assessment are discussed. From the economic point of view, cost-of-illness studies and cost effectiveness studies are the main approaches, and we have placed special focus on methods of monetary valuation of health effects that are generally proposed in the environmental context. Two conceptually differing strategies to combine epidemiologic and economic evidence are presented: the environmental attributable fraction model as a top-down approach and the impact pathway approach which follows a bottom-up analysis strategy. Finally, two examples are used to illustrate the application of these concepts and methods: health risks caused by fine particle air pollution and their costs, and the cost-effectiveness of radon exposure reduction policies.

  1. Focus on environmental risks and migration: causes and consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adger, W. Neil; Arnell, Nigel W.; Black, Richard; Dercon, Stefan; Geddes, Andrew; Thomas, David S. G.

    2015-06-01

    Environmental change poses risks to societies, including disrupting social and economic systems such as migration. At the same time, migration is an effective adaptation to environmental and other risks. We review novel science on interactions between migration, environmental risks and climate change. We highlight emergent findings, including how dominant flows of rural to urban migration mean that populations are exposed to new risks within destination areas and the requirement for urban sustainability. We highlight the issue of lack of mobility as a major issue limiting the effectiveness of migration as an adaptation strategy and leading to potentially trapped populations. The paper presents scenarios of future migration that show both displacement and trapped populations over the incoming decades. Papers in the special issue bring new insights from demography, human geography, political science and environmental science to this emerging field.

  2. Developmental Thyroid Hormone Disruption: Prevalence, Environmental Contaminants and Neurodevelopmental Consequences

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for growth and development and particularly brain development. There are numerous environmental agents that lead to marginal reductions of circulating TH. Although it is clear that severe developmental hypothyroidism is profoundly detrimental to...

  3. The Influence of Environmental Consequences and Internalizing Symptoms on Children's Tic Severity.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Cyd K; Jones, Anna M; Gutierrez-Colina, Ana M; Ivey, Emily K; Carlson, Olivia; Melville, Lauren; Kardon, Patricia; Blount, Ronald L

    2017-04-01

    Although there is evidence that environmental consequences for displaying tics and internalizing symptoms are related to tic severity in children with TS, less is known about the inter-relationships of these variables or how these factors jointly contribute to tic severity. This study included 45 children with Tourette syndrome. Caregivers reported on children's environmental consequences for displaying tics, internalizing symptoms, and tic severity. Results indicated that children with higher levels of internalizing symptoms experienced significantly more environmental consequences for displaying tics. Children with higher levels of separation anxiety symptoms demonstrated significantly greater tic severity. Environmental consequences for displaying tics accounted for significantly more variance in predicting tic severity than anxiety symptoms. This preliminary evidence suggests that environmental consequences for displaying tics, such as receiving accommodations or attention from others, have a greater influence on children's tic severity than emotional factors.

  4. Including public perception data in the evaluation of the consequences of sewerage derived urban flooding.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Scott; Crow, Helen; Karikas, Naoum

    2009-01-01

    This text reports research which was undertaken to assess the failure consequences associated with sewerage systems. In an effort to move away from considering only flood volume, depth or extent, the text will focus on how a survey of public opinion was used to inform the development of a consequence scoring methodology. The failure consequences considered range from internal flooding of properties, to road closure, environmental damage and odour problems. The text reports the extent to which experience of flooding influences perceptions of failure consequence and sewerage system management. It is also outlined how this data was used, along with other data sources, to construct an objective scoring process that can be used to evaluate failure consequence and readily prioritise sewerage maintenance.

  5. Environmental effects of dredging. Use of daphnia magna to predict consequences of bioaccumulation

    SciTech Connect

    1987-03-01

    Results reported herein represent a portion of the laboratory research evaluating the relationship between mercury and cadmium tissue residues and biological effects in the freshwater crustacean, Daphnia magna (commonly known as the water flea). Procedures presented here for a 28-day Daphnia magna toxicity test could be used in screening for water-column toxicity resulting from open-water disposal of a specific dredged material. As a part of its regulatory and dredging programs, the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers often conducts, or requires to be conducted, an assessment of the potential for bioaccumulation of environmental contaminants from sediment scheduled for dredging and open-water disposal. There is, at present, no generally accepted guidance available to aid in the interpretation of the biological consequences of bioaccumulation. To provide an initial basis for such guidance, the Environmental Laboratory is conducting both literature database analyses and experimental laboratory studies as part of the Long-Term Effects of Dredging Operations (LEDO) Program.

  6. [Evaluation of consequences of test use in validity theory].

    PubMed

    Padilla, José Luis; Gómez, Juana; Hildago, María Dolores; Muñiz, José

    2006-05-01

    There is little doubt about the importance of validity during the compilation and evaluation of tests. Nevertheless, intense debate has arisen with regard to incorporating the consequences of test use as a further source of evidence in the most recent edition of the AERA, APA, NCME Standards . After reviewing the historical antecedents of the issue and the main lines of approach of both defenders and critics, this paper sets out the arguments which may be used in answer to the question: 'At what point should the analysis of the consequences of test use become part of validation?' The response of the AERA, APA, NCME Standards has clear similarities with the perspective adopted towards the consideration of bias in tests as a problem of validity. Finally, the paper describes how consequence validation may be subject to tension arising from the evolution of notions of justice in test use.

  7. Decision Consequence Model (DCM): Integrating environmental data and analysis into real time decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Cimorelli, A.J.; Stahl, C.H.; Chow, A.H.; Fernandez, C.

    1999-07-01

    A critical evaluation of the many environmental issues facing EPA Region 3 has established five major priorities: (1) ozone pollution (and its precursors); (2) impacts of acidification (acid deposition and acid mine drainage); (3) eutrophication of the Chesapeake Bay from atmospheric nitrogen deposition; (4) Cities/Urban Environment (ozone, particulate matter (PM), air toxics are some of the air components); and (5) Climate Change. Recognizing the complex nature of the systems controlling these issues, Region III's Air Protection Division (APD) is developing a decision support tool, i.e., the Decision Consequence Model (DCM), that will integrate and automate the analysis of environmental impacts in a manner that allows them to holistically address these regional priorities. Using this tool the authors intend to consider the interdependency of pollutants and their environmental impacts in order to support real-time decision making. The purpose of this paper is to outline the basic concept of the DCM and to present an example set of environmental indicators to illustrate how the DCM will be used to evaluate environmental impacts. The authors will discuss their process of indicator development, and present an example suite of indicators to provide a concrete example of the concepts presented above and, to illustrate the utility of the DCM to simultaneously evaluate multiple effects of a single pollutant. They will discuss the type of indicators chosen for this example as well as the general criteria the DCM indicators must satisfy. The framework that was developed to construct the indicators is discussed and used to calculate the example indicators. The yearly magnitudes of these example indicators are calculated for various multi-year periods to show their behavior over time.

  8. Environmental consequences of the desire to dominate and be superior.

    PubMed

    Milfont, Taciano L; Richter, Isabel; Sibley, Chris G; Wilson, Marc S; Fischer, Ronald

    2013-09-01

    A belief in human dominance over nature lies at the heart of current environmental problems. In this article, we extend the theoretical scope of social dominance theory by arguing that social dominance orientation (SDO) is an important variable in understanding person-environment relations. We argue that individuals high in SDO are more willing to exploit the environment in unsustainable ways because SDO promotes human hierarchical dominance over nature. Four studies provide support for this perspective. High SDO was associated with lower levels of environmental concern in a nationally representative New Zealand sample (Study 1) and in country-level data across 27 nations (Study 2). SDO was also positively related to utilization attitudes toward nature (Study 3) and mediated the gender difference in beliefs about anthropogenic climate change (Study 4), and both occurred independently of right-wing authoritarianism. Implications for the human-dominated view of nature subscribed to by those high in SDO are discussed.

  9. Environmental Enteric Dysfunction: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Clinical Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Keusch, Gerald T.; Denno, Donna M.; Black, Robert E.; Duggan, Christopher; Guerrant, Richard L.; Lavery, James V.; Nataro, James P.; Rosenberg, Irwin H.; Ryan, Edward T.; Tarr, Phillip I.; Ward, Honorine; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Coovadia, Hoosen; Lima, Aldo; Ramakrishna, Balakrishnan; Zaidi, Anita K. M.; Hay Burgess, Deborah C.; Brewer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Stunting is common in young children in developing countries, and is associated with increased morbidity, developmental delays, and mortality. Its complex pathogenesis likely involves poor intrauterine and postnatal nutrition, exposure to microbes, and the metabolic consequences of repeated infections. Acquired enteropathy affecting both gut structure and function likely plays a significant role in this outcome, especially in the first few months of life, and serve as a precursor to later interactions of infection and malnutrition. However, the lack of validated clinical diagnostic criteria has limited the ability to study its role, identify causative factors, and determine cost-effective interventions. This review addresses these issues through a historical approach, and provides recommendations to define and validate a working clinical diagnosis and to guide critical research in this area to effectively proceed. Prevention of early gut functional changes and inflammation may preclude or mitigate the later adverse vicious cycle of malnutrition and infection. PMID:25305288

  10. [Health consequences of environmental temperature and climate variations].

    PubMed

    Swynghedauw, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Recent climate change is a consequence of the greenhouse effect and human activity, and is directly responsible for extreme events such as heatwaves (see report of the French Académie des Sciences). Human thermoregulation depends more on behavior than on biology Air conditioning and building structure play an essential role. The 2003 heatwave was not a unique event. Preventive measures reduced mortality during subsequent heatwaves. Most deaths were due to heat stroke associated with dehydration. During strenuous exercise, especially during military training, heat stroke requires specific treatment. Temperature/ global mortality and temperature/cardiovascular mortality curves are both U-shaped. Usually, global mortality increases winter and is linked to temperature. During summer, global mortality increases only when heatwaves occur. Climate change participates in the spread of infectious diseases. Nevertheless, in continental France, for the moment, climate change is not a major factor in the incidence of infectious diseases, despite the fact that several bacteria, viruses and vectors are temperature-sensitive. The situation in Reunion, French Polynesia and French Departments of America is more complicated, due to their geographic heterogeneity. Some areas are more exposed to the climatic risk and could act as a gateway for new infections and mutations. The dramatic loss of biodiversity is partly a consequence of climate change. It increases the transmissibility of some pathogens and can also potentially lead to an increase in autoimmune diseases and obesity. Climate change plays a important role in allergic diseases, through changes in the diffusion and composition of pollens. These modifications are being monitored by several observatories. Six different veterinary diseases, including several zoonoses, are of particular concern.

  11. Consequences of Slot Transactions on Airport Congestion and Environmental Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeyratne, Ruwantissa I.R.

    2000-01-01

    Recent trends in the liberalization of market access by many commercial airlines have opened the skies to virtually unlimited flights between many countries. However, this liberalization is stultified by the lack of airport capacity to accommodate the many flights that are generated by demand for capacity. Accordingly, the allocation of slots for open skies airlines remain dependent on the expansion and effective management of airport capacity. This article examines the ramifications of slot allocation on traffic peaking at airports and environmental concerns, which may emerge with this activity.

  12. 7 CFR 632.50 - Environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental evaluation. 632.50 Section 632.50... Environmental evaluation. (a) Environmental evaluation is an integral part of planning used by NRCS in..., evaluation of reasonable alternatives, and identification of significant environmental impacts. Major...

  13. 7 CFR 632.50 - Environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental evaluation. 632.50 Section 632.50... Environmental evaluation. (a) Environmental evaluation is an integral part of planning used by NRCS in..., evaluation of reasonable alternatives, and identification of significant environmental impacts. Major...

  14. Mass mortality and its environmental and evolutionary consequences.

    PubMed

    Hsü, K J; He, Q; McKenzie, J A; Weissert, H; Perch-Nielsen, K; Oberhänsli, H; Kelts, K; Labrecque, J; Tauxe, L; Krähenbühl, U; Percival, S F; Wright, R; Karpoff, A M; Petersen, N; Tucker, P; Poore, R Z; Gombos, A M; Pisciotto, K; Carman, M F; Schreiber, E

    1982-04-16

    The latest Mesozoic and earliest Tertiary sediments at Deep Sea Drilling Project site 524 provide an amplified record of environmental and biostratographic changes at the end of Cretaceous. Closely spaced samples, representing time intervals as short as 10(2) or 10(3) years, were analyzed for their bulk carbonate and trace-metal compositions, and for oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions. The data indicate that at the end of Cretaceous, when a high proportion of the ocean's planktic organisms were eliminated, an associated reduction in productivity led to a partial transfer of dissolved carbon dioxide from the oceans to the atmosphere. This resulted in a large increase of the atmospheric carbon dioxide during the next 50,000 years, which is believed to have caused a temperature rise revealed by the oxygen-isotope data. The lowermost Tertiary sediments at site 524 include fossils with Cretaceous affinities, which may include both reworked individuals and some forms that survived for a while after the catastrophe. Our data indicate that many of the Cretaceous pelagic organisms became extinct over a period of a few tens of thousands of years, and do not contradict the scenario of cometary impact as a cause of mass mortality in the oceans, as suggested by an iridium anomaly at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary.

  15. Environmental "Omics" of International Space Station: Insights, Significance, and Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2016-07-01

    The NASA Space Biology program funded two multi-year studies to catalogue International Space Station (ISS) environmental microbiome. The first Microbial Observatory (MO) experiment will generate a microbial census of the ISS surfaces and atmosphere using advanced molecular microbial community analysis "omics" techniques, supported by traditional culture-based methods and state-of-the art molecular techniques. The second MO experiment will measure presence of viral and select bacterial and fungal pathogens on ISS surfaces and correlate their presence on crew. The "omics" methodologies of the MO experiments will serve as the foundation for an extensive microbial census, offering significant insight into spaceflight-induced changes in the populations of beneficial and potentially harmful microbes. The safety of crewmembers and the maintenance of hardware are the primary goals for monitoring microorganisms in this closed habitat. The statistical analysis of the ISS microbiomes showed that three bacterial phyla dominated both in ISS and Earth cleanrooms, but varied in their abundances. While members of Actinobacteria were predominant on ISS, Proteobacteria dominated the Earth cleanrooms. Alpha diversity estimators indicated a significant drop in viable microbial diversity. To better characterize the shared community composition among samples, beta-diversity metrics analysis were conducted. At the bacterial species level characterization, the microbial community composition is strongly associated with sampling site. Results of the study indicate significant differences between ISS and Earth cleanroom microbiomes in terms of community structure and composition. Bacterial strains isolated from ISS surfaces were also tested for their resistance to nine antibiotics using conventional disc method and Vitek 2 system. Most of the Staphylococcus aureus strains were resistant to penicillin. Five strains were specifically resistant to erythromycin and the ermA gene was also

  16. RISKIND: An enhanced computer code for National Environmental Policy Act transportation consequence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.; Chen, S.Y.

    1996-03-01

    The RISKIND computer program was developed for the analysis of radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the collective population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or other radioactive materials. The code is intended to provide scenario-specific analyses when evaluating alternatives for environmental assessment activities, including those for major federal actions involving radioactive material transport as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). As such, rigorous procedures have been implemented to enhance the code`s credibility and strenuous efforts have been made to enhance ease of use of the code. To increase the code`s reliability and credibility, a new version of RISKIND was produced under a quality assurance plan that covered code development and testing, and a peer review process was conducted. During development of the new version, the flexibility and ease of use of RISKIND were enhanced through several major changes: (1) a Windows{sup {trademark}} point-and-click interface replaced the old DOS menu system, (2) the remaining model input parameters were added to the interface, (3) databases were updated, (4) the program output was revised, and (5) on-line help has been added. RISKIND has been well received by users and has been established as a key component in radiological transportation risk assessments through its acceptance by the U.S. Department of Energy community in recent environmental impact statements (EISs) and its continued use in the current preparation of several EISs.

  17. Environmental evaluation of municipal waste prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Gentil, Emmanuel C.; Gallo, Daniele; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > Influence of prevention on waste management systems, excluding avoided production, is relatively minor. > Influence of prevention on overall supply chain, including avoided production is very significant. > Higher relative benefits of prevention are observed in waste management systems relying mainly on landfills. - Abstract: Waste prevention has been addressed in the literature in terms of the social and behavioural aspects, but very little quantitative assessment exists of the environmental benefits. Our study evaluates the environmental consequences of waste prevention on waste management systems and on the wider society, using life-cycle thinking. The partial prevention of unsolicited mail, beverage packaging and food waste is tested for a 'High-tech' waste management system relying on high energy and material recovery and for a 'Low-tech' waste management system with less recycling and relying on landfilling. Prevention of 13% of the waste mass entering the waste management system generates a reduction of loads and savings in the waste management system for the different impacts categories; 45% net reduction for nutrient enrichment and 12% reduction for global warming potential. When expanding our system and including avoided production incurred by the prevention measures, large savings are observed (15-fold improvement for nutrient enrichment and 2-fold for global warming potential). Prevention of food waste has the highest environmental impact saving. Prevention generates relatively higher overall relative benefit for 'Low-tech' systems depending on landfilling. The paper provides clear evidence of the environmental benefits of waste prevention and has specific relevance in climate change mitigation.

  18. Environmental evaluation of municipal waste prevention.

    PubMed

    Gentil, Emmanuel C; Gallo, Daniele; Christensen, Thomas H

    2011-12-01

    Waste prevention has been addressed in the literature in terms of the social and behavioural aspects, but very little quantitative assessment exists of the environmental benefits. Our study evaluates the environmental consequences of waste prevention on waste management systems and on the wider society, using life-cycle thinking. The partial prevention of unsolicited mail, beverage packaging and food waste is tested for a "High-tech" waste management system relying on high energy and material recovery and for a "Low-tech" waste management system with less recycling and relying on landfilling. Prevention of 13% of the waste mass entering the waste management system generates a reduction of loads and savings in the waste management system for the different impacts categories; 45% net reduction for nutrient enrichment and 12% reduction for global warming potential. When expanding our system and including avoided production incurred by the prevention measures, large savings are observed (15-fold improvement for nutrient enrichment and 2-fold for global warming potential). Prevention of food waste has the highest environmental impact saving. Prevention generates relatively higher overall relative benefit for "Low-tech" systems depending on landfilling. The paper provides clear evidence of the environmental benefits of waste prevention and has specific relevance in climate change mitigation.

  19. Negative Evaluations of Negative Alcohol Consequences Lead to Subsequent Reductions in Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Nancy P.; Merrill, Jennifer E.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Colby, Suzanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use during young adulthood may reflect a learning process whereby positive and negative alcohol-related experiences and interpretations of those experiences drive subsequent behavior. Understanding the effect of consequences and the evaluation of consequences could be informative for intervention approaches. Objective To examine the extent to which the number of positive and negative alcohol consequences experienced and the evaluation of those consequences predict subsequent alcohol use and consequences in college students. Method Students at three colleges (N = 679) completed biweekly web-based surveys on alcohol use, positive and negative consequences, and consequence evaluations for two academic years. Hierarchical linear modeling tested whether consequences and evaluations in a given week predicted changes in alcohol use and consequences at the next assessment. Moderation by gender and class year also were evaluated. Results Evaluating past-week negative consequences more negatively than one’s average resulted in decreases in alcohol use at the next assessment. More negative evaluation of negative consequences was followed in the subsequent observation by a higher number of positive consequences for females but not males. A higher number of positive consequences in a given week was followed by a higher number of both positive and negative consequences in the subsequent observation. Number of negative consequences experienced and evaluation of positive consequences had no effect on later behavior. Conclusions Salient negative consequences may drive naturalistic reductions in alcohol use, suggesting the possible efficacy of programs designed to increase the salience of the negative effects of alcohol. PMID:26168225

  20. Should You Turn Yourself in? The Consequences of Environmental Self-Policing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Sarah L.

    2007-01-01

    Facilities that self-police under the Environmental Protection Agency's Audit Policy are eligible for reduced penalties on disclosed violations. This paper investigates whether self-policing has additional consequences; in particular, whether self-policing reduces future enforcement activity. Using data on U.S. hazardous waste enforcement and…

  1. Environmental consequences of processing manure to produce mineral fertilizer and bio-energy.

    PubMed

    De Vries, J W; Groenestein, C M; De Boer, I J M

    2012-07-15

    Liquid animal manure and its management contributes to environmental problems such as, global warming, acidification, and eutrophication. To address these environmental issues and their related costs manure processing technologies were developed. The objective here was to assess the environmental consequences of a new manure processing technology that separates manure into a solid and liquid fraction and de-waters the liquid fraction by means of reverse osmosis. This results in a liquid mineral concentrate used as mineral nitrogen and potassium fertilizer and a solid fraction used for bio-energy production or as phosphorus fertilizer. Five environmental impact categories were quantified using life cycle assessment: climate change (CC), terrestrial acidification (TA), marine eutrophication (ME), particulate matter formation (PMF), and fossil fuel depletion (FFD). For pig as well as dairy cattle manure, we compared a scenario with the processing method and a scenario with additional anaerobic digestion of the solid fraction to a reference situation applying only liquid manure. Comparisons were based on a functional unit of 1 ton liquid manure. System boundaries were set from the manure storage under the animal house to the field application of all end products. Scenarios with only manure processing increased the environmental impact for most impact categories compared to the reference: ME did not change, whereas, TA and PMF increased up to 44% as a result of NH3 and NO(x) emissions from processing and storage of solid fraction. Including digestion reduced CC by 117% for pig manure and 104% for dairy cattle manure, mainly because of substituted electricity and avoided N2O emission from storage of solid fraction. FFD decreased by 59% for pig manure and increased 19% for dairy cattle manure. TA and PMF remained higher compared to the reference. Sensitivity analysis showed that CH4 emission from manure storage, NH3 emission from processing, and the replaced nitrogen

  2. Assessing the Potential Environmental Consequences of a New Energetic Material: A Phased Approach, September 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    there are no reliable alternatives to animal testing in the determination of toxicity. QSARs are only as reliable as the corroborating toxicological ...2) QSAR approaches can also be used to estimate toxicological impact. Toxicity QSAR models can often predict many toxicity parameters without... Toxicology Study No. 87-XE-03N3-05, Assessing the Potential Environmental Consequences of a New Energetic Material: A Phased Approach, September 2005 1

  3. Assessing the Potential Environmental Consequences of a New Energetic Material: A Phased Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    Melting point • Ionization potential (2) QSAR approaches can also be used to estimate toxicological impact. Toxicity QSAR models can often... TOXICOLOGY STUDY NO. 87-XE-03N3-05 ASSESSING THE POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF A NEW ENERGETIC MATERIAL: A PHASED APPROACH...SEPTEMBER 2005 Published: December 2007 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Toxicology Study No. 87-XE-03N3-05

  4. Probalistic Criticality Consequence Evaluation (SCPB:N/A)

    SciTech Connect

    P. Gottlieb; J.W. Davis; J.R. Massari

    1996-09-04

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development (WPD) department with the objective of providing a comprehensive, conservative estimate of the consequences of the criticality which could possibly occur as the result of commercial spent nuclear fuel emplaced in the underground repository at Yucca Mountain. The consequences of criticality are measured principally in terms of the resulting changes in radionuclide inventory as a function of the power level and duration of the criticality. The purpose of this analysis is to extend the prior estimates of increased radionuclide inventory (Refs. 5.52 and 5.54), for both internal and external criticality. This analysis, and similar estimates and refinements to be completed before the end of fiscal year 1997, will be provided as input to Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (TSPA-VA) to demonstrate compliance with the repository performance objectives.

  5. Evaluating environmental justice under the National Environmental Policy Act

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, R.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental justice refers to the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws. To avoid inequities in future federal activities, President Clinton issued Executive Order (EO) 12898, which requires federal agencies to consider environmental justice in carrying out their missions. Guidance issued by the Executive Office of the President requires every federal agency to consider environmental justice in conducting impact evaluations under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Thus, an environmental justice analysis is a highly focused form of social impact assessment that must be conducted within the framework of NEPA. The specific purpose of such an analysis is to determine whether a proposed federal activity would impact low-income and minority populations to a greater extent than it would impact a community`s general population. This article explains the development and implementation of EO 12898 and explores what federal agencies are doing to incorporate environmental justice into their NEPA procedures. It also includes recommendations for other authorities to consider when incorporating environmental justice into their environmental impact assessments.

  6. Radioactivity teaching: Environmental consequences of the radiological accident in Goiânia (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anjos, R. M.; Facure, A.; Lima, E. L. N.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Santos, M. S.; Brage, J. A. P.; Okuno, E.; Yoshimura, E. M.; Umisedo, N. K.

    2001-03-01

    Ionizing radiation and its effects on human beings, radiation protection, and radiological accident prevention are topics usually not included in the physics courses at the Brazilian universities. As a consequence, high school teachers are not able to enlighten their students when radiological or nuclear accidents occur. This paper presents a teaching program on ionizing radiation physics, to be applied to undergraduate physics students and to physics high school teachers. It is based on the environmental consequences of the 1987 radiological accident in Goiânia. This program was applied to two undergraduate physics students, in 1999, at the Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil. Results of the gamma ray spectrometry measurements of samples collected in Goiânia by the students are presented.

  7. Normative Perceptions and Past-year Consequences as Predictors of Subjective Evaluations and Weekly Drinking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Jennifer E.; Read, Jennifer P.; Colder, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    Problem drinking during the college years continues to be an important area of study. Subjective evaluations of consequences have recently been demonstrated to predict future drinking behavior; however, what predicts those evaluations is yet unknown. Social Learning Theory (SLT) provides a guiding framework in this study with primary aims to investigate whether individual differences in past experience with and normative perceptions of alcohol consequences predict subjective evaluations (i.e., the extent to which consequences are perceived as negative, aversive, or severe) and weekly drinking behavior. We also test whether evaluations mediate the influence of past consequences and norms on weekly drinking behavior. Following a baseline assessment, participants (N=96 regularly drinking college students, 52% female) completed ten weekly web-based surveys on previous week alcohol use, consequences, and subjective evaluations of those consequences. A series of hierarchical linear models were used to test hypotheses. Most mediational pathways were not supported – weekly level evaluations do not appear to fully explain the effect of norms or past experience on weekly level drinking behavior. However, results demonstrated that normative perceptions of and past experience with consequences were associated with both weekly drinking behavior and subjective evaluations, and evaluations remained significant predictors of alcohol use behavior after accounting for these important between-person influences. Findings support the importance placed by SLT on cognition in drinking behavior, and suggest that norms for consequences and subjective evaluations may be appropriate targets of intervention in college students. PMID:23899424

  8. EVALUATING ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION SUPPORT TOOLS.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.

    2004-10-01

    Effective contaminated land management requires a number of decisions addressing a suite of technical, economic, and social concerns. These concerns include human health risks, ecological risks, economic costs, technical feasibility of proposed remedial actions, and the value society places on clean-up and re-use of formerly contaminated lands. Decision making, in the face of uncertainty and multiple and often conflicting objectives, is a vital and challenging role in environmental management that affects a significant economic activity. Although each environmental remediation problem is unique and requires a site-specific analysis, many of the key decisions are similar in structure. This has led many to attempt to develop standard approaches. As part of the standardization process, attempts have been made to codify specialist expertise into decision support tools. This activity is intended to facilitate reproducible and transparent decision making. The process of codifying procedures has also been found to be a useful activity for establishing and rationalizing management processes. This study will have two primary objectives. The first is to develop taxonomy for Decision Support Tools (DST) to provide a framework for understanding the different tools and what they are designed to address in the context of environmental remediation problems. The taxonomy will have a series of subject areas for the DST. From these subjects, a few key areas will be selected for further study and software in these areas will be identified. The second objective, will be to review the existing DST in the selected areas and develop a screening matrix for each software product.

  9. [Environmental medicine in public health service--a social responsibility and its consequences].

    PubMed

    Thriene, B

    2001-02-01

    The special committee for "Environmental Medicine" established by the Federal Association of Doctors in the German Public Health Service presents its paper entitled "Environmental Medicine in the Public Health Service--A Social Responsibility and its Consequences: Propositions with regard to the situation, aims, strategies, and opportunities for action". The paper includes core ideas and responsibilities in the public health service. It aims at providing a number of guidelines for implementing "Environment and Health" ("Umwelt und Gesundheit"), an action programme by the Federal Ministry of Environmental Protection and the Ministry of Health, as well as "Health 21" ("Gesundheit 21"), the framework concept "Health for all" for the WHO's European Region. The paper also aims at initiating and facilitating steps for joint action by the Public Health Service. These theses were passed on to Mrs. Andrea Fischer, the Federal Minister of Health, during a meeting with the Board of the Association. In Germany, environment-related public health protection is well established in the Public Health Departments and state institutes/departments within the scope of public health provision and disease prevention. Typical responsibilities include environmental hygiene and environment-related medical services which have increased in importance. The range of responsibilities and its current political importance are a result of environment-related public health risks, the social situation of the population, also with regard to health issues, and the scope of responsibilities and competencies by doctors and staff in the public health departments. With the people's demands for health, quality of life and life expectancy, this need for action increases. In this paper, judicial, professional, and personal consequence are presented which arise as public health authorities assume these responsibilities.

  10. Environmental sex reversal, Trojan sex genes, and sex ratio adjustment: conditions and population consequences.

    PubMed

    Stelkens, Rike B; Wedekind, Claus

    2010-02-01

    The great diversity of sex determination mechanisms in animals and plants ranges from genetic sex determination (GSD, e.g. mammals, birds, and most dioecious plants) to environmental sex determination (ESD, e.g. many reptiles) and includes a mixture of both, for example when an individual's genetically determined sex is environmentally reversed during ontogeny (ESR, environmental sex reversal, e.g. many fish and amphibia). ESD and ESR can lead to widely varying and unstable population sex ratios. Populations exposed to conditions such as endocrine-active substances or temperature shifts may decline over time due to skewed sex ratios, a scenario that may become increasingly relevant with greater anthropogenic interference on watercourses. Continuous exposure of populations to factors causing ESR could lead to the extinction of genetic sex factors and may render a population dependent on the environmental factors that induce the sex change. However, ESR also presents opportunities for population management, especially if the Y or W chromosome is not, or not severely, degenerated. This seems to be the case in many amphibians and fish. Population growth or decline in such species can potentially be controlled through the introduction of so-called Trojan sex genes carriers, individuals that possess sex chromosomes or genes opposite from what their phenotype predicts. Here, we review the conditions for ESR, its prevalence in natural populations, the resulting physiological and reproductive consequences, and how these may become instrumental for population management.

  11. Linking legacies: Connecting the Cold War nuclear weapons production processes to their environmental consequences

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the US has begun addressing the environmental consequences of five decades of nuclear weapons production. In support of this effort, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995 directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the waste streams generated during each step in the production of nuclear weapons. Accordingly, this report responds to this mandate, and it is the Department`s first comprehensive analysis of the sources of waste and contamination generated by the production of nuclear weapons. The report also contains information on the missions and functions of nuclear weapons facilities, on the inventories of waste and materials remaining at these facilities, as well as on the extent and characteristics of contamination in and around these facilities. This analysis unites specific environmental impacts of nuclear weapons production with particular production processes. The Department used historical records to connect nuclear weapons production processes with emerging data on waste and contamination. In this way, two of the Department`s legacies--nuclear weapons manufacturing and environmental management--have become systematically linked. The goal of this report is to provide Congress, DOE program managers, non-governmental analysts, and the public with an explicit picture of the environmental results of each step in the nuclear weapons production and disposition cycle.

  12. Environmental correlates of temporary emigration for female Weddell seals and consequences for recruitment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stauffer, Glenn E.; Rotella, Jay J.; Garrott, Robert A.; Kendall, William

    2014-01-01

    In colonial-breeding species, prebreeders often emigrate temporarily from natal reproductive colonies then subsequently return for one or more years before producing young. Variation in attendance–nonattendance patterns can have implications for subsequent recruitment. We used open robust-design multistate models and 28 years of encounter data for prebreeding female Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii [Lesson]) to evaluate hypotheses about (1) the relationships of temporary emigration (TE) probabilities to environmental and population size covariates and (2) motivations for attendance and consequences of nonattendance for subsequent probability of recruitment to the breeding population. TE probabilities were density dependent (βˆBPOP = 0.66,  = 0.17; estimated effects [β] and standard errors of population size in the previous year) and increased when the fast-ice edge was distant from the breeding colonies (βˆDIST = 0.75,  = 0.04; estimated effects and standard errors of distance to the sea-ice edge in the current year on TE probability in the current year) and were strongly age and state dependent. These results suggest that trade-offs between potential benefits and costs of colony attendance vary annually and might influence motivation to attend colonies. Recruitment probabilities were greatest for seals that consistently attended colonies in two or more years (e.g.,  = 0.56, SD = 0.17) and lowest for seals that never or inconsistently attended prior to recruitment (e.g.,  = 0.32, SD = 0.15), where denotes the mean recruitment probability (over all years) for 10-year-old seals for the specified prebreeder state. In colonial-breeding seabirds, repeated colony attendance increases subsequent probability of recruitment to the adult breeding population; our results suggest similar implications for a marine mammal and are consistent with the hypothesis that prebreeders were motivated to attend reproductive colonies to gain reproductive skills or

  13. A definition of normovolaemia and consequences for cardiovascular control during orthostatic and environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Truijen, Jasper; Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2010-05-01

    The Frank-Starling mechanism describes the relationship between stroke volume and preload to the heart, or the volume of blood that is available to the heart--the central blood volume. Understanding the role of the central blood volume for cardiovascular control has been complicated by the fact that a given central blood volume may be associated with markedly different central vascular pressures. The central blood volume varies with posture and, consequently, stroke volume and cardiac output (Q) are affected, but with the increased central blood volume during head-down tilt, stroke volume and Q do not increase further indicating that in the supine resting position the heart operates on the plateau of the Frank-Starling curve which, therefore, may be taken as a functional definition of normovolaemia. Since the capacity of the vascular system surpasses the blood volume, orthostatic and environmental stress including bed rest/microgravity, exercise and training, thermal loading, illness, and trauma/haemorrhage is likely to restrict venous return and Q. Consequently the cardiovascular responses are determined primarily by their effect on the central blood volume. Thus during environmental stress, flow redistribution becomes dependent on sympathetic activation affecting not only skin and splanchnic blood flow, but also flow to skeletal muscles and the brain. This review addresses the hypothesis that deviations from normovolaemia significantly influence these cardiovascular responses.

  14. Statistical evaluation of SAGE libraries: consequences for experimental design.

    PubMed

    Ruijter, Jan M; Van Kampen, Antoine H C; Baas, Frank

    2002-10-29

    Since the introduction of serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) as a method to quantitatively analyze the differential expression of genes, several statistical tests have been published for the pairwise comparison of SAGE libraries. Testing the difference between the number of specific tags found in two SAGE libraries is hampered by the fact that each SAGE library is only one measurement: the necessary information on biological variation or experimental precision is not available. In the currently available tests, a measure of this variance is obtained from simulation or based on the properties of the tag distribution. To help the user of SAGE to decide between these tests, five different pairwise tests have been compared by determining the critical values, that is, the lowest number of tags that, given an observed number of tags in one library, needs to be found in the other library to result in a significant P value. The five tests included in this comparison are SAGE300, the tests described by Madden et al. (Oncogene 15: 1079-1085, 1997) and by Audic and Claverie (Genome Res 7: 986-995, 1997), Fisher's Exact test, and the Z test, which is equivalent to the chi-squared test. The comparison showed that, for SAGE libraries of equal as well as different size, SAGE300, Fisher's Exact test, Z test, and the Audic and Claverie test have critical values within 1.5% of each other. This indicates that these four tests will give essentially the same results when applied to SAGE libraries. The Madden test, which can only be used for libraries of similar size, is, with 25% higher critical values, more conservative, probably because the variance measure in its test statistic is not appropriate for hypothesis testing. The consequences for the choice of SAGE library sizes are discussed.

  15. Antecedents and Consequences of Supplier Performance Evaluation Efficacy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    Evaluation Efficacy Timothy G. Hawkins,1 Lt Col, USAF (Ret.)—is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Marketing at Western Kentucky University in...Industrial Marketing Management, Journal of Business Ethics, Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, Journal of Marketing Channels, Air...Michael J. Gravier—is an Associate Professor of Marketing and Global Supply Chain Management at Bryant University. He received his PhD in Marketing

  16. Metabolic reprogramming and dysregulated metabolism: cause, consequence and/or enabler of environmental carcinogenesis?

    PubMed Central

    Robey, R.Brooks; Weisz, Judith; Kuemmerle, Nancy; Salzberg, Anna C.; Berg, Arthur; Brown, Dustin G.; Kubik, Laura; Palorini, Roberta; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Colacci, Annamaria; Mondello, Chiara; Raju, Jayadev; Woodrick, Jordan; Scovassi, A.Ivana; Singh, Neetu; Vaccari, Monica; Roy, Rabindra; Forte, Stefano; Memeo, Lorenzo; Salem, Hosni K.; Amedei, Amedeo; Hamid, Roslida A.; Williams, Graeme P.; Lowe, Leroy; Meyer, Joel; Martin, Francis L.; Bisson, William H.; Chiaradonna, Ferdinando; Ryan, Elizabeth P.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contributions to cancer development are widely accepted, but only a fraction of all pertinent exposures have probably been identified. Traditional toxicological approaches to the problem have largely focused on the effects of individual agents at singular endpoints. As such, they have incompletely addressed both the pro-carcinogenic contributions of environmentally relevant low-dose chemical mixtures and the fact that exposures can influence multiple cancer-associated endpoints over varying timescales. Of these endpoints, dysregulated metabolism is one of the most common and recognizable features of cancer, but its specific roles in exposure-associated cancer development remain poorly understood. Most studies have focused on discrete aspects of cancer metabolism and have incompletely considered both its dynamic integrated nature and the complex controlling influences of substrate availability, external trophic signals and environmental conditions. Emerging high throughput approaches to environmental risk assessment also do not directly address the metabolic causes or consequences of changes in gene expression. As such, there is a compelling need to establish common or complementary frameworks for further exploration that experimentally and conceptually consider the gestalt of cancer metabolism and its causal relationships to both carcinogenesis and the development of other cancer hallmarks. A literature review to identify environmentally relevant exposures unambiguously linked to both cancer development and dysregulated metabolism suggests major gaps in our understanding of exposure-associated carcinogenesis and metabolic reprogramming. Although limited evidence exists to support primary causal roles for metabolism in carcinogenesis, the universality of altered cancer metabolism underscores its fundamental biological importance, and multiple pleiomorphic, even dichotomous, roles for metabolism in promoting, antagonizing or otherwise enabling the

  17. Metabolic reprogramming and dysregulated metabolism: cause, consequence and/or enabler of environmental carcinogenesis?

    PubMed

    Robey, R Brooks; Weisz, Judith; Kuemmerle, Nancy B; Salzberg, Anna C; Berg, Arthur; Brown, Dustin G; Kubik, Laura; Palorini, Roberta; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Colacci, Annamaria; Mondello, Chiara; Raju, Jayadev; Woodrick, Jordan; Scovassi, A Ivana; Singh, Neetu; Vaccari, Monica; Roy, Rabindra; Forte, Stefano; Memeo, Lorenzo; Salem, Hosni K; Amedei, Amedeo; Hamid, Roslida A; Williams, Graeme P; Lowe, Leroy; Meyer, Joel; Martin, Francis L; Bisson, William H; Chiaradonna, Ferdinando; Ryan, Elizabeth P

    2015-06-01

    Environmental contributions to cancer development are widely accepted, but only a fraction of all pertinent exposures have probably been identified. Traditional toxicological approaches to the problem have largely focused on the effects of individual agents at singular endpoints. As such, they have incompletely addressed both the pro-carcinogenic contributions of environmentally relevant low-dose chemical mixtures and the fact that exposures can influence multiple cancer-associated endpoints over varying timescales. Of these endpoints, dysregulated metabolism is one of the most common and recognizable features of cancer, but its specific roles in exposure-associated cancer development remain poorly understood. Most studies have focused on discrete aspects of cancer metabolism and have incompletely considered both its dynamic integrated nature and the complex controlling influences of substrate availability, external trophic signals and environmental conditions. Emerging high throughput approaches to environmental risk assessment also do not directly address the metabolic causes or consequences of changes in gene expression. As such, there is a compelling need to establish common or complementary frameworks for further exploration that experimentally and conceptually consider the gestalt of cancer metabolism and its causal relationships to both carcinogenesis and the development of other cancer hallmarks. A literature review to identify environmentally relevant exposures unambiguously linked to both cancer development and dysregulated metabolism suggests major gaps in our understanding of exposure-associated carcinogenesis and metabolic reprogramming. Although limited evidence exists to support primary causal roles for metabolism in carcinogenesis, the universality of altered cancer metabolism underscores its fundamental biological importance, and multiple pleiomorphic, even dichotomous, roles for metabolism in promoting, antagonizing or otherwise enabling the

  18. Behavioral patterns of environmental performance evaluation programs.

    PubMed

    Li, Wanxin; Mauerhofer, Volker

    2016-11-01

    During the past decades numerous environmental performance evaluation programs have been developed and implemented on different geographic scales. This paper develops a taxonomy of environmental management behavioral patterns in order to provide a practical comparison tool for environmental performance evaluation programs. Ten such programs purposively selected are mapped against the identified four behavioral patterns in the form of diagnosis, negotiation, learning, and socialization and learning. Overall, we found that schemes which serve to diagnose environmental abnormalities are mainly externally imposed and have been developed as a result of technical debates concerning data sources, methodology and ranking criteria. Learning oriented scheme is featured by processes through which free exchange of ideas, mutual and adaptive learning can occur. Scheme developed by higher authority for influencing behaviors of lower levels of government has been adopted by the evaluated to signal their excellent environmental performance. The socializing and learning classified evaluation schemes have incorporated dialogue, participation, and capacity building in program design. In conclusion we consider the 'fitness for purpose' of the various schemes, the merits of our analytical model and the future possibilities of fostering capacity building in the realm of wicked environmental challenges.

  19. 24 CFR 58.47 - Re-evaluation of environmental assessments and other environmental findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUD ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITIES Environmental Review Process: Environmental Assessments (EA's) § 58... EA or an EIS if its evaluation indicates potentially significant impacts. (3) Where the recipient...

  20. Overuse of high stability antibiotics and its consequences in public and environmental health.

    PubMed

    Zdziarski, Przemysław; Simon, Krzysztof; Majda, Jacek

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the ecological aspects of widespread antibiotic consumption are described. Many practitioners, veterinarians, breeders, farmers and analysts work on the assumption that a antibiotics undergo spontaneous degradation. It is well documented that the indiscriminate use of antibiotics has led to the water contamination, selection and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant organisms, alteration of fragile ecology of the microbial ecosystems. The damages caused by the overuse of antibiotics include hospital, waterborne and foodborne infections by resistant bacteria, enteropathy (irritable bowel syndrome, antibiotic-associated diarrhea etc.), drug hypersensitivity, biosphere alteration, human and animal growth promotion, destruction of fragile interspecific competition in microbial ecosystems etc. The consequences of heavy antibiotic use for public and environmental health are difficult to assess: utilization of antibiotics from the environment and reduction of irrational use is the highest priority issue. This purpose may be accomplished by bioremediation, use of probenecid for antibiotic dosage reduction and by adoption of hospital infections methodology for control resistance in natural ecosystems.

  1. Fitness consequences of environmental conditions at different life stages in a long-lived vertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Douhard, Mathieu; Plard, Floriane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Capron, Gilles; Delorme, Daniel; Klein, François; Duncan, Patrick; Loe, Leif Egil; Bonenfant, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The predictive adaptive response (PAR) hypothesis proposes that animals adjust their physiology and developmental trajectory during early life in anticipation of their future environments. Accordingly, when environmental conditions in early life match environmental conditions during adulthood, individual fitness should be greater. Here, we test this hypothesis in a long-lived mammal, the roe deer, using data from two contrasting populations, intensively monitored for more than 35 years. In the highly productive site, the fitness of female roe deer increased with the quality of environment during adulthood and, contrary to predictions of PAR, individuals born in good conditions always outperformed those born under poor conditions. In the resource-limited site, the fitness of female roe deer born in poor years was better than those born in good conditions in poor years when the animals were adult, but not in good years. Although consistent with predictions of PAR, we showed that this pattern is likely to be a consequence of increased viability selection during the juvenile stage for animals born in poor years. While PARs are often advanced in evolutionary medicine, our findings suggest that detailed biological processes should be investigated before drawing conclusions about the existence of this phenomenon. PMID:24789898

  2. Increased Foraging in Outdoor Organic Pig Production—Modeling Environmental Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Malene; Preda, Teodora; Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John Erik

    2015-01-01

    Consumers’ motivations for buying organic products include a wish of acquiring healthy, environmentally friendly products from production systems that also ensure a high level of animal welfare. However, the current Danish organic pig production faces important challenges regarding environmental impact of the system. High ammonia emissions arise from outdoor concrete areas with growing-finishing pigs and sows on pasture possess an increased risk of nitrogen (N) leaching. Direct foraging in the range area is suggested as a way to improve the nutrient efficiency at farm level and to support a more natural behavior of the pig. Thus, by modeling, we investigated the environmental consequences of two alternative scenarios with growing-finishing pigs foraging in the range area and different levels of crops available for foraging; grass-clover (lowest integration of forage) or a combination of lucerne, grass-clover and Jerusalem artichokes (highest integration of forage). It was possible to have growing-finishing pigs on free-range without increasing N leaching compared to the current practice. The alternative system with lucerne, grass-clover and Jerusalem artichokes showed the lowest carbon footprint with 3.12 CO2 eq kg−1 live weight pig compared to the current Danish pasture based system with 3.69 kg CO2 eq kg−1 live weight pig. Due to positive impact on soil carbon sequestration, the second alternative system based on grass-clover  showed a similar carbon foot print compared to current practice with 3.68 kg CO2 eq kg−1 live weight pig. It is concluded that in practice there is room for development of organic pig production systems where direct foraging plays a central role. PMID:28231226

  3. Increased Foraging in Outdoor Organic Pig Production-Modeling Environmental Consequences.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Malene; Preda, Teodora; Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John Erik

    2015-11-02

    Consumers' motivations for buying organic products include a wish of acquiring healthy, environmentally friendly products from production systems that also ensure a high level of animal welfare. However, the current Danish organic pig production faces important challenges regarding environmental impact of the system. High ammonia emissions arise from outdoor concrete areas with growing pigs and sows on pasture possess an increased risk of nitrogen (N) leaching. Direct foraging in the range area is suggested as a way to improve the nutrient efficiency at farm level and to support a more natural behavior of the pig. Thus, by modeling, we investigated the environmental consequences of two alternative scenarios with growing pigs foraging in the range area and different levels of crops available for foraging-grass-clover or a combination of Jerusalem artichokes and lucerne. It was possible to have growing pigs on free-range without increasing N leaching compared to the current practice. The alternative system with Jerusalem artichokes and lucerne (high integration of forage) showed the lowest carbon foot print with 3.12 CO₂ eq kg(-1) live weight pig compared to the current Danish pasture based system with 3.69 kg CO₂ eq kg(-1) live weight pig. Due to positive impact on soil carbon sequestration, the second alternative system based on grass-clover (low integration of forage) showed a similar carbon foot print compared to current practice with 3.68 kg CO₂ eq kg(-1) live weight pig. It is concluded that in practice there is room for development of organic farming systems where direct foraging plays a central role.

  4. An open-source Java-based Toolbox for environmental model evaluation: The MOUSE Software Application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A consequence of environmental model complexity is that the task of understanding how environmental models work and identifying their sensitivities/uncertainties, etc. becomes progressively more difficult. Comprehensive numerical and visual evaluation tools have been developed such as the Monte Carl...

  5. An evaluation of collaboration in environmental education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peticolas, Alison Brice

    This study examines the role collaboration can play in addressing current challenges and limitations in environmental education. The research literature suggests that one needed strategy in improving environmental education is the development of partnerships between formal and nonformal educators. Yet, one of the challenges to provider models of environmental education is the lack of connection between participating teachers and environmental education providers, resulting in a lack of commitment on the part of classroom teachers. This dissertation proposes that collaboration can play a major role in creating strong field based environmental education that has the commitment of classroom teachers. In 2001--2002, 21 teachers participated in LandPaths' In Our Own BackYard environmental education program. These teachers participated in a collaborative process that was designed to respond to teacher concern about a proposed change to the program. At the completion of the collaborative process teachers participated in an evaluation of the collaborative process. The aims of the evaluation were four-fold (a) to identify the features teachers felt established the process as collaboration and (b) to compare those features to a critical definition of collaboration, (c) to evaluate the success of the collaborative design, and (d) to assess the impact of the process on teacher commitment to the program. The results of the evaluation showed that the teachers identified three main elements that contributed to their feelings of collaboration, (a) they felt that they were working with the LandPaths staff in finding a solution to the problem, (b) the process was open and inclusive, and (c) they were making meaningful contributions to a credible process. The evaluation of the process showed that the collaborative process was appropriate for this situation particularly the element of meeting individually with teachers. Finally, most teachers articulated an increase in commitment to

  6. Evaluating minerals of environmental concern using spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swayze, G.A.; Clark, R.N.; Higgins, C.T.; Kokaly, R.F.; Eric, Livo K.; Hoefen, T.M.; Ong, C.; Kruse, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Imaging spectroscopy has been successfully used to aid researchers in characterizing potential environmental impacts posed by acid-rock drainage, ore-processing dust on mangroves, and asbestos in serpentine mineral deposits and urban dust. Many of these applications synergistically combine field spectroscopy with remote sensing data, thus allowing more-precise data calibration, spectral analysis of the data, and verification of mapping. The increased accuracy makes these environmental evaluation tools efficient because they can be used to focus field work on those areas most critical to the research effort. The use of spectroscopy to evaluate minerals of environmental concern pushes current imaging spectrometer technology to its limits; we present laboratory results that indicate the direction for future designs of imaging spectrometers.

  7. A multidimensional environmental evaluation of packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Chung; Ma, Hwong-Wen

    2004-05-25

    To reduce environmental damage, the properties of environmental issues must be understood. Most previous research has performed relevant assessment either qualitatively or quantitatively. This paper provides a new comprehensive evaluative framework to integrate these two types of approaches. Three methods are combined: (1) life cycle assessment (LCA), a quantitative method, to assess environmental loading, (2) analytic hierarchy process (AHP), a qualitative method, to obtain opinions from experts, and (3) cluster analysis to integrate the results of the former two methods. This new framework could provide integrated information and avoid a bias towards either qualitative or quantitative approach. To present the process of this new evaluative framework, packaging materials are selected as the case study in this paper.

  8. Knowledge, transparency, refutability, and consequences: Using models to evaluate geologic repositories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, M. C.; Kavetski, D.; Clark, M. P.; Ye, M.; Tiedeman, C. R.; Arabi, M.; Lu, D.

    2012-04-01

    Current knowledge of a geologic repository includes knowledge about data and their errors; knowledge about possible physical, chemical, and biological processes, and their interactions; knowledge about possible hydrologic and geologic frameworks; knowledge about past and future changes in system dynamics and characteristics; and knowledge about potential future development and use of the repository. Model development and analysis methods ideally integrate all of this knowledge, produce the transparency and refutability acknowledged as necessary to useful models of any environmental system; and provide clear understanding of consequences for the geologic repository, including quantification of uncertainty. Yet many model development and analysis methods fail to achieve this goal. For example, many methods fail to properly account for data error and spend many model runs exploring unrealistic error assumptions that are rarely clearly presented to modelers and model users. Many methods expend huge computer resources to address nearly pathologic model nonlinearities which are often programming and numerical artifacts that fail to represent the intended system behavior. Finally, many methods are unfamiliar to people using model results so that transparency and refutability is not achieved by those most in need of understanding likely consequences. This work suggests that ideas for including data error (including epistemic error) in model development and analysis, referred to as error-based weighting, and ideas about addressing nonlinearity, referred to as robust models, can be used to greatly improve model transparency and refutability, and achieve greater and more defensible long-term understanding of system dynamics and consequences for geologic repositories. This talk will discuss error-based weighting and robust models, and outline a model development and analysis approach that uses 10s to 100s of model runs instead of the 1,000s to 100,000s of runs required by many

  9. Nuclear Winter Revisited: Still the Most Dangerous Potential Environmental Consequence of Human Actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, A.; Oman, L.; Stenchikov, G.

    2006-12-01

    Twenty years ago, the results of climate model simulations of the response to smoke and dust from a massive nuclear exchange between the superpowers could be summarized as "nuclear winter," with rapid temperature, precipitation, and insolation drops at the surface that would threaten global agriculture. The global nuclear arsenal has fallen by a factor of three since then, but there has been an expansion of the number of nuclear weapons states, with other states trying to develop nuclear arsenals. We use a modern climate model to re- examine the climate response to a range of nuclear wars, producing 5, 50, and 150 Tg of smoke, using tiny, moderate, and large portions of the global arsenal, and find that there would be significant climatic responses to all the scenarios. This is the first time that an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model has been used for such a simulation, and the first time that 10-yr simulations have been conducted. The response to the moderate and large scenarios can still be characterized as nuclear winter, with global catastrophic consequences, but the tiny scenario would still produce climate changes unprecedented in recorded human history. The changes are more long-lasting than previously thought, because the new model, NASA GISS ModelE, is able to represent the atmosphere up to 80 km, and simulates plume rise to the middle and upper stratosphere, producing a long aerosol lifetime. The indirect effects of the use of even a small number of nuclear weapons would have devastating consequences for the planet, and policy responses to the problem of nuclear proliferation need to take into account these environmental effects.

  10. Evaluation of methods to compare consequences from hazardous materials transportation accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, R.E.; Franklin, A.L.; Lavender, J.C.

    1986-10-01

    This report presents the results of a project to develop a framework for making meaningful comparisons of the consequences from transportation accidents involving hazardous materials. The project was conducted in two phases. In Phase I, methods that could potentially be used to develop the consequence comparisons for hazardous material transportation accidents were identified and reviewed. Potential improvements were identified and an evaluation of the improved methods was performed. Based on this evaluation, several methods were selected for detailed evaluation in Phase II of the project. The methods selected were location-dependent scenarios, figure of merit and risk assessment. This evaluation included application of the methods to a sample problem which compares the consequences of four representative hazardous materials - chlorine, propane, spent nuclear fuel and class A explosives. These materials were selected because they represented a broad class of hazardous material properties and consequence mechanisms. The sample case aplication relied extensively on consequence calculations performed in previous transportation risk assessment studies. A consultant was employed to assist in developing consequence models for explosives. The results of the detailed evaluation of the three consequence comparison methods indicates that methods are available to perform technically defensible comparisons of the consequences from a wide variety of hazardous materials. Location-dependent scenario and risk assessment methods are available now and the figure of merit method could be developed with additional effort. All of the methods require substantial effort to implement. Methods that would require substantially less effort were identified in the preliminary evaluation, but questions of technical accuracy preclude their application on a scale. These methods may have application to specific cases, however.

  11. Environmental drivers and reproductive consequences of variation in the diet of a marine predator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladics, Amanda J.; Suryan, Robert M.; Parrish, Julia K.; Horton, Cheryl A.; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Peterson, William T.

    2015-06-01

    Ocean conditions can greatly impact lower trophic level prey assemblages in marine ecosystems, with effects of ocean state propagating to higher trophic levels. In many regions throughout their range, common murre (Uria aalge) exhibit narrow dietary breadth in feeding chicks and therefore are vulnerable to recruitment failures of dominant prey species during the breeding season. Contrastingly, common murres nesting in the northern California Current off Oregon, exhibit high species diversity and variability in dominant prey consumed. We studied the diets of common murres over 10 years between 1998 and 2011, a period in which the northern California Current experienced dramatic interannual variability in ocean conditions. Likewise, murre diets off Oregon varied considerably. Interannual variation in murre chick diets was influenced by environmental drivers occurring before and during the breeding season, and at both basin and local scales. While clupeids (likely Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii) were an important diet component throughout the study period, in some years murre diets were dominated by Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus) and in other years by osmerids (likely whitebait smelt, Allosmerus elongatus and surf smelt, Hypomesus pretiosus). Years in which the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and local sea surface temperatures were higher during summer also showed elevated levels of clupeids in murre diets, while years with higher North Pacific Gyre Oscillation index values and greater local winter ichthyoplankton biomass had fewer clupeids and more sand lance or smelts. Years with higher values of the Northern Oscillation Index during summer and an earlier spring transition showed higher proportion of smelts in the diets. Nesting phenology and reproductive success were negatively correlated with gradients in sand lance and clupeids, respectively, reflecting demographic consequences of environmental variability mediated through bottom-up food web dynamics.

  12. Evaluating Payments for Environmental Services: Methodological Challenges.

    PubMed

    Le Velly, Gwenolé; Dutilly, Céline

    2016-01-01

    Over the last fifteen years, Payments for Environmental Services (PES) schemes have become very popular environmental policy instruments, but the academic literature has begun to question their additionality. The literature attempts to estimate the causal effect of these programs by applying impact evaluation (IE) techniques. However, PES programs are complex instruments and IE methods cannot be directly applied without adjustments. Based on a systematic review of the literature, this article proposes a framework for the methodological process of designing an IE for PES schemes. It revises and discusses the methodological choices at each step of the process and proposes guidelines for practitioners.

  13. Evaluating Payments for Environmental Services: Methodological Challenges

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Over the last fifteen years, Payments for Environmental Services (PES) schemes have become very popular environmental policy instruments, but the academic literature has begun to question their additionality. The literature attempts to estimate the causal effect of these programs by applying impact evaluation (IE) techniques. However, PES programs are complex instruments and IE methods cannot be directly applied without adjustments. Based on a systematic review of the literature, this article proposes a framework for the methodological process of designing an IE for PES schemes. It revises and discusses the methodological choices at each step of the process and proposes guidelines for practitioners. PMID:26910850

  14. Irrigation development and its environmental consequences in arid regions of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaglan, Mahabir Singh; Qureshi, Mohammad Hashim

    1996-05-01

    The present paper examines the nature and dimensions of environmental transformation induced by canal irrigation in the arid region of India. The case study pertains to the Indira Gandhi Canal comand area in Rajasthan where the density and area of vegetation cover have increased due to afforestation, and the cultivated area has expanded due to irrigation. Consequently, there has been a perceptible improvement in the structure and fertility of sandy soils, but it would require a herculean effort on the part of the canal authority and local people to reduce soil erosion and siltation in the lower parts of stage I and the entire command area of stage II. Moreover, the water table has been rising rapidly throughout the command area of stage I. About half of the command area and adjoining Ghaggar basin in Ganganagar District will be facing the danger of waterlogging by the turn of the century. The incidence of irrigation-induced alkalization is higher in the lower parts of stage I. Soil alkalinity has appeared within five years of the introduction of irrigation in the interdunal basins and is manifested as a strong salt regime or calcareous pans near surface. This calls for immediate reclamation of the affected area and prevention of its expansion by altering the strategy of irrigation development, by changing cropping patterns, and by providing soil drainage.

  15. Improving landscape-level environmental impact evaluations.

    SciTech Connect

    Walston, L.J.; LaGory, K.E.; Vinikour, W.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.L.; Cantwell, B.

    2012-04-01

    New spatial data and advancements in GIS tools allow much more comprehensive and quantitative analyses of the large datasets required when making programmatic evaluations of the ecological effects of proposed activities that cover a large area or region. Understanding the environmental impacts of proposed human developments is critical to making appropriate siting decisions and designing mitigation strategies to reduce impacts on important resources. Impact analyses conducted under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) in Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) or Environmental Assessments (EAs) are intended to determine the resource-specific impacts of proposed activities of federal agencies and their alternatives using the best available information. Impacts to ecological resources are often a primary focus of these analyses. Information used in NEPA analyses include some measure of the known or probable presence of plants and wildlife in the project area, with special emphasis placed on threatened, endangered, and other special-status species. Site-specific information pertaining to ecological resources is usually easier to obtain for small-scale activities such as a local facility, road, or transmission upgrade project, where the ability to conduct fieldwork is more often feasible. However, site-specific data is more difficult-and sometimes impossible-to obtain for proposed activities that could affect a large area or region. These types of analyses often are considered in programmatic NEPA documents, in which a federal agency evaluates the implementation of a broad program or plan. Under these programmatic evaluations, the exact location and size of developments are often not known. Because obtaining quantitative information for ecological resources at such large spatial scales is difficult, programmatic impact evaluations typically rely on sketchy or partial information such as recorded species occurrences, species ranges, and general habitat

  16. 7 CFR 650.5 - Environmental evaluation in planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental evaluation in planning. 650.5 Section...-Assisted Programs § 650.5 Environmental evaluation in planning. (a) General. Environmental evaluation (EE) integrates environmental concerns throughout the planning, installation, and operation of...

  17. Environmental impact assessment: An international evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollick, Malcolm

    1986-03-01

    Experiences with environmental impact assessment (EIA) in a number of countries are discussed in the light of both explicit and implicit goals and objectives. Adequate environmental information is not always available to decision makers because of failure to apply EIA to all relevant decisions, the continuing inadequacies of prediction and evaluation techniques, the failure to consider alternatives adequately, and the bias of some EISs. EIA frequently results in changes to proposals and may result in stricter environmental management conditions in some cases, but some people regard it as a failure because it has not stopped development. Generally, EIA leads to better integration of environmental factors into project planning. Open procedures and freedom of information encourage responsiveness to EIA procedures, which can be weakened by discretionary powers and lack of access to the courts by public interest groups. However, legal standing may have side effects that offset its advantages. EIA can encourage cooperation and coordination between agencies but does not ensure them. Similarly, it can have a limited role in coordinating interstate and international policies. In the long term, the success of EIA depends on adequate monitoring, reassessment, and enforcement over the life of the project. EIA has generally opened up new opportunities for public participation, and may help to reduce conflict. EIA procedures need to be integrated with other environmental protection and development control programs, and various means exist for reducing its cost to developers and the public.

  18. Selective uptake and biological consequences of environmentally relevant antidepressant pharmaceutical exposures on male fathead minnows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schultz, M.M.; Painter, M.M.; Bartell, S.E.; Logue, A.; Furlong, E.T.; Werner, S.L.; Schoenfuss, H.L.

    2011-01-01

    Antidepressant pharmaceuticals have been reported in wastewater effluent at the nanogram to low microgram-per-liter range, and include bupropion (BUP), fluoxetine (FLX), sertraline (SER), and venlafaxine (VEN). To assess the effects of antidepressants on reproductive anatomy, physiology, and behavior, adult male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed for 21 days either to a single concentration of the antidepressants FLX, SER, VEN, or BUP, or to an antidepressant mixture. The data demonstrated that exposure to VEN (305. ng/L and 1104. ng/L) and SER (5.2. ng/L) resulted in mortality. Anatomical alterations were noted within the testes of fish exposed to SER and FLX, both modulators of the neurotransmitter serotonin. Additionally, FLX at 28. ng/L induced vitellogenin in male fish-a common endpoint for estrogenic endocrine disruption. Significant alterations in male secondary sex characteristics were noted with single exposures. Effects of single compound exposures neither carried over, nor became additive in the antidepressant mixtures, and reproductive behavior was not affected. Analysis of brain tissues from the exposed fish suggested increased uptake of FLX, SER and BUP and minimal uptake of VEN when compared to exposure water concentrations. Furthermore, the only metabolite detected consistently in the brain tissues was norfluoxetine. Similar trends of uptake by brain tissue were observed when fish were exposed to antidepressant mixtures. The present study demonstrates that anatomy and physiology, but not reproductive behavior, can be disrupted by exposure to environmental concentrations of some antidepressants. The observation that antidepressant uptake into fish tissues is selective may have consequences on assessing the mode-of-action and effects of these compounds in future studies. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Selective uptake and biological consequences of environmentally relevant antidepressant pharmaceutical exposures on male fathead minnows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schultz, Melissa M.; Painter, Meghan M.; Bartell, Stephen E.; Logue, Amanda; Furlong, Edward T.; Werner, Stephen L.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.

    2011-01-01

    Antidepressant pharmaceuticals have been reported in wastewater effluent at the nanogram to low microgram-per-liter range, and include bupropion (BUP), fluoxetine (FLX), sertraline (SER), and venlafaxine (VEN). To assess the effects of antidepressants on reproductive anatomy, physiology, and behavior, adult male fathead minnows (Pimeplwles promelas) were exposed for 21 days either to a single concentration of the antidepressants FLX, SER, VEN, or BUP, or to an antidepressant mixture. The data demonstrated that exposure to VEN (305 ng/L and 1104 ng/L) and SER (5.2 ng/L) resulted in mortality. Anatomical alterations were noted within the testes of fish exposed to SER and FLX, both modulators of the neurotransmitter serotonin. Additionally, FLX at 28 ng/L induced vitellogenin in male fish—a common endpoint for estrogenic endocrine disruption. Significant alterations in male secondary sex characteristics were noted with single exposures. Effects of single compound exposures neither carried over, nor became additive in the antidepressant mixtures, and reproductive behavior was not affected. Analysis of brain tissues from the exposed fish suggested increased uptake of FLX, SER and BUP and minimal uptake of VEN when compared to exposure water concentrations. Furthermore, the only metabolite detected consistently in the brain tissues was norfluoxetine. Similar trends of uptake by brain tissue were observed when fish were exposed to antidepressant mixtures. The present study demonstrates that anatomy and physiology, but not reproductive behavior, can be disrupted by exposure to environmental concentrations of some antidepressants. The observation that antidepressant uptake into fish tissues is selective may have consequences on assessing the mode-of-action and effects of these compounds in future studies.

  20. An Environmental Evaluation of Household Garbage Processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruki, Kazuhito

    The garbage emitted from households and industries has constantly increased for the recent years, and its treatment cost has been financially burden to the municipal government. Many municipal governments recommend their households to purchase household garbage processors in order to reduce the volume of garbage transferred to and incinerated at their facilities. Actually, there are 1,535 municipal governments, which subsidize their households to purchase electrical garbage processors and/or containers. These subsidies should be assessed from various points of view such as cost and benefit of municipal governments and households, and also global or local environmental loads. An environmental planning department of a city office sent questionnaires to households to investigate utilizations of subsidized processors and/or containers. An environmental organization of citizen supported the department with designing a questionnaire form and analyzing data collected by the questionnaire. In this paper, the processes of designing the form and analyzing the data are explained, and then the evaluation of the subsidy is presented. The conclusions are as follows: Electrical garbage processors would be beneficial for local environmental problems such as lack of final landfill site. However, the processors would increase the CO2 emission, unless the electricity consumption can be improved.

  1. Consequences of heat hardening on a field fitness component in Drosophila depend on environmental temperature.

    PubMed

    Loeschcke, Volker; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2007-02-01

    Heat hardening increases thermal resistance to more extreme temperatures in the laboratory. However, heat hardening also has negative consequences, and the net benefit of hardening has not been evaluated in the field. We tested short-term heat hardening effects on the likelihood of Drosophila melanogaster to be caught at different temperatures at baits in field sites without natural resources. We predicted that hardened flies should be more frequently caught at the baits at high but not low temperatures. Under cool conditions, flies hardened at 36 degrees C, and to a lesser extent at 34 degrees C, were less frequently caught at baits than nonhardened flies a few hours after release, indicating a negative effect of hardening. In later captures, negative effects tended to disappear, particularly in males. Under warm conditions, there was an overall balance of negative and positive effects, though with a different temporal resolution. Under very hot conditions, when capture rates were low, there was a large benefit of hardening at 36 degrees C and 34 degrees C but not 33 degrees C. Finally, based on climatic records, the overall benefit of hardening in D. melanogaster is discussed as an evolved response to high temperatures occasionally experienced by organisms at some locations.

  2. Remedial policies in radiologically-contaminated forests: environmental consequences and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Linkov, I; Morel, B; Schell, W R

    1997-02-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986, large forested areas in Europe were contaminated by radionuclides. Extensive societal pressure has been exerted to decrease the radiation dose to the population and to the environment. Thus, in making abatement and remediation policy decisions not only economic costs, but also human and environmental risk assessment are desired. Forest remediation by organic layer removal, one of the most promising cleanup policies, is considered in this paper. Ecological risk assessment requires evaluation of the radionuclide distribution in forests. The FORESTPATH model is used for predicting the radionuclide fate in forest compartments after deposition as well as for evaluating the application of the remedial policy. Time of intervention and radionuclide deposition profile was predicted as being crucial for the remediation efficiency. Risk assessment conducted for a critical group of forest users in Belarus shows that consumption of forest products (berries and mushrooms) leads to about 0.004% risk of a fatal cancer. Cost-benefit analysis for forest cleanup suggests that complete removal of organic layer is too expensive for application in Belarus.

  3. 40 CFR 8.7 - Initial environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Initial environmental evaluation. 8.7 Section 8.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.7 Initial environmental evaluation. (a)...

  4. 40 CFR 8.7 - Initial environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Initial environmental evaluation. 8.7 Section 8.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.7 Initial environmental evaluation. (a)...

  5. 40 CFR 8.7 - Initial environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initial environmental evaluation. 8.7 Section 8.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.7 Initial environmental evaluation. (a)...

  6. Evaluating the communication of environmental permitting decisions in diverse communities.

    PubMed

    Caron, Rosemary M; Rezaee, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Environmental communication plays a critical role in addressing the public's growing awareness and apprehension about environmental health risks. Although opportunities for public participation in environmental health assessments have greatly increased, environmental communication among key stakeholders is an evolving process. The authors evaluated the communication that occurred among a state environmental agency, six Title V operating facilities, and the public concerning environmental permitting decisions perceived to impact environmental and human health. The authors identify environmental concerns of diverse communities, analyze communication among key stakeholders regarding environmental permitting decisions, and propose recommendations for practitioners to improve environmental communication strategies among these key stakeholders in either urban or rural communities.

  7. 40 CFR 35.1620-3 - Environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Environmental evaluation. 35.1620-3 Section 35.1620-3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Freshwater Lakes § 35.1620-3 Environmental evaluation. Phase 2 applicants shall submit an evaluation of...

  8. 40 CFR 35.1620-3 - Environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental evaluation. 35.1620-3 Section 35.1620-3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Freshwater Lakes § 35.1620-3 Environmental evaluation. Phase 2 applicants shall submit an evaluation of...

  9. 24 CFR 58.47 - Re-evaluation of environmental assessments and other environmental findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Re-evaluation of environmental....47 Re-evaluation of environmental assessments and other environmental findings. (a) A responsible... circumstances and environmental conditions which may affect the project or have a bearing on its impact, such...

  10. Evaluation models and their influence on radiological consequences of hypothetical accidents in FFTF

    SciTech Connect

    Stepnewski, D.D.; Hale, J.P.; Martin, H.C.; Peak, R.D.; Franz, G.R.

    1980-04-01

    The influence of radiological evaluation models and assumptions on the off-site consequences of hypothetical core disruptive accidents is examined. The effects of initial source term, time of containment venting, meteorology, biological dose model, and aerosol fallout have been included. The analyses were based on two postulated scenarios of a severe hypothetical reactor vessel melt-through accident for 400 MW(t) fast reactor. Within each accident scenario, the results show that, although other variables are significant, radiological consequences are strongly affected by the amount of aerosol fallout computed to occur in the incident.

  11. Methods and Metrics for Evaluating Environmental Dredging ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report documents the objectives, approach, methodologies, results, and interpretation of a collaborative research study conducted by the National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) and the National Exposure Research laboratory (NERL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA’s) Office of Research and Development (ORD) and the U.S. EPA’s Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO). The objectives of the research study were to: 1) evaluate remedy effectiveness of environmental dredging as applied to contaminated sediments in the Ashtabula River in northeastern Ohio, and 2) monitor the recovery of the surrounding ecosystem. The project was carried out over 6 years from 2006 through 2011 and consisted of the development and evaluation of methods and approaches to assess river and ecosystem conditions prior to dredging (2006), during dredging (2006 and 2007), and following dredging, both short term (2008) and long term (2009-2011). This project report summarizes and interprets the results of this 6-year study to develop and assess methods for monitoring pollutant fate and transport and ecosystem recovery through the use of biological, chemical, and physical lines of evidence (LOEs) such as: 1) comprehensive sampling of and chemical analysis of contaminants in surface, suspended, and historic sediments; 2) extensive grab and multi-level real time water sampling and analysis of contaminants in the water column; 3) sampling, chemi

  12. Evaluating the efficiency of environmental monitoring programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levine, Carrie R.; Yanai, Ruth D.; Lampman, Gregory G.; Burns, Douglas A.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Lynch, Jason; Schoch, Nian

    2014-01-01

    Statistical uncertainty analyses can be used to improve the efficiency of environmental monitoring, allowing sampling designs to maximize information gained relative to resources required for data collection and analysis. In this paper, we illustrate four methods of data analysis appropriate to four types of environmental monitoring designs. To analyze a long-term record from a single site, we applied a general linear model to weekly stream chemistry data at Biscuit Brook, NY, to simulate the effects of reducing sampling effort and to evaluate statistical confidence in the detection of change over time. To illustrate a detectable difference analysis, we analyzed a one-time survey of mercury concentrations in loon tissues in lakes in the Adirondack Park, NY, demonstrating the effects of sampling intensity on statistical power and the selection of a resampling interval. To illustrate a bootstrapping method, we analyzed the plot-level sampling intensity of forest inventory at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH, to quantify the sampling regime needed to achieve a desired confidence interval. Finally, to analyze time-series data from multiple sites, we assessed the number of lakes and the number of samples per year needed to monitor change over time in Adirondack lake chemistry using a repeated-measures mixed-effects model. Evaluations of time series and synoptic long-term monitoring data can help determine whether sampling should be re-allocated in space or time to optimize the use of financial and human resources.

  13. Overview of the arthritis Cost Consequence Evaluation System (ACCES): a pharmacoeconomic model for celecoxib.

    PubMed

    Pettitt, D; Goldstein, J L; McGuire, A; Schwartz, J S; Burke, T; Maniadakis, N

    2000-12-01

    Pharmacoeconomic analyses have become useful and essential tools for health care decision makers who increasingly require such analyses prior to placing a drug on a national, regional or hospital formulary. Previous health economic models of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been restricted to evaluating a narrow range of agents within specific health care delivery systems using medical information derived from homogeneous clinical trial data. This paper summarizes the Arthritis Cost Consequence Evaluation System (ACCES)--a pharmacoeconomic model that has been developed to predict and evaluate the costs and consequences associated with the use of celecoxib in patients with arthritis, compared with other NSAIDs and NSAIDs plus gastroprotective agents. The advantage of this model is that it can be customized to reflect local practice patterns, resource utilization and costs, as well as provide context-specific health economic information to a variety of providers and/or decision makers.

  14. Health Consequences of Environmental Exposures in Early Life: Coping with a Changing World in the Post-MDG Era.

    PubMed

    Suk, William; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Stein, Renato T; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Carpenter, David O; Neira, Maria; Sly, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Despite overall progress toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals, large health discrepancies persist between developed and developing countries. The world is rapidly changing and the influences of societal change and climate change will disproportionately affect the world's most vulnerable populations, thus exacerbating current inequities. Current development strategies do not adequately address these disproportionate impacts of environmental exposures. The aim of this study was to propose a new framework to address the health consequences of environmental exposures beyond 2015. This framework is transdisciplinary and precautionary. It is based on identifying social and economic determinants of health, strengthening primary health systems, and improving the health of vulnerable populations. It incorporates deliberate plans for assessment and control of avoidable environmental exposures. It sets specific, measurable targets for health and environmental improvement.

  15. 10 CFR 709.14 - Consequences of a refusal to complete a CI evaluation including a polygraph examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Consequences of a refusal to complete a CI evaluation including a polygraph examination. 709.14 Section 709.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COUNTERINTELLIGENCE EVALUATION PROGRAM CI Evaluation Protocols and Protection of National Security § 709.14 Consequences of...

  16. 10 CFR 709.14 - Consequences of a refusal to complete a CI evaluation including a polygraph examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Consequences of a refusal to complete a CI evaluation including a polygraph examination. 709.14 Section 709.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COUNTERINTELLIGENCE EVALUATION PROGRAM CI Evaluation Protocols and Protection of National Security § 709.14 Consequences of...

  17. Sources of Contradictions in the Evaluation of Population Genetic Consequences after the Chernobyl Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Glazko, V.I.; Glazko, T.T.

    2013-01-01

    The review covers the analysis of our own and published data pertaining to population and genetic consequences in various mammalian species under conditions of high levels of ionizing radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The findings indicate that these conditions have promoted the reproduction of heterozygotes in polyloci spectra of molecular genetic markers and animals with a relatively increased stability of the chromosomal apparatus. The prospects of using the reproductive “success” of the carriers of these characteristics as an integral indicator of the selective influence of environmental stress factors are discussed. PMID:23556130

  18. WIPP Recertification - An Environmental Evaluation Group Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, L. E.; Silva, M. K.

    2003-02-25

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a repository for defense transuranic (TRU) waste, was built and is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) required initial certification of compliance of the WIPP by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In addition, a recertification decision is required by the LWA every five years, dated from the initial receipt of TRU waste. The first TRU waste shipment arrived at the WIPP on March 26, 1999, and therefore the first recertification application is due from DOE to EPA by March 25, 2004. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) provides technical oversight of the WIPP project on behalf of the State of New Mexico. The EEG considers the first recertification as a precedent setting event. Therefore, the EEG began the identification of recertification issues immediately following the initial certification decision. These issues have evolved since that time, based on discussions with the DOE and EEG's understanding of DOE's ongoing research. Performance assessment is required by the EPA certification and its results are needed to determine whether the facility remains in compliance at the time of the recertification application. The DOE must submit periodic change reports to the EPA which summarize activities and conditions that differ from the compliance application. Also, the EPA may request additional information from the DOE that may pertain to continued compliance. These changes and new information must be considered for recertification performance assessment.

  19. Final report of the accident phenomenology and consequence (APAC) methodology evaluation. Spills Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Brereton, S.; Shinn, J.; Hesse, D; Kaninich, D.; Lazaro, M.; Mubayi, V.

    1997-08-01

    The Spills Working Group was one of six working groups established under the Accident Phenomenology and Consequence (APAC) methodology evaluation program. The objectives of APAC were to assess methodologies available in the accident phenomenology and consequence analysis area and to evaluate their adequacy for use in preparing DOE facility safety basis documentation, such as Basis for Interim Operation (BIO), Justification for Continued Operation (JCO), Hazard Analysis Documents, and Safety Analysis Reports (SARs). Additional objectives of APAC were to identify development needs and to define standard practices to be followed in the analyses supporting facility safety basis documentation. The Spills Working Group focused on methodologies for estimating four types of spill source terms: liquid chemical spills and evaporation, pressurized liquid/gas releases, solid spills and resuspension/sublimation, and resuspension of particulate matter from liquid spills.

  20. Issues and options in addressing the environmental consequences of livestock sector's growth.

    PubMed

    Gerber, P J; Vellinga, T V; Steinfeld, H

    2010-02-01

    The growth of the livestock sector is being achieved at substantial environmental costs. Today, livestock are a major stressor of the global environmental, occupying a quarter of emerged land (including a third of arable land), contributing close to a fifth of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, using eight percent of all water resources and threatening a wide range of endangered species. At the same time, livestock are also a crucial engine of rural growth and a tool for improving food security. Policies are required to guide the sector in achieving sometimes conflicting development objectives. Potential pathways include encouraging resource use efficiency, correcting for environmental externalities and accelerating technological change.

  1. Evaluating the Impact of Intimate Partner Violence on the Perpetrator: The Perceived Consequences of Domestic Violence Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Denise D.; Neighbors, Clayton; Mbilinyi, Lyungai F.; O'Rourke, Allison; Zegree, Joan; Roffman, Roger A.; Edleson, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    Surprisingly, little is known about how IPV perpetrators perceive the consequences of their violent behavior. This article describes the development and evaluation of the Perceived Consequences of Domestic Violence Questionnaire (PCDVQ). The PCDVQ is a 27 item self report instrument designed to assess the consequences of intimate partner violence…

  2. Consequence evaluation of radiation embrittlement of Trojan reactor pressure vessel supports

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, S.C.; Sommer, S.C.; Johnson, G.L. ); Lambert, H.E. )

    1990-10-01

    This report describes a consequence evaluation to address safety concerns raised by the radiation embrittlement of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) supports for the Trojan nuclear power plant. The study comprises a structural evaluation and an effects evaluation and assumes that all four reactor vessel supports have completely lost the load carrying capability. By demonstrating that the ASME code requirements governing Level D service limits are satisfied, the structural evaluation concludes that the Trojan reactor coolant loop (RCL) piping is capable of transferring loads to the steam generator (SG) supports and the reactor coolant pump (RCP) supports. A subsequent design margins to accommodate additional loads transferred to them through the RCL piping. The effects evaluation, employing a systems analysis approach, investigates initiating events and the reliability of the engineered safeguard systems as the RPV is subject to movements caused by the RPV support failure. The evaluation identifies a number of areas of additional safety concerns, but further investigation of the above safety concerns, however, concludes that a hypothetical failure of the Trojan RPV supports due to radiation embrittlement will not result in consequences of significant safety concerns.

  3. Assessing Environmental Consequences of Ticcing in Youth with Chronic Tic Disorders: The Tic Accommodation and Reactions Scale

    PubMed Central

    Capriotti, Matthew R.; Piacentini, John C.; Himle, Michael B.; Ricketts, Emily J.; Espil, Flint M.; Lee, Han Joo; Turkel, Jennifer E.; Woods, Douglas W.

    2015-01-01

    Tics associated with Tourette syndrome and other chronic tic disorders (CTDs) often draw social reactions and disrupt ongoing behavior. In some cases, such tic-related consequences may function to alter moment-to-moment and future tic severity. These observations have been incorporated into contemporary biopsychosocial models of CTD phenomenology, but systematic research detailing the nature of the relationship between environmental consequences and ticcing remains scarce. This study describes the development of the Tic Accommodation and Reactions Scale (TARS), a measure of the number and frequency of immediate consequences for ticcing experienced by youth with CTDs. Thirty eight youth with CTDs and their parents completed the TARS as part of a broader assessment of CTD symptoms and psychosocial functioning. The TARS demonstrated good psychometric properties (i.e., internal consistency, parent-child agreement, convergent validity, discriminant validity). Differences between parent-reported and child-reported data indicated that children may provide more valid reports of tic-contingent consequences than parents. Although preliminary, results of this study suggest that the TARS is a psychometrically sound measure of tic-related consequences suited for future research in youth with CTDs. PMID:27076696

  4. Assessing Environmental Consequences of Ticcing in Youth with Chronic Tic Disorders: The Tic Accommodation and Reactions Scale.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Matthew R; Piacentini, John C; Himle, Michael B; Ricketts, Emily J; Espil, Flint M; Lee, Han Joo; Turkel, Jennifer E; Woods, Douglas W

    Tics associated with Tourette syndrome and other chronic tic disorders (CTDs) often draw social reactions and disrupt ongoing behavior. In some cases, such tic-related consequences may function to alter moment-to-moment and future tic severity. These observations have been incorporated into contemporary biopsychosocial models of CTD phenomenology, but systematic research detailing the nature of the relationship between environmental consequences and ticcing remains scarce. This study describes the development of the Tic Accommodation and Reactions Scale (TARS), a measure of the number and frequency of immediate consequences for ticcing experienced by youth with CTDs. Thirty eight youth with CTDs and their parents completed the TARS as part of a broader assessment of CTD symptoms and psychosocial functioning. The TARS demonstrated good psychometric properties (i.e., internal consistency, parent-child agreement, convergent validity, discriminant validity). Differences between parent-reported and child-reported data indicated that children may provide more valid reports of tic-contingent consequences than parents. Although preliminary, results of this study suggest that the TARS is a psychometrically sound measure of tic-related consequences suited for future research in youth with CTDs.

  5. Gandhi and the Environmental Consequences of the Current Drive to Industrialization and Modernization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Rajiv K.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses Gandhi's developmental philosophy that small is beautiful in relation to current issues in ecological conservation. Issues include environmental education, economic development, rural development, natural farming, and Gandhi's philosophy among Western nations. (MDH)

  6. Environmental Consequences of an Industry Based on Harvesting the Wild Desert Shrub Jojoba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Kennith E.

    1980-01-01

    Described are the economic and agricultural issues surrounding the cultivation of desert plants, principally the jojoba, as a source of fuel. The article examines the environmental impacts of an industry based on arid-region cultivation of such plants. (RE)

  7. A model for evaluating physico-chemical substance properties required by consequence analysis models.

    PubMed

    Nikmo, Juha; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Riikonen, Kari

    2002-04-26

    Modeling systems for analyzing the consequences of chemical emergencies require as input values a number of physico-chemical substance properties, commonly as a function of temperature at atmospheric pressure. This paper presents a mathematical model "CHEMIC", which can be used for evaluating such substance properties, assuming that six basic constant quantities are available (molecular weight, freezing or melting point, normal boiling point, critical temperature, critical pressure and critical volume). The model has been designed to yield reasonably accurate numerical predictions, while at the same time keeping the amount of input data to a minimum. The model is based on molecular theory or thermodynamics, together with empirical corrections. Mostly, model equations are based on the so-called law of corresponding states. The model evaluates substance properties as a function of temperature at atmospheric pressure. These include seven properties commonly required by consequence analysis and heavy gas dispersion modeling systems: vapor pressure, vapor and liquid densities, heat of vaporization, vapor and liquid viscosities and binary diffusion coefficient. The model predictions for vapor pressure, vapor and liquid densities and heat of vaporization have been evaluated by using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. We have also compared the predictions of the CHEMIC model with those of the DATABANK database (developed by the AEA Technology, UK), which includes detailed semi-empirical correlations. The computer program CHEMIC could be easily introduced into consequence analysis modeling systems in order to extend their performance to address a wider selection of substances.

  8. 40 CFR 227.4 - Criteria for evaluating environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criteria for evaluating environmental impact. 227.4 Section 227.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Impact § 227.4 Criteria for evaluating environmental impact. This subpart B sets specific...

  9. 40 CFR 227.4 - Criteria for evaluating environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Criteria for evaluating environmental impact. 227.4 Section 227.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Impact § 227.4 Criteria for evaluating environmental impact. This subpart B sets specific...

  10. 40 CFR 227.4 - Criteria for evaluating environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... impact. 227.4 Section 227.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Environmental Impact § 227.4 Criteria for evaluating environmental impact. This subpart B sets specific...

  11. 39 CFR 775.9 - Environmental evaluation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Environmental evaluation process. 775.9 Section... POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.9 Environmental evaluation process. (a) All actions—(1) Assessment of actions... environmental effect, or (iii) The action is a type that is not a major federal action with a significant...

  12. 39 CFR 775.8 - Environmental evaluation guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental evaluation guidelines. 775.8 Section... POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.8 Environmental evaluation guidelines. (a) Approach. When dealing with proposals which may have an impact on the human environment, environmental coordinators, planners,...

  13. 39 CFR 775.8 - Environmental evaluation guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Environmental evaluation guidelines. 775.8 Section... POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.8 Environmental evaluation guidelines. (a) Approach. When dealing with proposals which may have an impact on the human environment, environmental coordinators, planners,...

  14. Dutch dairy farms after milk quota abolition: Economic and environmental consequences of a new manure policy.

    PubMed

    Klootwijk, C W; Van Middelaar, C E; Berentsen, P B M; de Boer, I J M

    2016-10-01

    The abolition of the Dutch milk quota system has been accompanied by the introduction of a new manure policy to limit phosphate production (i.e., excretion via manure) on expanding dairy farms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of these recent policy changes on the farm structure, management, labor income, nitrogen and phosphate surpluses, and greenhouse gas emissions of an average Dutch dairy farm. The new manure policy requires that any increase in phosphate production be partly processed and partly applied to additional farmland. In addition, phosphate quotas have been introduced. Herein, we used a whole-farm optimization model to simulate an average farm before and after quota abolition and introduction of the new manure policy. The objective function of the model maximized labor income. We combined the model with a farm nutrient balance and life-cycle assessment to determine environmental impact. Based on current prices, increasing the number of cows after quota abolition was profitable until manure processing or additional land was required to comply with the new manure policy. Manure processing involved treatment so that phosphate was removed from the national manure market. Farm intensity in terms of milk per hectare increased by about 4%, from 13,578kg before quota abolition to 14,130kg after quota abolition. Labor income increased by €505/yr. When costs of manure processing decreased from €13 to €8/t of manure or land costs decreased from €1,187 to €573/ha, farm intensity could increase up to 20% until the phosphate quota became limiting. Farms that had already increased their barn capacity to prepare for expansion after milk quota abolition could benefit from purchasing extra phosphate quota to use their full barn capacity. If milk prices increased from €355 to €420/t, farms could grow unlimited, provided that the availability of external inputs such as labor, land, barn capacity, feed, and phosphate quota at current

  15. Guide for licensing evaluations using CRAC2: A computer program for calculating reactor accident consequences

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.E.; Roussin, R.W.; Gilpin, H.

    1988-12-01

    A version of the CRAC2 computer code applicable for use in analyses of consequences and risks of reactor accidents in case work for environmental statements has been implemented for use on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Data General MV/8000 computer system. Input preparation is facilitated through the use of an interactive computer program which operates on an IBM personal computer. The resulting CRAC2 input deck is transmitted to the MV/8000 by using an error-free file transfer mechanism. To facilitate the use of CRAC2 at NRC, relevant background material on input requirements and model descriptions has been extracted from four reports - ''Calculations of Reactor Accident Consequences,'' Version 2, NUREG/CR-2326 (SAND81-1994) and ''CRAC2 Model Descriptions,'' NUREG/CR-2552 (SAND82-0342), ''CRAC Calculations for Accident Sections of Environmental Statements, '' NUREG/CR-2901 (SAND82-1693), and ''Sensitivity and Uncertainty Studies of the CRAC2 Computer Code,'' NUREG/CR-4038 (ORNL-6114). When this background information is combined with instructions on the input processor, this report provides a self-contained guide for preparing CRAC2 input data with a specific orientation toward applications on the MV/8000. 8 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  16. When do college students have less favorable views of drinking? Evaluations of alcohol experiences and positive and negative consequences.

    PubMed

    Fairlie, Anne M; Ramirez, Jason J; Patrick, Megan E; Lee, Christine M

    2016-08-01

    College students experience numerous positive and negative consequences from drinking alcohol, although the extent to which these consequences influence perceptions of their drinking experiences is poorly understood. A better understanding of the impact of experiencing specific consequences, and how they are evaluated, on college students' perceptions of the overall drinking experience and subsequent alcohol use is crucial for advancing intervention efforts. The current study used daily data to examine (a) whether experiencing specific consequences and (b) whether ratings of the most favorable and most aversive consequences predicted overall evaluations of the drinking experience and perceptions that drinking was worth it; and (c) whether overall evaluations and perceptions that drinking was worth it predicted next-day drinking. College student drinkers (N = 349, 53.3% female) completed daily reports on drinking, consequences, evaluations of consequences, and evaluations of the drinking experience during four 2-week periods across 1 year. Findings from generalized estimating equations demonstrated that experiencing any of the positive consequences predicted more favorable overall evaluations and perceptions that drinking was worth it, whereas the majority of the negative consequences predicted less favorable overall evaluations. Ratings of the most favorable positive consequence and the most aversive negative consequence were also associated with overall evaluations. Perceiving that drinking was more worth it was associated with an increased likelihood of next-day drinking. Current findings reinforce the need to address the experience of both positive and negative consequences in interventions, while simultaneously considering the extent to which students perceived the negative consequences as aversive. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Incorporating environmental attitudes in discrete choice models: an exploration of the utility of the awareness of consequences scale.

    PubMed

    Hoyos, David; Mariel, Petr; Hess, Stephane

    2015-02-01

    Environmental economists are increasingly interested in better understanding how people cognitively organise their beliefs and attitudes towards environmental change in order to identify key motives and barriers that stimulate or prevent action. In this paper, we explore the utility of a commonly used psychometric scale, the awareness of consequences (AC) scale, in order to better understand stated choices. The main contribution of the paper is that it provides a novel approach to incorporate attitudinal information into discrete choice models for environmental valuation: firstly, environmental attitudes are incorporated using a reinterpretation of the classical AC scale recently proposed by Ryan and Spash (2012); and, secondly, attitudinal data is incorporated as latent variables under a hybrid choice modelling framework. This novel approach is applied to data from a survey conducted in the Basque Country (Spain) in 2008 aimed at valuing land-use policies in a Natura 2000 Network site. The results are relevant to policy-making because choice models that are able to accommodate underlying environmental attitudes may help in designing more effective environmental policies.

  18. REE incorporation and behaviour in aquatic turtles as a consequence of environmental exposure and biological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Censi, P.; Randazzo, L. A.; D'Angelo, S.; Cuttitta, A.; Saiano, F.

    2012-04-01

    Rare Earth Elements (REE) contents in Emys trinacris have been investigated for the first time in order to recognise effects of the chemistry of the environment on the composition of biological fluids. Representing radionuclides a potential health risk for living organisms in case of incorporation in tissues and being REE geochemical analogues of actinides in hydrosphere, this study was focused on investigation of REE behaviour in whole blood and esoskeleton of selected individuals of Emys trinacris. The choice of this species is related to its amphibian character that allowed us to evidence environmental stress in terms of composition of environmental freshwaters whose REE compositions were investigated and compared with blood samples. Moreover effects induced by different environmental conditions were investigated collecting samples in two sites characterised by absence of an anthropogenic signature (GT site) and subjected to strong anthropogenic pressure in terms of wastewater input (SIC site), respectively. In both sites REE contents in whole blood samples of studied turtles are quite similar even if in GT site the highest REE contents have been recognised. Shale-normalised REE patterns show very similar REE behaviour with light REE (LREE) enrichments with respect to heavier REE (HREE), mainly in samples from anthropized site. If REE concentrations in whole blood are normalised to the composition of environmental waters, calculated REE patterns show upward concave shapes centred on Gd that are more pronounced in samples from GT site because their patterns are more enriched in LREE. The last features observed in blood samples from GT can be related to larger REE contents occurred in environmental water from this site with respect to waters collected in SIC site, suggesting that a relationship occurs between REE contents in environmental and biological fluids. Since MREE depletions were observed in waters experiencing phosphate crystallization, observed REE

  19. Environmental Accounting Using Emergy: Evaluation of Minnesota

    EPA Science Inventory

    Often questions related to environmental policy are difficult to resolve successfully, because robust solutions depend on accurately balancing the needs of both human and natural systems. To accomplish this end the socioeconomic and environmental effects of policies must be expre...

  20. Avança Brasil: environmental and social consequences of Brazil's planned infrastructure in Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Fearnside, Philip M

    2002-12-01

    "Avança Brasil" (Forward Brazil) is a package of 338 projects throughout Brazil; the portion of the plan to be carried out in Brazil's Legal Amazon region totals US$43 billion over 8 years, US$20 billion of which would be for infrastructure causing environmental damage. Brazil's environmental impact assessment system is not yet capable of coping with the challenge presented by Avança Brasil. Generic problems with the licensing process include stimulation of a lobby in favor of construction before decisions are made on the advisability of the projects, the "dragging effect" of third parties, whereby economic activity is attracted to the infrastructure but escapes the environmental impact assessment system, a tendency for consulting firms to produce favorable reports, a bureaucratic emphasis on the existence of steps without regard to the content of what is said, and the inability to take account of the chain of events unleashed when a given project is undertaken. The environmental and social costs of forest loss are high; among them is loss of opportunities for sustainable use of the forest, including loss of environmental services such as biodiversity maintenance, water cycling, and carbon storage. The benefits of export infrastructure are meager, especially from the point of view of generating employment. Much of the transportation infrastructure is for soybeans, while the hydroelectric dams contribute to processing aluminum. The example of Avança Brasil makes clear the need to rethink how major development decisions are made and to reconsider a number of the plan's component projects.

  1. [Long-term ecological and genetic consequences of use of dioxin-containing environmental agents].

    PubMed

    Golikov, S N; Rumak, V S; Sofronov, G A; Umnova, N V

    1998-01-01

    The long-term consequences of the use of dioxine-containing ecotoxic agents in the USA in 1961-1972 are ecologically and genetically characterized. There were increases in the incidence of pathological reproductive events in the contaminated region. It is concluded that there will be higher probability of abnormalities in the families of individuals born at war or just thereof. An association of impaired reproduction with functional disorders and women's poorer health, with higher incidence of somatic and gynecological diseases (chronic ones in particular) is shown. Cytogenetic changes in the lymphocytes were found in individuals from exposure risk groups. The contribution of chromosomal alterations observed in the contaminated area to immunodeficiency is appreciated. The systemic pattern of the action of biologically active properties of dioxine was demonstrated from the morphofunctional changes of different cell types. Cluster analysis revealed associations of cytogenetic parameters with the integrated index of health status in individuals from different contaminated areas. The ecological and genetic consequences may be regarded as part of homeostatic changes at many levels, as suggested by a correlation between the genetic instability and the changes occurring in other tissues, organs, and systems.

  2. Choice of organic foods is related to perceived consequences for human health and to environmentally friendly behaviour.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Maria K; Arvola, Anne; Hursti, Ulla Kaisa Koivisto; Aberg, Lars; Sjödén, Per-Olow

    2003-04-01

    We designed a questionnaire concerned with attitudes and behaviour towards organic foods, environmentally friendly behaviour (EFB), and perceived consequences of organic food choice in terms of human health, the environment and animal welfare. It was mailed in 1998 to a random nation-wide sample of 2000 Swedish citizens, ages 18-65 years, and 1154 (58%) responded. Self-reported purchase of organic foods was most strongly related to perceived benefit for human health. Performance of EFBs such as refraining from car driving was also a good predictor of purchase frequency. The results indicate that egoistic motives are better predictors of the purchase of organic foods than are altruistic motives.

  3. Environmental consequences of postulated plutonium releases from Exxon Nuclear MOFP, Richland, Washington, as a result of severe natural phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Jamison, J.D.; Watson, E.C.

    1980-02-01

    Potential environmental consequences in terms of radiation dose to people are presented for postulated plutonium releases caused by severe natural phenomena at the Exxon Nuclear Company Mixed Oxide Fabrication Plant (MOFP), Richland, Washington. The severe natural phenomena considered are earthquakes, tornadoes, high straight-line winds, and floods. Maximum plutonium deposition values are given for significant locations around the site. All important potential exposure pathways are examined. The most likely 50-year committed dose equivalents are given for the maximum-exposed individual and the population within a 50-mile radius of the plant. The maximum plutonium deposition values most likely to occur offsite are also given.

  4. Chinese children's evaluations of white lies: weighing the consequences for recipients.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fengling; Xu, Fen; Heyman, Gail D; Lee, Kang

    2011-02-01

    This research examined how Chinese children make moral judgments about lie telling and truth telling when facing a "white lie" or "politeness" dilemma in which telling a blunt truth is likely to hurt the feelings of another. We examined the possibility that the judgments of participants (7-11 years of age, N=240) would differ as a function of the social context in which communication takes place. The expected social consequences were manipulated systematically in two studies. In Study 1, participants rated truth telling more negatively and rated lie telling more positively in a public situation where telling a blunt truth is especially likely to have negative social consequences. In Study 2, participants rated truth telling more positively and rated lie telling more negatively in a situation where accurate information is likely to be helpful for the recipient to achieve future success. Both studies showed that with increased age, children's evaluations became significantly influenced by the social context, with the strongest effects being seen among the 11-year-olds. These results suggest that Chinese children learn to take anticipated social consequences into account when making moral judgments about the appropriateness of telling a blunt truth versus lying to protect the feelings of another.

  5. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Corey J A; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S

    2010-05-03

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less

  6. Evaluating the Relative Environmental Impact of Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Corey J. A.; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy ‘models’ can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks – one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact – that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less

  7. Comparing environmental consequences of anaerobic mono- and co-digestion of pig manure to produce bio-energy--a life cycle perspective.

    PubMed

    De Vries, J W; Vinken, T M W J; Hamelin, L; De Boer, I J M

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the environmental consequences of anaerobic mono- and co-digestion of pig manure to produce bio-energy, from a life cycle perspective. This included assessing environmental impacts and land use change emissions (LUC) required to replace used co-substrates for anaerobic digestion. Environmental impact categories considered were climate change, terrestrial acidification, marine and freshwater eutrophication, particulate matter formation, land use, and fossil fuel depletion. Six scenarios were evaluated: mono-digestion of manure, co-digestion with: maize silage, maize silage and glycerin, beet tails, wheat yeast concentrate (WYC), and roadside grass. Mono-digestion reduced most impacts, but represented a limited source for bio-energy. Co-digestion with maize silage, beet tails, and WYC (competing with animal feed), and glycerin increased bio-energy production (up to 568%), but at expense of increasing climate change (through LUC), marine eutrophication, and land use. Co-digestion with wastes or residues like roadside grass gave the best environmental performance.

  8. 40 CFR 8.8 - Comprehensive environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Comprehensive environmental evaluation. 8.8 Section 8.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.8 Comprehensive...

  9. 40 CFR 8.8 - Comprehensive environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Comprehensive environmental evaluation. 8.8 Section 8.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.8 Comprehensive...

  10. 40 CFR 8.8 - Comprehensive environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Comprehensive environmental evaluation. 8.8 Section 8.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.8 Comprehensive...

  11. Fitness consequences of maternal and embryonic responses to environmental variation: using reptiles as models for studies of developmental plasticity.

    PubMed

    Warner, Daniel A

    2014-11-01

    Environmental factors strongly influence phenotypic variation within populations. The environment contributes to this variation in two ways: (1) by acting as a determinant of phenotypic variation (i.e., plastic responses) and (2) as an agent of selection that "chooses" among existing phenotypes. Understanding how these two environmental forces contribute to phenotypic variation is a major goal in the field of evolutionary biology and a primary objective of my research program. The objective of this article is to provide a framework to guide studies of environmental sources of phenotypic variation (specifically, developmental plasticity and maternal effects, and their adaptive significance). Two case studies from my research on reptiles are used to illustrate the general approaches I have taken to address these conceptual topics. Some key points for advancing our understanding of environmental influences on phenotypic variation include (1) merging laboratory-based research that identifies specific environmental effects with field studies to validate ecological relevance; (2) using controlled experimental approaches that mimic complex environments found in nature; (3) integrating data across biological fields (e.g., genetics, morphology, physiology, behavior, and ecology) under an evolutionary framework to provide novel insights into the underlying mechanisms that generate phenotypic variation; (4) assessing fitness consequences using measurements of survival and/or reproductive success across ontogeny (from embryos to adults) and under multiple ecologically-meaningful contexts; and (5) quantifying the strength and form of natural selection in multiple populations over multiple periods of time to understand the spatial and temporal consistency of phenotypic selection. Research programs that focus on organisms that are amenable to these approaches will provide the most promise for advancing our understanding of the environmental factors that generate the remarkable

  12. Quantitative aspects of evaluating the consequences of pollution for parasite populations and communities.

    PubMed

    Lotz, J M

    1997-09-01

    The utility of parasites as indicators of environmental health depends upon scientists' ability to understand how environmental stress may cause changes in parasite populations and communities. Predicting the changes due to pollution calls for dynamic models and experimentally determined knowledge of the consequences of pollution on the parameters of the model. Through an interplay of modeling, laboratory experiments, and field comparisons scientists can develop a theory of pollution and parasites and perhaps use it to assess the impact of pollution. To develop a theoretical framework for the effects of pollution on host-parasite relationships will require an identification of the appropriate scale and a determination of whether the host and parasite populations should be treated as open and recruitment-driven or closed and reproduction-driven. A theory can then be developed using epidemiology models. Those models are divided into prevalence models that track the prevalence of infection and abundance models that track the number of parasites per host. Whether a deterministic model or a stochastic counterpart should be used depends upon the scale but generally a stochastic model will give a more realistic picture. Mimicking the variability inherent in natural systems is the goal of stochastic models. The models emphasize that field tests of their predictions can only be made by studies designed with extensive replication of samples from reference and stressed sites.

  13. The impact of economic activity in Asturias on greenhouse gas emissions: consequences for environmental policy within the Kyoto Protocol framework.

    PubMed

    Argüelles, Margarita; Benavides, Carmen; Junquera, Beatriz

    2006-11-01

    Climate change is one of the major worldwide environmental concerns. It is especially the case in many developed countries, where the greenhouse gas emissions responsible for this change are mainly concentrated. For the first time, the Kyoto Protocol includes an international agreement for the reduction of the net emissions of these gases. To fulfil this agreement measures designed to reduce or limit current emissions have to be brought into force. Consequently, fears have arisen about possible consequences on competitiveness and future development of manufacturing activities and the need for support mechanisms for the affected sectors is obvious. In this paper, we carry out a study of the emissions of gases responsible for climate change in Asturias (Spain), a region with an important economic presence of sectors with intensive emissions of CO(2), the chief greenhouse gas. To be precise, in the first place, the volumes of direct emissions of the said gases in 1995 were calculated, showing that the sectors most affected by the Kyoto Protocol in Asturias are iron and steel and electricity production. Secondly, input-output analysis was applied to determine the direct and indirect emissions and the direct, indirect and induced emissions of the different production sectors, respectively. The results derived from the direct and indirect emissions analysis and their comparison with the results of the former allow us to reach some conclusions and environmental policy implications.

  14. Construction of shipping channels in the Detroit River—History and environmental consequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennion, David H.; Manny, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    The Detroit River is one of the most biologically diverse areas in the Great Lakes basin. It has been an important international shipping route since the 1820s and is one of the busiest navigation centers in the United States. Historically, it supported one of the most profitable Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) commercial fisheries in the Great Lakes. Since 1874, the lower Detroit River has been systematically and extensively modified, by construction of deepwater channels, to facilitate commercial shipping. Large-scale dredging, disposal of dredge spoils, and construction of water-level compensating works has greatly altered channel morphology and flow dynamics of the river, disrupting ecological function and fishery productivity of the river and influencing Great Lakes water levels. From 1874 to 1968, major construction projects created 96.5 kilometers (60 miles) of shipping channels, removed over 46,200,000 m3 of material, covered 4,050 hectares (40.5 square kilometers) of river bottom with dredge spoils, and built 85 hectares of above-waterline compensating works at a total cost of US$283 million. Interest by industries and government agencies to develop the river further for shipping is high and increasing. Historically, as environmental protection agencies were created, construction impacts on natural resources were increasingly addressed during the planning process and, in some cases, assessments of these impacts greatly altered or halted proposed construction projects. Careful planning of future shipping-channel construction and maintenance projects, including a thorough analysis of the expected environmental impacts, could greatly reduce financial costs and ecological damages as compared to past shipping-channel construction projects.

  15. Envisioning a metropolitan foodshed: potential environmental consequences of increasing food-crop production around Chicago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, E. E.; Martin, P. A.; Schuble, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    Nationwide, cities are increasingly developing policies aimed at greater sustainability, particularly focusing on reducing environmental impact. Such policies commonly emphasize more efficiently using energy to decrease the greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of the city. However, most plans ignore the food system as a factor in regional energy use and GHG emissions. Yet, the food system in the United States accounts for ~20% of per capita greenhouse gas emissions. Local, sustainable food production is cited as one strategy for mitigating GHG emissions of large metropolitan areas. “Sustainable” for regional agriculture is often identified as small-scale, diversified food crop production using best practices management. Localized food production (termed “foodshed”) using sustainable agriculture could mitigate climate change in multiple ways: (1) energy and therefore CO2-intensive portions of the conventional food system might be replaced by local, lower-input food production resulting in carbon offsets; (2) increased regional carbon storage might result from well-managed food crop production vs. commodity crop production; and (3) averted N2O emissions might result from closing nutrient cycles on agricultural lands following changes in management practices. The broader implications for environmental impact of widespread conversion to sustainable food crop agriculture, however, remain largely unknown. We examine the Chicago metropolitan region to quantify the impact of increased local food production on regional energy efficiency and GHG emissions. Geospatial analysis is used to quantify the resource potential for establishing a Chicago metropolitan foodshed. A regional foodshed is defined by minimizing cost through transportation mode (road, rail, or water) and maximizing the production potential of different soil types. Simple biogeochemical modeling is used to predict changes in N2O emissions and nutrient flows following changes in land management practices

  16. The fitness consequences of environmental sex reversal in fish: a quantitative review.

    PubMed

    Senior, Alistair McNair; Nat Lim, Jiahui; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2012-11-01

    Environmental sex reversal (ESR) occurs when environmental factors overpower genetic sex-determining factors. The phenomenon of ESR is observed widely in teleost species, where it can be induced by exposing developing fish to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). EDC-induced ESR has been exploited by the aquaculture industry, while ecological and evolutionary models are also beginning to elucidate the potential roles that sex-reversed individuals play in influencing population dynamics. However, how EDC exposure affects individual fitness remains relatively unknown. To date, many experimental studies have induced sex reversal in fish and measured fitness-as indicated by related traits such as size, survival and gonadal somatic index (GSI), but the reported results vary. Here, we meta-analytically combine the results of 78 studies of induced ESR to gain insight into the fitness of sex-reversed individuals. Overall, our results suggest that the fitness of fish exposed to EDCs is reduced at the time of exposure, with exposed individuals having a smaller size and likely a smaller GSI. Given a period of non-exposure, fish treated with EDCs can regain a size equal to those not exposed, although GSI remains compromised. Interestingly, survival does not appear to be affected by EDC treatment. The published reports that comprise our dataset are, however, based on captive fish and the general small size resulting from exposure is likely to lead to reduced survival in the wild. Additionally, reduced fitness-related parameters are likely to be due to exposure to EDCs rather than ESR itself. We suggest that theoretical models of ESR should account for the fitness-related effects that we report. Whilst we are able to shed light on the physical fitness of EDC-exposed fish, the behaviour of such individuals remains largely untested and should be the focus of future experimental manipulation.

  17. Bioremediation and Biodegradation: Current Advances in Reducing Toxicity, Exposure and Environmental Consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Kukor, J. J.; Young, L.

    2003-04-01

    Topics discussed at the conference included Approaches to Overcome Bioavailability Limitations in Bioremediation; New Discoveries in Microbial Degradation of Persistent Environmental Contaminants; Biological Activity and Potential Toxicity of the Products of Biodegradation; New Methods to Monitor and Assess the Effectiveness of Remediation Processes; and Strategies for Remediation of Mixed Contaminants. The United States has thousands of hazardous waste sites, most of which are a legacy of many decades of industrial development, mining, manufacturing and military activities. There is considerable uncertainty about the health risks of these sites, such as a lack of understanding about the spectrum of health effects that could result from exposure to hazardous substances and the unique toxicity of these substances to children or the developing fetus. In addition to these kinds of knowledge gaps, the fate and transport of hazardous wastes in soil, surface water and ground water are poorly understood, making it difficult to predict exposures. Moreover, cleaning up hazardous wastes has proven costly and difficult; thus, there is a need for advanced technologies to decrease or eliminate contamination from soil, surface water, and ground water. Since biodegradative processes and bioremediation solutions form a large part of the current science and technology directed at treatment of environmental contaminants at hazardous waste sites, and since there has been an explosion of cutting-edge basic research in these areas over the past several years, it was an opportune time for a meeting of this type. Representatives from the EPA as well as many of the other Federal agencies that helped fund the conference were also in attendance, providing an opportunity for discussions from the regulatory perspective of hazardous site remediation, as well as from the scientific discovery side.

  18. A procedure for evaluating environmental impact

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Clarke, Frank Eldridge; Hanshaw, Bruce B.; Balsley, James R.

    1971-01-01

    The procedure does not limit the development of detail in any specific aspect of the environment; a separate expanded matrix for any environmental aspect can easily be developed within the framework provided.

  19. Evaluating the effects of dam breach methodologies on Consequence Estimation through Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyanapu, A. J.; Thames, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Dam breach modeling often includes application of models that are sophisticated, yet computationally intensive to compute flood propagation at high temporal and spatial resolutions. This results in a significant need for computational capacity that requires development of newer flood models using multi-processor and graphics processing techniques. Recently, a comprehensive benchmark exercise titled the 12th Benchmark Workshop on Numerical Analysis of Dams, is organized by the International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD) to evaluate the performance of these various tools used for dam break risk assessment. The ICOLD workshop is focused on estimating the consequences of failure of a hypothetical dam near a hypothetical populated area with complex demographics, and economic activity. The current study uses this hypothetical case study and focuses on evaluating the effects of dam breach methodologies on consequence estimation and analysis. The current study uses ICOLD hypothetical data including the topography, dam geometric and construction information, land use/land cover data along with socio-economic and demographic data. The objective of this study is to evaluate impacts of using four different dam breach methods on the consequence estimates used in the risk assessments. The four methodologies used are: i) Froehlich (1995), ii) MacDonald and Langridge-Monopolis 1984 (MLM), iii) Von Thun and Gillete 1990 (VTG), and iv) Froehlich (2008). To achieve this objective, three different modeling components were used. First, using the HEC-RAS v.4.1, dam breach discharge hydrographs are developed. These hydrographs are then provided as flow inputs into a two dimensional flood model named Flood2D-GPU, which leverages the computer's graphics card for much improved computational capabilities of the model input. Lastly, outputs from Flood2D-GPU, including inundated areas, depth grids, velocity grids, and flood wave arrival time grids, are input into HEC-FIA, which provides the

  20. Environmental conditions during early life determine the consequences of inbreeding in Agrostemma githago (Caryophyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Goodrich, S H; Beans, C M; Roach, D A

    2013-03-01

    In an inbred population, selection may reduce the frequency of deleterious recessive alleles through a process known as purging. Empirical studies suggest, however, that the efficacy of purging in natural populations is highly variable. This variation may be due, in part, to variation in the expression of inbreeding depression available for selection to act on. This experiment investigates the roles of life stage and early-life environment in determining the expression of inbreeding depression in Agrostemma githago. Four population-level crosses ('self', 'within', 'near' and 'far') were conducted on 20 maternal plants from a focal population. Siblings were planted into one of three early environmental treatments with varying stress levels. Within the focal population, evidence for purging of deleterious recessive alleles, as well as for variation in the expression of inbreeding depression across the life cycle was examined. In addition, the effect of early environment on the expression of inbreeding depression and the interaction with cross-type was measured. We find that deleterious recessive alleles have not been effectively purged from our focal population, the expression of inbreeding depression decreases over the course of the life cycle, and a stressful early environment reduces the variance in inbreeding depression expressed later in life, but does not consistently influence the relative fitness of inbred versus outcrossed individuals.

  1. Land Use Change on Coffee Farms in Southern Guatemala and its Environmental Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggar, Jeremy; Medina, Byron; Aguilar, Rosa Maria; Munoz, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    Changes in commodity prices, such as the fall in coffee prices from 2000 to 2004, affect land use decisions on farms, and the environmental services they provide. A survey of 50 farms showed a 35 % loss in the area under coffee between 2000 and 2004 below 700 m with the majority of this area (64 %) being coffee agroforest systems that included native forest species. Loss of coffee only occurred on large and medium-scale farms; there was no change in area on cooperatives. Coffee productivity declined below 1,100 m altitude for sun and Inga shade coffee, but only below 700 m altitude for agroforest coffee. Coffee productivity was 37-53 % lower under agroforests than other systems. Increases in rubber and pasture were related to low altitude large-scale farms, and bananas and timber plantations to mid-altitude farms. Average aboveground carbon stocks for coffee agroforests of 39 t C ha-1 was similar to rubber plantations, but one-third to one half that of natural forest and timber plantations, respectively. Coffee agroforests had the highest native tree diversity of the productive systems (7-12 species ha-1) but lower than natural forest (31 species ha-1). Conversion of coffee agroforest to other land uses always led to a reduction in the quality of habitat for native biodiversity, especially avian, but was concentrated among certain farm types. Sustaining coffee agroforests for biodiversity conservation would require targeted interventions such as direct payments or market incentives specifically for biodiversity.

  2. Land use change on coffee farms in southern Guatemala and its environmental consequences.

    PubMed

    Haggar, Jeremy; Medina, Byron; Aguilar, Rosa Maria; Munoz, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    Changes in commodity prices, such as the fall in coffee prices from 2000 to 2004, affect land use decisions on farms, and the environmental services they provide. A survey of 50 farms showed a 35% loss in the area under coffee between 2000 and 2004 below 700 m with the majority of this area (64 %) being coffee agroforest systems that included native forest species. Loss of coffee only occurred on large and medium-scale farms; there was no change in area on cooperatives. Coffee productivity declined below 1,100 m altitude for sun and Inga shade coffee, but only below 700 m altitude for agroforest coffee. Coffee productivity was 37-53% lower under agroforests than other systems. Increases in rubber and pasture were related to low altitude large-scale farms, and bananas and timber plantations to mid-altitude farms. Average aboveground carbon stocks for coffee agroforests of 39 t C ha(-1) was similar to rubber plantations, but one-third to one half that of natural forest and timber plantations, respectively. Coffee agroforests had the highest native tree diversity of the productive systems (7-12 species ha(-1)) but lower than natural forest (31 species ha(-1)). Conversion of coffee agroforest to other land uses always led to a reduction in the quality of habitat for native biodiversity, especially avian, but was concentrated among certain farm types. Sustaining coffee agroforests for biodiversity conservation would require targeted interventions such as direct payments or market incentives specifically for biodiversity.

  3. Chemical and mechanical consequences of environmental barrier coating exposure to calcium-magnesium-aluminosilicate.

    SciTech Connect

    Harder, B.; Ramirez-Rico, J.; Almer, J. D.; Kang, L.; Faber, K.

    2011-06-01

    The success of Si-based ceramics as high-temperature structural materials for gas turbine applications relies on the use of environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) with low silica activity, such as Ba{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8} (BSAS), which protect the underlying components from oxidation and corrosion in combustion environments containing water vapor. One of the current challenges concerning EBC lifetime is the effect of sandy deposits of calcium-magnesium-aluminosilicate (CMAS) glass that melt during engine operation and react with the EBC, changing both its composition and stress state. In this work, we study the effect of CMAS exposure at 1300 C on the residual stress state and composition in BSAS-mullite-Si-SiC multilayers. Residual stresses were measured in BSAS multilayers exposed to CMAS for different times using high-energy X-ray diffraction. Their microstructure was studied using a combination of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques. Our results show that CMAS dissolves the BSAS topcoat preferentially through the grain boundaries, dislodging the grains and changing the residual stress state in the topcoat to a nonuniform and increasingly compressive stress state with increasing exposure time. The presence of CMAS accelerates the hexacelsian-to-celsian phase transformation kinetics in BSAS, which reacts with the glass by a solution-reprecipitation mechanism. Precipitates have crystallographic structures consistent with Ca-doped celsian and Ba-doped anorthite.

  4. Biofilm streamers cause catastrophic disruption of flow with consequences for environmental and medical systems

    PubMed Central

    Drescher, Knut; Shen, Yi; Bassler, Bonnie L.; Stone, Howard A.

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms are antibiotic-resistant, sessile bacterial communities that occupy most moist surfaces on Earth and cause chronic and medical device-associated infections. Despite their importance, basic information about biofilm dynamics in common ecological environments is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that flow through soil-like porous materials, industrial filters, and medical stents dramatically modifies the morphology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms to form 3D streamers, which, over time, bridge the spaces between obstacles and corners in nonuniform environments. We discovered that accumulation of surface-attached biofilm has little effect on flow through such environments, whereas biofilm streamers cause sudden and rapid clogging. We demonstrate that flow-induced shedding of extracellular matrix from surface-attached biofilms generates a sieve-like network that captures cells and other biomass, which add to the existing network, causing exponentially fast clogging independent of growth. These results suggest that biofilm streamers are ubiquitous in nature and strongly affect flow through porous materials in environmental, industrial, and medical systems. PMID:23401501

  5. Assessing Environmental Controls and Biogeochemical Consequences of Virus-Host Interactions in Marine Eukaryotic Picophytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, A. E.; Worden, A. Z.

    2014-12-01

    Viruses are the most abundant biological entities in marine systems and propagate through lysis of their prokaryotic or eukaryotic hosts. Viruses infecting marine phytoplankton can be significant agents of mortality and disrupt the canonical flow of carbon and nutrients through the microbial loop via the "viral shunt." A large proportion of the ocean's primary production is contributed by photosynthetic eukaryotes, which are important members of the picophytoplankton size class. The smallest picoeukaryote Ostreococcus represents a diverse and widely distributed genus. While the genomes of several viruses infecting the coastal species Ostreococcus lucimarinus have been sequenced, the dependence of viral infection dynamics on environmental parameters such as light and nutrient availability has not been characterized. Therefore, the goal of this study is to determine how light synchronization and nutrient availability modulate the infection of three O. lucimarinus viruses. Viruses were introduced to mid-exponentially-growing O. lucimarinus cultures at different points during a 14:10h light:dark cycle and the infections were followed through a lysis event. Additionally, viral infection dynamics were quantified for cultures of O. lucimarinus under either nutrient-replete or nutrient-deplete conditions. Preliminary results suggest that both light and nutrient availability influence viral infection dynamics, and that low nutrient availability may dampen the severity of infection. This work provides insight to the role of light and nutrient availability in controlling viral replication in an ecologically important picophytoplankton. Considering virus-host interactions is therefore critical for understanding marine plankton-driven biogeochemical processes.

  6. Secondary materials: Engineering properties, environmental consequences, and social and economic impacts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Breslin, V.; Reaven, S.; Schwartz, M.; Swanson, L.; Zweig, M.; Bortman, M.; Schubel, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report investigates two secondary materials, plastic lumber made from mixed plastic waste, and cement blocks and structures made with incinerator ash. Engineering properties, environmental impacts, and energy costs and savings of these secondary materials are compared to standard lumber products and cement blocks. Market capacity and social acceptance of plastic lumber and stabilized ash products are analyzed. These secondary materials apparently have potential markets; however, their economic value is primarily that they will not take up landfill space. For plastic lumber and stabilized incinerator ash products, marine and highway construction seem ideal public works applications. Incinerator ash may be suitable to use in seawalls, jetties, fishing reefs, highway barriers, and roadbed applications. Docks, piers, highway sound barriers, parking stops, and park furniture may all be made from plastic lumber. To encourage public acceptance and improve the market potential of secondary materials, these activities could be beneficial: industry should emphasize developing useful, long-lived products; industry and governments should create product performance criteria; government should provide rigorous testing and demonstration programs; and government and industry should cooperate to improve public outreach and educational programs.

  7. Supernumerary chromosomes on Southern European populations of the cockle Cerastoderma edule: Consequence of environmental pollution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitão, Alexandra; Chaves, Raquel; Joaquim, Sandra; Matias, Domitília; Ruano, Francisco; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique

    2008-08-01

    Cerastoderma edule (Cardiidae) has a diploid chromosome number of 2 n = 38, its karyotype consisting of 12 submetacentric, 4 subtelocentric and 3 telocentric chromosome pairs. Hyperdiploid cells had previously been observed in two populations of the Northern Galician coasts (northwest of Spain). The supernumerary chromosomes being easily distinguished by their reduced differentiated size and by their intra- and inter-individual variability. After the recent observation of 35% of cells with supernumerary chromosomes in a population of the Southern Galician coasts (Vigo) and 15% of cells with supernumerary chromosomes in a population of the south of Portugal (Ria Formosa, Algarve), we attempted, in this paper, an elucidation of the nature of these supernumerary chromosomes, by differential banding technique with restriction enzymes on these hyperdiploid cells. Analysis of the restriction enzyme banding of the 2 n > 38 karyotypes led us to propose the occurrence of a chromosomal fission event involving the largest submetacentric chromosome pair. This study represents the first description of the occurrence of a possible chromosomal fission in marine bivalves. Different levels of environmental pollution are suggested as possible explanation for the differences observed on the proportion of hyperdiploid cells between the Southern Portugal population and the three Galician ones.

  8. Addressing the Financial Consequences of Cancer: Qualitative Evaluation of a Welfare Rights Advice Service

    PubMed Central

    Moffatt, Suzanne; Noble, Emma; White, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background The onset, treatment and trajectory of cancer is associated with financial stress among patients across a range of health and welfare systems and has been identified as a significant unmet need. Welfare rights advice can be delivered effectively in healthcare settings, has the potential to alleviate financial stress, but has not yet been evaluated. We present an evaluation of a welfare rights advice intervention designed to address the financial consequences of cancer. Methods Descriptive study of welfare outcomes among 533 male and 641 female cancer patients and carers aged 4–95 (mean 62) years, who accessed the welfare rights advice service in North East England between April 2009 and March 2010; and qualitative interview study of a maximum variation sample of 35 patients and 9 carers. Results Over two thirds of cancer patients and carers came from areas of high socio-economic deprivation. Welfare benefit claims were successful for 96% of claims made and resulted in a median increase in weekly income of £70.30 ($109.74, €84.44). Thirty-four different types of benefits or grants were awarded. Additional resources were perceived to lessen the impact of lost earnings, help offset costs associated with cancer, reduce stress and anxiety and increase ability to maintain independence and capacity to engage in daily activities, all of which were perceived to impact positively on well-being and quality of life. Key barriers to accessing benefit entitlements were knowledge, system complexity, eligibility concerns and assumptions that health professionals would alert patients to entitlements. Conclusions The intervention proved feasible, effectively increased income for cancer patients and was highly valued. Addressing the financial sequelae of cancer can have positive social and psychological consequences that could significantly enhance effective clinical management and suitable services should be routinely available. Further research is needed to evaluate

  9. Assessing the environmental justice consequences of flood risk: a case study in Miami, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Marilyn C.; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2015-09-01

    Recent environmental justice (EJ) research has emphasized the need to analyze social inequities in the distribution of natural hazards such as hurricanes and floods, and examine intra-ethnic diversity in patterns of EJ. This study contributes to the emerging EJ scholarship on exposure to flooding and ethnic heterogeneity by analyzing the racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics of the population residing within coastal and inland flood risk zones in the Miami Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), Florida—one of the most ethnically diverse MSAs in the U.S. and one of the most hurricane-prone areas in the world. We examine coastal and inland flood zones separately because of differences in amenities such as water views and beach access. Instead of treating the Hispanic population as a homogenous group, we disaggregate the Hispanic category into relevant country-of-origin subgroups. Inequities in flood risk exposure are statistically analyzed using socio-demographic variables derived from the 2010 U.S. Census and 2007-2011 American Community Survey estimates, and 100-year flood risk zones from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Social vulnerability is represented with two neighborhood deprivation indices called economic insecurity and instability. We also analyze the presence of seasonal/vacation homes and proximity to public beach access sites as water-related amenity variables. Logistic regression modeling is utilized to estimate the odds of neighborhood-level exposure to coastal and inland 100-year flood risks. Results indicate that neighborhoods with greater percentages of non-Hispanic Blacks, Hispanics, and Hispanic subgroups of Colombians and Puerto Ricans are exposed to inland flood risks in areas without water-related amenities, while Mexicans are inequitably exposed to coastal flood risks. Our findings demonstrate the importance of treating coastal and inland flood risks separately while controlling for water-related amenities, and

  10. Environmental consequences of shale gas exploitation and the crucial role of rock microfracturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, Francois

    2015-04-01

    The growing exploitation of unconventional gas and oil resources has dramatically changed the international market of hydrocarbons in the past ten years. However, several environmental concerns have also been identified such as the increased microseismicity, the leakage of gas into freshwater aquifers, and the enhanced water-rock interactions inducing the release of heavy metals and other toxic elements in the produced water. In all these processes, fluids are transported into a network of fracture, ranging from nanoscale microcracks at the interface between minerals and the kerogen of the source rock, to well-developed fractures at the meter scale. Characterizing the fracture network and the mechanisms of its formation remains a crucial goal. A major difficulty when analyzing fractures from core samples drilled at depth is that some of them are produced by the coring process, while some other are produced naturally at depth by the coupling between geochemical and mechanical forces. Here, I present new results of high resolution synchrotron 3D X-ray microtomography imaging of shale samples, at different resolutions, to characterize their microfractures and their mechanisms of formation. The heterogeneities of rock microstructure are also imaged, as they create local stress concentrations where cracks may nucleate or along which they propagate. The main results are that microcracks form preferentially along kerogen-mineral interfaces and propagate along initial heterogeneities according to the local stress direction, connecting to increase the total volume of fractured rock. Their lifetime is also an important parameter because they may seal by fluid circulation, fluid-rock interactions, and precipitation of a cement. Understanding the multi-scale processes of fracture network development in shales and the coupling with fluid circulation represents a key challenge for future research directions.

  11. Environmental consequences of Pollution and its Impact on earth's surface climate Using Geospatial Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Amit

    2016-07-01

    Modern transportation is an indispensable ingredient for development, allowing the pressure group of labor, supplies and goods, and enabling general public to access key resources and services. Climate change is a most important threat to sustainable development in any developing or developed country. Urban air pollution is on the rise, due to rapid economic and inhabitants growth and an increase in motorization. Modern transport is fundamental for improvement, allowing the movement of goods and enabling general public to access key resources and services. Travel today is relatively faster and people across the world are travelling more than ever before. Its stipulate regarding forecast is an indispensable part of transportation development in order to evaluate future needs of an urban area. Over increasing traffic concentration posed continued threat to ambient air quality and responsible for producing agents of physical condition hazards. Geospatial technology provides the smartest approach to resolve these inconvenience as it can cover a large area in a fraction of time. The research work focuses on the recognition of traffic intensities with increasing of SO2, NO2 and noise level considered at particular traffic sites in the Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India. SO2, NO2 and Noise levels recorded in the city, are much higher than the permissible level and are likely to causes associated health and psychological illnesses to nearby inhabitant.

  12. Environmental consequences of Pollution and its Impact on climate Using Geospatial Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Amit; Vandana, Vandana

    2016-07-01

    Modern transportation is an indispensable ingredient for development, allowing the pressure group of labor, supplies and goods, and enabling general public to access key resources and services. Climate change is a most important threat to sustainable development in any developing or developed country. Urban air pollution is on the rise, due to rapid economic and inhabitants growth and an increase in motorization. Modern transport is fundamental for improvement, allowing the movement of goods and enabling general public to access key resources and services. Travel today is relatively faster and people across the world are travelling more than ever before. Its stipulate regarding forecast is an indispensable part of transportation development in order to evaluate future needs of an urban area. Over increasing traffic concentration posed continued threat to ambient air quality and responsible for producing agents of physical condition hazards. Geospatial technology provides the smartest approach to resolve these inconvenience as it can cover a large area in a fraction of time. The research work focuses on the recognition of traffic intensities with increasing of SO2, NO2 and noise level considered at particular traffic sites in the Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India. SO2, NO2 and Noise levels recorded in the city, are much higher than the permissible level and are likely to causes associated health and psychological illnesses to nearby inhabitant. Keywords: Population growth; Traffic; Transportation

  13. Environmental effects on behavioural development consequences for fitness of captive-reared fishes in the wild.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, J I; Brockmark, S; Näslund, J

    2014-12-01

    Why do captive-reared fishes generally have lower fitness in natural environments than wild conspecifics, even when the hatchery fishes are derived from wild parents from the local population? A thorough understanding of this question is the key to design artificial rearing environments that optimize post-release performance, as well as to recognize the limitations of what can be achieved by modifying hatchery rearing methods. Fishes are generally very plastic in their development and through gene-environment interactions, epigenetic and maternal effects their phenotypes will develop differently depending on their rearing environment. This suggests that there is scope for modifying conventional rearing environments to better prepare fishes for release into the wild. The complexity of the natural environment is impossible to mimic in full-scale rearing facilities. So, in reality, the challenge is to identify key modifications of the artificial rearing environment that are practically and economically feasible and that efficiently promote development towards a more wild-like phenotype. Do such key modifications really exist? Here, attempts to use physical enrichment and density reduction to improve the performance of hatchery fishes are discussed and evaluated. These manipulations show potential to increase the fitness of hatchery fishes released into natural environments, but the success is strongly dependent on adequately adapting methods to species and life stage-specific conditions.

  14. Evaluative Appraisals of Environmental Mystery and Surprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasar, Jack L.; Cubukcu, Ebru

    2011-01-01

    This study used a desktop virtual environment (VE) of 15 large-scale residential streets to test the effects of environmental mystery and surprise on response. In theory, mystery and surprise should increase interest and visual appeal. For each VE, participants walked through an approach street and turned right onto a post-turn street. We designed…

  15. A Procedure for Evaluating Environmental Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leopold, Luna B.; And Others

    This report contains one of the first procedures available to environmental impact statements. The heart of the system is a matrix which is general enough to be used as a reference checklist or a reminder of the full range of actions and impacts on the environment that may relate to any proposed action. This comparatively simple system is intended…

  16. Droughts, dry spells, low water levels and their environmental-social consequences in late medieval Hungary (and Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea; Nikolic, Zrinka

    2016-04-01

    Based on medieval, contemporary evidence, in the presentation 14th-15th-century droughts, dry spells and documented low water-level events of large rivers (e.g. Danube, Tisza) and their detected environmental and social consequences are discussed in more detail, with special emphasis on the years of 1361-1364, 1393-1394, 1440, the early 1540s, 1474, 1479-1480 and 1494. The poster presentation is centred around the following topics: - magnitude, intensity and frequency of droughts and dry spells (in comparison with famous 18th-19th-century drought periods); - provide information (and a comparison) on Central European parallels; - other natural hazards combined with drought and dry spells (e.g. convective events); - the relationship of multiannual water-deficits and locust invasions, their intensity and documented further impacts; - the consequences of droughts, dry spells and low water levels on society, with special emphasis on food production (e.g. bad harvests, grazing permissions, high prices, threatening food shortage), transportation problems (esp. salt transportation), military defence (Ottoman Turkish attacks) and their further social effects (e.g. land-ownership debates; royal intervention and export prohibition).

  17. The Fate and Environmental Consequences of Reduced gas Mixtures Resulting from Magmatic Intrusion into Carbonaceous Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacono-Marziano, Giada; Marecal, Virginie; Pirre, Michel; Arndt, Nicolas; Ganino, Clément; Gaillard, Fabrice

    2010-05-01

    Recent developments on the impacts of Large Igneous Provinces on climate changes and extinction rates emphasize the fundamental role of country rocks in gas emissions. Contact metamorphism of country rocks intruded by sills and dikes of mafic melts can be particularly important due to their long exposure to high temperatures. When the host rocks are composed of carbonates, sulphates, salts, or organic-compounds such as bituminous shales or coals, their heating can inject into the atmosphere a quantity of volatiles that greatly exceeds the amount delivered by purely magmatic degassing. We focus here on the interaction between magma and carbonaceous rocks. Recent studies have estimated the gas released by contact metamorphism of bituminous shales in the Karoo Province; we calculate the composition of the volcanic gases which results on this interaction, taking into account the magmatic contribution too. We then present an evaluation of the fate of such gases during their diffusion in the atmosphere. The modelling of the composition of the modified volcanic gases is based on gas-melt thermodynamic calculations that take into account S-H-O-C gaseous species at temperatures and pressures in equilibrium with basaltic liquids. We simulate the incorporation into the gas-melt system of organic compounds as CH or CH2, depending on the maturity of the carbonaceous rocks (coal or oil). Addition of C and H has a dramatic effect on the amount and the redox state of the gas in equilibrium with the basalt. With the incorporation of only 0.2 wt% CH, the gas composition changes from CO2-H2O dominated (typical of basaltic gases on Earth), to CO-H2 dominated (a strongly reduced mixture, which resembles Martian volcanic gases). Addition of more than 0.2 wt% CH can trigger graphite saturation, such as reported in few locations where carbonaceous rocks have been ingested by basalts. In the famous Disko Island location, for example, we calculate that an incorporation of 1 wt% CH led to

  18. Evaluation of selected environmental decision support software

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.M.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Gitten, M.

    1997-06-01

    Decision Support Software (DSS) continues to be developed to support analysis of decisions pertaining to environmental management. Decision support systems are computer-based systems that facilitate the use of data, models, and structured decision processes in decision making. The optimal DSS should attempt to integrate, analyze, and present environmental information to remediation project managers in order to select cost-effective cleanup strategies. The optimal system should have a balance between the sophistication needed to address the wide range of complicated sites and site conditions present at DOE facilities, and ease of use (e.g., the system should not require data that is typically unknown and should have robust error checking of problem definition through input, etc.). In the first phase of this study, an extensive review of the literature, the Internet, and discussions with sponsors and developers of DSS led to identification of approximately fifty software packages that met the preceding definition.

  19. The Chesapeake Bay Impact Crater: An Educational Investigation for Students into the Planetary Impact Process and its Environmental Consequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Arlene S.

    2008-01-01

    Planetary impact craters are a common surface feature of many planetary bodies, including the Earth, the Moon, Mars, Mercury, Venus, and Jupiter s moons, Ganymede and Callisto. The NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, VA, is located about 5 km inside the outer rim of the Chesapeake Bay Impact Crater. The Chesapeake Bay Impact Crater, with a diameter of 85 km is the sixth largest impact crater on our planet. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with the NASA Langley Research Center, the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (VDEQ), the Hampton Roads Planning District Commission (HRPDC), and the Department of Geology of the College of William and Mary (WM) drilled into and through the crater at the NASA Langley Research Center and obtained a continuous core to a depth of 2075.9 ft (632.73 meters) from the Chesapeake Bay Impact Crater. At the NASA Langley location, the granite basement depth was at 2046 ft (623.87 meters). This collaborative drilling activity provided a unique educational opportunity and ongoing educational partnership between USGS, NASA Langley and the other collaborators. NASA Langley has a decade-long, ongoing educational partnership with the Colonial Coast Council of the Girl Scouts. The core drilling and on site analysis and cataloguing of the core segments provided a unique opportunity for the Girl Scouts to learn how geologists work in the field, their tools for scientific investigation and evaluation, how they perform geological analyses of the cores in an on-site tent and learn about the formation of impact craters and the impact of impacting bodies on the sub-surface, the surface, the oceans and atmosphere of the target body. This was accomplished with a two-part activity. Girl Scout day camps and local Girl Scout troops were invited to Langley Research Center Conference Center, where more than 300 Girl Scouts, their leaders and adult personnel were given briefings by scientists and educators from the USGS, NASA

  20. Teaching and Evaluating Critical Thinking in an Environmental Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofreiter, Trina D.; Monroe, Martha C.; Stein, Taylor V.

    2007-01-01

    As environmental education strives to create an informed citizenry capable of addressing complex problems, critical thinking is an integral part of this effort. This research guides environmental educators in defining, teaching, and evaluating critical thinking by summarizing a pilot study with an undergraduate forest issues course designed to…

  1. MSFC Skylab thermal and environmental control system mission evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopson, G. D.; Littles, J. W.; Patterson, W. C.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of the performance of the Skylab thermal and environmental control system is presented. Actual performance is compared to design and functional requirements and anomalies and discrepancies and their resolution are discussed. The thermal and environmental control systems performed their intended role. Based on the experience gained in design, development and flight, recommendations are provided which may be beneficial to future system designs.

  2. 45 CFR 641.18 - Comprehensive environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Comprehensive environmental evaluation. 641.18 Section 641.18 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN...

  3. 45 CFR 641.18 - Comprehensive environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Comprehensive environmental evaluation. 641.18 Section 641.18 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN...

  4. 45 CFR 641.17 - Initial environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Initial environmental evaluation. 641.17 Section 641.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN ANTARCTICA §...

  5. 45 CFR 641.17 - Initial environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Initial environmental evaluation. 641.17 Section 641.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN ANTARCTICA §...

  6. 76 FR 9849 - Comprehensive Environmental Evaluations for Antarctic Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Article 3 of Annex I to the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty requires the preparation of a CEE for any proposed Antarctic activity likely to have more than a... Comprehensive Environmental Evaluations for Antarctic Activities SUMMARY: The Department of State gives...

  7. Evaluating the Environmental Health Work Force. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine Associates, Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This report contains all materials pertinent to an intensive evaluation of the environmental health work force conducted in 1986 and 1987. The materials relate to a workshop that was one of the key tools used in conducting the study to estimate environmental health personnel supply, demand, and need. The report begins with an overview and…

  8. 45 CFR 641.17 - Initial environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Initial environmental evaluation. 641.17 Section 641.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN ANTARCTICA §...

  9. 45 CFR 641.18 - Comprehensive environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Comprehensive environmental evaluation. 641.18 Section 641.18 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN...

  10. 45 CFR 641.18 - Comprehensive environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Comprehensive environmental evaluation. 641.18 Section 641.18 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN...

  11. 45 CFR 641.17 - Initial environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Initial environmental evaluation. 641.17 Section 641.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN ANTARCTICA §...

  12. 45 CFR 641.17 - Initial environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Initial environmental evaluation. 641.17 Section 641.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN ANTARCTICA §...

  13. 45 CFR 641.18 - Comprehensive environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Comprehensive environmental evaluation. 641.18 Section 641.18 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN...

  14. Building environmental educators' evaluation capacity through distance education.

    PubMed

    Fleming, M Lynette; Easton, Janice

    2010-05-01

    Evaluation capacity building (ECB) is seldom mentioned in the environmental education (EE) literature, but as demonstrated by the lack and poor quality of EE evaluations, is much needed. This article focuses on an online course, Applied Environmental Education Program Evaluation (AEEPE), which provides nonformal educators with an understanding of how evaluation can be used to improve their EE programs. The authors provide descriptions of key aspects and strategies for addressing challenges they face in teaching AEEPE, such as: reducing attrition, developing and maintaining a social learning environment online, and improving students' understanding of attribution and logic models. While the course equips environmental educators with the skills necessary to design and implement basic evaluations, there is less certainty that the course contributes to generating demand for evaluation within organizations and the profession. Therefore the authors call on national organizations and associations for help with increasing the demand for ECB in the EE community.

  15. 25 CFR 1000.362 - What are the consequences of a finding of imminent jeopardy in the annual trust evaluation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Trust Evaluation Review Annual... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the consequences of a finding of imminent jeopardy in the annual trust evaluation? 1000.362 Section 1000.362 Indians OFFICE OF THE...

  16. Evaluation of Options for Interpreting Environmental ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report Secondary data from the BioResponse Operational Testing and Evaluation project were used to study six options for interpreting culture-based/microbial count data sets that include left censored data, or measurements that are less than established quantification limits and/or detection limits.

  17. DOE methods for evaluating environmental and waste management samples.

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, S C; McCulloch, M; Thomas, B L; Riley, R G; Sklarew, D S; Mong, G M; Fadeff, S K

    1994-04-01

    DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods) provides applicable methods in use by. the US Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories for sampling and analyzing constituents of waste and environmental samples. The development of DOE Methods is supported by the Laboratory Management Division (LMD) of the DOE. This document contains chapters and methods that are proposed for use in evaluating components of DOE environmental and waste management samples. DOE Methods is a resource intended to support sampling and analytical activities that will aid in defining the type and breadth of contamination and thus determine the extent of environmental restoration or waste management actions needed, as defined by the DOE, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), or others.

  18. An evaluation of the ecological consequences of partial-power operation of the K Reactor, SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Gladden, J.B.; Mackey, H.E.; Paller, M.H.; Specht, W.L.; Wike, L.D.; Wilde, E.W.

    1991-06-01

    The K Reactor at the Savannah River Site (SRS) shut-down in spring 1988 for maintenance and safety upgrades. Since that time the receiving stream for thermal effluent, Indian Grave Branch and Pen Branch, have undergone a pattern of post-thermal recovery that is typical of other SRS streams following removal of thermal stress. Divesity of fish and aquatic macroinvertebrate communities has increased and available habitats have been colonized by numerous species of herbaceous and woody plants. K Reactor is scheduled to resume operation in 1991 and operate through 1992 without a cooling tower to cool the discharge. It is likely that the reactor will operate at approximately one-third to one-half of full power (800--1200 MW thermal) during this period and effluent temperatures will be substantially lower than earlier operation at full power. Monthly average discharge temperatures at half-power operation will range from approximately 42{degrees}C in winter to 49{degrees}C in summer. The volume of water discharged will not be affected by altered power levels and will average approximately 10--11 m{sup 3}/s. The ecological consequences of this mode of operation on the Indian Grave/Pen Branch stream system have been evaluated.

  19. Evaluation of Possible Consequences of Zika Virus Infection in the Developing Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Walter, Lais Takata; Higa, Guilherme Shigueto Vilar; Ikebara, Juliane Midori; Vedovello, Danila; Salvador, Felipe Scassi; Takada, Silvia Honda; Kinjo, Erika Reime; Whalley, Benjamin J; Sperança, Márcia Aparecida; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki

    2017-02-11

    The Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak that occurred in the northeast of Brazil in 2015 led to alarming numbers of babies born with microcephaly in this region. Since then, several studies have evaluated the relationship between ZIKV infection and development of the malformation although the specific mechanistic interaction between ZIKV and human physiological processes that ultimately manifest as microcephaly remains debated. Importantly, most current studies did not consider the specificities of the biology and life cycle of ZIKV. As a consequence, specificities of the infection on the developing central nervous system (CNS) were frequently disregarded. In order to begin to address this important gap in our knowledge, we have collated and critically reviewed the existing evidence in this area to identify any emerging consensus on this topic and thereafter describe possible mechanisms by which ZIKV infection could interfere with specific processes of CNS development, such as neuronal proliferation, and the complex interactions of immature neurons with radial glial cells. With this, we were able to present the current knowledge on this important topic in the neurobiology field.

  20. Mysid crustaceans as potential test organisms for the evaluation of environmental endocrine disruption: a review.

    PubMed

    Verslycke, Tim A; Fockedey, Nancy; McKenney, Charles L; Roast, Stephen D; Jones, Malcolm B; Mees, Jan; Janssen, Colin R

    2004-05-01

    Anthropogenic chemicals that disrupt the hormonal systems (endocrine disruptors) of wildlife species recently have become a widely investigated and politically charged issue. Invertebrates account for roughly 95% of all animals, yet surprisingly little effort has been made to understand their value in signaling potential environmental endocrine disruption. This omission largely can be attributed to the high diversity of invertebrates and the shortage of fundamental knowledge of their endocrine systems. Insects and crustaceans are exceptions and, as such, appear to be excellent candidates for evaluating the environmental consequences of chemically induced endocrine disruption. Mysid shrimp (Crustacea: Mysidacea) may serve as a viable surrogate for many crustaceans and have been put forward as suitable test organisms for the evaluation of endocrine disruption by several researchers and regulatory bodies (e.g., the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). Despite the long-standing use of mysids in toxicity testing, little information exists on their endocrinology, and few studies have focused on the potential of these animals for evaluating the effects of hormone-disrupting compounds. Therefore, the question remains as to whether the current standardized mysid endpoints can be used or adapted to detect endocrine disruption, or if new procedures must be developed, specifically directed at evaluating hormone-regulated endpoints in these animals. This review summarizes the ecological importance of mysids in estuarine and marine ecosystems, their use in toxicity testing and environmental monitoring, and their endocrinology and important hormone-regulated processes to highlight their potential use in assessing environmental endocrine disruption.

  1. Environmental education evaluation: time to reflect, time for change.

    PubMed

    Crohn, Kara; Birnbaum, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    Evaluation in environmental education is fairly nascent despite decades-long attention to its importance. In setting the context for future chapters appearing in this special issue of the Journal of Evaluation and Program Planning, attention is devoted to the political circumstances associated with retrenchment in the public sector and increased involvement of citizens in environmental issues in their regions. It further is nested in the context of potential political reforms in a stable market democracy where education is but one strategy that can be bundled with regulations and taxes/subsidies. Additional attention is directed to explaining many of the key evaluation theories--utilization-focused evaluation, evaluative capacity building, and program-theory driven evaluation. The final section of this chapter situates the subsequent chapters of this volume based on the demographic target (youth or adult) as well as connection to a particular evaluation theory.

  2. An overview of current knowledge concerning the health and environmental consequences of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Wu, Junwen; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2015-12-01

    Since 2011, the scientific community has worked to identify the exact transport and deposition patterns of radionuclides released from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in Japan. Nevertheless, there still remain many unknowns concerning the health and environmental impacts of these radionuclides. The present paper reviews the current understanding of the FDNPP accident with respect to interactions of the released radionuclides with the environment and impacts on human and non-human biota. Here, we scrutinize existing literature and combine and interpret observations and modeling assessments derived after Fukushima. Finally, we discuss the behavior and applications of radionuclides that might be used as tracers of environmental processes. This review focuses on (137)Cs and (131)I releases derived from Fukushima. Published estimates suggest total release amounts of 12-36.7PBq of (137)Cs and 150-160PBq of (131)I. Maximum estimated human mortality due to the Fukushima nuclear accident is 10,000 (due to all causes) and the maximum estimates for lifetime cancer mortality and morbidity are 1500 and 1800, respectively. Studies of plants and animals in the forests of Fukushima have recorded a range of physiological, developmental, morphological, and behavioral consequences of exposure to radioactivity. Some of the effects observed in the exposed populations include the following: hematological aberrations in Fukushima monkeys; genetic, developmental and morphological aberrations in a butterfly; declines in abundances of birds, butterflies and cicadas; aberrant growth forms in trees; and morphological abnormalities in aphids. These findings are discussed from the perspective of conservation biology.

  3. Vertical pump turbine oil environmental evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Culver, G.

    1991-04-01

    In Oregon low-temperature geothermal injection well construction, siting and receiving formations requires approval by the Water Resources Department (OWRD). In addition, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (ODEQ) has regulations concerning injection. Conversations with the OWRD and ODEQ representatives indicated they were very concerned about the potential for contamination of the geothermal (and cooler but hydraulically connected) aquifers by oils and grease. Their primary concern was over the practice of putting paraffin, motor oils and other hydrocarbons in downhole heat exchanger (DHE) wells to prevent corrosion. They also expressed considerable concern about the use of oil in production well pumps since the fluids pumped would be injected. Oregon (and Idaho) prohibit the use of oil-lubricated pumps for public water supplies except in certain situations where non-toxic food-grade lubricants are used. Since enclosed-lineshaft oil-lubricated pumps are the mainstay of direct-use pumping equipment, the potential for restricting their use became a concern to the Geo-Heat Center staff. An investigation into alternative pump lubrication schemes and development of rebuttals to potential restrictions was proposed and approved as a contract task. (SM)

  4. Environmental Education Evaluation: Time to Reflect, Time for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crohn, Kara; Birnbaum, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation in environmental education is fairly nascent despite decades-long attention to its importance. In setting the context for future chapters appearing in this special issue of the "Journal of Evaluation and Program Planning," attention is devoted to the political circumstances associated with retrenchment in the public sector and increased…

  5. Evaluation of Environmental Profiles for Reliability Demonstration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-01

    benefit in going to the WR/A level was to broaden the data aggr’g-ate since in genieral, a pa.rticular equipment or system was environmentaJ]y tested...into ipec ification MIL-P-26667 L (USAF) (Reference (5) ), followed by MIL-R-2309b (WEP) (Reference (C)), and finally, the MIL- 3D -’y8l series...evaluating the technical benefits to be derived from this placement vs. the increase in test coaplexity and cost, the required justification could

  6. Impacts of (Nano)formulations on the Fate of an Insecticide in Soil and Consequences for Environmental Exposure Assessment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The development of nanopesticides has recently received an increased level of attention. However, there are very few data about the environmental fate of these new products, and it is not known whether nanoformulations can be evaluated within the current pesticide regulatory framework. Sorption and degradation parameters of the insecticide bifenthrin were measured in two soils for (i) the pure active ingredient, (ii) three nanoformulations, and (iii) a commercially available formulation. In most cases, fate parameters derived for the nanopesticides were significantly different from those derived for the pure active ingredient (factors of up to 10 for sorption and 1.8 for degradation), but discrepancies were not easy to relate to the characteristics of the nanocarriers. In some cases, differences were also observed between the commercial formulation and the pure active ingredient (factors of up to 1.4 for sorption and 1.7 for degradation). In the regulatory context, the common assumption that formulations do not influence the environmental fate of pesticide active ingredients after application seems therefore not always adequate. In the absence of direct measurement, an inverse modeling approach was successfully applied to evaluate the durability of the formulations in soil (release half-life ranged between 11 and 74 days). Predicted groundwater concentrations very much depended on the modeling approach adopted but overall suggest that the nanoformulations studied could reduce losses to groundwater. PMID:27648740

  7. Investigating the causes and consequences of symbiont shuffling in a multi-partner reef coral symbiosis under environmental change.

    PubMed

    Cunning, R; Silverstein, R N; Baker, A C

    2015-06-22

    Dynamic symbioses may critically mediate impacts of climate change on diverse organisms, with repercussions for ecosystem persistence in some cases. On coral reefs, increases in heat-tolerant symbionts after thermal bleaching can reduce coral susceptibility to future stress. However, the relevance of this adaptive response is equivocal owing to conflicting reports of symbiont stability and change. We help reconcile this conflict by showing that change in symbiont community composition (symbiont shuffling) in Orbicella faveolata depends on the disturbance severity and recovery environment. The proportion of heat-tolerant symbionts dramatically increased following severe experimental bleaching, especially in a warmer recovery environment, but tended to decrease if bleaching was less severe. These patterns can be explained by variation in symbiont performance in the changing microenvironments created by differentially bleached host tissues. Furthermore, higher proportions of heat-tolerant symbionts linearly increased bleaching resistance but reduced photochemical efficiency, suggesting that any change in community structure oppositely impacts performance and stress tolerance. Therefore, even minor symbiont shuffling can adaptively benefit corals, although fitness effects of resulting trade-offs are difficult to predict. This work helps elucidate causes and consequences of dynamism in symbiosis, which is critical to predicting responses of multi-partner symbioses such as O. faveolata to environmental change.

  8. Investigating the causes and consequences of symbiont shuffling in a multi-partner reef coral symbiosis under environmental change

    PubMed Central

    Cunning, R.; Silverstein, R. N.; Baker, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic symbioses may critically mediate impacts of climate change on diverse organisms, with repercussions for ecosystem persistence in some cases. On coral reefs, increases in heat-tolerant symbionts after thermal bleaching can reduce coral susceptibility to future stress. However, the relevance of this adaptive response is equivocal owing to conflicting reports of symbiont stability and change. We help reconcile this conflict by showing that change in symbiont community composition (symbiont shuffling) in Orbicella faveolata depends on the disturbance severity and recovery environment. The proportion of heat-tolerant symbionts dramatically increased following severe experimental bleaching, especially in a warmer recovery environment, but tended to decrease if bleaching was less severe. These patterns can be explained by variation in symbiont performance in the changing microenvironments created by differentially bleached host tissues. Furthermore, higher proportions of heat-tolerant symbionts linearly increased bleaching resistance but reduced photochemical efficiency, suggesting that any change in community structure oppositely impacts performance and stress tolerance. Therefore, even minor symbiont shuffling can adaptively benefit corals, although fitness effects of resulting trade-offs are difficult to predict. This work helps elucidate causes and consequences of dynamism in symbiosis, which is critical to predicting responses of multi-partner symbioses such as O. faveolata to environmental change. PMID:26041354

  9. Butterfly Density and Behaviour in Uncut Hay Meadow Strips: Behavioural Ecological Consequences of an Agri-Environmental Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Lebeau, Julie; Wesselingh, Renate A.; Van Dyck, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Sparing zones from mowing has been proposed, and applied, to improve local conditions for survival and reproduction of insects in hay meadows. However, little is known about the efficiency of refuge zones and the consequences for local populations. We studied population densities of butterflies before and after mowing in the refuge zone of 15 meadows in 2009 and 2011. We also studied the behaviour of the meadow brown (Maniola jurtina) comparing nectar use, interactions and flights in the refuge zone before and after mowing. Densities of grassland butterflies in this zone doubled on average after mowing. The density of females of M. jurtina increased on average fourfold, while males showed a more modest increase. In line with the idea of increased scramble competition in the refuge zone after mowing, M. jurtina increased the time spent on nectar feeding, the preferred nectar source was visited more frequently, and females made more use of non-preferred nectar sources. Maniola jurtina did not interact more with conspecifics after mowing, but interactions lasted longer. Flight tracks did not change in linearity, but were faster and shorter after mowing. After mowing, only a part of the local grassland butterflies moved to the uncut refuge zone. The resulting concentration effect alters the time allocated to different activities, nectar use and movements. These aspects have been largely ignored for agri-environmental schemes and grassland management in nature reserves and raise questions about optimal quantities and quality of uncut refuge sites for efficient conservation of grassland arthropods in agricultural landscapes. PMID:26284618

  10. Butterfly Density and Behaviour in Uncut Hay Meadow Strips: Behavioural Ecological Consequences of an Agri-Environmental Scheme.

    PubMed

    Lebeau, Julie; Wesselingh, Renate A; Van Dyck, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Sparing zones from mowing has been proposed, and applied, to improve local conditions for survival and reproduction of insects in hay meadows. However, little is known about the efficiency of refuge zones and the consequences for local populations. We studied population densities of butterflies before and after mowing in the refuge zone of 15 meadows in 2009 and 2011. We also studied the behaviour of the meadow brown (Maniola jurtina) comparing nectar use, interactions and flights in the refuge zone before and after mowing. Densities of grassland butterflies in this zone doubled on average after mowing. The density of females of M. jurtina increased on average fourfold, while males showed a more modest increase. In line with the idea of increased scramble competition in the refuge zone after mowing, M. jurtina increased the time spent on nectar feeding, the preferred nectar source was visited more frequently, and females made more use of non-preferred nectar sources. Maniola jurtina did not interact more with conspecifics after mowing, but interactions lasted longer. Flight tracks did not change in linearity, but were faster and shorter after mowing. After mowing, only a part of the local grassland butterflies moved to the uncut refuge zone. The resulting concentration effect alters the time allocated to different activities, nectar use and movements. These aspects have been largely ignored for agri-environmental schemes and grassland management in nature reserves and raise questions about optimal quantities and quality of uncut refuge sites for efficient conservation of grassland arthropods in agricultural landscapes.

  11. Spacecraft Redundancy and Environmental Tests: An Historic Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollman, V. S.; Blockinger, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The necessity of providing highly redundant spacecraft in the shuttle era was evaluated. Environmental and acceptance tests were done. Histories of 67 spacecraft over a 12 year period were analyzed. The final result of this study is that LMSC (Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Inc.) is convinced of the significant value of redundancy in spacecraft and systems environmental testing and such techniques should be carried forward into the shuttle era.

  12. Multiple Stressors in a Top Predator Seabird: Potential Ecological Consequences of Environmental Contaminants, Population Health and Breeding Conditions.

    PubMed

    Bustnes, Jan O; Bourgeon, Sophie; Leat, Eliza H K; Magnusdóttir, Ellen; Strøm, Hallvard; Hanssen, Sveinn A; Petersen, Aevar; Olafsdóttir, Kristin; Borgå, Katrine; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Furness, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contaminants may have impacts on reproduction and survival in wildlife populations suffering from multiple stressors. This study examined whether adverse effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) increased with poor population health and breeding conditions in three colonies (60-74°N) of great skua (Stercorarius skua) in the north-eastern Atlantic (Shetland, Iceland and Bjørnøya [Bear Island]). POPs (organochlorines [OCs] and polybrominated diphenyl ethers [BDEs]) were measured in plasma of incubating birds (n = 222), concentrations differing nearly tenfold among colonies: Bjørnøya (2009) > Bjørnøya (2010) > Iceland (2009) > Shetland (2009). Reproductive success (hatching success and chick survival) showed that breeding conditions were favourable in Shetland and at Bjørnøya (2010), but were very poor in Iceland and at Bjørnøya (2009). Biomarkers indicated that health was poor in the Shetland population compared to the other populations. Females whose chicks hatched late had high POP concentrations in all colonies except at Bjørnøya (2010), and females losing their eggs at Bjørnøya (2009) tended to have higher concentrations than those hatching. Moreover, there was a negative relationship between female POP concentrations and chick body condition at hatching in Iceland and at Bjørnøya (2010). Supplementary feeding experiments were conducted, and in Iceland where feeding conditions were poor, significant negative relationships were found between female POP concentrations and daily growth-rate in first-hatched chicks of control nests, but not in food supplemented nests. This suggests that negative impacts of POPs were mitigated by improved feeding conditions. For second-chicks, there was a strong negative relationship between the female POP concentrations and growth-rate, but no effects of supplementary feeding. Lowered adult return-rate between breeding seasons with increasing POP loads were found both at Bjørnøya (2009) and in

  13. Entrepreneur environment management behavior evaluation method derived from environmental economy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lili; Hou, Xilin; Xi, Fengru

    2013-12-01

    Evaluation system can encourage and guide entrepreneurs, and impel them to perform well in environment management. An evaluation method based on advantage structure is established. It is used to analyze entrepreneur environment management behavior in China. Entrepreneur environment management behavior evaluation index system is constructed based on empirical research. Evaluation method of entrepreneurs is put forward, from the point of objective programming-theory to alert entrepreneurs concerned to think much of it, which means to take minimized objective function as comprehensive evaluation result and identify disadvantage structure pattern. Application research shows that overall behavior of Chinese entrepreneurs environmental management are good, specially, environment strategic behavior are best, environmental management behavior are second, cultural behavior ranks last. Application results show the efficiency and feasibility of this method.

  14. Environmental consequences of water pumped from greater New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina: chemical, toxicological, and infaunal analysis.

    PubMed

    Suedel, Burton C; Steevens, Jeffery A; Kennedy, Alan J; Brasfield, Sandra M; Ray, Gary L

    2007-04-01

    The U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center Environmental Laboratory, Vicksburg, MS, conducted a study to determine the extent to which Hurricane Katrina floodwaters in the New Orleans, Louisiana area may have had impacts on wildlife habitat and other biological resources in surrounding areas. These studies were conducted as part of the Interagency Performance Evaluation Taskforce, an investigation of environmental impacts originating from the failure of the hurricane protection system during Hurricane Katrina. This paper presents data regarding the effects of pumped floodwaters on sediment chemistry, toxicity, and benthic invertebrate assemblages near pumping stations that discharged floodwaters into marshes near Chalmette and Violet, Louisiana. Chemical contamination of sediments was observed and varied among sample locations (e.g., outfall locations, wastewater treatment plant, canals, and wetlands); however, trends in the chemistry data were not always consistent with bioassay results. A comparison of the sediment chemistry data from this study with three other studies reporting concentrations of chemicals in sediments within the city of New Orleans suggested that sediments and associated contaminants present within the levees were not pumped into the marsh in appreciable quantities.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION FOR UTILIZATION OF ASH IN SOIL STABILIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Hassett; Loreal V. Heebink

    2001-08-01

    The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) approved the use of coal ash in soil stabilization, indicating that environmental data needed to be generated. The overall project goal is to evaluate the potential for release of constituents into the environment from ash used in soil stabilization projects. Supporting objectives are: (1) To ensure sample integrity through implementation of a sample collection, preservation, and storage protocol to avoid analyte concentration or loss. (2) To evaluate the potential of each component (ash, soil, water) of the stabilized soil to contribute to environmental release of analytes of interest. (3) To use laboratory leaching methods to evaluate the potential for release of constituents to the environment. (4) To facilitate collection of and to evaluate samples from a field runoff demonstration effort. The results of this study indicated limited mobility of the coal combustion fly ash constituents in laboratory tests and the field runoff samples. The results presented support previous work showing little to negligible impact on water quality. This and past work indicates that soil stabilization is an environmentally beneficial CCB utilization application as encouraged by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This project addressed the regulatory-driven environmental aspect of fly ash use for soil stabilization, but the demonstrated engineering performance and economic advantages also indicate that the use of CCBs in soil stabilization can and should become an accepted engineering option.

  16. Environmental impact analysis with the airspace concept evaluation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustine, Stephen; Capozzi, Brian; DiFelici, John; Graham, Michael; Thompson, Terry; Miraflor, Raymond M. C.

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center has developed the Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES), which is a fast-time simulation tool for evaluating Air Traffic Management (ATM) systems. This paper describes linking a capability to ACES which can analyze the environmental impact of proposed future ATM systems. This provides the ability to quickly evaluate metrics associated with environmental impacts of aviation for inclusion in multi-dimensional cost-benefit analysis of concepts for evolution of the National Airspace System (NAS) over the next several decades. The methodology used here may be summarized as follows: 1) Standard Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) noise and emissions-inventory models, the Noise Impact Routing System (NIRS) and the Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS), respectively, are linked to ACES simulation outputs; 2) appropriate modifications are made to ACES outputs to incorporate all information needed by the environmental models (e.g., specific airframe and engine data); 3) noise and emissions calculations are performed for all traffic and airports in the study area for each of several scenarios, as simulated by ACES; and 4) impacts of future scenarios are compared to the current NAS baseline scenario. This paper also provides the results of initial end-to-end, proof-of-concept runs of the integrated ACES and environmental-modeling capability. These preliminary results demonstrate that if no growth is likely to be impeded by significant environmental impacts that could negatively affect communities throughout the nation.

  17. Evaluation of Quantitative Environmental Stress Screening (ESS) Methods. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    muu4 The objective of this study was to evaluate Environmental Stress Screening (ESS) techniques contained in DOD-HDBK-344,’ by applying the methodology...to several electronic products during actual factor production. Validation of the techniques , the develop- ment of improved, qi•p’lified,_ad...automated procedures and subsequent revisions to the Handbook were the objectives, qf the evaluation. The Rome Laboratory has developed techniques which

  18. Environmental performance evaluation and strategy management using balanced scorecard.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Lung; Liu, Chun-Chu

    2010-11-01

    Recently, environmental protection and regulations such as WEEE, ELV, and RoHS are rapidly emerging as an important issue for business to consider. The trend of swinging from end-of-pipe control to product design, green innovation, and even the establishment of image or brand has affected corporations in almost every corner in the world, and enlarged to the all modern global production network. Corporations must take proactive environmental strategies to response the challenges. This study adopts balanced scorecard structure and aim at automobile industries to understand the relationships of internal and external, financial and non-financial, and outcome and driving factors. Further relying on these relationships to draw the "map of environment strategy" to probe and understand the feasibility of environmental performance evaluation and environmental strategy control.

  19. Evaluating community and campus environmental public health programs.

    PubMed

    Pettibone, Kristianna G; Parras, Juan; Croisant, Sharon Petronella; Drew, Christina H

    2014-01-01

    The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences' (NIEHS) Partnerships for Environmental Public Health (PEPH) program created the Evaluation Metrics Manual as a tool to help grantees understand how to map out their programs using a logic model, and to identify measures for documenting their achievements in environmental public health research. This article provides an overview of the manual, describing how grantees and community partners contributed to the manual, and how the basic components of a logic model can be used to identify metrics. We illustrate how the approach can be implemented, using a real-world case study from the University of Texas Medical Branch, where researchers worked with community partners to develop a network to address environmental justice issues.

  20. Evaluating Environmental Knowledge Dimension Convergence to Assess Educational Programme Effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liefländer, Anne K.; Bogner, Franz X.; Kibbe, Alexandra; Kaiser, Florian G.

    2015-03-01

    One aim of environmental education is fostering sustainable environmental action. Some environmental behaviour models suggest that this can be accomplished in part by improving people's knowledge. Recent studies have identified a distinct, psychometrically supported environmental knowledge structure consisting of system, action-related and effectiveness knowledge. Besides system knowledge, which is most often the focus of such studies, incorporating the other knowledge dimensions into these dimensions was suggested to enhance effectiveness. Our study is among the first to implement these dimensions together in an educational campaign and to use these dimensions to evaluate the effectiveness of a programme on water issues. We designed a four-day environmental education programme on water issues for students at an educational field centre. We applied a newly developed multiple-choice instrument using a pre-, post-, retention test design. The knowledge scales were calibrated with the Rasch model. In addition to the commonly assessed individual change in knowledge level, we also measured the change in knowledge convergence, the extent to which the knowledge dimensions merge as a person's environmental knowledge increases, as an innovative indicator of educational success. Following programme participation, students significantly improved in terms of amount learned in each knowledge dimension and in terms of integration of the knowledge dimensions. The effectiveness knowledge shows the least gain, persistence and convergence, which we explain by considering the dependence of the knowledge dimensions on each other. Finally, we discuss emerging challenges for educational researchers and practical implications for environmental educators.

  1. Evaluation of environmentally safe cleaning agents for diamond turned optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theye, Lonnie A.; Day, Robert D.; Weinrach, Jeffrey; Schubert, Rudolf; Seiffert, Stephen

    Precision machining of metal surfaces using diamond turning has increased greatly in popularity at LANL in recent years. Similar techniques are used extensively to manufacture metal mirrors for use in laser applications. The diamond turned surfaces are easily damaged, making the selection of a cleaning agent very critical. These surfaces have been traditionally cleaned using Trichloroethane (TCA) to remove residual oil remaining from the machining process. The TCA was then removed with an ethanol rinse, leaving a residue free surface. Recently, however, TCA was pronounced environmentally unsafe. Consequently, we are searching for an environmentally safe cleaning agent for these diamond turned metal optics. The concern with using alternative solvents is the potential for residual surface films that produce reflectivity changes related to a combination of wavelength, surface coverage, film thickness and dielectric properties. Therefore, we have initiated a program for testing the effectiveness of a variety of environmentally safe solvents used to clean diamond turned optical surfaces. Our basic test plan consists of comparing a number of environmentally safe solvents against the TCA/ethanol cleaning system. We have identified twelve candidate solvents, but have only been able to perform a partial test on one of them to date. This paper discusses the results obtained to date using this solvent known as P F.

  2. An integrated biomarker-based strategy for ecotoxicological evaluation of risk in environmental management.

    PubMed

    Moore, Michael N; Depledge, Michael H; Readman, James W; Paul Leonard, D R

    2004-08-18

    Environmental impacts by both natural events and man-made interventions are a fact of life; and developing the capacity to minimise these impacts and their harmful consequences for biological resources, ecosystems and human health is a daunting task for environmental legislators and regulators. A major challenge in impact and risk assessment, as part of integrated environmental management (IEM), is to link harmful effects of pollution (including toxic chemicals) in individual sentinel animals to their ecological consequences. This obstacle has resulted in a knowledge-gap for those seeking to develop effective policies for sustainable use of resources and environmental protection. Part of the solution to this problem may lie with the use of diagnostic clinical-type laboratory-based ecotoxicological tests or biomarkers, utilising sentinel animals as integrators of pollution, coupled with direct immunochemical tests for contaminants. These rapid and cost-effective ecotoxicological tools can provide information on the health status of individuals and populations based on relatively small samples of individuals. In the context of ecosystem status or health of the environment, biomarkers are also being used to link processes of molecular and cellular damage through to higher levels (i.e., prognostic capability), where they can result in pathology with reduced physiological performance and reproductive success. Complex issues are involved in evaluating environmental risk, such as the effects of the physico-chemical environment on the speciation and uptake of pollutant chemicals and inherent inter-individual and inter-species differences in vulnerability to toxicity; and the toxicity of complex mixtures. Effectively linking the impact of pollutants through the various hierarchical levels of biological organisation to ecosystem and human health requires a pragmatic integrated approach based on existing information that either links or correlates processes of pollutant

  3. Innovations: The Social Consequences of Science and Technology. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Richard R.

    The Biological Sciences Curriculum Study designed, developed, and field-tested a series of nine curriculum resource units for a semester program called "Innovations: The Social Consequences of Science and Technology (IST)." The units were designed for use by students and teachers in the 11th and 12th grades and at the junior college…

  4. 40 CFR 227.4 - Criteria for evaluating environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Environmental... impact prohibitions, limits, and conditions for the dumping of materials into ocean waters. If the... proposed disposal will not unduly degrade or endanger the marine environment and that the disposal...

  5. Reef Education Evaluation: Environmental Knowledge and Reef Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepath, Carl M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The Reef education evaluation: environmental knowledge and reef experience report concerns PhD research about marine education, and the investigation of learning with high school students and the effect of coral reef monitoring marine experiential education interventions. The effectiveness of classroom learning and reef trips were…

  6. 40 CFR 227.4 - Criteria for evaluating environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Environmental... impact prohibitions, limits, and conditions for the dumping of materials into ocean waters. If the... unacceptable adverse persistent or permanent effects due to the dumping of the particular volumes...

  7. Residential Environmental Education Center Program Evaluation: An Ongoing Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, Nicholas; Buskist, Connie; Herron, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Residential environmental education centers (REECs) have been criticized for their lack of quality program evaluation. However, the last national study done on the practices of REECs was Chenery and Hammerman's (1985) research. This article presents the results of a national survey of directors of REECs (n = 114) that gives insight into the…

  8. Consequences of No Child Left Behind on Evaluation Purpose, Design, and Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabry, Linda

    2008-01-01

    As an outgrowth of No Child Left Behind's narrow definition of scientifically based research, the priority given to certain quantitative evaluation designs has sparked debate among those in the evaluation community. Federal mandates for particular evaluation methodologies run counter to evaluation practice and to the direction of most evaluation…

  9. Evaluation, or Just Data Collection? An Exploration of the Evaluation Practice of Selected UK Environmental Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Sarah Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the evaluation practices of environmental educators. Questionnaires and discussion groups with a convenience sample of UK-based practitioners were used to uncover their evaluation methods. Although many report that they are evaluating regularly, this is mainly monitoring numbers of participants or an assessment of enjoyment.…

  10. Evaluating efficacy of an environmental policy to prevent biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Sarah A; Deneau, Matthew G; Jean, Laurent; Wiley, Chris J; Leung, Brian; MacIsaac, Hugh J

    2011-04-01

    Enactment of any environmental policy should be followed by an evaluation of its efficacy to ensure optimal utilization of limited resources, yet measuring the success of these policies can be a challenging task owing to a dearth of data and confounding factors. We examine the efficacy of ballast water policies enacted to prevent biological invasions in the Laurentian Great Lakes. We utilize four criteria to assess the efficacy of this environmental regulation: (1) Is the prescribed management action demonstrably effective? (2) Is the management action effective under operational conditions? (3) Can compliance be achieved on a broad scale? (4) Are desired changes observed in the environment? The four lines of evidence resulting from this analysis indicate that the Great Lakes ballast water management program provides robust, but not complete, protection against ship-mediated biological invasions. Our analysis also indicates that corresponding inspection and enforcement efforts should be undertaken to ensure that environmental policies translate into increased environmental protection. Similar programs could be implemented immediately around the world to protect the biodiversity of the many freshwater ecosystems which receive ballast water discharges by international vessels. This general framework can be extended to evaluate efficacy of other environmental policies.

  11. Evaluation of transboundary environmental issues in Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Engi, D.; Kapustka, L.A.; Williams, B.A.; Meganck, R.A.; Garrison, J.G.; Glicken, J.; Hostetler, C.J.; Lawrence, S.

    1997-05-01

    Central Europe has experienced environmental degradation for hundreds of years. The proximity of countries, their shared resources, and transboundary movement of environmental pollution, create the potential for regional environmental strife. The goal of this project was to identify the sources and sinks of environmental pollution in Central Europe and evaluate the possible impact of transboundary movement of pollution on the countries of Central Europe. In meeting the objectives of identifying sources of contaminants, determining transboundary movement of contaminants, and assessing socio-economic implications, large quantities of disparate data were examined. To facilitate use of the data, the authors refined mapping procedures that enable processing information from virtually any map or spreadsheet data that can be geo-referenced. Because the procedure is freed from a priori constraints of scale that confound most Geographical Information Systems, they have the capacity to generate new projections and apply sophisticated statistical analyses to the data. The analysis indicates substantial environmental problems. While transboundary pollution issues may spawn conflict among the Central European countries and their neighbors, it appears that common environmental problems facing the entire region have had the effect of bringing the countries together, even though opportunities for deteriorating relationships may still arise.

  12. The Politics and Consequences of Including Stakeholders in International Development Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Anne E.; Coryn, Chris L. S.; Rugh, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Participatory evaluation approaches have a relatively long history of advocacy and application in the international development evaluation community. Despite widespread use and apparent resonance with practitioners and donors alike, very little empirical research exists on why and how participatory evaluation approaches are used in international…

  13. Evaluation informs coalition programming for environmental tobacco smoke reduction.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Mary E; Mueller, Keith J; Harrop, Dianne

    2003-01-01

    The objective for this formative evaluation was to establish baseline data for informing a community coalition's strategic planning in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) risk reduction. The coalition had chosen 3 targeted settings for ETS risk reduction: restaurants, childcare facilities, and government buildings. The evaluation methodology involved telephone interviews (restaurants, n = 805; governmental buildings, n = 258) and mailed surveys (childcare facilities, n = 1,142). Data on county residents and businesses were used for comparison purposes and were analyzed from the Nebraska Social Climate Survey (2001; n = 558). Evaluation baseline findings showed that licensed childcare facilities were more ETS knowledgeable, less ETS tolerant, and more smoke-free than restaurants. Residents were more bothered by ETS than what restaurant proprietors perceived. The majority of governmental buildings were not smoke-free. Conclusions were that community health nurse evaluators can provide coalitions with formative evaluative data to inform strategic planning and increase the likelihood of effective program interventions for community impact on ETS.

  14. Environmental risks in the developing world: exposure indicators for evaluating interventions, programmes, and policies

    PubMed Central

    Ezzati, M.; Utzinger, J.; Cairncross, S.; Cohen, A.; Singer, B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Monitoring and empirical evaluation are essential components of evidence based public health policies and programmes. Consequently, there is a growing interest in monitoring of, and indicators for, major environmental health risks, particularly in the developing world. Current large scale data collection efforts are generally disconnected from micro-scale studies in health sciences, which in turn have insufficiently investigated the behavioural and socioeconomic factors that influence exposure. Study design: A basic framework is proposed for development of indicators of exposure to environmental health risks that would facilitate the (a) assessment of the health effects of risk factors, (b) design and evaluation of interventions and programmes to deliver the interventions, and (c) appraisal and quantification of inequalities in health effects of risk factors, and benefits of intervention programmes and policies. Specific emphasis is put on the features of environmental risks that should guide the choice of indicators, in particular the interactions of technology, the environment, and human behaviour in determining exposure. The indicators are divided into four categories: (a) access and infrastructure, (b) technology, (c) agents and vectors, and (d) behaviour. The study used water and sanitation, indoor air pollution from solid fuels, urban ambient air pollution, and malaria as illustrative examples for this framework. Conclusions: Organised and systematic indicator selection and monitoring can provide an evidence base for design and implementation of more effective and equitable technological interventions, delivery programmes, and policies for environmental health risks in resource poor settings. PMID:15598721

  15. Screening Analysis for the Environmental Risk Evaluation System Fiscal Year 2011 Report Environmental Effects of Offshore Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea E.; Hanna, Luke A.

    2011-11-01

    Potential environmental effects of offshore wind (OSW) energy development are not well understood, and yet regulatory agencies are required to make decisions in spite of substantial uncertainty about environmental impacts and their long-term consequences. An understanding of risks associated with interactions between OSW installations and avian and aquatic receptors, including animals, habitats, and ecosystems, can help define key uncertainties and focus regulatory actions and scientific studies on interactions of most concern. During FY 2011, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) scientists adapted and applied the Environmental Risk Evaluation System (ERES), first developed to examine the effects of marine and hydrokinetic energy devices on aquatic environments, to offshore wind development. PNNL scientists conducted a risk screening analysis on two initial OSW cases: a wind project in Lake Erie and a wind project off the Atlantic coast of the United States near Atlantic City, New Jersey. The screening analysis revealed that top-tier stressors in the two OSW cases were the dynamic effects of the device (e.g., strike), accidents/disasters, and effects of the static physical presence of the device, such as alterations in bottom habitats. Receptor interactions with these stressors at the highest tiers of risk were dominated by threatened and endangered animals. Risk to the physical environment from changes in flow regime also ranked high. Peer review of this process and results will be conducted during FY 2012. The ERES screening analysis provides an assessment of the vulnerability of environmental receptors to stressors associated with OSW installations; a probability analysis is needed to determine specific risk levels to receptors. As more data become available that document effects of offshore wind farms on specific receptors in U.S. coastal and Great Lakes waters, probability analyses will be performed.

  16. Evaluation of Environmental Quality Productive Ecosystem Guayas (Ecuador).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozo, Wilson; Pardo, Francisco; Sanfeliu, Teófilo; Carrera, Gloria; Jordan, Manuel; Bech, Jaume; Roca, Núria

    2015-04-01

    Natural resources are deteriorating very rapidly in the Gulf of Guayaquil and the area of influence in the Guayas Basin due to human activity. Specific problems are generated by the mismanagement of the aquaculture industry affecting the traditional agricultural sectors: rice, banana, sugarcane, cocoa, coffee, and soya also studied, and by human and industrial settlements. The development of industrial activities such as aquaculture (shrimp building for shrimp farming in ponds) and agriculture, have increasingly contributed to the generation of waste, degrading and potentially toxic elements in high concentrations, which can have adverse effects on organisms in the ecosystems, in the health of the population and damage the ecological and environmental balance. The productive Guayas ecosystem, consists of three interrelated ecosystems, the Gulf of Guayaquil, the Guayas River estuary and the Guayas Basin buffer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the environmental quality of the productive Guayas ecosystem (Ecuador), through operational and specific objectives: 1) Draw up the transition coastal zone in the Gulf of Guayaquil, 2) Set temporal spatial variability of soil salinity in wetlands rice, Lower Guayas Basin, 3) evaluate the heavy metals in wetland rice in the Lower Basin of Guayas. The physical and chemical parameters of the soils have been studied. These are indicators of environmental quality. The multivariate statistical method showed the relations of similarities and dissimilarities between variables and parameter studies as stable. Moreover, the boundaries of coastal transition areas, temporal spatial variability of soil salinity and heavy metals in rice cultivation in the Lower Basin of Guayas were researched. The sequential studies included and discussed represent a broad framework of fundamental issues that has been valued as a basic component of the productive Guayas ecosystem. They are determinants of the environmental quality of the Guayas

  17. Evaluation of the environmental impact of apple pest control strategies using pesticide risk indicators.

    PubMed

    Ioriatti, Claudio; Agnello, Arthur M; Martini, Fabrizio; Kovach, Joseph

    2011-10-01

    Various pesticide risk indicators have been developed for estimating pesticide impact on human health and the environment. The present work applied a pesticide risk indicator to estimate change in pesticide risk in apple production between 2001 and 2009. The "Environmental Impact Quotient" was used, which evaluates potential impacts of pesticide active ingredients on farm workers, consumers, and nontarget organisms. A modified Environmental Impact Quotient was also tested, which accounts for all ingredients in the formulation presenting a health or environmental hazard, as identified in the Security Data Sheet. Irrespective of the rating system applied, an overall average improvement in environmental impact of apple protection strategies was indicated ranging from 23 to 24%. Hazard reduction was more significant when estimated per treatment, and was higher for acaricides and insecticides than for fungicides. Improvement appeared to be a consequence of using more selective and more effective active ingredients, applying alternative pest control techniques, compulsory periodic sprayer calibration, and wider use of dwarfing orchards. The modified Environmental Impact Quotient does not overcome all limitations regarding accuracy of pesticide risk indicators, but its ease of use in relying on official, easily accessible data, and the consistency of its results, makes it a good candidate for monitoring the success of reduced risk policies.

  18. Differential bioaccumulation and translocation patterns in three mangrove plants experimentally exposed to iron. Consequences for environmental sensing.

    PubMed

    Arrivabene, Hiulana Pereira; Campos, Caroline Quenupe; Souza, Iara da Costa; Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto; Milanez, Camilla Rozindo Dias; Machado, Silvia Rodrigues

    2016-08-01

    Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle were experimentally exposed to increasing levels of iron (0, 10, 20 and 100 mg L(-1) added Fe(II) in Hoagland's nutritive medium). The uptake and translocation of iron from roots to stems and leaves, Fe-secretion through salt glands (Avicennia schaueriana and Laguncularia racemosa) as well as anatomical and histochemical changes in plant tissues were evaluated. The main goal of this work was to assess the diverse capacity of these plants to detect mangroves at risk in an area affected by iron pollution (Vitoria, Espírito Santo, Brazil). Results show that plants have differential patterns with respect to bioaccumulation, translocation and secretion of iron through salt glands. L. racemosa showed the best environmental sensing capacity since the bioaccumulation of iron in both Fe-plaque and roots was higher and increased as the amount of added-iron rose. Fewer changes in translocation factors throughout increasing added-iron were observed in this species. Furthermore, the amount of iron secreted through salt glands of L. racemosa was strongly inhibited when exposed to added-iron. Among three studied species, A. schaueriana showed the highest levels of iron in stems and leaves. On the other hand, Rhizophora mangle presented low values of iron in these compartments. Even so, there was a significant drop in the translocation factor between aerial parts with respect to roots, since the bioaccumulation in plaque and roots of R. mangle increased as iron concentration rose. Moreover, rhizophores of R. mangle did not show changes in bioaccumulation throughout the studied concentrations. So far, we propose L. racemosa as the best species for monitoring iron pollution in affected mangroves areas. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed report on the response of these plants to increasing iron concentration under controlled conditions, complementing existing data on the behavior of the same plants

  19. Sex Differences in the Meaning of Negative Evaluation in Achievement Situations: Determinants and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dweck, Carol S.

    Sex differences in children's reactions to failure feedback in school situations were investigated by assessing the ways in which teachers use negative evaluation in the classroom. Three aspects of teachers' evaluative feedback were studied: (1) ratio of negative to positive feedback; (2) contingency vs. noncontingency of feedback; and (3) (the…

  20. Evaluation of environmental impact of air pollution sources

    SciTech Connect

    Holnicki, P.

    2004-10-15

    This paper addresses the problem of evaluation and comparison of environmental impact of emission sources in the case of a complex, multisource emission field. The analysis is based on the forecasts of a short-term, dynamic dispersion model. The aim is to get a quantitative evaluation of the contribution of the selected sources according to the predefined, environmental cost function. The approach utilizes the optimal control technique for distributed parameter systems. The adjoint equation, related to the main transport equation of the forecasting model, is applied to calculate the sensitivity of the cost function to the emission intensity of the specified sources. An example implementation of a regional-scale, multilayer dynamic model of SOx transport is discussed as the main forecasting tool. The test computations have been performed for a set of the major power plants in a selected industrial region of Poland.

  1. Assessment and evaluation of technologies for environmental restoration. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Uzochukwu, G. A.

    2000-06-30

    Nuclear and commercial non-nuclear technologies that have the potential of meeting the environmental restoration objectives of the Department of Energy are being evaluated. A detailed comparison of innovative technologies available will be performed to determine the safest and most economical technology for meeting these objectives. Information derived from this effort will be matched with the multi-objective of the environmental restoration effort to ensure that the best, most economical, and the safest technologies are used in decision making at USDOE-SRS. Technology-related variables will be developed and the resulting data formatted and computerized for multimedia systems. The multimedia system will be made available to technology developers and evaluators to ensure that the safest and most economical technologies are developed for use at SRS and other DOE sites.

  2. Assessment and evaluation of technologies for environmental restoration. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Uzochukwu, G.A.

    1999-01-15

    Nuclear and commercial non-nuclear technologies that have the potential of meeting the environmental restoration objectives of the Department of Energy are being evaluated. A detailed comparison of innovative technologies available will be performed to determine the safest and most economical technology for meeting these objectives. Information derived from this effort will be matched with the multi-objective of the environmental restoration effort to ensure that the best, most economical, and the safest technologies are used in decision making at USDOE-SRS. Technology-related variables will be developed and the resulting data formatted and computerized for multimedia systems. The multimedia system will be made available to technology developers and evaluators to ensure that the safest and most economical technologies are developed for use at SRS and other DOE sites.

  3. Performance Evaluation Tests for Environmental Research (PETER): Collected Papers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    RESEARCH (PETER): COLLECTED PAPERS ,Robert S. Kennedy, Alvah C. Bittner, Jr., Robert C. Carter, Michele Krause, (Mary M. Harbeson, Denise B. McCafferty...EVALUATION TESTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH (PETER): COLLECTED PAPERS Robert S. Kennedy, Alvah C. Bittner, Jr., Robert C. Carter, Michele Krause, Mary M...characteristics (defined in 1. Alvares, K. M., & Hulin , C. L. Two explana Table 1) for each score. The remaining columns of tions of temporal changes

  4. Evaluation of the Consequences of a Cistern Truck Accident While Transporting Dangerous Substances through a Tunnel.

    PubMed

    Malecha, Ziemowit M; Poliski, Jarosaw; Chorowski, Maciej

    2017-03-23

    The transportation of dangerous substances by truck carriers harbors important safety issues in both road and mine tunnels. Even though traffic conditions in road and mine tunnels are different, the potential geometric and hydrodynamic similarities can lead to similar effects from the uncontrolled leakage of the dangerous material. This work was motivated by the design study of the LAGUNA-LBNO (Large Apparatus studying Grand Unification and Neutrino Astrophysics and Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillations) project. The considered neutrino detector requires a huge amount of liquid argon, which must be transported down the tunnel. The present work focuses on the estimation of the most credible incident and the resulting consequences in the case of a truck accident in the tunnel. The approach and tools used in the present work are generic and can be adapted to other similar situations.

  5. Economic Evaluation of Environmental Health Interventions to Support Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Environmental burden of disease represents one quarter of overall disease burden, hence necessitating greater attention from decision makers both inside and outside the health sector. Economic evaluation techniques such as cost-effectiveness analysis and cost-benefit analysis provide key information to health decision makers on the efficiency of environmental health interventions, assisting them in choosing interventions which give the greatest social return on limited public budgets and private resources. The aim of this article is to review economic evaluation studies in three environmental health areas—water, sanitation, hygiene (WSH), vector control, and air pollution—and to critically examine the policy relevance and scientific quality of the studies for selecting and funding public programmers. A keyword search of Medline from 1990–2008 revealed 32 studies, and gathering of articles from other sources revealed a further 18 studies, giving a total of 50 economic evaluation studies (13 WSH interventions, 16 vector control and 21 air pollution). Overall, the economic evidence base on environmental health interventions remains relatively weak—too few studies per intervention, of variable scientific quality and from diverse locations which limits generalisability of findings. Importantly, there still exists a disconnect between economic research, decision making and programmer implementation. This can be explained by the lack of translation of research findings into accessible documentation for policy makers and limited relevance of research findings, and the often low importance of economic evidence in budgeting decisions. These findings underline the importance of involving policy makers in the defining of research agendas and commissioning of research, and improving the awareness of researchers of the policy environment into which their research feeds. PMID:21572840

  6. Environmental Impact Research Program: Environmental Impact Assessment in Coastal Habitats: An Evaluation of Predictions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    PAGE COUNT Final report FROM _ TO _ September 1990 14 16. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION Available from National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal...EVALUATION OF PREDICTIONS PART I: INTRODUCTION Background 1. Since implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1969, the US Army Corps of...and hurricane wave protection, Carolina, beach 1981 SP and vicinity, New Hanover County, North Carolina Broad Creek, Beaufort County, North Carolina

  7. The combined effect of physical, psychosocial/organisational and/or environmental risk factors on the presence of work-related musculoskeletal symptoms and its consequences.

    PubMed

    Widanarko, Baiduri; Legg, Stephen; Devereux, Jason; Stevenson, Mark

    2014-11-01

    This study assessed the combined effect of physical and psychosocial/organisational and/or environmental factors on the presence of musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) and its consequences (reduced activities and absenteeism due to MSS) in a random sample of 3003 workers in New Zealand. By telephone interview, participants reported their current workplace exposures and MSS (neck/shoulder, arm/elbow, wrist and low back) and its consequences. Data were analysed using multivariable logistic regression. Combined exposure to physical and psychosocial/organisational and/or environmental factors increased the odds of MSS in the neck/shoulder (OR 3.14, 95% CI 1.79-5.52), arms/elbow regions (OR 4.14, 95% CI 2.21-7.76) and low back (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.28-2.37) and its consequences, i.e. reduced activities due to neck/shoulder symptoms (OR 5.45, 95% CI 2.28-13.00), absenteeism due to neck/shoulder symptoms (OR 5.19, 95% CI 2.24-12.01) and absenteeism due to low back symptoms (OR 4.37, 95% CI 2.92-6.53). In contrast, favourable psychosocial/organisational work conditions reduced the odds of wrist symptoms due to poor physical work conditions (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.44-3.34). We conclude that to reduce MSS and its consequences, employers need to adopt a multifaceted approach: concentrate on improving physical conditions as well as the psychosocial/organisational and environmental aspects of the working environment.

  8. Evaluation of environmental aspects significance in ISO 14001.

    PubMed

    Põder, Tõnis

    2006-05-01

    The methodological framework set by standards ISO 14001 and ISO 14004 gives only general principles for environmental aspects assessment, which is regarded as one of the most critical stages of implementing environmental management system. In Estonia, about 100 organizations have been certified to the ISO 14001. Experience obtained from numerous companies has demonstrated that limited transparency and reproducibility of the assessment process serves as a common shortcoming. Despite rather complicated assessment schemes sometimes used, the evaluation procedures have been largely based on subjective judgments because of ill-defined and inadequate assessment criteria. A comparison with some similar studies in other countries indicates a general nature of observed inconsistencies. The diversity of approaches to the aspects' assessment in concept literature and to the related problems has been discussed. The general structure of basic assessment criteria, compatible with environmental impact assessment and environmental risk analysis has also been outlined. Based on this general structure, the article presents a tiered approach to help organize the assessment in a more consistent manner.

  9. Conceptual Model of Offshore Wind Environmental Risk Evaluation System

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Richard M.; Copping, Andrea E.; Van Cleve, Frances B.; Unwin, Stephen D.; Hamilton, Erin L.

    2010-06-01

    In this report we describe the development of the Environmental Risk Evaluation System (ERES), a risk-informed analytical process for estimating the environmental risks associated with the construction and operation of offshore wind energy generation projects. The development of ERES for offshore wind is closely allied to a concurrent process undertaken to examine environmental effects of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy generation, although specific risk-relevant attributes will differ between the MHK and offshore wind domains. During FY10, a conceptual design of ERES for offshore wind will be developed. The offshore wind ERES mockup described in this report will provide a preview of the functionality of a fully developed risk evaluation system that will use risk assessment techniques to determine priority stressors on aquatic organisms and environments from specific technology aspects, identify key uncertainties underlying high-risk issues, compile a wide-range of data types in an innovative and flexible data organizing scheme, and inform planning and decision processes with a transparent and technically robust decision-support tool. A fully functional version of ERES for offshore wind will be developed in a subsequent phase of the project.

  10. Evaluation of Project Chrysalis: A School-based Intervention To Reduce Negative Consequences of Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kelly J.; Block, Audrey J.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated a school-based program that served female adolescents with histories of physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Found that participation produced healthier beliefs and attitudes about alcohol and other drug use and reduced initiation of tobacco and marijuana use. Findings support enrolling younger girls before they develop negative…

  11. Diagnostics techniques and dosimetric evaluations for environmental radioactivity investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caridi, F.; D'Agostino, M.; Belvedere, A.; Marguccio, S.; Belmusto, G.; Gatto, M. F.

    2016-10-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted about the investigation of the natural/anthropo-genic radioactivity of various environmental matrices. Different diagnostics techniques were employed: high resolution HpGe gamma spectrometry, to quantify the activity concentration of radionuclides that emit gamma photons; alpha spectrometry, for the determination of the specific activity of α -emitters radioisotopes; liquid scintillation, to measure the activity concentration of tritium, radon and total alpha/beta in liquid samples; alpha spectrometry through the Rad7 setup, to estimate the gas radon activity concentration in air, water and soil; total alpha/beta counter, for the activity concentration quantification of radionuclides, in solid samples, emitting alpha/beta particles. From the dosimetric point of view, knowledge of the radioactivity level in the environmental matrices allows to evaluate any possible radiological hazard for the population, through the calculation of the appropriate parameters of radioprotection and their comparison with the safety limits reported by the literature.

  12. Choosing co-substrates to supplement biogas production from animal slurry--a life cycle assessment of the environmental consequences.

    PubMed

    Croxatto Vega, Giovanna Catalina; ten Hoeve, Marieke; Birkved, Morten; Sommer, Sven G; Bruun, Sander

    2014-11-01

    Biogas production from animal slurry can provide substantial contributions to reach renewable energy targets, yet due to the low methane potential of slurry, biogas plants depend on the addition of co-substrates to make operations profitable. The environmental performance of three underexploited co-substrates, straw, organic household waste and the solid fraction of separated slurry, were assessed against slurry management without biogas production, using LCA methodology. The analysis showed straw, which would have been left on arable fields, to be an environmentally superior co-substrate. Due to its low nutrient content and high methane potential, straw yields the lowest impacts for eutrophication and the highest climate change and fossil depletion savings. Co-substrates diverted from incineration to biogas production had fewer environmental benefits, due to the loss of energy production, which is then produced from conventional fossil fuels. The scenarios can often provide benefits for one impact category while causing impacts in another.

  13. Cost-Consequence Analysis of Multimodal Interventions with Environmental Components for Pediatric Asthma in the State of Maryland

    PubMed Central

    Jassal, Mandeep S.; Diette, Gregory B.; Dowdy, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Applied environmental strategies for asthma control are often expensive, but may save longer-term healthcare costs. Whether these savings outweigh additional costs of implementing these strategies is uncertain. Methods We conducted a systematic review to estimate the expenditures and savings of environmental interventions for asthma in the state of Maryland. Direct costs included hospitalizations, emergency room, and clinic visits. Indirect expenditures included costs of lost work productivity and travel incurred during the usage of healthcare services. We used decision analysis, assuming a hypothetical cohort of the approximated 49,290 pediatric individuals in Maryland with persistent asthma, to compare costs and benefits of environmental asthma interventions against the standard of care (no intervention) from the societal perspective. Results Three interventions among nine articles met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review: 1) environmental education using medical professionals; 2) education using non-medical personnel; and 3) multi-component strategy involving education with non-medical personnel, allergen-impermeable covers, and pest management. All interventions were found to be cost-saving relative to the standard of care. Home environmental education using non-medical professionals yielded the highest net savings of $14.1 million (95% simulation interval (SI): $−.283 million, $19.4 million), while the multi-component intervention resulted in the lowest net savings of $8.1 million (95% SI: $−4.9 million, $15.9 million). All strategies were most sensitive to the baseline number of hospitalizations in those not receiving targeted interventions for asthma. Conclusions Limited environmental reduction strategies for asthma are likely to be cost-saving to the healthcare system in Maryland and should be considered for broader scale-up in other economically similar settings. PMID:23614791

  14. DOE methods for evaluating environmental and waste management samples

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Thomas, B.L.; Riley, R.G.; Sklarew, D.S.; Mong, G.M.; Fadeff, S.K.

    1994-10-01

    DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods) is a resource intended to support sampling and analytical activities for the evaluation of environmental and waste management samples from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. DOE Methods is the result of extensive cooperation from all DOE analytical laboratories. All of these laboratories have contributed key information and provided technical reviews as well as significant moral support leading to the success of this document. DOE Methods is designed to encompass methods for collecting representative samples and for determining the radioisotope activity and organic and inorganic composition of a sample. These determinations will aid in defining the type and breadth of contamination and thus determine the extent of environmental restoration or waste management actions needed, as defined by the DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, or others. The development of DOE Methods is supported by the Analytical Services Division of DOE. Unique methods or methods consolidated from similar procedures in the DOE Procedures Database are selected for potential inclusion in this document. Initial selection is based largely on DOE needs and procedure applicability and completeness. Methods appearing in this document are one of two types, {open_quotes}Draft{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}Verified{close_quotes}. {open_quotes}Draft{close_quotes} methods that have been reviewed internally and show potential for eventual verification are included in this document, but they have not been reviewed externally, and their precision and bias may not be known. {open_quotes}Verified{close_quotes} methods in DOE Methods have been reviewed by volunteers from various DOE sites and private corporations. These methods have delineated measures of precision and accuracy.

  15. Consequences of environmental fluctuations on Taylor's power law and implications for the dynamics and persistence of populations.

    PubMed

    Pertoldi, C; Faurby, S

    2013-06-01

    Conservation Biologists have found that demographic stochasticity causes the mean time to extinction to increase exponentially with population size. This has proved helpful in analyses determining extinction times and characterizing the pathway to extinction. The aim of this investigation is to explore the possible interactions between environmental/demographic noises and the scaling effect of the mean population size with its variance, which is expected to follow Taylor's power law relationship. We showed that the combined effects of environmental/demographic noises and the scaling of population size variability interact with the population dynamics and affect the mean time to extinction.

  16. Environmental education curriculum evaluation questionnaire: A reliability and validity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minner, Daphne Diane

    The intention of this research project was to bridge the gap between social science research and application to the environmental domain through the development of a theoretically derived instrument designed to give educators a template by which to evaluate environmental education curricula. The theoretical base for instrument development was provided by several developmental theories such as Piaget's theory of cognitive development, Developmental Systems Theory, Life-span Perspective, as well as curriculum research within the area of environmental education. This theoretical base fueled the generation of a list of components which were then translated into a questionnaire with specific questions relevant to the environmental education domain. The specific research question for this project is: Can a valid assessment instrument based largely on human development and education theory be developed that reliably discriminates high, moderate, and low quality in environmental education curricula? The types of analyses conducted to answer this question were interrater reliability (percent agreement, Cohen's Kappa coefficient, Pearson's Product-Moment correlation coefficient), test-retest reliability (percent agreement, correlation), and criterion-related validity (correlation). Face validity and content validity were also assessed through thorough reviews. Overall results indicate that 29% of the questions on the questionnaire demonstrated a high level of interrater reliability and 43% of the questions demonstrated a moderate level of interrater reliability. Seventy-one percent of the questions demonstrated a high test-retest reliability and 5% a moderate level. Fifty-five percent of the questions on the questionnaire were reliable (high or moderate) both across time and raters. Only eight questions (8%) did not show either interrater or test-retest reliability. The global overall rating of high, medium, or low quality was reliable across both coders and time, indicating

  17. An Introduction to "My Environmental Education Evaluation Resource Assistant" (MEERA), a Web-Based Resource for Self-Directed Learning about Environmental Education Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zint, Michaela

    2010-01-01

    My Environmental Education Evaluation Resource Assistant or "MEERA" is a web-site designed to support environmental educators' program evaluation activities. MEERA has several characteristics that set it apart from other self-directed learning evaluation resources. Readers are encouraged to explore the site and to reflect on the role that…

  18. Enhancing Environmental Educators' Evaluation Competencies: Insights from an Examination of the Effectiveness of the "My Environmental Education Evaluation Resource Assistant" (MEERA) Website

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zint, Michaela T.; Dowd, Patrick F.; Covitt, Beth A.

    2011-01-01

    To conduct evaluations that can benefit individual programs as well as the field as a whole, environmental educators must have the necessary evaluation competencies. This exploratory study was conducted to determine to what extent a self-directed learning resource entitled "My Environmental Education Evaluation Resource Assistant" (MEERA) can…

  19. Linking automatic evaluation to mood and information processing style: consequences for experienced affect, impression formation, and stereotyping.

    PubMed

    Chartrand, Tanya L; van Baaren, Rick B; Bargh, John A

    2006-02-01

    According to the feelings-as-information account, a person's mood state signals to him or her the valence of the current environment (N. Schwarz & G. Clore, 1983). However, the ways in which the environment automatically influences mood in the first place remain to be explored. The authors propose that one mechanism by which the environment influences affect is automatic evaluation, the nonconscious evaluation of environmental stimuli as good or bad. A first experiment demonstrated that repeated brief exposure to positive or negative stimuli (which leads to automatic evaluation) induces a corresponding mood in participants. In 3 additional studies, the authors showed that automatic evaluation affects information processing style. Experiment 4 showed that participants' mood mediates the effect of valenced brief primes on information processing.

  20. Why Good Teaching Evaluations May Reward Bad Teaching: On Grade Inflation and Other Unintended Consequences of Student Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Stroebe, Wolfgang

    2016-11-01

    In this article, I address the paradox that university grade point averages have increased for decades, whereas the time students invest in their studies has decreased. I argue that one major contributor to this paradox is grading leniency, encouraged by the practice of university administrators to base important personnel decisions on student evaluations of teaching. Grading leniency creates strong incentives for instructors to teach in ways that would result in good student evaluations. Because many instructors believe that the average student prefers courses that are entertaining, require little work, and result in high grades, they feel under pressure to conform to those expectations. Evidence is presented that the positive association between student grades and their evaluation of teaching reflects a bias rather than teaching effectiveness. If good teaching evaluations reflected improved student learning due to effective teaching, they should be positively related to the grades received in subsequent courses that build on knowledge gained in the previous course. Findings that teaching evaluations of concurrent courses, though positively correlated with concurrent grades, are negatively related to student performance in subsequent courses are more consistent with the assumption that concurrent evaluations are the result of lenient grading rather than effective teaching. Policy implications are discussed.

  1. Bias in Research Grant Evaluation Has Dire Consequences for Small Universities

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Dennis L.; Morris, Douglas; Lavoie, Claude; Leavitt, Peter R.; MacIsaac, Hugh; Masson, Michael E. J.; Villard, Marc-Andre

    2016-01-01

    Federal funding for basic scientific research is the cornerstone of societal progress, economy, health and well-being. There is a direct relationship between financial investment in science and a nation’s scientific discoveries, making it a priority for governments to distribute public funding appropriately in support of the best science. However, research grant proposal success rate and funding level can be skewed toward certain groups of applicants, and such skew may be driven by systemic bias arising during grant proposal evaluation and scoring. Policies to best redress this problem are not well established. Here, we show that funding success and grant amounts for applications to Canada’s Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) Discovery Grant program (2011–2014) are consistently lower for applicants from small institutions. This pattern persists across applicant experience levels, is consistent among three criteria used to score grant proposals, and therefore is interpreted as representing systemic bias targeting applicants from small institutions. When current funding success rates are projected forward, forecasts reveal that future science funding at small schools in Canada will decline precipitously in the next decade, if skews are left uncorrected. We show that a recently-adopted pilot program to bolster success by lowering standards for select applicants from small institutions will not erase funding skew, nor will several other post-evaluation corrective measures. Rather, to support objective and robust review of grant applications, it is necessary for research councils to address evaluation skew directly, by adopting procedures such as blind review of research proposals and bibliometric assessment of performance. Such measures will be important in restoring confidence in the objectivity and fairness of science funding decisions. Likewise, small institutions can improve their research success by more strongly supporting productive

  2. Bias in Research Grant Evaluation Has Dire Consequences for Small Universities.

    PubMed

    Murray, Dennis L; Morris, Douglas; Lavoie, Claude; Leavitt, Peter R; MacIsaac, Hugh; Masson, Michael E J; Villard, Marc-Andre

    2016-01-01

    Federal funding for basic scientific research is the cornerstone of societal progress, economy, health and well-being. There is a direct relationship between financial investment in science and a nation's scientific discoveries, making it a priority for governments to distribute public funding appropriately in support of the best science. However, research grant proposal success rate and funding level can be skewed toward certain groups of applicants, and such skew may be driven by systemic bias arising during grant proposal evaluation and scoring. Policies to best redress this problem are not well established. Here, we show that funding success and grant amounts for applications to Canada's Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) Discovery Grant program (2011-2014) are consistently lower for applicants from small institutions. This pattern persists across applicant experience levels, is consistent among three criteria used to score grant proposals, and therefore is interpreted as representing systemic bias targeting applicants from small institutions. When current funding success rates are projected forward, forecasts reveal that future science funding at small schools in Canada will decline precipitously in the next decade, if skews are left uncorrected. We show that a recently-adopted pilot program to bolster success by lowering standards for select applicants from small institutions will not erase funding skew, nor will several other post-evaluation corrective measures. Rather, to support objective and robust review of grant applications, it is necessary for research councils to address evaluation skew directly, by adopting procedures such as blind review of research proposals and bibliometric assessment of performance. Such measures will be important in restoring confidence in the objectivity and fairness of science funding decisions. Likewise, small institutions can improve their research success by more strongly supporting productive

  3. The Production of Information for Genred Activity Spaces: Informational Motives and Consequences of the Environmental Impact Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazerman, Charles; Little, Joseph; Chavkin, Teri

    2003-01-01

    Genres, although aligning people to joint activity and joint attention, shape the substantive material or information represented within the bounded space of the text. Each genre creates a space that prompts the production of particular kinds of information to populate that space. The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 that mandated the…

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND ENERGY IMPACTS OF MATERIAL RECOVERY FACILITIES - A MITE PROGRAM EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents an evaluation of the environmental, economic, and energy impacts of material recovery facilities (MRFS) conducted under the Municipal Solid Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program. he MITE Program is sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protecti...

  5. Interaction between cognitive style and school environment: consequences on self-evaluated anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Russo, P; Persegani, C; Carucci, C; Vallini, I; Papeschi, L L; Trimarchi, M

    2001-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of the interaction between cognitive style (CS) and school environment on self-perceived anxiety and depression. Two groups of 280 students each--one attending Fine Arts school and the other one Humanities school--were evaluated. CS was assessed by Preference Test, a paper-and-pencil test providing a measure of the extent to which individuals rely on the cognitive processes of each hemisphere. Anxiety and depression were assessed by a visual-analogue scale. Right-CS was associated to higher depressive tendencies than left-CS, and a similar but not significant pattern was observed for anxiety. A significant interaction between CS and school environment was found, i.e., the more the CS was in consonance with the environment cognitive demands, the less depressive tendencies were present, and vice versa.

  6. Considerations of Environmentally Relevant Test Conditions for Improved Evaluation of Ecological Hazards of Engineered Nanomaterials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly entering the environment with uncertain consequences including potential ecological effects. Various research communities view differently whether ecotoxicological testing of ENMs should be conducted using environmentally relevant ...

  7. Evaluation of product design in environmentally conscious manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera-Becerra, Alejandro; Lin, Li

    2001-02-01

    This research presents an evaluation method to support design decision-making early in the design stage. The method is aimed at solid consumer products, and incorporates our previous work on Environmental Consciousness Criteria (ECC). A framework is defined as the foundation for the problem analysis, consisting of four mapping schemas connecting the product to the natural environment. We approach the problem of designing an environmentally conscious product as that of making decisions to incorporate the ECC as design progresses from the conceptual to the preliminary to the parametric design phases. A methodology is developed whose focus is on both the material properties and the geometric features of the product, and on how these impact the product's disposal stage. The method uses fuzzy methods and Multi Attribute Utility Analysis (MAUA). It is able to accommodate the varying degrees of uncertainty and availability of information, as well as other criteria such as cost. An analysis of cost implications from recovery is presented also. Application of this decision-making method will assist designers in maintaining environmental leadership in product development beyond the manufacturing stage.

  8. Environmental and economic evaluation of natural capital appropriation through building construction: practical case study in the Italian context.

    PubMed

    Bastianoni, Simone; Galli, Alessandro; Pulselli, Riccardo Maria; Niccolucci, Valentina

    2007-11-01

    This paper focuses on appropriation of natural capital through construction of buildings. The ecological footprint and the Costanza natural capital concepts are applied. The environmental consequences of human settlement are currently of great concern, and a need is felt to reduce the impact of building on the environment. The embodied energy of building materials and the "land area" required to sustain their production are considered to evaluate the demand on nature of this activity. The ecological footprints of 2 typical Italian buildings are compared. The paper also focuses on how to reduce the natural capital appropriation of building construction by means of environmentally inexpensive materials, renewable energy resources, and optimization of the use of bioproductive land by construction of multistoried buildings. Finally, to allocate an environmental load of buildings, an economic evaluation of natural capital appropriation through building construction is proposed.

  9. 14 CFR 325.13 - Environmental evaluations and energy information not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental evaluations and energy... Environmental evaluations and energy information not required. Notwithstanding any provision of part 312 or part... environmental evaluation or energy information with the application....

  10. 14 CFR 325.13 - Environmental evaluations and energy information not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental evaluations and energy... Environmental evaluations and energy information not required. Notwithstanding any provision of part 312 or part... environmental evaluation or energy information with the application....

  11. 14 CFR 325.13 - Environmental evaluations and energy information not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental evaluations and energy... Environmental evaluations and energy information not required. Notwithstanding any provision of part 312 or part... environmental evaluation or energy information with the application....

  12. 14 CFR 325.13 - Environmental evaluations and energy information not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental evaluations and energy... Environmental evaluations and energy information not required. Notwithstanding any provision of part 312 or part... environmental evaluation or energy information with the application....

  13. Evaluation of the long-term oral consequences of equine exodontia in 50 horses.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Neil B; Dixon, Padraic M; Barakzai, Safia Z

    2008-12-01

    The aims of this study were to objectively evaluate and quantify the process of post-extraction cheek teeth (CT) dental drift in horses, and to report on associated disorders of CT wear and long-term periodontal health. Fifty horses that had CT oral extraction because of apical infection were prospectively re-examined and a full oral examination, including measurements of some dental parameters, was performed. Narrowing of the extraction space was noted in all cases with complete closure occurring in 18% of horses. The rate of dental drift was calculated as 15.7% of extraction space/year (range 4-50%) and was not associated with the age at extraction (P=0.78) or frequency of dental care since extraction (P=0.48). There was a significant negative relationship between the rate of dental drift and the duration of time since extraction (P=0.008). Overgrowths were present on the opposite CT row in 98% of horses, including opposite the extracted CT and on the Triadan 06s and 11s. No significant difference was noted in either the number of diastemata (P=0.9) or periodontal disease score (P=0.8) between the extraction and the contralateral cheek tooth rows.

  14. Determining Risk - How to Evaluate the Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copping, A. E.; Blake, K.; Zdanski, L.

    2011-12-01

    As marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy development projects progress towards early deployments in the U.S., the process of determining the risks to aquatic animals, habitats, and ecosystem processes from these engineered systems continues to be a significant barrier to efficient siting and permitting. Understanding the risk of MHK installations requires that the two elements of risk - consequence and probability - be evaluated. However, standard risk assessment methodologies are not easily applied to MHK interactions with marine and riverine environment as there are few data that describe the interaction of stressors (MHK devices, anchors, foundations, mooring lines and power cables) and receptors (aquatic animals, habitats and ecosystem processes). The number of possible combinations and permutations of stressors and receptors in MHK systems is large: there are many different technologies designed to harvest energy from the tides, waves and flowing rivers; each device is planned for a specific waterbody that supports an endemic ecosystem of animals and habitats, tied together by specific physical and chemical processes. With few appropriate analogue industries in the oceans and rivers, little information on the effects of these technologies on the living world is available. Similarly, without robust data sets of interactions, mathematical probability models are difficult to apply. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists are working with MHK developers, researchers, engineers, and regulators to rank the consequences of planned MHK projects on living systems, and exploring alternative methodologies to estimate probabilities of these encounters. This paper will present the results of ERES, the Environmental Risk Evaluation System, which has been used to rank consequences for major animal groups and habitats for five MHK projects that are in advanced stages of development and/or early commercial deployment. Probability analyses have been performed for high

  15. Evaluation of the hematoma consequences, neurobehavioral profiles, and histopathology in a rat model of pontine hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Lekic, Tim; Rolland, William; Manaenko, Anatol; Krafft, Paul R.; Kamper, Joel E.; Suzuki, Hidenori; Hartman, Richard E.; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Object Primary pontine hemorrhage (PPH) represents approximately 7% of all intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs) and is a clinical condition of which little is known. The aim of this study was to characterize the early brain injury, neurobehavioral outcome, and long-term histopathology in a novel preclinical rat model of PPH. Methods The authors stereotactically infused collagenase (Type VII) into the ventral pontine tegmentum of the rats, in accordance with the most commonly affected clinical region. Measures of cerebrovascular permeability (brain water content, hemoglobin assay, Evans blue, collagen Type IV, ZO-1, and MMP-2 and MMP-9) and neurological deficit were quantified at 24 hours postinfusion (Experiment 1). Functional outcome was measured over a 30-day period using a vertebrobasilar scale (the modified Voetsch score), open field, wire suspension, beam balance, and inclined-plane tests (Experiment 2). Neurocognitive ability was determined at Week 3 using the rotarod (motor learning), T-maze (working memory), and water maze (spatial learning and memory) (Experiment 3), followed by histopathological analysis 1 week later (Experiment 4). Results Stereotactic collagenase infusion caused dose-dependent elevations in hematoma volume, brain edema, neurological deficit, and blood-brain barrier rupture, while physiological variables remained stable. Functional outcomes mostly normalized by Week 3, whereas neurocognitive deficits paralleled the cystic cavitary lesion at 30 days. Obstructive hydrocephalus did not develop despite a clinically relevant 30-day mortality rate (approximately 54%). Conclusions These results suggest that the model can mimic several translational aspects of pontine hemorrhage in humans and can be used in the evaluation of potential preclinical therapeutic interventions. PMID:23198805

  16. Evaluating environmental sustainability: an integration of multiple-criteria decision-making and fuzzy logic.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kevin F R

    2007-05-01

    While pursuing economic development, countries around the world have become aware of the importance of environmental sustainability; therefore, the evaluation of environmental sustainability has become a significant issue. Traditionally, multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM) was widely used as a way of evaluating environmental sustainability, Recently, several researchers have attempted to implement this evaluation with fuzzy logic since they recognized the assessment of environmental sustainability as a subjective judgment Intuition. This paper outlines a new evaluation-framework of environmental sustainability, which integrates fuzzy logic into MCDM. This evaluation-framework consists of 36 structured and 5 unstructured decision-points, wherein MCDM is used to handle the former and fuzzy logic serves for the latter, With the integrated evaluation-framework, the evaluations of environmental sustainability in 146 countries are calculated, ranked and clustered, and the evaluation results are very helpful to these countries, as they identify their obstacles towards environmental sustainability.

  17. Some biological consequences of environmental change: a study using barnacles (Cirripedia: Balanomorpha) and gum trees (Angiospermae: Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, John S

    2010-06-01

    Uniformitarianism permits understanding of the past on the basis of the present, and modeling the future through consideration of the fossil record. The present paper addresses the impact environmental (climatic) change has had on acorn barnacles and eucalyptus trees. Acorn barnacles (Balanomorpha) are first recorded after the K/T mass-extinction event. In the Paleogene, rapid radiation resulted in their occupying most marine environments. That balanomorphs survived both the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum and the Pleistocene glaciation is testament to their ability to adapt to opportunities; they are known from the littoral (Chamaesipho) to depths of 3600 m (Tetrachaelasma) and within this from diverse substrates: rock, wood and miscellaneous flotsam, plus in symbiosis or commensalism with most larger marine organisms. Darwin's (1854) view of the late Tertiary as the age of barnacles is reflected in their diversity, distribution and biomass. Barnacles are contrasted with the Australian Myrtaceae: plants ranging from woody shrubs to tall trees. The most significant is Eucalyptus sensu lato, which typifies Australia's flora, and is characterized by aromatic leaves that produce eucalyptol. Eucalyptus has evolved strategies that result in its domination of Australian open woodlands: these include production of highly flammable eucalyptol oil (with a flashpoint of 49 °C) and an unprecedented ability to regenerate following forest fires. Gum trees and barnacles first appear in the Paleogene, their earliest records are Australasian, and they both demonstrate extraordinary resilience when environmental conditions are optimal.

  18. Valuation and the consequences of multiple sources of environmental deterioration: The case of the New York striped bass fishery

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, J.R. ); Buerger, R.B. )

    1994-03-01

    This paper examines two sources of environmental degradation in the New York striped bass fishery. The first is the decline in environmental quality in the Chesapeake Bay, the spawning ground for the majority of fish in New York waters. The second is the PCB contamination of striped bass from the Hudson River, the other primary spawning ground for striped bass in New York waters. The paper develops methodologies for examining loss in economic value, when the loss stems from two sources. The estimates resulting from the application of these methodologies suggest that the general deterioration of the Chesapeake Bay generated 2[center dot]3 to 7[center dot]7 million dollars in annual losses to the New York striped bass fishery, and that the annual losses from PCB contamination of the Hudson striped bass are between 0[center dot]745 and 3[center dot]7 million dollars. The paper also discusses how the dual sources of degradation generate barriers to the formation of effective management policy, and develops policy recommendations based on the estimated losses. 9 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Role of serpentinization in the thermal and connected mineral evolution of planetesimals - evaluating possible consequences for exoplanetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Góbi, Sándor; Kereszturi, Ákos

    2017-04-01

    This work gives an overview on the general consequences of serpentinization occurring in the planetesimals of any planetary system. These processes were studied by numerical simulations and the model used - based on earlier works - was developed by implementing the effect of interfacial water. As liquid water is fundamentally required for serpentinization, previous simulations considered only such cases when the initial temperature inside the planetesimal was above the melting point of ice thus neglecting the effect of microscopic water layer completely. However, our results show that it must be taken into account and since it facilitates the reaction to occur at temperatures even as low as 200 K - at which bulk liquid water is completely absent - it substantially broadens the initiation of this alteration regarding the range of possible objects. Investigating the effect of changing the initial parameters helps examine the serpentinization in more general terms. Consequently, the findings described here are ubiquitous and can be applied to any exoplanetary system, even if the initial conditions differ considerably from those that were characteristic to our early Solar system. As a first step towards the generalization of such heating processes, we evaluate the role of composition, starting temperature, porosity and planetesimal size on this heating effect. Besides heat generated by decay of radioactive nuclei, serpentinization should be considered as a 'universal process' in the thermal evolution of planetesimals, and variations of parameters considered in this model might provide an insight into differences between objects in various protoplanetary discs.

  20. Negative pH, efflorescent mineralogy, and consequences for environmental restoration at the iron mountain superfund site, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D.K.; Alpers, C.N.

    1999-01-01

    The Richmond Mine of the Iron Mountain copper deposit contains some of the most acid mine waters ever reported. Values of pH have been measured as low as -3.6, combined metal concentrations as high as 200 g/liter, and sulfate concentrations as high as 760 g/liter. Copious quantities of soluble metal sulfate salts such as melanterite, chalcanthite, coquimbite, rhomboclase, voltaite, copiapite, and halotrichite have been identified, and some of these are forming from negative-pH mine waters. Geochemical calculations show that, under a mine-plugging remediation scenario, these salts would dissolve and the resultant 600,000-m3 mine pool would have a pH of 1 or less and contain several grams of dissolved metals per liter, much like the current portal effluent water. In the absence of plugging or other at-source control, current weathering rates indicate that the portal effluent will continue for approximately 3,000 years. Other remedial actions have greatly reduced metal loads into downstream drainages and the Sacramento River, primarily by capturing the major acidic discharges and routing them to a lime neutralization plant. Incorporation of geochemical modeling and mineralogical expertise into the decision-making process for remediation can save time, save money, and reduce the likelihood of deleterious consequences.

  1. Negative pH, efflorescent mineralogy, and consequences for environmental restoration at the Iron Mountain Superfund site, California

    PubMed Central

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Alpers, Charles N.

    1999-01-01

    The Richmond Mine of the Iron Mountain copper deposit contains some of the most acid mine waters ever reported. Values of pH have been measured as low as −3.6, combined metal concentrations as high as 200 g/liter, and sulfate concentrations as high as 760 g/liter. Copious quantities of soluble metal sulfate salts such as melanterite, chalcanthite, coquimbite, rhomboclase, voltaite, copiapite, and halotrichite have been identified, and some of these are forming from negative-pH mine waters. Geochemical calculations show that, under a mine-plugging remediation scenario, these salts would dissolve and the resultant 600,000-m3 mine pool would have a pH of 1 or less and contain several grams of dissolved metals per liter, much like the current portal effluent water. In the absence of plugging or other at-source control, current weathering rates indicate that the portal effluent will continue for approximately 3,000 years. Other remedial actions have greatly reduced metal loads into downstream drainages and the Sacramento River, primarily by capturing the major acidic discharges and routing them to a lime neutralization plant. Incorporation of geochemical modeling and mineralogical expertise into the decision-making process for remediation can save time, save money, and reduce the likelihood of deleterious consequences. PMID:10097057

  2. Evaluating the environmental impacts of the energy system: The ENPEP (ENergy and Power Evaluation Program) approach

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, B.P.; Sapinski, P.F.; Cirillo, R.R.; Buehring, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed the ENergy and Power Evaluation Program (ENPEP), a PC-based energy planning package intended for energy/environmental analysis in developing countries. The IMPACTS module of ENPEP examines environmental implications of overall energy and electricity supply strategies that can be developed with other ENPEP modules, including ELECTRIC, the International Atomic Energy Agency's Wien Automatic System Planning Package (WASP-III). The paper presents the status and characteristics of a new IMPACTS module that is now under development at ANL. 3 figs.

  3. Eco-environmental quality evaluation of Huaibei Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M.; Zhu, Y.; Lü, H.; Li, Y.; Zhou, X.; Chen, Y.

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, the destruction of the ecological environment in Huaibei Plain has limited the development of the economy. Doing research on eco-environment quality evaluation methods may be helpful to the recovery of the eco-environment in Huaibei Plain and the construction of ecological civilization. A new assessment system was introduced in this paper on the basis of a traditional eco-environmental evaluation method; the NPP index was used to replace biological abundance index and vegetation coverage index. This new method was used to evaluate the eco-environment quality of Huaibei Plain. Results indicate that: (a) the eco-environment of Huaibei Plain has been getting worse since 1990, but has improved since 2000; (b) the water-network density index is the key factor which affects the eco-environment of Huaibei Plain; (c) If human activities, pollution control, land degradation and urban area development are not taken into consideration, the eco-environment of Huaibei Plain in dry years will be serious.

  4. Long-term environmental impacts of building composites containing waste materials: Evaluation of the leaching protocols.

    PubMed

    Drinčić, Ana; Nikolić, Irena; Zuliani, Tea; Milačič, Radmila; Ščančar, Janez

    2017-01-01

    The NEN 7375 test has been proposed for evaluating the long-term environmental impacts caused by the release of contaminants from monolithic building and waste materials. Over a period of 64days, at specific points in time, the leaching solution (demineralised water) is replenished. By applying the NEN 7375 test, leaching of contaminants that is based mainly on diffusion is followed. In the present work, the results from modified leaching protocols were evaluated against those obtained by NEN 7375 test. In modified protocols, synthetic sea, surface and MilliQ water were used for the leaching of selected elements and chromate, molybdate and vanadate from compact and ground building composites (98% mixture of fly ash (80%) and cement (20%), and 2% of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust) over 6months. The leaching solutions were not replenished, imitating both the diffusion and the dissolution of contaminants. The data revealed larger extent of leaching when the leaching solution was not replenished. More extensive was also leaching from ground composites, which simulated the disintegration of the material over time. The composition of the leaching solution influenced the release of the matrix constituents from the composites and, consequently, the amount of elements and their chemical species. Synthetic sea and surface water used as leaching solutions, without replenishing, were found to be suitable to simulate the conditions when the building material is immersed in stagnant environmental waters.

  5. Analytical evaluation of laboratories wishing to perform environmental characterization studies

    SciTech Connect

    Lauenstein, G.G.; Cantillo, A.Y.

    1997-07-01

    Laboratories competing to analyze bivalve mollusks under contract to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration`s Mussel Watch Project were required to undergo analytical tests of their ability to quantify environmental contaminants as part of the contract evaluation process. During the 1989 selection process laboratories that appeared to qualify on the basis of their written proposals were provided a gravimetrically prepared solution with unknown quantities of an undefined number of organic contaminants that are regularly quantified for the Mussel Watch Project. In 1994, competing laboratories were once again tested but this time using matrix materials for the quantification of both trace elements and organic contaminants. Three laboratory groups participated in the exercises. For the 1989 gravimetrically prepared solutions, all participating laboratories were able to identify the contaminants present and in all but two cases were able to report values to within {+-}25% of the known values. In 1994, all laboratories were within the acceptance criteria for the quantification of trace elements in the homogenate sample. Analytical laboratory testing is an important first step to ensure that environmental characterization studies are successful.

  6. Evaluation of environmental genotoxicity by comet assay in Columba livia.

    PubMed

    González-Acevedo, Anahi; García-Salas, Juan A; Gosálvez, Jaime; Fernández, José Luis; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Méndez-López, Luis F; Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of recognized or suspected genotoxic and carcinogenic agents found in the air of large cities and, in particular, developing countries, have raised concerns about the potential for chronic health effects in the populations exposed to them. The biomonitoring of environmental genotoxicity requires the selection of representative organisms as "sentinels," as well as the development of suitable and sensitive assays, such as those aimed at assessing DNA damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate DNA damage levels in erythrocytes from Columba livia living in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Mexico, compared with control animals via comet assay, and to confirm the results via Micronuclei test (MN) and DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH). Our results showed a significant increase in DNA migration in animals from the area assayed compared with that observed in control animals sampled in non-contaminated areas. These results were confirmed by MN test and DBD-FISH. In conclusion, these observations confirm that the examination of erythrocytes from Columba livia via alkaline comet assay provides a sensitive and reliable end point for the detection of environmental genotoxicants.

  7. Nondestructive evaluation of environmental barrier coatings in CFCC combustor liners.

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, J. G.; Benz, J.; Ellingson, W. A.; Kimmel, J. B.; Price, J. R.; Energy Technology; Solar Turbines, Inc

    2007-01-01

    Advanced combustor liners fabricated of SiC/SiC continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composite (CFCC) and covered with environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) have been successfully tested in Solar Turbines Inc. field engines. The primary goal for the CFCC/EBC liners is to reach a 30,000-h lifetime. Because the EBCs, when applied on the hot surfaces of liners, protect the underlying CFCC from oxidation damage, their performance is critical in achieving the lifetime goal. To determine CFCC/EBC liner condition and assess operating damage, the liners were subjected to nondestructive evaluation (NDE) during various processing stages, as well as before and after the engine test. The NDE techniques included pulsed infrared thermal imaging, air-coupled ultrasonic scanning, and X-ray computerized tomography. It was found that EBC damage and spallation depend on the condition of the CFCC material. The NDE results and correlations with destructive examination are discussed.

  8. Gas emissions due to magma-sediment interactions during flood magmatism at the Siberian Traps: Gas dispersion and environmental consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacono-Marziano, Giada; Marecal, Virginie; Pirre, Michel; Gaillard, Fabrice; Arteta, Joaquim; Scaillet, Bruno; Arndt, Nicholas T.

    2012-12-01

    We estimate the fluxes of extremely reduced gas emissions produced during the emplacement of the Siberian Traps large igneous province, due to magma intrusion in the coaliferous sediments of the Tunguska Basin. Using the results of a companion paper (Iacono-Marziano et al., accepted for publication), and a recent work about low temperature interaction between magma and organic matter (Svensen et al., 2009), we calculate CO-CH4-dominated gas emission rates of 7×1015-2×1016 g/yr for a single magmatic/volcanic event. These fluxes are 7-20 times higher than those calculated for purely magmatic gas emissions, in the absence of interaction with organic matter-rich sediments. We investigate, by means of atmospheric modelling employing present geography of Siberia, the short and mid-term dispersion of these gas emissions into the atmosphere. The lateral propagation of CO and CH4 leads to an important perturbation of the atmosphere chemistry, consisting in a strong reduction of the radical OH concentration. As a consequence, both CO and CH4 lifetimes in the lower atmosphere are enhanced by a factor of at least 3, at the continental scale, as a consequence of 30 days of magmatic activity. The short-term effect of the injection of carbon monoxide and methane into the atmosphere is therefore to increase the residence times of these two species and, in turn, their capacity of geographic expansion. The estimated CO and CH4 volume mixing ratios (i.e. the number of molecules of CO or CH4 per cm3, divided by the total number of molecules per cm3) in the low atmosphere are 2-5 ppmv at the continental scale and locally higher than 50 ppmv. The dimension of the area affected by these high volume mixing ratios decreases in the presence of a lava flow accompanying magma intrusion at depth. Complementary calculations for a 10-yr duration of the magmatic activity suggest (i) an increase in the mean CH4 volume mixing ratio of the whole atmosphere up to values 3-15 times higher than the

  9. Evaluating Environmental Knowledge Dimension Convergence to Assess Educational Programme Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liefländer, Anne K.; Bogner, Franz X.; Kibbe, Alexandra; Kaiser, Florian G.

    2015-01-01

    One aim of environmental education is fostering sustainable environmental action. Some environmental behaviour models suggest that this can be accomplished in part by improving people's knowledge. Recent studies have identified a distinct, psychometrically supported environmental knowledge structure consisting of system, action-related and…

  10. Initial Evaluation of Space Environmental Effects on the NGST Sunshield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooldridge, Eve M.; Powers, Charles

    1998-01-01

    The "Next Generation Space Telescope" (NGST), the follow-on telescope to the Hubble Space Telescope, will carry on exploration of the early universe with a primary mirror 6-8 meters in diameter optimized to operate in the infrared. The mirror and its instruments will perform extremely deep exposures at near infra-red wavelengths (0.5-30 microns), and will operate for 5-10 years. In order to achieve the requirements, cryogenic temperatures between 30-60 Kelvin must be maintained on the telescope (OTA) and in the science module (SIM). A primary feature for passive cooling in the designs presented is that of an enormous, light-weight deployable sunshield. As a result, issues of contamination from the sunshield and space environmental effects on the sunshield itself present a critical matter: if the sunshield becomes a source of contamination, or if environmental effects damage the sunshield, the NGST mission could be compromised or could fail completely. A molecular redistribution analysis has been performed on the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) design for NGST. The analysis revealed that because the shield will initially cool down faster than the OTA, the shield would not be a significant source of molecular contamination during the cooling phase. However, if the shield were ever to warm up, it would be a very large source of molecular contamination. The sunshield itself is susceptible to degradation from an external source of contamination: the space environment at L2 or at 1 x 3 AU. It is therefore necessary to design the sunshield to withstand the space environment. Thin films and coatings on the sunshield have been evaluated and testing has begun so that a suitable film and/or coating can be chosen or developed for the NGST mission. The evaluation and test results will be presented.

  11. Plastic larval development in a butterfly has complex environmental and genetic causes and consequences for population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Saastamoinen, Marjo; Ikonen, Suvi; Wong, Swee C; Lehtonen, Rainer; Hanski, Ilkka

    2013-05-01

    1. In insects, the length of larval development time typically influences adult body size and individual fitness, and hence development time can be expected to respond in an adaptive manner to variation in environmental conditions. In the wild, larval growth may be influenced by individual condition, which can be affected by population-level parameters such as population density and abundance and quality of resources. 2. We sampled larvae of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) from 514 local populations across a large metapopulation before the winter diapause and reared the larvae in common garden conditions after diapause. Here, we report that small post-diapause larvae prolonged their development via an extra larval instar, apparently to compensate for their 'bad start' after diapause. The number of instars was additionally a plastic response to environmental conditions, as the frequency of the extra instar increased under cooler thermal conditions. 3. The benefit of the extra instar is clear, as it allows individuals to develop into larger adults, but the cost is delayed adult eclosion, which is likely to select against the extra instar especially in males, in which early eclosion is critical for mating success. In support of this, the frequency of the extra instar was significantly lower in males (7%) than in females (42%). 4. Polymorphisms in three genes, serpin-1, vitellin-degrading protease precursor and phosphoglucose isomerase, which are known to influence development in insects, were associated with the occurrence of the extra instar. 5. At the level of local populations, the frequency of the extra instar was higher in newly established populations than that in old local ones, possibly reflecting maternal effects, as new populations are often established by females with heavy investment in dispersal. The frequency of the extra instar in turn correlated with the change in population size over 1 year and the risk of local extinction in the

  12. Evaluation and cross-validation of Environmental Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, Joseph

    Before scientific models (statistical or empirical models based on experimental measurements; physical or mathematical models) can be proposed and selected as ISO Environmental Standards, a Commission of professional experts appointed by an established International Union or Association (e.g. IAGA for Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, . . . ) should have been able to study, document, evaluate and validate the best alternative models available at a given epoch. Examples will be given, indicating that different values for the Earth radius have been employed in different data processing laboratories, institutes or agencies, to process, analyse or retrieve series of experimental observations. Furthermore, invariant magnetic coordinates like B and L, commonly used in the study of Earth's radiation belts fluxes and for their mapping, differ from one space mission data center to the other, from team to team, and from country to country. Worse, users of empirical models generally fail to use the original magnetic model which had been employed to compile B and L , and thus to build these environmental models. These are just some flagrant examples of inconsistencies and misuses identified so far; there are probably more of them to be uncovered by careful, independent examination and benchmarking. A meter prototype, the standard unit length that has been determined on 20 May 1875, during the Diplomatic Conference of the Meter, and deposited at the BIPM (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures). In the same token, to coordinate and safeguard progress in the field of Space Weather, similar initiatives need to be undertaken, to prevent wild, uncontrolled dissemination of pseudo Environmental Models and Standards. Indeed, unless validation tests have been performed, there is guaranty, a priori, that all models on the market place have been built consistently with the same units system, and that they are based on identical definitions for the coordinates systems, etc... Therefore

  13. Temporal-spatial climate change in the last 35 years in Tibet and its geo-environmental consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Guo, Qinghai; Wang, Yanxin

    2008-06-01

    The climate change in Tibet has induced complex water resource and geo-environmental changes. Tibet is located in a unique geographical zone with the characteristics of middle-low latitude, high altitude and very low average air temperature, and the climate there has been changed both in time and in space under the effect of global warming. Except for two regions without data, the changes of both air temperature and rainfall in the last 35 years in Tibet exhibit evident zonational patterns. In general, air temperature increases higher from east to west, whereas rainfall changes from decrease to increase from south to north. Except for some areas in southern Tibet, the general increase of rainfall accelerated the rate of water cycle, and caused an increase in the gross amount of water resources in Tibet. Moreover, under the impact of climate change, the frequency of occurrence of landslide and debris flow has slightly increased in the high mountain canyon regions of eastern Tibet. Also, the debris flow due to ice lake outburst has evidently increased in the plateau mountain lake basin regions of southern Tibet. By contrast, desertification in the western plateau lake basin regions of northern Tibet has been intensified.

  14. Defending public interests in private lands: compliance, costs and potential environmental consequences of the Brazilian Forest Code in Mato Grosso

    PubMed Central

    Stickler, Claudia M.; Nepstad, Daniel C.; Azevedo, Andrea A.; McGrath, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Land-use regulations are a critical component of forest governance and conservation strategies, but their effectiveness in shaping landholder behaviour is poorly understood. We conducted a spatial and temporal analysis of the Brazilian Forest Code (BFC) to understand the patterns of regulatory compliance over time and across changes in the policy, and the implications of these compliance patterns for the perceived costs to landholders and environmental performance of agricultural landscapes in the southern Amazon state of Mato Grosso. Landholdings tended to remain in compliance or not according to their status at the beginning of the study period. The perceived economic burden of BFC compliance on soya bean and beef producers (US$3–5.6 billion in net present value of the land) may in part explain the massive, successful campaign launched by the farm lobby to change the BFC. The ecological benefits of compliance (e.g. greater connectivity and carbon) with the BFC are diffuse and do not compete effectively with the economic benefits of non-compliance that are perceived by landholders. Volatile regulation of land-use decisions that affect billions in economic rent that could be captured is an inadequate forest governance instrument; effectiveness of such regulations may increase when implemented in tandem with positive incentives for forest conservation. PMID:23610168

  15. Environmental consequences of a power plant shut-down: a three-dimensional water quality model of Dublin Bay.

    PubMed

    Bedri, Zeinab; Bruen, Michael; Dowley, Aodh; Masterson, Bartholomew

    2013-06-15

    A hydro-environmental model is used to investigate the effect of cessation of thermal discharges from a power plant on the bathing water quality of Dublin Bay. Before closing down, cooling water from the plant was mixed with sewage effluent prior to its discharge, creating a warmer, less-saline buoyant pollutant plume that adversely affects the water quality of Dublin Bay. The model, calibrated to data from the period prior to the power-plant shut-down (Scenario1), assessed the water quality following its shut-down under two scenarios; (i) Scenario2: continued abstraction of water to dilute sewage effluents before discharge, and (ii) Scnenario3: sewage effluents are discharged directly into the Estuary. Comparison between scenarios was based on distribution of Escherichia coli (E. coli), a main bathing quality indicator. Scenarios1 and 2, showed almost similar E. coli distribution patterns while Scenario3 displayed significantly higher E. coli concentrations due to the increased stratification caused by the lack of prior dilution.

  16. Impacts of ionic strength on three-dimensional nanoparticle aggregate structure and consequences for environmental transport and deposition.

    PubMed

    Legg, Benjamin A; Zhu, Mengqiang; Comolli, Luis R; Gilbert, Benjamin; Banfield, Jillian F

    2014-12-02

    The transport of nanoparticles through aqueous systems is a complex process with important environmental policy ramifications. Ferrihydrite nanoparticles commonly form aggregates, with structures that depend upon solution chemistry. The impact of aggregation state on transport and deposition is not fully understood. In this study, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) were used to directly observe the aggregate structure of ferrihydrite nanoparticles and show how the aggregate structure responds to changing ionic strength. These results were correlated with complementary studies on ferrihydrite transport through saturated quartz sand columns. Within deionized water, nanoparticles form stable suspensions of low-density fractal aggregates that are resistant to collapse. The particles subsequently show limited deposition on sand grain surfaces. Within sodium nitrate solutions the aggregates collapse into denser clusters, and nanoparticle deposition increases dramatically by forming thick, localized, and mechanically unstable deposits. Such deposits limit nanoparticle transport and make transport less predictable. The action of ionic strength is distinct from simpler models of colloidal stability and transport, in that salt not only drives aggregation or attachment but also alters the behavior of preexisting aggregates by triggering their collapse.

  17. Performance Evaluation Tests for Environmental Research (PETER): evaluation of 114 measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittner, A. C. Jr; Carter, R. C.; Kennedy, R. S.; Harbeson, M. M.; Krause, M.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of the Performance Evaluation Tests for Environmental Research (PETER) Program was to identify a set of measures of human capabilities for use in the study of environmental and other time-course effects. 114 measures studied in the PETER Program were evaluated and categorized into four groups based upon task stability and task definition. The Recommended category contained 30 measures that clearly obtained total stabilization and had an acceptable level of reliability efficiency. The Acceptable-But-Redundant category contained 15 measures. The 37 measures in the Marginal category, which included an inordinate number of slope and other derived measures, usually had desirable features which were outweighed by faults. The 32 measures in the Unacceptable category had either differential instability or weak reliability efficiency. It is our opinion that the 30 measures in the Recommended category should be given first consideration for environmental research applications. Further, it is recommended that information pertaining to preexperimental practice requirements and stabilized reliabilities should be utilized in repeated-measures environmental studies.

  18. Environmental Consequences of Invasive Species: Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Insecticide Use and the Role of Biological Control in Reducing Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Heimpel, George E.; Yang, Yi; Hill, Jason D.; Ragsdale, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions associated with pesticide applications against invasive species constitute an environmental cost of species invasions that has remained largely unrecognized. Here we calculate greenhouse gas emissions associated with the invasion of an agricultural pest from Asia to North America. The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, was first discovered in North America in 2000, and has led to a substantial increase in insecticide use in soybeans. We estimate that the manufacture, transport, and application of insecticides against soybean aphid results in approximately 10.6 kg of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent greenhouse gasses being emitted per hectare of soybeans treated. Given the acreage sprayed, this has led to annual emissions of between 6 and 40 million kg of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gasses in the United States since the invasion of soybean aphid, depending on pest population size. Emissions would be higher were it not for the development of a threshold aphid density below which farmers are advised not to spray. Without a threshold, farmers tend to spray preemptively and the threshold allows farmers to take advantage of naturally occurring biological control of the soybean aphid, which can be substantial. We find that adoption of the soybean aphid economic threshold can lead to emission reductions of approximately 300 million kg of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gases per year in the United States. Previous studies have documented that biological control agents such as lady beetles are capable of suppressing aphid densities below this threshold in over half of the soybean acreage in the U.S. Given the acreages involved this suggests that biological control results in annual emission reductions of over 200 million kg of CO2 equivalents. These analyses show how interactions between invasive species and organisms that suppress them can interact to affect greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:23977273

  19. Environmental consequences of invasive species: greenhouse gas emissions of insecticide use and the role of biological control in reducing emissions.

    PubMed

    Heimpel, George E; Yang, Yi; Hill, Jason D; Ragsdale, David W

    2013-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions associated with pesticide applications against invasive species constitute an environmental cost of species invasions that has remained largely unrecognized. Here we calculate greenhouse gas emissions associated with the invasion of an agricultural pest from Asia to North America. The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, was first discovered in North America in 2000, and has led to a substantial increase in insecticide use in soybeans. We estimate that the manufacture, transport, and application of insecticides against soybean aphid results in approximately 10.6 kg of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent greenhouse gasses being emitted per hectare of soybeans treated. Given the acreage sprayed, this has led to annual emissions of between 6 and 40 million kg of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gasses in the United States since the invasion of soybean aphid, depending on pest population size. Emissions would be higher were it not for the development of a threshold aphid density below which farmers are advised not to spray. Without a threshold, farmers tend to spray preemptively and the threshold allows farmers to take advantage of naturally occurring biological control of the soybean aphid, which can be substantial. We find that adoption of the soybean aphid economic threshold can lead to emission reductions of approximately 300 million kg of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gases per year in the United States. Previous studies have documented that biological control agents such as lady beetles are capable of suppressing aphid densities below this threshold in over half of the soybean acreage in the U.S. Given the acreages involved this suggests that biological control results in annual emission reductions of over 200 million kg of CO2 equivalents. These analyses show how interactions between invasive species and organisms that suppress them can interact to affect greenhouse gas emissions.

  20. Genetic and early environmental influences on the serotonin system: consequences for brain development and risk for psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Booij, Linda; Tremblay, Richard E.; Szyf, Moshe; Benkelfat, Chawki

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite more than 60 years of research in the role of serotonin (5-HT) in psychopathology, many questions still remain. From a developmental perspective, studies have provided more insight into how 5-HT dysfunctions acquired in utero or early in life may modulate brain development. This paper discusses the relevance of the developmental role of 5-HT for the understanding of psychopathology. We review developmental milestones of the 5-HT system, how genetic and environmental 5-HT disturbances could affect brain development and the potential role of DNA methylation in 5-HT genes for brain development. Methods Studies were identified using common databases (e.g., PubMed, Google Scholar) and reference lists. Results Despite the widely supported view that the 5-HT system matures in early life, different 5-HT receptors, proteins and enzymes have different developmental patterns, and development is brain region–specific. A disruption in 5-HT homeostasis during development may lead to structural and functional changes in brain circuits that modulate emotional stress responses, including subcortical limbic and (pre)frontal areas. This may result in a predisposition to psychopathology. DNA methylation might be one of the underlying physiologic mechanisms. Limitations There is a need for prospective studies. The impact of stressors during adolescence on the 5-HT system is understudied. Questions regarding efficacy of drugs acting on 5-HT still remain. Conclusion A multidisciplinary and longitudinal approach in designing studies on the role of 5-HT in psychopathology might help to bring us closer to the understanding of the role of 5-HT in psychopathology. PMID:25285876

  1. The structure and processes of the Siberian Traps sub-volcanic complex and consequences for end-Permian environmental crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensen, H.; Polozov, A. G.; Planke, S.

    2013-12-01

    The emplacement of the Siberian Traps Large igneous province is regarded as the key processes that initiated the end-Permian environmental crisis. The details of this link are however still under investigation. Among the suggestions are lava degassing of mantle- and crustal-derived gases, explosive lava and phreatomagmatic eruptions, and gas release from contact metamorphism related to the sub-volcanic sill complex. Whereas the lava pile is relatively well studied and investigated, the sub-volcanic sills, dikes, and contact aureoles are poorly studied and documented. We present borehole and field data of sills and contact aureoles from across the Siberian Traps, from Norilsk in the north to Bratsk in the south. The data have been compiled during three field campaigns in 2004, 2006, and 2010. The sill geometries and thicknesses varies considerably from kilometer-scale intrusive complexes to individual thin sills of a few tens of meters. In contrast to several other LIPs, sills are also emplaced within the extrusive pile. Thick sills (30-80 meters) occur in high abundance in the upper part of the sedimentary succession, affecting the coal-rich Tungusska Series sediments. Moreover, very thick sills (100-300 meters) are also emplaced within the vast Cambrian salt formations. We show that depending on the specific location within the province and the emplacement depth, the potential for degassing of both greenhouse gases (CH4, CO2), aerosols (SO2), and ozone destructive gases (CH3Cl, CH3Br) was in the 103 to 104 Gt range.

  2. Evaluation of the environmental impact assessment system in Syria

    SciTech Connect

    Haydar, F.; Pediaditi, K.

    2010-11-15

    Syria is a country experiencing rapid change, undergoing a process of political and governance decentralisation, opening its markets to the private sector, and experiencing a rise in infrastructure development. In light of these economic growth targeted changes, knowledge of the status and capacity of the Syrian EIA system to ensure environmental protection becomes of paramount importance. Syria first introduced EIA as a Draft Decree in 1995, which was not formally adopted until 2008. To date, no structured evaluation of Syria's EIA system has been conducted, a knowledge gap addressed through this paper. The research presented herein comprises a review and comparative evaluation of Syrian legislation and procedures, to the EU EIA Directive and World Bank Operational Directive, as well as a series of interviews with Syrian stakeholders involved in EIA implementation. The investigation concluded that the new EIA provisions provide a sound legal basis. From interviews however, it was ascertained that EIA implementation faces a number of barriers such as, a lack of EIA integration into existing decision making and licensing processes and persistent exclusion of public projects from EIA. A number of recommendations are proposed, perceived necessary for the enhancement of EIA implementation in Syria.

  3. Environmental simulation evaluation of SSiC brazed optical mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Ma, Zhen; Chen, Jian; Chen, Zhongming; Liu, Xuejian; Huang, Zhengren

    2014-09-01

    Sintered silicon carbide (SSiC) is becoming one of the most important materials for the optical mirrors due to its excellent specific stiffness (E/ρ) and demission stability (λ/α). However, it is difficult to fabricate the monolithic structure SSiC optical mirror with demission of larger than Φ1.5m because of process limitation. Joining of SSiC segments (brazing) provide a good solution to prepare large size mirror optics. However, compared with the uniform properties of the monolithic structure SSiC optical mirror, the brazed mirror is composed of two materials (SSiC segments and brazing material), so the performance of optical grinding and reliability of brazed optical mirrors become the focus. In this paper, the Φ300mm and Φ600mm brazed optical mirrors was used to evaluate the reliability of different conditions. Three kinds of environmental simulation tests, including thermal stability, thermal circle and random vibration were carried out. The evaluation results show that the temperature and vibration has no obvious effects on the surface figure (RMS) of the brazed optical mirrors.

  4. Using Evaluability Assessment to Improve Program Evaluation for the Blue-Throated Macaw Environmental Education Project in Bolivia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvatierra da Silva, Daniela; Jacobson, Susan K.; Monroe, Martha C.; Israel, Glenn D.

    2016-01-01

    An evaluability assessment of a program to save a critically endangered bird helped prepare the Blue-throated Macaw Environmental Education Project for evaluation and program improvement. The evaluability assessment facilitated agreement among key stakeholders on evaluation criteria and intended uses of evaluation information in order to maximize…

  5. Harmonising production, properties and environmental consequences of liquid transport fuels from biomass--2,5-dimethylfuran as a case study.

    PubMed

    Simmie, John M; Würmel, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The rapid development in methods for transforming non-edible biomass into platform chemicals and fuels has accelerated over recent years. However, the determination of whether these 'next-generation' biofuels perform in a satisfactory manner in engines, turbines and burners has lagged behind. The evaluation of the ecological and toxicological aspects has also been unable to keep up. We show, by using 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) as a concrete example, how a range of studies is needed to establish the benefits and risks of using a particular biofuel. In this regard, the variable with the largest impact about which little is known is probably the behaviour of DMF when it is accidentally introduced into groundwater. A primary consideration is to avoid a repetition of the methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) fiasco.

  6. Environmental certification: a scientific tool for sustainability. Evaluation of possible indicators for the environmental performance evaluation (EPE) of Ravenna province (Italy).

    PubMed

    Panzieri, Margherita; Marchettini, Nadia; Ridolfi, Roberto

    2003-04-01

    Environmental certification is becoming the main tool for application of sustainable development principles. The European Regulation Emas and the international standard ISO 14001 both require for certification, to perform an environmental management system to prevent environmental impacts and to continuously improve environmental performance. For a good environmental performance evaluation (EPE), certification needs to use scientific methodologies and to interface with scientific research; here we proposed emergy analysis as a valid method for EPE and emergetic environmental performance and condition indicators (EPIs, ECIs) to monitor a territorial system: Ravenna province (Italy). Together with emergy indicators were selected other indicators for a deeper EPE: emitted/adsorbed CO2, energy consumptions, air and water pollution measures. The paper showed that Ravenna system has a good environmental performance and demonstrated how different indicators from the most advanced chemical research (chemical-physical, analytical, etc.) contribute to a complete EPE of a complex territorial system and are useful for environmental certification and sustainable development.

  7. [Environmental efficiency evaluation under carbon emission constraint in Western China].

    PubMed

    Rong, Jian-bo; Yan, Li-jiao; Huang, Shao-rong; Zhang, Ge

    2015-06-01

    This research used the SBM model based on undesirable outputs to measure the static environmental efficiency of Western China under carbon emission constraint from 2000 to 2012. The researchers also utilized the Malmquist index to further analyze the change tendency of environmental efficiency. Additionally, Tobit regression analysis was used to study the factors relevant to environmental efficiency. Practical solutions to improve environmental quality in Western China were put forward. The study showed that in Western China, environmental efficiency with carbon emission constraint was significantly lower than that without carbon emission constraint, and the difference could be described as an inverse U-shaped curve which increased at first and then decreased. Guang-xi and Inner Mongolia, the two provinces met the effective environmental efficiency levels all the time under carbon emission constraint. However, the five provinces of Guizhou, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia and Xinjiang did not. Furthermore, Ningxia had the lowest level of environmental efficiency, with a score between 0.281-0.386. Although the environmental efficiency of most provinces was currently at an ineffective level, the environmental efficiency quality was gradually improving at an average speed of 6.6%. Excessive CO2 emission and a large amount of energy consumption were the primary factors causing environmental inefficiency in Western China, and energy intensity had the most negative impact on the environmental efficiency. The increase of import and export trade reduced the environmental efficiency significantly in Western China, while the increase of foreign direct investment had a positive effect on its environmental efficiency.

  8. Evaluating environmental education, citizen science, and stewardship through naturalist programs.

    PubMed

    Merenlender, Adina M; Crall, Alycia W; Drill, Sabrina; Prysby, Michelle; Ballard, Heidi

    2016-12-01

    Amateur naturalists have played an important role in the study and conservation of nature since the 17th century. Today, naturalist groups make important contributions to bridge the gap between conservation science and practice around the world. We examined data from 2 regional naturalist programs to understand participant motivations, barriers, and perspectives as well as the actions they take to advance science, stewardship, and community engagement. These programs provide certification-based natural history and conservation science training for adults that is followed by volunteer service in citizen science, education, and stewardship. Studies in California and Virginia include quantitative and qualitative evaluation data collected through pre- and postcourse surveys, interviews, and long-term tracking of volunteer hours. Motivations of participants focused on learning about the local environment and plants and animals, connecting with nature, becoming certified, and spending time with people who have similar interests. Over half the participants surveyed were over 50 years old, two-thirds were women, and a majority reported household incomes of over $50,000 (60% in California, 85% in Virginia), and <20% of those surveyed in both states described themselves as nonwhite. Thus, these programs need to improve participation by a wider spectrum of the public. We interviewed younger and underrepresented adults to examine barriers to participation in citizen science. The primary barrier was lack of time due to the need to work and focus on career advancement. Survey data revealed that participants' ecological knowledge, scientific skills, and belief in their ability to address environmental issues increased after training. Documented conservation actions taken by the participants include invasive plant management, habitat restoration, and cleanups of natural areas and streams. Long-term data from Virginia on volunteer hours dedicated to environmental citizen science

  9. Environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2/-induced climate change. Volume II, Part 9. Alleviation of environmental stress on renewable resource productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, G. S.

    1982-09-01

    It is pointed out that temperature and water stress are the key factors that will be influenced by a rise in ambient CO/sub 2/ concentration. Improvement of the capacity of crop plants to withstand water and temperature stress will require an undergirding effort in basic research, to support required advances in plant breeding and development of novel crop management systems. The most important considerations for future research on environmental stress in crops are: the need for interdisciplinary approaches in all aspects of stress research; the need for centralized stress testing capabilities; plant-breeding, the long-term solution with greatest potential benefit and least cost; improvement in management techniques, becoming more effective as increased attention is directed to the management of specific genotypes; the need for understanding of more stress effects closer to the optimum than to lethality; the need to optimize rather than maximize production; the need for understanding different stress effects during different, critical developmental stages; the need for development of usable, physiologically-based crop models to serve as predictive tools for agronomists and breeders; the recognition that improvement options in annual crops are greater than in perennial crops; efforts to culture perennial crops as annuals as a means of avoiding winter stress; and the need for a major effort to devise techniques to shorten the breeding cycle in perennials so that genetic solutions can be more readily employed.

  10. 39 CFR 775.9 - Environmental evaluation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... significant effect on the human environment and states that an environmental impact statement will not be... upon the environment. (2) Findings of no significant impact. If an environmental assessment indicates that there is no significant impact of a proposed action on the environment, an environmental...

  11. 39 CFR 775.9 - Environmental evaluation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... significant effect on the human environment and states that an environmental impact statement will not be... upon the environment. (2) Findings of no significant impact. If an environmental assessment indicates that there is no significant impact of a proposed action on the environment, an environmental...

  12. Unravelling the fate of arsenic during re-oxidation of reduced wetland waters: Experimental constraints and environmental consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pédrot, Mathieu; Dia, Aline; Davranche, Mélanie; Martin, Sébastien; Al-Sid-Cheikh, Maya; Gruau, Gérard

    2015-09-01

    The presence of arsenic(As)-bearing Fe(III) oxyhydroxides in wetland zones may threat water quality due to the reduction processes that affect these zones. These processes have indeed the potential of releasing As into the soil solutions, and ultimately into the nearby river network, being given the hydrological connectivity that exists between wetlands and rivers. The effective transport of the released As into the river network is however dependent on the behaviour of As during the re-oxidation process that will occur at the wetland-river boundary, which could immobilize the released As into neo-formed Fe(III) oxyhydroxides. One of the key questions is, however, which is the impact of the organic-rich nature of wetland waters on this neoformation, which could instead favour the development of highly mobile As-bearing, organomineral colloids. In this study, we evaluated this possibility by carrying out oxidation experiments on humic acid (HA)- and As(III)/Fe(II)-rich waters. The ultrafiltration results showed that the presence of organic molecules during Fe oxidation events played a major role in the hydrolysis reaction of Fe oxyhydroxides. When Fe microparticles were formed in the absence of HA, the occurrence of HA during Fe oxidation events promoted the formation of amorphous nanosize Fe phase diffusely embedded within the organic matrix. These mixed Fe-HA colloids constrained the fate and distribution of As. These results were confirmed by nanoSIMS images that showed As sorption onto and within Fe microparticles (> 0.2 μm) in the absence of HA. By contrast, with HA, results showed preferential incorporation of As in the bulk of Fe-HA colloids (< 0.2 μm) during their formation rather than surface adsorption onto these colloids.

  13. 75 FR 55846 - Draft Re-Evaluation for Environmental Impact Statement: Sikorsky Memorial Airport, Stratford, CT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Draft Re-Evaluation for Environmental Impact Statement: Sikorsky Memorial... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) has been prepared for Sikorsky Memorial Airport in Stratford, Connecticut... INFORMATION: The FAA is making available a Draft Re- Evaluation document, which evaluates the impacts...

  14. Long-Term Psychosocial and Health Economy Consequences of ADHD, Autism, and Reading-Writing Disorder: A Prospective Service Evaluation Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyden, Agneta; Myren, Karl-Johan; Gillberg, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The study aims to evaluate psychosocial, societal, and family cost consequences of a psychoeducational intervention program. Methods: Sixty boys with ADHD, Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism (AS/HFA), and reading and writing disorder (RD/WD) were allocated to participate in a service evaluation project. Every other boy in each…

  15. Environmental suitability evaluation for human settlements in Bosten Lake Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maimaiti, A.; Wang, L. M.; Zhang, J.; Song, Z. L.

    2017-02-01

    Environmental Suitability of Human Settlement in arid and semi-arid area is defined as an efficient eco-geographical landscape that has dense vegetation or stable water and comfortable climate condition which is applied to arid region’s human living environment. In this work, the ESHS in the Bosten Lake Basin were evaluated based on remote sensing images, socioeconomic data, grid data and annual average climate temperature data. The results revealed that the index of ESHS in the Bosten Lake Basin ranges from 12.8 to 86.73. The proportion of high suitability area, middle suitable area, low suitable area and not suitable area accounts for 9.7%, 9.6%, 41.4%, and 39.3% respectively of the total study area. Our results indicated that natural environment of Bosten Lake is rather fragile, the mountainous area in northwest and desert area in southeast is basically do not fit for human settlement. Suitable regions for human settlement were mainly distributed around Bosten Lake in the form of batches, while others are scattered.

  16. Evaluation of environmental compatibility of EAFD using different leaching standards.

    PubMed

    Sebag, M G; Korzenowski, C; Bernardes, A M; Vilela, A C

    2009-07-30

    A study on laboratory scale to evaluate the environmental compatibility of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) is reported in this article. EAFD, a waste by-product of the steel-making process, was generated on a steel plant located in Brazil. Different leaching tests, NBR10005 (Brazilian), AFNORX31-210 (French), JST-13 (Japanese), DIN38414-S4 (German), TCLP (American), and NEN 7343 (Netherland) were conducted. These leaching procedures are batch tests and are columns conducted in a way that an equilibrium condition should be achieved. The pH of the medium showed a crucial parameter governing the release of metals from the solid phase into solution. As the pH of the medium varies with the leachant used, this determines the dissolution of the elements. Zn, Pb, Mn, Cd, and Cu presented high leachability at NBR10005 procedures (acid pH). Except Pb and Cr, the leachability of all others metals in leaching tests with alkaline pH decreases with the increase of the pH. NBR10005 classifies the EAFD as a hazardous waste due to high concentration of Pb and Cd in leachate. The column tests are presented in the following order of leaching: Pb>Cr>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cd.

  17. A procedure to evaluate environmental rehabilitation in limestone quarries.

    PubMed

    Neri, Ana Claudia; Sánchez, Luis Enrique

    2010-11-01

    A procedure to evaluate mine rehabilitation practices during the operational phase was developed and validated. It is based on a comparison of actually observed or documented practices with internationally recommended best practices (BP). A set of 150 BP statements was derived from international guides in order to establish the benchmark. The statements are arranged in six rehabilitation programs under three categories: (1) planning (2) operational and (3) management, corresponding to the adoption of the plan-do-check-act management systems model to mine rehabilitation. The procedure consists of (i) performing technical inspections guided by a series of field forms containing BP statements; (ii) classifying evidences in five categories; and (iii) calculating conformity indexes and levels. For testing and calibration purposes, the procedure was applied to nine limestone quarries and conformity indexes were calculated for the rehabilitation programs in each quarry. Most quarries featured poor planning practices, operational practices reached high conformity levels in 50% of the cases and management practices scored moderate conformity. Despite all quarries being ISO 14001 certified, their management systems pay low attention to issues pertaining to land rehabilitation and biodiversity. The best results were achieved by a quarry whose expansion was recently submitted to the environmental impact assessment process, suggesting that public scrutiny may play a positive role in enhancing rehabilitation practices. Conformity indexes and levels can be used to chart the evolution of rehabilitation practices at regular intervals, to establish corporate goals and for communication with stakeholders.

  18. Evaluation of air pollution modelling tools as environmental engineering courseware.

    PubMed

    Souto González, J A; Bello Bugallo, P M; Casares Long, J J

    2004-01-01

    The study of phenomena related to the dispersion of pollutants usually takes advantage of the use of mathematical models based on the description of the different processes involved. This educational approach is especially important in air pollution dispersion, when the processes follow a non-linear behaviour so it is difficult to understand the relationships between inputs and outputs, and in a 3D context where it becomes hard to analyze alphanumeric results. In this work, three different software tools, as computer solvers for typical air pollution dispersion phenomena, are presented. Each software tool developed to be implemented on PCs, follows approaches that represent three generations of programming languages (Fortran 77, VisualBasic and Java), applied over three different environments: MS-DOS, MS-Windows and the world wide web. The software tools were tested by students of environmental engineering (undergraduate) and chemical engineering (postgraduate), in order to evaluate the ability of these software tools to improve both theoretical and practical knowledge of the air pollution dispersion problem, and the impact of the different environment in the learning process in terms of content, ease of use and visualization of results.

  19. Evaluating the implementation of environmental review mitigation in local planning and development processes

    SciTech Connect

    Slotterback, Carissa Schively

    2008-11-15

    The implementation of mitigation strategies and outcomes of environmental review remains a challenge for planners and regulators. While the process and content of environmental review is clearly defined, there is often little attention to what happens after the review is completed. This paper presents the results of an evaluation of the implementation of the outcomes of environmental review, specifically mitigation measures designed to respond to environmental impacts identified in the environmental impact analysis. Drawing on previous evaluations of environmental review outcomes and plan implementation, the research provides a methodology for evaluating the implementation of mitigation efforts, points to the challenges associated with implementing the mitigation outcomes of local environmental review in planning and development processes, and identifies opportunities to integrate planning and environmental review processes.

  20. Scenario simulations of future salinity and ecological consequences in the Baltic Sea and adjacent North Sea areas–implications for environmental monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Vuorinen, Ilppo; Hänninen, Jari; Rajasilta, Marjut; Laine, Päivi; Eklund, Jan; Montesino-Pouzols, Federico; Corona, Francesco; Junker, Karin; Meier, H.E.Markus; Dippner, Joachim W.

    2015-01-01

    Substantial ecological changes occurred in the 1970s in the Northern Baltic during a temporary period of low salinity (S). This period was preceded by an episodic increase in the rainfall over the Baltic Sea watershed area. Several climate models, both global and regional, project an increase in the runoff of the Northern latitudes due to proceeding climate change. The aim of this study is to model, firstly, the effects on Baltic Sea salinity of increased runoff due to projected global change and, secondly, the effects of salinity change on the distribution of marine species. The results suggest a critical shift in the S range 5–7, which is a threshold for both freshwater and marine species distributions and diversity. We discuss several topics emphasizing future monitoring, modelling, and fisheries research. Environmental monitoring and modelling are investigated because the developing alternative ecosystems do not necessarily show the same relations to environment quality factors as the retiring ones. An important corollary is that the observed and modelled S changes considered together with species’ ranges indicate what may appear under a future climate. Consequences could include a shift in distribution areas of marine benthic foundation species and some 40–50 other species, affiliated to these. This change would extend over hundreds of kilometres, in the Baltic Sea and the adjacent North Sea areas. Potential cascading effects, in coastal ecology, fish ecology and fisheries would be extensive, and point out the necessity to develop further the “ecosystem approach in the environmental monitoring”. PMID:25737660

  1. Environmental consequences of postulated plutonium releases from General Electric Company Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Vallecitos, California, as a result of severe natural phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Jamison, J.D.; Watson, E.C.

    1980-11-01

    Potential environmental consequences in terms of radiation dose to people are presented for postulated plutonium releases caused by severe natural phenomena at the General Electric Company Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Vallecitos, California. The severe natural phenomena considered are earthquakes, tornadoes, and high straight-line winds. Maximum plutonium deposition values are given for significant locations around the site. All important potential exposure pathways are examined. The most likely 50-year committed dose equivalents are given for the maximum-exposed individual and the population within a 50-mile radius of the plant. The maximum plutonium deposition values likely to occur offsite are also given. The most likely calculated 50-year collective committed dose equivalents are all much lower than the collective dose equivalent expected from 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation and medical x-rays. The most likely maximum residual plutonium contamination estimated to be deposited offsite following the earthquakes, and the 180-mph and 230-mph tornadoes are above the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) proposed guideline for plutonium in the general environment of 0.2 ..mu..Ci/m/sup 2/. The deposition values following the 135-mph tornado are below the EPA proposed guidelines.

  2. Environmental consequences of postulate plutonium releases from Atomics International's Nuclear Materials Development Facility (NMDF), Santa Susana, California, as a result of severe natural phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Jamison, J.D.; Watson, E.C.

    1982-02-01

    Potential environmental consequences in terms of radiation dose to people are presented for postulated plutonium releases caused by severe natural phenomena at the Atomics International's Nuclear Materials Development Facility (NMDF), in the Santa Susana site, California. The severe natural phenomena considered are earthquakes, tornadoes, and high straight-line winds. Plutonium deposition values are given for significant locations around the site. All important potential exposure pathways are examined. The most likely 50-year committed dose equivalents are given for the maximum-exposed individual and the population within a 50-mile radius of the plant. The maximum plutonium deposition values likely to occur offsite are also given. The most likely calculated 50-year collective committed dose equivalents are all much lower than the collective dose equivalent expected from 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation and medical x-rays. The most likely maximum residual plutonium contamination estimated to be deposited offsite following the earthquake, and the 150-mph and 170-mph tornadoes are above the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) proposed guideline for plutonium in the general environment of 0.2 ..mu..Ci/m/sup 2/. The deposition values following the 110-mph and the 130-mph tornadoes are below the EPA proposed guideline.

  3. Tracking implementation and (un)intended consequences: a process evaluation of an innovative peripheral health facility financing mechanism in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Waweru, Evelyn; Goodman, Catherine; Kedenge, Sarah; Tsofa, Benjamin; Molyneux, Sassy

    2016-03-01

    contexts of enormous need. Process evaluations tracking (un)intended consequences of interventions can contribute to regional financing and decentralization debates.

  4. Tracking implementation and (un)intended consequences: a process evaluation of an innovative peripheral health facility financing mechanism in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Waweru, Evelyn; Goodman, Catherine; Kedenge, Sarah; Tsofa, Benjamin; Molyneux, Sassy

    2016-01-01

    contexts of enormous need. Process evaluations tracking (un)intended consequences of interventions can contribute to regional financing and decentralization debates. PMID:25920355

  5. Evaluation of Diesel Exhaust Continuous Monitors in Controlled Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chang Ho; Patton, Allison P.; Zhang, Andrew; Fanac, Zhi-Hua (Tina); Weisel, Clifford P.; Lioy, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) contains a variety of toxic air pollutants, including diesel particulate matter (DPM) and gaseous contaminants (e.g., carbon monoxide (CO)). DPM is dominated by fine (PM2.5) and ultrafine particles (UFP), and can be representatively determined by its thermal-optical refractory as elemental carbon (EC) or light-absorbing characteristics as black carbon (BC). The currently accepted reference method for sampling and analysis of occupational exposure to DPM is the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 5040. However, this method cannot provide in-situ short-term measurements of DPM. Thus, real-time monitors are gaining attention to better examine DE exposures in occupational settings. However, real-time monitors are subject to changing environmental conditions. Field measurements have reported interferences in optical sensors and subsequent real-time readings, under conditions of high humidity and abrupt temperature changes. To begin dealing with these issues, we completed a controlled study to evaluate five real-time monitors: Airtec real-time DPM/EC Monitor, TSI SidePak Personal Aerosol Monitor AM510 (PM2.5), TSI Condensation Particle Counter 3007, microAeth AE51 BC Aethalometer, and Langan T15n CO Measurer. Tests were conducted under different temperatures (55, 70, and 80 °F), relative humidity (10, 40, and 80%), and DPM concentrations (50 and 200 µg/m3) in a controlled exposure facility. The 2-hour averaged EC measurements from the Airtec instrument showed relatively good agreement with NIOSH Method 5040 (R2=0.84; slope=1.17±0.06; N=27) and reported ~17% higher EC concentrations than the NIOSH reference method. Temperature, relative humidity, and DPM levels did not significantly affect relative differences in 2-hour averaged EC concentrations obtained by the Airtec instrument versus the NIOSH method (p<0.05). Multiple linear regression analyses, based on 1-min averaged data, suggested combined effects of up to 5

  6. Measuring Negative Consequences of College Student Substance Use: A Psychometric Evaluation of the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Matthew P.; Brown, Natashia T.; Donovan, Brooke M.; Dude, Kim

    2005-01-01

    A commonly used instrument to assess negative consequences of substance use among college students is the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey (CADS; C. A. Presley, P. W. Meilman, & J. S. Leichliter, 1998; C. A. Presley, P. W. Meilman, & R. Lyerla, 1993). Results from 2 studies suggest that a subset of CADS negative consequences items can be…

  7. Evaluation of the environmental performance of alternatives for polystyrene production in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Adriana Petrella; da Silva, Gil Anderi; Kulay, Luiz

    2015-11-01

    The global demand for polystyrene is supposed to reach an overall baseline of 23.5 million tons by 2020. The market has experienced the effects of such growth, especially regarding the environmental performance of the production processes. In Brazil, renewable assets have been used to overcome the adverse consequences of this expansion. This study evaluates this issue for the production of Brazilian polystyrene resins, general-purpose polystyrene (GPPS) and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS). The effects of replacing fossil ethylene with a biobased alternative are also investigated. Life Cycle Assessment is applied for ten scenarios, with different technological approaches for renewable ethylene production and an alternative for obtaining bioethanol, which considers the export of electricity. The fossil GPPS and HIPS show a better performance than the partially renewable sources in terms of Climate Change (CC), Terrestrial Acidification (TA), Photochemical Oxidant Formation (POF), and Water Depletion (WD). The exception is Fossil Depletion (FD), a somewhat predictable result. The main environmental loads associated with the renewable options are related to the sugarcane production. Polybutadiene fails to provide greater additional impact to HIPS when compared to GPPS. With regard to obtaining ethylene from ethanol, Adiabatic Dehydration (AD) technology consumes less sugarcane than Adiabatic Dehydration at High Pressure (ADHP), which leads to gains in TA and POF. In contrast, ADHP was more eco-friendly for WD because of its lower water losses and in terms of CC because of the advantageous balance of fossil CO2(eq) at the agricultural stage and the lower consumption of natural gas in ethylene production. The electricity export is an auspicious environmental opportunity because it can counterbalance some of the negative impacts associated with the renewable route. According to a "cradle-to-grave" perspective, the partially renewable resins show a more favorable balance of

  8. A multivariate evaluation of environmental effects on zooplankton community structure in the western North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepin, Pierre; Johnson, Catherine L.; Harvey, Michel; Casault, Benoit; Chassé, Joël; Colbourne, Eugene B.; Galbraith, Peter S.; Hebert, Dave; Lazin, Gordana; Maillet, Gary; Plourde, Stéphane; Starr, Michel

    2015-05-01

    We report on our analysis of zooplankton community structure in the western North Atlantic based on spring and fall monitoring surveys from 1999 to 2011 of three large marine ecosystems (LMEs; Newfoundland Shelf, Gulf of St. Lawrence and Scotian Shelf). We aimed to synthesize knowledge of the distribution of zooplankton communities and to evaluate their relationship to environmental conditions as either biogeographic constraints or smaller-scale ecosystems drivers or both. A combination of exploratory and constrained analyses helped identify the dominant roles of bathymetry, surface salinity and temperature, subsurface biogeochemical inventories of nitrate and chlorophyll a on the macroscale distribution of zooplankton. These variables highlight the potential influences of vertical habitat features, latitudinal and estuary-ocean gradients, deep-water intrusions, and differences in the seasonal succession on community structure at biogeographic scales. The spatial pattern in the residual field of the constrained analysis suggests that mesoscale features may play a role in shaping community structure within each of the LMEs and point to the limitation of analytical approaches based principally on water mass tracers applied over broad-scales. Interannual variations in key environmental drivers had inconsistent abilities in predicting changes in community composition across LMEs. Organisms that had the greatest influence on the delineation of communities were similar between spring and fall surveys and consisted of roughly a dozen dominant and ubiquitous taxa. Determining the influence of environmental variations on productivity of key secondary producers requires an approach focussed at the scale of individual LMEs in order to address the consequence of dissimilarities in the dominant trophic relationships or the response to remote forcing across the region.

  9. Influences of culture and environmental attitude on thermal, emotional and perceptual evaluations of a public square

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knez, Igor; Thorsson, Sofia

    2006-05-01

    The main objective of the present quasi-experimental study was to examine the influence of culture (Swedish vs Japanese) and environmental attitude (urban vs open-air person) on participants’ thermal, emotional and perceptual assessments of a square, within the PET (physiological equivalent temperature) comfortable interval of 18 23°C. It was predicted that persons living in different cultures with different environmental attitudes would psychologically evaluate a square differently despite similar thermal conditions. Consistent with this prediction, Japanese participants estimated the current weather as warmer than did Swedish participants and, consistent with this, they felt less thermally comfortable on the site, although participants in both countries perceived similar comfortable thermal outdoor conditions according to the PET index. Compared to the Japanese, the Swedes estimated both the current weather and the site as windier and colder, indicating a consistency in weather assessment on calm-windy and warm-cold scales in participants in both cultures. Furthermore, Swedish participants felt more glad and calm on the site and, in line with their character (more glad than gloomy), they estimated the square as more beautiful and pleasant than did Japanese participants. All this indicates that thermal, emotional and perceptual assessments of a physical place may be intertwined with psychological schema-based and socio-cultural processes, rather than fixed by general thermal indices developed in line with physiological heat balance models. In consequence, this implies that thermal comfort indices may not be applicable in different cultural/climate zones without modifications, and that they may not be appropriate if we do not take into account the psychological processes involved in environmental assessment.

  10. Incineration: health and environmental consequences.

    PubMed

    Gochfeld, M

    1995-10-01

    Incineration is considered one of the four primary ways to manage solid wastes, in conjunction with source reduction and reuse, recycling-composting, and landfilling. Incineration is currently used to destroy household and institutional solid waste, hazardous chemical waste, and medical and biological waste by reducing volume and destroying some harmful constituents. The process of incineration induces chemical changes that may produce harmful products that can escape through the stack, causing air pollution, or that can remain in the bottom ash, eventually finding a way into landfills. Although sound engineering design and operation can theoretically eliminate most harmful pollutants, strong institutional controls are required to assure that incinerators are maintained and operated according to specifications. Incineration is often viewed as a "cop-out," avoiding the socioeconomically complex changes required to reduce the generation of solid waste. Incineration should be incorporated on a limited basis into a context of comprehensive approaches to source reduction, recycling, and reuse.

  11. Environmental consequences of nuclear war

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toon, Owen B.; Robock, Alan; Turco, Richard P.

    2014-05-01

    A regional war involving 100 Hiroshima-sized weapons would pose a worldwide threat due to ozone destruction and climate change. A superpower confrontation with a few thousand weapons would be catastrophic.

  12. Environmental consequences of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Toon, Owen B.; Robock, Alan; Turco, Richard P.

    2014-05-09

    A regional war involving 100 Hiroshima-sized weapons would pose a worldwide threat due to ozone destruction and climate change. A superpower confrontation with a few thousand weapons would be catastrophic.

  13. Environmental Education in the South Pacific: An Evaluation of Progress in Three Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Neil; Topalian, Teny

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates formal environmental education in three countries in the South Pacific Region: Fiji (Melanesia); Kiribati (Micronesia); and Niue (Polynesia). Findings reveal that environmental education is at different stages of evolution in each of these countries and only Niue appears to deliver environmental education effectively when compared with…

  14. [DOE method for evaluating environmental and waste management samples: Revision 1, Addendum 1

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, S.C.

    1995-04-01

    The US Dapartment of Energy`s (DOE`s) environmental and waste management (EM) sampling and analysis activities require that large numbers of samples be analyzed for materials characterization, environmental surveillance, and site-remediation programs. The present document, DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods), is a supplemental resource for analyzing many of these samples.

  15. 33 CFR 148.705 - What is determined by the environmental evaluation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... location; and (6) The No Action alternative and other reasonable alternatives. (c) The criteria are also... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: GENERAL Environmental Review Criteria for Deepwater Ports § 148.705 What is determined by the environmental evaluation? (a) The environmental...

  16. The Lake Michigan Federation: Evaluation of an Environmental Interest Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culhane, Paul J.

    Since Earth Day 1970, the number of environmental groups has approximately doubled and the movement articulates a much broader and comprehensive philosophy than earlier conservation or preservation movements. The Lake Michigan Federation, one of the new environmental groups developed from the Open Lands Project, was publicly proclaimed in…

  17. Evaluation of Students' Energy Conception in Environmental Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Mihwa; Johnson, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    While significant research has been conducted on students' conceptions of energy, alternative conceptions of energy have not been actively explored in the area of environmental science. The purpose of this study is to examine students' alternative conceptions in the environmental science discipline through the analysis of responses of first year…

  18. 39 CFR 775.8 - Environmental evaluation guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... proposals which may have an impact on the human environment, environmental coordinators, planners, decision... for early decision on whether detailed environmental impact statements must be prepared.) (4) Study... which may have a significant effect on the environment. (b) Proposal requirements. When an...

  19. 39 CFR 775.8 - Environmental evaluation guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... proposals which may have an impact on the human environment, environmental coordinators, planners, decision... for early decision on whether detailed environmental impact statements must be prepared.) (4) Study... which may have a significant effect on the environment. (b) Proposal requirements. When an...

  20. 39 CFR 775.8 - Environmental evaluation guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... proposals which may have an impact on the human environment, environmental coordinators, planners, decision... for early decision on whether detailed environmental impact statements must be prepared.) (4) Study... which may have a significant effect on the environment. (b) Proposal requirements. When an...

  1. Programmatic Environmental, Safety, and Health Evaluation (PESHE) Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Elements 1. System Safety & Health Explosive Safety Orbital Debris 2. NEPA 3. Env. Compliance 4. Hazardous Materials 5. Pollution Prevention STEP 4... orbital debris , collision avoidance, laser clearing-house functions, environmental hazards, and safety procedures. D. Explosive Safety: 1...System Safety and Health a. Explosive Safety b. Orbital Debris ii. Environmental compliance iii. NEPA iv. Hazardous Materials Management v. Pollution

  2. Microalgal biomass production pathways: evaluation of life cycle environmental impacts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Microalgae are touted as an attractive alternative to traditional forms of biomass for biofuel production, due to high productivity, ability to be cultivated on marginal lands, and potential to utilize carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial flue gas. This work examines the fossil energy return on investment (EROIfossil), greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and direct Water Demands (WD) of producing dried algal biomass through the cultivation of microalgae in Open Raceway Ponds (ORP) for 21 geographic locations in the contiguous United States (U.S.). For each location, comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) is performed for multiple microalgal biomass production pathways, consisting of a combination of cultivation and harvesting options. Results Results indicate that the EROIfossil for microalgae biomass vary from 0.38 to 1.08 with life cycle GHG emissions of −46.2 to 48.9 (g CO2 eq/MJ-biomass) and direct WDs of 20.8 to 38.8 (Liters/MJ-biomass) over the range of scenarios analyzed. Further anaylsis reveals that the EROIfossil for production pathways is relatively location invariant, and that algae’s life cycle energy balance and GHG impacts are highly dependent on cultivation and harvesting parameters. Contrarily, algae’s direct water demands were found to be highly sensitive to geographic location, and thus may be a constraining factor in sustainable algal-derived biofuel production. Additionally, scenarios with promising EROIfossil and GHG emissions profiles are plagued with high technological uncertainty. Conclusions Given the high variability in microalgae’s energy and environmental performance, careful evaluation of the algae-to-fuel supply chain is necessary to ensure the long-term sustainability of emerging algal biofuel systems. Alternative production scenarios and technologies may have the potential to reduce the critical demands of biomass production, and should be considered to make algae a viable and more efficient biofuel alternative

  3. IN SITU STEAM ENHANCED RECOVERY PROCESS - HUGHES ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS, INC. - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Innovative Technology Evaluation report summarizes the findings of an evaluation of the in situ Steam Enhanced Recovery Process (SERP) operated by Hughes Environmental Systems, Inc. at the Rainbow Disposal facility in Huntington Beach, California. he technology demonstration...

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL AND SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION: BIOMASS CO-FIRING IN INDUSTRIAL BOILERS--UNIVERSITY OF IOWA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA operates the Environmental and Sustainable Technology Evaluation (ESTE) program to facilitate the deployment of innovative technologies through performance verification and information dissemination. This ESTE project involved evaluation of co-firing common woody bio...

  5. Evaluating the credibility of histopathology data in environmental endocrine toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Jeffrey C; Maack, Gerd

    2017-03-01

    Agencies responsible for environmental protection are tasked with developing regulatory guidance that is based on the best available scientific evidence. Histopathology is a common endpoint in toxicologic bioassays; however, because of the subjective nature of this endpoint, and the advanced level of specialized training required for its effective utilization, the reliability of histopathology data can be inconsistent. Consequently, mechanisms for evaluating such data on a case-by-case basis are needed. The purposes of the present review are to describe a methodology that can be used to evaluate the credibility of histopathology findings and to discuss the results of such assessments as applied to real-world data collected from the scientific literature. A key outcome of these efforts was the finding that only 54% of the studies examined contained histopathology data that were considered to be either highly credible or credible, whereas data in 46% of those studies were of equivocal, dubious, or no credibility. In addition, the results indicated that the quality of the data examined tended to decline during the past 15 yr. The ultimate goals of the present review are to draw attention to reliability issues that can affect histopathology results, provide recommendations to improve the quality of this endpoint, and suggest an approach for the expeditious and judicious use of histopathology data in the weight-of-evidence determinations required for hazard and/or risk assessment. This exercise was conducted initially as part of a SETAC Pellston Workshop™ entitled "Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Chemicals (EHRA): Developing Technical Guidance Based on Case Studies to Support Decision Making" that was held in Pensacola, Florida (USA) from 31 January to 5 February 2016. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:601-611. © 2016 SETAC.

  6. Environmental Education Evaluation: Reinterpreting Education as a Strategy for Meeting Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.

    2010-01-01

    Critical consideration of the role of environmental education in meeting conservation outcomes is increasingly necessary for environmental agencies and organizations. Evaluation can help move organizations to alignment between educational goals and organizational mission. Moving theory-driven evaluation into mission-based program theory, this…

  7. Reaching Residents of Green Communities: Evaluation of a Unique Environmental Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostetler, Mark; Swiman, Elizabeth; Prizzia, Anna; Noiseux, Krystal

    2008-01-01

    Often in green communities, homeowner understanding is left out of the project. We evaluated the impact of a new environmental education program installed in a green community, Town of Harmony, Florida. Consisting of educational kiosks, website, and brochure, we evaluated whether Harmony residents' environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors…

  8. 76 FR 78661 - Correction for Draft Vieques Report: An Evaluation of Environmental, Biological, and Health Data...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... Evaluation of Environmental, Biological, and Health Data From the Island of Vieques, PR AGENCY: Agency for... Draft Vieques Report: An Evaluation of Environmental, Biological, and Health Data From the Island of... comment period will be open for 90 days and will close March 11, 2012. DATES: Written comments must...

  9. INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT, MEASUREMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John Plodinec

    2002-08-01

    This report covers the following topics: Characterization of Heavy Metals and Radionuclides; Development of Tools for Long-term Monitoring; Hanford Tank Waste Chemistry; Environmental Control Device Testing; and Process Monitoring and Control of Toxic Organics.

  10. An approach for online evaluations of dose consequences caused by small rotational setup errors in intracranial stereotactic radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Bo; Li, Jonathan; Kahler, Darren; Yan Guanghua; Mittauer, Kathryn; Shi Wenyin; Okunieff, Paul; Liu, Chihray

    2011-11-15

    , whereas the remaining ROIs have insignificant dose differences. DVH comparisons suggest that the ODMORC method is able to estimate the DVH of CTVs fairly accurately (within 1.5% of relative dose differences for evaluation volumes). The results also show that most of the OARs including the brain stem, spinal cord, chiasm, hippocampuses, optic nerves, and retinas, which were relatively distal from the skull and surface, had good agreement (within 2.0% of relative dose differences for 0.1 cc of the volumes ) between the ODMORC method and the recomputation, whereas OARs more proximate to the bone-tissue interface or surface, such as the lenses and cochlea, had larger dose variations (greater than 5.0%) for some cases due to the incapability of the ODMORC to account for scatter contribution variations proximate to interfaces and intrinsic dose calculation uncertainties for ROIs with small volumes. Conclusions: The ODMORC method can be implemented as an online evaluation system for rotation-induced dose changes of CTVs and most OARs and for other related dose consequence analyses.

  11. Consequences of Incomplete Smoke-Free Legislation in the Republic of Korea: Results from Environmental and Biochemical Monitoring: Community Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun Young; Yun, E Hwa; Lim, Min Kyung; Lee, Do-Hoon; Yang, Wonho; Jeong, Bo Yoon; Hwang, Sang-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In some countries with high smoking prevalence, smoke-free legislation has only been implemented in specific public places, as opposed to a comprehensive ban on smoking in all public places. The purpose of this study was to provide valid data on second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure that reflect the consequences of incomplete smoke-free legislation, and provide a rationale for expanding this legislation. Materials and Methods Indoor and outdoor environmental exposure (fine particulate matter [PM2.5], air nicotine, and dust 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone [NNK]) was monitored in 35 public places where smoking is prohibited by law in Goyang, Republic of Korea. Biomarkers of SHS exposure (urinary cotinine, hair nicotine, and urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol) were measured in 37 non-smoking employees. Geometric means and standard deviations were used in comparison of each measure. Results Considerable exposure of SHS was detected at all indoor monitoring sites (PM2.5, 95.5 μg/m3 in private educational institutions; air nicotine, 0.77 μg/m3 in large buildings; and dust NNK, 160.3 pg/mg in large buildings); environmental measures were higher in private or closed locations, such as restrooms. Outdoor measures of SHS exposure were lowest in nurseries and highest in government buildings. Biochemical measures revealed a pattern of SHS exposure by monitoring site, and were highest in private educational institutions. Conclusion The evidence of SHS exposure in legislative smoke-free places in Korea suggests that incomplete smoke free legislation and lack of enforcement of it might not protect people from exposure to smoke. Therefore, active steps should be taken toward a comprehensive ban on smoking in all public places and its enforcement. PMID:25943320

  12. Supplementary documentation for an Environmental Impact Statement regarding the Pantex Plant: radiological consequences of immediate inhalation of plutonium dispersed by postulated accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, J.C.; Olsher, R.H.; Graf, J.M.

    1982-12-01

    This report documents work performed in support of preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) regarding the Department of Energy's (DOE) Pantex Plant near Amarillo, Texas. It describes methods used to estimate potential health consequences offsite resulting from inhalation of plutonium dispersed by each of several postulated accidents. The primary topic of this report is the delayed health effects of the plutonium in a nonnuclear detonation debris inhaled directly by members of the population in the cloud path. The expected form and size of the plutonium particles are derived from experimental data obatined in the Roller Coaster test series of 1963. Retention characteristics based on the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) Task Group Lung Model and organ dose calculations based on a modified computer model are described. Health risk estimates based on organ dose are made using appropriate risk factors recommended by international radiation protection organizations. The relative seriousness of each accident at each alternative site is assessed on the basis of the health risk estiamtes.

  13. 1992 Environmental Summer Science Camp Program evaluation. The International Environmental Institute of Westinghouse Hanford Company

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This report describes the 1992 Westinghouse Hanford Company/US Department of Energy Environmental Summer Science Camp. The objective of the ``camp`` was to motivate sixth and seventh graders to pursue studies in math, science, and the environment. This objective was accomplished through hands-on fun activities while studying the present and future challenges facing our environment. The camp was funded through Technical Task Plan, 424203, from the US Department of Energy-Headquarters, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Technology Development,to Westinghouse Hanford Company`s International Environmental Institute, Education and Internship Performance Group.

  14. Evaluation of the epidemiological and economic consequences of control scenarios for bovine viral diarrhea virus in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Santman-Berends, I M G A; Mars, M H; van Duijn, L; van Schaik, G

    2015-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important endemic infection. However, no information was available on whether it would be economically beneficial to implement a national control program in the Netherlands. Therefore, a stochastic simulation model was developed in which control scenarios were added to compare the epidemiological and economic consequences of BVDV control in Dutch dairy herds in the next 10 yr. In the epidemiological part of the model, herds could be classified as susceptible, infectious, recovered, or vaccinated. The outputs of the epidemiological module served as input for the economic module. Net costs that could be attributed to bovine viral diarrhea consisted of production losses, costs for testing, and culling persistently infected cattle in the present voluntary Dutch BVDV control program and costs for vaccination. Four different control scenarios were simulated, involving testing and culling of persistently infected (based on serum or ear-notch testing), and monitoring BVDV statuses and vaccination and were derived from BVDV control programs that are currently executed in Europe. The costs and benefits of BVDV control in the current situation and in each of the simulated control scenarios were evaluated assuming an annual discount rate of 2%. The model estimated a mean BVDV herd prevalence of 18.0% in 2014 and showed a slightly decreasing prevalence over time. The outputs seemed realistic for the present situation in the Netherlands when compared with actual survey data. The average annual net costs associated with bovine viral diarrhea were estimated at €27.8 million for the dairy industry. Two control scenarios were beneficial in controlling BVDV during the study period (between 2015 and 2025). In the scenario where tracing and removing of PI animals and monitoring of the subsequent status was obligatory, the benefit to cost (B/C) ratio was 1.5 (€1.5 benefit for each invested euro). In the scenario in which the BVDV status of

  15. Environmental equity: Evaluating TSDF siting over the past two decades

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A.B.; Anderton, D.L.; Oakes, J.M. )

    1994-07-01

    In recent years, as the environmental justice movement has gained momentum, the public has become more aware of claims that racial and ethnic minorities, or the economically disadvantaged, may be burdened by a disproportionate share of environmental risks. Research has begun to assess the magnitude and character of specific problems. Research being conducted by the Social and Demographic Research Institute (SADRI) of the University of Massachusetts at Amherst (UMass), is concerned with claims that commercial hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities (TSDFs) have been located in areas with higher than average percentages of minority populations. Given the seriousness of the charge and the prominence of the issue in debates over national environmental policy, it is surprising to find that so little empirical research has been done.

  16. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 3: Environmental issues and evaluation criteria for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1979-01-01

    The environmental issues and evaluation criteria relating to the suitability of sites proposed for photovoltaic (PV) system deployment are identified. The important issues are defined, briefly discussed and then developed into evaluation criteria. System designers are provided with information on the environmental sensitivity of PV systems in realistic applications, background material which indicates the applicability of the siting issues identified, and evaluation criteria are defined to facilitate the selection of sites that maximize PV system operation.

  17. Efficiency criteria for environmental evaluation of power technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Saymansky, J.E.; Torries, T.F.

    1994-12-31

    The potential of using efficiency as a screening criteria for the development of future power generation technologies is examined within the realm of pending CO{sub 2} limitations. Efficiency measures of CO{sub 2} per unit of net power available for sale and overall thermal efficiency along with their effects on direct environmental benefits are used to illustrate this concept. The results of this study indicate that improvements in efficiency provide greater environmental benefits than alternative emission reduction measures. However, significant improvements in the efficiency may be required if power generation facilities are to meet the 20 percent proposed reduction in CO{sub 2} by the year 2000.

  18. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Quantification of major input parameters: MAACS (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System) input

    SciTech Connect

    Sprung, J.L.; Jow, H-N ); Rollstin, J.A. ); Helton, J.C. )

    1990-12-01

    Estimation of offsite accident consequences is the customary final step in a probabilistic assessment of the risks of severe nuclear reactor accidents. Recently, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission reassessed the risks of severe accidents at five US power reactors (NUREG-1150). Offsite accident consequences for NUREG-1150 source terms were estimated using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). Before these calculations were performed, most MACCS input parameters were reviewed, and for each parameter reviewed, a best-estimate value was recommended. This report presents the results of these reviews. Specifically, recommended values and the basis for their selection are presented for MACCS atmospheric and biospheric transport, emergency response, food pathway, and economic input parameters. Dose conversion factors and health effect parameters are not reviewed in this report. 134 refs., 15 figs., 110 tabs.

  19. Environmental evaluation of waste treatment scenarios for the towns Khanty-Mansiysk and Surgut, Russia.

    PubMed

    Kaazke, Julia; Meneses, Montse; Wilke, Berndt-Michael; Rotter, Vera Susanne

    2013-03-01

    Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug - Ugra in Siberia has recently started to play a major role in the Russian economy because key oil and gas extraction sites are located in this region. As a result, the extensions of infrastructure and higher incomes have been leading to an accelerated population growth and consequent increase in the generation of solid household waste. The current methods of waste disposal have now reached their limits, especially in the towns Khanty-Mansiysk and Surgut. The key objectives of this study were to identify the influence of waste composition and transport routes on the life cycle assessment (LCA) results and to assess the current waste treatment option for solid household waste and to compare it with proposed scenarios. Furthermore, recommendations for an optimal use of LCA within a decision-making process for a waste management plan are presented. LCA methodology was used to evaluate different waste management scenarios such as landfilling and incineration. One result was that the options 'incineration with recycling' and 'anaerobic mechanical-biological treatment with recycling' demonstrated lower environmental impact in both Khanty-Mansiysk and Surgut. Another finding was that there were hardly any differences in the ranking of the scenarios for Surgut and Khanty-Mansiysk. However, the special socio-cultural circumstances and location of each town have to be considered seriously in the development of a sustainable waste management plan.

  20. Environmental Dispositions and the Evaluation of Architectural Interiors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gifford, Robert

    1980-01-01

    The Environmental Response Inventory (ERI) assesses dispositions toward everyday physical environments. The eight ERI scales were examined in a design involving ratings of public building interiors. Results support the ERI as a promising tool. Biographical items also correlate with ratings. (Author)

  1. Teachers' Rooms Environmental Assessment Scale: Development and Psychometric Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Suna

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' rooms are important parts of educational environments, as the quality of the physical-spatial and psychosocial conditions may affect the personal and occupational developments of teachers as well as the education processes. In Study 1 (n = 245), a Teachers' Rooms-Environmental Assessment Scale (TREAS) measure of the current conditions of…

  2. INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT, MEASUREMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-04-01

    This report covers the following four tasks: (1) Characterization of Heavy Metals, Radionuclides and Organics in Heterogeneous Media; (2) Environmental Control Device Testing; (3) Waste Treatment and D&D Support: Process Monitoring and Control; and (4) Diagnostic Field Applications, Coordination and Testing Support (DFACTS).

  3. Developing and Evaluating New Methods for Assessing Concurrent Environmental Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summary of purpose and scope (no longer than 200 words): One limitation to current environmental health research is the focus on single contaminant exposures. Each exposure estimated in epidemiologic models accounts for a relatively small proportion of observed variance in health...

  4. EVALUATING AND DESIGNING CHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemicals and chemical processes are at the heart of most environmental problems. This isn't surprising since chemicals make up all of the products we use in our lives. The common use of cjhemicals makes them of high interest for systems analysis, particularly because of environ...

  5. Quality assurance of hair analysis for evaluation of environmental pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Heydorn, K.; Damsgaard, E.; Gwozdz, R.

    1997-12-01

    Trace analysis of human hair has been used for assessing the exposure to toxic trace elements in the environment of an ore-processing plant. The purpose of the investigation is to provide a reference scenario for environmental pollution to determine the effect of future major technical improvements in plant operation.

  6. 39 CFR 775.9 - Environmental evaluation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... conditioned upon the implementation of the identified mitigation measures in the EA that support the FONSI...), environmental impact statement preparation, and project designs, a budgetary request will include authorization... other options, and (iii) The development of limited designs of facilities for each competing site. (4)...

  7. The Development and Evaluation of an Elementary Environmental Attitudes Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leith, Sylvia G.; Butts, David P.

    The study grew out of a concern for a way to develop positive attitudes in children towards environmental problems. It was conducted using 29 student teachers, 15 of whom were arbitrarily assigned as the experimental group. This group participated in instructional sessions designed to assist them in implementing a special program - Elementary…

  8. INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT, MEASUREMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-10-01

    This report covers the following 5 tasks: (1) Characterization of Heavy Metals and Radionuclides; (2) Development of Tools for Long-term Monitoring; (3) Hanford Tank Waste Chemistry; (4) Environmental Control Device Testing; and (5) Process Monitoring and Control of Toxic Organics.

  9. The environmental, health, and safety issues of acoustical materials: A strategy for finding, using, and evaluating information effectively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischel, Marsha S.

    2005-09-01

    Concern over the safety of our indoor environments has increased in recent years. The definition of safety has also evolved to include not just life safety issues such as fire, but issues such as mold growth, toxins, the emission of volatile organic compounds, seismic concerns, and ergonomic issues. Consequently, the understanding of product safety has become increasingly more complex. Simultaneously, there has been an explosion in the number of products available to specifiers, due largely to access to the World Wide Web by international manufacturers of all sizes. Some of these manufacturers may be unable to test all aspects of product safety, or simply may be unaware of safety regulations. Specifiers can no longer assume a product is inherently safe and must do their own evaluations of product safety attributes. This paper will lay out a basic methodology for finding, using, and evaluating environmental, health, and safety information on acoustical products in an effective manner.

  10. Multi-criteria evaluation in strategic environmental assessment for waste management plan, a case study: the city of Belgrade.

    PubMed

    Josimović, Boško; Marić, Igor; Milijić, Saša

    2015-02-01

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is one of the key instruments for implementing sustainable development strategies in planning in general; in addition to being used in sectoral planning, it can also be used in other areas such as waste management planning. SEA in waste management planning has become a tool for considering the benefits and consequences of the proposed changes in space, also taking into account the capacity of space to sustain the implementation of the planned activities. In order to envisage both the positive and negative implications of a waste management plan for the elements of sustainable development, an adequate methodological approach to evaluating the potential impacts must be adopted and the evaluation results presented in a simple and clear way, so as to allow planners to make relevant decisions as a precondition for the sustainability of the activities planned in the waste management sector. This paper examines the multi-criteria evaluation method for carrying out an SEA for the Waste Management Plan for the city of Belgrade (BWMP). The method was applied to the evaluation of the impacts of the activities planned in the waste management sector on the basis of the environmental and socioeconomic indicators of sustainability, taking into consideration the intensity, spatial extent, probability and frequency of impact, by means of a specific planning approach and simple and clear presentation of the obtained results.

  11. National Environmental Research Parks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The National Environmental Research Parks are outdoor laboratories that provide opportunities for environmental studies on protected lands that act as buffers around Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The research parks are used to evaluate the environmental consequences of energy use and development as well as the strategies to mitigate these effects. They are also used to demonstrate possible environmental and land-use options. The seven parks are: Fermilab National Environmental Research Park; Hanford National Environmental Research Park; Idaho National Environmental Research Park; Los Alamos National Environmental Research Park; Nevada National Environmental Research Park; Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park; and Savannah River National Environmental Research Park. This document gives an overview of the events that led to the creation of the research parks. Its main purpose is to summarize key points about each park, including ecological research, geological characteristics, facilities, and available databases.

  12. Environmental evaluation of the electric and cogenerative configurations for the energy recovery of the Turin municipal solid waste incineration plant.

    PubMed

    Panepinto, Deborah; Genon, Giuseppe

    2014-07-01

    Given the desirability of reducing fossil fuel consumption, together with the increasing production of combustible solid wastes, there is clearly a need for waste treatment systems that achieve both volume reduction and energy recovery. Direct incineration method is one such system. The aim of this work was to analyze the municipal solid waste incineration plant currently under construction in the province of Turin (Piedmont, North Italy), especially the potential for energy recovery, and the consequent environmental effects. We analyzed two kinds of energy recovery: electric energy (electrical configuration) only, and both electric and thermal energy (cogenerative configuration), in this case with a different connection hypothesis to the district heating network. After we had evaluated the potential of the incinerator and considered local demographic, energy and urban planning effects, we assumed different possible connections to the district heating network. We computed the local and global environmental balances based on the characteristics of the flue gas emitted from the stack, taking into consideration the emissions avoided by the substituted sources. The global-scale results provided relevant information on the carbon dioxide emissions parameter. The results on the local scale were used as reference values for the implementation of a Gaussian model (Aermod) that allows evaluation of the actual concentration of the pollutants released into the atmosphere. The main results obtained highlight the high energy efficiency of the combined production of heat and electricity, and the opportunity to minimize the environmental impact by including cogeneration in a district heating scheme.

  13. [Consequences of short term fluctuations of environmental temperatures in calves--Part 1: Immediate reactions of the respiratory system, the cardiovascular system, metabolism and thermal regulation].

    PubMed

    Elmer, S; Reinhold, P

    2002-04-01

    Clinically healthy calves (aged 3-6 weeks) were exposed to defined ambient temperature for 4 hours (cold: 5 degrees C, 60% humidity, n = 12; warm: 35 degrees C, 60% humidity, n = 11). During the exposure of each animal in a climatic chamber, certain parameters of lung function, respiratory mechanics, blood gas analysis, circulation, metabolism and thermal regulation were registered simultaneously in order to study immediate physiological consequences of different environmental conditions. In comparison to control calves (18-20 degrees C, 60% humidity, n = 13) an insufficient adaptation of these young calves was noticed in both cold and warm conditions. At 5 degrees C, marked changes in lung function were observed, i.e. airway constriction, pulmonary hypertension, and ventilation-perfusion-mismatching leading to hypoxemia and hypercapnia. Due to compensation by the circulatory system, a sufficient O2-consumption of the organism as well as an unchanged body temperature were maintained. At 35 degrees C, the respiratory pattern changed to panting and a higher dead space ventilation. No changes were observed in pulmonary gas exchange and blood arterialisation. Due to hyperventilation, the partial pressure for CO2 decreased in blood. Since the body temperature increased continuously, thermal regulation was insufficient. This situation would have led to animals collapsing after a period of heat stress lasting longer than 4 hours. In conclusion, young calves up to the age of 6 weeks were not able to tolerate acute changes in ambient temperature. This was true for cold conditions (5 degrees C) as well as for hot conditions (35 degrees C). The results of this study should be taken into account in order to optimise transport and farming conditions.

  14. INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT, MEASUREMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John Plodinec

    2001-04-01

    The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at Mississippi State University (MSU), in accordance with Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40395, will undertake four tasks for DOE EM during the period April 1, 2000 through March 31, 2001. (1) Characterization of Heavy Metals, Radionuclides and Organics in Heterogeneous Media; (2) Environmental Control Device Testing; (3) Waste Treatment and D&D Support: Process Monitoring and Control; and (4) Diagnostic Field Applications Coordination and Testing Support (DFACTS).

  15. Xavier University CERE Program [Consortium for Environmental Risk Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, Sally

    1999-09-01

    The workshop provided training for 20 environmental professionals and educators. The focus of instruction for two days was the use of the Internet as a communcation tool. Instructors introduced participants to email, designing and building Web pages, and conducting research using search engines. The focus for three days was learning how Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can be used in the classroom and the workplace. Participants were introducted to the GIS on the Internet and Use of ArcView software.

  16. Counterfactual Thinking and Impact Evaluation in Environmental Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferraro, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Impact evaluations assess the degree to which changes in outcomes can be attributed to an intervention rather than to other factors. Such attribution requires knowing what outcomes would have looked like in the absence of the intervention. This counterfactual world can be inferred only indirectly through evaluation designs that control for…

  17. UK Environmental Prediction - integration and evaluation at the convective scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallmann, Joachim; Lewis, Huw; Castillo, Juan Manuel; Pearson, David; Harris, Chris; Saulter, Andy; Bricheno, Lucy; Blyth, Eleanor

    2016-04-01

    It has long been understood that accurate prediction and warning of the impacts of severe weather requires an integrated approach to forecasting. For example, high impact weather is typically manifested through various interactions and feedbacks between different components of the Earth System. Damaging high winds can lead to significant damage from the large waves and storm surge along coastlines. The impact of intense rainfall can be translated through saturated soils and land surface processes, high river flows and flooding inland. The substantial impacts on individuals, businesses and infrastructure of such events indicate a pressing need to understand better the value that might be delivered through more integrated environmental prediction. To address this need, the Met Office, NERC Centre for Ecology & Hydrology and NERC National Oceanography Centre have begun to develop the foundations of a coupled high resolution probabilistic forecast system for the UK at km-scale. This links together existing model components of the atmosphere, coastal ocean, land surface and hydrology. Our initial focus has been on a 2-year Prototype project to demonstrate the UK coupled prediction concept in research mode. This presentation will provide an update on UK environmental prediction activities. We will present the results from the initial implementation of an atmosphere-land-ocean coupled system and discuss progress and initial results from further development to integrate wave interactions. We will discuss future directions and opportunities for collaboration in environmental prediction, and the challenges to realise the potential of integrated regional coupled forecasting for improving predictions and applications.

  18. An Evaluation of Science and Geography Documents and Texts in Ontario Schools from an Environmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borger, Bill

    This study evaluated Ontario Ministry of Education documents and textbooks for environmental content. The documents evaluated were the "Ontario Schools: Intermediate and Senior Divisions" OSIS science and geography curriculum guidelines from grades 7-12. Corresponding textbooks in science and geography were also evaluated. Also…

  19. 76 FR 42762 - Final Written Re-Evaluation for Environmental Impact Statement: Sikorsky Memorial Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Final Written Re-Evaluation for Environmental Impact Statement: Sikorsky... Stratford, Connecticut. ADDRESSES: The Written Re-Evaluation document is available for review during normal... and other airfield improvements. This Written Re-Evaluation documents the FAA's assessment of...

  20. A methodology to enable rapid evaluation of aviation environmental impacts and aircraft technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Keith Frederick

    Commercial aviation has become an integral part of modern society and enables unprecedented global connectivity by increasing rapid business, cultural, and personal connectivity. In the decades following World War II, passenger travel through commercial aviation quickly grew at a rate of roughly 8% per year globally. The FAA's most recent Terminal Area Forecast predicts growth to continue at a rate of 2.5% domestically, and the market outlooks produced by Airbus and Boeing generally predict growth to continue at a rate of 5% per year globally over the next several decades, which translates into a need for up to 30,000 new aircraft produced by 2025. With such large numbers of new aircraft potentially entering service, any negative consequences of commercial aviation must undergo examination and mitigation by governing bodies so that growth may still be achieved. Options to simultaneously grow while reducing environmental impact include evolution of the commercial fleet through changes in operations, aircraft mix, and technology adoption. Methods to rapidly evaluate fleet environmental metrics are needed to enable decision makers to quickly compare the impact of different scenarios and weigh the impact of multiple policy options. As the fleet evolves, interdependencies may emerge in the form of tradeoffs between improvements in different environmental metrics as new technologies are brought into service. In order to include the impacts of these interdependencies on fleet evolution, physics-based modeling is required at the appropriate level of fidelity. Evaluation of environmental metrics in a physics-based manner can be done at the individual aircraft level, but will then not capture aggregate fleet metrics. Contrastingly, evaluation of environmental metrics at the fleet level is already being done for aircraft in the commercial fleet, but current tools and approaches require enhancement because they currently capture technology implementation through post

  1. Direct Measures in Environmental Education Evaluation: Behavioral Intentions versus Observable Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camargo, Camilo; Shavelson, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The objective of many environmental education programs is to promote pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors in students. However, evaluation of these programs has focused on asking participants what they think (attitudes) and what they do (behaviors) regarding the environment problems through self-report questionnaires and interviews. These…

  2. Process Evaluation Results from an Environmentally Focused Worksite Weight Management Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJoy, David M.; Wilson, Mark G.; Padilla, Heather M.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Parker, Kristin B.; Della, Lindsay J.; Roemer, Enid C.

    2012-01-01

    There is currently much interest in exploring environmental approaches to combat weight gain and obesity. This study presents process evaluation results from a workplace-based study that tested two levels of environmentally focused weight management interventions in a manufacturing setting. The moderate treatment featured a set of relatively…

  3. Evaluating the Impact of Environmental Interpretation: A Review of Three Research Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Doug

    Three research studies examined the impact of environmental interpretation programs on the environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of student participants. Conducted by Indiana University's Department of Recreation and Park Administration, the studies evaluated variables related to entry level (awareness), ownership, and empowerment…

  4. Theory-Based Assessment in Environmental Education: A Tool for Formative Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granit-Dgani, Dafna; Kaplan, Avi; Flum, Hanoch

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on the development of a theory-informed assessment instrument for use in evaluating environmental education programs. The instrument involves coding learners' brief reflective writing on five established educational and social psychological constructs that correspond to five important goals of environmental education:…

  5. Evaluation of absorption cycle for space station environmental control system application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, W. H.; Oneill, M. J.; Reid, H. C.; Bisenius, P. M.

    1972-01-01

    The study to evaluate an absorption cycle refrigeration system to provide environmental control for the space stations is reported. A zero-gravity liquid/vapor separator was designed and tested. The results were used to design a light-weight, efficient generator for the absorption refrigeration system. It is concluded that absorption cycle refrigeration is feasible for providing space station environmental control.

  6. Field Operational and Environmental Evaluation of the Automated Integrated Surveying Instrument (AISI). Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    DO NOT REPRODUCE LEGIBLY, ADDENDUM (FINAL REPORT VOL. I OF I) FIELD OPERATIONAL & ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION OF THE AUTOMATED INTEGRATED SURVEYING...close a traverse Construction Same as topographic L2 r II I AUOAE7NEGAINSREIGIShMN AUOAE NEGAINSREIGISRMN (AISI) TABLE OF CONT-ENTS Tot i c Volume I P...18 Environmental Tests. .. .. .... .... .... ..... ..... 29 Electromagnetic interference Tests .. .. ..... .... .... .... 34

  7. Evaluation of the legal consequences of action affects neural activity and emotional experience during the resolution of moral dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Pletti, Carolina; Sarlo, Michela; Palomba, Daniela; Rumiati, Rino; Lotto, Lorella

    2015-03-01

    In any modern society killing is regarded as a severe violation of the legal codes that is subjected to penal judgment. Therefore, it is likely that people take legal consequences into account when deciding about the hypothetical killing of one person in classic moral dilemmas, with legal concerns contributing to decision-making. In particular, by differing for the degree of intentionality and emotional salience, Footbridge- and Trolley-type dilemmas might promote differential assignment of blame and punishment while implicating the same severity of harm. The present study was aimed at comparing the neural activity, subjective emotional reactions, and behavioral choices in two groups of participants who either took (Legal group) or did not take (No Legal group) legal consequences into account when deciding on Footbridge-type and Trolley-type moral dilemmas. Stimulus- and response-locked ERPs were measured to investigate the neural activity underlying two separate phases of the decision process. No difference in behavioral choices was found between groups. However, the No Legal group reported greater overall emotional impact, associated with lower preparation for action, suggesting greater conflict between alternative motor responses representing the different decision choices. In contrast, the Legal group showed an overall dampened affective experience during decision-making associated with greater overall action readiness and intention to act, reflecting lower conflict in responding. On these bases, we suggest that in moral dilemmas legal consequences of actions provide a sort of reference point on which people can rely to support a decision, independent of dilemma type.

  8. NAFTA Guidance for Evaluating and Calculating Degradation Kinetics in Environmental Media :DD Memo

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Signed Division Director memo, December 17, 2012, with original announcement to EFED scientists of tools and approaches for evaluating and calculating degradation kinetics in environmental media. There is more updated information that this available.

  9. Evaluating Bacteriocin Production by Environmental Enterococci: An Inquiry-Based Activity in Bacterial Antgonism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, June

    2007-01-01

    Bacteriocins, bacteriocidal proteins produced by bacteria, have a very restricted killing range. In this exercise each student isolates an environmental "Enterococcus spp." culture using selective media and then evaluates it for bacteriocin activity against "Enterococcus" strains isolated by classmates.

  10. EVALUATING THE ECONOMICS AND ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLINESS OF NEWLY DESIGNED OR RETROFITTED CHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work describes a method for using spreadsheet analyses of process designs and retrofits to provide simple and quick economic and environmental evaluations simultaneously. The method focuses attention onto those streams and components that have the largest monetary values and...

  11. Notification: Evaluation of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Research on Human Subjects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    October 22, 2012. The purpose of this memorandum is to notify you that the Office of Inspector General (OIG) plans to begin an evaluation of the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Research on Human Subjects.

  12. UK Environmental Prediction - integration and evaluation at the convective scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallmann, Joachim; Lewis, Huw; Castillo, Juan Manuel; Pearson, David; Harris, Chris; Saulter, Andy; Bricheno, Lucy; Blyth, Eleanor

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, the simulation of regional ocean, wave and atmosphere components of the Earth System have been considered separately, with some information on other components provided by means of boundary or forcing conditions. More recently, the potential value of a more integrated approach, as required for global climate and Earth System prediction, for regional short-term applications has begun to gain increasing research effort. In the UK, this activity is motivated by an understanding that accurate prediction and warning of the impacts of severe weather requires an integrated approach to forecasting. The substantial impacts on individuals, businesses and infrastructure of such events indicate a pressing need to understand better the value that might be delivered through more integrated environmental prediction. To address this need, the Met Office, NERC Centre for Ecology & Hydrology and NERC National Oceanography Centre have begun to develop the foundations of a coupled high resolution probabilistic forecast system for the UK at km-scale. This links together existing model components of the atmosphere, coastal ocean, land surface and hydrology. Our initial focus has been on a 2-year Prototype project to demonstrate the UK coupled prediction concept in research mode. This presentation will provide an update on UK environmental prediction activities. We will present the results from the initial implementation of an atmosphere-land-ocean coupled system, including a new eddy-permitting resolution ocean component, and discuss progress and initial results from further development to integrate wave interactions in this relatively high resolution system. We will discuss future directions and opportunities for collaboration in environmental prediction, and the challenges to realise the potential of integrated regional coupled forecasting for improving predictions and applications.

  13. Mechanical, Electrical, and Environmental Evaluation of Nano-Miniature Connectors

    SciTech Connect

    Hilton, J.W.

    2001-07-30

    Because of their small size (0.025-inch spacing), nano-miniature connectors have been chosen for JTA telemetry applications. At the time they were chosen, extensive testing had not been done to determine the mechanical, electrical, and environmental characteristics of these connectors at the levels required for use by weapon systems. Since nano-miniature connectors use some unique plating and wire crimping processes not used in most design agency connectors, it was decided that these properties should be tested thoroughly. This report describes the results of that testing.

  14. Environmental education evaluation: reinterpreting education as a strategy for meeting mission.

    PubMed

    Heimlich, Joe E

    2010-05-01

    Critical consideration of the role of environmental education in meeting conservation outcomes is increasingly necessary for environmental agencies and organizations. Evaluation can help move organizations to alignment between educational goals and organizational mission. Moving theory-driven evaluation into mission-based program theory, this chapter examines the ways in which educational goals can and should be linked to conservation outcomes for an agency or organization.

  15. Environmental evaluation of the forest of MT Fuji, based on multiple satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiosaka, K.; Konta, F.; Nishikawa, H.

    1994-03-01

    Evaluation of environmental roles of the forest of Mt. Fuji and estimation of deposition of sulfur dioxide on the leaves of Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) weere done based on satellite data. The evaluation suggests that artificial Japanese cypress forests, which occupy the largest area among vegetations of Mt. Fuji have problems concerning environmental role of storing of soil water, and that the result of the estimation indicates an uneven distribution of sulfur dioxide deposition.

  16. Impact Assessment and Environmental Evaluation of Various Ammonia Production Processes.

    PubMed

    Bicer, Yusuf; Dincer, Ibrahim; Vezina, Greg; Raso, Frank

    2017-02-14

    In the current study, conventional resources-based ammonia generation routes are comparatively studied through a comprehensive life cycle assessment. The selected ammonia generation options range from mostly used steam methane reforming to partial oxidation of heavy oil. The chosen ammonia synthesis process is the most common commercially available Haber-Bosch process. The essential energy input for the methods are used from various conventional resources such as coal, nuclear, natural gas and heavy oil. Using the life cycle assessment methodology, the environmental impacts of selected methods are identified and quantified from cradle to gate. The life cycle assessment outcomes of the conventional resources based ammonia production routes show that nuclear electrolysis-based ammonia generation method yields the lowest global warming and climate change impacts while the coal-based electrolysis options bring higher environmental problems. The calculated greenhouse gas emission from nuclear-based electrolysis is 0.48 kg CO2 equivalent while it is 13.6 kg CO2 per kg of ammonia for coal-based electrolysis method.

  17. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) oxidant model: description and evaluation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Schere, K.L.; Fabrick, A.J.

    1985-09-01

    The U.S. EPA Regional Oxidant Model (ROM) and NEROS data base are described. The model incorporates a comprehensive description of the physical and chemical processes thought to be important to tropospheric O3 production on 1000-km scales. The data base employed for the first application of the ROM was collected during the summers of 1979 and 1980 in the Northeast U.S. It contains meteorological and air-quality data from regular monitoring networks and from enhanced networks or special field-project measurements during that period. The evaluation procedure that will be used to determine the ROM performance on this data base is outlined. A number of episodes will be simulated from the period July 23 through August 16, 1980, for which performance statistics will be developed. The evaluation of any given day within an episode will proceed in two distinct stages. The first stage will focus on model performance for an individual model realization, irrespective of all other realizations. Model realizations for a given day are functions of the possible flow fields that existed for the day. The second stage will attempt to evaluate model performance using the full probabilistic abilities of the ROM that consider all realizations concurrently. The focus of the evaluation will be on O3. The exact pathway through the evaluation study will be determined by the resources available at the time.

  18. Environmental impact of fertilizer industries evaluated by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, J. E.; Bolívar, J. P.; Respaldiza, M. A.; García-Tenorio, R.; da Silva, M. F.

    1995-12-01

    In this paper the environmental impact of several phosphogypsum piles sited in the southwest of Spain is studied using multielemental analysis by PIXE of 12 salt marsh and soil samples collected in their surroundings. The piles are used to store the main by-product formed in the production of phosphoric acid and phosphate fertilizers. The samples collected were bombarded with 2.5 MeV protons from the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator in the ITN at Sacavèm (Portugal), and 20 elements from Al to Pb were detected. The results obtained reinforce previous radioanalytical determinations concerning the significant radioactive contamination pathways (leaching or/and dissolution of elements by water from the piles) and the negligible pathways (atmospheric and direct aquatic transport).

  19. Economic and environmental evaluation of compressed-air cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creutzig, Felix; Papson, Andrew; Schipper, Lee; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2009-10-01

    Climate change and energy security require a reduction in travel demand, a modal shift, and technological innovation in the transport sector. Through a series of press releases and demonstrations, a car using energy stored in compressed air produced by a compressor has been suggested as an environmentally friendly vehicle of the future. We analyze the thermodynamic efficiency of a compressed-air car powered by a pneumatic engine and consider the merits of compressed air versus chemical storage of potential energy. Even under highly optimistic assumptions the compressed-air car is significantly less efficient than a battery electric vehicle and produces more greenhouse gas emissions than a conventional gas-powered car with a coal intensive power mix. However, a pneumatic-combustion hybrid is technologically feasible, inexpensive and could eventually compete with hybrid electric vehicles.

  20. [The food legislation evaluation of environmental chemicals in freshwater fish].

    PubMed

    Krüger, K E

    1990-07-01

    During the last 1 1/2 decades different regulatory limits have been given to value pollutants in fish under food-legal aspects. Their requested target, which consists of an effective consumer's protection however has been missed by various reasons: The production and distribution of environmental pollutants cannot be suppressed by limits for food. The selective elimination of limit-exceeding individuals from a lot is impossible. Treating both, natural pollutants like geogenic mercury and anthropogenic ones similar seems to be indefensible with regard to food law. Therefore proposals are made to rule only anthropogenic pollutants by law, when regulatory limits are planned to be supplemented. In case of natural distribution less stringent advisory limits seem to be more suitable.

  1. Evaluation of the uranium double spike technique for environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hemberger, P.H.; Rokop, D.J.; Efurd, D.W.; Roensch, F.R.; Smith, D.H.; Turner, M.L.; Barshick, C.M.; Bayne, C.K.

    1998-01-01

    Use of a uranium double spike in analysis of environmental samples showed that a {sup 235}U enrichment of 1% ({sup 235}U/{sup 238}U = 0.00732) can be distinguished from natural ({sup 235}U/{sup 238}U = 0.00725). Experiments performed jointly at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) used a carefully calibrated double spike of {sup 233}U and {sup 236}U to obtain much better precision than is possible using conventional analytical techniques. A variety of different sampling media (vegetation and swipes) showed that, provided sufficient care is exercised in choice of sample type, relative standard deviations of less than {+-} 0.5% can be routinely obtained. This ability, unavailable without use of the double spike, has enormous potential significance in the detection of undeclared nuclear facilities.

  2. Environmental and economic evaluation of bioenergy in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yimin; Habibi, Shiva; MacLean, Heather L

    2007-08-01

    We examined life cycle environmental and economic implications of two near-term scenarios for converting cellulosic biomass to energy, generating electricity from cofiring biomass in existing coal power plants, and producing ethanol from biomass in stand-alone facilities in Ontario, Canada. The study inventories near-term biomass supply in the province, quantifies environmental metrics associated with the use of agricultural residues for producing electricity and ethanol, determines the incremental costs of switching from fossil fuels to biomass, and compares the cost-effectiveness of greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollutant emissions abatement achieved through the use of the bioenergy. Implementing a biomass cofiring rate of 10% in existing coal-fired power plants would reduce annual GHG emissions by 2.3 million metric tons (t) of CO2 equivalent (7% of the province's coal power plant emissions). The substitution of gasoline with ethanol/gasoline blends would reduce annual provincial lightduty vehicle fleet emissions between 1.3 and 2.5 million t of CO2 equivalent (3.5-7% of fleet emissions). If biomass sources other than agricultural residues were used, additional emissions reductions could be realized. At current crude oil prices ($70/barrel) and levels of technology development of the bioenergy alternatives, the biomass electricity cofiring scenario analyzed is more cost-effective for mitigating GHG emissions ($22/t of CO2 equivalent for a 10% cofiring rate) than the stand-alone ethanol production scenario ($92/t of CO2 equivalent). The economics of biomass cofiring benefits from existing capital, whereas the cellulosic ethanol scenario does not. Notwithstanding this result, there are several factors that increase the attractiveness of ethanol. These include uncertainty in crude oil prices, potential for marked improvements in cellulosic ethanol technology and economics, the province's commitment to 5% ethanol content in gasoline, the possibility of ethanol

  3. Calculations supporting evaluation of potential environmental standards for Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Duguid, J.O.; Andrews, R.W.; Brandstetter, E.; Dale, T.F.; Reeves, M.

    1994-04-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992, Section 801 (US Congress, 1992) provides for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to contract the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to conduct a study and provide findings and recommendations on reasonable standards for the disposal of high-level wastes at the Yucca Mountain site. The NAS study is to provide findings and recommendations which include, among other things, whether a health-based standard based on dose to individual members of the public from releases to the accessible environment will provide a reasonable standard for the protection of the health and safety of the public. The EPA, based upon and consistent with the findings and recommendations of the NAS, is required to promulgate standards for protection of the public from releases from radioactive materials stored or disposed of in a repository at the Yucca Mountain site. This document presents a number of different ``simple`` analyses of undisturbed repository performance that are intended to provide input to those responsible for setting appropriate environmental standards for a potential repository at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. Each of the processes included in the analyses has been simplified to capture the primary significance of that process in containing or isolating the waste from the biosphere. In these simplified analyses, the complex waste package interactions were approximated by a simple waste package ``failure`` distribution which is defined by the initiation and rate of waste package ``failures``. Similarly, releases from the waste package and the engineered barrier system are controlled by the very near field environment and the presence and rate of advective and diffusive release processes. Release was approximated by either a simple alteration-controlled release for the high solubility radionuclides and either a diffusive or advective-controlled release for the solubility-limited radionuclides.

  4. Options and problems in environmental management and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, J. R.

    1980-03-01

    Although logical compromise agreement between all the conflicting users of the sea seems the most obvious way to protect marine life, we have in practice mainly ad-hoc restrictions aimed at protecting habitats or species, or at trying to prevent chemical/physical deterioration of the environment. The establishment of reserves on biological rather than touristic grounds necessitates consideration of the criteria, appropriate to marine life, that should be used. Successful reserve management or species protection measures depend upon distinguishing between natural and man-made changes, an ability that can be enhanced in part by appropriate disturbance experiments. Anti-pollution measures have centred upon effluent input rather than biological effect in the field, with “acceptable discharge levels” being based upon lethal and sub-lethal experimental effects. But the ultimate criteria of environmental well-being are ecological responses at the population and community levels where, unfortunately, many natural and man-made influences produce similar changes. Knowledge of community dynamics and a resulting ability to discount natural events require long-term studies and are slow to accumulate. Thus while short-term sublethal studies proliferate many ecological data remain uninterpretable except in localities of gross and obvious pollution (including tanker accidents). The scarcity of sub-lethal and ecological effects in the field is even supplemented by ecological changes that are contrary to expectations based on pollution loadings. Is this because ecological expertise is still inadequate, or because experimental and environmental loading data grossly overstate the risks and are largely irrelevant at the community level? Can we assume that fears of chronic pollution are unfounded or must we intensify our efforts? If the latter, in which direction?

  5. Evaluating perspectives of economy “decarbonation” - environmental aspect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matugina, E. G.; Pogharnitskaya, O. V.; Dmitrieva, N. V.; Grinkevich, L. S.; Selenchuk, J. O.; Strelnikova, A. B.

    2016-09-01

    The present paper deals with evaluation of economy “decarbonation” perspectives in post-Soviet states. The dynamics of this process over the period of 1990-2014 has been studied and the countries have been ranked respectively. Decoupling of GDP growth and CO2 emissions has been identified. The authors suggest a classification of tools to manage the process.

  6. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Methodology for the containment, source term, consequence, and risk integration analyses; Volume 1, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Gorham, E.D.; Breeding, R.J.; Brown, T.D.; Harper, F.T.; Helton, J.C.; Murfin, W.B.; Hora, S.C.

    1993-12-01

    NUREG-1150 examines the risk to the public from five nuclear power plants. The NUREG-1150 plant studies are Level III probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) and, as such, they consist of four analysis components: accident frequency analysis, accident progression analysis, source term analysis, and consequence analysis. This volume summarizes the methods utilized in performing the last three components and the assembly of these analyses into an overall risk assessment. The NUREG-1150 analysis approach is based on the following ideas: (1) general and relatively fast-running models for the individual analysis components, (2) well-defined interfaces between the individual analysis components, (3) use of Monte Carlo techniques together with an efficient sampling procedure to propagate uncertainties, (4) use of expert panels to develop distributions for important phenomenological issues, and (5) automation of the overall analysis. Many features of the new analysis procedures were adopted to facilitate a comprehensive treatment of uncertainty in the complete risk analysis. Uncertainties in the accident frequency, accident progression and source term analyses were included in the overall uncertainty assessment. The uncertainties in the consequence analysis were not included in this assessment. A large effort was devoted to the development of procedures for obtaining expert opinion and the execution of these procedures to quantify parameters and phenomena for which there is large uncertainty and divergent opinions in the reactor safety community.

  7. Exploring the Intended and Unintended Consequences of High-Stakes Teacher Evaluation on Schools, Teachers, and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavigne, Alyson Leah

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: The stakes are getting higher for teachers daily as more and more states adopt hiring, firing, and tenure-granting policies based on teacher evaluations. Even more concerning is the limited discussion about whether or not high-stakes teacher evaluation can meet the intended outcome of improved student achievement, and at what…

  8. Evaluation of trade-offs in costs and environmental impacts for returnable packaging implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarupan, Lerpong; Kamarthi, Sagar V.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2004-02-01

    The main thrust of returnable packaging these days is to provide logistical services through transportation and distribution of products and be environmentally friendly. Returnable packaging and reverse logistics concepts have converged to mitigate the adverse effect of packaging materials entering the solid waste stream. Returnable packaging must be designed by considering the trade-offs between costs and environmental impact to satisfy manufacturers and environmentalists alike. The cost of returnable packaging entails such items as materials, manufacturing, collection, storage and disposal. Environmental impacts are explicitly linked with solid waste, air pollution, and water pollution. This paper presents a multi-criteria evaluation technique to assist decision-makers for evaluating the trade-offs in costs and environmental impact during the returnable packaging design process. The proposed evaluation technique involves a combination of multiple objective integer linear programming and analytic hierarchy process. A numerical example is used to illustrate the methodology.

  9. Evaluation of uncertainty in the measurement of environmental electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Vulević, B; Osmokrović, P

    2010-09-01

    With regard to Non-ionising radiation protection, the relationship between human exposure to electromagnetic fields and health is controversial. Electromagnetic fields have become omnipresent in the daily environment. This paper assesses the problem of how to compare a measurement result with a limit fixed by the standard for human exposure to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (0 Hz-300 GHz). The purpose of the paper is an appropriate representation of the basic information about evaluation of measurement uncertainty.

  10. Evaluation of a hydrogen chloride detector for environmental monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, G. L.; Moyer, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes a hydrogen chloride detector designed to monitor concentrations of hydrogen chloride gas in the ambient environment. The detector was developed for NASA for use in launch vehicle effluent monitoring. The detector operates on chemiluminescence principles with a lower detection limit of less than 5 x 10 to the -3rd ppm (by volume). The hydrogen chloride in the air sample reacts with a bromide-bromate coating in the inlet tube of the instrument producing bromine. Bromine is then quantitated by chemiluminescent oxidation of luminol. The visible light generated in the chemiluminescent reaction is proportional to the hydrogen chloride concentration of the sampled airstream. The detector is most suited to laboratory or field studies where hydrogen chloride is the dominant pollutant, as compared to the interfering species. Interferences include strong acids, acid-forming gases, and halogen gases. Of the interferences investigated the most serious in these groups are hydrochloric and sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, and chlorine, respectively. The detector has been in use since 1974 and has been found to be highly portable, rugged, and stable under extreme environmental conditions.

  11. Indicators for the Evaluation of Environmental Education, Interpretation and Information in Protected Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sureda, Jaume; Oliver, Miquel F.; Castells, Margalida

    2004-01-01

    By petition of the regional government of the Balearic Islands (Spain), the authors of this article evaluated activities of environmental education, interpretation, and information carried out in the most important protected areas of these islands. The following is a presentation of the model of the evaluation that was developed. Based on the…

  12. Environmental risk evaluation to minimize impacts within the area affected by the Wenchuan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Du, Pengfei; Chen, Jining; Chen, Chao; Liu, Yi; Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Hongtao; Zhang, Xiaojian

    2012-03-01

    Earthquakes can be devastating to built infrastructure and the natural environment, as evidenced by the March 2011, M=9.0 earthquake, and subsequent tsunami, in Japan. As seen in the Japanese event, environmental damage caused by secondary disasters (tsunami, leakage from a nuclear reactor) can equal or exceed the impacts of the primary event. In order to develop an environmental assessment system to examine secondary disasters, a comprehensive environmental impact evaluation was conducted after the Wenchuan earthquake that occurred on 12 May 2008 in the Sichuan Province, China. This evaluation focused on several key environmental elements such as wastewater, drinking water, soil, solid waste, radiation, and ecosystem-level effects. As part of this assessment, an analysis of root causes and potential solutions was conducted for key issues such as population relocation and resettlement in temporary dwellings, recovery of environmental protection functions, industrial development strategies and production recovery. Methods for post-quake environmental assessment were developed, utilizing GIS-based techniques for spatial evaluation of primary and secondary disaster patterns. The goal of this exercise was the development of effective assessment methods that can be rapidly applied in a post-disaster situation to reduce and mitigate damage caused by secondary disasters, and facilitate the recovery of impaired environmental management structure and function.

  13. LCA as a Tool to Evaluate Green Infrastructure's Environmental Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano De Sousa, M.; Erispaha, A.; Spatari, S.; Montalto, F.

    2011-12-01

    Decentralized approaches to managing urban stormwater through use of green infrastructure (GI) often lead to system-wide efficiency gains within the urban watershed's energy supply system. These efficiencies lead to direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions savings, and also restore some ecosystem functions within the urban landscape. We developed a consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) model to estimate the life cycle energy, global warming potential (GWP), and payback times for each if GI were applied within a select neighborhood in New York City. We applied the SIMAPRO LCA software and the economic input-output LCA (EIO-LCA) tool developed by Carnegie Mellon University. The results showed that for a new intersection installation highlighted in this study a conventional infrastructure construction would emit and use approximately 3 times more for both CO2 and energy than a design using GI. Two GI benefits were analyzed with regards to retrofitting the existing intersection. The first was related to the savings in energy and CO2 at the Waste Water Treatment Plant via runoff reduction accrued from GI use. The second benefit was related to the avoided environmental costs associated with an additional new grey infrastructure installation needed to prevent CSO in case of no GI implementation. The first benefit indicated a high payback time for a GI installation in terms of CO2 and energy demand (80 and 90 years respectively) and suggest a slow energy and carbon recovery time. However, concerning to the second benefit, GI proved to be a sustainable alternative considering the high CO2 releases (429 MTE) and energy demand (5.5 TJ) associated with a grey infrastructure construction.

  14. The Crop Evaluation Research for Environmental Strategies (CERES) Remote Sensing 2008 Project Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casas, Joseph C.; Glaser, John A.; Copenhaver, Kenneth L.; May, George

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the use of Plant Incorporated Protectant (PIP) corn by American producers has been increasing dramatically. PIP corn contains genetically inserted traits that produce toxins in the plant that provide narrowly targeted protection against specific insect pests. The plant producing t oxms can offer significant reductions in the application of broad -spectrum pesticides that have ecological and human health consequences. PIP corn as a percentage of total corn acreage planted in the US is expected to continue to increase as these protective traits are "stacked" with other desirable traits by seed companies, and producers are seeing considerable increases in corn yield as a result. The introduction of corn as a bio-fuel source for ethanol has increased production by over 6 million hectares in 2007. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), which is responsible for the registration of PIP crops under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act, views the use of PIP corn as positive. Broad spectrum pesticide use has declined since the PIP traits have been introduced. As the agricultural landscape sees a higher percentage of corn acres using the PIP technology, the risk of the targeted insect pest populations developing resistance to the toxins, thereby rendering the in will increase as well. This result would negate the effectiveness of the PIP corn traits and could reduce production of a US field corn crop valued at $33 billion dollars in 2006 and place US food and now energy security at risk. Concerns over insect pest resistance development to PIP traits have led the USEPA to team with NASA and the Institute for Technology Development (ITD) to develop geo-spatial technologies designed to proactively monitor the corn production landscape for insect pest infestation and possible resistance development. USEPA resistance management simulation models are combined with NASA remote sensi ng products to monitor the corn landscape for

  15. Multi-criteria evaluation in strategic environmental assessment for waste management plan, a case study: The city of Belgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Josimović, Boško Marić, Igor; Milijić, Saša

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • The paper deals with the specific method of multi-criteria evaluation applied in drafting the SEA for the Belgrade WMP. • MCE of the planning solutions, assessed according to 37 objectives of the SEA and four sets of criteria, was presented in the matrix form. • The results are presented in the form of graphs so as to be easily comprehensible to all the participants in the decision-making process. • The results represent concrete contribution proven in practice. - Abstract: Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is one of the key instruments for implementing sustainable development strategies in planning in general; in addition to being used in sectoral planning, it can also be used in other areas such as waste management planning. SEA in waste management planning has become a tool for considering the benefits and consequences of the proposed changes in space, also taking into account the capacity of space to sustain the implementation of the planned activities. In order to envisage both the positive and negative implications of a waste management plan for the elements of sustainable development, an adequate methodological approach to evaluating the potential impacts must be adopted and the evaluation results presented in a simple and clear way, so as to allow planners to make relevant decisions as a precondition for the sustainability of the activities planned in the waste management sector. This paper examines the multi-criteria evaluation method for carrying out an SEA for the Waste Management Plan for the city of Belgrade (BWMP). The method was applied to the evaluation of the impacts of the activities planned in the waste management sector on the basis of the environmental and socioeconomic indicators of sustainability, taking into consideration the intensity, spatial extent, probability and frequency of impact, by means of a specific planning approach and simple and clear presentation of the obtained results.

  16. EVALUATION OF WASTE PACKAGE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    E. N. Lindner and E. F. Dembowski

    1998-07-23

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) is studying Yucca Mountain as the possible site for a permanent underground repository for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other high-level waste (HLW). The emplacement of high-level radioactive waste in Yucca Mountain will release a large amount of heat into the rock above and below the repository. Due to this heat, the rock temperature will rise, and then decrease when the production of decay heat falls below the rate at which heat escapes from the hot zone. In addition to raising the rock temperature, the heat will vaporize water, which will condense in cooler regions. The condensate water may drain back toward the emplacement drifts or it may ''shed'' through the pillars between emplacement drifts. Other effects, such as coupled chemical and mechanical processes, may influence the movement of water above, within, and below the emplacement drifts. This study examined near field environmental parameters that could have an effect on the waste package, including temperature, humidity, seepage rate, pH of seepage, chemistry (dissolved salts/minerals) of seepage, composition of drift atmosphere, colloids, and biota. This report is a Type I analysis performed in support of the development of System Description Documents (SDDs). A Type I analysis is a quantitative or qualitative analysis that may fulfill any of a variety of purposes associated with the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR), other than providing direct analytical support for design output documents. A Type I analysis may establish design input, as defined in the ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998). This study establishes a technical basis for emplacement drift (i.e. at the waste package surface) environment criteria to be considered in the development of the waste package design. The information will support development of several SDDs and resolve emplacement drift external environment questions in the criteria of those

  17. Evaluation of the anatomical and functional consequences of repetitive mild cervical contusion using a model of spinal concussion.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ying; Bouyer, Julien; Haas, Christopher; Fischer, Itzhak

    2015-09-01

    Spinal cord concussion is characterized by a transient loss of motor and sensory function that generally resolves without permanent deficits. Spinal cord concussions usually occur during vehicular accidents, falls, and sport activity, but unlike brain concussions, have received much less attention despite the potential for repeated injury leading to permanent neurological sequelae. Consequently, there is no consensus regarding decisions related to return to play following an episode of spinal concussion, nor an understanding of the short- and long-term consequences of repeated injury. Importantly, there are no models of spinal concussion to study the anatomical and functional sequelae of single or repeated injury. We have developed a new model of spinal cord concussion focusing on the anatomical and behavioral outcomes of single and repeated injury. Rats received a very mild (50 kdyn, IH impactor) spinal contusion at C5 and were separated into two groups three weeks after the initial injury--C1, which received a second, sham surgery, and C2, which received a second contusion at the same site. To track motor function and recovery, animals received weekly behavioral tests--BBB, CatWalk™, cylinder, and Von Frey. Analysis of locomotor activity by BBB demonstrated that rats rapidly recovered, regaining near-normal function by one week after the first and second injury, which was confirmed using the more detailed CatWalk™ analysis. The cylinder test showed that a single contusion did not induce significant deficits of the affected limb, but that repeated injury resulted in significant alteration in paw preference, with animals favoring the unaffected limb. Intriguingly, Von Frey analysis demonstrated an increased sensitivity in the contralateral hindlimb in the C2 group vs. the C1 group. Anatomical analyses revealed that while the lesion volume of both groups was minimal, the area of spared white matter in the C2 group was significantly reduced 1 and 2mm rostral to

  18. Research on the Environmental Performance Evaluation of Electronic Waste Reverse Logistics Enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu-Xiang; Chen, Fei-Yang; Tong, Tong

    According to the characteristic of e-waste reverse logistics, environmental performance evaluation system of electronic waste reverse logistics enterprise is proposed. We use fuzzy analytic hierarchy process method to evaluate the system. In addition, this paper analyzes the enterprise X, as an example, to discuss the evaluation method. It's important to point out attributes and indexes which should be strengthen during the process of ewaste reverse logistics and provide guidance suggestions to domestic e-waste reverse logistics enterprises.

  19. Evaluating public participation in environmental decision-making: EPA's superfund community involvement program.

    PubMed

    Charnley, Susan; Engelbert, Bruce

    2005-11-01

    This article discusses an 8-year, ongoing project that evaluates the Environmental Protection Agency's Superfund community involvement program. The project originated as a response to the Government Performance and Results Act, which requires federal agencies to articulate program goals, and evaluate and report their progress in meeting those goals. The evaluation project assesses how effective the Superfund community involvement program is in promoting public participation in decisions about how to clean up hazardous wastes at Superfund sites. We do three things in the article: (1) share our experience with evaluating an Agency public participation program, including lessons learned about methods of evaluation; (2) report evaluation results; and (3) address a number of issues pertaining to the evaluation of public participation in environmental decision-making. Our goal is to encourage more environmental managers to incorporate evaluation into their public participation programs as a tool for improving them. We found that written mail surveys were an effective and economical tool for obtaining feedback on EPA's community involvement program at Superfund sites. The evaluation focused on four criteria: citizen satisfaction with EPA information about the Superfund site, citizen understanding of environmental and human health risks associated with the site, citizen satisfaction with opportunities provided by EPA for community input, and citizen satisfaction with EPA's response to community input. While the evaluation results were mixed, in general, community members who were most informed about and involved in the cleanup process at Superfund sites generally were also the most satisfied with the community involvement process, and the job that EPA was doing cleaning up the site. We conclude that systematic evaluation provides meaningful and useful information that agencies can use to improve their public participation programs. However, there need to be

  20. A model evaluation checklist for process-based environmental models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson-Blake, Leah

    2015-04-01

    Mechanistic catchment-scale phosphorus models appear to perform poorly where diffuse sources dominate. The reasons for this were investigated for one commonly-applied model, the INtegrated model of CAtchment Phosphorus (INCA-P). Model output was compared to 18 months of daily water quality monitoring data in a small agricultural catchment in Scotland, and model structure, key model processes and internal model responses were examined. Although the model broadly reproduced dissolved phosphorus dynamics, it struggled with particulates. The reasons for poor performance were explored, together with ways in which improvements could be made. The process of critiquing and assessing model performance was then generalised to provide a broadly-applicable model evaluation checklist, incorporating: (1) Calibration challenges, relating to difficulties in thoroughly searching a high-dimensional parameter space and in selecting appropriate means of evaluating model performance. In this study, for example, model simplification was identified as a necessary improvement to reduce the number of parameters requiring calibration, whilst the traditionally-used Nash Sutcliffe model performance statistic was not able to discriminate between realistic and unrealistic model simulations, and alternative statistics were needed. (2) Data limitations, relating to a lack of (or uncertainty in) input data, data to constrain model parameters, data for model calibration and testing, and data to test internal model processes. In this study, model reliability could be improved by addressing all four kinds of data limitation. For example, there was insufficient surface water monitoring data for model testing against an independent dataset to that used in calibration, whilst additional monitoring of groundwater and effluent phosphorus inputs would help distinguish between alternative plausible model parameterisations. (3) Model structural inadequacies, whereby model structure may inadequately represent

  1. Evaluating and understanding fish health risks and their consequences in propagated and free-ranging fish populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moffitt, C.M.; Haukenes, A.H.; Williams, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Fishery managers and resource conservationists are increasingly interested in understanding the fish health and disease risks of free-ranging fishes and whether propagated fishes or features and practices used at fish culture facilities pose a health risk to free-ranging populations. Disease agents are present in most both captive and all free-ranging fish populations, but the consequences and extent of infections in free-ranging populations are often difficult to measure, control, and understand. Sampling methods, protocols, and assay techniques developed to assess the health of captive populations are not as applicable for assessments of free-ranging fishes. The use of chemicals and therapeutics to control diseases and parasites in propagated fishes likely reduces the risk of introducing specific pathogens into the environment, but control measures may have localized effects on the environment surrounding fish culture facilities. To understand health risks of propagated and free ranging fishes, we must consider fish populations, culture facilities, fish releases, and their interactions within the greater geospatial features of the aquatic environment. ?? 2004 by the American Fisheries Society.

  2. Reinforced wind turbine blades--an environmental life cycle evaluation.

    PubMed

    Merugula, Laura; Khanna, Vikas; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2012-09-04

    A fiberglass composite reinforced with carbon nanofibers (CNF) at the resin-fiber interface is being developed for potential use in wind turbine blades. An energy and midpoint impact assessment was performed to gauge impacts of scaling production to blades 40 m and longer. Higher loadings force trade-offs in energy return on investment and midpoint impacts relative to the base case while remaining superior to thermoelectric power generation in these indicators. Energy-intensive production of CNFs forces impacts disproportionate to mass contribution. The polymer nanocomposite increases a 2 MW plant's global warming potential nearly 100% per kWh electricity generated with 5% CNF by mass in the blades if no increase in electrical output is realized. The relative scale of impact must be compensated by systematic improvements whether by deployment in higher potential zones or by increased life span; the trade-offs are expected to be significantly lessened with CNF manufacturing maturity. Significant challenges are faced in evaluating emerging technologies including uncertainty in future scenarios and process scaling. Inventories available for raw materials and monte carlos analysis have been used to gain insight to impacts of this development.

  3. Evaluation of a Multicommuted Flow System for Photometric Environmental Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Ródenas-Torralba, Eva; Rocha, Fábio R. P.; Reis, Boaventura F.; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    A portable flow analysis instrument is described for in situ photometric measurements. This system is based on light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and a photodiode detector, coupled to a multipumping flow system. The whole equipment presents dimensions of 25  cm × 22  cm × 10  cm, weighs circa 3 kg, and costs 650 €. System performance was evaluated for different chemistries without changing hardware configuration for determinations of (i) Fe3+ with SCN-, (ii) iodometric nitrite determination, (iii) phenol with sodium nitroprusside, and (iv) 1-naphthol-N-methylcarbamate (carbaryl) with p-aminophenol. The detection limits were estimated as 22, 60, 25, and 60 ng mL -1 for iron, nitrite, phenol, and carbaryl at the 99.7% confidence level with RSD of 2.3, 1.0, 1.8, and 0.8%, respectively. Reagent and waste volumes were lower than those obtained by flow systems with continuous reagent addition. Sampling rates of 100, 110, 65, and 72 determinations per hour were achieved for iron, nitrite, phenol, and carbaryl determinations PMID:17671614

  4. What Is Everyone Saying about Teacher Evaluation? Framing the Intended and Inadvertent Causes and Consequences of Race to the Top

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Carla E.; Richerme, Lauren Kapalka

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how contributors to national media, education publications, and arts education publications interpret aspects of teacher evaluation enacted in response to Race to the Top. Using Stone's (1989) policy framework, researchers coded articles for intended and inadvertent causes. Analysis indicated that…

  5. Selection Bias in Students' Evaluation of Teaching: Causes of Student Absenteeism and Its Consequences for Course Ratings and Rankings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolbring, Tobias; Treischl, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    Systematic sampling error due to self-selection is a common topic in methodological research and a key challenge for every empirical study. Since selection bias is often not sufficiently considered as a potential flaw in research on and evaluations in higher education, the aim of this paper is to raise awareness for the topic using the case of…

  6. [Environmental geochemical baseline of heavy metals in soils of the Ili river basin and pollution evaluation].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin-Ru; Nasier, Telajin; Cheng, Yong-Yi; Zhan, Jiang-Yu; Yang, Jian-Hong

    2014-06-01

    Environmental geochemical baseline models of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Hg were established by standardized method in the ehernozem, chestnut soil, sierozem and saline soil from the Ili river valley region. The theoretical baseline values were calculated. Baseline factor pollution index evaluation method, environmental background value evaluation method and heavy metal cleanliness evaluation method were used to compare soil pollution degrees. The baseline factor pollution index evaluation showed that As pollution was the most prominent among the four typical types of soils within the river basin, with 7.14%, 9.76%, 7.50% of sampling points in chernozem, chestnut soil and sierozem reached the heavy pollution, respectively. 7.32% of sampling points of chestnut soil reached the permitted heavy metal Pb pollution index in the chestnut soil. The variation extent of As and Pb was the largest, indicating large human disturbance. Environmental background value evaluation showed that As was the main pollution element, followed by Cu, Zn and Pb. Heavy metal cleanliness evaluation showed that Cu, Zn and Pb were better than cleanliness level 2 and Hg was the of cleanliness level 1 in all four types of soils. As showed moderate pollution in sierozem, and it was of cleanliness level 2 or better in chernozem, chestnut soil and saline-alkali soil. Comparing the three evaluation systems, the baseline factor pollution index evaluation more comprehensively reflected the geochemical migration characteristics of elements and the soil formation processes, and the pollution assessment could be specific to the sampling points. The environmental background value evaluation neglected the natural migration of heavy metals and the deposition process in the soil since it was established on the regional background values. The main purpose of the heavy metal cleanliness evaluation was to evaluate the safety degree of soil environment.

  7. Evaluation of variations and affecting factors of eco-environmental quality during urbanization.

    PubMed

    Cui, Erqian; Ren, Lijun; Sun, Haoyu

    2015-03-01

    Regional eco-environmental quality is the foundation of economic sustainable development and rational utilization of resources. It is necessary to understand and evaluate the regional eco-environmental quality correctly. Based on national remote sensing land use data, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data and some other statistical data, this paper established an eco-environmental quality index (EQI) model to evaluate the ecological status of Jinan from 2000 to 2011. The results of eco-environmental quality showed little variation, with EQI values ranged from 62.00 to 69.01. EQI of each region in Jinan firstly decreased sharply and then increased slowly with the development of local economy. Besides the spatial and temporal variations analysis, affecting factors of eco-environmental quality was also discussed in this article. According to the results of correlation and regression analysis, meteorological conditions (rainfall and sunshine duration) and industrial structure (the proportion of primary industry) had relatively high correlations with eco-environmental quality. To summarize, a better eco-environmental status is associated with increasing rainfall, shorter sunshine duration, and lower proportion of primary industry. This article aims to giving supporting data and decision-making bases to restore the ecological environment and promote the sustainable development of Jinan.

  8. Evaluation of a permeable reactive barrier technology for use at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS)

    SciTech Connect

    DWYER,BRIAN P.

    2000-01-01

    Three reactive materials were evaluated at laboratory scale to identify the optimum treatment reagent for use in a Permeable Reactive Barrier Treatment System at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). The contaminants of concern (COCS) are uranium, TCE, PCE, carbon tetrachloride, americium, and vinyl chloride. The three reactive media evaluated included high carbon steel iron filings, an iron-silica alloy in the form of a foam aggregate, and a peculiar humic acid based sorbent (Humasorb from Arctech) mixed with sand. Each material was tested in the laboratory at column scale using simulated site water. All three materials showed promise for the 903 Mound Site however, the iron filings were determined to be the least expensive media. In order to validate the laboratory results, the iron filings were further tested at a pilot scale (field columns) using actual site water. Pilot test results were similar to laboratory results; consequently, the iron filings were chosen for the fill-scale demonstration of the reactive barrier technology. Additional design parameters including saturated hydraulic conductivity, treatment residence time, and head loss across the media were also determined and provided to the design team in support of the final design. The final design was completed by the Corps of Engineers in 1997 and the system was constructed in the summer of 1998. The treatment system began fill operation in December, 1998 and despite a few problems has been operational since. Results to date are consistent with the lab and pilot scale findings, i.e., complete removal of the contaminants of concern (COCs) prior to discharge to meet RFETS cleanup requirements. Furthermore, it is fair to say at this point in time that laboratory developed design parameters for the reactive barrier technology are sufficient for fuel scale design; however,the treatment system longevity and the long-term fate of the contaminants are questions that remain unanswered. This

  9. Review of models used for determining consequences of UF{sub 6} release: Model evaluation report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, S.K.; Chambers, D.B.; Park, S.H.; Radonjic, Z.R.; Coutts, P.T.; Lewis, C.J.; Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1997-11-01

    Three uranium hexafluoride-(UF{sub 6}-) specific models--HGSYSTEM/UF{sub 6}, Science Application International Corporation, and RTM-96; three dense-gas models--DEGADIS, SLAB, and the Chlorine Institute methodology; and one toxic chemical model--AFTOX--are evaluated on their capabilities to simulate the chemical reactions, thermodynamics, and atmospheric dispersion of UF{sub 6} released from accidents at nuclear fuel-cycle facilities, to support Integrated Safety Analysis, Emergency Response Planning, and Post-Accident Analysis. These models are also evaluated for user-friendliness and for quality assurance and quality control features, to ensure the validity and credibility of the results. Model performance evaluations are conducted for the three UF{sub 6}-specific models, using field data on releases of UF{sub 6} and other heavy gases. Predictions from the HGSYSTEM/UF{sub 6} and SAIC models are within an order of magnitude of the field data, but the SAIC model overpredicts beyond an order of magnitude for a few UF{sub 6}-specific data points. The RTM-96 model provides overpredictions within a factor of 3 for all data points beyond 400 m from the source. For one data set, however, the RTM-96 model severely underpredicts the observations within 200 m of the source. Outputs of the models are most sensitive to the meteorological parameters at large distances from the source and to certain source-specific and meteorological parameters at distances close to the source. Specific recommendations are being made to improve the applicability and usefulness of the three models and to choose a specific model to support the intended analyses. Guidance is also provided on the choice of input parameters for initial dilution, building wake effects, and distance to completion of UF{sub 6} reaction with water.

  10. Strong Medicine and Unintended Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkdoll, Gerald L.

    1992-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence from interviews with some program managers gives evidence that unintended negative consequences of evaluations are more than a theoretical concern; they are a real problem deserving an evaluator's attention and energy. Negative consequences usually include: (1) wasted resources; (2) demotivation; and (3) program destruction and…

  11. An evaluation of health risk to the public as a consequence of in situ uranium mining in Wyoming, USA

    DOE PAGES

    Ruedig, Elizabeth; Johnson, Thomas E.

    2015-08-30

    In the United States there is considerable public concern regarding the health effects of in situ recovery uranium mining. These concerns focus principally on exposure to contaminants mobilized in groundwater by the mining process. However, the risk arising as a result of mining must be viewed in light of the presence of naturally occurring uranium ore and other constituents which comprise a latent hazard. The United States Environmental Protection Agency recently proposed new guidelines for successful restoration of an in situ uranium mine by limiting concentrations of thirteen groundwater constituents: arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, nitrate (asmore » nitrogen), molybdenum, radium, total uranium, and gross α activity. We investigated the changes occurring to these constituents at an ISR uranium mine in Wyoming, USA by comparing groundwater quality at baseline measurement to that at stability (post-restoration) testing. Of the groundwater constituents considered, only uranium and radium-226 showed significant (p < 0.05) deviation from site-wide baseline conditions in matched-wells. Uranium concentrations increased by a factor of 5.6 (95% CI 3.6–8.9 times greater) while radium-226 decreased by a factor of about one half (95% CI 0.42–0.75 times less). Change in risk was calculated using the RESRAD (onsite) code for an individual exposed as a resident-farmer; total radiation dose to a resident farmer decreased from pre-to post-mining by about 5.2 mSv y–1. As a result, higher concentrations of uranium correspond to increased biomarkers of nephrotoxicity, however the clinical significance of this increase is unclear.« less

  12. An evaluation of health risk to the public as a consequence of in situ uranium mining in Wyoming, USA.

    PubMed

    Ruedig, Elizabeth; Johnson, Thomas E

    2015-12-01

    In the United States there is considerable public concern regarding the health effects of in situ recovery uranium mining. These concerns focus principally on exposure to contaminants mobilized in groundwater by the mining process. However, the risk arising as a result of mining must be viewed in light of the presence of naturally occurring uranium ore and other constituents which comprise a latent hazard. The United States Environmental Protection Agency recently proposed new guidelines for successful restoration of an in situ uranium mine by limiting concentrations of thirteen groundwater constituents: arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, nitrate (as nitrogen), molybdenum, radium, total uranium, and gross α activity. We investigated the changes occurring to these constituents at an ISR uranium mine in Wyoming, USA by comparing groundwater quality at baseline measurement to that at stability (post-restoration) testing. Of the groundwater constituents considered, only uranium and radium-226 showed significant (p < 0.05) deviation from site-wide baseline conditions in matched-wells. Uranium concentrations increased by a factor of 5.6 (95% CI 3.6-8.9 times greater) while radium-226 decreased by a factor of about one half (95% CI 0.42-0.75 times less). Change in risk was calculated using the RESRAD (onsite) code for an individual exposed as a resident-farmer; total radiation dose to a resident farmer decreased from pre-to post-mining by about 5.2 mSv y(-1). Higher concentrations of uranium correspond to increased biomarkers of nephrotoxicity, however the clinical significance of this increase is unclear.

  13. Is tissue engineering a new paradigm in medicine? Consequences for the ethical evaluation of tissue engineering research.

    PubMed

    Trommelmans, Leen; Selling, Joseph; Dierickx, Kris

    2009-11-01

    Ex-vivo tissue engineering is a quickly developing medical technology aiming to regenerate tissue through the introduction of an ex-vivo created tissue construct instead of restoring the damaged tissue to some level of functionality. Tissue engineering is considered by some as a new medical paradigm. We analyse this claim and identify tissue engineering's fundamental characteristics, focusing on the aim of the intervention and on the complexity and continuity of the process. We inquire how these features have an impact not only on the scientific research itself but also on the ethical evaluation of this research. We suggest that viewing tissue engineering as a new medical paradigm allows us to develop a wider perspective for successful investigation instead of focusing on isolated steps of the tissue engineering process in an anecdotal way, which may lead to an inadequate ethical evaluation. We argue that the concept of tissue engineering as a paradigm may benefit the way we address the ethical challenges presented by tissue engineering.

  14. SU-E-T-547: Modeling Biological Response to Proton Irradiation and Evaluating Its Potential Clinical Consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Taleei, R; Peeler, C; Guan, F; Patel, D; Titt, U; Mirkovic, D; Grosshans, D; Mohan, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In addition to physical uncertainties, proton therapy may also be associated with biologic uncertainties. Currently a generic RBE value of 1.1 is used for treatment planning. In this work the effects of variable RBE, in comparison to a fixed RBE, were evaluated by calculating the effective dose for proton treatments. Methods: The repair misrepair fixation (RMF) model was used to calculate variable proton RBEs. The RBE weighted spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) dose in water phantom was calculated using Monte Carlo simulation and compared to 1.1 weighted SOBP dose. A head and neck proton treatment was used to evaluate the potential effects, by comparing the head and neck treatment plan computed with a commercial treatment planning system that incorporates fixed RBE of 1.1 and a Monte Carlo treatment planning system that incorporates variable RBE. Results: RBE calculations along the depth of SOBP showed that the RBE at the entrance is approximately 1 and reaches 1.1 near the center of the SOBP. However, in distal regions the RBE rises to higher values (up to 3.5 depending on the cell type). Comparison of commercial treatment plans using a fixed RBE of 1.1 and Monte Carlo using variable RBE showed noticeable differences in the effective dose distributions. Conclusion: The comparison of the treatment planning with fixed and variable RBE shows that using commercial treatment planning systems that incorporate fixed RBE (1.1) could Result in overestimation of the effective dose to part of head and neck target volumes, while underestimating the effective dose to the normal tissue beyond the tumor. The accurate variable RBE as a function of proton beam energy in patient should be incorporated in treatment planning to improve the accuracy of effective dose calculation.

  15. Proceedings of the Teton Summit for Program Evaluation in Nonformal Environmental Education (Kelly, Wyoming, May 19-22, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltz, L. Kate

    This document contains the proceedings of the Teton Summit Conference for Program Evaluation in Nonformal Environmental Education. The Summit was co-hosted by the Teton Science School (TSS) and The Ohio State University with the goal of improving efficacy of evaluation in environmental education. Contents include: (1) What Is Evaluation? (2) For…

  16. Locally refined block-centred finite-difference groundwater models: Evaluation of parameter sensitivity and the consequences for inverse modelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehl, S.; Hill, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    Models with local grid refinement, as often required in groundwater models, pose special problems for model calibration. This work investigates the calculation of sensitivities and the performance of regression methods using two existing and one new method of grid refinement. The existing local grid refinement methods considered are: (a) a variably spaced grid in which the grid spacing becomes smaller near the area of interest and larger where such detail is not needed, and (b) telescopic mesh refinement (TMR), which uses the hydraulic heads or fluxes of a regional model to provide the boundary conditions for a locally refined model. The new method has a feedback between the regional and local grids using shared nodes, and thereby, unlike the TMR methods, balances heads and fluxes at the interfacing boundary. Results for sensitivities are compared for the three methods and the effect of the accuracy of sensitivity calculations are evaluated by comparing inverse modelling results. For the cases tested, results indicate that the inaccuracies of the sensitivities calculated using the TMR approach can cause the inverse model to converge to an incorrect solution.

  17. It's all in the numbers: acreage tallies and environmental program evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dale, Lisa; Gerlak, Andrea K

    2007-02-01

    Increasingly, performance measurement is being used to hold federal agencies accountable, represent environmental progress, and evaluate the effectiveness of environmental programs. The need to track measurable outputs has created a tendency to present programmatic progress solely by quantifiable data, despite the inherent complexity of natural resource management. Wetlands and fire management programs are two specific environmental arenas that have come to overemphasize the tracking of acreage numbers to validate existing policy direction. In both of these arenas, we find the definition and categorization of "countable" acres to be inconsistent and unreliable. We explore this systemic flaw for both wetlands and fire programs and describe its implications for environmental policy and natural resource management more broadly. We conclude with recommendations for improved performance measurement in these arenas.

  18. International evaluation of current and future requirements for environmental engineering education.

    PubMed

    Morgenroth, E; Daigger, G T; Ledin, A; Keller, J

    2004-01-01

    The field of environmental engineering is developing as a result of changing environmental requirements. In response, environmental engineering education (E3) needs to ensure that it provides students with the necessary tools to address these challenges. In this paper the current status and future development of E3 is evaluated based on a questionnaire sent to universities and potential employers of E3 graduates. With increasing demands on environmental quality, the complexity of environmental engineering problems to be solved can be expected to increase. To find solutions environmental engineers will need to work in interdisciplinary teams. Based on the questionnaire there was a broad agreement that the best way to prepare students for these future challenges is to provide them with a fundamental education in basic sciences and related engineering fields. Many exciting developments in the environmental engineering profession will be located at the interface between engineering, science, and society. Aspects of all three areas need to be included in E3 and the student needs to be exposed to the tensions associated with linking the three.

  19. MYSID CRUSTACEANS AS POTENTIAL TEST ORGANISMS FOR THE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verslycke, Tim A., Nancy Fockedey, Charles L. McKenney, Jr., Stephen D. Roast, Malcolm B. Jones, Jan Mees and Colin R. Janssen. 2004. Mysid Crustaceans as Potential Test Organisms for the Evaluation of Environmental Endocrine Disruption: A Review. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 23(5):12...

  20. Evaluating the Impact of an Environmental Education Programme: An Empirical Study in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Mallen, Isabel; Barraza, Laura; Bodenhorn, Barbara; Reyes-Garcia, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    This study draws on information from 11 in-depth interviews, two focus groups and 72 written questionnaires to evaluate an extra-curricular environmental education programme on forestry designed for preparatory school students from a small rural community in Mexico. Specifically, the study assessed the impact of the programme on the ecological…

  1. Evaluation of a Place-Based Environmental Education Program: From There to Here

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincera, Jan; Johnson, Bruce; Kovacikova, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces a Czech environmental education middle school program focused on helping students develop place attachment to their community and on increasing their interest in natural area in their region. The evaluation applied a mixed approach combining pretesting/posttesting of the students (N = 158), two group interviews with selected…

  2. Evaluating Uncertainty in Integrated Environmental Models: A Review of Concepts and Tools

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews concepts for evaluating integrated environmental models and discusses a list of relevant software-based tools. A simplified taxonomy for sources of uncertainty and a glossary of key terms with standard definitions are provided in the context of integrated appro...

  3. 77 FR 58416 - Comparative Environmental Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ...Notice is hereby given that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) is issuing for public comment the Draft Comparative Environmental Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste Spent Ion Exchange Resins from Commercial Nuclear Power...

  4. Estimating juniper cover from NAIP imagery and evaluating relationships between potential cover and environmental variables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juniper management is constrained by limited tools to estimate juniper cover and potential cover at stand closure across landscapes. We evaluated if remotely sensed imagery (NAIP) could be used to estimate juniper cover and if environmental characteristic could be used to determine potential junipe...

  5. EVALUATION OF SEVERAL ASSESSMENT METHODS AS INDICATORS OF ESTUARINE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Researchers from U.S. EPA's Gulf Ecology Division have conducted a multi-year evaluation of the environmental condition of near-coastal areas affected by different types of stressors. Areas of study have included coastal rivers, transportation canals, residential canals and estua...

  6. Evaluation in Residential Environmental Education: An Applied Literature Review of Intermediary Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardoin, Nicole M.; Biedenweg, Kelly; O'Connor, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Residential environmental education aims to enhance proenvironmental attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors, as well as attain outcomes related to personal and interpersonal skills. Although these outcomes may not be evident for months or even years afterward, few program evaluations investigate how the experience and context affect intended outcomes…

  7. Evaluating Long-Term Effects of the Golden Lion Tamarin Environmental Education Program in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engels, Christine Archer; Jacobson, Susan K.

    2007-01-01

    The authors evaluated the environmental education program of the Golden Lion Tamarin Association in Brazil by comparing results of a 2001 survey with baseline data from 1986. Responses of 666 residents and results from 4 focus groups revealed an increase in public support for the tamarin and its habitat and an increase in general environmental…

  8. EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR NEAR-COASTAL AREAS OF THE GULF OF MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lewis, Michael A. In press. Evaluation of Environmental Hazard Assessment Procedures for Near-Coastal Areas of the Gulf of Mexico (Abstract). To be presented at the Annual Meeting of the the Australasian Society of Ecotoxicology, July 2004, Gold Coast, Australia. 1 p. (ERL,GB R98...

  9. Zombie science: a sinister consequence of evaluating scientific theories purely on the basis of enlightened self-interest.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2008-09-01

    Although the classical ideal is that scientific theories are evaluated by a careful teasing-out of their internal logic and external implications, and checking whether these deductions and predictions are in-line-with old and new observations; the fact that so many vague, dumb or incoherent scientific theories are apparently believed by so many scientists for so many years is suggestive that this ideal does not necessarily reflect real world practice. In the real world it looks more like most scientists are quite willing to pursue wrong ideas for so long as they are rewarded with a better chance of achieving more grants, publications and status. The classic account has it that bogus theories should readily be demolished by sceptical (or jealous) competitor scientists. However, in practice even the most conclusive 'hatchet jobs' may fail to kill, or even weaken, phoney hypotheses when they are backed-up with sufficient economic muscle in the form of lavish and sustained funding. And when a branch of science based on phoney theories serves a useful but non-scientific purpose, it may be kept-going indefinitely by continuous transfusions of cash from those whose interests it serves. If this happens, real science expires and a 'zombie science' evolves. Zombie science is science that is dead but will not lie down. It keeps twitching and lumbering around so that (from a distance, and with your eyes half-closed) zombie science looks much like the real thing. But in fact the zombie has no life of its own; it is animated and moved only by the incessant pumping of funds. If zombie science is not scientifically-useable--what is its function? In a nutshell, zombie science is supported because it is useful propaganda to be deployed in arenas such as political rhetoric, public administration, management, public relations, marketing and the mass media generally. It persuades, it constructs taboos, it buttresses some kind of rhetorical attempt to shape mass opinion. Indeed, zombie

  10. Transferring Environmental Evaluation Functions to the Environmental Quality Council. Hearing Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, H.R. 11952, 91st Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House.

    Presented in this bulletin is the text of the hearing before the Conservation and Natural Resources Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, United States House of Representatives, ninety-first Congress, concerning the transfer of environmental evaluation functions to the Environmental Quality Council (EQC). The hearing was held…

  11. Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment Program. Workshop on environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2/-induced climate change

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    The Workshop was part of a process of elucidating areas of uncertainty where research is needed before meaningful forecasts and sound decisions can be made about the CO/sub 2/ issue. The conferees were divided into five panels dealing with the ocean and the cryosphere: the less managed biosphere; the managed biosphere (chiefly agricultural, forest, and grazing lands); the ways society and its institutions might respond to climate changes; and issues involving the economic and geopolitical consequences of CO/sub 2/ build-up. Also, 28 papers or discussion drafts dealing with a wide variety of topics were contributed to the conference.

  12. A holistic approach to the environmental evaluation of food waste prevention.

    PubMed

    Salemdeeb, Ramy; Font Vivanco, David; Al-Tabbaa, Abir; Zu Ermgassen, Erasmus K H J

    2017-01-01

    The environmental evaluation of food waste prevention is considered a challenging task due to the globalised nature of the food supply chain and the limitations of existing evaluation tools. The most significant of these is the rebound effect: the associated environmental burdens of substitutive consumption that arises as a result of economic savings made from food waste prevention. This study introduces a holistic approach to addressing these challenges, with a focus on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from household food waste in the UK. It uses a hybrid life-cycle assessment model coupled with a highly detailed multi-regional environmentally extended input output analysis to capture environmental impacts across the global food supply chain. The study also takes into consideration the rebound effect, which was modelled using a linear specification of an almost ideal demand system. The study finds that food waste prevention could lead to substantial reductions in GHG emissions in the order of 706-896kg CO2-eq. per tonne of food waste, with most of these savings (78%) occurring as a result of avoided food production overseas. The rebound effect may however reduce such GHG savings by up to 60%. These findings provide a deeper insight into our understanding of the environmental impacts of food waste prevention: the study demonstrates the need to adopt a holistic approach when developing food waste prevention policies in order to mitigate the rebound effect and highlight the importance of increasing efficiency across the global food supply chain, particularly in developing countries.

  13. A model for evaluating the environmental benefits of elementary school facilities.

    PubMed

    Ji, Changyoon; Hong, Taehoon; Jeong, Kwangbok; Leigh, Seung-Bok

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a model that is capable of evaluating the environmental benefits of a new elementary school facility was developed. The model is composed of three steps: (i) retrieval of elementary school facilities having similar characteristics as the new elementary school facility using case-based reasoning; (ii) creation of energy consumption and material data for the benchmark elementary school facility using the retrieved similar elementary school facilities; and (iii) evaluation of the environmental benefits of the new elementary school facility by assessing and comparing the environmental impact of the new and created benchmark elementary school facility using life cycle assessment. The developed model can present the environmental benefits of a new elementary school facility in terms of monetary values using Environmental Priority Strategy 2000, a damage-oriented life cycle impact assessment method. The developed model can be used for the following: (i) as criteria for a green-building rating system; (ii) as criteria for setting the support plan and size, such as the government's incentives for promoting green-building projects; and (iii) as criteria for determining the feasibility of green building projects in key business sectors.

  14. A method proposal for cumulative environmental impact assessment based on the landscape vulnerability evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlickova, Katarina; Vyskupova, Monika

    2015-01-15

    Cumulative environmental impact assessment deals with the occasional use in practical application of environmental impact assessment process. The main reasons are the difficulty of cumulative impact identification caused by lack of data, inability to measure the intensity and spatial effect of all types of impacts and the uncertainty of their future evolution. This work presents a method proposal to predict cumulative impacts on the basis of landscape vulnerability evaluation. For this purpose, qualitative assessment of landscape ecological stability is conducted and major vulnerability indicators of environmental and socio-economic receptors are specified and valuated. Potential cumulative impacts and the overall impact significance are predicted quantitatively in modified Argonne multiple matrixes while considering the vulnerability of affected landscape receptors and the significance of impacts identified individually. The method was employed in the concrete environmental impact assessment process conducted in Slovakia. The results obtained in this case study reflect that this methodology is simple to apply, valid for all types of impacts and projects, inexpensive and not time-consuming. The objectivity of the partial methods used in this procedure is improved by quantitative landscape ecological stability evaluation, assignment of weights to vulnerability indicators based on the detailed characteristics of affected factors, and grading impact significance. - Highlights: • This paper suggests a method proposal for cumulative impact prediction. • The method includes landscape vulnerability evaluation. • The vulnerability of affected receptors is determined by their sensitivity. • This method can increase the objectivity of impact prediction in the EIA process.

  15. Evaluation of public health professionals' capacity to implement environmental changes supportive of healthy weight.

    PubMed

    Gantner, Leigh A; Olson, Christine M

    2012-08-01

    Community-based interventions to promote healthy weights by making environmental and policy changes in communities may be an important strategy in reversing the obesity epidemic. However, challenges faced by local public health professionals in facilitating effective environmental and policy change need to be better understood and addressed. To better understand capacity-building needs, this study evaluated the efforts of the Healthy Start Partnership, a university-community project to promote healthy weights in young families in a rural eight-county area of upstate New York. Qualitative interviews (n=30) and pre/post surveys (n=31) were conducted over three years of the intervention. Challenges faced by partners significantly slowed progress of environmental interventions in some communities. First, many partners did not feel their "regular" jobs afforded them sufficient time to do community work. Second, many partners did not feel they had the personal political power to work on broader environmental, policy, or system change issues. Third, facilitating and policy change and reaching out to non-traditional partners, like businesses, required developing a new set of public health skills. Fourth, the long-time frame of environmental and policy work meant that many efforts would exceed the grant period. Building local public health leaders for environmental and policy change necessitates that these challenges are acknowledged and addressed.

  16. Laboratory and Pilot Scale Evaluation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier Technology for Use at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS)

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, B.P.; Hankins, M.G.

    1999-02-01

    Three reactive materials were evaluated to identify the optimum treatment reagent for use in a Permeable Reactive Barrier Treatment System at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). The three reactive media evaluated included high carbon steel iron filings, an iron-silica alloy in the form of a foam aggregate, and a pellicular humic acid based sorbent (Humasorb from Arctech) mixed with sand. Each material was tested in the laboratory at column scale using simulated site water. All three materials showed promise for the 903 Mound Site; however, the iron filings were determined to be the most cost effective media. In order to validate the laboratory results, the iron filings were further tested at a pilot scale (field columns) using actual site water. Pilot test results were similar to laboratory results; consequently, the iron filings were chosen for the full scale demonstration of this reactive barrier technology. Design parameters including saturated hydraulic conductivity, treatment residence time, and head loss across the media were provided to the design team in support of the final design.

  17. Dynamic evaluation of environmental impact due to tritium accidental release from the fusion reactor.

    PubMed

    Nie, Baojie; Ni, Muyi; Jiang, Jieqiong; Wu, Yican

    2015-10-01

    As one of the key safety issues of fusion reactors, tritium environmental impact of fusion accidents has attracted great attention. In this work, the dynamic tritium concentrations in the air and human body were evaluated on the time scale based on accidental release scenarios under the extreme environmental conditions. The radiation dose through various exposure pathways was assessed to find out the potential relationships among them. Based on this work, the limits of HT and HTO release amount for arbitrary accidents were proposed for the fusion reactor according to dose limit of ITER. The dynamic results aim to give practical guidance for establishment of fusion emergency standard and design of fusion tritium system.

  18. Environmental and economic evaluation of energy recovery from agricultural and forestry residues

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    Four conversion methods and five residues are examined in this report, which describes six model systems: hydrolysis of corn residues, pyrolysis of corn residues, combustion of cotton-ginning residues, pyrolysis of wheat residues, fermentation of molasses, and combustion of pulp and papermill wastes. Estimates of material and energy flows for those systems are given per 10/sup 12/ Btu of recovered energy. Regional effects are incorporated by addressing the regionalized production of the residues. A national scope cannot be provided for every residue considered because of the biological and physical constraints of crop production. Thus, regionalization of the model systems to the primary production region for the crop from which the residue is obtained has been undertaken. The associated environmental consequences of residue utilization are then assessed for the production region. In addition, the environmental impacts of operating the model systems are examined by quantifying the residuals generated and the land, water, and material requirements per 10/sup 12/ Btu of energy generated. On the basis of estimates found in the literature, capital, operating, and maintenance cost estimates are given for the model systems. These data are also computed on the basis of 10/sup 12/ Btu of energy recovered. The cost, residual, material, land, and water data were then organized into a format acceptable for input into the SEAS data management program. The study indicates that the most serious environmental impacts arise from residue removal rather than from conversion.

  19. Property Evaluation and Damage Evolution of Environmental Barrier Coatings and Environmental Barrier Coated SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composite Sub-Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Halbig, Michael; Jaskowiak, Martha; Hurst, Janet; Bhatt, Ram; Fox, Dennis S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes recent development of environmental barrier coatings on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites. The creep and fatigue behavior at aggressive long-term high temperature conditions have been evaluated and highlighted. Thermal conductivity and high thermal gradient cyclic durability of environmental barrier coatings have been evaluated. The damage accumulation and complex stress-strain behavior environmental barrier coatings on SiCSiC ceramic matrix composite turbine airfoil subelements during the thermal cyclic and fatigue testing of have been also reported.

  20. Comprehensive evaluation of environmental and economic benefits of China's urban underground transportation construction projects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaobin; Chen, Zhilong; Guo, Dongjun

    2015-07-01

    Urban underground transportation projects are introduced to address problems of scarce green land and traffic pollution. As construction of urban underground transportation is still in its infancy, there is no definite quantitative measurement on whether the construction is beneficial and what influences it will place on the region in China. This study intends to construct a comprehensive evaluation method for evaluating social, economic and environmental benefits of urban underground transportation projects and proposes the concept, role and principle for evaluation of environmental and economic benefits. It figures out relationship between the environment and factors of city development. It also summarizes three relevant factors, including transportation, biophysics and social economy, and works out indicators to evaluate the influence of urban underground transportation construction. Based on Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), Cost of Illness Approach (CIA), Human Capital Approach (HCA), this paper constructs 13 monetization calculation models for social, economic and environmental benefits in response to seven aspects, namely, reducing noise pollution and air pollution, using land efficiently, improving traffic safety, reducing traffic congestion, saving shipping time and minimizing transportation costs.

  1. Zenon Environmental, Inc.: ZenoGem{trademark} biological and ultrafiltration technology. Innovative technology evaluation report; Superfund innovative technology evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    Zenon Environmental Inc. (Zenon), of Burlington, Ontario, Canada had developed an innovative wastewater treatment technology called the ZenoGem{trademark} technology. The ZenoGem{trademark} technology integrates biological treatment with membrane-based ultrafiltration to treat wastewater with high concentrations of organic contaminants that cause elevated concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD). The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) demonstration occurred between September and December 1994 at the Nascolite Superfund site (Nascolite) in Millville, Cumberland County, New Jersey. During the SITE demonstration, critical and noncritical measurements were evaluated. Critical measurements consisted of sample analyses and process measurements that directly impacted meeting the project`s primary technical objective. Critical measurements included collection of liquid and air samples for MMA and VOC analyses; liquid samples to evaluate COD; and flow rate measurements of the influent and effluent liquid streams. Noncritical, or system condition measurements, provided information on operating ranges, reliability, variability, cost-effectiveness, and full-scale remediation potential of the technology.

  2. Applications of remote sensing for the evaluation of Adriatic Sea environmental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Vitiello, F.; Borfecchia, F.; De Cecco, L.; Martini, S.

    1997-08-01

    The paper shows the remote sensing activities that ENEA is carrying out for the evaluation of Adriatic Sea environmental conditions and their modifications over the last fifteen years. The activities were requested by the Italian Research Ministry to gain knowledge of the circulation model of the Adriatic Sea and to understand what caused algae blooms in some of the last years. The Adriatic Sea is a high environmental risk sea, because its depth is low and a strong pollutant charge is coming into the sea from the Po river and from many other rivers of the NE coast of Italy. Processing of satellite images has covered the period from 1980 up to now and has allowed the reconstruction of modifications of the environmental conditions of the sea. The paper shows the first results obtained by remote sensing images processing that will be utilized for the database of the Adriatic Sea.

  3. First evaluation of foraminiferal metabarcoding for monitoring environmental impact from an offshore oil drilling site.

    PubMed

    Laroche, Olivier; Wood, Susanna A; Tremblay, Louis A; Ellis, Joanne I; Lejzerowicz, Franck; Pawlowski, Jan; Lear, Gavin; Atalah, Javier; Pochon, Xavier

    2016-09-01

    At present, environmental impacts from offshore oil and gas activities are partly determined by measuring changes in macrofauna diversity. Morphological identification of macrofauna is time-consuming, expensive and dependent on taxonomic expertise. In this study, we evaluated the applicability of using foraminiferal-specific metabarcoding for routine monitoring. Sediment samples were collected along distance gradients from two oil platforms off Taranaki (New Zealand) and their physico-chemical properties, foraminiferal environmental DNA/RNA, and macrofaunal composition analyzed. Macrofaunal and foraminiferal assemblages showed similar shifts along impact gradients, but responded differently to environmental perturbations. Macrofauna were affected by hypoxia, whereas sediment grain size appeared to drive shifts in foraminifera. We identified eight foraminiferal molecular operational taxonomic units that have potential to be used as bioindicator taxa. Our results show that metabarcoding represents an effective tool for assessing foraminiferal communities near offshore oil and gas platforms, and that it can be used to complement current monitoring techniques.

  4. Method validation and uncertainty evaluation of organically bound tritium analysis in environmental sample.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan-Jun; Zeng, Fan; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Chao-Feng; Qin, Hong-Juan; Wu, Lian-Sheng; Guo, Gui-Yin; Yang, Li-Tao; Shang-Guan, Zhi-Hong

    2014-08-01

    The analytical method for organically bound tritium (OBT) was developed in our laboratory. The optimized operating conditions and parameters were established for sample drying, special combustion, distillation, and measurement on a liquid scintillation spectrometer (LSC). Selected types of OBT samples such as rice, corn, rapeseed, fresh lettuce and pork were analyzed for method validation of recovery rate reproducibility, the minimum detection concentration, and the uncertainty for typical low level environmental sample was evaluated. The combustion water recovery rate of different dried environmental sample was kept at about 80%, the minimum detection concentration of OBT ranged from 0.61 to 0.89 Bq/kg (dry weight), depending on the hydrogen content. It showed that this method is suitable for OBT analysis of environmental sample with stable recovery rate, and the combustion water yield of a sample with weight about 40 g would provide sufficient quantity for measurement on LSC.

  5. A case study evaluation of implementation of a care pathway to support normal birth in one English birth centre: anticipated benefits and unintended consequences

    PubMed Central

    Bick, Debra E; Rycroft-Malone, Jo; Fontenla, Marina

    2009-01-01

    Background The policy drive for the UK National Health Service (NHS) has focused on the need for high quality services informed by evidence of best practice. The introduction of care pathways and protocols to standardise care and support implementation of evidence into practice has taken place across the NHS with limited evaluation of their impact. A multi-site case study evaluation was undertaken to assess the impact of use of care pathways and protocols on clinicians, service users and service delivery. One of the five sites was a midwifery-led Birth Centre, where an adapted version of the All Wales Clinical Pathway for Normal Birth had been implemented. Methods The overarching framework was realistic evaluation. A case study design enabled the capture of data on use of the pathway in the clinical setting, use of multiple methods of data collection and opportunity to study and understand the experiences of clinicians and service users whose care was informed by the pathway. Women attending the Birth Centre were recruited at their 36 week antenatal visit. Episodes of care during labour were observed, following which the woman and the midwife who cared for her were interviewed about use of the pathway. Interviews were also held with other key stakeholders from the study site. Qualitative data were content analysed. Results Observations were undertaken of four women during labour. Eighteen interviews were conducted with clinicians and women, including the women whose care was observed and the midwives who cared for them, senior midwifery managers and obstetricians. The implementation of the pathway resulted in a number of anticipated benefits, including increased midwifery confidence in skills to support normal birth and promotion of team working. There were also unintended consequences, including concerns about a lack of documentation of labour care and negative impact on working relationships with obstetric and other midwifery colleagues. Women were unaware their

  6. Evaluating the adequacy of a reference site pool for ecological assessments in environmentally complex regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ode, Peter R.; Rehn, Andrew C.; Mazor, Raphael D.; Schiff, Kenneth C.; Stein, Eric D.; May, Jason; Brown, Larry R.; Herbst, David B.; Gillette, D.D.; Lunde, Kevin; Hawkins, Charles P.

    2016-01-01

    Many advances in the field of bioassessment have focused on approaches for objectively selecting the pool of reference sites used to establish expectations for healthy waterbodies, but little emphasis has been placed on ways to evaluate the suitability of the reference-site pool for its intended applications (e.g., compliance assessment vs ambient monitoring). These evaluations are critical because an inadequately evaluated reference pool may bias assessments in some settings. We present an approach for evaluating the adequacy of a reference-site pool for supporting biotic-index development in environmentally heterogeneous and pervasively altered regions. We followed common approaches for selecting sites with low levels of anthropogenic stress to screen 1985 candidate stream reaches to create a pool of 590 reference sites for assessing the biological integrity of streams in California, USA. We assessed the resulting pool of reference sites against 2 performance criteria. First, we evaluated how well the reference-site pool represented the range of natural gradients present in the entire population of streams as estimated by sites sampled through probabilistic surveys. Second, we evaluated the degree to which we were successful in rejecting sites influenced by anthropogenic stress by comparing biological metric scores at reference sites with the most vs fewest potential sources of stress. Using this approach, we established a reference-site pool with low levels of human-associated stress and broad coverage of environmental heterogeneity. This approach should be widely applicable and customizable to particular regional or programmatic needs.

  7. Nutrient loss with runoff from fairway turf: an evaluation of core cultivation practices and their environmental impact

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of excess nutrients in surfaces waters can result in undesirable environmental and economic consequences including nuisance algal blooms and eutrophication. Fertilizer use in highly managed turf systems such as golf courses and commercial and residential landscapes has raised questions ...

  8. A DOE manual: DOE methods for evaluating environmental and waste management samples

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, S.C.; Fadeff, S.K.; Sklarew, D.S.; McCulloch, M.; Mong, G.M.; Riley, R.G.; Thomas, B.L.

    1994-08-01

    DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods) is a guidance/methods document supporting environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) (collectively referred to as EM) sampling and analysis activities at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. DOE Methods is intended to supplement existing guidance documents (e.g., the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, SW-846), which apply to low-level or non-radioactive samples, and the complexities of waste and environmental samples encountered at DOE sites. The document contains quality assurance (QA), quality control (QC), safety, sampling, organic analysis, inorganic analysis, and radio-analytical guidance as well as sampling and analytical methods. It is updated every six months (April and October) with additional methods. As of April 1994, DOE methods contained 3 sampling and 39 analytical methods. It is anticipated that between 10 and 20 new methods will be added in October 1994. All methods are either peer reviewed and contain performance data, or are included as draft methods.

  9. Monitoring and Evaluation of Environmental Flow Prescriptions for Five Demonstration Sites of the Sustainable Rivers Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    The Nature Conservancy has been working with U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) through the Sustainable Rivers Project (SRP) to modify operations of dams to achieve ecological objectives in addition to meeting the authorized purposes of the dams. Modifications to dam operations are specified in terms of environmental flow prescriptions that quantify the magnitude, duration, frequency, and seasonal timing of releases to achieve specific ecological outcomes. Outcomes of environmental flow prescriptions implemented from 2002 to 2008 have been monitored and evaluated at demonstration sites in five rivers: Green River, Kentucky; Savannah River, Georgia/South Carolina; Bill Williams River, Arizona; Big Cypress Creek, Texas; and Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon. Monitoring and evaluation have been accomplished through collaborative partnerships of federal and state agencies, universities, and nongovernmental organizations.

  10. Environmental, economic, and energy impacts of material recovery facilities. A MITE Program evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This report documents an evaluation of the environmental, economic, and energy impacts of material recovery facilities (MRFs) conducted under the Municipal Solid Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program. The MITE Program is sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency to foster the demonstration and development of innovative technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). This project was also funded by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Material recovery facilities are increasingly being used as one option for managing a significant portion of municipal solid waste (MSW). The owners and operators of these facilities employ a combination of manual and mechanical techniques to separate and sort the recyclable fraction of MSW and to transport the separated materials to recycling facilities.

  11. Foreign technology assessment: Environmental evaluation of a radiation-hard oscillator/divider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorack, M. A.

    1993-03-01

    Salford Electrical Instruments, Ltd., and the General Electric Company's Hirst Research Center, under contract to the United Kingdom's (UK) Ministry of Defence, developed a radiation-hard, leadless chip-carrier-packaged oscillator/divider. Two preproduction clocks brought to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) by a potential SNL customer underwent mechanical and thermal environmental evaluation. Because of the subsequent failure of one device and the deteriorating condition of another device, the devices were not subjected to radiation tests. The specifics of the environmental evaluation performed on these two clocks and the postmortem analysis of one unit, which ultimately failed, are described. Clock startup time versus temperature studies were also performed and compared to an SNL-designed clock having the same fundamental frequency.

  12. Evaluation of Contrail Reduction Strategies Based on Environmental and Operational Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Neil Y.; Sridhar, Banavar; Ng, Hok K.; Li, Jinhua

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates a set of contrail reduction strategies based on environmental and operational costs. A linear climate model was first used to convert climate effects of carbon dioxide emissions and aircraft contrails to changes in Absolute Global Temperature Potential, a metric that measures the mean surface temperature change due to aircraft emissions and persistent contrail formations. The concept of social cost of carbon and the carbon auction price from recent California's cap-and-trade system were then used to relate the carbon dioxide emissions and contrail formations to an environmental cost index. The strategy for contrail reduction is based on minimizing contrail formations by altering the aircraft's cruising altitude. The strategy uses a user-defined factor to trade off between contrail reduction and additional fuel burn and carbon dioxide emissions. A higher value of tradeoff factor results in more contrail reduction but also more fuel burn and carbon emissions. The strategy is considered favorable when the net environmental cost benefit exceeds the operational cost. The results show how the net environmental benefit varies with different decision-making time-horizon and different carbon cost. The cost models provide a guidance to select the trade-off factor that will result in the most net environmental benefit.

  13. Qualitative risk evaluation of environmental restoration programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, S.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report documents the evaluation of risks associated with environmental restoration activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory using two tools supplied by DOE to provide a consistent set of risk estimates across the DOE complex: Risk Data Sheets (RDS) and Relative Risk Ranking. The tools are described, the process taken characterized, results provided and discussed. The two approaches are compared and recommendations provided for continuing improvement of the process.

  14. An environmental screening model to assess the consequences to soil and groundwater from railroad-tank-car spills of light non-aqueous phase liquids.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hongkyu; Werth, Charles J; Barkan, Christopher P L; Schaeffer, David J; Anand, Pooja

    2009-06-15

    North American railroads transport a wide variety of chemicals, chemical mixtures and solutions in railroad tank cars. In the event of an accident, these materials may be spilled and impact the environment. Among the chemicals commonly transported are a number of light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs). If these are spilled they can contaminate soil and groundwater and result in costly cleanups. Railroads need a means of objectively assessing the relative risk to the environment due to spills of these different materials. Environmental models are often used to determine the extent of contamination, and the associated environmental risks. For LNAPL spills, these models must account for NAPL infiltration and redistribution, NAPL dissolution and volatilization, and remediation systems such as pump and treat. This study presents the development and application of an environmental screening model to assess NAPL infiltration and redistribution in soils and groundwater, and to assess groundwater cleanup time using a pumping system. Model simulations use parameters and conditions representing LNAPL releases from railroad tank cars. To take into account unique features of railroad-tank-car spill sites, the hydrocarbon spill screening model (HSSM), which assumes a circular surface spill area and a circular NAPL lens, was modified to account for a rectangular spill area and corresponding lens shape at the groundwater table, as well as the effects of excavation and NAPL evaporation to the atmosphere. The modified HSSM was first used to simulate NAPL infiltration and redistribution. A NAPL dissolution and groundwater transport module, and a pumping system module were then implemented and used to simulate the effects of chemical properties, excavation, and free NAPL removal on NAPL redistribution and cleanup time. The amount of NAPL that reached the groundwater table was greater in coarse sand with high permeability than in fine sand or silt with lower permeabilities

  15. Screening Analysis for the Environmental Risk Evaluation System Task 2.1.1.2: Evaluating Effects of Stressors Fiscal Year 2011 Progress Report - Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea E.; Blake, Kara M.; Anderson, Richard M.; Zdanski, Laura C.; Gill, Gary A.; Ward, Jeffrey A.

    2011-09-01

    Potential environmental effects of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy development are not well understood, and yet regulatory agencies are required to make decisions in spite of substantial uncertainty about environmental impacts and their long-term consequences. An understanding of risks associated with interactions between MHK installations and aquatic receptors, including animals, habitats, and ecosystems, can help define key uncertainties and focus regulatory actions and scientific studies on interactions of most concern. As a first step in developing the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Environmental Risk Evaluation System (ERES), PNNL scientists conducted a preliminary risk screening analysis on three initial MHK cases. During FY 2011, two additional cases were added: a tidal project in the Gulf of Maine using Ocean Renewable Power Company TidGenTM turbines and a wave project planned for the coast of Oregon using Aquamarine Oyster surge devices. Through an iterative process, the screening analysis revealed that top-tier stressors in the two FY 2011 cases were the dynamic effects of the device (e.g., strike), accidents/disasters, and effects of the static physical presence of the device (e.g., habitat alteration). Receptor interactions with these stressors at the highest tiers of risk were dominated by threatened and endangered animals. Risk to the physical environment from changes in flow regime also ranked high. Peer review of this process and results will be conducted in early FY 2012. The ERES screening analysis provides an analysis of vulnerability of environmental receptors to stressors associated with MHK installations, probability analysis is needed to determine specific risk levels to receptors. “Risk” has two components: (1) The likelihood, or “probability”, of the occurrence of a given interaction or event, and (2) the potential “consequence” if that interaction or event were to occur. During FY 2011, the ERES screening

  16. Future research directions for evaluating human genetic and cancer risk from environmental exposures.

    PubMed Central

    Albertini, R J; Nicklas, J A; O'Neill, J P

    1996-01-01

    The utility of biomarkers for evaluating the genotoxicity of environmental exposures is well documented. Biomarkers of both exposure and effect provide bases for assessing human-genotoxicant interactions and may be indicative of future disease risk. At present, there is little information on the predictive value of these assays for either a population or the individuals tested. This paper describes some aspects of biomarker assays, the possible use of susceptibility measures in biomonitoring protocols, and the need for evaluation of disease relevance. A population study involving epidemiologists, geneticists, toxicologists, statisticians, and physicians is proposed to determine the disease relevance of these biomarkers. PMID:8781373

  17. Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment Program. Environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2//sup -/ induced climate change: a research agenda

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    In adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, mankind is unintentionally conducting a great biological and geophysical experiment. This experiment can be expected to increase scientific understanding of ecological systems and of the processes in the ocean and the atmosphere that partially determine world climate. But from the standpoint of governments and peoples, the major problem to be solved is to understand the nature of the impacts on societies of rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/), with the objective of avoiding or ameliorating unfavorable impacts and gaining most benefit from favorable impacts. The research program proposed herein is designed to provide the understanding needed to achieve this objective. It is based on a recognition of the distinctive characteristics of the CO/sub 2/ problem. It is concluded that three kinds of research on the consequences of rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide and possible climatic changes are called for: assessment of risks; research to enhance beneficial effects and lessen harmful ones, where this is possible, and to slow down rates of carbon dioxide emission; and study of potential social and institutional responses to projected climatic changes.

  18. Effect of increasing CO/sub 2/ on ocean biota. Volume II, Part 5. Environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2/-induced climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Holm-Hansen, O.

    1982-07-01

    Attempts to predict the most important biological effects on the marine biota caused by increased atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations and concomitant climactic changes are discussed. Particular attention is placed on phytoplankton, benthic plants, microbial cells, zooplankton, and fish stocks, and how changes in one or more of these trophic levels can result in significant changes in the nature and dynamics of the overall food web. Surface waters of the entire marine environment are considered, including the intertidal zone and estuaries; deeper waters are not considered. The major environmental factors considered are: (1) an increase in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations; (2) an increase in atmospheric temperature; (3) a decrease in pH of ocean water; and (4) an increase in atmospheric ozone concentration. The magnitude and temporal aspects of these atmospheric changes are based on previously developed models. (ERB)

  19. Environmental and economic evaluation of the Massachusetts Smoke-Free Workplace Law.

    PubMed

    Alpert, Hillel R; Carpenter, Carrie M; Travers, Mark J; Connolly, Gregory N

    2007-08-01

    An environmental and economic evaluation of the smoke-free law in Massachusetts provides a broad appreciation of how a state-wide smoking ban affects the health of patrons and workers as well as the industries that are commonly concerned about the effects of smoking bans on business. The aim of this study is to evaluate environmental and economic effects of the statewide Massachusetts statewide Smoke-Free Workplace Law. Before and after the smoking ban, air quality testing was conducted in a sample (n = 27) of hospitality venues and state-wide economic changes were assessed. Compliance, in terms of patronage was measured by person-counts. Environmental outcomes were respirable suspended particles (RSP) less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5). Economic outcomes were meals tax collections, employment in the food services and drinking places and accommodations industries. On average, levels of respirable suspended particles (RSPs) less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5) decreased 93% in these venues after the Massachusetts Smoke-free Workplace Law went into effect. No statistically significant changes were observed among the economic indicators. This evaluation demonstrates that the state-wide Massachusetts law has effectively improved indoor air quality in a sample of Massachusetts venues and has not negatively affected several economic indicators.

  20. Evaluation of NEPA-based environmental commitments at four geopressure design wells

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, A.W.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Roop, R.D.; Webb, J.W.

    1983-09-01

    The implementation of environmental mitigation and monitoring commitments made for four geopressure design well projects was evaluated. The evaluation was based on site visits conducted in August 1982 and April 1983 and on a review of monitoring and project activity reports provided by DOE contractors. The projects evaluated include: Pleasant Bayou No. 1 in Brazoria County, Texas; Dow Parcperdue in Vermilion Parish, Louisiana; and Gladys McCall and Sweet Lake No. 1 well sites in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. The contractors responsible for drilling and testing activities at the well sites have adequately implemented most of the mitigation measures described in each project's site-specific Environmental Assessment (EA). Exceptions include the lack of impermeable liners for drilling mud pits at the Dow Parcperdue, Gladys McCall, and Pleasant Bayou sites and the lack of a ring levee at the Pleasant Bayou site. Air and water quality and noise monitoring activities were not performed as strictly as outlined in the EAs. A review of the monitoring data collected to date indicates that no significant environmental degradation has occurred. This report recommends additional or future monitoring needs, especially with regard to soil contamination, subsidence, and microseismicity, and provides guidance for decommissioning.

  1. Economic and environmental evaluations of extractable coal resources conducted by the U. S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, M.S.; Rohrbacher, T.J.; Carter, M.D.; Molnia, C.L.; Osmonson, L.M.; Scott, D.C.

    2001-01-01

    The Economic and Environmental Evaluations of Extractable Coal Resources (E4CR) project integrates economic analyses of extractable coal resources with environmental and coal quality considerations in order to better understand the contribution that coal resources can make to help meet the Nation’s future energy needs. The project utilizes coal resource information derived from the recent National Coal Resource Assessment (NCRA), National Oil and Gas Assessment (NOGA), and Coal Availability and Recoverability Studies (CARS) conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and other State and Federal cooperating agencies. The E4CR evaluations are designed to augment economic models created by the U.S. Geological Survey CARS and NCRA projects and by the Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration (DOE/EIA). E4CR evaluations are conducted on potentially minable coal beds within selected coalfields in the United States. Emphasis is placed on coalfields containing Federally owned coal and within or adjacent to Federal lands, as shown in U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheets 012-98, 145-99, and 011-00 (U.S. Geological Survey, 1998, 1999, 2000). Other considerations for the selection of study areas include coal quality, potential environmental impact of coal production activities and coal utilization, the potential for coalbed methane development from the coal, and projected potential for future mining. Completion dates for the E4CR studies loosely follow the schedule for analogous NOGA studies to allow for a comparison of different energy resources in similar geographic areas.

  2. Environmental clustering of lakes to evaluate performance of a macrophyte index of biotic integrity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vondracek, Bruce C.; Vondracek, Bruce; Hatch, Lorin K.

    2013-01-01

    Proper classification of sites is critical for the use of biological indices that can distinguish between natural and human-induced variation in biological response. The macrophyte-based index of biotic integrity was developed to assess the condition of Minnesota lakes in relation to anthropogenic stressors, but macrophyte community composition varies naturally across the state. The goal of the study was to identify environmental characteristics that naturally influence macrophyte index response and establish a preliminary lake classification scheme for biological assessment (bioassessment). Using a comprehensive set of environmental variables, we identified similar groups of lakes by clustering using flexible beta classification. Variance partitioning analysis of IBI response indicated that evaluating similar lake clusters could improve the ability of the macrophyte index to identify community change to anthropogenic stressors, although lake groups did not fully account for the natural variation in macrophyte composition. Diagnostic capabilities of the index could be improved when evaluating lakes with similar environmental characteristics, suggesting the index has potential for accurate bioassessment provided comparable groups of lakes are evaluated.

  3. Strategic planning methodology to evaluate low-probability/high-consequence tanker oil spills, using the Gulf of Mexico as a test area. Volumes I and II

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour, P.J.L.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation develops a methodology which allows companies to evaluate their level of exposure to the consequences of major oil spills. To illustrate how this model can be operationalized, the Gulf of Mexico is used as a test area. The Gulf was selected because of the high level of tanker traffic and US petroleum industry activity in the area, and also because of the presence of competing uses of the Gulf which include commercial fishing and coastal tourism. The results from operationalizing the evaluation methodology suggest important conclusions. In terms of a purely cost-effective oriented analysis of alternatives for dealing with oil spills, companies are expected to prefer obtaining insurance, followed by efforts to lower the level of potential liability through favorable legislation. In contrast, however, the public is expected to prefer measures that actually reduce the frequency and severity of oil spills, followed by an acceptance of insurance alternatives, with the public tending to reject legislative limits on liability. The findings also demonstrate that companies will gravitate to differing alternatives depending upon company size and level of activity in an area. Finally, there can be expected to be a number of changes in coming years that will require companies to reconsider their existing strategies for dealing with spill risks.

  4. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program Schedule Contingency Evaluation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This report represents the schedule contingency evaluation done on the FY-93 Major System Acquisition (MSA) Baseline for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL) Environmental Restoration Program (EPP). A Schedule Contingency Evaluation Team (SCET) was established to evaluate schedule contingency on the MSA Baseline for the INEL ERP associated with completing work within milestones established in the baseline. Baseline schedules had been established considering enforceable deadlines contained in the Federal Facilities Agreement/Consent Order (FFA/CO), the agreement signed in 1992, by the State of Idaho, Department of Health & Welfare, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, and the U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. The evaluation was based upon the application of standard schedule risk management techniques to the specific problems of the INEL ERP. The schedule contingency evaluation was designed to provided early visibility for potential schedule delays impacting enforceable deadlines. The focus of the analysis was on the duration of time needed to accomplish all required activities to achieve completion of the milestones in the baseline corresponding to the enforceable deadlines. Additionally, the analysis was designed to identify control of high-probability, high-impact schedule risk factors.

  5. Evaluating Determinants of Environmental Risk Perception for Risk Management in Contaminated Sites

    PubMed Central

    Janmaimool, Piyapong; Watanabe, Tsunemi

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the differences in the risk judgments of residents of industrial communities potentially provides insights into how to develop appropriate risk communication strategies. This study aimed to explore citizens’ fundamental understanding of risk-related judgments and to identify the factors contributing to perceived risks. An exploratory model was created to investigate the public’s risk judgments. In this model, the relationship between laypeople’s perceived risks and the factors related to the physical nature of risks (such as perceived probability of environmental contamination, probability of receiving impacts, and severity of catastrophic consequences) were examined by means of multiple regression analysis. Psychological factors, such as the ability to control the risks, concerns, experiences, and perceived benefits of industrial development were also included in the analysis. The Maptaphut industrial area in Rayong Province, Thailand was selected as a case study. A survey of 181 residents of communities experiencing different levels of hazardous gas contamination revealed rational risk judgments by inhabitants of high-risk and moderate-risk communities, based on their perceived probability of contamination, probability of receiving impacts, and perceived catastrophic consequences. However, risks assessed by people in low-risk communities could not be rationally explained and were influenced by their collective experiences. PMID:24937530

  6. An approach to evaluating the questions of environmental justice relating to cement kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, R.J. Jr.; Hall, D.S.; Evers, J.J.

    1994-12-31

    The EPA has speculated that populations near high potential risk industries may be predominantly low income or minority status, and that this population is at a greater health risk with respect to protection from environmental hazards. The role of industry in creating environmental injustice through the location and siting of facilities potentially posing environmental hazards is vastly unsupported. Industry selects a location based on economics not demographics. Residents select a home based on geographic preference; the housing they can afford; as well as proximity to their job, schools, and activities. If demographic imbalance is occurring disproportionately in locations containing high health risk industries, the strongest factors in the equation are local economy, zoning, and politics; as well as urban sprawl. When the concept of social injustice is evaluated in regard to the cement industry, their influence on environmental inequity becomes increasingly obscure. Cement operations are dependent upon raw materials which are obtained from nearby quarries. Most facilities were built decades ago in undeveloped locations with limestone formations. Indeed many facilities still exist in this rural state. Population risk evaluations should be based solely on exposure potential and the level of hazard present. Within the cement industry, facility operations utilize the best available technology, as well as the best available pollution control practices. Technology and operating practices are developed through continual research and development on-site. The industry applies these technologies uniformly and does not base implementation decisions on demographics. The cement industry`s commitment to environmental considerations is implemented regardless of race or income factors.

  7. The consequences of disposal of low-level radioactive waste from the Fernald Environmental Management Project: Report of the DOE/Nevada Independent Panel

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, B.; Hansen, W.; Waters, R.; Sully, M.; Levitt, D.

    1998-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) convened a panel of independent scientists to assess the performance impact of shallow burial of low-level radioactive waste from the Fernald Environmental Management Project, in light of a transportation incident in December 1997 involving this waste stream. The Fernald waste has been transported to the Nevada Test Site and disposed in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) since 1993. A separate DOE investigation of the incident established that the waste has been buried in stress-fractured metal boxes, and some of the waste contained excess moisture (high-volumetric water contents). The Independent Panel was charged with determining whether disposition of this waste in the Area 5 RWMS has impacted the conclusions of a previously completed performance assessment in which the site was judged to meet required performance objectives. To assess the performance impact on Area 5, the panel members developed a series of questions. The three areas addressed in these questions were (1) reduced container integrity, (2) the impact of reduced container integrity on subsidence of waste in the disposal pits and (3) excess moisture in the waste. The panel has concluded that there is no performance impact from reduced container integrity--no performance is allocated to the container in the conservative assumptions used in performance assessment. Similarly, the process controlling post-closure subsidence results primarily from void space within and between containers, and the container is assumed to degrade and collapse within 100 years.

  8. Hookah (Shisha, Narghile) Smoking and Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). A Critical Review of the Relevant Literature and the Public Health Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Chaouachi, Kamal

    2009-01-01

    Hookah (narghile, shisha, “water-pipe”) smoking is now seen by public health officials as a global tobacco epidemic. Cigarette Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) is classically understood as a combination of Side-Stream Smoke (SSS) and Exhaled Main-Stream Smoke (EMSS), both diluted and aged. Some of the corresponding cigarette studies have served as the scientific basis for stringent legislation on indoor smoking across the world. Interestingly, one of the distinctive traits of the hookah device is that it generates almost no SSS. Indeed, its ETS is made up almost exclusively by the smoke exhaled by the smoker (EMSS), i.e. which has been filtered by the hookah at the level of the bowl, inside the water, along the hose and then by the smoker’s respiratory tract itself. The present paper reviews the sparse and scattered scientific evidence available about hookah EMSS and the corresponding inferences that can be drawn from the composition of cigarette EMSS. The reviewed literature shows that most of hookah ETS is made up of EMSS and that the latter qualitatively differs from MSS. Keeping in mind that the first victim of passive smoking is the active smoker her/himself, the toxicity of hookah ETS for non-smokers should not be overestimated and hyped in an unscientific way. PMID:19440416

  9. Failing better: The stochastic art of evaluating community-led environmental action programs.

    PubMed

    Dunkley, Ria A; Franklin, Alex

    2017-02-01

    This article provides insights into the evaluation of a government-funded action for climate change program. The UK-based program aimed to reduce CO2 emissions and encourage behavioral change through community-led environmental projects. It, thus, employed six community development facilitators, with expertise in environmental issues. These facilitators supported and learnt from 18 community groups over an 18-month period. The paper explores the narratives of the six professional facilitators. These facilitators discuss their experiences of supporting community groups. They also explain their contribution to the wider evaluation of the community-led projects. This paper reflects on the facilitator experience of the program's outcome-led evaluation process. In turn, it also explores how the groups they supported experienced the process. The facilitator's narratives reveal that often community-group objectives did not align with predefined outcomes established through theory of change or logic model methodologies, which had been devised in attempt to align to program funder aims. Assisting community action emerges in this inquiry as a stochastic art that requires funder and facilitator willingness to experiment and openness to the possibilities of learning from failure. Drawing on in-depth accounts, the article illustrates that a reflexive, interpretive evaluation approach can enhance learning opportunities and provides funders with more trustworthy representations of community-led initiatives. Yet, it also addresses why such an approach remains marginal within policy circles.

  10. Evaluation of NEPA-based environmental commitments at four geopressured geothermal design wells

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, A.W.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Roop, R.D.; Webb, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    This study verifies the implementation and effectiveness of environmental mitigation and monitoring commitments made by the US Department of Energy in National Environmental Policy Act documents (Environmental Assessments (EAs)) prepared for four geopressure design well projects, one in Texas and three in Louisiana. The evaluation was based on visits to the project sites conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory staff in August 1982 and April 1983, and on a review of monitoring and project activity reports provided by DOE subcontractors. Subcontractors responsible for drilling and testing activities at the well sites adequately implemented most of the mitigation measures described in each project's EA. Exceptions included the lack of impermeable liners for drilling mud pits at three sites and the lack of a ring levee at one site. Water quality, noise, and air monitoring were not performed as strictly as outlined in the EAs. A review of the data collected to date indicates that no significant environmental degradation has occurred. Additional or future monitoring needs, especially with regard to subsidence, microseismicity, and groundwater and soil sampling were recommended.

  11. Sustainability evaluation of Sicily's lemon and orange production: an energy, economic and environmental analysis.

    PubMed

    Pergola, M; D'Amico, M; Celano, G; Palese, A M; Scuderi, A; Di Vita, G; Pappalardo, G; Inglese, P

    2013-10-15

    The island of Sicily has a long standing tradition in citrus growing. We evaluated the sustainability of orange and lemon orchards, under organic and conventional farming, using an energy, environmental and economic analysis of the whole production cycle by using a life cycle assessment approach. These orchard systems differ only in terms of a few of the inputs used and the duration of the various agricultural operations. The quantity of energy consumption in the production cycle was calculated by multiplying the quantity of inputs used by the energy conversion factors drawn from the literature. The production costs were calculated considering all internal costs, including equipment, materials, wages, and costs of working capital. The performance of the two systems (organic and conventional), was compared over a period of fifty years. The results, based on unit surface area (ha) production, prove the stronger sustainability of the organic over the conventional system, both in terms of energy consumption and environmental impact, especially for lemons. The sustainability of organic systems is mainly due to the use of environmentally friendly crop inputs (fertilizers, not use of synthetic products, etc.). In terms of production costs, the conventional management systems were more expensive, and both systems were heavily influenced by wages. In terms of kg of final product, the organic production system showed better environmental and energy performances.

  12. Evaluating the Applicability of Heritage Flight Hardware in Orion Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Cynthia D.; Lewis, John F.; Barido, Richard A.; Carrasquillo, Robyn; Rains, George E.

    2010-01-01

    Recent changes in the overall NASA vision has resulted in further cost and schedule challenges for the Orion program. As a result, additional scrutiny has been focused on the use of new developments for hardware in the environmental control and life support systems. This paper will examine the Orion architecture as it is envisioned to support missions to the International Space Station and future exploration missions and determine what if any functions can be satisfied through the use of existing, heritage hardware designs. An initial evaluation of each component is included and where a heritage component was deemed likely further details are examined. Key technical parameters, mass, volume and vibration loads are a few of the specific items that are evaluated. Where heritage hardware has been identified that may be substituted in the Orion architecture a discussion of key requirement changes that may need to be made as well as recommendation to further evaluate applicability are noted.

  13. Evaluating the Applicability of Heritage Flight Hardware in Orion Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Cynthia D.; Lewis, John F.; Barido, Richard A.; Carrasquillo, Robyn; Rains, George E.

    2011-01-01

    Recent changes in the overall NASA vision has resulted in further cost and schedule challenges for the Orion program. As a result, additional scrutiny has been focused on the use of new developments for hardware in the environmental control and life support systems. This paper will examine the Orion architecture as it is envisioned to support missions to the International Space Station and future exploration missions and determine what if any functions can be satisfied through the use of existing, heritage hardware designs. An initial evaluation of each component is included and where a heritage component was deemed likely further details are examined. Key technical parameters, mass, volume and vibration loads are a few of the specific items that are evaluated. Where heritage hardware has been identified that may be substituted in the Orion architecture a discussion of key requirement changes that may need to be made as well as recommendation to further evaluate applicability are noted.

  14. Increasing energy and lysine in diets for growing-finishing pigs in hot environmental conditions: consequences on performance, digestibility, slurry composition, and gas emission.

    PubMed

    Cerisuelo, A; Torres, A; Lainez, M; Moset, V

    2012-05-01

    The influence of dietary nutrient concentration on growth performance, manure composition, and gas emission was studied in pigs in hot environmental conditions. A total of 64 intact males and 64 females [(Landrace × Large White) × Pietrain] weighing 63.1 ± 9.7 kg were divided into 2 dietary treatments: high (HD: 14.39 MJ of DE/kg and 1.11% Lys) and low (LD: 13.97 MJ of DE/kg and 1.01% Lys) in energy and Lys contents. Pigs were allocated to 32 split-sex pens with 4 pigs/pen and 16 pens/treatment. Average productive performance was recorded for 41 d (phase 1). After phase 1, 12 females of 103.3 ± 3.15 kg (6 per treatment) were selected and housed individually, and feces and slurry were collected during 3 and 4 consecutive days, respectively, to calculate nutrient digestibility and measure gas emissions (phase 2). For gas emission measurements, slurry was pooled by treatment and stored for 76 d. Initial composition of slurry and pH were analyzed. Maximum and minimum temperatures registered in the barn throughout the growing period were 35.1 and 18.1°C, respectively. Animals fed the HD diet grew more efficiently than pigs fed the LD diet (G:F, 0.43 vs. 0.40; SEM = 0.01; P < 0.05). Fat digestibility was greater in HD compared with LD pigs (88.0 vs. 84.9%; SEM = 0.9; P < 0.05). Slurry from pigs fed the LD diet showed greater DM, OM, total N, and VFA contents than slurry from pigs fed the HD diet. Cumulative NH(3), CO(2), and especially CH(4) emissions were greater in the HD slurry compared with the LD slurry (192.4 vs. 210.g of NH(3)/m(3); 2,712 vs. 3,210 g of CO(2)/m(3); 1,502 vs. 2,647 mL of CH(4)/kg of OM). Increasing feed density in the present study led to a more efficient growth, a decreased nutrient concentration in the slurry, and a greater gas emission.

  15. Multicriteria analysis to evaluate wave energy converters based on their environmental impact: an Italian case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzellino, Arianna; Contestabile, Pasquale; Lanfredi, Caterina; Vicinanza, Diego

    2010-05-01

    harbour protection, and installed at -10m depth (length=300 m) may produce about 2.7 GWh/y with a total costs of about 12,000,000 €, where only the 50% of the amount are the costs of the SSG device. Obviously the environmental impact of the two solutions is quite different. Aim of this study is to provide a multicriteria decision support framework to evaluate the best WEC typology and location in the perspective of the environmental cost-benefit analysis. The general environmental aspects generated by wave power projects will be described. Colonisation patterns and biofouling will be discussed with particular reference to changes of the seabed and alterations due to new substrates. In addition, impacts for fish, fishery and marine mammals will be also considered. We suggest that wave power projects should be evaluated also on the basis of their environmental impacts in the perspective of the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) analysis, as implemented by the European Commission (SEA Directive 2001/42/EC). The early incorporation of the environmental aspects involved in the evaluation of wave power projects will give the opportunity for early mitigations or design modifications, most likely making wave projects more acceptable in the long run and more suitable for the marine environment.

  16. Recommendations concerning research and model evaluation needs to support breeder reactor environmental radiological assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C. W.; Dunning, Jr., D. E.; Etnier, E. L.; Kocher, D. C.; McDowell-Boyer, L. M.; Meyer, H. R.; Rohwer, P. S.

    1980-12-01

    Purpose of this report is to present recommendations concerning needs for model evaluations, environmental research, and biomedical research to support breeder reactor environmental radiological assessments. More data are needed to specify dry deposition velocities and to validate plume depletion models. More atmospheric dispersion data are required to characterize flow near buildings, in complex terrain, and for travel distances at 100 km or more. Field data are needed for terrestrial food chain transport models, especially those used to assess the impact of acute radionuclide releases. Efforts are needed to develop models for the estimation of dose from external exposure to photons from a finite, elevated plume resulting from an acute radionuclide release to the atmosphere. Estimates of doses to man from internally deposited radionuclides require scrutiny. Further study of tritium is needed to determine its dependence on dose and dose rate and to specify the relative toxicity of various physiochemical forms of tritium in the environment.

  17. Economic and environmental evaluation of nitrogen removal and recovery methods from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yanzi; Guo, Miao; Shah, Nilay; Stuckey, David C

    2016-09-01

    The driver for waste-based economic growth is long-term strategic design, and a paradigm-shift from waste treatment to resource recovery. This study aims to use an integrated modelling approach to evaluate the holistic economic and environmental profiles of three alternative nitrogen removal and recovery methods integrated into wastewater treatment systems, including conventional nitrification-denitrification, Anammox, and the anaerobic ion exchange route, to provide insights into N recovery system designs which are key elements in building a sustainable circular economy. Our results suggest that ion exchange is a promising technology showing high N removal-recovery efficiency from municipal wastewater and delivering competitive sustainability scores. In comparison with the well-developed conventional route, ion exchange and Anammox are undergoing significant research and development; as highlighted in sensitivity analyses, there is considerable room for process design and optimisation of ion exchange systems to achieve economically and environmentally optimal performance.

  18. Environmental evaluation of transfer and treatment of excess pig slurry by life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Werf, Hayo van der; Paillat, Jean Marie; Le Bris, Bertrand

    2009-02-01

    Slurry management is a central topic in the agronomic and environmental analysis of intensive livestock production systems. The objective of this study is to compare the environmental performance of two scenarios of collective slurry management for the disposal of excess nitrogen from animal manure. The scenarios are the transfer of slurry and its injection to crop land, and the treatment of slurry in a collective biological treatment station. The study is based on a real case in the West of France, where a group of farmers is developing a collective plan for the disposal of almost 7000 m(3) of excess pig slurry. The evaluation is carried out by Life Cycle Assessment, where emissions and resource consumption are quantified and aggregated into four environmental impact categories: eutrophication, acidification, climate change, and non-renewable energy use. Ammonia emitted is the most important contributor to acidification and eutrophication, while methane contributes most to climate change. Both ammonia and methane are mostly emitted during the storage of slurry and, in the case of the treatment scenario, also during composting the solid fraction of the slurry. The two management strategies are similar with respect to climate change, whereas eutrophication and acidification are twice as large for treatment relative to transfer. Electricity needed for the treatment process is the main contributor to non-renewable energy use for the treatment scenario, while the transfer scenario represents a net energy saving, as energy saved by the reduction of mineral fertiliser use more than compensates for the energy needed for transport and injection of slurry. The overall environmental performance of transfer is better than that of treatment, as it involves less acidification, eutrophication and non-renewable energy use. The method employed and the results obtained in this study can provide elements for a transparent discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of contrasting

  19. Influence of mycorhization and soil organic matters on lead and antimony transfers to vegetables cultivated in urban gardens: environmental and sanitary consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierart, Antoine; Braud, Armelle; Lebeau, Thierry; Séjalon-Delmas, Nathalie; Dumat, Camille

    2014-05-01

    . References: Feng, R., Wei, C., Tu, S., Ding, Y., Wang, R., Guo, J., 2013. The uptake and detoxification of antimony by plants: a review. Environ. Exp. Bot. 96, 28-34. Foucault, Y., Lévêque, T., Xiong, T., Schreck, E., Austruy, A., Shahid, M., Dumat, C., 2013. Green manure plants for remediation of soils polluted by metals and metalloids: Ecotoxicity and human bioavailability assessment. Chemosphere 93, 1430-1435. Gu, H.H., Li, F.P., Yu, Q., Gao, Y.Q., Yuan, X.T., 2013. The Roles of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Glomus mosseae and Festuca arundinacea in Phytostabilization of Lead/Zinc Tailings. Adv. Mater. Res. 699, 245-250. Lebeau, T., Braud, A., Jézéquel, K., 2008. Performance of bioaugmentation-assisted phytoextraction applied to metal contaminated soils: A review. Environ. Pollut. 153, 497-522. Sharma, A., Sharma, H., 2013. Role of Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza in the Mycoremediation of Heavy Toxic Metals From Soil. Int J LifeSc Bt Pharm Res 2, 2418-2431. Wu, F., Fu, Z., Liu, B., Mo, C., Chen, B., Corns, W., Liao, H., 2011. Health risk associated with dietary co-exposure to high levels of antimony and arsenic in the world's largest antimony mine area. Sci. Total Environ. 409, 3344-3351. Xiong, T., Austruy, A., Dappe, V., Leveque, T., Sobanska, S., Foucault, Y., Dumat, C., 2013. Phytotoxicity and bioaccessibility of metals for vegetables exposed to atmosphere fine particles in polluted urban areas". Urban Environmental Pollution, Asian Edition, 17-20, Beijing, China.

  20. The political and socioeconomic predicates of risk analysis: Integration of natural and social science in anticipating the environmental consequences of development

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, T.P.

    1995-12-31

    The fundamental origins of industrial development and land-use changes that generate physical and chemical threats to biological natural resources are social, political, and economic forces. Two new international economic trade treaties, NAFTA in North America and MERCOSUR in South America, are major forces inducing a complex of changes and regional economic developments that will pose new regional treats to natural resources. Current strategies of ecological risk assessment rarely include an analysis of social, political, or economic factors in any systematic form. Nor are these social sciences integrated with natural sciences in performing a comprehensive risk analysis. A suggested strategy is delineated here that would incorporate social sciences in risk analysis for large programs like NAFTA and MERCOSUR. This strategy would also be applicable in regional risk analysis to estimate the probability and location of development of certain types of industrial development and large scale land-use change. The implications of projected regional economic growth and the development of specific types of industries and land-use changes stimulated by these or other social, political, or economic forces could be addressed using more traditional forms of evaluation and ecological risk analysis. Ultimately, a more comprehensive and synthetic definition and delineation of the procedures of risk analysis must evolve to include aspects of both natural and social sciences.