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Sample records for evaluating hiv intervention

  1. Economic evaluation of mobile phone text message interventions to improve adherence to HIV therapy in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Anik R.; Kessler, Jason; Braithwaite, R. Scott; Nucifora, Kimberly A.; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Zhou, Qinlian; Lester, Richard T.; Marra, Carlo A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: A surge in mobile phone availability has fueled low cost short messaging service (SMS) adherence interventions. Multiple systematic reviews have concluded that some SMS-based interventions are effective at improving antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, and they are hypothesized to improve retention in care. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of SMS-based adherence interventions and explore the added value of retention benefits. Methods: We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of weekly SMS interventions compared to standard care among HIV+ individuals initiating ART for the first time in Kenya. We used an individual level micro-simulation model populated with data from two SMS-intervention trials, an East-African HIV+ cohort and published literature. We estimated average quality adjusted life years (QALY) and lifetime HIV-related costs from a healthcare perspective. We explored a wide range of scenarios and assumptions in one-way and multivariate sensitivity analyses. Results: We found that SMS-based adherence interventions were cost-effective by WHO standards, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $1,037/QALY. In the secondary analysis, potential retention benefits improved the cost-effectiveness of SMS intervention (ICER = $864/QALY). In multivariate sensitivity analyses, the interventions remained cost-effective in most analyses, but the ICER was highly sensitive to intervention costs, effectiveness and average cohort CD4 count at ART initiation. SMS interventions remained cost-effective in a test and treat scenario where individuals were assumed to initiate ART upon HIV detection. Conclusions: Effective SMS interventions would likely increase the efficiency of ART programs by improving HIV treatment outcomes at relatively low costs, and they could facilitate achievement of the UNAIDS goal of 90% viral suppression among those on ART by 2020. PMID:28207516

  2. Evaluating social outcomes of HIV/AIDS interventions: a critical assessment of contemporary indicator frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Mannell, Jenevieve; Cornish, Flora; Russell, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Contemporary HIV-related theory and policy emphasize the importance of addressing the social drivers of HIV risk and vulnerability for a long-term response. Consequently, increasing attention is being given to social and structural interventions, and to social outcomes of HIV interventions. Appropriate indicators for social outcomes are needed in order to institutionalize the commitment to addressing social outcomes. This paper critically assesses the current state of social indicators within international HIV/AIDS monitoring and evaluation frameworks. Methods We analyzed the indicator frameworks of six international organizations involved in efforts to improve and synchronize the monitoring and evaluation of the HIV/AIDS response. Our analysis classifies the 328 unique indicators according to what they measure and assesses the degree to which they offer comprehensive measurement across three dimensions: domains of the social context, levels of change and organizational capacity. Results and discussion The majority of indicators focus on individual-level (clinical and behavioural) interventions and outcomes, neglecting structural interventions, community interventions and social outcomes (e.g. stigma reduction; community capacity building; policy-maker sensitization). The main tool used to address social aspects of HIV/AIDS is the disaggregation of data by social group. This raises three main limitations. Indicator frameworks do not provide comprehensive coverage of the diverse social drivers of the epidemic, particularly neglecting criminalization, stigma, discrimination and gender norms. There is a dearth of indicators for evaluating the social impacts of HIV interventions. Indicators of organizational capacity focus on capacity to effectively deliver and manage clinical services, neglecting capacity to respond appropriately and sustainably to complex social contexts. Conclusions Current indicator frameworks cannot adequately assess the social

  3. Mathematical insights in evaluating state dependent effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuqin; Dimitrov, Dobromir T.; Liu, Hao; Kuang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical models have been used to simulate HIV transmission and to study the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention. Often a single intervention outcome over 10 years has been used to evaluate the effectiveness of PrEP interventions. However, different metrics express a wide variation over time and often disagree in their forecast on the success of the intervention. We develop a deterministic mathematical model of HIV transmission and use it to evaluate the public-health impact of oral PrEP interventions. We study PrEP effectiveness with respect to different evaluation methods and analyze its dynamics over time. We compare four traditional indicators, based on cumulative number or fractions of infections prevented, on reduction in HIV prevalence or incidence and propose two additional methods which estimate the burden of the epidemic to the public-health system. We investigate the short and long term behavior of these indicators and the effects of key parameters on the expected benefits from PrEP use. Our findings suggest that public-health officials considering adopting PrEP in HIV prevention programs can make better informed decision by employing a set of complementing quantitative metrics. PMID:23435680

  4. Evaluating large‐scale HIV prevention interventions: study design for an integrated mathematical modelling approach

    PubMed Central

    Boily, M‐C; Lowndes, C M; Vickerman, P; Kumaranayake, L; Blanchard, J; Moses, S; Ramesh, B M; Pickles, M; Watts, C; Washington, R; Reza‐Paul, S; Labbe, A C; Anderson, R M; Deering, K N; Alary, M

    2007-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need to evaluate HIV prevention interventions, thereby improving our understanding of what works, under what circumstances and what is cost effective. Objectives To describe an integrated mathematical evaluation framework designed to assess the population‐level impact of large‐scale HIV interventions and applied in the context of Avahan, the Indian AIDS Initiative, in southern India. The Avahan Initiative is a large‐scale HIV prevention intervention, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, which targets high‐risk groups in selected districts of the six states most affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic (Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Nagaland and Manipur) and along the national highways. Methods One important component of the monitoring and evaluation of Avahan relies on an integrated mathematical framework that combines empirical biological and behavioural data from different subpopulations in the intervention areas, with the use of tailor‐made transmission dynamics models embedded within a Bayesian framework. Results An overview of the Avahan Initiative and the objectives of the monitoring and evaluation of the intervention is given. The rationale for choosing this evaluation design compared with other possible designs is presented, and the different components of the evaluation framework are described and its advantages and challenges are discussed, with illustrated examples. Conclusions This is the first time such an approach has been applied on such a large scale. Lessons learnt from the CHARME project could help in the design of future evaluations of large‐scale interventions in other settings, whereas the results of the evaluation will be of programmatic and public health relevance. PMID:17942574

  5. Evaluation of an Intervention among Adolescents to Reduce Preventive Misconception in HIV Vaccine Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Lally, Michelle; Goldsworthy, Richard; Sarr, Moussa; Kahn, Jessica; Brown, Larry; Peralta, Ligia; Zimet, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Placebo and randomization are important concepts that must be understood before youth can safely participate in HIV vaccine studies or other biomedical trials for HIV prevention. These concepts are central to the phenomenon of preventive misconception which may be associated with an increase in risk behavior among study participants related to mistaken beliefs. Persuasive messaging, traditionally used in the field of marketing, could enhance educational efforts associated with randomized clinical trials. Methods Two educational brochures were designed to increase knowledge about HIV vaccine clinical trials via 1 and 2-sided persuasive messaging. Through the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network, 120 youth were enrolled, administered a mock HIV vaccine trial consent, and then randomized to receive either no supplemental information or one of the two brochures. Results The 2-sided brochure group in which common clinical trial misconceptions were acknowledgedand then refuted had significantly higher scores on knowledge of randomization and interpretation of side effects than the consent-only control group, and willingness to participate in an HIV vaccine trial was not decreased with the use of this brochure. Conclusion Two sided persuasive messaging improves understanding of the concepts of randomization and placebo among youth who would consider participating in an HIV vaccine trial. Further evaluation of this approach should be considered for at-risk youth participating in an actual trial of a biomedical intervention for HIV prevention. PMID:24613097

  6. Formative evaluation of an intervention to increase compliance to HIV therapies: the ALP project.

    PubMed

    Fourney, Andrew M; Williams, Mark L

    2003-04-01

    Non-adherence to highly effective antiretroviral medications can lead to treatment failure and the development of drug-resistant strains of HIV, and may result in an epidemic of treatment resistant HIV. This article describes a theory-based intervention (ALP) that was developed to increase adherence to HIV therapies among low-literacy populations of HIV positive African American women. The ALP intervention consists of a cartoon book and a cassette tape suitable for individuals with less than a 3rd-grade reading level. Qualitative data were collected through focus groups and expert panel interviews to conduct a formative evaluation. The results indicated that constructs of the Health Belief Model and Social Cognitive Theory were recognizable by behavioral scientists and that the materials would be used as intended by the target population to achieve the desired behavior change. This type of evaluation is a cost-effective method that can be used to develop effective interventions and obtain community buy-in.

  7. Evaluation of a school-based HIV/AIDS educational intervention in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Kyrychenko, Pavlo; Kohler, Connie; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2006-12-01

    To assess changes observed in knowledge, attitudes toward people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), self-efficacy and behavioral intentions of senior secondary school students after an HIV/AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) educational intervention in Vinnitsa, Ukraine. A quasi-experimental, nonequivalent control group design with pretest-posttest components was employed. Two secondary schools (intervention and control) were randomly assigned to the study. A random sample of the 15-16-year-old students (100 participants in each school) completed anonymous self-reported pre- and postintervention questionnaires. In addition, a three-month follow-up questionnaire was administrated in both schools to assess the longevity of the intervention outcomes. Outcome scale scores were compared between the two groups on baseline, first, and second posttests separately. We used the Pearson chi-square test for categorical data and a t-test for difference in mean scores. After intervention we observed significantly higher knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy scores among students in the intervention school than in the control school (96.2 +/- 6.2 [SD] vs. 82.6 +/- 8.3, respectively, p < .01; 24.4 +/- 4.4 vs. 21.7 +/- 4.8, respectively, p < .01; 21.9 +/- 2.6 vs. 20 +/- 3.8, respectively, p < .01). As a result of the intervention, we also report significantly higher proportions of students in the intervention school than in the control school who would not intend to use alcohol and narcotics and who intend to use condoms (p < .01). Our AIDS education program was able to considerably improve students' knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy, and promoted positive changes in participants' behavior intentions; it should therefore be extended to more schools to multiply its effects. However, in the context of evaluation, studies with actual HIV-risk behavior outcomes are urgent for Ukraine.

  8. A Process Evaluation of an HIV/STI Intervention for Rural African American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Albritton, Tashuna; Hodge-Sallah, Stepheria; Akers, Aletha; Blumenthal, Connie; O'Brien, Sarah; Council, Barbara; Muhammad, Melvin; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the fidelity and implementation of an HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections intervention for rural African American youth. Using a community-based evaluation approach, community partners and researchers monitored four core process-evaluation components: reach, fidelity, dose delivered, and dose received. Researchers collected evaluation data through session observations, facilitator debriefing interviews, a youth focus group, and a satisfaction survey. For reach, more than half of the participants attended the 13 sessions. Participation varied between 62% and 100%. For fidelity, not all sessions were implemented as intended; multiple modifications occurred across sessions. For dose delivered, some lessons were missing materials and content was omitted; facilitators omitted content when there was insufficient time to complete a lesson. For dose received, engagement varied across lessons but youth reported high levels of satisfaction with the intervention. This formative process evaluation enabled us to identify and address multiple challenges to implementation. PMID:24939390

  9. Evaluating the Acceptability and Feasibility of Project ACCEPT: An Intervention for Youth Newly Diagnosed with HIV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosek, Sybil G.; Lemos, Diana; Harper, Gary W.; Telander, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    Given the potential for negative psychosocial and medical outcomes following an HIV diagnosis, Project ACCEPT, a 12-session behavioral intervention, was developed and pilot-tested for youth (aged 16-24) newly diagnosed with HIV. Fifty participants recently diagnosed with HIV were enrolled from 4 sites selected through the Adolescent Medicine…

  10. Evaluating the Acceptability and Feasibility of Project ACCEPT: An Intervention for Youth Newly Diagnosed with HIV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosek, Sybil G.; Lemos, Diana; Harper, Gary W.; Telander, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    Given the potential for negative psychosocial and medical outcomes following an HIV diagnosis, Project ACCEPT, a 12-session behavioral intervention, was developed and pilot-tested for youth (aged 16-24) newly diagnosed with HIV. Fifty participants recently diagnosed with HIV were enrolled from 4 sites selected through the Adolescent Medicine…

  11. Evaluation of a socio-cultural intervention to reduce unprotected sex for HIV among African American/Black women.

    PubMed

    Boekeloo, B; Geiger, T; Wang, M; Ishman, N; Quinton, S; Allen, G; Ali, B; Snow, D

    2015-10-01

    African American/Black (Black) women suffer disproportionately to other women from HIV. An HIV prevention intervention combining two previous evidenced-based intervention programs; "Coping with Work and Family Stress" and "Hip Hop 2 Prevent Substance Abuse and HIV", was evaluated in a diverse sample of Black women (n = 205). Study participants at ten recruitment sites were assigned non-randomly to either the intervention or comparison group and then surveyed at baseline, immediate posttest, and 6-month follow-up. General Estimating Equation modeling revealed that participants in the comparison group reported less unprotected sex at immediate post-test and the intervention group less unprotected sex at 6-month follow-up. Despite the initial drop in reported unprotected sex in the comparison group, this study suggests that an HIV risk reduction intervention tailored to address Black women's socio-cultural stress and enhance their coping may reduce their unprotected sex at 6-months.

  12. The Transgender Women of Color Initiative: Implementing and Evaluating Innovative Interventions to Enhance Engagement and Retention in HIV Care.

    PubMed

    Rebchook, Gregory; Keatley, JoAnne; Contreras, Robert; Perloff, Judy; Molano, Luis Freddy; Reback, Cathy J; Ducheny, Kelly; Nemoto, Tooru; Lin, Royce; Birnbaum, Jeffrey; Woods, Tiffany; Xavier, Jessica

    2017-02-01

    To improve health outcomes among transgender women of color living with HIV, the Health Resources and Services Administration's Special Programs of National Significance program funded the Enhancing Engagement and Retention in Quality HIV Care for Transgender Women of Color Initiative in 2012. Nine demonstration projects in four US urban areas implemented innovative, theory-based interventions specifically targeting transgender women of color in their jurisdictions. An evaluation and technical assistance center was funded to evaluate the outcomes of the access to care interventions, and these findings will yield best practices and lessons learned to improve the care and treatment of transgender women of color living with HIV infection.

  13. A Mixed-Methods Outcome Evaluation of a Mentorship Intervention for Canadian Nurses in HIV Care

    PubMed Central

    Worthington, Catherine A.; O’Brien, Kelly K.; Mill, Judy; Caine, Vera; Solomon, Patty; Chaw-Kant, Jean

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the impact of an HIV care mentorship intervention on knowledge, attitudes, and practices with nurses and people living with HIV (PLWH) in Canada. We implemented the intervention in two urban and two rural sites with 16 mentors (eight experienced HIV nurses and eight PLWH) and 40 mentees (nurses with limited HIV experience). The 6- to 12-month intervention included face-to-face workshops and monthly meetings. Using a mixed-methods approach, participants completed pre- and postintervention questionnaires and engaged in semistructured interviews at intervention initiation, mid-point, and completion. Data from 28 mentees (70%) and 14 mentors (87%) were included in the quantitative analysis. We analyzed questionnaire data using McNemar test, and interview data using content analysis. Results indicated positive changes in knowledge, attitudes, and practices among nurse mentees, with qualitative interviews highlighting mechanisms by which change occurred. Mentorship interventions have the potential to engage and educate nurses in HIV treatment and care. PMID:27039195

  14. An evaluation of a refresher training intervention for HIV lay counsellors in Chongwe District, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Msisuka, Charles; Nozaki, Ikuma; Kakimoto, Kazuhiro; Seko, Motoko; Ulaya, Mercy M S

    2011-01-01

    To address a severe shortage of human resources for health, the Zambian Ministry of Health has begun to make use of lay counsellors for HIV counselling and testing. However, their skills and knowledge rarely have been reviewed or refreshed. We conducted a two-day refresher workshop for lay counsellors to review their performance and refresh their skills and knowledge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the refresher training intervention for HIV lay counsellors in the rural district of Chongwe in Zambia. The two-day refreshertraining workshop was held in November 2009. Twenty-five lay counsellors were selected by District Health Office and participated in the workshop. The workshop included: the opening, a pre-training exercise, lectures on quality assurance with regard to testing and safety precautions, lectures on counselling, filling the gap/Q&A session, and a post-training exercise. In both the pre- and post-training exercise, participants answered 25 true/false questions and tested 10 blood panel samples to demonstrate their knowledge and skill on HIV counselling and testing. The average overall knowledge test score increased from 79% to 95% (p<0.001). At the baseline, knowledge test scores in topic of standard precaution and post-exposure prophylaxis were relatively low (58%) but rose to 95% after the training (p<0.001). The per cent agreement of HIV testing by lay counsellors with reference laboratory was 99.2%. Participants' knowledge was improved during the workshop and skill at HIV testing was found to remain at a high level of accuracy. Relatively weak knowledge of standard precautions and post-exposure prophylaxis suggests that lay counsellors are at risk of nosocomial infections, particularly in the absence of refresher training interventions. We conclude that the refresher training was effective for improving the knowledge and skills of lay counsellors and provided an opportunity to monitor their performance.

  15. Community-based interventions that work to reduce HIV stigma and discrimination: results of an evaluation study in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Jain, Aparna; Nuankaew, Ratana; Mongkholwiboolphol, Nungruthai; Banpabuth, Arunee; Tuvinun, Rachada; Oranop Na Ayuthaya, Pakprim; Richter, Kerry

    2013-11-13

    HIV stigma and discrimination are major issues affecting people living with HIV in their everyday lives. In Thailand, a project was implemented to address HIV stigma and discrimination within communities with four activities: (1) monthly banking days; (2) HIV campaigns; (3) information, education and communication (IEC) materials and (4) "Funfairs." This study evaluates the effect of project interventions on reducing community-level HIV stigma. A repeated cross-sectional design was developed to measure changes in HIV knowledge and HIV-related stigma domains among community members exposed to the project. Two cross-sectional surveys were implemented at baseline (respondent n=560) and endline (respondent n=560). T-tests were employed to assess changes on three stigma domains: fear of HIV infection through daily activity, shame associated with having HIV and blame towards people with HIV. Baseline scales were confirmed at endline, and each scale was regressed on demographic characteristics, HIV knowledge and exposure to intervention activities. No differences were observed in respondent characteristics at baseline and endline. Significant changes were observed in HIV transmission knowledge, fear of HIV infection and shame associated with having HIV from baseline to endline. Respondents exposed to three specific activities (monthly campaign, Funfair and IEC materials) were less likely to exhibit stigma along the dimensions of fear (3.8 points lower on average compared to respondents exposed to none or only one intervention; 95% CI: -7.3 to -0.3) and shame (4.1 points lower; 95% CI: -7.7 to -0.6), net of demographic controls and baseline levels of stigma. Personally knowing someone with HIV was associated with low fear and shame, and females were less likely to possess attitudes of shame compared to males. The multivariate linear models suggest that a combination of three interventions was critical in shifting community-level stigma--monthly campaign, Funfair and IEC

  16. Evaluation of a school-based HIV prevention intervention among Yemeni adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This article describes an evaluation of a school-based peer education intervention for HIV prevention among students in twenty seven high schools in Aden, Yemen. The intervention was developed after a survey among the same population in 2005, which revealed a high level of stigma towards people living with HIV (PLWH) and a low level of HIV knowledge. Methods In a quasi-experimental design students who received the peer education intervention (78.6%) were compared with students who did not receive the intervention (21.4%). No systematic procedure was applied in selecting students for the intervention condition. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire from a sample of 2510 students from all 27 high-schools in Aden governorate. To increase internal validity, students were also compared with a cohort control sample surveyed in 2005, which was a random sample of 2274 students from the same schools. Results Sixty eight percent of students targeted by peer education had good knowledge scores, compared with 43.3% of students not targeted by peer education (χ2 = (df = 1) = 111.15, p < .01). Multi-level regression analysis revealed that, although there was a significant difference among schools, the intervention effect of peer education at the individual level was significant; students who received peer education had a statistically higher knowledge score(9.24 out of 12.0) compared with those not targeted (7.89 out of 12.0), OR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.04-4.27, p < .05). Compared with the 2005 cohort control sample, students targeted by peer education had better knowledge on the modes of transmission and prevention and fewer misconceptions; and knowledge on the use of condoms increased from 49.4% to 67.8%. In addition, students who received the peer education interventions suggested significantly more actions to provide care and support for PLWH. Also, the levels of stigma and discrimination were much higher among the 2005 cohort control group

  17. Inverse probability weighting in STI/HIV prevention research: methods for evaluating social and community interventions

    PubMed Central

    Lippman, Sheri A.; Shade, Starley B.; Hubbard, Alan E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Intervention effects estimated from non-randomized intervention studies are plagued by biases, yet social or structural intervention studies are rarely randomized. There are underutilized statistical methods available to mitigate biases due to self-selection, missing data, and confounding in longitudinal, observational data permitting estimation of causal effects. We demonstrate the use of Inverse Probability Weighting (IPW) to evaluate the effect of participating in a combined clinical and social STI/HIV prevention intervention on reduction of incident chlamydia and gonorrhea infections among sex workers in Brazil. Methods We demonstrate the step-by-step use of IPW, including presentation of the theoretical background, data set up, model selection for weighting, application of weights, estimation of effects using varied modeling procedures, and discussion of assumptions for use of IPW. Results 420 sex workers contributed data on 840 incident chlamydia and gonorrhea infections. Participators were compared to non-participators following application of inverse probability weights to correct for differences in covariate patterns between exposed and unexposed participants and between those who remained in the intervention and those who were lost-to-follow-up. Estimators using four model selection procedures provided estimates of intervention effect between odds ratio (OR) .43 (95% CI:.22-.85) and .53 (95% CI:.26-1.1). Conclusions After correcting for selection bias, loss-to-follow-up, and confounding, our analysis suggests a protective effect of participating in the Encontros intervention. Evaluations of behavioral, social, and multi-level interventions to prevent STI can benefit by introduction of weighting methods such as IPW. PMID:20375927

  18. A Comparative Evaluation of Two Interventions for Educator Training in HIV/AIDS in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Li-Wei; Gow, Jeff; Akintola, Olagoke; Pauly, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two different methods to teach educators about HIV/AIDS. Sixty educators were selected from eight schools in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, to undergo HIV/AIDS training using an interactive CD-ROM intervention. Another sixty educators from other schools were selected to undergo a two-day Life Skills…

  19. Promoting Adaptive Coping by Persons with HIV Disease: Evaluation of a Patient/Partner Intervention Model

    PubMed Central

    Fife, Betsy L.; Scott, Linda L.; Fineberg, Naomi S.; Zwickl, Beth E.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated an intervention to facilitate adaptive coping by persons living with HIV (PLWH), with the participation of their cohabiting partners as a dimension of the intervention. An experimental design with randomization was used, and 84 PLWH and their partners were recruited. The intervention was based on a psychosocial educational model that incorporated 4 two-hour sessions focused on communication, stress appraisal, adaptive coping strategies, and building social support. Both members of the dyad were included in each session. The comparison control included four supportive phone calls to the PLWH alone. Data were collected from both the PLWH and their partners in each of the two groups at baseline, immediately following the intervention, and 3 months and 6 months post-treatment. Data were analyzed using RM ANOVA, with change scores from the partner data being covariates. Findings indicated that the design was a feasible model, which demonstrated potential for the management of stress, and possibly problems such as adherence, in PLWH. A manual was developed as a part of this intervention and is currently available. PMID:18191771

  20. Intention to use condom, cusp modeling, and evaluation of an HIV prevention intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinguang; Stanton, Bonita; Chen, Din; Li, Xiaoming

    2013-07-01

    Adolescents are at particularly high risk to acquire HIV infection; increasing the likelihood of condom use is an effective measure to reduce the risk of such infections. Challenges in assessing actual condom use behavior among early adolescents render the precursor measure, intention to use condoms, an appealing alternative. While analyzing data from a randomized controlled trial to evaluate a theory-based intervention program to promote condom use among early adolescents, we observed a modest effect with regard to condom use intention when the linear analytical approach was used. If intention, as a measure of the readiness to perform a behavior, also contains a nonlinear discrete component, it would be more appropriately modeled using a nonlinear approach. In this study, data from a randomized controlled trial (N=1360) were analyzed using the cusp catastrophe method with HIV knowledge and condom skills as the asymmetry variables and condom use self-efficacy as the bifurcation variables. Findings from concurrent and longitudinal modeling analyses indicated a much better fit of the cusp model (R2 = 0.85); AIC and BIC were one-fourth that of than the linear (R2 lt; 0.10) or the logistic model (R2 lt; 0.15). Receipt of the intervention as an asymmetry variable was significantly predicted condom use intention but did not as a bifurcation variable. In conclusion, adolescent intentions to use a condom contain both a continuous process and a discrete process and can better be modeled with cusp catastrophe methods. A much greater program effect is likely from the same prevention intervention if additional measures are taken to foster sudden changes in condom intention.

  1. Increasing HIV serostatus disclosure in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review of intervention evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Caitlin E.; Fonner, Virginia A.; Armstrong, Kevin A.; O'reilly, Kevin R.; Sweat, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To review the effectiveness of interventions to increase HIV serostatus disclosure in low- and middle-income countries. Design Systematic review of peer-reviewed articles providing pre-post or multi-arm evaluations of disclosure interventions, defined broadly as any intervention with the goal of increasing rates of voluntary disclosure of HIV serostatus through self-disclosure or partner notification. Methods Articles were included if they reported post-intervention evaluation results and were published between January 1, 1990 and August 1, 2014. Searching was conducted through 5 electronic databases, secondary searching of four journals, and hand searching reference lists of included articles. Systematic methods were used for screening and data abstraction, which was conducted in duplicate. Study quality (rigor) was assessed with eight items. Results Fourteen articles evaluating 13 interventions met the inclusion criteria, all from sub-Saharan Africa. Most interventions focused on people living with HIV and used cognitive-behavioral group sessions or peer/community health worker support to encourage disclosure to sexual partners, family members, or friends. One focused on maternal disclosure to HIV-uninfected children, while two examined voluntary partner notification interventions. Several studies had limitations due to weak designs, small sample sizes, or high attrition. Findings on disclosure were mixed, with most effect sizes being relatively small and some, more rigorous studies showing no effect. Partner notification interventions had the strongest evidence of impact. Conclusion The existing evidence base for interventions to increase disclosure is limited and shows variable results. Further research is needed to determine whether current approaches to increasing disclosure are effective or whether new approaches should be considered. PMID:26049541

  2. EVALUATING THE ACCEPTABILITY AND FEASIBILITY OF PROJECT ACCEPT: AN INTERVENTION FOR YOUTH NEWLY DIAGNOSED WITH HIV

    PubMed Central

    Hosek, Sybil G.; Lemos, Diana; Harper, Gary W.; Telander, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    Given the potential for negative psychosocial and medical outcomes following an HIV diagnosis, Project ACCEPT, a 12-session behavioral intervention, was developed and pilot-tested for youth (aged 16–24) newly diagnosed with HIV. Fifty participants recently diagnosed with HIV were enrolled from 4 sites selected through the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network (ATN). The majority of participants identified as African American (78%). Feasibility and acceptability data demonstrated high rates of participation and high levels of satisfaction with the intervention program from both participants and staff. Exploratory outcome data demonstrated improved levels of HIV knowledge that were sustained over time (Cohen’s effect [d] d = .52) and improvements in peer (d = .35) and formal (d = .20) social support immediately postintervention. Gender differences emerged over time in the areas of depressive symptoms, family social support, self-efficacy for sexual discussion, and personalized stigma. Project ACCEPT appears to be an acceptable and feasible intervention to implement in clinical settings for youth newly diagnosed with HIV. PMID:21517662

  3. Impact Evaluation of a Policy Intervention for HIV Prevention in Washington, DC.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Monica S; O'Rourke, Allison; Allen, Sean T

    2016-01-01

    Syringe exchange programs (SEPs) lower HIV risk. From 1998 to 2007, Congress prohibited Washington, DC, from using municipal revenue for SEPs. We examined the impact of policy change on IDU-associated HIV cases. We used surveillance data for new IDU-associated HIV cases between September 1996 and December 2011 to build an ARIMA model and forecasted the expected number of IDU-associated cases in the 24 months following policy change. Interrupted time series analyses (ITSA) were used to assess epidemic impact of policy change. There were 176 IDU-associated HIV cases in the 2 years post-policy change; our model predicted 296 IDU-associated HIV cases had the policy remained in place, yielding a difference of 120 averted HIV cases. ITSA identified significant immediate (B = -6.0355, p = .0005) and slope changes (B = -.1241, p = .0427) attributed to policy change. Policy change is an effective structural intervention for HIV prevention when it facilitates the implementation of services needed by vulnerable populations.

  4. Evaluation of a Socio-Cultural Intervention to Reduce Unprotected Sex for HIV Among African American/Black Women

    PubMed Central

    Boekeloo, B; Geiger, T; Wang, M; Ishman, N; Quinton, S; Allen, G; Ali, B; Snow, D

    2015-01-01

    African American/Black (Black) women suffer disproportionately to other women from HIV. An HIV prevention intervention combining two previous evidenced-based HIV intervention programs; “Coping with Work and Family Stress” and “Hip Hop 2 Prevent Substance Abuse and HIV”, was evaluated in a diverse sample of Black women (n=205). Study participants at 10 recruitment sites were assigned non-randomly to either the intervention or comparison group and then surveyed at baseline, immediate posttest, and 6-month follow-up. General Estimating Equation modeling revealed that participants in the comparison group reported less unprotected sex at immediate post-test and the intervention group less unprotected sex at 6-month follow-up. Despite the initial drop in reported unprotected sex in the comparison group, this study suggests that an HIV risk reduction intervention tailored to address Black women’s socio-cultural stress and enhance their coping may reduce their unprotected sex at 6-months. PMID:25645327

  5. SOMOS: Evaluation of an HIV Prevention Intervention for Latino Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vega, Miriam Y.; Spieldenner, Andrew R.; DeLeon, Dennis; Nieto, Bolivar X.; Stroman, Carolyn A.

    2011-01-01

    Latino gay men face multiple barriers to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention, in particular a lack of intervention programs that integrate prevention messages with cultural norms and address issues of social marginalization from multiple communities (gay community and Latino community), homophobia and racism. In order to address these…

  6. SOMOS: Evaluation of an HIV Prevention Intervention for Latino Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vega, Miriam Y.; Spieldenner, Andrew R.; DeLeon, Dennis; Nieto, Bolivar X.; Stroman, Carolyn A.

    2011-01-01

    Latino gay men face multiple barriers to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention, in particular a lack of intervention programs that integrate prevention messages with cultural norms and address issues of social marginalization from multiple communities (gay community and Latino community), homophobia and racism. In order to address these…

  7. Pilot evaluation of the Making Employment Needs [MEN] count intervention: addressing behavioral and structural HIV risks in heterosexual black men.

    PubMed

    Raj, Anita; Dasgupta, Anindita; Goldson, Irvienne; Lafontant, Dumas; Freeman, Elmer; Silverman, Jay G

    2014-02-01

    Few community-based HIV interventions exist for Black men at heterosexual risk for HIV. None focus on structural HIV risks such as unemployment and unstable housing. This study involved a pilot evaluation of the MEN (Making Employment Needs) Count HIV intervention, a three session peer counselor-delivered program of HIV risk reduction and gender-equity counseling, and employment and housing case management. A single-arm intervention trial of MEN Count was conducted with Black men recruited from a community men's clinic and social services program. Eligible men were those who reported two or more sex partners in the past six months and current unemployment and/or recent homelessness. Most participants (68%) had a history of incarceration. Participants (N = 50) were surveyed on outcomes at baseline (Time 1), posttest (Time 2; 60-90 days after baseline), and two-month follow-up (Time 3). The majority of participants were retained in the program (86%) and the final follow-up survey (76%). McNemar tests revealed significant reductions in the past 30-day unprotected sex from Time 1 (74%) to Time 2 (47%) and to Time 3 (47%), and in homelessness from Time 1 (58%) to Time 3 (32%). Significant increases in employment from Time 1 (8%) to Time 2 (29%) and Time 3 (32%) were also seen. Participants completed a brief participant satisfaction survey at posttest. Most (n=28, 65%) rated the program as excellent, and an additional 10 (23%) rated it as good. Although there was no significant reduction in multiple sex partners, a trend was observed from Time 1 (56%) to Time 2 (44%) and Time 3 (42%). Findings suggest that the MEN Count model is a feasible and promising HIV prevention program for Black men at heterosexual risk for HIV. Larger scale implementation and more rigorous evaluation of MEN Count are needed to confirm the study findings.

  8. Heuristic Evaluation of HIV-TIDES – Tailored Interventions for Management of Depressive Symptoms in HIV-infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Tsai-Ya; Bakken, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    Guided by Nielson’s usability principles in human-computer interaction, a heuristic evaluation was conducted with three experts to evaluate the design of HIV TIDES. Twenty-two usability problems, most rated as 2 or 3 on a scale of 0–4, were identified. Based on discussion with the experts, changes were made for 14 usability problems. PMID:17238615

  9. Systematic assessment of condom use measurement in evaluation of HIV prevention interventions: need for standardization of measures

    PubMed Central

    Fonner, Virginia A.; Kennedy, Caitlin E.; O’Reilly, Kevin R.; Sweat, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    When evaluating HIV prevention interventions, condom use is a common outcome measure used to assess changes in HIV-related behaviors; however, no widely accepted standards exist for its measurement. Using systematic review data on HIV prevention interventions conducted in low- and middle-income countries, we examined trends in condom use measurement since 1990. We abstracted data from standardized forms on six dimensions of condom use: partner type, temporal period, measurement scale, consistency, controlling for abstinence, and type of sex. Of 215 studies reviewed, 109 studies (51%) measured condom use as a primary outcome. Outcomes were stratified by partner type in 47 studies (43%). Assessing condom use at last sex was the most common measurement. Consistency of condom use was assessed in 47 studies (43%). Developing and utilizing standards for condom use measurement would increase comparability of findings across studies and benefit HIV prevention research. Recommendations include measuring condom use at last sex, frequency of condom use, and number of protected sex acts in studies evaluating the efficacy of behavioral interventions on sexual risk behavior. PMID:24197972

  10. Evaluation of a Community Health Worker Intervention to Reduce HIV/AIDS Stigma and Increase HIV Testing Among Underserved Latinos in the Southwestern U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Davida; Espinoza, Lilia; Nguyen-Rodriguez, Selena; Diaz, Gaby; Carricchi, Ana; Galvez, Gino; Garcia, Melawhy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Latinos are at an elevated risk for HIV infection. Continued HIV/AIDS stigma presents barriers to HIV testing and affects the quality of life of HIV-positive individuals, yet few interventions addressing HIV/AIDS stigma have been developed for Latinos. Methods An intervention led by community health workers (promotores de salud, or promotores) targeting underserved Latinos in three southwestern U.S. communities was developed to decrease HIV/AIDS stigma and increase HIV knowledge and perception of risk. The intervention was led by HIV-positive and HIV-affected (i.e., those who have, or have had, a close family member or friend with HIV/AIDS) promotores, who delivered interactive group-based educational sessions to groups of Latinos in Spanish and English. To decrease stigma and motivate behavioral and attitudinal change, the educational sessions emphasized positive Latino cultural values and community assets. The participant pool comprised 579 Latino adults recruited in El Paso, Texas (n=204); San Ysidro, California (n=175); and Los Angeles, California (n=200). Results From pretest to posttest, HIV/AIDS stigma scores decreased significantly (p<0.001). Significant increases were observed in HIV/AIDS knowledge (p<0.001), willingness to discuss HIV/AIDS with one's sexual partner (p<0.001), and HIV risk perception (p=0.006). Willingness to test for HIV in the three months following the intervention did not increase. Women demonstrated a greater reduction in HIV/AIDS stigma scores when compared with their male counterparts, which may have been related to a greater increase in HIV/AIDS knowledge scores (p=0.016 and p=0.007, respectively). Conclusion Promotores interventions to reduce HIV/AIDS stigma and increase HIV-related knowledge, perception of risk, and willingness to discuss sexual risk with partners show promise in reaching underserved Latino communities. PMID:26327724

  11. Evaluation of a Community Health Worker Intervention to Reduce HIV/AIDS Stigma and Increase HIV Testing Among Underserved Latinos in the Southwestern U.S.

    PubMed

    Rios-Ellis, Britt; Becker, Davida; Espinoza, Lilia; Nguyen-Rodriguez, Selena; Diaz, Gaby; Carricchi, Ana; Galvez, Gino; Garcia, Melawhy

    2015-01-01

    Latinos are at an elevated risk for HIV infection. Continued HIV/AIDS stigma presents barriers to HIV testing and affects the quality of life of HIV-positive individuals, yet few interventions addressing HIV/AIDS stigma have been developed for Latinos. An intervention led by community health workers (promotores de salud, or promotores) targeting underserved Latinos in three southwestern U.S. communities was developed to decrease HIV/AIDS stigma and increase HIV knowledge and perception of risk. The intervention was led by HIV-positive and HIV-affected (i.e., those who have, or have had, a close family member or friend with HIV/AIDS) promotores, who delivered interactive group-based educational sessions to groups of Latinos in Spanish and English. To decrease stigma and motivate behavioral and attitudinal change, the educational sessions emphasized positive Latino cultural values and community assets. The participant pool comprised 579 Latino adults recruited in El Paso, Texas (n=204); San Ysidro, California (n=175); and Los Angeles, California (n=200). From pretest to posttest, HIV/AIDS stigma scores decreased significantly (p<0.001). Significant increases were observed in HIV/AIDS knowledge (p<0.001), willingness to discuss HIV/AIDS with one's sexual partner (p<0.001), and HIV risk perception (p=0.006). Willingness to test for HIV in the three months following the intervention did not increase. Women demonstrated a greater reduction in HIV/AIDS stigma scores when compared with their male counterparts, which may have been related to a greater increase in HIV/AIDS knowledge scores (p=0.016 and p=0.007, respectively). Promotores interventions to reduce HIV/AIDS stigma and increase HIV-related knowledge, perception of risk, and willingness to discuss sexual risk with partners show promise in reaching underserved Latino communities.

  12. Evaluation of a School-Based Intervention for HIV/AIDS Prevention among Belizean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsler, Janni; Sneed, Carl D.; Morisky, Donald E.; Ang, Alfonso

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a cognitive-behavioral peer-facilitated school-based HIV/AIDS education program on knowledge, attitudes and behavior among primary and secondary students in Belize. Students (N = 150) were recruited from six schools in Belize City. A quasi-experimental research design was used to assess the…

  13. Self-Deferral, HIV Infection, and the Blood Supply: Evaluating an AIDS Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Edward H.; Novick, Alvin

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effectiveness of self-deferral, a social screen implemented to protect the U.S. blood supply from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection prior to the advent of laboratory testing. Mathematical models are developed to estimate the number of infectious transfusions ultimately leading to AIDS prior to self-deferral.…

  14. Self-Deferral, HIV Infection, and the Blood Supply: Evaluating an AIDS Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Edward H.; Novick, Alvin

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effectiveness of self-deferral, a social screen implemented to protect the U.S. blood supply from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection prior to the advent of laboratory testing. Mathematical models are developed to estimate the number of infectious transfusions ultimately leading to AIDS prior to self-deferral.…

  15. Evaluation of an HIV Prevention Intervention Adapted for Black Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kenneth T.; Gray, Phyllis; Whiteside, Y. Omar; Wang, Terry; Bost, Debra; Dunbar, Erica; Foust, Evelyn; Johnson, Wayne D.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the efficacy of an HIV behavioral intervention adapted for Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods. We conducted serial cross-sectional surveys, 1 baseline measurement followed by initiation of an intervention and 3 follow-up measurements, among Black MSM in 3 North Carolina cities over 1 year. Results. We observed significant decreases in unprotected receptive anal intercourse at 4 months (by 23.8%, n=287) and 8 months (by 24.7%, n=299), and in unprotected insertive anal intercourse (by 35.2%), unprotected receptive anal intercourse (by 44.1%), and any unprotected anal intercourse (by 31.8%) at 12 months (n=268). Additionally, at 12 months, the mean number of partners for unprotected receptive anal intercourse decreased by 40.5%. The mean number of episodes decreased by 53.0% for unprotected insertive anal intercourse, and by 56.8% for unprotected receptive anal intercourse. The percentage of respondents reporting always using condoms for insertive and receptive anal intercourse increased by 23.0% and 30.3%, respectively. Conclusions. Adapting previously proven interventions designed for other MSM can significantly reduce HIV risk behaviors of Black MSM. PMID:18445795

  16. A University and Community-Based Organization Collaboration to Build Capacity to Develop, Implement, and Evaluate an Innovative HIV Prevention Intervention for an Urban African American Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliva, Geraldine; Rienks, Jennifer; Udoh, Ifeoma; Smith, Carla Dillard

    2005-01-01

    Through forming a collaborative relationship to develop, pilot and evaluate an innovative bio-psycho-behavioral (BPB) HIV prevention intervention, capacity was built in developing an effective intervention and conducting community based research at both the California Prostitutes Prevention and Education Project (CAL-PEP) and the University of…

  17. Implementation and Evaluation of an HIV/STD Intervention in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Andre, Maiorana; Susan, Kegeles; Percy, Fernandez; Ximena, Salazar; Carlos, Cáceres; Clara, Sandoval; Ana María, Rosasco; Thomas, Coates

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the lessons learned through a process evaluation (PE) after one year of implementation of a two-year community intervention in Lima, Peru. The intervention consisted of training and motivating community popular opinion leaders (CPOLs) for three marginal population segments to disseminate prevention messages among their peers. PE data included: observations, qualitative interviews with CPOLS, conversations and messages delivered by CPOLs, training facilitators' perceptions about implementation, and a survey of CPOLs. The PE helped to document and enhance the intervention. CPOLs were motivated to talk to their peers. CPOLs perceived that their participation had an effect on their own risk behaviors and saw their role as beneficial to their community. The PE was helpful in examining training delivery and the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention in order to assess the elements related to program success necessary to replicate the CPOL model. PMID:17689315

  18. A human rights-focused HIV intervention for sex workers in Metro Manila, Philippines: evaluation of effects in a quantitative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Urada, Lianne A; Simmons, Janie; Wong, Betty; Tsuyuki, Kiyomi; Condino-Enrera, Gerlita; Hernandez, Laufred I; Simbulan, Nymia Pimentel; Raj, Anita

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluated a brief human rights-focused HIV community mobilization intervention for sex workers in the Philippines, a country with one of the fastest rising number of HIV cases worldwide. Five single-session group interventions to reduce sexual risk and increase HIV testing among 86 sex workers in Manila were evaluated with pre-post-test data via Wilcoxon's signed-ranks and Mann-Whitney tests. The 4-h intervention, Kapihan (August-November, 2013), integrated human rights with HIV skill-building. Demographic data, violence/trafficking victimization, human rights knowledge, and intentions to HIV test and treat were collected. Participants were median aged 23; female (69 %); had children (55; 22 % had 3+ children); used drugs (past 3 months: 16 %); sexually/physically abused by clients (66 %); 20 % street sex workers ever took an HIV test. Pre-post-test scores significantly improved in knowledge of HIV (z = -8.895, p < 0.001), reproductive health (z = -3.850, p < 0.001), human rights (z = -4.391, p < 0.001), ethical rights of research participants (z = -5.081, p < 0.001), and intentions to HIV test (z = -4.868, p < 0.001). Integrating human rights into HIV interventions may empower sex workers to address their health and human rights and test for HIV.

  19. Developing a Motion Comic for HIV/STD Prevention for Young People Ages 15-24, Part 2: Evaluation of a Pilot Intervention.

    PubMed

    Willis, Leigh A; Kachur, Rachel; Castellanos, Ted J; Nichols, Kristen; Mendoza, Maria C B; Gaul, Zaneta J; Spikes, Pilgrim; Gamayo, Ashley C; Durham, Marcus D; LaPlace, Lisa; Straw, Julie; Staatz, Colleen; Buge, Hadiza; Hogben, Matthew; Robinson, Susan; Brooks, John; Sutton, Madeline Y

    2016-12-29

    In the United States, young people (ages 15-24 years) are disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), due at least in part to inadequate or incorrect HIV/STD-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions (KABI). Comic book narratives are a proven method of HIV/STD prevention communication to strengthen KABI for HIV/STD prevention. Motion comics, a new type of comic media, are an engaging and low-cost means of narrative storytelling. The objective of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of a pilot six-episode HIV/STD-focused motion comic series to improve HIV/STD-related KABI among young people. We assessed change in HIV/STD knowledge, HIV stigma, condom attitudes, HIV/STD testing attitudes, and behavioral intentions among 138 participants in 15 focus groups immediately before and after viewing the motion comic series. We used paired t-tests and indicators of overall improvement to assess differences between surveys. We found a significant decrease in HIV stigma (p < .001) and increases in both HIV knowledge (p = .002) and behavioral intentions to engage in safe sex (p < .001). In summary, this motion comic intervention improved HIV/STD-related KABI of young adult viewers by reducing HIV stigma and increasing behavioral intentions to engage in safer sex. Our results demonstrate the promise of this novel intervention and support its use to deliver health messages to young people.

  20. A Complex Systems Approach to Evaluate HIV Prevention in Metropolitan Areas: Preliminary Implications for Combination Intervention Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Brandon D. L.; Paczkowski, Magdalena M.; Seemann, Lars; Tempalski, Barbara; Pouget, Enrique R.; Galea, Sandro; Friedman, Samuel R.

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV transmission among injecting and non-injecting drug users (IDU, NIDU) is a significant public health problem. Continuing propagation in endemic settings and emerging regional outbreaks have indicated the need for comprehensive and coordinated HIV prevention. We describe the development of a conceptual framework and calibration of an agent-based model (ABM) to examine how combinations of interventions may reduce and potentially eliminate HIV transmission among drug-using populations. Methodology/Principal Findings A multidisciplinary team of researchers from epidemiology, sociology, geography, and mathematics developed a conceptual framework based on prior ethnographic and epidemiologic research. An ABM was constructed and calibrated through an iterative design and verification process. In the model, “agents” represent IDU, NIDU, and non-drug users who interact with each other and within risk networks, engaging in sexual and, for IDUs, injection-related risk behavior over time. Agents also interact with simulated HIV prevention interventions (e.g., syringe exchange programs, substance abuse treatment, HIV testing) and initiate antiretroviral treatment (ART) in a stochastic manner. The model was constructed to represent the New York metropolitan statistical area (MSA) population, and calibrated by comparing output trajectories for various outcomes (e.g., IDU/NIDU prevalence, HIV prevalence and incidence) against previously validated MSA-level data. The model closely approximated HIV trajectories in IDU and NIDU observed in New York City between 1992 and 2002, including a linear decrease in HIV prevalence among IDUs. Exploratory results are consistent with empirical studies demonstrating that the effectiveness of a combination of interventions, including syringe exchange expansion and ART provision, dramatically reduced HIV prevalence among IDUs during this time period. Conclusions/Significance Complex systems models of adaptive HIV transmission

  1. A complex systems approach to evaluate HIV prevention in metropolitan areas: preliminary implications for combination intervention strategies.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Brandon D L; Paczkowski, Magdalena M; Seemann, Lars; Tempalski, Barbara; Pouget, Enrique R; Galea, Sandro; Friedman, Samuel R

    2012-01-01

    HIV transmission among injecting and non-injecting drug users (IDU, NIDU) is a significant public health problem. Continuing propagation in endemic settings and emerging regional outbreaks have indicated the need for comprehensive and coordinated HIV prevention. We describe the development of a conceptual framework and calibration of an agent-based model (ABM) to examine how combinations of interventions may reduce and potentially eliminate HIV transmission among drug-using populations. A multidisciplinary team of researchers from epidemiology, sociology, geography, and mathematics developed a conceptual framework based on prior ethnographic and epidemiologic research. An ABM was constructed and calibrated through an iterative design and verification process. In the model, "agents" represent IDU, NIDU, and non-drug users who interact with each other and within risk networks, engaging in sexual and, for IDUs, injection-related risk behavior over time. Agents also interact with simulated HIV prevention interventions (e.g., syringe exchange programs, substance abuse treatment, HIV testing) and initiate antiretroviral treatment (ART) in a stochastic manner. The model was constructed to represent the New York metropolitan statistical area (MSA) population, and calibrated by comparing output trajectories for various outcomes (e.g., IDU/NIDU prevalence, HIV prevalence and incidence) against previously validated MSA-level data. The model closely approximated HIV trajectories in IDU and NIDU observed in New York City between 1992 and 2002, including a linear decrease in HIV prevalence among IDUs. Exploratory results are consistent with empirical studies demonstrating that the effectiveness of a combination of interventions, including syringe exchange expansion and ART provision, dramatically reduced HIV prevalence among IDUs during this time period. Complex systems models of adaptive HIV transmission dynamics can be used to identify potential collective benefits of

  2. Empty rituals? A qualitative study of users' experience of monitoring & evaluation systems in HIV interventions in western India.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Anuprita; Teedon, Paul; Cornish, Flora

    2016-11-01

    In global health initiatives, particularly in the context of private philanthropy and its 'business minded' approach, detailed programme data plays an increasing role in informing assessments, improvements, evaluations, and ultimately continuation or discontinuation of funds for individual programmes. The HIV/AIDS literature predominantly treats monitoring as unproblematic. However, the social science of audit and indicators emphasises the constitutive power of indicators, noting that their effects at a grassroots level are often at odds with the goals specified in policy. This paper investigates users' experiences of Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) systems in the context of HIV interventions in western India. Six focus groups (totalling 51 participants) were held with employees of 6 different NGOs working for government or philanthropy-funded HIV interventions for sex workers in western India. Ten donor employees were interviewed. Thematic analysis was conducted. NGO employees described a major gap between what they considered their "real work" and the indicators used to monitor it. They could explain the official purposes of M&E systems in terms of programme improvement and financial accountability. More cynically, they valued M&E experience on their CVs and the rhetorical role of data in demonstrating their achievements. They believed that inappropriate and unethical means were being used to meet targets, including incentives and coercion, and criticised indicators for being misleading and inflexible. Donor employees valued the role of M&E in programme improvement, financial accountability, and professionalising NGO-donor relationships. However, they were suspicious that NGOs might be falsifying data, criticised the insensitivity of indicators, and complained that data were under-used. For its users, M& E appears an 'empty ritual', enacted because donors require it, but not put to local use. In this context, monitoring is constituted as an instrument of

  3. Evaluating a community-based exercise intervention with adults living with HIV: protocol for an interrupted time series study.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kelly K; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Solomon, Patricia; Tang, Ada; Murzin, Kate; Chan Carusone, Soo; Zobeiry, Mehdi; Nayar, Ayesha; Davis, Aileen M

    2016-10-20

    Our aim was to evaluate a community-based exercise (CBE) intervention with the goal of reducing disability and enhancing health for community-dwelling people living with HIV (PLWH). We will use a mixed-methods implementation science study design, including a prospective longitudinal interrupted time series study, to evaluate a CBE intervention with PLWH in Toronto, Canada. We will recruit PLWH who consider themselves medically stable and safe to participate in exercise. In the baseline phase (0-8 months), participants will be monitored bimonthly. In the intervention phase (8-14 months), participants will take part in a 24-week CBE intervention that includes aerobic, resistance, balance and flexibility exercise at the YMCA 3 times per week, with weekly supervision by a fitness instructor, and monthly educational sessions. In the follow-up phase (14-22 months), participants will be encouraged to continue to engage in unsupervised exercise 3 times per week. Quantitative assessment: We will assess cardiopulmonary fitness, strength, weight, body composition and flexibility outcomes followed by the administration of self-reported questionnaires to assess disability and contextual factor outcomes (coping, mastery, stigma, social support) bimonthly. We will use time series regression analysis to determine the level and trend of outcomes across each phase in relation to the intervention. Qualitative assessment: We will conduct a series of face-to-face interviews with a subsample of participants and recreation providers at initiation, midpoint and completion of the 24-week CBE intervention. We will explore experiences and anticipated benefits with exercise, perceived impact of CBE for PLWH and the strengths and challenges of implementing a CBE intervention. Interviews will be audio recorded and analysed thematically. Protocol approved by the University of Toronto HIV/AIDS Research Ethics Board. Knowledge translation will occur with stakeholders in the form of

  4. Evaluating a community-based exercise intervention with adults living with HIV: protocol for an interrupted time series study

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Kelly K; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Solomon, Patricia; Tang, Ada; Murzin, Kate; Chan Carusone, Soo; Zobeiry, Mehdi; Nayar, Ayesha; Davis, Aileen M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Our aim was to evaluate a community-based exercise (CBE) intervention with the goal of reducing disability and enhancing health for community-dwelling people living with HIV (PLWH). Methods and analysis We will use a mixed-methods implementation science study design, including a prospective longitudinal interrupted time series study, to evaluate a CBE intervention with PLWH in Toronto, Canada. We will recruit PLWH who consider themselves medically stable and safe to participate in exercise. In the baseline phase (0–8 months), participants will be monitored bimonthly. In the intervention phase (8–14 months), participants will take part in a 24-week CBE intervention that includes aerobic, resistance, balance and flexibility exercise at the YMCA 3 times per week, with weekly supervision by a fitness instructor, and monthly educational sessions. In the follow-up phase (14–22 months), participants will be encouraged to continue to engage in unsupervised exercise 3 times per week. Quantitative assessment: We will assess cardiopulmonary fitness, strength, weight, body composition and flexibility outcomes followed by the administration of self-reported questionnaires to assess disability and contextual factor outcomes (coping, mastery, stigma, social support) bimonthly. We will use time series regression analysis to determine the level and trend of outcomes across each phase in relation to the intervention. Qualitative assessment: We will conduct a series of face-to-face interviews with a subsample of participants and recreation providers at initiation, midpoint and completion of the 24-week CBE intervention. We will explore experiences and anticipated benefits with exercise, perceived impact of CBE for PLWH and the strengths and challenges of implementing a CBE intervention. Interviews will be audio recorded and analysed thematically. Ethics and dissemination Protocol approved by the University of Toronto HIV/AIDS Research Ethics Board. Knowledge

  5. A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of a Community-Based HIV Prevention Intervention for Mexican American Female Adolescents: The SHERO's Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Gary W.; Bangi, Audrey K.; Sanchez, Bernadette; Doll, Mimi; Pedraza, Ana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a quasi-experimental evaluation of a community-based, culturally and ecologically tailored HIV prevention intervention for Mexican American female adolescents grounded in the AIDS risk reduction model. A total of 378 Mexican American female adolescents (mean age = 15.2) participated in either the nine-session SHERO's (a…

  6. A music-based HIV prevention intervention for urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Anthony F; Fisher, Jeffrey D; Pratto, Felicia

    2008-05-01

    This research examines the process of conducting and evaluating a music-based HIV prevention intervention among urban adolescents, and is informed by the information, motivation, behavioral skills (IMB) model. Musically talented opinion leaders were recruited to write, record, and distribute HIV prevention themed music to their peers to increase HIV prevention motivation, behavioral skills, and behaviors. In this 3-month field experiment, participants were 306 students enrolled in health classes at each of three large multiracial urban high schools (one treatment school; two control schools). Measures of HIV prevention information, motivation, behavioral skills, and behaviors, both pre- and postintervention. Results indicate that the intervention influenced several aspects of HIV prevention motivation, behavioral skills, and condom use and HIV testing behaviors. This research demonstrates that the incorporation of music into HIV prevention interventions for adolescents has the potential to be effective.

  7. Issues of disclosure and condom use in adolescents with hemophilia and HIV. Hemophilia Behavioral Evaluative Intervention Project Staff.

    PubMed

    Geary, M K; King, G; Forsberg, A D; Delaronde, S R; Parsons, J

    1996-12-01

    To examine the patterns, facilitators, and barriers to disclosure of HIV seropositivity in an adolescent population and to determine the relationship between disclosure and condom use. In recent years, public health efforts have focused on methods to prevent the transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). These efforts have included safer sex education, skill building and self-efficacy training, behavioral change techniques, and encouragement of serostatus disclosure to sexual partners. In 1990, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded 10 hemophilia treatment centers to develop and implement a theory-based behavioral intervention to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV. A baseline survey, focusing on barriers to safer sex, the influence of parents, peers, and sexual partners, alcohol and drug use, and communication and disclosure patterns, was administered to 321 young males (ages 12 to 25) with hemophilia and HIV. Fifty-eight percent of the sexually experienced adolescents did not disclose their HIV status to their most recent sexual partners (i.e., nondisclosers) compared to 42 percent who reported that either they informed their partners or their partners already knew their HIV status (i.e., disclosers). There was no correlation between disclosure and condom use. The most significant predictor of disclosure was the perception that peers would disclose their HIV status. The results suggest that disclosure does not necessarily facilitate condom use in this population. This conclusion may have implications for future public health efforts in HIV prevention. Rather than focusing primarily on the promotion of serostatus disclosure, behavioral interventions should emphasize the practice of safer sex, utilizing peer educators and support networks.

  8. Implementation and Evaluation of an HIV/AIDS Intervention Program To Improve Student Attitudes Toward Providing Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Marie A.; Ricci, Jean-Francois; Taylor, A. Thomas

    1999-01-01

    A University of Georgia study investigated the effectiveness of a Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) intervention program on pharmacy student attitudes toward providing care for infected patients. Results of pre- and posttests with 290 students indicated that the program was successful in improving student…

  9. Implementation and Evaluation of an HIV/AIDS Intervention Program To Improve Student Attitudes Toward Providing Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Marie A.; Ricci, Jean-Francois; Taylor, A. Thomas

    1999-01-01

    A University of Georgia study investigated the effectiveness of a Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) intervention program on pharmacy student attitudes toward providing care for infected patients. Results of pre- and posttests with 290 students indicated that the program was successful in improving student…

  10. eHealth interventions for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Noar, Seth M; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts

    2012-01-01

    The rapidly changing media landscape and proliferation of new technologies creates vast new opportunities for HIV prevention. The fast growth of the relatively new eHealth field is a testament to the excitement and promise of these new technologies. eHealth interventions in HIV prevention tested to date include computer- and Internet-based interventions; chat room interventions; text messaging interventions; and social media. The current article provides a brief review of these types of interventions in HIV prevention, including their unique advantages and evidence of efficacy. Implications for future research in the eHealth HIV prevention field are discussed.

  11. eHealth interventions for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Noar, Seth M.; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly changing media landscape and proliferation of new technologies creates vast new opportunities for HIV prevention. The fast growth of the relatively new eHealth field is a testament to the excitement and promise of these new technologies. eHealth interventions in HIV prevention tested to date include computer- and Internet-based interventions; chat room interventions; text messaging interventions; and social media. The current article provides a brief review of these types of interventions in HIV prevention, including their unique advantages and evidence of efficacy. Implications for future research in the eHealth HIV prevention field are discussed. PMID:22519523

  12. Randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of an interactive group counseling intervention for HIV-positive women on prenatal depression and disclosure of HIV status.

    PubMed

    Kaaya, Sylvia F; Blander, Jeffrey; Antelman, Gretchen; Cyprian, Fileuka; Emmons, Karen M; Matsumoto, Kenji; Chopyak, Elena; Levine, Michelle; Smith Fawzi, Mary C

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of group counseling, using a problem-solving therapy approach, on reducing depressive symptoms and increasing prenatal disclosure rates of HIV status among HIV-positive pregnant women living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A randomized controlled trial was performed comparing a six-week structured nurse-midwife facilitated psychosocial support group with the standard of care. Sixty percent of women in the intervention group were depressed post-intervention, versus 73% in the control group [Relative Risk (RR) = 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67-1.01, p=0.066]. HIV disclosure rates did not differ across the two study arms. However, among those women who disclosed, there was a significantly higher level of overall personal satisfaction with the response to disclosure from family and friends among women in the treatment (88%) compared to the control group (62%; p=0.004). The results indicate reductions in the level of depressive symptoms comparable with major depressive disorder (MDD) for HIV-positive pregnant women participating in a group counseling intervention. Although the psychosocial group counseling did not significantly increase disclosure rates, an improvement in the level of personal satisfaction resulting from disclosure was associated with the intervention. This suggests that the counseling sessions have likely reduced the burden of depression and helped clients better manage partner reactions to disclosure. Public agencies and non-governmental organizations working in Tanzania and similar settings should consider offering structured psychosocial support groups to HIV-positive pregnant women to prevent poor mental health outcomes, promote early childhood development, and potentially impact HIV-related disease outcomes in the long term.

  13. Intervention outcomes among HIV-affected families over 18 months.

    PubMed

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Rice, Eric; Comulada, W Scott; Best, Karin; Elia, Carla; Peters, Katherine; Li, Li; Green, Sara; Valladares, Ena

    2012-07-01

    We evaluate the efficacy of a family-based intervention over time among HIV-affected families. Mothers living with HIV (MLH; n = 339) in Los Angeles and their school-aged children were randomized to either an intervention or control condition and followed for 18 months. MLH and their children in the intervention received 16 cognitive-behavioral, small-group sessions designed to help them maintain physical and mental health, parent while ill, address HIV-related stressors, and reduce HIV-transmission behaviors. At recruitment, MLH reported few problem behaviors related to physical health, mental health, or sexual or drug transmission acts. Compared to MLH in the control condition, intervention MLH were significantly more likely to monitor their own CD4 cell counts and their children were more likely to decrease alcohol and drug use. Most MLH and their children had relatively healthy family relationships. Family-based HIV interventions should be limited to MLH who are experiencing substantial problems.

  14. Effects of a performance and quality improvement intervention on the work environment in HIV-related care: a quasi-experimental evaluation in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Bazant, Eva; Sarkar, Supriya; Banda, Joseph; Kanjipite, Webby; Reinhardt, Stephanie; Shasulwe, Hildah; Mulilo, Joyce Monica Chongo; Kim, Young Mi

    2014-12-20

    Human resource shortages and reforms in HIV-related care make it challenging for frontline health care providers in southern Africa to deliver high-quality services. At health facilities of the Zambian Defence Forces, a performance and quality improvement approach was implemented to improve HIV-related care and was evaluated in 2010/2011. Changes in providers' work environment and perceived quality of HIV-related care were assessed to complement data of provider performance. The intervention involved on-site training, supportive supervision, and action planning focusing on detailed service delivery standards. The quasi-experimental evaluation collected pre- and post-intervention data from eight intervention and comparison facilities matched on defence force branch and baseline client volume. Overall, 101 providers responded to a 24-item questionnaire on the work environment, covering topics of drugs, supplies, and equipment; training, feedback, and supervision; compensation; staffing; safety; fulfilment; and HIV services quality. In bivariate analysis and multivariate analyses, we assessed changes within each study group and between the two groups. In the bivariate analysis, the intervention group providers reported improvements in the work environment on adequacy of equipment, feeling safe from harm, confidence in clinical skills, and reduced isolation, while the comparison group reported worsening of the work environment on supplies, training, safety, and departmental morale.In the multivariate analysis, the intervention group's improvement and the comparison group's decline were significant on perceived adequacy of drugs, supplies, and equipment; constructive feedback received from supervisor and co-workers; and feeling safe from physical harm (all P <0.01, except P <0.04 for equipment). Further, the item "provider lacks confidence in some clinical skills" declined in the intervention group but increased in the comparison group (P = -0.005). In multivariate

  15. Evaluation of a Brief Intervention to Improve the Nursing Care of Young Children in a High HIV and AIDS Setting

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Linda M.; Rochat, Tamsen J.; Hsiao, Celia; Zuma, Thembelihle H.

    2012-01-01

    The HIV epidemic in South Africa is putting great strain on health services, including the inpatient care of young children. Caregivers and young children (107 pairs) and 17 nurses participated in an intervention to improve the care of young children in hospital in a high HIV and AIDS setting. The intervention addressed caregiver expectations about admission and treatment, responsive feeding, coping with infant pain and distress, assistance with medical procedures, and preparation for discharge and home care. Following a preparatory and piloting phase, measures of nurse burnout, caregiver physical and emotional well-being, and caregiver-child interaction were made before and after intervention. No changes were found between before and after intervention on assessments of caregiver wellbeing. However, mothers in the postintervention phase rated nurses as more supportive; mother-child interaction during feeding was more relaxed and engaged, and babies were less socially withdrawn. While the intervention proved useful in improving certain outcomes for children and their caregivers, it did not address challenging hospital and ward administration or support needed by caregivers at home following discharge. To address the latter need, the intervention has been extended into the community through home-based palliative care and support. PMID:22530114

  16. HIV Antigens for Disease Intervention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-27

    infectivity is severely diminished following binding of lentil lectins to mannose-containing carbohydrate moieties on the HIV-I viral envelope glycoprotein (18...carbohydrates around the CD4 binding region. To evaluate the effect of lentil lectin on free virus infectivity, the virus containing 105 cpm RT activity...virus equivalent was * •pretreated with lentil lectin (50 j.g/ml), or medium for 30 minutes at 370C. This pretreated virus was incubated with 4 x106

  17. Shamba Maisha: Pilot agricultural intervention for food security and HIV health outcomes in Kenya: design, methods, baseline results and process evaluation of a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Craig R; Steinfeld, Rachel L; Weke, Elly; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Hatcher, Abigail M; Shiboski, Stephen; Rheingans, Richard; Scow, Kate M; Butler, Lisa M; Otieno, Phelgona; Dworkin, Shari L; Weiser, Sheri D

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in treatment of people living with HIV, morbidity and mortality remains unacceptably high in sub-Saharan Africa, largely due to parallel epidemics of poverty and food insecurity. We conducted a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a multisectoral agricultural and microfinance intervention (entitled Shamba Maisha) designed to improve food security, household wealth, HIV clinical outcomes and women's empowerment. The intervention was carried out at two HIV clinics in Kenya, one randomized to the intervention arm and one to the control arm. HIV-infected patients >18 years, on antiretroviral therapy, with moderate/severe food insecurity and/or body mass index (BMI) <18.5, and access to land and surface water were eligible for enrollment. The intervention included: 1) a microfinance loan (~$150) to purchase the farming commodities, 2) a micro-irrigation pump, seeds, and fertilizer, and 3) trainings in sustainable agricultural practices and financial literacy. Enrollment of 140 participants took four months, and the screening-to-enrollment ratio was similar between arms. We followed participants for 12 months and conducted structured questionnaires. We also conducted a process evaluation with participants and stakeholders 3-5 months after study start and at study end. Baseline results revealed that participants at the two sites were similar in age, gender and marital status. A greater proportion of participants at the intervention site had a low BMI in comparison to participants at the control site (18% vs. 7%, p = 0.054). While median CD4 count was similar between arms, a greater proportion of participants enrolled at the intervention arm had a detectable HIV viral load compared with control participants (49% vs. 28%, respectively, p < 0.010). Process evaluation findings suggested that Shamba Maisha had high acceptability in recruitment, delivered strong agricultural and financial training, and led to labor saving due to use of the water

  18. An HIV-Preventive Intervention for Youth Living with HIV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightfoot, Marguerita; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Tevendale, Heather

    2007-01-01

    As the number of youth infected with HIV rises, secondary prevention programs are needed to help youth living with HIV meet three goals: (1) increase self-care behaviors, medical adherence, and health-related interactions; (2) reduce transmission acts; and (3) enhance their quality of life. This article describes an intervention program for youth…

  19. Evaluation of a quality improvement intervention to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) at Zambia defence force facilities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Zambian Defence Force (ZDF) is working to improve the quality of services to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) at its health facilities. This study evaluates the impact of an intervention that included provider training, supportive supervision, detailed performance standards, repeated assessments of service quality, and task shifting of group education to lay workers. Methods Four ZDF facilities implementing the intervention were matched with four comparison sites. Assessors visited the sites before and after the intervention and completed checklists while observing 387 antenatal care (ANC) consultations and 41 group education sessions. A checklist was used to observe facilities’ infrastructure and support systems. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted of findings on provider performance during consultations. Results Among 137 women observed during their initial ANC visit, 52% came during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy, but 19% waited until the 28th week or later. Overall scores for providers’ PMTCT skills rose from 58% at baseline to 73% at endline (p=0.003) at intervention sites, but remained stable at 52% at comparison sites. Especially large gains were seen at intervention sites in family planning counseling (34% to 75%, p=0.026), HIV testing during return visits (13% to 48%, p=0.034), and HIV/AIDS management during visits that did not include an HIV test (1% to 34%, p=0.004). Overall scores for providers’ ANC skills rose from 67% to 74% at intervention sites, but declined from 65% to 59% at comparison sites; neither change was significant in the multivariate analysis. Overall scores for group education rose from 87% to 91% at intervention sites and declined from 78% to 57% at comparison sites. The overall facility readiness score rose from 73% to 88% at intervention sites and from 75% to 82% at comparison sites. Conclusions These findings are relevant to civilian as well as military health systems in Zambia

  20. Evaluation of a Client-Centered Linkage Intervention for Patients Newly Diagnosed with HIV at an Urban United States LGBT Center: The Linkage to Care Specialist Project.

    PubMed

    Bendetson, Jesse; Dierst-Davies, Rhodri; Flynn, Risa; Beymer, Matthew R; Wohl, Amy R; Amico, K Rivet; Bolan, Robert K

    2017-07-01

    Linkage to care (LTC) is a key element of the HIV care continuum, and a crucial bridge from testing and diagnosis to receipt of antiretroviral therapies and viral suppression. In 2012, the Los Angeles LGBT Center hired a full-time LTC specialist (LTC-S), who developed a unique client-centered approach to LTC. This single-arm demonstration project was designed to systematically evaluate the LTC-S intervention. Individuals who were newly diagnosed with HIV between March 2014 and September 2015 were eligible for enrollment. The LTC-S draws heavily from principles of motivational interviewing and strengths-based case management, helping to normalize fears while guiding clients at a pace that reflects individual needs and resources. These tailored, targeted methods facilitate the rapid development of rapport, enabling the LTC-S to help clients address particular reactions and barriers to care more effectively. Of the 118 newly HIV-diagnosed individuals who enrolled, 111 (94.1%) saw an HIV primary care provider within 3 months of diagnosis; the LTC-S spent an average of 2.1 h working with each participant. Enrolled clients were a racially diverse, urban group composed primarily of young men who have sex with men. The LTC-S intervention was effective in promoting LTC among this sample. Our results demonstrate that client-centered, resiliency-based LTC services can be seamlessly integrated into an existing HIV testing program, thereby increasing the chances that newly diagnosed individuals will link to care.

  1. Psychological Effects of a Life Review Intervention for Persons with HIV Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Susan M.; Kinnier, Richard T.

    1996-01-01

    Evaluates a life review intervention for persons with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease. Adults with HIV (N=27) were compared on psychological measures of optimism and other attributes. No significant differences were apparent among the interventions, but statistical trends and written evaluations favored the life review intervention.…

  2. Pediatric HIV Disclosure Intervention Improves Knowledge and Clinical Outcomes in HIV-Infected Children in Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Laura; Hamunime, Ndapewa; Shepard, Mark; Uusiku, James; John-Stewart, Grace C.; O'Malley, Gabrielle

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Using routinely collected data, we evaluated a nationally implemented intervention to assist health care workers and caregivers with HIV disclosure to children. We assessed the impact of the intervention on child's knowledge and health outcomes. Methods: Data were abstracted from national databases and patient charts for HIV-infected children aged 7–15 years attending 4 high-volume HIV clinics in Namibia. Disclosure rates, time to disclosure, and HIV knowledge in 314 children participating in the intervention were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of partial vs. full disclosure. Paired t-tests and McNemar tests were used to compare adherence and viral load (VL) before versus after intervention enrollment. Results: Among children who participated in the disclosure intervention, 11% knew their HIV status at enrollment and an additional 38% reached full disclosure after enrollment. The average time to full disclosure was 2.5 years (interquartile range: 1.2–3 years). Children who achieved full disclosure were more likely to be older, have lower VLs, and have been enrolled in the intervention longer. Among children who reported incorrect knowledge regarding why they take their medicine, 83% showed improved knowledge after the intervention, defined as knowledge of HIV status or adopting intervention-specific language. On comparing 0–12 months before vs. 12–24 months after enrollment in the intervention, VL decreased by 0.5 log10 copies per milliliter (N = 42, P = 0.004), whereas mean adherence scores increased by 10% (N = 88, P value < 0.001). Conclusions: This HIV disclosure intervention demonstrated improved viral suppression, adherence, and HIV knowledge and should be considered for translation to other settings. PMID:28114186

  3. Pediatric HIV Disclosure Intervention Improves Knowledge and Clinical Outcomes in HIV-Infected Children in Namibia.

    PubMed

    Beima-Sofie, Kristin M; Brandt, Laura; Hamunime, Ndapewa; Shepard, Mark; Uusiku, James; John-Stewart, Grace C; OʼMalley, Gabrielle

    2017-05-01

    Using routinely collected data, we evaluated a nationally implemented intervention to assist health care workers and caregivers with HIV disclosure to children. We assessed the impact of the intervention on child's knowledge and health outcomes. Data were abstracted from national databases and patient charts for HIV-infected children aged 7-15 years attending 4 high-volume HIV clinics in Namibia. Disclosure rates, time to disclosure, and HIV knowledge in 314 children participating in the intervention were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of partial vs. full disclosure. Paired t-tests and McNemar tests were used to compare adherence and viral load (VL) before versus after intervention enrollment. Among children who participated in the disclosure intervention, 11% knew their HIV status at enrollment and an additional 38% reached full disclosure after enrollment. The average time to full disclosure was 2.5 years (interquartile range: 1.2-3 years). Children who achieved full disclosure were more likely to be older, have lower VLs, and have been enrolled in the intervention longer. Among children who reported incorrect knowledge regarding why they take their medicine, 83% showed improved knowledge after the intervention, defined as knowledge of HIV status or adopting intervention-specific language. On comparing 0-12 months before vs. 12-24 months after enrollment in the intervention, VL decreased by 0.5 log10 copies per milliliter (N = 42, P = 0.004), whereas mean adherence scores increased by 10% (N = 88, P value < 0.001). This HIV disclosure intervention demonstrated improved viral suppression, adherence, and HIV knowledge and should be considered for translation to other settings.

  4. Evaluation of antiretroviral-related errors and interventions by the clinical pharmacist in hospitalized HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Carcelero, E; Tuset, M; Martin, M; De Lazzari, E; Codina, C; Miró, J; Gatell, Jm

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the study was to identify antiretroviral-related errors in the prescribing of medication to HIV-infected inpatients and to ascertain the degree of acceptance of the pharmacist's interventions. An observational, prospective, 1-year study was conducted in a 750-bed tertiary-care teaching hospital by a pharmacist trained in HIV pharmacotherapy. Interactions with antiretrovirals were checked for contraindicated combinations. Inpatient antiretroviral prescriptions were compared with outpatient dispensing records for reconciliation. Renal and hepatic function was monitored to determine the need for dose adjustments. The prescriptions for 247 admissions (189 patients) were reviewed. Sixty antiretroviral-related problems were identified in 41 patients (21.7%). The most common problem was contraindicated combinations (n=20; 33.3%), followed by incorrect dose (n=10; 16.7%), dose omission (n=9; 15%), lack of dosage reduction in patients with renal or hepatic impairment (n=6; 10% and n=1; 1.7%, respectively), omission of an antiretroviral (n=6; 10%), addition of an alternative antiretroviral (n=5; 8.3%) and incorrect schedule according to outpatient treatment (n=3; 5%). Fifteen out of 20 errors were made during admission. A multivariate analysis showed that factors associated with an increased risk of antiretroviral-related problems included renal impairment [odds ratio (OR) 3.95; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39-11.23], treatment with atazanavir (OR 3.53; 95% CI 1.61-7.76) and admission to a unit other than an infectious diseases unit (OR 2.50; 95% CI 1.28-4.88). Use of a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor was a protective factor (OR 0.33; 95% CI 0.13-0.81). Ninety-two per cent of the pharmacist's interventions were accepted. Antiretroviral-related errors affected more than one-in-five patients. The most common causes of error were contraindicated or not recommended drug-drug combinations and dose-related errors. A clinical pharmacist trained in HIV

  5. Diarrhea prevention in people living with HIV: an evaluation of a point-of-use water quality intervention in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Barzilay, Ezra J; Aghoghovbia, Titilayo S; Blanton, Elizabeth M; Akinpelumi, Abiodun A; Coldiron, Matthew E; Akinfolayan, Olamide; Adeleye, Olufolake A; LaTrielle, Amy; Hoekstra, Robert M; Gilpin, Uzoamaka; Quick, Robert

    2011-03-01

    Diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Africa. The impact of a point-of-use water chlorination and storage intervention on diarrheal-disease risk in a population of HIV-infected women in Lagos, Nigeria was evaluated. A baseline survey was performed, followed by six weeks of baseline diarrhea surveillance consisting of weekly home visits, distribution of free water chlorination products and safe storage containers to project participants, and continued weekly home-based diarrhea surveillance for 15 additional weeks. To confirm use of the water chlorination product, during each home visit, stored water was tested for residual chlorine. About 187 women were enrolled. At baseline, 80% of women had access to improved water supplies and 95% had access to sanitation facilities. Following distribution of the intervention, water stored in participants' households was observed to have residual chlorine during 50-80% of home visits, a sign of adherence to recommended water-treatment practices. Diarrhea rates in project participants were 36% lower in the post-intervention period than during the baseline period (p=0.04). Diarrhea rates were 46% lower in the post-intervention period than the baseline period among project participants who were confirmed to have residual chlorine in stored water during 85% or more of home visits (p=0.04); there was no significant difference in diarrhea rates between baseline and post-intervention periods in participants confirmed to have residual chlorine in stored water during less than 85% of home visits. The percent change in diarrhea rates between baseline and post-intervention surveillance periods was statistically significant among non-users of prophylactic antibiotics (-62%, p=0.02) and among persons who used neither prophylactic antibiotics nor antiretroviral treatment (-46%, p=0.04). Point-of-use water treatment was associated with a reduced risk of diarrhea in PLHIV. Regular water

  6. HIV preventive interventions for adolescents: a look back and ahead.

    PubMed

    Malow, Robert M; Kershaw, Trace; Sipsma, Heather; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Dévieux, Jessy G

    2007-12-01

    HIV and sexual risk continue to be central threats to the health and well-being of adolescents in the United States and abroad. Great strides have been made in creating interventions that reduce contracting and transmitting the deadly virus among adolescents. Numerous interventions have been designed and evaluated, with many having positive results in reducing adolescents' HIV risk behavior. However, the complexity of adolescents as well as limited effects on many sexual risk outcomes indicate that much more work needs to be done. This article provides a review of the literature on interventions among adolescents, summarizing why adolescents provide a unique challenge for HIV prevention, the intervention approaches that have been taken, and the challenges and recommendations for the future as the field confronts the neurobiologic dimension of risk.

  7. Toward reducing the spread of HIV in northeastern Thai villages: evaluation of a village-based intervention.

    PubMed

    Elkins, D; Maticka-Tyndale, E; Kuyyakanond, T; Miller, P; Haswell-Elkins, M

    1997-02-01

    This paper presents results of the evaluation of an intervention designed for northeastern Thai villages and particularly for village women. The intervention was based on established principles of behavior change, social learning theory, and community health promotion, and it was grounded in elicitation research. A total of 600 women and 479 men and 12 villages participated in the evaluation which used data collected from face-to-face knowledge, attitude, practices (KAP) surveys, focus groups, and village meetings in a quasi-experimental pre- and post-control group design. Eight of the nine outcome goals set for the intervention were achieved with significant increases in married women taking the initiative in reducing the risk posed to them by the sexual activities of their husbands.

  8. Measuring and Valuing Informal Care for Economic Evaluation of HIV/AIDS Interventions: Methods and Application in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Chiwaula, Levison S; Revill, Paul; Ford, Deborah; Nkhata, Misheck; Mabugu, Travor; Hakim, James; Kityo, Cissy; Chan, Adrienne K; Cataldo, Fabian; Gibb, Diana; van den Berg, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    Economic evaluation studies often neglect the impact of disease and ill health on the social network of people living with HIV (PLHIV) and the wider community. An important concern relates to informal care requirements which, for some diseases such as HIV/AIDS, can be substantial. To measure and value informal care provided to PLHIV in Malawi. A modified diary that divided a day into natural calendar changes was used to measure informal care time. The monetary valuation was undertaken by using four approaches: opportunity cost (official minimum wage used to value caregiving time), modified opportunity cost (caregiver's reservation wage), willingness to pay (amount of money caregiver would pay for care), and willingness to accept (amount of money caregiver would accept for providing care to someone else) approaches. Data were collected from 130 caregivers of PLHIV who were accessing antiretroviral therapy from six facilities in Phalombe district in southeast Malawi. Of the 130 caregivers, 62 (48%) provided informal care in the survey week. On average, caregivers provided care of 8 h/wk. The estimated monetary values of informal care provided per week were US $1.40 (opportunity cost), US $2.41 (modified opportunity cost), US $0.40 (willingness to pay), and US $2.07 (willingness to accept). Exclusion of informal care commitments may be a notable limitation of many applied economic evaluations. This work demonstrates that inclusion of informal care in economic evaluations in a low-income context is feasible. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. HIV Antigens for Disease Intervention.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    and the transmembrane protein gp41 . HIV-1 vaccine development efforts conducted in this contract include developing strategies of modifying the...antigenicity of HIV envelope protein. The approaches adopted involve analysis of the possible function for N-linked glycosylation sites of gp 120 and gp41 ... gp41 . The role of N-linked sugars. a leucine zipper structure motif and the long cytoplasmic domain of gp4l in virus assembly, virus infectivity and

  10. Clinician-initiated HIV risk reduction intervention for HIV-positive persons: Formative Research, Acceptability, and Fidelity of the Options Project.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jeffrey D; Cornman, Deborah H; Osborn, Chandra Y; Amico, K Rivet; Fisher, William A; Friedland, Gerald A

    2004-10-01

    To conduct research on levels and dynamics of HIV risk behavior among HIV-positive patients in clinical care, use this research to design a clinician-initiated HIV prevention intervention for HIV-positive patients, and evaluate the acceptability of the intervention to clinicians and patients and the fidelity with which it can be delivered by clinicians. Study 1 (elicitation research) involved focus groups with HIV-positive patients and HIV care clinicians to understand the dynamics of HIV risk behavior among HIV-positive patients and how to integrate HIV prevention into routine clinical care. Study 2 (acceptability and intervention fidelity) involved the evaluation of 1455 medical visits by experimental intervention patients (N = 231) for acceptability and fidelity of the clinician-initiated HIV prevention intervention. Elicitation research with patients and clinicians identified critical HIV prevention information, motivation, and behavioral skills deficits in HIV-positive patients as well as risky sexual behavior. These findings were integrated into a theory-based HIV prevention intervention initiated by clinicians that proved acceptable to clinicians and patients and that clinicians were able to implement with adequate fidelity. HIV prevention interventions by clinicians treating HIV-positive patients can and should be integrated into routine clinical care.

  11. Evaluation of a real-time virtual intervention to empower persons living with HIV to use therapy self-management: study protocol for an online randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Côté, José; Godin, Gaston; Guéhéneuc, Yann-Gaël; Rouleau, Geneviève; Ramirez-Garcìa, Pilar; Otis, Joanne; Tremblay, Cécile; Fadel, Ghayas

    2012-10-05

    Living with HIV makes considerable demands on a person in terms of self-management, especially as regards adherence to treatment and coping with adverse side-effects. The online HIV Treatment, Virtual Nursing Assistance and Education (Virus de I'immunodéficience Humaine-Traitement Assistance Virtuelle Infirmière et Enseignement; VIH-TAVIE™) intervention was developed to provide persons living with HIV (PLHIV) with personalized follow-up and real-time support in managing their medication intake on a daily basis. An online randomized controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted to evaluate the efficacy of this intervention primarily in optimizing adherence to combination anti-retroviral therapy (ART) among PLHIV. A convenience sample of 232 PLHIV will be split evenly and randomly between an experimental group that will use the web application, and a control group that will be handed a list of websites of interest. Participants must be aged 18 years or older, have been on ART for at least 6 months, and have internet access. The intervention is composed of four interactive computer sessions of 20 to 30 minutes hosted by a virtual nurse who engages the PLHIV in a skills-learning process aimed at improving self-management of medication intake. Adherence constitutes the principal outcome, and is defined as the intake of at least 95% of the prescribed tablets. The following intermediary measures will be assessed: self-efficacy and attitude towards antiretroviral medication, symptom-related discomfort, and emotional support. There will be three measurement times: baseline (T0), after 3 months (T3) and 6 months (T6) of baseline measurement. The principal analyses will focus on comparing the two groups in terms of treatment adherence at the end of follow-up at T6. An intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis will be carried out to evaluate the true value of the intervention in a real context. Carrying out this online RCT poses various challenges in terms of recruitment, ethics, and

  12. Evaluation of a real-time virtual intervention to empower persons living with HIV to use therapy self-management: study protocol for an online randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Living with HIV makes considerable demands on a person in terms of self-management, especially as regards adherence to treatment and coping with adverse side-effects. The online HIV Treatment, Virtual Nursing Assistance and Education (Virus de I’immunodéficience Humaine–Traitement Assistance Virtuelle Infirmière et Enseignement; VIH-TAVIE™) intervention was developed to provide persons living with HIV (PLHIV) with personalized follow-up and real-time support in managing their medication intake on a daily basis. An online randomized controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted to evaluate the efficacy of this intervention primarily in optimizing adherence to combination anti-retroviral therapy (ART) among PLHIV. Methods/design A convenience sample of 232 PLHIV will be split evenly and randomly between an experimental group that will use the web application, and a control group that will be handed a list of websites of interest. Participants must be aged 18 years or older, have been on ART for at least 6 months, and have internet access. The intervention is composed of four interactive computer sessions of 20 to 30 minutes hosted by a virtual nurse who engages the PLHIV in a skills-learning process aimed at improving self-management of medication intake. Adherence constitutes the principal outcome, and is defined as the intake of at least 95% of the prescribed tablets. The following intermediary measures will be assessed: self-efficacy and attitude towards antiretroviral medication, symptom-related discomfort, and emotional support. There will be three measurement times: baseline (T0), after 3 months (T3) and 6 months (T6) of baseline measurement. The principal analyses will focus on comparing the two groups in terms of treatment adherence at the end of follow-up at T6. An intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis will be carried out to evaluate the true value of the intervention in a real context. Discussion Carrying out this online RCT poses various

  13. A global comprehensive review of economic interventions to prevent intimate partner violence and HIV risk behaviours.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Andrew; Jacobson, Jessica; Kerr Wilson, Alice

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV are co-occurring global epidemics, with similar root causes of gender and economic inequalities. Economic interventions have become a central approach to preventing IPV and HIV. We undertook a comprehensive scoping review of published evaluations of economic interventions that sought to prevent IPV and/or HIV risk behaviours. Forty-five separate analyses of interventions met our criteria. Broadly, unconditional cash transfer interventions showed either flat or positive outcomes; economic strengthening interventions had mixed outcomes, with some negative, flat and positive results reported; interventions combining economic strengthening and gender transformative interventions tended to have positive outcomes. The review highlighted a number of gaps. Specifically, there were limited studies evaluating the impact of economic interventions on female sex workers, young women, and men. In addition, there were missed opportunities, with many evaluations only reporting either IPV- or HIV-related outcomes, rather than both, despite overlaps.

  14. Lay Counsellor-Based Risk Reduction Intervention with HIV Positive Diagnosed Patients at Public HIV Counselling and Testing Sites in Mpumalanga, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltzer, Karl; Tabane, Cily; Matseke, Gladys; Simbayi, Leickness

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility, fidelity, and effect of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk reduction intervention delivered to HIV-infected patients by lay counsellors during routine HIV counselling and testing (HCT) public service in Mpumalanga, South Africa. Methods: A total of 488 HIV-infected patients, aged 18 years and older,…

  15. Lay Counsellor-Based Risk Reduction Intervention with HIV Positive Diagnosed Patients at Public HIV Counselling and Testing Sites in Mpumalanga, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltzer, Karl; Tabane, Cily; Matseke, Gladys; Simbayi, Leickness

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility, fidelity, and effect of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk reduction intervention delivered to HIV-infected patients by lay counsellors during routine HIV counselling and testing (HCT) public service in Mpumalanga, South Africa. Methods: A total of 488 HIV-infected patients, aged 18 years and older,…

  16. The Acceptability of Psychosocial Support Interventions for Children Orphaned by HIV/AIDS: An Evaluation of Teacher Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitiyo, Morgan; Changara, Darlington; Chitiyo, George

    2010-01-01

    The AIDS epidemic has created many orphans around the globe. A majority of these orphans live in sub-Saharan Africa. Children orphaned by HIV/AIDS face many daunting challenges in their struggle to cope with life. The issues they face due to the loss of their parent(s) include poverty, the stigma associated with HIV/AIDS and stress. This study…

  17. Linearity and Nonlinearity in HIV/STI Transmission: Implications for the Evaluation of Sexual Risk Reduction Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkerton, Steven D.; Chesson, Harrell W.; Crosby, Richard A.; Layde, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical model of HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STI) transmission was used to examine how linearity or nonlinearity in the relationship between the number of unprotected sex acts (or the number of sex partners) and the risk of acquiring HIV or a highly infectious STI (such as gonorrhea or chlamydia) affects the utility of sexual…

  18. Linearity and Nonlinearity in HIV/STI Transmission: Implications for the Evaluation of Sexual Risk Reduction Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkerton, Steven D.; Chesson, Harrell W.; Crosby, Richard A.; Layde, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical model of HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STI) transmission was used to examine how linearity or nonlinearity in the relationship between the number of unprotected sex acts (or the number of sex partners) and the risk of acquiring HIV or a highly infectious STI (such as gonorrhea or chlamydia) affects the utility of sexual…

  19. Evaluation of a school-based HIV/AIDS peer-led prevention programme: the first intervention trial for children of migrant workers in China.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Huang, H; Cai, Y; Ye, X; Shen, X; Shi, R; Xu, G

    2010-02-01

    The effectiveness of a peer-led education intervention in HIV/AIDS prevention was assessed in the Chinese children of migrant workers. A prospective study was conducted in 12 junior high schools for migrant children. Among the intervention group, a peer-education-based HIV/AIDS prevention was implemented for three months. The results during the baseline survey indicated that the level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS was lower in children of migrant workers. After three months of peer-led intervention, compared with the control group, students in the intervention group positively increased their HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, modified their attitude and improved their protection self-efficacy. Compared with attitude, intervention was more effective in the improvement of knowledge and protection self-efficacy, especially knowledge. The findings suggest that peer-led education was an effective method in improving knowledge, attitude and protection self-efficacy in Chinese children of migrant workers. Heightened concerns targeting the group students were particularly necessary, given their lower level of related knowledge and vulnerability to HIV infection.

  20. A review of HIV/AIDS system-level interventions

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, José A.; Tross, Susan; Ehrhardt, Anke A.

    2010-01-01

    The escalating HIV/AIDS epidemic worldwide demands that on-going prevention efforts be strengthened, disseminated, and scaled-up. System-level interventions refer to programs aiming to improve the functioning of an agency as well as the delivery of its services to the community. System-level interventions are a promising approach to HIV/AIDS prevention because they focus on (a) improving the agency’s ability to adopt evidence-based HIV prevention and care programs; (b) develop and establish policies and procedures that maximize the sustainability of on-going prevention and care efforts; and (c) improve decision-making processes such as incorporating the needs of communities into their tailored services. We reviewed studies focusing on system-level interventions by searching multiple electronic abstracting indices, including PsycInfo, PubMed, and ProQuest. Twenty-three studies out of 624 peer-reviewed studies (published from January 1985 to February 2007) met study criteria. Most of the studies focused on strengthening agency infrastructure, while other studies included collaborative partnerships and technical assistance programs. Our findings suggest that system-level interventions are promising in strengthening HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment efforts. Based on our findings, we propose recommendations for future work in developing and evaluating system-level interventions. PMID:18369722

  1. Intimate partner violence and the CDC's best-evidence HIV risk reduction interventions.

    PubMed

    Prowse, Kayleigh M; Logue, Christine E; Fantasia, Heidi C; Sutherland, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a prevalent health burden in the United States and is a risk factor for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) transmission. Despite the association between IPV and HIV risk, IPV is often omitted from HIV prevention research and interventions. This review analyzes the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's best-evidence HIV risk reduction interventions and their incorporation of IPV assessment, education and evaluation. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's best-evidence HIV risk reduction interventions (n = 44) were reviewed for inclusion of IPV content. Of the 44 best evidence interventions, 5 addressed IPV. These 5 interventions were further examined for method, measurement and uniformity. Justification for IPV integration in HIV risk reduction programs is explored and supported by evidence-based research and practice. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. “If I Take My Medicine, I Will Be Strong:” Evaluation of a Pediatric HIV Disclosure Intervention in Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Beima-Sofie, Kristin; Feris, Larissa; Shepard-Perry, Mark; Hamunime, Ndapewa; John-Stewart, Grace; Kaindjee-Tjituka, Francina; Brandt, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite known benefits, only a small proportion of HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa know their status and limited disclosure interventions exist. Namibia's Ministry of Health and Social Services developed and implemented a multipronged intervention to support health care workers (HCWs) and caregivers in the disclosure process. Methods: The intervention included a staged disclosure cartoon book, child and caregiver readiness assessment tools, a monitoring form to track progress over visits, and HCW training curriculum. We conducted qualitative interviews with 35 HCWs and 46 caregivers of HIV-positive children at 4 high volume HIV clinics. Interviews elicited detailed information about intervention uptake and impact. HCWs also participated in a self-efficacy survey. Results: The intervention improved HCW and caregiver confidence and communication skills in pediatric disclosure. The most valuable intervention component was the disclosure cartoon book, which provided structure, language, and guidance for a gradual disclosure process. HCWs reported it greatly reduced caregiver resistance to disclosure. Both caregivers and HCWs reported improved knowledge and ability to support the pediatric patient, improved child understanding of how HIV medications work, increased child hopefulness for their future, and improved child adherence to care and treatment. HCW self-efficacy surveys found that HCWs who received training felt more confident in their ability to engage in the disclosure process. Conclusions: HCWs and caregivers highly endorsed the intervention. Given the urgency to address pediatric HIV disclosure in Africa, and the utility and low cost of the locally-produced disclosure tool, this approach may be useful in other similar settings. PMID:25296096

  3. Developing a Safer Conception Intervention for Men Living with HIV in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Khidir, Hazar; Psaros, Christina; Greener, Letitia; O'Neil, Kasey; Mathenjwa, Mxolisi; Mosery, F N; Moore, Lizzie; Harrison, Abigail; Bangsberg, David R; Smit, Jennifer A; Safren, Steven A; Matthews, Lynn T

    2017-02-13

    Within sexual partnerships, men make many decisions about sexual behavior, reproductive goals, and HIV prevention. There are increasing calls to involve men in reproductive health and HIV prevention. This paper describes the process of creating and evaluating the acceptability of a safer conception intervention for men living with HIV who want to have children with partners at risk for acquiring HIV in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Based on formative work conducted with men and women living with HIV, their partners, and providers, we developed an intervention based on principles of cognitive-behavioral therapy to support men in the adoption of HIV risk-reduction behaviors such as HIV-serostatus disclosure and uptake of and adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Structured group discussions were used to explore intervention acceptability and feasibility. Our work demonstrates that men are eager for reproductive health services, but face unique barriers to accessing them.

  4. Interventions for educating traditional healers about STD and HIV medicine.

    PubMed

    Sorsdahl, Katherine; Ipser, Jonathan C; Stein, Dan J

    2009-10-07

    For the treatment of HIV/AIDS, individuals may consult traditional healers because they possess a shared sociocultural background, meet the needs and expectations of the patients, and pay special attention to social and spiritual matters. Various intervention strategies have been adopted to educate traditional healers in various aspects of Western medicine, with a particular focus on HIV/AIDS. To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for educating traditional healers in the fundamentals of sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV medicine. We searched the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, Pubmed, Embase, Gatway and AIDSearch from the period of 1980 to 2008. We also handsearched the reference lists of the retrieved articles, located conference proceedings of international conferences related to AIDS studies and contacted key personnel and organizations working in HIV/AIDS intervention programs in developing countries. All intervention studies using a controlled design that have evaluated the effect of educational interventions on any one of the outcome measures specified were included. Two reviewers independently assessed the eligibility of potentially relevant studies and extracted data from and assessed study quality of included studies. A meta-analysis of study outcomes was not possible given the small number of included studies and the heterogeneity in methodological designs and outcome measures. We included two studies (one RCT and one CBA study) in this review (n = 311). Both of these studies indicated that a training workshop increased the knowledge about HIV/AIDS of traditional healers. With regards to behaviour change, Peltzer 2006 detected a significant difference in traditional healers' reports of managing their patients; however, there was no evidence of a reduction of HIV/STI risk behaviours and referral practices, as assessed by self-report. The study by Poudyal 2003 did not assess this outcome. Two studies met the inclusion criteria

  5. Monitoring HIV Risk and Evaluating Interventions among Young People in Urban West Africa: Development and Validation of an Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boileau, Catherine; Rashed, Selim; Sylla, Mohamed; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2008-01-01

    We developed an instrument for HIV/AIDS behavioral surveillance applicable to youth living in urban West Africa. The instrument includes a comprehensive set of constructs borrowed from the sociocognitive theory of planned behavior as well as measures of parental and peer communication An exploratory (n = 189) and validation sample (n = 342) of…

  6. An Alternative Model of the Reproductive Rate of HIV Infection: Formulation, Evaluation, and Implications for Risk Reduction Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkerton, Steven D.; Abramson, Paul R.

    1994-01-01

    Estimates of the reproductive rate of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), obtained through a Bernoulli process model, indicate that decreasing the infectivity of the virus, through the use of condoms, for example, is more effective at reducing the infection rate than is limiting the number of sexual partners. (SLD)

  7. Monitoring HIV Risk and Evaluating Interventions among Young People in Urban West Africa: Development and Validation of an Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boileau, Catherine; Rashed, Selim; Sylla, Mohamed; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2008-01-01

    We developed an instrument for HIV/AIDS behavioral surveillance applicable to youth living in urban West Africa. The instrument includes a comprehensive set of constructs borrowed from the sociocognitive theory of planned behavior as well as measures of parental and peer communication An exploratory (n = 189) and validation sample (n = 342) of…

  8. Investigating combination HIV prevention: isolated interventions or complex system

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Graham; Reeders, Daniel; Dowsett, Gary W.; Ellard, Jeanne; Carman, Marina; Hendry, Natalie; Wallace, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Treatment as prevention has mobilized new opportunities in preventing HIV transmission and has led to bold new UNAIDS targets in testing, treatment coverage and transmission reduction. These will require not only an increase in investment but also a deeper understanding of the dynamics of combining behavioural, biomedical and structural HIV prevention interventions. High-income countries are making substantial investments in combination HIV prevention, but is this investment leading to a deeper understanding of how to combine interventions? The combining of interventions involves complexity, with many strategies interacting with non-linear and multiplying rather than additive effects. Discussion Drawing on a recent scoping study of the published research evidence in HIV prevention in high-income countries, this paper argues that there is a gap between the evidence currently available and the evidence needed to guide the achieving of these bold targets. The emphasis of HIV prevention intervention research continues to look at one intervention at a time in isolation from its interactions with other interventions, the community and the socio-political context of their implementation. To understand and evaluate the role of a combination of interventions, we need to understand not only what works, but in what circumstances, what role the parts need to play in their relationship with each other, when the combination needs to adapt and identify emergent effects of any resulting synergies. There is little development of evidence-based indicators on how interventions in combination should achieve that strategic advantage and synergy. This commentary discusses the implications of this ongoing situation for future research and the required investment in partnership. We suggest that systems science approaches, which are being increasingly applied in other areas of public health, could provide an expanded vocabulary and analytic tools for understanding these

  9. Improving School Outcomes for Children Affected by Parental HIV/AIDS: Evaluation of the ChildCARE Intervention at 6-, 12-, and 18-Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Sayward E.; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, JiaJia; Chi, Peilian; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2017-01-01

    Children affected by parental HIV/AIDS are at-risk for poor school outcomes including reduced attendance, lower grades, and lower school satisfaction compared to unaffected peers. Resilience-based interventions offer promise to improve functioning across a number of domains. A four-arm randomized controlled trial was conducted with 790 children…

  10. Effectiveness of Integrated HIV Prevention Interventions among Chinese Men Who Have Sex with Men: Evaluation of a 16-City Public Health Program

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Shaodong; Xiao, Yan; Jin, Canrui; Cassell, Holly; Blevins, Meridith; Sun, Jiangping; Vermund, Sten H.; Qian, Han-Zhu

    2012-01-01

    To examine the impacts of a multi-city HIV prevention public health program (China Global Fund Round 5 Project) on condom use and HIV infection, we analyzed four yearly cross-sectional surveys from 2006 through 2009 among 20,843 men who have sex with men (MSM) in 16 Chinese cities. Self-reported condom use at last sex with a male partner increased from 58% in 2006 to 81% in 2009 (trend test, P<0.001). HIV prevalence increased from 2.3% in 2006 to 5.3% in 2009 (P<0.001). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that self-reported receipt of interventions was an independent predictor of increased condom use at last sex with a male partner over time (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.63 in 2006 to 2.33 in 2009; P<0.001), and lower HIV prevalence (aOR, 1.08 in 2006 to 0.45 in 2009; P<0.001). HIV prevalence increased from 2006–2009 for participants with no self-reported receipt of interventions (2.1% in 2006 to 10.3% in 2009) and less so for those with interventions (2.4% to 4.7%). This Chinese public health program had positive impacts on both behaviors and disease rate among MSM population. Escalation of the coverage and intensity of effective interventions is needed for further increasing condom use and for reversing the rising trend of HIV epidemic. PMID:23300528

  11. LifeSkills for Men (LS4M): Pilot Evaluation of a Gender-Affirmative HIV and STI Prevention Intervention for Young Adult Transgender Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Sari L; Hughto, Jaclyn M White; Pardee, Dana J; Kuhns, Lisa; Garofalo, Rob; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2016-02-01

    Young adult transgender men who have sex with men (TMSM) engage in sexual behaviors that place them at risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. To date, no HIV and STI prevention interventions have been developed specifically for young adult TMSM. To address this gap, the current study aimed to (1) adapt a small group-based behavioral HIV prevention intervention designed for young transgender women ("LifeSkills") to address the unique HIV and STI prevention needs of young TMSM ages 18-29 years and (2) conduct a pilot evaluation of the intervention ("LifeSkills for Men"; LS4M). LS4M was carried out in an iterative approach with community input along the way, which allowed for refinement of the intervention manual and enhanced participant acceptability. A LS4M Task Force was convened to guide intervention development/adaptation and study implementation. Initially, focus groups were conducted to examine the sexual health needs, concerns, and stressors facing young TMSM (n = 12; mean age = 23.8 years; 16.7% people of color). Next, LS4M was pilot tested (n = 17; mean age = 24.3 years; 23.5% people of color) to assess acceptability with the study population and feasibility of all study procedures. Overall attendance, participation rates, and positive feedback from participants demonstrate that LS4M is highly acceptable and feasible to carry out with young TMSM. Trends in outcome measures across 4 months of follow-up suggest that participation in the intervention may improve mental health, reduce internalized stigma, and reduce HIV- and STI-related risk behaviors. Further testing of the intervention enrolling young TMSM with recent sexual risk behavior at baseline and with a control group is warranted. Lessons learned for future work with young TMSM are discussed.

  12. Methods and protocol of a mixed method quasi-experiment to evaluate the effects of a structural economic and food security intervention on HIV vulnerability in rural Malawi: The SAGE4Health Study.

    PubMed

    Weinhardt, Lance S; Galvao, Loren W; Mwenyekonde, Thokozani; Grande, Katarina M; Stevens, Patricia; Yan, Alice F; Mkandawire-Valhmu, Lucy; Masanjala, Winford; Kibicho, Jennifer; Ngui, Emmanuel; Emer, Lindsay; Watkins, Susan C

    2014-01-01

    are conducting a qualitative end-of-program evaluation consisting of in-depth interviews with 90 SAFE participants. In addition to examining pathways linking structural factors to HIV vulnerability, this research will yield important information for understanding the impact of a multilevel environmental/structural intervention on HIV, with the potential for other sustainable long-term public health benefits.

  13. Social media interventions to prevent HIV: A review of interventions and methodological considerations

    PubMed Central

    Tso, Lai Sze; Tang, Weiming; Li, Haochu; Yan, H. Yanna; Tucker, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    Persistent new HIV infections and risky behaviors underscore the need for enhanced HIV prevention. Social media interventions may promote safe sexual behaviors, increase HIV testing uptake, and promote safe injection behaviors. This review discusses how social media interventions tap into the wisdom of crowds through crowdsourcing, build peer-mentored communities, and deliver interventions through social networks. Social media HIV prevention interventions are constrained by ethical issues, low social media usage among some key populations, and implementation issues. Comprehensive measurement of social media interventions to prevent HIV is necessary, but requires further development of metrics. PMID:26516632

  14. Social media interventions to prevent HIV: A review of interventions and methodological considerations.

    PubMed

    Tso, Lai Sze; Tang, Weiming; Li, Haochu; Yan, H Yanna; Tucker, Joseph D

    2016-06-01

    Persistent new HIV infections and risky behaviors underscore the need for enhanced HIV prevention. Social media interventions may promote safe sexual behaviors, increase HIV testing uptake, and promote safe injection behaviors. This review discusses how social media interventions tap into the wisdom of crowds through crowdsourcing, build peer-mentored communities, and deliver interventions through social networks. Social media HIV prevention interventions are constrained by ethical issues, low social media usage among some key populations, and implementation issues. Comprehensive measurement of social media interventions to prevent HIV is necessary, but requires further development of metrics.

  15. Enhancing HIV Prevention Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Systematic Review of HIV Behavioral Interventions for Young Gay and Bisexual Men.

    PubMed

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Emmanuel, Diona; Durant, Sarah; Rhodes, Scott D

    2016-06-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) represent 64.0% of people living with HIV (PLWH) over the age of 13 years. Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are particularly affected by HIV/AIDS; the rate of HIV infection for YMSM between the ages of 13 and 24 represents 72.0% of new infections among youth. To understand the current state of the science meant to prevent HIV for YMSM, we reviewed studies of HIV behavioral prevention interventions for YMSM. Five literature databases were searched, from their inception through October 2015, using key words associated with HIV prevention intervention evaluation studies for YMSM. The review criteria included behavioral HIV/AIDS prevention interventions, articles published in English-language peer-reviewed journals, YMSM between 13 and 24 years of age, and longitudinal repeated measures design. A total of 15 YMSM behavioral HIV prevention intervention studies were identified that met inclusion criteria and reported statistically significant findings. Common outcomes included unprotected sexual intercourse, HIV/AIDS risk behavior, condom use, HIV testing, safer sex attitude, and HIV prevention communication. Participant age, representation of Black/African American YMSM, application of theoretical and model underpinnings, congruence of assessment measures used, follow-up assessment times, and application of process evaluation were inconsistent across studies. To advance HIV prevention intervention research for YMSM, future studies should be theory-based, identify common constructs, utilize standard measures, include process evaluation, and evaluate sustained change over standard periods of time. HIV prevention interventions should incorporate the needs of the diverse, well-educated, web-connected millennial generation and differentiate between adolescent YMSM (13 to 18 years of age) and young adulthood YMSM (19 to 24 years of age). Because Black/African American YMSM represent more than 50% of new HIV infections, future HIV

  16. Veterans’ Perspectives on Interventions to Improve Retention in HIV Care

    PubMed Central

    Kertz, Barbara L.; Cully, Jeffery A.; Stanley, Melinda A.; Davila, Jessica A.; Dang, Bich N.; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Giordano, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    Poor retention in HIV medical care is associated with increased mortality among patients with HIV/AIDS. Developing new interventions to improve retention in HIV primary care is needed. The Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) is the largest single provider of HIV care in the US. We sought to understand what veterans would want in an intervention to improve retention in VA HIV care. We conducted 18 one-on-one interviews and 15 outpatient focus groups with 46 patients living with HIV infection from the Michael E. DeBakey VAMC (MEDVAMC). Analysis identified three focus areas for improving retention in care: developing an HIV friendly clinic environment, providing mental health and substance use treatment concurrent with HIV care and encouraging peer support from other Veterans with HIV. PMID:26829641

  17. Maximizing the impact of HIV prevention efforts: interventions for couples.

    PubMed

    Medley, Amy; Baggaley, Rachel; Bachanas, Pamela; Cohen, Myron; Shaffer, Nathan; Lo, Ying-Ru

    2013-01-01

    Despite efforts to increase access to HIV testing and counseling services, population coverage remains low. As a result, many people in sub-Saharan Africa do not know their own HIV status or the status of their sex partner(s). Recent evidence, however, indicates that as many as half of HIV-positive individuals in ongoing sexual relationships have an HIV-negative partner and that a significant proportion of new HIV infections in generalized epidemics occur within serodiscordant couples. Integrating couples HIV testing and counseling (CHTC) into routine clinic- and community-based services can significantly increase the number of couples where the status of both partners is known. Offering couples a set of evidence-based interventions once their HIV status has been determined can significantly reduce HIV incidence within couples and if implemented with sufficient scale and coverage, potentially reduce population-level HIV incidence as well. This article describes these interventions and their potential benefits.

  18. Telephone delivered interventions for preventing HIV infection in HIV-negative persons.

    PubMed

    van-Velthoven, Michelle H M M T; Tudor Car, Lorainne; Gentry, Sarah; Car, Josip

    2013-05-31

    . Secondary outcomes were users' and providers' views on the intervention, economic outcomes and adverse outcomes. Out of 14,717 citations, only one study met the inclusion criteria. The included RCT recruited women and girl children who received post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) after rape from sexual assault services in South Africa between August 2007 and May 2008.Participants (n (number) =274) were randomised into a telephone support (n=136) and control (n=138) group. Control group participants received usual care (an interactive information session) from the sexual assault service during the 28 days in which they had to take PEP, with no further contact from the study staff. Telephone support group participants received standard care and phone calls from a counsellor throughout the 28 days when they had to take PEP.Overall, adherence to PEP was not significantly (P=0.13) different between the intervention (38.2%) and control (31.9 %) groups. Also, the proportion of participants who read a pamphlet, did not return to collect medication or with a depression were not significantly different between the intervention and control groups (P=0.006, P=0.42, P=0.72 respectively). The proportion of participants who used a diary was significantly (P=0.001) higher in the intervention group (78.8%) versus the control group (69.9%). The study authors reported that there were no recorded adverse events. The RCT did not provide information about participants' and providers' evaluation outcomes, or economic outcomes. The study had a moderate risk of bias. We found only one RCT, with a moderate risk of bias, which showed that providing PEP support by phone calls did not result in higher adherence to PEP. However, the RCT was conducted in an upper-middle-income country with high HIV prevalence, on a high-risk population and the applicability of its results on other settings and contexts is unclear. There is a need for robust evidence from various settings on the effectiveness of using phone

  19. Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Sexual Risk Behavior in Adults with HIV/AIDS Receiving HIV Care: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Raag, Mait; Rosenthal, Marika; Uusküla, Anneli

    2015-05-01

    Regular interactions with people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) who are receiving care provide caregivers opportunities to deliver interventions to reduce HIV-related risks. We conducted a systematic review of behavioral interventions for PLWHA (provided at individual level by caregivers at HIV care settings) to determine their efficacy in reducing sexual risk behavior. Conference websites and biomedical literature databases were searched for studies from 1981 to 2013. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials (with standard-of-care control groups), considering at least one of a list of HIV-related behavioral or biological outcomes in PLWHA aged ≥18 receiving HIV care with at least 3-month follow-up were included. No language or publication status restrictions were set. Standardized search, data abstraction, and evaluation methods were used. Five randomized controlled trials were included in the review. We found limited evidence that sexual risk reduction interventions increase condom use consistency in HIV transmission risk acts, and reduce the number of (casual) sexual partners. We still believe that regular interactions between HIV care providers and PLWHA provide valuable opportunities for theory-based sexual risk reduction interventions to restrain the spread of HIV.

  20. Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Sexual Risk Behavior in Adults with HIV/AIDS Receiving HIV Care: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Raag, Mait; Rosenthal, Marika; Uusküla, Anneli

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Regular interactions with people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) who are receiving care provide caregivers opportunities to deliver interventions to reduce HIV-related risks. We conducted a systematic review of behavioral interventions for PLWHA (provided at individual level by caregivers at HIV care settings) to determine their efficacy in reducing sexual risk behavior. Conference websites and biomedical literature databases were searched for studies from 1981 to 2013. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials (with standard-of-care control groups), considering at least one of a list of HIV-related behavioral or biological outcomes in PLWHA aged ≥18 receiving HIV care with at least 3-month follow-up were included. No language or publication status restrictions were set. Standardized search, data abstraction, and evaluation methods were used. Five randomized controlled trials were included in the review. We found limited evidence that sexual risk reduction interventions increase condom use consistency in HIV transmission risk acts, and reduce the number of (casual) sexual partners. We still believe that regular interactions between HIV care providers and PLWHA provide valuable opportunities for theory-based sexual risk reduction interventions to restrain the spread of HIV. PMID:25844941

  1. Implementation Process of a Canadian Community-based Nurse Mentorship Intervention in HIV Care.

    PubMed

    Caine, Vera; Mill, Judy; O'Brien, Kelly; Solomon, Patricia; Worthington, Catherine; Dykeman, Margaret; Gahagan, Jacqueline; Maina, Geoffrey; De Padua, Anthony; Arneson, Cheryl; Rogers, Tim; Chaw-Kant, Jean

    2016-01-01

    We describe salient individual and organizational factors that influenced engagement of registered nurses in a 12-month clinical mentorship intervention on HIV care in Canada. The intervention included 48 nurses and 8 people living with HIV (PLWH) who were involved in group-based and one-on-one informal mentorship informed by transformative learning theory. We evaluated the process of implementing the mentorship intervention using qualitative content analysis. The inclusion of PLWH as mentors, the opportunities for reciprocal learning, and the long-term commitment of individual nurses and partner organizations in HIV care were major strengths. Challenges included the need for multiple ethical approvals, the lack of organizational support at some clinical sites, and the time commitment required by participants. We recommend that clinical mentorship interventions in HIV care consider organizational support, adhere to the Greater Involvement of People Living with HIV/AIDS principles, and explore questions of professional obligations.

  2. Implementation Process of a Canadian Community-based Nurse Mentorship Intervention in HIV Care

    PubMed Central

    Caine, Vera; Mill, Judy; O’Brien, Kelly; Solomon, Patricia; Worthington, Catherine; Dykeman, Margaret; Gahagan, Jacqueline; Maina, Geoffrey; De Padua, Anthony; Arneson, Cheryl; Rogers, Tim; Chaw-Kant, Jean

    2016-01-01

    We describe salient individual and organizational factors that influenced engagement of registered nurses in a 12-month clinical mentorship intervention on HIV care in Canada. The intervention included 48 nurses and 8 people living with HIV (PLWH) who were involved in group-based and one-on-one informal mentorship informed by transformative learning theory. We evaluated the process of implementing the mentorship intervention using qualitative content analysis. The inclusion of PLWH as mentors, the opportunities for reciprocal learning, and the long-term commitment of individual nurses and partner organizations in HIV care were major strengths. Challenges included the need for multiple ethical approvals, the lack of organizational support at some clinical sites, and the time commitment required by participants. We recommend that clinical mentorship interventions in HIV care consider organizational support, adhere to the Greater Involvement of People Living with HIV/AIDS principles, and explore questions of professional obligations. PMID:26644019

  3. A "Common Factors" Approach to Developing Culturally Tailored HIV Prevention Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owczarzak, Jill; Phillips, Sarah D.; Filippova, Olga; Alpatova, Polina; Mazhnaya, Alyona; Zub, Tatyana; Aleksanyan, Ruzanna

    2016-01-01

    The current dominant model of HIV prevention intervention dissemination involves packaging interventions developed in one context, training providers to implement that specific intervention, and evaluating the extent to which providers implement it with fidelity. Research shows that providers rarely implement these programs with fidelity due to…

  4. A "Common Factors" Approach to Developing Culturally Tailored HIV Prevention Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owczarzak, Jill; Phillips, Sarah D.; Filippova, Olga; Alpatova, Polina; Mazhnaya, Alyona; Zub, Tatyana; Aleksanyan, Ruzanna

    2016-01-01

    The current dominant model of HIV prevention intervention dissemination involves packaging interventions developed in one context, training providers to implement that specific intervention, and evaluating the extent to which providers implement it with fidelity. Research shows that providers rarely implement these programs with fidelity due to…

  5. Eban HIV/STD risk reduction intervention: conceptual basis and procedures.

    PubMed

    2008-09-01

    To describe the Eban HIV/STD Risk Reduction Intervention being evaluated in the NIMH Multisite HIV/STD Prevention trial for heterosexual African American couples, including the integrated theoretical framework, the structure, core elements and procedures of the intervention, and how the content was shaped by culturally congruent concepts to address the needs of the study target population. The Eban HIV/STD Risk Reduction Intervention is designed to address multilevel individual-, interpersonal-, and community-level factors that contribute to HIV/STD transmission risk behaviors among heterosexual African American couples who are HIV serodiscordant. The Eban HIV/STD Risk Reduction Intervention employs a mixed modality, couple-based approach that is based on an integrated ecological framework incorporating social cognitive theory and uses an Afrocentric paradigm that is informed by previous evidence-based couples HIV prevention interventions. For this randomized controlled trial, African American serodiscordant couples were recruited from 4 urban sites (Atlanta, Los Angeles, New York, and Philadelphia) and were randomized to either the Eban HIV/STD Risk Reduction Intervention (treatment condition) or a Health Promotion Intervention that served as an attentional control condition. Both interventions had 4 individual couple sessions and 4 group sessions, but only the treatment condition was focused on reducing HIV/STD risk behaviors. Behavioral and biological data were collected at baseline, immediately after the intervention, and at 6 and 12 months. The theoretical framework, core elements, and content of each session are described and lessons learned from this intervention trial are discussed. An HIV prevention intervention combining couple and group sessions can be feasibly implemented with African American HIV-serodiscordant couples who remain at high risk of HIV/STD transmission. The lessons learned from the trial suggest that the participants responded very well

  6. Current trends in Internet- and cell phone-based HIV prevention and intervention programs.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele L; Bull, Sheana S

    2007-12-01

    As the reach of the Internet and cell phones increases, their use as health intervention and prevention tools has been increasingly researched. To identify recent advances in technology-based HIV prevention and intervention research, we conducted a literature search in the Spring of 2007. Only a handful of articles have been published in the last year describing evaluations of technology-based HIV programs. Nonetheless, many programs have recently been funded and are being developed or imminently evaluated. Results to date suggest the Internet and cell phones are feasible technologies to deliver HIV prevention and intervention programs for some target populations. Opportunities for future research are identified, including the development of programs for populations other than men who have sex with men who also are at risk for HIV (eg, adolescents, elderly), the integration of advances from other fields, examination of the potential for using text messaging to affect HIV behavior change, and applications of Internet-based programs in developing countries.

  7. Combination HIV Prevention Interventions: The Potential of Integrated Behavioral and Biomedical Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jennifer L.; Sales, Jessica M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Combination HIV prevention interventions that integrate efficacious behavioral and biomedical strategies offer the potential to reduce new HIV infections. Purpose We overview the efficacy data for three biomedical HIV prevention approaches: microbicides, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and an HIV vaccination, review factors associated with differential acceptability and uptake of these methods, and suggest strategies to optimize the effectiveness and dissemination of combination HIV prevention approaches. Methods A narrative review was conducted highlighting key efficacy data for microbicides, PrEP, and an HIV vaccination and summarizing acceptability data for each of the three biomedical HIV prevention approaches. Recommendations for the integration and dissemination of combined behavioral and biomedical HIV prevention approaches are provided. Results To date, microbicides and an HIV vaccination have demonstrated limited efficacy for the prevention of HIV. However, PrEP has demonstrated efficacy in reducing HIV incident infections. A diverse array of factors influences both hypothetical willingness and actual usage of each biomedical prevention method. Conclusions Strategies to effectively integrate and evaluate combination HIV prevention interventions are urgently needed. PMID:25216985

  8. Criteria for Evaluating Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, T. R.

    2007-01-01

    By common consent there is a "gold standard" in reference to which the efficacy of medical interventions needs to be evaluated. It is suggested in this paper that in educational research achievement of this gold standard is rarely possible. It does not follow, however, that research that falls short of this standard is therefore valueless; there…

  9. Criteria for Evaluating Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, T. R.

    2007-01-01

    By common consent there is a "gold standard" in reference to which the efficacy of medical interventions needs to be evaluated. It is suggested in this paper that in educational research achievement of this gold standard is rarely possible. It does not follow, however, that research that falls short of this standard is therefore valueless; there…

  10. Project Eban: An HIV/STD Intervention for African American Couples

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe the Eban HIV/STD Risk Reduction Intervention being evaluated in the NIMH Multisite HIV/STD Prevention trial for heterosexual African American couples, including the integrated theoretical framework, the structure, core elements and procedures of the intervention and how the content was shaped by culturally congruent concepts to address the needs of the study target population. Design The Eban HIV/STD Risk Reduction Intervention is designed to address multilevel individual, interpersonal and community level factors that contribute to HIV/STD transmission risk behaviors among heterosexual African American couples who are HIV serodiscordant. Methods The Eban HIV/STD Risk Reduction Intervention employs a mixed modality, couples-based approach that is based on an integrated ecological framework incorporating social cognitive theory and uses an Afro-centric paradigm that is informed by previous evidence-based couples HIV prevention interventions. For this randomized controlled trial, African American serodiscordant couples were recruited from four urban sites (Atlanta, Los Angeles, New York and Philadelphia) and were randomized to either the Eban HIV/STD Risk Reduction Intervention (treatment condition) or a Health Promotion Intervention that served as an attentional control condition. Both interventions had 4 individual couple sessions and 4 group sessions, but only the treatment condition was focused on reducing HIV/STD risk behaviors. Behavioral and biological data were collected at baseline, immediately after the intervention, and at 6 and 12 months. The theoretical framework, core elements and content of each session are described and lessons learned from this intervention trial are discussed. Results An HIV prevention intervention combining couple and group sessions can be feasibly implemented with African American HIV serodiscordant couples who remain at high risk of HIV/STD transmission. The lessons learned from the trial suggest that the

  11. HIV risk and preventive interventions in transgender women sex workers.

    PubMed

    Poteat, Tonia; Wirtz, Andrea L; Radix, Anita; Borquez, Annick; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Deutsch, Madeline B; Khan, Sharful Islam; Winter, Sam; Operario, Don

    2015-01-17

    Worldwide, transgender women who engage in sex work have a disproportionate risk for HIV compared with natal male and female sex workers. We reviewed recent epidemiological research on HIV in transgender women and show that transgender women sex workers (TSW) face unique structural, interpersonal, and individual vulnerabilities that contribute to risk for HIV. Only six studies of evidence-based prevention interventions were identified, none of which focused exclusively on TSW. We developed a deterministic model based on findings related to HIV risks and interventions. The model examines HIV prevention approaches in TSW in two settings (Lima, Peru and San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify which interventions would probably achieve the UN goal of 50% reduction in HIV incidence in 10 years. A combination of interventions that achieves small changes in behaviour and low coverage of biomedical interventions was promising in both settings, suggesting that the expansion of prevention services in TSW would be highly effective. However, this expansion needs appropriate sustainable interventions to tackle the upstream drivers of HIV risk and successfully reach this population. Case studies of six countries show context-specific issues that should inform development and implementation of key interventions across heterogeneous settings. We summarise the evidence and knowledge gaps that affect the HIV epidemic in TSW, and propose a research agenda to improve HIV services and policies for this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. HIV risk and preventive interventions in transgender women sex workers

    PubMed Central

    Poteat, Tonia; Wirtz, Andrea L; Radix, Anita; Borquez, Annick; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Deutsch, Madeline B; Khan, Sharful Islam; Winter, Sam; Operario, Don

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, transgender women who engage in sex work have a disproportionate risk for HIV compared with natal male and female sex workers. We reviewed recent epidemiological research on HIV in transgender women and show that transgender women sex workers (TSW) face unique structural, interpersonal, and individual vulnerabilities that contribute to risk for HIV. Only six studies of evidence-based prevention interventions were identified, none of which focused exclusively on TSW. We developed a deterministic model based on findings related to HIV risks and interventions. The model examines HIV prevention approaches in TSW in two settings (Lima, Peru and San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify which interventions would probably achieve the UN goal of 50% reduction in HIV incidence in 10 years. A combination of interventions that achieves small changes in behaviour and low coverage of biomedical interventions was promising in both settings, suggesting that the expansion of prevention services in TSW would be highly effective. However, this expansion needs appropriate sustainable interventions to tackle the upstream drivers of HIV risk and successfully reach this population. Case studies of six countries show context-specific issues that should inform development and implementation of key interventions across heterogeneous settings. We summarise the evidence and knowledge gaps that affect the HIV epidemic in TSW, and propose a research agenda to improve HIV services and policies for this population. PMID:25059941

  13. A Randomized Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy of a Web-Based HIV Behavioral Intervention for High-Risk African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Billings, Douglas W.; Leaf, Samantha L.; Spencer, Joy; Crenshaw, Terrlynn; Brockington, Sheila; Dalal, Reeshad S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and test a cost-effective, scalable HIV behavioral intervention for African American women. Eighty-three African American women were recruited from a community health center and randomly assigned to either the web-based Safe Sistah program or to a delayed HIV education control condition. The primary outcome was self-reported condom use. Secondary measures assessed other aspects of the gender-focused training included in Safe Sistah. Participants completed self-report assessments prior to randomization, 1- and 4-months after their program experience. Across the entire study period, women in the experimental condition significantly increased their condom use relative to controls (F = 5.126, p = 0.027). Significant effects were also found for sexual communication, sex refusal, condom use after alcohol consumption, and HIV prevention knowledge. These findings indicate that this web-based program could be an important component in reducing the HIV disparities among African American women. PMID:25616838

  14. A Randomized Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy of a Web-Based HIV Behavioral Intervention for High-Risk African American Women.

    PubMed

    Billings, Douglas W; Leaf, Samantha L; Spencer, Joy; Crenshaw, Terrlynn; Brockington, Sheila; Dalal, Reeshad S

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and test a cost-effective, scalable HIV behavioral intervention for African American women. Eighty-three African American women were recruited from a community health center and randomly assigned to either the web-based Safe Sistah program or to a delayed HIV education control condition. The primary outcome was self-reported condom use. Secondary measures assessed other aspects of the gender-focused training included in Safe Sistah. Participants completed self-report assessments prior to randomization, 1- and 4-months after their program experience. Across the entire study period, women in the experimental condition significantly increased their condom use relative to controls (F = 5.126, p = 0.027). Significant effects were also found for sexual communication, sex refusal, condom use after alcohol consumption, and HIV prevention knowledge. These findings indicate that this web-based program could be an important component in reducing the HIV disparities among African American women.

  15. The Chinese Life-Steps Program: A Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention to Enhance HIV Medication Adherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Chen, Wei-Ti; Simoni, Jane; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen; Zhang, Fujie; Zhou, Hongxin

    2013-01-01

    China is considered to be the new frontier of the global AIDS pandemic. Although effective treatment for HIV is becoming widely available in China, adherence to treatment remains a challenge. This study aimed to adapt an intervention promoting HIV-medication adherence--favorably evaluated in the West--for Chinese HIV-positive patients. The…

  16. The Chinese Life-Steps Program: A Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention to Enhance HIV Medication Adherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Chen, Wei-Ti; Simoni, Jane; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen; Zhang, Fujie; Zhou, Hongxin

    2013-01-01

    China is considered to be the new frontier of the global AIDS pandemic. Although effective treatment for HIV is becoming widely available in China, adherence to treatment remains a challenge. This study aimed to adapt an intervention promoting HIV-medication adherence--favorably evaluated in the West--for Chinese HIV-positive patients. The…

  17. Crisis intervention: program evaluation.

    PubMed

    Simington, J A; Cargill, L; Hill, W

    1996-11-01

    Crisis intervention is based upon crisis theory and is defined as a short-term active mode of therapy that focuses on solving the client's immediate problem and reestablishing psychological equilibrium. The crisis intervention program was the first phase in the development of a broader mental health program with advancement decisions being based upon evaluation results of this initial phase. An evaluation methodology using the Stufflebeam Goal-Stakeholder Model (1980) was designed and implemented. A satisfaction survey was conducted to develop a database relative to the program's process. The Mental Health Category Measure, and the Crisis Call Outcome Rating Scale were used to capture outcome data. Analysis of the qualitative and quantitative data indicate that stakeholders are satisfied with the program. outcome data demonstrates that the program produces the intended outcomes. Triangulation, a method of comparing the qualitative and quantitative findings revealed consistency, and thus provides confidence in the accuracy of the findings.

  18. Uptake of biomedical interventions for prevention of sexually transmitted HIV.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ume L

    2011-03-01

    To examine the population-level effects of introducing and/or expanding biomedical interventions for prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) sexually transmitted infections through mathematical modeling. Successes of several ground-breaking clinical trials have invigorated the field of HIV prevention with new enthusiasm and opportunities for research into and application of biomedical HIV prevention. Mathematical modeling has advanced in tandem with valuable contributions to both investigative science and public health. New models provide qualitative and quantitative insights regarding the epidemiological impact of the uptake of biomedical interventions, singly and/or in combination including treatment of sexually transmitted infections, condom use, male circumcision, antiretroviral treatment and pre-exposure prophylaxis and vaccine for HIV prevention. Biomedical interventions are critical for reversing the HIV pandemic. Mathematical modeling is invaluable for informed biomedical HIV prevention research, policy and practice.

  19. Evaluation of an HIV prevention intervention for African Americans and Hispanics: findings from the VOICES/VOCES Community-based Organization Behavioral Outcomes Project.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Holly H; Patel-Larson, A; Green, K; Shapatava, E; Uhl, G; Kalayil, E J; Moore, A; Williams, W; Chen, B

    2011-11-01

    There is limited knowledge about whether the delivery of evidence-based, HIV prevention interventions in 'real world' settings will produce outcomes similar to efficacy trial outcomes. In this study, we describe longitudinal changes in sexual risk outcomes among African American and Hispanic participants in the Video Opportunities for Innovative Condom Education and Safer Sex (VOICES/VOCES) program at four CDC-funded agencies. VOICES/VOCES was delivered to 922 high-risk individuals in a variety of community settings such as substance abuse treatment centers, housing complex centers, private residences, shelters, clinics, and colleges. Significant risk reductions were consistently observed at 30- and 120-days post-intervention for all outcome measures (e.g., unprotected sex, self-reported STD infection). Risk reductions were strongest for African American participants, although Hispanic participants also reported reducing their risky behaviors. These results suggest that, over a decade after the first diffusion of VOICES/VOCES across the U.S. by CDC, this intervention remains an effective tool for reducing HIV risk behaviors among high-risk African American and Hispanic individuals.

  20. Group Intervention to Reduce HIV Transmission Risk Behavior Among Persons Living With HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Rompa, David; Cage, Marjorie

    2005-01-01

    Results of a randomized controlled trial show that a behavioral intervention grounded in social cognitive theory reduces unprotected sexual behaviors among men and women living with HIV infection, with the greatest reductions in HIV transmission risk behaviors occurring with non-HIV-positive sex partners. In this article, the authors describe the…

  1. Group Intervention to Reduce HIV Transmission Risk Behavior Among Persons Living With HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Rompa, David; Cage, Marjorie

    2005-01-01

    Results of a randomized controlled trial show that a behavioral intervention grounded in social cognitive theory reduces unprotected sexual behaviors among men and women living with HIV infection, with the greatest reductions in HIV transmission risk behaviors occurring with non-HIV-positive sex partners. In this article, the authors describe the…

  2. Factors That Influence HIV Risk among Hispanic Female Immigrants and Their Implications for HIV Prevention Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Amy M.; Zule, William A.; Karg, Rhonda S.; Browne, Felicia A.; Wechsberg, Wendee M.

    2012-01-01

    Hispanics are the fastest growing minority group in North Carolina with increasing incidence of HIV infection. Gender roles, cultural expectations, and acculturation of women may explain some of Hispanic women's risks. The perspectives of Hispanic female immigrants and community-based providers were sought to identify services they offer, understand HIV risk factors, and support the adaptation of a best-evidence HIV behavioural intervention for Hispanic women. Two sets of focus groups were conducted to explicate risks and the opportunities to reach women or couples and the feasibility to conduct HIV prevention in an acceptable manner. Salient findings were that Hispanic female immigrants lacked accurate HIV/AIDS and STI knowledge and that traditional gender roles shaped issues surrounding sexual behaviour and HIV risks, as well as condom use, partner communication, and multiple sexual partnerships. Intervention implications are discussed such as developing and adapting culturally appropriate HIV prevention interventions for Hispanics that address gender roles and partner communication. PMID:22518308

  3. Successfully integrating an HIV risk reduction intervention into a community-based substance abuse treatment program.

    PubMed

    Copenhaver, Michael M; Lee, I-Ching; Margolin, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    A number of evidence-based HIV risk reduction interventions are now widely available to clinicians. However, difficulties with intervention transportability have historically impeded the integration of evidence-based interventions into clinical settings. In this article, we discuss one successful approach to transportability through appropriate intervention selection, adaptation, placement, and evaluation. Our intervention adaptation process required substantially reducing the content and duration of an evidence-based intervention. Findings from 226 assessed participants suggested significant drug- and sex-related risk reduction outcomes, particularly among participants at greatest risk. Results point to a need to examine the relative costs/benefits of comprehensive, evidence-based interventions vs. shortened, adapted versions thereof.

  4. The Amagugu Intervention: A Conceptual Framework for Increasing HIV Disclosure and Parent-Led Communication about Health among HIV-Infected Parents with HIV-Uninfected Primary School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Rochat, Tamsen J.; Mitchell, Joanie; Stein, Alan; Mkwanazi, Ntombizodumo Brilliant; Bland, Ruth M.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in access to HIV prevention and treatment have reduced vertical transmission of HIV, with most children born to HIV-infected parents being HIV-uninfected themselves. A major challenge that HIV-infected parents face is disclosure of their HIV status to their predominantly HIV-uninfected children. Their children enter middle childhood and early adolescence facing many challenges associated with parental illness and hospitalization, often exacerbated by stigma and a lack of access to health education and support. Increasingly, evidence suggests that primary school-aged children have the developmental capacity to grasp concepts of health and illness, including HIV, and that in the absence of parent-led communication and education about these issues, HIV-exposed children may be at increased risk of psychological and social problems. The Amagugu intervention is a six-session home-based intervention, delivered by lay counselors, which aims to increase parenting capacity to disclose their HIV status and offer health education to their primary school-aged children. The intervention includes information and activities on disclosure, health care engagement, and custody planning. An uncontrolled pre–post-evaluation study with 281 families showed that the intervention was feasible, acceptable, and effective in increasing maternal disclosure. The aim of this paper is to describe the conceptual model of the Amagugu intervention, as developed post-evaluation, showing the proposed pathways of risk that Amagugu aims to disrupt through its intervention targets, mechanisms, and activities; and to present a summary of results from the large-scale evaluation study of Amagugu to demonstrate the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention model. This relatively low-intensity home-based intervention led to: increased HIV disclosure to children, improvements in mental health for mother and child, and improved health care engagement and custody planning for the child. The

  5. The Amagugu Intervention: A Conceptual Framework for Increasing HIV Disclosure and Parent-Led Communication about Health among HIV-Infected Parents with HIV-Uninfected Primary School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Rochat, Tamsen J; Mitchell, Joanie; Stein, Alan; Mkwanazi, Ntombizodumo Brilliant; Bland, Ruth M

    2016-01-01

    Advances in access to HIV prevention and treatment have reduced vertical transmission of HIV, with most children born to HIV-infected parents being HIV-uninfected themselves. A major challenge that HIV-infected parents face is disclosure of their HIV status to their predominantly HIV-uninfected children. Their children enter middle childhood and early adolescence facing many challenges associated with parental illness and hospitalization, often exacerbated by stigma and a lack of access to health education and support. Increasingly, evidence suggests that primary school-aged children have the developmental capacity to grasp concepts of health and illness, including HIV, and that in the absence of parent-led communication and education about these issues, HIV-exposed children may be at increased risk of psychological and social problems. The Amagugu intervention is a six-session home-based intervention, delivered by lay counselors, which aims to increase parenting capacity to disclose their HIV status and offer health education to their primary school-aged children. The intervention includes information and activities on disclosure, health care engagement, and custody planning. An uncontrolled pre-post-evaluation study with 281 families showed that the intervention was feasible, acceptable, and effective in increasing maternal disclosure. The aim of this paper is to describe the conceptual model of the Amagugu intervention, as developed post-evaluation, showing the proposed pathways of risk that Amagugu aims to disrupt through its intervention targets, mechanisms, and activities; and to present a summary of results from the large-scale evaluation study of Amagugu to demonstrate the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention model. This relatively low-intensity home-based intervention led to: increased HIV disclosure to children, improvements in mental health for mother and child, and improved health care engagement and custody planning for the child. The

  6. Outcomes of an HIV Prevention Peer Group Intervention for Rural Adults in Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaponda, Chrissie P. N.; Norr, Kathleen F.; Crittenden, Kathleen S.; Norr, James L.; McCreary, Linda L.; Kachingwe, Sitingawawo I.; Mbeba, Mary M.; Jere, Diana L. N.; Dancy, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    This study used a quasi-experimental design to evaluate a six-session peer group intervention for HIV prevention among rural adults in Malawi. Two rural districts were randomly assigned to intervention and control conditions. Independent random samples of community adults compared the districts at baseline and at 6 and 18 months postintervention.…

  7. Outcomes of an HIV Prevention Peer Group Intervention for Rural Adults in Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaponda, Chrissie P. N.; Norr, Kathleen F.; Crittenden, Kathleen S.; Norr, James L.; McCreary, Linda L.; Kachingwe, Sitingawawo I.; Mbeba, Mary M.; Jere, Diana L. N.; Dancy, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    This study used a quasi-experimental design to evaluate a six-session peer group intervention for HIV prevention among rural adults in Malawi. Two rural districts were randomly assigned to intervention and control conditions. Independent random samples of community adults compared the districts at baseline and at 6 and 18 months postintervention.…

  8. Meta-analyses on behavioral interventions to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV.

    PubMed

    Vergidis, Paschalis I; Falagas, Matthew E

    2009-06-01

    Different behavioral interventions have found to be efficacious in reducing high-risk sexual activity. Interventions have been evaluated in both original research and meta-analytic reviews. Most of the studies have shown that interventions are efficacious among different study populations. In adolescents, both in- and out-of-the classroom interventions showed a decrease in the risk of unprotected sex. In African Americans, greater efficacy was found for interventions including peer education. For Latinos, effect was larger in interventions with segmentation in the same gender. Geographic and social isolation are barriers in approaching MSM. For IDUs, interventions provided within a treatment program have an impact on risk reduction above that produced by drug treatment alone. Finally, people diagnosed with HIV tend to reduce their sexual risk behavior. However, adherence to safe sex practices for life can be challenging. Relentless efforts for implementation of behavioral interventions to decrease high-risk behavior are necessary to decrease HIV transmission.

  9. Vijana Vijiweni II: a cluster-randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of a microfinance and peer health leadership intervention for HIV and intimate partner violence prevention among social networks of young men in Dar es Salaam.

    PubMed

    Kajula, Lusajo; Balvanz, Peter; Kilonzo, Mrema Noel; Mwikoko, Gema; Yamanis, Thespina; Mulawa, Marta; Kajuna, Deus; Hill, Lauren; Conserve, Donaldson; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Leatherman, Sheila; Singh, Basant; Maman, Suzanne

    2016-02-03

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, remain important public health problems with devastating health effects for men and women in sub-Saharan Africa. There have been calls to engage men in prevention efforts, however, we lack effective approaches to reach and engage them. Social network approaches have demonstrated effective and sustained outcomes on changing risk behaviors in the U.S. Our team has identified and engaged naturally occurring social networks comprised mostly of young men in Dar es Salaam in an intervention designed to jointly reduce STI incidence and the perpetration of IPV. These stable networks are locally referred to as "camps." In a pilot study we demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of a combined microfinance and peer health leadership intervention within these camp-based peer networks. We are implementing a cluster-randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of an intervention combining microfinance with health leadership training in 60 camps in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Half of the camps have been randomized to the intervention arm, and half to a control arm. The camps in the intervention arm will receive a combined microfinance and health leadership intervention for a period of two years. The camps in the control arm will receive a delayed intervention. We have enrolled 1,258 men across the 60 study camps. Behavioral surveys will be conducted at baseline, 12-months post intervention launch and 30-month post intervention launch and biological samples will be drawn to test for Neisseria gonorrhea (NG), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) at baseline and 30-months. The primary endpoints for assessing intervention impact are IPV perpetration and STI incidence. This is the first cluster-randomized trial targeting social networks of men in sub-Saharan Africa that jointly addresses HIV and IPV perpetration and has both biological and behavioral endpoints. Effective

  10. A Critical Review of HIV-Related Interventions for Women Prisoners in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenstein, Bronwen; Malow, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on HIV-related interventions for U.S. women prisoners, with a focus on identifying strategies that enabled women to practice safer sex, reduce drug use, and to avoid recidivism. A comprehensive search indicated that only 9 such interventions had been evaluated in professional journals between 1994 and 2009. These interventions involved behavioral programs for women at risk for HIV and discharge planning for women releasees who were either infected with or at risk for HIV. Four interventions for incarcerated women achieved successful outcomes regarding self-empowerment and safer sex skills; 3 prison-release interventions resulted in less recidivism if not reduced HIV risk. Each intervention was nominally women-centered, with prison-release programs lacking protocols that were designed specifically for women. Based on evidence that women-centered interventions were desirable for this population, such interventions should be given high priority in criminal justice policy and care provision during the HIV epidemic. PMID:20350816

  11. Peer Group Intervention for HIV Prevention among Health Workers in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Norr, Kathleen F.; Ferrer, Lilian; Cianelli, Rosina; Crittenden, Kathleen S.; Irarrázabal, Lisette; Cabieses, Báltica; Araya, Alejandra; Bernales, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    We tested the impacts of a professionally assisted peer group intervention on Chilean health workers' HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors using a quasi-experimental design with a pretest and 3-month posttest. Two Santiago suburbs were randomly assigned to the intervention or delayed intervention control condition, and five community clinics per suburb participated. Interested workers at the intervention (n = 262) and control (n = 293) clinics participated and completed both evaluations. At posttest, intervention clinic workers had higher knowledge and more positive attitudes regarding HIV, condoms, stigmatization, and self-efficacy for prevention. They reported more partner discussion about safer sex, less unprotected sex, and more involvement in HIV prevention activities in the clinic and the community, but they did not report fewer sexual partners or more standard precautions behaviors. Because of these positive impacts, the program will become a regular continuing education unit that can be used to meet health worker licensing requirements. PMID:21497113

  12. Implementation of a "County-Township-Village" Allied HIV Prevention and Control Intervention in Rural China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Junjun; Lu, Qinglin; Liang, Bingyu; Liu, Deping; Fang, Keyong; Huang, Jiegang; He, Yang; Ning, Chuanyi; Liao, Yanyan; Lai, Jingzhen; Wei, Wudi; Qin, Fengxiang; Ye, Li; Geng, Wenkui; Liang, Hao

    2017-09-01

    In China, rural areas are a weak link of HIV/AIDS prevention and control. From September 2011, an innovative "county-township-village" allied intervention was implemented in Longzhou County, Guangxi, which assigned the tasks of HIV/AIDS prevention and control to the county Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), township hospitals, and village clinics, respectively, instead of traditional intervention in which the county CDC undertook the entire work. A 6-year consecutive cross-sectional survey, including 3-year traditional intervention (2009-2011) and 3-year innovative intervention (2012-2014), was conducted to evaluate the effects of the new intervention. Compared to traditional intervention, the innovative intervention achieved positive effects in decreasing risky behaviors. Among female sex workers, condom use rate in the last month increased from 72.06% to 96.82% (p < 0.01). Among drug users, having commercial sex rate in the last year reduced from 17.20% to 5.94% and condom use rate increased from 14.06% to 76.09% (p < 0.01). The risk ratio of HIV infection during innovative intervention was 0.631 (95% confidence interval 0.549-0.726) compared with traditional one. Cost-effectiveness analysis indicates that innovative intervention restores each disability-adjusted life year costing an average of $124.26. Taken together, Longzhou's innovative intervention has achieved good effects on HIV/AIDS prevention and control and provides a good reference for rural China.

  13. 78 FR 31568 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program.... ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services One-Time Noncompetitive... care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will provide a one-time noncompetitive Ryan...

  14. The ENRICH Study to evaluate the effectiveness of a combination intervention package to improve isoniazid preventive therapy initiation, adherence and completion among people living with HIV in Ethiopia: rationale and design of a mixed methods cluster randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Howard, Andrea A; Hirsch-Moverman, Yael; Saito, Suzue; Gadisa, Tsigereda; Daftary, Amrita; Melaku, Zenebe

    2017-06-01

    Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) prevents tuberculosis among HIV-positive individuals, however implementation is suboptimal. Implementation science studies are needed to identify interventions to address this evidence-to-program gap. The ENRICH Study is a mixed methods cluster randomized trial aimed at evaluating the effectiveness and acceptability of a combination intervention package (CIP) to improve IPT implementation in Ethiopia. Ten health centers were randomized to receive the CIP or standard of care. The CIP includes: nurse training and mentorship using a clinical algorithm, tool to identify IPT-eligible family members, and data review at multidisciplinary team meetings; patient transport reimbursement; and adherence support using peer educators and interactive voice response messages. Routine data were abstracted for all newly-enrolled IPT-eligible HIV-positive patients; anticipated sample size was 1400 individuals. A measurement cohort of patients initiating IPT was recruited; target enrollment was 500 individuals, to be followed for the duration of IPT (6-9 months). Inclusion criteria were: HIV-positive; initiated IPT; age ≥18; Amharic-, Oromiffa-, Harari-, or Somali-speaking; and capable of informed consent. Three groups were recruited from CIP health centers for in-depth interviews: IPT initiators; IPT non-initiators; and health care providers. Primary outcomes are: IPT initiation; and IPT completion. Secondary outcomes include: retention; adherence; change in CD4+ count; adverse events; and acceptability. Follow-up is complete. The ENRICH Study evaluates a CIP targeting barriers to IPT implementation. If the CIP is found effective and acceptable, this study has the potential to inform TB prevention strategies for HIV patients in resource-limited countries in sub-Saharan Africa.

  15. A Parent-Based Intervention to Prevent HIV Among Adolescent Children of Mothers Living with HIV: The Ms. Now! Program.

    PubMed

    Tarantino, Nicholas; Armistead, Lisa P

    2016-01-01

    One group often overlooked by HIV prevention efforts is adolescent children of mothers living with HIV (MLH). Despite their potential vulnerability, very few evidence-based prevention programs exist for this population in the United States (U.S.) and elsewhere. The current study introduces a parent-based program adapted for families affected by HIV for the purpose of preventing adolescent HIV infection. Following a structured process of adaptation, 12 African American MLH-adolescent dyads were recruited from HIV clinics and non-governmental organizations in a southeastern U.S. city to participate in a feasibility pilot evaluation of the adapted program (Moms Stopping It Now! [Ms. Now]). The intervention consisted of group and individual sessions implemented in a university setting and at participants' homes, respectively. We determined feasibility through assessing participant acceptability and signs of intervention efficacy. Quantitative and qualitative process data revealed high levels of acceptability, as participants were largely satisfied and engaged with Ms. Now, and were willing to attend most sessions. In addition, positive intervention effects approaching medium to large effect sizes were observed for some protective parenting outcomes, including increases in parent-child relationship quality, parental monitoring, maternal HIV disclosure self-efficacy, and communication about maternal HIV infection. Other outcomes, namely communication about sex topics, did not show positive shifts due to ceiling effects and may be indicative of the pre-existing strengths these MLH possess. Ms. Now's approach and further refinement is discussed in the context of strengthening families affected by HIV. Moreover, we recommend that policy aimed at program development consider jointly targeting these populations (MLH and adolescents) due to the unique benefits of family intervention.

  16. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J.; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K. Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent–child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent–adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352). PMID

  17. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent-child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent-adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352).

  18. HIV prevention for adults with criminal justice involvement: a systematic review of HIV risk-reduction interventions in incarceration and community settings.

    PubMed

    Underhill, Kristen; Dumont, Dora; Operario, Don

    2014-11-01

    We summarized and appraised evidence regarding HIV prevention interventions for adults with criminal justice involvement. We included randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that evaluated an HIV prevention intervention, enrolled participants with histories of criminal justice involvement, and reported biological or behavioral outcomes. We used Cochrane methods to screen 32,271 citations from 16 databases and gray literature. We included 37 trials enrolling n = 12,629 participants. Interventions were 27 psychosocial, 7 opioid substitution therapy, and 3 HIV-testing programs. Eleven programs significantly reduced sexual risk taking, 4 reduced injection drug risks, and 4 increased testing. Numerous interventions may reduce HIV-related risks among adults with criminal justice involvement. Future research should consider process evaluations, programs involving partners or families, and interventions integrating biomedical, psychosocial, and structural approaches.

  19. HIV Prevention for Adults With Criminal Justice Involvement: A Systematic Review of HIV Risk-Reduction Interventions in Incarceration and Community Settings

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Dora; Operario, Don

    2014-01-01

    We summarized and appraised evidence regarding HIV prevention interventions for adults with criminal justice involvement. We included randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that evaluated an HIV prevention intervention, enrolled participants with histories of criminal justice involvement, and reported biological or behavioral outcomes. We used Cochrane methods to screen 32 271 citations from 16 databases and gray literature. We included 37 trials enrolling n = 12 629 participants. Interventions were 27 psychosocial, 7 opioid substitution therapy, and 3 HIV-testing programs. Eleven programs significantly reduced sexual risk taking, 4 reduced injection drug risks, and 4 increased testing. Numerous interventions may reduce HIV-related risks among adults with criminal justice involvement. Future research should consider process evaluations, programs involving partners or families, and interventions integrating biomedical, psychosocial, and structural approaches. PMID:25211725

  20. Supporting Healthy Alternatives through Patient Education: a theoretically driven HIV prevention intervention for persons living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Barbara D; Trujillo, Stephen; Estrada, Antonio L

    2007-09-01

    In the third decade of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, empirically based HIV transmission risk reduction interventions for HIV infected persons are still needed. As part of a Health Resources Services Administration/Special Projects of National Significance initiative to increase prevention services among HIV infected persons, we implemented SHAPE (Supporting Healthy Alternatives through Patient Education). SHAPE is a behavioral HIV prevention intervention delivered to HIV infected persons receiving primary medical care at El Rio Health Center in Tucson, Arizona. The SHAPE intervention is based on Kalichman's "Healthy Relationships for Men and Women Living with HIV-AIDS." The intervention is interactive and uses a video discussion intervention format where educational activities, movie clips, and discussions are used to provide participants with information and skills to increase their comfort in disclosing their HIV status and in reducing HIV transmission. This paper describes the intervention in sufficient detail to replicate it in other settings.

  1. Disparities in HIV knowledge and attitudes toward biomedical interventions among the non-medical HIV workforce in the United States.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Raniyah M; Wilson, Phill; Betancourt, Gabriela; Garcia, David; Penner, Murray; Abravanel, Rebecca; Wong, Eric Y; Parisi, Lori D

    2017-04-27

    Non-medical, community-based workers play a critical role in supporting people living with (or at risk of acquiring) HIV along the care continuum. The biomedical nature of promising advances in HIV prevention, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment-as-prevention, requires frontline workers to be knowledgeable about HIV science and treatment. This study was developed to: measure knowledge of HIV science and treatment within the HIV non-medical workforce, evaluate workers' familiarity with and attitudes toward recent biomedical interventions, and identify factors that may affect HIV knowledge and attitudes. A 62-question, web-based survey was completed in English or Spanish between 2012 and 2014 by 3663 US-based employees, contractors, and volunteers working in AIDS service organizations, state/local health departments, and other community-based organizations in a non-medical capacity. Survey items captured the following: respondent demographics, HIV science and treatment knowledge, and familiarity with and attitudes toward biomedical interventions. An average of 61% of HIV knowledge questions were answered correctly. Higher knowledge scores were associated with higher education levels, work at organizations that serve people living with HIV/AIDS or who are at a high risk of acquiring HIV, and longer tenure in the field. Lower knowledge scores were associated with non-Hispanic Black or Black race/ethnicity and taking the survey in Spanish. Similarly, subgroup analyses showed that respondents who were non-Hispanic Black or Hispanic (versus non-Hispanic white), as well as those located in the South (versus other regions) scored significantly lower. These subpopulations were also less familiar with and had less positive attitudes toward newer biomedical prevention interventions. Respondents who took the survey in Spanish (versus English) had lower knowledge scores and higher familiarity with, but generally less positive attitudes toward, biomedical interventions

  2. A meta-analysis of the efficacy of HIV/AIDS prevention interventions in Asia, 1995-2009.

    PubMed

    Tan, Judy Y; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Warren, Michelle R; Carey, Michael P; Johnson, Blair T

    2012-08-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic continues to grow in pockets across Asia, despite early successes at curtailing its spread in countries like Thailand. Recent evidence documents dramatic increases in incidence among risk groups and, alarmingly, the general population. This meta-analysis summarizes the sexual risk-reduction interventions for the prevention of HIV-infection that have been evaluated in Asia. Sexual risk-reduction outcomes (condom use, number of sexual partners, incident sexually transmitted infections [STI], including HIV) from 46 behavioral intervention studies with a comparison condition and available by August 2010 were included. Overall, behavioral interventions in Asia consistently reduced sexual risk outcomes. Condom use improved when interventions sampled more women, included motivational content, or did not include STI testing and treatment. Incident HIV/STI efficacy improved most when interventions sampled more women, were conducted more recently, or when they included STI counseling and testing. Sexual frequency efficacy improved more in interventions that were conducted in countries with lower human development capacities, when younger individuals were sampled, or when condom skills training was included. Behavioral interventions for reducing sexual risk in Asia are efficacious; yet, the magnitude of the effects co-varies with specific intervention and structural components. The impact of structural factors on HIV intervention efficacy must be considered when implementing and evaluating behavioral interventions. Implications and recommendations for HIV/AIDS interventions are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Integrating an HIV/HCV Brief Intervention in Prisoner Reentry: Results of a Multisite Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Steven S.; O’Connell, Daniel J.; Inciardi, James A.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Maiden, Kristin M.

    2009-01-01

    Brief interventions to reduce harmful or problem behaviors have become increasingly popular in a variety of health fields, including HIV and hepatitis risk reduction. A central issue in intervention research involves the evaluation of what constitutes an effective “dose” of an intervention. This research examines the relative effectiveness of three alternative brief interventions of varying intensity designed to change the risk behaviors of inmates who are reentering society: a DVD-based, peer delivered intervention; the NIDA Standard HIV Intervention; and a standard practice condition (HIV educational video). All participants randomly received one of the interventions and were tested for HIV and HCV prior to release from custody. Thirty and ninety-day follow-ups examined changes in high-risk behaviors. Results reported here for 343 subjects who have completed the 90–day follow up indicate significant reductions in reported sexual risk behaviors for those participating the DVD intervention, compared to the other two brief interventions. This study is among the first to report any positive impacts on sexual behaviors among a population of inmates returning to the community. PMID:19283947

  4. Behavior change interventions to prevent HIV infection among women living in low and middle income countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Sandra I; Kangwende, Rugare A; Padian, Nancy S

    2010-06-01

    We conducted a systematic review of behavioral change interventions to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV among women and girls living in low- and middle-income countries. PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and other databases and bibliographies were systematically searched for trials using randomized or quasi-experimental designs to evaluate behavioral interventions with HIV infection as an outcome. We identified 11 analyses for inclusion reporting on eight unique interventions. Interventions varied widely in intensity, duration, and delivery as well as by target population. Only two analyses showed a significant protective effect on HIV incidence among women and only three of ten analyses that measured behavioral outcomes reduced any measure of HIV-related risk behavior. Ongoing research is needed to determine whether behavior change interventions can be incorporated as independent efficacious components in HIV prevention packages for women or simply as complements to biomedical prevention strategies.

  5. HIV intervention for providers study: a randomized controlled trial of a clinician-delivered HIV risk-reduction intervention for HIV-positive people.

    PubMed

    Rose, Carol Dawson; Courtenay-Quirk, Cari; Knight, Kelly; Shade, Starley B; Vittinghoff, Eric; Gomez, Cynthia; Lum, Paula J; Bacon, Oliver; Colfax, Grant

    2010-12-15

    Clinician-delivered prevention interventions offer an opportunity to integrate risk-reduction counseling as a routine part of medical care. The HIV Intervention for Providers study, a randomized controlled trial, developed and tested a medical provider HIV prevention training intervention in 4 northern California HIV care clinics. Providers were assigned to either the intervention or control condition (usual care). The intervention arm received a 4-hour training on assessing sexual risk behavior with HIV-positive patients and delivering risk-reduction-oriented prevention messages to patients who reported risk behaviors with HIV-uninfected or unknown-status partners. To compare the efficacy of the intervention versus control on transmission risk behavior, 386 patients of the randomized providers were enrolled. Over six-months of follow-up, patients whose providers were assigned the intervention reported a relative increase in provider-patient discussions of safer sex (OR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.06 to 2.09), assessment of sexual activity (OR = 1.60; 95% CI = 1.05 to 2.45), and a significant decrease in the number of sexual partners (OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.26 to 0.92). These findings show that a brief intervention to train HIV providers to identify risk and provide a prevention message results in increased prevention conversations and significantly reduced the mean number of sexual partners reported by HIV-positive patients.

  6. Cognitive–Behavioral Stress Management Interventions for Persons Living with HIV: A Review and Critique of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Background Psychological adjustment and coping are central to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) management. To improve HIV-infected patients’ ability to cope with stress, a variety of stress management interventions have been designed and evaluated. Purpose This paper provides a review and critique of the stress management literature, including a: (1) synthesis of core components of interventions for HIV-infected people, (2) summary of stress, coping, psychological, and health outcomes, and (3) methodological critique and guidance for future research. Methods We reviewed 21 stress management interventions designed for HIV-infected individuals that included both cognitive and behavioral skills training. Results Most studies noted positive changes in perceived stress, depression, anxiety, global psychological functioning, social support, and quality of life. However, results were mixed for coping and health status outcomes, and a majority of studies employed only brief follow-up periods, focused on HIV-infected MSM, and did not address HIV-specific stressors. Conclusions Stress management interventions for HIV-infected persons are a promising approach to facilitate positive adjustment. However, this literature is limited by measurement problems, research design features, a narrow focus on HIV-infected men who have sex with men, and feasibility concerns for intervention dissemination. Future stress management interventions should address these limitations and the unique psychosocial needs of HIV-infected patients using briefer, more cost-effective formats. PMID:18347902

  7. Effects of a mass media intervention on HIV-related stigma: 'Radio Diaries' program in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Creel, A H; Rimal, R N; Mkandawire, G; Böse, K; Brown, J W

    2011-06-01

    HIV-related stigma has been recognized as a significant public health issue, yet gaps remain in development and evaluation of mass media interventions to reduce stigma. The Malawi 'Radio Diaries' (RD) program features people with HIV telling stories about their everyday lives. This study evaluates the program's effects on stigma and the additional effects of group discussion. Thirty villages with 10 participants each were randomized to listen to RD only, to the program followed by group discussion or to a control program. Post-intervention surveys assessed four stigma outcomes: fear of casual contact, shame, blame and judgment and willingness to disclose HIV status. Regression analyses indicated that fear of casual contact was reduced by the intervention. Shame was reduced by the radio program, but only for those reporting prior exposure to the radio program and for those who did not have a close friend or relative with HIV. Shame was not reduced when the radio program was followed by discussion. The intervention reduced blame for men and not women and for younger participants but not older participants. Including people with HIV/AIDS in mass media interventions has potential to reduce stigma.

  8. A Review of HIV Prevention Interventions for Juvenile Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Angela; Fasciano, John; Brown, Larry K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To conduct a critical review of all HIV prevention intervention studies conducted with adolescents in juvenile justice settings to inform future intervention development. Method PubMed and PsycInfo database searches were conducted for peer-reviewed, published HIV prevention intervention studies with juvenile offenders. Results Sixteen studies were identified (N = 3,700 adolescents). Half of the projects utilized rigorous methodologies to determine intervention effect on behavior change, such as conducting a randomized controlled trial (n = 8). Nine studies reported behaviors at least 3 months post-intervention and five out of nine showed decreases in sexual risk behavior. Conclusions Several HIV prevention programs with juvenile offenders have led to sexual risk reduction, although effect sizes are modest. Most existing programs have neglected to address the impact of family, mental health, and substance use on HIV risk. More work is needed to develop evidence-based interventions that include HIV prevention strategies relevant and appropriate for the juvenile justice setting. PMID:19741021

  9. Qualitative Analysis of an Educational Intervention with HIV-Discordant Heterosexual Latino Couples

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Orengo-Aguayo, Rosaura E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This qualitative analysis elucidates the potential elements of the intervention that may be effective in terms of a) increasing knowledge about HIV/AIDS in the members of this population; b) increasing the use of male condoms and the practice of mutual masturbation; and c) changing opinions toward male condom use and mutual masturbation. Methods Five heterosexual HIV-discordant couples participated in the adapted intervention, which consisted of four three-hour-long sessions. One month after the intervention, we conducted a qualitative semi-structured interview with every participant to evaluate issues related to the process and content of the activities comprising the intervention, the impact of the intervention, logistics, and recruitment and retention as well as to make a more general evaluation. The information was submitted to qualitative content analysis. Results After the intervention, participants reported having better attitudes regarding safer sex, particularly in terms of condom use. A reason given by the participants to feel more positive toward condom use and mutual masturbation was that these practices could prevent the infection of the HIV-negative partner. Conclusion This study provides important evidence of an intervention that promises to be efficacious in preventing some high-risk sexual behaviors among Latino HIV-discordant heterosexual couples. The evidence presented seems to suggest that an intervention that includes basic relevant information about HIV/AIDS, that explains the benefits of condom use and other safer sex options, and that provides effective negotiation and communication strategies could significantly reduce HIV transmission among these couples. PMID:22263299

  10. Psychological Interventions with AIDS and HIV: Prevention and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Murphy, Debra A.

    1992-01-01

    Notes that research to date has yielded important findings for primary prevention efforts for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and has identified psychological dimensions relevant to mental health interventions for persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Sees pressing need for more systematic intervention outcome research in…

  11. A School-Based HIV/AIDS Prevention Education Program: Outcomes of Peer-Led Versus Community Health Nurse-Led Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Linda; Ross, Brenda; Caines, Tony; Howorth, Peggy

    1998-01-01

    Evaluated a school-based HIV/AIDS-prevention intervention for adolescents delivered either by community-health nurses or trained peer educators. Following the interventions, intervention and control-group students completed questionnaires measuring HIV/AIDS-prevention knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and behavioral intentions. Data analysis…

  12. Using a Mobile Health Intervention to Support HIV Treatment Adherence and Retention Among Patients at Risk for Disengaging with Care.

    PubMed

    Rana, Aadia I; van den Berg, Jacob J; Lamy, Eric; Beckwith, Curt G

    2016-04-01

    Less than half of the 1.2 million HIV-infected individuals in the United States are in consistent medical care, with only a third receiving treatment resulting in viral suppression. Novel interventions to improve engagement are necessary to ensure medical adherence, improve long-term outcomes, and reduce HIV transmission. Mobile health (mHealth) strategies including cell phone and text messaging have shown success in the developing world for medical adherence, yet mHealth interventions have not been developed and evaluated to improve retention in HIV care in the United States. We conducted a 6-month pilot study investigating the use of a clinic-based bi-directional texting intervention to enhance engagement in HIV care among those with higher risk of loss to follow up, including those with a recent HIV diagnosis or those re-engaging in HIV care at a large urban clinic in New England.

  13. Are couple-based interventions more effective than interventions delivered to individuals in promoting HIV protective behaviors? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Crepaz, Nicole; Tungol-Ashmon, Malu V; Vosburgh, H Waverly; Baack, Brittney N; Mullins, Mary M

    2015-01-01

    Despite several advantages to bringing couples together to learn how to protect themselves and new-born children from the risk of HIV infection, most interventions are designed for individuals or groups, not for dyads. This meta-analysis provides a direct test of whether couple-based interventions are more effective in promoting HIV protective behaviors than interventions delivered to individuals. We conducted systematic searches of five electronic databases and 60 journals. Eligible studies were controlled trials or prospective cohort designs; evaluated a couple-based intervention compared to an individual-level intervention; assessed at least one HIV prevention outcome (e.g., protective sex, drug use, HIV testing, medication adherence, and sexually transmitted infections [STI]); and were published between 1988 and 2014. Fifteen interventions, including 21,882 participants from China, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Trinidad, Zambia, and the USA, were evaluated. The results of random-effects models showed statistically significant intervention effects for protective sex (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.21, 2.11), HIV testing (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.31, 2.45), and Nevirapine uptake (OR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.02, 2.24). The evidence demonstrates the usefulness of couple-based interventions in protecting individuals, partners, and new-born children from the risk of HIV transmission and infection.

  14. Are couple-based interventions more effective than interventions delivered to individuals in promoting HIV protective behaviors? A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Crepaz, Nicole; Tungol-Ashmon, Malu V.; Vosburgh, H. Waverly; Baack, Brittney N.; Mullins, Mary M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite several advantages to bringing couples together to learn how to protect themselves and new-born children from the risk of HIV infection, most interventions are designed for individuals or groups, not for dyads. This meta-analysis provides a direct test of whether couple-based interventions are more effective in promoting HIV protective behaviors than interventions delivered to individuals. We conducted systematic searches of five electronic databases and 60 journals. Eligible studies were controlled trials or prospective cohort designs; evaluated a couple-based intervention compared to an individual-level intervention; assessed at least one HIV prevention outcome (e.g., protective sex, drug use, HIV testing, medication adherence, and sexually transmitted infections [STI]); and were published between 1988 and 2014. Fifteen interventions, including 21,882 participants from China, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Trinidad, Zambia, and the USA, were evaluated. The results of random-effects models showed statistically significant intervention effects for protective sex (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.21, 2.11), HIV testing (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.31, 2.45), and Nevirapine uptake (OR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.02, 2.24). The evidence demonstrates the usefulness of couple-based interventions in protecting individuals, partners, and new-born children from the risk of HIV transmission and infection. PMID:26608175

  15. Evidence-Based HIV/STD Prevention Intervention for Black Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Jeffrey H.; Painter, Thomas M.; Tomlinson, Hank L.; Alvarez, Maria E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary This report summarizes published findings of a community-based organization in New York City that evaluated and demonstrated the efficacy of the Many Men, Many Voices (3MV) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention intervention in reducing sexual risk behaviors and increasing protective behaviors among black men who have sex with men (MSM). The intervention addressed social determinants of health (e.g., stigma, discrimination, and homophobia) that can influence the health and well-being of black MSM at high risk for HIV infection. This report also highlights efforts by CDC to disseminate this evidence-based behavioral intervention throughout the United States. CDC's Office of Minority Health and Health Equity selected the intervention analysis and discussion to provide an example of a program that might be effective for reducing HlV infection- and STD-related disparities in the United States. 3MV uses small group education and interaction to increase knowledge and change attitudes and behaviors related to HIV/STD risk among black MSM. Since its dissemination by CDC in 2004, 3MV has been used in many settings, including health department- and community-based organization programs. The 3MV intervention is an important component of a comprehensive HIV and STD prevention portfolio for at-risk black MSM. As CDC continues to support HIV prevention programming consistent with the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and its high-impact HIV prevention approach, 3MV will remain an important tool for addressing the needs of black MSM at high risk for HIV infection and other STDs. PMID:24743663

  16. Increasing Antiretroviral Adherence for HIV-Positive African Americans (Project Rise): A Treatment Education Intervention Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Bogart, Laura M; Mutchler, Matt G; McDavitt, Bryce; Mutepfa, Kieta D; Risley, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV-positive African Americans have been shown to have lower adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) than those of other races/ethnicities, yet adherence interventions have rarely been tailored to the needs of this population. Objective We developed and will evaluate a treatment education adherence intervention (called Rise) that was culturally adapted to address the needs of African Americans living with HIV. Methods This randomized controlled trial will examine the effects of the Rise intervention on ART adherence and HIV viral load. African Americans on ART who report adherence problems will be recruited from the community and randomly assigned to receive the intervention or usual care for 6 months. The intervention consists of 6-10 individual counseling sessions, with more sessions provided to those who demonstrate lower adherence. Primary outcomes include adherence as monitored continuously with Medication Event Monitoring Systems (MEMS) caps, and viral load data received from the participant’s medical provider. Survey assessments will be administered at baseline and month 6. Results The trial is ongoing. Conclusions If effective, the Rise intervention will provide community-based organizations with an intervention tailored to address the needs of African Americans for promoting optimal ART adherence and HIV clinical outcomes. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01350544; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01350544 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6fjqqnmn0). PMID:27025399

  17. High mortality in tuberculosis patients despite HIV interventions in Swaziland

    PubMed Central

    van Griensven, J.; Hinderaker, S. G.; Kizito, W.; Sikhondze, W.; Manzi, M.; Dlamini, T.; Harries, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: All health facilities providing tuberculosis (TB) care in Swaziland. Objective: To describe the impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) interventions on the trend of TB treatment outcomes during 2010–2013 in Swaziland; and to describe the evolution in TB case notification, the uptake of HIV testing, antiretroviral therapy (ART) and cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT), and the proportion of TB-HIV co-infected patients with adverse treatment outcomes, including mortality, loss to follow-up and treatment failure. Design: A retrospective descriptive study using aggregated national TB programme data. Results: Between 2010 and 2013, TB case notifications in Swaziland decreased by 40%, HIV testing increased from 86% to 96%, CPT uptake increased from 93% to 99% and ART uptake among TB patients increased from 35% to 75%. The TB-HIV co-infection rate remained around 70% and the proportion of TB-HIV cases with adverse outcomes decreased from 36% to 30%. Mortality remained high, at 14–16%, over the study period, and anti-tuberculosis treatment failure rates were stable over time (<5%). Conclusion: Despite high CPT and ART uptake in TB-HIV patients, mortality remained high. Further studies are required to better define high-risk patient groups, understand the reasons for death and design appropriate interventions. PMID:27358803

  18. Leveraging the U.S. Criminal Justice System to Access Women for HIV Interventions.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jaimie P; Muthulingam, Dharushana; El-Bassel, Nabila; Altice, Frederick L

    2017-05-22

    The criminal justice (CJ) system can be leveraged to access women for HIV prevention and treatment programs. Research is lacking on effective implementation strategies tailored to the specific needs of CJ-involved women. We conducted a scoping review of published studies in English from the United States that described HIV interventions, involved women or girls, and used the CJ system as an access point for sampling or intervention delivery. We identified 350 studies and synthesized data from 42 unique interventions, based in closed (n = 26), community (n = 7), or multiple/other CJ settings (n = 9). A minority of reviewed programs incorporated women-specific content or conducted gender-stratified analyses. CJ systems are comprised of diverse access points, each with unique strengths and challenges for implementing HIV treatment and prevention programs for women. Further study is warranted to develop women-specific and trauma-informed content and evaluate program effectiveness.

  19. 78 FR 25458 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services...

  20. Formative Assessment of ARM-U: A Modular Intervention for Decreasing Risk Behaviors Among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Methamphetamine-Using MSM

    PubMed Central

    Garfein, Richard S; Metzner, Mitcheal; Cuevas, Jazmine; Bousman, Chad A; Patterson, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Background: Methamphetamine is a major contributor to HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM). Recent studies show that up to one-third of methamphetamine-using MSM (MUMSM) inject the drug. We developed a behavioral intervention for MUMSM to decrease unprotected anal intercourse and increase awareness of parenteral HIV transmission risk. This 6-session (3 in-person, 3 by telephone) modular intervention was designed to be tailored to participants’ HIV (+/-) and injection drug user ([IDU] yes/no) status. We present results of formative research used to evaluate the content and to assess feasibility and acceptability of this individual-level HIV risk-reduction intervention. Setting: HIV research clinic in a high MSM and methamphetamine prevalence neighborhood. Project: Avoiding Risks from Methamphetamine-Use (ARM-U) is a brief toolbox intervention that allows counselors to select modules that suit a client’s individual risk profile and intervention needs employing motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral theory. We evaluated the format and content of the intervention through focus groups and pre-testing of the entire intervention using volunteers from the target population stratified into four groups (HIV+/IDU, HIV-/IDU, HIV+/non-IDU, HIV-/non-IDU). Four individuals in each stratum were recruited to undergo the intervention and complete a satisfaction survey at the end of each in-person session. Results: In total, 25 MUMSM attended one of five focus groups. Participants thought all proposed intervention topics were important and could aid in reducing sexual risk behaviors among MUMSM. However, the neurocognitive effects of methamphetamine were reported to be a barrier to practicing safer sex, condom use negotiation or HIV status disclosure. Fifteen (94%) of 16 participants completed all 6 sessions and the satisfaction survey. On average, participants felt the intervention was useful for MUMSM, made them contemplate and move toward behavior

  1. The role of evidence and context for implementing a multimodal intervention to increase HIV testing.

    PubMed

    Bokhour, Barbara G; Saifu, Hemen; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Fix, Gemmae M; Burgess, Jane; Fletcher, Michael D; Knapp, Herschel; Asch, Steven M

    2015-02-13

    Increasing the use of routine preventive care such as HIV testing is important, yet implementation of such evidence-based clinical care is complex. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARiHS) model for implementation posits that implementation will be most successful when the evidence, context, and facilitation strategies are strong for the clinical practice. We evaluated the relative importance of perceived evidence, context, and facilitation of HIV testing during the implementation of a multimodal intervention in US Department of Veterans Affairs primary care clinics. A multimodal intervention including clinical reminders (CRs), academic detailing--providing education sessions for providers--and social marketing to improve HIV testing was implemented in 15 VA primary care clinics in three regions. We conducted qualitative formative and process evaluations using semi-structured interviews with HIV lead clinicians, primary care lead clinicians, nurse managers, and social workers. Interviews were analyzed thematically to identify barriers and facilitators to implementation of HIV testing and how these were addressed by the intervention. Sites were then rated high, medium, or low on the dimensions of perceived evidence and the context for testing. We then assessed the relationship of these ratings to improvements in HIV testing rates found in earlier quantitative analyses. Sites that showed greatest improvements in HIV testing rates also rated high on evidence and context. Conversely, sites that demonstrated the poorest improvements in testing rates rated low on both dimensions. Perceptions of evidence and several contextual aspects resulted in both barriers and facilitators to implementing testing. Evidence barriers included provider perceptions of evidence for routine testing as irrelevant to their population. Contextual barriers included clinical reminder overload, insufficient resources, onerous consent processes, stigma, provider

  2. Circle of Life HIV/AIDS-Prevention Intervention for American Indian and Alaska Native Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Carol E.; Litchfield, Anne; Schupman, Edwin; Mitchell, Christina M.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the objectives, theoretical bases, development process, and evaluation efforts to-date for the Circle of Life (COL) curricula, HIV/AIDS prevention interventions designed for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth. The curricula are based on Indigenous models of learning and behavior encompassing concepts of Western…

  3. The Benefits of a Friendship-Based HIV/STI Prevention Intervention for African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Gary W.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Benhorin, Shira; Watson, Susan E.; Boyer, Cherrie B.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents findings from a qualitative evaluation of an HIV/STI (sexually transmitted infection) prevention intervention for urban African American youth (Project ÒRÉ), which was delivered to groups of 3 to 8 adolescents who were members of the same friendship network. Sixteen focus groups (N = 63) were conducted with youth following…

  4. The Benefits of a Friendship-Based HIV/STI Prevention Intervention for African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Gary W.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Benhorin, Shira; Watson, Susan E.; Boyer, Cherrie B.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents findings from a qualitative evaluation of an HIV/STI (sexually transmitted infection) prevention intervention for urban African American youth (Project ÒRÉ), which was delivered to groups of 3 to 8 adolescents who were members of the same friendship network. Sixteen focus groups (N = 63) were conducted with youth following…

  5. Yoga lifestyle intervention reduces blood pressure in HIV-infected adults with cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    PubMed

    Cade, W T; Reeds, D N; Mondy, K E; Overton, E T; Grassino, J; Tucker, S; Bopp, C; Laciny, E; Hubert, S; Lassa-Claxton, S; Yarasheski, K E

    2010-07-01

    People living with HIV infection are at increased risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Safe and effective interventions for lowering CVD risk in HIV infection are high priorities. We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled study to evaluate whether a yoga lifestyle intervention improves CVD risk factors, virological or immunological status, or quality of life (QOL) in HIV-infected adults relative to standard of care treatment in a matched control group. Sixty HIV-infected adults with mild-moderate CVD risk were assigned to 20 weeks of supervised yoga practice or standard of care treatment. Baseline and week 20 measures were: 2-h oral glucose tolerance test with insulin monitoring, body composition, fasting serum lipid/lipoprotein profile, resting blood pressures, CD4 T-cell count and plasma HIV RNA, and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF)-36 health-related QOL inventory. Resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures improved more (P=0.04) in the yoga group (-5 +/- 2 and -3 +/- 1 mmHg, respectively) than in the standard of care group (+1 +/- 2 and+2 +/- 2 mmHg, respectively). However, there was no greater reduction in body weight, fat mass or proatherogenic lipids, or improvements in glucose tolerance or overall QOL after yoga. Immune and virological status was not adversely affected. Among traditional lifestyle modifications, yoga is a low-cost, simple to administer, nonpharmacological, popular behavioural intervention that can lower blood pressure in pre-hypertensive HIV-infected adults with mild-moderate CVD risk factors.

  6. Enhancing primary care HIV prevention: a comprehensive clinical intervention.

    PubMed

    Dodge, W T; BlueSpruce, J; Grothaus, L; Rebolledo, V; McAfee, T A; Carey, J W; Thompson, R S

    2001-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk assessment and counseling are recommended for a large proportion of the population, yet measured rates of such counseling remain low. Use a comprehensive intervention to improve and sustain rates of HIV/STD risk assessment and counseling by providers. Patient telephone survey using a one-group pre- and post-intervention design with measurements over a 62-week period. Patients (N=1042) from two outpatient clinics at a health maintenance organization (HMO) presenting for either of two types of index visit: symptomatic (n=210), or routine physical examination or birth control (n=832) visits. Telephone survey performed within 3 weeks of the index visit. Patients' recall of a general discussion of HIV/STDs and specific discussion of sexual behaviors/risk factors. The intervention was associated with increased patient recall of providers: discussing HIV/STD in general (OR 1.6; 95% CI, 1.12-2.22), asking about sexual behaviors/risk factors (OR 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.6), discussing HIV prevention generally (OR 2.4; 95% CI, 1.4-4.0), and discussing personal risk reduction (OR 2.6; 95% CI, 1.6-4.3). Provision of written materials concerning HIV/STD also increased significantly (OR 2.8; 95% CI, 1.3-4.3). A clear-cut pattern of improved provider effort was seen, with the most pronounced improvements in high-risk patients. Results were stable over a 38-week follow-up period. A sustained improvement in HIV/STD risk assessment and counseling can be achieved in an outpatient HMO setting using a relatively non-intensive systematized intervention.

  7. A controlled study of an HIV/AIDS/STI/TB intervention with faith healers in Vhembe District, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mashamba, Tshilidzi; Peltzer, Karl; Maluleke, Thelma X; Sodi, Tholene

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop an HIV and AIDS training manual, and to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and management of faith healers of Apostolic churches regarding HIV and AIDS, before and after they attended an HIV and AIDS training programme. A quasi-experimental intervention design was used with faith healers affiliated with the United African Apostolic Church (UAAC) in the Thulamela and Musina municipalities of Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. A total of 103 faith healers were included in this study, 58 were systematically assigned to an intervention and 45 to a control group. The intervention group received training for 2 days. At follow-up after 2 months, intervention effects were significant for HIV knowledge and to a lesser extent TB knowledge. No significant improvement was found in HIV/STI (sexually transmitted infection) management strategies such as HIV/STI risk behaviour counselling, referral of clients for HIV testing, keeping condoms at stock in church, and church community HIV/AIDS/STI education. It is important to note that faith healers address some of the major known behavioural risk and protective factors such as partner reduction and condom use. Therefore, faith healers could be more widely utilized in HIV prevention programmes as risk reduction counsellors, in particular on matters of community-level education.

  8. Randomized Controlled Trial to Test the RHANI Wives HIV Intervention for Women in India at Risk for HIV from Husbands

    PubMed Central

    Saggurti, Niranjan; Battala, Madhusudana; Nair, Saritha; Dasgupta, Anindita; Naik, D. D.; Abramovitz, Daniela; Silverman, Jay G.; Balaiah, Donta

    2013-01-01

    This study involved evaluation of the shortterm impact of the RHANI Wives HIV intervention among wives at risk for HIV from husbands in Mumbai, India. A two-armed cluster RCT was conducted with 220 women surveyed on marital sex at baseline and 4–5 month followup. RHANI Wives was a multisession intervention focused on safer sex, marital communication, gender inequities and violence; control participants received basic HIV prevention education. Generalized linear mixed models were conducted to assess program impact, with cluster as a random effect and with time, treatment group, and the time by treatment interaction as fixed effects. A significant time by treatment effect on proportion of unprotected sex with husband (p = 0.01) was observed, and the rate of unprotected sex for intervention participants was lower than that of control participants at follow-up (RR = 0.83, 95 % CI = 0.75, 0.93). RHANI Wives is a promising model for women at risk for HIV from husbands. PMID:23921584

  9. Sex role segregation and mixing among men who have sex with men: implications for biomedical HIV prevention interventions.

    PubMed

    Armbruster, Benjamin; Roy, Sourya; Kapur, Abhinav; Schneider, John A

    2013-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) practice role segregation - insertive or receptive only sex positions instead of a versatile role - in several international settings where candidate biomedical HIV prevention interventions (e.g., circumcision, anal microbicide) will be tested. The effects of these position-specific interventions on HIV incidence are modeled. We developed a deterministic compartmental model to predict HIV incidence among Indian MSM using data from 2003-2010. The model's sex mixing matrix was derived from network data of Indian MSM (n=4604). Our model captures changing distribution of sex roles over time. We modeled microbicide and circumcision efficacy on trials with heterosexuals. Increasing numbers of versatile MSM resulted in little change in HIV incidence over 20 years. Anal microbicides and circumcision would decrease the HIV prevalence at 10 years from 15.6% to 12.9% and 12.7% respectively. Anal microbicides would provide similar protection to circumcision at the population level despite lower modeled efficacy (54% and 60% risk reduction, respectively). Combination of the interventions were additive: in 5 years, the reduction in HIV prevalence of the combination (-3.2%) is almost the sum of their individual reductions in HIV prevalence (-1.8% and -1.7%). MSM sex role segregation and mixing, unlike changes in the sex role distribution, may be important for evaluating HIV prevention interventions in international settings. Synergies between some position-specific prevention interventions such as circumcision and anal microbicides warrant further study.

  10. A quarter-century of HIV prevention intervention efforts among children and adolescents across the globe

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Bonita; Li, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    In 1988 a group of pediatricians, developmental, clinical, child and social psychologists, anthropologists and health educators began researching in Baltimore, Maryland, on an Human Immunodefiency Virus (HIV) prevention intervention, Focus on Youth (FOY). Over the next 25 years, the questions being addressed by FOY reflected those of the global HIV research experience. During the first phase, the questions being addressed by the broader research community included: Can HIV risk behaviors be purposefully impacted by behavioral interventions? If so, how do successful interventions differ from those that are not effective? Are theory-based interventions more likely to be effective than information-only-based interventions? Can theories be translated into culturally and developmentally appropriate interventions including those that are appropriate for children and adolescents? Should parents be involved – and if so, how? During its next phase, the FOY team increasingly became concerned with a disturbing reality. A large number of interventions had been developed and some had been shown to have evidence of impact. But virtually all of these interventions had been conducted in the USA or Europe. The questions facing researchers included: With the global burden of HIV disproportionately impacting low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), especially those in southern Africa, the Caribbean and parts of Asia, what is known about the effectiveness of western-based interventions in these culturally, racially and economically disparate settings? With the exciting proliferation of interventions, federal agencies in the USA and international agencies including Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS realized the importance of assessing the research portfolio and developing metrics of effectiveness. The questions during this phase included: What is an “effective” intervention? How are effective interventions implemented in a new setting? This phase merged with the next

  11. The effectiveness of sex education and HIV education interventions in schools in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Douglas; Obasi, Angela; Laris, B A

    2006-01-01

    To review the impact of sex education and HIV education interventions in schools in developing countries on both risk behaviours for HIV and the psychosocial factors that affect them. We conducted a systematic review. Searches identified studies in developing countries that evaluated interventions using either experimental or strong quasi-experimental designs and measured the impact of the intervention on sexual risk behaviours. Each study was summarized and coded, and the results were tabulated by type of intervention. Twenty-two intervention evaluations met the inclusion criteria: 17 were based on a curriculum and 5 were not, and 19 were implemented primarily by adults and 3 by peers. These 22 interventions significantly improved 21 out of 55 sexual behaviours measured. Only one of the interventions (a non-curriculum-based peer-led intervention) increased any measure of reported sexual intercourse; 7 interventions delayed the reported onset of sex; 3 reduced the reported number of sexual partners; and 1 reduced the reported frequency of sexual activity. Furthermore, 16 of the 22 interventions significantly delayed sex, reduced the frequency of sex, decreased the number of sexual partners, increased the use of condoms or contraceptives or reduced the incidence of unprotected sex. Of the 17 curriculum-based interventions, 13 had most of the characteristics believed to be important according to research in developed and developing countries and were taught by adults. Of these 13 studies, 11 significantly improved one or more reported sexual behaviours, and the remaining 2 showed non-significant improvements in reported sexual behaviour. Among these 13 studies, interventions led by both teachers and other adults had strong evidence of positive impact on reported behaviour. Of the 5 non-curriculum-based interventions, 2 of 4 adult-led and the 1 peer-led intervention improved one or more sexual behaviours. A large majority of school-based sex education and HIV

  12. Efficacy of brief interventions in clinical care settings for persons living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Lightfoot, Marguerita; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Comulada, W Scott; Reddy, Vanessa S; Duan, Naihua

    2010-03-01

    Prevention of HIV transmission from patients living with HIV (PLH) is a high national priority and strategies that are easy to implement and sustain to eliminate sexual transmission acts among PLH are needed. We evaluated a brief intervention that focused primarily on the enhancing motivations and encouraging PLH to act in accordance with their values without providing the intensity of the existing evidence-based programs for PLH. Using a quasiexperimental design, six medical clinics in Los Angeles County, CA, were evaluated across three intervention conditions: 1) computerized delivery; 2) provider delivery; or 3) standard care. We examined longitudinal changes in patients' reports of the number of HIV-negative (HIV-) or serostatus-unknown sexual partners and the number of unprotected vaginal and anal sex acts. Among 566 PLH, PLH in the computerized delivery condition reported a significant decrease in the number of HIV-/unknown sexual partners compared with the provider delivery and standard care conditions and a significant decrease in the number of unprotected sex acts in comparison to the standard care condition. Computerized motivational interventions delivered in waiting rooms at medical clinics may be an efficient strategy to reduce unprotected sex acts among PLH.

  13. A network intervention that locates and intervenes with recently HIV-infected persons: The Transmission Reduction Intervention Project (TRIP).

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios K; Pavlitina, Eirini; Muth, Stephen Q; Schneider, John; Psichogiou, Mina; Williams, Leslie D; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Sypsa, Vana; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Smyrnov, Pavlo; Korobchuk, Anya; Vasylyeva, Tetyana I; Skaathun, Britt; Malliori, Melpomeni; Kafetzopoulos, Evangelos; Hatzakis, Angelos; Friedman, Samuel R

    2016-12-05

    Early treatment, soon after infection, reduces HIV transmissions and benefits patients. The Transmission Reduction Intervention Project (TRIP) evaluated a network intervention to detect individuals recently infected (in the past 6 months). TRIP was conducted in Greece (2013-2015) and focused on drug injector networks. Based on HIV status, testing history, and the results of an assay to detect recent infections, TRIP classified drug injector "Seeds" into groups: Recent Seeds (RS), and Control Seeds with Long-term HIV infection (LCS). The network members of RS and LCS were traced for two steps. The analysis included 23 RS, 171 network members of the RS, 19 LCS, and 65 network members of the LCS. The per-seed number of recents detected in the network of RS was 5 times the number in the network of LCS (Ratio RS vs. LCS: 5.23; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.54-27.61). The proportion of recents among HIV positives in the network of RS (27%) was approximately 3 times (Ratio RS vs. LCS: 3.30; 95% CI: 1.04-10.43) that in the network of LCS (8%). Strategic network tracing that starts with recently infected persons could support public health efforts to find and treat people early in their HIV infection.

  14. A network intervention that locates and intervenes with recently HIV-infected persons: The Transmission Reduction Intervention Project (TRIP)

    PubMed Central

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios K.; Pavlitina, Eirini; Muth, Stephen Q.; Schneider, John; Psichogiou, Mina; Williams, Leslie D.; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Sypsa, Vana; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Smyrnov, Pavlo; Korobchuk, Anya; Vasylyeva, Tetyana I.; Skaathun, Britt; Malliori, Melpomeni; Kafetzopoulos, Evangelos; Hatzakis, Angelos; Friedman, Samuel R.

    2016-01-01

    Early treatment, soon after infection, reduces HIV transmissions and benefits patients. The Transmission Reduction Intervention Project (TRIP) evaluated a network intervention to detect individuals recently infected (in the past 6 months). TRIP was conducted in Greece (2013–2015) and focused on drug injector networks. Based on HIV status, testing history, and the results of an assay to detect recent infections, TRIP classified drug injector “Seeds” into groups: Recent Seeds (RS), and Control Seeds with Long-term HIV infection (LCS). The network members of RS and LCS were traced for two steps. The analysis included 23 RS, 171 network members of the RS, 19 LCS, and 65 network members of the LCS. The per-seed number of recents detected in the network of RS was 5 times the number in the network of LCS (Ratio RS vs. LCS: 5.23; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.54–27.61). The proportion of recents among HIV positives in the network of RS (27%) was approximately 3 times (Ratio RS vs. LCS: 3.30; 95% CI: 1.04–10.43) that in the network of LCS (8%). Strategic network tracing that starts with recently infected persons could support public health efforts to find and treat people early in their HIV infection. PMID:27917890

  15. Challenges of evaluating multilevel interventions.

    PubMed

    Nastasi, Bonnie K; Hitchcock, John

    2009-06-01

    This article uses the Comprehensive Mixed-Methods Participatory Evaluation (CMMPE; Nastasi and Hitchcock Transforming school mental health services: Population-based approaches to promoting the competency and wellness of children, Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press with National Association of School Psychologists 2008; Nastasi et al. School-based mental health services: creating comprehensive and culturally specific programs. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association 2004) model as a framework for addressing the multiplicity of evaluation decisions and complex nature of questions related to program success in multilevel interventions. CMMPE defines program success in terms of acceptability, integrity, social or cultural validity, outcomes (impact), sustainability and institutionalization, thus broadening the traditional notions of program outcomes. The authors use CMMPE and an example of a community-based multilevel sexual risk prevention program with multiple outcomes to discuss challenges of evaluating multilevel interventions. The sexual risk program exemplifies what Schensul and Trickett (this issue) characterize as multilevel intervention-multilevel evaluation (M-M), with both intervention and evaluation at community, health practitioner, and patient levels. The illustration provides the context for considering several challenges related to M-M designs: feasibility of randomized controlled trials within community-based multilevel intervention; acceptability and social or cultural validity of evaluation procedures; implementer, recipient, and contextual variations in program success; interactions among levels of the intervention; unanticipated changes or conditions; multiple indicators of program success; engaging multiple stakeholders in a participatory process; and evaluating sustainability and institutionalization. The complexity of multilevel intervention and evaluation designs challenges traditional notions of evaluation research and experimental

  16. HIV Infection: Transmission, Effects on Early Development, and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    Describes the modes of transmission of HIV and the course of the disease in infants and toddlers. Information is provided on its effects on early development, medical screening and treatments, therapies, psychosocial assistance, and interventions, including nutritional therapy, occupational and physical therapies, and speech and language therapy.…

  17. Funding of community-based interventions for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Poku, Nana K; Bonnel, René

    2016-07-01

    Since the start of the HIV epidemic, community responses have been at the forefront of the response. Following the extraordinary expansion of global resources, the funding of community responses rose to reach at least US$690 million per year in the period 2005-2009. Since then, many civil society organisations (CSOs) have reported a drop in funding. Yet, the need for strong community responses is even more urgent, as shown by their role in reaching the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) Fast-Track targets. In the case of antiretroviral treatment, interventions need to be adopted by most people at risk of HIV in order to have a substantial effect on the prevention of HIV at the population level. This paper reviews the published literature on community responses, funding and effectiveness. Additional funding is certainly needed to increase the coverage of community-based interventions (CBIs), but current evidence on their effectiveness is extremely mixed, which does not provide clear guidance to policy makers. This is especially an issue for adolescent girls and young women in Eastern and Southern Africa, who face extremely high infection risk, but the biomedical prevention tools that have been proven effective for the general population still remain pilot projects for this group. Research is especially needed to isolate the factors affecting the likelihood that interventions targeting this group are consistently successful. Such work could be focused on the community organisations that are currently involved in delivering gender-sensitive interventions.

  18. HIV Infection: Transmission, Effects on Early Development, and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    Describes the modes of transmission of HIV and the course of the disease in infants and toddlers. Information is provided on its effects on early development, medical screening and treatments, therapies, psychosocial assistance, and interventions, including nutritional therapy, occupational and physical therapies, and speech and language therapy.…

  19. Pediatric HIV Infection: Effects on Development, Learning, and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    Briefly reviews modes of HIV transmission and course of the disease, then focuses on its effects on children's development and learning. Describes treatments, therapies, and possible educational interventions. Challenges educators to learn more effective methods of helping these children improve their learning potential and quality of life. (EV)

  20. Interventions to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections, Including HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cates, Willard

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Treatment Guidelines were last updated in 2006. To update the “Clinical Guide to Prevention Services” section of the 2010 CDC STD Treatment Guidelines, we reviewed the recent science with reference to interventions designed to prevent acquisition of STDs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Major interval developments include (1) licensure and uptake of immunization against genital human papillomavirus, (2) validation of male circumcision as a potent prevention tool against acquisition of HIV and some other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), (3) failure of a promising HIV vaccine candidate to afford protection against HIV acquisition, (4) encouragement about the use of antiretroviral agents as preexposure prophylaxis to reduce risk of HIV and herpes simplex virus acquisition, (5) enhanced emphasis on expedited partner management and rescreening for persons infected with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, (6) recognition that behavioral interventions will be needed to address a new trend of sexually transmitted hepatitis C among men who have sex with men, and (7) the availability of a modified female condom. A range of preventive interventions is needed to reduce the risks of acquiring STI, including HIV infection, among sexually active people, and a flexible approach targeted to specific populations should integrate combinations of biomedical, behavioral, and structural interventions. These would ideally involve an array of prevention contexts, including (1) communications and practices among sexual partners, (2) transactions between individual clients and their healthcare providers, and (3) comprehensive population-level strategies for prioritizing prevention research, ensuring accurate outcome assessment, and formulating health policy. PMID:22080271

  1. Identification of Evidence-Based Interventions for Promoting HIV Medication Adherence: Findings from a Systematic Review of U.S.-Based Studies, 1996–2011

    PubMed Central

    Charania, Mahnaz R.; Marshall, Khiya J.; Crepaz, Nicole; Kay, Linda S.; Koenig, Linda J.; Weidle, Paul J.; Purcell, David W.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to identify evidence-based interventions (EBIs) for increasing HIV medication adherence behavior or decreasing HIV viral load among persons living with HIV (PLWH). We conducted automated searches of electronic databases (i.e., MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL) and manual searches of journals, reference lists, and listservs. Interventions were eligible for the review if they were U.S.-based, published between 1996 and 2011, intended to improve HIV medication adherence behaviors of PLWH, evaluated the intervention using a comparison group, and reported outcome data on adherence behaviors or HIV viral load. Each intervention was evaluated on the quality of study design, implementation, analysis, and strength of findings. Of the 65 eligible interventions, 10 are EBIs. The remaining 55 interventions failed to meet the efficacy criteria primarily due to null findings, small sample sizes, or low retention rates. Research gaps and future directions for development of adherence EBIs are discussed. PMID:24043269

  2. Assessment of HIV-related stigma in a US faith-based HIV education and testing intervention

    PubMed Central

    Berkley-Patton, Jannette Y; Moore, Erin; Berman, Marcie; Simon, Stephen D; Thompson, Carole Bowe; Schleicher, Thomas; Hawes, Starlyn M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The African American church is a highly influential institution with the potential to greatly increase the reach of HIV prevention interventions and address HIV-related stigma in US African American communities. However, there are few studies on HIV-related stigma and African American church populations. This study explored HIV-related stigma among church and community members participating in an HIV education and testing intervention pilot study in African American churches, named Taking It to the Pews. Methods Four African American churches located in Kansas City, MO and KS, were randomized to either intervention or comparison groups. Churches assigned to the intervention group received religiously tailored HIV education, testing and compassion messages/activities (e.g., sermons, brochures/church bulletins, testimonials) via the Taking It to the Pews HIV Tool Kit. Comparison churches received non-religiously tailored HIV information. HIV-related stigma was assessed with 543 church members and with community members served through church outreach services (e.g., food/clothing pantries, social services) in the four churches. Participants completed surveys at baseline, 6 months and 12 months to assess their HIV-related stigma beliefs, exposure to intervention components and satisfaction with the study. Results At baseline, HIV-related stigma beliefs were similar across experimental groups and were quite low. Mean HIV-related stigma scores were not significantly different between experimental groups at 6 months (p=0.92) or at 12 months (p=0.70). However, mean HIV-related stigma scores within both groups showed decreasing trends at six months, which approached significance. Analysis of previously studied HIV-related stigma factors (e.g., age, gender, income, HIV knowledge, religiosity) did not yield changes in the null findings. Intervention group participants were highly exposed to several intervention components (sermons, HIV resource tables, posters

  3. Taking HIV Testing to Families: Designing a Family-Based Intervention to Facilitate HIV Testing, Disclosure, and Intergenerational Communication.

    PubMed

    van Rooyen, Heidi; Essack, Zaynab; Rochat, Tamsen; Wight, Daniel; Knight, Lucia; Bland, Ruth; Celum, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Facility-based HIV testing does not capture many adults and children who are at risk of HIV in South Africa. This underscores the need to provide targeted, age-appropriate HIV testing for children, adolescents, and adults who are not accessing health facilities. While home-based counseling and testing has been successfully delivered in multiple settings, it also often fails to engage adolescents. To date, the full potential for testing entire families and linking them to treatment has not been evaluated. The steps to expand a successful home-based counseling and testing model to a family-based counseling and testing approach in a high HIV prevalence context in rural South Africa are described. The primary aim of this family-based model is to increase uptake of HIV testing and linkage to care for all family members, through promoting family cohesion and intergenerational communication, increasing HIV disclosure in the family, and improving antiretroviral treatment uptake, adherence, and retention. We discuss the three-phased research approach that led to the development of the family-based counseling and testing intervention. The family-based intervention is designed with a maximum of five sessions, depending on the configuration of the family (young, mixed, and older families). There is an optional additional session for high-risk or vulnerable family situations. These sessions encourage HIV testing of adults, children, and adolescents and disclosure of HIV status. Families with adolescents receive an intensive training session on intergenerational communication, identified as the key causal pathway to improve testing, linkage to care, disclosure, and reduced stigma for this group. The rationale for the focus on intergenerational communication is described in relation to our formative work as well as previous literature, and potential challenges with pilot testing the intervention are explored. This paper maps the process for adapting a novel and largely successful

  4. A systematic review of income generation interventions, including microfinance and vocational skills training, for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Caitlin E; Fonner, Virginia A; O'Reilly, Kevin R; Sweat, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Income generation interventions, such as microfinance or vocational skills training, address structural factors associated with HIV risk. However, the effectiveness of these interventions on HIV-related outcomes in low- and middle-income countries has not been synthesized. The authors conducted a systematic review by searching electronic databases from 1990 to 2012, examining secondary references, and hand-searching key journals. Peer-reviewed studies were included in the analysis if they evaluated income generation interventions in low- or middle-income countries and provided pre-post or multi-arm measures on behavioral, psychological, social, care, or biological outcomes related to HIV prevention. Standardized forms were used to abstract study data in duplicate and study rigor was assessed. Of the 5218 unique citations identified, 12 studies met criteria for inclusion. Studies were geographically diverse, with six conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, three in South or Southeast Asia, and three in Latin America and the Caribbean. Target populations included adult women (N = 6), female sex workers/bar workers (N = 3), and youth/orphans (N = 3). All studies targeted females except two among youth/orphans. Study rigor was moderate, with two group-randomized trials and two individual-randomized trials. All interventions except three included some form of microfinance. Only a minority of studies found significant intervention effects on condom use, number of sexual partners, or other HIV-related behavioral outcomes; most studies showed no significant change, although some may have had inadequate statistical power. One trial showed a 55% reduction in intimate partner violence (adjusted risk ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.23-0.91). No studies measured incidence/prevalence of HIV or sexually transmitted infections among intervention recipients. The evidence that income generation interventions influence HIV-related behaviors and outcomes is inconclusive. However, these

  5. A systematic review of income generation interventions, including microfinance and vocational skills training, for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Caitlin E.; Fonner, Virginia A.; O'Reilly, Kevin R.; Sweat, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Income generation interventions, such as microfinance or vocational skills training, address structural factors associated with HIV risk. However, the effectiveness of these interventions on HIV-related outcomes in low- and middle-income countries has not been synthesized. We conducted a systematic review by searching electronic databases from 1990-2012, examining secondary references, and hand searching key journals. Peer-reviewed studies were included in the analysis if they evaluated income generation interventions in low- or middle-income countries and provided pre-post or multi-arm measures on behavioral, psychological, social, care or biological outcomes related to HIV prevention. Standardized forms were used to abstract study data in duplicate and study rigor was assessed. Of 5,218 unique citations identified, 12 studies met criteria for inclusion. Studies were geographically diverse, with 6 conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, 3 in South or Southeast Asia, and 3 in Latin America and the Caribbean. Target populations included adult women (N=6), female sex workers/bar workers (N=3), and youth/orphans (N=3). All studies targeted females except 2 among youth/orphans. Study rigor was moderate, with 2 group-randomized trials and 2 individual-randomized trials. All interventions except 3 included some form of microfinance. Only a minority of studies found significant intervention effects on condom use, number of sexual partners or other HIV-related behavioral outcomes; most studies showed no significant change, although some may have had inadequate statistical power. One trial showed a 55% reduction in intimate partner violence (adjusted risk ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.23-0.91). No studies measured incidence/prevalence of HIV or sexually transmitted infections among intervention recipients. The evidence that income generation interventions influence HIV-related behaviors and outcomes is inconclusive. However, these interventions may have important effects

  6. HIV behavioural interventions targeted towards older adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The increasing number of people living with HIV aged 50 years and older has been recognised around the world yet non-pharmacologic HIV behavioural and cognitive interventions specifically targeted to older adults are limited. Evidence is needed to guide the response to this affected group. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the available published literature in MEDLINE, Embase and the Education Resources Information Center. A search strategy was defined with high sensitivity but low specificity to identify behavioural interventions with outcomes in the areas of treatment adherence, HIV testing uptake, increased HIV knowledge and uptake of prevention measures. Data from relevant articles were extracted into excel. Results Twelve articles were identified all of which originated from the Americas. Eight of the interventions were conducted among older adults living with HIV and four for HIV-negative older adults. Five studies included control groups. Of the included studies, four focused on general knowledge of HIV, three emphasised mental health and coping, two focused on reduced sexual risk behaviour, two on physical status and one on referral for care. Only four of the studies were randomised controlled trials and seven – including all of the studies among HIV-negative older adults – did not include controls at all. A few of the studies conducted statistical testing on small samples of 16 or 11 older adults making inference based on the results difficult. The most relevant study demonstrated that using telephone-based interventions can reduce risky sexual behaviour among older adults with control reporting 3.24 times (95% CI 1.79-5.85) as many occasions of unprotected sex at follow-up as participants. Overall however, few of the articles are sufficiently rigorous to suggest broad replication or to be considered representative and applicable in other settings. Conclusions More evidence is needed on what interventions work among older adults to

  7. Effects of behavioral stress reduction Transcendental Meditation intervention in persons with HIV.

    PubMed

    Chhatre, Sumedha; Metzger, David S; Frank, Ian; Boyer, Jean; Thompson, Edward; Nidich, Sanford; Montaner, Luis J; Jayadevappa, Ravishankar

    2013-01-01

    Stress is implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of HIV. The Transcendental Meditation (TM) is a behavioral stress reduction program that incorporates mind-body approach, and has demonstrated effectiveness in improving outcomes via stress reduction. We evaluated the feasibility of implementing TM and its effects on outcomes in persons with HIV. In this community-based single blinded Phase-I, randomized controlled trial, outcomes (psychological and physiological stress, immune activation, generic and HIV-specific health-related quality of life, depression and quality of well-being) were assessed at baseline and at six months, and were compared using parametric and nonparametric tests. Twenty-two persons with HIV were equally randomized to TM intervention or healthy eating (HE) education control group. Retention was 100% in TM group and 91% in HE control group. The TM group exhibited significant improvement in vitality. Significant between group differences were observed for generic and HIV-specific health-related quality of life. Small sample size may possibly limit the ability to observe significant differences in some outcomes. TM stress reduction intervention in community dwelling adults with HIV is viable and can enhance health-related quality of life. Further research with large sample and longer follow-up is needed to validate our results.

  8. Exploring Implementation and Fidelity of Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for HIV Prevention: Lessons Learned from the Focus on Kids Diffusion Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Jennifer S.; Stanton, Bonita; Boekeloo, Bradley; King, Winifred; Desmond, Sharon; Howard, Donna; Black, Maureen M.; Carey, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence-based interventions (EBIs) are used in public health to prevent HIV infection among youth and other groups. EBIs include core elements, features that are thought to be responsible for the efficacy of interventions. The authors evaluate experiences of organizations that adopted an HIV-prevention EBI, Focus on Kids (FOK), and their fidelity…

  9. Exploring Implementation and Fidelity of Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for HIV Prevention: Lessons Learned from the Focus on Kids Diffusion Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Jennifer S.; Stanton, Bonita; Boekeloo, Bradley; King, Winifred; Desmond, Sharon; Howard, Donna; Black, Maureen M.; Carey, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence-based interventions (EBIs) are used in public health to prevent HIV infection among youth and other groups. EBIs include core elements, features that are thought to be responsible for the efficacy of interventions. The authors evaluate experiences of organizations that adopted an HIV-prevention EBI, Focus on Kids (FOK), and their fidelity…

  10. A Critical Review of the Characteristics of Theater-Based HIV Prevention Interventions for Adolescents in School Settings

    PubMed Central

    Taboada, Arianna; Taggart, Tamara; Holloway, Ian; Houpt, Amanda; Gordon, Robert; Gere, David; Milburn, Norweeta; Lightfoot, Alexandra F.

    2016-01-01

    Theater-based interventions are a viable prevention strategy for changing sexual health knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to HIV prevention. However, few studies have explored interventions in English-speaking, high-income countries such as the United States, Canada, or the United Kingdom. This article critically reviews the literature to identify key characteristics of theater-based HIV prevention strategies used for adolescents in school-settings in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. Specifically, we identify the theatrical approach used in HIV prevention interventions, the behavioral theories that inform such interventions, and the study design and results of existing evaluation studies conducted in school settings. In the 10 articles reviewed, we found limited grounding in theory and the use of nonrigorous study design. To strengthen the evidence and practical application of theater-based HIV prevention interventions, we highlight three specific recommendations for practitioners and researchers: (1) define and operationalize the theater approach and techniques used, (2) ensure theater-based interventions are grounded in theory, and (3) conduct rigorous evaluation of theater-based interventions. These recommendations are key to strengthening future research on and implementation of theater-based interventions for HIV prevention. PMID:27095037

  11. Overcoming Barriers to HIV Treatment Adherence: A Brief Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for HIV-Positive Adults on Antiretroviral Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Olem, David; Sharp, Kelly M.; Taylor, Jonelle M.; Johnson, Mallory O.

    2014-01-01

    Maximizing HIV treatment adherence is critical in efforts to optimize health outcomes and to prevent further HIV transmission. The Balance Project intervention uses cognitive behavioral approaches to improve antiretroviral medication adherence through promoting adaptive coping with medication side effect and distress related to HIV. This 5-session intervention has been documented to prevent nonadherence among persons living with HIV who experience high levels of distress associated with their antiretroviral medication side effects. We describe the theoretical underpinnings of the intervention, provide details of the training and session protocols with a case example, and discuss implications for future applications of the intervention in both research and clinical settings. PMID:24855332

  12. Evaluation of Natural Resource Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Andy

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a frame for evaluation of natural resource interventions, which necessarily involves both human and natural systems. Two-system evaluands require us to adapt evaluation methods for comparison and attribution and to address differences in time and space occurring across the systems as well as potentially very different values…

  13. Evaluation of Natural Resource Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Andy

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a frame for evaluation of natural resource interventions, which necessarily involves both human and natural systems. Two-system evaluands require us to adapt evaluation methods for comparison and attribution and to address differences in time and space occurring across the systems as well as potentially very different values…

  14. Trend of HIV/AIDS Prevalence and Related Interventions Administered in Prisons of Iran -13 Years’ Experience

    PubMed Central

    SHAHBAZI, Mohammad; FARNIA, Marzieh; RAHMANI, Khaled; MORADI, Ghobad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background HIV/AIDS epidemic is concentrated among injecting drug users in Iran. Like many other countries with HIV/AIDS concentrated epidemic, prisons are high risk areas for spreading HIV/AIDS. The aim of this paper was to study the trend of HIV/AIDS prevalence and related interventions administered in prisons of Iran during a 13 years period Methods This cross sectional study was conducted using the data collected from the sentinel sites in all prisons in the country and it also used the data about Harm Reduction interventions which has been implemented by Iran Prisons Organization. To evaluate the correlation between the prevalence and each of administered interventions in prisons the Correlation Coefficient Test was used for the second half of the mentioned time period Results The prevalence of HIV/AIDS in prisons had increased rapidly in the early stages of epidemic, so that in 2002 the prevalence raised to 3.83%. Followed by the expansion of Methadone Maintenance Therapy and development of Triangular Clinics, HIV/AIDS prevalence in prisons declined. There was a relationship between interventions and the prevalence of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion In regions and countries where the epidemic is highly prevalent among injecting drug users and prisoners, Methadone Maintenance Therapy and development of Triangular Clinics can be utilized to control HIV/AIDS epidemic quickly. PMID:26005657

  15. Integrating Community-Based Interventions to Reverse the Convergent TB/HIV Epidemics in Rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Jennifer A; Long, Elisa F; Brooks, Ralph P; Friedland, Gerald H; Moll, Anthony P; Townsend, Jeffrey P; Galvani, Alison P; Shenoi, Sheela V

    2015-01-01

    The WHO recommends integrating interventions to address the devastating TB/HIV co-epidemics in South Africa, yet integration has been poorly implemented and TB/HIV control efforts need strengthening. Identifying infected individuals is particularly difficult in rural settings. We used mathematical modeling to predict the impact of community-based, integrated TB/HIV case finding and additional control strategies on South Africa's TB/HIV epidemics. We developed a model incorporating TB and HIV transmission to evaluate the effectiveness of integrating TB and HIV interventions in rural South Africa over 10 years. We modeled the impact of a novel screening program that integrates case finding for TB and HIV in the community, comparing it to status quo and recommended TB/HIV control strategies, including GeneXpert, MDR-TB treatment decentralization, improved first-line TB treatment cure rate, isoniazid preventive therapy, and expanded ART. Combining recommended interventions averted 27% of expected TB cases (95% CI 18-40%) 18% HIV (95% CI 13-24%), 60% MDR-TB (95% CI 34-83%), 69% XDR-TB (95% CI 34-90%), and 16% TB/HIV deaths (95% CI 12-29). Supplementing these interventions with annual community-based TB/HIV case finding averted a further 17% of TB cases (44% total; 95% CI 31-56%), 5% HIV (23% total; 95% CI 17-29%), 8% MDR-TB (68% total; 95% CI 40-88%), 4% XDR-TB (73% total; 95% CI 38-91%), and 8% TB/HIV deaths (24% total; 95% CI 16-39%). In addition to increasing screening frequency, we found that improving TB symptom questionnaire sensitivity, second-line TB treatment delays, default before initiating TB treatment or ART, and second-line TB drug efficacy were significantly associated with even greater reductions in TB and HIV cases. TB/HIV epidemics in South Africa were most effectively curtailed by simultaneously implementing interventions that integrated community-based TB/HIV control strategies and targeted drug-resistant TB. Strengthening existing TB and HIV

  16. HIV testing, staging, and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Carla V; Horberg, Michael A

    2014-09-01

    HIV testing and incidence are stable, but trends for certain populations are concerning. Primary prevention must be reinvigorated and target vulnerable populations. Science and policy have progressed to improve the accuracy, speed, privacy, and affordability of HIV testing. More potent and much better tolerated HIV treatments and a multidisciplinary approach to care have increased adherence and viral suppression. Changes to health care law in the United States seek to expand the affordability and access of improved HIV diagnostics and treatment. Continued challenges include improving long-term outcomes in people on lifetime regimens, reducing comorbidities associated with those regimens, and preventing further transmission. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Simplified HIV Testing and Treatment in China: Analysis of Mortality Rates Before and After a Structural Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zunyou; Zhao, Yan; Ge, Xianmin; Mao, Yurong; Tang, Zhenzhu; Shi, Cynthia X.; Chen, Chi; Li, Yong; Qiu, Xuejun; Nong, Guide; Huang, Shanhui; Luo, Shen; Wu, Shaohui; He, Wenzhen; Zhang, Mingjie; Shen, Zhiyong; Jin, Xia; Li, Jian; Brookmeyer, Ron; Detels, Roger; Montaner, Julio; Wang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Background Multistage stepwise HIV testing and treatment initiation procedures can result in lost opportunities to provide timely antiretroviral therapy (ART). Incomplete patient engagement along the continuum of HIV care translates into high levels of preventable mortality. We aimed to evaluate the ability of a simplified test and treat structural intervention to reduce mortality. Methods and Findings In the “pre-intervention 2010” (from January 2010 to December 2010) and “pre-intervention 2011” (from January 2011 to December 2011) phases, patients who screened HIV-positive at health care facilities in Zhongshan and Pubei counties in Guangxi, China, followed the standard-of-care process. In the “post-intervention 2012” (from July 2012 to June 2013) and “post-intervention 2013” (from July 2013 to June 2014) phases, patients who screened HIV-positive at the same facilities were offered a simplified test and treat intervention, i.e., concurrent HIV confirmatory and CD4 testing and immediate initiation of ART, irrespective of CD4 count. Participants were followed for 6–18 mo until the end of their study phase period. Mortality rates in the pre-intervention and post-intervention phases were compared for all HIV cases and for treatment-eligible HIV cases. A total of 1,034 HIV-positive participants (281 and 339 in the two pre-intervention phases respectively, and 215 and 199 in the two post-intervention phases respectively) were enrolled. Following the structural intervention, receipt of baseline CD4 testing within 30 d of HIV confirmation increased from 67%/61% (pre-intervention 2010/pre-intervention 2011) to 98%/97% (post-intervention 2012/post-intervention 2013) (all p < 0.001 [i.e., for all comparisons between a pre- and post-intervention phase]), and the time from HIV confirmation to ART initiation decreased from 53 d (interquartile range [IQR] 27–141)/43 d (IQR 15–113) to 5 d (IQR 2–12)/5 d (IQR 2–13) (all p < 0.001). Initiation of ART

  18. What Works Well in HIV Prevention Among Spanish Young People? An Analysis of Differential Effectiveness Among Six Intervention Techniques.

    PubMed

    Ballester-Arnal, Rafael; Gil-Llario, María Dolores; Giménez-García, Cristina; Kalichman, Setch C

    2015-07-01

    The AIDS epidemic remains a concern of public health among young people and adolescents. Prevention programs have revealed diverse deficiencies to attain their main goal: preventing risky behaviors. This experimental study evaluates the differential effectiveness of six intervention techniques for preventing HIV/AIDS based on informational-motivational-behavioral Model (talk, website, attitudinal discussion, participation of a seropositive person, fear induction and role play). 239 Spanish young people took part in an experimental design to evaluate six intervention techniques and a non-intervention condition, through changes in their knowledge, attitudes and protective sex behavior. Our findings support a general effectiveness of preventive intervention techniques comparing non-intervention. In particular, the motivational techniques reveal more effectiveness for these Spanish young people. Therefore, it is required identifying a differential impact of the intervention techniques when implementing HIV behavioral interventions.

  19. Service delivery interventions to improve adolescents' linkage, retention and adherence to antiretroviral therapy and HIV care.

    PubMed

    MacPherson, Peter; Munthali, Chigomezgo; Ferguson, Jane; Armstrong, Alice; Kranzer, Katharina; Ferrand, Rashida A; Ross, David A

    2015-08-01

    Adolescents living with HIV face substantial difficulties in accessing HIV care services and have worse treatment outcomes than other age groups. The objective of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of service delivery interventions to improve adolescents' linkage from HIV diagnosis to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, retention in HIV care and adherence to ART. We systematically searched the Medline, SCOPUS and Web of Sciences databases and conference abstracts from the International AIDS Conference and International Conference on AIDS and STIs in Africa (ICASA). Studies published in English between 1st January 2001 and 9th June 2014 were included. Two authors independently evaluated reports for eligibility, extracted data and assessed methodological quality using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Eleven studies from nine countries were eligible for review. Three studies were randomised controlled trials. Interventions assessed included individual and group counselling and education; peer support; directly observed therapy; financial incentives; and interventions to improve the adolescent-friendliness of clinics. Most studies were of low to moderate methodological quality. This review identified limited evidence on the effectiveness of service delivery interventions to support adolescents' linkage from HIV diagnosis to ART initiation, retention on ART and adherence to ART. Although recommendations are qualified because of the small numbers of studies and limited methodological quality, offering individual and group education and counselling, financial incentives, increasing clinic accessibility and provision of specific adolescent-tailored services appear promising interventions and warrant further investigation. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. 78 FR 10183 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS...

  1. 78 FR 10183 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... a lapse in comprehensive primary care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will...

  2. 78 FR 10183 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... prevent a lapse in comprehensive primary care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will...

  3. 78 FR 78976 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS...

  4. 78 FR 10182 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS...

  5. 78 FR 18989 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS...

  6. Cost effectiveness of a computer-delivered intervention to improve HIV medication adherence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High levels of adherence to medications for HIV infection are essential for optimal clinical outcomes and to reduce viral transmission, but many patients do not achieve required levels. Clinician-delivered interventions can improve patients’ adherence, but usually require substantial effort by trained individuals and may not be widely available. Computer-delivered interventions can address this problem by reducing required staff time for delivery and by making the interventions widely available via the Internet. We previously developed a computer-delivered intervention designed to improve patients’ level of health literacy as a strategy to improve their HIV medication adherence. The intervention was shown to increase patients’ adherence, but it was not clear that the benefits resulting from the increase in adherence could justify the costs of developing and deploying the intervention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation of development and deployment costs to the effectiveness of the intervention. Methods Costs of intervention development were drawn from accounting reports for the grant under which its development was supported, adjusted for costs primarily resulting from the project’s research purpose. Effectiveness of the intervention was drawn from results of the parent study. The relation of the intervention’s effects to changes in health status, expressed as utilities, was also evaluated in order to assess the net cost of the intervention in terms of quality adjusted life years (QALYs). Sensitivity analyses evaluated ranges of possible intervention effectiveness and durations of its effects, and costs were evaluated over several deployment scenarios. Results The intervention’s cost effectiveness depends largely on the number of persons using it and the duration of its effectiveness. Even with modest effects for a small number of patients the intervention was associated with net cost savings in some scenarios and for

  7. Effects of postnatal interventions for the reduction of vertical HIV transmission on infant growth and non-HIV infections: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Zunza, Moleen; Mercer, Gareth D; Thabane, Lehana; Esser, Monika; Cotton, Mark F

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Guidelines in resource-poor settings have progressively included interventions to reduce postnatal HIV transmission through breast milk. In addition to HIV-free survival, infant growth and non-HIV infections should be considered. Determining the effect of these interventions on infant growth and non-HIV infections will inform healthcare decisions about feeding HIV-exposed infants. We synthesize findings from studies comparing breast to formula feeding, early weaning to standard-duration breastfeeding, breastfeeding with extended antiretroviral (ARV) to short-course ARV prophylaxis, and alternative preparations of infant formula to standard formula in HIV-exposed infants, focusing on infant growth and non-HIV infectious morbidity outcomes. The review objectives were to collate and appraise evidence of interventions to reduce postnatal vertical HIV transmission, and to estimate their effect on growth and non-HIV infections from birth to two years of age among HIV-exposed infants. Methods We searched PubMed, SCOPUS, and Cochrane CENTRAL Controlled Trials Register. We included randomized trials and prospective cohort studies. Two authors independently extracted data and evaluated risk of bias. Rate ratios and mean differences were used as effect measures for dichotomous and continuous outcomes, respectively. Where pooling was possible, we used fixed-effects meta-analysis to pool results across studies. Quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Results and discussion Prospective cohort studies comparing breast- versus formula-fed HIV-exposed infants found breastfeeding to be protective against diarrhoea in early life [risk ratio (RR)=0.31; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.13 to 0.74]. The effect of breastfeeding against diarrhoea [hazard ratio (HR)=0.74; 95% CI=0.57 to 0.97] and respiratory infections (HR=0.65; 95% CI=0.41 to 1.00) was significant through two years of age. The only randomized controlled trial (RCT) available showed that

  8. Reducing HIV and partner violence risk among women with criminal justice system involvement: A randomized controlled trial of two Motivational Interviewing-based interventions

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Brian W.; O’Brien, Kerth; Bard, Ronda S.; Casciato, Carol J.; Maher, Julie E.; Dent, Clyde W.; Dougherty, John A.; Stark, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Women with histories of incarceration show high levels of risk for HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV). This randomized controlled trial with women at risk for HIV who had recent criminal justice system involvement (n=530) evaluated two interventions based on Motivational Interviewing to reduce either HIV risk or HIV and IPV risk. Baseline and 3, 6, and 9-month follow-up assessments measured unprotected intercourse, needle sharing, and IPV. Generalized estimating equations revealed that the intervention groups had significant decreases in unprotected intercourse and needle sharing, and significantly greater reductions in the odds and incidence rates of unprotected intercourse compared to the control group. No significant differences were found in changes in IPV over time between the HIV and IPV group and the control group. Motivational Interviewing-based HIV prevention interventions delivered by county health department staff appear helpful in reducing HIV risk behavior for this population. PMID:18636325

  9. [Educational intervention on HIV aimed at adolescent students of "Camilo Cienfuegos" military school in Arroyo Arenas].

    PubMed

    Cañas Lugo, Caristina; Menéndez Capote, Reinaldo; Tápanes Fernández, Thelma; Castillo Frías, Rodilcia; Abad Lamoth, Yoandra

    2012-01-01

    HIV infection in young people is one of the main health problems at the present time, with significant mortality and morbidity indexes and considerable costs. to identify the level of knowledge, the sources of information and the behaviours of young students at high school in order to take educational actions that raise their knowledge on this disease and promote more healthy lifestyles. a quasi experimental study was designed to evaluate the results of an educational intervention in 200 adolescents of "Camilo Cienfuegos" Military School located in Arroyo Arenas, Havana, which was carried out in June, 2009. Demographic variables were analyzed and the effectiveness of the educational intervention was evaluated using ratio test for independent variable analysis. of the 200 studied students, 26.5% were female and 73.5% male, aged 14-17 years. The main sources of knowledge for information about HIV infection were TV, parents, professors and posters. They presented appropriate knowledge levels about transmission pathways, etiology and therapy of the HIV; however, they poorly knew about the clinical aspects and prevention. After the intervention, their general knowledge (73 to 92%) and the knowledge on clinical aspects significantly improved (15 to 72%),as well as the knowledge about transmission(92 to 94%) and prevention of the disease (77 to 80%). the implementation of a strategy to teach young people about HIV improved the knowledge about the disease in this group of patients

  10. Efficacy of HIV Prevention Interventions in Latin American and Caribbean Nations, 1995–2008: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; Boynton, Marcella H.; Warren, Michelle R.; LaCroix, Jessica M.; Carey, Michael P.; Johnson, Blair T.

    2014-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 34 HIV prevention interventions (from 27 studies) that were evaluated in Latin American and Caribbean nations. These studies were obtained through systematic searches of English, Spanish, and Portuguese-language databases available as of January 2009. Overall, interventions significantly increased knowledge (d = 0.51) and condom use (d = 0.28) but the effects varied widely. Interventions produced more condom use when they focused on high-risk individuals, distributed condoms, and explicitly addressed socio-cultural components. The best-fitting models utilized factors related to geography, especially indices of a nations’ human development index (HDI) and income inequality (i.e., Gini index). Interventions that provided at least three hours of content succeeded better when HDI and income inequality were lower, suggesting that intensive HIV prevention activities succeed best where the need is greatest. Implications for HIV intervention development in Latin America and the Caribbean are discussed. PMID:20661768

  11. The cost and intensity of behavioral interventions to promote HIV treatment for prevention among HIV-positive MSM

    PubMed Central

    Safren, Steven A.; Perry, Nicholas S.; Blashill, Aaron J.; O’Cleirigh, Conall; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, behavioral prevention interventions for HIV have been criticized as being ineffective, costly, or inefficient. In this commentary, using HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) as an illustrative high-risk population, we argue that the opposite is true – that behavioral interventions for HIV prevention, if implemented with the populations who need them, are affordable and critical for future prevention efforts. We base this argument on recent evidence showing that 1) adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) for prevention purposes is necessary to suppress HIV replication and reduce transmissibility, 2) individuals living with HIV have multiple psychosocial concerns that impact self-care and moderate the potential effectiveness of health behavior interventions, and 3) intensive interventions targeting both concerns together (psychosocial and HIV care) can show clinically significant improvement. We follow by comparing the cost of these types of interventions to the cost of standard clinical treatment for HIV with ART, and demonstrate a cost-savings of potential intensive behavioral interventions for, in this case, HIV-positive MSM who have uncontrolled virus. Keeping this evidence in mind, we conclude that individual intervention must remain a mainstay of HIV prevention for certain critical populations. PMID:26223385

  12. Internet Use among Ugandan Adolescents: Implications for HIV Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ybarra, Michele L; Kiwanuka, Julius; Emenyonu, Nneka; Bangsberg, David R

    2006-01-01

    Background The Internet is fast gaining recognition as a powerful, low-cost method to deliver health intervention and prevention programs to large numbers of young people across diverse geographic regions. The feasibility and accessibility of Internet-based health interventions in resource-limited settings, where cost-effective interventions are most needed, is unknown. To determine the utility of developing technology-based interventions in resource-limited settings, availability and patterns of usage of the Internet first need to be assessed. Methods and Findings The Uganda Media and You Survey was a cross-sectional survey of Internet use among adolescents (ages 12–18 years) in Mbarara, Uganda, a municipality mainly serving a rural population in sub-Saharan Africa. Participants were randomly selected among eligible students attending one of five participating secondary day and boarding schools in Mbarara, Uganda. Of a total of 538 students selected, 93% (500) participated. Of the total respondents, 45% (223) reported ever having used the Internet, 78% (175) of whom reported going online in the previous week. As maternal education increased, so too did the odds of adolescent Internet use. Almost two in five respondents (38% [189]) reported already having used a computer or the Internet to search for health information. Over one-third (35% [173]) had used the computer or Internet to find information about HIV/AIDS, and 20% (102) had looked for sexual health information. Among Internet users, searching for HIV/AIDS information on a computer or online was significantly related to using the Internet weekly, emailing, visiting chat rooms, and playing online games. In contrast, going online at school was inversely related to looking for HIV/AIDS information via technology. If Internet access were free, 66% (330) reported that they would search for information about HIV/AIDS prevention online. Conclusions Both the desire to use, and the actual use of, the Internet to

  13. Internet use among Ugandan adolescents: implications for HIV intervention.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele L; Kiwanuka, Julius; Emenyonu, Nneka; Bangsberg, David R

    2006-11-01

    The Internet is fast gaining recognition as a powerful, low-cost method to deliver health intervention and prevention programs to large numbers of young people across diverse geographic regions. The feasibility and accessibility of Internet-based health interventions in resource-limited settings, where cost-effective interventions are most needed, is unknown. To determine the utility of developing technology-based interventions in resource-limited settings, availability and patterns of usage of the Internet first need to be assessed. The Uganda Media and You Survey was a cross-sectional survey of Internet use among adolescents (ages 12-18 years) in Mbarara, Uganda, a municipality mainly serving a rural population in sub-Saharan Africa. Participants were randomly selected among eligible students attending one of five participating secondary day and boarding schools in Mbarara, Uganda. Of a total of 538 students selected, 93% (500) participated. Of the total respondents, 45% (223) reported ever having used the Internet, 78% (175) of whom reported going online in the previous week. As maternal education increased, so too did the odds of adolescent Internet use. Almost two in five respondents (38% [189]) reported already having used a computer or the Internet to search for health information. Over one-third (35% [173]) had used the computer or Internet to find information about HIV/AIDS, and 20% (102) had looked for sexual health information. Among Internet users, searching for HIV/AIDS information on a computer or online was significantly related to using the Internet weekly, emailing, visiting chat rooms, and playing online games. In contrast, going online at school was inversely related to looking for HIV/AIDS information via technology. If Internet access were free, 66% (330) reported that they would search for information about HIV/AIDS prevention online. Both the desire to use, and the actual use of, the Internet to seek sexual health and HIV/AIDS information is

  14. HIV patient and provider feedback on a telehealth collaborative care for depression intervention.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Karen L; Painter, Jacob T; Curran, Geoffrey M; Stanley, Regina; Gifford, Allen L; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria; Rimland, David; Monson, Thomas P; Pyne, Jeffrey M

    2017-03-01

    In the HIV Translating Initiatives for Depression into Effective Solutions project, we conducted a randomized controlled effectiveness and implementation trial comparing depression collaborative care with enhanced usual care in Veterans Health Administration HIV clinics in the US. An offsite HIV depression care team including a psychiatrist, a depression care manager (DCM), and a clinical pharmacist provided collaborative care using a stepped-care model of treatment and made recommendations to providers through the electronic health record system. The DCM delivered care management to HIV patients through phone calls, performing routine assessments and providing counseling in self-management and problem-solving. The DCM documented all calls in each patient's electronic medical record. In this paper we present results from interviews conducted with patients and clinical staff in a multi-stage formative evaluation (FE). We conducted semi-structured FE interviews with 26 HIV patients and 30 clinical staff at the three participating sites during and after the trial period to gather their experiences and perspectives concerning the intervention components. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using rapid content analysis techniques. Patients reported high satisfaction with the depression care manager (DCM) phone calls. Both HIV and mental health providers reported that the DCM's chart notes in the electronic health record were very helpful, and most felt that a dedicated DCM for HIV patients is ideal to meet patient needs. Sites encountered barriers to achieving and maintaining universal depression screening, but had greater success when such screening was incorporated into routine intake processes. FE results demonstrated that depression care management via telehealth from an offsite team is acceptable and helpful to both HIV patients and their providers. Given that a centralized offsite depression care team can deliver effective, cost-effective, cost

  15. Reducing risky relationships: a multisite randomized trial of a prison-based intervention for reducing HIV sexual risk behaviors among women with a history of drug use.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Oser, Carrie B; Havens, Jennifer R; Leukefeld, Carl G

    2014-01-01

    Women involved in the criminal justice system, particularly those with a history of drug use, are at elevated risk of HIV infection, yet few HIV prevention interventions have been tailored for delivery to incarcerated women. Drawing on the Relational Model, the Reducing Risky Relationships for HIV (RRR-HIV) intervention was developed and evaluated in a multisite randomized clinical trial. Women with weekly drug use prior to incarceration (n = 444) who were incarcerated within correctional institutions in four states were randomized to (1) the RRR-HIV intervention consisting of an HIV educational video, five group sessions, and one postrelease booster session or (2) a control condition consisting of the HIV educational video. The RRR-HIV intervention combined didactic and interactive content regarding seven "thinking myths" about intimate relationships that may result in decisions to engage in risky sexual behaviors. Data were collected while women were still incarcerated and approximately 90 days following release from prison by trained interviewers. A negative binomial regression (NBR) model of unprotected sexual behaviors at the 90-day follow-up indicated that RRR-HIV participants reported fewer unprotected sexual behaviors than women in the control condition once the analysis was adjusted for study site. Future studies should examine the sustainability of the RRR-HIV intervention's effect on risk reduction. Implementation research is needed to determine whether delivery of this intervention by correctional staff or peers, rather than research staff, yields similar reductions in unprotected sexual behaviors.

  16. Population-based biomedical sexually transmitted infection control interventions for reducing HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Ng, Brian E; Butler, Lisa M; Horvath, Tara; Rutherford, George W

    2011-03-16

    2001, respectively) through 2007. We manually searched the web sites of those conferences for more recent abstracts (up to 2010, 2010 and 2009, respectively)  In addition to searching the clinical trials registry at the US National Institutes of Health, we also used the metaRegister of Controlled Trials.We checked the reference lists of all studies identified by the above methods. Randomised controlled trials involving one or more biomedical interventions in general populations (as opposed to occupationally or behaviourally defined groups, such as sex workers) in which the unit of randomisation was either a community or a treatment facility and in which the primary outcome was incident HIV infection. The term "community" was interpreted to include a group of villages, an arbitrary geographical division, or the catchment population of a group of health facilities. Three authors (BN, LB, TH) independently applied the inclusion criteria to potential studies, with any disagreements resolved by discussion. Trials were examined for completeness of reporting. Data were abstracted independently using a standardised abstraction form. We included four trials. One trial evaluated mass treatment of all individuals in a particular community. The other three trials evaluated various combinations of improved syndromic STI management in clinics, STI counselling, and STI treatment.In the mass treatment trial in rural southwestern Uganda, after three rounds of treatment of all community members for STIs, the adjusted rate ratio (aRR) of incident HIV infection was 0.97 (95% CI 0.81 - 1.2), indicating no effect of the intervention. The three STI management intervention studies were all conducted in rural parts of Africa. One study, in northern Tanzania, showed that the incidence of HIV infection in the intervention groups (strengthened syndromic management of STIs in primary care clinics) was 1.2% compared with 1.9% in the control groups (aRR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.42 - 0.79), corresponding

  17. Growing-up just like everyone else: key components of a successful pediatric HIV disclosure intervention in Namibia.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Laura; Beima-Sofie, Kristin; Hamunime, Ndapewa; Shepard, Mark; Ferris, Larissa; Ingo, Paulina; John-Stewart, Grace; O'Malley, Gabrielle

    2015-06-01

    To facilitate replication and adaptation of pediatric HIV disclosure interventions, we identified key components of a child-friendly cartoon book used to guide Namibian caregivers and healthcare workers (HCWs) through a gradual, structured disclosure process. Qualitative interviews were conducted with caregivers and HCWs from four high-volume pediatric HIV clinics in Namibia. Semi-structured in-depth interviews with 35 HCWs and 64 caregivers of HIV+ children aged 7-15 were analyzed using constant comparative and modified grounded theory analysis. Major barriers to disclosure were compared to accounts of intervention success, and themes related to key components were identified. The disclosure book overcomes barriers to disclosure by reducing caregiver resistance, increasing HIV and disclosure knowledge, and providing a gradual, structured framework for disclosure. The delayed mention of HIV-specific terminology overcomes caregiver fears associated with HIV stigma, thus encouraging earlier uptake of disclosure initiation. Caregivers value the book's focus on staying healthy, keeping the body strong, and having a future 'like other kids', thus capitalizing on evidence of the positive benefits of resilience and hopefulness rather than the negative consequences of HIV. The book's concepts and images resonate with children who readily adopt the language of 'body soldiers' and 'bad guys' in describing how important it is for them to take their medicine. Discussion cues ease communication between HCWs, caregivers, and pediatric patients. Given the urgent need for available pediatric HIV disclosure interventions, easily implementable tools like the Namibian disclosure book should be evaluated for utility in similar settings.

  18. Household-based HIV counseling and testing as a platform for referral to HIV care and medical male circumcision in Uganda: a pilot evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tumwebaze, Henry; Tumwesigye, Elioda; Baeten, Jared M; Kurth, Ann E; Revall, Jennifer; Murnane, Pamela M; Chang, Larry W; Celum, Connie

    2012-01-01

    Combination HIV prevention initiatives incorporate evidence-based, biomedical and behavioral interventions appropriate and acceptable to specific populations, aiming to significantly reduce population-level HIV incidence. Knowledge of HIV serostatus is key to linkages to HIV care and prevention. Household-based HIV counseling and testing (HBCT) can achieve high HIV testing rates. We evaluated HBCT as a platform for delivery of combination HIV prevention services in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted HBCT in a semi-urban area in southwestern Uganda. All adults received standard HIV prevention messaging. Real-time electronic data collection included a brief risk assessment and prevention triage algorithm for referrals of HIV seropositive persons to HIV care and uncircumcised HIV seronegative men with multiple sex partners to male circumcision. Monthly follow-up visits for 3 months were conducted to promote uptake of HIV care and male circumcision. 855 households received HBCT; 1587 of 1941 (81.8%) adults were present at the HBCT visit, 1557 (98.1% of those present) were tested and received HIV results, of whom, 46.5% were men. A total of 152 (9.8%) were HIV seropositive, for whom the median CD4 count was 456 cells/µL, and 50.7% were newly-identified as HIV seropositive. Three months after HBCT, 88.5% of HIV seropositive persons had attended an HIV care clinic; among those with CD4 counts <250 cells/µL, 71.4% initiated antiretroviral therapy. Among 123 HIV seronegative men with an HIV+ partner or multiple partners, 62.0% were circumcised by month 3. HBCT achieves high levels of knowledge of HIV serostatus and is an effective platform for identifying at-risk persons and achieving higher uptake of HIV prevention and care services through referrals and targeted follow-up than has been accomplished through other single focus strategies.

  19. Increased HIV disclosure three months after an online video intervention for men who have sex with men (MSM).

    PubMed

    Chiasson, Mary Ann; Shaw, Francine Shuchat; Humberstone, Mike; Hirshfield, Sabina; Hartel, Diana

    2009-09-01

    A behavioral intervention for men who have sex with men (MSM) was created for online delivery. The nine-minute video drama "The Morning After" (www.hivbigdeal.org) was designed to promote critical thinking about HIV risk. MSM were recruited for the evaluation through banner ads on a subscription-based gay sexual meeting web site. Participants viewed the intervention online and completed online behavioral questionnaires at enrollment and three month follow-up. Each participant served as his own control. No participant incentives were provided. Follow-up was completed by 522 (54%) of 971 eligible men. Men completing follow-up were similar to those who did not by age and prevalence of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) but reported more lifetime sex partners. They also differed somewhat by race, education, and HIV testing. In the three months after the intervention, men were significantly more likely to disclose HIV status to partners (odds ratio [OR] = 3.37, p<0.001) and less likely to report a casual partner or UAI in their most recent sexual encounter than at baseline. Of 120 men HIV tested during follow-up, 17 (14%) reported being HIV seropositive. These findings show that MSM at high risk for HIV will participate in a brief online video intervention designed to engage critical thinking and that significant, self-reported increases in HIV disclosure and decreases in risk behavior occurred three months after MSM viewed the video.

  20. Behavioral interventions for improving contraceptive use among women living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Laureen M; Hilgenberg, Deborah; Chen, Mario; Denison, Julie; Stuart, Gretchen

    2013-01-31

    Contraception services can help meet the family planning goals of women living with HIV as well as prevent mother-to-child transmission. Due to the increased availability of antiretroviral therapy, survival has improved for people living with HIV, and more HIV-positive women may desire to have a child or another child. This review examines behavioral interventions to improve contraceptive use, for family planning, among women who are HIV-positive. We systematically reviewed studies that examined behavioral interventions for HIV-positive women that were intended to inform contraceptive choice, encourage contraceptive use, or promote adherence to a contraceptive regimen. Through October 2012, we searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, POPLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ClinicalTrials.gov and ICTRP. For other relevant papers, we examined reference lists and unpublished project reports, and contacted investigators in the field. Studies evaluated a behavioral intervention for improving contraceptive use for contraception. The comparison could be another behavioral intervention, usual care, or no intervention. We also considered studies that compared HIV-positive women versus HIV-negative women. We included nonrandomized (observational) studies as well as randomized trials.Primary outcomes were pregnancy and contraception use, e.g., uptake of a new method, improved use or continuation of current method. Secondary outcomes were knowledge of contraceptive effectiveness and attitude about contraception in general or about a specific contraceptive method. Two authors independently extracted the data. One author entered the data into RevMan and a second verified accuracy. We examined the quality of evidence using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale.Given the need to control for confounding factors in observational studies, we used adjusted estimates from the models when available. Where we did not have adjusted analyses, we calculated the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence

  1. Peer group intervention for HIV prevention among health workers in Chile.

    PubMed

    Norr, Kathleen F; Ferrer, Lilian; Cianelli, Rosina; Crittenden, Kathleen S; Irarrázabal, Lisette; Cabieses, Báltica; Araya, Alejandra; Bernales, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    We tested the impacts of a professionally assisted peer-group intervention on Chilean health workers' HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors using a quasi-experimental design with a pretest and 3-month posttest. Two Santiago suburbs were randomly assigned to the intervention or delayed intervention control condition. Five community clinics per suburb participated. Interested workers at the intervention (n = 262) and control (n = 293) clinics participated and completed both evaluations. At posttest, intervention clinic workers had higher knowledge and more positive attitudes regarding HIV, condoms, stigmatization, and self-efficacy for prevention. They reported more partner discussion about safer sex, less unprotected sex, and more involvement in HIV prevention activities in the clinic and the community, but they did not report fewer sexual partners or more standard precautions behaviors. Because of these positive impacts, the program will become a regular continuing education unit that can be used to meet health-worker licensing requirements. Copyright © 2012 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Exploring the influence of social determinants on HIV risk behaviors and the potential application of structural interventions to prevent HIV in women

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Arlene E.; Collins, Charles B.

    2016-01-01

    When seeking to prevent HIV/AIDS in women, attending to aspects of their lived experience provides opportunities to address the presence of social determinants in prevention strategies. According to the CDC, in 2010, the rate of new HIV infections among Black women was 20 times that of White women, while among Hispanic/Latino women it was 4 times the rate of White women. Additionally, 86% of HIV infections in women were attributed to heterosexual contact and 14% to injection drug use. The WHO indicates that worldwide, 49% of individuals infected by HIV are women, with a predominant source of infection tied to heterosexual transmission. This paper presents social determinants as influential factors in terms of women’s sexual behavior decision-making, along with suggested structural interventions to address the social determinants of their HIV risks. Secondary analysis was conducted on data from an earlier study (Abdul-Quader and Collins, 2011) which used concept-mapping to examine the feasibility, evaluability, and sustainability of structural interventions for HIV prevention. The current analysis focused on structural interventions applicable to women and their HIV prevention needs. Three themes emerged: economic interventions, responses to violence against women, and integrated health service delivery strategies. The themes provide a foundation for next steps regarding research, policy planning, and intervention implementation that is inclusive of women’s lived experience. The paper concludes with suggestions such as attention to innovative projects and a paradigm shift regarding policy planning as key next steps towards HIV prevention that reflects the contextual complexity of women’s lived experiences. PMID:27134801

  3. Interventions to address chronic disease and HIV: strategies to promote exercise and nutrition among HIV-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Botros, Diana; Somarriba, Gabriel; Neri, Daniela; Miller, Tracie L

    2012-12-01

    Food insecurity, micronutrient deficits, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and bone disorders complicate the treatment of HIV infection. Nutrition and exercise interventions can be effective in ameliorating these symptoms that are associated with HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART). In this literature review, we examine the most recent nutrition and exercise interventions for HIV-infected patients. Macronutrient supplementation can be useful in treating malnutrition and wasting. Multivitamin (vitamin B complex, vitamin C, and vitamin E) supplements and vitamin D may improve quality of life and decrease morbidity and mortality. Nutritional counseling and exercise interventions are effective for treating obesity, fat redistribution, and metabolic abnormalities. Physical activity interventions improve body composition, strength, and fitness in HIV-infected individuals. Taken collectively, the evidence suggests that a proactive approach to nutrition and physical activity guidance and interventions can improve outcomes and help abrogate the adverse metabolic, cardiovascular, and psychological consequences of HIV and its treatments.

  4. Interventions to Address Chronic Disease and HIV: Strategies to Promote Exercise and Nutrition Among HIV-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Botros, Diana; Somarriba, Gabriel; Neri, Daniela; Miller, Tracie L.

    2012-01-01

    Food insecurity, micronutrient deficits, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and bone disorders complicate the treatment of HIV infection. Nutrition and exercise interventions can be effective in ameliorating these symptoms that are associated with HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART). In this literature review, we examine the most recent nutrition and exercise interventions for HIV-infected patients. Macronutrient supplementation can be useful in treating malnutrition and wasting. Multivitamin (vitamin B complex, vitamin C, and vitamin E) supplements and vitamin D may improve quality of life and decrease morbidity and mortality. Nutritional counseling and exercise interventions are effective for treating obesity, fat redistribution, and metabolic abnormalities. Physical activity interventions improve body composition, strength, and fitness in HIV-infected individuals. Taken collectively, the evidence suggests that a proactive approach to nutrition and physical activity guidance and interventions can improve outcomes and help abrogate the adverse metabolic, cardiovascular, and psychological consequences of HIV and its treatments. PMID:22933247

  5. Cost and threshold analysis of an HIV/STI/hepatitis prevention intervention for young men leaving prison: Project START.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A P; Macgowan, R J; Eldridge, G D; Morrow, K M; Sosman, J; Zack, B; Margolis, A

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (a) estimate the costs of providing a single-session HIV prevention intervention and a multi-session intervention, and (b) estimate the number of HIV transmissions that would need to be prevented for the intervention to be cost-saving or cost-effective (threshold analysis). Project START was evaluated with 522 young men aged 18-29 years released from eight prisons located in California, Mississippi, Rhode Island, and Wisconsin. Cost data were collected prospectively. Costs per participant were $689 for the single-session comparison intervention, and ranged from $1,823 to 1,836 for the Project START multi-session intervention. From the incremental threshold analysis, the multi-session intervention would be cost-effective if it prevented one HIV transmission for every 753 participants compared to the single-session intervention. Costs are comparable with other HIV prevention programs. Program managers can use these data to gauge costs of initiating these HIV prevention programs in correctional facilities.

  6. Perception of vulnerability to HIV infection among older people in Nairobi, Kenya: a need for intervention.

    PubMed

    Chepngeno-Langat, Gloria

    2013-03-01

    It is evident that sexual activity tends to decrease with age. Nonetheless, it is still prevalent enough to be considered a risk factor for the spread of HIV among older people. This paper uses quantitative data for 2053 individuals to examine HIV risk perception and correlates of perceived risk among older people aged 50 years and older living in Nairobi slums. It emerged that a majority of older people did not consider themselves at risk of infection. Of those who felt at risk, a greater proportion sensed only a small chance of contracting HIV. Women cited 'no sexual activity' while men mentioned 'having only one and/or a faithful sexual partner' as the primary reasons for perceiving minimal risk of HIV infection. There were no differences by sex in the basis for perceiving moderate-to-great risk of infection. Religion is a key factor in risk perception with Muslims perceiving higher levels of risk and, conversely, devotees irrespective of faith perceiving lower levels of risk. Older people willing to be tested for HIV had a decreased likelihood of perceived risk compared with those unwilling to be tested. This paper recommends evaluation of older people's perception of risk in order to better inform interventions aimed at minimizing their vulnerability to HIV infection.

  7. Using standardized patients to evaluate hospital-based intervention outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Lin, Chunqing; Guan, Jihui

    2014-01-01

    Background The standardized patient approach has proved to be an effective training tool for medical educators. This article explains the process of employing standardized patients in an HIV stigma reduction intervention in healthcare settings in China. Methods The study was conducted in 40 hospitals in two provinces of China. One year after the stigma reduction intervention, standardized patients made unannounced visits to participating hospitals, randomly approached service providers on duty and presented symptoms related to HIV and disclosed HIV-positive test results. After each visit, the standardized patients evaluated their providers’ attitudes and behaviours using a structured checklist. Standardized patients also took open-ended observation notes about their experience and the evaluation process. Results Seven standardized patients conducted a total of 217 assessments (108 from 20 hospitals in the intervention condition; 109 from 20 hospitals in the control condition). Based on a comparative analysis, the intervention hospitals received a better rating than the control hospitals in terms of general impression and universal precaution compliance as well as a lower score on stigmatizing attitudes and behaviours toward the standardized patients. Conclusion Standardized patients are a useful supplement to traditional self-report assessments, particularly for measuring intervention outcomes that are sensitive or prone to social desirability. PMID:24369433

  8. Reducing HIV infections at circuit parties: from description to explanation and principles of intervention design.

    PubMed

    Ghaziani, Amin; Cook, Thomas D

    2005-06-01

    Circuit parties are weekend-long, erotically charged, drug-prevalent dance events attended by up to 25,000 self-identified gay and bisexual men who socialize and dance nonstop, sometimes for 24 hours or longer. Although these parties started originally as part of the gay community's response to raise HIV/AIDS awareness and to build community and cultural identity, they may have become a site for transmitting HIV across geographical regions and socioeconomic groups of gay and bisexual men. This article reviews the descriptive published studies on circuit parties. The authors use these studies and the literature on drug use and high-risk sexual behavior in gay and bisexual communities, along with sociological and social psychological research, to propose a causal model of why circuit parties may contribute to unsafe sexual practices that increase HIV infection risk. The authors abstract 5 prevention messages relevant to circuit parties and review intervention studies in nonparty settings for insight into how to reduce risky sexual behavior within circuit events. These intervention studies help to identify 5 context-specific groups that can effectively carry the prevention messages. The 5-by-5 matrix represents a first stage in developing a causal model for reducing HIV infections, along with evaluable principles of intervention, at circuit parties.

  9. The Community-based Participatory Intervention Effect of “HIV-RAAP”

    PubMed Central

    Yancey, Elleen M.; Mayberry, Robert; Armstrong-Mensah, Elizabeth; Collins, David; Goodin, Lisa; Cureton, Shava; Trammell, Ella H.; Yuan, Keming

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To design and test HIV-RAAP (HIV/AIDS Risk Reduction Among Heterosexually Active African American Men and Women: A Risk Reduction Prevention Intervention) a coeducational, culture- and gender-sensitive community-based participatory HIV risk reduction intervention. Methods A community-based participatory research process included intervention development and implementation of a 7-session coeducational curriculum conducted over 7 consecutive weeks. Results The results indicated a significant intervention effect on reducing sexual behavior risk (P=0.02), improving HIV risk knowledge (P=0.006), and increasing sexual partner conversations about HIV risk reduction (P= 0.001). Conclusions The HIV-RAAP intervention impacts key domains of heterosexual HIV transmission. PMID:22488405

  10. Cost-effectiveness of a community-based intervention for reducing the transmission of Schistosoma haematobium and HIV in Africa.

    PubMed

    Ndeffo Mbah, Martial L; Kjetland, Eyrun F; Atkins, Katherine E; Poolman, Eric M; Orenstein, Evan W; Meyers, Lauren Ancel; Townsend, Jeffrey P; Galvani, Alison P

    2013-05-07

    Epidemiological studies from sub-Saharan Africa show that genital infection with Schistosoma haematobium [corrected] may increase the risk for HIV infection in young women. Therefore, preventing schistosomiasis has the potential to reduce HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. We developed a transmission model of female genital schistosomiasis and HIV infections that we fit to epidemiological data of HIV and female genital schistosomiasis prevalence and coinfection in rural Zimbabwe. We used the model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a multifaceted community-based intervention for preventing schistosomiasis and, consequently, HIV infections in rural Zimbabwe, from the perspective of a health payer. The community-based intervention combined provision of clean water, sanitation, and health education (WSH) with administration of praziquantel to school-aged children. Considering variation in efficacy between 10% and 70% of WSH for reducing S. haematobium [corrected] transmission, our model predicted that community-based intervention is likely to be cost-effective in Zimbabwe at an aggregated WSH cost corresponding to US $725-$1,000 per individual over a 20-y intervention period. These costs compare favorably with empirical measures of WSH provision in developing countries, indicating that integrated community-based intervention for reducing the transmission of S. haematobium [corrected] is an economically attractive strategy for reducing schistosomiasis and HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa that would have a powerful impact on averting infections and saving lives.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of a community-based intervention for reducing the transmission of Schistosoma haematobium and HIV in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ndeffo Mbah, Martial L.; Kjetland, Eyrun F.; Atkins, Katherine E.; Poolman, Eric M.; Orenstein, Evan W.; Meyers, Lauren Ancel; Townsend, Jeffrey P.; Galvani, Alison P.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies from sub-Saharan Africa show that genital infection with Schistosoma haematobium may increase the risk for HIV infection in young women. Therefore, preventing schistosomiasis has the potential to reduce HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. We developed a transmission model of female genital schistosomiasis and HIV infections that we fit to epidemiological data of HIV and female genital schistosomiasis prevalence and coinfection in rural Zimbabwe. We used the model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a multifaceted community-based intervention for preventing schistosomiasis and, consequently, HIV infections in rural Zimbabwe, from the perspective of a health payer. The community-based intervention combined provision of clean water, sanitation, and health education (WSH) with administration of praziquantel to school-aged children. Considering variation in efficacy between 10% and 70% of WSH for reducing S. haematobium transmission, our model predicted that community-based intervention is likely to be cost-effective in Zimbabwe at an aggregated WSH cost corresponding to US $725–$1,000 per individual over a 20-y intervention period. These costs compare favorably with empirical measures of WSH provision in developing countries, indicating that integrated community-based intervention for reducing the transmission of S. haematobium is an economically attractive strategy for reducing schistosomiasis and HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa that would have a powerful impact on averting infections and saving lives. PMID:23589884

  12. Yoga lifestyle intervention reduces blood pressure in HIV-infected adults with cardiovascular disease risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Cade, Todd; Reeds, Dominic N.; Mondy, Kristin E.; Overton, Turner; Grassino, Joseph; Tucker, Shawn; Bopp, Coco; Laciny, Erin; Hubert, Sara; Lassa-Claxton, Sherry; Yarasheski, Kevin E.

    2009-01-01

    People living with human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) are at increased risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Safe and effective interventions for lowering CVD risk in HIV are high priorities. Objective We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled study to evaluate whether a yoga lifestyle intervention improves CVD risk factors, virologic or immunologic status, or quality of life in HIV-infected adults more than in a matched control group. Methods Sixty HIV-infected adults with mild-moderate CVD risk were assigned to 20 wks of supervised yoga practice or standard of care treatment. Baseline and week 20 measures were; 2hr-oral glucose tolerance test with insulin monitoring, body composition, fasting serum lipid/lipoprotein profile, resting blood pressures, CD4+ T-cell number and plasma HIV RNA, and the Medical Outcomes Study SF-36 health-related quality of life inventory. Results Resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures were reduced more (p=0.04) in the yoga group (−5±2 and −3±1 mmHg) than in the standard of care group (+1±2 and +2±2 mmHg), despite no greater reduction in body weight, fat mass, proatherogenic lipids, or improvements in glucose tolerance or overall quality of life after yoga. Immune and virologic status was not adversely affected. Conclusion Among traditional lifestyle modifications, yoga is a low cost, simple to administer, non-pharmacological, popular behavioral intervention that can lower blood pressure in pre-hypertensive HIV-infected adults with mild-moderate CVD risk factors. PMID:20059570

  13. Behavioral interventions for improving contraceptive use among women living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Laureen M; Grey, Thomas W; Chen, Mario; Denison, Julie; Stuart, Gretchen

    2016-08-09

    Contraception services can help meet the family planning goals of women living with HIV as well as prevent mother-to-child transmission. Due to antiretroviral therapy, survival has improved for people living with HIV, and more HIV-positive women may desire to have a child or another child. Behavioral interventions, involving counseling or education, can help women choose and use an appropriate contraceptive method. We systematically reviewed studies of behavioral interventions for HIV-positive women intended to inform contraceptive choice, encourage contraceptive use, or promote adherence to a contraceptive regimen. Until 2 August 2016, we searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, Web of Science, POPLINE, ClinicalTrials.gov and ICTRP. For the initial review, we examined reference lists and unpublished project reports, and we contacted investigators in the field. Studies evaluated a behavioral intervention for improving contraceptive use for family planning (FP). The comparison could have been another behavioral intervention, usual care, or no intervention. We also considered studies that compared HIV-positive versus HIV-negative women. We included non-randomized studies as well as randomized controlled trials (RCTs).Primary outcomes were pregnancy and contraception use, e.g. uptake of a new method or improved use or continuation of current method. Secondary outcomes were knowledge of contraceptive effectiveness and attitude about contraception or a specific contraceptive method. Two authors independently extracted the data. One entered the data into RevMan and a second verified accuracy. We evaluated RCTs according to recommended principles. For non-randomized studies, we examined the quality of evidence using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. Given the need to control for confounding factors in non-randomized studies, we used adjusted estimates from the models when available. Where we did not have adjusted analyses, we calculated the odds ratio (OR) with 95

  14. Improving Parental Stress Levels Among Mothers Living with HIV: A Randomized Control Group Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Erica R.; Davies, Susan L.; Aban, Inmaculada; Mugavero, Michael J.; Shrestha, Sadeep

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Limited knowledge exists regarding parenting efficacy interventions for mothers living with HIV (MLH). This study evaluated the impact of a supportive group intervention on lowering parenting stress among MLH. Eighty MLH were randomized to a parenting (N=34) or health focused (control) (N=46) group intervention. Pre- and post-intervention stress levels were assessed using the Parental Stress Index-Short Form (PSI/SF). Differences in PSI/SF scores were examined using ANOVA, and predictors of PSI/SF scores were evaluated using multivariable linear regression. Findings indicate that both groups experienced significant decreases in parenting stress from baseline to post-intervention (p=0.0001), with no significant differences between interventions. At baseline, 41% of participants were identified as highly stressed and 30% as clinically stressed, with PSI/SF scores above the 85th and 90th percentile, respectively. Amongst the highly stressed subpopulation, significant improvements in PSI/SF scores for Parental Distress PSI/SF (p=0.039), Difficult Child PSI/SF (p=0.048), and total PSI/SF (p=0.036) were seen, with greater improvements in the parenting intervention. Among the clinically stressed subpopulation, significant improvements in total post-intervention PSI/SF scores were seen (p=0.049), with greater improvements in the parenting intervention. Results indicate that screening for high levels of stress should be considered in clinical practice to effectively implement stress-reducing interventions among MLH. PMID:25734870

  15. Improving parental stress levels among mothers living with HIV: a randomized control group intervention study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Erica R; Davies, Susan L; Aban, Inmaculada; Mugavero, Michael J; Shrestha, Sadeep; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette

    2015-04-01

    Limited knowledge exists regarding parenting efficacy interventions for mothers living with HIV (MLH). This study evaluated the impact of a supportive group intervention on lowering parenting stress among MLH. Eighty MLH were randomized to a parenting (N=34) or health focused (control) (N=46) group intervention. Pre- and post-intervention stress levels were assessed using the Parental Stress Index-Short Form (PSI/SF). Differences in PSI/SF scores were examined using ANOVA, and predictors of PSI/SF scores were evaluated using multivariable linear regression. Findings indicate that both groups experienced significant decreases in parenting stress from baseline to post-intervention (p=0.0001), with no significant differences between interventions. At baseline, 41% of participants were identified as highly stressed and 30% as clinically stressed, with PSI/SF scores above the 85(th) and 90(th) percentile, respectively. Amongst the highly stressed subpopulation, significant improvements in PSI/SF scores for Parental Distress PSI/SF (p=0.039), Difficult Child PSI/SF (p=0.048), and total PSI/SF (p=0.036) were seen, with greater improvements in the parenting intervention. Among the clinically stressed subpopulation, significant improvements in total post-intervention PSI/SF scores were seen (p=0.049), with greater improvements in the parenting intervention. Results indicate that screening for high levels of stress should be considered in clinical practice to effectively implement stress-reducing interventions among MLH.

  16. Behavioural interventions for HIV positive prevention in developing countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Caitlin E; Medley, Amy M; Sweat, Michael D; O'Reilly, Kevin R

    2010-08-01

    To assess the evidence for a differential effect of positive prevention interventions among individuals infected and not infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in developing countries, and to assess the effectiveness of interventions targeted specifically at people living with HIV. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of papers on positive prevention behavioural interventions in developing countries published between January 1990 and December 2006. Standardized methods of searching and data abstraction were used. Pooled effect sizes were calculated using random effects models. Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria. In meta-analysis, behavioural interventions had a stronger impact on condom use among HIV-positive (HIV+) individuals (odds ratio, OR: 3.61; 95% confidence interval, CI: 2.61-4.99) than among HIV-negative individuals (OR: 1.32; 95% CI: 0.77-2.26). Interventions specifically targeting HIV+ individuals also showed a positive effect on condom use (OR: 7.84; 95% CI: 2.82-21.79), which was particularly strong among HIV-serodiscordant couples (OR: 67.38; 95% CI: 36.17-125.52). Interventions included in this review were limited both in scope (most were HIV counselling and testing interventions) and in target populations (most were conducted among heterosexual adults or HIV-serodiscordant couples). Current evidence suggests that interventions targeting people living with HIV in developing countries increase condom use, especially among HIV-serodiscordant couples. Comprehensive positive prevention interventions targeting diverse populations and covering a range of intervention modalities are needed to keep HIV+ individuals physically and mentally healthy, prevent transmission of HIV infection and increase the agency and involvement of people living with HIV.

  17. Adapting an HIV prevention intervention for high-risk, incarcerated adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hurd, Noelle M; Valerio, Melissa A; Garcia, Nicole M; Scott, Anthony A

    2010-02-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an adapted 4-session HIV prevention program. Participants included 490 adolescents who participated in either the 8- or the adapted 4-session HIVEd program. Analyses to identify mean changes in HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and behavioral intentions between participants in either the 4- (n = 274) or 8-session (n = 216) programs were completed. Findings indicate participants in both programs had positive changes at post interview across all study outcomes. No significant differences in changes between participants in the 4- and 8-session programs were found except that male adolescents in the 4-session program had significantly higher mean changes in condom knowledge (p < .01). The adaptation of the 8-session HIVEd program was undertaken to better reach and accommodate the needs of a high risk incarcerated adolescent population. Findings demonstrate that HIV prevention interventions for high risk populations may be successfully adapted and condensed when based on rigorously evaluated and theoretically driven programs.

  18. Mano a Mano-Mujer: an effective HIV prevention intervention for Chilean women.

    PubMed

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Norr, Kathleen F; Miner, Sarah; Irarrazabal, Lisette; Bernales, Margarita; Peragallo, Nilda; Levy, Judith; Norr, James L; McElmurry, Beverly

    2012-01-01

    The impact of a professionally facilitated peer group intervention for HIV prevention among 400 low-income Chilean women was examined using a quasiexperimental design. At 3 months postintervention, the intervention group had higher HIV-related knowledge, more positive attitudes toward people living with HIV, fewer perceived condom use barriers, greater self- efficacy, higher HIV reduction behavioral intentions, more communication with partners about safer sex, and decreased depression symptoms. They did not, however, have increased condom use or self-esteem. More attention to gender barriers is needed. This intervention offers a model for reducing HIV for women in Chile and other Latin American countries.

  19. Development of a Multilevel Intervention to Increase HIV Clinical Trial Participation among Rural Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Odeneye, Ebun; Banks, Bahby; Shandor Miles, Margaret; Roman Isler, Malika

    2013-01-01

    Minorities are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS in the rural Southeast; therefore, it is important to develop targeted, culturally appropriate interventions to support rural minority participation in HIV/AIDS research. Using intervention mapping, we developed a comprehensive multilevel intervention for service providers (SPs) and people…

  20. Regional variations in HIV disclosure in Thailand: implications for future interventions.

    PubMed

    Lee, S-J; Li, L; Jiraphongsa, C; Iamsirithaworn, S; Khumtong, S; Rotheram-Borus, M J

    2010-03-01

    People living with HIV (PLH) in Thailand face tremendous challenges, including HIV disclosure. With the advent of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy in Thailand, the positive benefits of HIV disclosure are becoming more salient. However, there are regional variations in the levels of HIV disclosure in Thailand. We examined and compared the levels of HIV disclosure in Northern and Northeastern Thailand. PLH (N = 410) were recruited from four district hospitals in the North and the Northeast. More PLH in the North reported disclosing HIV status to at least one family member in the household. PLH in the Northeast reported significantly lower levels of HIV disclosure within family and outside of family. HIV disclosure remains a significant challenge in Thailand, especially in the Northeast. We propose future interventions focusing on HIV disclosure to address the specific concerns and barriers to HIV disclosure, taking into account the regional differences in HIV disclosure.

  1. A systematic review of microfinance-based interventions for HIV/AIDS prevention.

    PubMed

    Arrivillaga, Marcela; Salcedo, Juan Pablo

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the scope of microfinance-based interventions for HIV/AIDS prevention. A systematic review was carried out of literature published between 1986 and 2012 from EBSCO, ProQuest, Science Direct, Emerald, and JSTOR. The search included original research articles that presented evaluated interventions. Books, dissertations, gray literature, and theoretical reviews were excluded. Findings revealed a total of fourteen studies focused on the evaluation of: the IMAGE project, female sex workers, life skills and risk behavior reduction, adherence to treatment, and children and their families. Most of these interventions have shown to have beneficial effects, although results depend on: the type of program, monitoring, sustainability of microcredits, and contextual conditions. The findings of this review should be complemented with interventions carried out by various NGOs and microfinance institutions in different countries that present their results in a dissimilar way.

  2. Assessing the Role of Masculinity in the Transmission of HIV: A Systematic Review to Inform HIV Risk Reduction Counseling Interventions for MSM

    PubMed Central

    Zeglin, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    HIV affects over 1.2 million people in the United States; a substantial number are men who have sex with men (MSM). Despite an abundance of literature evaluating numerous social/structural and individual risk factors associated with HIV for this population, relatively little is known regarding the individual-level role of masculinity in community-level HIV transmission risk. To address this gap, the current analysis systematically reviewed the masculinity and HIV literature for MSM. The findings of 31 sources were included. Seven themes were identified: 1) Number of partners, 2) Attitudes toward condoms, 3) Drug use, 4) Sexual positioning, 5) Condom decision-making, 6) Attitudes toward testing, and 7) Treatment compliance. These factors, representing the enactment of masculine norms, potentiate the spread of HIV. The current article aligns these factors into a Masculinity Model of Community HIV Transmission. Opportunities for counseling interventions include identifying how masculinity informs a client’s cognitions, emotions, and behaviors as well as adapting gender transformative interventions to help create new conceptualizations of masculinity for MSM clients. This approach could reduce community-level HIV incidence. PMID:25917411

  3. Assessing the role of masculinity in the transmission of HIV: a systematic review to inform HIV risk reduction counseling interventions for men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Zeglin, Robert J

    2015-10-01

    HIV affects over 1.2 million people in the United States; a substantial number are men who have sex with men (MSM). Despite an abundance of literature evaluating numerous social/structural and individual risk factors associated with HIV for this population, relatively little is known regarding the individual-level role of masculinity in community-level HIV transmission risk. To address this gap, the current analysis systematically reviewed the masculinity and HIV literature for MSM. The findings of 31 sources were included. Seven themes were identified: (1) number of partners, (2) attitudes toward condoms, (3) drug use, (4) sexual positioning, (5) condom decision-making, (6) attitudes toward testing, and (7) treatment compliance. These factors, representing the enactment of masculine norms, potentiate the spread of HIV. The current article aligns these factors into a masculinity model of community HIV transmission. Opportunities for counseling interventions include identifying how masculinity informs a client's cognitions, emotions, and behaviors as well as adapting gender-transformative interventions to help create new conceptualizations of masculinity for MSM clients. This approach could reduce community-level HIV incidence.

  4. The flawed reliance on randomized controlled trials in studies of HIV behavioral prevention interventions for people who inject drugs and other populations

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Samuel R.; Perlman, David C.; Ompad, Danielle C.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses ways in which randomized controlled trials do not accurately measure the impact of HIV behavioral interventions. This is because: 1.Such trials measure the wrong outcomes. Behavior change may have little to do with changes in HIV incidence since behavior change in events between HIV-concordant people have no impact on incidence. Even more important, the comparison of HIV incidence rates between study arms of individual-level RCTs does not measure the true outcome of interest—whether or not the intervention reduces HIV transmission at the community level. This is because this comparison cannot measure the extent to which the intervention stops transmission by HIV-infected people in the study to those outside it. (And this is made even worse if HIV-infected are excluded from the evaluation of the intervention.) 2. There are potential harms implicit in most cognitively-oriented behavioral interventions that are not measured in current practice and may not be measurable using RCTs. Intervention trials often reinforce norms and values of individual self-protection. They rarely if ever measure whether doing this reduces community trust, solidarity, cohesion, organization, or activism in ways that might facilitate HIV transmission. 3. Many interventions are not best conceived of as interventions with individuals but rather with networks, cultures of risks, or communities. As such, randomizing individuals leads to effective interventions that diffuse protection through a community; but these are evaluated as ineffective because the changes diffuse to the control arm, which leads to systematic and erroneous reductions in the evaluated effectiveness as RCTs measure it. The paper ends by discussing research designs that are superior to individual-level RCTs at measuring whether an intervention reduces or increases new HIV transmission. PMID:26222900

  5. The Global HIV Archive: Facilitating the Transition from Science to Practice of Efficacious HIV Prevention Interventions*

    PubMed Central

    Card, Josefina J.; Newman, Emily N.; Golden, Rachel E.; Kuhn, Tamara; Lomonaco, Carmela

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development, content, and capabilities of the online Global HIV Archive (GHA). With the goal of facilitating widespread adaptation and appropriate use of efficacious HIV prevention programs throughout the globe, GHA has: first, expanded and updated the search for HIV prevention programs originating in low-resource countries; second, identified those meritorious HIV prevention programs meeting established efficacy criteria of technical merit, replicability, and positive outcomes; third, prepared both implementation and evaluation materials from the efficacious programs for public use; fourth, developed interactive wizards or capacity-building tools to facilitate appropriate program selection, implementation, and adaptation; and, fifth, made the efficacious programs and accompanying wizards available to health practitioners throughout the globe in both printed and online formats. PMID:24563820

  6. Stress Management Interventions for HIV+ Adults: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials, 1989 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Carey, Michael P.; Fielder, Robyn L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Numerous studies document that stress accelerates disease processes in a variety of diseases including HIV. As a result, investigators have developed and evaluated interventions to reduce stress as a means to improve health among persons living with HIV. Therefore, the current meta-analysis examines the impact of stress-management interventions at improving psychological, immunological, hormonal, and other behavioral health outcomes among HIV+ adults. Design This meta-analytic review integrated the results of 35 randomized controlled trials examining the efficacy of 46 separate stress-management interventions for HIV+ adults (N = 3,077). Main Outcome Measures Effect sizes were calculated for stress processes (coping and social support), psychological/psychosocial (anxiety, depression, distress, and quality of life), immunological (CD4+ counts and viral load), hormonal (cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate [DHEA-S], cortisol/DHEA-S ratio, and testosterone) and other behavioral health outcomes (fatigue). Results Compared to controls, stress-management interventions reduce anxiety, depression, distress, and fatigue and improve quality of life (d+s = 0.16 to 0.38). Stress-management interventions do not appear to improve CD4+ counts, viral load, or hormonal outcomes compared with controls. Conclusion Overall, stress-management interventions for HIV+ adults significantly improve mental health and quality of life but do not alter immunological or hormonal processes. The absence of immunological or hormonal benefits may reflect the studies' limited assessment period (measured typically within 1-week post-intervention), participants' advanced stage of HIV (HIV+ status known for an average of 5 years), and/or sample characteristics (predominately male and Caucasian participants). Future research might test these hypotheses and refine our understanding of stress processes and their amelioration. PMID:18377131

  7. Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention for Persons Living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Michael; Finnell, Deborah

    Alcohol use among persons living with HIV (PLWH) is consequential. More than half of PLWH have reported having a drink of alcohol and about 8% have reported heavy drinking. Alcohol use in PLWH has been associated with a higher risk of nonadherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) and poor treatment outcomes. We provide guidance to clinicians for using an evidence-based approach to intervene and ensure follow-up for PLWH who drink alcohol. This set of clinical strategies, known as screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment, when fully disseminated may help address the 90-90-90 targets proposed by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, in particular in the receipt of sustained ART and the attainment of viral suppression.

  8. Assessing the effects of a complementary parent intervention and prior exposure to a preadolescent program of HIV risk reduction for mid-adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Bonita; Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Rolle, Glenda; Li, Xiaoming; Braithwaite, Nanika; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Marshall, Sharon; Gomez, Perry

    2015-03-01

    We (1) evaluated the impact of an evidence-based HIV prevention program with and without a parent component among mid-adolescents living in the Caribbean and (2) determined the effect of prior receipt of a related intervention during preadolescence on intervention response. A randomized, controlled 4-cell trial of a 10-session, theory-based HIV prevention intervention involving 2564 Bahamian grade-10 youths (some of whom had received a comparable intervention in grade 6) was conducted (2008-2011). Randomization occurred at the level of the classroom with follow-up at 6, 12, and 18 months after intervention. The 3 experimental conditions all included the youths' curriculum and either a youth-parent intervention emphasizing adolescent-parent communication, a parent-only goal-setting intervention, or no parent intervention. An intervention delivered to mid-adolescents in combination with a parent-adolescent sexual-risk communication intervention increased HIV/AIDS knowledge, condom-use skills, and self-efficacy and had a marginal effect on consistent condom use. Regardless of prior exposure to a similar intervention as preadolescents, youths benefited from receipt of the intervention. Preadolescents and mid-adolescents in HIV-affected countries should receive HIV prevention interventions that include parental participation.

  9. Couple-based HIV counseling and testing: a risk reduction intervention for U.S. drug-involved women and their primary male partners

    PubMed Central

    Pouget, Enrique R.; Tortu, Stephanie; Volpe, Ellen M.; Torres, Leilani; Rodriguez, William

    2014-01-01

    To help reduce the elevated risk of acquiring HIV for African American and Latina women drug users in primary heterosexual relationships, we developed a brief couple-based HIV counseling and testing prevention intervention. The intervention was based on an integrated HIV risk behavior theory that incorporated elements of social exchange theory, the theory of gender and power, the stages-of-change model, and the information-motivation-behavior skills model. In this article we describe the development, content and format of the couple-based HIV testing and counseling intervention, and its delivery to 110 couples (220 individuals) in a randomized effectiveness trial, the Harlem River Couples Project, conducted in New York City from 2005 to 2007. Components of the couple-based intervention included a personalized dyadic action plan based on the couple’s risk profile, and interactive exercises designed to help build interpersonal communication skills, and facilitated discussion of social norms regarding gender roles. The couple-based HIV testing and counseling intervention significantly reduced women’s overall HIV risk compared to a standard-of-care individual HIV testing and counseling intervention. Experiences and perceptions of the intervention were positive among both clients and interventionists. The study was the first to demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of delivering a brief couple-based HIV counseling and testing intervention to reduce risk among drug-using heterosexual couples in high HIV prevalent urban communities in the United States. The intervention can be expanded to include new HIV prevention strategies, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis. Further research is needed to evaluate cost-effectiveness and implementation of the intervention in clinical settings. PMID:25512179

  10. A discussion of HIV/AIDS family interventions: implications for family-focused nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Eustace, Rosemary W

    2013-07-01

    This article presents a discussion on the role of family interventions in HIV/AIDS disease prevention and care. Although HIV/AIDS epidemic and its impact on the society traditionally has been measured in terms of individual risk behaviours and individual-level HIV prevention, HIV/AIDS family-focused prevention and management strategies are increasingly becoming a priority. However, little is known as to what constitutes a HIV/AIDS family intervention. The search was limited to English and published literature starting in the year 1983 to date. CINAHL and PubMed were emphasized using a combination of text words and subject headings. Cochrane Library, PsycInfo, Scopus, and the ISI Web of Science databases were also searched using keywords and in the case of PsycInfo, subject headings were used. The main keywords were 'nurse', or 'nursing', 'HIV/AIDS', 'family interventions', 'family support' and 'family education', and/or 'family subsystems'. The process of theorizing about 'family interventions' and 'HIV/AIDS-family interventions' is critical for putting forth essential components unique for designing culturally specific HIV/AIDS family interventions. In addition, any proposed design of HIV/AIDS family intervention should consider the impact of HIV/AIDS on the family across the family life span, disease trajectory, and from an interdisciplinary perspective. Training needs of family nurses should be met when designing multidisciplinary HIV/AIDS-FIs. Furthermore, nurses should be proactive in advocating for HIV/AIDS family intervention and HIV/AIDS family policies to improve outcomes in family functioning, processes, and relationships. More needs to be done in regard to research on families, family interventions, effectiveness, and cost of family-focused approaches. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. HIV-testing among female sex workers on the border between Brazil and French Guiana: the need for targeted interventions.

    PubMed

    Parriault, Marie-Claire; van Melle, Astrid; Basurko, Célia; Gaubert-Marechal, Emilie; Macena, Raimunda Hermelinda Maia; Rogier, Stéphanie; Kerr, Ligia Regina Franco Sansigolo; Nacher, Mathieu

    2015-08-01

    The border between Brazil and French Guiana is a place of economic, cultural, social and sexual exchange. Female sex workers represent a high risk population for HIV in this area where sexual tourism is particularly developed. HIV testing seems to be an important element in the fight against the epidemic. Indeed, early HIV testing gives access to treatments and prevention. An HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and practices survey was conducted in 2011 among sex workers along the border between Brazil and French Guiana. A total of 213 female sex workers were interviewed. One third (31.5%) of the interviewed had never tested for HIV. Factors associated with non HIV-testing were the lack of knowledge of places where to do an HIV test, to be 30 or older, feeling at risk of HIV, not evaluating one's own risk towards HIV, and living in Oiapoque. These results clearly suggest that targeted interventions are needed to encourage and assist female sex workers to get tested regularly.

  12. Process Evaluation of HIV Prevention Peer Groups in Malawi: A Look inside the Black Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCreary, Linda L.; Kaponda, Chrissie P. N.; Kafulafula, Ursula K.; Ngalande, Rebecca C.; Kumbani, Lily C.; Jere, Diana L. N.; Norr, James L.; Norr, Kathleen F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the process evaluation of a peer group intervention for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention which had positive outcomes for three target groups in Malawi: rural adults, adolescents and urban hospital workers. The six-session intervention was delivered to small groups of 10-12 participants by 85 trained volunteer peer…

  13. Process Evaluation of HIV Prevention Peer Groups in Malawi: A Look inside the Black Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCreary, Linda L.; Kaponda, Chrissie P. N.; Kafulafula, Ursula K.; Ngalande, Rebecca C.; Kumbani, Lily C.; Jere, Diana L. N.; Norr, James L.; Norr, Kathleen F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the process evaluation of a peer group intervention for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention which had positive outcomes for three target groups in Malawi: rural adults, adolescents and urban hospital workers. The six-session intervention was delivered to small groups of 10-12 participants by 85 trained volunteer peer…

  14. A systematic review of interventions to improve prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission service delivery and promote retention.

    PubMed

    Ambia, Julie; Mandala, Justin

    2016-01-01

    The success of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) is dependent upon high retention of mother-infant pairs within these programmes. This is a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions that aim to improve PMTCT service delivery and promote retention throughout the PMTCT steps. Selected databases were searched for studies published in English (up to September 2015). Outcomes of interest included antiretroviral (ARV) drugs or antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among HIV-positive pregnant and/or breastfeeding women and their infants, retention into PMTCT programs, the uptake of early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV and infant HIV status. Risk ratios and random-effect meta-analysis were used in the analysis. Interventions assessed in the 34 identified studies included male partner involvement in PMTCT, peer mentoring, the use of community health workers (CHWs), mobile phone-based reminders, conditional cash transfer, training of midwives, integration of PMTCT services and enhanced referral. Five studies (two randomized) that evaluated mobile phone-based interventions showed a statistically significant increase (pooled RR 1.18; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.32, I(2)=83%) in uptake of EID of HIV at around six weeks postpartum. Male partner involvement in PMTCT was associated with reductions in infant HIV transmission (pooled RR 0.61; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.94, I(2)=0%) in four studies (one randomized). Four studies (three randomized) that were grounded on psychological interventions reported non-significant results (pooled RR 1.01; 95% CI 0.93 to 1.09, I(2)=69%) in increasing ARV/ART uptake among HIV-positive pregnant and/or breastfeeding women and infant HIV testing (pooled RR 1.00; 95% CI 0.94 to 1.07, I(2)=45%). The effect of the other interventions on the effectiveness of improving PMTCT uptake was unclear. Heterogeneity of interventions limits these findings. Our findings indicate that mobile phone-based reminders may increase the uptake

  15. A systematic review of interventions to improve prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission service delivery and promote retention

    PubMed Central

    Ambia, Julie; Mandala, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The success of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) is dependent upon high retention of mother-infant pairs within these programmes. This is a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions that aim to improve PMTCT service delivery and promote retention throughout the PMTCT steps. Methods Selected databases were searched for studies published in English (up to September 2015). Outcomes of interest included antiretroviral (ARV) drugs or antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among HIV-positive pregnant and/or breastfeeding women and their infants, retention into PMTCT programs, the uptake of early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV and infant HIV status. Risk ratios and random-effect meta-analysis were used in the analysis. Results Interventions assessed in the 34 identified studies included male partner involvement in PMTCT, peer mentoring, the use of community health workers (CHWs), mobile phone-based reminders, conditional cash transfer, training of midwives, integration of PMTCT services and enhanced referral. Five studies (two randomized) that evaluated mobile phone-based interventions showed a statistically significant increase (pooled RR 1.18; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.32, I2=83%) in uptake of EID of HIV at around six weeks postpartum. Male partner involvement in PMTCT was associated with reductions in infant HIV transmission (pooled RR 0.61; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.94, I2=0%) in four studies (one randomized). Four studies (three randomized) that were grounded on psychological interventions reported non-significant results (pooled RR 1.01; 95% CI 0.93 to 1.09, I2=69%) in increasing ARV/ART uptake among HIV-positive pregnant and/or breastfeeding women and infant HIV testing (pooled RR 1.00; 95% CI 0.94 to 1.07, I2=45%). The effect of the other interventions on the effectiveness of improving PMTCT uptake was unclear. Heterogeneity of interventions limits these findings. Conclusions Our findings indicate that mobile phone

  16. 75 FR 3746 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Part C Early Intervention Services (EIS) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Part C Early..., Florida, that will ensure continuity of Part C, Early Intervention Services (EIS), HIV/AIDS care and...: Critical funding for HIV/AIDS care and treatment to the target populations in Orange County,...

  17. Improved Prevention Counseling by HIV Care Providers in a Multisite, Clinic-Based Intervention: Positive STEPs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrun, Mark; Cook, Paul F.; Bradley-Springer, Lucy A.; Gardner, Lytt; Marks, Gary; Wright, Julie; Wilson, Tracey E.; Quinlivan, E. Byrd; O'Daniels, Christine; Raffanti, Stephen; Thompson, Melanie; Golin, Carol

    2009-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have recommended that HIV care clinics incorporate prevention into clinical practice. This report summarizes HIV care providers' attitudes and counseling practices before and after they received training to deliver a counseling intervention to patients. Providers at seven HIV clinics received training…

  18. HIV/AIDS Interventions in an Aging U.S. Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Stephanie A.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 25 percent of people living with HIV in the United States in 2006 were age 50 and older. HIV prevention for people over 50 is an important health concern, especially as the U.S. population grows older. Scholarly research has identified the need for HIV/AIDS interventions in the…

  19. Stress management interventions for HIV+ adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, 1989 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Kalichman, Seth C; Carey, Michael P; Fielder, Robyn L

    2008-03-01

    Numerous studies document that stress accelerates disease processes in a variety of diseases including HIV. As a result, investigators have developed and evaluated interventions to reduce stress as a means to improve health among persons living with HIV. Therefore, the current meta-analysis examines the impact of stress-management interventions at improving psychological, immunological, hormonal, and other behavioral health outcomes among HIV+ adults. This meta-analytic review integrated the results of 35 randomized controlled trials examining the efficacy of 46 separate stress management interventions for HIV+ adults (N=3,077). Effect sizes were calculated for stress processes (coping and social support), psychological/psychosocial (anxiety, depression, distress, and quality of life), immunological (CD4+ counts and viral load), hormonal (cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate [DHEA-S], cortisol/DHEA-S ratio, and testosterone) and other behavioral health outcomes (fatigue). Compared to controls, stress-management interventions reduce anxiety, depression, distress, and fatigue and improve quality of life (d+s=0.16 to 0.38). Stress-management interventions do not appear to improve CD4+ counts, viral load, or hormonal outcomes compared with controls. Overall, stress-management interventions for HIV+ adults significantly improve mental health and quality of life but do not alter immunological or hormonal processes. The absence of immunological or hormonal benefits may reflect the studies' limited assessment period (measured typically within 1-week postintervention), participants' advanced stage of HIV (HIV+ status known for an average of 5 years), and/or sample characteristics (predominately male and White participants). Future research might test these hypotheses and refine our understanding of stress processes and their amelioration. Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Compendium of HIV Prevention Interventions with Evidence of Effectiveness. From CDC's HIV/AIDS Prevention Research Synthesis Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This publication was developed in response to requests by prevention service providers and planners, for science-based interventions that work in HIV/AIDS prevention. All interventions came from behavioral or social studies that had both intervention and control/comparison groups and positive results for behavioral or health outcomes. The document…

  1. Future directions for interventions targeting PTSD in HIV-infected adults.

    PubMed

    Applebaum, Allison J; Bedoya, C Andres; Hendriksen, Ellen S; Wilkinson, Jesse L; Safren, Steven A; O'Cleirigh, Conall

    2015-01-01

    Although studies consistently report high rates of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and HIV infection, development and testing of PTSD treatment interventions in HIV-infected adults is limited. As such, the purpose of this review was twofold. First, this review augments the three existing reviews of research for PTSD in HIV-infected adults conducted within the past 10 years. We found two empirically supported cognitive-behavioral therapy-based interventions for the treatment of trauma-related symptoms in HIV-infected adults. Due to the continued limited number of effective interventions for this population, a second aim of our review was to draw from the expansive field of effective PTSD interventions for the general population to propose ways that future clinical intervention research may be tailored for HIV-infected adults. Therefore, in addition to a review, we conceptualized this paper as an opportunity to generate an ideal preview of the field of intervention research in this population.

  2. Adapting Effective Narrative-based HIV Prevention Interventions to Increase Minorities’ Engagement in HIV/AIDS Services

    PubMed Central

    Berkley-Patton, Jannette; Goggin, Kathy; Liston, Robin; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Neville, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Disparities related to barriers to care for HIV-positive and at-risk minorities continue to be a major public health problem. Adaptation of efficacious HIV prevention interventions for use as health communication innovations is a promising approach for increasing minorities’ utilization of HIV health and ancillary services. Role model stories, a widely-used, HIV prevention strategy, employ culturally tailored narratives to depict experiences of an individual modeling health risk reduction behaviors. This paper describes the careful development of a contextually appropriate role model story focused on increasing minorities’ engagement in HIV/AIDS health and related services. Findings from interviews with community members and focus groups with HIV-positive minorities indicated several barriers and facilitators related to engagement in HIV healthcare and disease management (e.g., patient/provider relationships) and guided the development of role model story narratives. PMID:19415552

  3. Synthesizing gender based HIV interventions in Sub-Sahara Africa: a systematic review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Small, Eusebius; Nikolova, Silviya P; Narendorf, Sarah C

    2013-11-01

    Gender is a critical component of HIV and sexual risk interventions. Examining the range, effectiveness and methodological rigor of studies that include a gender based component can inform current interventions and future directions for intervention research. This review investigated gender informed intervention studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa that measured an outcome related to HIV. We reviewed 311 articles, 41 of which met our inclusion criteria, resulting in 11 articles that described eight different studies used in the analyses. The findings demonstrated wide variations in the types of interventions from low intensity educational content to multi-component interventions. Study outcomes were categorized into biological outcomes, HIV risk, behavioral, violence and risk reduction. Most interventions showed positive effects, and although research methodologies varied considerably, longer interventions appeared to be more effective. More research, however, is needed to build the evidence base for effectiveness of gender-based programs in reducing HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa.

  4. Systematic Review of Couple-Based HIV Intervention and Prevention Studies: Advantages, Gaps, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    El-Bassel, Nabila

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of couple-based HIV biobehavioral (skills-building, VCT, and adherence) and biomedical (ART, circumcision) prevention and intervention studies designed to reduce sexual-and drug-risk behaviors and HIV transmission and acquisition. Of the 11,162 papers identified in the search, 93 peer-reviewed papers met the inclusion criteria and yielded a total of 33 studies conducted globally. Biobehavioral couple-based prevention and intervention studies have been efficacious in reducing sexual- and drug-risk behaviors, increasing access to HIV testing and care, and improving adherence. Biomedical couple-based studies were found to reduce HIV incidence among HIV-negative sex partners and viral load among HIV-positive partners. Despite much progress, couple-based HIV prevention and intervention studies remain limited; a number of methodological gaps exist and studies focusing on MSM, people who inject drugs, and sex workers are scarce. PMID:24980246

  5. Systematic review of couple-based HIV intervention and prevention studies: advantages, gaps, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Jiwatram-Negrón, Tina; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2014-10-01

    We conducted a systematic review of couple-based HIV biobehavioral (skills-building, VCT, and adherence) and biomedical (ART, circumcision) prevention and intervention studies designed to reduce sexual- and drug-risk behaviors and HIV transmission and acquisition. Of the 11,162 papers identified in the search, 93 peer-reviewed papers met the inclusion criteria and yielded a total of 33 studies conducted globally. Biobehavioral couple-based prevention and intervention studies have been efficacious in reducing sexual- and drug-risk behaviors, increasing access to HIV testing and care, and improving adherence. Biomedical couple-based studies were found to reduce HIV incidence among HIV-negative sex partners and viral load among HIV-positive partners. Despite much progress, couple-based HIV prevention and intervention studies remain limited; a number of methodological gaps exist and studies focusing on MSM, people who inject drugs, and sex workers are scarce.

  6. Behavioural intervention trials for HIV/STD prevention in schools: are they feasible?

    PubMed

    Stephenson, J M; Oakley, A; Charleston, S; Brodala, A; Fenton, K; Petruckevitch, A; Johnson, A M

    1998-12-01

    To assess the feasibility of conducting a large randomised controlled trial (RCT) of peer led intervention in schools to reduce the risk of HIV/STD and promote sexual health. Four secondary schools in Greater London were randomly assigned to receive peer led intervention (two experimental schools) or to act as control schools. In the experimental schools, trained volunteers aged 16-17 years (year 12) delivered the peer led intervention to 13-14 year old pupils (year 9). In the control schools, year 9 pupils received the usual teacher led sex education. Questionnaire data collected from year 9 pupils at baseline included views on the quality of sex education/intervention received, and knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS and other sexual matters. Focus groups were also conducted with peer educators and year 9 pupils. Data on the process of delivering sex education/intervention and on attitudes to the RCT were collected for each of the schools. Analysis focused on the acceptability of a randomised trial to schools, parents, and pupils. Nearly 500 parents were informed about the research and invited to examine the study questionnaire; only nine raised questions and only one pupil was withdrawn from the study. Questionnaire completion rates were around 90% in all schools. At baseline, the majority of year 9 pupils wanted more information about a wide range of sexual matters. Focus group work indicated considerable enthusiasm for peer led education, among peer educators and year 9 pupils. Class discipline was the most frequently noted problem with the delivery of the peer led intervention. Evaluation of a peer led behavioural intervention through an RCT can be acceptable to schools, pupils, and parents and is feasible in practice. In general, pupils who received the peer led intervention responded more positively than those in control schools. A large RCT of the long term (5-7 year) effects of this novel intervention on sexual health outcomes is now under way.

  7. Feasibility and Acceptability of Health Communication Interventions Within a Combination Intervention Strategy for Improving Linkage and Retention in HIV Care in Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Lahuerta, Maria; Abacassamo, Fatima; Ahoua, Laurence; Tomo, Maria; Lamb, Matthew R.; Elul, Batya

    2017-01-01

    Background: Challenges to ensuring timely linkage to and retention in HIV care are well documented. Combination intervention strategies can be effective in improving the HIV care continuum. Data on feasibility and acceptability of intervention types within intervention packages are limited. Methods: The Engage4Health study assessed the effectiveness of a combination intervention strategy to increase linkage and retention among adults newly diagnosed with HIV in Mozambique. The study included 2 health communication interventions—modified delivery of pre-antiretroviral therapy (pre-ART) counseling sessions and SMS reminders—and 3 structural interventions—point-of-care CD4 testing after diagnosis, accelerated ART initiation, and noncash financial incentives. We used a process evaluation framework to assess dose delivered—extent each intervention was delivered as planned—and dose received—participant acceptability—of health communication versus structural interventions in the effectiveness study to understand associated benefits and challenges. Data sources included study records, participant interviews, and clinical data. Results: For dose delivered of health communication interventions, 98% of eligible clients received pre-ART counseling and 90% of participants received at least one SMS reminder. For structural interventions, 74% of clients received CD4 testing and 53% of eligible participants initiated ART within 1 month. Challenges for structural interventions included facility-level barriers, staffing limitations, and machine malfunctions. For dose received, participants reported pre-ART counseling and CD4 testing as the most useful interventions for linkage and financial incentives as the least useful for linkage and retention. Discussion: Findings demonstrate that health communication interventions can be feasibly and acceptably integrated with structural interventions to create combination intervention strategies. PMID:27930609

  8. Comparative costs and cost-effectiveness of behavioural interventions as part of HIV prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Justine; Zinsou, Cyprien; Parkhurst, Justin; N'Dour, Marguerite; Foyet, Léger; Mueller, Dirk H

    2013-01-01

    Behavioural interventions have been widely integrated in HIV/AIDS social marketing prevention strategies and are considered valuable in settings with high levels of risk behaviours and low levels of HIV/AIDS awareness. Despite their widespread application, there is a lack of economic evaluations comparing different behaviour change communication methods. This paper analyses the costs to increase awareness and the cost-effectiveness to influence behaviour change for five interventions in Benin. Cost and cost-effectiveness analyses used economic costs and primary effectiveness data drawn from surveys. Costs were collected for provider inputs required to implement the interventions in 2009 and analysed by 'person reached'. Cost-effectiveness was analysed by 'person reporting systematic condom use'. Sensitivity analyses were performed on all uncertain variables and major assumptions. Cost-per-person reached varies by method, with public outreach events the least costly (US$2.29) and billboards the most costly (US$25.07). Influence on reported behaviour was limited: only three of the five interventions were found to have a significant statistical correlation with reported condom use (i.e. magazines, radio broadcasts, public outreach events). Cost-effectiveness ratios per person reporting systematic condom use resulted in the following ranking: magazines, radio and public outreach events. Sensitivity analyses indicate rankings are insensitive to variation of key parameters although ratios must be interpreted with caution. This analysis suggests that while individual interventions are an attractive use of resources to raise awareness, this may not translate into a cost-effective impact on behaviour change. The study found that the extensive reach of public outreach events did not seem to influence behaviour change as cost-effectively when compared with magazines or radio broadcasts. Behavioural interventions are context-specific and their effectiveness influenced by a

  9. A pilot clustered randomized control trial evaluating the efficacy of a network-based HIV peer-education intervention targeting men who have sex with men in Hong Kong, China.

    PubMed

    Lau, Joseph T F; Tsui, Hi Yi; Lau, Mason M C

    2013-01-01

    HIV is a serious health threat among men who have sex with men (MSM). A 2-month pilot network-based peer intervention was conducted among Chinese MSM in Hong Kong. Eight MSM peer educators were randomized into the Intervention or the Control Groups and recruited 36 and 33 peers to join the program, respectively. The educators of the Intervention Group delivered standardized and theory-based preventive messages to their peers via daily social interactions. The Control Group received education materials. Baseline between-group differences were non-significant. At post-intervention, intervened participants were more likely than controlled participants to intend to use condoms consistently during anal sex with men in the next 6 months [94.4% versus 60.6%; Relative Risk (RR): 1.56 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.17, 2.08)] and to perceive behavioral control over taking up voluntary HIV testing and counseling [97.2% versus 72.7%; RR: 1.34 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.66)]. Large scale randomized trials are warranted.

  10. General hygiene, sexual risk behaviour and HIV prevalence in truck drivers from Andhra Pradesh, South India: implications for prevention interventions.

    PubMed

    Schneider, J A; Dude, A; Dinaker, M; Kumar, V; Laumann, E O; Holloway-Beth, A; Oruganti, G; Saluja, G S; Chundi, V; Yeldandi, V; Mayer, K H

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between hygiene, sexual behaviour and HIV infection are poorly understood. We examine these relationships in Indian truck drivers, a group at high risk for HIV infection. Truck drivers (n = 189) were recruited into an integrated HIV and hygiene Information Motivation (IM) programme. Sociodemographic characteristics, sexual and hygiene behaviour and HIV prevalence were determined. Multivariate logistic regression and linear generalized estimating equation models were utilized. At baseline, 2.1% of drivers were HIV infected and 34% who reported having contact with female sex workers (FSWs) had contact within the previous six months. Those who washed their hands postdefecation were less likely to report genital symptoms (OR 0.02; P = 0.01) and have sex with an FSW (OR [odds ratio] 0.21; P = 0.05). After an IM intervention, there were no changes in sexual risk-taking behaviour (coefficient -0.15 to -0.02; P = 0.13-0.75); however, hygiene behaviour improved from baseline (coefficient 0.09-0.31; P < 0.01 to P = 0.03). Personal hygiene habits, like handwashing, seem to be a modifiable behaviour after a modest intervention, whereas HIV risk-taking behaviour was not. The association between hygiene and HIV risk-taking suggests the need for further evaluation of the relationship and that of other hygiene practices in high-risk men in India.

  11. Behavioral Intervention Improves Treatment Outcomes Among HIV-Infected Individuals Who Have Delayed, Declined, or Discontinued Antiretroviral Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Novel Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Cleland, Charles M.; Applegate, Elizabeth; Belkin, Mindy; Gandhi, Monica; Salomon, Nadim; Banfield, Angela; Leonard, Noelle; Riedel, Marion; Wolfe, Hannah; Pickens, Isaiah; Bolger, Kelly; Bowens, DeShannon; Perlman, David; Mildvan, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Nationally up to 60 % of persons living with HIV are neither taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) nor well engaged in HIV care, mainly racial/ethnic minorities. This study examined a new culturally targeted multi-component intervention to address emotional, attitudinal, and social/structural barriers to ART initiation and HIV care. Participants (N = 95) were African American/Black and Latino adults with CD4<500 cells/mm3 not taking ART, randomized 1:1 to intervention or control arms, the latter receiving treatment as usual. Primary endpoints were adherence, evaluated via ART concentrations in hair samples, and HIV viral load suppression. The intervention was feasible and acceptable. Eight months post-baseline, intervention participants tended to be more likely to evidence “good” (that is, 7 days/week) adherence (60 vs. 26.7 %; p = 0.087; OR = 3.95), and had lower viral load levels than controls (t(22) = 2.29, p = 0.032; OR = 5.20), both large effect sizes. This highly promising intervention merits further study. PMID:25835462

  12. Behavioral intervention improves treatment outcomes among HIV-infected individuals who have delayed, declined, or discontinued antiretroviral therapy: a randomized controlled trial of a novel intervention.

    PubMed

    Gwadz, Marya; Cleland, Charles M; Applegate, Elizabeth; Belkin, Mindy; Gandhi, Monica; Salomon, Nadim; Banfield, Angela; Leonard, Noelle; Riedel, Marion; Wolfe, Hannah; Pickens, Isaiah; Bolger, Kelly; Bowens, DeShannon; Perlman, David; Mildvan, Donna

    2015-10-01

    Nationally up to 60 % of persons living with HIV are neither taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) nor well engaged in HIV care, mainly racial/ethnic minorities. This study examined a new culturally targeted multi-component intervention to address emotional, attitudinal, and social/structural barriers to ART initiation and HIV care. Participants (N = 95) were African American/Black and Latino adults with CD4 < 500 cells/mm(3) not taking ART, randomized 1:1 to intervention or control arms, the latter receiving treatment as usual. Primary endpoints were adherence, evaluated via ART concentrations in hair samples, and HIV viral load suppression. The intervention was feasible and acceptable. Eight months post-baseline, intervention participants tended to be more likely to evidence "good" (that is, 7 days/week) adherence (60 vs. 26.7 %; p = 0.087; OR = 3.95), and had lower viral load levels than controls (t(22) = 2.29, p = 0.032; OR = 5.20), both large effect sizes. This highly promising intervention merits further study.

  13. Nurse-delivered counselling intervention for parental HIV disclosure: Results from a pilot randomized controlled trial in China

    PubMed Central

    Simoni, Jane M.; Yang, Joyce P.; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Chen, Wei-ti; Udell, Wadiya; Bao, Meijuan; Zhang, Lin; Lu, Hongzhou

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to design and conduct a preliminary evaluation of an intervention to assist parents in decision-making about disclosure of their HIV diagnosis to their children. Design This was a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) with blinded assessment. Participants were randomized to intervention or treatment-as-usual (TAU) arms. Setting The study occurred at an outpatient HIV primary care centre in Shanghai, China. Participants Participants were 20 HIV-positive outpatients with at least one child (13–25 years old) who was unaware of the parent’s HIV diagnosis. Intervention The nurse-delivered intervention involved three, hour-long, individual sessions over 4 weeks. Intervention content comprised family assessment, discussion of advantages and disadvantages of disclosure, psycho-education about cognitive, social and emotional abilities of children at different developmental stages, and disclosure planning and practicing via role-plays. Main outcome measure(s) Primary study outcomes for intervention versus TAU arms were self-reported disclosure distress, self-efficacy and behaviours along a continuum from no disclosure to full disclosure and open communication about HIV. Results In all cross-sectional (Wald tests) and longitudinal (general estimating equations) analyses, at both postintervention (4 weeks) and follow-up (13 weeks), effects were in the hypothesized directions. Despite the small sample size, most of these between-arm comparisons were statistically significant, with at least one result for each outcome indicating a ‘large’ effect size. Conclusion Our results suggest that nurses are able to deliver a counselling intervention in a clinic setting with the potential to alleviate parental distress around HIV disclosure to their children. Findings warrant future trials powered for efficacy. PMID:26049544

  14. Exploring Implementation and Fidelity of Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for HIV Prevention: Lessons Learned From the Focus on Kids Diffusion Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Galbraith, Jennifer S.; Stanton, Bonita; Boekeloo, Bradley; King, Winifred; Desmond, Sharon; Howard, Donna; Black, Maureen M.; Carey, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based interventions (EBIs) are used in public health to prevent HIV infection among youth and other groups. EBIs include core elements, features that are thought to be responsible for the efficacy of interventions. The authors evaluate experiences of organizations that adopted an HIV-prevention EBI, Focus on Kids (FOK), and their fidelity to the intervention’s eight core elements. A cross-sectional telephone survey was administered to 34 staff members from organizations that had previously implemented FOK. Questions assessed how the organization adhered to, adapted, dropped, or altered the intervention. None of the organizations implemented all eight core elements. This study underscores the importance for HIV intervention researchers to clearly identify and describe core elements. More effort is needed to reflect the constraints practitioners face in nonresearch settings. To ensure intervention effectiveness, additional research and technical assistance are needed to help organizations implement HIV prevention EBIs with fidelity. PMID:18445739

  15. An expressive therapy group disclosure intervention for women living with HIV improves social support, self-efficacy, and the safety and quality of relationships: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Machtinger, Edward L; Lavin, Sonja M; Hilliard, Starr; Jones, Rhodessa; Haberer, Jessica E; Capito, Kristen; Dawson-Rose, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Women living with HIV (WLHIV) face high rates of morbidity and mortality. HIV disclosure interventions have been identified as a promising but under-evaluated approach for WLHIV to improve their health and well-being. The Medea Project is an expressive therapy group intervention that was first developed to help incarcerated women develop the confidence and skills to tell their stories publicly in theatrical performances. The intervention was subsequently adapted as a community-based disclosure intervention for WLHIV. Our study describes an analysis of the impact of the Medea Project on the lives of the WLHIV who participated. All participating WLHIV publicly disclosed their HIV status during the performances. Five impact themes emerged from the data: sisterhood, catharsis, self-acceptance, safer and healthier relationships, and gaining a voice. Our study identifies a voluntary, effective, and broadly beneficial disclosure intervention for women living with HIV.

  16. Positive choices: outcomes of a brief risk reduction intervention for newly HIV-diagnosed men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Sikkema, Kathleen J; Abler, Laurie; Hansen, Nathan B; Wilson, Patrick A; Drabkin, Anya S; Kochman, Arlene; MacFarlane, Jessica C; DeLorenzo, Allyson; Mayer, Gal; Watt, Melissa H; Nazareth, William

    2014-09-01

    Positive choices (PC), a brief sexual risk reduction intervention conducted with newly HIV-diagnosed men who have sex with men (MSM), was evaluated for preliminary efficacy. Participants were enrolled if they reported unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the three months prior to HIV diagnosis (n = 102). Three months after diagnosis, participants completed baseline assessments and were randomly assigned to receive the 3-session PC intervention or the comprehensive standard of care (C-SoC) at a community health center. Participants completed assessments at 3- (post intervention), 6-, and 9- months after baseline. Compared to C-SoC participants, PC participants significantly reduced the frequency of UAI with HIV serodiscordant (HIV negative or status unknown) partners over the 9-month follow-up period. No differences by condition were found in the frequency of UAI with all partners. The findings from this trial suggest that brief risk reduction approaches for newly-diagnosed MSM integrated into HIV care can benefit secondary HIV prevention efforts.

  17. Group-Level Interventions for Persons Living with HIV: A Catalyst for Individual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Justeen; Appleby, Paul Robert; Weiss, George; Bailey, Jeff; Morgan, Ximena

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the perceived influence of group-level HIV interventions on persons living with HIV in Los Angeles, California. Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and developed by a broad range of community organizations, group-level interventions ranged from small skills-building workshops to large educational forums…

  18. The Health Effects of Worksite HIV/AIDS Interventions. A Review of the Research Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Mark G.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A literature review identified 12 studies reporting the impact of worksite HIV/AIDS intervention programs. Ten studies reported positive effects on knowledge and/or attitudes. Few had control or comparison groups. Given the small number of studies and poor methodology, the literature on worksite HIV/AIDS intervention was classified as weak.…

  19. Behavioral Interventions to Prevent HIV Transmission and Acquisition for Transgender Women: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Kuhns, Lisa M.; Reisner, Sari L.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Worldwide, transgender women are at disproportionately higher risk of HIV infection, with the primary mode of infection being condomless anal intercourse. Although very few HIV prevention interventions have been developed and tested specifically for transgender women, growing evidence suggests that behavioral HIV risk reduction interventions for other marginalized groups are efficacious. We outline the current state of knowledge and areas in need of further development in this area. PMID:27429186

  20. Efficacy of a single-session HIV prevention intervention for black women: a group randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Diallo, Dázon Dixon; Moore, Trent Wade; Ngalame, Paulyne M; White, Lisa Diane; Herbst, Jeffrey H; Painter, Thomas M

    2010-06-01

    SisterLove Inc., a community-based organization (CBO) in Atlanta, Georgia, evaluated the efficacy of its highly interactive, single-session HIV prevention intervention for black women, the Healthy Love Workshop (HLW). HLW is delivered to pre-existing groups of women (e.g., friends, sororities) in settings of their choosing. Eligible groups of women were randomly assigned to receive the intervention (15 groups; 161 women) or a comparison workshop (15 groups; 152 women). Behavioral assessments were conducted at baseline and at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Among sexually active women at the 3-month follow-up, HLW participants were more likely than comparison participants to report having used condoms during vaginal sex with any male partner or with a primary male partner, and to have used condoms at last vaginal, anal or oral sex with any male partner. At the 6-month follow-up, HLW participants were more likely to report condom use at last vaginal, anal or oral sex with any male partner, and having an HIV test and receiving their test results. The study findings suggest that a single-session intervention delivered to pre-existing groups of black women is an efficacious approach to HIV prevention. This study also demonstrates that a CBO can develop and deliver a culturally appropriate, effective HIV prevention intervention for the population it serves and, with adequate resources and technical assistance, rigorously evaluate its intervention.

  1. The Health, Enlightenment, Awareness, and Living (HEAL) Intervention: Outcome of an HIV and Hepatitis B and C Risk Reduction Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Henry-Akintobi, Tabia; Laster, Nastassia; Trotter, Jennie; Jacobs, DeBran; Johnson, Tarita; King Gordon, Tandeca; Miller, Assia

    2016-01-01

    African American women have among the highest HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B and C incidence rates in the United States, especially among those homeless or incarcerated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the Health Enlightenment, Awareness and Living Intervention, designed to decrease HIV/AIDS, hepatitis and related risky behaviors. The thirteen-session intervention was implemented among homeless and formerly incarcerated low-income African American women, ages 18 to 55, in Atlanta, Georgia from 2006 to 2010. A single group repeated measures study design was employed and consisted of a pre-test (n = 355) group, an immediate post-test (n = 228) group with a response rate of 64%, and a six-month follow up (n = 110) group with response rate of 48%, completing a 135-item survey. Paired-sample t-tests, McNemar tests, and repeated measures ANOVA were applied to compare survey results. Participants demonstrated statistically significant increases in hepatitis B and C knowledge over time (p < 0.001). Statistically significant decreases were also reported for unprotected sex in exchange for money, drugs or shelter (p = 0.008), and sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol (p < 0.001). Reported substance use decreased with statistical significance for alcohol (p = 0.011), marijuana (p = 0.011), illegal drugs (p = 0.002), and crack/cocaine (p = 0.003). Findings broaden the evidence base related to the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS and hepatitis risk reduction interventions designed for homeless and previously incarcerated African American women. PMID:27669284

  2. A Systematic Review of Interventions to Reduce Maternal Mortality among HIV-Infected Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Holtz, Sara A.; Thetard, Rudi; Konopka, Sarah N.; Albertini, Jennifer; Amzel, Anouk; Fogg, Karen P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In high-prevalence populations, HIV-related maternal mortality is high with increased mortality found among HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women compared to their uninfected peers. The scale-up of HIV-related treatment options and broader reach of programming for HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women is likely to have decreased maternal mortality. This systematic review synthesized evidence on interventions that have directly reduced mortality among this population. Methods: Studies published between January 1, 2003 and November 30, 2014 were searched using PubMed. Of the 1,373 records screened, 19 were included in the analysis. Results: Interventions identified through the review include antiretroviral therapy (ART), micronutrients (multivitamins, vitamin A, and selenium), and antibiotics. ART during pregnancy was shown to reduce mortality. Timing of ART initiation, duration of treatment, HIV disease status, and ART discontinuation after pregnancy influence mortality reduction. Incident pregnancy in women already on ART for their health appears not to have adverse consequences for the mother. Multivitamin use was shown to reduce disease progression while other micronutrients and antibiotics had no beneficial effect on maternal mortality. Conclusions: ART was the only intervention identified that decreased death in HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women. The findings support global trends in encouraging initiation of lifelong ART for all HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women (Option B+), regardless of their CD4+ count, as an important step in ensuring appropriate care and treatment. Global Health Implications: Maternal mortality is a rare event that highlights challenges in measuring the impact of interventions on mortality. Developing effective patient-centered interventions to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality, as well as corresponding evaluation measures of their impact, requires further attention by policy makers

  3. Review of recent behavioral interventions targeting older adults living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Illa, Lourdes; Echenique, Marisa; Bustamante-Avellaneda, Victoria; Sanchez-Martinez, Mario

    2014-12-01

    Increasing attention has been paid to older adults living with HIV over the past few years given the increasing prevalence of HIV in this age group. Yet, despite numerous studies documenting psychosocial and behavioral differences between older and younger HIV-infected adults, few evidence-based behavioral interventions have been developed for this population. This review found only 12 manuscripts describing behavioral intervention studies in older HIV-positive adults published between 2011 and 2014, and they reported on a total of six interventions. Despite promising findings, there is a clear need for large-scale clinical trials to replicate these initial results and further develop additional interventions to address important clinical issues such as depression, sexual risk behaviors, cognition, and other significant issues affecting this cohort. This represents an exciting opportunity for behavioral scientists and HIV specialists to develop interventions that combine the psychological and behavioral with medical aspects of the disease.

  4. A Pilot Trial of a Sexual Health Counseling Intervention for HIV-Positive Gay and Bisexual Men Who Report Anal Sex without Condoms

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Trevor A.; Stratton, Natalie; Coleman, Todd A.; Wilson, Holly A.; Simpson, Scott H.; Julien, Rick E.; Adam, Barry D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Even in the presence of promising biomedical treatment as prevention, HIV incidence among men who have sex with men has not always decreased. Counseling interventions, therefore, continue to play an important role in reducing HIV sexual transmission behaviors among gay and bisexual men and other men who have sex with men. The present study evaluated effects of a small-group counseling intervention on psychosocial outcomes and HIV sexual risk behavior. Method HIV-positive (HIV+) peer counselors administered seven 2-hour counseling sessions to groups of 5 to 8 HIV+ gay and bisexual men. The intervention employed information provision, motivational interviewing, and behavioral skills building to reduce sexual transmission risk behaviors. Results There was a significant reduction in condomless anal sex (CAS) with HIV-negative and unknown HIV-status partners, from 50.0% at baseline to 28.9% of the sample at 3-month follow-up. Findings were robust even when controlling for whether the participant had an undetectable viral load at baseline. Significant reductions were also found in the two secondary psychosocial outcomes, loneliness and sexual compulsivity. Conclusions The findings provide preliminary evidence that this intervention may offer an efficient way of concurrently reducing CAS and mental health problems, such as sexual compulsivity and loneliness, for HIV+ gay and bisexual men. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02546271 PMID:27054341

  5. Multidimensional family therapy HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention: an integrative family-based model for drug-involved juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Marvel, Francoise; Rowe, Cynthia L; Colon-Perez, Lissette; DiClemente, Ralph J; Liddle, Howard A

    2009-03-01

    Drug and juvenile justice involved youths show remarkably high rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk behaviors. However, existing interventions aimed at reducing adolescent HIV risk behavior have rarely targeted these vulnerable young adolescents, and many approaches focus on individual-level change without attention to family or contextual influences. We describe a new, family-based HIV/ STD prevention model that embeds HIV/STD focused multifamily groups within an adolescent drug abuse and delinquency evidence-based treatment, Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT). The approach has been evaluated in a multisite randomized clinical trial with juvenile justice involved youths in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (www.cjdats.org). Preliminary baseline to 6-month outcomes are promising. We describe research on family risk and protective factors for adolescent problem behaviors, and offer a rationale for family-based approaches to reduce HIV/STD risk in this population. We describe the development and implementation of the Multidimensional Family Therapy HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention (MDFT-HIV/ STD) in terms of using multifamily groups and their integration in standard MDFT and also offers a clinical vignette. The potential significance of this empirically based intervention development work is high; MDFT-HIV/STD is the first model to address largely unmet HIV/STD prevention and sexual health needs of substance abusing juvenile offenders within the context of a family-oriented evidence-based intervention.

  6. An HIV Intervention Tailored for Black Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in the House Ball Community

    PubMed Central

    Hosek, Sybil G.; Lemos, Diana; Hotton, Anna L.; Fernandez, M. Isabel; Telander, Kyle; Bell, Margo; Footer, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Black young men who have sex with men (BYMSM) are the group most disproportionately impacted by HIV in the United States and most in need of efficacious interventions to address community-level factors that increase their vulnerability to HIV. The House Ball Community (HBC) is a distinct social network within the larger BYMSM community that may be particularly vulnerable to social norms and stigma around HIV. This study tailored an evidence-based, community-level popular opinion leader (OL) intervention for use within the HBC. The intervention, called POSSE, was then piloted to evaluate feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy. Recruiting opinion leaders from the community and training them to deliver risk reduction messages was found to be feasible and highly acceptable. Community-level surveys (n=406) were completed over 5 waves of data collection. Overall exposure to the intervention increased across waves. Statistically significant (p < .05) declines were observed for multiple sexual partners, condomless anal intercourse with any male partners and with male partners of unknown HIV status. HIV stigma declined as well, but the trend was not statistically significant. PMID:25300319

  7. Theoretical Foundations of Research Focused on HIV Prevention Among Substance-involved Women: A Review of Observational and Intervention Studies

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Judith D.; Smith, Laramie R.

    2016-01-01

    Although substance use continues to be a significant component of HIV risk among women worldwide, to date relatively little attention has been paid in research, services, or policy to substance-involved women (SIW). HIV acquisition for SIW stems from transmission risks directly related to substance use, as well as risks associated with sexual activity where power to negotiate risk and safety are influenced by dynamics of male partnerships, sex work, and criminalization (of both drug use and sex work), among other things. As such, HIV risk for such women resides as much in the environment—physical, social, cultural, economic, and political--in which drug use occurs as it does from transmission-related behaviors of individual women. To reduce HIV infections among SIW, it is important to specify the interaction of individual- and environmental-level factors, including, but not limited to those related to women's own substance use, that can and ought to be changed. This involves theorizing about the interplay of gender, substance use, and HIV risk and incorporating that theoretical understanding into intervention design and evaluation. A review of the published literature focused on HIV prevention among SIW revealed a general lack of theoretical and conceptual foundation specific to the gender-related and environmental drivers of HIV in this population. Greater theoretical linkages to intersectionality and syndemics approaches are recommended to better identify and target relevant mechanisms by which the interplay of gender dynamics and substance use potentiate the likelihood of HIV acquisition and transmission among SIW. PMID:25978481

  8. Behavioral interventions to reduce HIV risk behavior for MSM and transwomen in Southeast Asia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nugroho, Adi; Erasmus, Vicki; Zomer, Tizza P; Wu, Qing; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review aims to gain insights from existing literature from Southeast Asian countries to improve future HIV prevention programs for men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (transwomen). We conducted a systematic search in six international databases for literature published prior to 1 January 2015. We included studies describing behavioral interventions targeting MSM and/or transwomen, and conducted in at least one Southeast Asian country. Five out of 575 screened studies met the inclusion criteria and reported a significant intervention effect on at least one outcome measure, that is, condom use (with casual or commercial partner), water-based lubricant use, number of sex partners, HIV prevention knowledge, or willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis. Peer education/outreach was the most commonly employed type of intervention in the five included studies and was usually delivered as an element of a larger intervention package, together with condom distribution and the provision of drop-in centers. Motivational interviewing was effective, while internet-based interventions appeared to be a viable platform for intervention delivery. Nevertheless, research on behavioral interventions among MSM and transwomen in Southeast Asia is limited. Future interventions should be culturally appropriate, theoretically grounded, and rigorously evaluated. Only then can we best address the HIV epidemic among MSM and transwomen in this region.

  9. HIV prevention interventions for young male commercial sex workers.

    PubMed

    Ballester-Arnal, R; Gil-Llario, M D; Salmeron-Sánchez, P; Giménez-García, C

    2014-03-01

    The sex industry, where men sell sexual services to other men or women, has grown in recent years. These men who offer sexual services are particularly vulnerable to HIV infection due to such factors as: frequency of risky sexual practices, number of sex partners, drug-taking, prevalence of sexually-transmitted infections (STI) and their specific situation of social exclusion which may hinder access to health services. These multi-faceted realities faced by sex workers explain the burgeoning interest in new avenues of scientific research. There are too few preventive programs however aimed at this population group and the studies that evaluate their effectiveness are fewer still. In this article we survey more recent studies on the difficulties of implementing programs for HIV prevention in male sex workers (MSW), as well as the studies that have gauged the impact of preventive programs in this group.

  10. Nurse-delivered counselling intervention for parental HIV disclosure: results from a pilot randomized controlled trial in China.

    PubMed

    Simoni, Jane M; Yang, Joyce P; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Chen, Wei-Ti; Udell, Wadiya; Bao, Meijuan; Zhang, Lin; Lu, Hongzhou

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to design and conduct a preliminary evaluation of an intervention to assist parents in decision-making about disclosure of their HIV diagnosis to their children. This was a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) with blinded assessment. Participants were randomized to intervention or treatment-as-usual (TAU) arms. The study occurred at an outpatient HIV primary care centre in Shanghai, China. Participants were 20 HIV-positive outpatients with at least one child (13-25 years old) who was unaware of the parent's HIV diagnosis. The nurse-delivered intervention involved three, hour-long, individual sessions over 4 weeks. Intervention content comprised family assessment, discussion of advantages and disadvantages of disclosure, psycho-education about cognitive, social and emotional abilities of children at different developmental stages, and disclosure planning and practicing via role-plays. Primary study outcomes for intervention versus TAU arms were self-reported disclosure distress, self-efficacy, and behaviours along a continuum from no disclosure to full disclosure and open communication about HIV. In all cross-sectional (Wald tests) and longitudinal (general estimating equations) analyses, at both postintervention (4 weeks) and follow-up (13 weeks), effects were in the hypothesized directions. Despite the small sample size, most of these between-arm comparisons were statistically significant, with at least one result for each outcome indicating a 'large' effect size. Our results suggest that nurses are able to deliver a counselling intervention in a clinic setting with the potential to alleviate parental distress around HIV disclosure to their children. Findings warrant future trials powered for efficacy.

  11. Clinic-based intervention reduces unprotected sexual behavior among HIV-infected patients in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: Results of a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Cornman, Deborah H.; Kiene, Susan M.; Christie, Sarah; Fisher, William A.; Shuper, Paul A.; Pillay, Sandy; Friedland, Gerald H.; Thomas, Cyril Monty; Lodge, Linda; Fisher, Jeffrey D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the feasibility, fidelity, and effectiveness of an HIV prevention intervention delivered to HIV-infected patients by counselors during routine clinical care in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods Total of 152 HIV-infected patients, aged 18 years and older, receiving clinical care at an urban hospital in South Africa, were randomly assigned to intervention or standard-of-care control counselors. Intervention counselors implemented a brief risk reduction intervention at each clinical encounter to help patients reduce their unprotected sexual behavior. Self-report questionnaires were administered at baseline and 6 months to assess number of unprotected sex events in previous 3 months. Results Intervention was delivered in 99% of routine patient visits, and included a modal 8 of 8 intervention steps. Although HIV-infected patients in both conditions reported more vaginal and anal sex events at 6-month follow-up than at baseline, patients who received the counselor-delivered intervention reported a significant decrease over time in number of unprotected sexual events. There was a marginally significant increase in these events among patients in the standard-of-care control condition. Conclusions A counselor-delivered HIV prevention intervention targeting HIV-infected patients appears to be feasible to implement with fidelity in the South African clinical care setting and effective at reducing unprotected sexual behavior. PMID:18645518

  12. Effectiveness of sport-based HIV prevention interventions: a systematic review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Z A; Spencer, T S; Ross, D A

    2013-03-01

    Interest in sport as a tool for behavioral HIV prevention has grown substantially in the past decade. With dozens of organisations now using sport-based HIV prevention (SBHP) approaches and upcoming randomized controlled trials in South Africa and Zimbabwe, there is a pressing need to synthesize previous evaluation findings and identify gaps in existing research. A systematic review on the effectiveness of SBHP interventions was carried out, identifying both published and unpublished studies on SBHP interventions that measured effectiveness quantitatively. Study quality was scored using an adapted Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Random-effects meta-analyses were carried out across studies for effects on six categories of HIV-related outcomes. The review identified 952 publications, 21 of which met inclusion criteria. No randomised controlled trials on SBHP interventions and no studies assessing biological outcomes were identified. Mean study quality score was 5.1 (SD 3.1) out of 20 points. Overall strong evidence was observed for positive effects on HIV-related knowledge (RR = 1.26, 95 % CI = 1.15-1.37), stigma (RR = 1.13, 95 % CI = 1.02-1.24), self-efficacy (RR = 1.22, 95 % CI = 1.02-1.41), reported communication (RR = 1.24, 95 % CI = 1.06-1.41), and reported recent condom use (RR = 1.29, 95 % CI = 1.00-1.59). Generally, the review found encouraging evidence for some short-term effects but relied predominantly on low-quality studies. More rigorous research on SBHP is needed to objectively assess effectiveness. Randomised controlled trials could play an important role in guiding policies, strategies, and funding related to SBHP.

  13. Effectiveness of an HIV prevention intervention in prison among African Americans, Hispanics, and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Angela; Robbins, Reuben N; Ruiz, Monica S; O'Neill, Dennis

    2006-04-01

    Prisons and prison inmates present important targets for HIV/AIDS prevention interventions. Inmates often have histories of high-risk behavior that place them in danger of contracting HIV/AIDS, and rates of HIV/AIDS tend to be much higher in this population. The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a prison-based HIV/AIDS intervention to change attitudes toward HIV prevention, norms supporting HIV prevention, perceived behavioral control (i.e., self-efficacy) for HIV prevention behaviors, and intentions to engage in HIV prevention behaviors postrelease. The intervention also had the goal of encouraging inmates to become HIV/AIDS peer educators. The intervention appeared most successful at influencing beliefs and behaviors related to peer education and somewhat successful at influencing beliefs and intentions related to condom use. Analyses also showed some significant differences in effectiveness by race/ethnicity. Results are discussed from the perspectives of both research and practice with regard to prison-based HIV prevention efforts.

  14. Interventions that increase the intention to seek voluntary HIV testing in young people: a review.

    PubMed

    Bumgarner, Kelly Feist; Pharr, Jennifer; Buttner, Mark; Ezeanolue, Echezona

    2017-03-01

    Young people 15-24 years old represent 39% of new HIV infections globally. However, they are the least likely age demographic to seek HIV testing and the most likely to be unaware of their HIV status. The purpose of this systematic literature review was to identify interventions that increase either rates of HIV testing or intentions to seek HIV testing in young people 10-24 years old. In total, 1601 manuscripts were systematically examined and five manuscripts were included in the final review. Two common themes identified in the interventions were education and test delivery methods. Educational programs were found to be effective when delivered in classroom or entertainment-based formats. Health providers offering testing and home testing increased the rate of testing. Additional research is needed on programs aimed at young people not enrolled in schools, interventions that measure testing rates, and educating healthcare providers about offering HIV tests to young people.

  15. Long-term effectiveness of a peer-based intervention to promote condom and contraceptive use among HIV-positive and at-risk women.

    PubMed Central

    Fogarty, L. A.; Heilig, C. M.; Armstrong, K.; Cabral, R.; Galavotti, C.; Gielen, A. C.; Green, B. M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors used data from a larger study to evaluate the long-term effects of a peer advocate intervention on condom and contraceptive use among HIV-infected women and women at high risk for HIV infection. METHODS: HIV-infected women in one study and women at high risk for HIV infection in a second study were selected from the Women and Infants Demonstration Project and assigned to a standard or an enhanced HIV prevention treatment group. The enhanced intervention included support groups and one-on-one contacts with peer advocates tailored to clients' needs. The authors interviewed women at baseline and at 6-, 12- and 18-months, and measured changes in consistency of condom and contraceptive use and in self-efficacy and perceived advantages and disadvantages of condom and contraceptive use. RESULTS: Of HIV-infected women, the enhanced group had improved consistency in condom use, increased perceived advantages of condom use, and increased level of self-efficacy compared with the standard group. Of women at risk, the enhanced intervention group at six months maintained consistent condom use with a main partner and perceived more benefit of condom use compared with the standard group. These differences diminished at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: The enhanced intervention was generally effective in the HIV+ study. In the at-risk study, however, intervention effects were minimal and short-lived. Factors related to the theory, intervention design, and sample characteristics help explain these differences. PMID:11889279

  16. Behavioural interventions to reduce sexual risk for HIV in heterosexual couples: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    LaCroix, Jessica M; Pellowski, Jennifer A; Lennon, Carter A; Johnson, Blair T

    2013-12-01

    The current study was conducted to synthesise evaluations of couple-based HIV prevention interventions, assess the efficacy of these interventions in reducing sexual risk, and identify moderators of intervention efficacy. A comprehensive literature search identified 29 interventions (22 reports; N=5168 couples) that met the inclusion criteria, including enrolment of both members of a heterosexual couple, measurement of condom use at baseline and follow-up, and sufficient statistical information to calculate effect sizes. Effect sizes were analysed using fixed-effects and random-effects assumptions; factors related to intervention efficacy were identified using metaregression. Overall, there were significant increases in condom use from baseline to follow-up (d+=0.78, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.09) and significant decreases in partner concurrency (d+=0.37, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.60). Condom use increased to a greater extent when studies were conducted toward the beginning of the epidemic, were located in countries scoring lower on the Human Development Index, enrolled serodiscordant couples, and delivered intervention content in multiple contexts. Couples who had been together longer, reported higher incidence of sexually transmitted infection, were provided voluntary counselling and testing, and provided outcome measures during face-to-face interviews also reported larger increases in condom use. Couple-based interventions are efficacious in reducing unprotected sex within the context of romantic relationships. Future research should continue to improve risk reduction for couples.

  17. HIV, STD, and Sexual Risk Reduction for Individuals with a Severe Mental Illness: Review of the Intervention Literature

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Seroprevalence studies indicate that HIV infection rates are elevated among individuals with a severe mental illness (SMI) compared to the general population. The higher prevalence of HIV among individuals with SMI has prompted the development and evaluation of tailored sexual risk reduction programs for these individuals. In this paper, we review the literature on sexual risk-reduction interventions for individuals with SMI, including interventions for both uninfected and infected individuals. We discuss components of successful interventions, identify limitations in the current literature, and highlight directions for future research. Finally, we conclude with implications for clinical practice, including a discussion of the challenges and advantages to implementing sexual risk reduction interventions for individuals with SMI. PMID:18584060

  18. Effectiveness of Psycho-Educational Intervention in HIV Patients’ Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Clarisse; Sarmento e Castro, Rui; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário; Fernandes, Lia

    2015-01-01

    Adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) is the main prognostic factor associated with HIV disease progression and death. The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of a psycho-educational program to promote adherence to HAART in HIV patients. A longitudinal study (n = 102) over 9 months in an Infectious Diseases Hospital was carried out. Adherence to HAART was measured with standardized scales and values of viral load. Two groups were defined: adherents and non-adherents. In the latter, a psycho-educational program was implemented and 6 months later measured adherence to HAART. Knowledge about the infection, CD4 T lymphocytes and HIV-ribonucleic acid values were measured before and after this program. The sample was predominantly male (70%), heterosexual (78%), with a mean age of 49 (SD = 12.7) years, and 48% of participants were not adhering to HAART. After the program, non-adherence decreased to 21.6%. Knowledge about the infection increased from 79 to 97%. A significant increase in CD4 T lymphocytes (mean 540–580) and a decrease in viral load (mean 5411–3052) were observed, the latter of statistical significance. This program seems to be feasible and efficient, improving adherence to HAART. PMID:25642197

  19. Prevention interventions with persons living with HIV/AIDS: state of the science and future directions.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Christopher M; Forsyth, Andrew D; Stall, Ron; Cheever, Laura W

    2005-02-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH/NIMH), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the HIV/AIDS Bureau of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) support the CDC's Serostatus Approach to Fighting the HIV Epidemic (SAFE; Janssen et al., 2001). One aim of the strategy is to help individuals living with HIV (and their partners) adopt and sustain HIV and STD risk reduction, treatment adherence, and effective strategies for coping with HIV/AIDS. Efficacious interventions are needed by community organizations and clinics that provide evidence-based services. To expedite translation from research to practice, we convened scientist-practitioners, HIV treatment and prevention providers, and community/consumer members. In this article, we include an overview of prevention trials with HIV-positive persons presented at the meeting, discuss strengths and limitations, recommendations for future research, and discuss sponsoring agencies' plans for advancing prevention tailored for persons living with HIV.

  20. A Model-Based Evaluation of a Cultural Mediator Outreach Program for HIV+ Ethiopian Immigrants in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Edward H.; Soskolne, Varda; Adler, Bella; Leventhal, Alex; Shtarkshall, Ronny A.

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a model-based evaluation of a program designed to reduce HIV transmission from HIV-infected Ethiopian immigrants in Israel. Focused on pregnancy rate reduction as a measure of sexual exposure. Results for 145 female and 176 male clients in the intervention suggest reduction in unprotected sexual exposures among program participants. (SLD)

  1. A Model-Based Evaluation of a Cultural Mediator Outreach Program for HIV+ Ethiopian Immigrants in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Edward H.; Soskolne, Varda; Adler, Bella; Leventhal, Alex; Shtarkshall, Ronny A.

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a model-based evaluation of a program designed to reduce HIV transmission from HIV-infected Ethiopian immigrants in Israel. Focused on pregnancy rate reduction as a measure of sexual exposure. Results for 145 female and 176 male clients in the intervention suggest reduction in unprotected sexual exposures among program participants. (SLD)

  2. Perceived Internet health literacy of HIV-positive people through the provision of a computer and Internet health education intervention.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Christie; Graham, Joy

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess perceived Internet health literacy of HIV-positive people before and after an Internet health information educational intervention. We developed a 50-min educational intervention on basic computer skills and online health information evaluation. We administered a demographic survey and a validated health literacy survey (eHEALS) at baseline, immediately after, and 3 months the class. Changes in scores between the surveys were analysed. Eighteen HIV-positive participants were included in the final analysis. Before the intervention, most respondents' assessment of their ability to access Internet health information was unfavourable. Post-intervention, the majority of respondents agreed or strongly agreed they were able to access and identify Internet health information resources. The increase in self-assessed skill level was statistically significant for all eight items eHEALS (P < 0.05). Scores for the 3-month follow-up survey remained higher than pre-intervention scores for most items. Providing an interdisciplinary brief introductory Internet health information educational intervention HIV-positive people with baseline low perceived Internet health literacy significantly improves confidence in finding and using Internet health information resources. Studies with larger numbers of participants should be undertaken to determine if brief interventions improve self-care, patient outcomes and use of emergency services. © 2010 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2010 Health Libraries Group.

  3. Psychological interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in people living with HIV in Resource poor settings: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Verhey, Ruth; Chibanda, Dixon; Brakarsh, Jonathan; Seedat, Soraya

    2016-10-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder is pervasive in low- and middle-income countries. There is evidence to suggest that post-traumatic stress disorder is more common among people living with HIV than non-infected matched controls. We carried out a systematic review of interventions for adult post-traumatic stress disorder from resource poor settings with a focus on people living with HIV. We included all studies that investigated interventions for adult post-traumatic stress disorder from resource poor settings with a focus on interventions that were either randomised controlled trials or observational cohort studies carried out from 1980 to May 2015. Of the 25 articles that were identified for full review, two independent reviewers identified seven studies that met our study inclusion criteria. All randomised controlled trials (RCT) (n = 6) used cognitive behavioural therapy-based interventions and focused on people living with HIV in resource poor settings. There was only one study focusing on the use of lay counsellors to address post-traumatic stress disorder but core competencies were not described. There were no intervention studies from Africa, only an observational cohort study from Rwanda. Rigorously evaluated interventions for adult post-traumatic stress disorder in people living with HIV are rare. Most were undertaken in resource poor settings located in high-income countries. There is a need for research on the development and implementation of appropriate interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in people living with HIV in low- and middle-income countries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A Qualitative Investigation of the Impact of a Livelihood Intervention on Gendered Power and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among HIV-Positive Adults in Rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Zakaras, Jennifer M; Weiser, Sheri D; Hatcher, Abigail M; Weke, Elly; Burger, Rachel L; Cohen, Craig R; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Dworkin, Shari L

    2016-08-09

    Despite the recognized links between food insecurity, poverty, and the risk of HIV/AIDS, few randomized trials have evaluated the impact of livelihood interventions on HIV risk behaviors. The current study draws upon data collected from a qualitative process evaluation that was embedded into a pilot randomized controlled trial that tested whether a multisectoral agricultural intervention (Shamba Maisha) affected the HIV-related health of HIV-positive adults in rural Kenya. In the current study, we drew upon longitudinal, in-depth interviews with 45 intervention participants and nine control participants (N = 54) in order to examine the impacts of the intervention on gendered power and sexual risk reduction among both women and men. Female and male participants in the intervention described positive changes in sexual practices and gendered power dynamics as a result of intervention participation. Changes included reduced sexual risk behaviors, improved gender-related power dynamics, and enhanced quality of intimate relationships. These findings illuminate how a multisectoral agricultural intervention may affect inequitable gender relations and secondary transmission risk. Further research is needed to explore how to best leverage agricultural interventions to address the important intersections between poverty and inequitable gender relations that shape HIV risks.

  5. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for people living with HIV/AIDS: preliminary review of intervention trial methodologies and findings.

    PubMed

    Riley, Kristen E; Kalichman, Seth

    2015-01-01

    In the context of successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) for the management of HIV infection, the harmful effects of stress remain a significant threat. Stress may increase viral replication, suppress immune response, and impede adherence to ART. Stressful living conditions of poverty, facing a chronic life-threatening illness and stigma all exacerbate chronic stress in HIV-affected populations. Stress-reduction interventions are urgently needed for the comprehensive care of people living with HIV. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is one approach that has shown promise as an intervention for patients facing other medical conditions for reducing disease progression, psychological distress and maladaptive behaviours. In this systematic review, we identified 11 studies that have examined MBSR as an intervention for HIV-positive populations. Of the studies, six were randomised designs, one was a quasi-experimental design, and the remaining four were pre- and post-test designs. The preliminary outcomes support MBSR to decrease emotional distress with mixed evidence for impact on disease progression. Effect sizes were generally small to moderate in magnitude. The early findings from this emerging literature must be considered preliminary and support moving forward with more rigorous controlled trials, evaluated with objective assessments in longer-term follow-ups to determine the efficacy of MBSR for people living with HIV.

  6. Development of an mHealth Intervention (iSTEP) to Promote Physical Activity among People Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Jessica L.; Wing, David; Knight, Adam; Moore, David J.; Henry, Brook L.

    2015-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial is being conducted in the United States to test the efficacy of a personalized interactive mobile health intervention (iSTEP) designed to increase physical activity (PA) and improve neurocognitive functioning among HIV-positive persons. This article describes an initial qualitative study performed to develop iSTEP for the HIV-positive population, including assessment of PA barriers and facilitators. Two focus groups, with 9 and 12 unique HIV-positive individuals, respectively, were administered to evaluate barriers limiting PA and potential iSTEP content created to encourage greater PA. Group discussions revealed prominent PA barriers, including HIV symptoms (neuropathy, lipoatrophy), antiretroviral medication effects, and fatigue; significant PA facilitators included self-monitoring and family support. Participants provided feedback on strategies to increase PA and expressed positive support for a mobile intervention adapted to personal priorities. These findings will assist the development of novel PA interventions focused on treating the epidemic of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. PMID:26307212

  7. Regulation and quality evaluation system for HIV diagnostics in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sihong; Huang, Weijin; Zhang, Li; An, Juanjuan; Li, Xiuhua; Song, Aijing; Nie, Jianhui; Zhang, Chuntao; Wang, Youchun

    2016-03-01

    A sophisticated regulatory framework has been constructed for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnostics in China, which have developed over the past 30 years. China National Institutes for Food and Drug Control acts as the legal institution in this regulatory framework, launching important activities to ensure the quality of HIV diagnostics. These include the analysis of the main problems faced in developing domestic HIV diagnostics, by investigating the quality of HIV diagnostics and their development; exploring the key factors affecting the quality of HIV diagnostics, to determine the criteria for screening national reference samples; the development of new technologies and methods for preparing reference samples; and the establishment of nine types of national reference panels and nine national standards to evaluate the quality of HIV diagnostics. Based on these researches, a quality evaluation system was established, including nine types of national reference panels, nine national standards for HIV diagnostics, and five sample banks (HIV-positive sample bank, HIV-negative sample bank, common international genotype sample bank, seroconversion series sample bank, HIV virus bank) to evaluate the quality of HIV diagnostics in China. The regulatory framework and the quality evaluation system are pivotal in ensuring the quality of the HIV diagnostics licensed in China.

  8. Interventions to modify sexual risk behaviours for preventing HIV in homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Naranbhai, Vivek; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

    2011-01-19

    Homeless youth are at high risk for HIV infection as a consequence of risky sexual behaviour. Interventions for homeless youth are challenging. Assessment of the effectiveness of interventions to modify sexual risk behaviours for preventing HIV in homeless youth is needed. To evaluate and summarize the effectiveness of interventions for modifying sexual risk behaviours and preventing transmission of HIV among homeless youth. We searched electronic databases (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AIDSearch, Gateway, PsycInfo, LILACS), reference lists of eligible articles, international health agency publication lists, and clinical trial registries. The search was updated January 2010. We contacted authors of published reports and other key role players. Randomised studies of interventions to modify sexual risk behaviour (biological, self-reporting of sexual-risk behaviour or health-seeking behaviour) in homeless youth (12-24 years). Data from eligible studies were extracted by two reviewers. We assessed risk of bias per the Cochrane Collaborations tool. None of the eligible studies reported any primary biological outcomes for this review. Reports of self-reporting sexual risk behaviour outcomes varied across studies precluding calculation of summary measures of effect; we present the outcomes descriptively for each study. We contacted authors for missing or ambiguous data. We identified three eligible studies after screening a total of 255 unique records. All three were performed in the United States of America and recruited substance-abusing male and female adolescents (total N=615) through homeless shelters into randomised controlled trials of independent and non-overlapping behavioural interventions. The three trials differed in theoretical background, delivery method, dosage (number of sessions,) content and outcome assessments. Overall, the variability in delivery and outcomes precluded estimation of summary of effect measures. We assessed the risk of bias to be high for

  9. Text-Messaging-Enhanced HIV Intervention for African American Adolescents: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Judith B.; Dmochowski, Jacek; Boyer, Cherrie; St Lawrence, Janet; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Moore, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We examined the feasibility and acceptability of an HIV prevention intervention for African American adolescents delivered via mobile cell phones and looked at intervention-related changes in beliefs and sexual behaviors. We used a longitudinal one-group comparison design with data collected at three points. Forty adolescents, 13–18 years old, participated in the Becoming a Responsible Teen intervention followed by the delivery of daily multimedia messages for 3 months. The mobile-cell-phone enhanced intervention was feasible and acceptable to the participants. Greater HIV knowledge, improved attitudes toward condoms, and increased perceived HIV risk scores were observed with older adolescents (16–18 years old). Behavior trends showed a decrease in the number of times participants reported engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse over the previous 2 months. Mobile-cell-phone multimedia-text-messaging boosters tested in this study provided preliminary evidence of efficacy of the enhanced HIV prevention intervention for African American youth. PMID:23122907

  10. Economic analysis of HIV prevention interventions in Andhra Pradesh state of India to inform resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Dandona, Lalit; Kumar, S G Prem; Kumar, G Anil; Dandona, Rakhi

    2009-01-14

    To conduct composite economic analysis of HIV prevention interventions to inform efficient utilization of resources in India. We obtained output and economic cost data for the 2005-2006 fiscal year from a representative sample of 128 public-funded HIV prevention programmes of 14 types in Andhra Pradesh state of India. Using data from various sources, we developed a model to estimate the number of HIV infections averted. We estimated the additional HIV infections that could be averted if each intervention reached optimal coverage and the associated cost. In a year, 9688 HIV infections were averted by public-funded HIV prevention interventions in Andhra Pradesh. Scaling-up interventions to the optimal level would require US$38.8 million annually, 2.8 times the US$13.8 million economic cost in 2005-2006. This could increase the number of HIV infections averted by 2.4-fold, if with higher resources there were many-fold increases in the proportional allocation for programmes for migrant labourers, men who have sex with men and voluntary counselling and testing, and reduction of the high proportion for mass media campaigns to one-third of the 2005-2006 proportion of resource utilization. If the proportions of resource allocation for interventions remained similar to 2005-2006, the higher resources would avert 54% of the additional avertable HIV infections. The recent four-fold increase in public funding for HIV/AIDS control in India should be adequate to scale-up HIV prevention interventions to an optimal level in Andhra Pradesh, but the prevention would be suboptimal if additional investments were not preferentially directed to some particular interventions.

  11. Feasibility Analysis of an Evidence-Based Positive Prevention Intervention for Youth Living with HIV/AIDS in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, L.; Maman, S.; Pettifor, A.; Chalachala, J. L.; Edmonds, A.; Golin, C. E.; Moracco, K.; Behets, F.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of a Positive Prevention intervention adapted for youth living with HIV/AIDS (YLWH) ages 15-24 in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with intervention facilitators and YLWH participants on the following four areas of a feasibility framework:…

  12. The START Study to evaluate the effectiveness of a combination intervention package to enhance antiretroviral therapy uptake and retention during TB treatment among TB/HIV patients in Lesotho: rationale and design of a mixed-methods, cluster-randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Howard, Andrea A; Hirsch-Moverman, Yael; Frederix, Koen; Daftary, Amrita; Saito, Suzue; Gross, Tal; Wu, Yingfeng; Maama, Llang Bridget

    2016-01-01

    Initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) early during tuberculosis (TB) treatment increases survival; however, implementation is suboptimal. Implementation science studies are needed to identify interventions to address this evidence-to-program gap. The Start TB Patients on ART and Retain on Treatment (START) Study is a mixed-methods, cluster-randomized trial aimed at evaluating the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and acceptability of a combination intervention package (CIP) to improve early ART initiation, retention, and TB treatment success among TB/HIV patients in Berea District, Lesotho. Twelve health facilities were randomized to receive the CIP or standard of care after stratification by facility type (hospital or health center). The CIP includes nurse training and mentorship, using a clinical algorithm; transport reimbursement and health education by village health workers (VHW) for patients and treatment supporters; and adherence support using text messaging and VHW. Routine data were abstracted for all newly registered TB/HIV patients; anticipated sample size was 1,200 individuals. A measurement cohort of TB/HIV patients initiating ART was recruited; the target enrollment was 384 individuals, each to be followed for the duration of TB treatment (6-9 months). Inclusion criteria were HIV-infected; on TB treatment; initiated ART within 2 months of TB treatment initiation; age ≥18; English- or Sesotho-speaking; and capable of informed consent. The exclusion criterion was multidrug-resistant TB. Three groups of key informants were recruited from intervention clinics: early ART initiators; non/late ART initiators; and health care workers. Primary outcomes include ART initiation, retention, and TB treatment success. Secondary outcomes include time to ART initiation, adherence, change in CD4+ count, sputum smear conversion, cost-effectiveness, and acceptability. Follow-up and data abstraction are complete. The START Study evaluates a CIP targeting barriers to

  13. The START Study to evaluate the effectiveness of a combination intervention package to enhance antiretroviral therapy uptake and retention during TB treatment among TB/HIV patients in Lesotho: rationale and design of a mixed-methods, cluster-randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Howard, Andrea A; Hirsch-Moverman, Yael; Frederix, Koen; Daftary, Amrita; Saito, Suzue; Gross, Tal; Wu, Yingfeng; Maama, Llang Bridget

    2016-01-01

    Background Initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) early during tuberculosis (TB) treatment increases survival; however, implementation is suboptimal. Implementation science studies are needed to identify interventions to address this evidence-to-program gap. Objective The Start TB Patients on ART and Retain on Treatment (START) Study is a mixed-methods, cluster-randomized trial aimed at evaluating the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and acceptability of a combination intervention package (CIP) to improve early ART initiation, retention, and TB treatment success among TB/HIV patients in Berea District, Lesotho. Design Twelve health facilities were randomized to receive the CIP or standard of care after stratification by facility type (hospital or health center). The CIP includes nurse training and mentorship, using a clinical algorithm; transport reimbursement and health education by village health workers (VHW) for patients and treatment supporters; and adherence support using text messaging and VHW. Routine data were abstracted for all newly registered TB/HIV patients; anticipated sample size was 1,200 individuals. A measurement cohort of TB/HIV patients initiating ART was recruited; the target enrollment was 384 individuals, each to be followed for the duration of TB treatment (6-9 months). Inclusion criteria were HIV-infected; on TB treatment; initiated ART within 2 months of TB treatment initiation; age ≥18; English- or Sesotho-speaking; and capable of informed consent. The exclusion criterion was multidrug-resistant TB. Three groups of key informants were recruited from intervention clinics: early ART initiators; non/late ART initiators; and health care workers. Primary outcomes include ART initiation, retention, and TB treatment success. Secondary outcomes include time to ART initiation, adherence, change in CD4+ count, sputum smear conversion, cost-effectiveness, and acceptability. Follow-up and data abstraction are complete. Discussion The START Study

  14. The START Study to evaluate the effectiveness of a combination intervention package to enhance antiretroviral therapy uptake and retention during TB treatment among TB/HIV patients in Lesotho: rationale and design of a mixed-methods, cluster-randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Andrea A.; Hirsch-Moverman, Yael; Frederix, Koen; Daftary, Amrita; Saito, Suzue; Gross, Tal; Wu, Yingfeng; Maama, Llang Bridget

    2016-01-01

    Background Initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) early during tuberculosis (TB) treatment increases survival; however, implementation is suboptimal. Implementation science studies are needed to identify interventions to address this evidence-to-program gap. Objective The Start TB Patients on ART and Retain on Treatment (START) Study is a mixed-methods, cluster-randomized trial aimed at evaluating the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and acceptability of a combination intervention package (CIP) to improve early ART initiation, retention, and TB treatment success among TB/HIV patients in Berea District, Lesotho. Design Twelve health facilities were randomized to receive the CIP or standard of care after stratification by facility type (hospital or health center). The CIP includes nurse training and mentorship, using a clinical algorithm; transport reimbursement and health education by village health workers (VHW) for patients and treatment supporters; and adherence support using text messaging and VHW. Routine data were abstracted for all newly registered TB/HIV patients; anticipated sample size was 1,200 individuals. A measurement cohort of TB/HIV patients initiating ART was recruited; the target enrollment was 384 individuals, each to be followed for the duration of TB treatment (6–9 months). Inclusion criteria were HIV-infected; on TB treatment; initiated ART within 2 months of TB treatment initiation; age ≥18; English- or Sesotho-speaking; and capable of informed consent. The exclusion criterion was multidrug-resistant TB. Three groups of key informants were recruited from intervention clinics: early ART initiators; non/late ART initiators; and health care workers. Primary outcomes include ART initiation, retention, and TB treatment success. Secondary outcomes include time to ART initiation, adherence, change in CD4+ count, sputum smear conversion, cost-effectiveness, and acceptability. Follow-up and data abstraction are complete. Discussion The START

  15. Measuring HIV Self-Management in Women Living with HIV/AIDS: A Psychometric Evaluation Study of the HIV Self-Management Scale

    PubMed Central

    Webel, Allison R.; Asher, Alice; Cuca, Yvette; Okonsky, Jennifer G.; Kaihura, Alphoncina; Rose, Carol Dawson; Hanson, Jan E.; Salata, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate the HIV Self-Management Scale for women, a new measure of HIV self-management, defined as the day-to-day decisions that individuals make to manage their illness. Methods The development and validation of the scale was undertaken in three phases: focus groups, expert review and psychometric evaluation. Focus groups identified items describing the process and context of self-management in women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA). Items were refined using expert review and were then administered to WLHA in two sites in the U.S. (n=260). Validity of the scale was assessed through factor analyses, model fit statistics, reliability testing, and convergent and discriminate validity. Results The final scale consists of 3-domains with 20 items describing the construct of HIV self-management. Daily self-management health practices, Social support and HIV self-management, and Chronicity of HIV self-management comprise the three domains. These domains explained 48.6% of the total variance in the scale. The item mean scores ranged from 1.7-2.77, and each domain demonstrated acceptable reliability (0.72-0.86) and stability (0.61-0.85). Conclusions Self-management is critical for WLHA, who constitute over 50% of PLWHA and have poorer health outcomes than their male counterparts. Methods to assess the self-management behavior of WLHA are needed to enhance their health and well-being. Presently no scales exist to measure HIV self-management. Our new 20-item HIV Self-Management Scale is a valid and reliable measure of HIV self-management in this population. Differences in aspects of self-management may be related to social roles and community resources and interventions targeting these factors may decrease morbidity in WLHA. PMID:22569267

  16. A low-effort, clinic-wide intervention improves attendance for HIV primary care.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Lytt I; Marks, Gary; Craw, Jason A; Wilson, Tracey E; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn; Moore, Richard D; Mugavero, Michael J; Rodriguez, Allan E; Bradley-Springer, Lucy A; Holman, Susan; Keruly, Jeanne C; Sullivan, Meg; Skolnik, Paul R; Malitz, Faye; Metsch, Lisa R; Raper, James L; Giordano, Thomas P

    2012-10-01

    Retention in care for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients is a National HIV/AIDS Strategy priority. We hypothesized that retention could be improved with coordinated messages to encourage patients' clinic attendance. We report here the results of the first phase of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Health Resources and Services Administration Retention in Care project. Six HIV-specialty clinics participated in a cross-sectionally sampled pretest-posttest evaluation of brochures, posters, and messages that conveyed the importance of regular clinic attendance. 10,018 patients in 2008-2009 (preintervention period) and 11,039 patients in 2009-2010 (intervention period) were followed up for clinic attendance. Outcome variables were the percentage of patients who kept 2 consecutive primary care visits and the mean proportion of all primary care visits kept. Stratification variables were: new, reengaging, and active patients, HIV RNA viral load, CD4 cell count, age, sex, race or ethnicity, risk group, number of scheduled visits, and clinic site. Data were analyzed by multivariable log-binomial and linear models using generalized estimation equation methods. Clinic attendance for primary care was significantly higher in the intervention versus preintervention year. Overall relative improvement was 7.0% for keeping 2 consecutive visits and 3.0% for the mean proportion of all visits kept (P < .0001). Larger relative improvement for both outcomes was observed for new or reengaging patients, young patients and patients with elevated viral loads. Improved attendance among the new or reengaging patients was consistent across the 6 clinics, and less consistent across clinics for active patients. Targeted messages on staying in care, which were delivered at minimal effort and cost, improved clinic attendance, especially for new or reengaging patients, young patients, and those with elevated viral loads.

  17. A Low-Effort, Clinic-Wide Intervention Improves Attendance for HIV Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Lytt I.; Marks, Gary; Craw, Jason A.; Wilson, Tracey E.; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn; Moore, Richard D.; Mugavero, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Allan E.; Bradley-Springer, Lucy A.; Holman, Susan; Keruly, Jeanne C.; Sullivan, Meg; Skolnik, Paul R.; Malitz, Faye; Metsch, Lisa R.; Raper, James L.; Giordano, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Retention in care for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients is a National HIV/AIDS Strategy priority. We hypothesized that retention could be improved with coordinated messages to encourage patients' clinic attendance. We report here the results of the first phase of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Health Resources and Services Administration Retention in Care project. Methods. Six HIV-specialty clinics participated in a cross-sectionally sampled pretest-posttest evaluation of brochures, posters, and messages that conveyed the importance of regular clinic attendance. 10 018 patients in 2008–2009 (preintervention period) and 11 039 patients in 2009–2010 (intervention period) were followed up for clinic attendance. Outcome variables were the percentage of patients who kept 2 consecutive primary care visits and the mean proportion of all primary care visits kept. Stratification variables were: new, reengaging, and active patients, HIV RNA viral load, CD4 cell count, age, sex, race or ethnicity, risk group, number of scheduled visits, and clinic site. Data were analyzed by multivariable log-binomial and linear models using generalized estimation equation methods. Results. Clinic attendance for primary care was significantly higher in the intervention versus preintervention year. Overall relative improvement was 7.0% for keeping 2 consecutive visits and 3.0% for the mean proportion of all visits kept (P < .0001). Larger relative improvement for both outcomes was observed for new or reengaging patients, young patients and patients with elevated viral loads. Improved attendance among the new or reengaging patients was consistent across the 6 clinics, and less consistent across clinics for active patients. Conclusion. Targeted messages on staying in care, which were delivered at minimal effort and cost, improved clinic attendance, especially for new or reengaging patients, young patients, and those with elevated

  18. Evaluation of a needle social marketing strategy to control HIV among injecting drug users in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zunyou; Luo, Wei; Sullivan, Sheena G; Rou, Keming; Lin, Peng; Liu, Wei; Ming, Zhongqiang

    2007-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a needle social marketing strategy to reduce needle sharing and hepatitis C Virus (HCV)/HIV transmission among injecting drug users (IDU) in China. Two-armed, prospective, community-randomized prevention trial. Four counties/townships in Guangxi and Guangdong provinces; one randomized to intervention the other to control in each province. Injecting drug users: 823 (443 intervention, 382 control) at baseline and 852 (415 intervention, 407 control) at the second cross-sectional survey 12 months later. A needle social marketing programme, including promotion of safe injection norms and increased access to clean needles over a 12 month period. Cross sectional surveys at baseline and follow-up compared changes in drug using behaviours and HIV and HCV rates in the intervention and control communities. Needle sharing behaviours were similar in the two groups at baseline (68.4 vs. 67.8%), and dropped significantly to 35.3% in the intervention community and remained relatively stable in the control community (62.3%; P < 0.001). In a subset of cohort of new injectors, the incidence of HCV was significant lower in intervention than in control in both provinces (P < 0.001, P = 0.014) and overall (P < 0.001) but HIV was only significantly lower in intervention in Guangdong (P = 0.011). Needle social marketing can reduce risky injecting behaviour and HIV/HCV transmission among injecting drug users in China and should be expanded.

  19. Replicating a Teen HIV/STD Preventive Intervention in a Multicultural City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Beadnell, Blair A.; Wilsdon, Anthony; Higa, Darrel; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Casey, Erin A.

    2007-01-01

    Although there are now several adolescent HIV and STD preventive interventions of demonstrated efficacy in the literature, little is understood about the portability of these interventions. This study replicated Stanton's Focus on Kids intervention, developed for inner city African American adolescents, in a different population, transferring it…

  20. Efficacy of Structured Organizational Change Intervention on HIV Testing in Correctional Facilities.

    PubMed

    Belenko, Steven; Visher, Christy; Pearson, Frank; Swan, Holly; Pich, Michele; O'Connell, Daniel; Dembo, Richard; Frisman, Linda; Hamilton, Leah; Willett, Jennifer

    2017-06-01

    This article presents findings from a multisite cluster randomized trial of a structured organizational change intervention for improving HIV testing services in jails and prisons. Matched pairs of prison and jail facilities were randomized to experimental and control conditions; all facilities received baseline training about best practices in HIV testing and other HIV services and selected an area of HIV services on which to focus improvement efforts. The experimental facilities formed local change teams and were provided external coaching based on the Network for the Improvement of Addiction Treatment (NIATx) process improvement model. Difference-indifference analyses indicate a significant relative increase in HIV testing in the experimental compared to the control condition. Meta-analyses across the matched pairs indicated a small to medium effect of increased testing overall. The results indicate that the local change team model can achieve significant increases in HIV testing in correctional facilities. Implications for HIV testing policies and challenges for expanding testing are discussed.

  1. Evaluating HIV prevention strategies for populations in key affected groups: The example of Cabo Verde

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, João Filipe G.; Galea, Sandro; Flanigan, Timothy; Monteiro, Maria de Lourdes; Friedman, Samuel R.; Marshall, Brandon DL

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We used an individual-based model to evaluate the effects of hypothetical prevention interventions on HIV incidence trajectories in a concentrated, mixed epidemic setting from 2011 to 2021, and using Cabo Verde as an example. Methods Simulations were conducted to evaluate the extent to which early HIV treatment and optimization of care, HIV testing, condom distribution, and substance abuse treatment could eliminate new infections (i.e., reduce incidence to less than 10 cases per 10,000 person-years) among non-drug users, female sex workers (FSW), and people who use drugs (PWUD). Results Scaling up all four interventions resulted in the largest decreases in HIV, with estimates ranging from 1.4 (95%CI:1.36–1.44) per 10,000 person-years among non-drug users to 8.2 (95%CI:7.8–8.6) per 10,000 person-years among PWUD in 2021. Intervention scenarios targeting FWS and PWUD also resulted in HIV incidence estimates at or below 10 per 10,000 person-years by 2021 for all population sub-groups. Conclusions Our results suggest that scaling up multiple interventions among entire population is necessary to achieve elimination. However, prioritizing key populations with this combination prevention strategy may also result in a substantial decrease in total incidence. PMID:25838121

  2. Perceptions of Black College Women on Barriers to HIV-Risk Reduction and Their HIV Prevention Intervention Needs.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Rasheeta; Anstey, Erica H; Ross, Henry; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    HIV prevention interventions can help college students engage in safe sexual behaviors. We used the Information, Motivation, Behavioral Skills model to frame four focus group discussions with Black women (n = 32) attending a historically Black college/university or a traditional university to understand their HIV prevention needs. Participants wanted clear information about sexually transmitted infections/HIV and access to contraception. Motivators for practicing safe sex were related to cultural and religious expectations, desire to avoid pregnancy, and conscious efforts to defy racial stereotypes. Barriers to practicing safe sex included issues of accountability, stigma associated with accessing HIV testing/prevention services, and media influences. We found general consensus about the need to develop skill-building HIV prevention interventions focused on communication skills, condom negotiation, access to services, and empowerment. We offer insight into culture- and age-appropriate HIV prevention for Black college women to guide the development of future interventions. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An intervention to support HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adherence in HIV serodiscordant couples in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Psaros, Christina; Haberer, Jessica E.; Katabira, Elly; Ronald, Allan; Tumwesigye, Elioda; Campbell, James D.; Wangisi, Jonathan; Mugwanya, Kenneth; Kintu, Alex; Enyakoit, Michael; Thomas, Katherine K.; Donnell, Deborah; Krows, Meighan; Kidoguchi, Lara; Ware, Norma; Baeten, Jared M.; Celum, Connie; Bangsberg, David R.; Safren, Steve A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Daily pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention strategy, but adherence is required for maximum benefit. To date, there are no empirically supported PrEP adherence interventions. This manuscript describes the process of developing a PrEP adherence intervention and presents results on its impact on adherence. Methods The Partners PrEP Study was a placebo-controlled efficacy trial of daily oral tenofovir and emtricitabine/tenofovir PrEP among uninfected members of HIV serodiscordant couples. An ancillary adherence study was conducted at three study sites in Uganda. Participants with <80% adherence as measured by unannounced pill count received an additional adherence counseling intervention based on Lifesteps, an evidence-based HIV treatment adherence intervention, based on principles of cognitive-behavioral theory. Findings Of the 1,147 HIV seronegative participants were enrolled in the ancillary adherence study, 168 (14.6%) triggered the adherence intervention. Of participants triggering the intervention, 62% were male; median age was 32.5 years. The median number of adherence counseling sessions was 10. Mean adherence during the month before the intervention was 75.7%, and increased significantly to 84.1% in the month after the first intervention session (p<0.001). The most frequently endorsed adherence barriers at session one were travel and forgetting. Interpretation A PrEP adherence intervention was feasible in a clinical trial of PrEP in Uganda and PrEP adherence increased after the intervention. Future research should identify PrEP users with low adherence for enhanced adherence counseling and determine optimal implementation strategies for interventions to maximize PrEP effectiveness. PMID:24853311

  4. Straight Talk: HIV Prevention for African-American Heterosexual Men: Theoretical Bases and Intervention Design

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Victoria; Bonner, Sebastian; Williams, Kim; Henny, Kirk; Bond, Keosha; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Smith, Stephen; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, racial disparities in HIV/AIDS are stark. Although African Americans comprise an estimated 14% of the U.S. population, they made up 52% of new HIV cases among adults and adolescents diagnosed in 2009. Heterosexual transmission is now the second leading cause of HIV in the United States. African Americans made up a full two-thirds of all heterosexually acquired HIV/AIDS cases between 2005 and 2008. Few demonstrated efficacious HIV prevention interventions designed specifically for adult, African-American heterosexual men exist. Here, we describe the process used to design a theory-based HIV prevention intervention to increase condom use, reduce concurrent partnering, and increase HIV testing among heterosexually active African-American men living in high HIV prevalence areas of New York City. The intervention integrated empowerment, social identity, and rational choices theories and focused on four major content areas: HIV/AIDS testing and education; condom skills training; key relational and behavioral turning points; and masculinity and fatherhood. PMID:23016501

  5. EVOLUTION--taking charge and growing stronger: the design, acceptability, and feasibility of a secondary prevention empowerment intervention for young women living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Brothers, Jennifer; Harper, Gary W; Fernandez, M Isabel; Hosek, Sybil G

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, youth of 13-24 years account for nearly a quarter of all new HIV infections, with almost 1000 young men and women being infected per month. Young women account for 20% of those new infections.This article describes the design, feasibility, and acceptability of a secondary prevention empowerment intervention for young women living with HIV entitled Young Women Taking Charge and Growing Stronger. The nine session intervention aimed to reduce secondary transmission by enhancing social and behavioral skills and knowledge pertaining to young women's physical, social, emotional, and sexual well-being,while addressing the moderating factors such as sexual inequality and power imbalances. Process evaluation data suggest that EVOLUTION is a highly acceptable and feasible intervention for young women living with HIV. Participants reported enjoying both the structure and comprehensive nature of the intervention. Both participants and interventionists reported that the intervention was highly relevant to the lives of young women living with HIV since it not only provided opportunities for them to broaden their knowledge and risk reduction skills in HIV, but it also addressed important areas that impact their daily lives such as stressors, relationships,and their emotional and social well-being. Thus, this study demonstrates that providing a gender-specific,comprehensive group-based empowerment intervention for young women living with HIV appears to be both feasible and acceptable.

  6. EVOLUTION—Taking Charge and Growing Stronger: The Design, Acceptability, and Feasibility of a Secondary Prevention Empowerment Intervention for Young Women Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Gary W.; Fernandez, M. Isabel; Hosek, Sybil G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the United States, youth of 13–24 years account for nearly a quarter of all new HIV infections, with almost 1000 young men and women being infected per month. Young women account for 20% of those new infections. This article describes the design, feasibility, and acceptability of a secondary prevention empowerment intervention for young women living with HIV entitled EVOLUTION: Young Women Taking Charge and Growing Stronger. The nine session intervention aimed to reduce secondary transmission by enhancing social and behavioral skills and knowledge pertaining to young women's physical, social, emotional, and sexual well-being, while addressing the moderating factors such as sexual inequality and power imbalances. Process evaluation data suggest that EVOLUTION is a highly acceptable and feasible intervention for young women living with HIV. Participants reported enjoying both the structure and comprehensive nature of the intervention. Both participants and interventionists reported that the intervention was highly relevant to the lives of young women living with HIV since it not only provided opportunities for them to broaden their knowledge and risk reduction skills in HIV, but it also addressed important areas that impact their daily lives such as stressors, relationships, and their emotional and social well-being. Thus, this study demonstrates that providing a gender-specific, comprehensive group-based empowerment intervention for young women living with HIV appears to be both feasible and acceptable. PMID:24575438

  7. The network approach and interventions to prevent HIV among injection drug users.

    PubMed Central

    Neaigus, A

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk reduction interventions among injecting drug users (IDUs) that have adopted a network approach. METHODS: The design and outcomes of selected network-based interventions among IDUs are reviewed using the network concepts of the dyad (two-person relationship), the personal risk network (an index person and all of his or her relationship), and the "sociometric" network (the complete set of relations between people in a population) and community. RESULTS: In a dyad intervention among HIV-serodiscordant couples, many of which included IDUs, there were no HIV seroconversions. Participants in personal risk network interventions were more likely to reduce drug risks and in some of these interventions, sexual risks, than were participants in individual-based interventions. Sociometric network interventions reached more IDUs and may be more cost-effective than individual-based interventions. CONCLUSION: Network-based HIV risk reduction interventions among IDUs, and others at risk for HIV, hold promise and should be encouraged. PMID:9722819

  8. A randomized trial of a nursing intervention for HIV disease management among persons with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Blank, Michael B; Hanrahan, Nancy P; Fishbein, Martin; Wu, Evan S; Tennille, Julie A; Ten Have, Thomas R; Kutney-Lee, Ann M; Gross, Robert; Hines, Janet M; Coyne, James C; Aiken, Linda H

    2011-11-01

    The heightened risk of persons with serious mental illness to contract and transmit HIV is recognized as a public health problem. Persons with HIV and mental illness may be at risk for poor treatment adherence, development of treatment-resistant virus, and worse outcomes. The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of a community-based advanced practice nurse (APN) intervention (PATH, Preventing AIDS Through Health) to promote adherence to HIV and psychiatric treatment regimens. Community-dwelling HIV-positive participants with co-occurring serious mental illnesses (N=238) were recruited from community HIV provider agencies from 2004 to 2008 to participate in the randomized controlled trial. Participants in the intervention group (N=128) were assigned an APN who provided community-based care management at a minimum of one visit per week and coordinated clients' medical and mental health care for one year. Viral load and CD4 cell count were evaluated at baseline and 12 months. Longitudinal models for continuous log viral load showed that compared with the control group, the intervention group exhibited a significantly greater reduction in log viral load at 12 months (d=-.361 log 10 copies per milliliter, p<.001). Differences in CD4 counts from baseline to 12 months were not statistically significant. This project demonstrated the effectiveness of community-based APNs in delivering a tailored intervention to improve outcomes of individuals with HIV and co-occurring serious mental illnesses. Persons with these co-occurring conditions can be successfully treated; with appropriate supportive services, their viral loads can be reduced.

  9. Cultural Competence in a Group Intervention Designed for Latino Patients Living with HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acevedo, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    Although the trajectory of the HIV/AIDS epidemic has changed dramatically over the past 25 years, addressing the psychosocial needs of patients living with HIV/AIDS remains vital. Ensuring the effective delivery of services demands that interventions be rooted in cultural competence and aimed at vulnerable populations. This article describes a…

  10. Cultural Competence in a Group Intervention Designed for Latino Patients Living with HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acevedo, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    Although the trajectory of the HIV/AIDS epidemic has changed dramatically over the past 25 years, addressing the psychosocial needs of patients living with HIV/AIDS remains vital. Ensuring the effective delivery of services demands that interventions be rooted in cultural competence and aimed at vulnerable populations. This article describes a…

  11. How Patient Interactions with a Computer-Based Video Intervention Affect Decisions to Test for HIV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Ian David; Rajan, Sonali; Marsch, Lisa A.; Bania, Theodore C.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines predictors of HIV test acceptance among emergency department patients who received an educational video intervention designed to increase HIV testing. A total of 202 patients in the main treatment areas of a high-volume, urban hospital emergency department used inexpensive netbook computers to watch brief educational…

  12. An HIV Testing Intervention in African American Churches: Pilot Study Findings

    PubMed Central

    Berkley-Patton, Jannette; Thompson, Carole Bowe; Moore, Erin; Hawes, Starlyn; Simon, Stephen; Goggin, Kathy; Martinez, David; Berman, Marcie; Booker, Alexandria

    2016-01-01

    Background African Americans are disproportionately burdened by HIV. The African American church is an influential institution with potential to increase reach of HIV prevention interventions in Black communities. Purpose This study examined HIV testing rates in African American churches in the Taking It to the Pews pilot project. Using a community-engaged approach, church leaders delivered religiously-tailored HIV education and testing materials/activities (e.g., sermons, brochures/bulletins, testimonials) to church and community members. Methods Four African American churches (N=543 participants) located in the Kansas City metropolitan area were randomized to intervention and comparison groups. Receipt of an HIV test was assessed at baseline and 6 months. Results Findings indicated intervention participants were 2.2 times more likely to receive an HIV test than comparisons at 6 months. Church leaders delivered about 2 tools per month. Conclusions Church-based HIV testing interventions are feasible and have potential to increase HIV testing rates in African American communities. PMID:26821712

  13. A Model Human Sexuality--HIV/AIDS Prevention and Intervention Service-Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Clarence, M., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with a service-learning program focused on human sexuality and HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention at the Howard University Department of Health, Human Performance and Leisure Studies. Topics discussed include how this program was created, an overview of peer education, HIV/AIDS peer education training, and services provided to…

  14. How Patient Interactions with a Computer-Based Video Intervention Affect Decisions to Test for HIV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Ian David; Rajan, Sonali; Marsch, Lisa A.; Bania, Theodore C.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines predictors of HIV test acceptance among emergency department patients who received an educational video intervention designed to increase HIV testing. A total of 202 patients in the main treatment areas of a high-volume, urban hospital emergency department used inexpensive netbook computers to watch brief educational…

  15. Operational fidelity to an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention for people living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Seth C; Hudd, Katie; Diberto, Giorgio

    2010-08-01

    Evidence-based interventions are often disseminated in public health education with little known about their operational fidelity. This study examined the delivery of intervention components (operational fidelity) of a widely disseminated HIV prevention program designed for people living with HIV/AIDS named Healthy Relationships. Two hundred ninety-nine agencies that had been trained in the intervention by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were contacted, and 122 (41%) completed confidential interviews. Among the 93 agencies that implemented the program, 39 (40%) adapted at least one core element activity, and 21 (23%) dropped an activity. Most adaptations were intended to improve the community fit of the intervention. Agencies believed that funders demand that they implement the intervention with fidelity. Models of technology transfer that emphasize behavior change processes rather than specific curriculum content may advance prevention program dissemination.

  16. Operational Fidelity to an Evidence-Based HIV Prevention Intervention for People Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Hudd, Katie; DiBerto, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    Evidence based interventions are often disseminated in public health education with little known about their operational fidelity. This study examined the delivery of intervention components (operational fidelity) of a widely disseminated HIV prevention program designed for people living with HIV/AIDS named Healthy Relationships. Two hundred and ninety nine agencies that had been trained in the intervention by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were contacted and 122 (41%) completed confidential interviews. Among the 93 agencies that implemented the program, 39 (40%) adapted at least one core element activity and 21 (23%) dropped an activity. Most adaptations were intended to improve the community fit of the intervention. Agencies believed that funders demand that they implement the intervention with fidelity. Models of technology transfer that emphasize behavior change processes rather than specific curriculum content may advance prevention program dissemination. PMID:20582629

  17. Contact with HIV prevention programmes & willingness for new interventions among truckers in India

    PubMed Central

    Prem Kumar, S.G.; Kumar, G. Anil; Poluru, Ramesh; Schneider, John A.; Dandona, Lalit; Vemu, Lakshmi; Sudha, T.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Dandona, Rakhi

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Systematic data on existing coverage and willingness for HIV prevention strategies among truckers are not readily available in India. The present study aimed to further the understanding on contact of truckers with existing HIV prevention services and to assess willingness for new HIV prevention strategies. Methods: A total of 1,800 truck drivers and helpers aged 16-65 yr passing through Hyderabad were approached to assess contact made with HIV prevention programmes, history of previous HIV testing and their acceptance for circumcision, oral HIV testing, new medications to control HIV (PrEP) and telephonic counselling. Dried blood samples were collected on filter paper and tested for HIV. Multiple logistic regression was performed for analysis of association between contact with HIV prevention programme and socio-demographic, sexual risk behaviour variables and work characteristics. Results: A total of 1,602 (89%) truckers gave interview and provided blood sample. Forty five truckers tested positive for HIV resulting in HIV prevalence of 2.8 per cent (95% CI 2.0-3.6%). Only 126 truckers (7.9%; 95% CI 6.5-9.2%) reported ever being contacted by staff providing HIV prevention interventions. Previous HIV testing was reported by19 per cent (95% CI 17.3-21.2%). Those reporting contact with HIV prevention programmes ever were more likely to have undergone HIV testing (odds ratio 3.6, 95% CI 2.4-5.4). The acceptance for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) was 87 per cent, oral HIV testing 98 per cent, and telephonic counselling 82 per cent, but was only 9 per cent for circumcision. Truckers who reported having sex with a man and those who halted regularly at dhabas were significantly more willing to undergo circumcision for HIV prevention (odds ratios 2.7, 95% CI 1.4-5.4 and 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.2, respectively). Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed that truckers had low contact with HIV prevention programmes, suggesting a need for urgent

  18. Contact with HIV prevention programmes & willingness for new interventions among truckers in India.

    PubMed

    Prem Kumar, S G; Kumar, G Anil; Poluru, Ramesh; Schneider, John A; Dandona, Lalit; Vemu, Lakshmi; Sudha, T; Mayer, Kenneth H; Dandona, Rakhi

    2013-06-01

    Systematic data on existing coverage and willingness for HIV prevention strategies among truckers are not readily available in India. The present study aimed to further the understanding on contact of truckers with existing HIV prevention services and to assess willingness for new HIV prevention strategies. A total of 1,800 truck drivers and helpers aged 16-65 yr passing through Hyderabad were approached to assess contact made with HIV prevention programmes, history of previous HIV testing and their acceptance for circumcision, oral HIV testing, new medications to control HIV (PrEP) and telephonic counselling. Dried blood samples were collected on filter paper and tested for HIV. Multiple logistic regression was performed for analysis of association between contact with HIV prevention programme and socio-demographic, sexual risk behaviour variables and work characteristics. A total of 1,602 (89%) truckers gave interview and provided blood sample. Forty five truckers tested positive for HIV resulting in HIV prevalence of 2.8 per cent (95% CI 2.0-3.6%). Only 126 truckers (7.9%; 95% CI 6.5-9.2%) reported ever being contacted by staff providing HIV prevention interventions. Previous HIV testing was reported by19 per cent (95% CI 17.3-21.2%). Those reporting contact with HIV prevention programmes ever were more likely to have undergone HIV testing (odds ratio 3.6, 95% CI 2.4-5.4). The acceptance for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) was 87 per cent, oral HIV testing 98 per cent, and telephonic counselling 82 per cent, but was only 9 per cent for circumcision.Truckers who reported having sex with a man and those who halted regularly at dhabas were significantly more willing to undergo circumcision for HIV prevention (odds ratios 2.7, 95% CI 1.4-5.4 and 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.2, respectively). Our findings showed that truckers had low contact with HIV prevention programmes, suggesting a need for urgent measures to reach this population more effectively. The willingness for new

  19. Impact of a secondary prevention intervention among HIV-positive older women.

    PubMed

    Echenique, Marisa; Illa, Lourdes; Saint-Jean, Gilbert; Avellaneda, Victoria Bustamante; Sanchez-Martinez, Mario; Eisdorfer, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that older women represent a growing risk group for HIV, they have been rarely targeted by public health campaigns designed to prevent HIV/AIDS and are often excluded from many prevention studies. This unique cohort may be often overlooked due to beliefs that older women are not sexually active and do not engage in high risk sexual activity. Data suggest a need for increased attention to this unique cohort. Risk reduction interventions tailored to the special needs of people living with HIV/AIDS have begun to demonstrate promising results. In this manuscript, we report the 6 month outcomes for female participants in Project ROADMAP, a secondary prevention intervention designed to reduce high risk sexual behavior in older adults living with HIV/AIDS. Our results indicate that female participants in the intervention group were more likely to report a reduction in high risk sexual behavior than women in the control condition. Our findings also suggest that the intervention succeeded in increasing the HIV-related knowledge of the participants and decreasing their stigma vis-à-vis the HIV condition. The study findings suggest that Project ROADMAP is an effective secondary prevention intervention for sexually active older HIV positive women.

  20. Impact of ASUMA Intervention on HIV Risk Behaviors among Puerto Rican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Santos, Diana M.; Miranda-Diaz, Christine; Figueroa-Cosme, Wanda I.; Ramon, Raul O.; Mayor, Angel M.; Rios-Olivares, Eddy; Hunter-Mellado, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to assess and compare HIV risk behaviors among early adolescents after a three-year pilot study. A total of 135 public and private junior high schools students completed the intervention protocol. A self-administered questionnaire was given at baseline and at the end of the third year (fourth measure). Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed using SPSS 20.0. About 60% of the students were 14 years old at the fourth measure. The proportion of students that did not report at least one HIV risk behavior at baseline and those that reported any risk behavior at the fourth measure was lower in the intervention group (45.0%) than in the control group (54.5%). The proportion of students that reported at least one HIV risk behavior at baseline and those that did not report any HIV risk behavior at the fourth measure was higher in the intervention group than in the control group (33.3% vs. 8.3%). The proportion of students engaging in HIV risk behaviors was higher in the control group than in the intervention group at the fourth measure, suggesting that A Supportive Model for HIV Risk Reduction in Early Adolescence (ASUMA) intervention might be a promising initiative to reduce adolescents’ engagement in HIV risk behaviors. PMID:26703684

  1. Interventions targeting sexual and reproductive health and rights outcomes of young people living with HIV: a comprehensive review of current interventions from sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pretorius, Leandri; Gibbs, Andrew; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Willan, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Background A growing number of young people (ages 10–24) are living with HIV (YPLWH) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). These YPLWH have particular needs and challenges related to their sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR). Contextual factors including gender inequalities, violence, stigma, and discrimination and lack of tailored services undermine YPLWH's SRHR. Objective Understand the scope and impact of interventions targeting YPLWH to improve SRH-related outcomes in SSA. Design We undertook a review to synthesise evaluated interventions (qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods) aimed at improving the SRH outcomes of YPLWH in SSA with outcomes based on a World Health Organization framework of comprehensive SRHR approaches for women living with HIV. Using inclusion criteria, only six interventions were identified. Results Interventions sought to improve a range of direct and indirect SRH outcomes, including sexual behaviour, adherence, disclosure, and mental health. Four overarching issues emerged: 1) all interventions were structured according to cognitive behavioural therapy theories of behaviour change – while showing promise they do not tackle the wider gender, social, and economic contexts that shape YPLWH's SRH; 2) ‘significant others’ were included in two of the interventions, but further work needs to consider how to leverage parental/guardian support appropriately; 3) interventions only accessed young people who were already linked to care, participants were likely to have better SRH outcomes than those potentially more vulnerable YPLWH; and 4) none of the interventions explored the sexuality of young people. Conclusions There have been a limited number of evaluated interventions to strengthen SRH of YPLWH in SSA, and gaps exist in addressing the SRHR needs of YPLWH. Intervention approaches require greater scope and depth, including the need to address structural and contextual challenges. PMID:26534721

  2. Interventions targeting sexual and reproductive health and rights outcomes of young people living with HIV: a comprehensive review of current interventions from sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Pretorius, Leandri; Gibbs, Andrew; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Willan, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of young people (ages 10-24) are living with HIV (YPLWH) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). These YPLWH have particular needs and challenges related to their sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR). Contextual factors including gender inequalities, violence, stigma, and discrimination and lack of tailored services undermine YPLWH's SRHR. Understand the scope and impact of interventions targeting YPLWH to improve SRH-related outcomes in SSA. We undertook a review to synthesise evaluated interventions (qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods) aimed at improving the SRH outcomes of YPLWH in SSA with outcomes based on a World Health Organization framework of comprehensive SRHR approaches for women living with HIV. Using inclusion criteria, only six interventions were identified. Interventions sought to improve a range of direct and indirect SRH outcomes, including sexual behaviour, adherence, disclosure, and mental health. Four overarching issues emerged: 1) all interventions were structured according to cognitive behavioural therapy theories of behaviour change - while showing promise they do not tackle the wider gender, social, and economic contexts that shape YPLWH's SRH; 2) 'significant others' were included in two of the interventions, but further work needs to consider how to leverage parental/guardian support appropriately; 3) interventions only accessed young people who were already linked to care, participants were likely to have better SRH outcomes than those potentially more vulnerable YPLWH; and 4) none of the interventions explored the sexuality of young people. There have been a limited number of evaluated interventions to strengthen SRH of YPLWH in SSA, and gaps exist in addressing the SRHR needs of YPLWH. Intervention approaches require greater scope and depth, including the need to address structural and contextual challenges.

  3. Interventions targeting sexual and reproductive health and rights outcomes of young people living with HIV: a comprehensive review of current interventions from sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Pretorius, Leandri; Gibbs, Andrew; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Willan, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Background A growing number of young people (ages 10-24) are living with HIV (YPLWH) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). These YPLWH have particular needs and challenges related to their sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR). Contextual factors including gender inequalities, violence, stigma, and discrimination and lack of tailored services undermine YPLWH's SRHR. Objective Understand the scope and impact of interventions targeting YPLWH to improve SRH-related outcomes in SSA. Design We undertook a review to synthesise evaluated interventions (qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods) aimed at improving the SRH outcomes of YPLWH in SSA with outcomes based on a World Health Organization framework of comprehensive SRHR approaches for women living with HIV. Using inclusion criteria, only six interventions were identified. Results Interventions sought to improve a range of direct and indirect SRH outcomes, including sexual behaviour, adherence, disclosure, and mental health. Four overarching issues emerged: 1) all interventions were structured according to cognitive behavioural therapy theories of behaviour change - while showing promise they do not tackle the wider gender, social, and economic contexts that shape YPLWH's SRH; 2) 'significant others' were included in two of the interventions, but further work needs to consider how to leverage parental/guardian support appropriately; 3) interventions only accessed young people who were already linked to care, participants were likely to have better SRH outcomes than those potentially more vulnerable YPLWH; and 4) none of the interventions explored the sexuality of young people. Conclusions There have been a limited number of evaluated interventions to strengthen SRH of YPLWH in SSA, and gaps exist in addressing the SRHR needs of YPLWH. Intervention approaches require greater scope and depth, including the need to address structural and contextual challenges.

  4. The cost and cost-effectiveness of gender-responsive interventions for HIV: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Remme, Michelle; Siapka, Mariana; Vassall, Anna; Heise, Lori; Jacobi, Jantine; Ahumada, Claudia; Gay, Jill; Watts, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Harmful gender norms and inequalities, including gender-based violence, are important structural barriers to effective HIV programming. We assess current evidence on what forms of gender-responsive intervention may enhance the effectiveness of basic HIV programmes and be cost-effective. Methods Effective intervention models were identified from an existing evidence review (“what works for women”). Based on this, we conducted a systematic review of published and grey literature on the costs and cost-effectiveness of each intervention identified. Where possible, we compared incremental costs and effects. Results Our effectiveness search identified 36 publications, reporting on the effectiveness of 22 HIV interventions with a gender focus. Of these, 11 types of interventions had a corresponding/comparable costing or cost-effectiveness study. The findings suggest that couple counselling for the prevention of vertical transmission; gender empowerment, community mobilization, and female condom promotion for female sex workers; expanded female condom distribution for the general population; and post-exposure HIV prophylaxis for rape survivors are cost-effective HIV interventions. Cash transfers for schoolgirls and school support for orphan girls may also be cost-effective in generalized epidemic settings. Conclusions There has been limited research to assess the cost-effectiveness of interventions that seek to address women's needs and transform harmful gender norms. Our review identified several promising, cost-effective interventions that merit consideration as critical enablers in HIV investment approaches, as well as highlight that broader gender and development interventions can have positive HIV impacts. By no means an exhaustive package, these represent a first set of interventions to be included in the investment framework. PMID:25373519

  5. Effects of a Pilot Church-based Intervention to Reduce HIV Stigma and Promote HIV Testing among African Americans and Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Derose, Kathryn P.; Griffin, Beth Ann; Kanouse, David E.; Bogart, Laura M.; Williams, Malcolm V.; Haas, Ann C.; Flórez, Karen R.; Collins, Deborah Owens; Hawes-Dawson, Jennifer; Mata, Michael A.; Oden, Clyde W.; Stucky, Brian D.

    2016-01-01

    HIV-related stigma and mistrust contribute to HIV disparities. Addressing stigma with faith partners may be effective, but few church-based stigma reduction interventions have been tested. We implemented a pilot intervention with 3 Latino and 2 African American churches (4 in matched pairs) in high HIV prevalence areas of Los Angeles County to reduce HIV stigma and mistrust and increase HIV testing. The intervention included HIV education and peer leader workshops, pastor-delivered sermons on HIV with imagined contact scenarios, and HIV testing events. We surveyed congregants at baseline and 6 month follow-up (n=1235) and found statistically significant (p<.05) reductions in HIV stigma and mistrust in the Latino intervention churches but not in the African American intervention church nor overall across matched African American and Latino pairs. However, within matched pairs, intervention churches had much higher rates of HIV testing (p< .001). Stigma reduction and HIV testing may have synergistic effects in community settings. PMID:27000144

  6. Enhancing Public Health HIV Interventions: A Qualitative Meta-Synthesis and Systematic Review of Studies to Improve Linkage to Care, Adherence, and Retention.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joseph D; Tso, Lai Sze; Hall, Brian; Ma, Qingyan; Beanland, Rachel; Best, John; Li, Haochu; Lackey, Mellanye; Marley, Gifty; Rich, Zachary C; Sou, Ka-Lon; Doherty, Meg

    2017-03-01

    Although HIV services are expanding, few have reached the scale necessary to support universal viral suppression of individuals living with HIV. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize the qualitative evidence evaluating public health HIV interventions to enhance linkage to care, antiretroviral drug (ARV) adherence, and retention in care. We searched 19 databases without language restrictions. The review collated data from three separate qualitative evidence reviews addressing each of the three outcomes along the care continuum. 21,738 citations were identified and 24 studies were included in the evidence review. Among low and middle-income countries in Africa, men living with HIV had decreased engagement in interventions compared to women and this lack of engagement among men also influenced the willingness of their partners to engage in services. Four structural issues (poverty, unstable housing, food insecurity, lack of transportation) mediated the feasibility and acceptability of public health HIV interventions. Individuals living with HIV identified unmet mental health needs that interfered with their ability to access HIV services. Persistent social and cultural factors contribute to disparities in HIV outcomes across the continuum of care, shaping the context of service delivery among important subpopulations.

  7. Pilot Testing an Internet-Based STI and HIV Prevention Intervention With Chilean Women

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Natalia; Santisteban, Daniel; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Ambrosia, Todd; Peragallo, Nilda; Lara, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is high among young Chilean women, and there are no STI or HIV prevention interventions available to them that incorporate technology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the preliminary efficacy of an Internet-based STI and HIV prevention intervention (I-STIPI) for Chilean young women on measures of STI- and HIV-related information, motivation, behavioral skills, and preventive behaviors. Design This is a pretest-posttest study. Forty young Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age participated in an investigation of the I-STIPI’s preliminary efficacy on STI and HIV prevention-related outcomes between baseline and a postintervention assessment. The intervention consisted of four online modules. Data collection was conducted in Santiago, Chile. Paired-samples t test analysis was used to determine whether there were significant differences in each of the outcome variables. Findings After receiving I-STIPI, women reported a significant increase in levels of STI- and HIV-related knowledge, attitudes toward the use of condoms and perceived self-efficacy, and a reduction of risky sexual behaviors with uncommitted partners. Conclusions The I-STIPI showed promise as an Internet-based intervention that can reduce barriers to accessing preventive interventions and increase STI and HIV preventive behaviors in young Chilean women. Clinical Relevance The study provided important information about the ability of an Internet-based intervention to reduce young women’s risk factors and to provide positive preliminary efficacy on STI- and HIV-related outcomes. Internet-based interventions can eliminate many barriers to receiving prevention interventions and may prove to be cost effective. PMID:25410132

  8. Improving Ascertainment of Risk Factors for HIV Infection: Results of a Group-Randomized Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Kathleen McDavid; Pals, Sherri L.; Sajak, Tammy; Chase, Jennifer; Kajese, Tebitha

    2010-01-01

    To allow appropriate allocation of prevention and care funding, HIV/AIDS surveillance data must include risk factor information, currently available for less than 70% of cases reported in the United States. The authors evaluated an intervention consisting of provider training and materials to improve risk factor reporting. Facilities were matched…

  9. Improving Ascertainment of Risk Factors for HIV Infection: Results of a Group-Randomized Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Kathleen McDavid; Pals, Sherri L.; Sajak, Tammy; Chase, Jennifer; Kajese, Tebitha

    2010-01-01

    To allow appropriate allocation of prevention and care funding, HIV/AIDS surveillance data must include risk factor information, currently available for less than 70% of cases reported in the United States. The authors evaluated an intervention consisting of provider training and materials to improve risk factor reporting. Facilities were matched…

  10. Novel interventions for HIV self-management in African American women: a systematic review of mHealth interventions.

    PubMed

    Tufts, Kimberly Adams; Johnson, Kaprea F; Shepherd, Jewel Goodman; Lee, Ju-Young; Bait Ajzoon, Muna S; Mahan, Lauren B; Kim, Miyong T

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the quality of interventions using mobile health (mHealth) technology being developed for and trialed with HIV-infected African American (AA) women. We aimed to assess rigor and to ascertain if these interventions have been expanded to include the broad domain of self-management. After an extensive search using the PRISMA approach and reviewing 450 records (411 published studies and 39 ongoing trials at clinicaltrials.gov), we found little completed research that tested mHealth HIV self-management interventions for AA women. At clinicaltrials.gov, we found several mHealth HIV intervention studies designed for women in general, forecasting a promising future. However, most studies were exploratory in nature and focused on a single narrow outcome, such as medication adherence. Given that cultural adaptation is the key to successfully implementing any effective self-management intervention, culturally relevant, gender-specific mHealth interventions focusing on HIV-infected AA women are warranted for the future.

  11. Characteristics of high risk HIV-positive IDUs in Vietnam: implications for future interventions

    PubMed Central

    Go, Vivian F.; Frangakis, Constantine; Van Nam, Le; Sripaipan, Teerada; Bergenstrom, Anna; Latkin, Carl; Celentano, David D.; Quan, Vu Minh

    2010-01-01

    The HIV epidemic in Vietnam is concentrated primarily in injecting drug users (IDUs). To prevent HIV-1 super-infection and to develop effective HIV prevention programs, data are needed to understand the characteristics of high risk HIV-positive IDUs. In 2003, we conducted a community-based cross-sectional study among predominately male, out-of-treatment IDUs, aged 18–45, in Bac Ninh Province, Vietnam. Among 299 male participants, 42.8% were HIV-positive and among those, 96.9% did not know their status prior to the study. Thirty-two percent were HIV-positive and had high HIV behavioral risk (having unprotected sex or having shared injecting equipment in the past 6 months). Injecting for ≥ 3 years, younger age, and pooling money to buy drugs were independently associated with being at high risk for transmitting HIV. IDUs who purchased >1 syringe at a time were less likely to have high HIV behavioral risk. Structural interventions that increase syringe accessibility may be effective in reducing HIV risk behavior among HIV-positive IDUs. Study limitations are noted in the text. PMID:20735189

  12. Impact of Mano a Mano Mujer, an HIV Prevention Intervention, on Depressive Symptoms among Chilean Women

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, Rosina; Lara, Loreto; Villegas, Natalia; Bernales, Margarita; Ferrer, Lilian; Kaelber, Lorena; Peragallo, Nilda

    2012-01-01

    Background Worldwide, an in Chile, the number of women living with HIV is increasing. Depression is considered a factor that interferes with HIV prevention. Depression may reach 41% among low income Chilean women. Depressed people are less willing to participate in behaviors that protect them against HIV. Objectives To analyze the impact of Mano a Mano-Mujer (MM-M) on depressive symptoms among Chilean women. Methods A quasi-experimental design was used to test the impact of MM-M, an HIV prevention intervention. The research was conducted in Santiago- Chile, a total of 400 women participated in the study (intervention group, n = 182; control group, n = 218). The intervention was guided by the social-cognitive model and the primary health model. The intervention consists of six two-hour sessions delivered in small groups. Sessions covered: HIV prevention, depression, partner's communication, and substance abuse. Face to face interviews were conducted at baseline and at 3 months follow-up Results At 3 months post-intervention, Chilean women who participated in MM-M significantly decreased their reported depressive symptoms. Conclusions MM-M provided significant benefits for women's depression symptoms. This study offers a model that address depression, a risk factor for HIV. It uses nurses as leaders for the screening of depressive symptoms and as facilitators of community interventions. PMID:22452388

  13. HIV Prevention Counseling Intervention Delivered During Routine Clinical Care Reduces HIV Risk Behavior in HIV-Infected South Africans Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy: The Izindlela Zokuphila/Options for Health Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jeffrey D.; Cornman, Deborah H.; Shuper, Paul A.; Christie, Sarah; Pillay, Sandy; Macdonald, Susan; Ngcobo, Ntombenhle; Amico, K. Rivet; Lalloo, Umesh; Friedland, Gerald; Fisher, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Context Sustainable interventions are needed to minimize HIV risk behavior among people living with HIV (PLWH) in South Africa on antiretroviral therapy (ART), a significant proportion of whom do not achieve viral suppression. Objective To determine whether a brief lay counselor delivered intervention implemented during routine care can reduce risky sex among PLWH on ART. Design Cluster randomized 16 HIV clinical care sites in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa, to intervention or standard-of-care. Setting Publicly funded HIV clinical care sites. Patients 1891 PLWH on ART received the HIV prevention counseling intervention (n = 967) or standard-of-care counseling (n = 924). Intervention Lay counselors delivered a brief intervention using motivational interviewing strategies based on the Information—Motivation—Behavioral Skills (IMB) model during routine clinical care. Main Outcome Measures Number of sexual events without a condom in the past four weeks with partners of any HIV status, and with partners perceived to be HIV-negative or HIV-status unknown, assessed at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. Results Intervention participants reported significantly greater reductions in HIV risk behavior on both primary outcomes, compared to standard-of-care participants. Differences in STI incidence between arms were not observed. Conclusion Effective behavioral interventions, delivered by lay counselors within the clinical care setting, are consistent with the strategy of linking HIV care and HIV prevention and integrating biomedical and behavioral approaches to stemming the HIV epidemic. PMID:25230288

  14. Patterns of HIV Prevalence and HIV Risk Behaviors among Injection Drug Users Prior to and 24 Months following Implementation of Cross-Border HIV Prevention Interventions in Northern Vietnam and Southern China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammett, Theodore M.; Kling, Ryan; Johnston, Patrick; Liu, Wei; Ngu, Doan; Friedmann, Patricia; Binh, Kieu Thanh; Dong, Ha Viet; Van, Ly Kieu; Donghua, Meng; Chen, Yi; Des Jarlais, Don C.

    2006-01-01

    In 2002, we implemented a 4-year HIV prevention intervention for injection drug users (IDUs) in Lang Son Province, Vietnam, and Ning Ming County, Guangxi Province, China, a cross-border region seriously affected by inter-twined epidemics of heroin injection and HIV infection. The interventions involve peer education on HIV risk reduction and…

  15. Patterns of HIV Prevalence and HIV Risk Behaviors among Injection Drug Users Prior to and 24 Months following Implementation of Cross-Border HIV Prevention Interventions in Northern Vietnam and Southern China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammett, Theodore M.; Kling, Ryan; Johnston, Patrick; Liu, Wei; Ngu, Doan; Friedmann, Patricia; Binh, Kieu Thanh; Dong, Ha Viet; Van, Ly Kieu; Donghua, Meng; Chen, Yi; Des Jarlais, Don C.

    2006-01-01

    In 2002, we implemented a 4-year HIV prevention intervention for injection drug users (IDUs) in Lang Son Province, Vietnam, and Ning Ming County, Guangxi Province, China, a cross-border region seriously affected by inter-twined epidemics of heroin injection and HIV infection. The interventions involve peer education on HIV risk reduction and…

  16. Developing an adherence support intervention for patients on antiretroviral therapy in the context of the recent IDU-driven HIV/AIDS epidemic in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Uusküla, Anneli; Sharma, Anjali; DeHovitz, Jack A; Amico, K Rivet

    2013-01-01

    There is limited data on and experience with interventions for antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence support for patients on ART in Eastern Europe. We sought to identify a feasible adherence support intervention for delivery amongst HIV-positive adults receiving care in Estonia, where the HIV/AIDS epidemic has been mainly concentrated among injection drug users (IDUs). Our application of intervention mapping (IM) strategies used existing literature, formative research and multidisciplinary team input to produce a brief clinic-based intervention entitled the Situated Optimal Adherence Intervention Estonia (sOAI Estonia) which uses both Next-Step Counseling (NSC) and Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model approach to facilitate integration of ART into the context and demands of daily life. We present the intervention development process, the resulting sOAI Estonia approach, and describe a randomized controlled trial (RCT) which is under way to evaluate the intervention (results due in spring 2013).

  17. Condom use and prevalence of syphilis and HIV among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India - following a large-scale HIV prevention intervention.

    PubMed

    Rachakulla, Hari Kumar; Kodavalla, Venkaiah; Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Prasad, S P V; Kallam, Srinivasan; Goswami, Prabuddhagopal; Dale, Jayesh; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra; Paranjape, Ramesh; Brahmam, G N V

    2011-12-29

    Avahan, the India AIDS initiative began HIV prevention interventions in 2003 in Andhra Pradesh (AP) among high-risk groups including female sex workers (FSWs), to help contain the HIV epidemic. This manuscript describes an assessment of this intervention using the published Avahan evaluation framework and assesses the coverage, outcomes and changes in STI and HIV prevalence among FSWs. Multiple data sources were utilized including Avahan routine program monitoring data, two rounds of cross-sectional survey data (in 2006 and 2009) and STI clinical quality monitoring assessments. Bi-variate and multivariate analyses, Wald Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regressions were used to measure changes in behavioural and biological outcomes over time and their association. Avahan scaled up in conjunction with the Government program to operate in all districts in AP by March 2009. By March 2009, 80% of the FSWs were being contacted monthly and 21% were coming to STI services monthly. Survey data confirmed an increase in peer educator contacts with the mean number increasing from 2.9 in 2006 to 5.3 in 2009. By 2008 free and Avahan-supported socially marketed condoms were adequate to cover the estimated number of commercial sex acts, at 45 condoms/FSW/month. Consistent condom use was reported to increase with regular (63.6% to 83.4%; AOR=2.98; p<0.001) and occasional clients (70.8% to 83.7%; AOR=2.20; p<0.001). The prevalence of lifetime syphilis decreased (10.8% to 6.1%; AOR=0.39; p<0.001) and HIV prevalence decreased in all districts combined (17.7% to 13.2%; AOR 0.68; p<0.01). Prevalence of HIV among younger FSWs (aged 18 to 20 years) decreased (17.7% to 8.2%, p=0.008). A significant increase in condom use at last sex with occasional and regular clients and consistent condom use with occasional clients was observed among FSWs exposed to the Avahan program. There was no association between exposure and HIV or STIs, although numbers were small. The absence of control

  18. HIV-negative Men-who-Have-Sex-with-Men who Bareback are Concerned about HIV Infection: Implications for HIV Risk Reduction Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Balán, Iván C.; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Ventuneac, Ana; Remien, Robert H.; Dolezal, Curtis; Ford, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of barebacking (intentional unprotected anal intercourse in situations where there is risk of HIV infection) among men who have sex with men (MSM) has been partially attributed to a decrease in HIV-related concerns due to improved anti-retroviral treatment. It is important to understand the level of concern these men have regarding HIV infection because it can affect their interest in risk reduction behaviors as well as their possible engagement in risk reduction interventions. As part of a study on MSM who use the Internet to seek sexual partners, 89 ethnic and racially diverse men who reported never having an HIV-positive test result completed an in-depth qualitative interview and a computer-based quantitative assessment. Of the 82 men who were asked about concerns of HIV infection during the qualitative interviews, 30 expressed “significant concern” about acquiring HIV, while 42 expressed “moderate concern,” and 10 expressed “minimal concern. Themes that emerged across the different levels of concern were their perceptions of the severity of HIV infection, having friends who are HIV positive, and their own vulnerability to HIV infection. However, these themes differed depending on the level of concern. Among the most frequently mentioned approaches to decrease risk of HIV infection, participants mentioned avoiding HIV-positive sex partners, limiting the number of partners with whom they barebacked, and not allowing partners to ejaculate inside their rectum. Findings suggest that many MSM who bareback would be amenable to HIV prevention efforts that do not depend solely on condom use. PMID:22218787

  19. Using community-based participatory research to develop an intervention to reduce HIV and STD infections among Latino men.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Montaño, Jaime; Remnitz, Ivan M; Arceo, Ramiro; Bloom, Fred R; Leichliter, Jami S; Bowden, W Patrick

    2006-10-01

    Although the Latino community living in the United States has been disproportionately affected by the intersecting epidemics of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), the development, implementation, and evaluation of HIV and STD prevention interventions designed to reduce infection among Latinos lags behind prevention efforts targeting other communities. HoMBReS: Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables is a sexual risk reduction intervention designed to reduce HIV and STD infection among recently arrived, non-English-speaking Latino men who are members of a multicounty Latino soccer league in central North Carolina, a region of the United States with both the fastest growing Latino population and disproportionate HIV and STD infection rates. HoMBReS was developed in partnership with the local Latino community using community-based participatory research (CBPR). We describe (a) the CBPR partnership history and further expansion; (b) the development of the intervention through the integration of collected formative data, theoretical considerations, and findings from the scientific literature; and (c) lessons learned while using a CBPR approach to develop HoMBReS.

  20. Maternal HIV disclosure to HIV-uninfected children in rural South Africa: a pilot study of a family-based intervention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As access to treatment increases, large numbers of HIV-positive parents are raising HIV-negative children. Maternal HIV disclosure has been shown to have benefits for mothers and children, however, disclosure rates remain low with between 30-45% of mothers reporting HIV disclosure to their children in both observational and intervention studies. Disclosure of HIV status by parent to an HIV-uninfected child is a complex and challenging psychological and social process. No intervention studies have been designed and tested in Southern Africa to support HIV-positive parents to disclose their status, despite this region being one of the most heavily affected by the HIV epidemic. Method This paper describes the development of a family-centred, structured intervention to support mothers to disclose their HIV status to their HIV-negative school-aged children in rural South Africa, an area with high HIV prevalence. The intervention package includes printed materials, therapeutic tools and child-friendly activities and games to support age-appropriate maternal HIV disclosure, and has three main aims: (1) to benefit family relationships by increasing maternal HIV disclosure; (2) to increase children’s knowledge about HIV and health; (3) to improve the quality of custody planning for children with HIV-positive mothers. We provide the theoretical framework for the intervention design and report the results of a small pilot study undertaken to test its acceptability in the local context. Results The intervention was piloted with 24 Zulu families, all mothers were HIV-positive and had an HIV-negative child aged 6–9 years. Lay counsellors delivered the six session intervention over a six to eight week period. Qualitative data were collected on the acceptability, feasibility and the effectiveness of the intervention in increasing disclosure, health promotion and custody planning. All mothers disclosed something to their children: 11/24 disclosed fully using the

  1. Examination of the Relationship between Psychosocial Mediators and Intervention Effects in It's Your Game: An Effective HIV/STI/Pregnancy Prevention Intervention for Middle School Students

    PubMed Central

    Baumler, Elizabeth; Glassman, Jill; Tortolero, Susan; Markham, Christine; Shegog, Ross; Peskin, Melissa; Addy, Robert; Franks, Heather

    2012-01-01

    A set of mediation analyses were carried out in this study using data from It's Your Game. . .Keep It Real (IYG), a successful HIV/STI/pregnancy prevention program. The IYG study evaluated a skill and normbased. HIV/STI/pregnancy prevention program that was implemented from 2004 to 2007 among 907 urban low-income middle school youth in Houston, TX, USA. Analyses were carried out to investigate the degree to which a set of proposed psychosocial measures of behavioral knowledge, perceived self-efficacy, behavioral, and normative beliefs, and perceived risky situations, all targeted by the intervention, mediated the intervention's effectiveness in reducing initiation of sex. The mediation process was assessed by examining the significance and size of the estimated effects from the mediating pathways. The findings from this study provide evidence that the majority of the psychosocial mediators targeted by the IYG intervention are indeed related to the desired behavior and provide evidence that the conceptual theory underlying the targeted psychosocial mediators in the intervention is appropriate. Two of the psychosocial mediators significantly mediated the intervention effect, knowledge of STI signs and symptoms and refusal self-efficacy. This study suggests that the underlying causal mechanisms of action of these interventions are complex and warrant further analyses. PMID:22811892

  2. Effectiveness of peer-led interventions to increase HIV testing among men who have sex with men: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shangani, Sylvia; Escudero, Daniel; Kirwa, Kipruto; Harrison, Abigail; Marshall, Brandon; Operario, Don

    2017-02-02

    -quality studies are needed to evaluate effects of peer-led interventions on HIV testing among MSM in low- and middle-income countries.

  3. Coping Mediates Outcome Following a Randomized Group Intervention for HIV-Positive Bereaved Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Nathan Grant; Tarakeshwar, Nalini; Hansen, Nathan B.; Kochman, Arlene; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanisms responsible for the beneficial psychological effects of a coping-focused group intervention for HIV-positive individuals who had lost loved ones to AIDS. Data from 235 HIV-positive men and women enrolled in a randomized controlled clinical trial testing a coping-focused group intervention were analyzed using a multiple-indicator-multiple-cause (MIMIC) structural equation model. Results revealed that the effects of the intervention on decreases in depression and grief were mediated by decreases in avoidant coping. Specifically, participants in the intervention condition decreased their use of avoidant coping. Decreases in avoidant coping, in turn, were related to decreased depression and grief. The results of this study help to validate the use of coping-focused interventions for HIV-positive bereaved individuals. PMID:19152338

  4. Community intervention improves knowledge of HIV status of adolescents in Zambia: findings from HPTN 071-PopART for youth study

    PubMed Central

    Shanaube, Kwame; Schaap, Ab; Chaila, Mwate Joseph; Floyd, Sian; Mackworth-Young, Constance; Hoddinott, Graeme; Hayes, Richard; Fidler, Sarah; Ayles, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the uptake of home-based HIV counselling and testing (HCT) in four communities of the HPTN 071 (PopART) trial in Zambia among adolescents aged 15–19 years and explore factors associated with HCT uptake. Design: The PopART for youth study is a three-arm community-randomized trial in 12 communities in Zambia and nine communities in South Africa which aims to evaluate the acceptability and uptake of a HIV prevention package, including universal HIV testing and treatment, among young people. The study is nested within the HPTN 071 (PopART) trial. Methods: Using a door-to-door approach that includes systematically revisiting households, all adolescents enumerated were offered participation in the intervention and verbal consent was obtained. Data were analysed from October 2015 to September 2016. Results: Among 15 456 enumerated adolescents, 11 175 (72.3%) accepted the intervention. HCT uptake was 80.6% (8707/10 809) and was similar by sex. Adolescents that knew their HIV-positive status increased almost three-fold, from 75 to 210. Following visits from community HIV care providers, knowledge of HIV status increased from 27.6% (3007/10 884) to 88.5% (9636/10 884). HCT uptake was associated with community, age, duration since previous HIV test; other household members accepting HCT, having an HIV-positive household member, circumcision, and being symptomatic for STIs. Conclusion: Through a home-based approach of offering a combination HIV prevention package, the proportion of adolescents who knew their HIV status increased from ∼28 to 89% among those that accepted the intervention. Delivering a community-level door-to-door combination, HIV prevention package is acceptable to many adolescents and can be effective if done in combination with targeted testing. PMID:28665880

  5. HIV-infected People in Sudan Moving Toward Chronic Poverty: Possible Interventions.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Salwa Muddthir; Eisa, Ammar Abobakre; Ibrahim, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    We sought to identify the socioeconomic impact on people living with HIV (PLWH) in Sudan. Focus group discussions were used to collect data and identify the most outstanding domains of HIV impact on PLWH and the survival mechanisms that may be common to a group of diverse HIV-infected persons (n = 30). The findings indicated that the most striking financial and social impacts were due to stigma associated with HIV in the conservative Sudanese society, which led to loss of work with all its consequences (e.g., children's education and health care expenses were affected). The socioeconomic impacts of HIV on infected populations are discussed, and suggestions for possible interventions to mitigate harmful impacts and stigma within the society, the workplace, and health care settings are highlighted. We concluded that HIV has intensified the existing problems of infected people, contributing to their vulnerability to poverty.

  6. Field Evaluation of a Dual Rapid Immunodiagnostic Test for HIV and Syphilis infection in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Bristow, Claire C.; Leon, Segundo R.; Huang, Emily; Ramos, Lourdes B.; Vargas, Silver K.; Flores, Juan A.; Konda, Kelika A.; Caceres, Carlos F.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Integrated prevention for HIV and syphilis is warranted because both syphilis and HIV infections have evidence-based, scalable interventions using current health care mechanisms. The advent of dual rapid point-of-care tests, single devices that can detect multiple infections using the same specimen, provides the opportunity to integrate the screening of syphilis into HIV programs, potentially increasing the numbers of people tested and allowing for same-day testing and treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the MedMira Multiplo Rapid TP/HIV Antibody Test (MedMira Inc, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada), a qualitative, rapid immunoassay that detects antibodies to T. pallidum and HIV. Methods The reference standard test for comparison to the T. pallidum component of the Multiplo TP/HIV Test was Treponema Pallidum Particle Agglutination assay. For the HIV component, the reference test included a 4th-generation enzyme immunoassay with a confirmatory Western blot test. Results The sensitivity and specificity for the HIV antibody component were 93.8% (95% CI: 69.8%, 99.8%) and 100% (95% CI: 97.7%, 100%), respectively. The Treponema pallidum component of the test had a sensitivity of 81.0% (95% CI: 68.1%, 94.6%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI: 97.6%, 100%). Conclusions Our study showed excellent performance of the HIV antibody component of the test and very good performance for the Treponema pallidum antibody component of the MedMira Multiplo Rapid TP/HIV Antibody Test, which should be considered to improve screening coverage. Use of effective dual tests will create improved access to more comprehensive care by integrating the screening of syphilis into HIV prevention programs. PMID:26650998

  7. Mediators of a smoking cessation intervention for persons living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Vidrine, Damon J.; Kypriotakis, George; Li, Liang; Arduino, Roberto C.; Fletcher, Faith E.; Tamí-Maury, Irene; Gritz, Ellen R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking among persons living with HIV (PLWH) is a pressing public health concern, and efforts to evaluate cessation treatments are needed. The purpose of the present study was to assess potential mechanisms of a cell phone-delivered intervention for HIV-positive smokers. Methods Data from 350 PLWH enrolled in a randomized smoking cessation treatment trial were utilized. Participants were randomized to either usual care (UC) or a cell phone intervention (CPI) group. The independent variable of interest was treatment group membership, while the dependent variable of interest was smoking abstinence at a 3-month follow-up. The hypothesized treatment mechanisms were depression, anxiety, social support, quit motivation and self-efficacy change scores. Results Abstinence rates in the UC and CPI groups were 4.7% (8 of 172) and 15.7% (28 of 178), respectively. The CPI group (vs. UC) experienced a larger decline in depression between baseline and the 3-month follow-up, and a decline in anxiety. Self-efficacy increased for the CPI group and declined for the UC group. Quit motivation and social support change scores did not differ by treatment group. Only self-efficacy met the predefined criteria for mediation. The effect of the cell phone intervention on smoking abstinence through change in self-efficacy was statistically significant (p<.001) and accounted for 17% of the total effect of the intervention on abstinence. Conclusions The findings further emphasize the important mechanistic function of self-efficacy in promoting smoking cessation for PLWH. Additional efforts are required to disentangle the relationships between emotional, distress motivation, and efficacious smoking cessation treatment. PMID:25542824

  8. Statistical design and analysis plan for an impact evaluation of an HIV treatment and prevention intervention for female sex workers in Zimbabwe: a study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, James R; Fearon, Elizabeth; Davey, Calum; Phillips, Andrew; Cambiano, Valentina; Cowan, Frances M

    2016-01-05

    Pragmatic cluster-randomised trials should seek to make unbiased estimates of effect and be reported according to CONSORT principles, and the study population should be representative of the target population. This is challenging when conducting trials amongst 'hidden' populations without a sample frame. We describe a pair-matched cluster-randomised trial of a combination HIV-prevention intervention to reduce the proportion of female sex workers (FSW) with a detectable HIV viral load in Zimbabwe, recruiting via respondent driven sampling (RDS). We will cross-sectionally survey approximately 200 FSW at baseline and at endline to characterise each of 14 sites. RDS is a variant of chain referral sampling and has been adapted to approximate random sampling. Primary analysis will use the 'RDS-2' method to estimate cluster summaries and will adapt Hayes and Moulton's '2-step' method to adjust effect estimates for individual-level confounders and further adjust for cluster baseline prevalence. We will adapt CONSORT to accommodate RDS. In the absence of observable refusal rates, we will compare the recruitment process between matched pairs. We will need to investigate whether cluster-specific recruitment or the intervention itself affects the accuracy of the RDS estimation process, potentially causing differential biases. To do this, we will calculate RDS-diagnostic statistics for each cluster at each time point and compare these statistics within matched pairs and time points. Sensitivity analyses will assess the impact of potential biases arising from assumptions made by the RDS-2 estimation. We are not aware of any other completed pragmatic cluster RCTs that are recruiting participants using RDS. Our statistical design and analysis approach seeks to transparently document participant recruitment and allow an assessment of the representativeness of the study to the target population, a key aspect of pragmatic trials. The challenges we have faced in the design of this

  9. A community-level HIV prevention intervention for inner-city women: results of the women and infants demonstration projects.

    PubMed Central

    Lauby, J L; Smith, P J; Stark, M; Person, B; Adams, J

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effects of a multisite community-level HIV prevention intervention on women's condom-use behaviors. METHODS: The theory-based behavioral intervention was implemented with low-income, primarily African American women in 4 urban communities. It was evaluated with data from pre- and postintervention cross-sectional surveys in matched intervention and comparison communities. RESULTS: At baseline, 68% of the women had no intention of using condoms with their main partners and 70% were not using condoms consistently with other partners. After 2 years of intervention activities, increases in rates of talking with main partners about condoms were significantly larger in intervention communities than in comparison communities (P = .03). Intervention communities also had significant increases in the proportion of women who had tried to get their main partners to use condoms (P = .01). The trends for condom use with other partners were similar but nonsignificant. CONCLUSIONS: Many women at risk for HIV infection are still not using condoms. Community-level interventions may be an effective way to reach large numbers of women and change their condom-use behaviors, particularly their behaviors with regard to communication with main sex partners. PMID:10667182

  10. Behavioral HIV Prevention Interventions Among Latinas in the US: A Systematic Review of the Evidence.

    PubMed

    Daniel-Ulloa, Jason; Ulibarri, M; Baquero, B; Sleeth, C; Harig, H; Rhodes, S D

    2016-12-01

    Compared to White women, Latinas are 4 times more likely to contract HIV. In an effort to determine the overall state of the science meant to address this disparity, we reviewed the current HIV prevention intervention literature for U.S. Latinas. We searched 5 online electronic databases from their inception through July, 2014, for HIV prevention interventions including a majority sample of Latinas. Of 1041 articles identified, 20 studies met inclusion criteria. We documented study designs, participant characteristics, outcomes, theories used, and other intervention characteristics. Overall, HIV knowledge and attitudes were the predominant outcome; a small minority of studies included self-reported condom use or STD incidence. Strategies used to address cultural factors specific to Latinas and HIV included; lay health advisors, using ethnographic narratives, or using the Theory of Gender and Power, however few of the interventions adopted these strategies. This study identified several gaps in the intervention literature that need to be addressed. In addition to including more direct measures of decreased HIV risk (ex. condom use), more systematic use of strategies meant to address gender and cultural factors that may place Latinas at increased risk (e.g., gender inequity, traditional gender role norms such as machismo and marianismo, and relationship power dynamics).

  11. Project Enhance: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Individualized HIV Prevention Intervention for HIV-Infected Men Who Have Sex With Men Conducted in a Primary Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    Safren, Steven A.; O’Cleirigh, Conall M.; Skeer, Margie; Elsesser, Steven A.; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Men who have sex with men (MSM) are the largest group of individuals in the U.S. living with HIV and have the greatest number of new infections. This study was designed to test a brief, culturally relevant prevention intervention for HIV-infected MSM, which could be integrated into HIV care. Method HIV-infected MSM who received HIV care in a community health center (N = 201), and who reported HIV sexual transmission-risk behavior (TRB) in the prior 6 months, were randomized to receive the intervention or treatment as usual. The intervention, provided by a medical social worker, included proactive case management for psychosocial problems, counseling about living with HIV, and HIV TRB risk reduction. Participants were followed every 3 months for one year. Results Participants, regardless of study condition, reported reductions in HIV TRB, with no significant differential effect by condition in primary intent-to-treat analyses. When examining moderators, the intervention was differentially effective in reducing HIV TRB for those who screened in for baseline depression, but this was not the case for those who did not screen in for depression. Conclusions The similar level of reduction in HIV TRB in the intervention and control groups, consistent with other recent secondary prevention interventions, speaks to the need for new, creative designs, or more potent interventions in secondary HIV prevention trials, as the control group seemed to benefit from risk assessment, study contact, and referrals provided by study staff. The differential finding for those with depression may suggest that those without depression could reap benefits from limited interventions, but those with a comorbid psychiatric diagnosis may require additional interventions to modify their sexual risk behaviors. PMID:22746262

  12. HIV rapid testing in a Veterans Affairs hospital ED setting: a 5-year sustainability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Herschel; Hagedorn, Hildi; Anaya, Henry D

    2014-08-01

    Routine HIV testing in primary care settings is now recommended in the United States. The US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has increased the number of patients tested for HIV, but overall HIV testing rates in VA remain low. A proven strategy for increasing such testing involves nurse-initiated HIV rapid testing (HIV RT). The purpose of this work was to use a mixed methodology approach to evaluate the 5-year sustainability of an intervention that implemented HIV RT in a VA emergency department setting in a large, urban VA medical center to reduce missed diagnostic and treatment opportunities in this vulnerable patient population. In-person semistructured interviews were conducted with providers and stakeholders. Interview notes were qualitatively coded for emerging themes. Quarterly testing rates were evaluated for a 5-year time span starting from the launch in July 2008. Findings indicate that HIV RT was sustained by the enthusiasm of 2 clinical champions who oversaw the registered nurses responsible for conducting the testing. The departure of the clinical champions was correlated with a substantial drop-off in testing. Findings also indicate potential strategies for improving sustainability including engaging senior leadership in the project, engaging line staff in the implementation planning from the start to increase ownership over the innovation, incorporating information into initial training explaining the importance of the innovation to quality patient care, providing ongoing training to maintain skills, and providing routine progress reports to staff to demonstrate the ongoing impact of their efforts.

  13. Evaluation of a Yoga Intervention for PTSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-1066 TITLE: Evaluation of a Yoga Intervention for...CONTRACT NUMBER Evaluation of a Yoga Intervention for PTSD 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-1066 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Objective: This pilot study was designed to ascertain whether yoga is a feasible and

  14. Evaluation of a Yoga Intervention for PTSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    TITLE: Evaluation of a Yoga Intervention for PTSD PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Sat Bir S. Khalsa, Ph.D...MAR 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluation of a Yoga Intervention for PTSD 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-2-0203 5c...no research findings to date. 15. SUBJECT TERMS yoga , post-traumatic stress disorder 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  15. Testing an optimized community-based HIV risk reduction and antiretroviral adherence intervention for HIV-infected injection drug users

    PubMed Central

    Copenhaver, Michael M.; Lee, I-Ching; Margolin, Arthur; Bruce, Robert D.; Altice, Frederick L.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a preliminary study of the 4 session Community-Friendly Health Recovery Program for HIV-infected drug users (CHRP+) which was adapted from a 12 session evidence-based risk reduction and antiretroviral adherence intervention. Improvements were found in the behavioral skills required to properly adhere to HIV medication regimens. Enhancements were found in all measured aspects of sex-risk reduction outcomes including HIV knowledge, motivation to reduce sex-risk behavior, behavioral skills related to engaging in reduced sexual risk, and reduced risk behavior. Improvements in drug use outcomes included enhancements in risk reduction skills as well as reduced heroin and cocaine use. Intervention effects also showed durability from Post-intervention to the Follow-up assessment point. Females responded particularly well in terms of improvements in risk reduction skills and risk behavior. This study suggests that an evidence-based behavioral intervention may be successfully adapted for use in community-based clinical settings where HIV-infected drug users can be more efficiently reached. PMID:21302180

  16. Mobile technology use and desired technology-based intervention characteristics among HIV+ Black men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Senn, Theresa E; Braksmajer, Amy; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite A; Carey, Michael P

    2017-04-01

    HIV positive Black men who have sex with men (MSM) are retained in HIV medical care at suboptimal rates. Interventions targeted to Black MSM are needed to help to improve their retention in care. The purposes of this study were to investigate the use of mobile technology among HIV+ Black MSM and to explore participants' thoughts about the use of mobile technology for HIV retention in care interventions. Twenty-two HIV+ Black MSM completed a technology use survey and participated in a qualitative interview regarding technology-based interventions. The majority of participants (95%) had access to a cell phone, and used their phones frequently (median 3 hours/day). Men preferred interventions that would allow for anonymous participation and that would provide individually tailored support. Mobile technology is a promising approach to intervention delivery for both younger and older HIV+ Black MSM. These interventions should incorporate features that are desirable to men (i.e., anonymous participation and individual tailoring).

  17. The HOPE social media intervention for global HIV prevention in Peru: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Young, Sean D; Cumberland, William G; Nianogo, Roch; Menacho, Luis A; Galea, Jerome T; Coates, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Social media technologies offer new approaches to HIV prevention and promotion of testing. We examined the efficacy of the Harnessing Online Peer Education (HOPE) social media intervention to increase HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Peru. In this cluster randomised controlled trial, Peruvian MSM from Greater Lima (including Callao) who had sex with a man in the past 12 months, were 18 years of age or older, were HIV negative or serostatus unknown, and had a Facebook account or were willing to create one (N=556) were randomly assigned (1:1) by concealed allocation to join intervention or control groups on Facebook for 12 weeks. For the intervention, Peruvian MSM were trained and assigned to be HIV prevention mentors (peer-leaders) to participants in Facebook groups. The interventions period lasted 12 weeks. Participants in control groups received an enhanced standard of care, including standard offline HIV prevention available in Peru and participation in Facebook groups (without peer leaders) that provided study updates and HIV testing information. After accepting a request to join the groups, continued participation was voluntary. Participants also completed questionnaires on HIV risk behaviours and social media use at baseline and 12 week follow-up. The primary outcome was the number of participants who received a free HIV test at a local community clinic. The facebook groups were analysed as clusters to account for intracluster correlations. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01701206. Of 49 peer-leaders recruited, 34 completed training and were assigned at random to the intervention Facebook groups. Between March 19, 2012, and June 11, 2012, and Sept 26, 2012, and Dec 19, 2012, 556 participants were randomly assigned to intervention groups (N=278) or control groups (N=278); we analyse data for 252 and 246. 43 participants (17%) in the intervention group and 16 (7%) in the control groups got tested for HIV (adjusted

  18. Acceptability of a Community-Based Outreach HIV-Testing Intervention Using Oral Fluid Collection Devices and Web-Based HIV Test Result Collection Among Sub-Saharan African Migrants: A Mixed-Method Study.

    PubMed

    Loos, Jasna; Manirankunda, Lazare; Platteau, Tom; Albers, Laura; Fransen, Katrien; Vermoesen, Tine; Namanya, Fiona; Nöstlinger, Christiana

    2016-08-04

    Late human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis is common among sub-Saharan African migrants. To address their barriers to HIV testing uptake and improve timely HIV diagnoses and linkage to care, the outreach HIV testing intervention, "swab2know," was developed. It combined a community-based approach with innovative testing methods: oral fluid self-sampling and the choice between Web-based HIV test result collections using a secured website or post-test counseling at a sexual health clinic. The sessions included an informational speech delivered by a physician of sub-Saharan African origin and testimonies by community members living with HIV. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the intervention's acceptability among sub-Saharan African migrants and its potential to reach subgroups at higher risk for HIV infection and to identify facilitators and barriers for HIV testing uptake. This mixed-method study combined qualitative (participant observations and informal interviews with testers and nontesters) and quantitative data (paper-pencil survey, laboratory data, and result collection files). Data were analyzed using a content analytical approach for qualitative and univariate analysis for quantitative data. A total of 10 testing sessions were organized in sub-Saharan African migrant community venues in the city of Antwerp, Belgium, between December 2012 and June 2013. Overall, 18.2% of all people present (N=780) underwent HIV testing; 29.8% of them tested for HIV for the first time, 22.3% did not have a general practitioner, and 21.5% reported 2 or more sexual partners (last 3 months). Overall, 56.3% of participants chose to collect their HIV test results via the protected website. In total, 78.9% collected their results. The qualitative analysis of 137 participant observation field notes showed that personal needs and Internet literacy determined the choice of result collection method. Generally, the oral fluid collection devices were well accepted mainly

  19. HIV Sexual Risk-Reduction Interventions for Youth: A Review and Methodological Critique of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Pedlow, C. Teal; Carey, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    We review and provide a methodological critique of randomized controlled studies of HIV risk reduction interventions that measured sexual risk behavior outcomes with adolescents. Studies conducted in school, community, and health care settings were reviewed. Overall, 13 of 23 interventions (57%) were effective in reducing sexual risk behavior. Methodological strengths of extant studies included an emphasis on a theoretical framework, evaluation of both group- and individualized intervention formats, use of multiple assessments of risk behavior including biological outcomes, and inclusion of efficacy and effectiveness trials. Methodological limitations included limited evaluation of theoretical mediators of risk reduction, failure to report effect sizes, and lack of sustained findings. Inconsistencies were found in data analytic procedures and reporting, including how nested designs, skewed data, and attrition were addressed. Recommendations for designing methodologically-rigorous interventions are provided. PMID:12705104

  20. The Influence of a Peer-Based HIV Prevention Intervention on Conversation About HIV Prevention Among People Who Inject Drugs in Baltimore, Maryland

    PubMed Central

    Mihailovic, Aleksandra; Tobin, Karin

    2015-01-01

    STEP into Action assessed the efficacy of a peer-based HIV prevention intervention in reducing HIV risk behaviors among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in Baltimore. This analysis examined the effect of the intervention on the change in frequency of conversation about HIV prevention topics over time. 114 participants were randomized into an experimental and 113 into a control group. Data was collected prospectively at 6, 12, and 18 months. The experimental group talked more frequently about HIV prevention topics compared to the control group at 6-month visit. At 18 months relative risk ratios (RRR) remained statistically significant for conversation about the danger of needle sharing (RRR = 3.21) and condom use (RRR = 2.81). The intervention resulted in an increased conversation about HIV prevention among PWIDs, but the sustainability past 6 months remained a challenge; suggesting that interventions should be designed to constantly reinforce communication about HIV prevention among PWIDs. PMID:25845530

  1. Effectiveness of a sports-based HIV prevention intervention in the Dominican Republic: a quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Z A; Welsch, R L; Erickson, J D; Craig, S; Adams, L V; Ross, D A

    2012-01-01

    Previous observational and quasi-experimental studies in sub-Saharan Africa have suggested the effectiveness of youth-targeted HIV prevention interventions using sport as an educational tool. No studies have yet assessed the effect of similar programs in the Caribbean. A quasi-experimental trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of a sports-based intervention in six migrant settlements in the Puerto Plata Province of the Dominican Republic. A total of 397 structured interviews were conducted with 140 adolescents prior to, immediately following, and four months following 10-hour interventions using the Grassroot Soccer curriculum. Interview responses were coded, aggregated into composite scores, and analyzed using logistic regression, adjusting for baseline differences as well as age, sex, community, and descent. At post-intervention, significant differences were observed between groups in HIV-related knowledge (adjOR = 13.02, 95% CI = 8.26, 20.52), reported attitudes (adjOR = 12.01, 95% CI = 7.61, 18.94), and reported communication (adjOR = 3.13, 95% CI = 1.91, 5.12). These differences remained significant at four-month follow-up, though declines in post-intervention knowledge were observed in the Intervention group while gains in knowledge and reported attitudes were observed in the Control group. Results suggest that this sports-based intervention could play a valuable role in HIV prevention efforts in the Caribbean, particularly those targeting early adolescents. Further evaluation of sports-based interventions should include indicators assessing behavioral and biological outcomes, longer-term follow-up, a larger sample, randomization of study participants, and strenuous efforts to minimize loss-to-follow-up.

  2. Sex in the shadow of HIV: A systematic review of prevalence, risk factors, and interventions to reduce sexual risk-taking among HIV-positive adolescents and youth in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Haghighat, Roxanna; Cluver, Lucie

    2017-01-01

    ), three evaluated group-based interventions, and one evaluated an individual-focused combination intervention. Three of the interventions were effective at reducing sexual risk-taking, with one reporting no difference between the intervention and control groups. Conclusion Sexual risk-taking among HIV-positive adolescents and youth is high, with inconclusive evidence on potential determinants. Few known studies test secondary HIV-prevention interventions for HIV-positive youth. Effective and feasible low-cost interventions to reduce risk are urgently needed for this group. PMID:28582428

  3. Preventing perinatal transmission of HIV--costs and effectiveness of a recommended intervention.

    PubMed Central

    Gorsky, R D; Farnham, P G; Straus, W L; Caldwell, B; Holtgrave, D R; Simonds, R J; Rogers, M F; Guinan, M E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To calculate the national costs of reducing perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus through counseling and voluntary testing of pregnant women and zidovudine treatment of infected women and their infants, as recommended by the Public Health Service, and to compare these costs with the savings from reducing the number of pediatric infections. METHOD. The authors analyzed the estimated costs of the intervention and the estimated cost savings from reducing the number of pediatric infections. The outcome measures are the number of infections prevented by the intervention and the net cost (cost of intervention minus the savings from a reduced number of pediatric HIV infections). The base model assumed that intervention participation and outcomes would resemble those found in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 076. Assumptions were varied regarding maternal seroprevalence, participation by HIV-infected women, the proportion of infected women who accepted and completed the treatment, and the efficacy of zidovudine to illustrate the effect of these assumptions on infections prevented and net cost. RESULTS. Without the intervention, a perinatal HIV transmission rate of 25% would result in 1750 HIV-infected infants born annually in the United States, with lifetime medical-care costs estimated at $282 million. The cost of the intervention (counseling, testing, and zidovudine treatment) was estimated to be $ 67.6 million. In the base model, the intervention would prevent 656 pediatric HIV infections with a medical care cost saving of $105.6 million. The net cost saving of the intervention was $38.1 million. CONCLUSION. Voluntary HIV screening of pregnant women and ziovudine treatment for infected women and their infants resulted in cost savings under most of the assumptions used in this analysis. These results strongly support implementation of the Public Health Service recommendations for this intervention. PMID:8711101

  4. Epidemic impacts of a community empowerment intervention for HIV prevention among female sex workers in generalized and concentrated epidemics.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Andrea L; Pretorius, Carel; Beyrer, Chris; Baral, Stefan; Decker, Michele R; Sherman, Susan G; Sweat, Michael; Poteat, Tonia; Butler, Jennifer; Oelrichs, Robert; Semini, Iris; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    Sex workers have endured a high burden of HIV infection in and across HIV epidemics. A comprehensive, community empowerment-based HIV prevention intervention emphasizes sex worker organization and mobilization to address HIV risk and often includes community-led peer education, condom distribution, and other activities. Meta-analysis of such interventions suggests a potential 51% reduction in inconsistent condom use. Mathematical modeling exercises provide theoretical insight into potential impacts of the intervention on HIV incidence and burden in settings where interventions have not yet been implemented. We used a deterministic model, Goals, to project the impact on HIV infections when the community empowerment interventions were scaled up among female sex workers in Kenya, Thailand, Brazil, and Ukraine. Modeling scenarios included expansion of the comprehensive community empowerment-based HIV prevention intervention from baseline coverage over a 5-year period (5-65% in Kenya and Ukraine; 10-70% in Thailand and Brazil), while other interventions were held at baseline levels. A second exercise increased the intervention coverage simultaneously with equitable access to ART for sex workers. Impacts on HIV outcomes among sex workers and adults are observed from 2012-2016 and, compared to status quo when all interventions are held constant. Optimistic but feasible coverage (65%-70%) of the intervention demonstrated a range of impacts on HIV: 220 infections averted over 5 yrs. among sex workers in Thailand, 1,830 in Brazil, 2,220 in Ukraine, and 10,800 infections in Kenya. Impacts of the intervention for female sex workers extend to the adult population, cumulatively averting 730 infections in Thailand to 20,700 adult infections in Kenya. Impacts vary by country, influenced by HIV prevalence in risk groups, risk behaviors, intervention use, and population size. A community empowerment approach to HIV prevention and access to universal ART for female sex workers is a

  5. Male partner antenatal attendance and HIV testing in eastern Uganda: a randomized facility-based intervention trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of a written invitation letter to the spouses of new antenatal clinic attendees on attendance by couples and on male partner acceptance of HIV testing at subsequent antenatal clinic visits. Methods The trial was conducted with 1060 new attendees from October 2009 to February 2010 in an antenatal clinic at Mbale Regional Referral Hospital, Mbale District, eastern Uganda. The intervention comprised an invitation letter delivered to the spouses of new antenatal attendees, while the control group received an information letter, a leaflet, concerning antenatal care. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of pregnant women who attended antenatal care with their male partners during a follow-up period of four weeks. Eligible pregnant women were randomly assigned to the intervention or non-intervention groups using a randomization sequence, which was computer generated utilizing a random sequence generator (RANDOM ORG) that employed a simple randomization procedure. Respondents, health workers and research assistants were masked to group assignments. Results The trial was completed with 530 women enrolled in each group. Participants were analyzed as originally assigned (intention to treat). For the primary outcome, the percentage of trial participants who attended the antenatal clinic with their partners were 16.2% (86/530) and 14.2% (75/530) in the intervention and non-intervention groups, respectively (OR = 1.2; 95% CI: 0.8, 1.6). For the secondary outcome, most of the 161 male partners attended the antenatal clinic; 82 of 86 (95%) in the intervention group and 68 of 75 (91%) in the non-intervention group were tested for HIV (OR = 2.1; 95% CI: 0.6 to 7.5). Conclusions The effect of the intervention and the control on couple antenatal attendance was similar. In addition, the trial demonstrated that a simple intervention, such as a letter to the spouse, could increase couple antenatal clinic

  6. Implementation of Evidence-Based HIV Interventions for Young Adult African American Women in Church Settings

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the barriers and facilitators to using African American churches as sites for implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions among young African American women. Design Mixed methods cross-sectional design. Setting African American churches in Philadelphia, PA. Participants 142 African American pastors, church leaders, and young adult women ages 18 to 25. Methods Mixed methods convergent parallel design. Results The majority of young adult women reported engaging in high-risk HIV-related behaviors. Although church leaders reported willingness to implement HIV risk-reduction interventions, they were unsure of how to initiate this process. Key facilitators to the implementation of evidence-based interventions included the perception of the leadership and church members that HIV interventions were needed and that the church was a promising venue for them. A primary barrier to implementation in this setting is the perception that discussions of sexuality should be private. Conclusion Implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions for young adult African American women in church settings is feasible and needed. Building a level of comfort in discussing matters of sexuality and adapting existing evidence-based interventions to meet the needs of young women in church settings is a viable approach for successful implementation. PMID:25139612

  7. Future directions for interventions targeting PTSD in HIV-infected adults

    PubMed Central

    Applebaum, Allison J.; Bedoya, C. Andres; Hendriksen, Ellen S.; Wilkinson, Jesse L.; Safren, Steven A.; O’Cleirigh, Conall

    2015-01-01

    Although studies consistently report high rates of comorbid Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and HIV infection, development and testing of PTSD treatment interventions in HIV-infected adults is limited. As such, the purpose of this review was twofold. First, this review augments the 3 existing reviews of research for PTSD in HIV-infected adults conducted within the past 10 years. We found 2 empirically supported cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)-based interventions for the treatment of trauma-related symptoms in HIV-infected adults. Due to the continued limited number of effective interventions for this population, a second aim of our review was to draw from the expansive field of effective PTSD interventions for the general population to propose ways that future clinical intervention research may be tailored for HIV-infected adults. Therefore, in addition to a review, we conceptualized this paper as an opportunity to generate an ideal preview of the field of intervention research in this population. PMID:25665885

  8. Cost effectiveness of targeted HIV prevention interventions for female sex workers in India.

    PubMed

    Prinja, Shankar; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Rudra, Shalini; Gupta, Indrani; Kaur, Manmeet; Mehendale, S M; Chatterjee, Susmita; Panda, Samiran; Kumar, Rajesh

    2011-06-01

    To ascertain the cost effectiveness of targeted interventions for female sex workers (FSW) under the National AIDS Control Programme in India. A compartmental mathematical Markov state model was used over a 20-year time horizon (1995-2015) to estimate the cost effectiveness of FSW targeted interventions, with a health system perspective. The incremental costs and effects of FSW targeted interventions were compared against a baseline scenario of mass media for the general population alone. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was computed at a 3% discount rate using HIV infections averted and disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) as benefit measures. It was assumed that the transmission of the HIV virus moves from a high-risk group (FSW) to the client population and finally to the general population (partners of clients). Targeted interventions for FSW result in a reduction of 47% (1.6 million) prevalent and 36% (2.7 million) cumulative HIV cases, respectively, in 2015. Adult HIV prevalence in India, with and without (mass media only) FSW interventions, would be 0.25% and 0.48% in 2015. Indian government and development partners spend an average US $104 (INR4680) per HIV infection averted and US $10.7 (INR483) per DALY averted. Discounting at 3%, FSW targeted interventions cost US $105.5 (INR4748) and US $10.9 (INR490) per HIV case and DALY averted, respectively. At the current gross domestic product in India, targeted intervention is a cost-effective strategy for HIV prevention in India.

  9. How Psychological States Affect the Immune System: Implications for Interventions in the Context of HIV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littrell, Jill

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the psychological states associated with enhanced immune system functioning and those associated with suppressed immune functioning. Reviews studies of psychological and behavioral interventions to boost the immune systems of people who are HIV positive. Suggests that group interventions can enhance psychological states associated with…

  10. Recruiting and Retaining High-Risk Adolescents into Family-Based HIV Prevention Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapungu, Chisina T.; Nappi, Carla N.; Thakral, Charu; Miller, Steven A.; Devlin, Catharine; McBride, Cami; Hasselquist, Emily; Coleman, Gloria; Drozd, Derek; Barve, Chinmayee; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph; Brown, Larry

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of evidence-based recruitment and retention strategies for a longitudinal, family-based HIV prevention intervention study targeting adolescents in psychiatric care by (1) determining consent rate (recruitment), rate of participation at the first intervention session (retention), and…

  11. Pilot Trial of a Disclosure Intervention for HIV+ Mothers: The TRACK Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Debra A.; Armistead, Lisa; Marelich, William D.; Payne, Diana L.; Herbeck, Diane M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The "T"eaching, "R"aising, "A"nd "C"ommunicating with "K"ids (TRACK) program was a longitudinal pilot-trial intervention designed to assist mothers living with HIV (MLHs) to disclose their serostatus to their young children (age 6-12 years). Method: MLH and child dyads (N = 80 dyads) were recruited and randomized to intervention or…

  12. Psychosocial Interventions for Women with HIV/AIDS: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Julieta P.; Macgowan, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Recent research on psychosocial interventions addressing the well-being of women with HIV/AIDS has brought new options for practitioners. This study critically reviews the treatment features, methodological quality, and efficacy of these interventions. Methods: A comprehensive search between 2000 and 2011 identified 19 studies employing…

  13. Psychosocial Interventions for Women with HIV/AIDS: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Julieta P.; Macgowan, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Recent research on psychosocial interventions addressing the well-being of women with HIV/AIDS has brought new options for practitioners. This study critically reviews the treatment features, methodological quality, and efficacy of these interventions. Methods: A comprehensive search between 2000 and 2011 identified 19 studies employing…

  14. How Psychological States Affect the Immune System: Implications for Interventions in the Context of HIV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littrell, Jill

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the psychological states associated with enhanced immune system functioning and those associated with suppressed immune functioning. Reviews studies of psychological and behavioral interventions to boost the immune systems of people who are HIV positive. Suggests that group interventions can enhance psychological states associated with…

  15. The Healthy Living Project: An Individually Tailored, Multidimensional Intervention for HIV-Infected Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Weinhardt, Lance S.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Kirshenbaum, Sheri B.; Johnson, Mallory O.; Chesney, Margaret A.; Catz, Sheryl L.; Ehrhardt, Anke A.; Remien, Robert H.; Morin, Stephen F.

    2005-01-01

    The NIMH Healthy Living Project (HLP), a randomized behavioral intervention trial for people living with HIV, enrolled 943 individuals, including women, heterosexual men, injection drug users, and men who have sex with men from Los Angeles, Milwaukee, New York, and San Francisco. The intervention, which is based on qualitative formative research…

  16. Pilot Trial of a Disclosure Intervention for HIV+ Mothers: The TRACK Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Debra A.; Armistead, Lisa; Marelich, William D.; Payne, Diana L.; Herbeck, Diane M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The "T"eaching, "R"aising, "A"nd "C"ommunicating with "K"ids (TRACK) program was a longitudinal pilot-trial intervention designed to assist mothers living with HIV (MLHs) to disclose their serostatus to their young children (age 6-12 years). Method: MLH and child dyads (N = 80 dyads) were recruited and randomized to intervention or…

  17. Factors related to risky sexual behaviors and effective STI/HIV and pregnancy intervention programs for African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Me; Cintron, Adanisse; Kocher, Surinder

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this integrative literature review study was to investigate factors related to risky sexual behaviors among African American adolescents, to evaluate which of the factors are common across successful and effective STI/HIV and pregnancy intervention programs, and finally, to propose suggestions for future intervention programs for African American adolescents in West Englewood, Chicago. An integrative literature review was conducted. Using CINAHL, PubMed, and ProQuest database, the following terms were searched: African American, Black, adolescents, teenagers, sexual behavior, cultural factors, pregnancy, STIs/HIV/AIDS, and intervention programs. A total of 18 articles were reviewed, findings indicated there were five major contributing factors related to risky sexual behaviors: substance use, gender roles, peer influences, parental involvement, and level of knowledge and information on sex and STIs. Six successful STI/HIV and pregnancy programs that incorporated those factors to effectively reduce risky sexual behaviors were identified. After analyzing six national intervention programs proven to be effective, the findings suggest that future prevention programs should be designed with more emphasis on avoidance or limited substance use, increased parental involvement, integration of cultural teaching components such as storytelling and history as suggested from the Aban Aya Youth Project. This study also concluded that future prevention programs should consider the length of programs be longer than 1 year, as it has been shown to be more effective than shorter programs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A systematic review of behavioral interventions to prevent HIV infection and transmission among heterosexual, adult men in low-and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Loraine; Mathews, Catherine; Zembe, Yanga

    2013-02-01

    Prevention of new HIV infections needs to move to the forefront in the fight against HIV and AIDS. In the current economic crisis, low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) should invest limited resources to amass reliable evidence-based information about behavioral prevention efforts, and on behaviors that are driving the epidemic among people who are engaging in those behaviors. This paper aims to provide a systematic review and synthesis of behavioral interventions among a group of people in high HIV-burden countries: heterosexual men in LMICs. The review includes articles published between January 2001 and May 2010 that evaluated behavioral prevention interventions among heterosexual males aged 18+ years in LMICs. The studies were evaluated using the quality assessment tool for quantitative studies developed by the Effective Public Health Practice Project. The review identified 19 articles that met the review's inclusion criteria. Most studies were conducted in South Africa (n=6); two each in Uganda and Thailand; and one in each of Angola, Brazil, Bulgaria, India, Nigeria, the Philippines, Russia, Ukraine and Zimbabwe. Eight of 19 interventions increased condom use among their respective populations. Those interventions that sought to reduce the number of sexual partners had little effect, and those that addressed alcohol consumption and intimate partner violence had mixed effects. There was no evidence for any specific format of intervention that impacted best on any of the targeted risk behaviors. The paucity of evaluated interventions for heterosexual men in LMICs suggests that adult men in these countries remain underrepresented in HIV prevention efforts.

  19. Urban Farming: A Non-Traditional Intervention for HIV-Related Distress

    PubMed Central

    Shacham, Enbal; Donovan, Michael F.; Connolly, Shannon; Mayrose, Andrea; Scheuermann, Mary; Overton, E. Turner

    2013-01-01

    As individuals with HIV are living longer with less morbidity, developing interventions that address co-morbidities are essential. Psychological distress symptoms fluctuate throughout HIV infection and interrupt self-care practices. This pilot study was conducted to test the implementation of a clinic-recruited sample to participate in a community-based urban farming intervention, and assess the efficacy of reducing psychological distress symptoms. While the changes were not statistically significant, participants reported less distress symptoms, improved overall general health, and reduced frequency of illicit drug use. These findings support the development of a larger scale study to examine the impact of this nontraditional intervention. PMID:21986870

  20. Acceptability of Mobile Phone Technology for Medication Adherence Interventions among HIV-Positive Patients at an Urban Clinic.

    PubMed

    Miller, Christopher W T; Himelhoch, Seth

    2013-01-01

    Mobile phone technology is increasingly used to overcome traditional barriers limiting access to care. The goal of this study was to evaluate access and willingness to use smart and mobile phone technology for promoting adherence among people attending an urban HIV clinic. One hundred consecutive HIV-positive patients attending an urban HIV outpatient clinic were surveyed. The questionnaire evaluated access to and utilization of mobile phones and willingness to use them to enhance adherence to HIV medication. The survey also included the CASE adherence index as a measure of adherence. The average age was 46.4 (SD = 9.2). The majority of participants were males (63%), black (93%), and Hispanic (11.4%) and reported earning less than $10,000 per year (67.3%). Most identified themselves as being current smokers (57%). The vast majority reported currently taking HAART (83.5%). Approximately half of the participants reported some difficulty with adherence (CASE < 10). Ninety-six percent reported owning a mobile phone. Among owners of mobile phones 47.4% reported currently owning more than one device. Over a quarter reported owning a smartphone. About 60% used their phones for texting and 1/3 used their phone to search the Internet. Nearly 70% reported that they would use a mobile device to help with HIV adherence. Those who reported being very likely or likely to use a mobile device to improve adherence were significantly more likely to use their phone daily (P = 0.03) and use their phone for text messages (P = 0.002). The vast majority of patients in an urban HIV clinic own mobile phones and would use them to enhance adherence interventions to HIV medication.

  1. ¡Vive!: Designing an Intervention to Improve Timely HIV Diagnosis Among Latino Immigrant Men.

    PubMed

    Grieb, Suzanne Dolwick; Flores-Miller, Alejandra; Gulledge, Nate; Clifford, Ryan; Page, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Latinos, particularly immigrant men, are more likely to present late to care for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This manuscript describes the development of ¡Sólo Se Vive Una Vez! (¡Vive!) (You Only Live Once), a multilevel (individual and community) intervention aimed at increasing HIV testing. A partnership was established between the Baltimore Latino outreach team, a community coalition, designers, and academics. Intervention priorities were identified through a nominal group technique process. Design students then developed intervention material through an iterative process including feedback from the partners and 75 Latino immigrant men who participated in focus group discussions. ¡Vive! is composed of nine motion graphic modules that can be individually tailored and delivered through a tablet or cell phone, and a complementary social marketing campaign to address HIV stigma in the community. An iterative process with ongoing feedback resulted in intervention components that were engaging and appealing, and reflected the community's experience.

  2. Reducing HIV Risks in the Places where People Drink: Prevention Interventions in Alcohol Venues

    PubMed Central

    Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Kalichman, Seth C.

    2015-01-01

    Apart from individual alcohol drinking behavior, the context or places where people drink play a significant role in HIV transmission risk. In this paper, we review the research that has been conducted on alcohol venues to identify the social and structural factors (e.g., social norms, sexual behavior) that are associated with HIV risk in these places, to review HIV prevention interventions based in alcohol venues, and to discuss appropriate methodologies for alcohol venue research. Alcohol venues are defined here as places that sell or serve alcohol for onsite consumption, including bars, bottle stores, nightclubs, wine shops, and informal shebeens. Despite the many established HIV risk factors at play in alcohol venues, limited prevention strategies have been implemented in such places. A total of 11 HIV prevention interventions or programs were identified. HIV prevention interventions in alcohol venues may be conducted at the individual, social, or structural level. However, multilevel interventions that target more than one level appear to lead to the most sustainable behavior change. Strategies to incorporate alcohol venues in biomedical prevention strategies including antiretroviral therapy for alcohol users are also discussed. PMID:26099244

  3. AN INTERVENTION TO REDUCE HIV-RELATED STIGMA IN PARTNERSHIP WITH AFRICAN AMERICAN AND LATINO CHURCHES

    PubMed Central

    Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Bogart, Laura M.; Kanouse, David E.; Felton, Alexandria; Collins, Deborah Owens; Mata, Michael A.; Oden, Clyde W.; Domínguez, Blanca X.; Flórez, Karen R.; Hawes-Dawson, Jennifer; Williams, Malcolm V.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-related stigma negatively affects prevention and care, and community-based interventions are needed. Here we describe the development of a multi-ethnic, faith-based intervention to reduce HIV stigma that included: educational workshops on HIV, testing, and stigma; peer leader workshops using role plays and drawing on principles of motivational interviewing; a pastor-delivered sermon on HIV that incorporated theological reflection and an imagined contact scenario; and congregation-based HIV testing events. Lessons learned include: partnership development is essential and requires substantial investment; tailoring intervention components to single race-ethnic groups may not be preferable in diverse community settings; and adapting testing processes to be able to serve larger numbers of people in shorter time frames is needed for congregational settings. This development process successfully combined the rigorous application of social science theory and community engagement to yield a multifaceted HIV stigma reduction intervention appropriate for Protestant and Catholic churches in African American and Latino communities. PMID:24450276

  4. An intervention to reduce HIV-related stigma in partnership with African American and Latino churches.

    PubMed

    Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Bogart, Laura M; Kanouse, David E; Felton, Alexandria; Collins, Deborah Owens; Mata, Michael A; Oden, Clyde W; Domínguez, Blanca X; Flórez, Karen R; Hawes-Dawson, Jennifer; Williams, Malcolm V

    2014-02-01

    HIV-related stigma negatively affects prevention and care, and community-based interventions are needed. Here we describe the development of a multi-ethnic, faith-based intervention to reduce HIV stigma that included: educational workshops on HIV, testing, and stigma; peer leader workshops using role plays and drawing on principles of motivational interviewing; a pastor-delivered sermon on HIV that incorporated theological reflection and an imagined contact scenario; and congregation-based HIV testing events. Lessons learned include: partnership development is essential and requires substantial investment; tailoring intervention components to single race-ethnic groups may not be preferable in diverse community settings; and adapting testing processes to be able to serve larger numbers of people in shorter time frames is needed for congregational settings. This development process successfully combined the rigorous application of social science theory and community engagement to yield a multifaceted HIV stigma reduction intervention appropriate for Protestant and Catholic churches in African American and Latino communities.

  5. IMPORTANCE OF MULTIPLE CRITERIA FOR PRIORITY SETTING OF HIV/AIDS INTERVENTIONS.

    PubMed

    Tromp, Noor; Prawiranegara, Rozar; Siregar, Adiatma; Sunjaya, Deni; Baltussen, Rob

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the views of various stakeholders on the importance of different criteria for priority setting of HIV/AIDS interventions in Indonesia. Based on a general list of criteria and a focus group discussion with stakeholders (n = 6), a list was developed of thirty-two criteria that play a role in priority setting in HIV/AIDS control in West-Java province. Criteria were categorized according to the World Health Organization's health system goals and building block frameworks. People living with HIV/AIDS (n = 49), healthcare workers (HCW) (n = 41), the general population (n = 43), and policy makers (n = 22) rated the importance of thirty-two criteria on a 5-point Likert-scale. Thereafter, respondents ranked the highest rated criteria to express more detailed preferences. Stakeholders valued the following criteria as most important for the priority setting of HIV/AIDS interventions: an intervention's impact on the HIV/AIDS epidemic, reduction of stigma, quality of care, effectiveness on individual level, and feasibility in terms of current capacity of the health system (i.e., HCW, product, information, and service requirements), financial sustainability, and acceptance by donors. Overall, stakeholders' preferences for the importance of criteria are similar. Our study design outlines an approach for other settings to identify which criteria are important for priority setting of health interventions. For Indonesia, these study results may be used in priority setting processes for HIV/AIDS control and may contribute to more transparent and systematic allocation of resources.

  6. Growth in late infancy among HIV-exposed children in urban Haiti is associated with participation in a clinic-based infant feeding support intervention.

    PubMed

    Heidkamp, Rebecca A; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; Pape, Jean W

    2012-04-01

    The integration of nutrition support for infants of HIV-infected mothers is a recognized need; however, the evidence for effective programmatic solutions is weak. The objective of our study was to implement and evaluate a new infant feeding support intervention for HIV-exposed, uninfected, non-breast-fed infants 6-12 mo of age attending the Groupe Haïtien d'Etude du Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes (GHESKIO) pediatric clinic in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. The 24-wk intervention included a lipid-based nutrient supplement, education, promotion of existing clinical services, and social support. We compared growth outcomes among intervention participants (n = 73) at start (wk 0) and end (wk 24) of intervention to a historical control group of HIV-exposed infants seen at the GHESKIO in the year prior to the intervention who would have met the intervention entrance criteria (n = 294). The intervention and historical control groups did not differ significantly at age 6 mo (wk 0). At age 12 mo (wk 24), the intervention group had a lower prevalence of underweight and stunting than the historical control group (weight-for-age Z-score < -2 SD: 6.8 vs. 20.8%, P = 0.007; length-for-age Z-score < -2 SD: 9.6 vs. 21.2%, P = 0.029). Wasting tended to be lower in the intervention group than the historical control (weight-for-length Z-score < -2 SD: 2.9 vs. 8.9%, P = 0.11). Implementation of the intervention was associated with reduced risk of growth faltering in HIV-exposed uninfected children from 6 to 12 mo of age. This is a promising intervention model that can be adapted and scaled-up to other HIV care contexts.

  7. Growth in Late Infancy among HIV-Exposed Children in Urban Haiti Is Associated with Participation in a Clinic-Based Infant Feeding Support Intervention123

    PubMed Central

    Heidkamp, Rebecca A.; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.; Pape, Jean W.

    2012-01-01

    The integration of nutrition support for infants of HIV-infected mothers is a recognized need; however, the evidence for effective programmatic solutions is weak. The objective of our study was to implement and evaluate a new infant feeding support intervention for HIV-exposed, uninfected, non–breast-fed infants 6–12 mo of age attending the Groupe Haïtien d’Etude du Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes (GHESKIO) pediatric clinic in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. The 24-wk intervention included a lipid-based nutrient supplement, education, promotion of existing clinical services, and social support. We compared growth outcomes among intervention participants (n = 73) at start (wk 0) and end (wk 24) of intervention to a historical control group of HIV-exposed infants seen at the GHESKIO in the year prior to the intervention who would have met the intervention entrance criteria (n = 294). The intervention and historical control groups did not differ significantly at age 6 mo (wk 0). At age 12 mo (wk 24), the intervention group had a lower prevalence of underweight and stunting than the historical control group (weight-for-age Z-score < −2 SD: 6.8 vs. 20.8%, P = 0.007; length-for-age Z-score < −2 SD: 9.6 vs. 21.2%, P = 0.029). Wasting tended to be lower in the intervention group than the historical control (weight-for-length Z-score < −2 SD: 2.9 vs. 8.9%, P = 0.11). Implementation of the intervention was associated with reduced risk of growth faltering in HIV-exposed uninfected children from 6 to 12 mo of age. This is a promising intervention model that can be adapted and scaled-up to other HIV care contexts. PMID:22378328

  8. Acceptability of a Community-Based Outreach HIV-Testing Intervention Using Oral Fluid Collection Devices and Web-Based HIV Test Result Collection Among Sub-Saharan African Migrants: A Mixed-Method Study

    PubMed Central

    Manirankunda, Lazare; Platteau, Tom; Albers, Laura; Fransen, Katrien; Vermoesen, Tine; Namanya, Fiona; Nöstlinger, Christiana

    2016-01-01

    Background Late human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis is common among sub-Saharan African migrants. To address their barriers to HIV testing uptake and improve timely HIV diagnoses and linkage to care, the outreach HIV testing intervention, “swab2know,” was developed. It combined a community-based approach with innovative testing methods: oral fluid self-sampling and the choice between Web-based HIV test result collections using a secured website or post-test counseling at a sexual health clinic. The sessions included an informational speech delivered by a physician of sub-Saharan African origin and testimonies by community members living with HIV. Objectives The objectives of this study were to evaluate the intervention’s acceptability among sub-Saharan African migrants and its potential to reach subgroups at higher risk for HIV infection and to identify facilitators and barriers for HIV testing uptake. Methods This mixed-method study combined qualitative (participant observations and informal interviews with testers and nontesters) and quantitative data (paper–pencil survey, laboratory data, and result collection files). Data were analyzed using a content analytical approach for qualitative and univariate analysis for quantitative data. Results A total of 10 testing sessions were organized in sub-Saharan African migrant community venues in the city of Antwerp, Belgium, between December 2012 and June 2013. Overall, 18.2% of all people present (N=780) underwent HIV testing; 29.8% of them tested for HIV for the first time, 22.3% did not have a general practitioner, and 21.5% reported 2 or more sexual partners (last 3 months). Overall, 56.3% of participants chose to collect their HIV test results via the protected website. In total, 78.9% collected their results. The qualitative analysis of 137 participant observation field notes showed that personal needs and Internet literacy determined the choice of result collection method. Generally, the oral

  9. Lessons Learned From the Field-Testing of Healthy Love: An HIV Prevention Intervention for Black Women.

    PubMed

    Galindo, Carla A; Few, Tai E; Daniels, Brandy; Parks, Carolyn P; Diallo, Dázon D; Moss, L Nyrobi N; Wilkes, Aisha L; Carraway, G Chezia

    2017-05-01

    Healthy Love is a brief, highly interactive, single-session, group-level HIV prevention intervention designed for African American women that is effective at reducing sex risk behaviors and increasing condom use and HIV testing among participants. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, through a contract, developed a user-friendly intervention package that would allow organizations to adopt and implement Healthy Love with fidelity. Training and implementation materials were developed to support original research protocols, and piloted and revised to conduct field-testing with case study agencies (CSAs). Three CSAs were selected to deliver the intervention over a 3-month period to test the utility of intervention materials and feasibility of implementation. All CSAs were able to successfully deliver 10 sessions with a total of 185 women ranging from 18 to 59 years of age. Successes and challenges encountered in training, preimplementation activities, and intervention delivery are described. Lessons learned from training, technical assistance, and process monitoring and evaluation informed final package revisions. Research to practice recommendations are shared as is guidance for future implementations of Healthy Love. The research to practice process used is a model approach for developing a comprehensive intervention package and will support the adoption of Healthy Love by other organizations.

  10. Community-level HIV intervention in 5 cities: final outcome data from the CDC AIDS Community Demonstration Projects.

    PubMed Central

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated a theory-based community-level intervention to promote progress toward consistent condom and bleach use among selected populations at increased risk for HIV infection in 5 US cities. METHODS: Role-model stories were distributed, along with condoms and bleach, by community members who encouraged behavior change among injection drug users, their female sex partners, sex workers, non-gay-identified men who have sex with men, high-risk youth, and residents in areas with high sexually transmitted disease rates. Over a 3-year period, cross-sectional interviews (n = 15,205) were conducted in 10 intervention and comparison community pairs. Outcomes were measured on a stage-of-change scale. Observed condom carrying and intervention exposure were also measured. RESULTS: At the community level, movement toward consistent condom use with main (P < .05) and nonmain (P < .05) partners, as well as increased condom carrying (P < .0001), was greater in intervention than in comparison communities. At the individual level, respondents recently exposed to the intervention were more likely to carry condoms and to have higher stage-of-change scores for condom and bleach use. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention led to significant communitywide progress toward consistent HIV risk reduction. PMID:10076482

  11. Twelve Committed Men: the feasibility of a community-based participatory HIV-prevention intervention within a Canadian men's correctional facility.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ruth Elwood; Turner, Renee; Howett, Larry; Howard, Terry; Hanberg, Debra; Buxton, Jane A; Moravan, Veronika; Oliffe, John L

    2016-10-25

    The intervention objectives were to evaluate and describe the feasibility of using a community-based research (CBR) approach to adapt and implement HIV-prevention materials and tools with incarcerated men. We found no prior published reports about CBR HIV-prevention education in Canadian correctional facilities. Twelve members of the correctional Peer Education Committee (PEC) and Aboriginal PEC, whom a correctional nurse identified as being interested in preventive health, were purposively invited to participate. Eight participants were serving life sentences, three were Aboriginal and their education levels ranged from below grade 8 to 11 years of post-secondary education. The setting was a medium-security federal correctional facility, housing 324 men. The intervention was guided by CBR and 'greater involvement of people with AIDS' principles. Participants were invited to attend four workshops, over seven days in May 2014, and to provide their insights regarding future scaled-up CBR HIV prevention. Each workshop included an HIV-prevention presentation and a focus group discussion, two of which were audio-recorded. All participants attended all sessions. Synthesis of mixed-method findings, with quantitative and qualitative data triangulation, demonstrated two major outcomes: 'new knowledge was generated' regarding feasibility of CBR HIV prevention in a men's correction facility; and 'capacity building occurred' with increased participants' social capital. Thirty incarcerated men requested HIV testing following the intervention, because participants spread their knowledge about HIV prevention to others. Participants asked to become 'health ambassadors' - champion advisors for future scaled-up CBR HIV-prevention intervention for the entire correctional facility. CBR HIV prevention is feasible within a Canadian men's correctional facility. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Continuous Evaluation of Evolving Behavioral Intervention Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, David C.; Cheung, Ken; Schueller, Stephen M.; Brown, C. Hendricks; Duan, Naihua

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral intervention technologies (BITs) are web-based and mobile interventions intended to support patients and consumers in changing behaviors related to health, mental health, and well-being. BITs are provided to patients and consumers in clinical care settings and commercial marketplaces, frequently with little or no evaluation. Current evaluation methods, including RCTs and implementation studies, can require years to validate an intervention. This timeline is fundamentally incompatible with the BIT environment, where technology advancement and changes in consumer expectations occur quickly, necessitating rapidly evolving interventions. However, BITs can routinely and iteratively collect data in a planned and strategic manner and generate evidence through systematic prospective analyses, thereby creating a system that can “learn.” A methodologic framework, Continuous Evaluation of Evolving Behavioral Intervention Technologies (CEEBIT), is proposed that can support the evaluation of multiple BITs or evolving versions, eliminating those that demonstrate poorer outcomes, while allowing new BITs to be entered at any time. CEEBIT could be used to ensure the effectiveness of BITs provided through deployment platforms in clinical care organizations or BIT marketplaces. The features of CEEBIT are described, including criteria for the determination of inferiority, determination of BIT inclusion, methods of assigning consumers to BITs, definition of outcomes, and evaluation of the usefulness of the system. CEEBIT offers the potential to collapse initial evaluation and postmarketing surveillance, providing ongoing assurance of safety and efficacy to patients and consumers, payers, and policymakers. PMID:24050429

  13. Continuous evaluation of evolving behavioral intervention technologies.

    PubMed

    Mohr, David C; Cheung, Ken; Schueller, Stephen M; Hendricks Brown, C; Duan, Naihua

    2013-10-01

    Behavioral intervention technologies (BITs) are web-based and mobile interventions intended to support patients and consumers in changing behaviors related to health, mental health, and well-being. BITs are provided to patients and consumers in clinical care settings and commercial marketplaces, frequently with little or no evaluation. Current evaluation methods, including RCTs and implementation studies, can require years to validate an intervention. This timeline is fundamentally incompatible with the BIT environment, where technology advancement and changes in consumer expectations occur quickly, necessitating rapidly evolving interventions. However, BITs can routinely and iteratively collect data in a planned and strategic manner and generate evidence through systematic prospective analyses, thereby creating a system that can "learn." A methodologic framework, Continuous Evaluation of Evolving Behavioral Intervention Technologies (CEEBIT), is proposed that can support the evaluation of multiple BITs or evolving versions, eliminating those that demonstrate poorer outcomes, while allowing new BITs to be entered at any time. CEEBIT could be used to ensure the effectiveness of BITs provided through deployment platforms in clinical care organizations or BIT marketplaces. The features of CEEBIT are described, including criteria for the determination of inferiority, determination of BIT inclusion, methods of assigning consumers to BITs, definition of outcomes, and evaluation of the usefulness of the system. CEEBIT offers the potential to collapse initial evaluation and postmarketing surveillance, providing ongoing assurance of safety and efficacy to patients and consumers, payers, and policymakers.

  14. Stakeholder Engagement in HIV Cure Research: Lessons Learned from Other HIV Interventions and the Way Forward

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Carissa; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Excler, Jean-Louis; Tucker, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Clinical and basic science advances have raised considerable hope for achieving an HIV cure by accelerating research. This research is dominated primarily by issues about the nature and design of current and future clinical trials. Stakeholder engagement for HIV cure remains in its early stages. Our analysis examines timing and mechanisms of historical stakeholder engagement in other HIV research areas for HIV-uninfected individuals [vaccine development and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)], and HIV-infected individuals (treatment as prevention, prevention of mother-to-child transmission, and treatment of acute HIV infection) and articulate a plan for HIV cure stakeholder engagement. The experience from HIV vaccine development shows that early engagement of stakeholders helped manage expectations, mitigating the failure of several vaccine trials, while paving the way for subsequent trials. The relatively late engagement of HIV stakeholders in PrEP research may partly explain some of the implementation challenges. The treatment-related stakeholder engagement was strong and community-led from the onset and helped translation from research to implementation. We outline five steps to initiate and sustain stakeholder engagement in HIV cure research and conclude that stakeholder engagement represents a key investment in which stakeholders mutually agree to share knowledge, benefits, and risk of failure. Effective stakeholder engagement prevents misconceptions. As HIV cure research advances from early trials involving subjects with generally favorable prognosis to studies involving greater risk and uncertainty, success may depend on early and deliberate engagement of stakeholders. PMID:26061668

  15. Interventions to reduce HIV transmission related to injecting drug use in prison.

    PubMed

    Jürgens, Ralf; Ball, Andrew; Verster, Annette

    2009-01-01

    The high prevalence of HIV infection and drug dependence among prisoners, combined with the sharing of injecting drug equipment, make prisons a high-risk environment for the transmission of HIV. Ultimately, this contributes to HIV epidemics in the communities to which prisoners return on their release. We reviewed the effectiveness of interventions to reduce injecting drug use risk behaviours and, consequently, HIV transmission in prisons. Many studies reported high levels of injecting drug use in prisons, and HIV transmission has been documented. There is increasing evidence of what prison systems can do to prevent HIV transmission related to injecting drug use. In particular, needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapies have proven effective at reducing HIV risk behaviours in a wide range of prison environments, without resulting in negative consequences for the health of prison staff or prisoners. The introduction of these programmes in countries with an existing or emergent epidemic of HIV infection among injecting drug users is therefore warranted, as part of comprehensive programmes to address HIV in prisons.

  16. Project power: Adapting an evidence-based HIV/STI prevention intervention for incarcerated women.

    PubMed

    Fasula, Amy M; Fogel, Catherine I; Gelaude, Deborah; Carry, Monique; Gaiter, Juarlyn; Parker, Sharon

    2013-06-01

    Incarcerated women are a critical population for targeted HIV/STI prevention programming; however, there is a dearth of evidence-based, genderspecific behavioral interventions for this population. Systematically adapting existing evidence-based interventions (EBIs) can help fill this gap. We illustrate the adaptation of the HIV/STI prevention EBI, Project Safe, for use among incarcerated women and delivery in prisons. Project POWER, the final adapted intervention, was developed using formative research with prison staff and administration, incarcerated and previously incarcerated women, and input of community advisory boards. Intervention delivery adaptations included: shorter, more frequent intervention sessions; booster sessions prior to and just after release; facilitator experience in prisons and counseling; and new videos. Intervention content adaptations addressed issues of empowerment, substance use, gender and power inequity in relationships, interpersonal violence, mental health, reentry, and social support. This illustration of the adaption process provides information to inform additional efforts to adapt EBIs for this underserved population.

  17. Development of an HIV risk reduction counselling intervention for use in South African sexually transmitted infection clinics.

    PubMed

    Mathiti, V; Simbayi, L C; Jooste, S; Kekana, Q; Nibe, X P; Shasha, L; Bidla, P; Magubane, P; Cain, D; Cherry, C; Kalichman, S C

    2005-07-01

    South Africa urgently needs HIV prevention interventions that can be disseminated for use in clinical and community settings. A brief theory-based HIV risk reduction counselling intervention originally developed in the USA has recently been adapted for use in a South African sexually transmitted infection clinic. The 60-minute risk reduction counselling intervention was grounded in the Information-Motivation-Behavioural Skills (IMB) model of HIV preventive behaviour change, adapted through a series of interdisciplinary collaborative workshops. This paper reports the process of developing and culturally adapting the brief risk reduction counselling intervention. The processes used for adapting the HIV risk reduction counselling for South Africa provides a potential model for conducting technology transfer activities with other HIV prevention interventions. Several lessons learned from this process may help guide future efforts to transfer HIV prevention technologies.

  18. The HOPE Social Media Intervention for Global HIV Prevention: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Young, Sean D.; Cumberland, William G.; Nianogo, Roch; Menacho, Luis A.; Galea, Jerome T.; Coates, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Social media technologies are newly emerging tools that can be used for HIV prevention and testing in low- and middle-income countries, such as Peru. This study examined the efficacy of using the Harnessing Online Peer Education (HOPE) social media intervention to increase HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Peru. Methods In a cluster randomized controlled trial with concealed allocation, Peruvian MSM from Greater Lima/Callao (N = 556) were randomly assigned to join private intervention or control groups on Facebook for 12 weeks. In the intervention condition, forty-nine Peruvian MSM were trained and randomly assigned to be HIV prevention mentors to participants via Facebook groups over 12 weeks. Control participants received an enhanced standard of care, including standard offline HIV prevention available in Peru as well as participation in Facebook groups (without peer leaders) that provided study updates and HIV testing information. After accepting a request to join the groups, continued participation was voluntary. Participants could request a free HIV test at a local community clinic, and completed questionnaires on HIV risk behaviors and social media use at baseline and 12-week follow-up. Findings Between March 19, 2012, and June 11, 2012, and Sept 26, 2012, and Dec 19, 2012, 556 participants were randomly assigned to intervention groups (N=278) or control groups (N=278); we analyse data for 252 and 246. 43 participants (17%) in the intervention group and 16 (7%) in the control groups got tested for HIV (adjusted odds ratio 2.61, 95% CI 1.55–4.38). No adverse events were reported. Retention at 12-week follow-up was 90%. Across conditions, 7 (87.5%) of the 8 participants who tested positive were linked to care at a local clinic. Interpretation Development of peer-mentored social media communities seemed to be an effective method to increase HIV testing among high-risk populations in Peru.: Results suggest that the HOPE social

  19. A systematic review of antiretroviral adherence interventions for HIV-infected people who use drugs.

    PubMed

    Binford, Meredith Camp; Kahana, Shoshana Y; Altice, Frederick L

    2012-12-01

    HIV-infected persons who use drugs (PWUDs) are particularly vulnerable for suboptimal combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) adherence. A systematic review of interventions to improve cART adherence and virologic outcomes among HIV-infected PWUDs was conducted. Among the 45 eligible studies, randomized controlled trials suggested directly administered antiretroviral therapy, medication-assisted therapy (MAT), contingency management, and multi-component, nurse-delivered interventions provided significant improved short-term adherence and virologic outcomes, but these effects were not sustained after intervention cessation. Cohort and prospective studies suggested short-term increased cART adherence with MAT. More conclusive data regarding the efficacy on cART adherence and HIV treatment outcomes using cognitive behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing, peer-driven interventions and the integration of MAT into HIV clinical care are warranted. Of great concern was the virtual lack of interventions with sustained post-intervention adherence and virologic benefits. Future research directions, including the development of interventions that promote long-term improvements in adherence and virologic outcomes, are discussed.

  20. A Systematic Review of Health Literacy Interventions for People Living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Perazzo, Joseph; Reyes, Darcel; Webel, Allison

    2017-03-01

    Health literacy significantly impacts health-related outcomes among people living with HIV. Our aim was to systematically review current literature on health literacy interventions for people living with HIV. The authors conducted a thorough literature search following the PRISMA statement and the AMSTAR checklist as a guide, and found six studies that met inclusion/exclusion criteria. The majority of these interventions were designed to improve HIV treatment adherence as well as HIV knowledge and treatment-related skills, with one study focusing on e-Health literacy. Several of the studies demonstrated trends toward improvement in medication adherence, but most did not achieve statistical significance primarily due to methodological limitations. Significant improvements in knowledge, behavioral skills, and e-Health literacy were found following interventions (p = 0.001-0.05). Health literacy interventions have the potential to promote HIV-related knowledge, behavioral skills, and self-management practices. More research is needed to assess the efficacy of interventions to promote a variety of self-management practices.

  1. Effectiveness of Interventions Promoting HIV Serostatus Disclosure to Sexual Partners: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Conserve, Donaldson F.; Groves, Allison K.; Maman, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Disclosure of HIV serostatus to sexual partners is mandated within certain states in the United States and other countries. Despite these laws implemented and public health efforts to increase disclosure, rates of disclosure to sexual partners among people living with HIV (PLWH) remain low, suggesting the need for interventions to assist PLWH with the disclosure process. We conducted a systematic review of studies testing whether HIV serostatus disclosure interventions increase disclosure to sexual partners. We searched six electronic databases and screened 484 records. Five studies published between 2005 and 2012 met inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Results showed that three of the HIV serostatus disclosure-related intervention studies were efficacious in promoting disclosure to sexual partners. Although all three studies were conducted in the United States the intervention content and measurements of disclosure across the studies varied, so broad conclusions are not possible. The findings suggest that more rigorous HIV serostatus disclosure-related intervention trials targeting different populations in the United States and abroad are needed to facilitate disclosure to sexual partners. PMID:25645328

  2. Putting Prevention in Their Pockets: Developing Mobile Phone-Based HIV Interventions for Black Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Emily C.; Fowler, Beth; LeGrand, Sara; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Bull, Sheana S.; Wilson, Patrick A.; Wohl, David A.; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Young black men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionate burden of HIV. Rapid expansion of mobile technologies, including smartphone applications (apps), provides a unique opportunity for outreach and tailored health messaging. We collected electronic daily journals and conducted surveys and focus groups with 22 black MSM (age 18–30) at three sites in North Carolina to inform the development of a mobile phone-based intervention. Qualitative data was analyzed thematically using NVivo. Half of the sample earned under $11,000 annually. All participants owned smartphones and had unlimited texting and many had unlimited data plans. Phones were integral to participants' lives and were a primary means of Internet access. Communication was primarily through text messaging and Internet (on-line chatting, social networking sites) rather than calls. Apps were used daily for entertainment, information, productivity, and social networking. Half of participants used their phones to find sex partners; over half used phones to find health information. For an HIV-related app, participants requested user-friendly content about test site locators, sexually transmitted diseases, symptom evaluation, drug and alcohol risk, safe sex, sexuality and relationships, gay-friendly health providers, and connection to other gay/HIV-positive men. For young black MSM in this qualitative study, mobile technologies were a widely used, acceptable means for HIV intervention. Future research is needed to measure patterns and preferences of mobile technology use among broader samples. PMID:23565925

  3. Potential Impact of Integrated Stigma Mitigation Interventions in Improving HIV/AIDS Service Delivery and Uptake for Key Populations in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Ketende, Sosthenes; Diouf, Daouda; Drame, Fatou M.; Liestman, Benjamin; Coly, Karleen; Ndour, Cheikh; Turpin, Gnilane; Mboup, Souleymane; Diop, Karim; Toure-Kane, Coumba; Castor, Delivette; Leye-Diouf, Nafissatou; Baral, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSW) are consistently shown to have a higher burden of HIV compared with other adults in Senegal. This study, HIV Prevention 2.0, evaluates the impact of the 3-tiered integrated stigma mitigation interventions (ISMIs) approach to optimizing HIV service delivery for key populations in Senegal. Methods: Baseline assessment includes a questionnaire and biological testing for HIV. A proportion of participants enrolled into a 24-month longitudinal cohort with questionnaires and biological testing every 3 months. In these preliminary analyses, ISMIs are evaluated from participants in the cohort through uptake of HIV services and implementation outcomes. Results: Overall, 724 MSM and 758 FSW participated in the baseline assessment. HIV prevalence is 30.2% (n = 219/724) among MSM and 5.3% (n = 40/758) among FSW. Fear of seeking health services among MSM is 17.7% (n = 128/724) at baseline, 10.5% (n = 18/172) at month 3, and 9.8% (n = 10/102) at month 6 (P < 0.004); and among FSW is 21.9% (n = 166/758) at baseline, 8.1% (n = 15/185) at month 3, and 10.7% (n = 18/168) at month 6 (P < 0.001). Overall, 63.9% (n = 62/97) of MSM and 82.5% (n = 118/143) of FSW agreed that the intervention is effective in addressing stigma; however, loss to follow-up was 41.1% among MSM and 10% among FSW. Conclusion: Baseline data reinforce the need for stigma mitigation interventions, combined with enhanced linkage and retention to optimize HIV treatment. Preliminary results show high levels of HIV-related risk determinants and suggest the potential utility of the ISMI to decrease perceived stigma relating to engagement in HIV prevention, treatment, and care services among key populations in Senegal. PMID:27930612

  4. Uptake of interventions, outcomes and challenges in caring for HIV-exposed infants in Kingston, Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Steel-Duncan, J C; Pierre, R; Evans-Gilbert, T; Rodriquez, B; Smikle, M F; Palmer, P; Whorms, S; Hambleton, I; Figueroa, J P; Christie, C D C

    2004-10-01

    In a few Caribbean islands, prevention of mother-to-child transmission (pMTCT) of HIV with zidovudine prophylaxis has reduced transmission rates from 27 - 44% to 5.5 - 9 %. To highlight the uptake of interventions, preliminary outcomes and challenges in caring for HIV-exposed infants in a pMTCT HIVprogramme in a resource-limited setting. A cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women were identified at the leading maternity centres in Greater Kingston through HIV counselling and testing and enrolled in the Kingston Paediatric and Perinatal HIV/AIDS Programme. Antiretroviralprophylaxis with zidovudine or nevirapine was given to the HIV-positive women and their newborns along with formula feeding. Some infants were enrolled retrospectively and followed irrespective of whether they had or had not received antiretroviral prophylaxis. A multidisciplinary team at the paediatric centres supervised protocol-driven management of the infants. Infants were followed for clinical progress and definitive HIV-infection status was to be confirmed at 18 months of age by ELISA or the Determine Rapid Test. During September 1, 2002 through August 31, 2003, 132 HIV-exposed infants were identified. For those infants prospectively enrolled (78), 97% received antiretroviral prophylaxis and 90% were not breastfed For all HIV-exposed children, 90% received cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and 88% continued follow-up care. Ninety-two per cent of all the infants remained asymptomatic and five died; of these deaths one is possibly HIV-related (severe sepsis at 11 weeks). This infant was retrospectively identified, had received no antiretroviral prophylaxis and was breastfed The main programme challenges, which were overcome, included the impact of stigma, compliance with antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis, breast-milk substitution and follow-up care. Financial constraints and laboratory quality assurance issues limited early diagnosis of HIV infection. Despite the challenges, the expected outcome is to prevent

  5. Innovative Techniques for Evaluating Behavioral Nutrition Interventions.

    PubMed

    Scherr, Rachel E; Laugero, Kevin D; Graham, Dan J; Cunningham, Brian T; Jahns, Lisa; Lora, Karina R; Reicks, Marla; Mobley, Amy R

    2017-01-01

    Assessing outcomes and the impact from behavioral nutrition interventions has remained challenging because of the lack of methods available beyond traditional nutrition assessment tools and techniques. With the current high global obesity and related chronic disease rates, novel methods to evaluate the impact of behavioral nutrition-based interventions are much needed. The objective of this narrative review is to describe and review the current status of knowledge as it relates to 4 different innovative methods or tools to assess behavioral nutrition interventions. Methods reviewed include 1) the assessment of stress and stress responsiveness to enhance the evaluation of nutrition interventions, 2) eye-tracking technology in nutritional interventions, 3) smartphone biosensors to assess nutrition and health-related outcomes, and 4) skin carotenoid measurements to assess fruit and vegetable intake. Specifically, the novel use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, by characterizing the brain's responsiveness to an intervention, can help researchers develop programs with greater efficacy. Similarly, if eye-tracking technology can enable researchers to get a better sense as to how participants view materials, the materials may be better tailored to create an optimal impact. The latter 2 techniques reviewed, smartphone biosensors and methods to detect skin carotenoids, can provide the research community with portable, effective, nonbiased ways to assess dietary intake and quality and more in the field. The information gained from using these types of methodologies can improve the efficacy and assessment of behavior-based nutrition interventions.

  6. Sex isn't that simple: culture and context in HIV prevention interventions for gay and bisexual male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Harper, Gary W

    2007-11-01

    Gay and bisexual male adolescents and young adults in the United States have been disproportionately impacted by the HIV pandemic. Despite the steadily increasing rise in their HIV infection rates, there has not been a commensurate increase in HIV prevention programs targeted to the unique social and sexual lives of these youths. Programs that address cultural and contextual factors that influence sexual risk and protective behaviors need to be developed, implemented, and rigorously evaluated. These interventions should address the potential influences of sexual and gay culture on the HIV risk/protective behaviors of gay and bisexual adolescents, as well as the influence of more traditional cultural factors related to ethnicity. The influence of contextual developmental factors should also be addressed. This may include an incorporation into prevention programs of the societal-level influences of heterosexism and masculinity ideology and the individual-level influences of sexual identity and ethnic identity development. Researchers and interventionists need to be creative and innovative in their HIV prevention approaches and ensure that programs are grounded in the lives and realities of gay and bisexual adolescents and young adults. Copyright (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of a health setting-based stigma intervention in five African countries.

    PubMed

    Uys, Leana; Chirwa, Maureen; Kohi, Thecla; Greeff, Minrie; Naidoo, Joanne; Makoae, Lucia; Dlamini, Priscilla; Durrheim, Kevin; Cuca, Yvette; Holzemer, William L

    2009-12-01

    The study aim is to explore the results of an HIV stigma intervention in five African health care settings. A case study approach was used. The intervention consisted of bringing together a team of approximately 10 nurses and 10 people living with HIV or AIDS (PLHA) in each setting and facilitating a process in which they planned and implemented a stigma reduction intervention, involving both information giving and empowerment. Nurses (n = 134) completed a demographic questionnaire, the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument-Nurses (HASI-N), a self-efficacy scale, and a self-esteem scale, both before and after the intervention, and the team completed a similar set of instruments before and after the intervention, with the PLHA completing the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument for PLHA (HASI-P). The intervention as implemented in all five countries was inclusive, action-oriented, and well received. It led to understanding and mutual support between nurses and PLHA and created some momentum in all the settings for continued activity. PLHA involved in the intervention teams reported less stigma and increased self-esteem. Nurses in the intervention teams and those in the settings reported no reduction in stigma or increases in self- esteem and self-efficacy, but their HIV testing behavior increased significantly. This pilot study indicates that the stigma experience of PLHA can be decreased, but that the stigma experiences of nurses are less easy to change. Further evaluation research with control groups and larger samples and measuring change over longer periods of time is indicated.

  8. Evaluation of a Health Setting-Based Stigma Intervention in Five African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Uys, Leana; Chirwa, Maureen; Kohi, Thecla; Greeff, Minrie; Makoae, Lucia; Dlamini, Priscilla; Durrheim, Kevin; Cuca, Yvette; Holzemer, William L.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The study aim is to explore the results of an HIV stigma intervention in five African health care settings. A case study approach was used. The intervention consisted of bringing together a team of approximately 10 nurses and 10 people living with HIV or AIDS (PLHA) in each setting and facilitating a process in which they planned and implemented a stigma reduction intervention, involving both information giving and empowerment. Nurses (n = 134) completed a demographic questionnaire, the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument-Nurses (HASI-N), a self-efficacy scale, and a self-esteem scale, both before and after the intervention, and the team completed a similar set of instruments before and after the intervention, with the PLHA completing the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument for PLHA (HASI-P). The intervention as implemented in all five countries was inclusive, action-oriented, and well received. It led to understanding and mutual support between nurses and PLHA and created some momentum in all the settings for continued activity. PLHA involved in the intervention teams reported less stigma and increased self-esteem. Nurses in the intervention teams and those in the settings reported no reduction in stigma or increases in self- esteem and self-efficacy, but their HIV testing behavior increased significantly. This pilot study indicates that the stigma experience of PLHA can be decreased, but that the stigma experiences of nurses are less easy to change. Further evaluation research with control groups and larger samples and measuring change over longer periods of time is indicated. PMID:20025515

  9. Evaluation of the Positive Prevention HIV/STD Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaChausse, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of Positive Prevention, a theory-based, HIV/STD prevention education curriculum for high school youth. Three hundred fifty-three students participated in a longitudinal experimental design to determine the impact of the curriculum on HIV/AIDS knowledge, self-efficacy to abstain from sex, self-efficacy of…

  10. HIV Treatment in the Criminal Justice System: Critical Knowledge and Intervention Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Jaimie P.; Chen, Nadine E.; Springer, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    The criminal justice system bears a disproportionate burden of the HIV epidemic. Continuity of care is critical for HAART-based prevention of HIV-related morbidity and mortality. This paper describes four major challenges to successful management of HIV in the criminal justice system: relapse to substance use, homelessness, mental illness, and loss of medical and social benefits. Each of these areas constitutes a competing priority upon release that demands immediate attention and diverts time, energy, and valuable resources away from engagement in care and adherence to HAART. Numerous gaps exist in scientific knowledge about these issues and potential solutions. In illuminating these knowledge deficits, we present a contemporary research agenda for the management of HIV in correctional systems. Future empirical research should focus on these critical issues in HIV-infected prisoners and releasees while interventional research should incorporate evidence-based solutions into the criminal justice setting. PMID:21776379

  11. HIV Treatment in the Criminal Justice System: Critical Knowledge and Intervention Gaps.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jaimie P; Chen, Nadine E; Springer, Sandra A

    2011-01-01

    The criminal justice system bears a disproportionate burden of the HIV epidemic. Continuity of care is critical for HAART-based prevention of HIV-related morbidity and mortality. This paper describes four major challenges to successful management of HIV in the criminal justice system: relapse to substance use, homelessness, mental illness, and loss of medical and social benefits. Each of these areas constitutes a competing priority upon release that demands immediate attention and diverts time, energy, and valuable resources away from engagement in care and adherence to HAART. Numerous gaps exist in scientific knowledge about these issues and potential solutions. In illuminating these knowledge deficits, we present a contemporary research agenda for the management of HIV in correctional systems. Future empirical research should focus on these critical issues in HIV-infected prisoners and releasees while interventional research should incorporate evidence-based solutions into the criminal justice setting.

  12. Reducing HIV risk among Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men: Qualitative analysis of behavior change intentions by participants in a small-group intervention

    PubMed Central

    Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Tanner, Amanda E.; Sun, Christina J.; Painter, Thomas M.; Freeman, Arin; Reboussin, Beth A.; Song, Eunyoung; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The southeastern United States has the fastest-growing Hispanic/Latino population in the country and carries a disproportionate HIV burden. Among Hispanics/Latinos, men, and men who have sex with men (MSM) in particular, are at elevated risk of HIV infection; however, very few efficacious behavioral HIV prevention interventions are available for use with this vulnerable population. To address this shortage of prevention resources, our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership developed and is currently evaluating the efficacy of the HOLA en Grupos intervention to increase condom use and HIV testing among Hispanic/Latino MSM. Methods We recruited 304 Hispanic/Latino MSM who were randomized to receive the small group HOLA en Grupos intervention that was implemented during four 4-hour long sessions over four consecutive Sundays, or a 4-session small group general health education comparison intervention. At the end of the fourth session of the HOLA en Grupos intervention, the intervention facilitators asked participants to write down the sexual health-related behaviors they intended to change as a result of their participation. Results Qualitative analysis of the participants’ responses identified six types of intended behavior changes: increasing and maintaining condom use; identifying strategies to support correct and consistent condom use; increasing communication and negotiation with sexual partners about condom use; getting tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections; applying other sexual health promotion strategies; and sharing newly learned sexual health information with their peers. Conclusion Most risk-reduction intentions aligned with the intervention’s key messages of using condoms consistently and getting tested for HIV. However, participants’ stated intentions may have also depended on which behavior changes they perceived as most salient after participating in the intervention. Participants’ intentions to

  13. The Impact of Perceived Group Support on the Effectiveness of an HIV Prevention Intervention for African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belgrave, Faye Z.; Corneille, Maya; Hood, Kristina; Foster-Woodson, Julia; Fitzgerald, Angela

    2010-01-01

    The enormous HIV/AIDS disparity among African American women and women in other ethnic groups dictates the need to implement the most effective HIV prevention interventions. This study examined the impact of perceived group support on HIV protective behaviors (i.e., attitudes and behaviors related to condom use, alcohol, and drugs) of African…

  14. Project Roadmap: Reeducating Older Adults in Maintaining AIDS Prevention--A Secondary Intervention for Older HIV-Positive Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illa, Lourdes; Echenique, Marisa; Saint Jean, Gilbert; Bustamante-Avellaneda, Victoria; Metsch, Lisa; Mendez-Mulet, Luis; Eisdorfer, Carl; Sanchez-Martinez, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The number of older adults living with HIV/AIDS is larger than ever. Little is known about their sexual behaviors, although contrary to stereotypes, older adults desire and engage in sexual activity. Despite increased recognition of the need for prevention interventions targeting HIV-positive individuals, no secondary HIV prevention interventions…

  15. Project ORE: A Friendship-Based Intervention to Prevent HIV/STI in Urban African American Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolcini, M. Margaret; Harper, Gary W.; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Pollack, Lance M.

    2010-01-01

    There is an urgent need for continued innovation in the design of HIV/STI prevention interventions for African American females, a group at high risk for STIs and HIV. In particular, attention to social development and to culture is needed. The present study reports on a group randomized controlled trial of a friendship-based HIV/STI prevention…

  16. Project Roadmap: Reeducating Older Adults in Maintaining AIDS Prevention--A Secondary Intervention for Older HIV-Positive Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illa, Lourdes; Echenique, Marisa; Saint Jean, Gilbert; Bustamante-Avellaneda, Victoria; Metsch, Lisa; Mendez-Mulet, Luis; Eisdorfer, Carl; Sanchez-Martinez, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The number of older adults living with HIV/AIDS is larger than ever. Little is known about their sexual behaviors, although contrary to stereotypes, older adults desire and engage in sexual activity. Despite increased recognition of the need for prevention interventions targeting HIV-positive individuals, no secondary HIV prevention interventions…

  17. Project ORE: A Friendship-Based Intervention to Prevent HIV/STI in Urban African American Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolcini, M. Margaret; Harper, Gary W.; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Pollack, Lance M.

    2010-01-01

    There is an urgent need for continued innovation in the design of HIV/STI prevention interventions for African American females, a group at high risk for STIs and HIV. In particular, attention to social development and to culture is needed. The present study reports on a group randomized controlled trial of a friendship-based HIV/STI prevention…

  18. School-based interventions for preventing Hiv, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Sinclair, David; Mathews, Catherine; Kagee, Ashraf; Hillman, Alex; Lombard, Carl

    2016-01-01

    sub-Saharan Africa (Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, and Kenya), one in Latin America (Chile), and two in Europe (England and Scotland). Sexual and reproductive health educational programmes Six trials evaluated school-based educational interventions. In these trials, the educational programmes evaluated had no demonstrable effect on the prevalence of HIV (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.32, three trials; 14,163 participants; low certainty evidence), or other STIs (herpes simplex virus prevalence: RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.15; three trials, 17,445 participants; moderate certainty evidence; syphilis prevalence: RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.47 to 1.39; one trial, 6977 participants; low certainty evidence). There was also no apparent effect on the number of young women who were pregnant at the end of the trial (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.16; three trials, 8280 participants; moderate certainty evidence). Material or monetary incentive-based programmes to promote school attendance Two trials evaluated incentive-based programmes to promote school attendance. In these two trials, the incentives used had no demonstrable effect on HIV prevalence (RR 1.23, 95% CI 0.51 to 2.96; two trials, 3805 participants; low certainty evidence). Compared to controls, the prevalence of herpes simplex virus infection was lower in young women receiving a monthly cash incentive to stay in school (RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.85), but not in young people given free school uniforms (Data not pooled, two trials, 7229 participants; very low certainty evidence). One trial evaluated the effects on syphilis and the prevalence was too low to detect or exclude effects confidently (RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.05 to 3.27; one trial, 1291 participants; very low certainty evidence). However, the number of young women who were pregnant at the end of the trial was lower among those who received incentives (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.99; two trials, 4200 participants; low certainty evidence). Combined educational and incentive

  19. Interventions for body habitus changes associated with HIV infection and its treatment.

    PubMed

    Tebas, Pablo

    2007-05-01

    Lipodystrophy and its two components lipo-accumulation and lipoatropy are very common among individuals with HIV infection on treatment, especially among those who started therapy in the late 1990s and early 2000s. This review discusses the current management of these complications of HIV and its treatment. For the purpose of clarity in this review, we have divided the interventions according to the predominant phenotype of the individual.

  20. The effectiveness evaluation of a multimedia hepatitis C prevention program for Hispanic HIV-infected individuals

    PubMed Central

    Mayor, Angel M.; Fernández, Diana M.; Colón, Héctor M.; Thomas, James C.; Hunter-Mellado, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction With the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has became a primary health problem among individuals suffering from HIV/AIDS in Puerto Rico, principally those who are injecting drug users (IDUs). A multimedia educational intervention, based on the Health Beliefs Model and Social Cognitive Theory was developed and implemented to reduce HCV associated risk behaviors among IDUs. Methods A pre- and post- intervention study evaluated the knowledge and behavioral changes in a group of HIV-infected persons recruited from February 2006 through December 2008. Results A total of 110 participants were recruited; all were IDUs; 82% were men; 86.3% were HIV/HCV co-infected and 24.5% had active injected drugs in the last month (prior to recruitment). The group mean age was 42.2 ± 9.2 years and mean educational level was 10th grade. Knowledge of HCV risk behaviors, perception of HCV susceptibility, and perception of disease severity increased after the intervention. Knowledge of HCV clinical manifestations and HIV co-infection complications and treatment also improved. In addition, HCV risk behaviors and injecting drug practice decrease significantly among IDUs. Conclusions This new multimedia intervention captured and maintained the participants' attention and interest, in that way facilitating their educational process. Thus, a greater of attention and interest leads to greater knowledge and prevention improvement. PMID:20521407