Science.gov

Sample records for evaluating microhabitat selection

  1. Variation in selection of microhabitats by Merriam's turkey brood hens

    Treesearch

    Mark A. Rumble; Stanley H. Anderson

    1997-01-01

    We studied microhabitats of Merriam‘s turkey (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) brood hens in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) ecosystem in South Dakota from 1986 to 1988. Cluster analysis indicated three groups of microhabitats, open-shrub, open-grasslforb and forest, based on vegetation characteristics at sites selected by brood...

  2. Microhabitat variation and sexual selection can maintain male color polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Chunco, Amanda J; McKinnon, Jeffrey S; Servedio, Maria R

    2007-11-01

    Male color polymorphism may be an important precursor to sympatric speciation by sexual selection, but the processes maintaining such polymorphisms are not well understood. Here, we develop a formal model of the hypothesis that male color polymorphisms may be maintained by variation in the sensory environment resulting in microhabitat-specific selection pressures. We analyze the evolution of two male color morphs when color perception (by females and predators) is dependent on the microhabitat in which natural and sexual selection occur. We find that an environment of heterogeneous microhabitats can lead to the maintenance of color polymorphism despite asymmetries in the strengths of natural and sexual selection and in microhabitat proportions. We show that sexual selection alone is sufficient for polymorphism maintenance over a wide range of parameter space, even when female preferences are weak. Polymorphisms can also be maintained by natural selection acting alone, but the conditions for polymorphism maintenance by natural selection will usually be unrealistic for the case of microhabitat variation. Microhabitat variation and sexual selection for conspicuous males may thus provide a situation particularly favorable to the maintenance of male color polymorphisms. These results are important both because of the general insight they provide into a little appreciated mechanism for the maintenance of variation in natural populations and because such variation is an important prerequisite for sympatric speciation.

  3. Indirect Selection for Antibiotic Resistance in Multiple Stream Microhabitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, M. S.; Peltier, G. L.; McArthur, J.

    2005-05-01

    One aspect challenging public health efforts to minimize the spread of antibiotic resistance (AR) is the prevalence of resistant bacteria in the environment. Anthropogenic-derived sources of selection are typically implicated as mechanisms for maintaining AR in the environment. Here we report an additional mechanism for maintaining AR in the environment through co- or cross-resistance to heavy metals. Using culture-independent techniques, bacteria isolated from heavy-metal contaminated sites were more tolerant of antibiotics and metals compared to those bacteria from a reference site. This evidence supports our hypothesis that metal contamination directly selects for metal tolerant bacteria while indirectly selecting for antibiotic tolerant bacteria. Additionally, to assess how antibiotic- and metal-tolerance may be transported through a stream network, we studied antibiotic and metal-tolerance patterns over four months in bacteria collected from multiple stream microhabitats including water column, biofilm, sediment, and Corbicula fluminea (Asiatic clam) digestive tracts. Sediment bacteria were the most tolerant to antibiotics and metals, while bacteria from Corbicula were the least tolerant. Differences between these microhabitats may be important for predicting antibiotic resistance transfer and transport in stream environments. Further, temporal dynamics suggest that tolerance patterns within microhabitats are linked to physico-chemical characteristics of the stream.

  4. Seasonality and microhabitat selection in a forest-dwelling salamander.

    PubMed

    Basile, Marco; Romano, Antonio; Costa, Andrea; Posillico, Mario; Scinti Roger, Daniele; Crisci, Aldo; Raimondi, Ranieri; Altea, Tiziana; Garfì, Vittorio; Santopuoli, Giovanni; Marchetti, Marco; Salvidio, Sebastiano; De Cinti, Bruno; Matteucci, Giorgio

    2017-09-12

    Many small terrestrial vertebrates exhibit limited spatial movement and are considerably exposed to changes in local environmental variables. Among such vertebrates, amphibians at present experience a dramatic decline due to their limited resilience to environmental change. Since the local survival and abundance of amphibians is intrinsically related to the availability of shelters, conservation plans need to take microhabitat requirements into account. In order to gain insight into the terrestrial ecology of the spectacled salamander Salamandrina perspicillata and to identify appropriate forest management strategies, we investigated the salamander's seasonal variability in habitat use of trees as shelters in relation to tree features (size, buttresses, basal holes) and environmental variables in a beech forest in Italy. We used the occupancy approach to assess tree suitability on a non-conventional spatial scale. Our approach provides fine-grained parameters of microhabitat suitability and elucidates many aspects of the salamander's terrestrial ecology. Occupancy changed with the annual life cycle and was higher in autumn than in spring, when females were found closer to the stream in the study area. Salamanders showed a seasonal pattern regarding the trees they occupied and a clear preference for trees with a larger diameter and more burrows. With respect to forest management, we suggest maintaining a suitable number of trees with a trunk diameter exceeding 30 cm. A practice of selective logging along the banks of streams could help maintain an adequate quantity of the appropriate microhabitat. Furthermore, in areas with a presence of salamanders, a good forest management plan requires leaving an adequate buffer zone around streams, which should be wider in autumn than in spring.

  5. Seasonality and microhabitat selection in a forest-dwelling salamander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basile, Marco; Romano, Antonio; Costa, Andrea; Posillico, Mario; Scinti Roger, Daniele; Crisci, Aldo; Raimondi, Ranieri; Altea, Tiziana; Garfì, Vittorio; Santopuoli, Giovanni; Marchetti, Marco; Salvidio, Sebastiano; De Cinti, Bruno; Matteucci, Giorgio

    2017-10-01

    Many small terrestrial vertebrates exhibit limited spatial movement and are considerably exposed to changes in local environmental variables. Among such vertebrates, amphibians at present experience a dramatic decline due to their limited resilience to environmental change. Since the local survival and abundance of amphibians is intrinsically related to the availability of shelters, conservation plans need to take microhabitat requirements into account. In order to gain insight into the terrestrial ecology of the spectacled salamander Salamandrina perspicillata and to identify appropriate forest management strategies, we investigated the salamander's seasonal variability in habitat use of trees as shelters in relation to tree features (size, buttresses, basal holes) and environmental variables in a beech forest in Italy. We used the occupancy approach to assess tree suitability on a non-conventional spatial scale. Our approach provides fine-grained parameters of microhabitat suitability and elucidates many aspects of the salamander's terrestrial ecology . Occupancy changed with the annual life cycle and was higher in autumn than in spring, when females were found closer to the stream in the study area. Salamanders showed a seasonal pattern regarding the trees they occupied and a clear preference for trees with a larger diameter and more burrows. With respect to forest management, we suggest maintaining a suitable number of trees with a trunk diameter exceeding 30 cm. A practice of selective logging along the banks of streams could help maintain an adequate quantity of the appropriate microhabitat. Furthermore, in areas with a presence of salamanders, a good forest management plan requires leaving an adequate buffer zone around streams, which should be wider in autumn than in spring.

  6. Seasonal patterns of body temperature and microhabitat selection in a lacertid lizard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Zaida; Pérez-Mellado, Valentín

    2016-11-01

    In temperate areas, seasonal changes entail a source of environmental variation potentially important for organisms. Temperate ectotherms may be adapted to the seasonal fluctuations in environmental traits. For lizards, behavioural adaptations regarding microhabitat selection could arise to improve thermoregulation during the different seasons. However, little is still known about which traits influence microhabitat selection of lizards and their adaptation to seasonality. Here we used Podarcis guadarramae to study the role of potential intrinsic (body size, sex, age) and environmental traits (air and substrate temperatures, wind speed, and sunlight) in the seasonal changes of body temperatures and microhabitat selection of lizards. We measured body temperatures of lizards in the same habitat during the four seasons and compared the climatic variables of the microhabitats selected by lizards with the mean climatic conditions available in their habitat. Body temperatures were similar for adult males, adult females, and juveniles within each season, being significantly higher in summer than in the other seasons, and in spring than in winter. The same pattern was found regarding substrate and air temperatures of the selected microhabitats. Wind speed and air temperature did not affect body temperatures, while body length was marginally significant and substrate temperatures and season did affect the body temperatures of lizards. Our results during the whole year support the idea that the seasonality could be the most important factor affecting body temperatures of these temperate species. Regarding microhabitat selection, environmental constraints, as environmental temperatures and wind speed, affected the seasonal changes on behavioural thermoregulation of lizards. This effect was similar between sexes and age classes, and was independent of body size. In addition, importance of sunlight exposure of the selected microhabitats (full sun, filtered sun, or shade) also

  7. Microhabitat Selection by Marine Mesoconsumers in a Thermally Heterogeneous Habitat: Behavioral Thermoregulation or Avoiding Predation Risk?

    PubMed Central

    Vaudo, Jeremy J.; Heithaus, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Habitat selection decisions by consumers has the potential to shape ecosystems. Understanding the factors that influence habitat selection is therefore critical to understanding ecosystem function. This is especially true of mesoconsumers because they provide the link between upper and lower tropic levels. We examined the factors influencing microhabitat selection of marine mesoconsumers – juvenile giant shovelnose rays (Glaucostegus typus), reticulate whiprays (Himantura uarnak), and pink whiprays (H. fai) – in a coastal ecosystem with intact predator and prey populations and marked spatial and temporal thermal heterogeneity. Using a combination of belt transects and data on water temperature, tidal height, prey abundance, predator abundance and ray behavior, we found that giant shovelnose rays and reticulate whiprays were most often found resting in nearshore microhabitats, especially at low tidal heights during the warm season. Microhabitat selection did not match predictions derived from distributions of prey. Although at a course scale, ray distributions appeared to match predictions of behavioral thermoregulation theory, fine-scale examination revealed a mismatch. The selection of the shallow nearshore microhabitat at low tidal heights during periods of high predator abundance (warm season) suggests that this microhabitat may serve as a refuge, although it may come with metabolic costs due to higher temperatures. The results of this study highlight the importance of predators in the habitat selection decisions of mesoconsumers and that within thermal gradients, factors, such as predation risk, must be considered in addition to behavioral thermoregulation to explain habitat selection decisions. Furthermore, increasing water temperatures predicted by climate change may result in complex trade-offs that might have important implications for ecosystem dynamics. PMID:23593501

  8. Microhabitat Conditions in Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Areas: Effects on Nest Site Selection and Success.

    PubMed

    Dinkins, Jonathan B; Smith, Kurt T; Beck, Jeffrey L; Kirol, Christopher P; Pratt, Aaron C; Conover, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify microhabitat characteristics of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) nest site selection and survival to determine the quality of sage-grouse habitat in 5 regions of central and southwest Wyoming associated with Wyoming's Core Area Policy. Wyoming's Core Area Policy was enacted in 2008 to reduce human disturbance near the greatest densities of sage-grouse. Our analyses aimed to assess sage-grouse nest selection and success at multiple micro-spatial scales. We obtained microhabitat data from 928 sage-grouse nest locations and 819 random microhabitat locations from 2008-2014. Nest success was estimated from 924 nests with survival data. Sage-grouse selected nests with greater sagebrush cover and height, visual obstruction, and number of small gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥0.5 m and <1.0 m), while selecting for less bare ground and rock. With the exception of more small gaps between shrubs, we did not find any differences in availability of these microhabitat characteristics between locations within and outside of Core Areas. In addition, we found little supporting evidence that sage-grouse were selecting different nest sites in Core Areas relative to areas outside of Core. The Kaplan-Meier nest success estimate for a 27-day incubation period was 42.0% (95% CI: 38.4-45.9%). Risk of nest failure was negatively associated with greater rock and more medium-sized gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥2.0 m and <3.0 m). Within our study areas, Wyoming's Core Areas did not have differing microhabitat quality compared to outside of Core Areas. The close proximity of our locations within and outside of Core Areas likely explained our lack of finding differences in microhabitat quality among locations within these landscapes. However, the Core Area Policy is most likely to conserve high quality habitat at larger spatial scales, which over decades may have cascading effects on microhabitat quality available between areas within

  9. Reproduction and microhabitat selection in a sharply declining Northern Bobwhite population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, B.M.; Williams, C.K.; Castelli, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) populations have been declining throughout their range, but some of the sharpest declines have been documented in the Mid-Atlantic states. We conducted a 2 year (2006-2007) breeding season (1 May-30 Sep) telemetry study in southern New Jersey to collect baseline data on Northern Bobwhite reproductive rates, and nest and brood microhabitat selection. We located 23 Northern Bobwhite nests, of which 21 were usable for survival analyses. Incubation-period nest survival rate was 0.454 ?? 0.010 (95 CI =0.2800.727). Mean clutch size was 14.2 ?? 0.58 (range 10-19, n = 20) and hatching success was 96.1 ?? 2.0 (range 86-100%, n = 10). The estimated probability that an individual that entered the breeding season would initiate incubation of ???1 nest was 0.687 for females and 0.202 for males. Nest microhabitat selection was positively related to visual obstruction and percentage of litter. Brood microhabitat selection was positively related to visual obstruction, vegetation height, and percentage of forbs but negatively related to percentage of cool season grass and litter. Fecundity metrics for Northern Bobwhites in southern New Jersey appear similar to those reported elsewhere in the species' range. Conservation efforts to increase Northern Bobwhite reproductive success in southern New Jersey should focus on increasing the quantity of available breeding habitat. ?? 2009 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  10. Microhabitat and vegetation selection by giant gartersnakes associated with a restored marsh in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halstead, Brian J.; Valcarcel, Patricia; Wylie, Glenn D.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Rosenberg, Daniel K.

    2016-01-01

    These data describe coarse habitat use, activity information, and differences between used and available microhabitats and vegetation types to provide information about the behavior and habitat relationships of adult female giant gartersnakes (Thamnophis gigas) associated with a restored marsh in the Sacramento Valley of California.These data support the following publication:Brian J. Halstead, Patricia Valcarcel, Glenn D. Wylie, Peter S. Coates, Michael L. Casazza, and Daniel K. Rosenberg (2016) Active Season Microhabitat and Vegetation Selection by Giant Gartersnakes Associated with a Restored Marsh in California. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management: December 2016, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 397-407. http://dx.doi.org/10.3996/042016-JFWM-029

  11. An 'ecological trap' for yellow warbler nest microhabitat selection

    Treesearch

    Quresh S. Latif; Sacha K. Heath; John T. Rotenberry

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to assumptions of habitat selection theory, fi eld studies frequently detect ‘ ecological traps ’ , where animals prefer habitats conferring lower fi tness than available alternatives. Evidence for traps includes cases where birds prefer breeding habitats associated with relatively high nest predation rates despite the importance of nest survival to avian fi...

  12. Microhabitat selection in the simple oribatid community dwelling in epilithic moss cover (Acari: Oribatida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smrž, Jaroslav

    2006-11-01

    The moss cover of a roof was studied as the model of a simple habitat divided into microhabitats by the members of a community of saprophagous mites. This community consisted of two species of oribatid mites: Scutovertex minutus and Trichoribates trimaculatus. They were extracted from moss onto moist paper, and subsequently, their mobility, responses to moisture fluctuation, and food selection were tested in laboratory experiments. For the nutritional biology, the microanatomy of their alimentary tract was examined according to the system of histological characteristics formulated in the laboratory of the author (type of food, digestive activity of gut walls, etc.). The paraplast sections of the mites were stained by Masson triple stain for these purposes. Moreover, the enzymological tests (chitinase and cellulase activities) were performed to detail the digestive processes. Such an approach was applied to field-sampled specimens as well as to those in the laboratory experiments. These above-mentioned data were discussed with respect to microhabitat selection, vertical and horizontal distribution, and dispersal ability of these two oribatid mites sharing this habitat. These two species differ in several characteristics from each other and these differences resulted in their different microhabitat choices and role in the habitat as a whole.

  13. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) nesting and brood-rearing microhabitat in Nevada and California—Spatial variation in selection and survival patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, Peter S.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Ricca, Mark A.; Dudko, Jonathan E.; Prochazka, Brian G.; Espinosa, Shawn P.; Casazza, Michael L.; Delehanty, David J.

    2017-08-10

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereinafter, "sage-grouse") are highly dependent on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) dominated vegetation communities for food and cover from predators. Although this species requires the presence of sagebrush shrubs in the overstory, it also inhabits a broad geographic distribution with significant gradients in precipitation and temperature that drive variation in sagebrush ecosystem structure and concomitant shrub understory conditions. Variability in understory conditions across the species’ range may be responsible for the sometimes contradictory findings in the scientific literature describing sage-grouse habitat use and selection during important life history stages, such as nesting. To help understand the importance of this variability and to help guide management actions, we evaluated the nesting and brood-rearing microhabitat factors that influence selection and survival patterns in the Great Basin using a large dataset of microhabitat characteristics from study areas spanning northern Nevada and a portion of northeastern California from 2009 to 2016. The spatial and temporal coverage of the dataset provided a powerful opportunity to evaluate microhabitat factors important to sage-grouse reproduction, while also considering habitat variation associated with different climatic conditions and areas affected by wildfire. The summary statistics for numerous microhabitat factors, and the strength of their association with sage-grouse habitat selection and survival, are provided in this report to support decisions by land managers, policy-makers, and others with the best-available science in a timely manner.

  14. Seasonal meso- and microhabitat selection by the northern snakehead (Channa argus) in the Potomac river system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lapointe, N.W.R.; Thorson, J.T.; Angermeier, P.L.

    2010-01-01

     The northern snakehead (Channa argus) is a large piscivorous fish that is invasive in eastern Europe and has recently been introduced in North America. We examined the seasonal habitat selection at meso- and microhabitat scales using radio-telemetry to increase understanding of the ecology of this species, which will help to inform management decisions. After the spawning season (postspawn season, September–November), northern snakeheads preferred offshore Eurasian water-milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) beds with shallow water (∼115 cm) and soft substrate. In the winter (November–April), these fish moved to deeper water (∼135 cm) with warmer temperatures, but habitat selection was weak at both scales. Northern snakeheads returned to shallower water (∼95 cm) in the prespawn season (April–June) and used milfoil and other cover. Habitat selection was the strongest at both meso- and microhabitat scales during the spawning season (June–September), when fish preferred macrophytes and cover in shallow water (∼88 cm). Our results help to identify habitats at the risk of invasion by northern snakeheads. We suggest that control efforts and future research focus on shallow waters, and take into consideration the seasonal habitat preferences.

  15. Seasonal meso- and microhabitat selection by the northern snakehead (Channa argus) in the Potomac river system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lapointe, N.W.R.; Thorson, J.T.; Angermeier, P.L.

    2010-01-01

    The northern snakehead (Channa argus) is a large piscivorous fish that is invasive in eastern Europe and has recently been introduced in North America. We examined the seasonal habitat selection at meso- and microhabitat scales using radio-telemetry to increase understanding of the ecology of this species, which will help to inform management decisions. After the spawning season (postspawn season, September-November), northern snakeheads preferred offshore Eurasian water-milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) beds with shallow water (115 cm) and soft substrate. In the winter (November-April), these fish moved to deeper water (135 cm) with warmer temperatures, but habitat selection was weak at both scales. Northern snakeheads returned to shallower water (95 cm) in the prespawn season (April-June) and used milfoil and other cover. Habitat selection was the strongest at both meso- and microhabitat scales during the spawning season (June-September), when fish preferred macrophytes and cover in shallow water (88 cm). Our results help to identify habitats at the risk of invasion by northern snakeheads. We suggest that control efforts and future research focus on shallow waters, and take into consideration the seasonal habitat preferences. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Active season microhabitat and vegetation selection by giant gartersnakes associated with a restored marsh in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halstead, Brian J.; Valcarcel, Patricia; Wylie, Glenn D.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Rosenberg, Daniel K.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of habitat selection can reveal important patterns to guide habitat restoration and management for species of conservation concern. Giant gartersnakes Thamnophis gigas are endemic to the Central Valley of California, where >90% of their historical wetland habitat has been converted to agricultural and other uses. Information about the selection of habitats by individual giant gartersnakes would guide habitat restoration by indicating which habitat features and vegetation types are likely to be selected by these rare snakes. We examined activity patterns and selection of microhabitats and vegetation types by adult female giant gartersnakes with radiotelemetry at a site composed of rice agriculture and restored wetlands using a paired case-control study design. Adult female giant gartersnakes were 14.7 (95% credible interval [CRI] = 9.4–23.7) times more likely to be active (foraging, mating, or moving) when located in aquatic habitats than when located in terrestrial habitats. Microhabitats associated with cover—particularly emergent vegetation, terrestrial vegetation, and litter—were positively selected by giant gartersnakes. Individual giant gartersnakes varied greatly in their selection of rice and rock habitats, but varied little in their selection of open water. Tules Schoenoplectus acutus were the most strongly selected vegetation type, and duckweed Lemna spp., water-primrose Ludwigia spp., forbs, and grasses also were positively selected at the levels of availability observed at our study site. Management practices that promote the interface of water with emergent aquatic and herbaceous terrestrial vegetation will likely benefit giant gartersnakes. Given their strong selection of tules, restoration of native tule marshes will likely provide the greatest benefit to these threatened aquatic snakes.

  17. Microhabitat selection by sea turtles in a dynamic thermal marine environment.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Gail; Bishop, Charles M; Katselidis, Kostas A; Dimopoulos, Panayotis; Pantis, John D; Hays, Graeme C

    2009-01-01

    1. Reproductive fitness is often compromised at the margins of a species' range due to sub-optimal conditions. 2. Set against this backdrop, the Mediterranean's largest loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) rookery at Zakynthos (Greece) presents a conundrum, being at a very high latitude for this species, yet hosting a high concentration of nesting. 3. We used visual surveys combined with global positioning system (GPS) tracking to show that at the start of the breeding season, individuals showed microhabitat selection, with females residing in transient patches of warm water. As the sea warmed in the summer, this selection was no longer evident. 4. As loggerhead turtles are ectothermic, this early season warm-water selection presumably speeds up egg maturation rates before oviposition, thereby allowing more clutches to be incubated when sand conditions are optimal during the summer. 5. Active selection of warm waters may allow turtles to initiate nesting at an earlier date.

  18. Seasonal variation in microhabitat of salamanders: environmental variation or shift of habitat selection?

    PubMed Central

    Manenti, Raoul; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Relationships between species and their habitats are not always constant. Different processes may determine changes in species-habitat association: individuals may prefer different habitat typologies in different periods, or they may be forced to occupy a different habitat in order to follow the changing environment. The aim of our study was to assess whether cave salamanders change their habitat association pattern through the year, and to test whether such changes are determined by environmental changes or by changes in preferences. We monitored multiple caves in Central Italy through one year, and monthly measured biotic and abiotic features of microhabitat and recorded Italian cave salamanders distribution. We used mixed models and niche similarity tests to assess whether species-habitat relationships remain constant through the year. Microhabitat showed strong seasonal variation, with the highest variability in the superficial sectors. Salamanders were associated to relatively cold and humid sectors in summer, but not during winter. Such apparent shift in habitat preferences mostly occurred because the environmental gradient changed through the year, while individuals generally selected similar conditions. Nevertheless, juveniles were more tolerant to dry sectors during late winter, when food demand was highest. This suggests that tolerance for suboptimal abiotic conditions may change through time, depending on the required resources. Differences in habitat use are jointly determined by environmental variation through time, and by changes in the preferred habitat. The trade-offs between tolerance and resources requirement are major determinant of such variation. PMID:26290788

  19. Microhabitat selection, demography, and correlates of home range size for the King Rail (Rallus elegans)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pickens, Bradley A.; King, Sammy L.

    2013-01-01

    Animal movements and habitat selection within the home range, or microhabitat selection, can provide insights into habitat requirements, such as foraging and area requirements. The King Rail (Rallus elegans) is a wetland bird of high conservation concern in the United States, but little is known about its movements, habitats, or demography. King Rails (n = 34) were captured during the 2010–2011 breeding seasons in the coastal marshes of southwest Louisiana and southeast Texas. Radio telemetry and direct habitat surveys of King Rail locations were conducted to estimate home ranges and microhabitat selection. Within home ranges, King Rails selected for greater plant species richness and comparatively greater coverage of Phragmites australis, Typha spp., and Schoenoplectus robustus. King Rails were found closer to open water compared to random locations placed 50 m from King Rail locations. Home ranges (n = 22) varied from 0.8–32.8 ha and differed greatly among sites. Home range size did not vary by year or sex; however, increased open water, with a maximum of 29% observed in the study, was correlated with smaller home ranges. Breeding season cumulative survivorship was 89% ± 22% in 2010 and 61% ± 43% in 2011, which coincided with a drought. With an equal search effort, King Rail chicks and juveniles observed in May-June decreased from 110 in 2010 to only 16 in the drier year of 2011. The findings show King Rail used marsh with ≤ 29% open water and had smaller home ranges when open water was more abundant.

  20. Microhabitat Conditions in Wyoming’s Sage-Grouse Core Areas: Effects on Nest Site Selection and Success

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Jeffrey L.; Kirol, Christopher P.; Pratt, Aaron C.; Conover, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify microhabitat characteristics of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) nest site selection and survival to determine the quality of sage-grouse habitat in 5 regions of central and southwest Wyoming associated with Wyoming’s Core Area Policy. Wyoming’s Core Area Policy was enacted in 2008 to reduce human disturbance near the greatest densities of sage-grouse. Our analyses aimed to assess sage-grouse nest selection and success at multiple micro-spatial scales. We obtained microhabitat data from 928 sage-grouse nest locations and 819 random microhabitat locations from 2008–2014. Nest success was estimated from 924 nests with survival data. Sage-grouse selected nests with greater sagebrush cover and height, visual obstruction, and number of small gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥0.5 m and <1.0 m), while selecting for less bare ground and rock. With the exception of more small gaps between shrubs, we did not find any differences in availability of these microhabitat characteristics between locations within and outside of Core Areas. In addition, we found little supporting evidence that sage-grouse were selecting different nest sites in Core Areas relative to areas outside of Core. The Kaplan-Meier nest success estimate for a 27-day incubation period was 42.0% (95% CI: 38.4–45.9%). Risk of nest failure was negatively associated with greater rock and more medium-sized gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥2.0 m and <3.0 m). Within our study areas, Wyoming’s Core Areas did not have differing microhabitat quality compared to outside of Core Areas. The close proximity of our locations within and outside of Core Areas likely explained our lack of finding differences in microhabitat quality among locations within these landscapes. However, the Core Area Policy is most likely to conserve high quality habitat at larger spatial scales, which over decades may have cascading effects on microhabitat quality available between

  1. Consequences of least tern (Sternula antillarum) microhabitat nest-site selection on natural and mechanically constructed sandbars in the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stucker, Jennifer H.; Buhl, Deborah A.; Sherfy, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Nest-habitat selection in colonial species has rarely been assessed at multiple spatial scales to evaluate its fitness consequences. Management for the federally endangered U.S. Interior population of Least Terns (Sternula antillarum) has focused on maintenance of breeding habitats, including mechanical construction of sandbars from dredged material. Least Terns are attracted to large areas of unvegetated substrate, yet small-scale habitat features are thought to trigger selection for nesting. We evaluated nest-scale habitat selection to determine (1) whether selection differs between constructed and natural sandbars and (2) the subsequent consequences of habitat selection on nest success. During 2006–2008, we examined 869 Least Tern nest sites on constructed and natural sandbars in the Missouri River for evidence of microhabitat selection at the nest in relation to habitat within the surrounding 3-m area. Least Tern nest sites had coarser and larger substrate materials at the nest, more debris, and less vegetation than the surrounding area. Nests in constructed habitats had a greater percentage of coarse substrates and less vegetation or debris than nests in naturally created habitats. Apparent nest success was 1.8× greater on constructed than on natural sandbars. Nest success was best predicted by models with two spatial scales of predictors, including substrates (nest) and vegetation and debris (nest or surrounding area). Our results indicate that Least Terns select nest microhabitat characteristics that are associated with wind- and water-scoured habitats, and that nest success increases when these habitats are selected.

  2. Microhabitat selection by three common bird species of montane farmlands in Northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Tsiakiris, Rigas; Stara, Kalliopi; Pantis, John; Sgardelis, Stefanos

    2009-11-01

    Common farmland birds are declining throughout Europe; however, marginal farmlands that escaped intensification or land abandonment remain a haven for farmland species in some Mediterranean mountains. The purpose of this study is to identify the most important anthropogenic microhabitat characteristics for Red-Backed Shrike (Lanius collurio), Corn Bunting (Miliaria calandra) and Common Whitethroat (Sylvia communis) in three such areas within the newly established Northern Pindos National Park. We compare land use structural and physiognomic characteristics of the habitat within 133 plots containing birds paired with randomly selected "non-bird" plots. Using logistic regression and classification-tree models we identify the specific habitat requirements for each of the three birds. The three species show a preference for agricultural mosaics dominated by rangelands with scattered shrub or short trees mixed with arable land. Areas with dikes and dirt roads are preferred by all three species, while the presence of fences and periodically burned bushes and hedges are of particular importance for Red-Backed Shrike. Across the gradient of vegetation density and height, M. calandra is mostly found in grasslands with few dwarf shrubs and short trees, S. communis in places with more dense and tall vegetation of shrub, trees and hedges, and L. collurio, being a typical bird of ecotones, occurs in both habitats and in intermediate situations. In all cases those requirements are associated with habitat features maintained either directly or indirectly by the traditional agricultural activities in the area and particularly by the long established extensive controlled grazing that prevent shrub expansion.

  3. [Microhabitat selection by ant-lion larvae Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Návas) (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae), in a Forest Reserve, Aquidauana, State of Mato Grosso do Sul].

    PubMed

    Lima, Tatiane do N; Faria, Rogério R

    2007-01-01

    The relative abundance, density, distribution pattern and relation among pit diameter and larvae body size of Myrmeleon brasiliensis Návas were evaluated in two microhabitats: sheltered and exposed. The total of 282 pits were found in sheltered microhabitat and only 50 in the exposed. The density of M. brasiliensis was between one and 43 individuals per m(2). The distribution pattern of larvae tended from pooled to regular distribution as the density increased. In both microhabitats the larvae body size was positively correlated with pit diameter.

  4. Sexual differences in microhabitat selection of breeding little bustards Tetrax tetrax: Ecological segregation based on vegetation structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, M. B.; Traba, J.; Carriles, E.; Delgado, M. P.; de la Morena, E. L. García

    2008-11-01

    We examined sexual differences in patterns of vegetation structure selection in the sexually dimorphic little bustard. Differences in vegetation structure between male, female and non-used locations during reproduction were examined and used to build a presence/absence model for each sex. Ten variables were measured in each location, extracting two PCA factors (PC1: a visibility-shelter gradient; PC2: a gradient in food availability) used as response variables in GLM explanatory models. Both factors significantly differed between female, male and control locations. Neither study site nor phenology was significant. Logistic regression was used to model male and female presence/absence. Female presence was positively associated to cover of ground by vegetation litter, as well as overall vegetation cover, and negatively to vegetation density over 30 cm above ground. Male presence was positively related to litter cover and short vegetation and negatively to vegetation density over 30 cm above ground. Models showed good global performance and robustness. Female microhabitat selection and distribution seems to be related to the balance between shelter and visibility for surveillance. Male microhabitat selection would be related mainly to the need of conspicuousness for courtship. Accessibility to food resources seems to be equally important for both sexes. Differences suggest ecological sexual segregation resulting from different ecological constraints. These are the first detailed results on vegetation structure selection in both male and female little bustards, and are useful in designing management measures addressing vegetation structure irrespective of landscape composition. Similar microhabitat approaches can be applied to manage the habitat of many declining farmland birds.

  5. Microhabitat selection in the common lizard: implications of biotic interactions, age, sex, local processes, and model transferability among populations.

    PubMed

    Peñalver-Alcázar, Miguel; Aragón, Pedro; Breedveld, Merel C; Fitze, Patrick S

    2016-06-01

    Modeling species' habitat requirements are crucial to assess impacts of global change, for conservation efforts and to test mechanisms driving species presence. While the influence of abiotic factors has been widely examined, the importance of biotic factors and biotic interactions, and the potential implications of local processes are not well understood. Testing their importance requires additional knowledge and analyses at local habitat scale. Here, we recorded the locations of species presence at the microhabitat scale and measured abiotic and biotic parameters in three different common lizard (Zootoca vivipara) populations using a standardized sampling protocol. Thereafter, space use models and cross-evaluations among populations were run to infer local processes and estimate the importance of biotic parameters, biotic interactions, sex, and age. Biotic parameters explained more variation than abiotic parameters, and intraspecific interactions significantly predicted the spatial distribution. Significant differences among populations in the relationship between abiotic parameters and lizard distribution, and the greater model transferability within populations than between populations are in line with effects predicted by local adaptation and/or phenotypic plasticity. These results underline the importance of including biotic parameters and biotic interactions in space use models at the population level. There were significant differences in space use between sexes, and between adults and yearlings, the latter showing no association with the measured parameters. Consequently, predictive habitat models at the population level taking into account different sexes and age classes are required to understand a specie's ecological requirements and to allow for precise conservation strategies. Our study therefore stresses that future predictive habitat models at the population level and their transferability should take these parameters into account.

  6. Heterogeneity in predator micro-habitat use and the maintenance of Müllerian mimetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Gompert, Zachariah; Willmott, Keith; Elias, Marianne

    2011-07-21

    Müllerian mimicry, where groups of chemically defended species display a common warning color pattern and thereby share the cost of educating predators, is one of the most striking examples of ecological adaptation. Classic models of Müllerian mimicry predict that all unpalatable species of a similar size and form within a community should converge on a single mimetic pattern, but instead communities of unpalatable species often display a remarkable diversity of mimetic patterns (e.g. neotropical ithomiine butterflies). It has been suggested that this apparent paradox may be explained if different suites of predators and species belonging to different mimicry groups utilize different micro-habitats within the community. We developed a stochastic individual-based model for a community of unpalatable mimetic prey species and their predators to evaluate this hypothesis and to examine the effect of predator heterogeneity on prey micro-habitat use. We found that community-level mimetic diversity was higher in simulations with heterogeneous predator micro-habitat use than in simulations with homogeneous predator micro-habitat use. Regardless of the form of predation, mimicry pattern-based assortative mating caused community-level mimetic diversity to persist. Heterogeneity in predator micro-habitat use led to an increased association between mimicry pattern and prey micro-habitat use relative to homogeneous predator micro-habitat use. This increased association was driven, at least in part, by evolutionary convergence of prey micro-habitat use when predators displayed heterogeneous micro-habitat use. These findings provide a theoretical explanation for an important question in evolutionary biology: how is community-level Müllerian mimetic diversity maintained in the face of selection against rare phenotypes? Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Wetland and microhabitat use by nesting four-toed salamanders in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalmers, R.J.; Loftin, C.S.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known of Four-Toed Salamander (Hemidactylium scutatum) habitat use, despite the species' extensive range and elevated conservation status. We investigated species-habitat relationships that predict H. scutatum nesting presence in Maine at wetland and microhabitat scales by comparing microhabitats with and without nests. We created logistic regression models, selected models with AIC, and evaluated models with reserve data. Wetlands with nests were best predicted by shoreline microhabitat of Sphagnum spp., wood substrate, water flow, blue-joint reed grass (Calamagrostis canadensis), meadowsweet (Spiraea alba), steeplebush (Spiraea tomentosa), sensitive fern (Onoclea sensibilis), and absence of sheep laurel (Kalmia angustifolia) or deciduous forest canopy. Within occupied wetlands, shoreline microhabitat where nests occurred was best distinguished from available, unoccupied shoreline microhabitat by steeper shore, greater near-shore and basin water depth, deeper nesting vegetation, presence of moss spp. and winterberry (Ilex verticillata), and a negative association with S. alba, leatherleaf (Chamaedaphne calyculata), and K. angustifolia. These models of wetland and microhabitat use by H. scutatum may assist ecologists and managers in detecting and conserving this species. Copyright 2006 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  8. Microhabitat selection by bobcats in the badlands and Black Hills of South Dakota, USA: a comparison of Prairie and forested habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosby, Cory E.; Grovenburg, Troy W.; Klaver, Robert W.; Schroeder, Greg M.; Schmitz, Lowell E.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of habitat selection is important for management of wildlife species. Although bobcat (Lynx rufus) resource selection has been addressed in many regions of the United States, little work has been conducted in the Northern Great Plains. From 2006–2008 we captured and radiocollared 20 bobcats in the Badlands (n = 10) and Black Hills (n = 10) regions of South Dakota. During the summers of 2008 and 2009 we collected habitat measurements at 349 (176 Badlands, 176 Black Hills) bobcat locations and 321 (148 Badlands, 173 Black Hills) random sites. Microhabitat characteristics at bobcat use sites varied with region (P < 0.001) and sex of bobcat (P < 0.001). Percent slope, shrub, low cover, medium cover, and total cover were greater (P ≤ 0.017) at bobcat locations in the Black Hills than in the Badlands whereas distance to drainage was greater (P < 0.001) at locations in the Badlands than in the Black Hills. In the Badlands, male bobcat locations were closer (P ≤ 0.002) to prairie dog towns and drainages and had greater (P < 0.05) percent forbs and forb height than random sites, whereas females were closer to badland formations (P < 0.001) than random sites. In the Black Hills, male locations were at greater elevation (P < 0.001) and female locations were characterized by greater (P ≤ 0.02) grass height, shrub height, low cover, and total cover than random sites. Logistic regression indicated that microhabitat selection was similar between study areas; odds ratios indicated that odds of bobcat use increased by 0.998 (95% CI = 0.997–0.999) per 1 m increase in distance to drainage, 0.986 (95% CI = 0.978–0.993) per 1.0% increase in grass cover, by 1.024 (95% CI = 1.011–1.036) per 1 cm increase in grass height, by 1.013 (95% CI = 1.003–1.024) per 1% increase in forb cover, and by 1.028 (95% CI = 1.017–1.039) per 1% increase in medium cover. Our results were similar to other bobcat microhabitat selection studies, where bobcat relocations were

  9. SMALL MAMMAL USE OF MICROHABITAT REVIEWED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small mammal microhabitat research has greatly influenced vertebrate community ecologists. There exists a "microhabitat paradigm" that states that sympatry among small mammal species is enabled by differential use of microhabitat (i.e., microhabitat partitioning). However, seve...

  10. Description, microhabitat selection and infection patterns of sealworm larvae (Pseudoterranova decipiens species complex, nematoda: ascaridoidea) in fishes from Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Orts, Jesús S; Aznar, Francisco J; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; García, Néstor A; Víllora-Montero, María; Crespo, Enrique A; Raga, Juan A; Montero, Francisco E

    2013-08-29

    collected encapsulated from the muscles and, to a lesser degree, from the mesenteries and the liver. We provided the first molecular identification, morphological description and microhabitat characterization of sealworm larvae from the Argentinean Patagonian coast. We also reported the infection levels of sealworms on 20 fish species in order to elucidate the life cycle of these nematodes in this area.

  11. Description, microhabitat selection and infection patterns of sealworm larvae (Pseudoterranova decipiens species complex, nematoda: ascaridoidea) in fishes from Patagonia, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    . Most of the sealworms were collected encapsulated from the muscles and, to a lesser degree, from the mesenteries and the liver. Conclusions We provided the first molecular identification, morphological description and microhabitat characterization of sealworm larvae from the Argentinean Patagonian coast. We also reported the infection levels of sealworms on 20 fish species in order to elucidate the life cycle of these nematodes in this area. PMID:23988009

  12. Weather-dependent microhabitat use by Tetrix tenuicornis (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae).

    PubMed

    Musiolek, David; Kočárek, Petr

    2016-08-01

    For ectothermic animals, selection of a suitable microhabitat is affected by a combination of abiotic and biotic factors. Also important is the trade-off between those microhabitats with optimal microclimatic conditions and food availability vs. those with the lowest level of competition and lowest risk of predation. Central European species of groundhoppers (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae) live in locations with small-scale mosaics of patches formed by bare ground, moss cushions and vascular plants (grasses and forbs). Our research focused on the effects of selected weather components (current temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure and sunlight) on specific microhabitat selection by adults (during the reproductive season) and by the last-instar nymphs (during the non-reproductive season) of the groundhopper Tetrix tenuicornis. Using experimental conditions, we determined that microhabitat use by T. tenuicornis is sex-specific and that microhabitat preference differs between adults and nymphs. We suppose that microhabitats are used according to groundhopper current needs in relation to each habitat's suitability for maintaining body temperature, food intake and reproductive behaviour. Microhabitat preferences were significantly associated with temperature and atmospheric pressure. Changes in atmospheric pressure signal changes in weather, and insects respond to increases or decreases in pressure by adjusting their behaviour in order to enhance survival. We propose that, under low atmospheric pressure, T. tenuicornis actively seeks microhabitats that provide increased protection from adverse weather.

  13. Daily Movements and Microhabitat Selection of Hantavirus Reservoirs and Other Sigmodontinae Rodent Species that Inhabit a Protected Natural Area of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Maroli, Malena; Vadell, María Victoria; Iglesias, Ayelén; Padula, Paula Julieta; Gómez Villafañe, Isabel Elisa

    2015-09-01

    Abundance, distribution, movement patterns, and habitat selection of a reservoir species influence the dispersal of zoonotic pathogens, and hence, the risk for humans. Movements and microhabitat use of rodent species, and their potential role in the transmission of hantavirus were studied in Otamendi Natural Reserve, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Movement estimators and qualitative characteristics of rodent paths were determined by means of a spool and line device method. Sampling was conducted during November and December 2011, and March, April, June, October, and December 2012. Forty-six Oxymycterus rufus, 41 Akodon azarae, 10 Scapteromys aquaticus and 5 Oligoryzomys flavescens were captured. Movement patterns and distances varied according to sex, habitat type, reproductive season, and body size among species. O. flavescens, reservoir of the etiologic agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the region, moved short distances, had the most linear paths and did not share paths with other species. A. azarae had an intermediate linearity index, its movements were longer in the highland grassland than in the lowland marsh and the salty grassland, and larger individuals traveled longer distances. O. rufus had the most tortuous paths and the males moved more during the non-breeding season. S. aquaticus movements were associated with habitat type with longer distances traveled in the lowland marsh than in the salty grassland. Hantavirus antibodies were detected in 20% of A. azarae and were not detected in any other species. Seropositive individuals were captured during the breeding season and 85% of them were males. A. azarae moved randomly and shared paths with all the other species, which could promote hantavirus spillover events.

  14. MICROHABITAT REVIEWED: ANALYSIS OF A PARADIGM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small mammal microhabitat partitioning research has greatly influenced vertebrate community ecologists. It is not a stretch to assert that there exists a 'microhabitat paradigm' among small mammal specialists; sympatry among small mammal species is enabled by differential use of...

  15. Swine: Selection and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating swine in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the main points in evaluating market hogs and breeding swine and provides an example class of swine. Section 2,…

  16. Swine: Selection and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating swine in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the main points in evaluating market hogs and breeding swine and provides an example class of swine. Section 2,…

  17. The importance of microhabitat for biodiversity sampling.

    PubMed

    Mehrabi, Zia; Slade, Eleanor M; Solis, Angel; Mann, Darren J

    2014-01-01

    Responses to microhabitat are often neglected when ecologists sample animal indicator groups. Microhabitats may be particularly influential in non-passive biodiversity sampling methods, such as baited traps or light traps, and for certain taxonomic groups which respond to fine scale environmental variation, such as insects. Here we test the effects of microhabitat on measures of species diversity, guild structure and biomass of dung beetles, a widely used ecological indicator taxon. We demonstrate that choice of trap placement influences dung beetle functional guild structure and species diversity. We found that locally measured environmental variables were unable to fully explain trap-based differences in species diversity metrics or microhabitat specialism of functional guilds. To compare the effects of habitat degradation on biodiversity across multiple sites, sampling protocols must be standardized and scale-relevant. Our work highlights the importance of considering microhabitat scale responses of indicator taxa and designing robust sampling protocols which account for variation in microhabitats during trap placement. We suggest that this can be achieved either through standardization of microhabitat or through better efforts to record relevant environmental variables that can be incorporated into analyses to account for microhabitat effects. This is especially important when rapidly assessing the consequences of human activity on biodiversity loss and associated ecosystem function and services.

  18. The Importance of Microhabitat for Biodiversity Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabi, Zia; Slade, Eleanor M.; Solis, Angel; Mann, Darren J.

    2014-01-01

    Responses to microhabitat are often neglected when ecologists sample animal indicator groups. Microhabitats may be particularly influential in non-passive biodiversity sampling methods, such as baited traps or light traps, and for certain taxonomic groups which respond to fine scale environmental variation, such as insects. Here we test the effects of microhabitat on measures of species diversity, guild structure and biomass of dung beetles, a widely used ecological indicator taxon. We demonstrate that choice of trap placement influences dung beetle functional guild structure and species diversity. We found that locally measured environmental variables were unable to fully explain trap-based differences in species diversity metrics or microhabitat specialism of functional guilds. To compare the effects of habitat degradation on biodiversity across multiple sites, sampling protocols must be standardized and scale-relevant. Our work highlights the importance of considering microhabitat scale responses of indicator taxa and designing robust sampling protocols which account for variation in microhabitats during trap placement. We suggest that this can be achieved either through standardization of microhabitat or through better efforts to record relevant environmental variables that can be incorporated into analyses to account for microhabitat effects. This is especially important when rapidly assessing the consequences of human activity on biodiversity loss and associated ecosystem function and services. PMID:25469770

  19. Summer microhabitat use of fluvial bull trout in Eastern Oregon streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Al-Chokhachy, R.; Budy, P.

    2007-01-01

    The management and recovery of populations of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus requires a comprehensive understanding of habitat use across different systems, life stages, and life history forms. To address these needs, we collected microhabitat use and availability data in three fluvial populations of bull trout in eastern Oregon. We evaluated diel differences in microhabitat use, the consistency of microhabitat use across systems and size-classes based on preference, and our ability to predict bull trout microhabitat use. Diel comparisons suggested bull trout continue to use deeper microhabitats with cover but shift into significantly slower habitats during nighttime periods; however, we observed no discrete differences in substrate use patterns across diel periods. Across life stages, we found that both juvenile and adult bull trout used slow-velocity microhabitats with cover, but the use of specific types varied. Both logistic regression and habitat preference analyses suggested that adult bull trout used deeper habitats than juveniles. Habitat preference analyses suggested that bull trout habitat use was consistent across all three systems, as chi-square tests rejected the null hypotheses that microhabitats were used in proportion to those available (P < 0.0001). Validation analyses indicated that the logistic regression models (juvenile and adult) were effective at predicting bull trout absence across all tests (specificity values = 100%); however, our ability to accurately predict bull trout absence was limited (sensitivity values = 0% across all tests). Our results highlight the limitations of the models used to predict microhabitat use for fish species like bull trout, which occur at naturally low densities. However, our results also demonstrate that bull trout microhabitat use patterns are generally consistent across systems, a pattern that parallels observations at both similar and larger scales and across life history forms. Thus, our results, in

  20. The influence of microhabitat on the population dynamics of four herbaceous species in a semiarid area of northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, K A; Santos, J M F F; Andrade, J R; Lima, E N; Albuquerque, U P; Ferraz, E M N; Araújo, E L

    2016-02-01

    Variation in annual rainfall is considered the most important factor influencing population dynamics in dry environments. However, different factors may control population dynamics in different microhabitats. This study recognizes that microhabitat variation may attenuate the influence of climatic seasonality on the population dynamics of herbaceous species in dry forest (Caatinga) areas of Brazil. We evaluated the influence of three microhabitats (flat, rocky and riparian) on the population dynamics of four herbaceous species (Delilia biflora, Commelina obliqua, Phaseolus peduncularis and Euphorbia heterophylla) in a Caatinga (dry forest) fragment at the Experimental Station of the Agronomic Research Institute of Pernambuco in Brazil, over a period of three years. D. biflora, C. obliqua and P. peduncularis were found in all microhabitats, but they were present at low densities in the riparian microhabitat. There was no record of E. heterophylla in the riparian microhabitat. Population size, mortality rates and natality rates varied over time in each microhabitat. This study indicates that different establishment conditions influenced the population size and occurrence of the four species, and it confirms that microhabitat can attenuate the effect of drought stress on mortality during the dry season, but the strength of this attenuator role may vary with time and species.

  1. Selection: Evaluation and methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Procedures to collect and to analyze data for genetic improvement of dairy cattle are described. Methods of identification and milk recording are presented. Selection traits include production (milk, fat, and protein yields and component percentages), conformation (final score and linear type traits...

  2. Microhabitat influence on larval fish assemblages within ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We examined larval and juvenile fish assemblage structure in relation to microhabitat variables within the St. Louis River estuary, a drowned river mouth of Lake Superior. Fish were sampled in vegetated beds throughout the estuary, across a gradient of vegetation types and densities (including disturbed, preserved and post-restoration sites). Canonical correspondence analysis, relating species abundances to environmental variables revealed that plant species richness, turbidity and aquatic plant cover were most influential in structuring assemblages. Results from this microhabitat analysis at this crucial life stage has potential to inform wetland restoration efforts within the St. Louis River and other Great Lake coastal wetlands. not applicable

  3. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  4. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  5. Characterizing the Effect of Microhabitat on Bacterial Diversity in Sediments Along Topographic Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspar, L.; Bushaw-Newton, K.

    2005-05-01

    Ongoing riparian restoration including the conversion of agricultural fields back to forested areas is being conducted within the Monocacy Wildlife Management area providing the opportunity to analyze bacterial microhabitat characteristics of sediments under varying degrees of disturbance. The objective of this study is to develop greater understanding of the role of physical and chemical microhabitat differences on bacterial presence within sediments in different habitat types (i.e., upland, riparian, and in-stream) and under different degrees of disturbance. Physical and chemical microhabitat components determined were temperature, percent sediment organic matter, percent sediment moisture, concentrations of ammonia, pH, and total sediment carbon and nitrogen. Total bacterial populations of sediment were measured using 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Polymerase chain reactions have been performed selecting for universal bacterial genes and specific nitrogen fixing, nitrifying, and denitrification genes. Bacterial diversity measurements using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis are ongoing. Remaining chemical and physical components of microhabitat have been completed and are being analyzed. Results indicate moisture inhibits bacterial abundance while nutrient presence in sediment is associated with larger bacterial biomass. These parameters of microhabitat do not have differing effects along elevations.

  6. Long-term Spatial Distribution Patterns of Protozoa in Connected Microhabitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghon, G. L.; Tuorto, S. J.

    2016-02-01

    Studies of microbial ecosystems usually assume habitat homogeneity. Recent research, however, indicates that habitat structure varies at millimeter scales and that this patchiness affects abundance and behavior of microbes. In this study, two species of ciliated protozoa were maintained, together, for multiple generations in microfluidic devices consisting of arrays of interconnected microhabitats with differing resource availability. The species differed in their population dynamics and tendency to disperse among microhabitats. Both species coexisted for over 45 days, and their coexistence likely resulted from habitat selection at millimeter scales. We demonstrate that it is not only possible, but imperative, that detailed ecological phenomena of microbial systems be studied at the relevant spatial and temporal scales.

  7. Habitat connectivity as a metric for aquatic microhabitat quality: Application to Chinook salmon spawning habitat

    Treesearch

    Ryan Carnie; Daniele Tonina; Jim McKean; Daniel Isaak

    2016-01-01

    Quality of fish habitat at the scale of a single fish, at the metre resolution, which we defined here as microhabitat, has been primarily evaluated on short reaches, and their results have been extended through long river segments with methods that do not account for connectivity, a measure of the spatial distribution of habitat patches. However, recent...

  8. Maintaining mimicry diversity: optimal warning colour patterns differ among microhabitats in Amazonian clearwing butterflies.

    PubMed

    Willmott, Keith R; Robinson Willmott, Julia C; Elias, Marianne; Jiggins, Chris D

    2017-05-31

    Mimicry is one of the best-studied examples of adaptation, and recent studies have provided new insights into the role of mimicry in speciation and diversification. Classical Müllerian mimicry theory predicts convergence in warning signal among protected species, yet tropical butterflies are exuberantly diverse in warning colour patterns, even within communities. We tested the hypothesis that microhabitat partitioning in aposematic butterflies and insectivorous birds can lead to selection for different colour patterns in different microhabitats and thus help maintain mimicry diversity. We measured distribution across flight height and topography for 64 species of clearwing butterflies (Ithomiini) and their co-mimics, and 127 species of insectivorous birds, in an Amazon rainforest community. For the majority of bird species, estimated encounter rates were non-random for the two most abundant mimicry rings. Furthermore, most butterfly species in these two mimicry rings displayed the warning colour pattern predicted to be optimal for anti-predator defence in their preferred microhabitats. These conclusions were supported by a field trial using butterfly specimens, which showed significantly different predation rates on colour patterns in two microhabitats. We therefore provide the first direct evidence to support the hypothesis that different mimicry patterns can represent stable, community-level adaptations to differing biotic environments. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Microhabitat analysis using radiotelemetry locations and polytomous logistic regression

    Treesearch

    Malcolm P. North; Joel H. Reynolds

    1996-01-01

    Microhabitat analyses often use discriminant function analysis (DFA) to compare vegetation structures or environmental conditions between sites classified by a study animal's presence or absence. These presence/absence studies make questionable assumptions about the habitat value of the comparison sites and the microhabitat data often violate the DFA's...

  10. Effects of microhabitat on palm seed predation in two forest fragments in southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Marina; Galetti, Mauro

    2004-12-01

    The establishment of plants depends crucially on where seeds are deposited in the environment. Some authors suggest that in forest understory seed predation is lower than in gaps, and higher than at the forest edge. However, most studies have been carried out in large forest patches and very little is known about the effects of microhabitat conditions on seed predation in forest fragments. We evaluated the effects of three microhabitats (gaps, forest edge, and understory) on seed predation of two palm species ( Euterpe edulis and Syagrus romanzoffiana) in two semi-deciduous forest fragments (230 and 2100 ha) in southeast Brazil. Our objective was to test two hypotheses: (1) Low rodent abundance in small fragments as a result of meso-predator action levels leads to lower seed predation in small fragments. (2) Most mammal species in small fragments are generalists with respect to diet and habitat, so that seed predation is similar in different microhabitats (gaps, forest edge and understory) in the small fragment, but not in the larger one. The study community of small fragments is usually composed of generalist species (in diet and habitat aspects), so we expected the same rate of seed predation among microhabitats (gaps, forest edge and understory) in the tested smaller fragment. The experiment was carried out in the dry season (for E. edulis) and in the wet season (for S. romanzoffiana) in 1999. We conclude that post-dispersal seed predation in forest fragments can be directly connected with mammal communities, reflecting their historical and ecological aspects.

  11. Microhabitat use of the diamond darter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, Stuart; Smith, Dustin M.; Taylor, Nate D.

    2013-01-01

    The only known extant population of the diamond darter (Crystallaria cincotta) exists in the lower 37 km of Elk River, WV, USA. Our understanding of diamond darter habitat use was previously limited, because few individuals have been observed during sampling with conventional gears. We quantified microhabitat use of diamond darters based on measurements of water depth, water velocity and per cent substrate composition. Using spotlights at night-time, we sampled 16 sites within the lower 133 km of Elk River and observed a total of 82 diamond darters at 10 of 11 sampling sites within the lower 37 km. Glides, located immediately upstream of riffles, were the primary habitats sampled for diamond darters, which included relatively shallow depths (<1 m), moderate-to-low water velocities (often < 0.5 m·s−1) and a smooth water surface. Microhabitat use (mean ± SE) of diamond darters was estimated for depth (0.47 ± 0.02 m), average velocity (0.27 ± 0.01 m·s−1) and bottom velocity (0.15 ± 0.01 m·s−1). Substrate used (mean ± SE) by diamond darters was predominantly sand intermixed with lesser amounts of gravel and cobble: % sand (52.1 ± 1.6), % small gravel (12.2 ± 0.78), % large gravel (14.2 ± 0.83), % cobble (19.8 ± 0.96) and % boulder (1.6 ± 0.36). Based on our microhabitat use data, conservation and management efforts for this species should consider preserving glide habitats within Elk River. Spotlighting, a successful sampling method for diamond darters, should be considered for study designs of population estimation and long-term monitoring.

  12. Evaluating surgical resident selection procedures.

    PubMed

    Gilbart, M K; Cusimano, M D; Regehr, G

    2001-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop and assess a rating form for selection of surgical residents, determine the criteria most important in selection, determine the reliability of the assessment form and process both within and across sites, and document differences in procedure and structure of resident selection processes across Canada. Twelve of 13 English-speaking orthopedic surgery training programs in Canada participated during the 1999 selection year. The critical incident technique was utilized to determine the criteria most important in selection. From these criteria a 10-item rating form was developed with each item on a 5-point scale. Sixty-six candidates were invited for interviews across the country. Each interviewer completed one assessment form for each candidate, and independently ranked all candidates at the conclusion of all interviews. Consensus final rank orders were then created for each residency program. Across all programs, pairwise program-by-program correlations for each assessment parameter were made. The internal consistency of assessment form ratings for each interviewer was moderately high (mean Cronbach's alpha = 0.71). A correlation between each item and the final rank order for each program revealed that the items work ethic, interpersonal qualities, orthopedic experience, and enthusiasm correlated most highly with final candidate rank orders (r = 0.5, 0.48, 0.48, 0.45, respectively). The interrater reliabilities (within panels) and interpanel reliabilities (within programs) for the rank orders were 0.67 and 0.63, respectively. Using the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula, it was found that two panels with two interviewers on each panel are required to obtain a stable measure of a given candidate (reliabilities of 0.80). The average pairwise program-by-program correlations were low for the final candidate rank orders (0.14). A method was introduced to develop a standard, reliable candidate assessment form to evaluate residency

  13. Microhabitat and body size effects on heat tolerance: implications for responses to climate change (army ants: Formicidae, Ecitoninae).

    PubMed

    Baudier, Kaitlin M; Mudd, Abigail E; Erickson, Shayna C; O'Donnell, Sean

    2015-09-01

    1. Models that predict organismal and population responses to climate change may be improved by considering ecological factors that affect species thermal tolerance. Species differences in microhabitat use can expose animals to diverse thermal selective environments at a given site and may cause sympatric species to evolve different thermal tolerances. 2. We tested the hypothesis that species differences in body size and microhabitat use (above- vs. below-ground activity) would correspond to differences in thermal tolerance (maximum critical temperatures: CTmax ). Thermal buffering effects of soil can reduce exposure to extreme high temperatures for below-ground active species. We predicted larger-bodied individuals and species would have higher CTmax and that species mean CTmax would covary positively with degree of above-ground activity. We used Neotropical army ants (Formicidae: Ecitoninae) as models. Army ants vary in microhabitat use from largely subterranean to largely above-ground active species and are highly size polymorphic. 3. We collected data on above- and below-ground temperatures in habitats used by army ants to test for microhabitat temperature differences, and we conducted CTmax assays for army ant species with varying degrees of surface activity and with different body sizes within and between species. We then tested whether microhabitat use was associated with species differences in CTmax and whether microhabitat was a better predictor of CTmax than body size for species that overlapped in size. 4. Microhabitat use was a highly significant predictor of species' upper thermal tolerance limits, both for raw data and after accounting for the effects of phylogeny. Below-ground species were more thermally sensitive, with lower maximum critical temperatures (CTmax ). The smallest workers within each species were the least heat tolerant, but the magnitude of CTmax change with body size was greater in below-ground species. Species-typical microhabitat

  14. Exploring the nature of ecological specialization in a coral reef fish community: morphology, diet and foraging microhabitat use.

    PubMed

    Brandl, Simon J; Robbins, William D; Bellwood, David R

    2015-09-22

    Patterns of ecological specialization offer invaluable information about ecosystems. Yet, specialization is rarely quantified across several ecological niche axes and variables beyond the link between morphological and dietary specialization have received little attention. Here, we provide a quantitative evaluation of ecological specialization in a coral reef fish assemblage (f. Acanthuridae) along one fundamental and two realized niche axes. Specifically, we examined ecological specialization in 10 surgeonfish species with regards to morphology and two realized niche axes associated with diet and foraging microhabitat utilization using a recently developed multidimensional framework. We then investigated the potential relationships between morphological and behavioural specialization. These relationships differed markedly from the traditional ecomorphological paradigm. While morphological specialization showed no relationship with dietary specialization, it exhibited a strong relationship with foraging microhabitat specialization. However, this relationship was inverted: species with specialized morphologies were microhabitat generalists, whereas generalized morphotypes were microhabitat specialists. Interestingly, this mirrors relationships found in plant-pollinator communities and may also be applicable to other ecosystems, highlighting the potential importance of including niche axes beyond dietary specialization into ecomorphological frameworks. On coral reefs, it appears that morphotypes commonly perceived as most generalized may, in fact, be specialized in exploiting flat and easily accessible microhabitats.

  15. Exploring the nature of ecological specialization in a coral reef fish community: morphology, diet and foraging microhabitat use

    PubMed Central

    Brandl, Simon J.; Robbins, William D.; Bellwood, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of ecological specialization offer invaluable information about ecosystems. Yet, specialization is rarely quantified across several ecological niche axes and variables beyond the link between morphological and dietary specialization have received little attention. Here, we provide a quantitative evaluation of ecological specialization in a coral reef fish assemblage (f. Acanthuridae) along one fundamental and two realized niche axes. Specifically, we examined ecological specialization in 10 surgeonfish species with regards to morphology and two realized niche axes associated with diet and foraging microhabitat utilization using a recently developed multidimensional framework. We then investigated the potential relationships between morphological and behavioural specialization. These relationships differed markedly from the traditional ecomorphological paradigm. While morphological specialization showed no relationship with dietary specialization, it exhibited a strong relationship with foraging microhabitat specialization. However, this relationship was inverted: species with specialized morphologies were microhabitat generalists, whereas generalized morphotypes were microhabitat specialists. Interestingly, this mirrors relationships found in plant–pollinator communities and may also be applicable to other ecosystems, highlighting the potential importance of including niche axes beyond dietary specialization into ecomorphological frameworks. On coral reefs, it appears that morphotypes commonly perceived as most generalized may, in fact, be specialized in exploiting flat and easily accessible microhabitats. PMID:26354935

  16. Use of Multiple Regression and Use-Availability Analyses in Determining Habitat Selection by Gray Squirrels (Sciurus Carolinensis)

    Treesearch

    John W. Edwards; Susan C. Loeb; David C. Guynn

    1994-01-01

    Multiple regression and use-availability analyses are two methods for examining habitat selection. Use-availability analysis is commonly used to evaluate macrohabitat selection whereas multiple regression analysis can be used to determine microhabitat selection. We compared these techniques using behavioral observations (n = 5534) and telemetry locations (n = 2089) of...

  17. MODELING SNAKE MICROHABITAT FROM RADIOTELEMETRY STUDIES USING POLYTOMOUS LOGISTIC REGRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multivariate analysis of snake microhabitat has historically used techniques that were derived under assumptions of normality and common covariance structure (e.g., discriminant function analysis, MANOVA). In this study, polytomous logistic regression (PLR which does not require ...

  18. MODELING SNAKE MICROHABITAT FROM RADIOTELEMETRY STUDIES USING POLYTOMOUS LOGISTIC REGRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multivariate analysis of snake microhabitat has historically used techniques that were derived under assumptions of normality and common covariance structure (e.g., discriminant function analysis, MANOVA). In this study, polytomous logistic regression (PLR which does not require ...

  19. Selection of roosting habitat by forest bats in a diverse forested landscape

    Treesearch

    Roger W. Perry; Ronald E. Thill; David M. Leslie

    2007-01-01

    Many studies of roost selection by forest-dwelling bats have concentrated on microhabitat surrounding roosts without providing forest stand level preferences of bats; thus, those studies have provided only part of the information needed by managers. We evaluated diurnal summer roost selection by the bat community at the forest-stand level in a diversely forested...

  20. Microhabitat and shrimp abundance within a Norwegian cold-water coral ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purser, A.; Ontrup, J.; Schoening, T.; Thomsen, L.; Tong, R.; Unnithan, V.; Nattkemper, T. W.

    2013-09-01

    Cold-water coral (CWC) reefs are heterogeneous ecosystems comprising numerous microhabitats. A typical European CWC reef provides various biogenic microhabitats (within, on and surrounding colonies of coral species such as Lophelia pertusa, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis, or formed by their remains after death). These microhabitats may be surrounded and intermixed with non-biogenic microhabitats (soft sediment, hard ground, gravel/pebbles, steep walls). To date, studies of distribution of sessile fauna across CWC reefs have been more numerous than those investigating mobile fauna distribution. In this study we quantified shrimp densities associated with key CWC microhabitat categories at the Røst Reef, Norway, by analysing image data collected by towed video sled in June 2007. We also investigated shrimp distribution patterns on the local scale (<40 cm) and how these may vary with microhabitat. Shrimp abundances at the Røst Reef were on average an order of magnitude greater in biogenic reef microhabitats than in non-biogenic microhabitats. Greatest shrimp densities were observed in association with live Paragorgia arborea microhabitat (43 shrimp m-2, SD = 35.5), live Primnoa resedaeformis microhabitat (41.6 shrimp m-2, SD = 26.1) and live Lophelia pertusa microhabitat (24.4 shrimp m-2, SD = 18.6). In non-biogenic microhabitat, shrimp densities were <2 shrimp m-2. CWC reef microhabitats appear to support greater shrimp densities than the surrounding non-biogenic microhabitats at the Røst Reef, at least at the time of survey.

  1. Evaluation of Career Education: A Selective Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Susan; Holbrook, Jean

    1979-01-01

    This bibliography cites 14 microfiche documents from the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) data base, selected for their practical relevance to the evaluation of career education programs. (SJL)

  2. Turnkey CAD/CAM selection and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moody, T.

    1980-01-01

    The methodology to be followed in evaluating and selecting a computer system for manufacturing applications is discussed. Main frames and minicomputers are considered. Benchmark evaluations, demonstrations, and contract negotiations are discussed.

  3. Turnkey CAD/CAM selection and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moody, T.

    1980-01-01

    The methodology to be followed in evaluating and selecting a computer system for manufacturing applications is discussed. Main frames and minicomputers are considered. Benchmark evaluations, demonstrations, and contract negotiations are discussed.

  4. Microhabitat use by two rocky shore gastropods in an intertidal sandy substrate with rocky fragments.

    PubMed

    Turra, A; Denadai, M R

    2006-02-01

    Sandy beaches in some areas of the São Sebastião Channel in southeastern Brazil have unremittingly undergone a variety of impacts, including the deposition of rock fragments in the intertidal region. Consequently, these environments support a rich fauna comprising both sandy beach and rocky shore organisms. Two rocky shore gastropods, Tegula viridula and Morula nodulosa, are particularly abundant in such environments. An evaluation of the use of microhabitats by these two species revealed that they occupy the available microhabitats in different proportions and the presence of one species is associated with the absence of the other. Morula nodulosa is randomly dispersed, occupying mostly areas with rock fragments covered with sediment and branching brown algae. Tegula viridula shows a clumped dispersion associated with the patchiness of the microhabitats used: the presence of encrusting green algae and absence of sediment and branching brown algae covering the rocks. These findings suggest T. viridula has a lower tolerance than M. nodulosa to sand inundation of the rocky fragments, a stochastic event common to the environment in question.

  5. Genetics | Selection: Evaluation and Methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The procedures used for collecting and analyzing data for genetic improvement of dairy cattle are described. Methods of identification and milk recording are presented. Selection traits include production (milk, fat, and protein yields and component percentages), conformation (final score and linear...

  6. An Evaluation of Media Selection.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    Minimum Help 2 - Of Some Help 3 - Moderately Helpf ul 4 - Very Helpful 5 - Essential Capability of Media 0- None I - Minimal Capability 2 - Some...different type fires. S. Using correct gramar in novel situations, covered by rules. 4. MAKING Choose 1. Choosing a course of 1. Choosing frequencies...trained. 4. Experienced training system designers. 5. A media specialist. The five variables listed below are considered essential to any media selection

  7. Quantitative Methods for Software Selection and Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Quantitative Methods for Software Selection and Evaluation Michael S. Bandor September 2006 Acquisition Support Program...5 2 Evaluation Methods ...Abstract When performing a “buy” analysis and selecting a product as part of a software acquisition strategy , most organizations will consider primarily

  8. Characterisation of microhabitat quality of different biochars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnee, Laura; Eickhorst, Thilo; Koehler, Hartmut; Otten, Wilfred

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is considered a promising means both to improve soil fertility and sequester carbon from the atmosphere. The former is being achieved by improving soil physico-chemical properties as microhabitat provision and thereby favorably impacting soil community structure and functions. However, contradicting results have been found regarding biochars' direct impact on soil microbial communities, indicating great specificity of every biochar and great heterogeneity within defined biochar samples in terms of physico-chemical properties influencing microbial colonisation. Habitable pore space, C content and degree of condensation and functionality and charge of surfaces are considered important parameters determining whether a piece of biochar is subject to autochthonous colonisation processes or not. Of these, the systematic investigation of habitable pore space is of crucial importance for the understanding of microbial colonisation potential. For example, larger pores are more prone to dehydration whilst smaller pores exhibit a higher water retention against drainage but may be less colonisable by (micro-)organisms due to size limitations. Biochar reflects plant anatomic structure and macro- and mesopores originate from tracheal and tracheid tissue well connected by perforations for the purpose of symplastic pressure release at high water potentials. These remain unchanged by the pyrolitic process. Nanopores, however, are the result of condensation induced crack formation and can be regarded as locally single and sparsely connected events. Furthermore anatomic structures differ between plant families and are considered to be most evident in the comparison between grass-derived and wood-derived biochars. Biochars derived from wood and Miscanthus are investigated after 3 years of aging under outdoor conditions with respect to microorganisms present on the char surface. Biochar pieces are resin impregnated and subjected to µ-CT scanning. µ-CT is a very promising

  9. Thermoregulation and microhabitat use in mountain butterflies of the genus Erebia: importance of fine-scale habitat heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Kleckova, Irena; Konvicka, Martin; Klecka, Jan

    2014-04-01

    Mountain butterflies have evolved efficient thermoregulation strategies enabling their survival in marginal conditions with short flight season and unstable weather. Understanding the importance of their behavioural thermoregulation by habitat use can provide novel information for predicting the fate of alpine Lepidoptera and other insects under ongoing climate change. We studied the link between microhabitat use and thermoregulation in adults of seven species of a butterfly genus Erebia co-occurring in the Austrian Alps. We captured individuals in the field and measured their body temperature in relation to microhabitat and air temperature. We asked whether closely related species regulate their body temperature differently, and if so, what is the effect of behaviour, species traits and individual traits on body to air and body to microhabitat temperature differences. Co-occurring species differed in mean body temperature. These differences were driven by active microhabitat selection by individuals and also by species-specific habitat preferences. Species inhabiting grasslands and rocks utilised warmer microclimates to maintain higher body temperature than woodland species. Under low air temperatures, species of rocky habitats heated up more effectively than species of grasslands and woodlands which allowed them to stay active in colder weather. Species morphology and individual traits play rather minor roles in the thermoregulatory differences; although large species and young individuals maintained higher body temperature. We conclude that diverse microhabitat conditions at small spatial scales probably contribute to sympatric occurrence of closely related species with different thermal demands and that preserving heterogeneous conditions in alpine landscapes might mitigate detrimental consequences of predicted climate change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Microhabitat Characteristics of sites used by swamp rabbits

    Treesearch

    Patrick A. Zollner; Winston P. Smith; Leonard A. Brennan

    2000-01-01

    The swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus) is one of the least studied North American lagomorphs; a better understanding of the habitat types it uses will improve management of this species. We studied microhabitat characteristics of sites associated with specific behaviors of the swamp rabbit. During spring-summer (15 April-1 October) and fall-winter (...

  11. Predicting variation in microhabitat utilization of terrestrial salamanders

    Treesearch

    Katherine M. O' Donnell; Frank R. Thompson; Raymond D. Semlitsch

    2014-01-01

    Understanding patterns of microhabitat use among terrestrial salamanders is important for predicting their responses to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. The dependence of terrestrial salamanders on cutaneous respiration limits their spatial distribution to moist, humid areas. Although many studies have shown negative effects of canopy removal on terrestrial...

  12. Association patterns in saproxylic insect networks in three Iberian Mediterranean woodlands and their resistance to microhabitat loss.

    PubMed

    Quinto, Javier; Marcos-García, María de los Ángeles; Díaz-Castelazo, Cecilia; Rico-Gray, Víctor; Galante, Eduardo; Micó, Estefanía

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of the relationship between species diversity, species interactions and environmental characteristics is indispensable for understanding network architecture and ecological distribution in complex networks. Saproxylic insect communities inhabiting tree hollow microhabitats within Mediterranean woodlands are highly dependent on woodland configuration and on microhabitat supply they harbor, so can be studied under the network analysis perspective. We assessed the differences in interacting patterns according to woodland site, and analysed the importance of functional species in modelling network architecture. We then evaluated their implications for saproxylic assemblages' persistence, through simulations of three possible scenarios of loss of tree hollow microhabitat. Tree hollow-saproxylic insect networks per woodland site presented a significant nested pattern. Those woodlands with higher complexity of tree individuals and tree hollow microhabitats also housed higher species/interactions diversity and complexity of saproxylic networks, and exhibited a higher degree of nestedness, suggesting that a higher woodland complexity positively influences saproxylic diversity and interaction complexity, thus determining higher degree of nestedness. Moreover, the number of insects acting as key interconnectors (nodes falling into the core region, using core/periphery tests) was similar among woodland sites, but the species identity varied on each. Such differences in insect core composition among woodland sites suggest the functional role they depict at woodland scale. Tree hollows acting as core corresponded with large tree hollows near the ground and simultaneously housing various breeding microsites, whereas core insects were species mediating relevant ecological interactions within saproxylic communities, e.g. predation, competitive or facilitation interactions. Differences in network patterns and tree hollow characteristics among woodland sites clearly

  13. Association Patterns in Saproxylic Insect Networks in Three Iberian Mediterranean Woodlands and Their Resistance to Microhabitat Loss

    PubMed Central

    Quinto, Javier; Marcos-García, María de los Ángeles; Díaz-Castelazo, Cecilia; Rico-Gray, Víctor; Galante, Eduardo; Micó, Estefanía

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of the relationship between species diversity, species interactions and environmental characteristics is indispensable for understanding network architecture and ecological distribution in complex networks. Saproxylic insect communities inhabiting tree hollow microhabitats within Mediterranean woodlands are highly dependent on woodland configuration and on microhabitat supply they harbor, so can be studied under the network analysis perspective. We assessed the differences in interacting patterns according to woodland site, and analysed the importance of functional species in modelling network architecture. We then evaluated their implications for saproxylic assemblages’ persistence, through simulations of three possible scenarios of loss of tree hollow microhabitat. Tree hollow-saproxylic insect networks per woodland site presented a significant nested pattern. Those woodlands with higher complexity of tree individuals and tree hollow microhabitats also housed higher species/interactions diversity and complexity of saproxylic networks, and exhibited a higher degree of nestedness, suggesting that a higher woodland complexity positively influences saproxylic diversity and interaction complexity, thus determining higher degree of nestedness. Moreover, the number of insects acting as key interconnectors (nodes falling into the core region, using core/periphery tests) was similar among woodland sites, but the species identity varied on each. Such differences in insect core composition among woodland sites suggest the functional role they depict at woodland scale. Tree hollows acting as core corresponded with large tree hollows near the ground and simultaneously housing various breeding microsites, whereas core insects were species mediating relevant ecological interactions within saproxylic communities, e.g. predation, competitive or facilitation interactions. Differences in network patterns and tree hollow characteristics among woodland sites clearly

  14. Repeated adaptive divergence of microhabitat specialization in avian feather lice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Repeated adaptive radiations are evident when phenotypic divergence occurs within lineages, but this divergence into different forms is convergent when compared across lineages. Classic examples of such repeated adaptive divergence occur in island (for example, Caribbean Anolis lizards) and lake systems (for example, African cichlids). Host-parasite systems in many respects are analogous to island systems, where host species represent isolated islands for parasites whose life cycle is highly tied to that of their hosts. Thus, host-parasite systems might exhibit interesting cases of repeated adaptive divergence as seen in island and lake systems. The feather lice of birds spend their entire life cycle on the body of the host and occupy distinct microhabitats on the host: head, wing, body and generalist. These microhabitat specialists show pronounced morphological differences corresponding to how they escape from host preening. We tested whether these different microhabitat specialists were a case of repeated adaptive divergence by constructing both morphological and molecular phylogenies for a diversity of avian feather lice, including many examples of head, wing, body and generalist forms. Results Morphological and molecular based phylogenies were highly incongruent, which could be explained by rampant convergence in morphology related to microhabitat specialization on the host. In many cases lice from different microhabitat specializations, but from the same group of birds, were sister taxa. Conclusions This pattern indicates a process of repeated adaptive divergence of these parasites within host group, but convergence when comparing parasites across host groups. These results suggest that host-parasite systems might be another case in which repeated adaptive radiations could be relatively common, but potentially overlooked, because morphological convergence can obscure evolutionary relationships. PMID:22717002

  15. Evaluating, Selecting, and Using Appropriate Assistive Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin, Jan C.; Scherer, Marcia J.

    This book addresses all aspects of assistive technology for individuals with disabilities, including policy, legislation, funding, evaluation, selection, and maintenance. Ten of the 15 chapters are written by individuals with disabilities and cover topics related to the use of technology in education, employment, and play. Specific chapters…

  16. Selecting and Evaluating Software for Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodenstein, Judith

    This handbook is intended to guide the vocational educator through the task of selecting and evaluating software for the vocational curriculum. Section 1 focuses on computer-based education. Chapter 1 defines computer-based education and the hardware and software required when the computer is used as an educational delivery system. Chapter 2…

  17. Evaluating and Selecting Schools for Recruitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachhuber, Thomas; Paight, Laura

    2003-01-01

    To improve their campus recruiting outcomes, some companies have developed their own methods for evaluating and selecting tools for recruitment. This article highlights the methods of Pfizer Global Research & Development, which uses a scientific approach to ensure its success on campus. (GCP)

  18. Evaluating markers for selecting a patient's treatment.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao; Pepe, Margaret Sullivan

    2004-12-01

    Selecting the best treatment for a patient's disease may be facilitated by evaluating clinical characteristics or biomarker measurements at diagnosis. We consider how to evaluate the potential impact of such measurements on treatment selection algorithms. For example, magnetic resonance neurographic imaging is potentially useful for deciding whether a patient should be treated surgically for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome or should receive less-invasive conservative therapy. We propose a graphical display, the selection impact (SI) curve that shows the population response rate as a function of treatment selection criteria based on the marker. The curve can be useful for choosing a treatment policy that incorporates information on the patient's marker value exceeding a threshold. The SI curve can be estimated using data from a comparative randomized trial conducted in the population as long as treatment assignment in the trial is independent of the predictive marker. Estimating the SI curve is therefore part of a post hoc analysis to determine whether the marker identifies patients that are more likely to benefit from one treatment over another. Nonparametric and parametric estimates of the SI curve are proposed in this article. Asymptotic distribution theory is used to evaluate the relative efficiencies of the estimators. Simulation studies show that inference is straightforward with realistic sample sizes. We illustrate the SI curve and statistical inference for it with data motivated by an ongoing trial of surgery versus conservative therapy for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

  19. Microhabitat differences impact phylogeographic concordance of codistributed species: genomic evidence in montane sedges (Carex L.) from the Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Massatti, Rob; Knowles, L Lacey

    2014-10-01

    By selecting codistributed, closely related montane sedges from the Rocky Mountains that are similar in virtually all respects but one-their microhabitat affinities-we test predictions about how patterns of genetic variation are expected to differ between Carex nova, an inhabitant of wetlands, and Carex chalciolepis, an inhabitant of drier meadows, slopes, and ridges. Although contemporary populations of the taxa are similarly isolated, the distribution of glacial moraines suggests that their past population connectedness would have differed. Sampling of codistributed population pairs from different mountain ranges combined with the resolution provided by over 24,000 single nucleotide polymorphism loci supports microhabitat-mediated differences in the sedges' patterns of genetic variation that are consistent with their predicted differences in the degree of isolation of ancestral source populations. Our results highlight how microhabitat preferences may interact with glaciations to produce fundamental differences in the past distributions of presently codistributed species. We discuss the implications of these findings for generalizing the impacts of climate-induced distributional shifts for communities, as well as for the prospects of gaining insights about species-specific deterministic processes, not just deterministic community-level responses, from comparative phylogeographic study.

  20. Temperature Characterization of Different Urban Microhabitats of Aedes albopictus (Diptera Culicidae) in Central-Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Vallorani, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Carrieri, Marco; Crisci, Alfonso; Mascali Zeo, Silvia; Messeri, Gianni; Venturelli, Claudio

    2015-08-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) is an invasive mosquito species that has spread to many countries in temperate regions bordering the Mediterranean basin, where it is becoming a major public health concern. A good knowledge of the thermal features of the most productive breeding sites for Ae. albopictus is crucial for a better estimation of the mosquitoes' life cycle and developmental rates. In this article, we address the problem of predicting air temperature in three microhabitats common in urban and suburban areas and the air and water temperature inside an ordinary catch basin, which is considered the most productive breeding site for Ae. albopictus in Italy. Temperature differences were statistically proven between the three microhabitats and between the catch basin external and internal temperature. The impacts on the developmental rates for each life stage of Ae. albopictus were tested through a parametric function of the temperature, and the aquatic stages resulted as being the most affected using the specific temperature inside a typical catch basin instead of a generic air temperature. The impact of snow cover on the catch basin internal temperature, and consequently on the mortality of diapausing eggs, was also evaluated. These data can be useful to improve epidemiological models for a better prediction of Ae. albopictus seasonal and population dynamics in central-northern Italian urban areas.

  1. Evaluation of methods for identifying spawning sites and habitat selection for alosines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Julianne E.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2010-01-01

    Characterization of riverine spawning habitat is important for the management and restoration of anadromous alosines. We examined the relative effectiveness of oblique plankton tows and spawning pads for collecting the eggs of American shad Alosa sapidissima, hickory shad A. mediocris, and “river herring” (a collective term for alewife A. pseudoharengus and blueback herring A. aestivalis) in the Roanoke River, North Carolina. Relatively nonadhesive American shad eggs were only collected by plankton tows, whereas semiadhesive hickory shad and river herring eggs were collected by both methods. Compared with spawning pads, oblique plankton tows had higher probabilities of collecting eggs and led to the identification of longer spawning periods. In assumed spawning areas, twice-weekly plankton sampling for 15 min throughout the spawning season had a 95% or greater probability of collecting at least one egg for all alosines; however, the probabilities were lower in areas with more limited spawning. Comparisons of plankton tows, spawning pads, and two other methods of identifying spawning habitat (direct observation of spawning and examination of female histology) suggested differences in effectiveness and efficiency. Riverwide information on spawning sites and timing for all alosines is most efficiently obtained by plankton sampling. Spawning pads and direct observations of spawning are the best ways to determine microhabitat selectivity for appropriate species, especially when spawning sites have previously been identified. Histological examination can help determine primary spawning sites but is most useful when information on reproductive biology and spawning periodicity is also desired. The target species, riverine habitat conditions, and research goals should be considered when selecting methods with which to evaluate alosine spawning habitat.

  2. Microhabitat distribution of two Florida scrub endemic plants in comparison to their habitat-generalist congeners.

    PubMed

    Maliakal-Witt, Satya; Menges, Eric S; Denslow, J S

    2005-03-01

    Habitat-specialist species may be restricted to a narrower range of microhabitats than habitat-generalist species. We addressed this hypothesis by comparing microhabitats of two pairs of congeners that differ in habitat specificity and co-occur in one distinct habitat type, Florida rosemary scrub. We characterized microhabitats of rosemary scrub specialists, Polygonella basiramia and Lechea cernua, their habitat-generalist congeners, Polygonella robusta and Lechea deckertii, and random points in the rosemary scrub habitat. Plants of both habitat specialists occurred in microhabitats with significantly more bare sand than plants of habitat-generalist species and random points. Plants of all four species occurred in microhabitats that were farther from dominant shrubs, Ceratiola and Quercus spp., than random points. Seedlings of both habitat specialists grew larger in bare sand microhabitats, whereas ground lichens and litter did not affect seedling growth of the habitat generalists. As the time since fire increases, bare sand cover decreases, Ceratiola density increases, Quercus density remains constant, and shrubs become taller. Physical characteristics, such as soil temperature, soil carbon, and soil moisture, differ slightly with respect to microhabitat. Our results suggest that P. basiramia and L. cernua are specialized on bare sand microhabitats that characterize their preferred habitat, rosemary scrub. Microhabitat specialization may limit the distribution of these rare species.

  3. Patterns of small mammal microhabitat utilization in cedar glade and deciduous forest habitats

    SciTech Connect

    Seagle, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    Differential microhabitat use by the small mammals inhabiting a cedar glade and a deciduous forest was investigated using discriminant function analysis of 30 structural parameters measured around the capture site of each animal. Ochrotomys nuttalli and Peromyscus leucopus utilize different microhabitats in the cedar glade, as do Blarina brevicauda and P. leucopus in the deciduous forest. P. leucopus was found to be a microhabitat generalist in the deciduous forest and a specialist in the cedar glade, whereas O. nuttalli and B. bravicauda were a microhabitat generalist and specialist, respectively. The sexes of P. leucopus were found to occupy different microhabitats in the deciduous forest but not in the cedar glade. Female P. leucopus occupied microhabitat with better protective cover in the deciduous forest. Comparisons of microhabitats used by the two species captured in each habitat with a random microhabitat sample and trap sites at which no animals were captured indicate that each habitat is a complex matrix of microhabitats, some of which are used by small mammals and some of which are not. 24 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  4. Feeding guild structure of beetles on Australian tropical rainforest trees reflects microhabitat resource availability.

    PubMed

    Wardhaugh, Carl W; Stork, Nigel E; Edwards, Will

    2012-09-01

    1. We tested the hypotheses that feeding guild structure of beetle assemblages changed with different arboreal microhabitats and that these differences were consistent across rainforest tree species. 2. Hand collection and beating techniques were used from the gondola of the Australian Canopy Crane to collect beetles from five microhabitats (mature leaves, flush leaves, flowers, fruit and suspended dead wood) within the rainforest canopy. A simple randomization procedure was implemented to test whether the abundances of each feeding guild on each microhabitat were different from that expected based on a null hypothesis of random distribution of individuals across microhabitats. 3. Beetles from different feeding guilds were not randomly distributed, but congregated on those microhabitats that are likely to provide the highest concentrations of their preferred food sources. Herbivorous beetles, in particular, were over-represented on flowers and flush foliage and under-represented on mature leaves and dead wood. Proportional numbers of species within each feeding guild were remarkably uniform across tree species for each microhabitat, but proportional abundances of feeding guilds were all significantly non-uniformly distributed between host tree species, regardless of microhabitat, confirming patterns previously found for arthropods in trees in temperate and tropical forests. 4. These results show that the canopy beetle community is partitioned into discrete assemblages between microhabitats and that this partitioning arises because of differences in feeding guild structure as a function of the diversity and the temporal and spatial availability of resources found on each microhabitat.

  5. Lunar resource evaluation and mine site selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bence, A. Edward

    1992-01-01

    Two scenarios in this evaluation of lunar mineral resources and the selection of possible mining and processing sites are considered. The first scenario assumes that no new surface or near-surface data will be available before site selection (presumably one of the Apollo sites). The second scenario assumes that additional surface geology data will have been obtained by a lunar orbiter mission, an unmanned sample return mission (or missions), and followup manned missions. Regardless of the scenario, once a potentially favorable mine site has been identified, a minimum amount of fundamental data is needed to assess the resources at that site and to evaluate its suitability for mining and downstream processing. Since much of the required data depends on the target mineral(s), information on the resource, its beneficiation, and the refining, smelting, and fabricating processes must be factored into the evaluation. The annual capacity and producing lifetime of the mine and its associated processing plant must be estimated before the resource reserves can be assessed. The available market for the product largely determines the capacity and lifetime of the mine. The Apollo 17 site is described as a possible mining site. The use of new sites is briefly addressed.

  6. Diversification rates are more strongly related to microhabitat than climate in squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes).

    PubMed

    Bars-Closel, Melissa; Kohlsdorf, Tiana; Moen, Daniel S; Wiens, John J

    2017-09-01

    Patterns of species richness among clades can be directly explained by the ages of clades or their rates of diversification. The factors that most strongly influence diversification rates remain highly uncertain, since most studies typically consider only a single predictor variable. Here, we explore the relative impacts of macroclimate (i.e., occurring in tropical vs. temperate regions) and microhabitat use (i.e., terrestrial, fossorial, arboreal, aquatic) on diversification rates of squamate reptile clades (lizards and snakes). We obtained data on microhabitat, macroclimatic distribution, and phylogeny for >4000 species. We estimated diversification rates of squamate clades (mostly families) from a time-calibrated tree, and used phylogenetic methods to test relationships between diversification rates and microhabitat and macroclimate. Across 72 squamate clades, the best-fitting model included microhabitat but not climatic distribution. Microhabitat explained ∼37% of the variation in diversification rates among clades, with a generally positive impact of arboreal microhabitat use on diversification, and negative impacts of fossorial and aquatic microhabitat use. Overall, our results show that the impacts of microhabitat on diversification rates can be more important than those of climate, despite much greater emphasis on climate in previous studies. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. 12 CFR 1805.700 - Evaluation and selection-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TREASURY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Evaluation and Selection of Applications § 1805.700 Evaluation and selection—general. Applicants will be evaluated and selected, at the sole... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evaluation and selection-general....

  8. 12 CFR 1805.700 - Evaluation and selection-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TREASURY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Evaluation and Selection of Applications § 1805.700 Evaluation and selection—general. Applicants will be evaluated and selected, at the sole... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evaluation and selection-general....

  9. 12 CFR 1805.700 - Evaluation and selection-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TREASURY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Evaluation and Selection of Applications § 1805.700 Evaluation and selection—general. Applicants will be evaluated and selected, at the sole... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evaluation and selection-general....

  10. Microhabitats occupied by Myxomycetes in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: Heliconiaceae inflorescences.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, L H; Ferreira, I N; Bezerra, A C C; Costa, A A A

    2015-11-01

    The occurrence of Myxomycetes in Heliconia psittacorum L.f. inflorescences was researched within four conservation units located in Northeast Brazil, aiming at evaluating the occupation of this microhabitat in fragments of Atlantic Forest along an altitude between 30-750 m. Inflorescences attached to the plant were examined; dead flowers and bracts were collected to assemble moist chambers (368). Four families, four genera and 10 species were recorded. A preference was evidenced for a basic pH substrate and a predominance of calcareous species (5:1). The composition of the myxobiota in fragments pertaining to altitudes above 400 m was similar and differed significantly from the one found in fragments of lowland forests (<100 m). Physarum compressum and Arcyria cinerea are the most characteristic species of the studied myxobiota.

  11. The EPOS Automated Selective Chemistry Analyzer evaluated.

    PubMed

    Moses, G C; Lightle, G O; Tuckerman, J F; Henderson, A R

    1986-01-01

    We evaluated the analytical performance of the EPOS (Eppendorf Patient Oriented System) Automated Selective Chemistry Analyzer, using the following tests for serum analytes: alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and glucose. Results from the EPOS correlated well with those from comparison instruments (r greater than or equal to 0.990). Precision and linearity limits were excellent for all tests; linearity of the optical and pipetting systems was satisfactory. Reagent carryover was negligible. Sample-to-sample carryover was less than 1% for all tests, but only lactate dehydrogenase was less than the manufacturer's specified 0.5%. Volumes aspirated and dispensed by the sample and reagent II pipetting systems differed significantly from preset values, especially at lower settings; the reagent I system was satisfactory at all volumes tested. Minimal daily maintenance and an external data-reduction system make the EPOS a practical alternative to other bench-top chemistry analyzers.

  12. Journal club: screen, select, probe & evaluate.

    PubMed

    Kanthraj, G R; Srinivas, C R

    2005-01-01

    Postgraduate dermatology training programs like seminars, panel discussions, and case presentations help residents to acquire knowledge. Journal club (JC) exercises help residents to update themselves with the current literature. What article a resident should choose and how a resident should evaluate and analyze an article or critically appraise a topic are issues that are most relevant for the success of a JC. Little guidance is available in the biomedical literature on how to deal with such issues. The objective of this article is to provide guidance to neophytes on dealing with JC exercises in a way that helps them in learning the critical appraisal skills. A review of the literature and of the author's experience in JC exercises will be presented. Knowing the methodology of rapid screening of articles along with the art of evaluating them, coupled with a sound knowledge of epidemiology and bio-statistics, helps a resident to select appropriate articles and discard poorly conceived or designed topics that may not generate interest in JC attendees. Hence, such an approach helps the resident in acquiring new knowledge in the shortest time. Choosing the right topic and then applying the newly obtained information to clinical practice, participants succeed in making the JC a valuable learning experience. Further, such well-formatted JCs help residents to improve the quality of health care delivered to patients.

  13. 7 CFR 4290.340 - Evaluation and selection-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Evaluation and Selection of RBICs § 4290.340 Evaluation and selection—general. The... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evaluation and selection-general. 4290.340 Section... and select an Applicant to participate in the RBIC program based on a review of the...

  14. 7 CFR 4290.340 - Evaluation and selection-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Evaluation and Selection of RBICs § 4290.340 Evaluation and selection—general. The... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evaluation and selection-general. 4290.340 Section... and select an Applicant to participate in the RBIC program based on a review of the...

  15. 7 CFR 4290.340 - Evaluation and selection-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Evaluation and Selection of RBICs § 4290.340 Evaluation and selection—general. The... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evaluation and selection-general. 4290.340 Section... and select an Applicant to participate in the RBIC program based on a review of the...

  16. Microhabitats within Venomous Cone Snails Contain Diverse Actinobacteria▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Peraud, Olivier; Biggs, Jason S.; Hughen, Ronald W.; Light, Alan R.; Concepcion, Gisela P.; Olivera, Baldomero M.; Schmidt, Eric W.

    2009-01-01

    Actinomycetes can be symbionts in diverse organisms, including both plants and animals. Some actinomycetes benefit their host by producing small molecule secondary metabolites; the resulting symbioses are often developmentally complex. Actinomycetes associated with three cone snails were studied. Cone snails are venomous tropical marine gastropods which have been extensively examined because of their production of peptide-based neurological toxins, but no microbiological studies have been reported on these organisms. A microhabitat approach was used in which dissected tissue from each snail was treated as an individual sample in order to explore bacteria in the tissues separately. Our results revealed a diverse, novel, and highly culturable cone snail-associated actinomycete community, with some isolates showing promising bioactivity in a neurological assay. This suggests that cone snails may represent an underexplored reservoir of novel actinomycetes of potential interest for drug discovery. PMID:19749071

  17. Microhabitats within venomous cone snails contain diverse actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Peraud, Olivier; Biggs, Jason S; Hughen, Ronald W; Light, Alan R; Concepcion, Gisela P; Olivera, Baldomero M; Schmidt, Eric W

    2009-11-01

    Actinomycetes can be symbionts in diverse organisms, including both plants and animals. Some actinomycetes benefit their host by producing small molecule secondary metabolites; the resulting symbioses are often developmentally complex. Actinomycetes associated with three cone snails were studied. Cone snails are venomous tropical marine gastropods which have been extensively examined because of their production of peptide-based neurological toxins, but no microbiological studies have been reported on these organisms. A microhabitat approach was used in which dissected tissue from each snail was treated as an individual sample in order to explore bacteria in the tissues separately. Our results revealed a diverse, novel, and highly culturable cone snail-associated actinomycete community, with some isolates showing promising bioactivity in a neurological assay. This suggests that cone snails may represent an underexplored reservoir of novel actinomycetes of potential interest for drug discovery.

  18. 13 CFR 108.340 - Evaluation and selection-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Evaluation and Selection of NMVC Companies § 108.340 Evaluation and selection—general. SBA will evaluate and select an Applicant to participate in the NMVC program solely at... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evaluation and...

  19. 13 CFR 108.340 - Evaluation and selection-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Evaluation and Selection of NMVC Companies § 108.340 Evaluation and selection—general. SBA will evaluate and select an Applicant to participate in the NMVC program solely at... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evaluation and...

  20. 13 CFR 108.340 - Evaluation and selection-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Evaluation and Selection of NMVC Companies § 108.340 Evaluation and selection—general. SBA will evaluate and select an Applicant to participate in the NMVC program solely at... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evaluation and...

  1. Local v. microhabitat influences on the fish fauna of tidal pools in north-east Brazil.

    PubMed

    Godinho, W O; Lotufo, T M C

    2010-02-01

    This study explored the influence of microhabitat characteristics, such as sandy, rocky and algal bottom, holes, area and depth, on tide-pool fish descriptors (evenness, total number of fish, diversity and species richness). Even when the rockpool microhabitats differed amongst beaches, the tidal fish assemblages were closely grouped by site rather than by characteristics of the tide pools. Fish assemblages were mostly represented by juvenile fishes from 29 species, of which 14 were observed in only one of the three sites. This indicates that sites, rather than microhabitat association, might play a major role for the rockpool ichthyofauna in north-east Brazil.

  2. Techniques for Project Evaluation. A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston, Guy D.

    This annotated bibliography of documents discussing program evaluation methodologies was compiled in order to help federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies improve their evaluation activities. The three major categories include: (1) techniques and methodology for evaluation of criminal justice projects, (2) evaluation methods and…

  3. 'Bodyguard' plants: predator-escape performance influences microhabitat choice by nightjars.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    Prey are typically assumed to avoid their predators. However, habitat selection patterns of prey might depend upon their ability to use particular landscape elements to manage their escape options from predator encounters. During two breeding seasons, I studied habitat use and behaviour of red-necked nightjars (Caprimulgus ruficollis) foraging under the risk of predation by red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in southwestern Spain. Nightjars exhibited nearly invariable foraging site choice and body positioning behaviour based on the architecture of vegetation near foraging sites. Nightjars actively chose to sit <50 cm from >120 cm-tall shrubs or trees while facing away from vegetation cover. Vegetation behind nightjars significantly increased their aerial escape opportunities from terrestrial attacks during their peak activity period, when nightjars reveal visible feather bands during their foraging sallies from the ground and their cryptic colouration may not always match the background. Spatial overlap of nightjars and foxes along roads suggests that microhabitat selection by these birds may in part depend on the chance of escape from predator encounters rather than on the probability of encountering predators. I conclude that the interplay between high escape efficiency and visibility have probably contributed to the evolution of foraging site selection by caprimulgids using bare grounds and cattle, horse and camel trails as the natural counterpart of roads. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of microhabitat in predation on females with alternative dorsal patterns in a small Costa Rican anole (Squamata: Dactyloidae).

    PubMed

    Paemelaere, Evi A D; Guyer, Craig; Dobson, F Stephen

    2013-06-01

    Predation is one of the major selective agents influencing evolution of color patterns. Cryptic color patterns decrease detection probability by predators, but their concealing function depends on the background against which patterns are seen; therefore, habitat use and color patterns are tightly linked. In many anole species, females exhibit variation in dorsal color patterns; the drab and perhaps cryptic colors of the patterns suggest a predator avoidance function behind this polymorphism. We tested whether these different color patterns experience different predation rates depending on their microhabitat. We expected each pattern to form at least one optimal combination with a typically used micro-habitat that would result in lower predation compared to other morphs in the same micro-habitat. We tested this hypothesis for anoles at La Selva, Costa Rica, using clay models resembling a common species at this site: Norops humilis. The first experiment tested for variation in predation on various substrates. We included leaf litter, live leaves, and two size classes of woody stems, using 44 models for each pattern substrate combination. A second experiment tested effects of perch height (10 and 60cm) and diameter (< 2 cm and > 5 cm), with 50 models for each pattern perch combination. We found differences in predation rates between the morphs depending on their micro-habitat. Specifically, the striped morph had a significant advantage over the others on green leaves. In the second experiment, striped morphs showed significantly lower predation on low than on high perches, irrespective of perch diameter. Reticulated models had an advantage over other morphs on thin stems for the first experiment, where models were placed about 60cm high. Diameter did not have a significant effect on predation for reticulated morphs when height classes were combined. Dotted models did not experience an advantage over the other morphs in any of the treatments. In leaf litter and on

  5. 12 CFR 1807.800 - Evaluation and selection-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evaluation and selection-general. 1807.800 Section 1807.800 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Evaluation and Selection of Applications § 1807.800 Evaluation and...

  6. 12 CFR 1807.800 - Evaluation and selection-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evaluation and selection-general. 1807.800 Section 1807.800 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Evaluation and Selection of Applications § 1807.800 Evaluation and...

  7. 12 CFR 1807.800 - Evaluation and selection-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evaluation and selection-general. 1807.800 Section 1807.800 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Evaluation and Selection of Applications § 1807.800 Evaluation and...

  8. 12 CFR 1807.800 - Evaluation and selection-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evaluation and selection-general. 1807.800 Section 1807.800 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Evaluation and Selection of Applications § 1807.800 Evaluation and...

  9. 13 CFR 108.340 - Evaluation and selection-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evaluation and selection-general... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Evaluation and Selection of NMVC Companies § 108.340 Evaluation and... SBA's discretion, based on SBA's review of the Applicant's application materials, interviews or site...

  10. Predator avoidance, microhabitat shift, and risk-sensitive foraging in larval dragonflies.

    PubMed

    Pierce, C L

    1988-10-01

    Dragonfly larvae (Odonata: Anisoptera) are often abundant in shallow freshwater habitats and frequently co-occur with predatory fish, but there is evidence that they are underutilized as prey. This suggests that species which successfully coexist with fish may exhibit behaviors that minimize their risk of predation. I conducted field and laboratory experiments to determine whether: 1) dragonfly larvae actively avoid fish, 2) microhabitat use and foraging success of larvae are sensitive to predation risk, and 3) vulnerability of larvae is correlated with microhabitat use. I experimentally manipulated the presence of adult bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) in defaunated patches of littoral substrate in a small pond to test whether colonizing dragonfly larvae would avoid patches containing fish. The two dominant anisopteran species, Tetragoneuria cynosura and Ladona deplanata (Odonata: Libellulidae), both strongly avoided colonizing patches where adult bluegills were present. Laboratory experiments examined the effects of diel period and bluegills on microhabitat use and foraging success, using Tetragoneuria, Ladona and confamilial Sympetrum semicictum, found in a nearby fishless pond. Tetragoneuria and Ladona generally occupied microhabitats offering cover, whereas Sympetrum usually occupied exposed locations. Bluegills induced increased use of cover in all three species, and use of cover also tended to be higher during the day than at night. Bluegills depressed foraging in Tetragoneuria and to a lesser extent in Ladona, but foraging in Sympetrum appeared unaffected. Other laboratory experiments indicated that Sympetrum were generally more vulnerable than Tetragoneuria or Ladona to bluegill predation, and that vulnerability was positively correlated with use of exposed microhabitats. Both fixed (generally low use of exposed microhabitats, diel microhabitat shifts) and reactive (predator avoidance, predator-sensitive microhabitat shifts) behavioral responses appear to

  11. Behavioral analysis of Microphallus turgidus cercariae in relation to microhabitat of two host grass shrimp species (Palaemonetes spp.).

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Patricia A; Pung, Oscar J

    2017-01-24

    The behavior of Microphallus turgidus cercariae was examined and compared to microhabitat selection of the second intermediate hosts of the parasite, Palaemonetes spp. grass shrimp. Cercariae were tested for photokinetic and geotactic responses, and a behavioral ethogram was established for cercariae in control and grass shrimp-conditioned brackish water. Photokinesis trials were performed using a half-covered Petri dish, and geotaxis trials used a graduated cylinder. Both photokinesis and geotaxis trials were performed in lighted and unlighted conditions. In 9 of 10 photokinesis experiments, over half of the cercariae swam horizontally under the covered half of a Petri dish in both the lighted and the unlighted trials. However, movement of the cercariae to the covered half of the dish was highest (81.4%) when the parasites were exposed to light. In the geotaxis study, most cercariae were found in the bottom third of a graduated cylinder water column in both the lighted and unlighted trials. The most frequently observed activity of individual cercariae in a lighted Petri dish was swimming on the bottom of the dish. Activity patterns of the cercariae were not affected by shrimp-conditioned water. Movement of the cercariae away from light into dark, active swimming at or near the bottom of the water column, and a lack of response to host odors suggest that the cercariae utilize search patterns that place the parasite in the preferred microhabitat of the principle second intermediate host, the grass shrimp P. pugio.

  12. Microhabitat choice in island lizards enhances camouflage against avian predators

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Kate L. A.; Philpot, Kate E.; Stevens, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Camouflage can often be enhanced by genetic adaptation to different local environments. However, it is less clear how individual behaviour improves camouflage effectiveness. We investigated whether individual Aegean wall lizards (Podarcis erhardii) inhabiting different islands rest on backgrounds that improve camouflage against avian predators. In free-ranging lizards, we found that dorsal regions were better matched against chosen backgrounds than against other backgrounds on the same island. This suggests that P. erhardii make background choices that heighten individual-specific concealment. In achromatic camouflage, this effect was more evident in females and was less distinct in an island population with lower predation risk. This suggests that behavioural enhancement of camouflage may be more important in females than in sexually competing males and related to predation risk. However, in an arena experiment, lizards did not choose the background that improved camouflage, most likely due to the artificial conditions. Overall, our results provide evidence that behavioural preferences for substrates can enhance individual camouflage of lizards in natural microhabitats, and that such adaptations may be sexually dimorphic and dependent on local environments. This research emphasizes the importance of considering links between ecology, behaviour, and appearance in studies of intraspecific colour variation and local adaptation. PMID:26804463

  13. Microhabitat Use by Trichoptera in a Lake Erie Coastal Wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, C. M.; Keiper, J.

    2005-05-01

    We examined the differences in microhabitat use by caddisfly (Trichoptera) adults at a Lake Erie coastal wetlands complex in northwestern Ohio. Light traps were employed in three vegetative zones; a Pontedaria stand, a submerged willow/cottonwood forest, and an adjacent open water area. We used concealed UV lights inside of replicate traps (n = 4 per habitat), attracting only caddisflies near the habitat, that were run May, June, and September 2004. Analysis of the data revealed differences in adult abundance between habitats and months for some taxa. Principal components analyses run at the level of genera and species showed that sites cluster by habitat type and by month, suggesting differences occur temporally and spatially but not exclusively of each other. ANOVA reveals statistical differences between habitats and months for the most common taxa. Hydroptilidae, including Agraylea multipunctata, Orthotrichia aegerfasciella, and Oxyethira pallida, were the most abundant taxa contributing approximately 90% of samples depending on vegetative zone. Information on the microscale preferences of adult caddisflies indicates potential habitat specificity. This may aid managers who decide which habitats within wetlands to conserve based on productivity and unique potential contribution of insect taxa.

  14. Microhabitat choice in island lizards enhances camouflage against avian predators.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Kate L A; Philpot, Kate E; Stevens, Martin

    2016-01-25

    Camouflage can often be enhanced by genetic adaptation to different local environments. However, it is less clear how individual behaviour improves camouflage effectiveness. We investigated whether individual Aegean wall lizards (Podarcis erhardii) inhabiting different islands rest on backgrounds that improve camouflage against avian predators. In free-ranging lizards, we found that dorsal regions were better matched against chosen backgrounds than against other backgrounds on the same island. This suggests that P. erhardii make background choices that heighten individual-specific concealment. In achromatic camouflage, this effect was more evident in females and was less distinct in an island population with lower predation risk. This suggests that behavioural enhancement of camouflage may be more important in females than in sexually competing males and related to predation risk. However, in an arena experiment, lizards did not choose the background that improved camouflage, most likely due to the artificial conditions. Overall, our results provide evidence that behavioural preferences for substrates can enhance individual camouflage of lizards in natural microhabitats, and that such adaptations may be sexually dimorphic and dependent on local environments. This research emphasizes the importance of considering links between ecology, behaviour, and appearance in studies of intraspecific colour variation and local adaptation.

  15. Abstracts of Selected Management Training Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gast, Ilene

    Intended for evaluators--whether trainers, psychologists, management consultants or professors--this bibliography samples findings in management training evaluation between 1953 and 1975. It contains 28 abstracts of representative articles from journals in applied psychology and personnel management. Each abstract is a one-half to one-page…

  16. Life begins when the sea lion is ashore: microhabitat use by a louse living on a diving mammal host.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, M S; Crespo, E A; Vales, D G; Feijoo, M; Raga, J A; Aznar, F J

    2012-08-01

    Among Anoplura, the family Echinophthiriidae includes species that infest pinnipeds and otters. Previous evidence obtained from pinnipeds infested by echinophthiriids, specifically from seals, indicates that flippers are the preferred infestation sites, while lice from fur seals select areas in the pelage. We studied habitat selection of Antarctophthirus microchir on South American sea lion pups (Otaria flavescens Shaw, 1800) from Patagonia, Argentina, during the austral summer of 2009. We found a clear pattern of habitat selection: eggs are laid on the dorsal surface; nymphs 1 hatch there and then migrate to the belly, where they develop into adults and copulate; and then ovigerous females return to the dorsal surface. On the one hand, nymphs 1 are characterised by their low locomotory ability; therefore, the fact that they migrate as soon as they hatch suggests a clear pressure leading to microhabitat restriction. On the other hand, the described pattern of microhabitat selection seems to respond to the physiological requirements of each stage, which vary according to the physiological process considered, e.g. oviposition, morphogenesis, hatching and development. Accordingly, it appears that A. microchir would prefer the host's ventral area for development and copulation and the dorsal area for oviposition. However, the causes of this pattern are not clear, and many factors could be involved. Considering that sea lion pups periodically soak at high tides, and that prolonged immersion and very high humidity are known to be lethal for lice eggs, selecting the dorsal area would be advantageous for oviposition because it dries much faster. Furthermore, because humidity should be retained for longer periods on the ventral surface of the pup, wetter conditions on the sea lion would prevent desiccation of the nymphs in the very arid environment where O. flavescens breeds.

  17. Arteriovenous Vascular Access Selection and Evaluation.

    PubMed

    MacRae, Jennifer M; Oliver, Matthew; Clark, Edward; Dipchand, Christine; Hiremath, Swapnil; Kappel, Joanne; Kiaii, Mercedeh; Lok, Charmaine; Luscombe, Rick; Miller, Lisa M; Moist, Louise

    2016-01-01

    When making decisions regarding vascular access creation, the clinician and vascular access team must evaluate each patient individually with consideration of life expectancy, timelines for dialysis start, risks and benefits of access creation, referral wait times, as well as the risk for access complications. The role of the multidisciplinary team in facilitating access choice is reviewed, as well as the clinical evaluation of the patient.

  18. Arteriovenous Vascular Access Selection and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    MacRae, Jennifer M.; Oliver, Matthew; Clark, Edward; Dipchand, Christine; Hiremath, Swapnil; Kappel, Joanne; Kiaii, Mercedeh; Lok, Charmaine; Luscombe, Rick; Miller, Lisa M.; Moist, Louise

    2016-01-01

    When making decisions regarding vascular access creation, the clinician and vascular access team must evaluate each patient individually with consideration of life expectancy, timelines for dialysis start, risks and benefits of access creation, referral wait times, as well as the risk for access complications. The role of the multidisciplinary team in facilitating access choice is reviewed, as well as the clinical evaluation of the patient. PMID:28270917

  19. Patterns in young-of-year smallmouth bass microhabitat use in multiple stream segments with contrasting land uses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brewer, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Young-of-the-year (YOY) smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu Lacep??de, were evaluated in streams from eight catchments with two contrasting land uses to determine their use of microhabitats under a variety of stream conditions. Step-wise discriminant function analyses revealed patterns of habitat use by discriminating used from available microhabitat conditions. Velocity was significant in 88% of streams sampled, whereas depth was significant in only the smallest stream in the forest-dominated catchments and 75% of stream segments located in pasture-dominated catchments. Mean velocities used by YOY bass were lower than available velocities, and mean depths used were greater than mean availability in all cases. Substrata varied significantly with availability in different stream segments. Error rates associated with classification ranged from 5 to 39%. Results indicate that YOY smallmouth bass are somewhat opportunistic, but use low-velocity habitats in most cases and deeper water when streams are impacted by pasture land use and associated physical changes. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. 10 CFR 602.9 - Application evaluation and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application evaluation and selection. 602.9 Section 602.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.9 Application evaluation and selection. (a) Applications shall be...

  1. 10 CFR 602.9 - Application evaluation and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application evaluation and selection. 602.9 Section 602.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.9 Application evaluation and selection. (a) Applications shall be...

  2. Sitting in the sun: Nest microhabitat affects incubation temperatures in seabirds.

    PubMed

    Hart, Lorinda A; Downs, Colleen T; Brown, Mark

    2016-08-01

    During incubation parent birds are committed to a nest site and endure a range of ambient conditions while regulating egg temperatures. Using artificial eggs containing temperature loggers alongside ambient temperature (Ta) controls, incubation profiles were determined for four tropical seabird species at different nest site locations. Camera traps were used for ad-hoc behavioural incubation observations. Eggs experienced a range of temperatures during incubation and varied significantly between species and in some cases between different microhabitats within a species. Such variation has important consequences in the phenotypic expression of both physical and physiological traits of chicks, and ultimately species fitness. Exposed nest sites were more strongly correlated to Tas. Camera traps highlighted different incubation strategies employed by these species that could be related to trade-offs in predator defence, feeding habits, and temperature regulation of eggs. This study provides evidence that species with similar breeding habits could be affected by environmental stressors in similar ways and that the differences shown in nest site selection could negate some of these effects. We propose that habitats providing suitable nest microclimates will become increasingly important for the successful breeding of seabird species, particularly under predicted climate change scenarios.

  3. Evaluating and Selecting Sport Management Undergraduate Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuneen, Jacquelyn; Sidwell, M. Joy

    1998-01-01

    States that the accelerated growth of sport management undergraduate programs that began in the 1980s has continued into the current decade. There are currently 180 sport management major programs in American colleges and universities. Describes the sports management approval process and suggests useful strategies to evaluate sport management…

  4. Evaluating and Selecting Sport Management Undergraduate Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuneen, Jacquelyn; Sidwell, M. Joy

    1998-01-01

    States that the accelerated growth of sport management undergraduate programs that began in the 1980s has continued into the current decade. There are currently 180 sport management major programs in American colleges and universities. Describes the sports management approval process and suggests useful strategies to evaluate sport management…

  5. Benthic foraminiferal Mn / Ca ratios reflect microhabitat preferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koho, Karoliina A.; de Nooijer, Lennart J.; Fontanier, Christophe; Toyofuku, Takashi; Oguri, Kazumasa; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2017-06-01

    The Mn / Ca of calcium carbonate tests of living (rose-Bengal-stained) benthic foraminifera (Elphidium batialis, Uvigerina spp., Bolivina spissa, Nonionellina labradorica and Chilostomellina fimbriata) were determined in relation to pore water manganese (Mn) concentrations for the first time along a bottom water oxygen gradient across the continental slope along the NE Japan margin (western Pacific). The local bottom water oxygen (BWO) gradient differs from previous field study sites focusing on foraminiferal Mn / Ca and redox chemistry, therefore allowing further resolution of previously observed trends. The Mn / Ca ratios were analysed using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS), allowing single-chamber determination of Mn / Ca. The incorporation of Mn into the carbonate tests reflects environmental conditions and is not influenced by ontogeny. The inter-species variability in Mn / Ca reflected foraminiferal in-sediment habitat preferences and associated pore water chemistry but also showed large interspecific differences in Mn partitioning. At each station, Mn / Ca ratios were always lower in the shallow infaunal E. batialis, occupying relatively oxygenated sediments, compared to intermediate infaunal species, Uvigerina spp. and B. spissa, which were typically found at greater depth, under more reducing conditions. The highest Mn / Ca was always recorded by the deep infaunal species N. labradorica and C. fimbriata. Our results suggest that although partitioning differs, Mn / Ca ratios in the intermediate infaunal taxa are promising tools for palaeoceanographic reconstructions as their microhabitat exposes them to higher variability in pore water Mn, thereby making them relatively sensitive recorders of redox conditions and/or bottom water oxygenation.

  6. Shifts in patterns of microhabitat occupation by six closely related species of mosses along a complex altitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Watson, Maxine A

    1980-01-01

    Changes in patterns of microhabitat occupation were examined for six closely related moss species (family Polytrichaceae) found growing together along a complex altitudinal gradient on the northeast face of Mount Washington, New Hampshire. Little evidence could be found to support the hypothesis that the relative distributions of these six moss species were determined by competitive interactions occurring among them. Instead, the data support the hypothesis that changing patterns in the relative distributions of these six moss species result from differences in microhabitat availability among sites. The moss species appear to behave in an opportunistic manner, occupying a wide array of microhabitats as these microhabitats become available to them.

  7. Evaluation of selected environmental decision support software

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.M.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Gitten, M.

    1997-06-01

    Decision Support Software (DSS) continues to be developed to support analysis of decisions pertaining to environmental management. Decision support systems are computer-based systems that facilitate the use of data, models, and structured decision processes in decision making. The optimal DSS should attempt to integrate, analyze, and present environmental information to remediation project managers in order to select cost-effective cleanup strategies. The optimal system should have a balance between the sophistication needed to address the wide range of complicated sites and site conditions present at DOE facilities, and ease of use (e.g., the system should not require data that is typically unknown and should have robust error checking of problem definition through input, etc.). In the first phase of this study, an extensive review of the literature, the Internet, and discussions with sponsors and developers of DSS led to identification of approximately fifty software packages that met the preceding definition.

  8. Microhabitats and canopy cover moderate high summer temperatures in a fragmented Mediterranean landscape

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Sharolyn; Williams, Craig; Kleindorfer, Sonia; O’Connell, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Extreme heat events will become more frequent under anthropogenic climate change, especially in Mediterranean ecosystems. Microhabitats can considerably moderate (buffer) the effects of extreme weather events and hence facilitate the persistence of some components of the biodiversity. We investigate the microclimatic moderation provided by two important microhabitats (cavities formed by the leaves of the grass-tree Xanthorrhoea semiplana F.Muell., Xanthorrhoeaceae; and inside the leaf-litter) during the summer of 2015/16 on the Fleurieu Peninsula of South Australia. We placed microsensors inside and outside these microhabitats, as well as above the ground below the forest canopy. Grass-tree and leaf-litter microhabitats significantly buffered against high temperatures and low relative humidity, compared to ground-below-canopy sensors. There was no significant difference between grass-tree and leaf-litter temperatures: in both microhabitats, daily temperature variation was reduced, day temperatures were 1–5°C cooler, night temperatures were 0.5–3°C warmer, and maximum temperatures were up to 14.4°C lower, compared to ground-below-canopy sensors. Grass-tree and leaf-litter microhabitats moderated heat increase at an average rate of 0.24°C temperature per 1°C increase of ambient temperature in the ground-below-canopy microhabitat. The average daily variation in temperature was determined by the type (grass-tree and leaf-litter versus ground-below-canopy) of microhabitat (explaining 67%), the amount of canopy cover and the area of the vegetation fragment (together explaining almost 10% of the variation). Greater canopy cover increased the amount of microclimatic moderation provided, especially in the leaf-litter. Our study highlights the importance of microhabitats in moderating macroclimatic conditions. However, this moderating effect is currently not considered in species distribution modelling under anthropogenic climate change nor in the management of

  9. An evaluation and selection problems of OSS-LMS packages.

    PubMed

    Abdullateef, Belal Najeh; Elias, Nur Fazidah; Mohamed, Hazura; Zaidan, A A; Zaidan, B B

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation and selection of inappropriate open source software in learning management system (OSS-LMS) packages adversely affect the business processes and functions of an organization. Thus, comprehensive insights into the evaluation and selection of OSS-LMS packages are presented in this paper on the basis of three directions. First, available OSS-LMSs are ascertained from published papers. Second, the criteria for evaluating OSS-LMS packages are specified.according to two aspects: the criteria are identified and established, followed by a crossover between them to highlight the gaps between the evaluation criteria for OSS-LMS packages and the selection problems. Third, the abilities of selection methods that appear fit to solve the problems of OSS-LMS packages based on the multi-criteria evaluation and selection problem are discussed to select the best OSS-LMS packages. Results indicate the following: (1) a list of active OSS-LMS packages; (2) the gaps on the evaluation criteria used for LMS and other problems (consisting of main groups with sub-criteria); (3) use of multi-attribute or multi-criteria decision-making (MADM/MCDM) techniques in the framework of the evaluation and selection of the OSS in education as recommended solutions.

  10. Early successional microhabitats allow the persistence of endangered plants in coastal sand dunes.

    PubMed

    Pardini, Eleanor A; Vickstrom, Kyle E; Knight, Tiffany M

    2015-01-01

    Many species are adapted to disturbance and occur within dynamic, mosaic landscapes that contain early and late successional microhabitats. Human modification of disturbance regimes alters the availability of microhabitats and may affect the viability of species in these ecosystems. Because restoring historical disturbance regimes is typically expensive and requires action at large spatial scales, such restoration projects must be justified by linking the persistence of species with successional microhabitats. Coastal sand dune ecosystems worldwide are characterized by their endemic biodiversity and frequent disturbance. Dune-stabilizing invasive plants alter successional dynamics and may threaten species in these ecosystems. We examined the distribution and population dynamics of two federally endangered plant species, the annual Layia carnosa and the perennial Lupinus tidestromii, within a dune ecosystem in northern California, USA. We parameterized a matrix population model for L. tidestromii and examined the magnitude by which the successional stage of the habitat (early or late) influenced population dynamics. Both species had higher frequencies and L. tidestromii had higher frequency of seedlings in early successional habitats. Lupinus tidestromii plants in early successional microhabitats had higher projected rates of population growth than those associated with stabilized, late successional habitats, due primarily to higher rates of recruitment in early successional microhabitats. These results support the idea that restoration of disturbance is critical in historically dynamic landscapes. Our results suggest that large-scale restorations are necessary to allow persistence of the endemic plant species that characterize these ecosystems.

  11. Early Successional Microhabitats Allow the Persistence of Endangered Plants in Coastal Sand Dunes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Many species are adapted to disturbance and occur within dynamic, mosaic landscapes that contain early and late successional microhabitats. Human modification of disturbance regimes alters the availability of microhabitats and may affect the viability of species in these ecosystems. Because restoring historical disturbance regimes is typically expensive and requires action at large spatial scales, such restoration projects must be justified by linking the persistence of species with successional microhabitats. Coastal sand dune ecosystems worldwide are characterized by their endemic biodiversity and frequent disturbance. Dune-stabilizing invasive plants alter successional dynamics and may threaten species in these ecosystems. We examined the distribution and population dynamics of two federally endangered plant species, the annual Layia carnosa and the perennial Lupinus tidestromii, within a dune ecosystem in northern California, USA. We parameterized a matrix population model for L. tidestromii and examined the magnitude by which the successional stage of the habitat (early or late) influenced population dynamics. Both species had higher frequencies and L. tidestromii had higher frequency of seedlings in early successional habitats. Lupinus tidestromii plants in early successional microhabitats had higher projected rates of population growth than those associated with stabilized, late successional habitats, due primarily to higher rates of recruitment in early successional microhabitats. These results support the idea that restoration of disturbance is critical in historically dynamic landscapes. Our results suggest that large-scale restorations are necessary to allow persistence of the endemic plant species that characterize these ecosystems. PMID:25835390

  12. Microhabitat and Climatic Niche Change Explain Patterns of Diversification among Frog Families.

    PubMed

    Moen, Daniel S; Wiens, John J

    2017-07-01

    A major goal of ecology and evolutionary biology is to explain patterns of species richness among clades. Differences in rates of net diversification (speciation minus extinction over time) may often explain these patterns, but the factors that drive variation in diversification rates remain uncertain. Three important candidates are climatic niche position (e.g., whether clades are primarily temperate or tropical), rates of climatic niche change among species within clades, and microhabitat (e.g., aquatic, terrestrial, arboreal). The first two factors have been tested separately in several studies, but the relative importance of all three is largely unknown. Here we explore the correlates of diversification among families of frogs, which collectively represent ∼88% of amphibian species. We assemble and analyze data on phylogeny, climate, and microhabitat for thousands of species. We find that the best-fitting phylogenetic multiple regression model includes all three types of variables: microhabitat, rates of climatic niche change, and climatic niche position. This model explains 67% of the variation in diversification rates among frog families, with arboreal microhabitat explaining ∼31%, niche rates ∼25%, and climatic niche position ∼11%. Surprisingly, we show that microhabitat can have a much stronger influence on diversification than climatic niche position or rates of climatic niche change.

  13. Scanning a microhabitat: plant-microbe interactions revealed by confocal laser microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cardinale, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    No plant or cryptogam exists in nature without microorganisms associated with its tissues. Plants as microbial hosts are puzzles of different microhabitats, each of them colonized by specifically adapted microbiomes. The interactions with such microorganisms have drastic effects on the host fitness. Since the last 20 years, the combination of microscopic tools and molecular approaches contributed to new insights into microbe-host interactions. Particularly, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) facilitated the exploration of microbial habitats and allowed the observation of host-associated microorganisms in situ with an unprecedented accuracy. Here I present an overview of the progresses made in the study of the interactions between microorganisms and plants or plant-like organisms, focusing on the role of CLSM for the understanding of their significance. I critically discuss risks of misinterpretation when procedures of CLSM are not properly optimized. I also review approaches for quantitative and statistical analyses of CLSM images, the combination with other molecular and microscopic methods, and suggest the re-evaluation of natural autofluorescence. In this review, technical aspects were coupled with scientific outcomes, to facilitate the readers in identifying possible CLSM applications in their research or to expand their existing potential. The scope of this review is to highlight the importance of confocal microscopy in the study of plant-microbe interactions and also to be an inspiration for integrating microscopy with molecular techniques in future researches of microbial ecology. PMID:24639675

  14. Scanning a microhabitat: plant-microbe interactions revealed by confocal laser microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    No plant or cryptogam exists in nature without microorganisms associated with its tissues. Plants as microbial hosts are puzzles of different microhabitats, each of them colonized by specifically adapted microbiomes. The interactions with such microorganisms have drastic effects on the host fitness. Since the last 20 years, the combination of microscopic tools and molecular approaches contributed to new insights into microbe-host interactions. Particularly, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) facilitated the exploration of microbial habitats and allowed the observation of host-associated microorganisms in situ with an unprecedented accuracy. Here I present an overview of the progresses made in the study of the interactions between microorganisms and plants or plant-like organisms, focusing on the role of CLSM for the understanding of their significance. I critically discuss risks of misinterpretation when procedures of CLSM are not properly optimized. I also review approaches for quantitative and statistical analyses of CLSM images, the combination with other molecular and microscopic methods, and suggest the re-evaluation of natural autofluorescence. In this review, technical aspects were coupled with scientific outcomes, to facilitate the readers in identifying possible CLSM applications in their research or to expand their existing potential. The scope of this review is to highlight the importance of confocal microscopy in the study of plant-microbe interactions and also to be an inspiration for integrating microscopy with molecular techniques in future researches of microbial ecology.

  15. Evaluation of Selected MR Pulse Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Yong-Jin

    1990-01-01

    This research addressed four main areas of radiofrequency (rf) pulse programming: (1) correction of instrumentation errors in spin echo sequences by use of phase rolling of the rf pulses; (2) chemical shift imaging of water and lipid; (3) development of special pulse sequences for the measurement of phosphorus metabolites by ^ {31}P spectroscopy and lactate by ^1H spectroscopy; and (4) flow methods to measure and separate diffusion from perfusion. All experiments were performed on a horizontal 2.0T (superconducting magnet) 31-cm small-bore MR system. Computer programming and data analysis were performed on a PDP 11/84 computer system. 1. The effects of rf tips, dc and gain misadjustments in the rf spectrometer were evaluated for a series of MR images. Four different phase cycling schemes (FIXED, ALTERNATE, FORWARD, REVERSED) to suppress unwanted signal components such as mirror and ghost images were evaluated using two signal acquisitions. When the receiver phase factor is cycled counter-clockwise (REVERSED), these artifacts are completely removed. 2. A major problem common to all chemical shift imaging methods is static magnetic field non-uniformity. Four methods (Dixon's, CHESS, SECSI and modified CHESS-SECSI) were quantitatively evaluated for the measurement of water and fat content, which are separated by approximately 3.5 ppm, in in vivo biological tissues. It was demonstrated in phantoms that the modified CHESS+SECSI method gave superior results even without field shimming. 3. The development of new MR rf pulse sequences is essential in order to acquire specialized in vivo information concerning biologic metabolites. The time course of change in concentration of lactate and of phosphorus metabolites in human forearm muscle before and after exercise was determined. Lactate concentration returned to normal in 25 minutes after exercise. The Pi/PCr ratio was 0.25 before exercise, and increased to 0.5 at 4.5 minutes after exercise. 4. The fourth study involved the

  16. Evaluating candidate reactions to selection practices using organisational justice theory.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Fiona; Zibarras, Lara; Carr, Victoria; Irish, Bill; Gregory, Simon

    2011-03-01

    This study aimed to examine candidate reactions to selection practices in postgraduate medical training using organisational justice theory. We carried out three independent cross-sectional studies using samples from three consecutive annual recruitment rounds. Data were gathered from candidates applying for entry into UK general practice (GP) training during 2007, 2008 and 2009. Participants completed an evaluation questionnaire immediately after the short-listing stage and after the selection centre (interview) stage. Participants were doctors applying for GP training in the UK. Main outcome measures were participants' evaluations of the selection methods and perceptions of the overall fairness of each selection stage (short-listing and selection centre). A total of 23,855 evaluation questionnaires were completed (6893 in 2007, 10,497 in 2008 and 6465 in 2009). Absolute levels of perceptions of fairness of all the selection methods at both the short-listing and selection centre stages were consistently high over the 3years. Similarly, all selection methods were considered to be job-related by candidates. However, in general, candidates considered the selection centre stage to be significantly fairer than the short-listing stage. Of all the selection methods, the simulated patient consultation completed at the selection centre stage was rated as the most job-relevant. This is the first study to use a model of organisational justice theory to evaluate candidate reactions during selection into postgraduate specialty training. The high-fidelity selection methods are consistently viewed as more job-relevant and fairer by candidates. This has important implications for the design of recruitment systems for all specialties and, potentially, for medical school admissions. Using this approach, recruiters can systematically compare perceptions of the fairness and job relevance of various selection methods. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  17. Dependence of juvenile reef fishes on semi-arid hypersaline estuary microhabitats as nurseries.

    PubMed

    Sales, N S; Dias, T L P; Baeta, A; Pessanha, A L M

    2016-07-01

    The differences between fish assemblages in three microhabitat types, in relation to vegetation and sediment characteristics of a hypersaline estuary located in an semi-arid zone in north-eastern Brazil, were investigated. Fishes were collected using a beach seine during the rainy and dry seasons in 2012. A total of 78 species were recorded, with the most common families being Gerreidae, Lutjanidae and Tetraodontidae. The majority of species were represented by juveniles, with Eucinostomus argenteus, Ulaema lefroyi and Sphoeroides greeleyi being the dominant species. The fish assemblage structures differed significantly among microhabitat types, with the narrow intertidal flat adjacent to the mangrove fringe supporting the most diverse fish fauna. In addition, only 27 species were common to all of the microhabitats. The results support the hypothesis that hypersaline estuaries serve as important nursery areas for various reef fish species, due to the structural complexity provided by their macroalgae beds and mangroves. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. Guidance for Identifying, Selecting and Evaluating Open Literature Studies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guidance for Office of Pesticide Program staff will assist in their evaluation of open literature studies of pesticides. It also describes how we identify, select, and ensure that data we use in risk assessments is of sufficient scientific quality.

  19. Update on sensory evaluation of University of Florida strawberry selections

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The University of Florida strawberry breeding program has evaluated eating quality of fruit from advanced selections using sensory taste panels. Selections FL 05-107, FL 06-38 and FL 09-127 were compared with the commercial cultivars ‘Strawberry Festival’ and FLorida Radiance’ during two consecutive...

  20. 13 CFR 108.340 - Evaluation and selection-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... fulfill successfully the goals of its comprehensive business plan; and (d) Ensure that SBA selects... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evaluation and selection-general. 108.340 Section 108.340 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW...

  1. Selection and Validation of Attitude Scales for Curriculum Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Barry J.

    1977-01-01

    Defines educational importance, multidimensionality, and economy to be essential criteria in the selection of attitude scales for curriculum evaluation. Five scales meeting the requirements are selected and tested with 1,158 Australian seventh-grade students. Scores on the attitude scales and correlations of scores with socioeconomic status,…

  2. Seasonal shifts in shelter and microhabitat use of drymarchon couperi (eastern indigo snake) in Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyslop, N.L.; Cooper, R.J.; Meyers, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Drymarchon couperi (Eastern Indigo Snake), a threatened species of the southeastern Coastal Plain of the United States, has experienced population declines because of extensive habitat loss and degradation across its range. In Georgia and northern Florida, the species is associated with longleaf pine habitats that support Gopherus polyphemus (Gopher Tortoise) populations, the burrows of which D. couperi uses for shelter. The extent that D. couperi uses these burrows, in addition to the use of other underground shelters and the microhabitat features associated with these structures is largely unknown. From 2003 through 2004, we conducted a radiotelemetry study of D. couperi (n = 32) to examine use of shelters and microhabitat in Georgia. We used repeated measures regression on a candidate set of models created from a priori hypotheses using principal component scores, derived from analysis of microhabitat data to examine microhabitat use at underground shelters. Proportion of locations recorded underground did not differ seasonally or between sexes. In winter, we recorded >0.90 of underground locations at tortoise burrows. Use of these burrows was less pronounced in spring for males. Females used abandoned tortoise burrows more frequently than males year-round and used them on approximately 0.60 of their underground locations during spring. Microhabitat use at underground shelters was most influenced by season compared to sex, site, or body size. Females in spring and summer used more open microhabitat compared to males, potentially in response to gestation. Our results suggest that the availability of suitable underground shelters, especially G. polyphemus burrows, may be a limiting factor in the northern range of D. couperi, with important implications for its conservation. ?? 2009 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

  3. Trade-offs in seedling growth and survival within and across tropical forest microhabitats

    PubMed Central

    Inman-Narahari, Faith; Ostertag, Rebecca; Asner, Gregory P; Cordell, Susan; Hubbell, Stephen P; Sack, Lawren

    2014-01-01

    For niche differences to maintain coexistence of sympatric species, each species must grow and/or survive better than each of the others in at least one set of conditions (i.e., performance trade-offs). However, the extent of niche differentiation in tropical forests remains highly debated. We present the first test of performance trade-offs for wild seedlings in a tropical forest. We measured seedling relative growth rate (RGR) and survival of four common native woody species across 18 light, substrate, and topography microhabitats over 2.5 years within Hawaiian montane wet forest, an ideal location due to its low species diversity and strong species habitat associations. All six species pairs exhibited significant performance trade-offs across microhabitats and for RGR versus survival within microhabitats. We also found some evidence of performance equivalence, with species pairs having similar performance in 26% of comparisons across microhabitats. Across species, survival under low light was generally positively associated with RGR under high light. When averaged over all species, topography (slope, aspect, and elevation) explained most of the variation in RGR attributable to microhabitat variables (51–53%) followed by substrate type (35–37%) and light (11–12%). However, the relative effects of microhabitat differed among species and RGR metric (i.e., RGR for height, biomass, or leaf area). These findings indicate that performance trade-offs among species during regeneration are common in low-diversity tropical forest, although other mechanisms may better explain the coexistence of species with small performance differences. PMID:25614790

  4. Distribution patterns and environmental correlates of water mites (Hydrachnidia, Acari) in peatland microhabitats.

    PubMed

    Więcek, Mariusz; Martin, Peter; Gąbka, Maciej

    2013-10-01

    In Europe peatlands are wetlands of postglacial origin. Because of climatic changes and agricultural activities (i.e. drainage and peat extraction), they are one of the most endangered ecosystems worldwide. Water mites are well known as indicators of changing environments in other ecosystems such as springs and lakes. For our study we selected seven peatlands located in North-Western Poland and focused on water mite distribution and associated habitat and water quality variables. We described water mite fauna in various microhabitats (aquatic and semiaquatic) along the mineral-richness gradient to test whether this gradient is reflected in the composition of water mite assemblages. We selected conductivity, pH and vegetation as variables reflecting the poor-rich gradient. Additionally, we measured water depth, temperature and dissolved oxygen, which are often important parameters for water mites. We also noted presence of prey and host taxa of particular water mite species. Based on physicochemical parameters we identified three types of habitats harbouring three distinctive species groups of water mites. We were able to distinguish species that appear to be typical of spring fens (e.g. Hygrobates norvegicus, Lebertia separata), connected with acidic, nutrient poor pools (e.g. Arrenurus neumani, A. pustulator) and species seemingly typical of temporary habitats dominated by Sphagnum mosses (e.g. Piersigia intermedia, Zschokkea oblonga, A. stecki). The poor-rich gradient is strongly reflected in the composition of water mite assemblages. We also found strong correlations between the water mite fauna and both conductivity and pH gradient. Our results show that water conductivity is the most important of the examined factors, driving mite-species distribution in peatlands.

  5. Microhabitat preference and vertical use of space by patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) in relation to predation risk and habitat structure.

    PubMed

    Enstam, Karin L; Isbell, Lynne A

    2004-01-01

    Habitat structure can be important in determining habitat preference of animals because it is often closely linked to factors that affect survival and reproduction, such as food availability and predation risk. Here we examine the ways in which microhabitat structure and predation risk affect the habitat preference of wild patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas). Patas monkeys in Kenya are typically restricted to Acacia drepanolobium habitat, but within our study group's home range, there are two distinct microhabitats, one with taller trees ('tall microhabitat') and one with apparently perennially shorter trees ('short microhabitat'). Examination of ranging behavior indicates that the patas monkeys preferred the tall microhabitat. In the tall microhabitat, focal animals climbed into trees that were significantly taller than average, indicating that they preferred tall trees. Female patas monkeys spent more time scanning from tall trees than from short trees and detected predators only from taller than average trees, based on alarm call data. Their use of tall trees may have decreased their predation risk by increasing their ability to detect predators. We found no evidence of increased food availability or reduced predator presence in the tall microhabitat that could contribute to the monkeys' preference for the tall microhabitat.

  6. A Selected Annotated Bibliography on the Selection and Evaluation of Audiovisual Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oksas, Joan K., Comp.

    The 56 citations from recent periodicals (1976-1980) listed in this bibliography were selected to indicate the diverse subject areas other than instructional technology and related fields that are interested in audiovisual materials, the types of media they are interested in, and criteria used or suggested for the evaluation and selection of such…

  7. Selecting Educational Researchers and Evaluators. TM Report 48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millman, Jason

    Aimed at those individuals who are in a position to hire or promote educational researchers or evaluators, this paper provides some practical suggestions for assessing these personnel. Selection of a research or evaluation (R and E) firm is not treated separately from the task of hiring an individual; the quality of work done by a firm depends…

  8. 10 CFR 470.14 - Evaluation and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evaluation and selection. 470.14 Section 470.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM § 470.14 Evaluation and... technically feasible, including a determination as to whether the proposed energy savings or energy...

  9. Evaluating Organizational Training Programs: Alternatives and Criteria for Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marth, Joseph; And Others

    Managers and program sponsors are often unaware of possible alternatives to costly training evaluation procedures and do not have criteria for selecting alternatives. What is needed is an understanding of the various levels of evaluating training programs, feasible alternatives, and decision criteria for choosing the right system. It is proposed…

  10. An Overview of Evaluation Research on Selected Educational Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resources Group, Inc.

    This paper reviews selected literature on education/business partnerships (EBPs), highlighting the status of partnership evaluations and current methodologies. Research by S. Otterbourg and D. Adams (1989), which surveyed about 24 EBPs to ascertain planning, implementation, and evaluation priorities, showed that only 25% of the programs used…

  11. Training Select-in Interviewers for Astronaut Selection: A Program Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hysong, S.; Galarza, L.; Holland, A.; Billica, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Psychological factors critical to the success of short and long-duration missions have been identified in previous research; however, evaluation for such critical factors in astronaut applicants leaves much room for human interpretation. Thus, an evaluator training session was designed to standardize the interpretation of critical factors, as well as the structure of the select-in interview across evaluators. The purpose of this evaluative study was to determine the effectiveness of the evaluator training sessions and their potential impact on evaluator ratings.

  12. Individual differences in migratory behavior shape population genetic structure and microhabitat choice in sympatric blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla).

    PubMed

    Rolshausen, Gregor; Segelbacher, Gernot; Hermes, Claudia; Hobson, Keith A; Schaefer, H Martin

    2013-10-01

    In migratory birds, traits such as orientation and distance are known to have a strong genetic background, and they often exhibit considerable within-population variation. How this variation relates to evolutionary responses to ongoing selection is unknown because the underlying mechanisms that translate environmental changes into population genetic changes are unclear. We show that within-population genetic structure in southern German blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) is related to individual differences in migratory behavior. Our 3-year study revealed a positive correlation between individual migratory origins, denoted via isotope (δ (2)H) values, and genetic distances. Genetic diversity and admixture differed not only across a recently established migratory polymorphism with NW- and SW-migrating birds but also across δ (2)H clusters within the same migratory route. Our results suggest assortment based on individual migratory origins which would facilitate evolutionary responses. We scrutinized arrival times and microhabitat choice as potential mechanisms mediating between individual variation in migratory behavior and assortment. We found significant support that microhabitat choice, rather than timing of arrival, is associated with individual variation in migratory origins. Moreover, examining genetic diversity across the migratory divide, we found migrants following the NW route to be genetically more distinct from each other compared with migrants following the traditional SW route. Our study suggests that migratory behavior shapes population genetic structure in blackcaps not only across the migratory divide but also on an individual level independent of the divide. Thus, within-population variation in migratory behavior might play an important role in translating environmental change into genetic change.

  13. Improving selective androgen receptor modulator discovery and preclinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeremy Orion

    2009-09-01

    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) represent a new class of pharmaceuticals that may find wide clinical use. However, selectivity is not understood at the molecular level, which has made the discovery and preclinical evaluation of SARMs difficult. We review the current state of SARM discovery and preclinical evaluation, as well as our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling AR selectivity. We then discuss how increasing our molecular knowledge of AR selectivity will help create better discovery and evaluation methods and lead to a wider array of safer SARMs. The SARM field has advanced rapidly, but without a solid foundation of molecular knowledge to inform discovery and preclinical evaluation methods. The field has also taken a narrow view of selectivity, disregarding many androgen-responsive tissues, which could lead to unforeseen and detrimental side effects with chronic administration of SARMs. An investment in basic research could accelerate the discovery of a new generation of more selective and safer SARMs that could be used to treat an expanded range of clinical conditions.

  14. Ant colony optimization with selective evaluation for feature selection in character recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Il-Seok; Lee, Jin-Seon

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the size characteristics of character recognition domain with the aim of developing a feature selection algorithm adequate for the domain. Based on the results, we further analyze the timing requirements of three popular feature selection algorithms, greedy algorithm, genetic algorithm, and ant colony optimization. For a rigorous timing analysis, we adopt the concept of atomic operation. We propose a novel scheme called selective evaluation to improve convergence of ACO. The scheme cut down the computational load by excluding the evaluation of unnecessary or less promising candidate solutions. The scheme is realizable in ACO due to the valuable information, pheromone trail which helps identify those solutions. Experimental results showed that the ACO with selective evaluation was promising both in timing requirement and recognition performance.

  15. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope study on benthic foraminifera: Implication for microhabitat preferences and interspecies correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaumik, Ajoy K.; Kumar, Shiv; Ray, Shilpi; Vishwakarma, G. K.; Gupta, Anil K.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Sain, Kalachand

    2017-07-01

    Stable isotopes of benthic foraminifera have widely been applied in micropalaeontological research to understand vital effects in foraminifera. Isotopic fractionations are mainly controlled by ontogeny, bottom/pore water chemistry, habitat preference, kinetic effect and respiration. Discontinuous abundance of a species for isotopic analysis has forced us to select multiple species from down-core samples. Thus standardisation factors are required to convert isotopic values of one species with respect to other species. The present study is pursued on isotopic values of different pairs of benthic foraminifera from the Krishna-Godavari basin and Peru offshore to understand habitat-wise isotopic variation and estimation of isotopic correction factors for the paired species ( Cibicides wuellerstorfi-Bulimina marginata, Ammonia spp.- Loxostomum amygdalaeformis and Bolivina seminuda-Nonionella auris). Infaunal species ( B. marginata, Ammonia spp. and N. auris) show a lighter carbon isotopic excursion with respect to the epifaunal to shallow infaunal forms ( C. wuellerstorfi, L. amygdalaeformis and B. seminuda). These lighter δ^{13} C values are related to utilisation of CO2 produced by anaerobic remineralisation of organic matter. However, enrichment of δ^{18} O for the deeper microhabitat (bearing lower pH and decreased {CO3}^{2-}) is only recorded in case of B. marginata. It is reverse in case of N. auris and related to utilisation of respiratory CO2 and internal dissolve inorganic carbon pool. Estimation of interspecies isotopic correction factors for the species pairs (δ^{13} C of C. wuellerstorfi- B. marginata, L. amygdalaeformis- Ammonia spp., N. auris- B. seminuda) and δ^{18} O of C. wuellerstorfi- B. marginata are statistically reliable and may be used in palaeoecological studies.

  16. Evaluation and selection of candidate high-level waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Bernadzikowski, T. A.; Allender, J. S.; Butler, J. L.; Gordon, D. E.; Gould, Jr., T. H.; Stone, J. A.

    1982-03-01

    Seven candidate waste forms being developed under the direction of the Department of Energy's National High-Level Waste (HLW) Technology Program, were evaluated as potential media for the immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. The evaluation combined preliminary waste form evaluations conducted at DOE defense waste-sites and independent laboratories, peer review assessments, a product performance evaluation, and a processability analysis. Based on the combined results of these four inputs, two of the seven forms, borosilicate glass and a titanate based ceramic, SYNROC, were selected as the reference and alternative forms for continued development and evaluation in the National HLW Program. Both the glass and ceramic forms are viable candidates for use at each of the DOE defense waste-sites; they are also potential candidates for immobilization of commercial reprocessing wastes. This report describes the waste form screening process, and discusses each of the four major inputs considered in the selection of the two forms.

  17. Effects of microhabitat and land use on stream salamander abundance in the southwest Virginia coalfields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweeten, Sara E.; Ford, William

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale land uses such as residential wastewater discharge and coal mining practices, particularly surface coal extraction and associated valley fills, are of particular ecological concern in central Appalachia. Identification and quantification of both alterations across scales are a necessary first-step to mitigate negative consequences to biota. In central Appalachian headwater streams absent of fish, salamanders are the dominant, most abundant vertebrate predator providing a significant intermediate trophic role. Stream salamander species are considered to be sensitive to aquatic stressors and environmental alterations, and past research has shown linkages among microhabitat parameters, large-scale land use such as urbanization and logging with salamander abundances. However, little is known about these linkages in the coalfields of central Appalachia. In the summer of 2013, we visited 70 sites (sampled three times each) in the southwest Virginia coalfields to survey salamanders and quantify stream and riparian microhabitat parameters. Using an information-theoretic framework we compared the effects of microhabitat and large-scale land use on salamander abundances. Our findings indicate that dusky salamander (Desmognathus spp.) abundances are more correlated to microhabitat parameters such as canopy cover than to subwatershed land uses. Brook salamander (Eurycea spp.) abundances show strong negative associations to the suspended sediments and stream substrate embeddedness. Neither Desmognathus spp. nor Eurycea spp. abundances were influenced by water conductivity. These suggest protection or restoration of riparian habitats and erosion control is an important conservation component for maintaining stream salamanders in the mined landscapes of central Appalachia.

  18. Microhabitat locality allows multi-species coexistence in terrestrial plant communities

    PubMed Central

    Tubay, Jerrold M.; Suzuki, Keisuke; Uehara, Takashi; Kakishima, Satoshi; Ito, Hiromu; Ishida, Atsushi; Yoshida, Katsuhiko; Mori, Shigeta; Rabajante, Jomar F.; Morita, Satoru; Yokozawa, Masayuki; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Most terrestrial plant communities exhibit relatively high species diversity and many competitive species are ubiquitous. Many theoretical studies have been carried out to investigate the coexistence of a few competitive species and in most cases they suggest competitive exclusion. Theoretical studies have revealed that coexistence of even three or four species can be extremely difficult. It has been suggested that the coexistence of many species has been achieved by the fine differences in suitable microhabitats for each species, attributing to niche-separation. So far there is no explicit demonstration of such a coexistence in mathematical and simulation studies. Here we built a simple lattice Lotka-Volterra model of competition by incorporating the minute differences of suitable microhabitats for many species. By applying the site variations in species-specific settlement rates of a seedling, we achieved the coexistence of more than 10 species. This result indicates that competition between many species is avoided by the spatial variations in species-specific microhabitats. Our results demonstrate that coexistence of many species becomes possible by the minute differences in microhabitats. This mechanism should be applicable to many vegetation types, such as temperate forests and grasslands. PMID:26483077

  19. Do soil characteristics or microhabitat determine field emergence and success of Bromus tectorum?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newingham, B.A.; Vidiella, P.; Belnap, J.

    2007-01-01

    In southeastern Utah, Bromus tectorum occurs where Hilaria jamesii is dominant and rarely where Stipa hymenoides/S. comata dominate. To determine whether this distribution is due to soil characteristics or microhabitat, we transplanted H. jamesii soil to a Stipa site and vice versa during a severe drought (2001) and a wetter year (2002). Additionally, we planted B. tectorum under H. jamesii and Stipa canopies, with or without H. jamesii litter, and with or without herbivory. Bromus tectorum emergence and biomass in reciprocal transplants were similar at both sites; there were no site differences for all microhabitat treatments. Being under a plant canopy increased emergence in 2001 and decreased survival during 2002. Herbivory decreased emergence in 2001 and decreased survival during 2002. Litter increased emergence only under the canopy in 2001 but did not affect survival in 2002. Survival in 2001 was so low that biomass was unattainable; no microhabitat treatments affected biomass in 2002. We found that soil characteristics and microhabitat affected B. tectorum similarly in H. jamesii and Stipa patches, suggesting that these factors do not explain the association between B. tectorum and H. jamesii. However, these relationships may change during wet years when B. tectorum invasions most often occur. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Microhabitat estimation of an imperiled headwater fish, the Yazoo darter (Etheostoma raneyi), in Coastal Plain streams

    Treesearch

    Ken A. Sterling; Melvin L. Warren

    2017-01-01

    Headwater fishes in the southeastern United States make up much of the fish biodiversity of the region yet many are imperiled. Despite this, the specific habitat requirements of imperiled headwater fishes in lowland Coastal Plain streams have rarely been quantified. Using data collected over three years of seasonal sampling we provide estimates of the microhabitat...

  1. Microhabitat Influence on Larval Fish Assemblages Within Vegetated Beds: Implications for Tubenose Goby Detection and Invasion

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined larval and juvenile fish assemblage structure in relation to microhabitat variables within the St. Louis River estuary, a drowned river mouth of Lake Superior. Fish were sampled in vegetated beds throughout the estuary, across a gradient of vegetation types and densit...

  2. Microhabitat influence on larval fish assemblages within vegetated beds: Implications for restoration

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined larval and juvenile fish assemblage structure in relation to microhabitat variables within the St. Louis River estuary, a drowned river mouth of Lake Superior. Fish were sampled in vegetated beds throughout the estuary, across a gradient of vegetation types and densit...

  3. Constructed microhabitat bundles for sampling fishes and crayfishes in coastal plain streams

    Treesearch

    Melvin L. Warren; A.L. Sheldon; W.R. Haag

    2009-01-01

    We investigated fish and crayfish use of standardized, constructed microhabitats (bundles) in three northern Mississippi streams. Cypress Creek and the Little Tallahatchie Canal were channelized and incised and had little woody cover; Puskus Creek was unchannelized and unincised and had abundant woody cover. We constructed three types of bundles (cane, leaf, and string...

  4. Changing Patterns of Microhabitat Utilization by the Threespot Damselfish, Stegastes planifrons, on Caribbean Reefs

    PubMed Central

    Precht, William F.; Aronson, Richard B.; Moody, Ryan M.; Kaufman, Les

    2010-01-01

    Background The threespot damselfish, Stegastes planifrons (Cuvier), is important in mediating interactions among corals, algae, and herbivores on Caribbean coral reefs. The preferred microhabitat of S. planifrons is thickets of the branching staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis. Within the past few decades, mass mortality of A. cervicornis from white-band disease and other factors has rendered this coral a minor ecological component throughout most of its range. Methodology/Principal Findings Survey data from Jamaica (heavily fished), Florida and the Bahamas (moderately fished), the Cayman Islands (lightly to moderately fished), and Belize (lightly fished) indicate that distributional patterns of S. planifrons are positively correlated with live coral cover and topographic complexity. Our results suggest that species-specific microhabitat preferences and the availability of topographically complex microhabitats are more important than the abundance of predatory fish as proximal controls on S. planifrons distribution and abundance. Conclusions/Significance The loss of the primary microhabitat of S. planifrons—A. cervicornis—has forced a shift in the distribution and recruitment of these damselfish onto remaining high-structured corals, especially the Montastraea annularis species complex, affecting coral mortality and algal dynamics throughout the Caribbean. PMID:20520809

  5. Microhabitat and climatic preferences of protosteloid amoebae in a region with a Mediterranean climate.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, María; Spiegel, Frederick W; Lado, Carlos

    2011-08-01

    The role of microhabitat and climate variation in structuring protosteloid amoebae communities has been investigated for the first time in the Mediterranean Basin, a biodiversity hotspot for plants and animals and the largest of the world's five areas with a Mediterranean climate. Abundance data were obtained from natural substrates collected in 13 localities from central Spain, and a total of 1,504 colonies and 18 species were recorded. For this new area, it has been carried out an optimization of the culturing effort based on rarefaction analyses, thus making possible to adapt the protocol to the objectives in future research. Canonical correspondence analysis and generalized linear models showed that microhabitat type was the most important factor for differentiating the niches of the species studied, but climatic variables, especially minimum temperature of the coldest month, precipitation seasonality, and temperature range, had secondary but also important effects. Bark inhabitants tend to be more abundant in localities with high temperature range and low annual precipitation. Aerial litter was the microhabitat with the highest species richness, abundance, and evenness. Species typical of this microhabitat are more abundant when there is high precipitation, low temperature of the warmest month, and low minimum temperature of the coldest month.

  6. Understanding lizard's microhabitat use based on a mechanistic model of behavioral thermoregulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Teng; Venus, Valentijn; Toxopeus, Bert; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Schlerf, Martin; Liu, Yaolin; van Overdijk, Sjef; Bian, Meng

    2008-12-01

    Lizards are an "excellent group of organisms" to examine the habitat and microhabitat use mainly because their ecology and physiology is well studied. Due to their behavioral body temperature regulation, the thermal environment is especially linked with their habitat use. In this study, for mapping and understanding lizard's distribution at microhabitat scale, an individual of Timon Lepidus was kept and monitored in a terrarium (245×120×115cm) in which sand, rocks, burrows, hatching chambers, UV-lamps, fog generators and heating devices were placed to simulate its natural habitat. Optical cameras, thermal cameras and other data loggers were fixed and recording the lizard's body temperature, ground surface temperature, air temperature, radiation and other important environmental parameters. By analysis the data collected, we propose a Cellular Automata (CA) model by which the movement of lizards is simulated and translated into their distribution. This paper explores the capabilities of applying GIS techniques to thermoregulatory activity studies in a microhabitat-scale. We conclude that microhabitat use of lizards can be explained in some degree by the rule based CA model.

  7. Microhabitat locality allows multi-species coexistence in terrestrial plant communities.

    PubMed

    Tubay, Jerrold M; Suzuki, Keisuke; Uehara, Takashi; Kakishima, Satoshi; Ito, Hiromu; Ishida, Atsushi; Yoshida, Katsuhiko; Mori, Shigeta; Rabajante, Jomar F; Morita, Satoru; Yokozawa, Masayuki; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-10-20

    Most terrestrial plant communities exhibit relatively high species diversity and many competitive species are ubiquitous. Many theoretical studies have been carried out to investigate the coexistence of a few competitive species and in most cases they suggest competitive exclusion. Theoretical studies have revealed that coexistence of even three or four species can be extremely difficult. It has been suggested that the coexistence of many species has been achieved by the fine differences in suitable microhabitats for each species, attributing to niche-separation. So far there is no explicit demonstration of such a coexistence in mathematical and simulation studies. Here we built a simple lattice Lotka-Volterra model of competition by incorporating the minute differences of suitable microhabitats for many species. By applying the site variations in species-specific settlement rates of a seedling, we achieved the coexistence of more than 10 species. This result indicates that competition between many species is avoided by the spatial variations in species-specific microhabitats. Our results demonstrate that coexistence of many species becomes possible by the minute differences in microhabitats. This mechanism should be applicable to many vegetation types, such as temperate forests and grasslands.

  8. Sustainable Supplier Performance Evaluation and Selection with Neofuzzy TOPSIS Method

    PubMed Central

    Chaharsooghi, S. K.; Ashrafi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Supplier selection plays an important role in the supply chain management and traditional criteria such as price, quality, and flexibility are considered for supplier performance evaluation in researches. In recent years sustainability has received more attention in the supply chain management literature with triple bottom line (TBL) describing the sustainability in supply chain management with social, environmental, and economic initiatives. This paper explores sustainability in supply chain management and examines the problem of identifying a new model for supplier selection based on extended model of TBL approach in supply chain by presenting fuzzy multicriteria method. Linguistic values of experts' subjective preferences are expressed with fuzzy numbers and Neofuzzy TOPSIS is proposed for finding the best solution of supplier selection problem. Numerical results show that the proposed model is efficient for integrating sustainability in supplier selection problem. The importance of using complimentary aspects of sustainability and Neofuzzy TOPSIS concept in sustainable supplier selection process is shown with sensitivity analysis. PMID:27379267

  9. Sustainable Supplier Performance Evaluation and Selection with Neofuzzy TOPSIS Method.

    PubMed

    Chaharsooghi, S K; Ashrafi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Supplier selection plays an important role in the supply chain management and traditional criteria such as price, quality, and flexibility are considered for supplier performance evaluation in researches. In recent years sustainability has received more attention in the supply chain management literature with triple bottom line (TBL) describing the sustainability in supply chain management with social, environmental, and economic initiatives. This paper explores sustainability in supply chain management and examines the problem of identifying a new model for supplier selection based on extended model of TBL approach in supply chain by presenting fuzzy multicriteria method. Linguistic values of experts' subjective preferences are expressed with fuzzy numbers and Neofuzzy TOPSIS is proposed for finding the best solution of supplier selection problem. Numerical results show that the proposed model is efficient for integrating sustainability in supplier selection problem. The importance of using complimentary aspects of sustainability and Neofuzzy TOPSIS concept in sustainable supplier selection process is shown with sensitivity analysis.

  10. Site selection and containment evaluation for LLNL nuclear events

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, C.W.

    1993-06-01

    During approximately the past decade, the site selection process at LLNL has evolved as the Test Program needs and resources have changed, containment practices have been modified, and the DOE and other regulatory agencies have become more restrictive. Throughout this period the Containment Program and the Field Operations Program at LLNL have managed a cooperative effort to improve site selection. The site selection process actually is three inter-related tasks, namely, selection of a stockpile hole for a specific nuclear test, selection of a drill site for a stockpile hole, and selection of a new drill site for a specific test. Each proposed site is carefully reviewed for known or projected geologic structure and medium properties, nearby holes, containment experience in the region, likelihood of drilling problems, programmatic need for a given depth of hole, and scheduling of Test Program events and resources. By using our data bank, our general knowledge of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) geology, and other information sources, as well as our background in drilling large diameter holes at the NTS, we have been able to optimize our use of NTS real estate and programmatic resources. The containment evaluation of a site is facilitated by considering the location before the hole is drilled. Discuss imposed restraints and our criteria and guidelines for site selection and assignment of events to specific holes, along with the factors that influence selection of a Working Point (WP) depth. Since siting and containment evaluation are strongly related, most major factors related to the containment evaluation process will also be reviewed.

  11. Selecting an E-(Text)Book: Evaluation Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marczak, Mariusz

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to propose a repository of pre-use evaluation criteria for language teachers who wish to introduce e-books or e-textbooks to their own teaching practices. By selectively using a set of such criteria, they will be able to evaluate to what extent a given e-book/e-textbook lends itself to utilisation within their own teaching context.…

  12. Evaluation Echoes; A Teachers Guide for Selecting Bilingual Education Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rican Congress of New Jersey, Trenton.

    In this teacher's guide for selecting bilingual education materials, program materials are evaluated for the following subject areas: English language arts, Spanish language arts, fine arts, social studies, science and mathematics. A general profile matrix covering all programs and subjects appears at the beginning of the guide. It provides for…

  13. 10 CFR 605.10 - Application evaluation and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application evaluation and selection. 605.10 Section 605.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS THE OFFICE OF ENERGY RESEARCH..., that the proposed effort is technically sound and feasible, and that the effort is consistent with...

  14. 10 CFR 605.10 - Application evaluation and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application evaluation and selection. 605.10 Section 605.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS THE OFFICE OF ENERGY RESEARCH..., that the proposed effort is technically sound and feasible, and that the effort is consistent with...

  15. 10 CFR 605.10 - Application evaluation and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application evaluation and selection. 605.10 Section 605.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS THE OFFICE OF ENERGY RESEARCH..., that the proposed effort is technically sound and feasible, and that the effort is consistent with...

  16. Selected Sewing Machines Evaluated for Use by Blind Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Nora M.; Huffman, Vera J.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a study using blind high school students and a repeated subject design to evaluate six selected sewing machines. The major purposes were to compare and analyze specific sewing machine features and to determine the machines' overall ease of performance when operated by blind students. (CT)

  17. Software Selection, Evaluation and Organization [and] Software Reviews. Article Reprints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Computing Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This collection of reprints from The Computing Teacher contains 11 articles on the selection, evaluation, and organization of software published between August 1983 and March 1986, as well as more than 20 reviews of educational software packages published between December 1982 and June 1986. The articles are: (1) "The New Wave of Educational…

  18. Software Selection, Evaluation and Organization [and] Software Reviews. Article Reprints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Computing Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This collection of reprints from The Computing Teacher contains 11 articles on the selection, evaluation, and organization of software published between August 1983 and March 1986, as well as more than 20 reviews of educational software packages published between December 1982 and June 1986. The articles are: (1) "The New Wave of Educational…

  19. 12 CFR 1805.700 - Evaluation and selection-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 1805.700 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Evaluation and Selection of Applications... and in a fair and consistent manner; (b) Take into consideration the unique characteristics of...

  20. 7 CFR 4280.42 - Application evaluation and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Programs § 4280.42 Application evaluation and selection. (a) Rural Development will...) Nature of the Project. Rural Development will award up to 60 points based on whether the Project: (i) Is...

  1. Selection and Evaluation of Alternative Teaching Methods in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterman, Dean N.

    College teachers are seeking alternatives to the conventional lecture as a means of teaching students. This paper presents five alternative teaching methods and their advantages and disadvantages. It describes a program for instructional method selection design and includes an evaluation matrix for the five methods. The methods examined are the…

  2. Evaluation and Selection of a Data-Base Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Michael; White, Bard F.

    1974-01-01

    Based on existing literature and user experience, the systematic approach to data base evaluation presented here provides a method by which data processing administrators can optimize the probability of selecting the data base management system best suited for their institution. (Author/WM)

  3. Evaluating variable selection methods for diagnosis of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Dreiseitl, S.; Ohno-Machado, L.; Vinterbo, S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper evaluates the variable selection performed by several machine-learning techniques on a myocardial infarction data set. The focus of this work is to determine which of 43 input variables are considered relevant for prediction of myocardial infarction. The algorithms investigated were logistic regression (with stepwise, forward, and backward selection), backpropagation for multilayer perceptrons (input relevance determination), Bayesian neural networks (automatic relevance determination), and rough sets. An independent method (self-organizing maps) was then used to evaluate and visualize the different subsets of predictor variables. Results show good agreement on some predictors, but also variability among different methods; only one variable was selected by all models. Images Figure 1 PMID:10566358

  4. Evaluation of Stress Loaded Steel Samples Using Selected Electromagnetic Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Chady, T.

    2004-02-26

    In this paper the magnetic leakage flux and eddy current method were used to evaluate changes of materials' properties caused by stress. Seven samples made of ferromagnetic material with different level of applied stress were prepared. First, the leakage magnetic fields were measured by scanning the surface of the specimens with GMR gradiometer. Next, the same samples were evaluated using an eddy current sensor. A comparison between results obtained from both methods was carried out. Finally, selected parameters of the measured signal were calculated and utilized to evaluate level of the applied stress. A strong coincidence between amount of the applied stress and the maximum amplitude of the derivative was confirmed.

  5. Increasing systematicity leads to better selection decisions: Evidence from a computer paradigm for evaluating selection tools

    PubMed Central

    Björklund, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    A computerized paradigm was created to allow for testing in the laboratory whether increasing systematicity helps the recruiter make better selection decisions. Participants were introduced to the job and the applicants on the computer screen and asked to select who they thought should be considered for the job and who should not. Level of systematicity, i.e. the extent to which the recruitment is methodical and uses prepared tools, was manipulated between subjects. Depending on experimental condition participants were helped by means of a tool for extracting judgment criteria (job analysis) and a tool for making judgments related to selected criteria (including calculation of a final score). The general prediction that increased systematicity leads to the selection of more qualified candidates was supported by the results, particularly when the motivation to put time and effort into the task was higher. The results support the claim from Industrial/Organizational psychologists that systematicity is a desirable characteristic in selection processes. The fact that increasing systematicity led to better selection decisions in a controlled laboratory experiment, along with process-related measures, suggests that this kind of paradigm could be useful when evaluating new tools for improving selection decisions, before they are tested in large (and costly) field studies of actual personnel selection. PMID:28542456

  6. Evaluation of selection criteria for graduate students in radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Schneider-Kolsky, Michal; Wright, Caroline; Baird, Marilyn

    2006-12-01

    Selection of suitable students into graduate medical and specialist health professional courses can be difficult. Historically, selection of students was primarily based on prior academic performance. Recently, however, more emphasis has been placed on considering broader academic backgrounds and personal characteristics and attitudes of students, but no reliable measurement tool is available to predict student success and satisfaction with their choice of profession. The aim of this study was to survey practising radiation therapists in Australia to seek their opinions regarding suitable selection criteria for graduate entry radiation therapy (RT) students in order to optimize selection procedures for future applicants. Four hundred questionnaires were sent to nine RT centres in three states within Australia. All nine clinics participated in the survey and 189 questionnaires were returned. Results show that the majority of radiation therapists place a high level of importance upon a sound knowledge of physics and mathematics, as well as life experience, and agree that a visit to an RT clinic plus an interview comprise important components of the selection process. Humanities, psychology and a psychometric test were not viewed as essential entry requirements. Experienced radiation therapists placed less value on academic performance in the primary degree and were more likely to include an interview as a selection criterion than junior practitioners. Empathy for patients was identified as the most important personal attribute. It is thus recommended that not only cognitive but also personal skills be evaluated during the selection of prospective radiation therapists.

  7. Evolution of sexual dimorphism in the digit ratio 2D:4D--relationships with body size and microhabitat use in iguanian lizards.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Camilla M; Kohlsdorf, Tiana

    2011-01-01

    The ratio between lengths of digit II and IV (digit ratio 2D:4D) is a morphological feature that likely affects tetrapod locomotor performances in different microhabitats. Modifications of this trait may be triggered by changes in steroids concentrations during embryo development, which might reflect direct selection acting on digit ratio or be solely a consequence of hormonal differences related for example to body size. Here we apply both conventional and phylogenetic analyses on morphological data from 25 lizard species of 3 families of Iguania (Iguanidae, Polychrotidae, and Tropiduridae), in order to verify whether selective pressures related to locomotion in different microhabitats could override the prenatal developmental cues imposed on the digit ratio 2D:4D by differences in body size between males and females. Data suggest that this trait evolved in association with ecological divergence in the species studied, despite the clear effect of body size on the digit ratio 2D:4D. The ecological associations of size-corrected digit ratios were restricted to one sex, and females of species that often use perches exhibited small digit ratios in the front limbs, which translated into larger sexual dimorphism indexes of arboreal species. The results, together with the subsequent discussion, provide outlines for further investigation about possible developmental mechanisms related to the evolution of adaptive changes in digit lengths that may have occurred during the evolution of ecological divergence in squamates.

  8. Evolution of Sexual Dimorphism in the Digit Ratio 2D:4D - Relationships with Body Size and Microhabitat Use in Iguanian Lizards

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Camilla M.; Kohlsdorf, Tiana

    2011-01-01

    The ratio between lengths of digit II and IV (digit ratio 2D:4D) is a morphological feature that likely affects tetrapod locomotor performances in different microhabitats. Modifications of this trait may be triggered by changes in steroids concentrations during embryo development, which might reflect direct selection acting on digit ratio or be solely a consequence of hormonal differences related for example to body size. Here we apply both conventional and phylogenetic analyses on morphological data from 25 lizard species of 3 families of Iguania (Iguanidae, Polychrotidae, and Tropiduridae), in order to verify whether selective pressures related to locomotion in different microhabitats could override the prenatal developmental cues imposed on the digit ratio 2D:4D by differences in body size between males and females. Data suggest that this trait evolved in association with ecological divergence in the species studied, despite the clear effect of body size on the digit ratio 2D:4D. The ecological associations of size-corrected digit ratios were restricted to one sex, and females of species that often use perches exhibited small digit ratios in the front limbs, which translated into larger sexual dimorphism indexes of arboreal species. The results, together with the subsequent discussion, provide outlines for further investigation about possible developmental mechanisms related to the evolution of adaptive changes in digit lengths that may have occurred during the evolution of ecological divergence in squamates. PMID:22162772

  9. Surgery resident selection and evaluation. A critical incident study.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J C; Currie, M L; Wade, T P; Kaminski, D L

    1993-03-01

    This article reports a study of the process of selecting and evaluating general surgery residents. In personnel psychology terms, a job analysis of general surgery was conducted using the Critical Incident Technique (CIT). The researchers collected 235 critical incidents through structured interviews with 10 general surgery faculty members and four senior residents. The researchers then directed the surgeons in a two-step process of sorting the incidents into categories and naming the categories. The final essential categories of behavior to define surgical competence were derived through discussion among the surgeons until a consensus was formed. Those categories are knowledge/self-education, clinical performance, diagnostic skills, surgical skills, communication skills, reliability, integrity, compassion, organization skills, motivation, emotional control, and personal appearance. These categories were then used to develop an interview evaluation form for selection purposes and a performance evaluation form to be used throughout residency training. Thus a continuum of evaluation was established. The categories and critical incidents were also used to structure the interview process, which has demonstrated increased interview validity and reliability in many other studies. A handbook for structuring the interviews faculty members conduct with applicants was written, and an interview training session was held with the faculty. The process of implementation of the structured selection interviews is being documented currently through qualitative research.

  10. Spatial variability in community composition on a granite breakwater versus natural rocky shores: lack of microhabitats suppresses intertidal biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Moisés A; Broitman, Bernardo R; Thiel, Martin

    2014-10-15

    Strong differences have been observed between the assemblages on artificial reefs and on natural hard-bottom habitats worldwide, but little is known about the mechanisms that cause contrasting biodiversity patterns. We examined the influence of spatial attributes in relation to both biogenic and topographic microhabitats, in the distribution and composition of intertidal species on both artificial and natural reefs. We found higher small-scale spatial heterogeneity on the natural reef compared with the study breakwater. Species richness and diversity were associated with a higher availability of crevices, rock pools and mussels in natural habitats. Spatial distribution of certain grazers corresponded well with the spatial structure of microhabitats. In contrast, the lack of microhabitats on the breakwater resulted in the absence of several grazers reflected in lower species richness. Biogenic and topographic microhabitats can have interactive effects providing niche opportunities for multiple species, explaining differences in species diversity between artificial versus natural reefs.

  11. Presence of Symbiodinium spp. in macroalgal microhabitats from the southern Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venera-Ponton, D. E.; Diaz-Pulido, G.; Rodriguez-Lanetty, M.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.

    2010-12-01

    Coral reefs are highly dependent on the mutualistic symbiosis between reef-building corals and dinoflagellates from the genus Symbiodinium. These dinoflagellates spend part of their life cycle outside the coral host and in the majority of the cases have to re-infect corals each generation. While considerable insight has been gained about Symbiodinium in corals, little is known about the ecology and biology of Symbiodinium in other reef microhabitats. This study documents Symbiodinium associating with benthic macroalgae on the southern Great Barrier Reef, including some Symbiodinium that are genetically close to the symbiotic strains from reef-building corals. It is possible that some of these Symbiodinium were in hospite, associated to soritid foraminifera or ciliates; nevertheless, the presence of Symbiodinium C3 and C15 in macroalgal microhabitats may also suggest a potential link between communities of Symbiodinium associating with both coral hosts and macroalgae.

  12. Resistance to Acarapis woodi by honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae): divergent selection and evaluation of selection progress.

    PubMed

    Nasr, M E; Otis, G W; Scott-Dupree, C D

    2001-04-01

    Two generations of honey bees, Apis mellifera L., selected for resistance to tracheal mites, Acarapis woodi (Rennie), were produced from a foundation stock. The mite resistant lines had significantly low mite abundances and prevalences in each selected generation. The high mite-resistant lines of the first selected generation showed resistance equal to that of bees that had undergone natural selection from tracheal mite infestations for 3 yr in New York. Additionally, the high mite-resistant lines of the second selected generation and Buckfast bees had significantly lower mite abundances and prevalences than honey bees from control colonies which had never been exposed to tracheal mite infestation in Ontario. These results corroborate studies that have shown that honey bees possess genetic components for tracheal mite resistance that can be readily enhanced in a breeding program. The two methods used for evaluating relative resistance of honey bees to tracheal mites, a short-term bioassay and evaluation in field colonies, were positively correlated (rs = 0.64, P < 0.001).

  13. Evaluation of monograph selection in a health sciences library.

    PubMed Central

    Fenske, R E

    1994-01-01

    This article reports on an evaluation of recent monograph selections in a small academic health sciences library. Actual use of each new book was determined from date-due slips. Data were analyzed by broad subject, discipline, and number of uses. The startling result was that more than 60% of recent selections had been used little or not at all. To determine factors affecting use, the author examined aggregate data, used intuition, and assessed the raw data in more detail. Recommendations made to management were approved and implemented. The study bolstered confidence that it is possible to select materials with the highest potential for use and to depend on remote access for other needed works. It is suggested that other health sciences libraries undertake such studies and question the need to strive for comprehensive collections. PMID:7920335

  14. Bacterial, Archaeal, and Eukaryotic Diversity across Distinct Microhabitats in an Acid Mine Drainage.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Victoria; Gallego, Jose L R; González-Gil, Ricardo; Lauga, Béatrice; Sánchez, Jesús; Méndez-García, Celia; Peláez, Ana I

    2017-01-01

    Acid mine drainages are characterized by their low pH and the presence of dissolved toxic metallic species. Microorganisms survive in different microhabitats within the ecosystem, namely water, sediments, and biofilms. In this report, we surveyed the microbial diversity within all domains of life in the different microhabitats at Los Rueldos abandoned mercury underground mine (NW Spain), and predicted bacterial function based on community composition. Sediment samples contained higher proportions of soil bacteria (AD3, Acidobacteria), as well as Crenarchaeota and Methanomassiliicoccaceae archaea. Oxic and hypoxic biofilm samples were enriched in bacterial iron oxidizers from the genus Leptospirillum, order Acidithiobacillales, class Betaproteobacteria, and archaea from the class Thermoplasmata. Water samples were enriched in Cyanobacteria and Thermoplasmata archaea at a 3-98% of the sunlight influence, whilst Betaproteobacteria, Thermoplasmata archaea, and Micrarchaea dominated in acid water collected in total darkness. Stalactites hanging from the Fe-rich mine ceiling were dominated by the neutrophilic iron oxidizer Gallionella and other lineages that were absent in the rest of the microhabitats (e.g., Chlorobi, Chloroflexi). Eukaryotes were detected in biofilms and open-air water samples, and belonged mainly to clades SAR (Alveolata and Stramenopiles), and Opisthokonta (Fungi). Oxic and hypoxic biofilms displayed higher proportions of ciliates (Gonostomum, Oxytricha), whereas water samples were enriched in fungi (Paramicrosporidium and unknown microbial Helotiales). Predicted function through bacterial community composition suggested adaptive evolutive convergence of function in heterogeneous communities. Our study showcases a broad description of the microbial diversity across different microhabitats in the same environment and expands the knowledge on the diversity of microbial eukaryotes in AMD habitats.

  15. Bacterial, Archaeal, and Eukaryotic Diversity across Distinct Microhabitats in an Acid Mine Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Mesa, Victoria; Gallego, Jose L. R.; González-Gil, Ricardo; Lauga, Béatrice; Sánchez, Jesús; Méndez-García, Celia; Peláez, Ana I.

    2017-01-01

    Acid mine drainages are characterized by their low pH and the presence of dissolved toxic metallic species. Microorganisms survive in different microhabitats within the ecosystem, namely water, sediments, and biofilms. In this report, we surveyed the microbial diversity within all domains of life in the different microhabitats at Los Rueldos abandoned mercury underground mine (NW Spain), and predicted bacterial function based on community composition. Sediment samples contained higher proportions of soil bacteria (AD3, Acidobacteria), as well as Crenarchaeota and Methanomassiliicoccaceae archaea. Oxic and hypoxic biofilm samples were enriched in bacterial iron oxidizers from the genus Leptospirillum, order Acidithiobacillales, class Betaproteobacteria, and archaea from the class Thermoplasmata. Water samples were enriched in Cyanobacteria and Thermoplasmata archaea at a 3–98% of the sunlight influence, whilst Betaproteobacteria, Thermoplasmata archaea, and Micrarchaea dominated in acid water collected in total darkness. Stalactites hanging from the Fe-rich mine ceiling were dominated by the neutrophilic iron oxidizer Gallionella and other lineages that were absent in the rest of the microhabitats (e.g., Chlorobi, Chloroflexi). Eukaryotes were detected in biofilms and open-air water samples, and belonged mainly to clades SAR (Alveolata and Stramenopiles), and Opisthokonta (Fungi). Oxic and hypoxic biofilms displayed higher proportions of ciliates (Gonostomum, Oxytricha), whereas water samples were enriched in fungi (Paramicrosporidium and unknown microbial Helotiales). Predicted function through bacterial community composition suggested adaptive evolutive convergence of function in heterogeneous communities. Our study showcases a broad description of the microbial diversity across different microhabitats in the same environment and expands the knowledge on the diversity of microbial eukaryotes in AMD habitats. PMID:28955322

  16. Evaluation of transmittance of selected infrared bands. [of air pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, S. K.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1976-01-01

    Computer programs were developed for evaluating homogeneous path transmittance with line-by-line and quasi-random band model formulations. Spectral transmittances for some selected bands of different gases (CO, N2O, CO2, H2O) were obtained using these programs. Results of theoretical computations are compared with available experimental measurements. Significant errors are observed in the results obtained from a quasi-random band model formulation, indicating that it is inadequate to meet the accuracy requirements for atmospheric work.

  17. Enhanced evaluation of selective androgen receptor modulators in vivo.

    PubMed

    Otto-Duessel, M; He, M; Adamson, T W; Jones, J O

    2013-01-01

    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are a class of drugs that control the activity of the androgen receptor (AR), which mediates the response to androgens, in a tissue-selective fashion. They are specifically designed to reduce the possible complications that result from the systemic inhibition or activation of AR in patients with diseases that involve androgen signalling. However, there are no ideal in vivo models for evaluating candidate SARMs. Therefore, we created a panel of androgen-responsive genes in clinically relevant AR expressing tissues including prostate, skin, bone, fat, muscle, brain and kidney. We used select genes from this panel to compare transcriptional changes in response to the full agonist dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and the SARM bolandiol at 16 h and 6 weeks. We identified several genes in each tissue whose expression at each of these time points correlates with the known tissue-specific effects of these compounds. For example, in the prostate we found four genes whose expression was much lower in animals treated with bolandiol compared with animals treated with DHT for 6 weeks, which correlated well with differences in prostate weight. We demonstrate that adding molecular measurements (androgen-regulated gene expression) to the traditional physiological measurements (tissue weights, etc.) makes the evaluation of potential SARMs more accurate, thorough and perhaps more rapid by allowing measurement of selectivity after only 16 h of drug treatment. © 2012 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  18. Enhanced Evaluation of Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Otto-Duessel, Maya; He, Miaoling; Adamson, Trinka W.; Jones, Jeremy O.

    2014-01-01

    Selective AR modulators (SARMs) are a class of drugs that control the activity of the androgen receptor (AR), which mediates the response to androgens, in a tissue-selective fashion. They are specifically designed to reduce the possible complications that result from the systemic inhibition or activation of AR in patients with diseases that involve androgen signaling. However, there are no ideal in vivo models for evaluating candidate SARMs. Therefore, we created a panel of androgen responsive genes in clinically-relevant AR expressing tissues including prostate, skin, bone, fat, muscle, brain, and kidney. We used select genes from this panel to compare transcriptional changes in response to the full agonist dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and the SARM bolandiol at 16h and 6wks. We identified several genes in each tissue whose expression at each of these time points correlates with the known tissue-specific effects of these compounds. For example, in the prostate we found four genes whose expression was much lower in animals treated with bolandiol compared to animals treated with DHT for 6wks, which correlated well with differences in prostate weight. We demonstrate that adding molecular measurements (androgen regulated gene expression) to the traditional physiological measurements (tissue weights, etc) makes the evaluation of potential SARMs more accurate, thorough, and perhaps more rapid by allowing measurement of selectivity after only 16 hours of drug treatment. PMID:23258627

  19. Evaluating local food programs: the case of Select Nova Scotia.

    PubMed

    Knight, Andrew J

    2013-02-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of the buy local food program Select Nova Scotia; a government program with the goal to increase awareness and consumption of Nova Scotia produced and processed agri-food products by Nova Scotians and visitors. The evaluation methodology was based on prior evaluation resources and local food consumer research. Data were gathered through a web panel survey; 877 respondents completed the survey in June 2010. The results suggest that the program is reaching a wider audience than just those predisposed to local food initiatives. In addition, awareness of Select Nova was related to perceptions of local benefits and barriers, as well as purchase motivation and behavior. Respondents who were aware of Select Nova Scotia rated societal benefits as more important and viewed location and price as less of a barrier; they were also more likely to be highly motivated to purchase local foods. This study also informs results found in previous consumer research studies and identifies marketing opportunities to enhance the effectiveness of local food programs. The results suggest that societal benefits might be used as a way to differentiate products with similar attributes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Characteristics of foliar delta13C values of common shrub species in various microhabitats with different karst rocky desertification degrees].

    PubMed

    Du, Xue-Lian; Wang, Shi-Jie; Rong, Li

    2011-12-01

    By measuring the foliar delta13C values of 5 common shrub species (Rhamnus davurica, Pyracantha fortuneana, Rubus biflorus, Zanthoxylum planispinum, and Viburnum utile) growing in various microhabitats in Wangjiazhai catchment, a typical karst desertification area in Guizhou Province, this paper studied the spatial heterogeneity of plant water use at niche scale and the response of the heterogeneity to different karst rocky desertification degrees. The foliar delta13C values of the shrub species in the microhabitats followed the order of stony surface > stony gully > stony crevice > soil surface, and those of the majority of the species were more negative in the microhabitat soil surface than in the others. The foliar delta13C values decreased in the sequence of V. utile > R. biflorus > Z. planispinum > P. fortuneana > R. davurica, and the mean foliar delta13C value of the shrubs and that of typical species in various microhabitats all increased with increasing karst rocky desertification degree, differed significantly among different microhabitats. It was suggested that with the increasing degree of karst rocky desertification, the structure and functions of karst habitats were impaired, microhabitats differentiated gradually, and drought degree increased.

  1. Microhabitat resource use, activity patterns, and episodic catastrophe: Conus on tropical intertidal reef rock benches

    SciTech Connect

    Leviten, P.J.; Kohn, A.J.

    1980-03-01

    Low species richness (five to nine species) and high population density (means of 0.2-8.6 individuals per square metre) characterize Conus assemblages on intertidal benches throughout the tropical Indo-West Pacific region. Data from 16 such habitats in Hawaii, Marshall Islands, Australia, Maldives, and Seychelles indicate that similarity of microhabitats between species is equal to or greater than random expectation. Significant between-species differences in zonation pattern occur across benches at a given time and place. The peak of C. ebraeus abundance typically occurs closest to shore; C. chaldaeus and C. sponsalis are usually most distant from shore. However, we found about as many significant within-species differences between censuses made at different times on the same bench as between-species differences within censuses. Co-occurring species thus tend not to use microhabitat resources differentially. Physical environmental variables including tide level, strength of water flow and time of day determine refuging and foraging activity patterns, and all species apear to respond similarly to these factors. The data thus do not support the hypothesis of temporal resource partitioning. We found evidence neither for homing, as mark-recapture results suggested that individuals occupy any convenient refuge after foraging, nor for interference competition for protected sites among Conus. Conus species diversity is significantly correlated with (1) substrate topographic diversity measured either independently or as the diversity of microhabitats utilized by all species together, and (2) the proportion of individuals occupying protected sites.

  2. The interplay between claw morphology and microhabitat use in neotropical iguanian lizards.

    PubMed

    Tulli, M J; Cruz, F B; Herrel, A; Vanhooydonck, B; Abdala, V

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, it has been suggested that variation in locomotor mode should be correlated with variation in the anatomy of the structures responsible for locomotion. Indeed, organisms can expand their ecological niche by using specialized traits of the locomotor system including hooks, claws, adhesive pads, etc. Despite the fact that claws are the most common biological mechanism of clinging in vertebrates, little is known about their function or evolutionary relationship to habitat use. The present study focuses on claw morphology in 57 species of iguanian lizards occupying different microhabitats. Qualitative differences in claw shape were explored by means of digital photographs, and quantitative measurements of the length, height and curvature of the claws of both fingers and toes were taken and correlated to information on microhabitat use obtained from the literature. Our analyses showed a strong phylogenetic component that obscured relationships between morphology and ecology. Our results also show differences in claw morphology between species that appear to be related to microhabitat use (climbing versus terrestrial species), with the best ecological descriptors being claw length and height. Performance measures and biomechanical analyses of claw function may consequently be better suited to explain the evolution of claw shape in relation to habitat use in this group.

  3. Metazoan ectoparasites of Atlantic mackerel, Scomber scombrus (Teleostei: Scombridae): macro- and microhabitat distribution.

    PubMed

    Castro, Ricardo; Santos, Maria João

    2013-10-01

    Parasites are affected by the environment where their hosts live, having a specific distribution among their hosts and occupying a well-defined microhabitat. The present work aims to describe the metazoan ectoparasite fauna of Scomber scombrus, namely its distribution at the macro- and microhabitat levels. For that, fish from two different Portuguese regions, Matosinhos (n = 40) and Figueira da Foz (n = 39), were examined for macroectoparasites. S. scombrus of Matosinhos presented four different parasite species, whilst fish from Figueira da Foz presented five species. All parasites belonged to Monogenea, Copepoda, or Isopoda. The main differences between infection levels of fish from the two localities were found in Grubea cochlear (higher infection levels in Matosinhos) and Caligus pelamydis (where the highest values were found in Figueira da Foz). Regarding the microhabitat of the reported ectoparasites, it could be seen that every species has a very specific distribution within the host: G. cochlear and Kuhnia scombri have a preference for the inner medial areas of gills, Kuhnia sprostonae for the pseudobranchs, and C. pelamydis for the internal wall of opercula. The numerical and functional responses to interspecific competition were absent. These results support the idea that the parasite driving forces of community structure are the reinforcement of reproductive barriers and the enhancement of chances to mate.

  4. Subjective evaluation criterion for selecting affective features and modeling highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Liyuan; Yu, Hua; Huang, Qingming; Ye, Qixiang; Divakaran, Ajay

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a subjective evaluation criterion which is a guide for selecting affective features and modeling highlights. Firstly, the database of highlights ground truth is established, and both the randomness of the data set and the preparation of the subjects are considered. Secondly, commonly used affective features including visual, audio and editing features are extracted to express the highlights. Thirdly, subjective evaluation criterion is proposed based on the analysis of the average error method and pairwise comparisons method, especially the rationality of this criterion in our specific application is explained clearly according to the three detailed issues. Finally, evaluation experiments are designed on tennis and table tennis as examples. Based on the experiments, we prove that previous works on affective features and linear model highlights are effective. Furthermore, 82.0% (79.3%) affective accuracy is obtained fully automatically by computer which is a marvelous highlights ranking result. This result shows the subjective evaluation criterion is well designed for selecting affective features and modeling highlights.

  5. Evaluation of an ion-selective electrolyte analyzer: Microlyte 6.

    PubMed

    Markova, V; Sirakova, I; Tsvetkova, T; Nikolov, R

    1997-01-01

    Microlyte 6 (Kone, Finland) is an ion-selective analyzer designed to measure simultaneously the concentration of six important electrolyte parameters--potassium, sodium, chloride, ionized calcium, ionized magnesium and pH in whole blood, serum and plasma. Two values are obtained in analyzing the ionized fractions of magnesium and calcium--one at the actual pH and another at a recalculated measurement for pH = 7.4. Direct determination of ionized calcium and ionized magnesium simultaneously with that of the other electrolytes is of great clinical significance. It is only recently that ion-selective analysis of ionized magnesium has been proposed. The analytical reliability of the results and the operational characteristics of the Microlyte 6 ion-selective analyzer were evaluated for approximately one year. The coefficient of variation of the results in the reference and pathological range was 0.49%-2.23%, and 0.68%-4.42% for the within-run and between-run series, respectively. The inaccuracy of the results expressed by d% was from -4.23% to +4.06%. The comparative evaluation of the results for potassium, sodium, chloride, and ionized calcium between Microlyte-6 and the clinical chemistry analyzer Dynamic (Kone) showed a high correlation (correlation coefficient in the range 0.9868-0.9970). The correlation between the results for the ionized fraction and those obtained for total magnesium was consistent with that generally given in the literature.

  6. Empirical evaluation of oligonucleotide probe selection for DNA microarrays.

    PubMed

    Mulle, Jennifer G; Patel, Viren C; Warren, Stephen T; Hegde, Madhuri R; Cutler, David J; Zwick, Michael E

    2010-03-29

    DNA-based microarrays are increasingly central to biomedical research. Selecting oligonucleotide sequences that will behave consistently across experiments is essential to the design, production and performance of DNA microarrays. Here our aim was to improve on probe design parameters by empirically and systematically evaluating probe performance in a multivariate context. We used experimental data from 19 array CGH hybridizations to assess the probe performance of 385,474 probes tiled in the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) region of the X chromosome. Our results demonstrate that probe melting temperature, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and homocytosine motifs all have a strong effect on probe behavior. These findings, when incorporated into future microarray probe selection algorithms, may improve microarray performance for a wide variety of applications.

  7. Methodology development for evaluation of selective-fidelity rotorcraft simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, William D.; Schrage, D. P.; Prasad, J. V. R.; Wolfe, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    This paper addressed the initial step toward the goal of establishing performance and handling qualities acceptance criteria for realtime rotorcraft simulators through a planned research effort to quantify the system capabilities of 'selective fidelity' simulators. Within this framework the simulator is then classified based on the required task. The simulator is evaluated by separating the various subsystems (visual, motion, etc.) and applying corresponding fidelity constants based on the specific task. This methodology not only provides an assessment technique, but also provides a technique to determine the required levels of subsystem fidelity for a specific task.

  8. Selection in Coastal Synechococcus (Cyanobacteria) Populations Evaluated from Environmental Metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Vera; Poon, Art F. Y.; Paulsen, Ian T.; Palenik, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Environmental metagenomics provides snippets of genomic sequences from all organisms in an environmental sample and are an unprecedented resource of information for investigating microbial population genetics. Current analytical methods, however, are poorly equipped to handle metagenomic data, particularly of short, unlinked sequences. A custom analytical pipeline was developed to calculate dN/dS ratios, a common metric to evaluate the role of selection in the evolution of a gene, from environmental metagenomes sequenced using 454 technology of flow-sorted populations of marine Synechococcus, the dominant cyanobacteria in coastal environments. The large majority of genes (98%) have evolved under purifying selection (dN/dS<1). The metagenome sequence coverage of the reference genomes was not uniform and genes that were highly represented in the environment (i.e. high read coverage) tended to be more evolutionarily conserved. Of the genes that may have evolved under positive selection (dN/dS>1), 77 out of 83 (93%) were hypothetical. Notable among annotated genes, ribosomal protein L35 appears to be under positive selection in one Synechococcus population. Other annotated genes, in particular a possible porin, a large-conductance mechanosensitive channel, an ATP binding component of an ABC transporter, and a homologue of a pilus retraction protein had regions of the gene with elevated dN/dS. With the increasing use of next-generation sequencing in metagenomic investigations of microbial diversity and ecology, analytical methods need to accommodate the peculiarities of these data streams. By developing a means to analyze population diversity data from these environmental metagenomes, we have provided the first insight into the role of selection in the evolution of Synechococcus, a globally significant primary producer. PMID:21931665

  9. Spawning habitat associations and selection by fishes in a flow-regulated prairie river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brewer, S.K.; Papoulias, D.M.; Rabeni, C.F.

    2006-01-01

    We used histological features to identify the spawning chronologies of river-dwelling populations of slenderhead darter Percina phoxocephala, suckermouth minnow Phenacobius mirabilis, stonecat Noturus flavus, and red shiner Cyprinella lutrensis and to relate their reproductive status to microhabitat associations. We identified spawning and nonspawning differences in habitat associations resulting from I year of field data via logistic regression modeling and identified shifts in microhabitat selection via frequency-of-use and availability histograms. Each species demonstrated different habitat associations between spawning and nonspawning periods. The peak spawning period for slenderhead darters was April to May in high-velocity microhabitats containing cobble. Individuals were associated with similar microhabitats during the postspawn summer and began migrating to deeper habitats in the fall. Most suckermouth minnow spawned from late March through early May in shallow microhabitats. The probability of the presence of these fish in shallow habitats declined postspawn, as fish apparently shifted to deeper habitats. Stonecats conducted prespawn activities in nearshore microhabitats containing large substrates but probably moved to deeper habitats during summer to spawn. Microhabitats with shallow depths containing cobble were associated with the presence of spawning red shiners during the summer. Prespawn fish selected low-velocity microhabitats during the spring, whereas postspawn fish selected habitats similar to the spawning habitat but added a shallow depth component. Hydraulic variables had the most influence on microhabitat models for all of these species, emphasizing the importance of flow in habitat selection by river-dwelling fishes. Histological analyses allowed us to more precisely document the time periods when habitat use is critical to species success. Without evidence demonstrating the functional mechanisms behind habitat associations, protective flows

  10. Evaluation of Strontium Selectivity by Sandia Octahedral Molecular Sieves (SOMS).

    SciTech Connect

    Rigali, Mark J.; Stewart, Thomas Austin

    2016-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has collaborated with Pleasanton Ridge Research Company (PRRC) to determine whether Sandia Octahedral Molecular Sieves (SOMS) and modified SOMs materials can be synthesized in large batches and produced in granular form. Sandia National Laboratories tested these SOMS and its variants based in aqueous chemical environments for an application-based evaluation of material performance as a sorbent. Testing focused primarily on determining the distribution coefficients (K d ) and chemical selectivity SOMs for alkali earth (Sr) ions in aqueous and dilute seawater solutions. In general the well-crystallized SOMS materials tested exhibited very high K d values (>10 6 ) in distilled water but K d values dropped substantially (%7E10 2 -10 3 ) in the dilute seawater (3%). However, one set of SOMS samples (1.4.2 and 1.4.6) provided by PRRC yielded relatively high K d (approaching 10 4 ) in dilute seawater. Further examination of these samples by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the presence of at least two phases at least one of which may be accounting for the improved K d values in dilute seawater. Evaluation of Strontium Selectivity by Sandia Octahedral Molecular Sieves (SOMS) January 20, 2016

  11. Efficient selection and evaluation of transgenic lines of Crambe abyssinica

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueyuan; Fan, Jing; Gruber, Jens; Guan, Rui; Frentzen, Margrit; Zhu, Li-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Crambe abyssinica is a dedicated oilseed crop suitable for production of industrial feedstocks. Genetic modification of crambe has progressed substantially in the last few years, but the transformation efficiency needs to be further improved. Meanwhile, developing a reliable molecular system including Southern blot and qRT-PCR analyses is desired for effectively evaluating transgenic lines and gene expression levels of both endogenous and transgenes. In this study, we have developed an efficient transformation protocol with hygromycin as the selective agent for crambe transformation. In the regeneration test, addition of hygromycin at concentration of 5 mg L−1 resulted in 18% of shoot regeneration using crambe hypocotyls as explants, while no regeneration occurred when the hygromycin concentration reached 10 mg L−1. Based on this result, the hygromycin concentration up to 10 mg L−1 was used in the subsequent transformations. The results showed that the transformation efficiency under constant low selection pressure (H3-H3) was similar to that under higher selection pressure first, followed by transfer to lower selection pressure (H10-H3). The PCR, Southern blot and fatty acid composition analyses confirmed the integration of transgenes in the crambe genome. We have also optimized the Southern and qRT-PCR methods for future studies on crambe or related species. For Southern blot analysis on crambe, more than 50 μg DNA is required for a clear band. The choice of enzymes for DNA digestion was not rigid for confirmation of the T-DNA integration, while for determining the copy number of transgenes, suitable enzymes should be chosen. Increasing the enzyme concentration could improve the digestion and 20 μl enzyme was recomended for a complete digestion of up to 80 μg crambe DNA. For qRT-PCR analysis, around 20 days after flowering was observed to be the suitable sampling time for expresseion analysis of genes invovled in the seed oil biosynthesis. PMID:23750164

  12. Efficient selection and evaluation of transgenic lines of Crambe abyssinica.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueyuan; Fan, Jing; Gruber, Jens; Guan, Rui; Frentzen, Margrit; Zhu, Li-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Crambe abyssinica is a dedicated oilseed crop suitable for production of industrial feedstocks. Genetic modification of crambe has progressed substantially in the last few years, but the transformation efficiency needs to be further improved. Meanwhile, developing a reliable molecular system including Southern blot and qRT-PCR analyses is desired for effectively evaluating transgenic lines and gene expression levels of both endogenous and transgenes. In this study, we have developed an efficient transformation protocol with hygromycin as the selective agent for crambe transformation. In the regeneration test, addition of hygromycin at concentration of 5 mg L(-1) resulted in 18% of shoot regeneration using crambe hypocotyls as explants, while no regeneration occurred when the hygromycin concentration reached 10 mg L(-1). Based on this result, the hygromycin concentration up to 10 mg L(-1) was used in the subsequent transformations. The results showed that the transformation efficiency under constant low selection pressure (H3-H3) was similar to that under higher selection pressure first, followed by transfer to lower selection pressure (H10-H3). The PCR, Southern blot and fatty acid composition analyses confirmed the integration of transgenes in the crambe genome. We have also optimized the Southern and qRT-PCR methods for future studies on crambe or related species. For Southern blot analysis on crambe, more than 50 μg DNA is required for a clear band. The choice of enzymes for DNA digestion was not rigid for confirmation of the T-DNA integration, while for determining the copy number of transgenes, suitable enzymes should be chosen. Increasing the enzyme concentration could improve the digestion and 20 μl enzyme was recomended for a complete digestion of up to 80 μg crambe DNA. For qRT-PCR analysis, around 20 days after flowering was observed to be the suitable sampling time for expresseion analysis of genes invovled in the seed oil biosynthesis.

  13. Dispersal-mediated effect of microhabitat availability and density dependence determine population dynamics of a forest floor web spider.

    PubMed

    Takada, Mayura B; Miyashita, Tadashi

    2014-09-01

    Landscapes in nature can be viewed as a continuum of small total habitable area with high fragmentation to widely spreading habitats. The dispersal-mediated rescue effect predominates in the former landscapes, while classical density-dependent processes generally prevail in widely spread habitats. A similar principle should be applied to populations of organisms utilizing microhabitats in limited supply. To test this hypothesis, we examined the population dynamics of a web spider, Neriene brongersmai, in 16 populations with varying degrees of microhabitat availability, and we explored whether: (i) high microhabitat availability improves survival rate during density-independent movement, while the resultant high density reduces survival rate in a density-dependent manner; and (ii) temporal population stability increases with microhabitat availability at the population level. Furthermore, we conducted two types of field experiments to verify whether high microhabitat availability actually reduces mortality associated with web-site movement. Field observations revealed that demographic change in N. brongersmai populations was affected by three factors at different stages, namely the microhabitat limitation from the early to late juvenile stages, the density dependence from the late juvenile to adult stages and the food limitation from the adult to the next early juvenile stages. In addition, there was a tendency for a positive association between population stability and microhabitat availability at the population level. A small-scale experiment, where the frequency of spider web relocation was equalized artificially, revealed that high microhabitat availability elevated the survival rate during a movement event between web-sites. The larger spatiotemporal scale experiment also revealed an improved spider survival rate following treatment with high microhabitat availability, even though spider density was kept at a relatively low level. The population dynamics of N

  14. Habitat characterization of western hoolock gibbons Hoolock hoolock by examining home range microhabitat use.

    PubMed

    Akers, Alice A; Anwarul Islam, Md; Nijman, Vincent

    2013-10-01

    Conserving a species depends on an understanding of its habitat requirements. Primatologists often characterize the habitat requirements of primates using macroscale population-based approaches relying on correlations between habitat attributes and population abundances between sites with varying levels of disturbance. This approach only works for species spread between several populations. The populations of some primates do not fulfill these criteria, forcing researchers to rely on individual-based (microscale) rather than population-based approaches for habitat characterization. We examined the reliability of using micro-scale habitat characterizations by studying the microhabitat preferences of a group of wild western hoolock gibbons (Hoolock hoolock) in order to compare our results to the habitat preferences of western hoolock gibbons identified during a macroscale study of populations across Bangladesh. We used stepwise discriminant analysis to differentiate between the areas of low, medium, and high usage based on microhabitat characteristics (tree species availability, altitude, canopy connection, distance from forest edge, and levels of human disturbance). The gibbons used interior forest habitat with low food tree availability most frequently for sleeping and socializing, and used edge habitat containing high food tree availability for medium periods for feeding. These results indicate that the gibbons prefer interior forest but are frequently forced to visit the forest edge to feed. Therefore, the optimal habitat would be interior forest away from human disturbance with high sleeping-tree and feeding-tree availability. These habitat preferences are consistent with the habitat attributes of Bangladesh's largest remaining western hoolock gibbon populations, which live in areas containing low agricultural encroachment and high food-tree availability. Microhabitat use studies can be used to characterize the habitat requirements of a species, but should

  15. Detailed assessment of microhabitat suitability for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Vezzani, D; Rubio, A; Velázquez, S M; Schweigmann, N; Wiegand, T

    2005-08-01

    Little information is available on the ecology of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus at the southern extreme of its distribution (Buenos Aires, Argentina), particularly on microhabitat suitability. The aim of our study was to identify at a detailed scale, microhabitat factors that correlate with the presence of preimaginal stages of the mosquito. In March 2001, we performed a spatial census of all containers located in a 1 ha patch within a cemetery in Buenos Aires City. On a reference map (1:700) we plotted the position of graves and surrounding corridors, the location of containers, the shade projected by each plant between 10:00 and 16:00 h and vegetation cover. We classified vegetation by height, substrate by composition and shadow by level of exposure to sunlight. We performed univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses with nine constructed independent variables, some of them at scales of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 10 m. Of 850 receptacles examined, 101 contained preimaginal stages of Ae. aegypti. Level of exposure to sunlight, type of substratum, vegetation height and distance of containers to vegetation were significantly associated with the presence of breeding sites at the studied scales. Final multivariate models were significant at scales of 2 m (chi(3)2=25.693, p<0.001) and 3m (chi(3)2=26.440, p<0.001), and 65.9 and 66.8% of our data were correctly classified, respectively, for each scale. Our results suggest that sites less exposed to sunlight, with taller and closer vegetation, and in shaded and vegetated neighbourhoods were the most favourable microhabitats for Ae. aegypti breeding.

  16. Temporal and spatial differentiation in microhabitat use: Implications for reproductive isolation and ecological niche specification.

    PubMed

    Borzée, Amaël; Kim, Jun Young; DA Cunha, Marina Andrade Martins; Lee, Donggeun; Sin, Eunchong; Oh, Sunmin; Yi, Yoonjung; Jang, Yikweon

    2016-09-01

    Niche differentiation enables ecologically similar species to coexist by lessening competition over food and/or shelters and may be critical for reproductive isolation between closely related species in close proximity. Because no extra traits need to evolve, spatial and temporal differentiation may readily take place to complement other isolating mechanisms. Two closely related treefrog species occur together in Korea: the endangered Hyla suweonensis and the widespread Hyla japonica. Advertisement calls are differentiated, but it is unclear whether call difference is sufficient for reproductive isolation. We tracked individuals of both species to study fine-scale differentiation in microhabitat use in the diel cycle of the breeding season using a harmonic direction finder. tracking male movement patterns of both species revealed spatial and temporal differentiation in microhabitat use for calling and resting during the breeding season. Males of both H. suweonensis and H. japonica occurred in all 5 microhabitats identified in this study: rice paddy, ground, buried, grass and bush. Both treefrog species showed general similarities in calling from rice paddies and resting in grass and bush. However, H. suweonensis moved into rice paddies and produced advertisement calls 3 h earlier than H. japonica. These differences likely minimize contact between the species and provide an additional isolating mechanism. In addition, the activity of H. suweonensis may be contributing to the decline of this species, as resting in grass would increase dangers from predatory birds and habitat disturbance. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Evaluation of historical scour at selected stream crossings in Indian

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, David S.; Miller, Robert L.; ,

    1993-01-01

    Geophysical data were collected by means of ground-penetrating radar and tuned transducer systems to estimate the historical scour at ten bridges in Indiana. These geophysical data were used to compare and evaluate the results of 13 published pier-scour equations. In order to make this comparison, it was assumed that the measured historical scour was associated with the peak historical discharge. Because the geophysical data were not sufficient to map the lateral extent of the refilled scour hole, local scour could not be isolated from concentration scour. For the evaluation, computed contraction scour and pier scour were used in combination with the existing channel geometry to determine a computed bed elevation. This computed bed elevation was compared to be minimum historic bed elevation estimated from the geophysical data. None of the selected pier-scour equations, when combined with the contraction-scour equation, accurately represented the historical scour at all of the study sites. On the basis of the limited data presented, the equations currently recommended by the Federal Highway Administration provided a combination of accuracy and safety, required by design equations, equal to or better than the other equations evaluated.

  18. SELECTION AND PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE REDUCTANTS FOR SRAT PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M.; Pickenheim, B.; Peeler, D.

    2009-06-30

    Defense Waste Processing Facility - Engineering (DWPF-E) has requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to perform scoping evaluations of alternative flowsheets with the primary focus on alternatives to formic acid during Chemical Process Cell (CPC) processing. The reductants shown below were selected for testing during the evaluation of alternative reductants for Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) processing. The reductants fall into two general categories: reducing acids and non-acidic reducing agents. Reducing acids were selected as direct replacements for formic acid to reduce mercury in the SRAT, to acidify the sludge, and to balance the melter REDuction/OXidation potential (REDOX). Non-acidic reductants were selected as melter reductants and would not be able to reduce mercury in the SRAT. Sugar was not tested during this scoping evaluation as previous work has already been conducted on the use of sugar with DWPF feeds. Based on the testing performed, the only viable short-term path to mitigating hydrogen generation in the CPC is replacement of formic acid with a mixture of glycolic and formic acids. An experiment using glycolic acid blended with formic on an 80:20 molar basis was able to reduce mercury, while also targeting a predicted REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) of 0.2 expressed as Fe{sup 2+}/{Sigma}Fe. Based on this result, SRNL recommends performing a complete CPC demonstration of the glycolic/formic acid flowsheet followed by a design basis development and documentation. Of the options tested recently and in the past, nitric/glycolic/formic blended acids has the potential for near term implementation in the existing CPC equipment providing rapid throughput improvement. Use of a non-acidic reductant is recommended only if the processing constraints to remove mercury and acidify the sludge acidification are eliminated. The non-acidic reductants (e.g. sugar) will not reduce mercury during CPC processing and sludge acidification would

  19. Evaluating sire selection practices using lifetime net income functions.

    PubMed

    Cassell, B G; Jobst, S M; McGilliard, M L; Pearson, R E

    2002-12-01

    Dairy farmers do not take full advantage of opportunities available for genetic improvement through use of artificial insemination, perhaps because economic advantages of good sire selection may not be fully recognized or understood. This study was undertaken to document differences between use of AI and non-AI bulls and to develop prediction equations to compare lifetime economic merit of future progeny from alternative sire selection policies. We describe the use of two methods of measuring lifetime economic merit, with and without adjustment for opportunity cost of a postponed replacement. Comparison of lifetime relative net income adjusted for opportunity cost on groups of cows sired by different kinds of bulls showed that daughters of proven AI bulls generated $148 and $120 more lifetime net income under fluid and manufactured milk market conditions than daughters of non-AI bulls. Daughters of proven AI bulls produced $60 more than daughters of AI young sires in progeny testing programs at the time of daughter conception. We developed prediction equations from combinations of genetic evaluations for production, productive life, SCS, and linear type traits on sires to predict lifetime relative net income of progeny produced from alternative sire selection strategies. Prediction equations explained 14 to 18% of variation in relative net income (not adjusted for opportunity cost), but herd and year of first freshening accounted for considerably more variation than did genetic evaluations on the sire of the cow. Finally, two independent data sets were used to develop and test predictions of lifetime relative net income adjusted for opportunity cost using genetic evaluations based on the eight traits included in the Merit indexes for the sire of each cow. Prediction equations from odd numbered herds were used to predict lifetime economic merit in even numbered herds and vice versa. Coefficients of determination ranged from 0.088 to 0.103 and averaged 0.004 higher

  20. Microhabitat selection of brood-rearing sites by greater sage-grouse in Carbon County, Wyoming

    Treesearch

    Leslie A. Schreiber; Christopher P. Hansen; Mark A. Rumble; Joshua J. Millspaugh; R. Scott Gamo; Jon W. Kehmeier; Nate Wojcik

    2015-01-01

    Declines in Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus, hereafter sage-grouse) populations could be attributed to low chick survival, which may be influenced by the availability of food and cover at sites used by females rearing broods. Habitat attributes important to broods may vary regionally; thus, it is necessary to understand factors affecting...

  1. Evaluating habitat selection with radio-telemetry triangulation error

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Kenow, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    Radio-telemetry triangulation errors result in the mislocation of animals and misclassification of habitat use. We present analytical methods that provide improved estimates of habitat use when misclassification probabilities can be determined. When misclassification probabilities cannot be determined, we use random subsamples from the error distribution of an estimated animal location to improve habitat use estimates. We conducted Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the effects of this subsampling method, triangulation error, number of animal locations, habitat availability, and habitat complexity on bias and variation in habitat use estimates. Results for the subsampling method are illustrated using habitat selection by redhead ducks (Aythya americana ). We recommend the subsampling method with a minimum of 50 random points to reduce problems associated with habitat misclassification.

  2. Evaluating habitat selection with radio-telemetry triangulation error

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Kenow, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    Radio-telemetry triangulation errors result in the mislocation of animals and misclassification of habitat use. We present analytical methods that provide improved estimates of habitat use when misclassification probabilities can be determined. When misclassification probabilities cannot be determined, we use random subsamples from the error distribution of an estimated animal location to improve habitat use estimates. We conducted Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the effects of this subsampling method, triangulation error, number of animal locations, habitat availability, and habitat complexity on bias and variation in habitat use estimates. Results for the subsampling method are illustrated using habitat selection by redhead ducks (Aythya americana). We recommend the subsampling method with a minimum of 50 random points to reduce problems associated with habitat misclassification.

  3. Item Selection, Evaluation, and Simple Structure in Personality Data

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson, Erik; Turkheimer, Eric

    2010-01-01

    We report an investigation of the genesis and interpretation of simple structure in personality data using two very different self-reported data sets. The first consists of a set of relatively unselected lexical descriptors, whereas the second is based on responses to a carefully constructed instrument. In both data sets, we explore the degree of simple structure by comparing factor solutions to solutions from simulated data constructed to have either strong or weak simple structure. The analysis demonstrates that there is little evidence of simple structure in the unselected items, and a moderate degree among the selected items. In both instruments, however, much of the simple structure that could be observed originated in a strong dimension of positive vs. negative evaluation. PMID:20694168

  4. Empirical evaluation of a selection system for Chinese student pilots.

    PubMed

    Hoermann, Hans-Juergen; Luo, Xiao-li

    2002-02-01

    To describe the transfer of ab-initio pilot selection methods from Germany to China. The different phases of test development and evaluation were carried out by the DLR Department of Aviation and Space Psychology in cooperation with the Civil Aviation Flying College (CAFC). The DLR/LH test-system covers factors of aviation related knowledge, operational abilities, personality, and psychomotor abilities. After the translation into Chinese and necessary cultural adaptations a sample of 125 Chinese student pilots was examined in 1996. Standardized feedback data was gathered over a time period of two years in practical flight training. In comparison to reliabilities of the German version, differences can be observed for all knowledge related test forms. Especially tests of technical and mathematical knowledge have somewhat lower reliabilities in China. On the other hand the reliabilities for the personality questionnaire as well as for the tests of memory, mental concentration, and spatial abilities seem to be equivalent with the German versions. In relation to flight instructor ratings for all students who passed the selection, the overall rate of accurate predictions is 71% (Cramer's V=0.35, P<0.01). The best psychometric predictors found in this research for different phases of the Chinese ab-initio pilot training (from academic study up to advanced twin-engine operation) are psychomotor coordination in multiple tasks settings, mental concentration, spatial abilities, and English language comprehension. The results supported the assumption that the selection tests for ab-initio pilots can be transferred into a different culture without significant loss of reliability or validity.

  5. Microbiological investigation and nutritional evaluation of selected fast food meat.

    PubMed

    Hemeda, H M

    1995-01-01

    The study was designed into two parts: the first part was to determine individual attitudes and beliefs toward fast food in general. One hundred individuals (15-45 yrs old) were involved in this study (50 males and 50 females). The second part of the study was carried out to evaluate microbiological contamination and nutritive value of the selected fast food meat (Hardee's fried burger, Saudi-American burger, kentucky fried chicken, Al-Baik broast chicken and shawerma beef). The results indicated that individuals 25-45 yrs. old were the most fast food consumers. The main reason behind increasing individual's preferences toward fast food was found to be for fun and inspiration. Among individuals under study 46% of males and 20% of females purchased fast food more than 4 times per week. Prevalence of overweight and obesity respectively were 38% and 22% among males and 34% and 14% among females. Bacillus cereus and E. coli were detected in a number of less than 10/g in all the selected fast food meat. The number of coliforms detected in Hardee's burger and Saudi-American burger were 10/g, while less than 10/g were detected in the remaining fast food meat. However, the number of Staph. aureus detected in Hardee's burger and Saudi-American burger was 20/g and 10/g respectively. On a per 100 g basis, energy (Kcal), protein (g), fat (g) and sodium (mg) content were found in the range of 179.62-295.29, 13.05-26.06, 8.9-21.13 and 640-920 respectively. Sodium content of all the selected fast food meat exceeded the recommended daily adequate intake for adults (males and females). The observations of the present study indicated the need for a nutrition education program to correct consumers' attitudes and beliefs towards fast food and to provide information on how a given menu item contributes to their dietary goal.

  6. Evaluation of chlorine dioxide gas residues on selected food produce.

    PubMed

    Trinetta, Valentina; Vaidya, Nirupama; Linton, Richard; Morgan, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables has greatly increased, and so has its association with contamination of several foodborne pathogens (Listeria, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli). Hence, there is a need to investigate effective sanitizer systems for produce decontamination. Chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)), a strong oxidizing gas with broad spectrum and sanitizing properties, has previously been studied for use on selected fruits and vegetables. ClO(2) gas treatments show great potential for surface pathogen reduction; however its use from a residue safety standpoint has yet to be assessed. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate residues of ClO(2), chlorite, chlorate, and chloride on selected fresh produce surfaces after treatment with ClO(2) gas. A rinse procedure was used and water samples were analyzed by N, N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine and ion chromatography method (300.0). Seven different foods--tomatoes, oranges, apples, strawberries, lettuce, alfalfa sprouts, and cantaloupe--were analyzed after ClO(2) treatment for surface residues. Very low residues were detectable for all the food products except lettuce and alfalfa sprouts, where the measured concentrations were significantly higher. Chlorine dioxide technology leaves minimal to no detectable chemical residues in several food products, thus result in no significant risks to consumers. Practical Application: Potential for chlorine dioxide gas treatments as an effective pathogen inactivation technology to produce with minimal risk for consumers.

  7. Evaluation of Lactobacillus strains for selected probiotic properties.

    PubMed

    Turková, Kristýna; Mavrič, Anja; Narat, Mojca; Rittich, Bohuslav; Spanová, Alena; Rogelj, Irena; Matijašić, Bojana Bogovič

    2013-07-01

    Eleven strains of Lactobacillus collected in the Culture Collection of Dairy Microorganisms (CCDM) were evaluated for selected probiotic properties such as survival in gastrointestinal fluids, antimicrobial activity, and competition with non-toxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 for adhesion on Caco-2 cells. The viable count of lactobacilli was reduced during 3-h incubation in gastric fluid followed by 3-h incubation in intestinal fluid. All strains showed antimicrobial activity and the three most effective strains inhibited the growth of at least 16 indicator strains. Antimicrobial metabolites of seven strains active against Lactobacillus and Clostridium indicator strains were found to be sensitive to proteinase K and trypsin, which indicates their proteinaceous nature. The degree of competitive inhibition of non-toxigenic E. coli O157:H7 adhesion on the surface of Caco-2 cells was strain-dependent. A significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the number of non-toxigenic E. coli O157:H7 adhering to Caco-2 cells was observed with all lactobacilli. Three strains were selected for additional studies of antimicrobial activity, i.e., Lactobacillus gasseri CCDM 215, Lactobacillus acidophilus CCDM 149, and Lactobacillus helveticus CCDM 82.

  8. Ectomycorrhizal colonization of naturally regenerating Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings growing in different micro-habitats in boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Iwański, Michał; Rudawska, Maria

    2007-07-01

    We investigated the species richness and composition of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi colonizing Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings naturally regenerating in boreal forest, in three different microhabitats: on forest ground, on decaying stumps, and within moss layer on erratic boulders. We tested the hypothesis that habitat differences would affect the composition of the EM community of regenerating pine seedlings. In total, 16 EM species were detected, from which none occurred on seedlings growing in all three microhabitats. Piloderma croceum and Cenococcum geophilum were common for seedlings growing in forest ground and on boulders, while Tricholoma aestuans and Suillus luteus were shared between seedlings growing on forest ground and decaying stumps. EM species richness and composition were strikingly different between seedlings regenerating in different microhabitats. Results are discussed as a function of dispersal and niche differentiation of EM fungi.

  9. [Evaluation of using statistical methods in selected national medical journals].

    PubMed

    Sych, Z

    1996-01-01

    The paper covers the performed evaluation of frequency with which the statistical methods were applied in analyzed works having been published in six selected, national medical journals in the years 1988-1992. For analysis the following journals were chosen, namely: Klinika Oczna, Medycyna Pracy, Pediatria Polska, Polski Tygodnik Lekarski, Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny, Zdrowie Publiczne. Appropriate number of works up to the average in the remaining medical journals was randomly selected from respective volumes of Pol. Tyg. Lek. The studies did not include works wherein the statistical analysis was not implemented, which referred both to national and international publications. That exemption was also extended to review papers, casuistic ones, reviews of books, handbooks, monographies, reports from scientific congresses, as well as papers on historical topics. The number of works was defined in each volume. Next, analysis was performed to establish the mode of finding out a suitable sample in respective studies, differentiating two categories: random and target selections. Attention was also paid to the presence of control sample in the individual works. In the analysis attention was also focussed on the existence of sample characteristics, setting up three categories: complete, partial and lacking. In evaluating the analyzed works an effort was made to present the results of studies in tables and figures (Tab. 1, 3). Analysis was accomplished with regard to the rate of employing statistical methods in analyzed works in relevant volumes of six selected, national medical journals for the years 1988-1992, simultaneously determining the number of works, in which no statistical methods were used. Concurrently the frequency of applying the individual statistical methods was analyzed in the scrutinized works. Prominence was given to fundamental statistical methods in the field of descriptive statistics (measures of position, measures of dispersion) as well as

  10. An evaluation of selected in silico models for the assessment ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Skin sensitization remains an important endpoint for consumers, manufacturers and regulators. Although the development of alternative approaches to assess skin sensitization potential has been extremely active over many years, the implication of regulations such as REACH and the Cosmetics Directive in EU has provided a much stronger impetus to actualize this research into practical tools for decision making. Thus there has been considerable focus on the development, evaluation, and integration of alternative approaches for skin sensitization hazard and risk assessment. This includes in silico approaches such as (Q)SARs and expert systems. This study aimed to evaluate the predictive performance of a selection of in silico models and then to explore whether combining those models led to an improvement in accuracy. A dataset of 473 substances that had been tested in the local lymph node assay (LLNA) was compiled. This comprised 295 sensitizers and 178 non-sensitizers. Four freely available models were identified - 2 statistical models VEGA and MultiCASE model A33 for skin sensitization (MCASE A33) from the Danish National Food Institute and two mechanistic models Toxtree’s Skin sensitization Reaction domains (Toxtree SS Rxn domains) and the OASIS v1.3 protein binding alerts for skin sensitization from the OECD Toolbox (OASIS). VEGA and MCASE A33 aim to predict sensitization as a binary score whereas the mechanistic models identified reaction domains or structura

  11. Materials Development and Evaluation of Selective Laser Sintering Manufacturing Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Peter F.; Mitchell, Russell R.

    1997-01-15

    This report summarizes the FY96 accomplishments for CRADA No. LA95C10254, "Materials Development and Evaluation of Laser Sintering Manufacturing Applications". To research the potential for processing additional materials using DTM Corporations Selective Laser Sintering rapid prototyping technology and evaluate the capability for rapid manufacturing applications, the following materials were processed experimentally using the Sinterstation 2000 platform; Linear Low Density Polyethylene thermoplastic; Polypropylene thermoplastic; Polysulfone thermoplastic; Polymethylpentene (TPX) thermoplastic; Carbon microsphere filled nylon 11; "APO-BMI" Apocure bismaleimide thermoset polyimide glass m.icrosphere filled and carbon microsphere filled formulations; and 900-24 physical properties mock for plastic bonded TATB high explosive These materials have been successfully processed to a "proof of concept" level or better (with the exception of No. 7). While none of these materials have been introduced as a standard product as of this date, the potential to do so is viable. Present status of materials processing efforts is presented in Section A 2.0. Some recent efforts in manufacturing applications is discussed in Section A 4.0.

  12. Seasonal Distribution and Diversity of Ground Arthropods in Microhabitats Following a Shrub Plantation Age Sequence in Desertified Steppe

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rentao; Zhu, Fan; Song, Naiping; Yang, Xinguo; Chai, Yongqing

    2013-01-01

    In desertified regions, shrub-dominated patches are important microhabitats for ground arthropod assemblages. As shrub age increases, soil, vegetation and microbiological properties can change remarkably and spontaneously across seasons. However, relatively few studies have analyzed how ground arthropods respond to the microhabitats created by shrubs of different plantation ages across seasons. Using 6, 15, 24 and 36 year-old plantations of re-vegetated shrubs (Caragana koushinskii) in the desert steppe of northwestern China as a model system, we sampled ground arthropod communities using a pitfall trapping method in the microhabitats under shrubs and in the open areas between shrubs, during the spring, summer and autumn. The total ground arthropod assemblage was dominated by Carabidae, Melolonthidae, Curculionidae, Tenebrionidae and Formicidae that were affected by plantation age, seasonal changes, or the interaction between these factors, with the later two groups also influenced by microhabitat. Overall, a facilitative effect was observed, with more arthropods and a greater diversity found under shrubs as compared to open areas, but this was markedly affected by seasonal changes. There was a high degree of similarity in arthropod assemblages and diversity between microhabitats in summer and autumn. Shrub plantation age significantly influenced the distribution of the most abundant groups, and also the diversity indices of the ground arthropods. However, there was not an overall positive relationship between shrub age and arthropod abundance, richness or diversity index. The influence of plantation age on arthropod communities was also affected by seasonal changes. From spring through summer to autumn, community indices of ground arthropods tended to decline, and a high degree of similarity in these indices (with fluctuation) was observed among different ages of shrub plantation in autumn. Altogether the recovery of arthropod communities was markedly affected by

  13. Soil bacterial and fungal community responses to nitrogen addition across soil depth and microhabitat in an arid shrubland

    DOE PAGES

    Mueller, Rebecca C.; Belnap, Jayne; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2015-09-04

    Arid shrublands are stressful environments, typified by alkaline soils low in organic matter, with biologically-limiting extremes in water availability, temperature, and UV radiation. The widely-spaced plants and interspace biological soil crusts in these regions provide soil nutrients in a localized fashion, creating a mosaic pattern of plant- or crust-associated microhabitats with distinct nutrient composition. With sporadic and limited rainfall, nutrients are primarily retained in the shallow surface soil, patterning biological activity. We examined soil bacterial and fungal community responses to simulated nitrogen (N) deposition in an arid Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa field experiment in southern Nevada, USA, using high-throughput sequencing ofmore » ribosomal RNA genes. To examine potential interactions among the N application, microhabitat and soil depth, we sampled soils associated with shrub canopies and interspace biological crusts at two soil depths (0–0.5 or 0–10 cm) across the N-amendment gradient (0, 7, and 15 kg ha–1 yr–1). We hypothesized that localized compositional differences in soil microbiota would constrain the impacts of N addition to a microhabitat distribution that would reflect highly localized geochemical conditions and microbial community composition. The richness and community composition of both bacterial and fungal communities differed significantly by microhabitat and with soil depth in each microhabitat. Only bacterial communities exhibited significant responses to the N addition. Community composition correlated with microhabitat and depth differences in soil geochemical features. As a result, given the distinct roles of soil bacteria and fungi in major nutrient cycles, the resilience of fungi and sensitivity of bacteria to N amendments suggests that increased N input predicted for many arid ecosystems could shift nutrient cycling toward pathways driven primarily by fungal communities.« less

  14. Soil bacterial and fungal community responses to nitrogen addition across soil depth and microhabitat in an arid shrubland

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Rebecca C.; Belnap, Jayne; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2015-09-04

    Arid shrublands are stressful environments, typified by alkaline soils low in organic matter, with biologically-limiting extremes in water availability, temperature, and UV radiation. The widely-spaced plants and interspace biological soil crusts in these regions provide soil nutrients in a localized fashion, creating a mosaic pattern of plant- or crust-associated microhabitats with distinct nutrient composition. With sporadic and limited rainfall, nutrients are primarily retained in the shallow surface soil, patterning biological activity. We examined soil bacterial and fungal community responses to simulated nitrogen (N) deposition in an arid Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa field experiment in southern Nevada, USA, using high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes. To examine potential interactions among the N application, microhabitat and soil depth, we sampled soils associated with shrub canopies and interspace biological crusts at two soil depths (0–0.5 or 0–10 cm) across the N-amendment gradient (0, 7, and 15 kg ha–1 yr–1). We hypothesized that localized compositional differences in soil microbiota would constrain the impacts of N addition to a microhabitat distribution that would reflect highly localized geochemical conditions and microbial community composition. The richness and community composition of both bacterial and fungal communities differed significantly by microhabitat and with soil depth in each microhabitat. Only bacterial communities exhibited significant responses to the N addition. Community composition correlated with microhabitat and depth differences in soil geochemical features. As a result, given the distinct roles of soil bacteria and fungi in major nutrient cycles, the resilience of fungi and sensitivity of bacteria to N amendments suggests that increased N input predicted for many arid ecosystems could shift nutrient cycling toward pathways driven primarily by fungal communities.

  15. Significance of microhabitat heterogeneity in the spatial pattern and size-class structure of Anastatica hierochuntica L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegazy, Ahmad K.; Kabiel, Hanan F.

    2007-05-01

    Anastatica hierochuntica L. (Brassicaceae) is a desert monocarpic annual species characterized by a topochory/ombrohydrochory type of seed dispersal. The hygrochastic nature of the dry skeletons (dead individuals) permits controlling seed dispersal by rain events. The amount of dispersed seeds is proportional to the intensity of rainfall. When light showers occur, seeds are released and remain in the site. Seeds dispersed in the vicinity of the mother or source plant (primary type of seed dispersal) resulted in clumped pattern and complicated interrelationships among size-classes of the population. Following heavy rainfall, most seeds are released and transported into small patches and shallow depressions which collect runoff water. The dead A. hierochuntica skeletons demonstrate site-dependent size-class structure, spatial pattern and spatial interrelationships in different microhabitats. Four microhabitat types have been sampled: runnels, patches and simple and compound depressions in two sites (gravel and sand). Ripley's K-function was used to analyze the spatial pattern in populations of A. hierochuntica skeletons in the study microhabitats. Clumped patterns were observed in nearly all of the study microhabitats. Populations of A. hierochuntica in the sand site were more productive than in the gravel site and usually had more individuals in the larger size-classes. In the compound-depression microhabitat, the degree of clumping decreased from the core zone to the intermediate zone then shifted into overdispersed pattern in the outer zone. At the within size-class level, the clumped pattern dominated in small size classes but shifted into random and overdispersed patterns in the larger size classes. Aggregation between small and large size-classes was not well-defined but large individuals were found closer to the smaller individuals than to those of their own class. In relation to the phytomass and the size-class structure, the outer zone of the simple

  16. Seasonal distribution and diversity of ground arthropods in microhabitats following a shrub plantation age sequence in desertified steppe.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rentao; Zhu, Fan; Song, Naiping; Yang, Xinguo; Chai, Yongqing

    2013-01-01

    In desertified regions, shrub-dominated patches are important microhabitats for ground arthropod assemblages. As shrub age increases, soil, vegetation and microbiological properties can change remarkably and spontaneously across seasons. However, relatively few studies have analyzed how ground arthropods respond to the microhabitats created by shrubs of different plantation ages across seasons. Using 6, 15, 24 and 36 year-old plantations of re-vegetated shrubs (Caragana koushinskii) in the desert steppe of northwestern China as a model system, we sampled ground arthropod communities using a pitfall trapping method in the microhabitats under shrubs and in the open areas between shrubs, during the spring, summer and autumn. The total ground arthropod assemblage was dominated by Carabidae, Melolonthidae, Curculionidae, Tenebrionidae and Formicidae that were affected by plantation age, seasonal changes, or the interaction between these factors, with the later two groups also influenced by microhabitat. Overall, a facilitative effect was observed, with more arthropods and a greater diversity found under shrubs as compared to open areas, but this was markedly affected by seasonal changes. There was a high degree of similarity in arthropod assemblages and diversity between microhabitats in summer and autumn. Shrub plantation age significantly influenced the distribution of the most abundant groups, and also the diversity indices of the ground arthropods. However, there was not an overall positive relationship between shrub age and arthropod abundance, richness or diversity index. The influence of plantation age on arthropod communities was also affected by seasonal changes. From spring through summer to autumn, community indices of ground arthropods tended to decline, and a high degree of similarity in these indices (with fluctuation) was observed among different ages of shrub plantation in autumn. Altogether the recovery of arthropod communities was markedly affected by

  17. Soil bacterial and fungal community responses to nitrogen addition across soil depth and microhabitat in an arid shrubland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, Rebecca C.; Belnap, Jayne; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2015-01-01

    Arid shrublands are stressful environments, typified by alkaline soils low in organic matter, with biologically-limiting extremes in water availability, temperature, and UV radiation. The widely-spaced plants and interspace biological soil crusts in these regions provide soil nutrients in a localized fashion, creating a mosaic pattern of plant- or crust-associated microhabitats with distinct nutrient composition. With sporadic and limited rainfall, nutrients are primarily retained in the shallow surface soil, patterning biological activity. We examined soil bacterial and fungal community responses to simulated nitrogen (N) deposition in an arid Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa field experiment in southern Nevada, USA, using high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes. To examine potential interactions among the N application, microhabitat and soil depth, we sampled soils associated with shrub canopies and interspace biological crusts at two soil depths (0–0.5 or 0–10 cm) across the N-amendment gradient (0, 7, and 15 kg ha−1 yr−1). We hypothesized that localized compositional differences in soil microbiota would constrain the impacts of N addition to a microhabitat distribution that would reflect highly localized geochemical conditions and microbial community composition. The richness and community composition of both bacterial and fungal communities differed significantly by microhabitat and with soil depth in each microhabitat. Only bacterial communities exhibited significant responses to the N addition. Community composition correlated with microhabitat and depth differences in soil geochemical features. Given the distinct roles of soil bacteria and fungi in major nutrient cycles, the resilience of fungi and sensitivity of bacteria to N amendments suggests that increased N input predicted for many arid ecosystems could shift nutrient cycling toward pathways driven primarily by fungal communities.

  18. Density and microhabitat use of Bengal slow loris in primary forest and non-native plantation forest.

    PubMed

    Pliosungnoen, Manoon; Gale, George; Savini, Tommaso

    2010-12-01

    The extent of planted forests has greatly increased in the tropics, but their conservation value while assumed to be low, is largely unknown. We compared the density and microhabitat selection of a nocturnal arboreal primate, the Bengal slow loris (Nycticebus bengalensis), in mostly undisturbed, evergreen tropical forest to those in 15-18 year old Acacia/Leucaena plantations with significant secondary regrowth, and <15 year old plantations with little regrowth. Based on estimates derived from distance sampling, loris densities in older plantations were nearly identical to primary forest (4.26 vs. 4.00 lorises per square kilometer), although encounter rates were three times higher in the older plantations probably owing to the lower detection probability in the more complex vegetation of the primary forest. The mean density estimate for the younger plantation was one-third of the above habitats (1.27 lorises per square kilometer), although not statistically different. Lorises tended to use larger diameter and taller trees, with a greater crown depth than randomly sampled trees, and tended to avoid habitats with sparsely crowned trees. The older plantations had trees with lower basal area and shorter stems than the primary forest; however, the older plantations contained higher densities of Bauhinia lianas, a commonly eaten food source and did not contain the red giant flying squirrel (Petaurista petaurista), a potential competitor. Although it is unknown whether the Bengal slow loris would persist without the presence of primary forest in the landscape, we suggest that older plantations have conservation value for at least selected species and as such, could be better managed to increase this value. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Helium mining on the Moon: Site selection and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Eugene N.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of recovering helium (He) from the Moon as a source of fusion energy on Earth is currently being studied at the University of Wisconsin. Part of this study is selection and evaluation of potential sites for lunar He mining. Selection and evaluation of potential mining sites are based on four salient findings by various investigators of lunar samples: (1) Regoliths from areas underlain by highland materials contain less than 20 wppm He; (2) Certain maria regoliths contain less than 20 wppm He, but other contain 25 to 49 wppm; (3) The He content of a mare regolith is a function of its composition; regoliths rich in Ti are relatively rich in He; and (4) He is concentrated in the less than 100-micron size fractions of regoliths. The first three findings suggest that maria are the most promising mining sites, specifically, those that have high-Ti regoliths. Information on the regional distribution and extent of high-Ti regoliths comes mainly from two sources: direct sampling by various Apollo and Luna missions, and remote sensing by gamma-ray spectroscopy and Earth-based measurements of lunar spectral reflectance. Sampling provides essential control on calibration and interpretation of data from remote sensing. These data indicate that Mare Tranquillitatis is the principal area of high-Ti regolith of the eastern nearside, but large areas of high-Ti regolith are indicated in the Imbrium and Procellarum regions. Recovery of significant amounts of He-3 will require mining billions of tonnes of regolith. Large individual areas suitable for mining must therefore be delineated. The concentration of He in the finer size fractions and considerations of ease of mining mean that mining areas must be as free as possible of sizable craters and blocks of rock. Pending additional lunar missions, information regarding these features must be obtained from lunar photographs, photogeologic maps, and radar surveys. The present study is decidedly preliminary; available

  20. Evaluation and selection of SST regression algorithms for JPSS VIIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrenko, Boris; Ignatov, Alexander; Kihai, Yury; Stroup, John; Dash, Prasanjit

    2014-04-01

    Two global level 2 sea surface temperature (SST) products are generated at NOAA from the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor data records (L1) with two independent processing systems, the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS) and the NOAA heritage Advanced Clear-Sky Processor for Oceans (ACSPO). The two systems use different SST retrieval and cloud masking algorithms. Validation against in situ and L4 analyses has shown suboptimal performance of the IDPS product. In this context, existing operational and proposed SST algorithms have been evaluated for their potential implementation in IDPS. This paper documents the evaluation methodology and results. The performance of SST retrievals is characterized with bias and standard deviation with respect to in situ SSTs and sensitivity to true SST. Given three retrieval metrics, all being variable in space and with observational conditions, an additional integral metric is needed to evaluate the overall performance of SST algorithms. Therefore, we introduce the Quality Retrieval Domain (QRD) as a part of the global ocean, where the retrieval characteristics meet predefined specifications. Based on the QRDs analyses for all tested algorithms over a representative range of specifications for accuracy, precision, and sensitivity, we have selected the algorithms developed at the EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI-SAF) for implementation in IDPS and ACSPO. Testing the OSI-SAF algorithms with ACSPO and IDPS products shows the improved consistency between VIIRS SST and Reynolds L4 daily analysis. Further improvement of the IDPS SST product requires adjustment of the VIIRS cloud and ice masks.

  1. Application and testing of a procedure to evaluate transferability of habitat suitability criteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Jeff A.; Bovee, Ken D.

    1993-01-01

    A procedure designed to test the transferability of habitat suitability criteria was evaluated in the Cache la Poudre River, Colorado. Habitat suitability criteria were developed for active adult and juvenile rainbow trout in the South Platte River, Colorado. These criteria were tested by comparing microhabitat use predicted from the criteria with observed microhabitat use by adult rainbow trout in the Cache la Poudre River. A one-sided X2 test, using counts of occupied and unoccupied cells in each suitability classification, was used to test for non-random selection for optimum habitat use over usable habitat and for suitable over unsuitable habitat. Criteria for adult rainbow trout were judged to be transferable to the Cache la Poudre River, but juvenile criteria (applied to adults) were not transferable. Random subsampling of occupied and unoccupied cells was conducted to determine the effect of sample size on the reliability of the test procedure. The incidence of type I and type II errors increased rapidly as the sample size was reduced below 55 occupied and 200 unoccupied cells. Recommended modifications to the procedure included the adoption of a systematic or randomized sampling design and direct measurement of microhabitat variables. With these modifications, the procedure is economical, simple and reliable. Use of the procedure as a quality assurance device in routine applications of the instream flow incremental methodology was encouraged.

  2. A horizontally transferred nuclear gene is associated with microhabitat variation in a natural plant population

    PubMed Central

    Tunlid, Anders; Ghatnekar, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer involves the non-sexual interspecific transmission of genetic material. Even if they are initially functional, horizontally transferred genes are expected to deteriorate into non-expressed pseudogenes, unless they become adaptively relevant in the recipient organism. However, little is known about the distributions of natural transgenes within wild species or the adaptive significance of natural transgenes within wild populations. Here, we examine the distribution of a natural plant-to-plant nuclear transgene in relation to environmental variation within a wild population. Festuca ovina is polymorphic for an extra (second) expressed copy of the nuclear gene (PgiC) encoding cytosolic phosphoglucose isomerase, with the extra PgiC locus having been acquired horizontally from the distantly related grass genus Poa. We investigated variation at PgiC in samples of F. ovina from a fine-scale, repeating patchwork of grassland microhabitats, replicated within spatially separated sites. Even after accounting for spatial effects, the distributions of F. ovina individuals carrying the additional PgiC locus, and one of the enzyme products encoded by the locus, are significantly associated with fine-scale habitat variation. Our results suggest that the PgiC transgene contributes, together with the unlinked ‘native’ PgiC locus, to local adaptation to a fine-scale mosaic of edaphic and biotic grassland microhabitats. PMID:26674953

  3. A horizontally transferred nuclear gene is associated with microhabitat variation in a natural plant population.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Honor C; Li, Yuan; Lönn, Mikael; Tunlid, Anders; Ghatnekar, Lena

    2015-12-22

    Horizontal gene transfer involves the non-sexual interspecific transmission of genetic material. Even if they are initially functional, horizontally transferred genes are expected to deteriorate into non-expressed pseudogenes, unless they become adaptively relevant in the recipient organism. However, little is known about the distributions of natural transgenes within wild species or the adaptive significance of natural transgenes within wild populations. Here, we examine the distribution of a natural plant-to-plant nuclear transgene in relation to environmental variation within a wild population. Festuca ovina is polymorphic for an extra (second) expressed copy of the nuclear gene (PgiC) encoding cytosolic phosphoglucose isomerase, with the extra PgiC locus having been acquired horizontally from the distantly related grass genus Poa. We investigated variation at PgiC in samples of F. ovina from a fine-scale, repeating patchwork of grassland microhabitats, replicated within spatially separated sites. Even after accounting for spatial effects, the distributions of F. ovina individuals carrying the additional PgiC locus, and one of the enzyme products encoded by the locus, are significantly associated with fine-scale habitat variation. Our results suggest that the PgiC transgene contributes, together with the unlinked 'native' PgiC locus, to local adaptation to a fine-scale mosaic of edaphic and biotic grassland microhabitats.

  4. Microhabitat and biology of Sphaerium striatinum in a central New York stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dittman, Dawn E.; Johnson, James H.; Nack, Christopher C.

    2017-01-01

    In many lotic systems, drastic declines in freshwater bivalve populations, including fingernail clams (Sphaeriidae), have created concerns about biodiversity and future ecosystem services. We examined the local occurrence of the historically common fingernail clam, Sphaerium striatinum, in a central New York stream. We sampled the density of sphaeriids and measured the associated habitat variables (substrate, depth, water flow) to test within-stream multivariate benthic microhabitat association. Size distribution, density, and diel feeding periodicity were measured as focal aspects of fingernail clam biology and ecology. S. striatinum tended to be found in microhabitats that had harder substrates and faster flow. The Labrador Creek fingernail clam local population had positive indicators (size distribution, density). There was significant diel periodicity in feeding behavior. The clams fed most actively during the 0400–0800 h periods. This kind of behavioral periodicity can indicate a significant ecological interaction between predators and bivalve prey. Increased understanding of the behavioral ecology of small native freshwater bivalves in an unimpacted headwater stream is a fundamental building block for development of overall ecological conservation goals for freshwater bivalves and their lotic habitats.

  5. A novel method for sampling bacteria on plant root and soil surfaces at the microhabitat scale.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Paul G; Miller, Anthony J; Clark, Ian M; Taylor, Richard G; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Hirsch, Penny R

    2008-09-01

    This study reports the first method for sampling bacteria at a spatial scale approximating a microhabitat. At the core of this method is the use of tungsten rods with laser-cut tips of known surface area (0.013 mm(2)). Exposed plant root or soil surfaces were viewed with a dissecting microscope and micro-sampling rods were guided to sample sites using a micro-manipulator. Bacteria that adhered to the sampling tips were then recovered for microbiological analyses. The efficiency of this method for removing bacteria from root surfaces was similar to that with which bacteria are recovered from dissected root segments using the conventional technique of washing. However, as the surface area of the micro-sampling tips was known, the new method has the advantage of eliminating inaccuracy in estimates of bacterial densities due to inaccurate estimation of the root or soil surface sampled. When used to investigate spatial distributions of rhizoplane bacteria, the new technique revealed trends that were consistent with those reported with existing methods, while providing access to additional information about community structure at a much smaller spatial scale. The spatial scale of this new method is ca. 1000-times smaller than other sampling methods involving swabbing. This novel technique represents an important methodological step facilitating microbial ecological investigations at a microhabitat scale.

  6. Plant community structure of the Upper Pennsylvanian Duquesne coal: Distinguishing microhabitats from the peat

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, J.S. )

    1991-01-01

    Autochthonous and allochthonous coal balls occur within the single outcrop of the Upper Pennsylvanian (Stephanian B equivalent) Duquesne coal located near Steubenville, Ohio. The autochthonous coal balls, which occur in a single layer within the thin coal, were sampled by treating the outcrop as a linear transect through an in situ deltaic peat-accumulating swamp. Coal balls manually excavated from zones (defined laterally along the coal seam) were examined and quantified in terms of whole-plant species, and content of pyrite and fusain. Species-area curves show that species diversity varies among zones. The amount of material needed to form an adequate sample varies from 1,500 cm{sup 2} to 7,000 cm{sup 2} of bulk surface area, depending on the zone. These lateral floristic differences are interpreted to represent differences in microhabitats within the swamp. Specific changes between layers within an autochthonous zone are interpreted as changes in the flora through ecological time. Qualitative analysis of successional trends within the autochthonous zones indicates a consistent pattern of species turnover. Multivariate statistical analysis of floristic and mineralogical differences among autochthonous zones, along with comparison of autochthonous with allochthonous zones suggest that microhabitats can be detected within the swamp.

  7. Use of Reproductive Microhabitat by Melanophryniscus montevidensis (Anura: Bufonidae) from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Gisela; Maneyro, Raúl

    2016-08-01

    This study describes the reproductive microhabitat of Melanophryniscus montevidensis and its use in two water bodies (WBs) in Barra de la Laguna de Rocha, Uruguay. Monthly field trips were performed between March 2012 and February 2013. Variables related to the WBs and vegetation, as well as parameters linked to the usage the amphibians make of the site (e.g: distance to the border of the pond, water depth and the vegetation use) were recorded. The behavior shown by the individuals during the breeding activity was recorded. This activity occurs in shallow temporary WBs with abundant hydrophilic vegetation. The individuals were found more frequently in areas near the edge of the pond, which has denser vegetation. The calling males were found closer to the border of the pond, and they showed better body condition than the non-calling males. In addition to calling activities, males used alternative tactics to find couples, such as active search of females, and aggressive behaviors, such as male displacing and physical combat. Such behaviors are common in anurans with explosive reproductive dynamics. The characterization of the reproductive microhabitats permits the proposal of strategies for the conservation of the species in Uruguay, given that the loss and fragmentation of habitats is one of the main causes considered for the decrease in their populations.

  8. Microhabitat use, home range, and movements of the alligator snapping turtle, Macrochelys temminckii, in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riedle, J.D.; Shipman, P.A.; Fox, S. F.; Leslie, David M.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the ecology of the alligator snapping turtle, Macrochelys temminckii, particularly dentography and behavior. To learn more about the species in Oklahoma, we conducted a telemetry project on 2 small streams at Sequoyah National Wildlife Refuge, an 8,417.5-ha refuge located in east-central Oklahoma. Between June 1999 and August 2000, we fitted 19 M. temminckii with ultrasonic telemetry tags and studied turtle movements and microhahitat use. Turtles were checked 2 to 3 times weekly in summer and sporadically in winter. Several microhabitat variables were measured at each turtle location and a random location to help quantify microhabitat use vs. availability. We recorded 147 turtle locations. Turtles were always associated with submerged cover with a high percentage of overhead canopy cover. Turtles used deeper depths in late summer (but not deeper depths than random locations) and deeper depths in mid-winter (and deeper depths than random locations) than in early summer. They used shallower depths than random locations in early summer. This seasonal shift in depth use might be thermoregulatory, although evidence for this is indirect. The mean linear home range for all turtles was 777.8 m. Females had larger home ranges than males, and juveniles had larger home ranges than adults, although the latter was not statistically significant. Macrochelys temminckii used submerged structures as a core site, and stayed at each core site for an average of 12.3 d.

  9. Microhabitat and shrimp abundance within a Norwegian cold-water coral ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purser, A.; Ontrup, J.; Schoening, T.; Thomsen, L.; Tong, R.; Unnithan, V.; Nattkemper, T. W.

    2013-02-01

    Cold-water coral reefs are highly heterogeneous ecosystems comprising of a range of diverse microhabitats. In a typical European cold-water coral reef various biogenic habitats (live colonies of locally common coral species such as Lophelia pertusa, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis, dead coral structure, coral rubble) may be surrounded and intermixed with non-biogenic habitats (soft sediment, hardground, gravel/pebbles, steep walls). To date, studies of distribution of sessile fauna across these microhabitats have been more numerous than those investigating mobile fauna distribution. In this study we quantified shrimp densities associated with key CWC habitat categories at the Røst reef, Norway, by analysing image data collected by towed video sled. We also investigated shrimp distribution patterns on the local scale (<40 cm) and how these may vary with habitat. We found shrimp abundances at the Røst reef to be on average an order of magnitude greater in biogenic reef habitats than in non-biogenic habitats. Greatest shrimp densities were observed in association with live Paragorgia arborea habitats (43 shrimp m-2, SD = 35.5), live Primnoa resedaeformis habitats (41.6 shrimp m-2, SD = 26.1) and live Lophelia pertusa habitats (24.4 shrimp m-2, SD = 18.6). In non-biogenic habitats shrimp densities were <2 shrimp m-2. We conclude that CWC reef habitats clearly support greater shrimp densities than the surrounding non-biogenic habitats on the Norwegian margin.

  10. Long-term Patterns of Microhabitat Use by Fish in a Southern Appalachian Stream from 1983 to 1992: Effects of Hydrologic Period, Season and Fish Length

    Treesearch

    Gary D. Grossman; Robert E. Ratajczak

    1998-01-01

    We quantified microhabitat use by members of a southern Appalachian stream fish assemblage over a ten-year period that included both floods and droughts. Our study site (37 m in length) encompassed riffle, run and pool habitats. Previous research indicated that species belonged to either benthic or water-column microhabitat guilds. Most species exhibited non-random...

  11. Tree microhabitat structures as indicators of biodiversity in Douglas-fir forests of different stand ages and management histories in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A.

    Treesearch

    Alexa K. Michel; Susanne. Winter

    2009-01-01

    In this study, microhabitat structures in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests were defined and their frequency and abundance in natural stands and stands of varying active management histories and stand ages was compared. Indicator microhabitat structures for natural forests were determined and the relationship of the abundance of...

  12. Evaluation of VIIRS Land Aerosol Model Selection with AERONET Measurements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Pan, Zengxin; Mao, Feiyue; Gong, Wei; Shen, Longjiao

    2017-09-05

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a next-generation polar-orbiting operational environmental sensor with a capability for global aerosol observations. Identifying land aerosol types is important because aerosol types are a basic input in retrieving aerosol optical properties for VIIRS. The VIIRS algorithm can automatically select the optimal land aerosol model by minimizing the residual between the derived and expected spectral surface reflectance. In this study, these selected VIIRS aerosol types are evaluated using collocated aerosol types obtained from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) level 1.5 from 23 January 2013 to 28 February 2017. The spatial distribution of VIIRS aerosol types and the aerosol optical depth bias (VIIRS minus AERONET) demonstrate that misidentifying VIIRS aerosol types may lead to VIIRS retrieval being overestimated over the Eastern United States and the developed regions of East Asia, as well as underestimated over Southern Africa, India, and Northeastern China. Approximately 22.33% of VIIRS aerosol types are coincident with that of AERONET. The agreements between VIIRS and AERONET for fine non-absorbing and absorbing aerosol types are approximately 36% and 57%, respectively. However, the agreement between VIIRS and AERONET is extremely low (only 3.51%). The low agreement for coarse absorbing dust may contribute to the poor performance of VIIRS retrieval under the aerosol model (R = 0.61). Results also show that an appropriate aerosol model can improve the retrieval performance of VIIRS over land, particularly for dust type (R increases from 0.61 to 0.72).

  13. Empirical evaluation of scoring functions for Bayesian network model selection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhifa; Malone, Brandon; Yuan, Changhe

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we empirically evaluate the capability of various scoring functions of Bayesian networks for recovering true underlying structures. Similar investigations have been carried out before, but they typically relied on approximate learning algorithms to learn the network structures. The suboptimal structures found by the approximation methods have unknown quality and may affect the reliability of their conclusions. Our study uses an optimal algorithm to learn Bayesian network structures from datasets generated from a set of gold standard Bayesian networks. Because all optimal algorithms always learn equivalent networks, this ensures that only the choice of scoring function affects the learned networks. Another shortcoming of the previous studies stems from their use of random synthetic networks as test cases. There is no guarantee that these networks reflect real-world data. We use real-world data to generate our gold-standard structures, so our experimental design more closely approximates real-world situations. A major finding of our study suggests that, in contrast to results reported by several prior works, the Minimum Description Length (MDL) (or equivalently, Bayesian information criterion (BIC)) consistently outperforms other scoring functions such as Akaike's information criterion (AIC), Bayesian Dirichlet equivalence score (BDeu), and factorized normalized maximum likelihood (fNML) in recovering the underlying Bayesian network structures. We believe this finding is a result of using both datasets generated from real-world applications rather than from random processes used in previous studies and learning algorithms to select high-scoring structures rather than selecting random models. Other findings of our study support existing work, e.g., large sample sizes result in learning structures closer to the true underlying structure; the BDeu score is sensitive to the parameter settings; and the fNML performs pretty well on small datasets. We also

  14. Empirical evaluation of scoring functions for Bayesian network model selection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we empirically evaluate the capability of various scoring functions of Bayesian networks for recovering true underlying structures. Similar investigations have been carried out before, but they typically relied on approximate learning algorithms to learn the network structures. The suboptimal structures found by the approximation methods have unknown quality and may affect the reliability of their conclusions. Our study uses an optimal algorithm to learn Bayesian network structures from datasets generated from a set of gold standard Bayesian networks. Because all optimal algorithms always learn equivalent networks, this ensures that only the choice of scoring function affects the learned networks. Another shortcoming of the previous studies stems from their use of random synthetic networks as test cases. There is no guarantee that these networks reflect real-world data. We use real-world data to generate our gold-standard structures, so our experimental design more closely approximates real-world situations. A major finding of our study suggests that, in contrast to results reported by several prior works, the Minimum Description Length (MDL) (or equivalently, Bayesian information criterion (BIC)) consistently outperforms other scoring functions such as Akaike's information criterion (AIC), Bayesian Dirichlet equivalence score (BDeu), and factorized normalized maximum likelihood (fNML) in recovering the underlying Bayesian network structures. We believe this finding is a result of using both datasets generated from real-world applications rather than from random processes used in previous studies and learning algorithms to select high-scoring structures rather than selecting random models. Other findings of our study support existing work, e.g., large sample sizes result in learning structures closer to the true underlying structure; the BDeu score is sensitive to the parameter settings; and the fNML performs pretty well on small datasets. We also

  15. An evaluation of plastic surgery resident selection factors.

    PubMed

    Liang, Fan; Rudnicki, Pamela A; Prince, Noah H; Lipsitz, Stuart; May, James W; Guo, Lifei

    2015-01-01

    Our purpose was to provide a metric by which evaluation criteria are prioritized during resident selection. In this study, we assessed which residency applicant qualities are deemed important by members of the American Association of Plastic Surgeons (AAPS). A survey was distributed to all 580 AAPS members, and 295 responded to rate the importance of resident metrics, including measures of competency and personal characteristics. Demographic information, background training, and interaction with residents were also noted. Using SAS v9.2 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC), outcomes were analyzed across demographic groups with column trend exact (CTE) test for ordinal variables, Mantel-Haenszel trend test for interval variables, and Fisher exact test for discrete variables. Regarding competency metrics, letters of recommendation from known sources is the most important factor, whereas letters from unknown sources ranks the lowest. Character evaluations identified honesty as the most desirable trait; dishonesty was the most despised. Across demographic groups, academic surgeons and program directors value letters from known sources more than nonacademicians or nonprogram directors (CTE p = 0.005 and 0.002, respectively). Academicians and current program directors regard research more highly than their counterparts do (CTE p = 0.022 and 0.022, respectively). Currently, practicing surgeons, academicians, and program directors value hard work more than others (CTE p = 0.008, 0.033, and 0.029, respectively). Program directors emphasize maturity and patient commitment and are less tolerant of narcissism (CTE p = 0.002, 0.005, and 0.003, respectively). Lastly, academic surgeons and program directors look more favorably upon strong team players (CTE p < 0.00001 and p = 0.008, respectively), but less so over time (Mantel-Haenszel trend p = 0.006). We have examined applicant metrics that were deemed important by AAPS members and assessed their demographic interpretation. We hope this

  16. Does attitude hinder or help selecting evaluation questions?

    PubMed

    Shams, Behzad; Dehghani, Mostafa

    2015-06-01

    Positive attitude leads to a more successfully implementation of a change. We investigated the effect of attitudes of stakeholders toward a program on their prioritization of the program components for selecting the key question of a theory-driven evaluation with concept mapping method. During a brainstorming session, stated statements defined the program components. Then they were sorted and rated regarding the importance and feasibility of them. In addition, the attitudes of participants were assessed by a 30 items questionnaire extracted from a pool named as "50 reasons not to change." We determined and compared the consensus points of participants both with and without of considering their attitudes toward the program. The participants were divided into two groups of high (45% - above the mean) and low (55% - below the mean) attitude. Brainstorming discussions generated a pool of almost 120 statements which were subsequently refined to 44 statements. Matching the rating scores between two attitude groups yielded a consensus at a higher priority than the other method. In the concept mapping procedure, it is crucial to reach the consensus with respect to the participants' attitude, rather than the similarity of mean scores of feasibility and importance.

  17. Does attitude hinder or help selecting evaluation questions?

    PubMed Central

    Shams, Behzad; Dehghani, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Positive attitude leads to a more successfully implementation of a change. We investigated the effect of attitudes of stakeholders toward a program on their prioritization of the program components for selecting the key question of a theory-driven evaluation with concept mapping method. Materials and Methods: During a brainstorming session, stated statements defined the program components. Then they were sorted and rated regarding the importance and feasibility of them. In addition, the attitudes of participants were assessed by a 30 items questionnaire extracted from a pool named as “50 reasons not to change.” We determined and compared the consensus points of participants both with and without of considering their attitudes toward the program. Results: The participants were divided into two groups of high (45% - above the mean) and low (55% - below the mean) attitude. Brainstorming discussions generated a pool of almost 120 statements which were subsequently refined to 44 statements. Matching the rating scores between two attitude groups yielded a consensus at a higher priority than the other method. Conclusion: In the concept mapping procedure, it is crucial to reach the consensus with respect to the participants’ attitude, rather than the similarity of mean scores of feasibility and importance. PMID:26600835

  18. Hot piston ring/cylinder liner materials: Selection and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.

    1988-01-01

    In current designs of the automotive (kinematic) Stirling engine, the piston rings are made of a reinforced polymer and are located below the pistons because they cannot withstand the high temperatures in the upper cylinder area. Theoretically, efficiency could be improved if hot piston rings were located near the top of the pistons. Described is a program to select piston ring and cylinder coating materials to test this theory. Candidate materials were screened, then subjected to a pin or disk friction and wear test machine. Tests were performed in hydrogen at specimen temperatures up to 760 C to simulate environmental conditions in the region of the hot piston ring reversal. Based on the results of these tests, a cobalt based alloy, Stellite 6B, was chosen for the piston rings and PS200, which consists of a metal-bonded chromium carbide matrix with dispersed solid lubricants, was chosen as the cylinder coating. Tests of a modified engine and a baseline engine showed that the hot ring reduced specific fuel consumption by up to 7 percent for some operating conditions and averaged about 3 percent for all conditions evaluated. Related applications of high-temperature coatings for shaft seals and as back-up lubricants are also described.

  19. Factor selection for service quality evaluation: a hospital case study.

    PubMed

    Ameryoun, Ahmad; Najafi, Seyedvahid; Nejati-Zarnaqi, Bayram; Khalilifar, Seyed Omid; Ajam, Mahdi; Ansarimoghadam, Ahmad

    2017-02-13

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop a systematic approach to predict service quality dimension's influence on service quality using a novel analysis based on data envelopment and SERVQUAL. Design/methodology/approach To assess hospital service quality in Tehran, expectation and perception of those who received the services were evaluated using SERVQUAL. The hospital service quality dimensions were found by exploratory factor analysis (EFA). To compare customer expectation and perception, perceived service quality index (PSQI) was measured using a new method based on common weights. A novel sensitivity approach was used to test the service quality factor's impact on the PSQI. Findings A new service quality dimension named "trust in services" was found using EFA, which is not an original SERVQUAL factor. The approach was applied to assess the hospital's service quality. Since the PSQI value was 0.76 it showed that improvements are needed to meet customer expectations. The results showed the factor order that affect PSQI. "Trust in services" has the strongest influence on PSQI followed by "tangibles," "assurance," "empathy," and "responsiveness," respectively. Practical implications This work gives managers insight into service quality by following a systematic method; i.e., measuring perceived service quality from the customer viewpoint and service factors' impact on customer perception. Originality/value The procedure helps managers to select the required service quality dimensions which need improvement and predict their effects on customer perception.

  20. Evaluation of nutraceutical properties of selected small millets

    PubMed Central

    Rao, B. Raghavendra; Nagasampige, Manojkumar H.; Ravikiran, M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutraceutical properties and nutritional value of grains of four selected small millets viz. finger millet, foxtail millet, prosomillet and khodomillet. Materials and Methods: The qualitative analysis of phytochemicals viz. phenolics, flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins present in the four small millets was done. The water-soluble proteins, crude fiber content and the reducing power of the grains of these four millets were analyzed. Results and Conclusions: The khodomillet showed maximum phenolic content (10.3%) and foxtail millet showed minimum phenolics (2.5%). As far as reducing capacity was concerned, finger millet was highest (5.7%). The prosomillet showed least reducing property (2.6%). The finger millet (391.3 mg/g each) showed maximum reducing sugar content. The prosomillet showed minimum reducing sugar (195 mg/g). The foxtail millet showed maximum protein content (305.76 mg/g) and prosomillet showed minimum protein content (144.23 mg/g). The khodomillet showed maximum crude fiber content (14.3%).The finger millet showed maximum reducing sugar content (391.3 mg/g) whereas, the khodomillet showed minimum reducing sugar (130.43 mg/g). PMID:21687358

  1. Merged Group Tractography Evaluation with Selective Automated Group Integrated Tractography.

    PubMed

    Chen, David Q; Zhong, Jidan; Hayes, David J; Behan, Brendan; Walker, Matthew; Hung, Peter S-P; Hodaie, Mojgan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tractography analysis in group-based studies across large populations has been difficult to implement. We propose Selective Automated Group Integrated Tractography (SAGIT), an automated group tractography software platform that incorporates multiple diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) practices which will allow great accessibility to group-wise dMRI. We use a merged tractography approach that permits evaluation of tractography datasets at the group level. We also introduce an image normalized overlap score (NOS) that measures the quality of the group tractography results. We deploy SAGIT to evaluate deterministic and probabilistic constrained spherical deconvolution (CST det , CST prob ) tractography, eXtended Streamline Tractography (XST), and diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) in their ability to delineate different neuroanatomy, as well as validating NOS across these different brain regions. Materials and methods: Magnetic resonance sequences were acquired from 42 healthy adults. Anatomical and group registrations were performed using Automated Normalization Tools. Cortical segmentation was performed using FreeSurfer. Four tractography algorithms were used to delineate six sets of neuroanatomy: fornix, facial/vestibular-cochlear cranial nerve complex, vagus nerve, rubral-cerebellar decussation, optic radiation, and auditory radiation. The tracts were generated both with and without region of interest filters. The generated visual reports were then evaluated by five neuroscientists. Results: At a group level, merged tractography demonstrated that different methods have different fiber distribution characteristics. CST prob is prone to false-positives, and thereby suitable in anatomy with strong priors. CST det and XST are more conservative, but have greater difficulty resolving hemispherical decussation and distant crossing projections. DTT consistently shows the worst reproducibility across the anatomies. Linear regression of rater scores

  2. Merged Group Tractography Evaluation with Selective Automated Group Integrated Tractography

    PubMed Central

    Chen, David Q.; Zhong, Jidan; Hayes, David J.; Behan, Brendan; Walker, Matthew; Hung, Peter S.-P.; Hodaie, Mojgan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tractography analysis in group-based studies across large populations has been difficult to implement. We propose Selective Automated Group Integrated Tractography (SAGIT), an automated group tractography software platform that incorporates multiple diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) practices which will allow great accessibility to group-wise dMRI. We use a merged tractography approach that permits evaluation of tractography datasets at the group level. We also introduce an image normalized overlap score (NOS) that measures the quality of the group tractography results. We deploy SAGIT to evaluate deterministic and probabilistic constrained spherical deconvolution (CSTdet, CSTprob) tractography, eXtended Streamline Tractography (XST), and diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) in their ability to delineate different neuroanatomy, as well as validating NOS across these different brain regions. Materials and methods: Magnetic resonance sequences were acquired from 42 healthy adults. Anatomical and group registrations were performed using Automated Normalization Tools. Cortical segmentation was performed using FreeSurfer. Four tractography algorithms were used to delineate six sets of neuroanatomy: fornix, facial/vestibular-cochlear cranial nerve complex, vagus nerve, rubral–cerebellar decussation, optic radiation, and auditory radiation. The tracts were generated both with and without region of interest filters. The generated visual reports were then evaluated by five neuroscientists. Results: At a group level, merged tractography demonstrated that different methods have different fiber distribution characteristics. CSTprob is prone to false-positives, and thereby suitable in anatomy with strong priors. CSTdet and XST are more conservative, but have greater difficulty resolving hemispherical decussation and distant crossing projections. DTT consistently shows the worst reproducibility across the anatomies. Linear regression of rater scores

  3. Visual acuity trade-offs and microhabitat-driven adaptation of searching behaviour in psyllids (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Aphalaridae).

    PubMed

    Farnier, Kevin; Dyer, Adrian G; Taylor, Gary S; Peters, Richard A; Steinbauer, Martin J

    2015-05-15

    Insects have evolved morphological and physiological adaptations in response to selection pressures inherent to their ecology. Consequently, visual performance and acuity often significantly vary between different insect species. Whilst psychophysics has allowed for the accurate determination of visual acuity for some Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera, very little is known about other insect taxa that cannot be trained to positively respond to a given stimulus. In this study, we demonstrate that prior knowledge of insect colour preferences can be used to facilitate acuity testing. We focused on four psyllid species (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Aphalaridae), namely Ctenarytaina eucalypti, Ctenarytaina bipartita, Anoeconeossa bundoorensis and Glycaspis brimblecombei, that differ in their colour preferences and utilization of different host-plant modules (e.g. apical buds, stems, leaf lamellae) and tested their visual acuity in a modified Y-maze adapted to suit psyllid searching behaviour. Our study revealed that psyllids have visual acuity ranging from 6.3 to 8.7 deg. Morphological measurements for different species showed a close match between inter-ommatidial angles and behaviourally determined visual angles (between 5.5 and 6.6 deg) suggesting detection of colour stimuli at the single ommatidium level. Whilst our data support isometric scaling of psyllids' eyes for C. eucalypti, C. bipartita and G. brimblecombei, a morphological trade-off between light sensitivity and spatial resolution was found in A. bundoorensis. Overall, species whose microhabitat preferences require more movement between modules appear to possess superior visual acuity. The psyllid searching behaviours that we describe with the help of tracking software depict species-specific strategies that presumably evolved to optimize searching for food and oviposition sites. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Evaluating the targets of selection during character displacement.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ryan A; Pfennig, David W

    2011-10-01

    Ecological character displacement occurs when competition imposes divergent selection on interacting species, causing divergence in traits associated with resource use. Generally, divergence is assumed to occur when selection acts on the same, continuously varying trait in both species. However, selection might target multiple traits, and even closely related heterospecifics involved in character displacement might differ in selective targets. We investigated the targets of selection in a species of spadefoot toad, Spea multiplicata, during experimentally imposed competition with a congener, S. bombifrons. When examining traits separately, we found significant selection acting on multiple resource-acquisition traits. Yet, controlling for the independent effects of these traits in a multiple regression revealed that direct selection on a single trait might have contributed toward indirect selection on other correlated traits. Moreover, although we found evidence for plasticity in most traits, competition with S. bombifrons imposed selection on morphology and not on plasticity. Additional experiments suggest that the selective targets during character displacement might differ between the two species involved in this one instance of character displacement. Identifying the targets of competitively mediated selection is crucial, because whether and how character displacement ultimately unfolds depends on the nature of these targets and correlations among them. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. Microhabitat Effects on N2O Emissions from Floodplain Soils under Controlled Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ley, Martin; Lehmann, Moritz; Niklaus, Pascal; Frey, Beat; Kuhn, Thomas; Luster, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    Semi-terrestrial soils such as floodplain soils are considered to be potential hotspots of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The quantitative assessment of N2O release from these hot spots under field conditions, and of the microbial pathways that underlie net N2O production (ammonium oxidation, nitrifier-denitrification, and denitrification) is challenging in the environment because of the high spatial and temporal variability. The production and consumption of N2O appears to be linked to the presence or absence of micro-niches, providing specific conditions that may be favorable to either of the microbial pathways that produce or consume N2O. The availability of oxygen, reactive organic carbon, and dissolved nitrogen substrates likely play key roles with regards to the net production of N2O. Previous field studies demonstrated, for example, that flooding can trigger "hot moments" of enhanced N2O emission through a close coupling of niches with high and low oxygen availabilities. Such microhabitat effects likely depend on soil aggregate formation, plant soil interactions in the rhizosphere and the degradation of organic matter accumulations. In order to assess how these factors can modulate N2O production and consumption under simulated flooding/drying conditions, we have set up a mesocosm experiment with model soils comprising various mixtures of N-rich floodplain soil aggregates (4000 - 250 µm representing large aggregates, or <250 µm representing small aggregates) and inert matrix material (glass beads of 150 - 250 µm size, or quartz sand of 2000 - 3200 µm size, respectively). Soils containing the different aggregate size groups were either planted with willow (Salix viminalis L.), mixed with leaf litter or left untreated. At several time points before, during and after a simulated flood event, we measure the net efflux rate of N2O. In addition, soil water content, redox potential as well as carbon and nitrogen substrate availability are monitored. In order to

  6. Geomorphic Segmentation, Hydraulic Geometry, and Hydraulic Microhabitats of the Niobrara River, Nebraska - Methods and Initial Results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, Jason S.; Zelt, Ronald B.; Schaepe, Nathaniel J.

    2009-01-01

    The Niobrara River of Nebraska is a geologically, ecologically, and economically significant resource. The State of Nebraska has recognized the need to better manage the surface- and ground-water resources of the Niobrara River so they are sustainable in the long term. In cooperation with the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, the U.S. Geological Survey is investigating the hydrogeomorphic settings and hydraulic geometry of the Niobrara River to assist in characterizing the types of broad-scale physical habitat attributes that may be of importance to the ecological resources of the river system. This report includes an inventory of surface-water and ground-water hydrology data, surface water-quality data, a longitudinal geomorphic segmentation and characterization of the main channel and its valley, and hydraulic geometry relations for the 330-mile section of the Niobrara River from Dunlap Diversion Dam in western Nebraska to the Missouri River confluence. Hydraulic microhabitats also were analyzed using available data from discharge measurements to demonstrate the potential application of these data and analysis methods. The main channel of the Niobrara was partitioned into three distinct fluvial geomorphic provinces: an upper province characterized by open valleys and a sinuous, equiwidth channel; a central province characterized by mixed valley and channel settings, including several entrenched canyon reaches; and a lower province where the valley is wide, yet restricted, but the river also is wide and persistently braided. Within the three fluvial geomorphic provinces, 36 geomorphic segments were identified using a customized, process-orientated classification scheme, which described the basic physical characteristics of the Niobrara River and its valley. Analysis of the longitudinal slope characteristics indicated that the Niobrara River longitudinal profile may be largely bedrock-controlled, with slope inflections co-located at changes in bedrock type at

  7. Study of the selection of indicator parameters in marine water quality evaluation and the evaluation methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Pan, Delu; Wang, Difeng; Fu, Dongyang

    2014-10-01

    In order to obtain the indicator types which must be introduced in marine water quality evaluation as well as the suitable evaluation methodology, GB3097-1997 National Marine Water Quality Standards is, in the first place, analyzed to establish a hypothetical sample which is consisting of 2000 stances, each stance containing the information of 21 indicators. And then a stepwise discriminant method is utilized to filter the 21 indicators in accordance with their water quality classification discriminant abilities. And finally, 6 indicators with significant discriminant ability, biochemical oxygen demand(BOD5), oil type(Oil), total phosphorus(P), cadmium(Cd), cyanide(HH) and chemical oxygen demand(COD), are selected and the water quality evaluation chart of the corresponding six indicators is also established. Theoretically, the water quality indicator types and the suitable evaluation methodology, which must be introduced when the water quality evaluation is done in all the waters under the jurisdiction of China, are discussed in this paper, providing theoretical basis for the subsequent marine water quality evaluation based on field observation.

  8. Summer microhabitat use by adult and young-of-year snail darters (Percina tanasi) in two rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashton, M.J.; Layzer, James B.

    2010-01-01

    We characterised microhabitat availability and use by adult and young-of-year (YOY) snail darters (Percina tanasi Etnier 1976) while snorkelling in the French Broad and Hiwassee rivers, TN, USA. Both age groups of snail darters disproportionately used most microhabitat variables compared to their availability. Snail darters primarily occupied moderately deep, swift water over gravel substrates with little macrophyte coverage and no silt. Univariate comparisons indicated that adult and YOY darters occupied different habitat, but there was no marked differences between principal components analysis plots of multivariate microhabitat use within a river. Although the availability of microhabitat variables differed between the French Broad and Hiwassee rivers, univariate means and multivariate plots illustrated that the habitats used were generally similar by age groups of snail darters between rivers. Because our observations of habitat availability and use were constrained to low flow periods and depths <1 m, the transferability of our results to higher flow periods may be limited. However, the similarity in habitat use between rivers suggests that our results can be applied to low-normal flow conditions in other streams.

  9. Summer microhabitat use by adult and young-of-year snail darters (Percina tanasi) in two rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashton, M.J.; Layzer, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    We characterised microhabitat availability and use by adult and young-of-year (YOY) snail darters (Percina tanasiEtnier 1976) while snorkelling in the French Broad and Hiwassee rivers, TN, USA. Both age groups of snail darters disproportionately used most microhabitat variables compared to their availability. Snail darters primarily occupied moderately deep, swift water over gravel substrates with little macrophyte coverage and no silt. Univariate comparisons indicated that adult and YOY darters occupied different habitat, but there was no marked differences between principal components analysis plots of multivariate microhabitat use within a river. Although the availability of microhabitat variables differed between the French Broad and Hiwassee rivers, univariate means and multivariate plots illustrated that the habitats used were generally similar by age groups of snail darters between rivers. Because our observations of habitat availability and use were constrained to low flow periods and depths <1 m, the transferability of our results to higher flow periods may be limited. However, the similarity in habitat use between rivers suggests that our results can be applied to low-normal flow conditions in other streams. ?? Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Microhabitat and Environmental Relationships of Bryophytes in Blue Oak (Quercus douglasii H. & A.) Woodlands and Forests of Central Coastal California

    Treesearch

    Mark Borchert; Daniel Norris

    1991-01-01

    Microhabitat preferences and species-environment patterns were quantified for bryophytes in blue oak woodlands and forests of central coastal California. Presence data for mosses collected from 149 400 m2 plots were analyzed using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), a multivariate direct gradient analysis technique. Separate ordinations were performed for...

  11. USE OF NIGHT-VISION GOGGLES, LIGHT-TAGS, AND FLUORESCENT POWDER FOR MEASURING MICROHABITAT USE OF NOCTURNAL SMALL MAMMALS

    Treesearch

    WILLIAM F. LAUDENSLAYER; ROBERTA J. FARGO

    1997-01-01

    In 1993 to 1996, dusky-footed woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes) were tracked using night-vision goggles, hght-tags (LED with battery), and fluorescent powder to better understand their microhabitat use. Traclung was conducted in 3 oak woodland study sites in the southern Sierra Nevada, 16 m northeast of Fresno, California. Nightvision goggles were not very useful for direct...

  12. Evolution of microhabitat association and morphology in a diverse group of cryptobenthic coral reef fishes (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Eviota).

    PubMed

    Tornabene, Luke; Ahmadia, Gabby N; Berumen, Michael L; Smith, Dave J; Jompa, Jamaluddin; Pezold, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Gobies (Teleostei: Gobiidae) are an extremely diverse and widely distributed group and are the second most species rich family of vertebrates. Ecological drivers are key to the evolutionary success of the Gobiidae. However, ecological and phylogenetic data are lacking for many diverse genera of gobies. Our study investigated the evolution of microhabitat association across the phylogeny of 18 species of dwarfgobies (genus Eviota), an abundant and diverse group of coral reef fishes. In addition, we also explore the evolution of pectoral fin-ray branching and sensory head pores to determine the relationship between morphological evolution and microhabitat shifts. Our results demonstrate that Eviota species switched multiple times from a facultative hard-coral association to inhabiting rubble or mixed sand/rubble habitat. We found no obvious relationship between microhabitat shifts and changes in pectoral fin-ray branching or reduction in sensory pores, with the latter character being highly homoplasious throughout the genus. The relative flexibility in coral-association in Eviota combined with the ability to move into non-coral habitats suggests a genetic capacity for ecological release in contrast to the strict obligate coral-dwelling relationship commonly observed in closely related coral gobies, thus promoting co-existence through fine scale niche partitioning. The variation in microhabitat association may facilitate opportunistic ecological speciation, and species persistence in the face of environmental change. This increased speciation opportunity, in concert with a high resilience to extinction, may explain the exceptionally high diversity seen in Eviota compared to related genera in the family.

  13. Defining stream fish microhabitat requirements for water project planning. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Helm, W.T.

    1982-11-01

    Environmental concerns are generating criteria for protecting stream fish habitat from flow regime changes caused by water resources development and use, but the lack of scientific basis for many of the promulgated water requirements creates grave doubts that true protection will be achieved. Economically productive water use is being prevented without assurance of environmental gain. The need for scientific habitat need characterization was addressed through the systematic collection of data on brown trout preferences in the Blacksmith Fork of the Logan River, Utah. Microhabitat components (velocity, depth, and light) were defined, measured, and mapped for a 90-meter river section. These quantified component ranges can be used for formulating habitat protection ranges that will effectively protect fish while permitting economical but harmless water development.

  14. 36 CFR 51.16 - How will the Director evaluate proposals and select the best one?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... evaluate proposals and select the best one? 51.16 Section 51.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... Procedures § 51.16 How will the Director evaluate proposals and select the best one? (a) The Director will apply the selection factors set forth in § 51.17 by assessing each timely proposal under each of the...

  15. Camouflage Effects of Various Colour-Marking Morphs against Different Microhabitat Backgrounds in a Polymorphic Pygmy Grasshopper Tetrix japonica

    PubMed Central

    Tsurui, Kaori; Honma, Atsushi; Nishida, Takayoshi

    2010-01-01

    Background Colour-marking polymorphism is widely distributed among cryptic species. To account for the adaptive significance of such polymorphisms, several hypotheses have been proposed to date. Although these hypotheses argue over the degree of camouflage effects of marking morphs (and the interactions between morphs and their microhabitat backgrounds), as far as we know, most empirical evidence has been provided under unnatural conditions (i.e., using artificial prey). Methodology/Principal Findings Tetrix japonica, a pygmy grasshopper, is highly polymorphic in colour-markings and occurs in both sand and grass microhabitats. Even within a microhabitat, T. japonica is highly polymorphic. Using humans as dummy predators and printed photographs in which various morphs of grasshoppers were placed against different backgrounds, we addressed three questions to test the neutral, background heterogeneity, and differential crypsis hypotheses in four marking-type morphs: 1) do the morphs differ in the degree of crypsis in each microhabitat, 2) are different morphs most cryptic in specific backgrounds of the microhabitats, and 3) does the morph frequency reflect the degree of crypsis? Conclusions/Significance The degree of camouflage differed among the four morphs; therefore, the neutral hypothesis was rejected. Furthermore, the order of camouflage advantage among morphs differed depending on the two types of backgrounds (sand and grass), although the grass background consistently provided greater camouflage effects. Thus, based on our results, we could not reject the background heterogeneity hypothesis. Under field conditions, the more cryptic morphs comprised a minority of the population. Overall, our results demonstrate that the different morphs were not equivalent in the degree of crypsis, but the degree of camouflage of the morphs was not consistent with the morph frequency. These findings suggest that trade-offs exist between the camouflage benefit of body colouration

  16. Crop size, plant aggregation, and microhabitat type affect fruit removal by birds from individual melastome plants in the Upper Amazon.

    PubMed

    Blendinger, Pedro G; Loiselle, Bette A; Blake, John G

    2008-11-01

    We studied the efficiency (proportion of the crop removed) and quantitative effectiveness (number of fruits removed) of dispersal of Miconia fosteri and M. serrulata (Melastomataceae) seeds by birds in lowland tropical wet forest of Ecuador. Specifically, we examined variation in fruit removal in order to reveal the spatial scale at which crop size influences seed dispersal outcome of individual plants, and to evaluate how the effect of crop size on plant dispersal success may be affected by conspecific fruit abundance and by the spatial distribution of frugivore abundance. We established two 9-ha plots in undisturbed terra-firme understory, where six manakin species (Pipridae) disperse most seeds of these two plant species. Mean levels of fruit removal were low for both species, with high variability among plants. In general, plants with larger crop sizes experienced greater efficiency and effectiveness of fruit removal than plants with smaller crops. Fruit removal, however, was also influenced by microhabitat, such as local topography and local neighborhood. Fruit-rich and disperser-rich patches overlapped spatially for M. fosteri but not M. serrulata, nonetheless fruit removal of M. serrulata was still much greater in fruit-rich patches. Fruit removal from individual plants did not decrease in patches with many fruiting conspecifics and, in fact, removal effectiveness was enhanced for M. fosteri with small crop sizes when such plants were in patches with more conspecifics. These results suggest that benefits of attracting dispersers to a patch balanced or outweighed the costs of competition for dispersers. Spatial pattern of fruit removal, a measure of plant fitness, depended on a complex interaction among plant traits, spatial patterns of plant distribution, and disperser behavior.

  17. Diaspore bank of bryophytes in tropical rain forests: the importance of breeding system, phylum and microhabitat.

    PubMed

    Maciel-Silva, Adaíses S; Válio, Ivany Ferraz Marques; Rydin, Håkan

    2012-02-01

    Diaspore banks are crucial for the maintenance and resilience of plant communities, but diaspore banks of bryophytes remain poorly known, especially from tropical ecosystems. This is the first study to focus on the role of diaspore banks of bryophytes in tropical rain forests. Our aim was to test whether microhabitat (substrate type) and species traits (breeding system, phylum) are important in explaining the diaspore bank composition. Using samples cultivated in the laboratory, we assessed the number of species and shoots emerging from bark, decaying wood and soil from two sites of the Atlantic rain forest (montane and sea level) in Brazil by comparing the contribution of species by phylum (mosses, liverworts) and breeding system (monoicous, dioicous). More species emerged from bark (68) and decaying wood (55) than from soil (22). Similar numbers of species were found at both sites. Mosses were more numerous in terms of number of species and shoots, and monoicous species dominated over dioicous species. Substrate pH had only weak effects on shoot emergence. Species commonly producing sporophytes and gemmae had a high contribution to the diaspore banks. These superficial diaspore banks represented the extant vegetation rather well, but held more monoicous species (probably short-lived species) compared to dioicous ones. We propose that diaspore bank dynamics are driven by species traits and microhabitat characteristics, and that short-term diaspore banks of bryophytes in tropical rain forests contribute to fast (re)establishment of species after disturbances and during succession, particularly dioicous mosses investing in asexual reproduction and monoicous mosses investing in sexual reproduction.

  18. Thermal characteristics of amphibian microhabitats in a fire-disturbed landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hossack, B.R.; Eby, L.A.; Guscio, C.G.; Corn, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    Disturbance has long been a central issue in amphibian conservation, often regarding negative effects of logging or other forest management activities, but some amphibians seem to prefer disturbed habitats. After documenting increased use of recently burned forests by boreal toads (Bufo boreas), we hypothesized that burned habitats provided improved thermal opportunities in terrestrial habitats. We tested this hypothesis by conducting a radio telemetry study of habitat use (reported previously) and by using physical models that simulated the temperature of adult toads. We deployed 108 physical models in and adjacent to a 1-year old burn using a fully-replicated design with three burn severities (unburned, partial, high severity) and four microhabitats (open surface, under vegetation, under log, in burrow). Model temperatures were compared to a range of preferred temperatures in published studies. We found 70% more observations within the preferred temperature range of B. boreas in forests burned with high severity than in unburned areas. Burned forest was warmer than unburned forest across all microhabitats, but the largest relative difference was in burrows, which averaged 3 ??C warmer in high-severity burn areas and remained warmer though the night. More than twice as many observations were within the preferred temperature range in high-severity burrows than in unburned burrows. Areas burned with high severity were still warmer than unburned forest 3 years after the fire. Habitat use of toads during the concurrent radio telemetry study matched that predicted by the physical models. These results suggest there are fitness-linked benefits to toads using burned habitats, such as increased growth, fertility, and possibly disease resistance. However, increased soil temperatures that result from wildfire may be detrimental to other amphibian species that prefer cooler temperatures and stable environments. More broadly, our data illustrate the use of physical models to

  19. Inflorescences of Neotropical herbs as a newly discovered microhabitat for myxomycetes.

    PubMed

    Schnittler, Martin; Stephenson, Steven L

    2002-01-01

    An assemblage of myxomycetes associated with inflorescences of large Neotropical herbs, a microhabitat not previously known to support these organisms, is described and characterized ecologically from a number of study sites in Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Puerto Rico. Thirty-one different taxa were found among 652 specimens of myxomycetes recorded in the field or obtained from 358 moist chamber cultures prepared with decaying floral parts. A comparison with the results of 696 moist chamber cultures prepared with various other litter substrates showed that thirteen myxomycete taxa occurred more often on inflorescences. Six taxa had a strong preference for this microhabitat, and three of those seem to be new for the Neotropics. Correspondence analysis of the data set compiled for inflorescences indicated that the assemblage of myxomycetes was relatively consistent across all of the various study sites. The actual myxomycete substrates were the rapidly decaying floral parts enclosed by the massive, still living bracts. Richest in myxomycetes were species of Heliconia and Costus. Here, nectar residuals probably promoted a rapidly developing community of yeasts and bacteria. A high density of these organisms was indicated by the frequent occurrence of myxobacteria in the moist chamber cultures prepared with floral parts. Results from canonical correspondence analysis suggested that a substrate pH between 8 and 9 and the presence of massive, compact inflorescences on plants occurring at lower elevations in localities with moderate annual rainfall provide optimal conditions for inflorescence-inhabiting myxomycetes. An incidental dispersal of myxomycete spores by birds that pollinate the flowers or feed upon the fruits seems possible and may have accounted for the high degree of preference exhibited by some of the inflorescence-inhabiting myxomycetes, for which the term "floricolous" is proposed.

  20. Selecting and Evaluating Staff in Small School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaMarche, Alfred J.

    Staff selection and hiring in the Jamestown (Rhode Island) Public Schools includes two unusual elements: Teachers, administrators, and the community are involved in the hiring procedure and the superintendent negotiates with teachers hired to determine their first year salaries. During the district's recent selection of an elementary school…

  1. The NCTQ Selectivity Standard and Principal Evaluation of Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracz, Susan; Torgerson, Colleen; Beare, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Ratings published by the National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ) require selectivity in admission to educator preparation programs. NCTQ provides a list of citations to support the selectivity standard termed "strong support." A review of each citation in the list found little or no support for the standard. Original data was…

  2. The NCTQ Selectivity Standard and Principal Evaluation of Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracz, Susan; Torgerson, Colleen; Beare, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Ratings published by the National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ) require selectivity in admission to educator preparation programs. NCTQ provides a list of citations to support the selectivity standard termed "strong support." A review of each citation in the list found little or no support for the standard. Original data was…

  3. Evaluation of resource selection methods with different definitions of availability

    Treesearch

    Seth A. McClean; Mark A. Rumble; Rudy M. King; William L. Baker

    1998-01-01

    Because resource selection is of paramount importance to ecology and management of any species, we compared 6 statistical methods of analyzing resource selection data, given the known biological requirements of radiomarked Merriam’s wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) hens with poults in the Black Hills of South Dakota. A single variable,...

  4. Development and Evaluation of the Conceptual Inventory of Natural Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Dianne L.; Fisher, Kathleen M.; Norman, Gregory J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a diagnostic test to assess students' understanding of natural selection. Field-tests the Conceptual Inventory of Natural Selection (CINS) with nonmajors and biology majors at community colleges. Compares test scores of nonmajors with performances in interviews and discusses the correlation between the test scores and the interview…

  5. Evaluating the performance of selection scans to detect selective sweeps in domestic dogs

    PubMed Central

    Schlamp, Florencia; van der Made, Julian; Stambler, Rebecca; Chesebrough, Lewis; Boyko, Adam R.; Messer, Philipp W.

    2015-01-01

    Selective breeding of dogs has resulted in repeated artificial selection on breed-specific morphological phenotypes. A number of quantitative trait loci associated with these phenotypes have been identified in genetic mapping studies. We analyzed the population genomic signatures observed around the causal mutations for 12 of these loci in 25 dog breeds, for which we genotyped 25 individuals in each breed. By measuring the population frequencies of the causal mutations in each breed, we identified those breeds in which specific mutations most likely experienced positive selection. These instances were then used as positive controls for assessing the performance of popular statistics to detect selection from population genomic data. We found that artificial selection during dog domestication has left characteristic signatures in the haplotype and nucleotide polymorphism patterns around selected loci that can be detected in the genotype data from a single population sample. However, the sensitivity and accuracy at which such signatures were detected varied widely between loci, the particular statistic used, and the choice of analysis parameters. We observed examples of both hard and soft selective sweeps and detected strong selective events that removed genetic diversity almost entirely over regions >10 Mbp. Our study demonstrates the power and limitations of selection scans in populations with high levels of linkage disequilibrium due to severe founder effects and recent population bottlenecks. PMID:26589239

  6. Evaluating the performance of selection scans to detect selective sweeps in domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Schlamp, Florencia; van der Made, Julian; Stambler, Rebecca; Chesebrough, Lewis; Boyko, Adam R; Messer, Philipp W

    2016-01-01

    Selective breeding of dogs has resulted in repeated artificial selection on breed-specific morphological phenotypes. A number of quantitative trait loci associated with these phenotypes have been identified in genetic mapping studies. We analysed the population genomic signatures observed around the causal mutations for 12 of these loci in 25 dog breeds, for which we genotyped 25 individuals in each breed. By measuring the population frequencies of the causal mutations in each breed, we identified those breeds in which specific mutations most likely experienced positive selection. These instances were then used as positive controls for assessing the performance of popular statistics to detect selection from population genomic data. We found that artificial selection during dog domestication has left characteristic signatures in the haplotype and nucleotide polymorphism patterns around selected loci that can be detected in the genotype data from a single population sample. However, the sensitivity and accuracy at which such signatures were detected varied widely between loci, the particular statistic used and the choice of analysis parameters. We observed examples of both hard and soft selective sweeps and detected strong selective events that removed genetic diversity almost entirely over regions >10 Mbp. Our study demonstrates the power and limitations of selection scans in populations with high levels of linkage disequilibrium due to severe founder effects and recent population bottlenecks.

  7. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Selected Continuing Education Offerings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deets, Carol; Blume, Dorothy

    1977-01-01

    This paper presented at the 1976 National Conference on Continuing Education in Nursing describes evaluation methodology used to determine the effectiveness of different continuing education offerings in nursing. The evaluation design, workshops for inservice directors, findings and problems, and examples of three evaluation forms used are…

  8. Evaluation Concepts and Practices in Selected Distance Education Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuemer, Rudolf, Ed.

    This report contains, in addition to the introduction and preface, 13 papers written by individuals working in the field of evaluation who present the concepts and practices of evaluation at their own particular distance education institutions. The introduction (Schuemer) gives a short outline of the evaluation nomenclature and an overview of the…

  9. The Roberts' Checklist--Selecting and Evaluating Social Studies Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Arthur D.

    1980-01-01

    Provides a checklist to aid the elementary and secondary educator in selecting a social studies textbook or curriculum package. The three-page checklist considers the textbook's philosophy and objectives, instructional materials, teacher's manual, supplementary materials, and administrative concerns. (KC)

  10. Ecohydrological model parameter selection for stream health evaluation.

    PubMed

    Woznicki, Sean A; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Ross, Dennis M; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Lizhu; Esfahanian, Abdol-Hossein

    2015-04-01

    Variable selection is a critical step in development of empirical stream health prediction models. This study develops a framework for selecting important in-stream variables to predict four measures of biological integrity: total number of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) taxa, family index of biotic integrity (FIBI), Hilsenhoff biotic integrity (HBI), and fish index of biotic integrity (IBI). Over 200 flow regime and water quality variables were calculated using the Hydrologic Index Tool (HIT) and Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Streams of the River Raisin watershed in Michigan were grouped using the Strahler stream classification system (orders 1-3 and orders 4-6), k-means clustering technique (two clusters: C1 and C2), and all streams (one grouping). For each grouping, variable selection was performed using Bayesian variable selection, principal component analysis, and Spearman's rank correlation. Following selection of best variable sets, models were developed to predict the measures of biological integrity using adaptive-neuro fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS), a technique well-suited to complex, nonlinear ecological problems. Multiple unique variable sets were identified, all which differed by selection method and stream grouping. Final best models were mostly built using the Bayesian variable selection method. The most effective stream grouping method varied by health measure, although k-means clustering and grouping by stream order were always superior to models built without grouping. Commonly selected variables were related to streamflow magnitude, rate of change, and seasonal nitrate concentration. Each best model was effective in simulating stream health observations, with EPT taxa validation R2 ranging from 0.67 to 0.92, FIBI ranging from 0.49 to 0.85, HBI from 0.56 to 0.75, and fish IBI at 0.99 for all best models. The comprehensive variable selection and modeling process proposed here is a robust method that extends our

  11. Evaluating gene flow using selected markers: a case study.

    PubMed Central

    Lenormand, T; Guillemaud, T; Bourguet, D; Raymond, M

    1998-01-01

    The extent to which an organism is locally adapted in an environmental pocket depends on the selection intensities inside and outside the pocket, on migration, and on the size of the pocket. When two or more loci are involved in this local adaptation, measuring their frequency gradients and their linkage disequilbria allows one to disentangle the forces-migration and selection-acting on the system. We apply this method to the case of a local adaptation to organophosphate insecticides in the mosquito Culex pipiens pipiens in southern France. The study of two different resistance loci allowed us to estimate with support limits gene flow as well as selection pressure on insecticide resistance and the fitness costs associated with each locus. These estimates permit us to pinpoint the conditions for the maintenance of this pocket of adaptation as well as the effect of the interaction between the two resistance loci. PMID:9649528

  12. Perchlorate Selectivity of Anion Exchange Resins as Evaluated Using Ion-Selective Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kenji; Mitsuda, Shin'ya; Ohtake, Naomi; Murashige, Natsuki; Ohmuro, Satoshi; Yuchi, Akio

    2017-01-01

    The selectivity coefficients reported for perchlorate of the high selectivity on anion exchange resins (AXRs) have not been consistent with one another. Possible errors by the unique use of four parameters (concentrations of two anions in two phases) were experimentally verified. The concentrations of perchlorate buffered at low levels (10(-6) - 10(-4) mol L(-1)) by two forms of AXRs were successfully determined by potentiometry with a perchlorate ion-selective electrode. This gave reasonable coefficients. The coefficients for perchlorate on several AXRs were independent of the relative exchange (RE), in contrast to the previous reports. On the other hand, the coefficients for fluoride of the low selectivity that were examined for comparison decreased with an increase in RE, and the dependency was more remarkable for the resins of large exchange capacity.

  13. Effects of Handicap and Job Characteristics on Selection Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Gerald L.; Brief, Arthur P.

    1979-01-01

    Business administration students evaluated a hypothetical job applicant who was either an amputee, an epileptic, or "normal." The hypothetical job openings varied as to levels of supervisory responsibility and public contact. With some noted exceptions, the handicapped applicants were evaluated no differently than the normal applicants.…

  14. 10 CFR 470.14 - Evaluation and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM § 470.14 Evaluation and... evaluation and that it has been properly signed. If the proposal does not meet these requirements, a prompt... the technology, process, or items within the proposal and extent of such...

  15. Effects of Handicap and Job Characteristics on Selection Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Gerald L.; Brief, Arthur P.

    1979-01-01

    Business administration students evaluated a hypothetical job applicant who was either an amputee, an epileptic, or "normal." The hypothetical job openings varied as to levels of supervisory responsibility and public contact. With some noted exceptions, the handicapped applicants were evaluated no differently than the normal applicants.…

  16. [Evaluative Criteria for Selected Secondary School Vocational Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Study of Secondary School Evaluation, Washington, DC.

    This series of instruments for evaluating the vocational education program of a secondary school is part of a larger package entitled "Evaluative Criteria" covering 18 subject areas. Vocational education subject areas include programs in (1) agriculture, (2) business education, (3) distributive education, (4) driver and traffic safety, (5) health…

  17. 14 CFR § 1260.11 - Evaluation and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... evaluation of proposals will be conducted by the cognizant NASA technical office and may be based on peer..., including a funded procurement request, technical evaluation of the proposed budget, and other support... grant officer approval when more than half of the proposed budget is for equipment or travel...

  18. Teacher Criteria for Evaluating and Selecting Developmentally Appropriate Computer Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntuli, Esther; Kyei-Blankson, Lydia

    2011-01-01

    Although many teacher training programs and school districts offer courses and workshops on technology integration in instruction, research shows that teachers still face major challenges especially as it relates to selecting and using developmentally appropriate technology to meet the needs of diverse learners. The current study examines the…

  19. Resource evaluation and site selection for microalgae production systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, E.L.; Folger, A.G.; Hogg, S.E.

    1985-05-01

    Climate, land, and water resource requirements of microalgae production systems (MPS) were examined relative to construction costs, operating costs, and biomass productivity. The objective was the stratification of the southwestern United States into zones of relative suitability for MPS. Maps of climate (insolation, freeze-free period, precipitation, evaporation, thunderstorm days), land (use/cover, ownership, slope), and water (saline groundwater) resource parameters were obtained. These maps were transformed into digital overlays permitting the cell-by-cell compositing of selected resource parameters to form maps representing relative productivity, make-up water, climate suitability, land suitability, water suitability, and overall suitability. The Southwest was selected for this study because of its high levels of insolation, saline water resources, and large areas of relatively low valued land. The stratification maps cannot be used for the selection of specific sites because of their low resolution (12,455-acre cells). They can be used to guide future resource studies and site selection efforts, however, by limiting these efforts to the most suitable regions. Future efforts should concentrate on saline water resources, for which only limited data are currently available. 13 refs., 44 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Selecting Test Item Types To Evaluate Library Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jody Condit

    2002-01-01

    This article outlines the advantages and disadvantages of various question types in tests for library classes, including selected-response, constructed-response and alternative-response test items. It examines a test case in which students in a for-credit library course were given a take home quiz with search story problems. Sample "search story"…

  1. An Evaluation Guide for Selecting a Junior College Site.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reida, G. W.

    Emphasis is placed upon conceiving the site as an integral part of the total educational environment. Preliminary steps are suggested for planning a junior college campus, placing emphasis upon the need for a master plan. Criteria for site selection are discussed for site size, student enrollment, land use patterns, and accessibility. Directions…

  2. Evaluating and Selecting Online Magazines for Children. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Mei-Yu

    This Digest provides an overview of children's online magazines, also known as e-zines. It begins with a brief review of factors that contribute to the popularity of these publications, followed by a list of criteria for selecting high-quality online magazines for children. Samples of high-quality children's e-zines are also included in this…

  3. A Description and Evaluation of Selection and Classification Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    Psychomotor Battery • Spatial/ Psychomotor Battery at...MEPS Contract and Spatial/ Psychomotor Battery If job set contract: * No Spatial/ Psychomotor Battery * Spatial/ Psychomotor Battery at MEPS and used...for job set assignment * Spatial/ Psychomotor Battery at reception station and used for MOS assignment Selection and Classification Algorithms

  4. [Inverse probability weighting (IPW) for evaluating and "correcting" selection bias].

    PubMed

    Narduzzi, Silvia; Golini, Martina Nicole; Porta, Daniela; Stafoggia, Massimo; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    the Inverse probability weighting (IPW) is a methodology developed to account for missingness and selection bias caused by non-randomselection of observations, or non-random lack of some information in a subgroup of the population. to provide an overview of IPW methodology and an application in a cohort study of the association between exposure to traffic air pollution (nitrogen dioxide, NO₂) and 7-year children IQ. this methodology allows to correct the analysis by weighting the observations with the probability of being selected. The IPW is based on the assumption that individual information that can predict the probability of inclusion (non-missingness) are available for the entire study population, so that, after taking account of them, we can make inferences about the entire target population starting from the nonmissing observations alone.The procedure for the calculation is the following: firstly, we consider the entire population at study and calculate the probability of non-missing information using a logistic regression model, where the response is the nonmissingness and the covariates are its possible predictors.The weight of each subject is given by the inverse of the predicted probability. Then the analysis is performed only on the non-missing observations using a weighted model. IPW is a technique that allows to embed the selection process in the analysis of the estimates, but its effectiveness in "correcting" the selection bias depends on the availability of enough information, for the entire population, to predict the non-missingness probability. In the example proposed, the IPW application showed that the effect of exposure to NO2 on the area of verbal intelligence quotient of children is stronger than the effect showed from the analysis performed without regard to the selection processes.

  5. Microhabitat Effects on N2O Emissions from Floodplain Soils under Controlled Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ley, Martin; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Niklaus, Pascal A.; Kuhn, Thomas; Luster, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    Semi-terrestrial soils such as floodplain soils are considered to be potential hotspots of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The quantitative assessment of N2O release from these hotspots under field conditions, and of the microbial pathways that underlie net N2O production (ammonium oxidation, nitrifier-denitrification, and denitrification) is challenging because of their high spatial and temporal variability. The production and consumption of N2O appears to be linked to the presence or absence of micro-niches, providing specific conditions that may be favorable to either of the relevant microbial pathways. Flood events have been shown to trigger moments of enhanced N2O emission through a close coupling of niches with high and low oxygen availabilities. This coupling might be modulated by microhabitat effects related to soil aggregate formation, root soil interactions and the degradation of organic matter accumulations. In order to assess how these factors can modulate N2O production and consumption under simulated flooding/drying conditions, we have set up a mesocosm experiment with N-rich floodplain soils comprising different combinations of soil aggregate size classes and inert matrix material. These model soils were either planted with basket willow (Salix viminalis L.), mixed with leaf litter, or left untreated. Throughout a simulated flood event, we repeatedly measured the net N2O production rate. In addition, soil water content, redox potential, as well as C and N substrate availability were monitored. In order to gain insight into the sources of, and biogeochemical controls on N2O production, we also measured the bulk δ15N signature of the produced N2O, as well as its intramolecular 15N site preference (SP). In this presentation we focus on a period of enhanced N2O emission during the drying phase after 48 hrs of flooding. We will discuss the observed emission patterns in the context of possible treatment effects. Soils with large aggregates showed a

  6. Selecting Continuing Higher Education Programs for Impact Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliani, Betty

    1979-01-01

    Some noncredit university continuing education programs are more readily subject to impact evaluation than most. Impact studies are reported for two such programs, one on governmental accounting and one on criminal justice. (CT)

  7. Evaluation and comparison of selected household hazardous waste collection facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, M; Brogan, J.A.; Sepanski, L.M.

    1990-05-01

    In 1988 the City of Seattle's Office for Long-range Planning and the Solid Waste Utility implemented a permanent household hazardous waste collection program in an effort to decrease hazardous waste disposal in municipal solid and liquid waste streams. A detailed description of this program may be found in Household Hazardous Waste: Implementation of a Permanent Collection Facility,'' published by the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force. An integral part of Seattle's Household Hazardous Waste collection effort is a three part evaluation strategy that includes: an assessment of the effectiveness of the permanent facility; a comparison of the city's facility with other HHW collection programs; and a user survey to evaluate customer satisfaction and compare the Seattle and King County collection approaches. This evaluation strategy was conducted during Year 10 of the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force, and its results are document in this report. Several different collection programs were compared during the evaluation. 22 refs., 23 figs., 25 tabs.

  8. Selecting Continuing Higher Education Programs for Impact Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliani, Betty

    1979-01-01

    Some noncredit university continuing education programs are more readily subject to impact evaluation than most. Impact studies are reported for two such programs, one on governmental accounting and one on criminal justice. (CT)

  9. Evaluation of genomic selection for replacement strategies using selection index theory.

    PubMed

    Calus, M P L; Bijma, P; Veerkamp, R F

    2015-09-01

    Our objective was to investigate the economic effect of prioritizing heifers for replacement at the herd level based on genomic estimated breeding values, and to compute break-even genotyping costs across a wide range of scenarios. Specifically, we aimed to determine the optimal proportion of preselection based on parent average information for all scenarios considered. Considered replacement strategies include a range of different selection intensities by considering different numbers of heifers available for replacement (15-45 in a herd with 100 dairy cows) as well as different replacement rates (15-40%). Use of conventional versus sexed semen was considered, where the latter resulted in having twice as many heifers available for replacement. The baseline scenario relies on prioritization of replacement heifers based on parent average. The first alternative scenario involved genomic selection of heifers, considering that all heifers were genotyped. The benefits of genomic selection in this scenario were computed using a simple formula that only requires the number of lactating animals, the difference in accuracy between parent average and genomic selection (GS), and the selection intensity as input. When all heifers were genotyped, using GS for replacement of heifers was beneficial in most scenarios for current genotyping prices, provided some room exists for selection, in the sense that at least 2 more heifers are available than needed for replacement. In those scenarios, minimum break-even genotyping costs were equal to half the economic value of a standard deviation of the breeding goal. The second alternative scenario involved a preselection based on parent average, followed by GS among all the preselected heifers. It was in almost all cases beneficial to genotype all heifers when conventional semen was used (i.e., to do no preselection). The optimal proportion of preselection based on parent average was at least 0.63 when sexed semen was used. Use of sexed

  10. Physicochemical characterization of the microhabitat of the epibionts associated with Alvinella pompejana, a hydrothermal vent annelid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Meo-Savoie, Carol A.; Luther, George W.; Cary, S. Craig

    2004-05-01

    Alvinella pompejana is a polychaetous annelid that inhabits narrow tubes along the walls of high-temperature hydrothermal vent chimneys. The worm hosts a rich community of epibiotic bacteria that coats its dorsal surface. Although the worm tube microhabitat is a challenging environment to sample, characterizing the thermal and geochemical regime is important for understanding the ecology of the worm and its bacteria, as the worm spends most of its time inside the tube. We characterized the physicochemical conditions of diffuse hydrothermal flow inside inhabited worm tubes using in situ analysis and wet chemical analysis of discrete water samples. Thermistor probes deployed inside worm tubes measured temperatures ranging from 28.6°C to 84.0°C, while temperatures at tube orifices ranged from 7.5°C to 40.0°C. In situ electrochemical analysis of tube fluids revealed undetectable oxygen (<5 μM) and surprisingly low levels of free H 2S (<0.2 μM), with most of the sulfide existing as aqueous FeS molecular clusters. Acid-volatile sulfide measured on discrete samples of tube fluids ranged from 62.9 to 359.3 μM, while free sulfide (H 2S) ranged from undetectable (<0.2 μM) to 46.5 μM. The pH ranged from 5.33 to 6.40, and sulfate ranged from 22.5 mM to 27.5 mM. Nitrate ranged from 13.9 to 20.0 μM, whereas ammonium ranged from 2.5 to 9.7 μM. Total Fe ranged from 72.1 to 730.2 μM. Mn, Zn, Ni, V, P, and Cu were present in micromolar amounts; Pb, Cd, Co, and Ag were present in nanomolar levels. The worm tube fluids contained between 72% to 91% of Mg concentrations typically found in deep seawater. Plots of Mg concentrations vs. other fluid components showed that the tube fluid is geochemically altered from theoretical mixing values. Values of SO 42- were enriched inside the worm tube fluids, whereas NO 3-, Sr, Mn, Fe, Zn, and acid-volatile sulfide were depleted. The geochemistry of the tube microhabitat likely influences the structure of resident microbial communities.

  11. Evaluation Concepts and Practice in Selected Distance Education Institutions. ZIFF-Papiere 108.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathore, Harish, Ed.; Schuemer, Rudolf, Ed.

    This document contains five papers examining evaluation concepts and practice in selected distance education (DE) institutions. "Preface" (Harish Rathore, Rudolf Schuemer) defines evaluation in DE and provides an overview of the evaluation philosophies, agendas, and methodologies discussed in the five papers. "Evaluation Practices at the Indira…

  12. Phage display selection and evaluation of cancer drug targets.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Victor I

    2003-04-01

    Techniques for the construction of phage display libraries of combinatorial proteins have dramatically improved. This has allowed researchers to expand the applications to the field of cancer biology. The most direct use of protein phage-displayed libraries is the selection of ligands for individual proteins. This includes identification of peptide ligands for receptor signaling molecules: integrins, cytokine and growth factor receptors. Selected peptides may be used as competitors for natural ligands and for the mapping of binding epitopes. This approach has been exploited for delineation of intracellular signal transduction pathways and for the selection of enzyme substrates and inhibitors. Recently, more complicated biological systems were used as targets for biopanning. This includes combination of soluble proteins, cellular surfaces and even the vasculature of whole organs. cDNA expression libraries in phage-based vectors have been recently introduced. The use of phage as a vector for targeted gene therapy is also considered. These and other applications of phage display for cancer research will be reviewed.

  13. Red-cockaded Woodpecker Picoides borealis Microhabitat Characteristics and Reproductive Success in a Loblolly-Shortleaf Pine Forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Douglas R.; Burger, L. Wesley; Vilella, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) reproductive success and microhabitat characteristics in a southeastern loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (P. echinata) pine forest. From 1997 to 1999, we recorded reproductive success parameters of 41 red-cockaded woodpecker groups at the Bienville National Forest, Mississippi. Microhabitat characteristics were measured for each group during the nesting season. Logistic regression identified understory vegetation height and small nesting season home range size as predictors of red-cockaded woodpecker nest attempts. Linear regression models identified several variables as predictors of red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success including group density, reduced hardwood component, small nesting season home range size, and shorter foraging distances. Red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success was correlated with habitat and behavioral characteristics that emphasize high quality habitat. By providing high quality foraging habitat during the nesting season, red-cockaded woodpeckers can successfully reproduce within small home ranges.

  14. Estimates of External Validity Bias When Impact Evaluations Select Sites Nonrandomly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Stephen H.; Olsen, Robert B.; Orr, Larry L.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Evaluations of educational programs or interventions are typically conducted in nonrandomly selected samples of schools or districts. Recent research has shown that nonrandom site selection can yield biased impact estimates. To estimate the external validity bias from nonrandom site selection, we combine lists of school districts that were…

  15. Estimates of External Validity Bias When Impact Evaluations Select Sites Nonrandomly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Stephen H.; Olsen, Robert B.; Orr, Larry L.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Evaluations of educational programs or interventions are typically conducted in nonrandomly selected samples of schools or districts. Recent research has shown that nonrandom site selection can yield biased impact estimates. To estimate the external validity bias from nonrandom site selection, we combine lists of school districts that were…

  16. 13 CFR 109.210 - Evaluation and selection of ILP Intermediaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evaluation and selection of ILP Intermediaries. 109.210 Section 109.210 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION INTERMEDIARY LENDING PILOT PROGRAM ILP Intermediary Application and Selection Process § 109.210 Evaluation...

  17. 13 CFR 109.210 - Evaluation and selection of ILP Intermediaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evaluation and selection of ILP Intermediaries. 109.210 Section 109.210 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION INTERMEDIARY LENDING PILOT PROGRAM ILP Intermediary Application and Selection Process § 109.210 Evaluation...

  18. selectSNP – An R package for selecting SNPs optimal for genetic evaluation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There has been a huge increase in the number of SNPs in the public repositories. This has made it a challenge to design low and medium density SNP panels, which requires careful selection of available SNPs considering many criteria, such as map position, allelic frequency, possible biological functi...

  19. Effects of microhabitat and large-scale land use on stream salamander occupancy in the coalfields of Central Appalachia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweeten, Sara E.; Ford, W. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale coal mining practices, particularly surface coal extraction and associated valley fills as well as residential wastewater discharge, are of ecological concern for aquatic systems in central Appalachia. Identifying and quantifying alterations to ecosystems along a gradient of spatial scales is a necessary first-step to aid in mitigation of negative consequences to aquatic biota. In central Appalachian headwater streams, apart from fish, salamanders are the most abundant vertebrate predator that provide a significant intermediate trophic role linking aquatic and terrestrial food webs. Stream salamander species are considered to be sensitive to aquatic stressors and environmental alterations, as past research has shown linkages among microhabitat parameters, large-scale land use such as urbanization and logging, and salamander abundances. However, there is little information examining these relationships between environmental conditions and salamander occupancy in the coalfields of central Appalachia. In the summer of 2013, 70 sites (sampled two to three times each) in the southwest Virginia coalfields were visited to collect salamanders and quantify stream and riparian microhabitat parameters. Using an information-theoretic framework, effects of microhabitat and large-scale land use on stream salamander occupancy were compared. The findings indicate that Desmognathus spp. occupancy rates are more correlated to microhabitat parameters such as canopy cover than to large-scale land uses. However, Eurycea spp. occupancy rates had a strong association with large-scale land uses, particularly recent mining and forest cover within the watershed. These findings suggest that protection of riparian habitats is an important consideration for maintaining aquatic systems in central Appalachia. If this is not possible, restoration riparian areas should follow guidelines using quick-growing tree species that are native to Appalachian riparian areas. These types of trees

  20. Predicting breeding bird occurrence by stand- and microhabitat-scale features in even-aged stands in the Central Appalachians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDermott, M.E.; Wood, P.B.; Miller, G.W.; Simpson, B.T.

    2011-01-01

    Spatial scale is an important consideration when managing forest wildlife habitat, and models can be used to improve our understanding of these habitats at relevant scales. Our objectives were to determine whether stand- or microhabitat-scale variables better predicted bird metrics (diversity, species presence, and abundance) and to examine breeding bird response to clearcut size and age in a highly forested landscape. In 2004-2007, vegetation data were collected from 62 even-aged stands that were 3.6-34.6. ha in size and harvested in 1963-1990 on the Monongahela National Forest, WV, USA. In 2005-2007, we also surveyed birds at vegetation plots. We used classification and regression trees to model breeding bird habitat use with a suite of stand and microhabitat variables. Among stand variables, elevation, stand age, and stand size were most commonly retained as important variables in guild and species models. Among microhabitat variables, medium-sized tree density and tree species diversity most commonly predicted bird presence or abundance. Early successional and generalist bird presence, abundance, and diversity were better predicted by microhabitat variables than stand variables. Thus, more intensive field sampling may be required to predict habitat use for these species, and management may be needed at a finer scale. Conversely, stand-level variables had greater utility in predicting late-successional species occurrence and abundance; thus management decisions and modeling at this scale may be suitable in areas with a uniform landscape, such as our study area. Our study suggests that late-successional breeding bird diversity can be maximized long-term by including harvests >10. ha in size into our study area and by increasing tree diversity. Some harvesting will need to be incorporated regularly, because after 15 years, the study stands did not provide habitat for most early successional breeding specialists. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Modification of Spatial Distribution of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid Degrader Microhabitats during Growth in Soil Columns

    PubMed Central

    Pallud, C.; Dechesne, A.; Gaudet, J. P.; Debouzie, D.; Grundmann, G. L.

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial processes in soil, including biodegradation, require contact between bacteria and substrates. Knowledge of the three-dimensional spatial distribution of bacteria at the microscale is necessary to understand and predict such processes. Using a soil microsampling strategy combined with a mathematical spatial analysis, we studied the spatial distribution of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) degrader microhabitats as a function of 2,4-D degrader abundance. Soil columns that allowed natural flow were percolated with 2,4-D to increase the 2,4-D degrader abundance. Hundreds of soil microsamples (minimum diameter, 125 μm) were collected and transferred to culture medium to check for the presence of 2,4-D degraders. Spatial distributions of bacterial microhabitats were characterized by determining the average size of colonized soil patches and the average number of patches per gram of soil. The spatial distribution of 2,4-D degrader microhabitats was not affected by water flow, but there was an overall increase in colonized patch sizes after 2,4-D amendment; colonized microsamples were dispersed in the soil at low 2,4-D degrader densities and clustered in patches that were more than 0.5 mm in diameter at higher densities. During growth, spreading of 2,4-D degraders within the soil and an increase in 2,4-D degradation were observed. We hypothesized that spreading of the bacteria increased the probability of encounters with 2,4-D and resulted in better interception of the degradable substrate. This work showed that characterization of bacterial microscale spatial distribution is relevant to microbial ecology studies. It improved quantitative bacterial microhabitat description and suggested that sporadic movement of cells occurs. Furthermore, it offered perspectives for linking microbial function to the soil physicochemical environment. PMID:15128522

  2. Evaluation of selection index: application to the choice of an indirect multitrait selection index for soybean breeding.

    PubMed

    Bouchez, A; Goffinet, B

    1990-02-01

    Selection indices can be used to predict one trait from information available on several traits in order to improve the prediction accuracy. Plant or animal breeders are interested in selecting only the best individuals, and need to compare the efficiency of different trait combinations in order to choose the index ensuring the best prediction quality for individual values. As the usual tools for index evaluation do not remain unbiased in all cases, we propose a robust way of evaluation by means of an estimator of the mean-square error of prediction (EMSEP). This estimator remains valid even when parameters are not known, as usually assumed, but are estimated. EMSEP is applied to the choice of an indirect multitrait selection index at the F5 generation of a classical breeding scheme for soybeans. Best predictions for precocity are obtained by means of indices using only part of the available information.

  3. Phylogeny and micro-habitats utilized by lizards determine the composition of their endoparasites in the semiarid Caatinga of Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brito, S V; Corso, G; Almeida, A M; Ferreira, F S; Almeida, W O; Anjos, L A; Mesquita, D O; Vasconcellos, A

    2014-11-01

    Trophic networks can have architectonic configurations influenced by historical and ecological factors. The objective of this study was to analyze the architecture of networks between lizards, their endoparasites, diet, and micro-habitat, aiming to understand which factors exert an influence on the composition of the species of parasites. All networks showed a compartmentalized pattern. There was a positive relation between diet and the diversity of endoparasites. Our analyses also demonstrated that phylogeny and the use of micro-habitat influenced the composition of species of endoparasites and diet pattern of lizards. The principal factor that explained the modularity of the network was the foraging strategy, with segregation between the "active foragers" and "sit-and-wait" lizards. Our analyses also demonstrated that historical (phylogeny) and ecological factors (use of micro-habitat by the lizards) influenced the composition of parasite communities. These results corroborate other studies with ectoparasites, which indicate phylogeny and micro-habitat as determinants in the composition of parasitic fauna. The influence of phylogeny can be the result of coevolution between parasites and lizards in the Caatinga, and the influence of micro-habitat should be a result of adaptations of species of parasites to occupy the same categories of micro-habitats as hosts, thus favoring contagion.

  4. Evaluation and selection of regeneration of waste lubricating oil technology.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Lung; Liu, Chun-Chu

    2011-05-01

    Lubricant is one of the important resources that cannot be disposed of randomly due to the presence of pollutants. In response to economic efficiency and environmental protection, there is a growing trend of regeneration and reuse of waste lubricant. However, the technologies shall be compared to provide a useful reference for the use of waste lubricant. The major aim of this paper is to use analytic hierarchy process to select, analyze, and compare the regenerative technologies, thus laying a basis for the governmental bodies in policy making of lubricant recovery as well as for industrial operators in deciding the recovery methods.

  5. Oak mistletoe (Phoradendron villosum) is linked to microhabitat availability and avian diversity in Oregon white oak (Quercus garryana) woodlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pritchard, Kyle R.; Hagar, Joan; Shaw, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Mistletoes are parasitic or hemi-parasitic flowering plants that parasitize woody plants around the globe. Important food and cover resources provided by mistletoes have been related to strong patterns of positive association between wildlife diversity and mistletoe density. Mistletoes also create microhabitat features known to be important to wildlife by causing deformations in their host trees. However, links between availability of mistletoe-formed microhabitat and wildlife diversity has not been well studied. We investigated this relationship by quantifying microhabitat features and avian abundance and diversity related to infection by Oak Mistletoe (Phoradendron villosum) in Oregon White Oak (Quercus garryana). Q. garryana woodlands support several avian species of conservation concern, so an understanding of the influence of mistletoe on wildlife habitat is critical. Our results suggest that 1) structural heterogeneity within tree crowns; 2) avian species richness and abundance are positively associated with mistletoe load; and 3) P. villosum fruit, available is an important food for western bluebird (Sialia mexicana) and other wildlife in late autumn and early winter. If a goal of restoration is to maintain habitat for oak-associated bird species, managers should consider the retention of some oaks hosting mistletoe.

  6. Nematode consumption by mite communities varies in different forest microhabitats as indicated by molecular gut content analysis.

    PubMed

    Heidemann, Kerstin; Ruess, Liliane; Scheu, Stefan; Maraun, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Soil animals live in complex and heterogeneous habitats including litter of various types but also microhabitats such as mosses, fungal mats and grass patches. Soil food webs have been separated into a slow fungal and a fast bacterial energy channel. Bacterial-feeding nematodes are an important component of the bacterial energy channel by consuming bacteria and forming prey for higher trophic levels such as soil microarthropods. Investigating the role of nematodes as prey for higher trophic level consumers has been hampered by methodological problems related to their small body size and lack in skeletal structures which can be traced in the gut of consumers. Recent studies using molecular gut content analyses suggest that nematodes form major prey of soil microarthropods including those previously assumed to live as detritivores. Using molecular markers we traced nematode prey in fourteen abundant soil microarthropod taxa of Mesostigmata and Oribatida (both Acari) from three different microhabitats (litter, grass and moss). Consumption of nematodes varied between mite species indicating that trophic niche variation contributes to the high diversity of microarthropods in deciduous forests. Further, consumption of nematodes by Mesostigmata (but not Oribatida) differed between microhabitats indicating that trophic niches vary with habitat characteristics. Overall, the results suggest that free-living bacterial-feeding nematodes form important prey for soil microarthropods including those previously assumed to live as detritivores.

  7. Banana leaf and glucose mineralization and soil organic matter in microhabitats of banana plantations under long-term pesticide use.

    PubMed

    Blume, Elena; Reichert, José Miguel

    2015-06-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) and microbial activity are key components of soil quality and sustainability. In the humid tropics of Costa Rica 3 pesticide regimes were studied-fungicide (low input); fungicide and herbicide (medium input); and fungicide, herbicide, and nematicide (high input)-under continuous banana cultivation for 5 yr (young) or 20 yr (old) in 3 microhabitats-nematicide ring around plants, litter pile of harvested banana, and bare area between litter pile and nematicide ring. Soil samples were incubated sequentially in the laboratory: unamended, amended with glucose, and amended with ground banana leaves. Soil organic matter varied with microhabitat, being greatest in the litter pile, where microbes had the greatest basal respiration with ground banana leaf, whereas microbes in the nematicide ring had the greatest respiration with glucose. These results suggest that soil microbes adapt to specific microhabitats. Young banana plantations had similar SOM compared with old plantations, but the former had greater basal microbial respiration in unamended and in glucose-amended soil and greater first-order mineralization rates in glucose-amended soil, thus indicating soil biological quality decline over time. High pesticide input did not decrease microbial activity or mineralization rate in surface soil. In conclusion, microbial activity in tropical volcanic soil is highly adaptable to organic and inorganic inputs.

  8. Comparison of microhabitats and foraging strategies between the captive-born Zhangxiang and wild giant pandas: implications for future reintroduction.

    PubMed

    Lei, Miaowen; Yuan, Shibin; Yang, Zisong; Hong, Mingsheng; Yang, Xuyu; Gu, Xiaodong; Huang, Feng; Zhang, Zejun

    2015-10-01

    The female giant panda Zhangxiang (pedigree number 826) was born on August 20, 2011 in Wolong Nature Reserve, China. On November 6, 2013, Zhangxiang was transported into the acclimatization enclosure in the Liziping Nature Reserve. Before Zhangxiang left the enclosure into the wild, we conducted the first study to compare microhabitats and foraging strategies between Zhangxiang in the enclosure and giant pandas in the wild. Compared with the latter, microhabitats of Zhangxiang in the enclosure are characteristic of gentler slope, more trees, higher canopy, smaller tree DBH, and lower density of living bamboos. Diet composition and foraging behaviors significantly differed between Zhangxiang and wild giant pandas, perhaps reflecting the combined consequence of environmental conditions (e.g., bamboo species) and individual status (e.g., age, mastication ability, etc.). The difference in microhabitats and foraging strategies between Zhangxiang and wild giant pandas implied that after being released into the natural habitat in the reserve, Zhangxiang will have to adapt to the environmental conditions once again. For future reintroduction, the enclosure can be extended to the Bashania spanostachya forest in the reserve, and captive giant pandas for release can thus normally transit into the wild without human intervention during acclimatization period. For other acclimatization enclosures to be constructed in the future, ecological environment inside, including topography, forests, and bamboos as well, should as possible as can match the habitat that the giant panda to-be-reinforced populations inhabit.

  9. Macro- and microhabitat use of Telfair's skink ( Leiolopisma telfairii) on Round Island, Mauritius: implications for their translocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernetta, Angelo P.; Bell, Diana J.; Jones, Carl G.

    2005-11-01

    The successful eradication of introduced rodents from islets off the coast of Mauritius has led to local conservation bodies investigating the possibility of translocation as a measure of safeguarding endemic reptile populations. The present study was the first to determine the habitat and microhabitat requirements of Telfair's skinks ( Leiolopisma telfairii) on Round Island, Mauritius, with a view to aiding future translocation projects to islands within their historic range. Contrasting preferences found for Telfair's skink at macro- and micro- habitat levels underline the importance of sampling at multiple ecological scales in such investigations. Significantly fewer sightings of L. telfairii were recorded in bare rock habitats compared to more vegetated habitats. Conversely, at a microhabitat scale principal component analysis indicated structural characteristics were the primary determinant of microhabitat choice. The first dietary analysis of Telfair's skinks confirmed their status as omnivores. Cockroaches ( Blattodea spp.) appeared to be a primary food source. Four exotic plant species were also present in faecal samples and the potential for L. telfairii to aid their dispersal is discussed. Implications for the long-term management and proposed translocation of Telfair's skinks are discussed.

  10. Disentangling above- and below-ground facilitation drivers in arid environments: the role of soil microorganisms, soil properties and microhabitat.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Yudi M; Armas, Cristina; Hortal, Sara; Casanoves, Fernando; Pugnaire, Francisco I

    2017-03-06

    Nurse plants promote establishment of other plant species by buffering climate extremes and improving soil properties. Soil biota plays an important role, but an analysis to disentangle the effects of soil microorganisms, soil properties and microclimate on facilitation is lacking. In three microhabitats (gaps, small and large Retama shrubs), we placed six microcosms with sterilized soil, two per soil origin (i.e. from each microhabitat). One in every pair received an alive, and the other a sterile, inoculum from its own soil. Seeds of annual plants were sown into the microcosms. Germination, survival and biomass were monitored. Soil bacterial communities were characterized by pyrosequencing. Germination in living Retama inoculum was nearly double that of germination in sterile inoculum. Germination was greater under Retama canopies than in gaps. Biomass was up to three times higher in nurse than in gap soils. Soil microorganisms, soil properties and microclimate showed a range of positive to negative effects on understory plants depending on species identity and life stage. Nurse soil microorganisms promoted germination, but the effect was smaller than the positive effects of soil properties and microclimate under nurses. Nurse below-ground environment (soil properties and microorganisms) promoted plant growth and survival more than nurse microhabitat.

  11. The Applicability of Selected Evaluation Models to Evolving Investigative Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nick L.; Hauer, Diane M.

    1990-01-01

    Ten evaluation models are examined in terms of their applicability to investigative, emergent design programs: Stake's portrayal, Wolf's adversary, Patton's utilization, Guba's investigative journalism, Scriven's goal-free, Scriven's modus operandi, Eisner's connoisseurial, Stufflebeam's CIPP, Tyler's objective based, and Levin's cost…

  12. Selection, Implementation, and Quality Control of a Personnel Evaluation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromwell, Sue A.

    Among the six components of Louisiana's Shared Accountability Law, passed in 1977 in response to public demands for accountability in education, is the requirement that all certified and other professional educational personnel in the state be assessed and evaluated at least once every 3 years. Each of the state's 66 local education agencies was…

  13. Selecting Evaluation Comparison Groups: A Cluster Analytic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Todd Mclin; McLean, James E.

    A persistent problem in the evaluation of field-based projects is the lack of no-treatment comparison groups. Frequently, potential comparison groups are confounded by socioeconomic, racial, or other factors. Among the possible methods for dealing with this problem are various matching procedures, but they are cumbersome to use with multiple…

  14. 14 CFR 1260.11 - Evaluation and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... require cost sharing. Additional language is required for cost sharing and/or matching efforts, and in...) Requests for acquisition of property may be made by a recipient either as part of the original budget proposal or subsequent to award. Comprehensive guidance on evaluating requests for acquisition of property...

  15. Selecting Evaluation Comparison Groups: A Cluster Analytic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Todd Mclin; McLean, James E.

    A persistent problem in the evaluation of field-based projects is the lack of no-treatment comparison groups. Frequently, potential comparison groups are confounded by socioeconomic, racial, or other factors. Among the possible methods for dealing with this problem are various matching procedures, but they are cumbersome to use with multiple…

  16. 14 CFR 1274.209 - Evaluation and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... development. The agreement officer, along with the NASA evaluation team has discretion to determine the... non-competitively (see § 1274.202(b)), there are no restrictions on communications between NASA and... appropriate level of care shall be taken by NASA personnel in order to protect the integrity of the source...

  17. 14 CFR 1274.209 - Evaluation and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... development. The agreement officer, along with the NASA evaluation team has discretion to determine the... non-competitively (see § 1274.202(b)), there are no restrictions on communications between NASA and... appropriate level of care shall be taken by NASA personnel in order to protect the integrity of the source...

  18. 14 CFR § 1274.209 - Evaluation and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... development. The agreement officer, along with the NASA evaluation team has discretion to determine the... non-competitively (see § 1274.202(b)), there are no restrictions on communications between NASA and... appropriate level of care shall be taken by NASA personnel in order to protect the integrity of the source...

  19. 14 CFR 1274.209 - Evaluation and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... development. The agreement officer, along with the NASA evaluation team has discretion to determine the... non-competitively (see § 1274.202(b)), there are no restrictions on communications between NASA and... appropriate level of care shall be taken by NASA personnel in order to protect the integrity of the source...

  20. 14 CFR 1274.209 - Evaluation and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... development. The agreement officer, along with the NASA evaluation team has discretion to determine the... non-competitively (see § 1274.202(b)), there are no restrictions on communications between NASA and... appropriate level of care shall be taken by NASA personnel in order to protect the integrity of the source...

  1. Evaluation, Ideology, and Educational Change: A Select International Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Rolland G.

    The bibliography identifies 179 books, journal articles, and papers published from 1969 through July 1979 concerning educational change, evaluation, and ideology. Arranged alphabetically by author, topics include social change, social science research and national policy, social policy research, politics and educational reform, and ideology and…

  2. Evaluation of Selected Recycling Curricula: Educating the Green Citizen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerschig, Sally; De Young, Raymond

    1993-01-01

    Solid waste curricula from various programs around the country were reviewed using eight variables identified as predictors of conservation behavior. Scores demonstrated that solid waste curricula focus mainly on knowledge and include, to a lesser extent, attitude change and action strategies. Lists the 14 programs evaluated in the study. (MDH)

  3. Resource Evaluation and Site Selection for Microalgae Production in India

    SciTech Connect

    Milbrandt, A.; Jarvis, E.

    2010-09-01

    The study evaluates climate conditions, availability of CO2 and other nutrients, water resources, and land characteristics to identify areas in India suitable for algae production. The purpose is to provide an understanding of the resource potential in India for algae biofuels production and to assist policymakers, investors, and industry developers in their future strategic decisions.

  4. Sensory and quality evaluation of selected citrus hybrids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increasingly consumers are becoming more sophisticated in their demand for diversity of products, greater health potential and good eating quality. The evaluation of a population of mandarin citrus (Citrus reticulata) and mandarin hybrids, was initiated in 2006-2007 with the goal of establishing bas...

  5. Faculty Salary Increases and Evaluation of Selected Performance Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keene, T. Wayne

    At a university of about 800 faculty members offering baccalaureate, masters, and doctorate programs a study was conducted to determine the relationships between recommended salary increases and evaluation of performance. Salary increase proposals were submitted for faculty by department chairpersons. Among other items of information, the…

  6. Evaluation of Selected Recycling Curricula: Educating the Green Citizen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerschig, Sally; De Young, Raymond

    1993-01-01

    Solid waste curricula from various programs around the country were reviewed using eight variables identified as predictors of conservation behavior. Scores demonstrated that solid waste curricula focus mainly on knowledge and include, to a lesser extent, attitude change and action strategies. Lists the 14 programs evaluated in the study. (MDH)

  7. FIELD TEST AND EVALUATION OF SELECTED ADULT BASIC EDUCATION SYSTEMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenleigh Associates, Inc., New York, NY.

    IN A LARGE-SCALE FIELD TEST WITH FUNCTIONALLY ILLITERATE ADULTS, THIS PROJECT EVALUATED FOUR READING SYSTEMS--LEARNING TO READ AND SPELL, READING IN HIGH GEAR, MOTT BASIC LANGUAGE SKILLS PROGRAM, AND SYSTEMS FOR SUCCESS. TESTING WAS CONDUCTED IN SEVEN COMMUNITIES IN NEW YORK, THREE IN NEW JERSEY, AND FIVE IN CALIFORNIA, PROVIDING A MIXTURE OF…

  8. 14 CFR 1260.11 - Evaluation and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... proposals will be conducted by the cognizant NASA technical office and may be based on peer reviews. (b..., including a funded procurement request, technical evaluation of the proposed budget, and other support... grant officer approval when more than half of the proposed budget is for equipment or travel...

  9. 14 CFR 1260.11 - Evaluation and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... proposals will be conducted by the cognizant NASA technical office and may be based on peer reviews. (b..., including a funded procurement request, technical evaluation of the proposed budget, and other support... grant officer approval when more than half of the proposed budget is for equipment or travel...

  10. 14 CFR 1260.11 - Evaluation and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... proposals will be conducted by the cognizant NASA technical office and may be based on peer reviews. (b..., including a funded procurement request, technical evaluation of the proposed budget, and other support... grant officer approval when more than half of the proposed budget is for equipment or travel...

  11. Teaching Program Evaluation: Three Selected Pillars of Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Diane E.; Casiraghi, Ann M.; Henderson, Janis L.; Brooks, Augustina M.; Mulsow, Miriam

    2008-01-01

    Two challenges often associated with teaching program evaluation at the graduate level are the need to incorporate practical skills development and being limited to a one-semester-long course offering. The existing literature provides some information concerning a practical application component; however, there is almost no discussion of pedagogy…

  12. 15 CFR 290.6 - Proposal evaluation and selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS REGIONAL.... (a) In making a decision whether to provide financial support, NIST shall review and evaluate all... NIST research results and expertise in the technical areas noted in these procedures? (3) Technology...

  13. 15 CFR 290.6 - Proposal evaluation and selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS REGIONAL.... (a) In making a decision whether to provide financial support, NIST shall review and evaluate all... NIST research results and expertise in the technical areas noted in these procedures? (3) Technology...

  14. 15 CFR 290.6 - Proposal evaluation and selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS REGIONAL.... (a) In making a decision whether to provide financial support, NIST shall review and evaluate all... NIST research results and expertise in the technical areas noted in these procedures? (3) Technology...

  15. 15 CFR 290.6 - Proposal evaluation and selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS REGIONAL.... (a) In making a decision whether to provide financial support, NIST shall review and evaluate all... NIST research results and expertise in the technical areas noted in these procedures? (3) Technology...

  16. 15 CFR 290.6 - Proposal evaluation and selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS REGIONAL.... (a) In making a decision whether to provide financial support, NIST shall review and evaluate all... NIST research results and expertise in the technical areas noted in these procedures? (3) Technology...

  17. Breeding biology and microhabitat utilization of the intertidal isopod Idotea granulosa Rathke, in the Irish Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salemaa, Heikki

    1986-03-01

    The life history and distribution of the intertidal isopod Idotea granulosa were investigated at five rocky shore biotopes in the Isle of Man. I. granulosa breeds throughout the year in the Irish Sea. The breeding activity is highest in the early summer after the sexual maturation of the overwintered animals. At that period about 4% of the females were infested by Clypeoniscus sp. (Isopoda) which destroys the brood. A small proportion of the juveniles released in the early summer mature and breed in the autumn. In the winter Idotea populations consisted of juveniles, immature adults and old individuals which produce another brood. These large sized animals die off before the summer. Consequently, the age and size of the breeding I. granulosa fluctuates seasonally. The number of eggs is linearly related to the female length. The fecundity is highest in the spring and lowest in the autumn in all female size classes. I. granulosa inhabits an array of structurally different intertidal algae including the filamentous Cladophora rupestris, understory turfs Gigartina stellata, Laurencia pinnatifida and Corallina officinalis and the fucoids Fucus serratus and Ascophyllum nodosum. The distribution pattern of I. granulosa in examined intertidal communities is modified by the physiognomy of the algal microhabitats, by seasonal and spatial variation in wave agitation and by the breeding cycle of the population itself. Both the life history characteristics and distribution patterns are explained as adaptations to the spatially and temporally heterogeneous intertidal shores.

  18. Microbiology of diverse acidic and non-acidic microhabitats within a sulfidic ore mine.

    PubMed

    Falteisek, Lukáš; Cepička, Ivan

    2012-11-01

    A wide variety of microhabitats within the extremely acidic abandoned underground copper mine Zlaté Hory (Czech Republic) was investigated. SSU rDNA libraries were analyzed from 15 samples representing gossan, sulfide-leaching environments in the oxidation zone, and acidic water springs in the mine galleries. Microbial analyses were extended by analyses of chemical composition of water and solid phases and identification of arising secondary minerals. The microbial communities of the three main classes of microenvironments differed in almost every aspect. Among others, ecological partitioning of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and the recently described A. ferrivorans was observed. Distinct types of communities inhabiting the water springs were detected. The more extreme springs (pH <3, conductivity >2 mS/cm) were inhabited by "Ferrovum" spp. and A. ferrivorans, whereas Gallionella sp. dominated the less extreme ones. A new role for gossan in the extremely acidic ecosystem is proposed. This zone was inhabited by a large diversity of neutrophilic heterotrophs that appeared to be continuously washed out to the acidic environments localized downstream. Five species originating in gossan were found in several acidic habitats. Here they can survive and probably serve as scavengers of dead biomass, particularly from chemoautotrophic growths. No such process has been described from acidic mine environments so far.

  19. Microhabitat use, population densities, and size distributions of sulfur cave-dwelling Poecilia mexicana

    PubMed Central

    Bierbach, David; Riesch, Rüdiger; Schießl, Angela; Wigh, Adriana; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Klaus, Sebastian; Zimmer, Claudia; Plath, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Cueva del Azufre in Tabasco, Mexico, is a nutrient-rich cave and its inhabitants need to cope with high levels of dissolved hydrogen sulfide and extreme hypoxia. One of the successful colonizers of this cave is the poeciliid fish Poecilia mexicana, which has received considerable attention as a model organism to examine evolutionary adaptations to extreme environmental conditions. Nonetheless, basic ecological data on the endemic cave molly population are still missing; here we aim to provide data on population densities, size class compositions and use of different microhabitats. We found high overall densities in the cave and highest densities at the middle part of the cave with more than 200 individuals per square meter. These sites have lower H2S concentrations compared to the inner parts where most large sulfide sources are located, but they are annually exposed to a religious harvesting ceremony of local Zoque people called La Pesca. We found a marked shift in size/age compositions towards an overabundance of smaller, juvenile fish at those sites. We discuss these findings in relation to several environmental gradients within the cave (i.e., differences in toxicity and lighting conditions), but we also tentatively argue that the annual fish harvest during a religious ceremony (La Pesca) locally diminishes competition (and possibly, cannibalism by large adults), which is followed by a phase of overcompensation of fish densities. PMID:25083351

  20. Microhabitat heterogeneity influences offspring sex allocation and spatial kin structure in possums.

    PubMed

    Banks, Sam C; Knight, Emma J; Dubach, Jean E; Lindenmayer, David B

    2008-11-01

    1. Sex allocation theory predicts that where dispersal is sex biased, the fitness consequences of producing male or female offspring are mediated by resource availability and maternal competitive ability. Females in poorer condition are expected to favour dispersing offspring to minimize resource competition with kin. Environmental heterogeneity may drive spatial variation in sex allocation through resource competition-related benefits to females and territory quality benefits to dispersing or philopatric offspring. 2. Here, we demonstrate that microhabitat heterogeneity can drive extremely fine-scale spatial heterogeneity in offspring sex allocation. Female bobucks (Trichosurus cunninghami) in temperate rainforest were more likely to produce male offspring than those in surrounding Eucalyptus forest. 3. A maternal physiological effect was identified, in that females of lower body mass were more likely to produce male offspring. This finding is consistent with resource competition predictions, in that smaller females are expected to have poorer competitive ability. 4. Genetic spatial autocorrelation analysis identified males as the more dispersing sex. Furthermore, overproduction of males by mothers in the rainforest habitat was geographically concordant with reduced philopatry, as inferred from spatial genetic analysis. This provides empirical validation of dispersal-related explanations of offspring sex allocation: that production of offspring of the dispersing sex minimizes the potential for resource competition with kin. 5. Spatial variation in dispersal via sex allocation responses to environmental heterogeneity can potentially contribute to spatial patterns in population dynamics.

  1. Piracy in the high trees: ectomycorrhizal fungi from an aerial 'canopy soil' microhabitat.

    PubMed

    Orlovich, David A; Draffin, Suzy J; Daly, Robert A; Stephenson, Steven L

    2013-01-01

    The mantle of dead organic material ("canopy soil") associated with the mats of vascular and nonvascular epiphytes found on the branches of trees in the temperate rainforests along the southwestern coast of the South Island of New Zealand were examined for evidence of ectomycorrhizal fungi. DNA sequencing and cluster analysis were used to identify the taxa of fungi present in 74 root tips collected from the canopy soil microhabitat of three old growth Nothofagus menziesii trees in the South West New Zealand World Heritage Area. A diverse assemblage of ectomycorrhizal fungi was found to infect an extensive network of adventitious canopy roots of Nothofagus menziesii in this forest, including 14 phylotypes from nine genera of putative ectomycorrhizal fungi. Seven of the genera identified previously were known to form ectomycorrhizas with terrestrial roots of Nothofagus: Cortinarius, Russula, Cenococcum, Thelephora/Tomentella, Lactarius and Laccaria; two, Clavulina and Leotia, previously have not been reported forming ectomycorrhizas with Nothofagus. Canopy ectomycorrhizas provide an unexpected means for increased host nutrition that may have functional significance in some forest ecosystems. Presumably, canopy ectomycorrhizas on host adventitious roots circumvent the tree-ground-soil nutrient cycle by accessing a wider range of nutrients directly in the canopy than would be possible for non-mycorrhizal or arbuscular mycorrhizal canopy roots. In this system, both host and epiphytes would seem to be in competition for the same pool of nutrients in canopy soil.

  2. Desiccation resistance reflects patterns of microhabitat choice in a Central American assemblage of wandering spiders.

    PubMed

    Lapinski, Witold; Tschapka, Marco

    2014-08-01

    The lowland rainforest of northeastern Costa Rica harbours an assemblage of large wandering spider species belonging to three habitat subguilds: (1) semi-aquatic, (2) forest ground dwelling and (3) vegetation dwelling. We hypothesized that desiccation resistance should differ among species preferring different microhabitats and the associated microclimate. Desiccation resistance was assessed by: (1) measuring water loss rates of the spiders under relatively dry experimental conditions, and (2) recording desiccation susceptibility, i.e. the reactions of the spiders to a relatively dry environment. High water loss rates and desiccation susceptibility of the semi-aquatic and forest-ground-dwelling subguilds clearly mirrored the relatively humid microclimate of the understory. Significantly lower water loss rates and desiccation susceptibility of the vegetation-dwelling species reflected the highly variable, often dry and hot conditions of the rainforest canopy and forest edge habitats. Vegetation-dwelling wandering spiders are therefore physiologically better adapted to dry conditions than the semi-aquatic and forest-ground-dwelling species. The results illustrate the significance of physiological characteristics for explaining both species-specific habitat use and, in a larger context, niche partitioning within a community.

  3. The effect of habitat structure on prey mortality depends on predator and prey microhabitat use.

    PubMed

    Klecka, Jan; Boukal, David S

    2014-09-01

    Structurally complex habitats provide cover and may hinder the movement of animals. In predator-prey relationships, habitat structure can decrease predation risk when it provides refuges for prey or hinders foraging activity of predators. However, it may also provide shelter, supporting structures and perches for sit-and-wait predators and hence increase their predation rates. We tested the effect of habitat structure on prey mortality in aquatic invertebrates in short-term laboratory predation trials that differed in the presence or absence of artificial vegetation. The effect of habitat structure on prey mortality was context dependent as it changed with predator and prey microhabitat use. Specifically, we observed an 'anti-refuge' effect of added vegetation: phytophilous predators that perched on the plants imposed higher predation pressure on planktonic prey, while mortality of benthic prey decreased. Predation by benthic and planktonic predators on either type of prey remained unaffected by the presence of vegetation. Our results show that the effects of habitat structure on predator-prey interactions are more complex than simply providing prey refuges or cover for predators. Such context-specific effects of habitat complexity may alter the coupling of different parts of the ecosystem, such as pelagic and benthic habitats, and ultimately affect food web stability through cascading effects on individual life histories and trophic link strengths.

  4. Gradients of microhabitat and crappie (Pomoxis spp.) distributions in reservoir coves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaczka, Levi J.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2013-01-01

    Embayments are among the most widespread littoral habitats found in Mississippi flood-control reservoirs. These macrohabitats represent commonly used nursery zones for age-0 crappies, Pomoxis spp., despite barren and eroded shorelines formed over 60–70 years of annual water level fluctuations. We tested if embayments displayed microhabitat gradients linked to the effect of water level fluctuations on riparian vegetation and if these gradients were paralleled by gradients in age-0 crappie distribution. Habitat composition changed longitudinally along the embayments with the most pronounced gradient representing a shift from nonvegetated mudflats near the mouth of embayments to herbaceous material upstream. The degree of habitat change depended on the water level. Similarly, catch rates of crappies increased upstream toward the rear of embayments, differing among water levels and reservoirs, but the longitudinal pattern persisted. Our results indicate that habitat composition gradients occur in embayments of northwest Mississippi flood-control reservoirs and that these gradients may influence a similar gradient in age-0 crappie distribution. While the biotic interactions behind the gradients may be less clear, we speculate that water level is the main factor influencing the observed gradients in habitat composition and fish. Management to benefit age-0 crappies may involve habitat improvement along embayment shorelines and water level regimes that foster growth of herbaceous plants.

  5. Evaluation of selection criteria used in Alzheimer's disease clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Willmer, J; Mohr, E

    1998-02-01

    In the absence of a biological marker for Alzheimer's disease (AD), diagnosis has to be achieved using clinical criteria sets such as those outlined in DSM-IV, NINCDS-ADRDA, or ICD-10. As these criteria are quite broadly defined, there may be inter-rater variability in interpretation. Using a previously published CT scan measuring technique which correlates well with diagnoses achieved using the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria as interpreted at our clinic, we chose to independently examine and reach a diagnosis in patients selected for participation in clinical trials of therapeutic agents for the treatment of AD. Forty-four CT scans from six investigators across Canada were examined using this model. All patients had been diagnosed as having AD by NINCDS-ADRDA criteria and were deemed acceptable to participate in a clinical trial. The diagnostic concordance achieved in the original published model was 91.5%. The diagnostic concordance in the population currently being studied was 77.3%. However when examined by site, results ranged from 57.1% to 100%. Using the model, an index of atrophy and a probability of diagnosis of AD can be determined. Across sites, there were statistically significant differences in these measures (p < or = 0.035). The mean probability of diagnosis of AD across sites ranged from 0.56 to 0.94. Although the sites with lower probabilities had slightly lower mean ages and slightly less atrophy, there was no overall correlation of the atrophy measures with age. Current results raise the possibility that the selection of patients for AD clinical trials using current diagnostic criteria sets may not be adequate and conclusions with respect to agent efficacy could be flawed.

  6. Evaluation of selective treatment of penetrating abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Schmelzer, Thomas M; Mostafa, Gamal; Gunter, Oliver L; Norton, H James; Sing, Ronald F

    2008-01-01

    In penetrating abdominal trauma, diagnostic imaging and the application of selective clinical management may avoid negative celiotomy and improve outcome. We prospectively observed patients with penetrating abdominal trauma over 15 months and recorded demographics, presentation, imaging, surgical procedure, and outcome. Patients who underwent immediate laparotomy were compared with patients who were observed and/or had a computed tomography (CT) scan. Outcomes of negative versus positive and immediate versus delayed celiotomy were compared. Chi-square and Student t tests were used. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. A level 1 trauma center. Adult patients who presented with penetrating abdominal injury. In all, 100 consecutive patients (mean age, 32 years) were included (male:female, 91:9; gunshot wound:stab wound, 65:35). Overall, 60 immediate and 10 delayed laparotomies were performed; 30 patients did not undergo surgery. Predictors of immediate celiotomy were hypotension (p = 0.03), anteriorly located entrance wounds (p = 0.0005), and transaxial wounds (p = 0.03). Overall morbidity and mortality was 32% and 2%, respectively. The negative celiotomy rate was 25%. Patients with a positive celiotomy had higher morbidity (p = 0.006) and longer hospital length of stay (p = 0.003) compared with negative celiotomy. A CT scan was employed in 32% of patients, with 100% sensitivity and 94% specificity. Delayed celiotomy (10%) did not adversely impact morbidity (p = 0.70) and was 100% therapeutic, with no deaths. Nonselective immediate celiotomy for penetrating abdominal trauma results in a high rate of unnecessary surgery. Hemodynamically stable patients can safely be observed and/or have contrast CT scans and undergo delayed celiotomy, if indicated. This selective treatment had no adverse effect on patient outcomes and can potentially improve overall outcome.

  7. Evaluation of selected information on splitting devices for water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Capel, P.D.; Larson, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    Four devices for splitting water samples into representative aliquots are used by the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Resources Division. A thorough evaluation of these devices (14-liter churn, 8-liter churn, plastic cone, and Teflon cone) encompasses a wide variety of concerns, based on both chemical and physical considerations. This report surveys the existing data (as of April 1994) on cleaning efficiency and splitting capability of these devices and presents the data in a systematic framework for evaluation. From the existing data, some of these concerns are adequately or partially addressed, but the majority of concerns could not be addressed because of the lack of data. In general, the existing cleaning and transport protocols are adequate at the milligram per liter level, but the adequacy is largely unknown for trace elements and organic chemicals at lower concen- trations. The existing data indicate that better results are obtained when the splitters are cleaned in the laboratory rather than in the field. Two conclusions that can be reached on the splitting capability of solids are that more work must be done with all four devices to characterize and quantify their limitations and range of usefulness, and that the 14-liter churn (and by association, the 8-liter churn) is not useful in obtaining representative splits of sand-sized particles.

  8. Selective indole-based ECE inhibitors: synthesis and pharmacological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Brands, Michael; Ergüden, Jens-Kerim; Hashimoto, Kentaro; Heimbach, Dirk; Krahn, Thomas; Schröder, Christian; Siegel, Stephan; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Tsujishita, Hideki; Weigand, Stefan; Yoshida, Nagahiro H

    2006-01-01

    Inhibition of the metalloprotease ECE-1 may be beneficial for the treatment of coronary heart disease, cancer, renal failure, and urological disorders. A novel class of indole-based ECE inhibitors was identified by high throughput screening. Optimization of the original screening lead structure 6 led to highly potent inhibitors such as 11, which bears a bisaryl amide moiety linked to the indole C2 position through an amide group. Docking of 11 into a model structure of ECE revealed a unique binding mode in which the Zn center of the enzyme is not directly addressed by the inhibitor, but key interactions are suggested for the central amide group. Testing of the lead compound 6 in hypertensive Dahl S rats resulted in a decrease in blood pressure after an initial period in which the blood pressure remained unchanged, most probably the result of ET-1 already present. Indole derivative 6 also displays a cardio-protective effect in a mouse model of acute myocardial infarction after oral administration. The more potent chloropyridine derivative 9 antagonizes big-ET-1-induced increase in blood pressure in rats at intravenous administration of 3 mg kg-1. All ECE inhibitors of the indole class showed high selectivity for ECE over related metalloproteases such as NEP and ACE. Therefore, these compounds might have further potential as drugs for the treatment of coronary heart diseases.

  9. Selection and Evaluation of a new Pu Density Measurement Fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Dziewinska, Krystyna; Peters, Michael A; Martinez, Patrick P; Dziewinski, Jacek J; Pugmire, David L; Trujillo, Stephen M; La Verne, Jake A; Rajesh, P

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes efforts leading to selection of a new fluid for the determination of the density of large Pu parts. Based on an extended literature search, perfluorotributylamine (FC-43) was chosen for an experimental study. Plutonium coupon corrosion studies were performed by exposing Pu to deaerated and aerated solutions and measuring corrosion gravimetrically. Corrosion rates were determined. Samples of deaerated and aerated perfuluorotributylamine (FC-43) were also irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays (96 Gy/min) to various doses. The samples were extracted with NaOH and analyzed by IC and showed the presence of F and Cl{sup -}. The G-values were established. In surface study experiments Pu coupons were exposed to deaerated and aerated solutions of FC-43 and analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS data indicate that there is no detectable surface effect caused by the new fluid. In conclusion the FC-43 was determined to be a very effective and practical fluid for Pu density measurements.

  10. Evaluation of absolute peptide quantitation strategies using selected reaction monitoring.

    PubMed

    Campbell, James; Rezai, Taha; Prakash, Amol; Krastins, Bryan; Dayon, Loïc; Ward, Malcolm; Robinson, Sarah; Lopez, Mary

    2011-03-01

    The use of internal peptide standards in selected reaction monitoring experiments enables absolute quantitation. Here, we describe three approaches addressing calibration of peptide concentrations in complex matrices and assess their performance in terms of trueness and precision. The simplest approach described is single reference point quantitation where a heavy peptide is spiked into test samples and the endogenous analyte quantified relative to the heavy peptide internal standard. We refer to the second approach as normal curve quantitation. Here, a constant amount of heavy peptide and a varying amount of light peptide are spiked into matrix to construct a calibration curve. This accounts for matrix effects but due to the presence of endogenous analyte, it is usually not possible to determine the lower LOQ. We refer to the third method as reverse curve quantitation. Here, a constant amount of light peptide and a varying amount of heavy peptide are spiked into matrix to construct a calibration curve. Because there is no contribution to the heavy peptide signal from endogenous analyte, it is possible to measure the equivalent of a blank sample and determine LOQ. These approaches are applied to human plasma samples and used to assay peptides of a set of apolipoproteins. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Bio-economic evaluation of implementing trawl fishing gear with different selectivity.

    PubMed

    Kronbak, Lone Grønbaek; Nielsen, J Rasmus; Jørgensen, Ole A; Vestergaard, Niels

    2009-08-01

    The paper develops a biological-economic evaluation tool to analyse the consequences for trawl fishers of implementing more selective fishing technologies. This is done by merging a dynamic biological population model and an economic cost-benefit evaluation framework to describe the consequences for the fish stocks, fishermen and society. The bio-economic evaluation is applied to the case of the Danish trawl fishery in Kattegat and Skagerrak, which experiences a high level of discards and bycatches of several species. Four different kinds of selectivity scenarios are evaluated in comparison with a baseline. The results from the evaluation are indicators for the consequences on ecological and economic levels. The results show that implementation of different selective fishing gear in the Kattegat and Skagerrak mixed trawl fisheries generally implies a trade off over time between rebuilding the stocks and economic loss. Moreover, the analysis shows that implementation of more selective gear is not always beneficial.

  12. A Product Evaluation of the Selective Abandonment Process for School Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loofe, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the degree to which the Selective Abandonment budget process objectives were achieved by analyzing stakeholder perceptions. Use of this evaluation may enable the district to become more effective, efficient, and more fiscally responsible when developing future program budgeting plans. Program evaluation was…

  13. 48 CFR 1552.215-70 - EPA source evaluation and selection procedures-negotiated procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true EPA source evaluation and... CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1552.215-70 EPA source evaluation and selection procedures—negotiated procurements. As prescribed in 1515.209(a), insert the following provision: EPA Source Evaluation...

  14. 34 CFR 636.21 - What selection criteria does the Secretary use to evaluate an application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What selection criteria does the Secretary use to evaluate an application? 636.21 Section 636.21 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... evaluate an application? The Secretary uses the following criteria to evaluate an application under this...

  15. 15 CFR 990.54 - Restoration selection-evaluation of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restoration selection-evaluation of... ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.54 Restoration selection—evaluation of alternatives. (a) Evaluation standards. Once trustees have developed a...

  16. Selection of Course Evaluation Items by High and Low Rated Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ory, John C.; Brandenburg, Dale C.

    CAFETERIA-type rating systems, modeled after the one developed at Purdue University, allow the instructors being evaluated to select those items which their students will use in evaluating the instructors. Such computer-assisted systems allow the instructor to tailor the evaluation to the particular instructional strategies used. This study…

  17. A Product Evaluation of the Selective Abandonment Process for School Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loofe, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the degree to which the Selective Abandonment budget process objectives were achieved by analyzing stakeholder perceptions. Use of this evaluation may enable the district to become more effective, efficient, and more fiscally responsible when developing future program budgeting plans. Program evaluation was…

  18. Evaluation of radioisotope electric propulsion for selected interplanetary science missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, David; Bonfiglio, Eugene; Cupples, Mike; Belcher, Jeremy; Witzberger, Kevin; Fiehler, Douglas; Robinson Artis, Gwen

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the benefits and applicability of REP to missions relevant to the In-Space Propulsion Program (ISPP) using first and second generation RPS with specific powers of 4 We/kg and 8 We/kg, respectively. Three missions representing small body targets, medium outer planet class, and main belt asteroids and comets were evaluated. Those missions were a Trojan Asteroid Orbiter, Comet Surface Sample Return (CSSR), and Jupiter Polar Orbiter with Probes (JPOP). For each mission, REP cost and performance was compared with solar electric propulsion system (SEPS) and SOA chemical propulsion system (SCPS) cost and performance. The outcome of the analysis would be a determinant for potential inclusion in the ISPP investment portfolio.

  19. Evaluation of radioisotope electric propulsion for selected interplanetary science missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, David; Bonfiglio, Eugene; Cupples, Mike; Belcher, Jeremy; Witzberger, Kevin; Fiehler, Douglas; Robinson Artis, Gwen

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the benefits and applicability of REP to missions relevant to the In-Space Propulsion Program (ISPP) using first and second generation RPS with specific powers of 4 We/kg and 8 We/kg, respectively. Three missions representing small body targets, medium outer planet class, and main belt asteroids and comets were evaluated. Those missions were a Trojan Asteroid Orbiter, Comet Surface Sample Return (CSSR), and Jupiter Polar Orbiter with Probes (JPOP). For each mission, REP cost and performance was compared with solar electric propulsion system (SEPS) and SOA chemical propulsion system (SCPS) cost and performance. The outcome of the analysis would be a determinant for potential inclusion in the ISPP investment portfolio.

  20. Evaluation of selected surface-water-quality stations in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rucker, S.J.; DeLong, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Agriculture, has conducted a surface-water-quality program in Wyoming since 1965. The purpose has been to determine the chemical quality of the water in terms of the major dissolved constituents (salinity). Changing agricultural techniques and energy development have stimulated a need for an expanded program involving additional types of data. This report determines the adequacy of the data collected thus far to describe the chemical quality. The sampling program was evaluated by determining how well the data describe the dissolved-solids load of the streams. Monthly mean loads were estimated at 16 stations throughout the network where daily streamflow and daily specific conductance were available. Monthly loads were then compared with loads estimated from daily streamflow and data derived from analyses of samples collected on a monthly basis at these same stations. Agreement was good. Solute-load hydrographs were constructed for 37 stations and from some reaches where streamflow records were available. Because stations where no discharge records are available are not amenable to this type of analysis, data collected at these stations are of limited usefulness. This report covers analyses of data for all qualifying sites in Wyoming except those in the Green River Basin, which were analyzed in U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations 77-103. The salinity in most of the streams evaluated is adequately described by the data collected. Reduced sampling is feasible, and time and money can be diverted to collecting other data. (USGS)

  1. Path selection system simulation and evaluation for a Martian roving vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boheim, S. L.; Prudon, W. C.

    1972-01-01

    The simulation and evaluation of proposed path selection systems for an autonomous Martian roving vehicle was developed. The package incorporates a number of realistic features, such as the simulation of random effects due to vehicle bounce and sensor-reading uncertainty, to increase the reliability of the results. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation criteria were established. The performance of three different path selection systems was evaluated to determine the effectiveness of the simulation package, and to form some preliminary conclusions regarding the tradeoffs involved in a path selection system design.

  2. Religious slaughter: evaluation of current practices in selected countries.

    PubMed

    Velarde, A; Rodriguez, P; Dalmau, A; Fuentes, C; Llonch, P; von Holleben, K V; Anil, M H; Lambooij, J B; Pleiter, H; Yesildere, T; Cenci-Goga, B T

    2014-01-01

    As part of the project "Religious slaughter (DIALREL): improving knowledge and expertise through dialogue and debate on issues of welfare, legislation and socio-economic aspects", this paper discusses an evaluation of current practices during Halal and Shechita slaughter in cattle, sheep, goats and poultry. During religious slaughter, animals are killed with and without stunning by a transverse incision across the neck that is cutting the skin, muscles (brachiocephalic, sternocephalic, sternohyoid, and sternothyroid), trachea, esophagus, carotid arteries, jugular veins and the major, superficial and deep nerves of the cervical plexus. In this report, the restraint methods, stunning, neck cutting, exsanguination, slaughter techniques and postcut handling in the abattoir were assessed for religious slaughter. Information about the procedures used during religious slaughter in Belgium, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, the UK, Turkey and Australia was collected by means of spot visits to abattoirs. To standardize the information gathered during the spot visits three guidelines were designed, one for each species, and translated into the national languages of the countries involved. The document included questions on the handling and restraint methods (stunning, neck cutting/exsanguination/slaughter techniques and postcut handling performed under religious practices) and for pain and distress of the animal during the restraint, neck cutting and induction to death in each abattoir. Results showed differences in the time from restraining to stun and to cut in the neck cutting procedures and in the time from cut to death. © 2013.

  3. Parameters affecting genome simulation for evaluating genomic selection method.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Motohide; Satoh, Masahiro

    2014-10-01

    The present study investigated the parameter settings for obtaining a simulated genome at steady state of allele frequency (mutation-drift equilibrium) and linkage disequilibrium (LD), and evaluated the impact of whether or not the simulated genome reached steady state of allele frequency and LD on the accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs). After 500 to 50,000 historical generations, the base population and subsequent seven generations were generated as recent populations. The allele frequency distribution of the last generations of the historical population and LD in the base population were calculated when varying the values of five parameters: initial minor allele frequency, mutation rate, effective population size, number of markers and chromosome length. The accuracies of GEBVs in the last generation of the recent population were calculated by genomic best linear unbiased prediction. The number of historical generations required to reach mutation-drift equilibrium depended on the initial allele frequency and mutation rate. Regardless of the parameters, LD reached a steady state before allele frequency distribution reached mutation-drift equilibrium. The accuracies of GEBVs largely reflect the extent of linkage disequilibrium with the exception of varying chromosome length, although there were no associations between the accuracies of GEBVs and allele frequency distribution. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Evaluating the toxicity of selected types of nanochemicals.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vineet; Kumari, Avnesh; Guleria, Praveen; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a fast growing field that provides for the development of materials that have new dimensions, novel properties, and a broader array of applications. Various scientific groups are keen about this technology and are devoting themselves to the development of more, new, and better nanomaterials. In the near future, expectations are that no field will be left untouched by the magical benefits available through application of nanotechnology. Presently, there is only limited knowledge concerning the toxicological effects of NPs. However, it is now known that the toxic behavior of NPs differ from their bulk counterparts. Even NPs that have the same chemical composition differ in their toxicological properties; the differences in toxicity depend upon size, shape, and surface covering. Hence, before NPs are commercially used it is most important that they be subjected to appropriate toxicity evaluation. Among the parameters of NPs that must be evaluated for their effect on toxicity are surface charges, types of coating material, and reactivity of NPs. In this article, we have reviewed the literature pertinent to the toxicity of metal oxide NPs, metallic NPs, quantum dots (QDs), silica (SiO2) NPs, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and certain other carbon nanomaterials (NMs). These NPs have already found a wide range of applications around the world. In vitro and in vivo studies on NPs have revealed that most are toxic to animals. However, their toxic behavior varies with their size, shape, surface charge, type of coating material and reactivity. Dose, route of administration, and exposure are critical factors that affect the degree of toxicity produced by any particular type of NP. It is for this reason that we believe a careful and rigorous toxicity testing is necessary before any NP is declared to be safe for broad use. We also believe that an agreed upon testing system is needed that can be used to suitably, accurately, and economically assess the toxicity of NPs

  5. Selection and Evaluation of Chemical Indicators for Waste Stream Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVita, W. M.; Hall, J.

    2015-12-01

    Human and animal wastes pose a threat to the quality of groundwater, surface water and drinking water. This is especially of concern for private and public water supplies in agricultural areas of Wisconsin where land spreading of livestock waste occurs on thin soils overlaying fractured bedrock. Current microbial source tracking (MST) methods for source identification requires the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Due to cost, these tests are often not an option for homeowners, municipalities or state agencies with limited resources. The Water and Environmental Analysis Laboratory sought to develop chemical methods to provide lower cost processes to determine sources of fecal waste using fecal sterols, pharmaceuticals (human and veterinary) and human care/use products in ground and surface waters using solid phase extraction combined with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The two separate techniques allow for the detection of fecal sterol and other chemical markers in the sub part per billion-range. Fecal sterol ratios from published sources were used to evaluate drinking water samples and wastewater from onsite waste treatment systems and municipal wastewater treatment plants. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products indicative of human waste included: acetaminophen, caffeine, carbamazepine, cotinine, paraxanthine, sulfamethoxazole, and the artificial sweeteners; acesulfame, saccharin, and sucralose. The bovine antibiotic sulfamethazine was also targeted. Well water samples with suspected fecal contamination were analyzed for fecal sterols and PPCPs. Results were compared to traditional MST results from the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene. Chemical indicators were found in 6 of 11 drinking water samples, and 5 of 11 were in support of MST results. Lack of detection of chemical indicators in samples contaminated with fecal waste supports the need for confirmatory methods and advancement of chemical indicator detection technologies.

  6. Efficacy evaluation of selected herbicides on weed control and productivity evaluation of Bt cotton in Punjab.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kulvir; Rathore, Pankaj

    2015-07-01

    Field experiments were conducted during Kharif 2012 and 2013 to evaluate the efficacy of different herbicides for weed management in cotton. Highest seed cotton yield (3537.3 kg ha(-1)) was recorded in weed free plots followed by pendimethalin @1.0 kg a.i ha(-1) as Pre.em.+quizalofopethyl @50 g a.i ha(-1) post-em at 2-4 weed leaf stage + one hoeing (3318.9 kg ha") owing to improved number of bolls per plant and boll weight. Statistically least yield was recorded underweedy check (1435.4 kg ha(-1)). Application of pyrithiobac sodium could not express any visible toxic effect on crop indicating its selectivity for cotton, although none of the tested new chemicals i.e., pyrithiobac sodium@ 62.5g a.i ha(-1) and quizalofopethyl @50g a.i ha(-1) when applied alone could not outperform the existing recommended chemicals for weed management. Yield losses to the extent of 6.2-59.4% were recorded due to weed competition. Weed control efficiency (WCE) was highest under weed free check (86.8%) followed by pendimethalin @1.0 kg a.i ha(-1) as Pre. em.+quizalofopethyl @50g a.i ha(-1), at 2-4 weed leaf stage + one hoeing (73.7%), whereas minimum values were for weedy check (24.7%). Though net returns (r94660 ha(-1)) were highest for weed free check but higher B:C ratio (2:11) was observed for pendimethalin @1.0 kg a.i ha(-1) as Pre em.+quizalofopethyl @50 g a.i ha(-1) post-em at 2-4 weed leaf stage+one hoeing. Therefore, for reasons such as labor shortage besides their timely availability, using these herbicides in combination with cultural practices could be the practical solution foreconomically efficient and effective weed management.

  7. Host tissues as microhabitats for Wolbachia and quantitative insights into the bacterial community in terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Dittmer, J; Beltran-Bech, S; Lesobre, J; Raimond, M; Johnson, M; Bouchon, D

    2014-05-01

    Animal-bacterial symbioses are highly dynamic in terms of multipartite interactions, both between the host and its symbionts as well as between the different bacteria constituting the symbiotic community. These interactions will be reflected by the titres of the individual bacterial taxa, for example via host regulation of bacterial loads or competition for resources between symbionts. Moreover, different host tissues represent heterogeneous microhabitats for bacteria, meaning that host-associated bacteria might establish tissue-specific bacterial communities. Wolbachia are widespread endosymbiotic bacteria, infecting a large number of arthropods and filarial nematodes. However, relatively little is known regarding direct interactions between Wolbachia and other bacteria. This study represents the first quantitative investigation of tissue-specific Wolbachia-microbiota interactions in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. To this end, we obtained a more complete picture of the Wolbachia distribution patterns across all major host tissues, integrating all three feminizing Wolbachia strains (wVulM, wVulC, wVulP) identified to date in this host. Interestingly, the different Wolbachia strains exhibited strain-specific tissue distribution patterns, with wVulM reaching lower titres in most tissues. These patterns were consistent across different host genetic backgrounds and might reflect different co-evolutionary histories between the Wolbachia strains and A. vulgare. Moreover, Wolbachia-infected females carried higher total bacterial loads in several, but not all, tissues, irrespective of the Wolbachia strain. Taken together, this quantitative approach indicates that Wolbachia is part of a potentially more diverse bacterial community, as exemplified by the presence of highly abundant bacterial taxa in the midgut caeca of several A. vulgare populations.

  8. Comparative microhabitat characteristics at oviposition sites of the California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, Jeff A.; Cook, David G.; Yee, Julie L.; van Hattem, Michael G.; Fong, Darren R.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the microhabitat characteristics of 747 egg masses of the federally-threatened Rana draytonii (California red-legged frog) at eight sites in California. our study showed that a broad range of aquatic habitats are utilized by ovipositing R. draytonii, including sites with perennial and ephemeral water sources, natural and constructed wetlands, lentic and lotic hydrology, and sites surrounded by protected lands and nested within modified urban areas. We recorded 45 different egg mass attachment types, although the use of only a few types was common at each site. These attachment types ranged from branches and roots of riparian trees, emergent and submergent wetland vegetation, flooded upland grassland/ruderal vegetation, and debris. eggs were deposited in relatively shallow water (mean 39.7 cm) when compared to maximum site depths. We found that most frogs in artificial pond, natural creek, and artificial channel habitats deposited egg masses within one meter of the shore, while egg masses in a seasonal marsh averaged 27.3 m from the shore due to extensive emergent vegetation. Rana draytonii appeared to delay breeding in lotic habitats and in more inland sites compared to lentic habitats and coastal sites. eggs occurred as early as mid-december at a coastal artificial pond and as late as mid-April in an inland natural creek. We speculate that this delay in breeding may represent a method of avoiding high-flow events and/or freezing temperatures. Understanding the factors related to the reproductive needs of this species can contribute to creating, managing, or preserving appropriate habitat, and promoting species recovery.

  9. Evaluation of toxicity of selected insecticides against thrips on cotton in laboratory bioassays

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adult vial technique (AVT) and spray table bioassays were conducted to evaluate toxicity of selected insecticides against immature and adult Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). In AVT, technical insecticides comprising of organophosphates (d...

  10. Notification: Evaluation of Enforcement Decree Compliance for Selected Clean Air Act Sources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OPE-FY14-0016, May 22, 2014. The Office of Inspector General (OIG) plans to begin the preliminary research phase of an evaluation of enforcement decree compliance for selected Clean Air Act (CAA) sources.

  11. Saproxylic Beetle Assemblage Selection as Determining Factor of Species Distributional Patterns: Implications for Conservation.

    PubMed

    García-López, A; Galante, E; Micó, E

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of the distributional patterns of saproxylic beetles is essential for conservation biology due to the relevance of this fauna in the maintenance of ecological processes and the endangerment of species. The complex community of saproxylic beetles is shaped by different assemblages that are composed of species linked by the microhabitats they use. We evaluate how different the species distribution patterns that are obtained can be, depending on the analyzed assemblage and to what extent these can affect conservation decisions. Beetles were sampled using hollow emergence and window traps in three protected areas of the Iberian Peninsula. Species richness, composition, and diversity turnover were analyzed for each sampling method and showed high variation depending on the analyzed assemblage. Beta diversity was clearly higher among forests for the assemblage captured using window traps. This method collects flying insects from different tree microhabitats and its captures are influenced by the forest structuring. Within forests, the assemblages captured by hollow emergence traps, which collect the fauna linked to tree hollows, showed the largest turnover of species, as they are influenced by the characteristics of each cavity. Moreover, the selection of the forest showing the highest species richness strongly depended on the studied assemblage. This study demonstrates that differences in the studied assemblages (group of species co-occurring in the same habitat) can also lead to significant differences in the identified patterns of species distribution and diversity turnover. This fact will be necessary to take into consideration when making decisions about conservation and management.

  12. Saproxylic Beetle Assemblage Selection as Determining Factor of Species Distributional Patterns: Implications for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Galante, E.; Micó, E.

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of the distributional patterns of saproxylic beetles is essential for conservation biology due to the relevance of this fauna in the maintenance of ecological processes and the endangerment of species. The complex community of saproxylic beetles is shaped by different assemblages that are composed of species linked by the microhabitats they use. We evaluate how different the species distribution patterns that are obtained can be, depending on the analyzed assemblage and to what extent these can affect conservation decisions. Beetles were sampled using hollow emergence and window traps in three protected areas of the Iberian Peninsula. Species richness, composition, and diversity turnover were analyzed for each sampling method and showed high variation depending on the analyzed assemblage. Beta diversity was clearly higher among forests for the assemblage captured using window traps. This method collects flying insects from different tree microhabitats and its captures are influenced by the forest structuring. Within forests, the assemblages captured by hollow emergence traps, which collect the fauna linked to tree hollows, showed the largest turnover of species, as they are influenced by the characteristics of each cavity. Moreover, the selection of the forest showing the highest species richness strongly depended on the studied assemblage. This study demonstrates that differences in the studied assemblages (group of species co-occurring in the same habitat) can also lead to significant differences in the identified patterns of species distribution and diversity turnover. This fact will be necessary to take into consideration when making decisions about conservation and management. PMID:27252483

  13. Collecting Poetry for the Academic Library: An Evaluation of Poetry Prizes as Selection Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golomb, Liorah

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the usefulness of poetry book prizes as a selection tool by evaluating their fairness, meaningfulness, and reliability as an indication of quality. The results of two surveys, one collecting data on poetry book prizes and the other asking librarians about their collecting practices, suggest that selecting on the basis of prizes…

  14. THE SELECTION OF A NATIONAL RANDOM SAMPLE OF TEACHERS FOR EXPERIMENTAL CURRICULUM EVALUATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WELCH, WAYNE W.; AND OTHERS

    MEMBERS OF THE EVALUATION SECTION OF HARVARD PROJECT PHYSICS, DESCRIBING WHAT IS SAID TO BE THE FIRST ATTEMPT TO SELECT A NATIONAL RANDOM SAMPLE OF (HIGH SCHOOL PHYSICS) TEACHERS, LIST THE STEPS AS (1) PURCHASE OF A LIST OF PHYSICS TEACHERS FROM THE NATIONAL SCIENCE TEACHERS ASSOCIATION (MOST COMPLETE AVAILABLE), (2) SELECTION OF 136 NAMES BY A…

  15. Evaluation of an Alcohol Abuse Prevention Program Correcting for Self Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Thomas K.; Duncan, Gregory M.

    Self-selection bias poses a major threat to the validity of research findings in naturalistic, quasi-experimental, or single-group designs. A new method of addressing self-selection bias in naturalistic evaluations of prevention programs was implemented. The study, involving voluntary exposure to multicomponent interventions, was developed and…

  16. Collecting Poetry for the Academic Library: An Evaluation of Poetry Prizes as Selection Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golomb, Liorah

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the usefulness of poetry book prizes as a selection tool by evaluating their fairness, meaningfulness, and reliability as an indication of quality. The results of two surveys, one collecting data on poetry book prizes and the other asking librarians about their collecting practices, suggest that selecting on the basis of prizes…

  17. An Evaluation Model To Select an Integrated Learning System in a Large, Suburban School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curlette, William L.; And Others

    The systematic evaluation process used in Georgia's DeKalb County School System to purchase comprehensive instructional software--an integrated learning system (ILS)--is described, and the decision-making model for selection is presented. Selection and implementation of an ILS were part of an instructional technology plan for the DeKalb schools…

  18. 24 CFR 570.209 - Guidelines for evaluating and selecting economic development projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... selecting economic development projects. 570.209 Section 570.209 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS Eligible Activities § 570.209 Guidelines for evaluating and selecting economic... activities to be carried out for economic development purposes. Specifically, these guidelines are applicable...

  19. 24 CFR 570.209 - Guidelines for evaluating and selecting economic development projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... selecting economic development projects. 570.209 Section 570.209 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS Eligible Activities § 570.209 Guidelines for evaluating and selecting economic... activities to be carried out for economic development purposes. Specifically, these guidelines are applicable...

  20. An Evaluation Model To Select an Integrated Learning System in a Large, Suburban School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curlette, William L.; And Others

    The systematic evaluation process used in Georgia's DeKalb County School System to purchase comprehensive instructional software--an integrated learning system (ILS)--is described, and the decision-making model for selection is presented. Selection and implementation of an ILS were part of an instructional technology plan for the DeKalb schools…

  1. Waterbird nest-site selection is influenced by neighboring nests and island topography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, Christopher; Ackerman, Josh; Takekawa, John Y.; Herzog, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Avian nest-site selection is influenced by factors operating across multiple spatial scales. Identifying preferred physical characteristics (e.g., topography, vegetation structure) can inform managers to improve nesting habitat suitability. However, social factors (e.g., attraction, territoriality, competition) can complicate understanding physical characteristics preferred by nesting birds. We simultaneously evaluated the physical characteristics and social factors influencing selection of island nest sites by colonial-nesting American avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) at 2 spatial scales in San Francisco Bay, 2011–2012. At the larger island plot (1 m2) scale, we used real-time kinematics to produce detailed topographies of nesting islands and map the distribution of nests. Nesting probability was greatest in island plots between 0.5 m and 1.5 m above the water surface, at distances <10 m from the water's edge, and of moderately steep (avocets) or flat (terns) slopes. Further, avocet and tern nesting probability increased as the number of nests initiated in adjacent plots increased up to a peak of 11–12 tern nests, and then decreased thereafter. Yet, avocets were less likely to nest in plots adjacent to plots with nesting avocets, suggesting an influence of intra-specific territoriality. At the smaller microhabitat scale, or the area immediately surrounding the nest, we compared topography, vegetation, and distance to nearest nest between nest sites and paired random sites. Topography had little influence on selection of the nest microhabitat. Instead, nest sites were more likely to have vegetation present, and greater cover, than random sites. Finally, avocet, and to a lesser extent tern, nest sites were closer to other active conspecific or heterospecific nests than random sites, indicating that social attraction played a role in selection of nest microhabitat. Our results demonstrate key differences in nest

  2. There’s more than one way to climb a tree: Limb length and microhabitat use in lizards with toe pads

    PubMed Central

    Harte, Scott; Vickers, Mathew; Harmon, Luke J.; Schwarzkopf, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Ecomorphology links microhabitat and morphology. By comparing ecomorphological associations across clades, we can investigate the extent to which evolution can produce similar solutions in response to similar challenges. While Anolis lizards represent a well-studied example of repeated convergent evolution, very few studies have investigated the ecomorphology of geckos. Similar to anoles, gekkonid lizards have independently evolved adhesive toe pads and many species are scansorial. We quantified gecko and anole limb length and microhabitat use, finding that geckos tend to have shorter limbs than anoles. Combining these measurements with microhabitat observations of geckos in Queensland, Australia, we observed geckos using similar microhabitats as reported for anoles, but geckos with relatively longer limbs were using narrower perches, differing from patterns observed in anoles and other lizards. We also observed arboreal geckos with relatively shorter proximal limb segments as compared to rock-dwelling and terrestrial geckos, similar to patterns observed for other lizards. We conclude that although both geckos and anoles have adhesive pads and use similar microhabitats, their locomotor systems likely complement their adhesive pads in unique ways and result in different ecomorphological patterns, reinforcing the idea that species with convergent morphologies still have idiosyncratic characteristics due to their own separate evolutionary histories. PMID:28953920

  3. Microhabitat types promote the genetic structure of a micro-endemic and critically endangered mole salamander (Ambystoma leorae) of Central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sunny, Armando; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; Reyna-Valencia, Carlos; Zarco-González, Martha M

    2014-01-01

    The reduced immigration and emigration rates resulting from the lack of landscape connectivity of patches and the hospitality of the intervening matrix could favor the loss of alleles through genetic drift and an increased chance of inbreeding. In order for isolated populations to maintain sufficient levels of genetic diversity and adapt to environmental changes, one important conservation goal must be to preserve or reestablish connectivity among patches in a fragmented landscape. We studied the last known population of Ambystoma leorae, an endemic and critically threatened species. The aims of this study were: (1) to assess the demographic parameters of A. leorae and to distinguish and characterize the microhabitats in the river, (2) to determine the number of existing genetic groups or demes of A. leorae and to describe possible relationships between microhabitats types and demes, (3) to determine gene flow between demes, and (4) to search for geographic locations of genetic discontinuities that limit gene flow between demes. We found three types of microhabitats and three genetically differentiated subpopulations with a significant level of genetic structure. In addition, we found slight genetic barriers. Our results suggest that mole salamander's species are very sensitive to microhabitat features and relatively narrow obstacles in their path. The estimates of bidirectional gene flow are consistent with the pattern of a stepping stone model between demes, where migration occurs between adjacent demes, but there is low gene flow between distant demes. We can also conclude that there is a positive correlation between microhabitats and genetic structure in this population.

  4. Validation of a randomization procedure to assess animal habitat preferences: microhabitat use of tiger sharks in a seagrass ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Heithaus, Michael R; Hamilton, Ian M; Wirsing, Aaron J; Dill, Lawrence M

    2006-05-01

    1. Tiger sharks Galeocerdo cuvier are important predators in a variety of nearshore communities, including the seagrass ecosystem of Shark Bay, Western Australia. Because tiger sharks are known to influence spatial distributions of multiple prey species, it is important to understand how they use habitats at a variety of spatial scales. We used a combination of catch rates and acoustic tracking to determine tiger shark microhabitat use in Shark Bay. 2. Comparing habitat-use data from tracking against the null hypothesis of no habitat preference is hindered in Shark Bay, as elsewhere, by the difficulty of defining expected habitat use given random movement. We used randomization procedures to generate expected habitat use in the absence of habitat preference and expected habitat use differences among groups (e.g. males and females). We tested the performance of these protocols using simulated data sets with known habitat preferences. 3. The technique correctly classified sets of simulated tracks as displaying a preference or not and was a conservative test for differences in habitat preferences between subgroups of tracks (e.g. males vs. females). 4. Sharks preferred shallow habitats over deep ones, and preferred shallow edge microhabitats over shallow interior ones. The use of shallow edges likely increases encounter rates with potential prey and may have profound consequences for the dynamics of Shark Bay's seagrass ecosystem through indirect effects transmitted by grazers that are common prey of tiger sharks. 5. Females showed a greater tendency to use shallow edge microhabitats than did males; this pattern was not detected by traditional analysis techniques. 6. The randomization procedures presented here are applicable to many field studies that use tracking by allowing researchers both to determine overall habitat preferences and to identify differences in habitat use between groups within their sample.

  5. Evaluation, or Just Data Collection? An Exploration of the Evaluation Practice of Selected UK Environmental Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Sarah Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the evaluation practices of environmental educators. Questionnaires and discussion groups with a convenience sample of UK-based practitioners were used to uncover their evaluation methods. Although many report that they are evaluating regularly, this is mainly monitoring numbers of participants or an assessment of enjoyment.…

  6. Evaluation, or Just Data Collection? An Exploration of the Evaluation Practice of Selected UK Environmental Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Sarah Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the evaluation practices of environmental educators. Questionnaires and discussion groups with a convenience sample of UK-based practitioners were used to uncover their evaluation methods. Although many report that they are evaluating regularly, this is mainly monitoring numbers of participants or an assessment of enjoyment.…

  7. Reliability of pedigree-based and genomic evaluations in selected populations.

    PubMed

    Gorjanc, Gregor; Bijma, Piter; Hickey, John M

    2015-08-14

    Reliability is an important parameter in breeding. It measures the precision of estimated breeding values (EBV) and, thus, potential response to selection on those EBV. The precision of EBV is commonly measured by relating the prediction error variance (PEV) of EBV to the base population additive genetic variance (base PEV reliability), while the potential for response to selection is commonly measured by the squared correlation between the EBV and breeding values (BV) on selection candidates (reliability of selection). While these two measures are equivalent for unselected populations, they are not equivalent for selected populations. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of selection on these two measures of reliability and to show how this affects comparison of breeding programs using pedigree-based or genomic evaluations. Two scenarios with random and best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) selection were simulated, where the EBV of selection candidates were estimated using only pedigree, pedigree and phenotype, genome-wide marker genotypes and phenotype, or only genome-wide marker genotypes. The base PEV reliabilities of these EBV were compared to the corresponding reliabilities of selection. Realized genetic selection intensity was evaluated to quantify the potential of selection on the different types of EBV and, thus, to validate differences in reliabilities. Finally, the contribution of different underlying processes to changes in additive genetic variance and reliabilities was quantified. The simulations showed that, for selected populations, the base PEV reliability substantially overestimates the reliability of selection of EBV that are mainly based on old information from the parental generation, as is the case with pedigree-based prediction. Selection on such EBV gave very low realized genetic selection intensities, confirming the overestimation and importance of genotyping both male and female selection candidates. The two measures of

  8. Evaluation and selection of open-source EMR software packages based on integrated AHP and TOPSIS.

    PubMed

    Zaidan, A A; Zaidan, B B; Al-Haiqi, Ahmed; Kiah, M L M; Hussain, Muzammil; Abdulnabi, Mohamed

    2015-02-01

    Evaluating and selecting software packages that meet the requirements of an organization are difficult aspects of software engineering process. Selecting the wrong open-source EMR software package can be costly and may adversely affect business processes and functioning of the organization. This study aims to evaluate and select open-source EMR software packages based on multi-criteria decision-making. A hands-on study was performed and a set of open-source EMR software packages were implemented locally on separate virtual machines to examine the systems more closely. Several measures as evaluation basis were specified, and the systems were selected based a set of metric outcomes using Integrated Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and TOPSIS. The experimental results showed that GNUmed and OpenEMR software can provide better basis on ranking score records than other open-source EMR software packages.

  9. Correlatin between the Officer Selection Battery and the ROTC Basic Camp Student Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Clessen J.; Hanser, Lawrence M.

    The correlation was examined between the Officer Selection Battery (OSB) and the five areas of evaluation comprising the Army Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC) Basic Camp Student Evaluation Report: physical fitness, graded military skills, job performance, peer rating, and academic potential and grades. The moderating effect of the…

  10. Gender Differences in Students' and Parents' Evaluative Criteria when Selecting a College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Phylis M.; Warwick, Jacquelyn

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation of gender differences between students and between parents based on the perceived financial, social, psychological, physical, and functional risks associated with college selection. Nineteen criteria associated with these risks were evaluated for significant gender differences as well as for their level of importance by gender in the…

  11. 23 CFR 636.301 - How should proposal evaluation factors be selected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How should proposal evaluation factors be selected? 636.301 Section 636.301 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING Proposal Evaluation Factors § 636.301 How...

  12. 23 CFR 636.301 - How should proposal evaluation factors be selected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How should proposal evaluation factors be selected? 636.301 Section 636.301 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING Proposal Evaluation Factors § 636.301 How...

  13. Path selection system development and evaluation for a Martian roving vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. S.; Simonds, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    A path selection system evaluation test procedure has been developed to enhance the analysis capability of an existing digital computer simulation package. The procedure investigates the obstacle avoidance ability of a path selection system on a sequence of test terrains with and without random effects. Using the standard test procedure a proposed mid-range sensor system has been evaluated and recommendations directed at improving the performance of the system have been made. In addition, the initial development and evaluation of a short range sensor system has been undertaken.

  14. Controls on ostracod valve geochemistry, Part 1: Variations of environmental parameters in ostracod (micro-)habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decrouy, Laurent; Vennemann, Torsten Walter; Ariztegui, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    The variations of environmental conditions ( T°, pH, δ 13C DIC, [DIC], δ 18O, Mg/Ca, and Sr/Ca) of ostracod habitats were examined to determine the controls of environmental parameters on the chemical and isotopic composition of ostracod valves. Results of a one-year monitoring of environmental parameters at five sites, with depths of between 2 and 70 m, in Lake Geneva indicate that in littoral to sub-littoral zones (2, 5, and 13 m), the chemical composition of bottom water varies seasonally in concert with changes in temperature and photosynthetic activity. An increase of temperature and photosynthetic activity leads to an increase in δ 13C values of DIC and to precipitation of authigenic calcite, which results in a concomitant increase of Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios of water. In deeper sites (33 and 70 m), the composition of bottom water remains constant throughout the year and isotopic values and trace element contents are similar to those of deep water within the lake. The chemical composition of interstitial pore water also does not reflect seasonal variations but is controlled by calcite dissolution, aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration with reduction of sulphate and/or nitrate, and methanogenesis that may occur in the sediment pores. Relative influence of each of these factors on the pore water geochemistry depends on sediment thickness and texture, oxygen content in bottom as well as pore water. Variations of chemical compositions of the ostracod valves of this study vary according to the specific ecology of the ostracod species analysed, that is its life-cycle and its (micro-)habitat. Littoral species have compositions that are related to the seasonal variations of temperature, δ 13C values of DIC, and of Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios of water. In contrast, the compositions of profundal species are largely controlled by variations of pore fluids along sediment depth profiles according to the specific depth preference of the species. The control on the

  15. Heterometric sediment and benthic micro-habitat: In situ and experimental approaches.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navon, Maxime; Dauvin, Jean-Claude; Lesourd, Sandric

    2016-04-01

    The eastern Bay of Seine and its estuary are characterized by complex sediment structures with high temporal, spatial and vertical heterogeneities. As the result of different hydrodynamics forcing, estuary is a particular area with fine sediment accumulation since the last decades. This complex system involves particular relationships between benthic species and the environment. Dominant species show particular traits of life: bentho-pelagic reproductive cycle, burrowing, tubicoulous, surface and subsurface species. Moreover, species behaviours are different according to the sediment properties: grain size, stratification, texture, silt and clay contents… Although benthic macrofauna and sediment relationship is often describe as the major factor structuring benthic communities, no spatial and temporal relationships has been highlighted in this area. So, our study is focused on the relationship between species and sediment at the individual scale and on micro-habitats. The aim of the study is to define the macrofauna vertical distribution to understand how the sediment structure acts on organisms and the organism behaviour in a heterometric sediment context, i.e. how organisms act in return on the sediment structure. An in situ approach is used to answer these questions with four campaigns on board on the Oceanographic Vessel 'Le Côtes de la Manche'. A total of 43 cores (16 cm diameter, 35 cm high) in three typical sediment facies are sampled. Cores are analysed with Computer-Aided Tomography scan (Cyceron Laboratory, Caen) to 3D visualize organisms and to determine volumetric space occupation by biogenic structures. The same cores are transversally cut to check the species out and to analyse sediment parameters (grain size, organic matter and other chemical components on XRF device). Results show that most of the organism are closed to the surface sediment but also that some species, even small size individuals, are found deeper in the sediment-column until 9 cm

  16. Evaluation of Midwater Trawl Selectivity and its Influence on Acoustic-Based Fish Population Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Kresimir

    Trawls are used extensively during fisheries abundance surveys to derive estimates of fish density and, in the case of acoustic-based surveys, to identify acoustically sampled fish populations. However, trawls are selective in what fish they retain, resulting in biased estimates of density, species, and size compositions. Selectivity of the midwater trawl used in acoustic-based surveys of walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) was evaluated using multiple methods. The effects of trawl selectivity on the acoustic-based survey abundance estimates and the stock assessment were evaluated for the Gulf of Alaska walleye pollock population. Selectivity was quantified using recapture, or pocket, nets attached to the outside of the trawl. Pocket net catches were modeled using a hierarchical Bayesian model to provide uncertainty in selectivity parameter estimates. Significant under-sampling of juvenile pollock by the midwater trawl was found, with lengths at 50% retention ranging from 14--26 cm over three experiments. Escapement was found to be light dependent, with more fish escaping in dark conditions. Highest escapement rates were observed in the aft of the trawl near to the codend though the bottom panel of the trawl. The behavioral mechanisms involved in the process of herding and escapement were evaluated using stereo-cameras, a DIDSON high frequency imaging sonar, and pocket nets. Fish maintained greater distances from the trawl panel during daylight, suggesting trawl modifications such as increased visibility of netting materials may evoke stronger herding responses and increased retention of fish. Selectivity and catchability of pollock by the midwater trawl was also investigated using acoustic density as an independent estimate of fish abundance to compare with trawl catches. A modeling framework was developed to evaluate potential explanatory factors for selectivity and catchability. Selectivity estimates were dependent on which vessel was used for the survey

  17. Testing the directed dispersal hypothesis: are native ant mounds (Formica sp.) favorable microhabitats for an invasive plant?

    PubMed

    Berg-Binder, Moni C; Suarez, Andrew V

    2012-07-01

    Ant-mediated seed dispersal may be a form of directed dispersal if collected seeds are placed in a favorable microhabitat (e.g., in or near an ant nest) that increases plant establishment, growth, and/or reproduction relative to random locations. We investigated whether the native ant community interacts with invasive leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) in a manner consistent with predictions of the directed dispersal hypothesis. Resident ants quickly located and dispersed 60% of experimentally offered E. esula seeds. Additionally, 40% of seeds whose final deposition site was observed were either brought inside or placed on top of an ant nest. Seed removal was 100% when seeds were placed experimentally on foraging trails of mound-building Formica obscuripes, although the deposition site of these seeds is unknown. Natural density and above-ground biomass of E. esula were greater on Formica mound edges compared to random locations. However, seedling recruitment and establishment from experimentally planted E. esula seeds was not greater on mound edges than random locations 3 m from the mound. Soil from Formica mound edges was greater in available nitrogen and available phosphorus relative to random soil locations 3 m from the mound. These results suggest Formica ant mounds are favorable microhabitats for E. esula growth following seedling establishment, a likely consequence of nutrient limitation during plant growth. The results also indicate positive species interactions may play an important role in biological invasions.

  18. Decision support for personalized cloud service selection through multi-attribute trustworthiness evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shuai; Xia, Cheng-Yi; Xia, Chen-Yi; Zhou, Kai-Le; Yang, Shan-Lin; Shang, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    Facing a customer market with rising demands for cloud service dependability and security, trustworthiness evaluation techniques are becoming essential to cloud service selection. But these methods are out of the reach to most customers as they require considerable expertise. Additionally, since the cloud service evaluation is often a costly and time-consuming process, it is not practical to measure trustworthy attributes of all candidates for each customer. Many existing models cannot easily deal with cloud services which have very few historical records. In this paper, we propose a novel service selection approach in which the missing value prediction and the multi-attribute trustworthiness evaluation are commonly taken into account. By simply collecting limited historical records, the current approach is able to support the personalized trustworthy service selection. The experimental results also show that our approach performs much better than other competing ones with respect to the customer preference and expectation in trustworthiness assessment.

  19. Decision Support for Personalized Cloud Service Selection through Multi-Attribute Trustworthiness Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Shuai; Xia, Chen-Yi; Zhou, Kai-Le; Yang, Shan-Lin; Shang, Jennifer S.

    2014-01-01

    Facing a customer market with rising demands for cloud service dependability and security, trustworthiness evaluation techniques are becoming essential to cloud service selection. But these methods are out of the reach to most customers as they require considerable expertise. Additionally, since the cloud service evaluation is often a costly and time-consuming process, it is not practical to measure trustworthy attributes of all candidates for each customer. Many existing models cannot easily deal with cloud services which have very few historical records. In this paper, we propose a novel service selection approach in which the missing value prediction and the multi-attribute trustworthiness evaluation are commonly taken into account. By simply collecting limited historical records, the current approach is able to support the personalized trustworthy service selection. The experimental results also show that our approach performs much better than other competing ones with respect to the customer preference and expectation in trustworthiness assessment. PMID:24972237

  20. Indian Economic Development: An Evaluation of EDA's Selected Indian Reservation Program. Volume II: Individual Reservation Reports, Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boise Cascade Center for Community Development, ID.

    As the appendices to an evaluation of the Economic Development Administration's (EDA) Selected Indian Reservation Program, this portion of the evaluation report presents individualized evaluations of each of the 16 reservations originally selected for the program in 1967. Each reservation evaluation is presented in terms of the following format:…

  1. Selectivity screening and subsequent data evaluation strategies in liquid chromatography: the example of 12 antineoplastic drugs.

    PubMed

    Hetzel, Terence; Teutenberg, Thorsten; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2015-11-01

    Optimization of the chromatographic selectivity is the most important parameter if a separation is needed for the hyphenation of liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. In mass spectrometry, this is necessary if the investigated analytes have identical mass transitions, like isomers or epimers. For the separation of the 12 most important antineoplastic drugs, a selectivity screening was performed using 20 columns and two organic modifiers and temperatures to find a suitable phase system in order to separate critical peak pairs. Therefore, an evaluation strategy was applied in form of a principal component analysis (PCA), selectivity factor, and overall selectivity comparison to find a suitable phase system. Some boundary conditions were defined to consider the specific requirements of tandem mass spectrometry. The results clearly indicated that the selectivity factor of the critical peak pairs increased using methanol at higher temperature.

  2. Rare-Earth Oxide (Yb2O3) Selective Emitter Fabrication and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennette, Bryan; Gregory, Don A.; Herren, Kenneth; Tucker, Dennis; Smith, W. Scott (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This investigation involved the fabrication and evaluation of rare-earth oxide selective emitters. The first goal of this study was to successfully fabricate the selective emitter samples using paper and ceramic materials processing techniques. The resulting microstructure was also analyzed using a Scanning Electron Microscope. All selective emitter samples fabricated for this study were made with ytterbium oxide (Yb2O3). The second goal of this study involved the measurement of the spectral emission and the radiated power of all the selective emitter samples. The final goal of this study involved the direct comparison of the radiated power emitted by the selective emitter samples to that of a standard blackbody at the same temperature and within the same wavelength range.

  3. Evaluation of all-day-efficiency for selected flat plate and evacuated tube collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    An evaluation of all day efficiency for selected flat plate and evacuated tube collectors is presented. Computations are based on a modified version of the NBSIR 78-1305A procedure for all day efficiency. The ASHMET and NOAA data bases for solar insolation are discussed. Details of the algorithm used to convert total (global) horizontal radiation to the collector tilt plane of the selected sites are given along with tables and graphs which show the results of the tests performed during this evaluation.

  4. Evaluation of All-Day-Efficiency for selected flat plate and evacuated tube collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An evaluation of all day efficiency for selected flat plate and evacuated tube collectors is presented. Computations are based on a modified version of the NBSIR 78-1305A procedure for all day efficiency. The ASHMET and NOAA data bases for solar insolation are discussed. Details of the algorithm used to convert total (global) horizontal radiation to the collector tilt plane of the selected sites are given along with tables and graphs which show the results of the tests performed during this evaluation.

  5. Application of GRA for Sustainable Material Selection and Evaluation Using LCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayakrishna, Kandasamy; Vinodh, Sekar; Sakthi Sanghvi, Vijayaselvan; Deepika, Chinadurai

    2016-07-01

    Material selection is identified as a successful key parameter in establishing any product to be sustainable, considering its end of life (EoL) characteristics. An accurate understanding of expected service conditions and environmental considerations are crucial in the selection of material plays a vital role with overwhelming customer expectations and stringent laws. Therefore, this article presents an integrated approach for sustainable material selection using grey relational analysis (GRA) considering the EoL disposal strategies with respect to an automotive product. GRA, an impact evaluation model measures the degree of similarity between the comparability (choice of material) sequence and reference (EoL strategies) sequence based on the relational grade. The ranking result shows that the outranking relationships in the order, ABS-REC > PP-INC > AL-REM > PP-LND > ABS-LND > ABS-INC > PU-LND > AL-REC > AL-LND > PU-INC > AL-INC. The best sustainable material selected was ABS and recycling was selected as the best EoL strategy with the grey relational value of 2.43856. The best material selected by this approach, ABS was evaluated for its viability using life cycle assessment and the estimated impacts also proved the practicability of the selected material highlighting the focus on dehumidification step in the manufacturing of the case product using this developed multi-criteria approach.

  6. Independent circuits in the basal ganglia for the evaluation and selection of actions.

    PubMed

    Stephenson-Jones, Marcus; Kardamakis, Andreas A; Robertson, Brita; Grillner, Sten

    2013-09-17

    The basal ganglia are critical for selecting actions and evaluating their outcome. Although the circuitry for selection is well understood, how these nuclei evaluate the outcome of actions is unknown. Here, we show in lamprey that a separate evaluation circuit, which regulates the habenula-projecting globus pallidus (GPh) neurons, exists within the basal ganglia. The GPh neurons are glutamatergic and can drive the activity of the lateral habenula, which, in turn, provides an indirect inhibitory influence on midbrain dopamine neurons. We show that GPh neurons receive inhibitory input from the striosomal compartment of the striatum. The striosomal input can reduce the excitatory drive to the lateral habenula and, consequently, decrease the inhibition onto the dopaminergic system. Dopaminergic neurons, in turn, provide feedback that inhibits the GPh. In addition, GPh neurons receive direct projections from the pallium (cortex in mammals), which can increase the GPh activity to drive the lateral habenula to increase the inhibition of the neuromodulatory systems. This circuitry, thus, differs markedly from the "direct" and "indirect" pathways that regulate the pallidal (e.g., globus pallidus) output nuclei involved in the control of motion. Our results show that a distinct reward-evaluation circuit exists within the basal ganglia, in parallel to the direct and indirect pathways, which select actions. Our results suggest that these circuits are part of the fundamental blueprint that all vertebrates use to select actions and evaluate their outcome.

  7. Project evaluation and selection using fuzzy Delphi method and zero - one goal programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alias, Suriana; Adna, Nofarziah; Arsad, Roslah; Soid, Siti Khuzaimah; Ali, Zaileha Md

    2014-12-01

    Project evaluation and selection is a factor affecting the impotence of board director in which is trying to maximize all the possible goals. Assessment of the problem occurred in organization plan is the first phase for decision making process. The company needs a group of expert to evaluate the problems. The Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) is a systematic procedure to evoke the group's opinion in order to get the best result to evaluate the project performance. This paper proposes an evaluation and selection of the best alternative project based on combination of FDM and Zero - One Goal Programming (ZOGP) formulation. ZOGP is used to solve the multi-criteria decision making for final decision part by using optimization software LINDO 6.1. An empirical example on an ongoing decision making project in Johor, Malaysia is implemented for case study.

  8. Selected Evaluation Findings for Secondary Vocational Education--The Wisconsin Evaluation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Dorothy; Klitzke, Elizabeth

    1980-01-01

    Fifty-eight Wisconsin high schools have undergone a comprehensive evaluation of their total vocational education program, including program management and administration as well as capstone, sequence, and exploratory programs in all vocational discipline areas. All aspects discussed--employability, job relatedness to training, employer hiring…

  9. Influence of sex and breeding condition on microhabitat selection and diet in the pig frog Rana grylio

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, T.

    1984-04-01

    A 14-month study was conducted on the pig frog (Rana grylio) in SW Georgia. This species has a prolonged breeding season as males call from late March to September. Mature spermatozoa were present in the testes year-round, though seasonal testicular changes were detectable with spermatogenesis reaching a peak in June. Females contained mature ova from April through July and development of the following year's ova began in August. Stomachs of 122 postlarval specimens contained mainly anthropods. Coleoptera, Decopoda (Procambarus) and Odonata accounted for the majority of individual prey items, constituting 24.3, l9.8 and 11.9%, respectively. Intersexual dietary differences were apparent among adult frogs during the breeding season; variation in diet was strongly influenced by behavioral and habitat differences at this time.

  10. Economic evaluation of genomic selection in small ruminants: a sheep meat breeding program.

    PubMed

    Shumbusho, F; Raoul, J; Astruc, J M; Palhiere, I; Lemarié, S; Fugeray-Scarbel, A; Elsen, J M

    2016-06-01

    Recent genomic evaluation studies using real data and predicting genetic gain by modeling breeding programs have reported moderate expected benefits from the replacement of classic selection schemes by genomic selection (GS) in small ruminants. The objectives of this study were to compare the cost, monetary genetic gain and economic efficiency of classic selection and GS schemes in the meat sheep industry. Deterministic methods were used to model selection based on multi-trait indices from a sheep meat breeding program. Decisional variables related to male selection candidates and progeny testing were optimized to maximize the annual monetary genetic gain (AMGG), that is, a weighted sum of meat and maternal traits annual genetic gains. For GS, a reference population of 2000 individuals was assumed and genomic information was available for evaluation of male candidates only. In the classic selection scheme, males breeding values were estimated from own and offspring phenotypes. In GS, different scenarios were considered, differing by the information used to select males (genomic only, genomic+own performance, genomic+offspring phenotypes). The results showed that all GS scenarios were associated with higher total variable costs than classic selection (if the cost of genotyping was 123 euros/animal). In terms of AMGG and economic returns, GS scenarios were found to be superior to classic selection only if genomic information was combined with their own meat phenotypes (GS-Pheno) or with their progeny test information. The predicted economic efficiency, defined as returns (proportional to number of expressions of AMGG in the nucleus and commercial flocks) minus total variable costs, showed that the best GS scenario (GS-Pheno) was up to 15% more efficient than classic selection. For all selection scenarios, optimization increased the overall AMGG, returns and economic efficiency. As a conclusion, our study shows that some forms of GS strategies are more advantageous

  11. Competency Based Teacher Education and Evaluation; A Selective Bibliography. Exceptional Child Bibliography Series No. 630.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, Reston, VA.

    The annotated bibliography on competency based teacher education and evaluation contains approximately 55 abstracts and associated indexing information for documents published from 1955 to 1974 and selected from the computer files of the Council for Exceptional Children's Information Services and the Education Resources Information Center (ERIC).…

  12. SELECTING AND EVALUATING NATIVE PLANTS FOR REGION-SPECIFIC PHYTOTOXICITY TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we evaluated methodology to determine risks to terrestrial native plant species from potential herbicide drift, focusing on 1) selection of native species for testing, 2) growth of these species, and 3) variability in herbicide response among native species and com...

  13. Evaluation of sapling height and density after clearcutting and group selection in the Missouri Ozarks

    Treesearch

    Guerric T. Good; Benjamin O. Knapp; Lance A. Vickers; David R. Larsen; John M. Kabrick

    2017-01-01

    Silvicultural decisions often affect the development and characteristics of a stand. Silvicultural regeneration events can have immediate and gradual impacts on stand development. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two silvicultural regeneration methods, clearcutting and group selection, on the composition of trees that are likely to recruit to...

  14. Selection, Placement and Instatement of School Managers in Turkey: Evaluation of the Current Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memisoglu, Salih Pasa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the new regulations and current practices in terms of how they apply--to the selection, training and instatement of school administrators in Turkey. The successful implementation of Turkish National Development Plans is closely related to the knowledge and skills of managers working at various levels in every…

  15. Measuring Teaching Quality in Higher Education: Assessing Selection Bias in Course Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goos, Maarten; Salomons, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Student evaluations of teaching (SETs) are widely used to measure teaching quality in higher education and compare it across different courses, teachers, departments and institutions. Indeed, SETs are of increasing importance for teacher promotion decisions, student course selection, as well as for auditing practices demonstrating institutional…

  16. Evaluation of the Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) Program for the Aerospace Materials Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffler, F. L.; March, J. F.

    The Aerospace Materials Information Center (AMIC) Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) program was evaluated by an interview technique after one year of operation. The data base for the SDI consists of the periodic document index records input to the AMIC system. The users are 63 engineers, scientists, and technical administrators at the…

  17. SELECTING AND EVALUATING NATIVE PLANTS FOR REGION-SPECIFIC PHYTOTOXICITY TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we evaluated methodology to determine risks to terrestrial native plant species from potential herbicide drift, focusing on 1) selection of native species for testing, 2) growth of these species, and 3) variability in herbicide response among native species and com...

  18. Selecting a Test Population for Evaluating the Sociological Resources Project Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grahlfs, F. Lincoln; Hering, W. M., Jr.

    The procedures for the selection of a test population to use and evaluate the short units developed by the Sociological Resources for the Social Studies Project (SRSS), "Episodes in Social Inquiry Series," are considered. They wanted to assess the effectiveness of the materials under a variety of circumstances: classes from different…

  19. The state agency experience (evaluation/selection of hardware for automated, geo-based information systems)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, L. F., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose and format of a panel session that addressed the procedures by which the hardware components of geographic information systems are evaluated and selected are described. State agencies from Alaska, Colorado, Montana, and Washington were represented and the topic was discussed within the general context of information requirements in land management decision making.

  20. Selecting a Learning Management System (LMS) in Developing Countries: Instructors' Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavus, Nadire

    2013-01-01

    Learning management systems (LMSs) contain hidden costs, unclear user environments, bulky developer and administration manuals, and limitations with regard to interoperability, integration, localization, and bandwidth requirements. Careful evaluation is required in selecting the most appropriate LMS for use, and this is a general problem in…

  1. The Evaluation and Selection of Instructional Software for Use with the Learning Disabled. CREATE Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisgerber, Robert A.; Blake, Patricia L.

    Fourth in a series of six monographs on the use of new technologies in the instruction of learning disabled (LD) students, this paper explores issues related to the evaluation and selection of instructional software for LD students. Topics discussed include the following: (1) criteria for instructionally useful software (e.g., flexibility and…

  2. 15 CFR 990.54 - Restoration selection-evaluation of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restoration selection-evaluation of alternatives. 990.54 Section 990.54 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL...

  3. 15 CFR 990.54 - Restoration selection-evaluation of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restoration selection-evaluation of alternatives. 990.54 Section 990.54 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL...

  4. 15 CFR 990.54 - Restoration selection-evaluation of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration selection-evaluation of alternatives. 990.54 Section 990.54 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL...

  5. 15 CFR 990.54 - Restoration selection-evaluation of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restoration selection-evaluation of alternatives. 990.54 Section 990.54 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL...

  6. Leading the Way to Appropriate Selection, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Read-Aloud Accommodation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha L.; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Hodgson, Jennifer R.

    2012-01-01

    The read-aloud accommodation is one of the most frequently used accommodations. Many educators need training to more confidently select, implement, and evaluate the use of the read-aloud accommodation. Planning by special education leaders can help ensure that test day goes smoothly for students who need the read-aloud accommodation.

  7. Cognitive Load Criteria for Critical Evaluation and Selection of Web-Based Resources for Science Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemm, E. Barbara; Iding, Marie K.; Crosby, Martha E.

    This study addresses the need to develop research-based criteria for science teacher educators to use in preparing teachers to critically evaluate and select web-based resources for their students' use. The study focuses on the cognitive load imposed on the learner for tasks required in using text, illustrations, and other features of multi-…

  8. An Approach for Selecting a Theoretical Framework for the Evaluation of Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasca, Jorge Eduardo; Ensslin, Leonardo; Ensslin, Sandra Rolim; Alves, Maria Bernardete Martins

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This research paper proposes a method for selecting references related to a research topic, and seeks to exemplify it for the case of a study evaluating training programs. The method is designed to identify references with high academic relevance in databases accessed via the internet, using a bibliometric analysis to sift the selected…

  9. Indian Economic Development: An Evaluation of EDA's Selected Indian Reservation Program. Volume I: Narrative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boise Cascade Center for Community Development, ID.

    The Selected Indian Reservation Program established under the Economic Development Administration in 1967 was evaluated in terms of actual or potential job creation via detailed assessment of EDA activities on 16 reservations, discussions at the regional and national levels of EDA program tools (public work grants/loans, business development…

  10. Technical Guidelines for Digital Learning Content: Development, Evaluation, Selection, Acquisition and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Educational Technology Cooperative of the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) established the Digital Learning Content initiative to identify guidelines and develop recommendations to assist those who develop, evaluate, select, acquire and use digital learning content to create products that are easy to access and use in order to ensure…

  11. An Evaluation of Selected Aspects of a Junior College Remedial Reading-Writing Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losak, John G.

    This study sought to evaluate the remedial program at Miami-Dade Junior College. As a control group, 73 randomly selected students, eligible for the remedial program, were placed in the regular freshman English course, to be compared with an experimental group of 461 students who were in the remedial program because of GPA, attrition rate, and…

  12. Evaluation of Select Sensors for Real-Time Monitoring of Escherichia coli in Water Distribution Systems▿

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Syreeta L.; Sinclair, Ryan G.; Riley, Mark R.; Pepper, Ian L.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated real-time sensing of Escherichia coli as a microbial contaminant in water distribution systems. Most sensors responded to increased E. coli concentrations, showing that select sensors can detect microbial water quality changes and be utilized as part of a contaminant warning system. PMID:21357435

  13. Perceived Risk in College Selection: Differences in Evaluative Criteria Used by Students and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Jacquelyn; Mansfield, Phylis M.

    2003-01-01

    Students and parents base college selection on how well the college will overcome the perceived financial, social, psychological, physical, and functional risks associated with the college experience. Nineteen criteria associated with these risks were evaluated for significant differences between students and parents as well as for their level of…

  14. 34 CFR 350.54 - What selection criteria does the Secretary use in evaluating an application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... underrepresented based on race, color, national origin, gender, age, or disability. (3) In addition, the Secretary... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What selection criteria does the Secretary use in evaluating an application? 350.54 Section 350.54 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of...

  15. A Closer Look at Books. A Self Instructive Guide to Selecting and Evaluating Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charuhas, Mary S.

    This workbook is designed to provide beginning and experienced teachers and administrators with a guide to evaluating and selecting materials with respect to the student who uses them, the instructor who teaches from them, and the program that orders them. It is intended to be either self-instructive or used in conjunction with a staff development…

  16. Selection and Evaluation of Attorneys in Divorce Cases involving Minor Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillary, Marcia Amanda; Johnson, Joel T.

    1985-01-01

    Examines reasons for hiring a divorce attorney, the attorney selection process, and client evaluations of their attorneys. Sixty-six men and women, who were parents of at least one minor child, indicated that they learned about their divorce attorney through a personal recommendation, and hired the first and only lawyer whom they consulted.…

  17. An Approach for Selecting a Theoretical Framework for the Evaluation of Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasca, Jorge Eduardo; Ensslin, Leonardo; Ensslin, Sandra Rolim; Alves, Maria Bernardete Martins

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This research paper proposes a method for selecting references related to a research topic, and seeks to exemplify it for the case of a study evaluating training programs. The method is designed to identify references with high academic relevance in databases accessed via the internet, using a bibliometric analysis to sift the selected…

  18. Curricula and Instruction for Young Handicapped Children: A Guideline for Selection and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBose, Rebecca; Kelley, Jean

    The paper examines the theoretical constructs that underlie currently used curricula for young handicapped children and suggests guidelines for selecting and evaluating curricula. Three developmental perspectives are reviewed: the age related developmental milestones identified by A. Gesell and adhered to by diagnostic prescriptive advocates, the…

  19. Selecting a Learning Management System (LMS) in Developing Countries: Instructors' Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavus, Nadire

    2013-01-01

    Learning management systems (LMSs) contain hidden costs, unclear user environments, bulky developer and administration manuals, and limitations with regard to interoperability, integration, localization, and bandwidth requirements. Careful evaluation is required in selecting the most appropriate LMS for use, and this is a general problem in…

  20. Selection, Placement and Instatement of School Managers in Turkey: Evaluation of the Current Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memisoglu, Salih Pasa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the new regulations and current practices in terms of how they apply--to the selection, training and instatement of school administrators in Turkey. The successful implementation of Turkish National Development Plans is closely related to the knowledge and skills of managers working at various levels in every…

  1. Guide for the Establishment and Evaluation of Services for Selective Dissemination of Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poncelet, J.

    This guide describes the components of a selective dissemination of information (SDI) service which is designed to give developing countries access to international sources of bibliographic information and provides guidelines for the establishment and evaluation of this type of service. It defines the main features of a computerized documentation…

  2. Leading the Way to Appropriate Selection, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Read-Aloud Accommodation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha L.; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Hodgson, Jennifer R.

    2012-01-01

    The read-aloud accommodation is one of the most frequently used accommodations. Many educators need training to more confidently select, implement, and evaluate the use of the read-aloud accommodation. Planning by special education leaders can help ensure that test day goes smoothly for students who need the read-aloud accommodation.

  3. An Evaluation of Selected NASA Scientific and Technical Information Products: Results of a Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Myron

    A pilot study was conducted to evaluate selected NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) scientific and technical information (STI) products. The study, which utilized survey research in the form of a self-administered mail questionnaire, had a two-fold purpose--to gather baseline data on the use and perceived usefulness of selected…

  4. Technical Guidelines for Digital Learning Content: Development, Evaluation, Selection, Acquisition and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Educational Technology Cooperative of the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) established the Digital Learning Content initiative to identify guidelines and develop recommendations to assist those who develop, evaluate, select, acquire and use digital learning content to create products that are easy to access and use in order to ensure…

  5. Patient evaluation and selection for transcatheter aortic valve replacement: the heart team approach.

    PubMed

    Sintek, Marc; Zajarias, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been shown to significantly impact mortality and quality of life in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) who are deemed high risk for surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Essential to these outcomes is proper patient selection. The multidisciplinary TAVR heart team was created to provide comprehensive patient evaluation and aid in proper selection. This review with outline the history and components of the heart team, and delineate the team's role in risk and frailty assessment, evaluation of common co-morbidities that impact outcomes, and the complex multi-modality imaging necessary for procedural planning and patient selection. The heart team is critical in determining patient eligibility and benefit and the optimal operative approach for TAVR. The future of structural heart disease will certainly require a team approach, and the TAVR heart team will serve as the successful model.

  6. Evolutionary potential in the Alpine: trait heritabilities and performance variation of the dwarf willow Salix herbacea from different elevations and microhabitats.

    PubMed

    Sedlacek, Janosch; Cortés, Andrés J; Wheeler, Julia; Bossdorf, Oliver; Hoch, Guenter; Klápště, Jaroslav; Lexer, Christian; Rixen, Christian; Wipf, Sonja; Karrenberg, Sophie; van Kleunen, Mark

    2016-06-01

    Alpine ecosystems are seriously threatened by climate change. One of the key mechanisms by which plants can adapt to changing environmental conditions is through evolutionary change. However, we still know little about the evolutionary potential in wild populations of long-lived alpine plants. Here, we investigated heritabilities of phenological traits, leaf size, and performance traits in natural populations of the long-lived alpine dwarf shrub Salix herbacea using relatedness estimates inferred from SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) markers. Salix herbacea occurs in early- and late-snowmelt microhabitats (ridges and snowbeds), and we assessed how performance consequences of phenological traits and leaf size differ between these microhabitats in order to infer potential for evolutionary responses. Salix herbacea showed low, but significant, heritabilities of leaf size, clonal and sexual reproduction, and moderate heritabilities of phenological traits. In both microhabitats, we found that larger leaves, longer intervals between snowmelt and leaf expansion, and longer GDD (growing-degree days) until leaf expansion resulted in a stronger increase in the number of stems (clonal reproduction). In snowbeds, clonal reproduction increased with a shorter GDD until flowering, while the opposite was found on ridges. Furthermore, the proportion of flowering stems increased with GDD until flowering in both microhabitats. Our results suggest that the presence of significant heritable variation in morphology and phenology might help S. herbacea to adapt to changing environmental conditions. However, it remains to be seen if the rate of such an evolutionary response can keep pace with the rapid rate of climate change.

  7. Coarse woody debris and pine litter manipulation effects on movement and microhabitat use of Ambystoma talpoideum in a Pinus taeda stand

    Treesearch

    Kurtis R. Moseley; Steven B. Castleberry; W. Mark Ford

    2004-01-01

    We examined effects of coarse woody debris (CWD) and pine litter (PL) manipulations on movement and microhabitat use by mole salamanders (Ambystoma talpoideum) in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Individuals were tracked within field enclosures using harmonic radar detection from 3 December 2002 to 1 August 2003. Enclosure study one (ESI)...

  8. Planning and Selecting Evaluation Designs for Leadership Training: A Toolkit for Nurse Managers and Educators.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Simon; Lunn, Cora; Kirwan, Marcia; Matthews, Anne; Condell, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Leadership development training and education for nurses is a priority in modern health care systems. Consequently, effective evaluation of nurse leadership development programs is essential for managers and educators in health care organizations to determine the impact of such programs on staff behaviors and patient outcomes. Our team has identified a framework for the evaluation of the design and implementation of such programs. Following this, we provide practical tools for the selection of evaluation methodologies for leadership development programs for use by health care educators and program commissioners.

  9. Case study for the evaluation and selection of man-machine interface (MMI) software

    SciTech Connect

    Nekimken, H.; Pope, N.; Macdonald, J.; Bibeau, R.; Gomez, B.; Sellon, D.

    1996-06-01

    The authors evaluated three of the top man-machine interface (MMI) software systems. The main categories upon which they based their evaluation on were the following: operator interface; network and data distribution; input/output (I/O) interface; application development; alarms; real-time and historical trending; support, documentation, and training; processing tools (batch, recipe, logic); reports; custom interfacing; start-up/recovery; external database; and multimedia. They also present their MMI requirements and guidelines for the selection and evaluation of these MMI systems.

  10. Selection and Evaluation of Priority Domains in Global Energy Internet Standard Development Based on Technology Foresight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yang; Ciwei, Gao; Jing, Zhang; Min, Sun; Jie, Yu

    2017-05-01

    The selection and evaluation of priority domains in Global Energy Internet standard development will help to break through limits of national investment, thus priority will be given to standardizing technical areas with highest urgency and feasibility. Therefore, in this paper, the process of Delphi survey based on technology foresight is put forward, the evaluation index system of priority domains is established, and the index calculation method is determined. Afterwards, statistical method is used to evaluate the alternative domains. Finally the top four priority domains are determined as follows: Interconnected Network Planning and Simulation Analysis, Interconnected Network Safety Control and Protection, Intelligent Power Transmission and Transformation, and Internet of Things.

  11. [Evaluation and selection of VOCs treatment technologies in packaging and printing industry].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Lin; Wang, Jun-Hui; Zhu, Chun-Lei; Nie, Lei; Hao, Zheng-Ping

    2014-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play an important role in urban air pollution. Activities of industries including the packaging and printing industries are regarded as the major sources. How to select the suitable treating techniques is the major problem for emission control. In this article, based on the VOCs emission characteristics of the packaging and printing industry and the existing treatment technologies, using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model, an evaluation system for VOCs selection was established and all the technologies used for treatment were assessed. It showed that the priority selection was in the following order: Carbon Fiber Adsorption-Desorption > Granular Carbon Adsorption-Desorption > Thermal Combustion > Regenerative Combustion > Catalytic combustion > Rotary adsorption-concentration and combustion > Granular Carbon adsorption-concentration and combustion. Carbon Fiber Adsorption-Desorption was selected as the best available technology due to its highest weight among those technologies.

  12. Sensory evaluation based fuzzy AHP approach for material selection in customized garment design and development process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Y.; Curteza, A.; Zeng, X.; Bruniaux, P.; Chen, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Material selection is the most difficult section in the customized garment product design and development process. This study aims to create a hierarchical framework for material selection. The analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy sets theories have been applied to mindshare the diverse requirements from the customer and inherent interaction/interdependencies among these requirements. Sensory evaluation ensures a quick and effective selection without complex laboratory test such as KES and FAST, using the professional knowledge of the designers. A real empirical application for the physically disabled people is carried out to demonstrate the proposed method. Both the theoretical and practical background of this paper have indicated the fuzzy analytical network process can capture expert's knowledge existing in the form of incomplete, ambiguous and vague information for the mutual influence on attribute and criteria of the material selection.

  13. Evaluation of the AIRS near-real-time channel selection for application to numerical weather prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourrié, Nadia; Thépaut, Jean-Noël

    2003-07-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on board the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua satellite provides 2378 channels for each field of view of the instrument. As it is neither feasible nor efficient to assimilate all the channels in a numerical weather-prediction system, a policy of channel selection has to be designed in this context. This paper attempts to assess the optimality of the selection of the AIRS radiance channels that are made available to the scientific community in near real time (hereafter called AIRS NRT) by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service. This assessment is done by comparing this channel selection with a method preserving the information content of the instrument, the so-called 'global' method. It turns out that although the selected channels are different and the information content as measured by the entropy reduction (ER) and the degrees of freedom for signal (DFS) is slightly smaller for the AIRS NRT channel set than for the 'global' set, both channel selections give similar results in terms of analysis error for temperature, humidity and ozone. The robustness of the results is then evaluated by varying the range of input parameters to the channel-selection scheme, in particular the atmospheric training dataset on which the channel selection is based, and the background-error covariance matrix. It is found that the performance of the 'global' channel selection is sensitive to the training dataset, while the AIRS NRT channel selection remains robust, even, to some extent, for the retrieval of key analysis-error structures. Altogether, the 'manually selected' AIRS NRT channels provide a good compromise between robustness and quality.

  14. Cleaner wrasse influence habitat selection of young damselfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, D.; Cheney, K. L.; Werminghausen, J.; McClure, E. C.; Meekan, M. G.; McCormick, M. I.; Cribb, T. H.; Grutter, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    The presence of bluestreak cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, on coral reefs increases total abundance and biodiversity of reef fishes. The mechanism(s) that cause such shifts in population structure are unclear, but it is possible that young fish preferentially settle into microhabitats where cleaner wrasse are present. As a first step to investigate this possibility, we conducted aquarium experiments to examine whether settlement-stage and young juveniles of ambon damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis, selected a microhabitat near a cleaner wrasse (adult or juvenile). Both settlement-stage (0 d post-settlement) and juvenile (~5 weeks post-settlement) fish spent a greater proportion of time in a microhabitat adjacent to L. dimidiatus than in one next to a control fish (a non-cleaner wrasse, Halichoeres melanurus) or one where no fish was present. This suggests that cleaner wrasse may serve as a positive cue during microhabitat selection. We also conducted focal observations of cleaner wrasse and counts of nearby damselfishes (1 m radius) to examine whether newly settled fish obtained direct benefits, in the form of cleaning services, from being near a cleaner wrasse. Although abundant, newly settled recruits (<20 mm total length) were rarely (2 %) observed being cleaned in 20 min observations compared with larger damselfishes (58 %). Individual damselfish that were cleaned were significantly larger than the median size of the surrounding nearby non-cleaned conspecifics; this was consistent across four species. The selection by settlement-stage fish of a microhabitat adjacent to cleaner wrasse in the laboratory, despite only being rarely cleaned in the natural environment, suggests that even rare cleaning events and/or indirect benefits may drive their settlement choices. This behaviour may also explain the decreased abundance of young fishes on reefs from which cleaner wrasse had been experimentally removed. This study reinforces the potentially important role of

  15. Contamination control in hybrid microelectronic modules. Part 2: Selection and evaluation of coating materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himmel, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    The selection, test, and evaluation of organic coating materials for contamination control in hybrid circuits is reported. The coatings were evaluated to determine their suitability for use as a conformal coating over the hybrid microcircuit (including chips and wire bonds) inside a hermetically sealed package. Evaluations included ease of coating application and repair and effect on thin film and thick film resistors, beam leads, wire bonds, transistor chips, and capacitor chips. The coatings were also tested for such properties as insulation resistance, voltage breakdown strength, and capability of immobilizing loose particles inside the packages. The selected coatings were found to be electrically, mechanically, and chemically compatible with all components and materials normally used in hybrid microcircuits.

  16. Lichensphere: a protected natural microhabitat of the non-lichenised fungal communities living in extreme environments of Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Iara F; Soares, Marco Aurélio; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2015-11-01

    We surveyed the diversity, distribution and ecology of non-lichenised fungal communities associated with the Antarctic lichens Usnea antarctica and Usnea aurantiaco-atra across Antarctica. The phylogenetic study of the 438 fungi isolates identified 74 taxa from 21 genera of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Zygomycota. The most abundant taxa were Pseudogymnoascus sp., Thelebolus sp., Antarctomyces psychrotrophicus and Cryptococcus victoriae, which are considered endemic and/or highly adapted to Antarctica. Thirty-five fungi may represent new and/or endemic species. The fungal communities displayed high diversity, richness and dominance indices; however, the similarity among the communities was variable. After discovering rich and diverse fungal communities composed of symbionts, decomposers, parasites and endemic and cold-adapted cosmopolitan taxa, we introduced the term "lichensphere". We hypothesised that the lichensphere may represent a protected natural microhabitat with favourable conditions able to help non-lichenised fungi and other Antarctic life forms survive and disperse in the extreme environments of Antarctica.

  17. Is microhabitat segregation between two cicada species (Tibicina haematodes and Cicada orni) due to calling song propagation constraints?

    PubMed

    Sueur, J; Aubin, T

    2003-07-01

    The cicada species Tibicina haematodes and Cicada orni are two sympatric species often inhabiting vineyards. We show that they occupy two distinct levels: males of T. haematodes produce their calling songs from a high position in vine foliage while males of C. orni call from a low position near the ground on vine trunks. Experiments consisting of broadcasting and re-recording experimental signals in natural habitats from low and high positions show that signals are more and more modified as sender-receiver distance increases. T. haematodes would have an advantage when calling on trunks rather than on branches whereas C. orni would be able to call indiscriminately from both low and high positions. Thus, the microhabitat segregation observed between T. haematodes and C orni in vineyards does not seem to be related to calling song propagation constraints, but may be due to other ethological or ecological factors.

  18. Microhabitat Types Promote the Genetic Structure of a Micro-Endemic and Critically Endangered Mole Salamander (Ambystoma leorae) of Central Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Sunny, Armando; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; Reyna-Valencia, Carlos; Zarco-González, Martha M.

    2014-01-01

    The reduced immigration and emigration rates resulting from the lack of landscape connectivity of patches and the hospitality of the intervening matrix could favor the loss of alleles through genetic drift and an increased chance of inbreeding. In order for isolated populations to maintain sufficient levels of genetic diversity and adapt to environmental changes, one important conservation goal must be to preserve or reestablish connectivity among patches in a fragmented landscape. We studied the last known population of Ambystoma leorae, an endemic and critically threatened species. The aims of this study were: (1) to assess the demographic parameters of A. leorae and to distinguish and characterize the microhabitats in the river, (2) to determine the number of existing genetic groups or demes of A. leorae and to describe possible relationships between microhabitats types and demes, (3) to determine gene flow between demes, and (4) to search for geographic locations of genetic discontinuities that limit gene flow between demes. We found three types of microhabitats and three genetically differentiated subpopulations with a significant level of genetic structure. In addition, we found slight genetic barriers. Our results suggest that mole salamander’s species are very sensitive to microhabitat features and relatively narrow obstacles in their path. The estimates of bidirectional gene flow are consistent with the pattern of a stepping stone model between demes, where migration occurs between adjacent demes, but there is low gene flow between distant demes. We can also conclude that there is a positive correlation between microhabitats and genetic structure in this population. PMID:25076052

  19. What lies within; Annelid polychaetes found in micro-habitats of coral/carbonate material from SW Indian ocean seamounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E.; Rea, T.; Serpetti, N.; Lamont, P. A.

    2017-03-01

    Individual corals, coral framework and rubble are generally quite abundant on seamounts, with carbonate materials derived from an unknown source also being found. These micro-habitats are known to often harbour higher abundance of smaller sized fauna and thus potentially increases the biodiversity of that region. However, very few studies have examined what may reside within the coral and carbonate structures themselves, if anything at all. Samples that were collected on five seamounts during a research cruise to the South West Indian Ocean Ridge in 2011, were examined opportunistically in order to determine if there were any animals to be found inside the hard coral framework/rubble material. The hard material was dissolved away using 10% acetic acid and was examined on a twice daily basis to remove any animals that had been released through the dissolution process. There were a surprising number of phyla found inside the micro-habitats created by the coral rubble/framework material including sponges, brachiopods and a number of different polychaete families. As the polychaetes were more numerous, they were investigated more closely and a total of 34 different families were identified, with the Syllidae being found in every sample examined. The methodology presented here highlights that a ;controlled; weak acid dissolution can be used to release the fauna from deep inside the coral rubble/framework material. Frequent removal (twice daily or more often) of liberated material meant that the fauna released were exposed to the acid for a minimum amount of time resulting in specimens in better condition and with more identifiable features. The preliminary results also illustrate the importance of sampling the dead coral framework/rubble/carbonate material, not only to identify them for what they are, but to look more closely at the fauna residing inside the structure themselves.

  20. Modulation of digestive physiology and biochemistry in Mytilus californianus in response to feeding level acclimation and microhabitat

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Aaron; Garcia, Nathan S.; Gracey, Andrew Y.; German, Donovan P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The intertidal mussel Mytilus californianus is a critical foundation species that is exposed to fluctuations in the environment along tidal- and wave-exposure gradients. We investigated feeding and digestion in mussels under laboratory conditions and across environmental gradients in the field. We assessed whether mussels adopt a rate-maximization (higher ingestion and lower assimilation) or a yield-maximization acquisition (lower ingestion and higher assimilation) strategy under laboratory conditions by measuring feeding physiology and digestive enzyme activities. We used digestive enzyme activity to define resource acquisition strategies in laboratory studies, then measured digestive enzyme activities in three microhabitats at the extreme ends of the tidal- and wave-exposure gradients within a stretch of shore (<20 m) projected sea-ward. Our laboratory results indicated that mussels benefit from a high assimilation efficiency when food concentration is low and have a low assimilation efficiency when food concentration is high. Additionally, enzyme activities of carbohydrases amylase, laminarinase and cellulase were elevated when food concentration was high. The protease trypsin, however, did not increase with increasing food concentration. In field conditions, low-shore mussels surprisingly did not have high enzyme activities. Rather, high-shore mussels exhibited higher cellulase activities than low-shore mussels. Similarly, trypsin activity in the high-shore-wave-sheltered microhabitat was higher than that in high-shore-wave-exposed. As expected, mussels experienced increasing thermal stress as a function of reduced submergence from low to high shore and shelter from wave-splash. Our findings suggest that mussels compensate for limited feeding opportunities and thermal stress by modulating digestive enzyme activities. PMID:27402963

  1. Analysis of Microhabitat Use for Two Trout Species Using a Combination of Remote Sensing and Passive Integrated transponder Tags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokteff, R.; Wheaton, J. M.; Roper, B.; DeMeurichy, K.; Randall, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Logan River and its tributaries in northern Utah sustain a significant population of the imperiled Bonneville cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki Utah) as well as invasive brown trout (Salmo trutta). In general, the upper reaches of the system are populated by cutthroat trout and the lower reaches by brown trout. Spawn Creek is a unique tributary in that it supports both of these species throughout the year. The purpose of this study is to identify differences in fine-scale microhabitat that explain utilization patterns of each species of fish. Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags have been placed in trout over the last 3 years throughout Spawn Creek. Repeat GPS observations of these fish in their habitat during both spawning and non-spawning periods have been acquired over the last 4 years. Non-spawning activity has been captured using mobile PIT tag antennae. GPS observations of cutthroat trout spawning locations have also been recorded. From these observations both spawning and non-spawning "hotspots" have emerged, which appear to be highly correlated with specific microhabitat characteristics. The entire 2.5 km study reach on lower Spawn Creek has been scanned using ground-based light detection and ranging (LiDAR) which covers all observed "hotspots." LiDAR data provides sub-centimeter resolution point clouds from which detailed geometric measurements and topographic analyses can be used to reveal specific aspects of trout habitat. Where bathymetric data is needed, total station bathymetric surveys have been completed at sub-meter resolution. The combination of these data types at known "hotspot" locations provides an opportunity to quantify aspects of the physical environment at a uniquely fine scale relevant to individual fish. New metrics, as well as old metrics resolved at finer scales, will be presented to explain species and life-stage specific habitat "hotspots" in mountain streams.

  2. Morpho morphometrics: Shared ancestry and selection drive the evolution of wing size and shape in Morpho butterflies.

    PubMed

    Chazot, Nicolas; Panara, Stephen; Zilbermann, Nicolas; Blandin, Patrick; Le Poul, Yann; Cornette, Raphaël; Elias, Marianne; Debat, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Butterfly wings harbor highly diverse phenotypes and are involved in many functions. Wing size and shape result from interactions between adaptive processes, phylogenetic history, and developmental constraints, which are complex to disentangle. Here, we focus on the genus Morpho (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae, 30 species), which presents a high diversity of sizes, shapes, and color patterns. First, we generate a comprehensive molecular phylogeny of these 30 species. Next, using 911 collection specimens, we quantify the variation of wing size and shape across species, to assess the importance of shared ancestry, microhabitat use, and sexual selection in the evolution of the wings. While accounting for phylogenetic and allometric effects, we detect a significant difference in wing shape but not size among microhabitats. Fore and hindwings covary at the individual and species levels, and the covariation differs among microhabitats. However, the microhabitat structure in covariation disappears when phylogenetic relationships are taken into account. Our results demonstrate that microhabitat has driven wing shape evolution, although it has not strongly affected forewing and hindwing integration. We also found that sexual dimorphism of forewing shape and color pattern are coupled, suggesting a common selective force.

  3. Evaluation of RPE-Select: A Web-Based Respiratory Protective Equipment Selector Tool

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Nick; Rajan-Sithamparanadarajah, Bob; Atkinson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the evaluation of an open-access web-based respiratory protective equipment selector tool (RPE-Select, accessible at http://www.healthyworkinglives.com/rpe-selector). This tool is based on the principles of the COSHH-Essentials (C-E) control banding (CB) tool, which was developed for the exposure risk management of hazardous chemicals in the workplace by small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) and general practice H&S professionals. RPE-Select can be used for identifying adequate and suitable RPE for dusts, fibres, mist (solvent, water, and oil based), sprays, volatile solids, fumes, gases, vapours, and actual or potential oxygen deficiency. It can be applied for substances and products with safety data sheets as well as for a large number of commonly encountered process-generated substances (PGS), such as poultry house dusts or welding fume. Potential international usability has been built-in by using the Hazard Statements developed for the Globally Harmonised System (GHS) and providing recommended RPE in picture form as well as with a written specification. Illustration helps to compensate for the variabilities in assigned protection factors across the world. RPE-Select uses easily understandable descriptions/explanations and an interactive stepwise flow for providing input/answers at each step. The output of the selection process is a report summarising the user input data and a selection of RPE, including types of filters where applicable, from which the user can select the appropriate one for each wearer. In addition, each report includes ‘Dos’ and ‘Don’ts’ for the recommended RPE. RPE-Select outcomes, based on up to 20 hypothetical use scenarios, were evaluated in comparison with other available RPE selection processes and tools, and by 32 independent users with a broad range of familiarities with industrial use scenarios in general and respiratory protection in particular. For scenarios involving substances having safety

  4. Evaluation of RPE-Select: A Web-Based Respiratory Protective Equipment Selector Tool.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Nick; Rajan-Sithamparanadarajah, Bob; Atkinson, Robert

    2016-08-01

    This article describes the evaluation of an open-access web-based respiratory protective equipment selector tool (RPE-Select, accessible at http://www.healthyworkinglives.com/rpe-selector). This tool is based on the principles of the COSHH-Essentials (C-E) control banding (CB) tool, which was developed for the exposure risk management of hazardous chemicals in the workplace by small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) and general practice H&S professionals. RPE-Select can be used for identifying adequate and suitable RPE for dusts, fibres, mist (solvent, water, and oil based), sprays, volatile solids, fumes, gases, vapours, and actual or potential oxygen deficiency. It can be applied for substances and products with safety data sheets as well as for a large number of commonly encountered process-generated substances (PGS), such as poultry house dusts or welding fume. Potential international usability has been built-in by using the Hazard Statements developed for the Globally Harmonised System (GHS) and providing recommended RPE in picture form as well as with a written specification. Illustration helps to compensate for the variabilities in assigned protection factors across the world. RPE-Select uses easily understandable descriptions/explanations and an interactive stepwise flow for providing input/answers at each step. The output of the selection process is a report summarising the user input data and a selection of RPE, including types of filters where applicable, from which the user can select the appropriate one for each wearer. In addition, each report includes 'Dos' and 'Don'ts' for the recommended RPE. RPE-Select outcomes, based on up to 20 hypothetical use scenarios, were evaluated in comparison with other available RPE selection processes and tools, and by 32 independent users with a broad range of familiarities with industrial use scenarios in general and respiratory protection in particular. For scenarios involving substances having safety data sheets

  5. Specializing on vulnerable habitat: Acropora selectivity among damselfish recruits and the risk of bleaching-induced habitat loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonin, M. C.

    2012-03-01

    Coral reef habitats are increasingly being degraded and destroyed by a range of disturbances, most notably climate-induced coral bleaching. Habitat specialists, particularly those associated with susceptible coral species, are clearly among the most vulnerable to population decline or extinction. However, the degree of specialization on coral microhabitats is still unclear for one of the most ubiquitous, abundant and well studied of coral reef fish families—the damselfishes (Pomacentridae). Using high taxonomic resolution surveys of microhabitat use and availability, this study provides the first species-level description of patterns of Acropora selectivity among recruits of 10 damselfish species in order to determine their vulnerability to habitat degradation. In addition, surveys of the bleaching susceptibility of 16 branching coral species revealed which preferred recruitment microhabitats are at highest risk of decline as a result of chronic coral bleaching. Four species (i.e., Chrysiptera parasema, Pomacentrus moluccensis, Dascyllus melanurus and Chromis retrofasciata) were identified as highly vulnerable because they used only branching hard corals as recruitment habitat and primarily associated with only 2-4 coral species. The bleaching surveys revealed that five species of Acropora were highly susceptible to bleaching, with more than 50% of colonies either severely bleached or already dead. These highly susceptible corals included two of the preferred microhabitats of the specialist C. parasema and represented a significant proportion of its total recruitment microhabitat. In contrast, highly susceptible corals were rarely used by another specialist, P. moluccensis, suggesting that this species faces a lower risk of bleaching-induced habitat loss compared to C. parasema. As degradation to coral reef habitats continues, specialists will increasingly be forced to use alternative recruitment microhabitats, and this is likely to reduce population

  6. Selection and Evaluation of Media for Behavioral Health Interventions Employing Critical Media Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patrick A; Cherenack, Emily M; Jadwin-Cakmak, Laura; Harper, Gary W

    2017-06-01

    Although a growing number of psychosocial health promotion interventions use the critical analysis of media to facilitate behavior change, no specific guidelines exist to assist researchers and practitioners in the selection and evaluation of culturally relevant media stimuli for intervention development. Mobilizing Our Voices for Empowerment is a critical consciousness-based health enhancement intervention for HIV-positive Black young gay/bisexual men that employs the critical analysis of popular media. In the process of developing and testing this intervention, feedback on media stimuli was collected from youth advisory board members (n = 8), focus group participants (n = 19), intervention participants (n = 40), and intervention facilitators (n = 6). A thematic analysis of qualitative data resulted in the identification of four key attributes of media stimuli and participants' responses to media stimuli that are important to consider when selecting and evaluating media stimuli for use in behavioral health interventions employing the critical analysis of media: comprehension, relevance, emotionality, and action. These four attributes are defined and presented as a framework for evaluating media, and adaptable tools are provided based on this framework to guide researchers and practitioners in the selection and evaluation of media for similar interventions.

  7. Evaluation of two selection tests for recruitment into radiology specialty training.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Fiona; Knight, Alec; McKnight, Liam; Booth, Thomas C

    2016-07-11

    This study evaluated whether two selection tests previously validated for primary care General Practice (GP) trainee selection could provide a valid shortlisting selection method for entry into specialty training for the secondary care specialty of radiology. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from radiology applicants who also applied to UK GP specialty training or Core Medical Training. The psychometric properties of the two selection tests, a clinical problem solving (CPS) test and situational judgement test (SJT), were analysed to evaluate their reliability. Predictive validity of the tests was analysed by comparing them with the current radiology selection assessments, and the licensure examination results taken after the first stage of training (Fellowship of the Royal College of Radiologists (FRCR) Part 1). The internal reliability of the two selection tests in the radiology applicant sample was good (α ≥ 0.80). The average correlation with radiology shortlisting selection scores was r = 0.26 for the CPS (with p < 0.05 in 5 of 11 shortlisting centres), r = 0.15 for the SJT (with p < 0.05 in 2 of 11 shortlisting centres) and r = 0.25 (with p < 0.05 in 5 of 11 shortlisting centres) for the two tests combined. The CPS test scores significantly correlated with performance in both components of the FRCR Part 1 examinations (r = 0.5 anatomy; r = 0.4 physics; p < 0.05 for both). The SJT did not correlate with either component of the examination. The current CPS test may be an appropriate selection method for shortlisting in radiology but would benefit from further refinement for use in radiology to ensure that the test specification is relevant. The evidence on whether the SJT may be appropriate for shortlisting in radiology is limited. However, these results may be expected to some extent since the SJT is designed to measure non-academic attributes. Further validation work (e.g. with non-academic outcome

  8. Resource selection for foraging by female Merriam's wild turkeys with poults in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    Treesearch

    Chad P. Lehman; Mark A. Rumble; Lester D. Flake; Daniel J. Thompson

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of Merriam's wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) resource selection in the context of landscape attributes is an important asset for managing resources on multiple-use public lands. We investigated resource selection for foraging by Merriam's wild turkey broods in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota. We collected macro- and microhabitat...

  9. Population differentiation as an indicator of recent positive selection in humans: an empirical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yali; Zhang, Xuelong; Huang, Ni; Daly, Allan; Gillson, Christopher J; Macarthur, Daniel G; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Nica, Alexandra C; Woodwark, Cara; Chen, Yuan; Conrad, Donald F; Ayub, Qasim; Mehdi, S Qasim; Li, Pu; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2009-11-01

    We have evaluated the extent to which SNPs identified by genomewide surveys as showing unusually high levels of population differentiation in humans have experienced recent positive selection, starting from a set of 32 nonsynonymous SNPs in 27 genes highlighted by the HapMap1 project. These SNPs were genotyped again in the HapMap samples and in the Human Genome Diversity Project-Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (HGDP-CEPH) panel of 52 populations representing worldwide diversity; extended haplotype homozygosity was investigated around all of them, and full resequence data were examined for 9 genes (5 from public sources and 4 from new data sets). For 7 of the genes, genotyping errors were responsible for an artifactual signal of high population differentiation and for 2, the population differentiation did not exceed our significance threshold. For the 18 genes with confirmed high population differentiation, 3 showed evidence of positive selection as measured by unusually extended haplotypes within a population, and 7 more did in between-population analyses. The 9 genes with resequence data included 7 with high population differentiation, and 5 showed evidence of positive selection on the haplotype carrying the nonsynonymous SNP from skewed allele frequency spectra; in addition, 2 showed evidence of positive selection on unrelated haplotypes. Thus, in humans, high population differentiation is (apart from technical artifacts) an effective way of enriching for recently selected genes, but is not an infallible pointer to recent positive selection supported by other lines of evidence.

  10. A systematic review of studies evaluating diffusion and dissemination of selected cancer control interventions.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Peter; Robinson, Paula; Ciliska, Donna; Armour, Tanya; Brouwers, Melissa; O'Brien, Mary Ann; Sussman, Jonathan; Raina, Parminder

    2005-09-01

    With this review, the authors sought to determine what strategies have been evaluated (including the outcomes assessed) to disseminate cancer control interventions that promote the uptake of behavior change. Five topic areas along the cancer care continuum (smoking cessation, healthy diet, mammography, cervical cancer screening, and control of cancer pain) were selected to be representative. A systematic review was conducted of primary studies evaluating dissemination of a cancer control intervention. Thirty-one studies were identified that evaluated dissemination strategies in the 5 topic areas. No strong evidence currently exists to recommend any one dissemination strategy as effective in promoting the uptake of cancer control interventions. The authors conclude that there is a strong need for more research into dissemination of cancer control interventions. Future research should consider methodological issues such as the most appropriate study design and outcomes to be evaluated.

  11. Independent seismic evaluation of the Diablo Canyon Unit 1 containment annulus structure and selected piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Philippacopoulos, A.J.; Reich, M.; Bezler, P.; Miller, C.; Wang, Y.K.; Subudhi, M.; Shteyngart, S.; Brown, P.

    1982-08-01

    An independent review and development of the vertical floor spectra for the Unit 1 containment annulus structure of the Diablo Canyon Power Plant was carried out using a detailed three-dimensional model. The developed floor spectra were then utilized for confirmatory evaluations of two selected piping systems. The latter were evaluated by the envelope response spectrum method, and by the independent support motion response spectrum method. ASME class 2 evaluations of the two systems were also performed. Finally, a confirmatory evaluation was carried out for the model utilized by URS/Blume for the development of the vertical floor response spectra. Sections 1.1 and 1.2 of the report summarize the work scope and the results of the study. Details pertaining to the specific areas of the work are given in sections 2 to 8.

  12. Application of high-dimensional feature selection: evaluation for genomic prediction in man.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, M L; Pong-Wong, R; Spiliopoulou, A; Hayward, C; Rudan, I; Campbell, H; Wright, A F; Wilson, J F; Agakov, F; Navarro, P; Haley, C S

    2015-05-19

    In this study, we investigated the effect of five feature selection approaches on the performance of a mixed model (G-BLUP) and a Bayesian (Bayes C) prediction method. We predicted height, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and body mass index (BMI) within 2,186 Croatian and into 810 UK individuals using genome-wide SNP data. Using all SNP information Bayes C and G-BLUP had similar predictive performance across all traits within the Croatian data, and for the highly polygenic traits height and BMI when predicting into the UK data. Bayes C outperformed G-BLUP in the prediction of HDL, which is influenced by loci of moderate size, in the UK data. Supervised feature selection of a SNP subset in the G-BLUP framework provided a flexible, generalisable and computationally efficient alternative to Bayes C; but careful evaluation of predictive performance is required when supervised feature selection has been used.

  13. Biochemical And Structural Evaluation of Highly Selective 2-Arylbenzoxazole-Based Transthyretin Amyloidogenesis Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.M.; Connelly, S.; Wilson, I.A.; Kelly, J.W.

    2009-05-18

    To develop potent transthyretin (TTR) amyloidogenesis inhibitors that also display high binding selectivity in blood, it proves useful to systematically optimize each of the three substructural elements that comprise a typical inhibitor: the two aryl rings and the linker joining them. In the first study, described herein, structural modifications to one aryl ring were evaluated by screening a library of 2-arylbenzoxazoles bearing thyroid hormone-like aryl substituents on the 2-aryl ring. Several potent and highly selective amyloidogenesis inhibitors were identified that exhibit minimal thyroid hormone nuclear receptor and COX-1 binding. High resolution crystal structures (1.3-1.5 A) of three inhibitors (2f, 4f, and 4d) in complex with TTR were obtained to characterize their binding orientation. Collectively, the results demonstrate that thyroid hormone-like substitution patterns on one aryl ring lead to potent and highly selective TTR amyloidogenesis inhibitors that lack undesirable thyroid hormone receptor or COX-1 binding.

  14. Evaluation of accuracy of shade selection using two spectrophotometer systems: Vita Easyshade and Degudent Shadepilot

    PubMed Central

    Kalantari, Mohammad Hassan; Ghoraishian, Seyed Ahmad; Mohaghegh, Mina

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the accuracy of shade matching using two spectrophotometric devices. Materials and Methods: Thirteen patients who require a full coverage restoration for one of their maxillary central incisors were selected while the adjacent central incisor was intact. 3 same frameworks were constructed for each tooth using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing technology. Shade matching was performed using Vita Easyshade spectrophotometer, Shadepilot spectrophotometer, and Vitapan classical shade guide for the first, second, and third crown subsequently. After application, firing, and glazing of the porcelain, the color was evaluated and scored by five inspectors. Results: Both spectrophotometric systems showed significantly better results than visual method (P < 0.05) while there were no significant differences between Vita Easyshade and Shadepilot spectrophotometers (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Spectrophotometers are a good substitute for visual color selection methods. PMID:28729792

  15. Evaluation of accuracy of shade selection using two spectrophotometer systems: Vita Easyshade and Degudent Shadepilot.

    PubMed

    Kalantari, Mohammad Hassan; Ghoraishian, Seyed Ahmad; Mohaghegh, Mina

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the accuracy of shade matching using two spectrophotometric devices. Thirteen patients who require a full coverage restoration for one of their maxillary central incisors were selected while the adjacent central incisor was intact. 3 same frameworks were constructed for each tooth using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing technology. Shade matching was performed using Vita Easyshade spectrophotometer, Shadepilot spectrophotometer, and Vitapan classical shade guide for the first, second, and third crown subsequently. After application, firing, and glazing of the porcelain, the color was evaluated and scored by five inspectors. Both spectrophotometric systems showed significantly better results than visual method (P < 0.05) while there were no significant differences between Vita Easyshade and Shadepilot spectrophotometers (P < 0.05). Spectrophotometers are a good substitute for visual color selection methods.

  16. Evaluation of a metal fuselage frame selectively reinforced with filamentary composites for space shuttle application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oken, S.; Skoumal, D. E.; Straayer, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    The development of metal structures reinforced with filamentary composites as a weight saving feature of the space shuttle components is discussed. A frame was selected for study that was representative of the type of construction used in the bulk frames of the orbiter vehicle. Theoretical and experimental investigations were conducted. Component tests were performed to evaluate the critical details used in the designs and to provide credibility to the weight saving results. A model frame was constructed of the reinforced metal material to provide a final evaluation of the construction under realistic load conditions.

  17. Stimulus selectivity of drug purchase tasks: A preliminary study evaluating alcohol and cigarette demand.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Justin C; Stoops, William W

    2017-06-01

    The use of drug purchase tasks to measure drug demand in human behavioral pharmacology and addiction research has proliferated in recent years. Few studies have systematically evaluated the stimulus selectivity of drug purchase tasks to demonstrate that demand metrics are specific to valuation of or demand for the commodity under study. Stimulus selectivity is broadly defined for this purpose as a condition under which a specific stimulus input or target (e.g., alcohol, cigarettes) is the primary determinant of behavior (e.g., demand). The overall goal of the present study was to evaluate the stimulus selectivity of drug purchase tasks. Participants were sampled from the Amazon.com's crowdsourcing platform Mechanical Turk. Participants completed either alcohol and soda purchase tasks (Experiment 1; N = 139) or cigarette and chocolate purchase tasks (Experiment 2; N = 46), and demand metrics were compared to self-reported use behaviors. Demand metrics for alcohol and soda were closely associated with commodity-similar (e.g., alcohol demand and weekly alcohol use) but not commodity-different (e.g., alcohol demand and weekly soda use) variables. A similar pattern was observed for cigarette and chocolate demand, but selectivity was not as consistent as for alcohol and soda. Collectively, we observed robust selectivity for alcohol and soda purchase tasks and modest selectivity for cigarette and chocolate purchase tasks. These preliminary outcomes suggest that demand metrics adequately reflect the specific commodity under study and support the continued use of purchase tasks in substance use research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Evaluating and expressing uncertainty in high-frequency electromagnetic measurements: a selective review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridler, Nick M.; Salter, Martin J.

    2014-08-01

    This paper provides a selected review of topics relating to evaluating and expressing uncertainty for some measurands that occur in high-frequency electromagnetic metrology. Specific emphasis is given to complex-valued quantities (i.e. vector measurands having both an associated magnitude and phase component), such as scattering parameters (i.e. S-parameters) used at radio, microwave, millimetre-wave and terahertz frequencies.

  19. Evaluation of metal landing gear door assembly selectively reinforced with filamentary composite for space shuttle application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, S. J.; Freeman, V. L.

    1972-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a main landing gear door for space shuttle applications are discussed. The door is constructed on composite materials using a rib-stiffened titanium panel selectively reinforced with boron/epoxy composite. A weight comparison between the hybrid design and the all-titanium baseline design showed a weight saving of approximately fifteen percent. Detailed descriptions of the door structure and method of manufacture are presented.

  20. Narcissism dimensions differentially moderate selective attention to evaluative stimuli in incarcerated offenders

    PubMed Central

    Krusemark, Elizabeth A.; Lee, Christopher; Newman, Joseph P.

    2014-01-01

    Narcissistic personality disorder is associated with distinguishing traits including self-enhancement, arrogance and intense reactivity to ego threat. Theoretical accounts of narcissism suggest these heterogeneous behaviors reflect a defensive motivational style that functions to both uphold and protect the self-concept. However, the notion that narcissism can be characterized by grandiose and vulnerable dimensions raises the possibility that these diverse behaviors represent distinct expressions of narcissistic defensiveness. The present study examined whether both dimensions exhibit a general defensive style marked by selective attention to evaluative stimuli or are differentially associated with selective attention to positive and negative information, respectively. Using a dot probe task consisting of valenced and neutral trait adjectives, we evaluated these hypotheses in a group of male offenders. Results indicated that vulnerable narcissism was associated with attention biases for both positive and negative stimuli, though the dimension was further distinguished by disengagement difficulties and a greater recognition memory bias in response to negative words. Conversely, grandiose narcissism was associated with increased accuracy when attending to positive stimuli and directing attention away from negative stimuli. Overall, these findings suggest narcissistic individuals share motivated selective attention in response to evaluative stimuli, while simultaneously highlighting important phenotypic differences between grandiose and vulnerable dimensions. PMID:25330183