Science.gov

Sample records for evaluation denmark samsoe

  1. Evaluation of HAL/S language compilability using SAMSO's Compiler Writing System (CWS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feliciano, M.; Anderson, H. D.; Bond, J. W., III

    1976-01-01

    NASA/Langley is engaged in a program to develop an adaptable guidance and control software concept for spacecraft such as shuttle-launched payloads. It is envisioned that this flight software be written in a higher-order language, such as HAL/S, to facilitate changes or additions. To make this adaptable software transferable to various onboard computers, a compiler writing system capability is necessary. A joint program with the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Organization was initiated to determine if the Compiler Writing System (CWS) owned by the Air Force could be utilized for this purpose. The present study explores the feasibility of including the HAL/S language constructs in CWS and the effort required to implement these constructs. This will determine the compilability of HAL/S using CWS and permit NASA/Langley to identify the HAL/S constructs desired for their applications. The study consisted of comparing the implementation of the Space Programming Language using CWS with the requirements for the implementation of HAL/S. It is the conclusion of the study that CWS already contains many of the language features of HAL/S and that it can be expanded for compiling part or all of HAL/S. It is assumed that persons reading and evaluating this report have a basic familiarity with (1) the principles of compiler construction and operation, and (2) the logical structure and applications characteristics of HAL/S and SPL.

  2. Denmark.

    PubMed

    1988-11-01

    Denmark is predominantly a low, flat land with such resources as oil, gas and arable land. The Danish are comprised of Scandinavian, Eskimo, Faroese and German peoples, and the languages spoken include Danish, Farese, Greenlandic and some German. The Danish enjoy a literacy rate of nearly 100%, and school attendance is 100%. The Danes are a homogeneous Gothic-Germanic people who have lived in Denmark since the prehistoric period. The Evangelical Lutheran Church is supported by 97% of the population; however, other religions are present. The government of Denmark is a constitutional monarchy with an executive, legislative and judicial branch. The political life is democratic, and compromise is a very important component of the political life of Denmark as many parties and factions must work together. Support for cultural growth comes from the Ministry of Cultural Affairs which subsidizes projects, training other cultural activities. The infant mortality rate is 8.2/1000. Life expectancy for men is 71.5 and for women 77.5.

  3. SAMSO Standard. System Requirements Analysis Program for the MX Weapon System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-20

    verification 38 5.2.1.1.13 EngLneering interfacing 38 5.2.1.1.1 3.1 Failure/ reliability factors 38 5.2.1.1.13.2 Maintainability factors 39 5.2.1.1.13.3... Reliability (R) and Maintainability (M) Characteristics 96 50.3.2.1 Cards BOI, B02, and B03A/B 96 50.3.2.2 Card B04 96 50.3.2.3 Card B05 98 50.3.2.4 Card B06...Audits for Systems, Equipments, and Computer Programs . .. SAMSO STD 77-6 MIL-STD-1543 Reliability Program Requirements for Space and Missile Systems MIL

  4. Short communication: Improving accuracy of Jersey genomic evaluations in the United States and Denmark by sharing reference population bulls

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect on prediction accuracy for Jersey genomic evaluations in Denmark and the United States from using larger reference populations was assessed. Each country contributed genotypes from 1,157 Jersey bulls to the reference population of the other. Eight of 9 traits analyzed by Denmark (milk, fa...

  5. Evaluation of the high resolution DEHM/UBM model system over Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Ulas; Christensen, Jesper H.; Ellermann, Thomas; Ketzel, Matthias; Geels, Camilla; Hansen, Kaj M.; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Brandt, Jørgen

    2015-04-01

    The air pollutant levels over Denmark are simulated using the high resolution DEHM/UBM model system for the years 2006 to 2014. The system employs a hemispheric chemistry-transport model, the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM; Brandt et al., 2012) that runs on a 150 km x 150 km resolution over the Northern Hemisphere, with nesting capability for higher resolutions over Europe, Northern Europe and Denmark on 50 km x 50 km, 16.7 km x 16.7 km and 5.6 km x 5.6 km resolutions, respectively, coupled to the Urban Background Model (UBM; Berkowicz, 2000; Brandt et al., 2001) that covers the whole of Denmark with a 1 km x 1 km spatial resolution. Over Denmark, the system uses the SPREAD emission model (Plejdrup and Gyldenkærne, 2011) that distributes the Danish emissions for all pollutants and all sectors in the national emission database on a 1 km x 1 km resolution grid covering Denmark and its national sea territory. The study will describe the model system and we will evaluate the performance of the model system in simulating hourly and daily ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) concentrations against surface measurements from eight monitoring stations. Finally we investigate the spatial variation of air pollutants over Denmark on different time scales. References Berkowicz, R., 2000. A Simple Model for Urban Background Pollution. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 65, 1/2, 259-267. Brandt, J., J. H. Christensen, L. M. Frohn, F. Palmgren, R. Berkowicz and Z. Zlatev, 2001: "Operational air pollution forecasts from European to local scale". Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 35, Sup. No. 1, pp. S91-S98, 2001 Brandt et al., 2012. An integrated model study for Europe and North America using the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model with focus on intercontinental transport. Atmospheric Environment, 53, 156-176. Plejdrup, M.S., Gyldenkærne, S., 2011. Spatial distribution of pollutants to

  6. Iodine in drinking water in Denmark is bound in humic substances.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stig; Petersen, Steffen B; Laurberg, Peter

    2002-11-01

    The iodine intake level is important for the occurrence of thyroid disorders in a population. We have previously found that iodine in drinking water is related to iodine excretion but whether iodine is present as iodide or bound in other molecules remains unknown. We measured iodine in drinking water from 22 locations in Denmark. Six locations were selected by iodine content for further tap water analysis (Skagen 140 micro g/l, Samsoe 56 micro g/l, Nykoebing S. 50 micro g/l, Nakskov 40 micro g/l, Ringsted 38 micro g/l, Copenhagen 19 micro g/l). HPLC size exclusion before (Skagen) and after (all sites) freeze drying and measurement of absorbance (280 nm) and iodine in fractions, and fluorescence spectroscopy of bulk organic matter in Skagen drinking water. Iodine content was unaltered after 3 Years (P=0.2). All samples contained organic molecules with characteristics similar to humic substances. Most iodine eluted with humic substances (Skagen 99%, Ringsted 98%, Nykoebing S. 90%, Copenhagen 90%, Samsoe 75%, Nakskov 40%). Changing pH and ionic strength and preincubation with iodide indicated that iodine was bound in humic substances. Humic substances may affect thyroid function but differ with geology. Geological and geochemical data agree with tap water humic substances having been released from marine deposits. Iodine is abundant in the marine environment and marine deposits are particularly rich in iodine. Correlation analysis (r=0.85, P=0.03) conform to iodine in drinking water, suggesting marine humic substances at the source rock. Iodine in Danish drinking water varied considerably. In drinking water with a high iodine content, the iodine mainly eluted with humic substances derived from marine source rock. We hypothesize that iodine in drinking water in general suggests coexisting humic substances of marine origin.

  7. "It Really Makes Good Sense": The Role of Outcome Evaluation in Aphasia Therapy in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaksen, Jytte Kjaergaard

    2014-01-01

    Background: Measuring or evaluating outcomes is a common activity for many speech-language therapists (SLTs). A major focus has been on external forces claiming outcome evaluation to optimize quality and the use of resources without integrating the viewpoints of SLTs. Aims: To identify the purpose of outcome evaluation by letting SLTs identify not…

  8. Impact of NaCl reduction in Danish semi-hard Samsoe cheeses on proliferation and autolysis of DL-starter cultures.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, Lise; Ryssel, Mia; Svendsen, Carina; Høier, Erik; Andersen, Ulf; Hammershøj, Marianne; Møller, Jean R; Arneborg, Nils; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-11-20

    Reduction of sodium chloride (NaCl) in cheese manufacturing is a challenge for the dairy industry. NaCl has a profound role on microbial development influencing cheese sensory and technological properties. The purpose of this work was to investigate how proliferation, distribution and autolysis of two commercial DL-starter cultures (C1 and C2) used in the production of Danish semi-hard Samsoe cheeses were affected by reduced NaCl levels. Cheeses containing <0.3% (unsalted), 2.3% (reduced-salt) and 3.4% (normal-salted) (w/v) NaCl in moisture were produced and analyzed during 12 weeks of ripening. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), distribution of bacteria as single cells or microcolonies, their viability in the cheeses and cell autolysis were monitored during ripening, as well as the impact of NaCl content and autolysis on the formation of free amino acids (FAA). Reduction of NaCl resulted in higher LAB counts at the early stages of ripening, with differences between the two DL-starter cultures. The unsalted cheeses produced with C1 had retained a significantly higher number of the initial LAB counts (cfu/g) after 1 and 2 weeks of ripening (i.e. 58% and 71%), compared to the normal-salted cheeses (i.e. 22% and 21%), whereas no significant difference was found between the reduced-salt (i.e. 31% and 35%) and normal-salted cheeses. At the later stages of ripening (i.e. 7 and 11 weeks) NaCl had no significant influence. For cheeses produced with C2, a significant influence of NaCl was only found in cheeses ripened for 7 weeks, where the unsalted and reduced-salt cheeses had retained a significantly higher number of the initial LAB counts (cfu/g) (i.e. 39% and 38%), compared to the normal-salted cheeses (i.e. 21%). In the Samsoe cheeses, bacteria were organized as single cells, in groups of 2-3 cells or in groups of ≥4 cells. During ripening the decrease in the number of viable bacteria was mainly due to a reduction in the number of viable bacteria organized in groups of ≥4

  9. Evaluation of environmental impacts from municipal solid waste management in the municipality of Aarhus, Denmark (EASEWASTE).

    PubMed

    Kirkeby, Janus T; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Hansen, Trine Lund; Christensen, Thomas H; Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Hauschild, Michael

    2006-02-01

    A new computer based life cycle assessment model (EASEWASTE) was used to evaluate a municipal solid waste system with the purpose of identifying environmental benefits and disadvantages by anaerobic digestion of source-separated household waste and incineration. The most important processes that were included in the study are optical sorting and pre-treatment, anaerobic digestion with heat and power recovery, incineration with heat and power recovery, use of digested biomass on arable soils and finally, an estimated surplus consumption of plastic in order to achieve a higher quality and quantity of organic waste to the biogas plant. Results showed that there were no significant differences in most of the assessed environmental impacts for the two scenarios. However, the use of digested biomass may cause a potential toxicity impact on human health due to the heavy metal content of the organic waste. A sensitivity analysis showed that the results are sensitive to the energy recovery efficiencies, to the extra plastic consumption for waste bags and to the content of heavy metals in the waste. A model such as EASEWASTE is very suitable for evaluating the overall environmental consequences of different waste management strategies and technologies, and can be used for most waste material fractions existing in household waste.

  10. Open and Calm--a randomized controlled trial evaluating a public stress reduction program in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Christian G; Lansner, Jon; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe A; Ringkøbing, Signe P; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Adamsen, Dea; Knudsen, Gitte M; Denninger, John W; Hasselbalch, Steen G

    2015-12-16

    Prolonged psychological stress is a risk factor for illness and constitutes an increasing public health challenge creating a need to develop public interventions specifically targeting stress and promoting mental health. The present randomized controlled trial evaluated health effects of a novel program: Relaxation-Response-based Mental Health Promotion (RR-MHP). The multimodal, meditation-based course was publicly entitled "Open and Calm" (OC) because it consistently trained relaxed and receptive ("Open") attention, and consciously non-intervening ("Calm") witnessing, in two standardized formats (individual or group) over nine weeks. Seventy-two participants who complained to their general practitioner about reduced daily functioning due to prolonged stress or who responded to an online health survey on stress were randomly assigned to OC formats or treatment as usual, involving e.g., unstandardized consultations with their general practitioner. Outcomes included perceived stress, depressive symptoms, quality of life, sleep disturbances, mental health, salivary cortisol, and visual perception. Control variables comprised a genetic stress-resiliency factor (serotonergic transporter genotype; 5-HTTLPR), demographics, personality, self-reported inattentiveness, and course format. Intent-to-treat analyses showed significantly larger improvements in OC than in controls on all outcomes. Treatment effects on self-reported outcomes were sustained after 3 months and were not related to age, gender, education, or course format. The dropout rate was only 6 %. The standardized OC program reduced stress and improved mental health for a period of 3 months. Further testing of the OC program for public mental health promotion and reduction of stress-related illnesses is therefore warranted. A larger implementation is in progress. ClinicalTrials.gov.: NCT02140307. Registered May 14 2014.

  11. Changes in soil water balance following afforestation of former arable soils in Denmark as evaluated using the DAISY model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Osvaldo; Hansen, Søren; Abrahamsen, Per; Hansen, Karin; Gundersen, Per

    2013-03-01

    SummaryLand use change alters water and element cycles, but the changes in these cycles after conversion, for example, from cropland to forest are not fully described in hydrological and nutrient transport models, which usually describe either cropland or forest stands. In the European Union future afforestation is likely to occur on abandoned cropland, and evaluation of the future impacts of this land use change will require projections with models that include combined cropland-forest modules. This study used the agro-based DAISY model (Version 4.93) to investigate changes in the soil water balance over four decades following afforestation of a homogeneous area of former arable land on a sandy loam in Denmark. Hydrological data collected during nine hydrological years (April 2001-March 2010) were used to test the DAISY model. Monthly data on soil water content at 0-90 cm used for calibration were available from April 2001 to December 2002 for six monoculture stands of oak (age 8, 22 and 31 years) and Norway spruce (age 4, 13 and 32 years). Model performance was evaluated by considering uncertainties in model inputs using the Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) procedure. The GLUE estimates obtained (uncertainty bands 5% and 95%) agreed satisfactorily with measured monthly soil water content during the calibration period (April 2001-December 2002). Similarly, in the oldest oak stand, long-term monitoring observations and predictions of monthly water content were in satisfactory agreement during the period January 2003-March 2010). Sensitivity analysis showed that the DAISY model was most sensitive to the potential evapotranspiration factor and soil hydraulic parameters included in the Campbell model. Simulation results during nine hydrological years showed that 16-25% of incoming precipitation led to water recharge in the spruce stands, while the corresponding range for oak stands was 25-27%. A 35-year DAISY simulation revealed that Norway spruce

  12. Evaluation of clinical characteristics of Kawasaki syndrome and risk factors for coronary artery abnormalities among children in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Patel, Amy; Holman, Robert C; Callinan, Laura S; Sreenivasan, Nandini; Schonberger, Lawrence B; Fischer, Thea K; Belay, Ermias D

    2013-04-01

    To examine clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of Kawasaki syndrome patients in Denmark. A retrospective chart review of hospitalization records for children <15 years of age with a Kawasaki syndrome discharge diagnosis identified through the Danish National Patient Registry during 1994 through June 2008 was conducted. A total of 284 cases <15 years of age were identified as Kawasaki syndrome (n = 279) and atypical Kawasaki syndrome (n = 5); 70.4% were <5 years of age and 64.4% were male. Most patients (91.5%; 258/282) were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and 74.6% of these patients (191/256) received intravenous immunoglobulin before the 10th day of illness. A total of 37 (13.3%) Kawasaki syndrome patients were diagnosed with coronary artery abnormalities. Not receiving intravenous immunoglobulin treatment before the 10th day of illness, young age and male sex were significantly associated with the development of coronary artery abnormalities. In Denmark, more than one in 10 children with Kawasaki syndrome develop coronary artery abnormalities. Physicians should increase their index of suspicion for early diagnosis and treatment of Kawasaki syndrome among patients susceptible to increased risk of coronary artery abnormalities, particularly in infants who may have a more atypical presentation of the illness. ©2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  13. OECD Review of Career Guidance Policies. Denmark: Country Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Denmark's career guidance system and policies were evaluated. The review team met with policymakers and guidance practitioners in the public and private sectors, analyzed data from a national questionnaire, and reviewed pertinent documentation. The evaluation focused on the following areas: coordinating mechanisms; the role of Denmark's National…

  14. Virtual Reality in Denmark

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    investigative tool within the nearest future . Figure 16: The Process from Scanning to Visualization on Virtual Reality Equipment. VIRTUAL REALITY ...showing an overall vision of the future Katrinebjerg IT City. Figure 25: Katrinebjerg Phase 1. VIRTUAL REALITY IN DENMARK 2 - 16 RTO-TR-HFM-121...Virtual Reality in Denmark Lisbeth M. Rasmussen Senior Advisor Danish Defence Research Establishment 1.0 INTRODUCTION VR-projects in

  15. Short communication: Improving accuracy of Jersey genomic evaluations in the United States and Denmark by sharing reference population bulls.

    PubMed

    Wiggans, G R; Su, G; Cooper, T A; Nielsen, U S; Aamand, G P; Guldbrandtsen, B; Lund, M S; VanRaden, P M

    2015-05-01

    The effect on prediction accuracy for Jersey genomic evaluations of Danish and US bulls from using a larger reference population was assessed. Each country contributed genotypes from 1,157 Jersey bulls to the reference population of the other. Data were separated into reference (US only, Danish only, and combined US-Danish) and validation (US only and Danish only) populations. Depending on trait (milk, fat, and protein yields and component percentages; productive life; somatic cell score; daughter pregnancy rate; 14 conformation traits; and net merit), the US reference population included 2,720 to 4,772 bulls and cows with traditional evaluations as of August 2009; the Danish reference population included 635 to 996 bulls. The US validation population included 442 to 712 bulls that gained a traditional evaluation between August 2009 and December 2013; the Danish validation population included 105 to 196 bulls with multitrait across-country evaluations on the US scale by December 2013. Genomic predicted transmitting abilities (GPTA) were calculated on the US scale using a selection index that combined direct genomic predictions with either traditional predicted transmitting ability for the reference population or traditional parent averages (PA) for the validation population and a traditional evaluation based only on genotyped animals. Reliability for GPTA was estimated from the reference population and August 2009 traditional PA and PA reliability. For prediction of December 2013 deregressed daughter deviations on the US scale, mean August 2009 GPTA reliability for Danish validation bulls was 0.10 higher when based on the combined US-Danish reference population than when the reference population included only Danish bulls; for US validation bulls, mean reliability increased by 0.02 when Danish bulls were added to the US reference population. Exchanging genotype data to increase the size of the reference population is an efficient approach to increasing the accuracy

  16. What's Happening in Denmark?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Corey

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the author's experience in alumni relations in a country, Denmark, where few are willing to bear the institution's logo. The author likens his journey to that of Lewis and Clark, who introduced the rest of America to the western part of North America. And just like them, the author and his colleague experienced unforeseen…

  17. Spotlight on VET Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents data on the vocational education and training (VET) in Denmark. VET plays a key role in the Danish strategy for lifelong learning and meeting the challenges of globalisation and technological change. The Danish education and training system comprises a mainstream system providing qualifications at all levels, from compulsory…

  18. What's Happening in Denmark?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Corey

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the author's experience in alumni relations in a country, Denmark, where few are willing to bear the institution's logo. The author likens his journey to that of Lewis and Clark, who introduced the rest of America to the western part of North America. And just like them, the author and his colleague experienced unforeseen…

  19. Educational Governance in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Lejf

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has entered global competition by expanding collaboration with European countries, which is profoundly impacting the public sector and school governance. Relations between the state and institutions are transforming from traditional democratic, public-sector models of governance into new forms characterized as corporate and market-driven…

  20. Denmark. [CME Country Reports].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    According to an agreement between the parties of the labour market and the Ministry of Labour, the immigration of foreign workers into Denmark takes place on a quota basis and conforms to a series of regulations, including a rule that the foreign worker, prior to departing from his country, must have made contract arrangements for his job. This…

  1. Educational Governance in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Lejf

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has entered global competition by expanding collaboration with European countries, which is profoundly impacting the public sector and school governance. Relations between the state and institutions are transforming from traditional democratic, public-sector models of governance into new forms characterized as corporate and market-driven…

  2. Regionalization Lessons from Denmark.

    PubMed

    Vrangbaek, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Denmark is a small Northern European country with an extensive welfare state and a strong commitment to maintaining a universal healthcare system. Like the other countries in the Nordic region, Denmark has a long tradition of democratically governed local and regional governments with extensive responsibilities in organizing welfare state services. The Danish healthcare system has demonstrated an ability to increase productivity, while at the same time maintaining a high level of patient satisfaction. Ongoing reforms have contributed to these results, as well as a firm commitment to innovation and coordination. Regions and municipalities in Denmark are governed by directly elected democratic councils. The Danish case is thus an example of democratic decentralization, but within a framework of national coordination and fiscal control. In spite of the difference in size and historical traditions there are also many similarities between Canada and Denmark, particularly in terms of health and social policy goals and aspirations, and in terms of the commitment to a comprehensive, universal healthcare system. These similarities provide interesting opportunities for comparison.

  3. Vocational Training in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Werner

    Denmark has a wide range of basic vocational training courses that can be begun immediately after completion of lower secondary school, i.e., after students complete their compulsory education at the age of 15 or 16). This is not to say that there is no vocational education at the primary and secondary levels, where guest teachers from working…

  4. A Health Economic Evaluation of Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation: Guideline Adherence Versus the Observed Treatment Strategy Prior to 2012 in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Vestergaard, Anne Sig; Ehlers, Lars Holger

    2015-09-01

    In 2012 the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) published new guidelines on pharmacological stroke prophylaxis in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF). The health economics of adhering to these guidelines in clinical practice remains to be elucidated. This paper offers a health economic evaluation of two stroke-prophylactic treatment strategies: complete national adherence to the ESC guidelines on stroke prophylaxis in AF versus stroke-prophylactic treatment prior to 2012 in Denmark. A cost-utility analysis was performed to compare two treatment strategies. The first strategy reflected national guideline adherence with the use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (i.e. dabigatran etexilate), warfarin, and no treatment. The second strategy reflected observed stroke prophylaxis prior to 2012 with the utilization of warfarin, acetylsalicylic acid, and no treatment. A Danish health sector perspective was adopted. A Markov model was designed and populated with information on input parameters from the literature and local cost data reflecting 2014 values. A modeled patient cohort was constructed with a risk profile intended to reflect that of the Danish patient population with AF. The applied outcome was quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio amounted to 3557 per QALY for the guideline-adherent treatment strategy (GTS) compared with the pre-2012 treatment strategy. This ratio is below a threshold of 25,000 (£20,000) per QALY. Sensitivity analyses revealed that the result was largely robust to changes in input parameters. All analyses found the GTS to be cost effective. Guideline adherence is a cost-effective treatment strategy compared with the strategy employed prior to 2012 for pharmacological stroke prophylaxis in AF.

  5. Mumps resurgence in Denmark.

    PubMed

    St-Martin, Gry; Knudsen, Lisbet Krause; Engsig, Frederik Neess; Panum, Inge; Andersen, Peter H S; Rønn, Jesper; Fonager, Jannik; Fischer, Thea Kølsen

    2014-11-01

    The past decade has witnessed a resurgence of parotitisvirus (mumps) in several countries where seemingly good mumps control otherwise had been achieved through vaccination. Recently detection of mumps has increased in Denmark. To describe the age-specific changes and time trends of parotitisvirus detection in Denmark over a 10 year period. Retrospective cohort study based on national laboratory data for parotitisvirus typing surveillance and national epidemiology data for mumps reporting. The parotitisvirus detection rate has increased almost 10 times during the past 10 years from an incidence <0.1 per 100,000 in 2003 to 0.96 per 100,000 in 2013. The age distribution has shifted from children to young adults, and most cases are unvaccinated (54%) or vaccinated once (41%). The increase is due mainly to the existence of cohorts with low MMR vaccine coverage. Analysis of mumps surveillance data from Denmark documents that the incidence of mumps is increasing, and that the resurgence of parotitisvirus is primarily occurring among young Danish adults. Almost half of the infected clinical mumps cases had received the first dose of MMR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Maternal mortality in Denmark, 1985-1994.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Betina Ristorp; Westergaard, Hanne Brix; Bødker, Birgit; Weber, Tom; Møller, Margrete; Sørensen, Jette Led

    2009-02-01

    In Denmark, maternal mortality has been reported over the last century, both locally through hospital reports and in national registries. The purpose of this study was to analyze data from national medical registries of pregnancy-related deaths in Denmark 1985-1994 and to classify them according to the UK Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths (CEMD). All deaths of women with a registered pregnancy within 12 months prior to the death were identified by comparing the Danish medical registries, death certificates, and relevant codes according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). All cases were classified using the UK CEMD classification. Cases of maternal death were further evaluated by an audit group. 311 cases were classified. 92 deaths (29.6%) occurred 42 days), 1 woman died from a direct obstetric cause, 46 from indirect causes, and 172 from fortuitous causes. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were the major cause of direct maternal deaths. The rate of maternal deaths constituted 9.8/100,000 maternities (i.e. the number of women delivering registrable live births at any gestation or stillbirths at 24 weeks of gestation or later). This is the first systematic report on deaths in Denmark based on data from national registries. The maternal mortality rate in Denmark is comparable to the rates in other developed countries. Fortunately, statistics are low, but each case represents potential learning. Obstetric care has changed and classification methods differ between countries. Prospective registration and registry linkage seem to be a way to ensure completion. This retrospective study has provided the background for a prospective study on registration and evaluation of maternal mortality in Denmark.

  7. [Allergology in Denmark 2006].

    PubMed

    Winther, Lone; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Grinsted, Per; Halken, Susanne; Hansen, Tine K; Hansen, Kirsten Skamstrup; Johansen, Sven; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Plaschke, Peter Paludan; Sherson, David L; Schlünssen, Vivi; Zeuthen, Frederik M; Ørntoft, Steffen T

    2007-02-12

    Allergic diseases are prominent, possibly life threatening, and a cause of worldwide concern. Evidence-based education of doctors in the specialty of allergology is a prerequisite for correct diagnosis and treatment of patients with allergic diseases. Recently, the specialty of allergology has been abolished in Denmark, without any upgrading of the education of doctors in related specialties. As a consequence, one could fear that allergy expertise will be disappearing. We propose collaboration among experts from related specialties with joint mediation of knowledge through a centre of allergology, common educational programs for doctors in training and physician specialists, and collaboration in regional centres of allergology.

  8. 21 CFR 133.185 - Samsoe cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section is added to set the... cream, as defined in § 133.3, used alone or in combination. (2) Clotting enzymes. Rennet and/or other clotting enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial origin. (3) Other optional ingredients. (i) Coloring. (ii...

  9. 21 CFR 133.185 - Samsoe cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section is added to set the... cream, as defined in § 133.3, used alone or in combination. (2) Clotting enzymes. Rennet and/or other clotting enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial origin. (3) Other optional ingredients. (i) Coloring. (ii...

  10. 21 CFR 133.185 - Samsoe cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section is added to set the... cream, as defined in § 133.3, used alone or in combination. (2) Clotting enzymes. Rennet and/or other clotting enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial origin. (3) Other optional ingredients. (i) Coloring. (ii...

  11. 21 CFR 133.185 - Samsoe cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section is added to set the... cream, as defined in § 133.3, used alone or in combination. (2) Clotting enzymes. Rennet and/or other clotting enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial origin. (3) Other optional ingredients. (i) Coloring. (ii...

  12. 21 CFR 133.185 - Samsoe cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section is added to set the... cream, as defined in § 133.3, used alone or in combination. (2) Clotting enzymes. Rennet and/or other clotting enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial origin. (3) Other optional ingredients. (i) Coloring....

  13. Human Factors in the Large: Experiences from Denmark, Finland and Canada in Moving Towards Regional and National Evaluations of Health Information System Usability

    PubMed Central

    Kaipio, J.; Nieminen, M.; Hyppönen, H.; Lääveri, T.; Nohr, C.; Kanstrup, A. M.; Berg Christiansen, M.; Kuo, M.-H.; Borycki, E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives The objective of this paper is to explore approaches to understanding the usability of health information systems at regional and national levels. Methods Several different methods are discussed in case studies from Denmark, Finland and Canada. They range from small scale qualitative studies involving usability testing of systems to larger scale national level questionnaire studies aimed at assessing the use and usability of health information systems by entire groups of health professionals. Results It was found that regional and national usability studies can complement smaller scale usability studies, and that they are needed in order to understand larger trends regarding system usability. Despite adoption of EHRs, many health professionals rate the usability of the systems as low. A range of usability issues have been noted when data is collected on a large scale through use of widely distributed questionnaires and websites designed to monitor user perceptions of usability. Conclusion As health information systems are deployed on a widespread basis, studies that examine systems used regionally or nationally are required. In addition, collection of large scale data on the usability of specific IT products is needed in order to complement smaller scale studies of specific systems. PMID:25123725

  14. 3-Month Results from Denmark within the Globally Prospective and Observational Study to Evaluate Insulin Detemir Treatment in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: The PREDICTIVE Study

    PubMed Central

    Hermansen, Kjeld; Lund, Per; Clemmensen, Kurt; Breum, Leif; Kleis Moller, Marianne; Mette Rosenfalck, Anne; Christiansen, Erik; on behalf of the Danish PREDICTIVE study group

    2007-01-01

    PREDICTIVE™ is a large, multi-national, open-label, prospective, observational study to assess the efficacy and safety of insulin detemir in clinical practice. We report 3-month follow-up data from 389 patients with type 1 (n = 312) and type 2 (n = 77) diabetes from Denmark. Insulin detemir improved glycemic control in type 1 patients, with decreases in mean HbA1c (-0.2%, p = 0.0026), fasting glucose (-1.7 mmol/l, p = 0.0033) and within-patient fasting glucose variability (-0.6 mmol/l, p = 0.0472). Non-significant reductions in glycemic parameters were observed in type 2 patients (-0.3% for HbA1c and -2.7 mmol/l for fasting glucose). There was a decrease in mean body weight in both type 1 and type 2 patients (-0.6 kg, p = 0.025 and -1.0 kg, p = 0.0361, respectively). Three patients (0.8%) reported 4 serious adverse drug reactions, including major hypoglycemia. The incidence of major hypoglycemic episodes was reduced from 3.9/patient-years at baseline to 0.4/patient-years at follow-up in type 1 patients (p < 0.0001), and from 1.0 to 0.0/patient-years in type 2 patients (p = 0.1250). In addition, the mean incidence of total and nocturnal hypoglycemic episodes was reduced in both type 1 (-37.4 and -17.7/patient-years, p < 0.0001 for both) and type 2 patients (-17.7 and -7.8/patient-years, p = 0.0012 and p = 0.0020, respectively). The observations from the Danish cohort of the PREDICTIVE study support the overall findings of PREDICTIVE, i.e. insulin detemir improves glycemic control, with a reduced risk of hypoglycemia and no weight gain. PMID:17823693

  15. Minimally invasive therapy in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Schou, I

    1993-01-01

    Minimally invasive therapy (MIT) is beginning to have impacts on health care in Denmark, although diffusion has been delayed compared to diffusion in other European countries. Now policy makers are beginning to appreciate the potential advantages in terms of closing hospitals and shifting treatment to the out-patient setting, and diffusion will probably go faster in the future. Denmark does not have a system for technology assessment, neither central nor regional, and there is no early warning mechanism to survey international developments. This implies lack of possibilities for the planning of diffusion, training, and criteria for treatment.

  16. Educational and Vocational Guidance in Denmark. Education in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Copenhagen (Denmark).

    This report sketches educational and vocational guidance in Denmark. It begins with a historical account of developments in the areas of career and school counseling. Outlined next are guidance programs at the following levels: folkeskole, gymnasium and studenterkursus (upper secondary education), higher preparatory examination, vocational school,…

  17. Family Day Care in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Mary; Wagner, Marsden G.

    The present report describes a system for the care of children during the day in Denmark: care in private family homes. Begun in 1966, this program organized a formal system of family day care homes initiated and supervised by the government; this is an extension of the former system of licensing privately initiated family day care homes. From the…

  18. Health Visiting in the Infant's Home in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Mary; Wagner, Marsden G.

    A program of infant home visiting was established in Denmark as a result of concern about the rate of infant mortality. The objectives, problems, and promise of the infant Home Visiting Program are summarized and evaluated in terms of their implications for the United States. Although the results of the program have been overwhelmingly favorable…

  19. GPR Use and Activities in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringgaard, Jørgen; Wisén, Roger

    2014-05-01

    Academic work on GPR in Denmark is performed both by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and the University of Copenhagen (KU). The work at DTU includes development of antennas and systems, e.g. an airborne ice-sounder GPR system (POLARIS) that today is in frequent use for monitoring of ice thickness in Greenland. DTU often collaborates with ESA (European Space Agency) regarding electromagnetic development projects. At KU there is an ongoing work with GPR applied to water resources. The main objective is to study flux of water and matter across different hydrological domains. There are several recent publications from KU describing research for data analysis and modelling as well as hydro geophysical applications. Also the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) performs frequent geological mapping with GPR. There have been mainly two actors on the Danish commercial market for several years: FalkGeo and Ramboll. Falkgeo has been active for many years acquiring data for several different applications such as archeology, utilities and roads. Their equipment pool comprises both a multichannel Terravision system form GSSI and a 2D system from Mala Geoscience with a comprehensive range of antennas. Ramboll has performed GPR surveys for two decades mainly with 2D systems from GSSI. In recent years Ramboll has also obtained a system with RTA antennas from Mala Geoscience and a multichannel system from 3D-Radar. These systems have opened markets both for deeper geological mapping and for shallow mapping. The geological mapping with the Mala system has often been combined with resistivity imaging (CVES) and refraction seismic. The 3D system has been applied in airports and on road for mapping of layer thicknesses, delamination and for control of asphalt works. Other areas comprise bridge deck evaluation and utility mapping. Ramboll also acts as client advisor for BaneDanmark, a state owned company who operates and develops the Danish state railway network

  20. Opportunities for healthier child feeding. Does ethnic position matter? - self-reported evaluation of family diet and impediments to change among parents with majority and minority status in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Annemette; Krasnik, Allan; Vassard, Ditte; Holm, Lotte

    2014-07-01

    Health inequality between ethnic groups is expressed in differences in the prevalence of diet related diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate and compare barriers toward eating healthier among ethnic majority and minority parents in Denmark. A postal survey was carried out among 2511 parents with either Danish or non-western ethnic minority descendant background, investigating barriers on cultural, structural, social, individual, and practical levels. The results showed that compared with parents of Danish origin, ethnic minority parents were more likely to evaluate their own diets negatively (OR 3.0, CI 1.7-5.3), and to evaluate their children's diets negatively (OR 4.6, CI 2.5-8.4). In addition, ethnic minority parents to a higher degree experienced barriers to eating healthier than Danish parents did. Most salient was ethnic minority parents' expression of a lack of control over their own food intake and the food given to their children in everyday life. Such a lack of control was identified on practical, social, structural and individual levels. Young age of the parents was found to explain some of the differences between ethnic groups. It is concluded that dietary interventions directed at parents of small children should address not only cultural background but also barriers operating on practical, social, structural, and individual levels, as some of these influence ethnic minorities and the majority population differently. Further exploration of the importance of young age and the interplay between structural and cultural factors in the lives of ethnic minority families is needed.

  1. Life cycle assessment of disposal of residues from municipal solid waste incineration: recycling of bottom ash in road construction or landfilling in Denmark evaluated in the ROAD-RES model.

    PubMed

    Birgisdóttir, H; Bhander, G; Hauschild, M Z; Christensen, T H

    2007-01-01

    Two disposal methods for MSWI bottom ash were assessed in a new life cycle assessment (LCA) model for road construction and disposal of residues. The two scenarios evaluated in the model were: (i) landfilling of bottom ash in a coastal landfill in Denmark and (ii) recycling of bottom ash as subbase layer in an asphalted secondary road. The LCA included resource and energy consumption, and emissions associated with upgrading of bottom ash, transport, landfilling processes, incorporation of bottom ash in road, substitution of natural gravel as road construction material and leaching of heavy metals and salts from bottom ash in road as well as in landfill. Environmental impacts associated with emissions to air, fresh surface water, marine surface water, groundwater and soil were aggregated into 12 environmental impact categories: Global Warming, Photochemical Ozone Formation, Nutrient Enrichment, Acidification, Stratospheric Ozone Depletion, Human Toxicity via air/water/soil, Ecotoxicity in water/soil, and a new impact category, Stored Ecotoxicity to water/soil that accounts for the presence of heavy metals and very persistent organic compounds that in the long-term might leach. Leaching of heavy metals and salts from bottom ash was estimated from a series of laboratory leaching tests. For both scenarios, Ecotoxicity(water) was, when evaluated for the first 100 yr, the most important among the twelve impact categories involved in the assessment. Human Toxicity(soil) was also important, especially for the Road scenario. When the long-term leaching of heavy metals from bottom ash was evaluated, based on the total content of heavy metals in bottom ash, all impact categories became negligible compared to the potential Stored Ecotoxicity, which was two orders of magnitudes greater than Ecotoxicity(water). Copper was the constituent that gave the strongest contributions to the ecotoxicities. The most important resources consumed were clay as liner in landfill and the

  2. Prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus antibodies in dogs from Denmark.

    PubMed

    Lindhe, Katherine E S; Meldgaard, Danny S; Jensen, Per M; Houser, Geoffrey A; Berendt, Mette

    2009-12-29

    Large regions of central and eastern Europe are recognized as areas where tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is endemic, including countries neighbouring Denmark. It is therefore timely and relevant to determine if TBEV infections occur in Denmark. This study investigates the presence of antibodies against TBEV in a cross-section of the Danish canine population to assess the level of exposure to TBEV and possibly identify TBEV microfoci in Denmark. Blood samples were collected from 125 dogs originating from five regions of Denmark between November 2005 and March 2006. Serum was tested by indirect ELISA. All positive and borderline samples were re-evaluated by neutralisation test (NT). The prevalence of TBEV serocomplex antibodies was 30% by ELISA and 4.8% by NT (with 100%-neutralising capacity). The island of Bornholm was the only area in Denmark with NT positive samples. The island of Bornholm is an area with a high risk of encountering TBEV microfoci. The presence of TBEV serocomplex antibodies in many sentinel animals from other parts of Denmark points toward existence of other TBEV microfoci. Discrepancies found between ELISA and NT results stress the importance of careful evaluation of serological tests, when interpreting results.

  3. Prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus antibodies in dogs from Denmark

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Large regions of central and eastern Europe are recognized as areas where tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is endemic, including countries neighbouring Denmark. It is therefore timely and relevant to determine if TBEV infections occur in Denmark. This study investigates the presence of antibodies against TBEV in a cross-section of the Danish canine population to assess the level of exposure to TBEV and possibly identify TBEV microfoci in Denmark. Methods Blood samples were collected from 125 dogs originating from five regions of Denmark between November 2005 and March 2006. Serum was tested by indirect ELISA. All positive and borderline samples were re-evaluated by neutralisation test (NT). Results The prevalence of TBEV serocomplex antibodies was 30% by ELISA and 4.8% by NT (with 100%-neutralising capacity). The island of Bornholm was the only area in Denmark with NT positive samples. Conclusions The island of Bornholm is an area with a high risk of encountering TBEV microfoci. The presence of TBEV serocomplex antibodies in many sentinel animals from other parts of Denmark points toward existence of other TBEV microfoci. Discrepancies found between ELISA and NT results stress the importance of careful evaluation of serological tests, when interpreting results. PMID:20040077

  4. Salmonella Control Programs in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Hald, Tine; Wong, Lo Fo; Madsen, Mogens; Korsgaard, Helle; Bager, Flemming; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Mølbak, Kåre

    2003-01-01

    We describe Salmonella control programs of broiler chickens, layer hens, and pigs in Denmark. Major reductions in the incidence of foodborne human salmonellosis have occurred by integrated control of farms and food processing plants. Disease control has been achieved by monitoring the herds and flocks, eliminating infected animals, and diversifying animals (animals and products are processed differently depending on Salmonella status) and animal food products according to the determined risk. In 2001, the Danish society saved U.S.$25.5 million by controlling Salmonella. The total annual Salmonella control costs in year 2001 were U.S.$14.1 million (U.S.$0.075/kg of pork and U.S.$0.02/kg of broiler or egg). These costs are paid almost exclusively by the industry. The control principles described are applicable to most industrialized countries with modern intensive farming systems. PMID:12890316

  5. Energy use in Denmark: An international perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Schipper, L.; Howarth, R.; Andersson, B.; Price, L.

    1992-08-01

    This report analyzes the evolution use in Denmark since the early 1970s in order to shed light on the future path of energy use in Denmark, with particular emphasis on the role of energy efficiency. The authors found that improvements in end-use energy efficiency reduced primary energy requirements in Denmark by 22% between 1972 and 1988. Focusing on developments in six individual sectors of the Danish economy (residential, manufacturing, other industry, service, travel, and freight), they found that the residential, manufacturing, and service sectors have led the improvements in efficiency. Travel showed few significant improvements and the efficiency of freight transportation worsened. The international comparisons showed that the structure of energy use in Denmark is less energy-intensive than that of most high-income OECD countries, with the exception of Japan. Overall, they concluded that most of the energy savings achieved in Denmark were brought about through improvements in technology. They also found that an important stimulus for improved efficiency was higher energy prices, led in no small part by significant taxes imposed on small consumers of heating oil, electricity, and motor fuels. Energy-efficiency programs accelerated energy savings in homes and commercial buildings. The rate of improvement of energy efficiency in Denmark has slowed down significantly since 1984, consistent with trends observed in other major countries. While many of the energy-efficiency goals stated or implied in Denmark`s Energi 2000 are achievable over a very long period, present trends do not point towards achievement of these goals by 2010 or even 2020. Strong measures will have to be developed by both public and private authorities if energy efficiency is to make a key contributions to reducing environmental problems associated with energy use in Denmark.

  6. Health expectancy in Denmark, 1987-2000.

    PubMed

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2005-02-01

    While life expectancy quantifies average length of life, health expectancy represents the average lifetime in different health states and offers the possibility to evaluate quality of life with respect to health. The purpose of the study was to estimate changes in health expectancy in Denmark from 1987 to 2000 and to assess theories about the relation between increased total lifetime and lifetime in various health states. Data on health status derived from the Danish Health Interview Surveys carried out in 1987, 1991, 1994 and 2000 were combined with life-table data. Expected lifetime in selfrated good health, life expectancy without longstanding illness and disabilityfree life expectancy were estimated by Sullivan's method. In 1987, the life expectancy of a 65-year-old man was 14.1 years, 8.9 years of which were expected to be disabilityfree. In 2000, life expectancy had increased to 15.0 years, 11.3 years of which were disabilityfree. Thus, life expectancy had increased by 0.9 years, whereas disabilityfree life expectancy had increased by 2.4 years. Among 65-year-old women, life expectancy had increased by 0.2 years and disabilityfree life expectancy by 1.1 years. Expected lifetime in selfrated good health had also improved, but the trend in life expectancy without longstanding illness went in the opposite direction, and expected lifetime with longstanding illness had increased. The recent rise in life expectancy in Denmark after many years of stagnation appears to be accompanied by generally improved health status among the elderly, but health expectancy trends depend on the health indicator chosen. Health expectancy expresses average lifetime in various states of health. The study examines changes in expected lifetime in selfrated good health, lifetime without longstanding illness and lifetime without longterm disability. Among 65-year-olds the percentage of disabilityfree life expectancy increased from 63.4% to 74.9% for men and from 55.6% to 61.0% for women

  7. The Spanish flu in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Kolte, Ida Viktoria; Skinhøj, Peter; Keiding, Niels; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2008-01-01

    The spread of H5N1 influenza and the similarity between this avian virus and the Spanish flu virus causes fear of a new influenza pandemic, but data from the Spanish flu may also be of guidance in planning for preventive measures. Using data on influenza cases, influenza deaths and total deaths for Denmark and for Danish towns from 1917 to 1921, and population data from the 1916 and 1921 censuses, we analysed incident cases, cumulative, age-specific and age-standardized rates. Overall, more than 900,000 persons contracted flu during the y 1918-1920, and 1 out of 50 patients died from the disease. An early wave of the flu occurred in the capital and major towns, but not in peripheral towns. Influenza incidence in 1918 peaked at age 5-15 y, closely followed by the age groups 1-5 y and 15-65 y, but the influenza mortality was highest in the age groups 0-1 y and 15-65 y, with a peak mortality at age 20-34 y producing a W curve for mortality by age. The background for the better outcome in children aged 1-15 y as well as for the disease immunity in the elderly population should be further investigated.

  8. Hospital admissions among male drivers in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Hannerz, H; Tuchsen, F

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To facilitate decisions about interventions and to establish baseline values for future evaluation of preventive efforts, the aim of the present study was to elucidate the disease pattern among male professional drivers in Denmark. The study differentiated between drivers of goods vehicles and drivers of passenger transport.
METHODS—Cohorts of all 20-59 year old Danish male professional drivers in the years 1981, 1986, 1991, and 1994 were formed, to calculate age standardised hospital admission ratios (SHRs) and time trends (1981-97) for many diagnostic aggregations.
RESULTS—SHRs for diseases in practically all systems and organs of the body were higher among professional drivers than they were in the male working population at large. Also drivers of passenger transport, compared with drivers of goods vehicles, had significantly high SHRs due to infectious and parasitic diseases, diseases of the circulatory system, and diseases of the respiratory system, and significantly lower rates of injury. For both driver groups, the SHRs for acute myocardial infarction increased with time whereas the SHR for acute gastritis decreased, and for drivers of passenger transport an increasing SHR for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, was found over time.
CONCLUSION—Drivers of passenger transport and drivers of goods vehicles differ in their disease patterns. The results support the hypothesis that preventive efforts are needed in both groups, but underline that different strategies are required for different categories of drivers.


Keywords: professional drivers; hospital admissions; surveillance system PMID:11245742

  9. Vocational Education and Training in Denmark. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Soren P.

    This monograph examines vocational education and training (VT) in Denmark. Section 1 presents background information/framework data on the following: Denmark's political and administrative structure; population, employment, and unemployment; and the Danish economy. In section 2, the history of VT in Denmark is traced from before 1870 to the…

  10. Comparing Teacher Roles in Denmark and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Peter; Dorf, Hans; Pratt, Nick; Hohmann, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a comparative study of teaching in Denmark and England. Its broader aim is to help develop an approach for comparing pedagogy. Lesson observations and interviews identified the range of goals towards which teachers in each country worked and the actions these prompted. These were clustered using the lens of…

  11. Skrammellegepladsen: Denmark's first adventure play area

    Treesearch

    Amanda Rae O' Connor; James F. Palmer

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the philosophy of the adventure playground movement and particularly the goals of the original adventure playground, Skrammellegepladsen in Copenhagen, Denmark. We then present a case study investigation of the ways that Skrammellegepladsen is used, the perceptions of the users, and the extent that the play area embodies its original philosophy. The...

  12. Comparing Teacher Roles in Denmark and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Peter; Dorf, Hans; Pratt, Nick; Hohmann, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a comparative study of teaching in Denmark and England. Its broader aim is to help develop an approach for comparing pedagogy. Lesson observations and interviews identified the range of goals towards which teachers in each country worked and the actions these prompted. These were clustered using the lens of…

  13. The Seeds of Social Change from Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

    N.F.S. Grundtvig was a priest, historian, poet, and founder of the Danish Folk High School. He believed that education for adults should be geared to adults and wanted schools to be independent of the church. Grundtvig was among the first to call for Denmark's schools to use the native Danish language. Grundtvig believed that each group or culture…

  14. Denmark's Boernehavens: A Place to Grow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mecham, Neil A.

    2010-01-01

    During the author's trips to Denmark as an instructor of American college students studying abroad, he led groups to visit several "boernehavens," which are the Danish equivalents of U.S. preschools for children ages 3 to 5. Danish society values confident individuals who can take initiative when faced with challenges and opportunities.…

  15. Denmark's Boernehavens: A Place to Grow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mecham, Neil A.

    2010-01-01

    During the author's trips to Denmark as an instructor of American college students studying abroad, he led groups to visit several "boernehavens," which are the Danish equivalents of U.S. preschools for children ages 3 to 5. Danish society values confident individuals who can take initiative when faced with challenges and opportunities.…

  16. The Financing of Continuing Training in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedegaard, Birthe

    In Denmark, suppliers of continuing training constitute the point at which the sources of finance meet the people who receive continuing training. On the basis of this close connection between training suppliers and the financial sources behind them, continuing training activities can be subdivided into these five categories: (1) continuing…

  17. The Role of the Social Partners in Youth and Adult Vocational Education and Training in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, John Houman; Jensen, Grethe

    This document about Denmark has the following four aims: (1) to provide an overview on the vocational education and training system; (2) to describe and evaluate the social partners' (employers, employers' organizations, and unions) role in implementation, management, and control in relation to the vocational training system; (3) to outline the…

  18. Guidelines; from foe to friend? Comparative interviews with GPs in Norway and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, Benedicte; Kjellberg, Pia K

    2010-01-16

    GPs follow clinical guidelines to varying degrees across practices, regions and countries, but a review study of GPs' attitudes to guidelines found no systematic variation in attitudes between studies from different countries. However, earlier qualitative studies on this topic are not necessarily comparable. Hence, there is a lack of empirical comparative studies of GP's attitudes to following clinical guidelines. In this study we reproduce a Norwegian focus group study of GPs' general attitudes to national clinical guidelines in Denmark and conduct a comparative analysis of the findings. A strategic sample of GP's in Norway (27 GPs) and Denmark (18 GPs) was interviewed about their attitudes to guidelines, and the interviews coded and compared for common themes and differences. Similarities dominated the comparative material, but the analysis also revealed notable differences in attitudes between Norwegian and the Danish GPs. The most important difference was related to GP's attitudes to clinical guidelines that incorporated economic evaluations. While the Norwegian GPs were sceptical to guidelines that incorporated economic evaluation, the Danish GPs regarded these guidelines as important and legitimate. We suggest that the differences could be explained by the history of guideline development in Norway and Denmark respectively. Whereas government guidelines for rationing services were only newly introduced in Norway, they have been used in Denmark for many years. Comparative qualitative studies of GPs attitudes to clinical guidelines may reveal cross-national differences relating to the varying histories of guideline development. Further studies are needed to explore this hypothesis.

  19. Guidelines; from foe to friend? Comparative interviews with GPs in Norway and Denmark

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background GPs follow clinical guidelines to varying degrees across practices, regions and countries, but a review study of GPs' attitudes to guidelines found no systematic variation in attitudes between studies from different countries. However, earlier qualitative studies on this topic are not necessarily comparable. Hence, there is a lack of empirical comparative studies of GP's attitudes to following clinical guidelines. In this study we reproduce a Norwegian focus group study of GPs' general attitudes to national clinical guidelines in Denmark and conduct a comparative analysis of the findings. Methods A strategic sample of GP's in Norway (27 GPs) and Denmark (18 GPs) was interviewed about their attitudes to guidelines, and the interviews coded and compared for common themes and differences. Results Similarities dominated the comparative material, but the analysis also revealed notable differences in attitudes between Norwegian and the Danish GPs. The most important difference was related to GP's attitudes to clinical guidelines that incorporated economic evaluations. While the Norwegian GPs were sceptical to guidelines that incorporated economic evaluation, the Danish GPs regarded these guidelines as important and legitimate. We suggest that the differences could be explained by the history of guideline development in Norway and Denmark respectively. Whereas government guidelines for rationing services were only newly introduced in Norway, they have been used in Denmark for many years. Conclusion Comparative qualitative studies of GPs attitudes to clinical guidelines may reveal cross-national differences relating to the varying histories of guideline development. Further studies are needed to explore this hypothesis. PMID:20078891

  20. On the hydrography of Denmark Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastropole, Dana; Pickart, Robert S.; Valdimarsson, Hédinn; Vâge, Kjetil; Jochumsen, Kerstin; Girton, James

    2017-01-01

    Using 111 shipboard hydrographic sections across Denmark Strait occupied between 1990 and 2012, we characterize the mean conditions at the sill, quantify the water mass constituents, and describe the dominant features of the Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW). The mean vertical sections of temperature, salinity, and density reveal the presence of circulation components found upstream of the sill, in particular the shelfbreak East Greenland Current (EGC) and the separated EGC. These correspond to hydrographic fronts consistent with surface-intensified southward flow. Deeper in the water column the isopycnals slope oppositely, indicative of bottom-intensified flow of DSOW. An end-member analysis indicates that the deepest part of Denmark Strait is dominated by Arctic-Origin Water with only small amounts of Atlantic-Origin Water. On the western side of the strait, the overflow water is a mixture of both constituents, with a contribution from Polar Surface Water. Weakly stratified "boluses" of dense water are present in 41% of the occupations, revealing that this is a common configuration of DSOW. The bolus water is primarily Arctic-Origin Water and constitutes the densest portion of the overflow. The boluses have become warmer and saltier over the 22 year record, which can be explained by changes in end-member properties and their relative contributions to bolus composition.

  1. The burden of fungal disease in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Klaus L; Denning, David W; Arendrup, Maiken C

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to calculate the burden of fungal disease in Denmark. We identified all published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates in Denmark. Where no data existed, we used numbers of specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in those populations to estimate national incidence or prevalence. Approximately, one in six Danes will suffer from a fungal infection each year, most of which are skin or mucosal diseases causing disability but no deaths. Good data exist on candidaemia where a national voluntary reporting system is in place and have shown a high rate (9.6 per 100,000 inhabitants) compared other European countries. We present estimates of invasive aspergillosis and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis with rates of 4.4 per 100,000 and 3.1 per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively. Further studies are needed in order to better ascertain high-burden fungal infections such as recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (~1350 cases in 100,000 women) as well as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (~131 cases in 100,000 inhabitants) and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (cases in 100,000 inhabitants). In conclusion, more than 93,000 Danes or about 2% of Denmark's population will have a non-trivial fungal infection during 1 year, which underscores the magnitude of the fungal burden.

  2. Significant regional differences in Denmark in outcome after cochlear implants in children.

    PubMed

    Percy-Smith, Lone; Busch, Georg W; Sandahl, Minna; Nissen, Lena; Josvassen, Jane Lignel; Bille, Michael; Lange, Theis; Cayé-Thomasen, Per

    2012-05-01

    The objectives of the present study were to study regional differences in outcome for a paediatric cochlear implant (CI) population after the introduction of universal neonatal hearing screening (UNHS) and bilateral implantation in Denmark. Data relate to 94 subjects. A test battery consisting of eight different tests/assessments was performed in order to report the level of audition, speech, language and self-esteem. For data analyses of any associations between the regions, Fisher's exact test was used. Potential rater variability within either of the centres was assessed using logistic regression models. The levels of audition were comparable between the group from West Denmark (West) and the group from East Denmark (East). In contrast, all tests of speech and language revealed a statistically significant difference between East and West. In all tests, West subjects scored significantly lower than East subjects. West children received more hours of speech therapy, more learning support assistance, and more parents used signing. Furthermore, the parents from West were significantly less involved in the auditory rehabilitation of their children than parents from East. The results were remarkable and call for a thorough evaluation of both the quality and organization of the paediatric CI population with particular concern for the paediatric CI population of West Denmark. The Oticon foundation financially supported this study. Trial registration was not relevant as the study is designed as a prospective case series. not relevant.

  3. The prevalent use of contraception among teenagers in Denmark and the corresponding low pregnancy rate.

    PubMed

    Wielandt, Hanne; Boldsen, Jesper; Knudsen, Lisbeth B

    2002-01-01

    In Denmark the number of births and induced abortions among teenagers has reduced and teenage parenthood is now rare. This paper evaluates the correlation between this observed fertility and reported sexual and contraceptive behaviour. In 1989 a sample of 16-20-year-olds in Denmark was selected at random and personally interviewed about sexual and contraceptive behaviour. Ninety-five per cent of the young women who had experienced sexual intercourse used contraception at the most recent sexual intercourse. In order to support the validity of this finding a model was developed to estimate an expected number of conceptions in the age groups concerned. The model included both the information on coital frequency and use of contraception from the questionnaire and available efficacy rates on contraception. The estimates derived by the model were compared with the registered number of births and induced abortions derived from public registers. The analysis revealed a high accordance between the estimated number of conceptions and the registered number of births and induced abortions for each age group. This underlines the validity of the data on sexual and contraceptive behaviour sampled among teenagers in Denmark. The findings indicate that contraceptive failure is a much greater problem than non-use of contraception for teenagers in Denmark.

  4. The development of family nursing in Denmark: current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Østergaard, Birte; Wagner, Lis

    2014-11-01

    Over the past 12 years, a strong foundation for family nursing has been built in Denmark, with rapid growth in the past 3 years. A review of nursing research conducted in Denmark and published between 2002 and 2013 found 15 studies that examined family phenomena. The majority of the studies used descriptive methods with data collected from surveys and interviews involving family members either together or individually. Only five of the studies examined interventions that included families' perspectives about the intervention being evaluated. Several current research projects lead by Danish nurses examine the implementation of family nursing knowledge to clinical settings. Integration of family nursing theory has begun in Denmark in undergraduate and graduate nursing curricula and in May 2013, the Danish Family Nursing Association was officially established. Infrastructure and financial conference support has made it possible to invite Nordic and international colleagues to meet in Denmark, which, reciprocally, expands understanding and support for family nursing within the country. Further collaboration between Danish nurse researchers, educators, and administrators will help sustain the growth of family nursing science and its application in family-focused nursing practice.

  5. Fireball over Denmark on 17 January 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoladek, P.; Wiśniewski, Mariusz; Polakowski, K.

    2009-12-01

    A spectacular fireball crossed the sky over Denmark on 17 January 2009. It was observed by many eyewitnesses across northern Europe, but only recorded by a single camera from Sweden. Two Polish Fireball Network cameras managed to indirectly record the fireball due to changes in sky brightness. As a result of careful analysis of video footage and reports from the eyewitnesses we were able to determine the trajectory of the object. The velocity of the fireball was estimated at 50 km/s. A meteor event with such a rapid velocity should not produce any meteorites.

  6. Denmark's Master of Public Governance Program: Assessment and Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greve, Carsten; Pedersen, Anne Reff

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on Denmark's Master of Public Governance and its assessments and lessons learned. Denmark is seen to have an efficient economy and public sector, a digitalized public service delivery system, and an advanced work-life balance. The Danish government invested substantial resources into developing a Master of Public Governance…

  7. Survey of Tickborne Infections in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Per M.; Kristiansen, Kåre

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a study of the distribution and prevalence of tickborne infections in Denmark by using roe deer as sentinels. Blood samples from 237 roe deer were collected during the 2002–2003 hunting season. Overall, 36.6% of deer were Borrelia seropositive, while 95.6% were Anaplasma phagocytophilum positive; all animals were negative for Bartonella quintana and B. henselae by indirect immunofluorescence assay. When a hemagglutination-inhibition test was used, 8.7% of deer were found positive for tickborne encephalitis (TBE)-complex virus. A total of 42.6% were found positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for A. phagocytophilum with significant seasonal variation. All were PCR negative for Rickettsia helvetica. PCR and sequencing also showed a novel bacterium in roe deer previously only found in ticks. The study showed that the emerging pathogen A. phagocytophilum is widely distributed and that a marked shift has occurred in the distribution of TBE-complex virus in Denmark. This finding supports studies that predict alterations in distribution due to climatic changes. PMID:16022780

  8. Environmental Radioactivity in Denmark in 1974.

    PubMed

    Aarkrog, A; Lippert, J

    1975-06-01

    The present report deals with the measurement of fall-out radioactivity in Denmark in 1974. Strontium-90 was determined in samples from all over the country of precipitation, soil, ground water, sea water, grass, dried milk, fresh milk, grain, bread, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, drinking water, and human bone. Furthermore, 90Sr was determined in local samples of air, rain water, grass, sea plants, fish, and meat. Caesium-137 was determined in soil, sea water, milk, grain products, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, fish, and meat. It was also measured by wholebody-counting of a control group at Tisø. Estimates of the mean contents of radiostrontium and radiocaesium in the human diet in Denmark during 1974 are given. The gamma-background was measured regularly at locations around Risø, at ten of the State experimental farms, in one area in Zealand, one in Jutland, and along the shores of the Great Belt. Finally the report includes routine surveys of environmental samples from the Risø area.

  9. Registers of multiple sclerosis in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Koch-Henriksen, N; Magyari, M; Laursen, B

    2015-01-01

    There are two nationwide population-based registers for multiple sclerosis (MS) in Denmark. The oldest register is The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry (DMSR), which is an epidemiological register for estimation of prevalence and incidence of MS and survival, and for identifying exposures earlier in life that may affect the risk of MS. This register has no systematic follow-up data except for survival. The DMSR has over the years published nationwide incidence- and prevalence data from Denmark and has been involved in a number of 'historical prospective' studies to elucidate the association between a number of different environmental exposures in the past and the subsequent risk of MS. Some of these studies have been able to exonerate suspected risk factors. The other register, the nationwide Danish Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Register, is a follow-up register for all patients who have received disease-modifying treatments since 1996. It has, in particular, contributed to the knowledge of the role of antibodies against the biological drugs used for the treatment of MS.

  10. Cancer in printing workers in Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Lynge, E; Rix, B A; Villadsen, E; Andersen, I; Hink, M; Olsen, E; Møller, U L; Silfverberg, E

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To study the cancer incidence in printing workers in Denmark. METHODS--The cohort of 15,534 men and 3593 women working in the printing industry in 1970 were followed up for death, emigrations, and incident cancer cases until the end of 1987. Their cancer incidence was compared with that of all economically active people in Denmark. The smoking and drinking habits reported by members of the printing trade unions at a survey in 1972 were compared with habits reported by members of other trade unions. RESULTS--Lung, bladder, renal pelvis, and primary liver cancers were in excess among the printing workers. The excess risks of lung cancer among the factory workers in newspaper and magazine production, of bladder cancer in typographers in printing establishments, of renal pelvis cancer in typographers and lithographers, and of primary liver cancer among lithographers and bookbinders exceeded those expected based on the reported smoking and drinking habits. CONCLUSION--Our results indicate, in line with a previous study from Manchester, that work with rotary letterpress printing was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. The inconsistent results from studies on bladder cancer in printing workers may point to a risk confined to a certain subgroup. The sixfold risk of primary liver cancer in Danish lithographers warrants studies in other countries. PMID:8535493

  11. Towards 50% wind electricity in Denmark: Dilemmas and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, Paul-Frederik

    2016-05-01

    Electricity and heat supply systems are essential contributors to a fossil-free future in Denmark. The combined production of heat and power (CHP) and the production of wind energy are already well developed in Denmark. Combined heat and power covers about 40% of the demand for space heating in Denmark, and the production of wind energy is supposed to exceed 50% of the demand for electricity by 2020. The changing electricity and heat production has some consequences already now: i) Decreasing wholesale prices in Denmark and in other countries. ii) Thermal power plants are closing down. Denmark is no longer self-sufficient with electricity under all conditions. iii) The electricity production pattern does not match the demand pattern. The result is that the neighbouring countries must absorb the variations from wind and solar power. Essential challenges: i) The future of combined heat and power in Denmark is uncertain. ii) Denmark will need new backup capacity for filling the gaps in wind power and solar cell output. iii) Flexible electricity consumers are supposed to contribute to balancing the future power systems. There is still a long way to go before the Smart Grid visions are implemented in large scale. iv) The transformation of the power system will create new risks of power failures.

  12. Towards Universal Design Hotels in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Grangaard, Sidse

    2016-01-01

    Based on the research project 'Accessible Hotel Rooms' that studies the balance between the experience of supply and demand regarding accessibility features in Danish hotel rooms, this paper demonstrates factors having an influence on Universal Design hotels in Denmark. The research project was financed by the Danish Transport and Construction Agency. Different notions in the hotel sector of the current supply and demand for Universal Design hotel rooms are identified, as well as future demand. Despite supplying accessible rooms, some hotels do not advertise their accessibility features on their website. There exists an attitude in the hotel sector that functions as a barrier for Universal Design: if there are enough guests, for example business travellers, then why market the hotel on Universal Design? The paper points out the coherence between the understanding of the users and the view of demand. Another important factor is Corporate Social Responsibility, which can be regarded as a strategy or platform towards Universal Design hotels.

  13. Delay in diagnosis: the experience in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Olesen, F; Hansen, R P; Vedsted, P

    2009-01-01

    Background: Denmark has poorer 5-year survival rates than many other Western European countries, and cancer patients tend to have more advanced stages at diagnosis than those in other Scandinavian countries. Part of this may be due to delay in diagnosis. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the initiatives currently underway to reduce delays. Methods: Description of Danish actions to reduce delay. Results: Results of surveys of patient-, doctor- and system-related delays are presented and so are the political initiatives to ensure that cancer is seen as an acute disease. Conclusion: In future, fast-track diagnosis and treatment will be provided for suspected cancers and access to general diagnostic investigations will be improved. A large national experiment with cancer seen as an acute disease is currently being implemented, and as yet the results are unknown. PMID:19956163

  14. Chemical intolerance among hairdressers in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Tran, Marie Thi Dao; Elberling, Jesper; Skovbjerg, Sine; Berg, Nikolaj Drimer; Søsted, Heidi; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Lysdal, Susan Hovmand

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence and the severity of fragrance-related symptoms among hairdressers in Denmark compared with the Danish general population. Further, to characterize former hairdressers who are severely chemically intolerant to fragranced products in relation to sex, age and health- and work-related reasons for leaving the hairdressing profession. The study population consisted of all hairdressers who graduated from the public vocational schools in Denmark during 1985 and 2007 (n = 7840) and a random sample of individuals from the Danish general population (n = 6000). Both populations received a postal questionnaire on symptoms from inhalation of fragranced products and the resultant behavioural consequences. All former hairdressers also answered additional questions on health- and work-related reasons for leaving the profession. No differences were found in the prevalence (OR = 1.0, CI = 0.89-1.14) or the severity (OR = 1.1, CI = 0.80-1.51) of symptoms from inhalation of fragranced products in hairdressers compared with the general population. Among hairdressers, however, experience of fragrance-related symptoms (OR = 1.2, CI = 1.01-1.31) and adjustments of social (OR = 1.8, CI = 1.12-2.80) and occupational conditions (OR = 2.8, CI = 1.84-4.25) were reported significantly more often by former hairdressers than current hairdressers. The prevalence and the severity of fragrance-related symptoms were similar in hairdressers and the general population. Former hairdressers were more affected by fragranced products than current hairdressers were. Although fragrance-related symptoms did not seem to be more frequent among hairdressers, the hairdressing profession might pose a problem for those who are chemically intolerant.

  15. Chemical Intolerance among Hairdressers in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Marie Thi Dao; Elberling, Jesper; Skovbjerg, Sine; Berg, Nikolaj Drimer; Søsted, Heidi; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Lysdal, Susan Hovmand

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the prevalence and the severity of fragrance-related symptoms among hairdressers in Denmark compared with the Danish general population. Further, to characterize former hairdressers who are severely chemically intolerant to fragranced products in relation to sex, age and health- and work-related reasons for leaving the hairdressing profession. Methods The study population consisted of all hairdressers who graduated from the public vocational schools in Denmark during 1985 and 2007 (n = 7840) and a random sample of individuals from the Danish general population (n = 6000). Both populations received a postal questionnaire on symptoms from inhalation of fragranced products and the resultant behavioural consequences. All former hairdressers also answered additional questions on health- and work-related reasons for leaving the profession. Results No differences were found in the prevalence (OR = 1.0, CI = 0.89–1.14) or the severity (OR = 1.1, CI = 0.80–1.51) of symptoms from inhalation of fragranced products in hairdressers compared with the general population. Among hairdressers, however, experience of fragrance-related symptoms (OR = 1.2, CI = 1.01–1.31) and adjustments of social (OR = 1.8, CI = 1.12–2.80) and occupational conditions (OR = 2.8, CI = 1.84–4.25) were reported significantly more often by former hairdressers than current hairdressers. Conclusions The prevalence and the severity of fragrance-related symptoms were similar in hairdressers and the general population. Former hairdressers were more affected by fragranced products than current hairdressers were. Although fragrance-related symptoms did not seem to be more frequent among hairdressers, the hairdressing profession might pose a problem for those who are chemically intolerant. PMID:23951117

  16. Treatment of varicose veins in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Stahl Madsen, Morten; Bækgaard, Niels

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study is to report the treatment of varicose veins in Denmark in the five-year period from 2007 to 2011, primarily based on reports to the nationwide Clinical Vein Database (KVD). The KVD collects clinical patient data before, during and after invasive treatment of varicose veins in public hospitals, private outpatient clinics and private hospitals. A slight decrease was observed in the total number of treated legs from about 15,000 annually to nearly 14,000 during the period. Public hospitals and private outpatient clinics treat an almost equal number of patients, whereas private hospitals perform 3% of the treatments. The coverage rate of KVD in public hospitals has been almost complete (94%), but it has been approx. 40% in private outpatient clinics and private hospitals. In 84% of the legs, there were only subjective complaints. The remaining 16% had developed complications, i.e. eczema, varicophlebitis, ulcers or bleeding. Operations still make up the vast majority of the procedures, and although the number of endovenous procedures has increased during the period, these procedures account for only 15% of the procedures performed in 2011. Of all legs, 36% had previously been treated for varicose veins. The literature and our results show that there has been no significant change in the number of varicose vein treatments in Denmark for the past 20 years. Endovenous procedures still account for a small number of the procedures. Despite the increased focus on the treatment of varicose veins, just as many patients are treated for recurrence as in the 1990s. not relevant. not relevant.

  17. Regional geothermal 3D modelling in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulsen, S. E.; Balling, N.; Bording, T. S.; Nielsen, S. B.

    2012-04-01

    In the pursuit of sustainable and low carbon emission energy sources, increased global attention has been given to the exploration and exploitation of geothermal resources within recent decades. In 2009 a national multi-disciplinary geothermal research project was established. As a significant part of this project, 3D temperature modelling is to be carried out, with special emphasis on temperatures of potential geothermal reservoirs in the Danish area. The Danish subsurface encompasses low enthalpy geothermal reservoirs of mainly Triassic and Jurassic age. Geothermal plants at Amager (Copenhagen) and Thisted (Northern Jutland) have the capacity of supplying the district heating network with up to 14 MW and 7 MW, respectively, by withdrawing warm pore water from the Gassum (Lower Jurassic/Upper Triassic) and Bunter (Lower Triassic) sandstone reservoirs, respectively. Explorative studies of the subsurface temperature regime typically are based on a combination of observations and modelling. In this study, the open-source groundwater modelling code MODFLOW is modified to simulate the subsurface temperature distribution in three dimensions by taking advantage of the mathematical similarity between saturated groundwater flow (Darcy flow) and heat conduction. A numerical model of the subsurface geology in Denmark is built and parameterized from lithological information derived from joint interpretation of seismic surveys and borehole information. Boundary conditions are constructed from knowledge about the heat flow from the Earth's interior and the shallow ground temperature. Matrix thermal conductivities have been estimated from analysis of high-resolution temperature logs measured in deep wells and porosity-depth relations are included using interpreted main lithologies. The model takes into account the dependency of temperature and pressure on thermal conductivity. Moreover, a transient model based correction of the paleoclimatic thermal disturbance caused by the

  18. Human risk from thermotolerant Campylobacter on broiler meat in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Boysen, Louise; Nauta, Maarten; Duarte, Ana Sofia Ribeiro; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2013-03-15

    This paper describes a new approach by which changes over time in the relative risk of human campylobacteriosis from broiler meat are evaluated through quantitative microbiological risk assessment modelling. Danish surveillance data collected at retail from 2001 to 2010 on numbers of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. on Danish produced and imported chilled and frozen broiler meat were the basis for the investigation. The aim was to explore if the risk from the different meat categories had changed over time as a consequence of implemented intervention strategies. The results showed a slight decrease from 2005 to 2008 in the human risk from Danish produced broiler meat, and a decrease from 2005 to 2010 in the risk from imported chilled meat. This risk reduction coincides with control measures implemented to reduce Campylobacter in Danish and imported chilled broiler meat. The human risk of campylobacteriosis from Danish frozen meat increased but remained lower compared to chilled meat. In total, the relative risk from broiler meat available for sale in Denmark increased from 2001 to 2005 after which the risk decreased to a level similar to the period 2001-2002. The use of QMRA in the evaluation of intervention strategies based on monitoring data provided an added value, compared to the traditional approach of only using changes in prevalence. The estimated human health risk is a function of prevalence and the distribution of concentrations, and therefore takes best usage of the available data, while providing the most relevant outcome for food safety risk managers.

  19. Comparison of nurse practice environments in Denmark and the USA.

    PubMed

    Mainz, H; Baernholdt, M; Ramlau-Hansen, C H; Brink, O

    2015-12-01

    The aims were to translate, validate and test the reliability of the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index in a Danish context; and to compare Danish nurses' ratings of their nurse work environments with the highest rated work environments, USA magnet hospitals. Patient quality and safety are priorities for managers, administrators and policy makers worldwide. A supportive work environment is an important factor to improve quality and safety. The most used scale to measure the nurse work environment is Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index. There is no Danish translation of the scale or a comparison of nurse work environment between Denmark and other countries. The translation and cultural adaption followed the steps recommended by the World Health Organization. Content validity was evaluated using cognitive interviewing in-person and through surveys. The reliability was tested using Cronbach's alpha. Finally, Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index ratings from 127 nurses were compared with results from Magnet and non-Magnet hospitals using t-tests. The Danish translation of Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index had a high validity and reliability. Danish nurses rated their nurse work environment more favourable than nurses in non-Magnet hospitals and at the same level as Magnet hospitals. Lowest Danish scores were found in the two hospital-level subscales in items related to staff nurses' involvement in discussions on daily problems, the visibility of the chief nursing officer and importance of up-to-date nursing documentation. Danish nurses report a supportive nurse work environment with overall scores at the same level as Magnet hospitals. Opportunities for improvement were identified in the subscales. A first step to improve patient quality and safety is addressing factors that influence quality and safety. Using the Danish Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index, interventions to improve

  20. Mapping telemedicine efforts: surveying regional initiatives in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to survey telemedicine services currently in operation across Denmark. The study specifically seeks to answer the following questions: What initiatives are deployed within the different regions? What are the motivations behind the projects? What technologies are being utilized? What medical disciplines are being supported using telemedicine systems? All data were surveyed from the Telemedicinsk Landkort, a newly created database designed to provide a comprehensive and systematic overview of all telemedicine technologies in Denmark. The results of this study suggest that a growing numbers of telemedicine initiatives are currently in operation across Denmark but that considerable variations exist in terms of regional efforts as the number of operational telemedicine projects varied from region to region. The results of this study provide a timely picture of the factors that are shaping the telemedicine landscape of Denmark and suggest potential strategies to help policymakers increase and improve national telemedicine deployment.

  1. Denmark-Norway, 1761-1769: Two Missed Opportunities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspaas, Per Pippin

    2013-05-01

    Despite a promising start in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Denmark-Norway was not a Great Power of Astronomy any longer when the eighteenth-century transits of Venus occurred. Official activity relating to the transit of 1761 was very limited; in this respect, Denmark-Norway was completely overshadowed by Sweden and Russia. In 1769 steps were taken to invite an astronomer of international reputation, the Jesuit Father Maximilianus Hell. He arrived in 1768 and left the country two years later, having published an elaborate report in the name of the King Christian VII. Although Hell's observations from Vardoehus were successful, Denmark-Norway failed to re-establish itself as a country capable of delivering noteworthy contributions to the European community of astronomers. Sweden and Russia displayed a higher level of activity, both quantitatively and qualitatively, making the impression of Denmark-Norway's lagging behind even stronger.

  2. Source apportionment of particulate matter in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moenster, J.; Glasius, M.; Nielsen, O. J.; Bilde, M.; Jensen, F. P.

    2005-12-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) has received considerable attention over the last decade as an important component of air pollution, particularly due to its health effects on the exposed population. Typically the mass of particles with diameters smaller that 10 μm (PM10) has been used in large cohort studies to estimate health effects such as increase in hospitalization rate, asthma attacks and premature deaths. Particles smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and ultra fine particles have been used in various epidemiological studies and correlations between exposure to fine and ultra fine particles and health effects have been found. Limits of acceptable concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and some carcinogenic species have been made, and it is important to find the origin of the particulate matter to prevent exceeds of these limits. This can be done by measuring particle mass, organic/inorganic fractions of particles, the chemical components and other relevant factors, and then use receptor modeling for source apportionment of the particulate matter. We have done measurements at street level and urban background in Copenhagen, Denmark, to determine the origin of different sizes of particulate matter and the toxic organic compounds connected to these particles. We also did measurements in a small village with less traffic and more residential wood combustion for a comparison between traffic and wood combustion generated pollution. Our results show a significant amount of particulate matter coming from non local sources and are dominated by long-range transported inorganic salts. The amount of these is highly depended on the wind direction and thus on the origin of the wind plume. The origin of the carcinogenic organic compound benzo(a)pyrene was found to be local combustion sources. To prevent events of high particulate matter concentration in Copenhagen, Denmark, a reduction of emission from the local traffic will only lead to a minor effect, since the majority of the

  3. Cannabis plants illicitly grown in Jutland (Denmark).

    PubMed

    Kaa, E

    1989-01-01

    Four hundred forty-nine fresh cannabis plants and 26 fruiting tops harvested in Jutland (Denmark) from July to September 1988 were characterized according to weight, height, marihuana yield, and cannabinoid content. The median weights were 308 g and 584 g for plants grown outdoors (n = 418) and in greenhouses (n = 31), respectively. The average marihuana yield was 8.7% for the plants grown outdoors and slightly lower for the greenhouse plants. Great variations, however, were seen both between and within the individual harvests. The mean concentration of total THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) was 0.87% for the plants grown outdoors. An increase according to the month of harvest was observed. For plants grown in greenhouses the mean value of total THC was 1.35%, while the mean concentration of fruiting tops was 2.13%. All plants contained cannabidiol (CBD), but only negligible concentrations of other cannabinoids. In approximately 80% of the plants the THC content was higher than the CBD content (drug type), while the rest either contained equal concentrations (intermediate type) or most CBD (fiber type).

  4. Occupational risks of sinonasal cancer in Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, J H

    1988-01-01

    A new comprehensive data linkage system for the detailed investigation of occupational cancer has been established in the Danish Cancer Registry, providing employment histories back to 1964. All 382 cases of cancers of the sinonasal cavities diagnosed between 1970 and 1984 and kept on file in this data linkage system were analysed using standardised proportional incidence ratios (SPIR) to screen for industrial high risk areas for these malignancies in Denmark. Excess risks were confirmed among men and women employed in the manufacture of footwear and other leather products and of wooden furniture. No risk significantly above expectancy was observed among wood workers outside the furniture making industry. Excess risks were also seen among men in all areas of basic metal industries (SPIR = 184-562) and in a subset of workers in industries producing metal containers (SPIR = 329-600). Most unexpected were raised risks among employees of both sexes in making cocoa, chocolate, and sugar confectionery (SPIR = 535 for men and 860 for women); these, in combination with the observed risks among female employees in canning and preserving fruits and vegetables (SPIR = 778) and in farming (SPIR = 735) may point to a common aetiology. The obscuring effect of mass significance may, however, be another explanation. The new associations discovered in this large scale linkage study must therefore await further confirmation. PMID:3378013

  5. Employment insecurity and employees' health in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Cottini, Elena; Ghinetti, Paolo

    2017-09-04

    We use register data for Denmark (IDA) merged with the Danish Work Environment Cohort Survey (1995, 2000, and 2005) to estimate the effect of perceived employment insecurity on perceived health for a sample of Danish employees. We consider two health measures from the SF-36 Health Survey Instrument: a vitality scale for general well-being and a mental health scale. We first analyse a summary measure of employment insecurity. Instrumental variables-fixed effects estimates that use firm workforce changes as a source of exogenous variation show that 1 additional dimension of insecurity causes a shift from the median to the 25th percentile in the mental health scale and to the 30th in that of energy/vitality. It also increases by about 6 percentage points the probability to develop severe mental health problems. Looking at single insecurity dimensions by naïve fixed effects, uncertainty associated with the current job is important for mental health. Employability has a sizeable relationship with health and is the only insecurity dimension that matters for the energy and vitality scale. Danish employees who fear involuntary firm internal mobility experience worse mental health. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Occupational risks of sinonasal cancer in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Olsen, J H

    1988-05-01

    A new comprehensive data linkage system for the detailed investigation of occupational cancer has been established in the Danish Cancer Registry, providing employment histories back to 1964. All 382 cases of cancers of the sinonasal cavities diagnosed between 1970 and 1984 and kept on file in this data linkage system were analysed using standardised proportional incidence ratios (SPIR) to screen for industrial high risk areas for these malignancies in Denmark. Excess risks were confirmed among men and women employed in the manufacture of footwear and other leather products and of wooden furniture. No risk significantly above expectancy was observed among wood workers outside the furniture making industry. Excess risks were also seen among men in all areas of basic metal industries (SPIR = 184-562) and in a subset of workers in industries producing metal containers (SPIR = 329-600). Most unexpected were raised risks among employees of both sexes in making cocoa, chocolate, and sugar confectionery (SPIR = 535 for men and 860 for women); these, in combination with the observed risks among female employees in canning and preserving fruits and vegetables (SPIR = 778) and in farming (SPIR = 735) may point to a common aetiology. The obscuring effect of mass significance may, however, be another explanation. The new associations discovered in this large scale linkage study must therefore await further confirmation.

  7. Heavy metal content of combustible municipal solid waste in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Riber, Christian; Fredriksen, Gry S; Christensen, Thomas H

    2005-04-01

    Data on the heavy metal composition of outlets from Danish incinerators was used to estimate the concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, As and Hg in combustible waste (wet as received) at 14 Danish incinerators, representing about 80% of the waste incinerated in Denmark. Zn (1020 mg kg(-1)), Cu (620 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (370 mg kg(-1)) showed the highest concentration, whereas Hg (0.6 mg kg(-1)) showed the lowest concentration. The variation among the incinerators was in most cases within a factor of two to three, except for Cr that in two cases showed unexplained high concentrations. The fact that the data represent many incinerators and, in several cases, observations from a period of 4 to 5 years provides a good statistical basis for evaluating the content of heavy metals in combustible Danish waste. Such data may be used for identifying incinerators receiving waste with high concentrations of heavy metals suggesting the introduction of source control, or, if repeated in time, the data must also be used for monitoring the impacts of national regulation controlling heavy metals. It is recommended that future investigations consider the use of sample digestion methods that ensure complete digestion in order to use the data for determining the total heavy metal content of waste.

  8. Differences in cancer awareness and beliefs between Australia, Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and the UK (the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership): do they contribute to differences in cancer survival?

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, L J L; Simon, A E; Warburton, F; Boniface, D; Brain, K E; Dessaix, A; Donnelly, C; Haynes, K; Hvidberg, L; Lagerlund, M; Lockwood, G; Tishelman, C; Vedsted, P; Vigmostad, M N; Ramirez, A J; Wardle, J

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are wide international differences in 1-year cancer survival. The UK and Denmark perform poorly compared with other high-income countries with similar health care systems: Australia, Canada and Sweden have good cancer survival rates, Norway intermediate survival rates. The objective of this study was to examine the pattern of differences in cancer awareness and beliefs across these countries to identify where these might contribute to the pattern of survival. Methods: We carried out a population-based telephone interview survey of 19 079 men and women aged ⩾50 years in Australia, Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and the UK using the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer measure. Results: Awareness that the risk of cancer increased with age was lower in the UK (14%), Canada (13%) and Australia (16%) but was higher in Denmark (25%), Norway (29%) and Sweden (38%). Symptom awareness was no lower in the UK and Denmark than other countries. Perceived barriers to symptomatic presentation were highest in the UK, in particular being worried about wasting the doctor's time (UK 34% Canada 21% Australia 14% Denmark 12% Norway 11% Sweden 9%). Conclusion: The UK had low awareness of age-related risk and the highest perceived barriers to symptomatic presentation, but symptom awareness in the UK did not differ from other countries. Denmark had higher awareness of age-related risk and few perceived barriers to symptomatic presentation. This suggests that other factors must be involved in explaining Denmark's poor survival rates. In the UK, interventions that address barriers to prompt presentation in primary care should be developed and evaluated. PMID:23370208

  9. [The first case of Vibrio cholerae 0139 in Denmark].

    PubMed

    Dalsgaard, A; Nielsen, G L; Echeverria, P; Larsen, J L; Schønheyder, H C

    1996-09-09

    We report the first case of V. cholerae O139 in Denmark. In 1994, a 61-year-old Vietnamese woman was admitted to Aalborg Hospital, Denmark due to severe diarrhoea. The diagnosis was confirmed by biochemical characterization and agglutination in O139 antiserum of a strain isolated from a stool specimen. The woman had stayed in Denmark after family reunion for nine months and had not travelled outside the country. She had not eaten any foods imported from Southeast Asia. The V. cholerae O139 isolate had similar antibiotic susceptibility pattern and contained genes encoding a virulence gene cassette previously identified in O139 isolates from Southeast Asia. Ribotyping showed a banding pattern similar to patterns exhibited by O139 isolates from Bangladesh, India and Thailand. However, the exact mode of transmission of this first Danish case of V. cholerae O139 infection was not determined.

  10. Mycoplasma alkalescens demonstrated in bronchoalveolar lavage of cattle in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Kokotovic, Branko; Friis, Niels F; Ahrens, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Mycoplasma alkalescens is an arginine-metabolizing mycoplasma, which has been found in association with mastitis and arthritis in cattle. Routine bacteriological examination of 17 bronchoalveolar lavage samples from calves with pneumonia in a single herd in Denmark, identified M. alkalescens in eight samples. The organism was found as a sole bacterilogical findings in five of the samples as well as in combination with Mannheimia haemolytica, Haemophilus somni and Salmonella Dublin. This is the first report of isolation of M. alkalescens in Denmark. PMID:17204146

  11. The Role of the Company in Generating Skills. The Learning Effects of Work Organization. Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristensen, Peer Hull; Petersen, James Hopner

    The impact of developments in work organizations on the skilling process in Denmark was studied through a macro analysis of available statistical information about the development of workplace training in Denmark and case studies of three Danish firms. The macro analysis focused on the following: Denmark's vocational training system; the Danish…

  12. Climatic changes of extreme precipitation in Denmark from 1874 to 2100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Bülow Gregersen, Ida; Sunyer, Maria; Madsen, Henrik; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2014-05-01

    During the past 30 years rather dramatic changes in extreme precipitation have been observed in Denmark. These changes are mainly in the frequency of extreme events, but there is also a tendency towards more severe events. Both are considered effects of anthropogenic climate change. The increase in precipitation extremes has led to inundations in most of the larger cities during the last 10 years. The flood in Copenhagen in 2011 implied the second highest damage costs measured in Denmark during the last 100 years. To establish cities that are resilient to pluvial floods robust projections of the frequency and intensity of extreme precipitation events in a changing climate are needed. Additionally, it is equally important to understand the natural variation on which the anthropogenic changes are imposed. This study presents the results of a coordinated effort to estimate the changes and uncertainties in Danish design rainfall. Trends and oscillations are identified in five daily precipitation records from 1874 to present, 83 records from high-resolution rain-gauges from 1979 to present and 18 state-of-the-art climate model simulations. It is shown that the frequency of extreme events in the past has oscillated with a cycle of 25-35 years, a behavior that can in part be explained by sea level pressure differences over the Atlantic. Projections based on the historical observations suggest that precipitation extremes in the Eastern part of Denmark should have been ascending in the last two decades. However, the increase has continued longer than expected and with larger amplitude in the most recent years. This indicates a likely influence from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. With the complex combination of general increase and natural variation several additional years of observation are needed before this hypothesis can be evaluated by statistical means. Extensive analysis of 18 different regional climate model (RCM) simulations shows that anthropogenic

  13. Comparing Pedagogy in Mathematics in Denmark and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Peter; Pratt, Nick; Dorf, Hans; Hohmann, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a comparative study of pedagogy in lower-secondary school mathematics in Denmark and England. Lesson observations and interviews identified the range of goals towards which teachers in each country worked and the actions these prompted. These were clustered using the lens of Bernstein's pedagogic discourse to…

  14. Guidance for Older Workers in Denmark and Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, Peter; Lopez-Sanchez, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    Guidance has a role to play in helping older workers to lead meaningful and fruitful lives; inside, outside, on the edge of the labour market, or in voluntary work with examples from two very different European countries: Denmark and Spain. This paper aims to draw attention to older workers guidance from an economic policy approach. It will be…

  15. The Progressive Development of Environmental Education in Sweden and Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breiting, Soren; Wickenberg, Per

    2010-01-01

    Our paper traces the history and progressive development of environmental education and education for sustainable development (ESD) in Sweden and Denmark. Our main focus is on work in primary and lower secondary schools as part of a search for trends of international interest related to the conceptualisation and practice of environmental education…

  16. Self-perceived need for interpreter among immigrants in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Harpelund, Lars; Nielsen, Signe Smith; Krasnik, Allan

    2012-07-01

    Starting in June 2011, immigrants who have lived for more than 7 years in Denmark have to pay a user-fee for interpreters in GP consultations and when hospitalised. We do not know yet how many immigrants will be affected by this amendment to the Danish Health Act and which socioeconomic factors characterise the immigrants who might be affected. To shed light on this, we investigated self-perceived need for interpreter (SNI) in GP consultations among participants from the largest non-Western immigrant groups in Denmark, the association between socioeconomic factors and SNI, and the characteristics of the immigrants potentially affected by the act amendment. Survey data on 2866 immigrants from former Yugoslavia, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Pakistan, Somalia, and Turkey, linked to registry information on socioeconomic factors were examined. We compared unadjusted proportions of SNI by country of birth. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate associations between SNI and socioeconomic factors. Overall, 20% of immigrants living longer than 3 years in Denmark and 15% after 7 years reported a need for interpretation in their encounters with GPs. Of the latter group, the majority were outside the labour force (72.3%) and reported poor health (56%). Sex, age, length of stay, education, employment and household income were important factors for SNI. The amendment to the Health Act will primarily affect immigrants with modest household income, poor health and who are outside the labour force, thereby contributing and creating ethnic and social inequalities in access to health care in Denmark.

  17. Thematic Review on Adult Learning: Denmark. Background Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Denmark has a long tradition of adult learning with roots that go back to the 19th century folk high school movement. Since the late 1950s, an independent adult vocational education and training (VET) system has developed. In the last decades, attempts have been made to link adult VET systems with adult liberal education. More recently,…

  18. The social situation of elderly Turkish immigrants in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Lewinter, M; Kesmez, S S; Gezgin, K

    1996-06-01

    In the 1960s and 1970s Turkish workers migrated to Denmark, as well as other Western European countries, in pursuit of work. The first Turkish immigrants to Denmark from this period are now beginning to enter the ranks of the elderly. They have not returned home and their families have joined them and settled in Denmark. The question arises as to how they will live out their old age in their new country. This article addresses the social situation of the elderly Turkish immigrants in Copenhagen. An interview study of Turkish immigrants 55 years and older showed that their situation had not changed appreciably in the past decade as regards a number of economic and social variables such as housing. This article analyzes the results of the survey, and suggests some ways of interpreting them, both in terms of theories of modernization and assimilation, and aging as leveler or as a double jeopardy. jg]Key words gw]Migration gw]Elderly immigrants gw]Living conditions gw]Social conditions gw]Denmark gw]Turkish immigrants.

  19. Early Childhood Programs in Denmark, England, Spain, Italy, and Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Dorothy Smith

    Providing a cross-cultural perspective on governmental involvement in the provision of day care services, this study explores early childhood programs in five countries. Chapter 1 is a brief introduction, Chapter 2 describes state supported child care in Denmark. Chapter 3 describes playgroups in England. Chapter 4 concerns state and municipal…

  20. University Governance in Denmark: From Democracy to Accountability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a Danish research council-funded project aimed at exploring a comprehensive package of management reforms in higher education instituted in Denmark since 2003. The reforms attempt to change not only the way institutions are governed but the very notion of democracy and engagement in higher education. In short,…

  1. Helping Mothers in Denmark: Over Two Centries of Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Mary M.; Wagner, Marsden G.

    In Denmark a large and complex group of social, legal, educational, health, and financial services are available to all women who are pregnant and/or have children under 2 years of age. These services are the subject of two joint reports. The first report describes the history, organization, and administration of the program and the services for…

  2. Comparing Pedagogy in Mathematics in Denmark and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Peter; Pratt, Nick; Dorf, Hans; Hohmann, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a comparative study of pedagogy in lower-secondary school mathematics in Denmark and England. Lesson observations and interviews identified the range of goals towards which teachers in each country worked and the actions these prompted. These were clustered using the lens of Bernstein's pedagogic discourse to…

  3. University Governance in Denmark: From Democracy to Accountability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a Danish research council-funded project aimed at exploring a comprehensive package of management reforms in higher education instituted in Denmark since 2003. The reforms attempt to change not only the way institutions are governed but the very notion of democracy and engagement in higher education. In short,…

  4. The Progressive Development of Environmental Education in Sweden and Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breiting, Soren; Wickenberg, Per

    2010-01-01

    Our paper traces the history and progressive development of environmental education and education for sustainable development (ESD) in Sweden and Denmark. Our main focus is on work in primary and lower secondary schools as part of a search for trends of international interest related to the conceptualisation and practice of environmental education…

  5. Recurrent Education: Policy and Development in OECD Member Countries. Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Berrit

    The report on recurrent education in Denmark is one of a series describing continuation education in OECD member countries. Intended as a means of liberating individuals from the education-work-leisure-retirement sequence, recurrent education provides freedom to mix and alternate these phases of life within the limits of the socially possible.…

  6. Snapshots of Language and Literature Teaching in Denmark and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Peter; Dorf, Hans

    2016-01-01

    To illustrate differences in lower secondary-level language and literature teaching, we contrast a typical teaching episode in Denmark with one in England. Both reflect the dominant discourses in each country alongside recent policy initiatives, and each exemplifies a different orientation to language and literature teaching focussing on…

  7. Genetic variation in mitochondrial DNA among Enterobius vermicularis in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Mario Rodrıguez; Röser, Dennis; Nielsen, Henrik Vedel; Olsen, Annette; Nejsum, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Despite being the most prevalent nematode infections of man in Western Europe and North America, our knowledge of the genetic variability in Enterobius vermicularis is fragmented. We here report on a genetic study of pinworms in Denmark, performed using the cytochrome oxidase I (cox1) gene, with DNA extracted from individual eggs collected from clinical (human) samples. We collected cellophane-tape-test samples positive for pinworm eggs from 14 Departments of Clinical Microbiology in Denmark and surface-sterilized the eggs using a 1% hypochlorite solution before performing conventional PCR. Twenty-two haplotypes were identified from a total of 58 Danish patients. Cluster analysis showed that all Danish worms grouped together with human samples from Germany and Greece and with samples from Japanese chimpanzees designated as 'type B'. Analysis of molecular variance showed no significant difference or trends in geographical distribution of the pinworms in Denmark, and several haplotypes were identical or closely related to samples collected in Germany, Greece and Japan. However, worms from the 4 countries were found to belong to different populations, with Fst values in the range of 0·16 to 0·47. This study shows pinworms in Denmark to be a homogenous population, when analysed using the cox1 mitochondrial gene.

  8. Rural life in the city: the chalet garden in Denmark

    Treesearch

    Amy Damin; James F. Palmer

    2003-01-01

    Allotment gardens with small cottages make a rural lifestyle partially available in urban areas. Temporary living quarters, combined with the tending of annual and perennial plants, let urbanites coexist with nature for a few months out of the year. This paper investigates the history and social life these gardens play in Denmark. A particular garden, Sano near...

  9. Snapshots of Language and Literature Teaching in Denmark and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Peter; Dorf, Hans

    2016-01-01

    To illustrate differences in lower secondary-level language and literature teaching, we contrast a typical teaching episode in Denmark with one in England. Both reflect the dominant discourses in each country alongside recent policy initiatives, and each exemplifies a different orientation to language and literature teaching focussing on…

  10. The Development of Educational Accountability in China and Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Palle; Zou, Yihuan

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the concept of accountability has attracted more and more attention in public governance and management. The management of education is no exception. This article presents and discusses the evolution and current status of educational accountability in two different national contexts, China and Denmark. Two main sectors of…

  11. Recurrent Education: Policy and Development in OECD Member Countries. Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Berrit

    The report on recurrent education in Denmark is one of a series describing continuation education in OECD member countries. Intended as a means of liberating individuals from the education-work-leisure-retirement sequence, recurrent education provides freedom to mix and alternate these phases of life within the limits of the socially possible.…

  12. Pesticide Reduction Programs in Denmark, the Netherlands, and Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Peter

    1992-01-01

    The Netherlands, Denmark, and Sweden are leaders in introducing comprehensive and targeted risk reduction programs for pesticides. Describes these programs and their implementation, incorporating material obtained through interviews with representatives of the main constituencies involved in reduction Tables list pesticides that do not meet the…

  13. Vocational Education and Training in Denmark. Short Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Vocational education and training in Denmark has embarked on a process of modernisation aiming at, primarily, increasing flexibility, and individualisation, quality and efficiency. Assessment and recognition of informal and non-formal learning, competence-based curricula, innovative approaches to teaching, and increased possibilities for partial…

  14. Global English and Local Language Policies: What Denmark Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes the mythology and imagery underpinning global English, the many labels used to describe English, and the transition from an imperialist language into one that meshes with ongoing processes of Europeanization and Americanization, largely through the influence of transnational corporations. Implications are drawn for Danish, in Denmark, a…

  15. [Prevalence, symptoms, and diagnosis of tuberculosis in Denmark].

    PubMed

    Hilberg, Ole; Hyldgaard, Charlotte; Løkke, Anders

    2011-03-21

    In Denmark the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) is low, but updated knowledge on the diagnostic techniques available is still important. We summarise the current procedure for diagnosing TB with emphasis on sputum culture, use of interferon gamma release assays and the clinical and radiological manifestations of tuberculosis.

  16. Comparing sensitivity and specificity of screening mammography in the United States and Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Katja Kemp; O'Meara, Ellen S.; Key, Dustin; Buist, Diana SM; Kerlikowske, Karla; Vejborg, Ilse; Sprague, Brian L.; Lynge, Elsebeth; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2015-01-01

    Delivery of screening mammography differs substantially between the United States (US) and Denmark. We evaluate whether there are differences in screening sensitivity and specificity. We included screens from women screened at age 50-69 years during 1996-2008/2009 in the US Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) (n=2,872,791), and from two population-based mammography screening programs in Denmark (Copenhagen, n=148,156 and Funen, n=275,553). Women were followed for one year. For initial screens, recall rate was significantly higher in BCSC (17.6%) than in Copenhagen (4.3%) and Funen (3.1%). Sensitivity was fairly similar in BCSC (91.8%) and Copenhagen (90.5%) and Funen (92.5%). At subsequent screens, recall rates were 8.8%, 1.8% and 1.4% in BCSC, Copenhagen and Funen, respectively. The BCSC sensitivity (82.3%) was lower compared to Copenhagen (88.9%) and Funen (86.9%), but when stratified by time since last screen, the sensitivity was similar. For both initial and subsequent screening, the specificity of screening in BCSC (83.2 and 91.6%) was significantly lower than in Copenhagen (96.6 and 98.8%) and Funen. (97.9 and 99.2%). Taking time since last screen into account, American and Danish women had the same probability of having their asymptomatic cancers detected at screening. However, the majority of women free of asymptomatic cancers experienced more harms in terms of false-positive findings in the US than in Denmark. PMID:25944711

  17. Comparing sensitivity and specificity of screening mammography in the United States and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Kemp Jacobsen, Katja; O'Meara, Ellen S; Key, Dustin; S M Buist, Diana; Kerlikowske, Karla; Vejborg, Ilse; Sprague, Brian L; Lynge, Elsebeth; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2015-11-01

    Delivery of screening mammography differs substantially between the United States (US) and Denmark. We evaluated whether there are differences in screening sensitivity and specificity. We included screens from women screened at age 50-69 years during 1996-2008/2009 in the US Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) (n = 2,872,791), and from two population-based mammography screening programs in Denmark (Copenhagen, n = 148,156 and Funen, n = 275,553). Women were followed-up for 1 year. For initial screens, recall rate was significantly higher in BCSC (17.6%) than in Copenhagen (4.3%) and Funen (3.1%). Sensitivity was fairly similar in BCSC (91.8%) and Copenhagen (90.5%) and Funen (92.5%). At subsequent screens, recall rates were 8.8%, 1.8% and 1.4% in BCSC, Copenhagen and Funen, respectively. The BCSC sensitivity (82.3%) was lower compared with that in Copenhagen (88.9%) and Funen (86.9%), but when stratified by time since last screen, the sensitivity was similar. For both initial and subsequent screenings, the specificity of screening in BCSC (83.2% and 91.6%) was significantly lower than that in Copenhagen (96.6% and 98.8%) and Funen (97.9% and 99.2%). By taking time since last screen into account, it was found that American and Danish women had the same probability of having their asymptomatic cancers detected at screening. However, the majority of women free of asymptomatic cancers experienced more harms in terms of false-positive findings in the US than in Denmark. © 2015 UICC.

  18. Burden of HPV-caused cancers in Denmark and the potential effect of HPV-vaccination.

    PubMed

    Skorstengaard, Malene; Thamsborg, Lise Holst; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2017-10-13

    Denmark is one of the countries where Human papillomavirus (HPV)-vaccination at present includes only girls. However, the burden of HPV-related cancer in men is increasing, which would argue for gender-neutral vaccination. The aim of this study was to examine the burden of HPV-caused cancers in women and men, and to evaluate the potential of HPV-vaccination in cancer control. Data were retrieved from the literature on population prevalence of high risk (HR) HPV, on HR HPV-prevalence and genotypes in HPV-related cancers, and on number of cytology samples in cervical screening. Data on annual biopsies and conisations were retrieved from the Danish National Health Service Register and the Danish National Patient Register. Incidences of HPV-related cancers in Denmark were extracted from NORDCAN. Number of HPV-caused cancers was calculated from number of HPV-related cancers and the proportion known to be caused by high-risk (HR) HPV. In cross-sectional surveys in Denmark, one fifth of women and almost one third of men were found to be positive for HR HPV. Per year, 548 HPV-caused cancer cases were diagnosed in women and 234 in men, and twice as many cancers in women as in men were preventable with HPV vaccination. However, including screening prevented cervical cancers, the burden of cancers caused by HPV-infection would be 1300-2000 in women as compared to 234 in men. Taking screening prevented cervical cancers into account, the cancer control potential of HPV-vaccination is considerably higher in women than in men. HPV-vaccination could reduce the burden of screening on women and on health care resources. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Sex differences in health and mortality in Moscow and Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Shkolnikova, M.; Vaupel, J. W.; Christensen, K.; Shkolnikov, V. M.

    2014-01-01

    In high income countries females outlive men, although they generally report worse health, the so-called male–female health-survival paradox. Russia has one of the world’s largest sex difference in life expectancy with a male disadvantage of more than 10 years. We compare components of the paradox between Denmark and Moscow by examining sex differences in mortality and several health measures. The Human Mortality Database and the Russian Fertility and Mortality Database were used to examine sex differences in all-cause death rates in Denmark, Russia, and Moscow in 2007–2008. Self-reported health data were obtained from the Study of Middle-Aged Danish Twins (n = 4,314), the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins (n = 4,731), and the study of Stress, Aging, and Health in Russia (n = 1,800). In both Moscow and Denmark there was a consistent female advantage at ages 55–89 years in survival and a male advantage in self-rated health, physical functioning, and depression symptomatology. Only on cognitive tests males performed similarly to or worse than women. Nevertheless, Muscovite males had more than twice higher mortality at ages 55–69 years compared to Muscovite women, almost double the ratio in Denmark. The present study showed that despite similar directions of sex differences in health and mortality in Moscow and Denmark, the male–female health-survival paradox is very pronounced in Moscow suggesting a stronger sex-specific disconnect between health indicators and mortality among middle-aged and young-old Muscovites. PMID:24668060

  20. The geothermal energy potential in Denmark - updating the database and new structural and thermal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Sparre Andersen, Morten; Balling, Niels; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Fuchs, Sven; Leth Hjuler, Morten; Kristensen, Lars; Mathiesen, Anders; Olivarius, Mette; Weibel, Rikke

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of structural, hydraulic and thermal conditions of the subsurface is fundamental for the planning and use of hydrothermal energy. In the framework of a project under the Danish Research program 'Sustainable Energy and Environment' funded by the 'Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation', fundamental geological and geophysical information of importance for the utilization of geothermal energy in Denmark was compiled, analyzed and re-interpreted. A 3D geological model was constructed and used as structural basis for the development of a national subsurface temperature model. In that frame, all available reflection seismic data were interpreted, quality controlled and integrated to improve the regional structural understanding. The analyses and interpretation of available relevant data (i.e. old and new seismic profiles, core and well-log data, literature data) and a new time-depth conversion allowed a consistent correlation of seismic surfaces for whole Denmark and across tectonic features. On this basis, new topologically consistent depth and thickness maps for 16 geological units from the top pre-Zechstein to the surface were drawn. A new 3D structural geological model was developed with special emphasis on potential geothermal reservoirs. The interpretation of petrophysical data (core data and well-logs) allows to evaluate the hydraulic and thermal properties of potential geothermal reservoirs and to develop a parameterized numerical 3D conductive subsurface temperature model. Reservoir properties and quality were estimated by integrating petrography and diagenesis studies with porosity-permeability data. Detailed interpretation of the reservoir quality of the geological formations was made by estimating net reservoir sandstone thickness based on well-log analysis, determination of mineralogy including sediment provenance analysis, and burial history data. New local surface heat-flow values (range: 64-84 mW/m2) were determined for the Danish

  1. [Disability-free life expectancy among 60-year-olds in Denmark].

    PubMed

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette

    2003-06-02

    Life expectancy can be expressed as average expected lifetime in different health states. The purpose of the study was to estimate disability-free life expectancy, i.e. average lifetime without disabilities, in Denmark and in the counties of Denmark and evaluate the relation between life expectancy and the proportion of disability-free life expectancy. Prevalence rates of disability (in terms of walking, walking on stairs, carrying 5 kg, reading, hearing and speaking) derived from the Danish Health Interview Survey 2000 were combined with life-table data and disability-free life expectancy was calculated by Sullivan's method. In 2000 expected lifetime of 60-year-old men and women was 18.8 years and 22.0 years respectively and disability-free life expectancy was 14.7 years for both sexes corresponding to 78.4% and 66.6% of the remaining lifetime for men and women respectively. Differences in disability-free life expectancy between counties ranged from zero to three years. In counties with the highest life expectancy among women they tended to have a higher proportion of life years with disabilities, but there was no correlation between life expectancy and the proportion of disability-free life expectancy for men. The results may illustrate theories about the relation between increased lifetime and quality of life in terms of health. Increased total lifetime for women prolongs the proportion of expected lifetime with disability ("expansion of morbidity"), whereas for men no correlation was found ("dynamic equilibrium").

  2. A quantitative analysis of biodiversity and the recreational value of potential national parks in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Petersen, Anders Højgård; Strange, Niels; Lund, Mette Palitzsch; Rahbek, Carsten

    2008-05-01

    Denmark has committed itself to the European 2010 target to halt the loss of biodiversity. Currently, Denmark is in the process of designating larger areas as national parks, and 7 areas (of a possible 32 larger nature areas) have been selected for pilot projects to test the feasibility of establishing national parks. In this article, we first evaluate the effectiveness of the a priori network of national parks proposed through expert and political consensus versus a network chosen specifically for biodiversity through quantitative analysis. Second, we analyze the potential synergy between preserving biodiversity in terms of species representation and recreational values in selecting a network of national parks. We use the actual distribution of 973 species within these 32 areas and 4 quantitative measures of recreational value. Our results show that the 7 pilot project areas are not significantly more effective in representing species than expected by chance and that considerably more efficient networks can be selected. Moreover, it is possible to select more-effective networks of areas that combine high representation of species with high ranking in terms of recreational values. Therefore, our findings suggest possible synergies between outdoor recreation and biodiversity conservation when selecting networks of national parks. Overall, this Danish case illustrates that data-driven analysis can not only provide valuable information to guide the decision-making process of designating national parks, but it can also be a means to identify solutions that simultaneously fulfill several goals (biodiversity preservation and recreational values).

  3. Cannabis use in persons with traumatic spinal cord injury in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Sven R; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Hagen, Ellen Merete; Nielsen, Jørgen F; Bach, Flemming W; Finnerup, Nanna B

    2017-01-31

    To evaluate recreational and medical cannabis use in individuals with traumatic spinal cord injury, including reasons and predictors for use, perceived benefits and negative consequences. Cross-sectional survey in Denmark. A 35-item questionnaire was sent to 1,101 patients with spinal cord injury who had been in contact with a rehabilitation centre between 1990 and 2012. A total of 537 participants completed the questionnaire. Of these, 36% had tried cannabis at least once and 9% were current users. Of current users, 79% had started to use cannabis before their spinal cord injury. The main reason for use was pleasure, but 65% used cannabis partly for spinal cord injury-related consequences and 59% reported at least good effect on pain and spasticity. Negative consequences of use were primarily inertia and feeling quiet/subdued. Lower age, living in rural areas/larger cities, tobacco-smoking, high alcohol intake and higher muscle stiffness were significantly associated with cannabis use. Those who had never tried cannabis reported that they would mainly use cannabis to alleviate pain and spasticity if it were legalized. Cannabis use is more frequent among individuals with spinal cord injury in Denmark than among the general population. High muscle stiffness and various demographic characteristics (lower age, living in rural areas/larger cities, tobacco-smoking and high alcohol intake) were associated with cannabis use. Most participants had started using cannabis before their spinal cord injury. There was considerable overlap between recreational and disability-related use.

  4. A comparative analysis of coverage decisions for outpatient pharmaceuticals: evidence from Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Grepstad, Mari; Kanavos, Panos

    2015-02-01

    This study analyses the reasons for differences and similarities in coverage recommendations for outpatient pharmaceuticals in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, following HTA appraisals. A comparative analysis of all outpatient drug appraisals carried out between January 2009 and December 2012, including an analysis of divergent coverage recommendations made by all three countries was performed. Agreement levels between HTA agencies were measured using kappa scores. Consultations with stakeholders in the three countries were carried out to complement the discussion on HTA processes and reimbursement outcomes. Nineteen outpatient drug-indication pairs appraised in each of the three countries were identified, of which 6 pairs (32%) had divergent coverage recommendations. An uneven distribution of coverage recommendations was observed, with the highest overlap in appraisals between Norway and Sweden (free-marginal kappa 0.89). Similarities were found in priority setting principles, mode of appraisal and reasoning for coverage recommendations. The study shows that health economic evaluation is less prominent or explicit in outpatient drug appraisals in Denmark than in Norway and Sweden, that all three countries could benefit from improved communication between appraisers and manufacturers, and that final coverage recommendations rely on factors other than safety, comparative efficacy or cost-effectiveness.

  5. Denmark. A Study of the Educational System of Denmark and Guide to the Academic Placement of Students in Educational Institutions in the United States. PIER World Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolston, Valerie A.; Dickey, Karlene N.

    This volume offers a full country study of the structure and content of the educational system of Denmark, together with a formal set of placement recommendations for Danish students wishing to study in the United States. Chapter 1 introduces the volume with descriptions of Denmark and its people, government, the government's role in education,…

  6. Educational assortative mating and income inequality in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Breen, Richard; Andersen, Signe Hald

    2012-08-01

    Many writers have expressed a concern that growing educational assortative mating will lead to greater inequality between households in their earnings or income. In this article, we examine the relationship between educational assortative mating and income inequality in Denmark between 1987 and 2006. Denmark is widely known for its low level of income inequality, but the Danish case provides a good test of the relationship between educational assortative mating and inequality because although income inequality increased over the period we consider, educational homogamy declined. Using register data on the exact incomes of the whole population, we find that change in assortative mating increased income inequality but that these changes were driven by changes in the educational distributions of men and women rather than in the propensity for people to choose a partner with a given level of education.

  7. The geomagnetic elements in Denmark 1928-1980

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, H. A.

    Geomagnetic surveys in Denmark from 1928 till 1980 are reported. The Danish Meteorological Institute initiated a new, geomagnetic survey of Denmark in 1928 by the establishment of 10 repeat statins for observation of the geomagnetic, secular variation. The stations were visited again in 1930 and since then every fifth year. The general survey was started in 1939 and continued during the years 1946 to 1957 with the mapping of Northern Jutland. In 1967 the survey taken with a coarser spacing of the measured points during the following years succeeded in completing the mapping of the country with primary consideration to the declination. The observations on the repeat stations during the time 1928-1980 allowed development of mathematical formulas for the secular change of the magnetic elements D, H and Z at any arbitrary point in the country.

  8. Improving national surveillance of Lyme neuroborreliosis in Denmark through electronic reporting of specific antibody index testing from 2010 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Dessau, R B; Espenhain, L; Mølbak, K; Krause, T G; Voldstedlund, M

    2015-07-16

    Our aim was to evaluate the results of automated surveillance of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) in Denmark using the national microbiology database (MiBa), and to describe the epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed LNB at a national level. MiBa-based surveillance includes electronic transfer of laboratory results, in contrast to the statutory surveillance based on manually processed notifications. Antibody index (AI) testing is the recommend laboratory test to support the diagnosis of LNB in Denmark. In the period from 2010 to 2012, 217 clinical cases of LNB were notified to the statutory surveillance system, while 533 cases were reported AI positive by the MiBa system. Thirty-five unconfirmed cases (29 AI-negative and 6 not tested) were notified, but not captured by MiBa. Using MiBa, the number of reported cases was increased almost 2.5 times. Furthermore, the reporting was timelier (median lag time: 6 vs 58 days). Average annual incidence of AI-confirmed LNB in Denmark was 3.2/100,000 population and incidences stratified by municipality ranged from none to above 10/100,000. This is the first study reporting nationwide incidence of LNB using objective laboratory criteria. Laboratory-based surveillance with electronic data-transfer was more accurate, complete and timely compared to the surveillance based on manually processed notifications. We propose using AI test results for LNB surveillance instead of clinical reporting.

  9. Final repository for Denmark's low- and intermediate level radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, B.; Gravesen, P.; Petersen, S. S.; Binderup, M.

    2012-12-01

    Bertel Nilsson*, Peter Gravesen, Stig A. Schack Petersen, Merete Binderup Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgade 10, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark, * email address bn@geus.dk The Danish Parliament decided in 2003 that the temporal disposal of the low- and intermediate level radioactive waste at the nuclear facilities at Risø should find another location for a final repository. The Danish radioactive waste must be stored on Danish land territory (exclusive Greenland) and must hold the entire existing radioactive waste, consisting of the waste from the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities at Risø, and the radioactive waste produced in Denmark from hospitals, universities and industry. The radioactive waste is estimated to a total amount of up to 10,000 m3. The Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, GEUS, is responsible for the geological studies of suitable areas for the repository. The task has been to locate and recognize non-fractured Quaternary and Tertiary clays or Precambrian bedrocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surroundings the coming more than 300 years. Twenty two potential areas have been located and sequential reduced to the most favorable two to three locations taking into consideration geology, hydrogeology, nature protection and climate change conditions. Further detailed environmental and geology investigations will be undertaken at the two to three potential localities in 2013 to 2015. This study together with a study of safe transport of the radioactive waste and an investigation of appropriate repository concepts in relation to geology and safety analyses will constitute the basis upon which the final decision by the Danish Parliament on repository concept and repository location. The final repository is planned to be established and in operation at the earliest 2020.

  10. Gendered Time-Crunch and Work Factors in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deding, Mette; Lausten, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Being crunched for time is an important aspect of life quality. Although Denmark is a country known for gender-equality, on average mothers are more time-crunched than fathers. We show this using a representative sample of Danish dual-earner couples with at least one child aged 0-10 years. We analyze the determinants of time-crunch in relation to…

  11. A Cost Analysis of Day Care in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Marsden G.

    A cost analysis of day care in Denmark was initiated to determine what day care services cost, who pays for them, and how these costs relate to the quality of day care services. Some of the findings are: (1) group day care is considerably more expensive for children 0-3 years of age than for children 3-7 years of age; (2) group day care centers…

  12. The Power of Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevin, John A.

    2010-01-01

    In "The Power of Cooperation," Tony Nevin tells how the townspeople of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, are attempting to replicate a successful alternative-energy project in Samso, Denmark, where thinking about ways to reduce fossil-fuel use "became a kind of sport." Nevin says that thinking and acting locally helps people to…

  13. The Power of Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevin, John A.

    2010-01-01

    In "The Power of Cooperation," Tony Nevin tells how the townspeople of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, are attempting to replicate a successful alternative-energy project in Samso, Denmark, where thinking about ways to reduce fossil-fuel use "became a kind of sport." Nevin says that thinking and acting locally helps people to…

  14. Temporal and spatial variability of the Denmark Strait Overflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritz, Martin; Nunes, Nuno; Jochumsen, Kerstin; Quadfasel, Detlef

    2016-04-01

    The Denmark Strait Overflow (DSO) represents about half of the export of dense waters formed in the Nordic Seas to the deep circulation in the North Atlantic. The passage connecting the two is wider than the Rossby radius of deformation, and highly variable meso-scale current fluctuations are observed in the overflow. In the summer of 2014, the mooring array used for monitoring the Denmark Strait Overflow was expanded from two to five moorings in order to better resolve its spatial variability. Continuous measurements of the velocity field were made using four acoustic profilers (ADCP) and one point current meter (RCM). The instruments were deployed along the sill between the deepest point and 33 km westward of it, towards the Greenland shelf. A descriptive analysis of the structure of the velocity field at the Denmark Strait sill is presented, along with its spatial and temporal variability. The fluctuations are dominated by passing meso-scale vortices, pulsating changes in the strength of the overflow and shifts in the location of the Polar Front. These changes and their respective contribution to the variability of the flow field are discussed with relation to the different source water masses for the DSO. The relationship between spatial coherence and temporal variability on daily to monthly time scales is explored, and the influence of meso-scale eddies on daily to weekly transport estimates is quantified. The results of the analysis are used to develop a measurement strategy for unbiased DSO transport estimates.

  15. ESRO/ESA and Denmark. Participation by research and industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmandsen, Preben

    2003-09-01

    These notes are prepared to give an impression of considerations and activities in Denmark related to ESRO and ESA, roughly in the period 1964 to 1990. In a number of chapters we consider early space-related research in Denmark, the initial phase of the ESRO era and the following period, including the phase of transition from ESRO to ESA when Denmark seriously considered leaving the space co-operation. A chapter gives examples of activities in the ESA era within space science and astronomy, Earth Observation and microgravity, followed by a final one dealing with the national management of optional programmes and the involvement by industry. In drafting the notes we have taken advantage of the work carried out in the Introductory Studies carried out to secure and place in order the archives of the Danish Space Research Advisory Committee. In this connection excerpts of individual documents (mostly minutes of meetings, letters and reports) were taken. To a great extent they form the basis for many of the points made in the notes.

  16. The Prevalence of Four Types of Childhood Maltreatment in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Christoffersen, Mogens N; Armour, Cherie; Lasgaard, Mathias; Andersen, Tonny E; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of four types of childhood maltreatment in Denmark while taking into considerations how each of the types of maltreatment vary as a function of gender or child-protection status. Methods: Data were collected from a Danish national study conducted by The Danish National Centre for Social Research in 2008 and 2009. The study used a stratified random probability sample of young people aged 24 years. A sample of 4718 young adults were randomly selected by Statistics Denmark using the total birth cohort of all children born in 1984. The response rate was 63% leaving a total effective sample size of 2980. A structured residential or telephone interview enquired about a range of respondents maltreatment experiences. Results: Maltreatment is experienced by a significant proportion of Danish children. The reported prevalence rates were; physical neglect (3.0%), emotional abuse (5.2%), physical abuse (5.4%) and sexual abuse (3.4%). All trauma types were experienced by a greater percentage of females compared to males with the exception of physical abuse and all trauma types were experienced by a greater percentage of children given child-protection status. Conclusions: Female children and children who are given child protection status are those most at risk for experiencing maltreatment in Denmark. However, variability in prevalence rates of maltreatment across studies is problematic. Methodological variations and variation in abuse definitions may be partly attributable. PMID:24155769

  17. Epidemiology of Chronic Pain in Denmark and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Harker, Julie; Reid, Kim J.; Bekkering, Geertruida E.; Kellen, Eliane; Bala, Malgorzata M.; Riemsma, Rob; Worthy, Gill; Misso, Kate; Kleijnen, Jos

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Estimates on the epidemiology of chronic pain vary widely throughout Europe. It is unclear whether this variation reflects true differences between populations or methodological factors. Information on the epidemiology of chronic pain can support decision makers in allocating adequate health care resources. Methods. In order to obtain epidemiological data on chronic pain in Denmark and Sweden, we conducted a literature review of epidemiological data primarily on chronic noncancer pain, prioritising studies of highest quality, recency, and validity by conducting a systematic search for relevant studies. Following quality assessment, data were summarised and assigned to the research questions. Results. The prevalence of moderate to severe noncancer pain was estimated at 16% in Denmark and 18% in Sweden. Chronic pain impacts negatively on perceived health status, quality of life and is associated with increased cost. Despite using pain medications, a large proportion of chronic pain sufferers have inadequate pain control. There was a lack of high-quality and low-bias studies with clear inclusion criteria. Conclusions. In both Denmark and Sweden, chronic pain is a common health problem which is potentially undertreated and warrants attention of health care workers, policy makers and researchers. Future research should utilise clear reporting guidelines to assist decision and policy makers, in this important area. PMID:22693667

  18. Structures and processes in spontaneous ADR reporting systems: a comparative study of Australia and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Aagaard, Lise; Stenver, Doris Irene; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2008-10-01

    To explore the organisational structure and processes of the Danish and Australian spontaneous ADR reporting systems with a view to how information is generated about new ADRs. The Danish and Australian spontaneous ADR reporting systems. Qualitative analyses of documentary material, descriptive interviews with key informants, and observations were made. We analysed the organisational structure of the Danish and Australian ADR reporting systems with respect to structures and processes, including information flow and exchange of ADR data. The analysis was made based on Scott's adapted version of Leavitt's diamond model, with the components: goals/tasks, social structure, technology and participants, within a surrounding environment. The main differences between the systems were: (1) PARTICIPANTS: Outsourcing of ADR assessments to the pharmaceutical companies complicates maintenance of scientific skills within the Danish Medicines Agency (DKMA), as it leaves the handling of spontaneous ADR reports purely administrative within the DKMA, and the knowledge creation process remains with the pharmaceutical companies, while in Australia senior scientific staff work with evaluation of the ADR report; (2) Goals/tasks: In Denmark, resources are targeted at evaluating Periodic Safety Update Reports (PSUR) submitted by the companies, while the resources in Australia are focused on single case assessment resulting in faster and more proactive medicine surveillance; (3) Social structure: Discussions between scientific staff about ADRs take place in Australia, while the Danish system primarily focuses on entering and forwarding ADR data to the relevant pharmaceutical companies; (4) Technology: The Danish system exchanges ADR data electronically with pharmaceutical companies and the other EU countries, while Australia does not have a system for electronic exchange of ADR data; and (5) ENVIRONMENT: The Danish ADR system is embedded in the routines of cooperation within European

  19. Usage of psychiatric emergency services by asylum seekers: Clinical implications based on a descriptive study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Reko, Amra; Bech, Per; Wohlert, Cathrine; Noerregaard, Christian; Csillag, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Asylum seekers are found to be at high risk of mental health problems. Little is known about the use of acute psychiatric emergency services by asylum seekers. To describe the usage of an inpatient/outpatient psychiatric emergency service in Denmark by adult asylum seekers, and discuss clinical implications. This descriptive study is based on retrospective data collected from patient charts during a 3-month period. A total of 31 evaluations were made (3.3% of all evaluations), based on 23 asylum seekers. Patients originated from 16 different countries, were predominantly male and married. The group consisted primarily (61%) of failed asylum seekers. Most patients (81%) presented with relevant mental health problems. The main reasons for presenting to the acute psychiatric emergency service were suicidal ideation and/or behaviour (60%). The most frequent diagnosis given at the initial evaluation was ICD-10 F43.9 "reaction to severe stress, unspecified" (50%). Evaluations were made primarily by non-psychiatrists. No standardized screening or diagnostic instrument was used. This first description of the use of an acute psychiatric emergency service by asylum seekers in Denmark shows some of the acute mental health needs asylum seekers present with. The findings of high levels of suicidal ideation and possible diagnostic difficulties are discussed, as well as possible improvements of the referral and psychiatric evaluation processes.

  20. Family Nursing Therapeutic Conversations in Heart Failure Outpatient Clinics in Denmark: Nurses' Experiences.

    PubMed

    Voltelen, Barbara; Konradsen, Hanne; Østergaard, Birte

    2016-05-01

    As part of the Heart Failure Family Trial presently being conducted in Denmark, this qualitative process evaluation explored the perceptions of seven practicing cardiac nurses who offered family nursing therapeutic conversations (FNTC) to families in three heart failure outpatient clinics. FNTC were guided by the Calgary Family Assessment and Intervention Models. Data consisted of 34 case reports written by the nurses which documented the use of FNTC, including family responses to the FNTC. A focus group interview with the six of the nurses about their experience of offering FNTC was also conducted. Content analysis was performed using a combined deductive and inductive process. Nurses reported developing a distinct, closer, and more constructive relationship with the patients and their families and reported FNTC increased family bonding and strengthened family relationships. The nurses considered FNTC to be feasible interventions in the routine care provided in heart failure outpatient clinics.

  1. Epidemiology of retinitis pigmentosa in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Haim, Marianne

    2002-01-01

    A nation-wide registration of Danish cases of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) provided 1890 persons diagnosed during the period 1850-1989. Prevalent at 1 January 1988 were 1301 persons (1:3943) comprising a multitude of different RP-types. Age specific prevalence rates demonstrated increasing rates of RP during the first four decades of life and a rather stable prevalence over the next 20-30 years. Corrected for incompleteness, a late decrease was found, reflecting an incomplete ascertainment of the oldest patients. A moving average method indicated an even later steady state value for the age-specific prevalence. The Danish prevalence figures were standardized according to the WHO World Standardized Prevalence Rates and compared with large studies from the USA and UK. No statistically significant difference was found. Usher syndrome was present in 12% of all RP-cases and Bardet-Biedl syndrome comprised 5%. Mental retardation was found in 144 cases (11%), mostly characterized by atypical RP. Nineteen per cent of patients affected by nonsystemic RP had an onset later than 30 years of age, whereas only a few per cent of persons with systemic RP had an RP onset after age 30 years. The Mendelian inheritance type of all cases was evaluated according to an unambiguous genetic classification, finding a larger amount of X-linked RP compared with other studies. Among nonsystemic RP-cases, 14.3% were found to be inherited as an X-linked trait whereas only 8.4% were autosomal dominantly inherited. The largest fraction was, as in previous materials, the simplex group (isolated cases) comprising 42.9% of the nonsystemic RP patients. Some factors influencing the results are discussed, with special emphasis on the problems associated with precise definitions of the Mendelian inheritance groups. A diagram according to the author's definition was constructed as a guideline ready for clinical application.

  2. Seismic investigations in downtown Copenhagen, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, K.; Mendoza, J. A.; Olsen, H.

    2009-12-01

    general velocity layers were observed; 800-1250 m/s, 1250-1700 m/s and a high velocity layer 1700-2500 m/s with localized zones of greater velocities. The variations in the higher velocity layer provide information on limestone properties relevant for tunneling design. The Walkaway-VSP proved to be a useful tool for identifying the velocity fields corresponding to the shallow sediments and the deep sequences of limestone, thus aiding the interpretation of the surface refraction imaging. Data acquisition was planned overnight to reduce external noise impact and optimise production, and urban challenges (e.g. traffic, pipelines) were overcome. Further integrated geophysical interpretation will be done together with hydrogeological analyses, geotechnical evaluations and geological modelling. The authors acknowledge Metroselskabet I/S for permission to present these results, and the Cityringen Joint Venture partners COWI, Arup and Systra.

  3. Spatial emission modelling for residential wood combustion in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Brandt, Jørgen

    2016-11-01

    Residential wood combustion (RWC) is a major contributor to atmospheric pollution especially for particulate matter. Air pollution has significant impact on human health, and it is therefore important to know the human exposure. For this purpose, it is necessary with a detailed high resolution spatial distribution of emissions. In previous studies as well as in the model previously used in Denmark, the spatial resolution is limited, e.g. municipality or county level. Further, in many cases models are mainly relying on population density data as the spatial proxy for distributing the emissions. This paper describes the new Danish model for high resolution spatial distribution of emissions from RWC to air. The new spatial emission model is based on information regarding building type, and primary and supplementary heating installations from the Danish Building and Dwelling Register (BBR), which holds detailed data for all buildings in Denmark. The new model provides a much more accurate distribution of emissions than the previous model used in Denmark, as the resolution has been increased from municipality level to a 1 km × 1 km resolution, and the distribution key has been significantly improved so that it no longer puts an excessive weight on population density. The new model has been verified for the city of Copenhagen, where emissions estimated using both the previous and the new model have been compared to the emissions estimated in a case study. This comparison shows that the new model with the developed weighting factors (76 ton PM2.5) is in good agreement with the case study (95 ton PM2.5), and that the new model has improved the spatial emission distribution significantly compared to the previous model (284 ton PM2.5). Additionally, a sensitivity analysis was done to illustrate the impact of the weighting factors on the result, showing that the new model independently of the weighting factors chosen produce a more accurate result than the old model.

  4. Background nitrogen concentrations in fresh waters in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windolf, Jørgen; Bøgestrand, Jens; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Kronvang, Brian

    2013-04-01

    Quantitative information on the background loading of nitrogen is important when establishing the pressure-impact pathway for Danish springs, streams, lakes and estuaries The background nitrogen loading thus determines present day lowest nitrogen loadings without influence from point sources and agriculture but includes present day atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds. We have mapped the background concentration of nitrogen in Danish soil water, springs and streams based on monitoring in one soil water station (1990-2010), 11 springs, 7 small streams draining undisturbed catchments (1990-2010) and 19 streams draining small undisturbed catchments (2004-11). The concentration of ammonium-N (NH4+) and organic N was found to be nearly constant within six major landscape types in Denmark, respectively, 0.05 mg ± 0.06 mg N L-1 and 0.53 mg ± 0.29 mg N L-1. On contrary, the concentration of nitrate-nitrite-N (NO3- + NO2-) was found to vary between 0.06-0.83 mg N L-1 within the six landscape types. We have also time series of background total nitrogen concentrations from 7 small undisturbed catchments covering the period 1990-2010. No significant trends have been observed for total nitrogen concentrations from these streams during the period 1990-2010. The measured average nitrate-N concentrations in streams has been modelled against dominant landscape geology and a 5x5 km grid map of Denmark showing background concentrations of nitrate-N and total N has been produced. This map has been used during the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive as a baseline for estimating background nitrogen losses to surface waters in Denmark. Thus, the average annual background loss of total nitrogen amounts to 13,000 tonnes N or 20% of the total loading of nitrogen from the Danish land to sea during the period 2005-2009.

  5. Spontaneous Pregnancy Loss in Denmark Following Economic Downturns.

    PubMed

    Bruckner, Tim A; Mortensen, Laust H; Catalano, Ralph A

    2016-04-15

    An estimated 11%-20% of clinically recognized pregnancies result in spontaneous abortion. The literature finds elevated risk of spontaneous abortion among women who report adverse financial life events. This work suggests that, at the population level, national economic decline-an ambient and plausibly unexpected stressor-will precede an increase in spontaneous abortion. We tested this hypothesis using high-quality information on pregnancy and spontaneous loss for all women in Denmark. We applied time-series methods to monthly counts of clinically detected spontaneous abortions (n = 157,449) and the unemployment rate in Denmark beginning in January 1995 and ending in December 2009. Our statistical methods controlled for temporal patterns in spontaneous abortion (e.g., seasonality, trend) and changes in the population of pregnancies at risk of loss. Unexpected increases in the unemployment rate preceded by 1 month a rise in the number of spontaneous abortions (β = 33.19 losses/month, 95% confidence interval: 8.71, 57.67). An attendant analysis that used consumption of durable household goods as an indicator of financial insecurity supported the inference from our main test. Changes over time in elective abortions and in the cohort composition of high-risk pregnancies did not account for results. It appears that in Denmark, ambient stressors as common as increasing unemployment may precede a population-level increase in spontaneous abortion. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. eHealth in Denmark: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2013-12-01

    Denmark is widely regarded as a leading country in terms of eHealth integration and healthcare delivery services. The push for eHealth adoption over that past 20 years in the Danish health sector has led to the deployment of multiple eHealth technologies. However, in reality the Danish healthcare suffers from eHealth system fragmentation which has led to eHealth's inability to reach full potential in delivering quality healthcare service. This paper will presents a case study of the current state of eHealth in the Danish healthcare system and discuss the current challenges the country is facing today.

  7. [Fertility treatment in Denmark--development and challenges].

    PubMed

    Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Humaidan, Peter; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2012-10-08

    In Denmark, a total of 31,000 assisted reproductive technology (ART) and intrauterine insemination treatments yearly results in the delivery of around 6,300 children, which represents 9% of the Danish birth cohort. The delivery rate following ART (in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmatic sperm injection, frozen embryo replacement and oocyte donation) has been stable around 20% per cycle initiated during the last decade, despite the transfer of fewer embryos. The future challenges are the increasing age of women seeking fertility treatment, the development of biomarkers of embryonic implantation potential as well as the improvement of embryo culture, and embryo freezing techniques.

  8. Some epidemiologic features of canine neosporosis in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, K; Jensen, A L

    1996-04-01

    From a serological survey of 98 dogs, the overall prevalence of subclinical neosporosis among dogs in Denmark was estimated as 15.3%. From a questionnaire completed at the time of blood sampling in 87 dogs, it was found that exposure to cats could be a risk factor for the infection in dogs (odds ratio 3.46; 95% confidence limit 1.1-11.4). Further, it was shown that the antibody response in a pregnant dog increased markedly during gestation, suggesting that the parasite may be reactivated during pregnancy in a manner resembling that of Toxocara canis.

  9. The impact of technology: protection in Norway and Denmark.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    The impact of technology on nurses and their work conditions has been a preoccupation of many national nurses' associations. The ease with which they have been able to solve the ensuing problems for nurses, improve their working environment and provide the necessary training has often depended on their respective country's basic laws and their bargaining muscle. Below are examples of how nurses can protect their rights under two different legal systems based on a report from Per Godtland Kristensen, executive director of the Norwegian Nurses Association (Norsk Sykepleier Forbund), and a recent survey by the Salaried Employees' and Civil Confederation (FTF) in Denmark.

  10. Inter-comparison of rainfall seasonality simulated by several RCMs over Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Tao; Ditlevsen, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Global mean temperature has risen significantly over the past half century. The water vapor content in the atmosphere has risen and global hydrological cycle has been intensified accordingly. Owing to the amplification of hydrological cycle, the anthropogenic forced warming changed not only the mean state of precipitation but also its seasonal distribution. Such changes, in turn, have led to change of the length of 'dry' and 'wet' seasons and rainfall contrasts during the year. However, the attribution of the observed warming to rainfall seasonality change remains less clear. In this study, a global measure of seasonality derived by Walsh and Lawler was used to identify the seasonal distribution of precipitation over Denmark. Regional Climate Models (RCMs) can describe more detailed characteristics of the temperature, rainfall distribution and inter-annual variation than global climate models can. In the present study, the performance of several RCMs was investigated in simulating the seasonal distribution of precipitation and long-term change of rainfall seasonality over Denmark. The study was based on a rainfall seasonality index by comparing modeled precipitation to observation. The RCMs include: HIRHAM5 (forced with BCCR-NorESM climate model, EC-EARTH climate model, and ERA-Interim reanalysis), WRF3.31 (forced with BCCR-NorESM climate model, and ERA-Interim reanalysis). Here we use output from two 21 year simulation (1990 - 2010) using the RCMs forced with SSTs from the ECMWF reanalysis ERA-Interim at a model resolution of 8km*8km, and three 30 year simulation (1981 - 2010) using the RCMs forced with GCMs. Observations from DMI (Danish Meteorological Institute) 96 stations of precipitation were applied in the validation of the RCMs. Through comparisons of the model results among the RCMs and with the observations, the ability of RCMs to reproduce rainfall seasonality was evaluated. The results show that all models can simulate the seasonal cycle of the mean

  11. Universal screening for hepatitis B among pregnant women led to 96% vaccination coverage among newborns of HBsAg positive mothers in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Harder, Katja Majlund; Cowan, Susan; Eriksen, Mette Brandt; Krarup, Henrik B; Christensen, Peer Brehm

    2011-11-21

    In Denmark selective screening programs of pregnant women for hepatitis B missed 30-50% of high-risk groups and in late 2005 a universal screening of pregnant women for HBsAg was implemented. During a 2-year period a prospective enhanced surveillance of the universal screening was performed to examine the effectiveness of universal HBV-screening of pregnant women and HBV-immunizations of their newborn, and to provide a prevalence-estimate for HBV in Denmark. On a opt out basis all women in Denmark attending antenatal care were tested for hepatitis B serology. Vaccination data of the newborns and households of HBsAg positive pregnant women were assembled. Among 140,376 HBsAg tests of pregnant women, 371 (0.26%) were positive. The prevalence among women of Danish origin was 0.012% and 2.74% among foreign born women, highest for women from Southeast Asia (14.5%). Genotype C was the most prevalent (37%) and 13% had a HBVDNA ≥10(8) IU/ml. The prevalence estimate of chronic hepatitis B in Denmark was 0.2-0.3% in the general population. Among children born within the project period, 96% received vaccination at birth compared to 50% of siblings born prior to universal screening. During 3 years of passive follow-up two transmissions (0.5%) have been notified. Among children born of the positive mothers prior to the trial-period 7.3% had been notified. Thus the prevalence of HBV positive mothers has more than doubled in Denmark over the last 40 years, but among women of Danish origin it has decreased 10-fold. By replacing selective screening with universal, identification of newborns in need of HBV-immunization was increased from 50% to almost complete coverage, and also identifies mothers with high viral load for evaluation of pre-term treatment to interrupt in utero transmission.

  12. L3 English Acquisition in Denmark and Greenland: Gender-Related Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellerberg, Stine Marie

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents findings of gender-related tendencies found in a study of factors influential in third language acquisition of English in Denmark and Greenland. A survey consisting of a questionnaire and an English test was carried out amongst pupils in their last year of compulsory schooling in Copenhagen, Denmark, and Nuuk, Greenland. In…

  13. L3 English Acquisition in Denmark and Greenland: Gender-Related Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellerberg, Stine Marie

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents findings of gender-related tendencies found in a study of factors influential in third language acquisition of English in Denmark and Greenland. A survey consisting of a questionnaire and an English test was carried out amongst pupils in their last year of compulsory schooling in Copenhagen, Denmark, and Nuuk, Greenland. In…

  14. Children's Perspective on Learning: An International Study in Denmark, Estonia, Germany and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette; Broström, Stig; Johansson, Inge; Frøkjaer, Thorleif; Kieferle, Christa; Seifert, Anja; Roth, Angela; Tuul, Maire; Ugaste, Aino; Laan, Meeli

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how some children in Denmark, Estonia, Germany and Sweden describe their perspective on learning. The aim of the international study is to gain knowledge of how preschool children in Sweden, Denmark, Estonia and Germany reflect and perceive their learning in preschool and other surrounding social contexts. The results are…

  15. The Right to Development: Construction of a Non-Agriculturalist Discourse of Rurality in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2004-01-01

    The paper argues for the existence of two powerful discourses of rurality in Denmark after World War II. The first one is termed the modernist-agriculturalist discourse. Although still influential in the current public debate, in Denmark as well as in other Western European countries, this discourse of rurality had its heyday in the 1960s. It is…

  16. Changing Patterns of Finance in Higher Education. Country Study: Denmark. OECD Educational Monographs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enslev, Lisbeth; And Others

    A country study on Denmark is presented as part of a series prepared by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OCED) Education Committee activity on changing patterns of finance in higher education. In Denmark, postsecondary institutions are the direct responsibility of the state. Some central problems are to strike a balance…

  17. The Non-Shock of PIAAC--Tracing the Discursive Effects of PIAAC in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Pia; Larson, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The results of the first PIAAC survey were published in October 2013. In the case of Denmark, the survey showed that Denmark is below the OECD average when it comes to reading skills, above average with regards to numeracy and on average with regards to IT skills. In this paper we analyse how the PIAAC results were covered by the media and how…

  18. The Right to Development: Construction of a Non-Agriculturalist Discourse of Rurality in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2004-01-01

    The paper argues for the existence of two powerful discourses of rurality in Denmark after World War II. The first one is termed the modernist-agriculturalist discourse. Although still influential in the current public debate, in Denmark as well as in other Western European countries, this discourse of rurality had its heyday in the 1960s. It is…

  19. Children's Perspective on Learning: An International Study in Denmark, Estonia, Germany and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette; Broström, Stig; Johansson, Inge; Frøkjaer, Thorleif; Kieferle, Christa; Seifert, Anja; Roth, Angela; Tuul, Maire; Ugaste, Aino; Laan, Meeli

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how some children in Denmark, Estonia, Germany and Sweden describe their perspective on learning. The aim of the international study is to gain knowledge of how preschool children in Sweden, Denmark, Estonia and Germany reflect and perceive their learning in preschool and other surrounding social contexts. The results are…

  20. The Non-Shock of PIAAC--Tracing the Discursive Effects of PIAAC in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Pia; Larson, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The results of the first PIAAC survey were published in October 2013. In the case of Denmark, the survey showed that Denmark is below the OECD average when it comes to reading skills, above average with regards to numeracy and on average with regards to IT skills. In this paper we analyse how the PIAAC results were covered by the media and how…

  1. Changing Patterns of Finance in Higher Education. Country Study: Denmark. OECD Educational Monographs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enslev, Lisbeth; And Others

    A country study on Denmark is presented as part of a series prepared by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OCED) Education Committee activity on changing patterns of finance in higher education. In Denmark, postsecondary institutions are the direct responsibility of the state. Some central problems are to strike a balance…

  2. QuantiFERON–TB Gold In-Tube test performance in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Hermansen, Thomas; Lillebaek, Troels; Hansen, Ann-Brit E; Andersen, Peter H; Ravn, Pernille

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube Test (QFT) in extreme age groups. The test performance has been reported to be impaired in children and elderly, but reports are diverging. The aim of this study was to evaluate QFT performance in patients with and without Tuberculosis (TB). A retrospective study analysing the results of 18,850 QFT performed in Denmark 2005-2010. The effect of age, sex, localisation of TB, and result of culture on QFT performance (positive, negative and indeterminate results) was determined. Among 383 patients with TB, indeterminate rate was low (3.9%, 15/383). Sensitivity was high (86.1%, 317/368) and not affected by sex or localization of TB disease, but declined with increasing age (p < 0.0001). In children 1-4 years old, sensitivity was high (100%, 9/9). Among 15,709 persons without TB, the indeterminate rate was 5.1% (804/15,709) and significantly higher in infants <1 year (15.6%, 5/32) and elderly >65 years (8.1%, 219/2715) compared to the adult population 15-64 years (4.5%, 552/12,317). Indeterminate results were due to a low positive control in 99.6% (801/804). In Denmark, a TB low incidence country, the overall QFT performance was good. The sensitivity in children (≥ 1) was high although few children were included, whereas sensitivity declined with increasing age. Indeterminate rates were higher in infants and elderly. In contrast to current guidelines, our data suggest that the QFT performs well in children ≥ 1 years in low endemic regions but that the test should be used with care among the elderly.

  3. Anoctamin 5 muscular dystrophy in Denmark: prevalence, genotypes, phenotypes, cardiac findings, and muscle protein expression.

    PubMed

    Witting, Nanna; Duno, Morten; Petri, Helle; Krag, Thomas; Bundgaard, Henning; Kober, Lars; Vissing, John

    2013-08-01

    Since the initial description in 2010 of anoctamin 5 deficiency as a cause of muscular dystrophy, a handful of papers have described this disease in cases of mixed populations. We report the first large regional study and present data on new aspects of prevalence, muscular and cardiac phenotypic characteristics, and muscle protein expression. All patients in our neuromuscular unit with genetically unclassified, recessive limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2), Miyoshi-type distal myopathy (MMD) or persistent asymptomatic hyperCK-emia (PACK) were assessed for mutations in the ANO5 gene. Genetically confirmed patients were evaluated with muscular and cardiopulmonary examination. Among 40 unclassified patients (28 LGMD2, 5 MMD, 7 PACK), 20 were homozygous or compound heterozygous for ANO5 mutations, (13 LGMD2, 5 MMD, 2 PACK). Prevalence of ANO5 deficiency in Denmark was estimated at 1:100.000 and ANO5 mutations caused 11 % of our total cohort of LGMD2 cases making it the second most common LGMD2 etiology in Denmark. Eight patients complained of dysphagia and 3 dated symptoms of onset in childhood. Cardiac examinations revealed increased frequency of premature ventricular contractions. Four novel putative pathogenic mutations were discovered. Total prevalence and distribution of phenotypes of ANO5 disease in a representative regional cohort are described for the first time. A high prevalence of ANO5 deficiency was found among patients with unclassified LGMD2 (46 %) and MMD (100 %). The high incidence of reported dysphagia is a new phenotypic feature not previously reported, and cardiac investigations revealed that ANO5-patients may have an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmia.

  4. National Automated Surveillance of Hospital-Acquired Bacteremia in Denmark Using a Computer Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Gubbels, Sophie; Nielsen, Jens; Voldstedlund, Marianne; Kristensen, Brian; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Ellermann-Eriksen, Svend; Engberg, Jørgen H; Møller, Jens K; Østergaard, Christian; Mølbak, Kåre

    2017-03-09

    BACKGROUND In 2015, Denmark launched an automated surveillance system for hospital-acquired infections, the Hospital-Acquired Infections Database (HAIBA). OBJECTIVE To describe the algorithm used in HAIBA, to determine its concordance with point prevalence surveys (PPSs), and to present trends for hospital-acquired bacteremia SETTING Private and public hospitals in Denmark METHODS A hospital-acquired bacteremia case was defined as at least 1 positive blood culture with at least 1 pathogen (bacterium or fungus) taken between 48 hours after admission and 48 hours after discharge, using the Danish Microbiology Database and the Danish National Patient Registry. PPSs performed in 2012 and 2013 were used for comparison. RESULTS National trends showed an increase in HA bacteremia cases between 2010 and 2014. Incidence was higher for men than women (9.6 vs 5.4 per 10,000 risk days) and was highest for those aged 61-80 years (9.5 per 10,000 risk days). The median daily prevalence was 3.1% (range, 2.1%-4.7%). Regional incidence varied from 6.1 to 8.1 per 10,000 risk days. The microorganisms identified were typical for HA bacteremia. Comparison of HAIBA with PPS showed a sensitivity of 36% and a specificity of 99%. HAIBA was less sensitive for patients in hematology departments and intensive care units. Excluding these departments improved the sensitivity of HAIBA to 44%. CONCLUSIONS Although the estimated sensitivity of HAIBA compared with PPS is low, a PPS is not a gold standard. Given the many advantages of automated surveillance, HAIBA allows monitoring of HA bacteremia across the healthcare system, supports prioritizing preventive measures, and holds promise for evaluating interventions. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;1-8.

  5. Economic and health consequences of COPD patients and their spouses in Denmark--1998-2010.

    PubMed

    Løkke, Anders; Hilberg, Ole; Kjellberg, Jakob; Ibsen, Rikke; Jennum, Poul

    2014-06-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, but longitudinal studies of the economic consequences of COPD are scarce. This study evaluated the economic consequences of COPD patients in Denmark and their spouses at a national level before and after initial diagnosis. Using records from the Danish National Patient Registry (1998-2010), 171,557 patients with COPD and 86,260 spouses were identified; patients were compared with 664,821, and the spouses with 346,524, all controls were randomly selected and matched for age, gender and residence. Direct and indirect costs, including frequency of primary and secondary sector contacts and procedures, medication, unemployment benefits and social transfer payments were extracted from national databases for patients, spouses and controls. COPD patients are earning approximately half of that of controls before diagnosis. After diagnosis this effect diminishes due to people getting older and retiring from work (65 years). Total health expenses are more than twice as high in the COPD group regardless of age and gender compared to controls. Spouses of COPD patients had significantly higher rates of health-related contacts, medication use and higher socioeconomic costs compared to controls. The employment and income rates of employed spouses of COPD patients were significantly lower compared to controls. This study provides unique data on the economic consequences of COPD patients in Denmark and their spouses as well as displaying the serious health consequences for the individual spouse and society. Second, data shows substantial impact of COPD on income level and health expenses regardless of age and gender. It could be speculated that early identification and intervention might contribute to more health and economic equality between patients and controls.

  6. Strategies for non-chemical weed control on public paved areas in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Preben K; Kristoffersen, Palle; Kristensen, Kristian

    2004-06-01

    To be proactive in minimizing pesticide use, the public authorities in Denmark agreed in 1998 to phase out the use of pesticides on publicly owned areas by the end of 2002. A part of the agreement was an increasing focus on research into and development of new methods and implements for non-chemical weed control on paved areas. Due to a large increase in the costs of non-chemical weed control, the park authorities have to put the different types and locations of paved areas in order of priority to optimize the weed control effort. The present authors divided the paved areas into five weed control levels, dependent on placement, quality and use. For the 3 years 1999-2001, experiments with different non-chemical weed control methods were conducted on pavements at six locations in Denmark. The aim was to test the reaction of the weeds to different treatments and strategies. The efficacies of the methods were evaluated by analysis of digital images to estimate the fraction of the paved area covered with green vegetation (weed coverage). The weed coverage was used as the dependent variable in the subsequent statistical analysis. The independent variables in the model were incoming radiation, wear, area of joints in the pavement, the dying process of the weeds and the number of runs/applied energy of the mechanical or thermal weed control methods, respectively. The estimated parameters from the statistical model were used to build a simulation model, which was used to optimise five weed control strategies to fulfil the suggested weed control levels. In the suggested strategy for maximum weed control, 12 thermal weeding applications at 2-week intervals are suggested. The 'clean-up' strategy is based on one weed-brushing in late spring or early autumn.

  7. Bulky waste quantities and treatment methods in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Anna W; Petersen, Claus; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-02-01

    Bulky waste is a significant and increasing waste stream in Denmark. However, only little research has been done on its composition and treatment. In the present study, data about collection methods, waste quantities and treatment methods for bulky waste were obtained from two municipalities. In addition a sorting analysis was conducted on combustible waste, which is a major fraction of bulky waste in Denmark. The generation of bulky waste was found to be 150-250 kg capita(-1) year(-1), and 90% of the waste was collected at recycling centres; the rest through kerbside collection. Twelve main fractions were identified of which ten were recyclable and constituted 50-60% of the total quantity. The others were combustible waste for incineration (30-40%) and non-combustible waste for landfilling (10%). The largest fractions by mass were combustible waste, bricks and tile, concrete, non-combustible waste, wood, and metal scrap, which together made up more than 90% of the total waste amounts. The amount of combustible waste could be significantly reduced through better sorting. Many of the waste fractions consisted of composite products that underwent thorough separation before being recycled. The recyclable materials were in many cases exported to other countries which made it difficult to track their destination and further treatment.

  8. Epidemiology of pertussis in Denmark, 1995 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Dalby, Tine; Andersen, Peter Henrik; Hoffmann, Steen

    2016-01-01

    We describe incidence and age distribution of laboratory-confirmed pertussis in Denmark from 1995 to 2013. Notification has been mandatory since 2007. Since 1997, an acellular monocomponent vaccine has been used. The latest epidemic occurred in 2002 with an incidence of 36 per 100,000; since 1995, only six infant deaths have been recorded. The inter-epidemic incidence lies below 10 per 100,000. In 1995, the mean age of confirmed cases was 9.2 years (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.9–10.5; median: 5.1), this gradually increased to 23.9 years in 2013 (95% CI: 22.0–25.8; median: 15.7). In 1995, 14% of laboratory-confirmed cases were 20 years and older, 43% in 2013. In the study period, the highest incidence among children was among those younger than one year with incidences between 84 and 331 per 100,000 in inter-epidemic periods (mean: 161/100,000) and 435 for the epidemic in 2002. After introduction of a preschool booster in 2003, the highest incidence among children one year and older changed gradually from three to five-year-olds in 2003 to 12 to 14-year-olds in 2013. In 2013, PCR was the primary method used for laboratory-diagnosis of pertussis in Denmark, while serology was the method with the highest percentage of positive results. PMID:27632433

  9. Revised transport estimates of the Denmark Strait overflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochumsen, Kerstin; Moritz, Martin; Nunes, Nuno; Quadfasel, Detlef; Larsen, Karin M. H.; Hansen, Bogi; Valdimarsson, Hedinn; Jonsson, Steingrimur

    2017-04-01

    The major export route of dense water from the Nordic Seas into the North Atlantic is in the deep channel in Denmark Strait. Here currents have been monitored with one or two moored Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs) since 1996. Volume transport estimates of the Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW) so far were based on these data, which were regressed to the total transport of dense water in a numerical model. The resulting transport has been used in many publications. Here we present results from an extended five-mooring array deployed in 2014/2015, which included measurements outside the swift overflow core. This array provided the basis for new calculations to estimate the DSOW transports. Furthermore, a correction is proposed for biases detected on some ADCPs, which led to earlier underestimation of the flow in the lower part of the plume. Using the new method, the mean DSOW transport is estimated to be 3.2 Sv in the period 1996-2016, without a significant trend. Uncertainties are typically ±0.5 Sv. Beyond variations on the eddy scale, an empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) analysis of the velocity field reveals three dominant modes of variability: the first mode is roughly barotropic and corresponds to pulsations of the plume, the second mode represents the laterally shifting component of the plume's core position, and the third mode indicates the impact of the varying overflow thickness. Finally, DSOW transports are compared to the Faroe Bank Channel overflow transports, but no clear relationship is found.

  10. Comparison of cohort smoking intensities in Denmark and the Netherlands.

    PubMed Central

    Barendregt, Jan J.; Looman, Caspar W. N.; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the usefulness of the general framework of the smoking epidemic. METHODS: We use lung cancer mortality as an indicator for smoking intensity and employ an age-cohort model to accommodate the long-lasting and cumulative effects. RESULTS: Dutch males have higher risks than Danish males, but the risks for the younger cohorts have been declining faster in the Netherlands than in Denmark. Danish women have about twice the risk of Dutch women, and in both countries the risks for the younger cohorts are increasing. The smoking epidemic began at about the same time in Denmark and the Netherlands. Dutch males, however, seem to have smoked more but to have given up smoking more quickly than Danish males. Danish females were quicker to take up smoking than Dutch females. CONCLUSIONS: Within the general framework of the smoking epidemic, differences in timing and levels can produce large differences between countries. For the purposes of assessing smoking-related risks, including projections, the smoking epidemic framework therefore has to be tailored to each study population. PMID:11884970

  11. [Comparisons outpatient drug prescriptions: France, Denmark, Norway, Sweden].

    PubMed

    Dezileaux, Barbara; Martinez, Florie

    2016-06-01

    Comparisons outpatient drug prescriptions: France, Denmark, Norway, Sweden. Project compares quantitatively outpatient drug prescriptions in France, Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Data were obtained from national databases; the unit of measurement was defined daily dose per 1000 inhabitants. The five most prescribed drug classes were compared in each country in 2009, then benzodiazepines and antibiotics from 2006 to 2012. A literature review was focused on the context of prescriptions for each country. In 2009, the five most prescribed drug classes in the four countries represented seven classes in total. France was not the biggest prescriber of drugs, but from 2006 to 2012 benzodiazepines and antibiotics were prescribed much more in France than in the other countries. The evolution of prescriptions was different for each country, and very stable in France. In 2009, France was not the biggest drugs consumer of all classes, but was characterized by high prescriptions in some classes. Copyright © 2016 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Saeed, I; Maddox-Hyttel, C; Monrad, J; Kapel, C M O

    2006-06-30

    An epidemiological study of helminths in 1040 red foxes collected from various localities in Denmark during 1997-2002, revealed 21 helminth species at autopsy, including nine nematode species: Capillaria plica (prevalence 80.5%), Capillaria aerophila (74.1%), Crenosoma vulpis (17.4%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (48.6% from Northern Zealand (endemic area)), Toxocara canis (59.4%), Toxascaris leonina (0.6%), Uncinaria stenocephala (68.6%), Ancylostoma caninum (0.6%), and Trichuris vulpis (0.5%); seven cestodes: Mesocestoides sp. (35.6%), a number of Taeniid species (Taenia pisiformis, T. hydatigena, T. taeniaeformis, T. crassiceps, and unidentified Taenia spp.) (22.8%), and Echinococcus multilocularis (0.3%); four trematodes: Alaria alata (15.4%), Cryptocotyle lingua (23.8%), Pseudamphystomum truncatum (3.6% from Northern Zealand), and Echinochasmus perfoliatus (2.4% from Northern Zealand); one acanthocephalan: Polymorphus sp. (1.2%). Significant difference in prevalence was found for T. canis and A. vasorum according to host sex, and for T. canis, U. stenocephala, Mesocestoides sp., Taenia spp., A. alata, A. vasorum, and Capillaria spp. according to age groups (adult, young or cub). Prevalence and average worm intensity for each helminth species varied considerably according to geographical locality, season, and year. Aggregated distribution was found for several helminth species. The two species E. multilocularis and E. perfoliatus are first records for Denmark.

  13. Epidemiology of pertussis in Denmark, 1995 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Dalby, Tine; Andersen, Peter Henrik; Hoffmann, Steen

    2016-09-08

    We describe incidence and age distribution of laboratory-confirmed pertussis in Denmark from 1995 to 2013. Notification has been mandatory since 2007. Since 1997, an acellular monocomponent vaccine has been used. The latest epidemic occurred in 2002 with an incidence of 36 per 100,000; since 1995, only six infant deaths have been recorded. The inter-epidemic incidence lies below 10 per 100,000. In 1995, the mean age of confirmed cases was 9.2 years (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.9-10.5; median: 5.1), this gradually increased to 23.9 years in 2013 (95% CI: 22.0-25.8; median: 15.7). In 1995, 14% of laboratory-confirmed cases were 20 years and older, 43% in 2013. In the study period, the highest incidence among children was among those younger than one year with incidences between 84 and 331 per 100,000 in inter-epidemic periods (mean: 161/100,000) and 435 for the epidemic in 2002. After introduction of a preschool booster in 2003, the highest incidence among children one year and older changed gradually from three to five-year-olds in 2003 to 12 to 14-year-olds in 2013. In 2013, PCR was the primary method used for laboratory-diagnosis of pertussis in Denmark, while serology was the method with the highest percentage of positive results. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  14. Magnetic survey on the Æbelhold Cloister (Denmark)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smekalova, T.; Smekalov, S.

    2003-04-01

    In September 2002 archaeophysical group of Saint-Petersburg State University carried out magnetic survey on the territory around the excavated part of the Æbelholt cloister (13th - 16th centuries) in Northern Sealand, Denmark. Because the protected area is only around the main buildings, one could suppose that there are other structures in the surrounding fields. There are many places with concentrations of brick fragments on the surface of ploughed earth. The magnetic map, which was obtained on the area (1.93 ha), surrounding the territory of the Æbelholt Cloister from the north, west and east. There are a lot of anomalies of different character there, which evidence about the presence of various archaeological structures, connected to the monastery. Among them it should be noted: 1. Part of rectangular shape structure with one of the sides about 45 m long, which is possible to reveal by the rows of weak local positive anomalies from postholes and could interpret as a wooden fence of a big farm. 2. Many local positive anomalies concentrated at the southern-eastern corner of this possible rectangular “farm’s yard”, probably from the wooden house situated there. 3. The big anomalous zone with very “mosaic” structure. It consists of a lot of positive and negative rather strong anomalies, which is possible to interpret it as ruins of a brick building. 4. Three strong and very characteristic magnetic anomalies from three pottery kilns. These anomalies have big positive parts and smaller negative parts just to the north of the positive ones. 5. Several long positive anomalies, which one could interpret as channels, filled now with earth. 6. The small rectangular building (about 5 x 5 sq. m) with rather strong positive anomalies (up to 20 nT and more) from the walls. At the middle of this building is a small positive anomaly. It is possible to suppose, that this building is a smithy. The positive anomalies are caused by the concentration of hammer scale

  15. Holistic assessment of a secondary water supply for a new development in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Rygaard, M; Godskesen, B; Jørgensen, C; Hoffmann, B

    2014-11-01

    Increasing stress on water resources is driving urban water utilities to establish new concepts for water supply. This paper presents the consequences of proposed alternative water supply options using a unique combination of quantitative and qualitative methods from different research fields. A former industrial harbor area in Copenhagen, Denmark, is currently under development and all infrastructure will be updated to accommodate 40,000 inhabitants and 40,000 jobs in the future. To reduce stress on water resources it has been proposed to establish a secondary water supply in the area as an alternative to the conventional groundwater-based drinking water supply. Four alternative concepts for a secondary water supply have been considered: 1) slightly polluted groundwater for use in toilets and laundry, 2) desalinated brackish water for use in toilets, laundry, and dishwashers, 3) desalinated brackish water for all uses, including drinking water, and 4) local reclamation of rain and gray water for use in toilets and laundry. The concepts have been evaluated for their technical feasibility, economy, health risks, and public acceptance, while the concepts' environmental sustainability has been assessed using lifecycle assessment and freshwater use impact methods. The holistic assessment method exposes conflicting preference solutions depending on assessment criteria, and reveals multi-faceted consequences for choices in urban water management. Not one concept turns out unambiguously positive based on the evaluation criteria included here, but the systematic evaluation will leave decision-makers informed on the consequences of their choices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Rates and characteristics of sleep paralysis in the general population of Denmark and Egypt.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Hinton, Devon E

    2013-09-01

    In the current research we report data from two studies that examined rates and characteristics of sleep paralysis (SP) in the general population of Denmark and Egypt. In Study I, individuals from Denmark and Egypt did not differ in age whereas there were more males in the Egyptian sample (47 vs. 64 %); in Study II, individuals from Denmark and Egypt were comparable in terms of age and gender distribution. In Study I we found that significantly fewer individuals had experienced SP in Denmark [25 % (56/223)] than in Egypt [44 % (207/470)] p < .001. In Study II we found that individuals who had experienced at least one lifetime episode of SP from Denmark (n = 58) as compared to those from Egypt (n = 143) reported significantly fewer SP episodes in a lifetime relative to SP experiencers from Egypt (M = 6.0 vs. M = 19.4, p < .001). SP in the Egyptian sample was characterized by high rates of SP (as compared to in Denmark), frequent occurrences (three times that in the Denmark sample), prolonged immobility during SP, and great fear of dying from the experience. In addition, in Egypt, believing SP to be precipitated by the supernatural was associated with fear of the experience and longer SP immobility. Findings are discussed in the context of cultural elaboration and salience theories of SP.

  17. Contents of capsaicinoids in chillies grown in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Duelund, Lars; Mouritsen, Ole G

    2017-04-15

    We have studied 15 different cultivars of chillies (Capsicum var.) grown in temperate climate Denmark and determined the contents of the four major capsaicinoids: capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, nordihydrocapsaicin, and homocapsaicin. From these contents we have, as commonly done for chillies, calculated the so-called pungency in Scoville heat units in order to compare with previous studies from other climatical zones. For three of the investigated cultivars, Serrano, Habanero and BIH Jolokia, for which reliable pungencies has previously been reported, we have found pungencies of 34,000±1400, 247,000±24,000 and 665,000±4000, respectively, which are all in the same ranges as found earlier for chillies grown in more traditional chilli growing areas. Furthermore we have found that the relative distribution of the four capsaicinoids in the 15 different cultivars is highly variable, with the content of capsaicin ranging from 31% to 71% of the total capsaicinoid content.

  18. Epidemiology of accidental drowning in Denmark 1989-1993.

    PubMed

    Steensberg, J

    1998-11-01

    Three hundred and forty-nine cases of accidental drowning or cooling in water occurring in Denmark from 1989 to 1993 have been studied. The incidence was highest in 0-4-year-old children, in middle-aged men, and in old people. A third of the children drowned in private pools. A quarter of all fatalities occurred during leisure boating. At least half of those that drowned in this way did not wear a life-jacket and could have been saved if they had been wearing one. Between a third and a half of the adult drownings were related to alcohol intake, and a large number of inebriated men fell into harbour basins and other water bodies. A few final remarks are made on the prospects for preventing accidental drowning in children, elderly people and adult males.

  19. Sparteine oxidation polymorphism in Greenlanders living in Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Brøsen, K

    1986-01-01

    Sparteine oxidation appeared to be polymorphic in 185 healthy Greenlanders living in Denmark. Six subjects (3.2%) were phenotyped as poor metabolizers (PM) and 179 subjects as extensive metabolizers (EM). The metabolic ratio (MR) between sparteine and 2- + 5-dehydrosparteine in a 12 h urine sample ranged from 0.06-3.12 in EM and from 30-480 in PM. The excretion of dehydrosparteines accounted for less than 2.2% of the dose in PM and ranged from 5.6%-63% in EM. The urinary recovery (% of dose) of sparteine, 2-dehydrosparteine and total sparteine + dehydrosparteines was lower in Greenlander EM than in Danish EM (Brøsen et al., 1985). Incomplete urine collection in a substantial proportion of the Greenlanders could explain these discrepancies. PMID:3768256

  20. Interoperability after deployment: persistent challenges and regional strategies in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    The European Union has identified Denmark as one of the countries who have the potential to provide leadership and inspiration for other countries in eHealth implementation and adoption. However, Denmark has historically struggled to facilitate data exchange between their public hospitals' electronic health records (EHRs). Furthermore, state-led projects failed to adequately address the challenges of interoperability after deployment. Changes in the organizational setup and division of responsibilities concerning the future of eHealth implementations in hospitals took place, which granted the Danish regions the full responsibility for all hospital systems, specifically the consolidation of EHRs to one system per region. The regions reduced the number of different EHRs to six systems by 2014. Additionally, the first version of the National Health Record was launched to provide health care practitioners with an overview of a patient's data stored in all EHRs across the regions and within the various health sectors. The governance of national eHealth implementation plays a crucial role in the development and diffusion of interoperable technologies. Changes in the organizational setup and redistribution of responsibilities between the Danish regions and the state play a pivotal role in producing viable and coherent solutions in a timely manner. Interoperability initiatives are best managed on a regional level or by the authorities responsible for the provision of local health care services. Cross-regional communication is essential during the initial phases of planning in order to set a common goal for countrywide harmonization, coherence and collaboration. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  1. Gravel pit lakes in Denmark: Chemical and biological state.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, Martin; Lauridsen, Torben L; Johansson, Liselotte S; Jeppesen, Erik

    2017-08-25

    Mining of gravel and sand for construction purposes is big business and gravel pit lakes have become increasingly common all over the world. In Denmark, hundreds of gravel pit lakes have been created during the past decades. We investigated the chemical and biological status of 33-52 gravel pit lakes and compared the results with data from similar-sized natural Danish lakes. The area of the lakes ranged from 0.2 to 13ha and their age from 0.5 to 26years. Generally, the gravel pit lakes were clear with low nutrient concentrations, the median concentrations of total phosphorus and total nitrogen being 0.023mg/l and 0.30mg/l compared with 0.115mg/l and 1.29mg/l, respectively, in natural lakes. Correspondingly, median chlorophyll a was 5μg/l in the gravel pit lakes and 36μg/l in the natural lakes. Submerged macrophytes were found in all gravel pit lakes, with particularly high cover in the shallow ones. Most gravel pit lakes were deeper than the natural lakes, which may restrict the area potentially to be covered by submerged macrophytes, with implications also for the biological quality of the lakes. Fish were found in most of the gravel pit lakes, roach (Rutilus rutilus), perch (Perca fluviatilis) and rudd (Scardinius erythrophalmus) being the most frequently observed species. Fish stocking was common and included also non-native species such as carp (Cyprinus carpio) and rainbow trout (Oncorchynchus mykiss). Compared with the natural lakes, fish species richness and catch per gillnet were overall lower in the gravel pit lakes. Groundwater-fed gravel pit lakes add importantly to the number of high-quality lakes in Denmark and with an optimised design and by avoiding negative side effects, they can be positive for both nature and society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanisms of flow and water mass variability in Denmark Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritz, Martin; Jochumsen, Kerstin; Quadfasel, Detlef; Mashayekh Poul, Hossein; Käse, Rolf H.

    2017-04-01

    The dense water export through Denmark Strait contributes significantly to the lower limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Overflow water is transported southwestward not only in the deep channel of the Strait, but also within a thin bottom layer on the Greenland shelf. The flow on the shelf is mainly weak and barotropic, exhibiting many recirculations, but may eventually contribute to the overflow layer in the Irminger Basin by spilling events in the northern Irminger Basin. Especially the circulation around Dohrn Bank and the Kangerdlussuaq Trough contribute to the shelf-basin exchange. Moored observations show the overflow in Denmark Strait to be stable during the last 20 years (1996-2016). Nevertheless, flow variability was noticed on time scales of eddies and beyond, i.e. on weekly and interannual scales. Here, we use a combination of mooring data and shipboard hydrographic and current data to address the dominant modes of variability in the overflow, which are (i) eddies, (ii) barotropic pulsations of the plume, (iii) lateral shifts of the plume core position, and (iv) variations in vertical extension, i.e. varying overflow thickness. A principle component analysis is carried out and related to variations in sea surface height and wind stress, derived from satellite measurements. Furthermore, a test for topographic waves is performed. Shelf contributions to the overflow core in the Irminger Basin are identified from measurements of temperature and salinity, as well as velocity, which were obtained during recent cruises in the region. The flow and water mass pattern obtained from the observational data is compared to simulations in a high resolution regional model (ROMS), where tracer release experiments and float deployments were carried out. The modelling results allow a separation between different atmospheric forcing modes (NAO+ vs NAO- situations), which impact the water mass distribution and alter the dense water pathways on the

  3. Incidence and Determinants of Ventilation Tubes in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Tine Marie; Mora-Jensen, Anna-Rosa Cecilie; Waage, Johannes; Bisgaard, Hans; Stokholm, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Many children are treated for recurrent acute otitis media and middle ear effusion with ventilation tubes (VT). The objectives are to describe the incidence of VT in Denmark during 1997–2011 from national register data, furthermore, to analyze the determinants for VT in the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood2010 (COPSAC2010) birth cohort. Methods The incidence of VT in all children under 16 years from 1997–2011 were calculated in the Danish national registries. Determinants of VT were studied in the COPSAC2010 birth cohort of 700 children. Results Nationwide the prevalence of VT was 24% in children aged 0 to 3 three years, with a significant increase over the study period. For all children 0–15 years, the incidence of VT was 35/1,000. In the VT population, 57% was male and 43% females. In the COPSAC2010 birth cohort, the prevalence of VT during the first 3 years of life was 29%. Determinants of VT were: maternal history of middle ear disease; aHR 2.07, 95% CI [1.45–2.96] and siblings history of middle ear disease; aHR 3.02, [2.11–4.32]. Paternal history of middle ear disease, presence of older siblings in the home and diagnosis of persistent wheeze were significant in the univariate analysis but the association did not persist after adjustment. Conclusion The incidence of VT is still increasing in the youngest age group in Denmark, demonstrating the highest incidence recorded in the world. Family history of middle ear disease and older siblings are the main determinants for VT. PMID:27875554

  4. Nickel and cobalt release from children's toys purchased in Denmark and the United States.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Peter; Hamann, Dathan; Hamann, Carsten R; Jellesen, Morten S; Jacob, Sharon E; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-01-01

    Nickel is the most common allergen detected by patch testing in children. There is an increasing number of cases in children who have not had exposure to piercing. Although the clinical relevance of nickel patch test reactions in children is sometimes uncertain, continued vigilance to identify new sources of nickel exposure in this age group is important. Recent case reports have described allergic nickel contact dermatitis in children following exposure to toys, but the magnitude of this problem is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate nickel and cobalt release from children's toys. We purchased 212 toys in 18 different retail and online stores in the United States and Denmark. Nickel and cobalt release was tested using the dimethylglyoxime and cobalt screening spot tests. A total of 73 toys (34.4%) released nickel, and none released cobalt. Toys are a commonly overlooked source of nickel exposure and sensitization. Therefore, dermatologists, allergists, and pediatricians should consider the role of toys in their evaluation of children with dermatitis, and the parents of children with positive nickel patch test reactions should be told that toys may release nickel and be a potential chemical source in the manifestation of allergic contact dermatitis.

  5. Integrated hydrological SVAT model for climate change studies in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollerup, M.; Refsgaard, J.; Sonnenborg, T. O.

    2010-12-01

    In a major Danish funded research project (www.hyacints.dk) a coupling is being established between the HIRHAM regional climate model code from Danish Meteorological Institute and the MIKE SHE distributed hydrological model code from DHI. The linkage between those two codes is a soil vegetation atmosphere transfer scheme, which is a module of MIKE SHE. The coupled model will be established for the entire country of Denmark (43,000 km2 land area) where a MIKE SHE based hydrological model already exists (Henriksen et al., 2003, 2008). The present paper presents the MIKE SHE SVAT module and the methodology used for parameterising and calibrating the MIKE SHE SVAT module for use throughout the country. As SVAT models previously typically have been tested for research field sites with comprehensive data on energy fluxes, soil and vegetation data, the major challenge lies in parameterisation of the model when only ordinary data exist. For this purpose annual variations of vegetation characteristics (Leaf Area Index (LAI), Crop height, Root depth and the surface albedo) for different combinations of soil profiles and vegetation types have been simulated by use of the soil plant atmosphere model Daisy (Hansen et al., 1990; Abrahamsen and Hansen, 2000) has been applied. The MIKE SHE SVAT using Daisy generated surface/soil properties model has been calibrated against existing data on groundwater heads and river discharges. Simulation results in form of evapotranspiration and percolation are compared to the existing MIKE SHE model and to observations. To analyse the use of the SVAT model in climate change impact assessments data from the ENSEMBLES project (http://ensembles-eu.metoffice.com/) have been analysed to assess the impacts on reference evapotranspiration (calculated by the Makkink and the Penmann-Monteith equations) as well as on the individual elements in the Penmann-Monteith equation (radiation, wind speed, humidity and temperature). The differences on the

  6. Salmonella in pigs and animal feeding stuffs in England and Wales and in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, N; Nielsen, B B

    1972-03-01

    A comparison has been made between the incidence of salmonellas in pigs and feeding stuffs in England and Wales and in Denmark. In Denmark there is veterinary legislation requiring the sterilization of imported and home produced feed ingredients of animal origin. There is no such legislation in England and Wales. In Denmark 0.3% of resterilized imported meat and bone meal was contaminated with salmonellas. This compared with 23% of meat and bone meal in England and Wales and 20-27% of other ingredients of animal origin. In England and Wales salmonellas were isolated from 7% of caecal samples and 6% of lymph node samples, while in Denmark they were isolated from 3% of caecal samples and 4% of lymph node samples. In England and Wales 25 serotypes were found in both pigs and feeds and these included nearly all the most prevalent human pathogens. In Denmark four of the six serotypes in pigs had been found in resterilized feed. One notable difference between the two studies was the very wide range of serotypes found in pigs in England and Wales and the narrow range in Denmark. A second was that Salmonella typhimurium formed 15% of all Salmonella strains isolated from pigs in England and Wales, and 60% of those in Denmark.It is concluded that sterilization of animal raw ingredients in Denmark has reduced pig infections with types other than S. typhimurium that are found in England and Wales, but not with S. typhimurium. It is possible that this is because S. typhimurium once introduced into pigs is able to establish itself more easily than other serotypes.

  7. Features of the development of a welfare system for visually disabled people in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Sigurd Ry

    2004-02-01

    To describe the development of a formal system of welfare for blind and partially sighted people in Denmark. The principal laws in Denmark relating to a formal system of welfare for blind and partially sighted people are noted and commented on. No such collection of laws has been found in the literature. The history of aid to visually disabled people in Denmark is described, as are the Danish classifications of visual impairment. Formalized welfare for blind and partially sighted people was started in Denmark in 1811, as a private initiative by the Kjaede Order. Later, the Danish state took over responsibility, and in 1858 the Royal Danish Institute for the Blind was established. Since then a series of laws concerning welfare for blind and partially sighted people have been issued in accordance with economic and social development in Denmark. In 1858 the Braille writing system for blind people was introduced. The Danish Association of the Blind was founded in 1911 and has profoundly influenced subsequent legislation. During the last 10 years, several visual centres have been established. Since 1968 prevention of blindness has also played a prominent role in Denmark. Great steps have been taken towards improving the welfare of blind and partially sighted people. However, being blind is still very difficult. Modern technologies and hectic lifestyles have created new problems for blind people. The obligations of the Danish state towards visually disabled people have, therefore, increased in recent years.

  8. Epidemiologic characteristics of retinal detachment surgery at a specialized unit in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Christina Doefler; Peto, Tunde; Grauslund, Jakob; Green, Anders

    2016-09-01

    To examine the incidence of retinal detachments and to evaluate patient profiles and surgical characteristics. Retrospective review of patients operated for primary retinal detachment (RD) and redetachment between 2010 and 2012 at the Department of Ophthalmology, Odense University Hospital, Denmark. We included all RD such as rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD), tractional retinal detachment (TRD) and exudative retinal detachment (ERD). In total, 779 RD surgeries were performed: 83.7% (n = 652) primary operations and 16.3% (n = 127) reoperation. For primary operation, pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), scleral buckling and combined operations were performed in 95.1% (n = 620), 4.6% (n = 30) and 0.3% (n = 2) respectively. Over time there was less use of silicone oil and greater use of gas tamponade (p = <0.001), less simultaneous cataract operations (p = <0.001), less use of cryotherapy (p = 0.045) and more use of peeling procedures (p = <0.001) in primary operations. The annual incidence of surgery for primary RD was 22.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) 20.4-23.8] per 100 000 inhabitants aged >15 years. Retinal detachment (RD) was more common in males than females (1.8:1), and mean age at presentation was 61.8 years (standard deviations ± 12.3). The annual incidence for RRD and TRD operation was 20.72 (95% CI 19.11-22.43) and 1.25 (95% CI 0.9-1.7) per 100 000 inhabitants >15 years. This study presents the first overall incidence for RD in Denmark. The highest incidence of RRD was among males aged 60 to 79 years, whereas TRD was among females at same age. Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) was the preferred surgical technique, and during 2012 all RD patients were treated with PPV, independent of lens status and age. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Nitrite and nitrate content in meat products and estimated intake in Denmark from 1998 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Leth, T; Fagt, S; Nielsen, S; Andersen, R

    2008-10-01

    The content of nitrite and nitrate in cured meat products has been monitored in Denmark seven times between 1995 and 2006. The maximum permitted added amounts of sodium nitrite in Denmark (60 mg kg(-1) for most products up to 150 mg kg(-1) for special products) have not been exceeded, except for a few samples back in 2002. The intake, mean and intake distribution of sodium nitrite have been calculated from 1998 to 2006 with data from the Danish dietary survey conducted in 2000-02 on Danes from four to 75 years of age. The amounts used by industry have been relatively stable through the whole period with levels varying between 6 and 20 mg sodium nitrite kg(-1) with sausages, meat for open sandwiches and salami-type sausages being the greatest contributors. The mean intake of sodium nitrate was around 1 mg day(-1), which is very low compared with the total intake of 61 mg day(-1). The mean intake of sodium nitrite was 0.017 and 0.014, 0.009 and 0.008, and 0.007 and 0.003 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for men and women in the age groups 4-5, 6-14 and 15-75 years, respectively, which was much lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 0.09 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1). The 99th percentile for the group of 4-year-olds was 0.107 and 0.123 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for boys and girls, respectively, and the 95th percentile was 0.057 and 0.073 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for boys and girls, respectively, highest for the girls. With fewer than 100 boys and girls in the 4-5-year age group, only very few persons were responsible for the high intake. The conversion of nitrate to nitrite in the saliva and the degradation of nitrite during production and storage must also be considered when evaluating the intake of nitrite.

  10. Elevated Ozone Levels in Denmark: Analysis Employing Trajectory and Chemical Transport Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahura, A.; Gross, A.; Petrova, I.

    2009-09-01

    . The simulation was used to evaluate in details patterns of atmospheric transport, dispersion, deposition, and transformation of ozone over Denmark and compare with results of trajectory modelling for source regions identification.

  11. Cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Nielsen, Elsa; Christensen, Tue; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Andersen, Jens Hinge

    2015-09-01

    We used the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out a cumulative risk assessment after chronic dietary exposure to all monitored pesticides in fruit, vegetables and cereals for various consumer groups in Denmark. Residue data for all the pesticides were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme during the period 2004-2011. Food consumption data were obtained from DANSDA (the DAnish National Survey of Diet and physical Activity) for the period 2005-2008. The calculations were made using three different models to cope with residues below the limit of reporting (LOR). We concluded that a model that included processing factors and set non-detects to ½ LOR, but limited the correction (Model 3), gave the most realistic exposure estimate. With Model 3 the HI was calculated to be 0.44 for children and 0.18 for adults, indicating that there is no risk of adverse health effects following chronic cumulative exposure to the pesticides found in fruit, vegetables and cereals on the Danish market. The HI was below 1 even for consumers who eat more than 550 g of fruit and vegetables per day, corresponding to 1/3 of the population. Choosing Danish-produced commodities whenever possible could reduce the HI by a factor of 2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Occupational exposures to styrene in Denmark 1955-88.

    PubMed

    Jensen, A A; Breum, N O; Bacher, J; Lynge, E

    1990-01-01

    An assessment of the occupational exposure to styrene and associated chemicals in Denmark was carried out by retrieving all measurements from the archives of the Danish National Institute of Occupational Health. A total of 2,528 air samples containing styrene had been collected from 256 workplaces during the years 1955-88 and analyzed by the chemical laboratory at the Institute. The mean for all samples was 265 mg/m3. The concentration decreased from 714 mg/m3 in the early period (1955-70) to 172 mg/m3 in the late period (1981-88). Spraying and unspecified lay-up and production of boats, carriages, and stationary containers were associated with the highest concentration. A total of 34 chemicals were measured. The most frequent co-contaminant to styrene was acetone, which was measured in 2,263 samples with a mean concentration of 131 mg/m3. Dichloromethane was measured in 208 samples with a mean concentration of 51 mg/m3, xylene in 148 samples with a mean concentration of 49 mg/m3, and toluene in 116 samples with a mean concentration of 113 mg/m3. The study was undertaken to analyze historical styrene concentrations in air to aid in the selection of industrial cohorts to be included in epidemiologic studies.

  13. [Cholera in Europe and Denmark in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Bonderup, G

    1996-01-01

    There are several reasons for dealing with cholera in the 19th century: it acted as a spotlight throwing into sharp relief the darkest corners of society that are seldom mentioned in the sources. We learn about everyday life in large parts of the population, especially the poor. The fight against the disease also reveals how a society worked socially and politically. When cholera arrived in Europe -- the first time was in the 1830's and several times after that--the population reacted very violently, often by lynching doctors, while the authorities more or less let matters take their course. That is why international researchers have come to see cholera as a catalyst for the constantly latent social unrest following in the train of wars and revolutions. During my research on cholera in Denmark it became clear to me that matters were different here. There were no riots, nor any signs of social unrest--neither before nor after the outbreak of cholera. On the contrary, the authorities and the population joined forces against the epidemic. There was an atmosphere of mutual trust, and almost everybody turned out to be worthy of such trust. That points to a balanced society based on consensus, so cholera also functions as a detector of the fundamental structure of a society.

  14. Seasonal generation and composition of garden waste in Aarhus (Denmark).

    PubMed

    Boldrin, Alessio; Christensen, Thomas H

    2010-04-01

    Garden waste generation and composition were studied in Aarhus, Denmark. The amount of garden waste generated varied seasonally, from 2.5kgperson(-1)month(-1) in winter to 19.4kgperson(-1)month(-1) in summer. Seasonal fractional composition and chemical characterization of garden waste were determined by sorting and sampling garden waste eight times during 1year. On a yearly basis, the major fraction of garden waste was "small stuff" (flowers, grass clippings, hedge cuttings and soil) making up more than 90% (wet waste distribution) during the summer. The woody fractions (branches, wood) are more significant during the winter. Seasonal trends in waste chemical composition were recorded and an average annual composition of garden waste was calculated, considering the varying monthly generation and material fraction composition: the wet garden waste contained 40% water, 30% organic matter (VS) and 30% ash. The ash content suggests that the garden waste contains a significant amount of soil. This is in particular the case during summer. Of nutrients, the garden waste contained in average on a dry matter basis 0.6% N, 0.1% P, and 1.0% K. However, the contents varied significantly among the fractions and during the year. The content of trace elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) was low.

  15. Mixing and transformation in the Denmark Strait Overflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koszalka, Inga; Haine, Thomas; Magaldi, Marcello

    2014-05-01

    The Denmark Strait Overflow (DSO) is one of the major export routes for the dense waters from the Nordic Seas to the North Atlantic. However, the observations of the DSO are limited to a few locations and poorly resolve mixing processes that transform the dense waters and hence influence propagation of hydrographic signals from the Arctic to the Atlantic. We use a high resolution circulation model to diagnose mixing processes involving the DSO in the Irminger Basin. We focus on mesoscale (10-100km) processes, the most prominent being dense cyclonic boluses making up the overflow plume. The subgrid turbulent processes are represented by the K-profile parameterization. We map the horizontal and vertical eddy diffusivities derived from Lagrangian particles, the model vertical mixing coefficient and eddy fluxes. Our results are consistent with observations suggesting enhanced vertical mixing during the initial (~ 200km) descent of the dense plume and increasing importance of horizontal mixing downstream. The model also shows enhanced mixing along the dense water pathways in the Kangerdlugssuaq Trough on the East Greenland Shelf involving fresh Polar Waters. However, the most intense mixing is induced by mesoscale boluses of dense water cascading down the sill and the associated internal wave field. Frequent occurrence of a neutrally stratified mixed layer in the dense plume poses a challenge for the turbulent scheme of the model. We advocate for an observational campaign that would corroborate these results and help develop novel parametrizations of the vertical mixing processes in the DSO.

  16. End-cretaceous brachiopod extinctions in the chalk of denmark.

    PubMed

    Surlyk, F; Johansen, M B

    1984-03-16

    The results of a detailed study of the brachiopods of the most complete Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in Denmark, Nye Klslashed circlev, show an extinction pattern for this marine invertebrate group compatible with that reported for pelagic foraminifera and coccoliths and with the impact scenario. The extinction is abrupt, coinciding with the Maastrichtian-Danian boundary. There is no warning in the form of decreasing density, decreasing diversity, or early extinction of specialized groups. The basal few meters of the Danian are almost devoid of brachiopods, and a Danian brachiopod fauna starts almost as abruptly as the Maastrichtian fauna disappeared. The new fauna is similar to the Maastrichtian as regards density and diversity, and at maximum six species are common to both stages. The northwest European Masstrichtian chalk is composed mainly of the remains of coccoliths and pelagic foraminifera. The mass extinction of these groups led to a total cessation of chalk production. The chalk is overlain by a thin clay bed deposited partly under anoxic conditions. This combination of anoxia and clay deposition coupled with a cessation of productivity led to the extinction of specialized groups such as the chalk brachiopods. The surviving species included forms that could survive in well-aerated shallow marine waters on substrates other than chalk.

  17. End-Cretaceous Brachiopod Extinctions in the Chalk of Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surlyk, Finn; Bagge Johansen, Marianne

    1984-03-01

    The results of a detailed study of the brachiopods of the most complete Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in Denmark, Nye Klov, show an extinction pattern for this marine invertebrate group compatible with that reported for pelagic foraminifera and coccoliths and with the impact scenario. The extinction is abrupt, coinciding with the Maastrichtian-Danian boundary. There is no warning in the form of decreasing density, decreasing diversity, or early extinction of specialized groups. The basal few meters of the Danian are almost devoid of brachiopods, and a Danian brachiopod fauna starts almost as abruptly as the Maastrichtian fauna disappeared. The new fauna is similar to the Maastrichtian as regards density and diversity, and at maximum six species are common to both stages. The northwest European Maastrichtian chalk is composed mainly of the remains of coccoliths and pelagic foraminifera. The mass extinction of these groups led to a total cessation of chalk production. The chalk is overlain by a thin clay bed deposited partly under anoxic conditions. This combination of anoxia and clay deposition coupled with a cessation of productivity led to the extinction of specialized groups such as the chalk brachiopods. The surviving species included forms that could survive in well-aerated shallow marine waters on substrates other than chalk.

  18. Clinical management of acute diabetic Charcot foot in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Rasmus Bo; Svendsen, Ole Lander; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2016-10-01

    Charcot foot is a severe complication to diabetes mellitus and treatment involves several different clinical specialities. Our objective was to describe the current awareness, knowledge and treatment practices of Charcot foot among doctors who handle diabetic foot disorders. This study is based on a questionnaire survey sent out to healthcare professionals, primarily doctors, working with diabetic foot ulcers and Charcot feet in the public sector of the Danish healthcare system. The survey obtained a 52% response rate. A temperature difference of > 2 °C between the two feet was the most used method of diagnosing Charcot foot. Along with clinical inspection, temperature difference was also the measurement used for monitoring of healing. None of the suggested formalised classification systems were used to any extent. Most responders use detachable bandages for offloading (83%). All centres use some form of a multidisciplinary team, with the most common permanent members being orthopaedic surgeons (71%), wound specialist nurses (76%), podiatrists (65%), endocrinologists (47%) and diabetes specialist nurses (41%). We conducted a survey of the diagnosis and treatment practices of acute diabetic Charcot foot at diabetes foot clinics in Denmark. The responders seem to follow the international recommendations and guidelines on management of the acute diabetic Charcot foot, despite a lack of Danish guidelines. none. not relevant.

  19. Environmental assessment of garden waste management in the Municipality of Aarhus, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob K; Christensen, Thomas H

    2011-07-01

    An environmental assessment of six scenarios for handling of garden waste in the Municipality of Aarhus (Denmark) was performed from a life cycle perspective by means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE. In the first (baseline) scenario, the current garden waste management system based on windrow composting was assessed, while in the other five scenarios alternative solutions including incineration and home composting of fractions of the garden waste were evaluated. The environmental profile (normalised to Person Equivalent, PE) of the current garden waste management in Aarhus is in the order of -6 to 8 mPE Mg(-1) ww for the non-toxic categories and up to 100 mPE Mg(-1) ww for the toxic categories. The potential impacts on non-toxic categories are much smaller than what is found for other fractions of municipal solid waste. Incineration (up to 35% of the garden waste) and home composting (up to 18% of the garden waste) seem from an environmental point of view suitable for diverting waste away from the composting facility in order to increase its capacity. In particular the incineration of woody parts of the garden waste improved the environmental profile of the garden waste management significantly. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Environmental assessment of garden waste management in the Municipality of Aarhus, Denmark

    SciTech Connect

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob K.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2011-07-15

    An environmental assessment of six scenarios for handling of garden waste in the Municipality of Aarhus (Denmark) was performed from a life cycle perspective by means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE. In the first (baseline) scenario, the current garden waste management system based on windrow composting was assessed, while in the other five scenarios alternative solutions including incineration and home composting of fractions of the garden waste were evaluated. The environmental profile (normalised to Person Equivalent, PE) of the current garden waste management in Aarhus is in the order of -6 to 8 mPE Mg{sup -1} ww for the non-toxic categories and up to 100 mPE Mg{sup -1} ww for the toxic categories. The potential impacts on non-toxic categories are much smaller than what is found for other fractions of municipal solid waste. Incineration (up to 35% of the garden waste) and home composting (up to 18% of the garden waste) seem from an environmental point of view suitable for diverting waste away from the composting facility in order to increase its capacity. In particular the incineration of woody parts of the garden waste improved the environmental profile of the garden waste management significantly.

  1. Cancer survival in parents who lost a child: a nationwide study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Johansen, C; Olsen, J

    2003-06-02

    Psychological stress has been suggested to shorten cancer survival, but few studies have examined the effect of parental bereavement, and the results have been inconsistent. We identified all 21 062 parents who lost a child in Denmark from 1980 to 1996 and among them, 1630 parents with subsequent incident cancer formed the exposed cohort. We recruited 6237 incident cancer patients from a group of 293 745 randomly selected unexposed parents matched on family structure at the same time as the bereaved parents. All incident cancers in the two cohorts were followed to the end of 1997, or until they died. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to evaluate the hazard ratio (HR) of dying in exposed parents with cancer. The overall HR of dying from an incident cancer in exposed parents was 1.23 (95% confidence interval 1.03-1.47) compared to parents with cancer who did not lose a child. The HRs were nearly identical to those in the unexposed parents for site-specific cancers like lung cancer, breast cancer, and other groups of cancers like cancers in all digestive organs, smoking-related cancers, alcohol-related cancers, hormone-related cancers, virus/immune-related cancers, and lymphatic/haematopoietic cancers. Death of a child is not a strong prognostic factor for cancer survival among parents diagnosed with cancer after the bereavement. However, a small impairment in overall cancer survival cannot be ruled out.

  2. Adult education and the challenges of regional development: Policy and sustainability in North Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Palle; Staugaard, Hans Jørgen

    2016-10-01

    Adult education is governed at many levels - internationally, nationally and locally. The authors of this paper look at the challenges, structures and practices of adult education policy at the local level, more specifically in North Denmark (Northern Jutland), one of the five administrative regions of the Danish nation-state. In many ways, the current educational challenges in this remote region of Europe are similar to what can be observed worldwide and especially in countries which are generally considered welfare states. The authors see the growing social and educational divide between the region's peripheral areas and its largest city centre as a major challenge - for society as a whole and for adult education in particular. It is from this perspective that the authors describe the present structures of adult education in the region and the strategies employed by local authorities and educational institutions. This is followed by an evaluation of both structures and efforts in terms of their ability to cope with the challenges.

  3. Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAnany, Emile G.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Two lead articles set the theme for this issue devoted to evaluation as Emile G. McAnany examines the usefulness of evaluation and Robert C. Hornik addresses four widely accepted myths about evaluation. Additional articles include a report of a field evaluation done by the Accion Cultural Popular (ACPO); a study of the impact of that evaluation by…

  4. Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAnany, Emile G.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Two lead articles set the theme for this issue devoted to evaluation as Emile G. McAnany examines the usefulness of evaluation and Robert C. Hornik addresses four widely accepted myths about evaluation. Additional articles include a report of a field evaluation done by the Accion Cultural Popular (ACPO); a study of the impact of that evaluation by…

  5. OC10 - Inter-rater agreement of the Paediatric Early Warning Score tools used in the central Denmark region.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Claus Sixtus; Aagaard, Hanne; Vebert Olesen, Hanne; Kirkegaard, Hans

    2016-05-09

    Theme: Patient safety Background: Paediatric Early Warning Score (PEWS) tools can assist healthcare providers in the rapid detection and recognition of changes in patient condition. In the central Denmark region two different PEWS tools tested in large-scale RCT study. However, data from PEWS instruments are only as reliable and accurate as the caregiver who obtains and documents the parameters. The purpose was to evaluate the inter-rater agreement among nurses using the PEWS systems. The study was conducted in five paediatrics departments. Inter-observer reliability was investigated through simultaneous blinded PEWS assessment on the same patients by two nurses. Fleiss' kappa was utilized to determine the level of agreement among the raters. With a paucity of published reliability testing studies, this research attempts to address identified research gaps and will thus inform nursing practice.

  6. Estimated intake of benzoic and sorbic acids in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Leth, T; Christensen, T; Larsen, I K

    2010-06-01

    The monitoring of food additives and recent dietary surveys carried out in Denmark have earlier been used to estimate the intake of sweeteners and nitrite in relation to acceptable daily intakes. The ubiquitous use of the preservatives benzoic and sorbic acids raises the question of the magnitude of the intake of these preservatives in relation to acceptable daily intakes. This area is explored in this paper. The content of benzoic and sorbic acids in all food groups, where they are allowed, was monitored in Denmark 17 times between 2001 and 2006 with a total of 1526 samples. Transgressions of maximum limits, illegal use or declaration faults were found in about 3% of samples. From repeated investigations on fat-based foods (salads and dressings), marmalade and stewed fruit, it is concluded that the amounts used in industry have been relatively stable throughout the whole period, although limited data for marmalade show some variation. Most foods in the categories soft drinks, dressings, fat-based salads, pickled herrings, and marmalade contain benzoic and sorbic acid, and sliced bread also contains in some cases sorbic acid. The median daily intake and intake distribution of benzoic and sorbic acids were calculated with data from the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity (age from 4 to 75 years) conducted in 2000-2004 with 5785 participants. The median intakes of both benzoic acid and sorbic acid are well below the acceptable daily intakes of 0-5 and 0-25 mg kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1) for benzoic and sorbic acid, respectively. However, the 90th percentile based on the average of the samples with a content of benzoic acid is higher than the acceptable daily intake for both men and women, with the highest value of 16 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for both boys and girls in the 4-6-year-old age group. Based on the average of all samples, the 95th percentile is over the acceptable daily intake for men up to 34 years and for women up to 24 years

  7. New national emission inventory for navigation in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winther, Morten

    This article explains the new emission inventory for navigation in Denmark, covering national sea transport, fisheries and international sea transport. For national sea transport, the new Danish inventory distinguishes between regional ferries, local ferries and other national sea transport. Detailed traffic and technical data lie behind the fleet activity-based fuel consumption and emission calculations for regional ferries. For local ferries and other national sea transport, the new inventory is partly fleet activity based; fuel consumption estimates are calculated for single years, and full fuel consumption coverage is established in a time series by means of appropriate assumptions. For fisheries and international sea transport, the new inventory remains fuel based, using fuel sales data from the Danish Energy Authority (DEA). The new Danish inventory uses specific fuel consumption (sfc) and NO x emission factors as a function of engine type and production year. These factors, which are used directly for regional ferries and, for the remaining navigation categories, are derived by means of appropriate assumptions, serve as a major inventory improvement, necessary for making proper emission trend assessments. International sea transport is the most important fuel consumption and emission source for navigation, and the contributions are large even compared with the overall Danish totals. If the contributions from international sea transport were included in the Danish all-sector totals, the extra contributions in 2005 from fuel consumption (and CO 2), NO x and SO 2 would be 5%, 34% and 167%, respectively. The 1990-2005 changes in fuel consumption as well as NO x and SO 2 emissions for national sea transport (-45, -45, -81), fisheries (-18, 6, -18) and international sea transport (-14, 1, -14) reflect changes in fleet activity/fuel consumption and emission factors. The 2006-2020 emission forecasts demonstrate a need for stricter fuel quality and NO x emission

  8. Factors contributing to young moped rider accidents in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2016-02-01

    Young road users still constitute a high-risk group with regard to road traffic accidents. The crash rate of a moped is four times greater than that of a motorcycle, and the likelihood of being injured in a road traffic accident is 10-20 times higher among moped riders compared to car drivers. Nevertheless, research on the behaviour and accident involvement of young moped riders remains sparse. Based on analysis of 128 accident protocols, the purpose of this study was to increase knowledge about moped accidents. The study was performed in Denmark involving riders aged 16 or 17. A distinction was made between accident factors related to (1) the road and its surroundings, (2) the vehicle, and (3) the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. Thirteen accident factors were identified with the majority concerning the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. The average number of accident factors assigned per accident was 2.7. Riding speed was assigned in 45% of the accidents which made it the most frequently assigned factor on the part of the moped rider followed by attention errors (42%), a tuned up moped (29%) and position on the road (14%). For the other parties involved, attention error (52%) was the most frequently assigned accident factor. The majority (78%) of the accidents involved road rule breaching on the part of the moped rider. The results indicate that preventive measures should aim to eliminate violations and increase anticipatory skills among moped riders and awareness of mopeds among other road users. Due to their young age the effect of such measures could be enhanced by infrastructural measures facilitating safe interaction between mopeds and other road users. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Atmospheric ammonia exchange on a heathland in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Birgitte; Nørnberg, Per; Rasmussen, Keld Rømer

    Passive flux samplers were used to determine the ammonia exchange on an inland heath in Denmark over the last 2 years. The samplers measured the horizontal ammonia flux directly. Data were sampled continuously for periods of 1-4 weeks. The micro-meteorological gradient method was used with passive flux samplers and cup anemometers at different heights above the vegetation in order to calculate the vertical fluxes of ammonia. First a fixed sampler system was used with tubes mounted in four orthogonal horizontal directions. This system has been successfully applied to measure the emission from fertilized crops. Adapting this type of sampler to measure the deposition to heathlands did not prove to be straightforward. The precision of the calculated ammonia concentrations was too poor to give an acceptable accuracy for the concentration gradient. The problems were (a) driving rain which entered the tubes, (b) too few measuring points in each concentration profile, and (c) too long sampling periods to allow for the low-concentration levels above the heath area and the detection limits. Therefore, a passive flux sampler mounted on a wind vane and fitted with a rain shelter was developed. Results from the first 5 weekly periods are very promising, yielding accurate concentration gradients. The advantages of the passive flux samplers on the wind vane are (a) the minimum measuring period can be approximately halved compared to the fixed samplers, (b) some of the directional correction terms used with the fixed passive flux samplers are dispensed with, and (c) the field and laboratory work is minimized.

  10. Cancer risk and occupational exposure to aflatoxins in Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, J. H.; Dragsted, L.; Autrup, H.

    1988-01-01

    A study of cancer risk among male employees at 241 livestock feed processing companies in Denmark was conducted on the basis of a data linkage system for detailed investigation of occupational cancer providing employment histories back until 1964, established at the Danish Cancer Registry. Crops imported for feed production have often been contaminated with highly variable concentrations of aflatoxins; an estimated average concentration of at least 140 micrograms aflatoxin B1 kg-1 prepared mixed cattle feed prevailed in the past, yielding a daily intake for workers via the respiratory route of approximately 170 ng. Risk was established on the basis of cancer cases among male workers, whose employment in one of the companies was the job they had held for the longest time since 1964. Elevated risks for liver cancer and for cancers of the biliary tract were observed, which increased by two- to three-fold significance after a 10-year latency. Exposure to aflatoxins in the imported crops was judged to be the most probable explanation for these findings, although the influence of lifestyle factors, e.g. alcohol consumption on the results cannot be fully disregarded. Increased risks for salivary gland tumours and multiple myeloma were also detected. However, due to multiple comparisons carried out in this study these new associations must await further confirmation. A decreased risk for lung cancer was observed; despite possible negative confounding due to the smoking habits of the employees, the lung does not seem to be a target organ for the carcinogenic effect of inhaled aflatoxins in humans. PMID:3179193

  11. Comparison of Worm Control Strategies in Grazing Sheep in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Boa, ME; Thamsborg, SM; Kassuku, AA; Bøgh, HO

    2001-01-01

    Control of nematode parasites with reduced reliance on the use of anthelmintics was studied in 16 ewes with suckling twin lambs on contaminated pasture in Denmark. Ewes and lambs were treated with albendazole at turn-out 3 May. Ewes were removed from the groups on 26 July, and lambs were slaughtered on 11 October. The animals were allocated to 4 groups of 8 lambs and their 4 ewes. Group TS was treated with albendazole at weeks 3, 6 and 8 after turnout and set-stocked; group TM was similarly treated but moved to clean pasture in conjunction with the last drenching; group US was untreated and set-stocked, and group UM was left untreated but moved to clean pasture week 8 after turn-out. Supplementary feed was offered in June and August due to scarcity of pasture. Strategic treatments of ewes and lambs weeks 3, 6 and 8 after turn-out, with or without a move to clean pasture, were highly effective in controlling nematode infections for most of the season. This was reflected in better weight gains and carcass characteristics in the treated compared to untreated lambs, resulting in an average increase in the value of the product by 36%. The effect of moving without treatment (UM) on faecal egg counts was limited but peak pasture infectivity was reduced to less than 10% compared to the set-stocked group and weight gains of lambs were significantly better despite poor feed availability in late season. The study showed that under set-stocked conditions repeated anthelmintic treatments of both ewes and lambs in early season may ensure sufficient nematode control whereas moving animals to clean pasture without dosing was less efficient. The latter may, however, still be a viable option in organic and other production systems where routine use of anthelmintics is banned, particularly if weaning and moving are combined or a second move is performed. PMID:11455902

  12. [History of induced abortion in Denmark from 1200 to 1979].

    PubMed

    Manniche, E

    1982-10-01

    History of induced abortion in Denmark from 1200 to 1979 is reviewed. The 1st Danish law of 1200 did not touch upon the question of induced abortion. From the beginning of the 13th century to Religious Reformation in 1536, Roman Catholic law influenced every aspect of Danish life including induced abortion. In 1683 in King Christian V's constitution called Dansk Lov induced abortion was discussed. Immoral women who aborted fetuses or killed newborn babies were decapitated. In Copenhagen in the years 1624-1632 and 1638-1663 17 women were executed because of induced abortion or murder of newborn babies. Although Dansk Lov was effective till 1866, Danish kings came to treat female criminals less severely since about 1780-1800. For example, between 1855 and 1866 42 women convicted of murder of newborn babies or abortion were given pardon (12 years of imprisonment instead of life sentence). In 1866, abortion and murder of babies were treated separately in the Danish criminal law. Induced abortion meant up to 8 years of imprisonment and labor. In 1930 life sentence was abolished; induced abortion called for only up to 2 years of imprisonment, while those who assisted for money were punished more severely (up to 8 years in prison). In 1937 the Danes legalized induced abortion for medical, ethical, (e.g. rape case) and eugenic reasons. By 1973 legalized abortion was available, free of charge, to every Danish female resident within 12 weeks of pregnancy. In 1980 abortion rate was about 41% of total births. It is estimated 2/3 of Danish women experience abortion. Lastly, illegitimate births and miscarriages are on the rise due to changes in women's social status and role.

  13. Trends in drink driving accidents and convictions in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Bernhoft, Inger Marie; Hels, Tove; Hansen, Allan Steen

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the long-term trends in injury accidents involving drink drivers and in drink driving convictions in Denmark. The article also identifies drink drivers' characteristics useful for targeted countermeasures. Accident-involved drink drivers have been divided into subgroups by age and gender. The database of convicted drivers has been linked to databases with information about age, gender, and various socio-demographic variables, such as education and employment. Per capita rates have been used to describe the changes in the road safety variables and in the criminal convictions variables during the study period. In the past four decades there has been a sharp reduction in the per capita rate of Danish male drink drivers involved in injury accidents for all age groups, with the slope of the curve significantly lower in recent years. Although this rate reduction is much more marked for male drivers aged 18-24 compared to all other age groups, their rate is still around three times higher than for those aged 25-64. Danish male convicted drink drivers, including those who were involved in accidents, are mainly drivers with only primary school education or workers, unemployed drivers, and drivers who use their car for work. Strategies against drink driving should bear in mind that a differentiation between men and women and young people and middle-aged people is necessary, that education and occupation play an important role, that drink driving may be related to the workplace, and that enforcement activities towards young drivers should be concentrated on weekends.

  14. Occupational and recreational physical activity and Parkinson's disease in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Shih, I-Fan; Starhof, Charlotte; Lassen, Christina Funch; Hansen, Johnni; Liew, Zeyan; Ritz, Beate

    2017-03-20

    Objectives This study aimed to examine whether occupational and physical activity (PA) at different ages contribute to Parkinson's disease (PD) risk in a large population-based case-control study in Denmark. Methods We identified 1828 PD patients from the Danish National Hospital Register and recruited 1909 gender and year of birth matched controls from the Danish Central Population Register. Occupational and leisure-time PA were determined from a job exposure matrix based on occupational history and self-reported leisure-time information. Results No association was found for occupational PA alone in men, but higher leisure-time PA (≥5 hours/week of strenuous activities) in young adulthood (15-25 years) was associated with a lower PD risk (adjusted odds ratio (OR adj) 0.75, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.62-0.90); men who engaged in high occupational and high leisure-time PA in young adulthood had the lowest PD risk (OR adj0.58, 95% CI 0.41-0.81). Among women, inverse associations were found for occupation PA before age 50 (highest vs lowest, OR adj0.75, 95% CI 0.55-1.06) and strenuous leisure-time PA after age 50 (OR adj0.65, 95% CI 0.87-0.99); no clear pattern was seen for leisure and occupational PA combined. Conclusions We observed gender-specific inverse associations between occupational and leisure-time PA and PD risk; however, we cannot preclude reverse causation especially in older ages since PD has a long prodromal stage that might lead to a reduction of PA years before motor symptom onset and PD diagnosis.

  15. Impacts of 21st century climate changes on flora and vegetation in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skov, Flemming; Nygaard, Bettina; Wind, Peter; Borchsenius, Finn; Normand, Signe; Balslev, Henrik; Fløjgaard, Camilla; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2009-11-01

    In this paper we examined the potential impacts of predicted climatic changes on the flora and vegetation in Denmark using data from a digital database on the natural vegetation of Europe. Climate scenarios A2 and B2 were used to find regions with present climatic conditions similar to Denmark's climate in the year 2100. The potential natural vegetation of Denmark today is predominantly deciduous forest that would cover more than 90% of the landscape. Swamps, bogs, and wet forest would be found under moist or wet conditions. Dwarf shrub heaths would be naturally occurring on poor soils along the coast together with dune systems and salt-marsh vegetation. When comparing the natural vegetation of Denmark to the vegetation of five future-climate analogue areas, the most obvious trend is a shift from deciduous to thermophilous broadleaved forest currently found in Southern and Eastern Europe. A total of 983 taxa were recorded for this study of which 539 were found in Denmark. The Sørensen index was used to measure the floristic similarity between Denmark and the five subregions. Deciduous forest, dwarf shrub heath, and coastal vegetation were treated in more detail, focusing on potential new immigrant species to Denmark. Finally, implications for management were discussed. The floristic similarity between Denmark and regions in Europe with a climate similar to what is expected for Denmark in year 2100 was found to vary between 48-78%, decreasing from North to South. Hence, it seems inevitable that climate changes of the magnitudes foreseen will alter the distribution of individual species and the composition of natural vegetation units. Changes, however, will not be immediate. Historic evidence shows a considerable lag in response to climatic change under natural conditions, but little is known about the effects of human land-use and pollution on this process. Facing such uncertainties we suggested that a dynamic strategy based on modeling, monitoring and adaptive

  16. Broad-scale patterns of abundance of non-indigenous soft-bottom invertebrates in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Mads S.; Wernberg, Thomas; Silliman, Brian R.; Josefson, Alf B.

    2009-06-01

    Quantifying the broad-scale distribution and abundance of non-indigenous species (NIS) is necessary to provide accurate estimations on impacts of invasions, to prioritize research, and to guide national management. Sediment grab-sampling is a standardized method for monitoring marine benthos. In Denmark, ~45,000 grab-samples were collected from 1970 to 2005. Using these samples, we compared densities of NIS and native species among 27 broad spatio-temporal groupings. Eight known NIS and one ‘cryptogenic species’ (the polychaete Neanthes succinea) were found in the samples. Most were present in low abundance, but the bivalve Mya arenaria, likely introduced by the vikings from North America, was particularly abundant. M. arenaria was found in ca. 20% of all samples and was among the 10 most common species in all of Denmark. M. arenaria’s high abundance, high filtration capacity and importance in food-web interactions, suggest that this species has dramatically impacted shallow coastal ecosystems in Denmark. The polychaete Marenzelleria viridis, the gastropod Potamopyrgus antipodarum and N. succinea were also widespread and abundant, and they too are likely to have had broad-scale impacts. In conclusion, 28% of grab-samples collected in Denmark over 35 years were affected by some degree of NIS or cryptogenic species, suggesting that centuries of human-mediated transfer of organisms has had a profound impact on the ecology of soft-bottom systems in Denmark.

  17. Marked differences in GPs' diagnosis of pneumonia between Denmark and Spain: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Sarah Friis; Jørgensen, Lars Christian; Cordoba, Gloria; Llor, Carl; Siersma, Volkert; Bjerrum, Lars

    2013-12-01

    In patients with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) it is a challenge to identify who should be treated with antibiotics. According to international guidelines, antibiotics should be prescribed to patients with suspected pneumonia while acute bronchitis is considered a viral infection and should, generally, not be treated with antibiotics. Overdiagnosis of pneumonia in patients with LRTIs may lead to antibiotic overprescribing. To investigate the prevalence of presumed pneumonia in patients with LRTI in two countries with different antibiotic prescribing rates (Denmark and Spain) and to compare which symptoms and clinical tests are of most importance for the GP when choosing a diagnosis of pneumonia rather than acute bronchitis. A cross-sectional study including GPs from Denmark and Spain was conducted as part of the EU-funded project HAPPY AUDIT. A total of 2,698 patients with LRTI were included. In Denmark, 47% of the patients with LRTI were classified with a diagnosis of pneumonia compared with 11% in Spain. In Spain, fever and a positive x-ray weighted significantly more in the diagnosis of pneumonia than in Denmark. Danish GPs, however, attached more importance to dyspnoea/polypnoea and C-reactive protein levels >50mg/L. None of the other typical symptoms of pneumonia had a significant influence. Our results indicate that GPs' diagnostic criteria for pneumonia differ substantially between Denmark and Spain. The high prevalence of pneumonia among Danish patients with LRTI may indicate overdiagnosis of pneumonia which, in turn, may lead to antibiotic overprescribing.

  18. Changes in Alcohol-Related Problems After Alcohol Policy Changes in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden*

    PubMed Central

    Bloomfield, Kim; Wicki, Matthias; Gustafsson, Nina-Katri; Mäkelä, Pia; Room, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: European Union travelers' allowances for alcohol import to Denmark, Sweden, and Finland were abolished in 2004. In addition, excise taxes on alcohol were lowered in 2003 and 2005 in Denmark, and in 2004 in Finland. Using northern Sweden as a control site, this study examines whether levels of reported alcohol problems have changed in Denmark, Finland, and southern Sweden as a consequence of these policy changes. Method: Annual cross-sectional surveys were conducted in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden from 2003 to 2006. Five dependency items and seven extrinsic alcohol-related problems were examined. Changes were analyzed within each country/region with logistic regressions and tested for short- and long-term changes. Differential change was also tested between each country and the control site, northern Sweden. Results: Prevalence of alcohol problems decreased over the study period. Only in selected subgroups did problems increase. This mainly occurred in the samples for northern Sweden and Finland, and mostly among older age groups and men. In relation to the control site, however, no increases in problem prevalence were found. Conclusions: Our findings on a decline in reported alcohol problems largely agree with published reports on alcohol consumption over the same period in the study countries. They do not agree, however, with findings on changes in health and social statistics in Finland and Denmark, where some significant increases in alcohol-related harm have been found. PMID:20105411

  19. Algorithm linking patients and general practices in Denmark using the Danish National Health Service Register

    PubMed Central

    Kjaersgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Vedsted, Peter; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Vestergaard, Mogens; Flarup, Kaare Rud; Fenger-Grøn, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Background The patient list system in Denmark assigns virtually all residents to a general practice. Nevertheless, historical information on this link between patient and general practice is not readily available for research purposes. Objectives To develop, implement, and evaluate the performance of an algorithm linking individual patients to their general practice by using information from the Danish National Health Service Register and the Danish Civil Registration System. Materials and methods The National Health Service Register contains information on all services provided by general practitioners from 1990 and onward. On the basis of these data and information on migration history and death obtained from the Civil Registration System, we developed an algorithm that allocated patients to a general practice on a monthly basis. We evaluated the performance of the algorithm between 2002 and 2007. During this time period, we had access to information on the link between patients and general practices. Agreement was assessed by the proportion of months for which the algorithm allocated patients to the correct general practice. We also assessed the proportion of all patients in the patient list system for which the algorithm was able to suggest an allocation. Results The overall agreement between algorithm and patient lists was 98.6%. We found slightly higher agreement for women (98.8%) than for men (98.4%) and lower agreement in the age group 18–34 years (97.1%) compared to all other age groups (≥98.6%). The algorithm had assigned 83% of all patients in the patient list system after 1 year of follow-up, 91% after 2 years of follow-up, and peaked at 94% during the fourth year. Conclusion We developed an algorithm that enables valid and nearly complete linkage between patients and general practices. The algorithm performs better in subgroups of patients with high health care needs. The algorithm constitutes a valuable tool for primary health care research. PMID

  20. Cost-Effectiveness of Preventive Interventions to Reduce Alcohol Consumption in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Veerman, Lennert; Cobiac, Linda; Ekholm, Ola; Diderichsen, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of many diseases and injuries, and the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimated that 6% of the burden of disease in Denmark is due to alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption thus places a considerable economic burden on society. Methods We analysed the cost-effectiveness of six interventions aimed at preventing alcohol abuse in the adult Danish population: 30% increased taxation, increased minimum legal drinking age, advertisement bans, limited hours of retail sales, and brief and longer individual interventions. Potential health effects were evaluated as changes in incidence, prevalence and mortality of alcohol-related diseases and injuries. Net costs were calculated as the sum of intervention costs and cost offsets related to treatment of alcohol-related outcomes, based on health care costs from Danish national registers. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated by calculating incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for each intervention. We also created an intervention pathway to determine the optimal sequence of interventions and their combined effects. Results Three of the analysed interventions (advertising bans, limited hours of retail sales and taxation) were cost-saving, and the remaining three interventions were all cost-effective. Net costs varied from € -17 million per year for advertisement ban to € 8 million for longer individual intervention. Effectiveness varied from 115 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) per year for minimum legal drinking age to 2,900 DALY for advertisement ban. The total annual effect if all interventions were implemented would be 7,300 DALY, with a net cost of € -30 million. Conclusion Our results show that interventions targeting the whole population were more effective than individual-focused interventions. A ban on alcohol advertising, limited hours of retail sale and increased taxation had the highest probability of being cost-saving and should thus

  1. Cost-effectiveness of preventive interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Veerman, Lennert; Cobiac, Linda; Ekholm, Ola; Diderichsen, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of many diseases and injuries, and the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimated that 6% of the burden of disease in Denmark is due to alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption thus places a considerable economic burden on society. We analysed the cost-effectiveness of six interventions aimed at preventing alcohol abuse in the adult Danish population: 30% increased taxation, increased minimum legal drinking age, advertisement bans, limited hours of retail sales, and brief and longer individual interventions. Potential health effects were evaluated as changes in incidence, prevalence and mortality of alcohol-related diseases and injuries. Net costs were calculated as the sum of intervention costs and cost offsets related to treatment of alcohol-related outcomes, based on health care costs from Danish national registers. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated by calculating incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for each intervention. We also created an intervention pathway to determine the optimal sequence of interventions and their combined effects. Three of the analysed interventions (advertising bans, limited hours of retail sales and taxation) were cost-saving, and the remaining three interventions were all cost-effective. Net costs varied from € -17 million per year for advertisement ban to € 8 million for longer individual intervention. Effectiveness varied from 115 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) per year for minimum legal drinking age to 2,900 DALY for advertisement ban. The total annual effect if all interventions were implemented would be 7,300 DALY, with a net cost of € -30 million. Our results show that interventions targeting the whole population were more effective than individual-focused interventions. A ban on alcohol advertising, limited hours of retail sale and increased taxation had the highest probability of being cost-saving and should thus be first priority for implementation.

  2. Algorithm linking patients and general practices in Denmark using the Danish National Health Service Register.

    PubMed

    Kjaersgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Vedsted, Peter; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Vestergaard, Mogens; Flarup, Kaare Rud; Fenger-Grøn, Morten

    2016-01-01

    The patient list system in Denmark assigns virtually all residents to a general practice. Nevertheless, historical information on this link between patient and general practice is not readily available for research purposes. To develop, implement, and evaluate the performance of an algorithm linking individual patients to their general practice by using information from the Danish National Health Service Register and the Danish Civil Registration System. The National Health Service Register contains information on all services provided by general practitioners from 1990 and onward. On the basis of these data and information on migration history and death obtained from the Civil Registration System, we developed an algorithm that allocated patients to a general practice on a monthly basis. We evaluated the performance of the algorithm between 2002 and 2007. During this time period, we had access to information on the link between patients and general practices. Agreement was assessed by the proportion of months for which the algorithm allocated patients to the correct general practice. We also assessed the proportion of all patients in the patient list system for which the algorithm was able to suggest an allocation. The overall agreement between algorithm and patient lists was 98.6%. We found slightly higher agreement for women (98.8%) than for men (98.4%) and lower agreement in the age group 18-34 years (97.1%) compared to all other age groups (≥98.6%). The algorithm had assigned 83% of all patients in the patient list system after 1 year of follow-up, 91% after 2 years of follow-up, and peaked at 94% during the fourth year. We developed an algorithm that enables valid and nearly complete linkage between patients and general practices. The algorithm performs better in subgroups of patients with high health care needs. The algorithm constitutes a valuable tool for primary health care research.

  3. The police, social services and psychiatry cooperation in Denmark--a new model of working practice between governmental sectors. A description of the concept, process, practice and experience.

    PubMed

    Sestoft, D; Rasmussen, M F; Vitus, K; Kongsrud, L

    2014-01-01

    In 2004 a new model of working practice between three public sectors, the local Police Department, Social Services and Psychiatry/Mental Health Services (PSP) was introduced in the municipality of Frederiksberg, Denmark. The aim of this cooperation was to enhance support to vulnerable citizens, who do not belong solely to one of the three sectors and thereby often get lost in the system. The PSP cooperation was introduced to ensure that relevant information concerning vulnerable citizens was shared between the three sectors and to improve collaboration between the sectors involved in order to provide the needed support to the individual citizen. Due to the success of the PSP cooperation in Frederiksberg, the PSP model was implemented by law in Denmark in 2009. In order to evaluate the model, a qualitative study based on structured interviews, focus group discussions and observations, was performed in four selected municipalities in Denmark: Frederiksberg, Odense, Amager and Esbjerg. The evaluation was undertaken by the Danish National Centre for Social Research. It is concluded that the PSP cooperation draws attention to marginalized groups of citizens and helps to prevent social downfall and crime. Participants of the PSP cooperations further highlight positive changes in the cooperation between the involved sectors, which is thought to further improve the support to vulnerable citizens and thereby enhance both prevention and follow up of cases. Furthermore, the recommendations drawn from the evaluation are to adapt PSP cooperations to local conditions, avoid unnecessary red-tape, keep a constant focus on citizens' ethics, as well as involve the frontline workers in the individual sectors, i.e. those who are actually in contact with marginalized citizens.

  4. Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in raw and drinking water - current situation in Sweden, Denmark and Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banzhaf, Stefan; Bester, Kai; Filipovic, Marko; Lewis, Jeffrey; Licha, Tobias; Sparrenbom, Charlotte; Barthel, Roland

    2016-04-01

    measures have to be taken to secure the drinking water quality for millions of people. Here, we present the first comprehensive comparison of PFASs contaminations in Sweden, Germany, and Denmark and how they are dealt with. Dieter, H., 2011. Grenzwerte, Leitwerte, Orientierungswerte, Maßnahmenwerte-Aktuelle Definitionen und Höchstwerte. Umweltbundesamt. MST (Miljøstyrelsen), 2015. Perfluoroalkylated substances: PFOA, PFOS, and PFOSA, Evaluation of health hazards and proposal of health based quality criterion for drinking water, soil and ground water. Report No 1665, 2015 Pettersson, M., Ländell, M., Ohlsson, Y., Berggren Kleja, D., Tiberg, C., 2015. Preliminära riktvärden för högfluorerade ämnen (PFAS) i mark och grundvatten Linköping.

  5. A comparison of autism prevalence trends in Denmark and Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Parner, Erik T; Thorsen, Poul; Dixon, Glenys; de Klerk, Nicholas; Leonard, Helen; Nassar, Natasha; Bourke, Jenny; Bower, Carol; Glasson, Emma J

    2011-12-01

    Prevalence statistics for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) vary widely across geographical boundaries. Some variation can be explained by diagnostic methods, case ascertainment and age at diagnosis. This study compared prevalence statistics for two distinct geographical regions, Denmark and Western Australia, both of which have had population-based registers and consistent classification systems operating over the past decade. Overall ASD prevalence rates were higher in Denmark (68.5 per 10,000 children) compared with Western Australia (51.0 per 10,000 children), while the diagnosis of childhood autism was more prevalent in Western Australia (39.3 per 10,000 children) compared with Denmark (21.8 per 10,000 children). These differences are probably caused by local phenomena affecting case ascertainment but influence from biological or geographical factors may exist.

  6. Glacial and periglacial landforms in Denmark: Scandinavian analogs for Martian features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossbacher, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    The geomorphology of Denmark is dominated by glacial deposits, including both end moraines and ground moraines. Many of these features have morphologies similar to features observed on Mars. A characteristic landscape complex in Denmark is a series of irregular mounds or parallel curvilinear ridges that outline the former ice margin. Many of these resemble curviliner features on Mars, and the Danish landforms occur at a similar scale. Another distinctive landform in Denmark is the hummocky moraine landscape found in parts of Sjaelland. Although their size is smaller, these areas resemble the hummocky terrain associated with some of the curvilinear features in the northern plains of Mars. The hummocky Danish terrain is probably caused by the melting of masses of dead ice left during glacial retreat. Similar landscapes observed developing during retreat of smaller glaciers were ice caps in Scandinavian mountains and in Greenland.

  7. Isomers of fluoroamphetamines detected in forensic cases in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Sys Stybe; Hansen, Tina Maria

    2012-07-01

    A study was performed on the detection, separation and quantification of isomers from the new designer drugs named fluoroamphetamines (FAs) in forensic cases in eastern Denmark. The drugs were detected in whole blood extracts by ultraperformance liquid chromatography with time of flight mass spectrometer (UPLC-TOF-MS) and thereafter verified and quantified by UPLC tandem mass spectrometer (MS/MS). The quantitative method involved liquid–liquid extraction of FAs from whole blood, evaporation of organic solvent, and reconstitution with a mobile phase mixture. Identification of the FAs was achieved by the retention time, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) traces [154 > 109 (quantifier); 154 > 137], and ion ratio of the two transitions. For all FAs, LOQ was 0.002 mg/kg with linear ranges from 0.002 to 1.0 mg/kg whole blood. Since 2008, a total of 15 forensic investigations, mainly driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) cases, involving 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA) have been observed with whole blood concentrations ranging from 0.006 to 0.58 mg/kg. One autopsy case involved 4-FA; however, it was determined to be a combined intoxication. In 2010, ortho-fluoroamphetamine (2-FA) was discovered in forensic samples by the same UPLC/MS/MS method and MRM functions because of variation in retention time and ion ratio. Up to now, three eastern Danish DUID cases have involved 2-FA. The whole blood concentrations of 2-FA were 0.028, 0.041 and 0.37 mg/kg, respectively. Thirteen cases with 4-FA and the three cases with 2-FA also contained amphetamine, but no correlation was observed between the amount of FA and amphetamine. So far, 3-FA has not been observed in any cases, and although it co-elutes with 4-FA, 3-FA will be identified by its variation in ion ratio. To our knowledge, this study has confirmed 2-FA in blood from DUID cases for the first time, and provides typical whole blood concentrations of FAs in forensic cases.

  8. Estimates of entrainment in the Denmark Strait overflow plume from CTD/LADCP data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhurbas, V. M.; Paka, V. T.; Rudels, B.; Quadfasel, D.

    2016-03-01

    The data of the CTD survey conducted in the Denmark Strait and Irminger Sea in May-June 2009 are used to calculate the vertical profiles of the turbulent overturning scale, which are then used to estimate the dissipation and entrainment rates in the overflow plume. The resulting estimates of the entrainment rate varied widely from 2 × 10-7 to 7 × 10-3 m/s. It is shown that such a wide range of entrainment rates is caused by the intermittency of turbulence. Large turbulent overturning at the interface of the Denmark Strait overflow plume is detected on the vertical temperature, salinity, and potential density profiles.

  9. [The use of foeticide in late termination of pregnancies in Denmark].

    PubMed

    Vinggaard Christensen, Anne; Petersson, Birgit H

    2013-01-28

    As a result of prenatal screening the number of late terminations of pregnancy is increasing in Denmark. The fact that the foetus sometimes shows signs of life after the termination is a large concern for health-care staff and parents. In other countries foeticide is performed intrauterinely to ensure that the foetus is dead before the delivery. In Denmark this method is legally used in foetal reduction, but not in late termination of pregnancy. In the light of international literature on the subject, perspectives on foeticide in late termination of pregnancy are explored.

  10. Fatal intoxications in Denmark following intake of morphine from opium poppies.

    PubMed

    Steentoft, A; Kaa, E; Worm, K

    1988-01-01

    In Denmark it is legal to grow opium poppies for the production of poppy seeds and until 1986 for decoration purposes, too. Danish poppy capsules contain 0.3-5 mg morphine per capsule and the content of morphine in opium exuded from the capsules may amount to 24%. This has resulted in misuse as both fresh and dried poppy capsules have been used for the production of "opium tea". During the period 1982-1985, seven casualties occurred among drug addicts in Denmark which were solely or partly caused by these opium poppies.

  11. Improvement in perinatal care for extremely premature infants in Denmark from 1994 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Hasselager, Asbjørn Børch; Børch, Klaus; Pryds, Ole Axel

    2016-01-01

    Major advances in perinatal care over the latest decades have increased the survival rate of extremely premature infants. Centralisation of perinatal care was implemented in Denmark from 1995. This study evaluates the effect of organisational changes of perinatal care on survival and morbidity of live-born infants with gestational ages (GA) of 22-28 weeks. Three cohort studies were included from 1994-1995, 2003 and 2011. Data from live-born infants were extracted regarding risk factors, survival, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), cystic periventricular leukomalacia (cPVL) and intraventricular haemorrhage grade 3-4 (IVH 3-4). A total of 184, 83 and 127 infants were included from the cohorts. Delivery rates at level 3 Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) hospitals increased from 69% to 87%. Transfer rates to level 3 NICU almost doubled during the period. Survival rates were stationary, although a trend towards increased survival was observed for infants < 26 weeks. The frequency of infants receiving evidence-based treatment increased from 14% to 46%. IVH 3-4 rates were reduced from 21% to 12%, whereas BPD and cPVL rates did not change. Survival odds increased with higher gestational age and administration of surfactant. Centralisation of treatment of extremely premature infants has been implemented because more children are being born at highly specialised perinatal centres. Care improved as more infants received evidence-based treatment. IVH 3-4 rates declined. A trend towards increased survival was observed for infants with a GA < 26 weeks. none. not relevant.

  12. Morphological and molecular analyses of larval taeniid species in small mammals from contrasting habitats in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Al-Sabi, M N S; Jensen, P M; Christensen, M U; Kapel, C M O

    2015-01-01

    Taeniid infections in intermediate hosts manifest themselves as extraintestinal larval stages which, in early development, lack species-specific characteristics. The inability to distinguish infections of zoonotic importance such as Echinococcus multilocularis from other taeniid infections that have mainly veterinary significance stimulated the development of species-specific molecular diagnostics. In this study, the prevalence of taeniid infections in potential intermediate hosts was evaluated using both morphological diagnosis and a newly described multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for species determination. Small mammals (N= 719) were trapped in three different types of habitats in north-east Zealand, Denmark. The sensitivity of the multiplex PCR (90.5%) exceeded that of morphological examination (57.9%) for identifying 95 taeniid infections. The use of the multiplex PCR resulted in higher prevalence rates due to improved detection of immature liver infections with Hydatigera taeniaeformis and Versteria mustelae, but did not affect the observed prevalence rates of peritoneal metacestodes of Taenia polyacantha. The prevalence of taeniid infections showed a significant difference according to habitat type, potentially identifying a 'sylvatic' transmission and an 'urban' transmission, with marked variation among different taeniid species. Versteria mustelae and T. polyacantha were more prevalent in rural forests, while infections with H. taeniaeformis were dominant in urban parks/forests and in residential and farm gardens. The multiplex PCR facilitated a better utilization of wildlife samples by yielding a higher number of definitive diagnoses of ambiguous taeniid infections in liver lesions, allowing for more accurate epidemiological data and, hence, a more accurate risk assessment.

  13. Life cycle assessment of waste incineration in Denmark and Italy using two LCA models.

    PubMed

    Turconi, Roberto; Butera, Stefania; Boldrin, Alessio; Grosso, Mario; Rigamonti, Lucia; Astrup, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    In Europe, about 20% of municipal solid waste is incinerated. Large differences can be found between northern and southern Europe regarding energy recovery efficiencies, flue gas cleaning technologies and residue management. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) of waste incineration often provides contradictory results if these local conditions are not properly accounted for. The importance of regional differences and site-specific data, and choice of LCA model itself, was evaluated by assessment of two waste incinerators representing northern and southern Europe (Denmark and Italy) based on two different LCA models (SimaPro and EASEWASTE). The results showed that assumptions and modelling approaches regarding energy recovery/substitution and direct air emissions were most critical. Differences in model design and model databases mainly had consequences for the toxicity-related impact categories. The overall environmental performance of the Danish system was better than the Italian, mainly because of higher heat recovery at the Danish plant. Flue gas cleaning at the Italian plant was, however, preferable to the Danish, indicating that efficient flue gas cleaning may provide significant benefits. Differences in waste composition between the two countries mainly affected global warming and human toxicity via water. Overall, SimaPro and EASEWASTE provided consistent ranking of the individual scenarios. However, important differences in results from the two models were related to differences in the databases and modelling approaches, in particular the possibility for modelling of waste-specific emissions affected the toxicity-related impact categories. The results clearly showed that the use of site-specific data was essential for the results.

  14. The Children's Rights Convention in Denmark: A Status Report on Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Per Schultz; Leth, Ingrid; Montgomery, Edith

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child was ratified by Denmark in 1991 but never incorporated into Danish legislation; instead the State party has chosen a stepwise implementation in legal and social praxis. However, this process mirrors a remarkable reluctance to approve the Convention as a legitimate part of…

  15. Optimization as a Dispositive in the Production of Differences in Denmark Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamre, Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical framework of this paper is inspired by governmentality studies in education. The key concepts are problematization, formatting technologies, and dispositive. The paper begins with an empirical study conducted in Denmark of forty-four files from educational psychologists and articles from journals concerning schools and education.…

  16. The Teaching of Reading--Without Really Any Method: An Analysis of Reading Instruction in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Mogens; And Others

    This book describes the teaching of reading in Denmark. Topics discussed are the holistic educational approach to reading (essentially an eclectic reading method), reading instruction techniques used from kindergarten through high school, remedial instruction, individualization, and speed reading. An individualized speed reading method for adults…

  17. Vocational Education and Training in Denmark: Short Description. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Pia

    Denmark has a uniform, nationwide vocational education and training (VET) system that provides qualifications that are valid throughout the country and recognized by employers and trade unions. Initial VET (IVET) includes the following components: VET, including commercial and technical training; basic social and health care training; agricultural…

  18. Who Cares for the Children? Denmark's Unique Public Child-Care Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polakow, Valerie

    1997-01-01

    U.S. working mothers wrestle daily with a child-care crisis characterized by unavailable infant care, high costs, and inadequate access and regulation. In Denmark, high-quality child care is a guaranteed entitlement for every child. Other benefits include paid parental leaves, single-parent allowances, housing subsidies, and universal health care.…

  19. "Left to Your Own Devices"--The Missed Potential of Adult Career Guidance in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie; Mariager-Anderson, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, the European Council agreed on a Resolution on better integrating lifelong guidance into lifelong learning strategies. The Resolution promoted lifelong guidance as a policy to support people during the multiple transitions provoked by a more volatile labour market. However, when looking into the guidance policy of Denmark, the Resolution…

  20. Prenatal Stress and Risk of Febrile Seizures in Children: A Nationwide Longitudinal Study in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jorn; Obel, Carsten; Christensen, Jakob; Precht, Dorthe Hansen; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether exposure to prenatal stress following maternal bereavement is associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures. In a longitudinal population-based cohort study, we followed 1,431,175 children born in Denmark. A total of 34,777 children were born to women who lost a close relative during pregnancy or within 1 year…

  1. Using English as a Medium of Instruction at University Level in Denmark: The Lecturer's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werther, Charlotte; Denver, Louise; Jensen, Christian; Mees, Inger M.

    2014-01-01

    More than 25% of the master's degrees in Denmark are taught using English as a medium of instruction (EMI), but not all university lecturers feel they have the appropriate academic English proficiency to meet the standard required. Based on interviews conducted at the Copenhagen Business School (CBS), this article sheds light on the challenges…

  2. European Gender Lessons: Girls and Boys at Scout Camps in Denmark, Portugal, Russia and Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Harriet Bjerrum

    2004-01-01

    The article investigates the tensions between and within models of gender equality and gender complementarity by studying children who are in the midst of learning to apply these gender models in practice. Children (aged 11-15 years) were observed and interviewed while they participated in scout camps in Denmark, Portugal, Slovakia and Russia.…

  3. Dolphin Morbillivirus in a Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus) in Denmark, 2016.

    PubMed

    Jo, Wendy K; Grilo, Miguel L; Wohlsein, Peter; Andersen-Ranberg, Emilie U; Hansen, Mette S; Kinze, Carl C; Hjulsager, Charlotte K; Olsen, Morten T; Lehnert, Kristina; Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen; Siebert, Ursula; Osterhaus, Albert; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Jensen, Lasse F; van der Vries, Erhard

    2017-05-17

    We studied the etiology of encephalitis in a fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) that stranded in 2016 on the coast of Denmark. Dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) was detected in the brain and other organs. Phylogenetics showed close relation to DMV isolated from a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) from Spain in 2012.

  4. Explanations of sleep paralysis among Egyptian college students and the general population in Egypt and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Simons-Rudolph, Joseph; Jalal, Bamo; Hinton, Devon E

    2014-04-01

    This cross-cultural study compared explanations of sleep paralysis (SP) in two countries and two groups with different levels of education in one country. Comparisons were made between individuals having experienced SP at least once in a lifetime from Cairo, Egypt (n = 89), Copenhagen, Denmark (n = 59), and the American University in Cairo, Egypt (n = 44). As hypothesized, participants from the general Egyptian population were more likely to endorse supernatural causal explanation of their SP compared to participants from Denmark; participants from the American University in Cairo were less likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from the general Egyptian population. Moreover, participants from the American University in Cairo were marginally significantly more likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from Denmark. Additionally, we explored which culturally bound explanations and beliefs about SP existed in Egypt and Denmark. We found that nearly half (48%) of the participants from the general Egyptian population believed their SP to be caused by the Jinn, a spirit-like creature with roots in Islamic tradition, which constitutes a culturally bound interpretation of the phenomenology of SP in this region of the world. Case studies are presented to illustrate these findings.

  5. Denmark's National Family Guidance Program: A Preventive Mental Health Program for Children and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Marsden

    This document describes Denmark's 10-year (1965-75) program of cost-effective provision of social services to crisis families with children under the Danish 1964 Child and Youth Welfare Act. The program, voluntary and open to all families, provided preventive psychosocial services for children based on a family support system. The background to…

  6. The Danish Effect: Beginning to Explain High Well-Being in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biswas-Diener, Robert; Vitterso, Joar; Diener, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Although income and happiness have been linked at both the individual and national levels of analysis, few studies have specifically examined the different relationships between these two variables in affluent nations. This study investigates various measures of well-being in both the United States and Denmark. Respondents in both countries…

  7. Optimization as a Dispositive in the Production of Differences in Denmark Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamre, Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical framework of this paper is inspired by governmentality studies in education. The key concepts are problematization, formatting technologies, and dispositive. The paper begins with an empirical study conducted in Denmark of forty-four files from educational psychologists and articles from journals concerning schools and education.…

  8. Training in the Food and Beverages Sector in Denmark. Report for the FORCE Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holst, Ole

    A study of the food sector in Denmark was limited to the slaughterhouse, dairy, beverages sectors. The food sector was the most important single industry in the Danish economy. It was the largest manufacturing sector, generated one-third of total manufacturing, and comprised approximately 8 percent of the total Danish gross domestic product. It…

  9. The Third Library Revolution: Experiments with Electronic Community Libraries in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Gitte; Qvortrup, Lars

    1988-01-01

    Describes the HELOS project in Denmark, which is using information technology to facilitate library development, increase levels of library and information services, and increase levels of technological qualifications of library staff among four rural libraries. The discussion highlights library and information services offered, hardware and…

  10. Systems and Procedures of Certification of Qualifications in Denmark. National Report. 3rd Edition. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holek, Lothar

    This report describes current systems and procedures for certification in Denmark. An introduction makes brief reference to the characteristics of the general and vocational training systems. Section 1 addresses formulation and introduction of certificates, qualifications, and diplomas, including the relevant institutions, procedures, and…

  11. Denmark's National Family Guidance Program: A Preventive Mental Health Program for Children and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Marsden

    This document describes Denmark's 10-year (1965-75) program of cost-effective provision of social services to crisis families with children under the Danish 1964 Child and Youth Welfare Act. The program, voluntary and open to all families, provided preventive psychosocial services for children based on a family support system. The background to…

  12. The Teaching of English Phonetics in Denmark: A Problem of Transference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidsen-Nielsen, Niels

    Since 1971 the approach adopted in the teaching of English phonetics in Denmark has been a contrastive one. In this paper it is argued that although the original contrastive hypothesis (Lado 1957) has to be modified and weakened, a contrastive approach is highly useful in learning and teaching the pronunciation of a foreign language. Selected…

  13. A Cultural and Comparative Perspective on Outdoor Education in New Zealand and "Friluftsliv" in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andkjaer, Soren

    2012-01-01

    The paper is based on a comparative and qualitative case study of "friluftsliv" in Denmark and outdoor education in New Zealand. Cultural analysis with a comparative cultural perspective informed the research approach. Configurational analysis was used as an important supplement to focus on cultural patterns linked to bodily movement. It…

  14. Social Welfare and Minding the Achievement Gap: A View from Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringsmose, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark, the welfare system has evened out the gaps between rich and poor. Schools and child care settings all over the country have an equal level of resources provided by the state, and are financed through taxes. Schools and child care settings in areas with families of lower socioeconomic status (SES) get extra money and resources. All…

  15. The Teaching of English Phonetics in Denmark: A Problem of Transference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidsen-Nielsen, Niels

    Since 1971 the approach adopted in the teaching of English phonetics in Denmark has been a contrastive one. In this paper it is argued that although the original contrastive hypothesis (Lado 1957) has to be modified and weakened, a contrastive approach is highly useful in learning and teaching the pronunciation of a foreign language. Selected…

  16. Child Advocacy in Denmark: 70 Years of Experience with This "New" Idea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Mary; Wagner, Marsden G.

    Denmark's child advocacy system is made up of local kommune (county) Child and Youth Welfare Committees which watch over the well-being of children. Each child and youth committee serves as an effective advocate for the children of its community in three areas: promotion, protection, and prevention. The committee's responsibility to promote…

  17. The Children's Rights Convention in Denmark: A Status Report on Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Per Schultz; Leth, Ingrid; Montgomery, Edith

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child was ratified by Denmark in 1991 but never incorporated into Danish legislation; instead the State party has chosen a stepwise implementation in legal and social praxis. However, this process mirrors a remarkable reluctance to approve the Convention as a legitimate part of…

  18. "Left to Your Own Devices"--The Missed Potential of Adult Career Guidance in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie; Mariager-Anderson, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, the European Council agreed on a Resolution on better integrating lifelong guidance into lifelong learning strategies. The Resolution promoted lifelong guidance as a policy to support people during the multiple transitions provoked by a more volatile labour market. However, when looking into the guidance policy of Denmark, the Resolution…

  19. Adult Education and the Challenges of Regional Development: Policy and Sustainability in North Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Palle; Staugaard, Hans Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Adult education is governed at many levels--internationally, nationally and locally. The authors of this paper look at the challenges, structures and practices of adult education policy at the local level, more specifically in North Denmark (Northern Jutland), one of the five administrative regions of the Danish nation-state. In many ways, the…

  20. A Cultural and Comparative Perspective on Outdoor Education in New Zealand and "Friluftsliv" in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andkjaer, Soren

    2012-01-01

    The paper is based on a comparative and qualitative case study of "friluftsliv" in Denmark and outdoor education in New Zealand. Cultural analysis with a comparative cultural perspective informed the research approach. Configurational analysis was used as an important supplement to focus on cultural patterns linked to bodily movement. It…

  1. Using English as a Medium of Instruction at University Level in Denmark: The Lecturer's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werther, Charlotte; Denver, Louise; Jensen, Christian; Mees, Inger M.

    2014-01-01

    More than 25% of the master's degrees in Denmark are taught using English as a medium of instruction (EMI), but not all university lecturers feel they have the appropriate academic English proficiency to meet the standard required. Based on interviews conducted at the Copenhagen Business School (CBS), this article sheds light on the challenges…

  2. Situation Report - Denmark, France, German Federal Republic, Luxembourg, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, and Switzerland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Denmark, France, German Federal Republic, Luxembourg, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, and Switzerland. Information is provided in the following areas where appropriate and if it is available: (1) statistics…

  3. Training Child Care Workers in Denmark. I. Training Group Day Care Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Mary M.; Wagner, Marsden G.

    As part of the training of group day care workers in Denmark, training programs have been developed for each of the seven different types of day care centers. The theoretical education for each program is provided in four seminariums; practicum experiences occur in an actual day care facility. Each seminarium trains students in the care of only…

  4. Training Child Care Workers in Denmark: II. Training Family Helpers and Family Day Care Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Mary; Wagner, Marsden G.

    This report describes the training of two kinds of paraprofessionals in child care in Denmark: the family helper who has considerable educational background, and the family day care mother for whom there are no educational prerequisites. The funding, the training, and the curriculum design of the paraprofessional programs are discussed. There is…

  5. Group Day Care in Denmark: A Century and a Half of Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Mary G.; Wagner, Marsden G.

    The national and local organization and administration of group day care programs in Denmark are outlined in this report. Financing, basic programs, standards, and staff training in each of the four main child care groups are discussed under the following categories: cretches, kindergartens, afterschool groups, and youth clubs. Although all four…

  6. From Apprenticeships to Higher Vocational Education in Denmark--Building Bridges While the Gap Is Widening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    2017-01-01

    Upper secondary vocational education in Denmark is based on the apprenticeship model, which is recognised as a valuable route to employment for young people, who are not aiming for higher education. However, the apprenticeship model has a major weakness: it does not provide eligibility for higher education. The purpose of this article is to…

  7. Mortality and life expectancy of people with alcohol use disorder in Denmark, Finland and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Westman, J; Wahlbeck, K; Laursen, T M; Gissler, M; Nordentoft, M; Hällgren, J; Arffman, M; Ösby, U

    2015-04-01

    To analyse mortality and life expectancy in people with alcohol use disorder in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. A population-based register study including all patients admitted to hospital diagnosed with alcohol use disorder (1,158,486 person-years) from 1987 to 2006 in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. Life expectancy was 24-28 years shorter in people with alcohol use disorder than in the general population. From 1987 to 2006, the difference in life expectancy between patients with alcohol use disorder and the general population increased in men (Denmark, 1.8 years; Finland, 2.6 years; Sweden, 1.0 years); in women, the difference in life expectancy increased in Denmark (0.3 years) but decreased in Finland (-0.8 years) and Sweden (-1.8 years). People with alcohol use disorder had higher mortality from all causes of death (mortality rate ratio, 3.0-5.2), all diseases and medical conditions (2.3-4.8), and suicide (9.3-35.9). People hospitalized with alcohol use disorder have an average life expectancy of 47-53 years (men) and 50-58 years (women) and die 24-28 years earlier than people in the general population. © 2014 The Authors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Assessing National Stereotypes in Language Attitude Studies: The Case of Class-Consciousness in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladegaard, Hans J.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a Danish language-attitude study, arguing that views presented in the literature often differ from people's private uncensored stereotypes. Surveys of people from four regions in Denmark investigated their attitudes after listening to voices with seven different regional dialects. Results indicated that people assigned social-class…

  9. A Comparison of Autism Prevalence Trends in Denmark and Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parner, Erik T.; Thorsen, Poul; Dixon, Glenys; de Klerk, Nicholas; Leonard, Helen; Nassar, Natasha; Bourke, Jenny; Bower, Carol; Glasson, Emma J.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence statistics for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) vary widely across geographical boundaries. Some variation can be explained by diagnostic methods, case ascertainment and age at diagnosis. This study compared prevalence statistics for two distinct geographical regions, Denmark and Western Australia, both of which have had population-based…

  10. Child and Youth Employment in Denmark: Comments on Children's Work from Their Own Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederiksen, Lisa

    1999-01-01

    Examined children's perspectives on their work in the retail sector in Denmark. Examined why children work, methods of movement in the marketplace, and differences between good and bad jobs. Found that these perspectives differ in various ways from available documentation on youth employment and they highlight the importance of including the…

  11. Education of Ethnic Minority Children in Denmark: Monocultural Hegemony and Counter Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horst, Christian; Gitz-Johansen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the dominant approach to education of ethnic minorities in Denmark. Using the concept of hegemony and the political-science distinction between monocultural and multicultural positions as approaches towards a situation of increasing linguistic, ethnic and cultural diversity, the paper shows how a monocultural approach has…

  12. Influenza A(H10N7) Virus in Dead Harbor Seals, Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Mette S.; Holm, Elisabeth; Hjulsager, Charlotte K.; Chriél, Mariann; Pedersen, Karl; Andresen, Lars O.; Abildstrøm, Morten; Jensen, Trine H.; Larsen, Lars E.

    2015-01-01

    Since April 2014, an outbreak of influenza in harbor seals has been ongoing in northern Europe. In Denmark during June–August, 152 harbor seals on the island of Anholt were found dead from severe pneumonia. We detected influenza A(H10N7) virus in 2 of 4 seals examined. PMID:25811098

  13. Caught between Internationalisation and Immigration: The Case of Nepalese Students in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentin, Karen

    2012-01-01

    An explicit marketisation and national profiling of Denmark as an attractive country for foreign students has resulted in an increasing number of students from poor countries in the global South, including Nepal, being admitted to Danish colleges and universities. The influx of students from these countries has led to several accusations against…

  14. Child Care in Denmark: Part I. Policies and Daytime Programs in Their Social Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubin-Snyder, Constance G.

    This study offers a description of the daytime programs and facilities serving the preschool population in Denmark, with emphasis on the types of programs offered, their administrative organization, minimum standards, scope and cost, and supply and demand. The greatest detail is given to the "bornehave" and "bornehaveklasse"…

  15. Caught between Internationalisation and Immigration: The Case of Nepalese Students in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentin, Karen

    2012-01-01

    An explicit marketisation and national profiling of Denmark as an attractive country for foreign students has resulted in an increasing number of students from poor countries in the global South, including Nepal, being admitted to Danish colleges and universities. The influx of students from these countries has led to several accusations against…

  16. Education of Ethnic Minority Children in Denmark: Monocultural Hegemony and Counter Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horst, Christian; Gitz-Johansen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the dominant approach to education of ethnic minorities in Denmark. Using the concept of hegemony and the political-science distinction between monocultural and multicultural positions as approaches towards a situation of increasing linguistic, ethnic and cultural diversity, the paper shows how a monocultural approach has…

  17. Comparative Study of Teaching Content in Teacher Education Programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a comparative study of the content in selected teacher education programmes for primary and lower secondary teachers in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore. First and foremost, the study is a comparison between teacher education programmes in, on the one hand, Canada, Finland and Singapore, all of which…

  18. Co-payments for general practitioners in Denmark: an analysis using two policy models.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Camilla; Andrioti, Despena

    2017-01-05

    The increasing health expenditure for general practitioners (GPs) in Denmark requires that other ways of financing the health system are investigated. This study aims to analyse possibilities for implementing out-of-pocket payments to GPs in Denmark. The study was conducted as a literature review with 11 articles included. The Health Policy Triangle and the Kingdon Model were used in analysing and discussing the implementation of a cost-sharing policy with an emphasis on the out-of-pocket payments method. The Danish Parliament has expressed mixed opinions about out-of-pocket payments, whereas the Danish population, the GPs and the media are against introducing payments. The public debate and the fact that Danes are used to healthcare being free of charge both work against introducing co-payments. However, experiences from Sweden, Norway and OECD countries serve to promote implementation, but at the expense of decreased accessibility for the most vulnerable population groups. Introducing out-of-pocket payments in Denmark may lead to decreased health expenditure, but also increased inequalities. Due to a lack of support from the relevant policy actors in the country, in addition to a lack of a policy window, it may not be possible to introduce out-of-pocket payments for GPs in Denmark in the short term.

  19. Genome Sequence of Kocuria varians G6 Isolated from a Slaughterhouse in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Raghupathi, Prem K.; Herschend, Jakob; Røder, Henriette L.; Sørensen, Søren J.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first draft genome sequence of Kocuria varians G6, which was isolated from a meat chopper at a small slaughterhouse in Denmark. The 2.90-Mb genome sequence consists of 95 contigs and contains 2,518 predicted protein-coding genes. PMID:27034480

  20. The Danish Effect: Beginning to Explain High Well-Being in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biswas-Diener, Robert; Vitterso, Joar; Diener, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Although income and happiness have been linked at both the individual and national levels of analysis, few studies have specifically examined the different relationships between these two variables in affluent nations. This study investigates various measures of well-being in both the United States and Denmark. Respondents in both countries…

  1. Adult Education and the Challenges of Regional Development: Policy and Sustainability in North Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Palle; Staugaard, Hans Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Adult education is governed at many levels--internationally, nationally and locally. The authors of this paper look at the challenges, structures and practices of adult education policy at the local level, more specifically in North Denmark (Northern Jutland), one of the five administrative regions of the Danish nation-state. In many ways, the…

  2. The Concept of Permanent Education and Its Application in Denmark. Studies on Permanent Education, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Werner

    A report is made to the Secretariat of the Council of Europe of a case study on the introduction of the concept of permanent education in Denmark. The supplies of education, which have been limited to clients in childhhod, adolescence, and yound adulthood, should now be distributed over a lifetime. Economic growth was formerly explained by input…

  3. Results From Denmark's 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Lisbeth Runge; Troelsen, Jens; Kirkegaard, Kasper Lund; Riiskjær, Søren; Krølner, Rikke; Østergaard, Lars; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Møller, Niels Christian; Christensen, Bjørn Friis Neerfeldt; Jensen, Jens-Ole; Østergård, Charlotte; Skovgaard, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    The first Danish Report Card on Physical Activity (PA) for Children and Youth describes Denmark's efforts in promoting and facilitating PA and PA opportunities for children and youth. The report card relies primarily on a synthesis of the best available research and policy strategies identified by the Report Card Research Committee consisting of a wide presentation of researchers and experts within PA health behaviors and policy development. The work was coordinated by Research and Innovation Centre for Human Movement and Learning situated at the University of Southern Denmark and the University College Lillebaelt. Nine PA indicators were graded using the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card development process. Grades from A (highest) to F (lowest) varied in Denmark as follows: 1) Overall Physical Activity (D+), 2) Organized Sport Participation (A), 3) Active Play (INC; incomplete), 4) Active Transportation (B), 5) Sedentary Behaviors (INC), 6) Family and Peers (INC), 7) School (B), 8) Community and the Built Environment (B+), and 9) Government strategies and investments (A-). A large proportion of children in Denmark do not meet the recommendations for PA despite the favorable investments and intensions from the government to create good facilities and promote PA.

  4. Prenatal Stress and Risk of Febrile Seizures in Children: A Nationwide Longitudinal Study in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jorn; Obel, Carsten; Christensen, Jakob; Precht, Dorthe Hansen; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether exposure to prenatal stress following maternal bereavement is associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures. In a longitudinal population-based cohort study, we followed 1,431,175 children born in Denmark. A total of 34,777 children were born to women who lost a close relative during pregnancy or within 1 year…

  5. European Gender Lessons: Girls and Boys at Scout Camps in Denmark, Portugal, Russia and Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Harriet Bjerrum

    2004-01-01

    The article investigates the tensions between and within models of gender equality and gender complementarity by studying children who are in the midst of learning to apply these gender models in practice. Children (aged 11-15 years) were observed and interviewed while they participated in scout camps in Denmark, Portugal, Slovakia and Russia.…

  6. Manpower Policy in Denmark. OECD Reviews of Manpower and Social Policies, No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Two elements were identified as being of paramount importance in the examination of manpower policy in Denmark: (1) the division of responsibilities for matters of direct concern to the labor market between different branches of government and the social partners--an important facet of the social framework of a country, and (2) the impact of…

  7. Autopsy rate in suicide is low among elderly in Denmark compared with Finland.

    PubMed

    Ylijoki-Sørensen, Seija; Boldsen, Jesper Lier; Boel, Lene Warner Thorup; Bøggild, Henrik; Lalu, Kaisa; Sajantila, Antti

    2014-11-01

    National differences in the legislation on cause and manner of death investigation are reflected in a high autopsy rate in suicides in Finland and a low corresponding rate in Denmark. The consequences for mortality statistics of these different investigation practices on deaths classified as suicides in Denmark and Finland, respectively, are not known in detail. The aim of this article was to analyse autopsy rates in deaths classified as suicides, and to identify any differences in investigation practices in deaths with a comparable cause of death, but classified as unnatural deaths other than suicide. Data from the mortality registries were summarised for the years 2000, 2005 and 2010. Autopsy rates (total, forensic and medical) were analysed with regard to deaths classified as suicide, and they were compared for three age groups (1-50 years, 51-70 years and ≥71 years) and for causes of death. Deaths classified as suicide were compared with other unnatural classifications, and comparable causes of death were coded into six subgroups: poisonings, suffocations/strangulations, firearm discharges, drowning/submersions, explosions/flames and other/unspecified causes. The total autopsy rate for suicides was 99.8% in Finland and 13.2% in Denmark. Almost all of these autopsies were conducted as forensic autopsies. In the age group ≥71 years, Danish suicides outnumbered Finnish suicides (410 versus 283). The total autopsy rate was lower in the more senior age group in Denmark (19.5%, 9.9%, 5.6%), whereas it was consistently high in Finland (99.8%, 99.9%, 99.6%). Among Danish deaths due to poisonings, the autopsy rate was 89.5% when these were classified as accidents, but only 20.7% for cases classified as suicides. The number of deaths in the two Danish subgroups was comparable (550 versus 553). In Denmark, the decision regarding the need, if any, for a forensic autopsy is made during the external forensic examination of the body. Our study showed that the limited use

  8. Efficacy of selective antenatal screening for hepatitis B among pregnant women in Denmark: is selective screening still an acceptable strategy in a low-endemicity country?

    PubMed

    Jensen, Lise; Heilmann, Carsten; Smith, Else; Wantzin, Per; Peitersen, Birgit; Weber, Tom; Krogsgaard, Kim

    2003-01-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriage in Denmark is unknown, but expected to be low (0.1%). This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of selective antenatal screening for HBV infection and the epidemiology of HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among pregnant women. 4098 women were included in the study. Blood tests were examined for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBc) and anti-HCV. Case records were studied to evaluate whether patients at risk for HBV infection had been tested. Among the 4098 women, 18 10.4%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.3-0.71 were HBsAg positive. All had a risk factor for HBV infection. Only 13 (72%) were identified as HBsAg positive in the selective screening programme. 115 women (2.8%, 95% CI 2.3-3.4) were anti-HBc positive only. 95 (83%) were at risk for HBV. Only 72 of these (63%) were tested for HBsAg. The screening programme in this area of Denmark did not pick up one-third of pregnant women at risk of HBV.

  9. Physico-chemical characterisation of material fractions in residual and source-segregated household waste in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Götze, R; Pivnenko, K; Boldrin, A; Scheutz, C; Astrup, T Fruergaard

    2016-08-01

    Physico-chemical waste composition data are paramount for the assessment and planning of waste management systems. However, the applicability of data is limited by the regional, temporal and technical scope of waste characterisation studies. As Danish and European legislation aims for higher recycling rates evaluation of source-segregation and recycling chains gain importance. This paper provides a consistent up-to-date dataset for 74 physico-chemical parameters in 49 material fractions from residual and 24 material fractions from source-segregated Danish household waste. Significant differences in the physico-chemical properties of residual and source-segregated waste fractions were found for many parameters related to organic matter, but also for elements of environmental concern. Considerable differences in potentially toxic metal concentrations between the individual recyclable fractions within one material type were observed. This indicates that careful planning and performance evaluation of recycling schemes are important to ensure a high quality of collected recyclables. Rare earth elements (REE) were quantified in all waste fractions analysed, with the highest concentrations of REE found in fractions with high content of mineral raw materials, soil materials and dust. The observed REE concentrations represent the background concentration level in non-hazardous waste materials that may serve as a reference point for future investigations related to hazardous waste management. The detailed dataset provided here can be used for assessments of waste management solutions in Denmark and for the evaluation of the quality of recyclable materials in waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The future of smoking-attributable mortality: the case of England & Wales, Denmark and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Stoeldraijer, Lenny; Bonneux, Luc; van Duin, Coen; van Wissen, Leo; Janssen, Fanny

    2015-02-01

    We formally estimate future smoking-attributable mortality up to 2050 for the total national populations of England & Wales, Denmark and the Netherlands, providing an update and extension of the descriptive smoking-epidemic model. We used smoking prevalence and population-level lung cancer mortality data for England & Wales, Denmark and the Netherlands, covering the period 1950-2009. To estimate the future smoking-attributable mortality fraction (SAF) we: (i) project lung cancer mortality by extrapolating age-period-cohort trends, using the observed convergence of smoking prevalence and similarities in past lung cancer mortality between men and women as input; and (ii) add other causes of death attributable to smoking by applying a simplified version of the indirect Peto-Lopez method to the projected lung cancer mortality. The SAF for men in 2009 was 19% (44 872 deaths) in England & Wales, 22% (5861 deaths) in Denmark and 25% (16 385 deaths) in the Netherlands. In our projections, these fractions decline to 6, 12 and 14%, respectively, in 2050. The SAF for women peaked at 14% (38 883 deaths) in 2008 in England & Wales, and is expected to peak in 2028 in Denmark (22%) and in 2033 in the Netherlands (23%). By 2050, a decline to 9, 17 and 19%, respectively, is foreseen. Different indirect estimation methods of the SAF in 2050 yield a range of 1-8% (England & Wales), 8-13% (Denmark) and 11-16% (the Netherlands) for men, and 7-16, 12-26 and 13-31% for women. From northern European data we project that smoking-attributable mortality will remain important for the future, especially for women. Whereas substantial differences between countries remain, the age-specific evolution of smoking-attributable mortality remains similar across countries and between sexes. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. [Sound and unsound around the Sound. A congress report on health differences between Denmark and Sweden].

    PubMed

    Isacsson, S O; Krasnik, A

    2000-06-30

    During the past 10 years, researchers on both sides of The Sound in the so-called Oresund region have worked together to analyze the causes of the observed differences in life expectancy between Denmark and Sweden. The region includes Copenhagen and North Zealand and the county of Scania in southern Sweden, with Malmö as its largest city. Both Denmark and Sweden held top rankings among OECD-countries in 1970 regarding life expectancy at birth. In 1990 Denmark had fallen to a bottom ranking, while Sweden was still at the top. At a scientific meeting in Malmö on January 26-27, 2000, some 60 presentations were made concerning differences and similarities in health measures on the two sides of the sound which divides the two countries. On the Swedish side, life expectancy is 3-4 years longer than on the Danish side. Paramount among explanations are higher mortality figures due to smoking and alcohol-related diseases on the Danish side, both in men and women (most pronounced). Minor contributions to the differences are suicides and traffic accidents. Historically, Denmark and Sweden have much in common. Until 1658, Scania, the Swedish county to the east of The Sound was part of Denmark. During the past 150 years rather impressive cultural differences have developed. Smoking prevalence and alcohol consumption are more than twice as high on the Danish side of the sound. In coming years, researchers, representatives for the health service systems and others will work together in order to prevent disease and promote health in the Oresund region. The conference was arranged by the Medicon Valley Academy, an EU-supported enterprise seeking to stimulate research and development within the health sector in the Oresund region (also known as Medicon Valley).

  12. ["Sound, unsound around the Sound". A congress report on health differences between Denmark and Sweden].

    PubMed

    Isacsson, S O; Krasnik, A

    2000-07-03

    During the past 10 years, researchers on both sides of The Sound in the so-called Oresund region have worked together to analyze the causes of the observed differences in life expectancy between Denmark and Sweden. The region includes Copenhagen and North Zealand and the county of Scania in southern Sweden, with Malmö as its largest city. Both Denmark and Sweden held top rankings among OECD-countries in 1970 regarding life expectancy at birth. In 1990 Denmark had fallen to a bottom ranking, while Sweden was still at the top. At a scientific meeting in Malmö on January 26-27, 2000, some 60 presentations were made concerning differences and similarities in health measures on the two sides of the sound which divides the two countries. On the Swedish side, life expectancy is 3-4 years longer than on the Danish side. Paramount among explanations are higher mortality figures due to smoking and alcohol-related diseases on the Danish side, both in men and women (most pronounced). Minor contributions to the differences are suicides and traffic accidents. Historically, Denmark and Sweden have much in common. Until 1658, Scania, the Swedish county to the east of The Sound was part of Denmark. During the past 150 years rather impressive cultural differences have developed. Smoking prevalence and alcohol consumption are more than twice as high on the Danish side of the sound. In coming years, researchers, representatives for the health service systems and others will work together in order to prevent disease and promote health in the Oresund region. The conference was arranged by the Medicon Valley Academy, an EU-supported enterprise seeking to stimulate research and development within the health sector in the Oresund region (also known as Medicon Valley).

  13. ["Sound and unsound around the Sound". A congress report on health differences between Denmark and Sweden].

    PubMed

    Isacsson, S O; Krasnik, A

    2000-06-28

    During the past 10 years, researchers on both sides of The Sound in the so-called Oresund region have worked together to analyze the causes of the observed differences in life expectancy between Denmark and Sweden. The region includes Copenhagen and North Zealand and the county of Scania in southern Sweden, with Malmö as its largest city. Both Denmark and Sweden held top rankings among OECD-countries in 1970 regarding life expectancy at birth. In 1990 Denmark had fallen to a bottom ranking, while Sweden was still at the top. At a scientific meeting in Malmö on January 26-27, 2000, some 60 presentations were made concerning differences and similarities in health measures on the two sides of the sound which divides the two countries. On the Swedish side, life expectancy is 3-4 years longer than on the Danish side. Paramount among explanations are higher mortality figures due to smoking and alcohol-related diseases on the Danish side, both in men and women (most pronounced). Minor contributions to the differences are suicides and traffic accidents. Historically, Denmark and Sweden have much in common. Until 1658, Scania, the Swedish county to the east of The Sound was part of Denmark. During the past 150 years rather impressive cultural differences have developed. Smoking prevalence and alcohol consumption are more than twice as high on the Danish side of the sound. In coming years, researchers, representatives for the health service systems and others will work together in order to prevent disease and promote health in the Oresund region. The conference was arranged by the Medicon Valley Academy, an EU-supported enterprise seeking to stimulate research and development within the health sector in the Oresund region (also known as Medicon Valley).

  14. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is prevalent in vulnerable groups in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Perslev, Kathrine; Andersen, Stine Linding; Perrild, Hans; Knudsen, Nils; Weber, Tom; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Iodine is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. In pregnancy, physiological changes occur that can lead to iodine deficiency and impairment of fetal neurological development. We aimed to assess the iodine intake in pregnant women in Eastern Denmark, compare iodine levels in Eastern and Western Denmark and to identify potentially vulnerable groups. This was a cross-sectional cohort study of pregnant Danish women (n = 240). Questionnaires and urine samples were collected at the Ultrasound Clinic, Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark, and urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) (µg/l) were measured. Predictors of iodine supplement use were examined by multivariate logistic regression models. The pregnant women from Eastern Denmark had a median age of 30 years and the median gestational week at which they were included in the study was week 19. The majority took iodine-containing supplements (86%). The median UIC was 118 (interquartile range (IQR): 79-196) µg/l in iodine supplement users and 82 (IQR: 41-122) µg/l in non-users (p < 0.001). Predictors of not using iodine supplement in Eastern and Western Denmark were short maternal education, non-Danish origin and pre-pregnancy obesity. The iodine status in Danish pregnant women was below WHO recommendations. Iodine supplement non-users are at a particular risk of iodine deficiency. Low maternal education, non-Danish origin and pre-pregnancy obesity are predictors of non-iodine supplement use. An increase in iodine fortification may be recommended to improve the iodine status in pregnant Danish women. none. not relevant.

  15. Narcotics at street level in Denmark. A prospective investigation from 1995 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, K W; Kaa, E; Nielsen, E; Rollmann, D

    2003-01-28

    This article describes an investigation of illicit drugs at street level in six selected police districts in different regions of Denmark. The investigation was carried out during a 6-year period from 1995 to 2000. During the period, a total of 1244 samples were examined, as about 200 samples were seized each year. A total of 94% of the seized samples were familiar drugs: heroin base, heroin hydrochloride, cocaine hydrochloride and amphetamine sulphate. Only 2% of the samples contained designer drugs. From having constituted 53% of the samples in 1995, the frequency of heroin base fell during the period to 27% of the samples in 2000. The frequency of heroin hydrochloride was unchanged. In the same period, the frequency of cocaine hydrochloride increased from 10% of the samples in 1995 to about 25% of the samples in 2000. Apart from a few exceptions, cocaine had the same extension in all regions of Denmark after 1996. Amphetamine was more frequent in the west of Denmark, while heroin hydrochloride was more frequent in central Denmark. The purity of heroin base was lower in the period 1997-1999 than in the other years. During the entire period, the purity of cocaine hydrochloride and amphetamine sulphate fell, while the purity of heroin hydrochloride was unchanged. No significant differences between the various regions of Denmark were detected during the period in the purity of heroin hydrochloride, heroin base, cocaine hydrochloride or amphetamine sulphate. MDMA was the most frequent designer drug, but other types of designer drugs such as MDA and MDE and the less common PMA, PMMA and MBDB were also found.

  16. Cumulative incidence of entry into out-of-home care: changes over time in Denmark and England.

    PubMed

    Ubbesen, Mads-Bonde; Gilbert, Ruth; Thoburn, June

    2015-04-01

    Policies and thresholds vary for placing children into out-of-home care (OHC) at different ages. Evidence is lacking that quantifies the risk of entering OHC by age, and how this varies over time and between countries. We determined the age-specific cumulative incidence of ever entering OHC during childhood in Denmark and in eight local authorities in England. We used administrative data for any form of OHC (except respite care) provided by children's social services in Denmark and England from 1992 to 2008. Using life tables and national population estimates, we calculated the cumulative incidence of entry into OHC by year of age for cohorts born in 1992-1994 through to 2006-2008. The cumulative incidence of entry into OHC decreased over time in Denmark and increased in England at all ages. Cumulative incidence of OHC in the first year of life was similar in Denmark and England for infants born in 1992-1994 (Denmark 2.83/1,000, England 2.89/1,000), but infants born in 2007-2008 were nearly three times as likely to enter OHC before their first birthday in England (4.50/1,000) than in Denmark (1.61/1,000). Entry into OHC during adolescence was more common in Denmark than in England so that by 16 years old the cumulative incidence of ever entering OHC during childhood was twice as high in Denmark (33.83/1,000) as in England (15.62/1,000). Diverging trends over time in the use of OHC in Denmark and England are likely to reflect changing policies in the two countries. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Predicting patient ‘cost blooms’ in Denmark: a longitudinal population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Tamang, Suzanne; Milstein, Arnold; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Pedersen, Lars; Mackey, Lester; Betterton, Jean-Raymond; Janson, Lucas; Shah, Nigam

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To compare the ability of standard versus enhanced models to predict future high-cost patients, especially those who move from a lower to the upper decile of per capita healthcare expenditures within 1 year—that is, ‘cost bloomers’. Design We developed alternative models to predict being in the upper decile of healthcare expenditures in year 2 of a sample, based on data from year 1. Our 6 alternative models ranged from a standard cost-prediction model with 4 variables (ie, traditional model features), to our largest enhanced model with 1053 non-traditional model features. To quantify any increases in predictive power that enhanced models achieved over standard tools, we compared the prospective predictive performance of each model. Participants and Setting We used the population of Western Denmark between 2004 and 2011 (2 146 801 individuals) to predict future high-cost patients and characterise high-cost patient subgroups. Using the most recent 2-year period (2010–2011) for model evaluation, our whole-population model used a cohort of 1 557 950 individuals with a full year of active residency in year 1 (2010). Our cost-bloom model excluded the 155 795 individuals who were already high cost at the population level in year 1, resulting in 1 402 155 individuals for prediction of cost bloomers in year 2 (2011). Primary outcome measures Using unseen data from a future year, we evaluated each model's prospective predictive performance by calculating the ratio of predicted high-cost patient expenditures to the actual high-cost patient expenditures in Year 2—that is, cost capture. Results Our best enhanced model achieved a 21% and 30% improvement in cost capture over a standard diagnosis-based model for predicting population-level high-cost patients and cost bloomers, respectively. Conclusions In combination with modern statistical learning methods for analysing large data sets, models enhanced with a large and diverse set of features

  18. Intake of wholegrain products is associated with dietary, lifestyle, anthropometric and socio-economic factors in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Egeberg, Rikke; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Olsen, Anja; Johnsen, Nina F; Loft, Steffen; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate the association between wholegrain products intake and other dietary, lifestyle, anthropometric and socio-economic factors. Cross-sectional study, with data on diet, lifestyle and socio-economic factors obtained from questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements were collected by trained professionals. Multiple linear and principal components regression analyses were used in statistical analyses. Part of the Diet, Cancer and Health study, a prospective cohort study to evaluate the aetiological role of diet on cancer risk, conducted in the greater Copenhagen and Aarhus area, Denmark. Men and women (n 54,720) aged 50-64 years. In multiple linear regression analyses focusing on individual dietary factors, intake of wholegrain products was associated with intake of all dietary factors studied (fish, red meat, poultry, processed meat, dairy products, fruits, vegetables, cakes and refined-grain products). The strongest positive associations were seen for intake of vegetables and processed meat, whereas the strongest negative associations were seen for intake of red meat and refined-grain products. Regression analyses on dietary patterns identified by principal components analysis yielded similar results. Also, wholegrain products intake was positively associated with cycling, taking dietary supplements and high school education, and negatively associated with intake of alcohol, BMI and smoking. Intake of wholegrain products is associated with other dietary factors, healthier lifestyle habits and higher socio-economic status. Therefore future studies need to account for the possible confounding by other dietary and lifestyle-related parameters when investigating relationships between wholegrain products intake and disease risk.

  19. Surveillance for avian influenza viruses in wild birds in Denmark and Greenland, 2007-10.

    PubMed

    Hulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Trebbien, A Ramona; Handberg, A Kurt Jensen; Therkildsen, Ole Roland; Madsen, Jesper Johannes; Thoru, Kasper; Baroch, John A; Deliberto, Thomas J; Larsen, Lars Erik; Jorgensena, Poul Henrik

    2012-12-01

    In Denmark and Greenland, extensive surveillance of avian influenza (AI) viruses in wild bird populations has been conducted from 2007 through 2010. In Denmark, the surveillance consisted of passive surveillance of wild birds found dead or sick across Denmark and active surveillance of apparently healthy live birds in waterfowl reservoirs and along migratory flyways, birds living in proximity to domestic poultry, and hunted game birds. Dead birds were sampled by oropharyngeal swabbing. Healthy live wild birds were captured with nets, traps, or by hand and were sampled by swabbing of the oropharyngeal and cloacal tracts, or swabs were collected from fresh fecal droppings. Hunted game birds were delivered to game-handling establishments, where each bird was sampled by oropharyngeal and cloacal swabbing. During the 2007-10 period, a total of 11,055 wild birds were sampled in Denmark, of which 396 were birds that were found dead. In Greenland, samples were collected mainly from fecal droppings in breeding areas. Samples from 3555 live and apparently healthy wild birds were tested. All swab samples were tested by pan-influenza reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR), and the positive samples were further tested by H5/H7 specific RT-PCRs. H5/H7-positive samples were subjected to hemagglutination cleavage site sequencing for pathotyping. In addition, all RT-PCR-positive samples were subjected to virus isolation, and the virus isolates were subsequently subtyped. In Denmark, low pathogenic (LP) H5 viruses were detected throughout the period, in addition to a few LPAI H7 and several other subtypes. In Greenland, very few samples were positive for AI. None of them were found to be of the H5 or H7 subtypes by RT-PCR. Isolation of these viruses in eggs was unsuccessful; thus, they were not subtyped further. The findings did, however, demonstrate the presence of LPAI viruses in Greenland. For several water bird species overwintering in North America and northwest Europe

  20. Spatial variability of drinking water iodine in Denmark: implications for future policy making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voutchkova, Denitza; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Kristiansen, Søren; Hansen, Birgitte

    2014-05-01

    The iodine-an essential component of human thyroid hormones-is provided to our organisms naturally from the food and water and/or is added artificially to the diet. One of the major natural contributors to the dietary iodine intake in Denmark is the drinking water. Both insufficient or excessive iodine intake can cause health problems however the attention falls mainly on the iodine deficiency (ID). Denmark is classified to have mild ID, which is based on sub-national data only. On a bigger scale, in Europe, about 40% of the general population is estimated to suffer from insufficient iodine intake (based on recent update on the iodine status worldwide). A mandatory addition of iodine to the salt was introduced in 2001 in Denmark to address the population's mild deficiency. One of the components of the Danish monitoring program investigating the effect of the salt iodizing (DanThyr) was based on the geographical variation of drinking water iodine levels. More specifically, the location of the two DanThyr cohort studies was chosen to reflect the low concentrations in the western part of Denmark and higher concentration in the eastern part. However, the knowledge about the spatial variability of iodine in Danish ground- and drinking water at that time was quite limited and misrepresentation of the natural variability is suspected. The presented sampling campaign was completed in 2013, and includes 144 waterworks with annual abstraction of about 175 mio m3 groundwater (~45% of the total groundwater abstraction by all active public and private Danish waterworks). The results show a surprisingly complex spatial pattern concerning both the iodine concentrations and speciation. By estimating the dietary iodine intake from water and comparing it to the WHO recommendations, it becomes possible to recognize potentially deficient/excessive geographical areas. Moreover, it is demonstrated that drinking water iodine levels (major dietary iodine contributor in Denmark) can be

  1. Five-year evaluation of a dental care delivery system for drug addicts in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Scheutz, F

    1984-02-01

    The present study describes the experiences and results of the first 5-year period of a municipal dental clinic offering free dental care to drug addicts. One of the many problems was the instability of this socially deprived group whose erratic life style made it impossible to maintain regular dental care. The DMFS level of the drug addicts was 50.2 and mean caries increment per yr was 2.5 (1.3 new surfaces and 1.2 surfaces with recurrent decay). The caries increments among the present drug abusers and the individuals on methadone maintenance were higher than among the previous drug addicts, 3.1 and 1.3 surfaces per yr respectively, but this difference was not statistically significant. Only slight improvement in oral hygiene (VPI) could be demonstrated whereas gingivitis (BI) remained unaltered. Traumatic injuries of the orofacial region were frequent. The mean time expenditure concerning dental treatment was 5 hr per individual in the initial treatment phase but decreased to 1-2 h per individual per yr. Broken appointments and last minute cancellations were as a rule related to drug/alcohol abuse. The mean number of fillings was 8.2 per individual in the initial treatment phase and 1.7 per yr for individuals in a maintenance phase. The poor dental health of the drug addicts seems closely related to their life style habits and the clue to an improvement would probably follow the cure of the drug abuse and a concurrent resocialization.

  2. Cost effective interprofessional training: an evaluation of a training unit in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Torben Baek; Jacobsen, Flemming; Larsen, Kristian

    2009-05-01

    In 2004, the first Danish undergraduate interprofessional training unit (ITU) was established at the Regional Hospital Holstebro, inspired by experiences from Sweden. In this unit, medical, nursing, occupational therapy and physiotherapy students are given responsibility, under supervision by trained and motivated personnel, for rehabilitation and care of patients in a subunit of an orthopaedic department. The aim of this study was to see whether the ITU was cost effective in treating patients compared with a conventional orthopaedic ward. One-hundred and thirty-four patients admitted for primary hip or knee replacement surgery were included in the study. All costs were recorded in the ITU and in the conventional ward. Follow-up was done by a quality of life questionnaire three months after the operation. Comparison was done by univariable and multivariable testing of costs and effect. In both, the ITU was more cost effective than the conventional ward. No difference was found in complications and patient-reported quality of life. In conclusion, clinical training can be given to students in an ITU without reducing productivity in a hospital environment if pedagogic principles, clinical tutors and patient logistics all adapt to the challenge of the teaching environment.

  3. The transition to non-lead rifle ammunition in Denmark: National obligations and policy considerations.

    PubMed

    Kanstrup, Niels; Thomas, Vernon G; Krone, Oliver; Gremse, Carl

    2016-09-01

    The issue of Denmark regulating use of lead-free rifle ammunition because of potential risks of lead exposure in wildlife and humans was examined from a scientific and objective policy perspective. The consequences of adopting or rejecting such regulation were identified. Denmark is obliged to examine this topic because of its national policy on lead reduction, its being a Party to the UN Bonn Convention on Migratory Species, and its role in protecting White-tailed Sea Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla), a species prone to lead poisoning from lead ingestion. Lead-free bullets suited for deer hunting are available at comparable cost to lead bullets, and have been demonstrated to be as effective. National adoption of lead-free bullets would complete the Danish transition to lead-free ammunition use. It would reduce the risk of lead exposure to scavenging wildlife, and humans who might eat lead-contaminated wild game meat. Opposition from hunting organizations would be expected.

  4. Beyond motivation: on what it means to be a sperm donor in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    This paper, analyzing interviews with men that donate their semen in Denmark, explores what it means to be a sperm donor. Breaking with the assumption that men have a specific and clearly identifiable motivation to become sperm donors, this paper leaves the confinement of such an accountable actor model implied in asking for men's motivations to donate semen. Instead, the author describes the experiences of sperm donors to show how the moral, organizational, and biomedical-technological context of sperm donation in Denmark makes for enactments of moral selves as well as specific embodiments of masculinity. Instead of looking for motivations that can be accounted for, the author engages with the question of how donating semen affords men the experience of moral and gendered selves. PMID:25175292

  5. Paracelsianism and the orthodox lutheran rejection of vital philosophy in early seventeenth-century Denmark.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, Jole

    2003-01-01

    Paracelsian medicine and natural philosophy was formed during the Radical Reformation and incorporated metaphysical propositions that were incompatible with the Lutheran confession as codified in the Confessio Augustana and elaborated in the ultra-orthodox Formula of Concord. Although Paracelsian ideas and practices were endorsed by important philosophers and physicians in late-sixteenth century Denmark without raising serious alarm, the imposition of strict Lutheran orthodoxy in the Danish Church and a concomitant resurgence of Aristotelian philosophy drew attention to the religious heterodoxies inherent in Paracelsianism. Unacceptable theological and religious propositions, which reached Denmark in Rosicrucian texts and were implicit in certain medical and philosophical treatises, were in many cases inseparable from core Paracelsian concepts, with the result that Danish academic philosophers, physicians, and theologians rejected Paracelsian ideas except where they could be accommodated to acceptable Galenic and Aristotelian interpretations. When this was done, such ideas are arguably no longer Paracelsian in any meaningful way.

  6. Molecular Typing and Epidemiology of Human Listeriosis Cases, Denmark, 2002-2012.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Anne Kvistholm; Björkman, Jonas T; Ethelberg, Steen; Kiil, Kristoffer; Kemp, Michael; Nielsen, Eva Møller

    2016-04-01

    Denmark has a high incidence of invasive listeriosis (0.9 cases/100,000 population in 2012). We analyzed patient data, clinical outcome, and trends in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated in Denmark during 2002-2012. We performed 2-enzyme PFGE and serotyping on 559 isolates and MLST on 92 isolates and identified some correlation between molecular type and clinical outcome and patient characteristics. We found 178 different PFGE types, but isolates from 122 cases belonged to just 2 closely related PFGE types, clonal complex 8 and sequence type 8. These 2 types were the main cause of a peak in incidence of invasive listeriosis during 2005-2009, possibly representing an outbreak or the presence of a highly prevalent clone. However, current typing methods could not fully confirm these possibilities, highlighting the need for more refined discriminatory typing methods to identify outbreaks within frequently occurring L. monocytogenes PFGE types.

  7. The rise of the eclectic cultural consumer in Denmark, 1964-2004.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Mads Meier; Katz-Gerro, Tally

    2010-01-01

    Existing research on cultural stratification and consumption patterns rarely presents a cross-time comparative perspective and rarely goes back before the 1980s. This article employs a unique series of surveys on cultural participation collected in Denmark over the period 1964-2004 to map the historical development of three distinct cultural consumption groups (eclectic, moderate, limited) also identified in previous research. We report two major findings. First, the eclectic (or "omnivorous") cultural consumption group existed as far back as the 1960s and has since the 1980s comprised about 10 percent of the Danish population. Second, the major stratification variables-income, education, and social class-are strong predictors of cultural eclecticism in Denmark, and the predictive power of these stratification variables appears not to have declined in any substantive way over the past 40 years.

  8. Does drinking water influence hospital-admitted sialolithiasis on an epidemiological level in Denmark?

    PubMed

    Schrøder, Stine; Homøe, Preben; Wagner, Niels; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Lundager Madsen, Hans Erik; Bardow, Allan

    2015-05-03

    Sialolithiasis, or salivary stones, is not a rare disease of the major salivary glands. However, the aetiology and incidence remain largely unknown. Since sialoliths are comprised mainly of calcium phosphate salts, we hypothesise that drinking water calcium levels and other elements in drinking water could play a role in sialolithiasis. Owing to substantial intermunicipality differences in drinking water composition, Denmark constitutes a unique environment for testing such relations. An epidemiological study based on patient data extracted from the National Patient Registry and drinking water data from the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland retrieved as weighted data on all major drinking water constituents for each of the 3364 waterworks in Denmark. All patient cases with International Statistical Classification of Diseases 10th Revision (ICD-10) codes for sialolithiasis registered between the years 2000 and 2010 were included in the study (n=3014) and related to the drinking water composition on a municipality level (n=98). Multiple regression analysis using iterative search and testing among all demographic and drinking water variables with sialolithiasis incidence as the outcome in search of possible relations among the variables tested. The nationwide incidence of hospital-admitted sialolithiasis was 5.5 cases per 100,000 citizens per year in Denmark. Strong relations were found between the incidence of sialolithiasis and the drinking water concentration of calcium, magnesium and hydrogen carbonate, however, in separate models (p<0.001). Analyses also confirmed correlations between drinking water calcium and magnesium and their concentration in saliva whereas this was not the case for hydrogen carbonate. Differences in drinking water calcium and magnesium may play a role in the incidence of sialolithiasis. These findings are of interest because many countries have started large-scale desalination programmes of drinking water. Published by the BMJ

  9. Eureka’s Ministerial Conference (6th) Held in Copenhagen, Denmark on June 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-13

    Materials i Robots, Manufacturing- andflirocess (26ntrol , Telecommunication-I- , Transportation • ( 4 d c - 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if...actual knowledge and new technology. The Industrial Application of Novel Plant Materials Netherlands, Denmark 17.20160 270/E Determination of the...growth-promoting agent. Medical Materials (Biomaterials) Germany, Greece 0.45/60 294/E The development of biological composite materials whose phases are

  10. Does drinking water influence hospital-admitted sialolithiasis on an epidemiological level in Denmark?

    PubMed Central

    Schrøder, Stine; Homøe, Preben; Wagner, Niels; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Lundager Madsen, Hans Erik; Bardow, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Sialolithiasis, or salivary stones, is not a rare disease of the major salivary glands. However, the aetiology and incidence remain largely unknown. Since sialoliths are comprised mainly of calcium phosphate salts, we hypothesise that drinking water calcium levels and other elements in drinking water could play a role in sialolithiasis. Owing to substantial intermunicipality differences in drinking water composition, Denmark constitutes a unique environment for testing such relations. Design An epidemiological study based on patient data extracted from the National Patient Registry and drinking water data from the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland retrieved as weighted data on all major drinking water constituents for each of the 3364 waterworks in Denmark. All patient cases with International Statistical Classification of Diseases 10th Revision (ICD-10) codes for sialolithiasis registered between the years 2000 and 2010 were included in the study (n=3014) and related to the drinking water composition on a municipality level (n=98). Primary and secondary outcome measures Multiple regression analysis using iterative search and testing among all demographic and drinking water variables with sialolithiasis incidence as the outcome in search of possible relations among the variables tested. Results The nationwide incidence of hospital-admitted sialolithiasis was 5.5 cases per 100 000 citizens per year in Denmark. Strong relations were found between the incidence of sialolithiasis and the drinking water concentration of calcium, magnesium and hydrogen carbonate, however, in separate models (p<0.001). Analyses also confirmed correlations between drinking water calcium and magnesium and their concentration in saliva whereas this was not the case for hydrogen carbonate. Conclusions Differences in drinking water calcium and magnesium may play a role in the incidence of sialolithiasis. These findings are of interest because many countries have started

  11. Trace the Denmark Strait Overflow Water in an Eddy-Resolving Atlantic Simulation: Some Preliminary Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    Trace the Denmark Strait overflow water in an eddy-resolving Atlantic simulation: some preliminary results Xiaobiao Xu ( COAPS /FSU), Alan...Wallcraft (NRL/SSC), Eric Chassignet ( COAPS /FSU) Thanks: Peter Rhines (UW) and William Schmitz May 21-23, Layered ocean modeling workshop, Ann Arbor, MI...Prediction Studies ( COAPS ),2000 Levy Avenue, Building A, Suite 292,Tallahassee,FL,32306-2741 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING

  12. Socioeconomic inequalities in old-age mortality: a comparison of Denmark and the USA.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Rasmus

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies have reported important variations in the magnitude of health inequalities between countries that belong to different welfare systems. This suggests that there is scope for reducing health inequalities by means of country-level interventions. The present study adds to this literature by exploring whether the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in mortality is associated with social inequality levels. Denmark and the USA belong to fundamentally different welfare systems (social democratic and liberal) and our study thereby contributes to the ongoing debate on whether welfare systems are linked to health inequalities. We analyze Denmark and the USA in terms of socioeconomic differences in mortality above age 58. The data sources were Danish register data from 1980 to 2002 (n = 2,029,324), and survey data from the US Health and Retirement Study (HRS) from 1992 to 2006 (n = 9374). Survival analysis was used to study the impact of socioeconomic status on mortality and the magnitude of mortality differences between the two countries was compared. The results showed surprisingly that mortality differentials were larger in Denmark than in the USA even after controlling for a number of covariates: The poorest 10 percent of the Danish elderly population have a mortality rate ratio of 3.32 (men) and 3.70 (women) compared to the richest 25 percent. In the USA the corresponding rate ratios are 1.67 and 1.56. Low income seems to be a more powerful risk factor for mortality than low education. A number of possible explanations for higher mortality differences in Denmark are discussed: unintended positive correlation between generous health services and health inequality, early life influences, mortality selection, and relative deprivation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Denmark 1980-2013: a nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lophaven, S N; Lynge, E; Burisch, J

    2017-04-01

    Globally, the incidence rates of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasing; however, data from high-incidence areas are conflicting. Previous studies in Denmark have assessed incidence rates of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) using short observation periods. To investigate trends in IBD incidence in Denmark over a thirty-year period using nationwide data. Patients diagnosed with CD or UC in Denmark between 1980 and 2013 were identified in the Danish National Patient Registry (NPR) and included in a nationwide cohort. Incidence rates estimated using different numbers of National Patient Registry records (≥1, 2, 3 or 4) required for case definition were compared. From 1980 to 2013 the incidence of CD increased from 5.2 (95% CI: 5.0-5.4) per 100 000 to 9.1 (95% CI: 8.7-9.5) per 100 000 and the incidence of UC increased from 10.7 (95% CI: 10.4-11.0) per 100 000 to 18.6 (95% CI: 18.0-19.2) per 100 000. The increased incidence in CD and UC was independent of gender. The annual increase in incidence rate was greatest in patients aged <15 years for CD and those older than 15 years for UC. For both CD and UC the incidence rates for females were significantly higher than for males. The number of registry records chosen to define IBD cases greatly influenced incidence estimates. The incidence of IBD in Denmark continues to increase and is among the highest in the world. Using at ≥2 records of IBD diagnosis in the Danish National Patient Registry will result in more valid incidence estimates. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Area Report. Developments in Microwave Antennas and Applications in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-31

    if by block nimber) Denmark anechoic chamber near field testing Norway microwaves phased arrays Sweden industrial application radiometer antennas of...Stockholm. At the University of Gothenburg, phased - array technology is being developed for relative- ly small and simple systems and specific...whether to investigate some microwave antenna systems, for example, phased arrays . The main efforts in Norway are found at the Technical University of

  15. A roadmap for comparing readmission policies with application to Denmark, England, Germany and the United States.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Søren Rud; Bech, Mickael; Quentin, Wilm

    2015-03-01

    Hospital readmissions receive increasing interest from policy makers because reducing unnecessary readmissions has the potential to simultaneously improve quality and save costs. This paper reviews readmission policies in Denmark, England, Germany and the United States (Medicare system). The suggested roadmap enables researchers and policy makers to systematically compare and analyse readmission policies. We find considerable differences across countries. In Germany, the readmission policy aims to avoid unintended consequences of the introduction of DRG-based payment; it focuses on readmissions of individual patients and hospitals receive only one DRG-based payment for both the initial and the re-admission. In Denmark, England and the US readmission policies aim at quality improvement and focus on readmission rates. In Denmark, readmission rates are publicly reported but payments are not adjusted in relation to readmissions. In England and the US, financial incentives penalise hospitals with readmission rates above a certain benchmark. In England, this benchmark is defined through local clinical review, while it is based on the risk-adjusted national average in the US. At present, not enough evidence exists to give recommendations on the optimal design of readmission policies. The roadmap can be a tool for systematically assessing how elements of other countries' readmission policies can potentially be adopted to improve national policies. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Bovine virus diarrhea virus in free-living deer from Denmark.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, S S; Roensholt, L; Bitsch, V

    2000-07-01

    Free-living deer are suggested as a possible source of infection of cattle with bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) virus. To examine this hypothesis blood samples from 476 free-living deer were collected during two different periods and tested for BVD virus and antibody in Denmark. In 1995-96, 207 animals were tested. These included 149 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), 29 fallow deer (Dama dama), 20 red deer (Cervus elaphus) and one sika deer (Cervus sika). For the remaining eight animals no species information was available. In 1998-99, 269 animals were tested including 212 roe deer and 57 red deer. The animals were selected from areas with a relatively high prevalence of cattle herds with a BVD persistent infection status in 1997 and 1998. All 207 samples from 1995-96 were found antibody-negative except two samples from red deer. Only 158 of the 207 samples were tested for virus and were all found negative. Of the 269 samples from 1998-99 all but one were antibody negative. The positive sample was from a red deer. All samples were virus-negative. It appears that BVD infection does not occur in roe deer in Denmark. The presence of antibody in a few red deer from various districts in Jutland probably results from cattle to deer transmission, rather than spread among deer. Hence, the possibility of free-living deer as a source of infection for cattle in Denmark seems to be remote.

  17. Demographics of HIV-1 infection in Denmark: results from the Danish HIV Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lohse, Nicolai; Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Kronborg, Gitte; Kvinesdal, Birgit; Pedersen, Court; Larsen, Carsten S; Møller, Axel; Willumsen, Lars; Obel, Niels

    2005-01-01

    We used a population-based cohort study design to describe the demographic characteristics of the HIV-infected population in Denmark and their variation over time. HIV treatment in Denmark is restricted to 9 centres, and all 3941 HIV-1 infected patients more than 15 y old seen at these centres in 1995-2003 were included. We found an estimated HIV prevalence of 70 per 100,000, and a mean annual incidence rate of 5.1 per 100,000 persons. The number of newly infected individuals was stable with a median of 231 per y (period 1995-2002), whereas the number of deaths decreased from 166 in 1995 to 50 in 2000 (p=0.000) and remained stable thereafter. Of the enrolled patients, 75% were males, 80% were Caucasian, 13% were black African, and the primary risk behaviour was male-to-male sexual contact (44%), heterosexual contact (36%), and injection drug use (11%). During the y 1995-2003 we found an increase in age at diagnosis (p=0.000), and no major changes in gender, race, mode of infection, or baseline CD4+ cell count and viral load, neither overall not within subgroups of patients. In this period 14.5% had AIDS at the time of HIV diagnosis. Our data do not confirm concerns about unmonitored evolution in the HIV epidemic in Denmark.

  18. Twenty-year survey of the epidemiology of hepatitis B in Denmark: effect of immigration.

    PubMed

    Gjørup, I E; Smith, E; Borgwardt, L; Skinhøj, P

    2003-01-01

    Implementation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination is being considered in Denmark. Therefore, a 20 y survey on the epidemiology of HBV infection was performed. All notified cases of acute HBV infection in Denmark from 1982 to 2002 were reviewed retrospectively and all available data from 1970 to 2001 on the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in different groups of the Danish population were studied. The notified annual incidence of acute HBV infection has declined from more than 200 cases to fewer than 50 cases in 2001. In the indigenous population there has been a similar decline in prevalence of HBsAg carriers, from 0.15 to 0.03%, but owing to immigration of new HBsAg carriers from developing countries the overall number of carriers has not changed. The small effect of immigration on the incidence of acute HBV infections as well as the decreasing prevalence of HBsAg carriers among Danes should be taken into account when planning new vaccination strategies in Denmark.

  19. Existing data sources for clinical epidemiology: Aarhus University Clinical Trial Candidate Database, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Nørrelund, Helene; Mazin, Wiktor; Pedersen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Denmark is facing a reduction in clinical trial activity as the pharmaceutical industry has moved trials to low-cost emerging economies. Competitiveness in industry-sponsored clinical research depends on speed, quality, and cost. Because Denmark is widely recognized as a region that generates high quality data, an enhanced ability to attract future trials could be achieved if speed can be improved by taking advantage of the comprehensive national and regional registries. A "single point-of-entry" system has been established to support collaboration between hospitals and industry. When assisting industry in early-stage feasibility assessments, potential trial participants are identified by use of registries to shorten the clinical trial startup times. The Aarhus University Clinical Trial Candidate Database consists of encrypted data from the Danish National Registry of Patients allowing an immediate estimation of the number of patients with a specific discharge diagnosis in each hospital department or outpatient specialist clinic in the Central Denmark Region. The free access to health care, thorough monitoring of patients who are in contact with the health service, completeness of registration at the hospital level, and ability to link all databases are competitive advantages in an increasingly complex clinical trial environment.

  20. Salmonella Dublin patients in Denmark and their distance to cattle farms.

    PubMed

    Funke, Silvia; Anker, Janus C H; Ethelberg, Steen

    2017-03-01

    The Salmonella serotype Dublin is specifically adapted to cattle but may infect humans leading to severe disease. We described human S. Dublin cases and investigated a potential spatial relation between their addresses and cattle farms in Denmark. We extracted S. Dublin patient surveillance data, 2000-2014, and performed descriptive analyses. We geocoded residential and cattle farm addresses and mapped their incidence by region, province and municipality. We used linear correlation and spatial autocorrelation analysis at the municipality level and calculated the direct network distance from the nearest farm to the residential address of cases and 20,000 randomly selected citizens representing the background population. We identified 484 S. Dublin cases, 57% were male, median age 65 years. Seven patients (1%) acquired their infection abroad. The 30 days all-cause mortality was 13%. Overall, cumulative incidence was 8.0 per 100,000 inhabitants. Cattle farms were located predominantly in the western part of the country. Neither visual inspection nor correlation analysis indicated a relationship between municipalities with high incidences of human cases and cattle farms. Global Moran's Index analysis showed municipalities with high incidence of cases to be randomly distributed. We found equal direct network distances between cattle farms and both addresses of S. Dublin cases and the background population. We found S. Dublin infections in Denmark to affect the elderly, be serious and acquired domestically. Our findings indicate that the risk of infection with S. Dublin in Denmark is independent of living in the proximity to cattle farms.

  1. Genetic analysis of avian influenza virus from wild birds and mallards reared for shooting in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Handberg, Kurt Jensen; Therkildsen, Ole Roland; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    2010-03-01

    Denmark forms a geographical bottleneck along the migration route of many water birds breeding from northeastern Canada to north Siberia that gather to winter in Europe and Africa. Potentially, the concentration of such large numbers of water birds enhances the risk of avian influenza virus (AIV) introduction to domestic poultry. In 2003, Denmark initiated a nationwide survey of AIV in wild birds and mallards reared for shooting. Partial sequence analysis of the six internal genes from a total of 12 low pathogenic (LP) AIV isolates obtained in 2003 showed that genes from these viruses were closely related with genes from AIV circulating in northern Europe. For the Danish sequences only the PB2 and NS genes differ, so they cluster to more than one cluster in the phylogenetic trees. In spring 2006, highly pathogenic (HP) AIV H5N1 was detected in 44 cases of wild birds in Denmark. Sequence analysis of the HP H5N1 virus genome showed that it was not related to the LPAIV isolated previously, but closely related to the HPAIV H5 (Asian type) detected in the rest of Europe at that time. Even though only partial sequences were applied, this gave the idea for future full-length sequence studies.

  2. [Fatal cases of poisoning in eastern Denmark during a five-year period (1998-2002)].

    PubMed

    Johansen, Sys Stybe; Jacobsen, Christina; Müller, Irene Breum; Petersen, Henning Willads; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Kringsholm, Birgitte; Steentoft, Anni

    2006-09-25

    The goal of this investigation was to determine the pattern of fatal poisonings in eastern Denmark from 1998 to 2002 and compare it with similar investigations from 1979 to 1996. The material included 2,996 autopsies from eastern Denmark in which extensive forensic chemical investigations were performed. Of the 2,996 autopsies, 694 cases were drug addicts, in whom 497 fatal overdoses were detected, while in the remaining 2,302 cases of nonaddicts, 443 fatal poisonings were determined. Morphine (heroine) and methadone were the main causes of death among the fatal poisonings of the drug addicts, accounting for 90% of the cases. The fatal poisonings among the nonaddicts were due mainly to medicine (73% of the cases); 13% were due to carbon monoxide and/or cyanide poisoning, and 12% were due to acute ethanol poisoning. The medicine was a wide range of strong and weak analgesics, antidepressants and antipsychotic drugs of older and newer origins. Comparison with earlier investigations from 1979 to 1996 showed that the poisoning pattern had changed, but similarities were also seen. The most frequently occurring drugs involved in fatal poisonings in eastern Denmark from 1979 to 2002 were morphine, methadone, ethanol and carbon monoxide/cyanide, of which methadone increased in occurrence over the 23-year period. The investigation of fatal poisonings is an important element in monitoring changes in drug abuse and poisoning patterns and levels.

  3. Nationwide tobacco surveys and sales data in Denmark from 1920 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Clemmensen, Kim K B; Lynge, Elsebeth; Clemmensen, Inge H

    2012-06-01

    Tobacco smoking is an important cause of premature death and morbidity in Denmark. It is therefore important to monitor tobacco consumption. In this paper, tobacco consumption in Denmark is illustrated by two methods: sale of tobacco products and smoking habit surveys. Data on sale of tobacco products in Denmark were available for the 1920-2010-period. National smoking habit surveys were found through grey-zone literature, a PubMed search and a report on the Danish population's smoking habits. Ten smoking habit surveys were identified from the 1953-2010-period, three of which have data from multiple years and annual surveys from 1969 onwards. The changes in tobacco consumption found by the two methods were not parallel. Furthermore, there were significant differences between the proportions of smokers found in smoking habit questionnaires from the same year. This difference may be due to changes in cross-border trade, smuggling, smokers' willingness to participate in smoking habit studies, recognition of own smoking and actual tobacco consumption, and differences in the composition of participants in the smoking habit studies both over time and between different studies. Both sales statistics and surveys have advantages and disadvantages. It may therefore be important to use both when estimating tobacco consumption.

  4. Educational Evaluation in Scandinavian Countries: Converging or Diverging Practices?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Hanne Foss

    2009-01-01

    Current educational evaluation is institutionalized as an element in national educational policy in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway. This article analyses how higher education and primary and lower secondary education have adopted and institutionalized educational evaluation. The analysis shows similarities and differences in organizing and practicing…

  5. Improvements in breast cancer survival between 1995 and 2012 in Denmark: The importance of earlier diagnosis and adjuvant treatment.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Maj-Britt; Ejlertsen, Bent; Mouridsen, Henning T; Christiansen, Peer

    2016-06-01

    Background Breast cancer mortality has declined from 1995 through 2012 which may be attributed to earlier diagnosis, changes in lifestyle risk factors, and improved treatments. To a large extent the relative contribution of these modalities are unknown. Mammography screening was introduced late in Denmark; in 1995 around 20% of the Danish female population aged 50-69 was covered by population-based screening, and this was in 2008 extended to the entire population. Breast conserving surgery gradually replaced mastectomy, and sentinel node biopsy was introduced. In the same period adjuvant treatment was extended considerable. Methods A population-based study of 68 842 breast cancer patients registered in the clinical database of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group in 1995-2012. Comprehensive data on prognostic factors, comorbidity and treatment together with complete follow-up for survival were used to evaluate improvements in mortality and standardized mortality rate in successive time periods. Results The results from this study demonstrated a significant improvement in prognosis in successive time periods covering 1995-2012. Apart from patients with a high Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) improvements were seen in all subgroups of patients. Prognostic factors were more favorable in the latest time period accordingly to the introduction of nationwide screening. In the study period adjuvant treatment was extended considerable. Conclusion The impact of screening was by nature of limited magnitude. The modified treatment strategies implemented by the use of nationwide guidelines seemed to have a major impact on the substantial survival improvements.

  6. Metformin initiation and renal impairment: a cohort study in Denmark and the UK

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Christian Fynbo; Ehrenstein, Vera; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Skovbo, Stine; Nørrelund, Helene; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Li, Lin; Jick, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate prevalence of renal impairment, rate of decline in kidney function and changes in metformin use after decline in kidney function, in metformin initiators. Design, setting and participants We conducted this 2-country cohort study using routine data from northern Denmark and the UK during 2000–2011. We included metformin initiators among patients aged ≥30 years with medically treated diabetes. Main outcome measures We described patients’ demographics, comorbidity, co-medications and their estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR). Furthermore, we described the patients’ characteristics according to eGFR level. Finally, we examined the rate of any decline in eGFR and changes in metformin use within 90 days after first decline in eGFR during follow-up. Results We included 124 720 metformin initiators in the 2 countries. Prevalence of eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 among metformin initiators was 9.0% in Denmark and 25.2% in the UK. In contrast, prevalence of eGFR values <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 among metformin initiators was 0.3% in Denmark and 0.4% in the UK. Patients with renal impairment were older and more likely to have received cardiovascular drugs. Incidence rate of decline in renal function was 4.92 per 100 person-years (95% CI 4.76 to 5.09) in Denmark and 7.48 per 100 person-years (95% CI 7.39 to 7.57) in the UK. The proportion of patients continuing metformin use, even after a first decline brought the eGFR below 30 mL/min/1.73 m2, was 44% in Denmark and 62% in the UK. There was no clinically significant dose reduction with decreasing baseline eGFR level discernible from the data. Conclusions Mild to moderate renal impairment was common among metformin initiators, while severe renal impairment was uncommon. Patients with severe renal impairment frequently continued receiving/redeeming metformin prescriptions even 90 days after eGFR decline. PMID:26338686

  7. Transport estimates and variability of the Denmark Strait Overflow, 1996-2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochumsen, Kerstin; Moritz, Martin; Quadfasel, Detlef; Nunes, Nuno; Larsen, Karin M.; Hansen, Bogi; Käse, Rolf H.; Valdimarsson, Hedinn; Jonsson, Steingrimur

    2017-04-01

    The major export route of dense water flow from the Nordic Seas into the North Atlantic occurs in the deep channel in Denmark Strait. Downstream, the volume of this water is about doubled by entrainment and forms the prominent bottom layer of the Deep Western Boundary Current in the Subpolar North Atlantic. The dense water outflow through Denmark Strait has been monitored with moored instruments (typically two) since 1996, using Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs) anchored close to the bottom in floatation bodies. Volume transport calculations in Denmark Strait have been based so far on these ADCPs anchored in the deeper part of the channel, which were regressed to the total transport of dense water through the Strait in a model. The resulting transport has been used in many publications. Here, we present a new calculation method to estimate the volume transport of the Denmark Strait Overflow, based on results from an extended five mooring array deployed in 2014/15. At the same time, a correction is proposed for a bias detected on some ADCPs (the 'Workhorse Long Ranger' devices working at 75 kHz frequency), which led to earlier underestimation of the flow in the deep plume core. However, the new array included measurements at shallower positions on the Greenland shelf, where the net transports were found to be small. Using the new method, the mean dense overflow transport is estimated to be -3.07±0.56 Sv, without a significant trend. Besides variations on the eddy scale, an analysis of the fluctuations in the velocity field using empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) reveals three dominant modes of variability: the first mode is roughly barotropic and corresponds to pulsations of the plume, the second mode represents the laterally shifting component of the plume core position, and the third mode indicates the impact of the vertical extension, i.e. the varying overflow thickness. Furthermore, a similar approach is applied to the volume transport time series

  8. From motivation to acceptability: a survey of public attitudes towards organ donation in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Nordfalk, Francisca; Olejaz, Maria; Jensen, Anja M B; Skovgaard, Lea Larsen; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades, public attitudes to organ donation have been a subject of numerous studies focusing on donor motivation. Here, we present a fresh approach. We suggest focusing on public acceptability instead of motivation. The point is to understand public attitudes well enough to avoid risking public support for organ transplantation. We conducted the study in Denmark because there have been significant developments in public attitudes to organ donation in this country. In the 1990s, Denmark was a country with very low public support for organ donation and Denmark was the last country in Europe to introduce brain death as a legal criterion of death, whereas today Eurobarometer surveys rate Denmark as one of the European countries with the highest support for deceased organ donation from brain dead donors. We conducted a telephone survey in Denmark (N = 1195). A questionnaire was developed on the basis of preceding qualitative studies and pilot testing and included reuse of one item from earlier surveys to facilitate historical comparison. The analysis of the data was carried out using IBM SPSS Statistics 22 and focused on descriptive statistics. A clear majority of 91.9 % are positive or very positive towards organ donation; 85.8 % like the idea of their body being used after their death, 85.0 % is willing to donate their own organs, 82.1 % to donate their tissue and only 2.3 % find that too much has been done to promote organ donation. There is limited support for monetary incentives for organ donation (5.8 %) and presumed consent (30.4 %), while a majority (63.9 %) supports making it mandatory to register a personal decision. Religious self-identification has limited impact on attitudes. We can identify a shift over the past three decades from marked opposition to organ transplantation to strong support as well as a pattern in the contemporary public attitudes, which can help explain what is central to public acceptability: self

  9. Test of a novel Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6C type specific polyclonal antiserum (factor antiserum 6d) and characterisation of serotype 6C isolates in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Lambertsen, Lotte; Kerrn, Mette B

    2010-09-24

    In 2007, Park et al. identified a novel serotype among Streptococcus pneumoniae serogroup 6 which they named serotype 6C. The aim of this study was to evaluate with the Neufeld test a novel S. pneumoniae serotype 6C type specific polyclonal antiserum. In addition, serotype 6C isolates found in Denmark in 2007 and 2008 as well as eight old original serotype 6A isolates were characterised. In this study, 181 clinical Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from Denmark 2007 and 2008 were examined; 96 isolates had previously been typed as serotype 6A and 85 as serotype 6B. In addition, eight older isolates from 1952 to 1987, earlier serotyped as 6A, were examined. Serotype 6C isolates were identified by PCR and serotyping with the Neufeld test using the novel type specific polyclonal antiserum, factor antiserum 6 d, in addition to factor antisera 6b, 6b* (absorbed free for cross-reactions to serotype 6C) and 6c. All antisera are commercially available and antiserum 6b obtained from the supplier after 1 January 2009 is antiserum 6b*. All serotype 6C isolates were further characterised using multi-locus sequence typing. When retesting all 96 original serotype 6A isolates by PCR and the Neufeld test, 29.6% (24 of 81) of the invasive isolates in Denmark from 2007 and 2008 were recognised as serotype 6C. In addition, three of eight old isolates originally serotyped as 6A were identified to be serotype 6C. The oldest serotype 6C isolate was from 1962. The serotype 6C isolates belonged to eleven different sequence types (ST) and nine clonal complexes (CC), ST1692 (CC395), ST386 (CC386) and ST481 (CC460) were the predominant types. We tested a novel polyclonal antiserum 6 d, as well as modified antiserum 6b*, provided a scheme for the serotyping of S. pneumoniae serogroup 6 using the Neufeld test and compared the serotyping method with PCR based methods. The two types of methods provided the same results. In future, it will, therefore, be possible to test also serotype 6C in

  10. Cosmogenic exposure dating of boulders and bedrock in Denmark: wide range in ages reflect strong dependence of post-depositional stability related to specific glacial landforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houmark-Nielsen, Michael; Linge, Henriette; Fabel, Derek; Xu, Sheng

    2010-05-01

    . Dating of boulders and adjacent bedrock on the island of Bornholm in the western Baltic reveal almost similar ages and fit the independent chronology. This indicates that very little if any inherited nuclides are present in the boulders. Moreover, ages from Bornholm seem to become younger with descending height above sea level, suggesting that the island was progressively exposed as glaciers in the Baltic downwasted. In mainland Denmark ages that fit the age model are situated on top of end moraines or located on streamlined ground moraine. Boulders with underestimated ages were sampled in dead ice moraines and down wasting landscapes. These results are interpreted as providing landform stabilisation ages since these boulders appear to have first melted out of dead ice and came to rest after 15 until about 12 kyr ago. We conclude that cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure dating is very sensitive to landscape stability, and that when used for dating glacier fluctuations surface stability should be thoroughly evaluated before sampling.

  11. [Insufficient implementation of guidelines for basic life support in Denmark].

    PubMed

    Steensen, Christian Overgaard; Krarup, Niels Henrik; Løfgren, Bo

    2008-08-25

    Early bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves survival following out of hospital cardiac arrest. Bystanders perform basic life support in less than one third of witnessed cardiac arrests. Furthermore, the quality of CPR differs considerably. Unambiguous course material may improve education in resuscitation and further the provision and efficiency of CPR. In 2005 the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) published guidelines for adult basic life support. The objective of this investigation is to evaluate the adherence of Danish course material for laypeople to the ERC Guidelines. Printed Danish course material is compared to the ERC Guidelines with respect to algorithm, resuscitation techniques and illustrations. The majority of the investigated material does not adhere to the ERC Guidelines, especially with regard to resuscitation techniques and illustrations. There were considerable discrepancies concerning airway management, recognition of cardiac arrest, activation of emergency medical services and chest compressions. We demonstrate substantial differences between Danish course material and the ERC Guidelines. This may have implications for CPR provided by bystanders.

  12. Incidence of intracranial tumors following hospitalization for head injuries (Denmark).

    PubMed

    Inskip, P D; Mellemkjaer, L; Gridley, G; Olsen, J H

    1998-01-01

    The incidence of brain and other intracranial tumors following head trauma was evaluated in a cohort of 228,055 Danish residents hospitalized because of concussion, fractured skull, or other head injury between 1977 and 1992 and followed for an average of eight years (maximum, 17 years). Traffic accidents, falls, and sports-related incidents were the usual causes of the injury. Malignant and benign neoplasms were identified by linking the study roster with records of the Danish Cancer Registry for the years 1977 to 1993. This approach precludes differential reporting of injuries by study participants as an explanation for any associations seen. Intracranial tumors of the nervous system occurred more often than expected based on incidence rates for the Danish population; however, most of the excess occurred during the first year after the injury and likely was due to the detection of tumors that were present before the injury occurred. Excluding the first year of follow-up, the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was 1.15 (95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 0.99-1.32). The same general temporal pattern was seen for the major subtypes of brain tumor as for all types combined. SIRs after the first year were 1.0 for glioma (CI = 0.8-1.2), 1.2 for meningioma (CI = 0.8-1.7), and 0.8 for neurilemmoma (CI = 0.4-1.7). However, hemangioblastoma and hemangioma were more frequent than expected, based on 15 cases (SIR = 2.6, CI = 1.4-4.2). Results indicate that head trauma causes, at most, a small increase in the overall risk of brain tumors during the ensuing 15 years; however, a possible association with intracranial vascular tumors warrants further evaluation.

  13. A comparative study of educational inequality in the risk of stillbirth in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden 1981-2000.

    PubMed

    Rom, Ane L; Mortensen, Laust H; Cnattingius, Sven; Arntzen, Annett; Gissler, Mika; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2012-03-01

    The stillbirth rates in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden are among the lowest in the world, but socioeconomic disparities in stillbirth still exist. This study examined the educational patterns in the risk of stillbirth in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden from 1981 to 2000. From the national birth registries, all singleton live births and stillbirths with a gestational age of at least 28 weeks were selected in Denmark (n=1 182 888), Finland (n=419 729), Norway (n=1 006 767) and Sweden (n=1 974 101). The births were linked with individual data on parental socioeconomic factors from various national registers. Linear and logistic regression were used to calculate RR and risk differences for stillbirth according to maternal educational attainment. The risk of stillbirth was lowest in Finland and highest in Denmark. The risk decreased over time in Denmark, Norway and Finland, but remained stable in Sweden. Educational gradients were found in all countries in all time periods under study. In Denmark, the gradient remained stable over time. In Norway the gradient decreased slightly during the 1990s, whereas the gradient increased in Sweden. The gradient in Finland was relatively stable. There were persisting educational inequalities in stillbirth in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in the 1980s and 1990s. Inequalities were stable or decreasing except in Sweden, where an increase in inequality was observed. This increase was not solely attributable to a decreasing absolute risk of stillbirth as both the relative and absolute measures of inequality increased.

  14. Composition and variability of the Denmark Strait Overflow Water in a high-resolution numerical model hindcast simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, Erik; Vâge, Kjetil; Harden, Benjamin; Biastoch, Arne; Böning, Claus W.

    2017-04-01

    The upstream sources and pathways of the Denmark Strait Overflow Water and their variability have been investigated using a high-resolution model hindcast. This global simulation covers the period from 1948 to 2009 and uses a fine model mesh (1/20°) to resolve mesoscale features and the complex current structure north of Iceland explicitly. The three sources of the Denmark Strait Overflow, the shelfbreak East Greenland Current (EGC), the separated EGC, and the North Icelandic Jet, have been analyzed using Eulerian and Lagrangian diagnostics. The shelfbreak EGC contributes the largest fraction in terms of volume and freshwater transport to the Denmark Strait Overflow and is the main driver of the overflow variability. The North Icelandic Jet contributes the densest water to the Denmark Strait Overflow and shows only small temporal transport variations. During summer, the net volume and freshwater transports to the south are reduced. On interannual time scales, these transports are highly correlated with the large-scale wind stress curl around Iceland and, to some extent, influenced by the North Atlantic Oscillation, with enhanced southward transports during positive phases. The Lagrangian trajectories support the existence of a hypothesized overturning loop along the shelfbreak north of Iceland, where water carried by the North Icelandic Irminger Current is transformed and feeds the North Icelandic Jet. Monitoring these two currents and the region north of the Iceland shelfbreak could provide the potential to track long-term changes in the Denmark Strait Overflow and thus also the AMOC.

  15. The challenges of a possible exploitation of shale gas in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Ole S.; Kidmose, Jacob; Johnsen, Anders R.; Gravesen, Peter; Schovsbo, Niels H.

    2017-04-01

    Extraction of shale gas has in recent years attracted increasing interest internationally and in Denmark. The potential areas for shale gas extraction from Alum shale in Denmark are defined as areas where Alum shale is at least 20 m thick, gas mature and buried at 1.5 to 7 km depth. Sweet Spots are areas where Alum shale potentially has a high utility value. Sweet Spots are identified and cover an area of approximately 6,800 km2 and are divided into two subareas; where the shale is at 1.5-5 km depth (2,400 km2) or at 5-7 km depth (4,400 km2). The shale in the upper depth interval has the greatest interest, as these areas are localized most accurate as the production from the deep interval is less costly. Many potential risks has been identified by exploitation of unconventional gas, of which groundwater contamination, waste management and radioactive substances are classified as the most important. The international literature reports a water demand with an average of about 18,000 m3 for older wells whereas newer fracking methods have less water usage. Based heron the estimated water consumption is between 20 million to 66 million m3 water in Danish shale gas production well and thus significantly in the total water budget. Consumption of water for shale gas will however be distributed over a number of years. The temporal development in water usage will depend on how quickly the gas wells are developed. The available groundwater resource in Denmark is estimated to about 1 billion m3 / year. Groundwater abstraction has been slightly falling the last decades and is now totally 700 million m3 / year. The use of surface water in Denmark is thus negligible. Although groundwater attraction is only 70 % of the available, the resource is overexploited in many areas due to water consumption is very unevenly distributed varying from region to region. The composition of potential hydraulic fracturing liquids in Denmark is at present unknown, but is expected to be selected

  16. [Effects on health of particulate air pollution in Denmark--a quantitative assessment].

    PubMed

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Palmgren, Finn; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Wåhlin, Peter; Berkowicz, Ruwim; Hertel, Ole; Vrang, Marie-Louise; Loft, Steffen H

    2002-08-19

    Ambient air pollution is a risk factor for mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to quantify the health effects related to particulate matter (PM10) in Denmark. We used relative risk estimates in relation to PM10 based on the epidemiological literature. Population exposure to PM10 was calculated. Cases attributable to PM10 were estimated for mortality, cardiovascular and respiratory hospital admissions, chronic bronchitis, acute bronchitis, restricted activity days, and asthma attacks. Moreover, we attempted to estimate health-related gains from equipping all heavy-duty vehicles in Denmark with particle filters. We estimated the average population PM10 exposure to be about 22 micrograms/m3, about one third of which can be attributed to natural (not man-made) PM10. The number of cases per year attributable to the estimated exposure included about 5,000 deaths, about 5,000 hospital admissions, about 5,000 cases of chronic bronchitis, about 17,000 cases of acute bronchitis, about 200,000 asthma attacks, and about three million restricted activity days. The health-related gains from installing particle filters on all heavy-duty vehicles in Denmark are uncertain; the estimates for mortality ranged from 22 to 1,250, depending on the assumptions. Although air pollution constitutes only a minor risk factor on the individual level, it seems to be a major public health problem. The particle characteristics responsible for the estimated health effects are not well understood. The ultrafine particle fraction may cause a much greater impact on health than indicated by the mass.

  17. Trends in weapon-related injuries from violence in Odense Municipality, Denmark 1991-2009.

    PubMed

    Luef, Stefan Møller; Lauritsen, Jens Martin; Faergemann, Christian

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the development in incidence rates and the severity of weapon-related physical interpersonal violence in Odense Municipality, Denmark from 1991 to 2009. All victims of physical interpersonal violence with weapon-related injuries treated at the Emergency Department in the 1991-2009 period at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, and/or subjected to medico-legal autopsy at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in the 1991-2009 period at the University of Southern Denmark were included. Incidence rates were estimated following stratification by gender and age. The development in the incident rates was examined. Overall, 2,957 victims were included. The overall incidence rate was 8.5 per 10,000 population/year (14.6 and 2.7 for males and females, respectively). The rates did not change significantly in the study period. Most victims were injured with bottles/glass and blunt weapons (44.8% versus 28.2%), whereas 24% were injured with sharp weapons and 3% with firearms. Most lesions were sustained to the head/neck (56.1%) and to the upper limbs (26.2%). A total of 182 (6.1%) victims had lesions that were considered severe. The mortality rate was 4.8 per 1,000 victims in males and 29.1 per 1,000 victims in females. More than half (57%) of the homicides were caused by lesions due to sharp weapons. Weapon-related injuries are rare in the Odense Municipality. The incidence rate of weapon-related violence did not increase in the study period. Additionally, no evidence of an increased proportion of severe injuries was found. Women had a seven-fold higher mortality than males. none. not relevant.

  18. Vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus during pregnancy and delivery in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Weis, Nina; Cowan, Susan; Hallager, Sofie; Dröse, Sandra; Kristensen, Lena Hagelskjær; Grønbæk, Karin; Jensen, Janne; Gerstoft, Jan; Madsen, Lone G; Clausen, Mette Rye; Lunding, Suzanne; Tarp, Britta D; Barfod, Toke S; Sloth, Stine; Holm, Dorte Kinggaard; Jensen, Jesper; Krarup, Henrik

    2017-02-01

    In Denmark, pregnant women have been screened for hepatitis B virus (HBV) since 2005, and children born to HBV-infected mothers offered hepatitis B immunoglobulin at birth, vaccination against HBV at birth and after 1, 2 and 12 months. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of vertical HBV transmission in children born to mothers with chronic HBV infection, to investigate the antibody response in the children and to investigate possible maternal predictive risk factors for HBV transmission. Through the Danish Database for Hepatitis B and C, we identified 589 HBV-infected women who had given birth to 686 children, of whom 370 children were born to 322 women referred to hospital. 132 (36%) children, born to 109 mothers, were included in the study; 128 children had blood samples tested for HBsAg, anti-HBc (total), anti-HBs and HBV-DNA and four children had saliva samples tested for anti-HBc. We found vertical HBV transmission in Denmark to be 2.3% [95% CI: 0.5, 6.5], a high proportion of HBsAg-negative children with low levels of anti-HBs (18.4%) and a high proportion (15.2%) with resolved HBV infection. No maternal risk factor was statistically significantly associated with HBV vertical transmission. In a HBV low prevalence setting as Denmark, despite a national vaccination program, vertical HBV transmission occurred in 2.3% of children born to HBV-infected mothers. In addition, a high proportion of the children had insufficient anti-HBs levels and a high proportion had serological signs of resolved HBV infection.

  19. Ground truth and detection threshold from WWII naval clean-up in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Tine B.; Dahl-Jensen, Trine; Voss, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The sea bed below the Danish territorial waters is still littered with unexploded mines and other ammunition from World War II. The mines were air dropped by the RAF and the positions of the mines are unknown. As the mines still pose a potential threat to fishery and other marine activities, the Admiral Danish Fleet under the Danish Navy searches for the mines and destroy them by detonation, where they are found. The largest mines destroyed in this manner in 2012 are equivalent to 800 kg TNT each. The Seismological Service at the National Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland is notified by the navy when ammunition in excess of 100 kg TNT is detonated. The notifications include information about position, detonation time and the estimated amount of explosives. The larger explosions are clearly registered not only on the Danish seismographs, but also on seismographs in the neighbouring countries. This includes the large seismograph arrays in Norway, Sweden, and Finland. Until recently the information from the Danish navy was only utilized to rid the Danish earthquake catalogue of explosions. But the high quality information provided by the navy enables us to use these ground truth events to assess the quality of our earthquake catalogue. The mines are scattered though out the Danish territorial waters, thus we can use the explosions to test the accuracy of the determined epicentres in all parts of the country. E.g. a detonation of 135 kg in Begstrup Vig in the central part of Denmark was located using Danish, Norwegian and Swedish stations with an accuracy of less than 2 km from ground truth. A systematic study of the explosions will sharpen our understanding of the seismicity in Denmark, and result in a more detailed understanding of the detection threshold. Furthermore the study will shed light on the sensitivity of the network to various seismograph outages.

  20. Changing reference intervals for haemoglobin in Denmark: Clinical and financial aspects.

    PubMed

    Ryberg-Nørholt, Judith; Frederiksen, Henrik; Nybo, Mads

    2017-10-15

    Based on international experiences and altering demography the reference intervals (RI) for haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations in blood were changed in Denmark in 2013 from 113 - 161 g/L to 117 - 153 g/L for women and from 129 - 177 g/L to 134 - 170 g/L for men. The aim of this study was to determine the derived change in prevalence of anaemia and the change in yearly health care costs of diagnostic investigations associated with the expected, as we hypothesized, increased prevalence and health care costs. Data from 96,314 non-hospitalised patients (55,341 females and 40,973 males, aged 18 - 105 years) from general practitioners and community specialists of Funen, Denmark, were extracted from the laboratory information system. The prevalence of anaemia according to the new and the old RI were investigated, and additional costs were calculated based on estimated additional blood analyses and nationally recommended endoscopic procedures. Changing the Hb RI increased the number of anaemic patients by 52% (3450 patients) over a two-year period. With new RI the proportion of anaemic elderly above 80 years was 20.5% for females and 43.9% for males. Annual costs of derived additional assessments due to the altered RI were estimated to be 5.7 million €, which equals the cost of 1214 knee replacement surgeries in Denmark. Changing the Hb RI has been expensive, despite the fact that no outcome studies have justified the alteration. The methodological approach for establishing new RI, here particularly for Hb, should be thoroughly considered. In general, physicians should use RI with caution.

  1. Handgrip strength and its prognostic value for mortality in Moscow, Denmark, and England

    PubMed Central

    Demakakos, Panayotes; Shkolnikova, Maria; Thinggaard, Mikael; Vaupel, James W.; Christensen, Kaare; Shkolnikov, Vladimir M.

    2017-01-01

    Background This study compares handgrip strength and its association with mortality across studies conducted in Moscow, Denmark, and England. Materials The data collected by the Study of Stress, Aging, and Health in Russia, the Study of Middle-Aged Danish Twins and the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins, and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing was utilized. Results Among the male participants, the age-standardized grip strength was 2 kg and 1 kg lower in Russia than in Denmark and in England, respectively. The age-standardized grip strength among the female participants was 1.9 kg and 1.6 kg lower in Russia than in Denmark and in England, respectively. In Moscow, a one-kilogram increase in grip strength was associated with a 4% (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94, 0.99) reduction in mortality among men and a 10% (HR = 0.90, 95%CI: 0.86, 0.94) among women. Meanwhile, a one-kilogram increase in grip strength was associated with a 6% (HR = 0.94, 95%CI: 0.93, 0.95) and an 8% (HR = 0.92, 95%CI: 0.90, 0.94) decrease in mortality among Danish men and women, respectively, and with a 2% (HR = 0.98, 95%CI: 0.97, 0.99) and a 3% (HR = 0.97, 95%CI: 0.95, 0.98) reduction in mortality among the English men and women, respectively. Conclusion The study suggests that, although absolute grip strength values appear to vary across the Muscovite, Danish, and English samples, the degree to which grip strength is predictive of mortality is comparable across national populations with diverse socioeconomic and health profiles and life expectancy levels. PMID:28863174

  2. Ovarian and tubal cancer in Denmark: an update on incidence and survival.

    PubMed

    Gottschau, Mathilde; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Hannibal, Charlotte G; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2016-10-01

    The Nordic countries are areas with a high-incidence of ovarian cancer; however, differences between the countries exist. We used the Danish Cancer Registry to identify 11 264 cases of ovarian cancer and 363 cases of tubal cancer during 1993-2013. We calculated age-standardized (world standard population) incidence rates for overall and subtype-specific ovarian cancer, and for tubal cancer. We compared age-standardized incidence rates, and 1- and 5-year age-standardized relative survival rates, respectively, for ovarian and tubal cancer combined in four Nordic countries using the NORDCAN database. The incidence rate of ovarian cancer overall in Denmark decreased statistically significantly by approximately 2.3% per year among women aged <70 years, whereas no change was seen among women aged 70+ years. In the <70-year age-group, the incidence of serous tumors was fairly steady, whereas that of other and unspecified epithelial tumors decreased significantly by 6.4% per year. The incidence of tubal cancer was quite stable. In Norway and Finland, the incidence rates of ovarian and tubal cancer combined decreased from 1993 to 2013 in women aged <70 years, whereas in Sweden the incidence rates decreased independently of age. The 1- and 5-year relative survival rates of ovarian and tubal cancer combined increased during the study period in all the Nordic countries. Denmark had the lowest survival; however, the survival rates approached those of the other countries in recent years. In Denmark, the positive development in ovarian cancer has continued during recent years with a lower incidence and an increased survival. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Oxytocin use during Caesarean sections in Denmark - are we getting the dose right?

    PubMed

    Kjaer, B N; Krøigaard, M; Garvey, L H

    2016-01-01

    In Denmark, an iv bolus of 10 IU oxytocin was traditionally given after delivery to prevent atony during caesarean sections. Randomized controlled trials have shown that lower iv bolus doses have same efficacy with fewer side effects and many countries now recommend a 5 IU maximum dose. The aims of this study were to investigate whether patients referred for allergy testing after oxytocin exposure had dose-related side effects to oxytocin rather than true allergic reactions and to investigate whether updated international recommendations on lower bolus doses had been implemented in practice. Medical notes of patients tested with oxytocin as part of investigations in the Danish Anaesthesia Allergy Centre from May 2004 to January 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. A telephone survey of on-duty obstetricians at all Danish obstetric departments was performed and most recent online recommendations from the Danish societies of obstetrics and anaesthesia about the use of oxytocin were identified. In total 30 women were tested with oxytocin as part of investigations. None were allergic to oxytocin but 19 had symptoms consistent with dose-related side effects on iv provocation. The telephone survey revealed that iv doses of 10 IU oxytocin were still used and recommendations on the websites were not updated. Too high oxytocin doses are still used in Denmark leading to dose-related side effects mimicking allergic reactions. Coordination between obstetricians and anaesthesiologists on producing common updated guidelines on the administration of oxytocin and dissemination of this information to obstetric and anaesthetic departments in Denmark is needed. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. On the origin and propagation of Denmark Strait Overflow Water Anomalies in the Irminger Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochumsen, Kerstin; Quadfasel, Detlef; Köllner, Manuela; Dye, Stephen; Rudels, Bert; Valdimarsson, Hedinn

    2015-04-01

    Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW) supplies the densest contribution to North Atlantic Deep Water and is monitored at several locations in the subpolar North Atlantic. We present an analysis of observed hydrographic (temperature and salinity) and velocity time series from three multiple-mooring arrays to quantify the variability and to track anomalies of DSOW: (1) at the Denmark Strait sill, (2) at 180 km downstream (south of Dohrn Bank) and (3) at a further 320 km downstream on the east Greenland continental slope near Tasiilaq (formerly Angmagssalik). The aim of the combined arrays is to cover the overflow plume and its modifications due to its descent and mixing with ambient waters from the sill of Denmark Strait to approx. 2000 m depth in the northern Irminger Basin. Eddy variability dominates the high frequency variations in all DSOW records. Variability on time scales from interannual to weekly is present at all moorings, but no long term trends are detected in the time series. The seasonal cycle is of no importance for the properties measured at the sill, but its significance increases with downstream distance. A low pass filter (cut-off at 20 days) is applied to the time series in order to remove synoptic scale variations: single eddies are likely not traceable and probably merge with each other or fade along the descending pathway of the DSOW plume. The hydrographic time series from different moorings within each mooring array show coherent signals, while the velocity fluctuations are only weakly correlated. Lagged correlations of anomalies between the arrays reveal propagation from the sill of Denmark Strait to the Angmagssalik array in potential temperature with an average propagation time of 16 days. Despite a difference of 1.5°C between the mean temperatures at both arrays, which are about 500 km away from each other, temperature anomalies can be traced along the DSOW pathway. In contrast, the correlations in salinity are low and only significant

  5. Formation of Denmark strait overflow water by mixing in the East Greenland Current

    SciTech Connect

    Strass, V.H.; Fahrbach, E.; Schauer, U.; Sellmann, L. )

    1993-04-15

    The Greenland, Iceland, and Norwegian seas are major sources of water feeding the North Atlantic Deep Water in the worlds present ocean circulation. The authors report on data collected in 1987 through 1989 which indicate that a mass of water with characteristics of the Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW) is formed in the East Greenland Current. The DSOW has been observed to have a residence time of 3 to 4 years at the surface before spilling southward. This provides a very fast transfer of surface water with atmospheric signatures into the deep ocean. They offer explanations for the formation of this water mass.

  6. Regional analysis of groundwater nitrate concentrations and trends in Denmark in regard to agricultural influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, B.; Dalgaard, T.; Thorling, L.; Sørensen, B.; Erlandsen, M.

    2012-08-01

    The act of balancing between an intensive agriculture with a high potential for nitrate pollution and a drinking water supply almost entirely based on groundwater is a challenge faced by Denmark and similar regions around the globe. Since the 1980s, regulations implemented by Danish farmers have succeeded in optimizing the N (nitrogen) management at farm level. As a result, the upward agricultural N surplus trend has been reversed, and the N surplus has reduced by 30-55% from 1980 to 2007 depending on region. The reduction in the N surplus served to reduce the losses of N from agriculture, with documented positive effects on nature and the environment in Denmark. In groundwater, the upward trend in nitrate concentrations was reversed around 1980, and a larger number of downward nitrate trends were seen in the youngest groundwater compared with the oldest groundwater. However, on average, approximately 48% of the oxic monitored groundwater has nitrate concentrations above the groundwater and drinking water standards of 50 mg l-1. Furthermore, trend analyses show that 33% of all the monitored groundwater has upward nitrate trends, while only 18% of the youngest groundwater has upward nitrate trends according to data sampled from 1988-2009. A regional analysis shows a correlation between a high level of N surplus in agriculture, high concentrations of nitrate in groundwater and the largest number of downward nitrate trends in groundwater in the livestock-dense northern and western parts of Denmark compared with the southeastern regions with lower livestock densities. These results indicate that the livestock farms dominating in northern and western parts of Denmark have achieved the largest reductions in N surpluses. Groundwater recharge age determinations allow comparison of long-term changes in N surplus in agriculture with changes in oxic groundwater quality. The presented data analysis is based on groundwater recharged from 1952-2003, but sampled from 1988

  7. Regional analysis of groundwater nitrate concentrations and trends in Denmark in regard to agricultural influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, B.; Dalgaard, T.; Thorling, L.; Sørensen, B.; Erlandsen, M.

    2012-05-01

    The act of balancing between an intensive agriculture with a high potential for nitrate pollution and a~drinking water supply almost entirely based on groundwater is a challenge faced by Denmark and similar regions around the globe. Since the 1980s, regulations implemented by Danish farmers have succeeded in optimizing the N (nitrogen) management at farm level. As a result, the upward agricultural N surplus trend has been reversed, and the N surplus has reduced by 30-55 % from 1980 to 2007 depending on region. The reduction in the N surplus served to reduce the losses of N from agriculture, with documented positive effects on nature and the environment in Denmark. In groundwater, the upward trend in nitrate concentration was reversed around 1980, and a larger number of downward nitrate trends were seen in the youngest groundwater compared with the oldest groundwater. However, on average, approximately 48 % of the oxic monitored groundwater has nitrate concentrations above the groundwater and drinking water standards of 50 mg l-1. Furthermore, trend analyses show that 33 % of all the monitored groundwater has upward nitrate trends, while only 18 % of the youngest groundwater has upward nitrate trends according to data sampled from 1988-2009. A regional analysis shows a correlation between a high level of N surplus in agriculture, high concentrations of nitrate in groundwater and the largest number of downward nitrate trends in groundwater in the livestock-dense northern and western parts of Denmark compared with the south-eastern regions with lower livestock densities. These results indicate that the livestock farms dominating in northern and western parts of Denmark have achieved the largest reductions in N surpluses. Groundwater recharge age determinations allow comparison of long-term changes in N surplus in agriculture with changes in oxic groundwater quality. The presented data analysis is based on groundwater recharged from 1952-2003, but sampled from 1988

  8. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Son of an Organic Chemist of Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisbois, Ronald G.

    2004-04-01

    Once faced with structure reactivity relationships in the context of nucleophilic substitution at sp 3 carbon, introductory organic chemistry students must compare and contrast the various attributes and ramifications of S N 2 versus S N 1 reaction pathways. The dramatic (even melodramatic) way in which some students ask such comparative questions inspired a parody of Hamlet's famous to be or not to be soliloquy. Herein, Hamlet (the son of an organic chemist of Denmark) is the surrogate of any and every student as he uses a thoroughly Shakespearian approach to sorting out some of the key distinguishing features of S N 2 versus S N 1 reactions.

  9. [A scintillating specialty. Excerpts from the history of nuclear medicine in Denmark].

    PubMed

    Hess, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is among the youngest medical specialties but its history spans more than a century. From the earliest discoveries of radioactivity and the establishment of the novel field of nuclear physics at the turn of the twentieth century and via the developments in radiochemistry set in motion by George de Hevesy from his base in Copenhagen to the specialty of today offering a multitude of diagnostic procedures. The present work is not intended to cover the entire history of nuclear medicine exhaustively but focus on pivotal events in the development of the field with special reference to Denmark.

  10. Suicide by carbon monoxide from car exhaust-gas in Denmark 1995-1999.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Asser H; Gregersen, Markil

    2006-08-10

    In the period 1995-1999 there were 388 car exhaust-gas suicides in Denmark. Of these 343 (88.4%) were men and 45 (11.6%) were women, the average age being 47 years. The car exhaust-gas suicides made up 9.3% of all suicides in Denmark in the period. The corresponding rate was 11.7% for men and 3.7% for women. In rural areas a larger part of all suicides were committed with car exhaust-gas compared to the more densely populated areas. Mental disease was diagnosed in 124 (32.0%) cases. A suicide note was found in 165 (42.5%) cases. A hose was fitted to the exhaust pipe in 334 (86.1%) cases. Of these the 234 (60.3%) occurred outside, typically in a forest area, while 76 (19.6%) occurred in a closed garage. All the 54 (13.9%) cases with no hose fitted to the exhaust pipe occurred in a garage. Seven (1.8%) victims were found in a burning or burnt-out car, where the following investigation revealed that it was actually a car exhaust-gas suicide. Carboxyhemoglobin was measured in 26 (6.7%) victims. In two of these victims no carboxyhemoglobin was found, as they had survived for some time after the poisoning. The average saturation of the remaining victims was 67%, the lowest saturation being 20% and the highest being 84%. In the period 1969-1987 the number of car exhaust-gas suicides in Denmark increased from 50 to approximately 190 per year and the rate of car exhaust-gas suicides compared to all suicides increased from approximately 5% to approximately 13%. In 1987-1999 these figures decreased from approximately 190 to 63 per year and from 13% to approximately 8%. During these 30 years the number of passenger cars in Denmark doubled, which explains the increase in car exhaust-gas suicides during 1969-1987. A possible explanation for the decrease in 1987-1999 is the introduction of the catalytic converter, which was made mandatory in 1990. We anticipate that car exhaust-gas suicides will continue to decrease in numbers, as more cars are equipped with catalytic converters.

  11. Outbreaks of shigellosis in Denmark and Australia associated with imported baby corn, August 2007--final summary.

    PubMed

    Lewis, H C; Kirk, M; Ethelberg, S; Stafford, R; Olsen, Kep; Nielsen, E M; Lisby, M; Madsen, S B; Mølbak, K

    2007-10-04

    The recently reported concurrent outbreaks of Shigella sonnei infections in Denmark and Australia have been found to be linked to a common baby corn packing house in Thailand via trace-back of the distribution chain. Distribution records indicated that three additional countries received affected product from the implicated Thai packing house during the period of potential contamination. These countries were notified through the World Health Organization's International Food Safety Authorities Network (INFOSAN). Associated cases of S. sonnei have not been reported in these three countries.

  12. Rapid spread of Schmallenberg virus-infected biting midges (Culicoides spp.) across Denmark in 2012.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, L D; Kirkeby, C; Bødker, R; Kristensen, B; Rasmussen, T B; Belsham, G J; Bøtner, A

    2014-02-01

    Detection of Schmallenberg virus RNA, using real-time RT-PCR, in biting midges (Culicoides spp.) caught at 48 locations in 2011 and four well-separated farms during 2012 in Denmark, revealed a remarkably rapid spread of virus-infected midges across the country. During 2012, some 213 pools of obsoletus group midges (10 specimens per pool) were examined, and of these, 35 of the 174 parous pools were Schmallenberg virus RNA positive and 11 of them were positive in the heads. Culicoides species-specific PCRs identified both C. obsoletus and C. dewulfi as vectors of Schmallenberg virus.

  13. Shifts in opioid substitution treatment policy in Denmark from 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Frank, Vibeke Asmussen; Bjerge, Bagga; Houborg, Esben

    2013-08-01

    This article discusses how opioid substitution treatment policy has developed from 2000 to 2011 in Denmark. Empirically, it takes its point of departure in a stakeholder analysis including 17 qualitative interviews with stakeholders who have played important roles in this field. Analytically, it is inspired by Kingdon's concepts of agenda and policy window. Three major shifts are identified: a shift from psychosocial to medical thinking and practice, from an abstinence driven ideology to health care, and from perceptions of passive clients to user involvement. These shifts are discussed in relation to the legal context of substitute prescribing medicine.

  14. Comparing the effect of non-medical mechanical restraint preventive factors between psychiatric units in Denmark and Norway.

    PubMed

    Bak, Jesper; Zoffmann, Vibeke; Sestoft, Dorte Maria; Almvik, Roger; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Brandt-Christensen, Mette

    2015-08-01

    The use of mechanical restraint (MR) is controversial, and large differences regarding the use of MR are often found among countries. In an earlier study, we observed that MR was used twice as frequently in Denmark than Norway. To examine how presumed MR preventive factors of non-medical origin may explain the differing number of MR episodes between Denmark and Norway. This study is a cross-sectional survey of psychiatric units. Linear regression was used to assess the confounding effects of the MR preventive factors, i.e. whether a difference in the impact of these factors is evident between Denmark and Norway. Six MR preventive factors confounded [∆exp(B)> 10%] the difference in MR use between Denmark and Norway, including staff education (- 51%), substitute staff (- 17%), acceptable work environment (- 15%), separation of acutely disturbed patients (13%), patient-staff ratio (- 11%), and the identification of the patient's crisis triggers (- 10%). These six MR preventive factors might partially explain the difference in the frequency of MR episodes observed in the two countries, i.e. higher numbers in Denmark than Norway. One MR preventive factor was not supported by earlier research, the identification of the patient's crisis triggers; therefore, more research on the mechanisms involved is needed. None of the six MR preventive factors presents any adverse effects; therefore, units in Denmark and Norway may consider investigating the effect of implementing, the identification of the patient's crisis triggers, an increased number of staff per patient, increased staff education, a better work environment and reduced use of substitute staff in practice.

  15. Burn injury during long-term oxygen therapy in Denmark and Sweden: the potential role of smoking

    PubMed Central

    Tanash, Hanan A; Ringbaek, Thomas; Huss, Fredrik; Ekström, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Background Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) increases life expectancy in patients with COPD and severe hypoxemia. Smoking is the main cause of burn injury during LTOT. Policy regarding smoking while on LTOT varies between countries. In this study, we compare the incidence of burn injury that required contact with a health care specialist, between Sweden (a country with a strict policy regarding smoking while on LTOT) and Denmark (a country with less strict smoking policy). Methods This was a population-based, cohort study of patients initiating LTOT due to any cause in Sweden and Denmark. Data on diagnoses, external causes, and procedures were obtained from the Swedish and Danish National Patient Registers for inpatient and outpatient care. Patients were followed from January 1, 2000, until the first of the following: LTOT withdrawal, death, or study end (December 31, 2009). The primary end point was burn injury during LTOT. Results A total of 23,741 patients received LTOT in Denmark and 7,754 patients in Sweden. Most patients started LTOT due to COPD, both in Sweden (74%) and in Denmark (62%). The rate of burn injury while on LTOT was higher in Denmark than in Sweden; 170 (95% confidence interval [CI], 126–225) vs 85 (95% CI, 44–148) per 100,000 person-years; rate ratio 2.0 (95% CI, 1.0–4.1). The risk remained higher after adjustment for gender, age, and diagnosis in multivariate Cox regression, hazard ratio 1.8 (95% CI, 1.0−3.5). Thirty-day mortality after burn injury was 8% in both countries. Conclusion Compared to Sweden, the rate of burn injury was twice as high in Denmark where smoking is not a contraindication for prescribing LTOT. PMID:28123292

  16. Should we bother with second-hand smoke exposure if smoking is on track? A poorly explored discrepancy in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Ádám, Balázs

    2014-08-01

    The recognition of the serious health-damaging effects of tobacco smoke exposure has initiated several preventive programmes on the national and international levels worldwide. In the last decade, a considerable decrease in the prevalence of active smoking was observed in Denmark, changing the country from a poor to a favourable position in comparison to other EU countries. However, second-hand tobacco smoke exposure, especially in homes, still ranks Denmark among the problematic countries in Europe. This poorly recognised and studied discrepancy calls for further research and effective targeted interventions on population level. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  17. Neighbourhoods matter too: the association between neighbourhood socioeconomic position, population density and breast, prostate and lung cancer incidence in Denmark between 2004 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Mathias; Bloomfield, Kim; Engholm, Gerda

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that cancer incidence is related to a number of individual factors, including socioeconomic status. The aim of this study was to refine the current knowledge about indicators associated with cancer incidence by evaluating the influence of neighbourhood characteristics on breast, prostate and lung cancer incidence in Denmark. All women aged 30-83 years were followed for breast cancer between 2004 and 2008, men between 50 and 83 years were followed for prostate cancer and both sexes between ages 50 and 83 were followed for lung cancer. Registry data obtained from Statistics Denmark included age, sex, availability of breast cancer screening, marital status, education, disposable income and occupational socioeconomic status on the individual level and population density and neighbourhood socioeconomic status (the proportion of unemployed) on the parish level. Frailty modelling with individuals on the first level and parishes on the second level was conducted. A significantly lower HR of breast cancer was found in areas with low population density (HR=0.93; CI 0.88 to 0.99), while neighbourhood unemployment had no effect. Inhabitants of lower unemployment areas had a higher risk of prostate cancer (HR=1.14; CI 1.08 to 1.21) compared with those in higher unemployment areas, whereas population density had no effect. Risk of lung cancer was lower in areas with lowest population density (HR=0.80; CI 0.74 to 0.85) and lowest in areas with lowest unemployment (HR=0.88; CI 0.84 to 0.92). In addition to individual-level factors, characteristics on the neighbourhood level also have an influence on breast, prostate and lung cancer incidence.

  18. A 'civic turn' in Scandinavian family migration policies? Comparing Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bech, Emily Cochran; Borevi, Karin; Mouritsen, Per

    2017-01-01

    Family migration policy, once basing citizens and resident foreigners' possibilities to bring in foreign family members mainly on the right to family life, is increasingly a tool states use to limit immigration and to push newcomers to integrate into civic and economic life. The family migration policies of Denmark, Norway and Sweden range widely - from more minimal support and age requirements to high expectations of language skills, work records and even income levels. While in Denmark and increasingly in Norway growing sets of requirements have been justified on the need to protect the welfare state and a Nordic liberal way of life, in Sweden more minimal requirements have been introduced in the name of spurring immigrants' labor market integration even as rights-based reasoning has continued to dominate. In all three countries, new restrictions have been introduced in the wake of the refugee crisis. These cases show how prioritizations of the right to family life vis-à-vis welfare-state sustainability have produced different rules for family entry, and how family migration policies are used to different extents to push civic integration of both new and already settled immigrants.

  19. Series of Norovirus Outbreaks Caused by Consumption of Green Coral Lettuce, Denmark, April 2016

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Luise; Rasmussen, Lasse Dam; Jensen, Tenna; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Kjelsø, Charlotte; Barnadas, Celine; Sigsgaard, Kim; Larsen, Anne Ribert; Widstrup Jensen, Carl; Jeppesen, Simon; Uhrbrand, Katrine; Hove, Nikolas; Mølbak, Kåre; Ethelberg, Steen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In early April 2016, an unusual high number of point-source outbreaks of gastrointestinal disease were reported to occur in Denmark. Methods: Outbreaks were individually investigated. Two analytical studies were performed. Patient stool samples collected and analysed; positive stool samples were sequenced over the polymerase and/or capsid gene areas. Implicated lettuce heads were collected and analysed for the presence of norovirus. Foods were traced-back and traced-forward and international alert systems applied. Results: A total of 23 linked point-source outbreaks occurred over the course of one week. Fresh green coral lettuce (Lollo Bionda lettuce) had been consumed in all settings. In a cohort study including 234 participants a dish containing green lettuce was associated with illness. Norovirus of Genogroup I (GI) was detected in samples from 28 patients comprising eight of the outbreaks. Sequencing showed GI.P2-GI.2. GI norovirus was detected in one of 20 examined lettuce heads. All lettuce consumed was supplied by the same packer who in turn had bought the lettuce from a wholesaler in France. The two lots of lettuce came from two different growers in different parts of France. Discussion: Green coral lettuce produced in France was found to have caused a large series of linked norovirus outbreaks in Denmark as established by a number of lines of evidence. A similar incidence occurred in 2010. Fresh lettuce increasingly appear to be a risk food for norovirus infections. PMID:27803839

  20. Seasonal influence on the prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter in retail broiler meat in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Boysen, Louise; Vigre, Håkan; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2011-08-01

    In Denmark, the incidence of human campylobacteriosis cases, as well as the Campylobacter prevalence in broiler flocks, is strongly influenced by season with a summer peak in July-August. Therefore, it was considered that the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler meat sold at retail in Denmark might also be influenced by season. A retrospective survey analysis was performed on 2001-2007 national surveillance data of the prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter in all conventional broiler flocks at slaughter, and in randomly sampled broiler meat at retail. There was a significant effect of season on the occurrence of Campylobacter in meat at retail; the largest effect was found for domestic chilled meat. Thus, the Campylobacter prevalence in Danish broiler flocks, which fluctuated with season, was found to be a strong predictor for the occurrence of Campylobacter in fresh, chilled, Danish broiler meat. However, besides flock prevalence, there was also a direct effect of season on the occurrence of Campylobacter in Danish broiler meat at retail. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Breast cancer incidence after the start of mammography screening in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, A H; Jensen, A; Njor, S H; Villadsen, E; Schwartz, W; Vejborg, I; Lynge, E

    2003-01-01

    Mammography screening may lead to overdiagnosis of asymptomatic breast cancers, that would otherwise not have given rise to clinical symptoms. This aspect was studied in three regional screening programmes in Denmark, which started in Copenhagen municipality, Fyn county, and Frederiksberg municipality in 1991, 1993, and 1994, respectively. In these regions, we compared time trends in incidence of invasive breast cancer with the rest of Denmark. Since the number of clinical mammograms was relatively low, it was reasonable to assume that the breast cancer incidence outside the three screening regions represented the incidence of a population with low-intensity opportunistic screening. In Copenhagen and Fyn, a prevalence peak in incidence was seen during the first invitation round. During the subsequent invitation rounds, the incidence dropped to a level in line with the incidence expected without screening. The pattern was different in the small municipality of Frederiksberg, where the sensitivity was low during the first invitation round. Inclusion of screen-detected ductal carcinoma in situ cases did not change these results. The experiences from Copenhagen and Fyn show that organised mammography screening can operate without overdiagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:12569377

  2. Genetically distinct isolates of Spirocerca sp. from a naturally infected red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Denmark.

    PubMed

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Hansen, Mette Sif; Chriél, Mariann; Holm, Elisabeth; Larsen, Gitte; Enemark, Heidi Larsen

    2014-09-15

    Spirocerca lupi causes formation of nodules that may transform into sarcoma in the walls of aorta, esophagus and stomach of infected canids. In February 2013, post mortem examination of a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) hunted in Denmark revealed the presence of several nodules containing adult worms of Spirocerca sp. in the stomach and the omentum. The nodules largely consisted of fibrous tissue with infiltration of mononuclear cells, neutrophilic granulocytes and macrophages with hemosiderin deposition. Parasitological examination by three copromicroscopic methods, sedimentation, flotation with saturated sugar-salt solution, and sieving failed to detect eggs of Spirocerca sp. in feces collected from the colon. This is the first report of spirocercosis in Denmark, and may have been caused by a recent introduction by migrating paratenic or definitive host. Analysis of two overlapping partial sequences of the cox1 gene, from individual worms, revealed distinct genetic variation (7-9%) between the Danish worms and isolates of S. lupi from Europe, Asia and Africa. This was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis that clearly separated the Danish worms from other isolates of S. lupi. The distinct genetic differences of the current worms compared to other isolates of S. lupi may suggest the presence of a cryptic species within Spirocerca.

  3. Concentrations of anticoagulant rodenticides in stoats Mustela erminea and weasels Mustela nivalis from Denmark.

    PubMed

    Elmeros, Morten; Christensen, Thomas Kjær; Lassen, Pia

    2011-05-15

    Anticoagulant rodenticides are widely used to control rodent populations but they also pose a risk of secondary poisoning in non-target predators. Studies on anticoagulant rodenticide exposure of non-target species have mainly reported on frequency of occurrence. They have rarely analyzed variations in residue concentrations. We examine the occurrence and concentrations of five anticoagulant rodenticides in liver tissue from 61 stoats (Mustela erminea) and 69 weasels (Mustela nivalis) from Denmark. Anticoagulant rodenticides were detected in 97% of stoats and 95% of weasels. 79% of the animals had detectable levels of more than one substance. Difenacoum had the highest prevalence (82% in stoats and 88% in weasels) but bromadiolone was detected in the highest concentrations in both stoat (1.290 μg/g ww) and weasel (1.610 μg/g ww). Anticoagulant rodenticide concentrations were highest during autumn and winter and varied with sampling method. Anticoagulant rodenticide concentrations were higher in stoats and weasels with unknown cause of death than in specimens killed by physical trauma. There was a negative correlation between anticoagulant rodenticide concentrations and body condition. Our results suggest that chemical rodent control in Denmark results in an extensive exposure of non-target species and may adversely affect the fitness of some stoats and weasels.

  4. Fusobacterium necrophorum findings in Denmark from 2010 to 2014 using data from the Danish microbiology database.

    PubMed

    Bank, Steffen; Jensen, Anders; Nielsen, Hanne Merete; Kristensen, Lena Hagelskjaer; Voldstedlund, Marianne; Prag, Jørgen

    2016-12-01

    Fusobacterium necrophorum findings in Denmark and estimation of the incidence of F. necrophorum bacteraemia was described using data from the nationwide Danish microbiology database (MiBa). All microbiological reports on any Fusobacterium species in Denmark were extracted for a period of 5 years from 2010 to 2014 from MiBa and from the local department of clinical microbiology. The overall incidence of F. necrophorum bacteraemia from 2010 to 2014 was 2.8 cases per million/year vs 9.4 in the age group 15-24 years. F. necrophorum was rare in blood cultures from children and middle-aged patients and then raised again. However, 48 of 232 cases of Fusobacterium bacteraemia were not identified to species level, so the incidences of F. necrophorum bacteraemia may be underestimated in our study. F. necrophorum was found in throat swabs in the age group between 13 and 40 years and in otitis media in children below 2 years in those departments which performed anaerobic culture. The incidence of F. necrophorum bacteraemia found was comparable to earlier reported figures for Lemierre's syndrome. Fusobacterium bacteraemia should always be identified to species level. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Cumulative Risk of Bovine Mastitis Treatments in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Valde, JP; Lawson, LG; Lindberg, A; Agger, JF; Saloniemi, H; Østerås, O

    2004-01-01

    Data from the national dairy cow recording systems during 1997 were used to calculate lactation-specific cumulative risk of mastitis treatments and cumulative risk of removal from the herds in Denmark, Finland Norway and Sweden. Sweden had the lowest risk of recorded mastitis treatments during 305 days of lactation and Norway had the highest risk. The incidence risk of recorded mastitis treatments during 305 days of lactation in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden was 0.177, 0.139, 0.215 and 0.127 for first parity cows and 0.228, 0.215, 0.358 and 0.204 for parities higher than three, respectively. The risk of a first parity cow being treated for mastitis was almost 3 times higher at calving in Norway than in Sweden. The period with the highest risk for mastitis treatments was from 2 days before calving until 14 days after calving and the highest risk for removal was from calving to 10 days after calving in all countries. The study clearly demonstrated differences in bovine mastitis treatment patterns among the Nordic countries. The most important findings were the differences in treatment risks during different lactations within each country, as well as differences in strategies with respect to the time during lactation mastitis was treated. PMID:15663080

  6. Description and validation of a new automated surveillance system for Clostridium difficile in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Chaine, M; Gubbels, S; Voldstedlund, M; Kristensen, B; Nielsen, J; Andersen, L P; Ellermann-Eriksen, S; Engberg, J; Holm, A; Olesen, B; Schønheyder, H C; Østergaard, C; Ethelberg, S; Mølbak, K

    2017-09-01

    The surveillance of Clostridium difficile (CD) in Denmark consists of laboratory based data from Departments of Clinical Microbiology (DCMs) sent to the National Registry of Enteric Pathogens (NREP). We validated a new surveillance system for CD based on the Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa). MiBa automatically collects microbiological test results from all Danish DCMs. We built an algorithm to identify positive test results for CD recorded in MiBa. A CD case was defined as a person with a positive culture for CD or PCR detection of toxin A and/or B and/or binary toxin. We compared CD cases identified through the MiBa-based surveillance with those reported to NREP and locally in five DCMs representing different Danish regions. During 2010-2014, NREP reported 13 896 CD cases, and the MiBa-based surveillance 21 252 CD cases. There was a 99·9% concordance between the local datasets and the MiBa-based surveillance. Surveillance based on MiBa was superior to the current surveillance system, and the findings show that the number of CD cases in Denmark hitherto has been under-reported. There were only minor differences between local data and the MiBa-based surveillance, showing the completeness and validity of CD data in MiBa. This nationwide electronic system can greatly strengthen surveillance and research in various applications.

  7. Mitochondrial Genetic Diversity of Eurasian Red Squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) from Denmark.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Corrie L; Vilstrup, Julia T; Fernández, Ruth; Marchi, Nina; Håkansson, Bo; Krog, Mogens; Asferg, Tommy; Baagøe, Hans; Orlando, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    Melanistic Eurasian red squirrels Sciurus vulgaris are commonly found on the Danish island of Funen. They are thought to represent native Danish squirrel types and are presently under threat from admixture with introduced red squirrels. In response, a conservation program was started in 2009 that involves the translocation of melanistic squirrels from Funen to the squirrel-free island of Langeland. Using mitochondrial DNA of 101 historical and modern samples from throughout Denmark, we assess for the first time population structure and mitochondrial genetic diversity of Danish squirrels compared to its larger pan-Eurasian distribution. We find that Danish squirrels have low levels of genetic diversity, especially melanistic individuals. Bayesian skyline reconstructions show that Danish squirrels have most probably experienced a severe bottleneck within the last 200 years. Also, fine-scale genetic structure was found between squirrels from the regions of Funen, Zealand and Jutland, which mimics the insular geography of Denmark. Additional nuclear DNA analyses will be required to determine the precise admixture levels between original Danish and introduced squirrels and to locate unmixed candidate populations for specific conservation efforts.

  8. [The first set of legislation for doctors in Denmark and its source of inspiration].

    PubMed

    Brix, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    The first set of legislation for doctors in Denmark was conditional on a national need to regulate the conditions of the pharmaceutical and medical professions. By request of the king, this legislation, which came into force in 1672, was made by doctors residing in Denmark. These doctors had all been educated at foreign universities where the existing legislation had Roger II's and Friedrich II's legislation from the 12th and 13th centuries' South Italy as its source of inspiration. Thus, it is reasonable to presume that the doctors who participated in the making of the Danish legislation were familiar with this legislation. A translation into Danish of Roger II's and Friedrich II's sections regarding the work of a doctor has been made in order to be able to compare it with the content of the Danish set of legislation from 1672. The result of this comparison is that there are so many similarities that there can hardly be any doubt about the fact that the medieval legislation has been used as source for the Danish legislation from 1672.

  9. Groundwater monitoring in Denmark: characteristics, perspectives and comparison with other countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, Lisbeth Flindt; Stockmarr, Jens

    2009-06-01

    More than 99% of water use in Denmark is based on groundwater. Denmark has had a comprehensive national groundwater-monitoring programme since 1988 based on 74 well catchment areas and six small agricultural catchments with more than 1,500 screens at different depths for regular, mostly annual, water quality sampling. In addition, water samples from 10,000 abstraction wells are analysed every 3-5 years. The water is analysed for main components, inorganic trace elements, organic micro pollutants, and pesticides and their metabolites. A unique feature is the 20-year time-series data of inorganic pollutants. Groundwater modelling supports traditional monitoring to improve the conceptual geological understanding and to assess the quantitative status and the interaction between groundwater and surface water. The programme has been continuously adjusted to incorporate new knowledge from research programmes and meet new policy demands, currently the European Union Water Framework Directive, particularly with respect to an increased focus on quantitative aspects and on the groundwater/surface water interaction. The strengths and weaknesses of the Danish programme are assessed and compared with other national groundwater-monitoring programmes. Issues discussed include: strategic considerations for monitoring design, the link between research and monitoring, and adoption of responses to climate changes.

  10. First report of Eucoleus boehmi in red foxes (Vulpis vulpis) in Denmark, based on coprological examination.

    PubMed

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2013-12-01

    Red foxes can be infected with diverse range of parasite species that can be transmitted to humans and pet animals, and the differential diagnosis is essential for veterinary and zoonotic risk assessment. In the present study, faecal flotation and microscopy of parasite eggs was done on 31 foxes originating from two distant localities in Denmark, the city of Copenhagen in the north east part of the island Zealand and from the southern part of the peninsular Jutland. In total, eggs of Eucoleus boehmi were recovered from a surprisingly high number of foxes (n = 22 samples; 71%). The findings represent the first observations of E. boehmi in Denmark, which is likely an overlooked infection of the upper respiratory tract of red foxes, which can be also found in other canids. Several morphological features of the eggs of E. boehmi can be used to distinguish it from other the closely related trichuroid eggs. Detecting cardiopulmonary parasites by faecal examination can be indicative of the presence of cardiopulmonary parasites based on the more sensitive post mortem analysis.

  11. Mesoscale mixing of the Denmark Strait Overflow in the Irminger Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koszalka, Inga M.; Haine, Thomas W. N.; Magaldi, Marcello G.

    2017-04-01

    The Denmark Strait Overflow (DSO) is a major export route for dense waters from the Nordic Seas forming the lower limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, an important element of the climate system. Mixing processes along the DSO pathway influence its volume transport and properties contributing to the variability of the deep overturning circulation. They are poorly sampled by observations, however, which hinders development of a proper DSO representation in global circulation models. We employ a high resolution regional ocean model of the Irminger Basin to quantify impact of the mesoscale flows on DSO mixing focusing on geographical localization and the time-modulation of water property changes. The model reproduces the observed bulk warming of the DSO plume 100-200 km downstream of the Denmark Strait sill. It also reveals that mesoscale variability of the overflow ('DSO-eddies', of 20-30 km extent and a time scale of 2-5 day) modulates water property changes and turbulent mixing, diagnosed with the vertical shear of horizontal velocity and the eddy heat flux divergence. The space-time localization of the DSO mixing and warming and the role of coherent mesoscale structures should be explored by turbulence measurements and factored into the coarse circulation models.

  12. The association between relationship markers of sexual orientation and suicide: Denmark, 1990-2001.

    PubMed

    Mathy, Robin M; Cochran, Susan D; Olsen, Jorn; Mays, Vickie M

    2011-02-01

    Minority sexual orientation has been repeatedly linked to elevated rates of suicide attempts. Whether this translates into greater risk for suicide mortality is unclear. We investigated sexual orientation-related differences in suicide mortality in Denmark during the initial 12-year period following legalization of same-sex registered domestic partnerships (RDPs). Using data from death certificates issued between 1990 and 2001 and population estimates from the Danish census, we estimated suicide mortality risk among individuals classified into one of three marital/cohabitation statuses: current/formerly in same-sex RDPs; current/formerly heterosexually married; or never married/registered. Risk for suicide mortality was associated with this proxy indicator of sexual orientation, but only significantly among men. The estimated age-adjusted suicide mortality risk for RDP men was nearly eight times greater than for men with positive histories of heterosexual marriage and nearly twice as high for men who had never married. Suicide risk appears greatly elevated for men in same-sex partnerships in Denmark. To what extent this is true for similar gay and bisexual men who are not in such relationships is unknown, but these findings call for targeted suicide prevention programs aimed at reducing suicide risk among gay and bisexual men.

  13. Governing Health Care through Free Choice: Neoliberal Reforms in Denmark and the United States.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Lars Thorup; Stone, Deborah

    2015-10-01

    We compare free choice reforms in Denmark and the United States to understand what ideas and political forces could generate such similar policy reforms in radically different political contexts. We analyze the two cases using our own interpretation of neoliberalism as having "two faces." The first face seeks to expand private markets and shrink the public sector; the second face seeks to strengthen the public sector's capacity to govern through incentives and competition. First, we show why these two most-different cases offer a useful comparison to understand similar policy tools. Second, we develop our theoretical framework of the two faces of neoliberalism. Third, we examine Denmark's introduction of a free choice of hospitals in 2002, a policy that for the first time allowed some patients to receive care either in a public hospital outside their local area or in a private hospital. Fourth, we examine the introduction of free choice among private managed care plans into the US Medicare program in 1997. We show how policy makers in both countries used neoliberal reform as a mechanism to make their public health care sectors governable. Fifth, on the basis of our analysis, we draw five lessons about neoliberal policy reforms.

  14. [Extrapulmonary tuberculosis in Denmark. A review of the incidence, localization and therapy].

    PubMed

    Kok-Jensen, A; Viskum, K

    1994-09-12

    In Denmark, just under 20% of tuberculosis (TB) cases amongst Danes and 25-30% of cases amongst people of foreign nationalities are made up of isolated extrapulmonary (EP) TB. The incidence among Danes is falling, whereas an increasing amount of EP TB cases are found among foreigners due to continued immigration, and these now constitute 50% of all cases of EP TB. EP TB is found among older Danes and younger foreigners. The HIV/AIDS epidemic has not had any effect on the incidence of TB and EP TB in Denmark. EP TB is most frequently found in lymph nodes and the urogenital system. Since the disease is rare, it may be overlooked; it should be considered as a differential diagnosis in unresolved cases, particularly in immigrants from countries with a high prevalence of TB. Treatment is as for pulmonary TB, namely "four drug" therapy for six months. Surgical intervention is rarely required. Supplementation with oral steroids may be useful in very special cases.

  15. [Carbon monoxide deaths caused by town gas in Denmark 1995-99].

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Asser Hedegård; Gregersen, Markil

    2007-05-21

    Over the years town gas has caused many fatal carbon monoxide poisonings. The aim of this paper is to document the circumstances surrounding town gas deaths in Denmark between 1995-1999 and to trace the development of these deaths in recent decades. A retrospective study of death certificates and report material concerning carbon monoxide deaths in Denmark between 1995-1999 caused by town gas. Of 449 non-fire related carbon monoxide poisonings, 22 (4.9%) were caused by town gas. The deaths consisted of fourteen suicides, six accidents, and two with undetermined manner of death. Ten (71%) of the suicide victims were men and four (29%) were women, with an average age of 48 years (24-82 years); all had turned on two or more gas rings. The accident victims were one man and five women, with an average age of 84 years (77-92 years); all had only turned on one gas ring. The number of town gas deaths has been drastically reduced since 1969, which can be explained by the reduced number of town gas installations containing carbon monoxide as well as preventive measures. Most deaths can probably be avoided when the town gas supply is switched to carbon monoxide-free town gas in 2007, but it is important to be aware that incomplete combustion of carbon monoxide-free town gas can still lead to carbon monoxide poisonings.

  16. Aggravating and mitigating factors associated with cyclist injury severity in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Sigal; Vavatsoulas, Konstantinos; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-09-01

    Denmark is one of the leading cycling nations, where cycling trips constitute a large share of the total trips, and cycling safety assumes a top priority position in the agenda of policy makers. The current study sheds light on the aggravating and mitigating factors associated with cyclist injury severity on Danish roads by examining a comprehensive set of accidents involving a cyclist and a collision partner between 2007 and 2011. This study estimates a generalized ordered logit model of the severity of cyclist injuries because of its ability to accommodate the ordered-response nature of severity while relaxing the proportional odds assumption. Model estimates show that cyclist fragility (children under 10 years old and elderly cyclists over 60 years of age) and cyclist intoxication are aggravating individual factors, while helmet use is a mitigating factor. Speed limits above 70-80 km/h, slippery road surface, and location of the crash on road sections are aggravating infrastructure factors, while the availability of cycling paths and dense urban development are mitigating factors. Heavy vehicle involvement and conflicts between cyclists going straight or turning left and other vehicles going straight are aggravating vehicle involvement factors. Practical applications: The results are discussed in the context of applied policies, engineering, and traffic management solutions for bicycle safety in Denmark. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cyclist-motorist crash patterns in Denmark: a latent class clustering approach.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    The current study aimed at uncovering patterns of cyclist-motorist crashes in Denmark and investigating their prevalence and severity. The importance of implementing clustering techniques for providing a holistic overview of vulnerable road users' crash patterns derives from the need to prioritize safety issues and to devise efficient preventive measures. The current study focused on cyclist-motorist crashes that occurred in Denmark during the period between 2007 and 2011. To uncover crash patterns, the current analysis applied latent class clustering, an unsupervised probabilistic clustering approach that relies on the statistical concept of likelihood and allows partial overlap across clusters. The analysis yielded 13 distinguishable cyclist-motorist latent classes. Specific crash patterns for urban and rural areas were revealed. Prevalent features that allowed differentiating the latent classes were speed limit, infrastructure type, road surface conditions, number of lanes, motorized vehicle precrash maneuvers, the availability of a cycle lane, cyclist intoxication, and helmet wearing behavior. After the latent class clustering, the distribution of cyclists' injury severity within each cluster was analyzed. The latent class clustering approach provided a comprehensive and clear map of cyclist-motorist crash patterns. The results are useful for prioritizing and resolving safety issues in urban areas, where there is a significant share of cyclists potentially involved in multiple hazardous situations or where extensive bicycle sharing programs are planned.

  18. Surviving severe traumatic brain injury in Denmark: incidence and predictors of highly specialized rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Odgaard, Lene; Poulsen, Ingrid; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbæk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To identify all hospitalized patients surviving severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Denmark and to compare these patients to TBI patients admitted to highly specialized rehabilitation (HS-rehabilitation). Patients and methods Patients surviving severe TBI were identified from The Danish National Patient Registry and The Danish Head Trauma Database. Overall incidence rates of surviving severe TBI and incidence rates of admission to HS-rehabilitation after severe TBI were estimated and compared. Patient-related predictors of no admission to HS-rehabilitation among patients surviving severe TBI were identified using multivariable logistic regression. Results The average incidence rate of surviving severe TBI was 2.3 per 100,000 person years. Incidence rates of HS-rehabilitation were generally stable around 2.0 per 100,000 person years. Overall, 84% of all patients surviving severe TBI were admitted to HS-rehabilitation. Female sex, older age, and non-working status pre-injury were independent predictors of no HS-rehabilitation among patients surviving severe TBI. Conclusion The incidence rate of hospitalized patients surviving severe TBI was stable in Denmark and the majority of the patients were admitted to HS-rehabilitation. However, potential inequity in access to HS-rehabilitation may still be present despite a health care system based on equal access for all citizens. PMID:25848317

  19. Experiences gained from implementing mandatory buffer strips in Denmark: how can we enhance their ecosystem services?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronvang, Brian; Hoffmann, Carl Christian; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Hille, Sandra; Rubæk, Gitte; Heckrath, Goswin; Gertz, Flemming; Jensen, Henning; Feuerback, Peter; Strand, John; Stutter, Marc

    2015-04-01

    The Danish Parliament adopted in June 2012 a Buffer Strip Act that required 10 m mandatory buffer strips (BSs) to be established along all watercourses and lakes with a surface area greater than 100 m2 from 1st September 2012. The main reasons for deploying BSs was to reduce nitrate-N leaching and phosphorus (P) loss via surface runoff from adjoining fields from the approximately 50,000 ha of BSs as no farming activities were allowed in the BS concerning use of fertilizer, spreading of manure, spraying with pesticides, etc. Reductions in nutrient losses to watercourses are needed for minimizing the eutrophication effects in lakes and coastal waters. Buffer strips are among the most well studied and frequently adapted mitigation measure for reducing sediment and P losses to surface waters via surface runoff. It has, however, been questioned if BSs can also reduce N losses. The international literature gives an overwhelming support to their functioning for reduction in sediment and especially particulate P losses. However, their functioning for dissolved P and nitrogen is more questionable when comparing studies from the international literature. In Denmark, many farmers were against the introduction of BSs as a general mitigation measure for several reasons. The most used argument in the public debate was that BSs in general are not very efficient for reducing N and P losses to surface waters which was originally the argument behind the BS Act from the Ministries of Environment and Food and Agriculture. A desk study had been made prior to the adaptation of the law that showed 10 m BSs to be able to reduce the N loading with 40-50 kg N ha-1 of BS and 0.04-0.4 kg P ha-1 BS. The total reduction from the BSs established in Denmark in 2012 would then amount to 2,000-2,500 tonnes N and 2-20 tonnes P. The intense public debate in Denmark made the Parliament to adopt a new BS law in June 2014 to be implemented in August 2014 that reduced the total areas with mandatory BSs

  20. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and diagnostic challenges in 1500 immigrants in Denmark examined for haemoglobinopathies.

    PubMed

    Warny, Marie; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfeldt; Petersen, Jesper; Birgens, Henrik

    2015-09-01

    Similar to the thalassaemia syndromes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is highly prevalent in areas historically exposed to malaria. In the present study, we used quantitative and molecular methods to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in a population of 1508 immigrants in Denmark. We found the allele frequency to be between 2.4 and 2.9% in the female immigrants. Furthermore, the mutation pattern in the studied population showed a high prevalence of the G6PD A-(202A) variant in African and African-American immigrants, a high prevalence of the G6PD Mediterranean variant in Mediterranean European and Western Asian immigrants, and substantial heterogeneity in the variants found in the Eastern Asian/Pacific immigrants. Inasmuch as many of the patients included in this investigation had various thalassaemic syndromes, we were able to evaluate the effects of the interaction between a low mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) value and G6PD activity, particularly in heterozygous females. The activity level was markedly influenced by the MCH value in females with normal G6PD activity, but not in heterozygous and homozygous females. Comparison of patients with normal G6PD activity and heterozygous females indicated considerable overlap in activity levels. To help separating heterozygous females from females with wild-type genes, a DNA analysis is necessary when the female activity level is between 4.0 and 4.9 U/g hgb corresponding to 50-60% of the median activity of unaffected males.

  1. Autism spectrum disorders in children of parents with inflammatory bowel disease – a nationwide cohort study in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Ane Birgitte Telén; Ehrenstein, Vera; Erichsen, Rune; Frøslev, Trine; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may share genetic and environmental risk factors. We examined whether parental IBD is associated with an increased risk of ASD in offspring. Methods We conducted a registry-based nationwide cohort study including children born alive in Denmark from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 2009, with follow-up throughout 2010. IBD in parents and ASD in offspring were identified using inpatient and outpatient hospital diagnoses. We computed risk of ASD and crude and adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional-hazards regression. We evaluated the risk of ASD according to maternal and paternal IBD, and separately for maternal and paternal Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Children with parents free of IBD were the comparison cohort. Results We identified 1,005,330 children during the study period. Among them, 11,888 (1.2%) had a parent with IBD and 8,087 (0.8%) had a diagnosis of ASD during up to 17 years of follow-up. The 10-year risks of ASD were 0.7% among children of parents with IBD and 0.9% among children of parents without IBD. The aIRR for ASD among children with parental IBD was 0.8 (95% CI: 0.6–1.0), and results were similar regardless of parent of IBD origin or whether a parent had CD or UC. The estimates were similar for different ASD subtypes. Conclusion We found no evidence of an increased risk of ASD among children born to parents with IBD. PMID:24855384

  2. High-Resolution Modelling of Health Impacts from Air Pollution for Denmark using the Integrated Model System EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob; Christensen, Jesper H.; Hansen, Kaj M.; Hertel, Ole; Im, Ulas; Jensen, Steen S.; Ketzel, Matthias; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Sigsgaard, Torben; Geels, Camilla

    2015-04-01

    We have developed an integrated health impact assessment system EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution; Brandt et al., 2013a; 2013b), based on the impact-pathway chain, to assess the health impacts and health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The system is used to support policymaking with respect to emission control. The EVA system has previously been used to assess the health impacts based on results from a regional model DEHM (the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model; Brandt et al., 2012). In this study we have used a coupling of two chemistry transport models to calculate the air pollution concentration at different scales; the DEHM model to calculate the air pollution levels with a resolution down to 5.6 km x 5.6 km and the UBM model (Urban Background Model ; Berkowicz, 2000; Brandt et al., 2001) to further calculate the air pollution at 1 km x 1 km resolution for Denmark using results from DEHM as boundary conditions. Both the emission data based on the SPREAD model (Plejdrup and Gyldenkærne, 2011) as well as the population density has been represented in the model system with the same high resolution. The new developments of the integrated model system will be presented as well as results for health impacts and related external costs over the years 2006-2014 for Denmark. Furthermore, a sensitivity study of the health impact using coarse and fine resolutions in the model system has been carried out to evaluate the effect of improved description of the geographical population distribution with respect to location of local emissions. References Berkowicz, R., 2000. A Simple Model for Urban Background Pollution. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 65, 1/2, 259-267. Brandt, J., J. H. Christensen, L. M. Frohn, F. Palmgren, R. Berkowicz and Z. Zlatev, 2001: "Operational air pollution forecasts from European to local scale". Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 35, Sup. No. 1, pp. S91-S98, 2001 Brandt

  3. Training in the Motor Vehicle Repair and Sales Sector in Denmark. Report for the FORCE Programme. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoblauch, Jan; And Others

    Training in Denmark's motor vehicle repair and sales sector was examined in a study that included the following approaches: review of the sector's structure/characteristics, institutional/social context, changing conditions and their implications for skill requirements and training, and available initial and continuing vocational education and…

  4. Status of tachinaephagus zealandicus (Hymenoptera:Encyrtidae), a larval parasitoid of muscoid flies, in the U.S. and Denmark

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A survey was conducted to determine the status of the muscoid fly parasitoid Tachinaephagus zealandicus in the U.S. and Denmark 40 years after this species was introduced from Australia as a classical biological control agent. No T. zealandicus were recovered from any of the collections made in Den...

  5. Mycobacterium chimaera in Heater-Cooler Units in Denmark Related to Isolates from the United States and United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Erik; Jensen, Elsebeth Tvenstrup; Rasmussen, Erik Michael; Folkvardsen, Dorte Bek; Norman, Anders; Lillebaek, Troels

    2017-03-01

    Mycobacterium chimaera was present at high rates (>80%) in heater-cooler units (HCUs) from all 5 thoracic surgery departments in Denmark. Isolates were clonal to HCU-associated isolates from the United States (including some from patients) and United Kingdom. However, M. chimaera from 2 brands of HCU were genetically distinct.

  6. Socio-Cultural Innovation through and by Public Libraries in Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods in Denmark: Concepts and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delica, Kristian; Elbeshausen, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Our paper describes three examples of how public libraries in at-risk-neighbourhoods have worked with social innovations in order to develop and strengthen their services for minority groups. The libraries were chosen because they are frontrunners in the field of cultural diversity and social inclusion in Denmark. Method: The…

  7. The Role of Learning and Career Guidance for Managing Mid-Career Transitions--Comparing Germany and Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haasler, Simone R.; Barabasch, Antje

    2015-01-01

    In Germany and Denmark, the systems of further education and career guidance are well developed, offering a wide range of services and learning opportunities for targeted, specific and also general skills development. Based on an empirical study with mid-career individuals in both countries, the article investigates how the different systems…

  8. Teaching Power Electronics with a Design-Oriented, Project-Based Learning Method at the Technical University of Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Zhe; Hansen, Claus Thorp; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2016-01-01

    Power electronics is a fast-developing technology within the electrical engineering field. This paper presents the results and experiences gained from applying design-oriented project-based learning to switch-mode power supply design in a power electronics course at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Project-based learning (PBL) is known…

  9. Metalinguistic Awareness and Academic Achievement in a Linguistically Diverse School Setting: A Study of Lower Secondary Pupils in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellerberg, Stine Marie

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on metalinguistic awareness (MLA) and its relation to academic achievement for mono-, bi- and multilingual adolescents in Denmark. While MLA is one of several cognitive measures positively related to bilingualism and bilingualism is associated with academic advantages, Danish bi-/multilingual pupils appear not to benefit from…

  10. National Reading Tests in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden: A Comparison of Construct Definitions, Cognitive Targets, and Response Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tengberg, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Reading comprehension tests are often assumed to measure the same, or at least similar, constructs. Yet, reading is not a single but a multidimensional form of processing, which means that variations in terms of reading material and item design may emphasize one aspect of the construct at the cost of another. The educational systems in Denmark,…

  11. Studies in the Major Modern Languages (English, German, French) at University Level in Denmark by 1980/81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollerup, Cay

    This is a descriptive outline of the language situation in the Danish education system. The introductory material discusses the reason for foreign language study. A major reason is that Denmark is a small country with a difficult native language for speakers of other languages to learn. Therefore, the Danish population is exposed to foreign…

  12. Neo-Liberalism and Universal State Education: The Cases of Denmark, Norway and Sweden 1980-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiborg, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates neo-liberal policy on education in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Traditionally, the edifice of the education system in these Scandinavian countries has been built on egalitarian values, but over the last 20 years they have increasingly adopted market-led reforms of education. The extent of neo-liberal policy varies between…

  13. Metalinguistic Awareness and Academic Achievement in a Linguistically Diverse School Setting: A Study of Lower Secondary Pupils in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellerberg, Stine Marie

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on metalinguistic awareness (MLA) and its relation to academic achievement for mono-, bi- and multilingual adolescents in Denmark. While MLA is one of several cognitive measures positively related to bilingualism and bilingualism is associated with academic advantages, Danish bi-/multilingual pupils appear not to benefit from…

  14. The First Sourcebook on Nordic Research in Mathematics Education: Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark and Contributions from Finland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sriraman, Bharath, Ed.; Bergsten, Christer, Ed.; Goodchild, Simon, Ed.; Palsdottir, Gudbjorg, Ed.; Sondergaard, Bettina Dahl, Ed.; Haapasalo, Lenni, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The First Sourcebook on Nordic Research in Mathematics Education: Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark and contributions from Finland provides the first comprehensive and unified treatment of historical and contemporary research trends in mathematics education in the Nordic world. The book is organized in sections co-ordinated by active researchers in…

  15. Capacity Building: Data- and Research-Informed Development of Schools and Teaching Practices in Denmark and Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qvortrup, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Based on experiences from a number of large scale data- and research-informed school development projects in Denmark and Norway, led by the author, three hypotheses are discussed: that an effective way of linking research and practice is achieved (1) using a capacity building approach, that is, to collaborate in the practical school context…

  16. The Role of Learning and Career Guidance for Managing Mid-Career Transitions--Comparing Germany and Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haasler, Simone R.; Barabasch, Antje

    2015-01-01

    In Germany and Denmark, the systems of further education and career guidance are well developed, offering a wide range of services and learning opportunities for targeted, specific and also general skills development. Based on an empirical study with mid-career individuals in both countries, the article investigates how the different systems…

  17. Neo-Liberalism and Universal State Education: The Cases of Denmark, Norway and Sweden 1980-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiborg, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates neo-liberal policy on education in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Traditionally, the edifice of the education system in these Scandinavian countries has been built on egalitarian values, but over the last 20 years they have increasingly adopted market-led reforms of education. The extent of neo-liberal policy varies between…

  18. Capacity Building: Data- and Research-Informed Development of Schools and Teaching Practices in Denmark and Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qvortrup, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Based on experiences from a number of large scale data- and research-informed school development projects in Denmark and Norway, led by the author, three hypotheses are discussed: that an effective way of linking research and practice is achieved (1) using a capacity building approach, that is, to collaborate in the practical school context…

  19. Discrepancies in listed adverse drug reactions in pharmaceutical product information supplied by the regulatory authorities in Denmark and the USA.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Robert; Aagaard, Lise; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Borisova, Liza; Hørlück, Dorte; Brunak, Søren; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2014-06-01

    Pharmaceutical product information (PI) supplied by the regulatory authorities serves as a source of information on safe and effective use of drugs. The objectives of this study were to qualitatively and quantitatively compare PIs for selected drugs marketed in both Denmark and the USA with respect to consistency and discrepancy of listed adverse drug reaction (ADR) information. We compared individual ADRs listed in PIs from Denmark and the USA with respect to type and frequency. Consistency was defined as match of ADRs and of ADR frequency or match could not be ruled out. Discrepancies were defined as ADRs listed only in one country or listed with different frequencies. We analyzed PIs for 40 separate drugs from ten therapeutic groups and assigned the 4003 identified ADRs to System Organ Classes (Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities [MedDRA] terminology). Less than half of listed ADRs (n = 1874; 47%) showed consistency. Discrepancies (n = 2129; 53%) were split into ADRs listed only in the USA (n = 1558; 39%), ADRs listed only in Denmark (n = 325; 8%) and ADRs listed with different frequencies (n = 246; 6%). The majority of listed ADRs were of the type "gastrointestinal disorders" and "nervous system disorders". Our results show great differences in PIs for drugs approved in both Denmark and the USA illuminating concerns about the credibility of the publicly available PIs. The results also represent an argument for further harmonization across borders to improve consistency between authority-supplied information.

  20. Exchange Program Teenagers Compare Life in Denmark and the U.S.A. Occasional Papers in Intercultural Learning No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresee, Dana E.

    Thirty teenage exchange students from Denmark and the United States were interviewed concerning the differences they perceived in the two cultures. Salient differences were cited in the domains of family rules, education and schools, use of alcohol, romantic relationships and sexuality, communication and friendships, ethnic differences and…

  1. National Reading Tests in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden: A Comparison of Construct Definitions, Cognitive Targets, and Response Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tengberg, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Reading comprehension tests are often assumed to measure the same, or at least similar, constructs. Yet, reading is not a single but a multidimensional form of processing, which means that variations in terms of reading material and item design may emphasize one aspect of the construct at the cost of another. The educational systems in Denmark,…

  2. Mycobacterium chimaera in Heater–Cooler Units in Denmark Related to Isolates from the United States and United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Elsebeth Tvenstrup; Rasmussen, Erik Michael; Folkvardsen, Dorte Bek; Norman, Anders; Lillebaek, Troels

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium chimaera was present at high rates (>80%) in heater–cooler units (HCUs) from all 5 thoracic surgery departments in Denmark. Isolates were clonal to HCU-associated isolates from the United States (including some from patients) and United Kingdom. However, M. chimaera from 2 brands of HCU were genetically distinct. PMID:28035898

  3. The First Sourcebook on Nordic Research in Mathematics Education: Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark and Contributions from Finland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sriraman, Bharath, Ed.; Bergsten, Christer, Ed.; Goodchild, Simon, Ed.; Palsdottir, Gudbjorg, Ed.; Sondergaard, Bettina Dahl, Ed.; Haapasalo, Lenni, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The First Sourcebook on Nordic Research in Mathematics Education: Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark and contributions from Finland provides the first comprehensive and unified treatment of historical and contemporary research trends in mathematics education in the Nordic world. The book is organized in sections co-ordinated by active researchers in…

  4. National Stereotypes and Language Attitudes: The Perception of British, American, and Australian Language and Culture in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladegaard, Hans J.

    1998-01-01

    Studied stereotyped reactions to English accents and cultures among Danish secondary school students in Denmark. In choice of preference of Received Pronunciation (RP), Scottish English, Australian English, Cockney English, and Standard American English, RP was found to be unsurpassed prestige variety in this Danish context. It was rated favorably…

  5. The geothermal field of Denmark from borehole measurements and 3D numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Balling, Niels

    2017-04-01

    We present a 3D numerical crustal temperature model and analyze the present-day geothermal field of onshore Denmark, including parts of the Danish Basin, the northernmost part of the North German Basin and the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone. An extensive analysis of borehole and well-log data on a basin scale is conducted to derive the model parameterization with a spatial distribution of rock thermal conductivity as well as new, regionally variable heat-flow values. A new structural geological model with lithological layers is provided by the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS). Measured heat flow and borehole temperature observations (102 values from 47 wells) are used to constrain the modelling results in terms of calibration and validation. The prediction uncertainties between modelled and observed temperatures at deep borehole sites are small (rms = 1.3°C). For 22 deep boreholes, new values of terrestrial surface heat flow are derived ranging between 64 and 84 mW/m2 (mean of 77 ± 5 mW/m2) for the Danish Basin, between 60 and 95 mW/m2 (mean of 80 ± 10 mW/m2) for the very northern part of North German Basin, and between 63 and 66 mW/m2 (mean of 65 ± 2 mW/m2) in the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone, respectively. Heat flow from the mantle is estimated to be between 31 and 39 mW/m2 (q1-q3; mean of 34 ± 7 mW/m2). Lateral temperature variations found by 3D modelling are caused by complex geological structures, like salt structures, lateral variations in the thickness of basin sediments or tectonic features. The variations in rock thermal conductivity associated with different lithological units generate significant variations in temperature gradients and heat flow. Major geothermal sandstone reservoirs show significantly different temperatures according to a large variation in reservoir depth and different thermal conductivity of overlying lithologies. For example, temperatures of the Gassum Formation, covering most of the Danish onshore areas, are within the

  6. A flexible hydrological warning system in Denmark for real-time surface water and groundwater simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xin; Stisen, Simon; Wiese, Marianne B.; Jørgen Henriksen, Hans

    2015-04-01

    In Denmark, increasing focus on extreme weather events has created considerable demand for short term forecasts and early warnings in relation to groundwater and surface water flooding. The Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) has setup, calibrated and applied a nationwide water resources model, the DK-Model, primarily for simulating groundwater and surface water flows and groundwater levels during the past 20 years. So far, the DK-model has only been used in offline historical and future scenario simulations. Therefore, challenges arise in operating such a model for online forecasts and early warnings, which requires access to continuously updated observed climate input data and forecast data of precipitation, temperature and global radiation for the next 48 hours or longer. GEUS has a close collaboration with the Danish Meteorological Institute in order to test and enable this data input for the DK model. Due to the comprehensive physical descriptions of the DK-Model, the simulation results can potentially be any component of the hydrological cycle within the models domain. Therefore, it is important to identify which results need to be updated and saved in the real-time mode, since it is not computationally economical to save every result considering the heavy load of data. GEUS have worked closely with the end-users and interest groups such as water planners and emergency managers from the municipalities, water supply and waste water companies, consulting companies and farmer organizations, in order to understand their possible needs for real time simulation and monitoring of the nationwide water cycle. This participatory process has been supported by a web based questionnaire survey, and a workshop that connected the model developers and the users. For qualifying the stakeholder engagement, GEUS has selected a representative catchment area (Skjern River) for testing and demonstrating a prototype of the web based hydrological warning system at the

  7. Summary of project TOR: delineation of a stepwise, sharp, deep lithosphere transition across Germany Denmark Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregersen, S.; Voss, P.; TOR Working Group

    2002-12-01

    Project Tor ( Teleseismic Tomography across the Tornquist Zone in Germany-Denmark-Sweden) is now producing results. We are able to detect very significant deep lithosphere differences, and we can now discuss the sharpness laterally. In 1996-1997, our 120 seismographs constituted the largest seismic antenna ever in Europe. The Tor area was chosen along a well-studied crustal profile of an earlier project, and the inversion efforts are concentrated on the deep lithosphere and asthenosphere differences to depths around 300 km. The Tor investigation can be called two-and-a-half-dimensional, as it has a 900-km profile length with 100 km width plus a few seismographs off the profile. The Tor data have been subjected to P-wave travel time tomography, surface wave and receiver function analysis as well as anisotropy and scattering measurements. Through ray tracing in a compiled crustal model and subtraction of the modelled travel time anomalies, the influence of the lower lithosphere/asthenosphere on the seismic rays from distant earthquakes is being established. Travel time tomography results confirm very large lateral lithosphere differences of 4-6% in P-wave velocity. For several events of the large data base, it is demonstrated that the observed P-wave travel time anomalies of 1-2 s can be divided almost equally between known crustal effects and lower lithosphere/asthenosphere differences, which then must account for about 1 s of the travel time differences. The transition is interpreted to be sharp and steep in two places. It goes all the way through the lithosphere at the northern rim of the Tornquist Zone near the border between Sweden and Denmark, and here the lithosphere difference is large. A smaller lithosphere difference is found near the southern edge of the Ringkøbing-Fyn High just north of the border between Denmark and Germany. Also, this transition is sharp and steep, and goes all through the lithosphere. These two sharp transitions divide the Tor region

  8. Stress and distress in migration: problems and resources of Turkish women in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Mirdal, G M

    1984-01-01

    Data collected through interviews with 72 Turkish female immigrants to Denmark show that migration and the inevitable confrontation with an unfamiliar cultural mileu, create several stress producing situations, which they are unable to cope due to their multiple disadvantage of being poor, uneducated, alien and female. Turkish women began arriving in Denmark after 1973, in order to join male members of their families, when Denmark began experiencing economic recession and rising unemployment. This was responsible for the lukewarm reception they faced in their host country, even from their own relatives. A feeling of uprootedness is common in these women, who, leaving behind the security of their their own society, are constantly exposed to behavior patterns that appear to be in sharp contrast to their own. An unfamiliarity with the implicit structure of the society and rules of conduct can be threatening. Having a job outside the home creates the double burden of working to earn a living and having to take full responsibility for children and the household. On the other hand, not having a job creates an excess of leisure time, due to the availability of time saving gadgets, which is spent indoors with no meanigful activities. Lack of mobility compounds the situation. While proximity to other Turks inbitits freedom for fear of criticism, staying away brings loneliness. Changing concepts of sex roles can be disruptive, especially when roles they are brought up to believe are theirs, are no longer needed. As accompanying wives, they are excessively dependent on their husbands, and are more isolated and overwoked than they would have been in their homeland. All these factors help render the women extremely powerless. The women interviewed attributed their complaints, physical or emotional, to their state as immigrants. Women's complaints, especially if they are psychological in nature, lead to the danger of the women being labelled mentally ill. Despite their general

  9. Contact allergy to chlorhexidine in a tertiary dermatology clinic in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Opstrup, Morten S; Johansen, Jeanne D; Zachariae, Claus; Garvey, Lene H

    2016-01-01

    Chlorhexidine is a widely used disinfectant in the healthcare setting and in cosmetic products. A high prevalence of chlorhexidine contact allergy was reported in Denmark in the 1980s (2.0-5.4% of patients patch tested). It is unknown whether the prevalence is still high, which products cause the contact allergy, and whether accidental re-exposure occurs in some patients. To estimate the prevalence of chlorhexidine contact allergy in a tertiary dermatology clinic in Denmark; to investigate whether patch testing with both chlorhexidine diacetate and chlorhexidine digluconate is necessary; to investigate how many patients have combined immediate-type allergy and contact allergy; and to identify which products cause chlorhexidine contact allergy, and whether patients are accidentally re-exposed. This was a retrospective study including all patients patch tested with chlorhexidine during 2003-2013 at the Department of Dermato-Allergology at Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte (n = 8497). All patients with a positive patch test reaction to chlorhexidine were sent a questionnaire comprising questions about the cause of the allergy and re-exposure. Overall, 1.0% (n = 82) of all patients patch tested with chlorhexidine were positive. A decrease in the prevalence was observed over time, most likely because of lowering of the test concentration from 1.0 to 0.5% in 2008. Of the 82 patients, 28 (0.3%) had positive test reactions to both chlorhexidine salts, 43 (0.5%) had a positive test reaction only to chlorhexidine diacetate, and 11 (0.1%) had a positive test reaction to chlorhexidine digluconate. Three patients were both patch test-positive and prick test-positive. A known cause of the allergy was reported by 19 patients (40%) in the questionnaire: the products used in the healthcare setting were mainly reported, but some reported cosmetic products. Accidental re-exposure was reported by 15 patients (32%), of whom 13 reported symptoms. The prevalence of chlorhexidine

  10. Awareness of cancer symptoms and anticipated patient interval for healthcare seeking. A comparative study of Denmark and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hvidberg, Line; Lagerlund, Magdalena; Pedersen, Anette F; Hajdarevic, Senada; Tishelman, Carol; Vedsted, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Background Recent epidemiologic data show that Denmark has considerably poorer survival from common cancers than Sweden. This may be related to a lower awareness of cancer symptoms and longer patient intervals in Denmark than in Sweden. The aims of this study were to: 1) compare population awareness of three possible symptoms of cancer (unexplained lump or swelling, unexplained bleeding and persistent cough or hoarseness); 2) compare anticipated patient interval when noticing any breast changes, rectal bleeding and persistent cough; and 3) examine whether potential differences were noticeable in particular age groups or at particular levels of education in a Danish and Swedish population sample. Method Data were derived from Module 2 of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership. Telephone interviews using the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer measure were conducted in 2011 among 3000 adults in Denmark and 3070 adults in Sweden. Results Danish respondents reported a higher awareness of two of three symptoms (i.e. unexplained lump or swelling and persistent cough or hoarseness) and a shorter anticipated patient interval for two of three symptoms studied (i.e. any breast changes and rectal bleeding) than Swedish respondents. Differences in symptom awareness and anticipated patient interval between these countries were most pronounced in highly educated respondents. Conclusion Somewhat paradoxically, the highest awareness of symptoms of cancer and the shortest anticipated patient intervals were found in Denmark, where cancer survival is lower than in Sweden. Thus, it appears that these differences in symptom awareness and anticipated patient interval do not help explain the cancer survival disparity between Denmark and Sweden.

  11. The lethal paraphiliac syndrome. Accidental autoerotic deaths in Denmark 1933-1990.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, N; Modvig, J

    1995-09-01

    A new definition of accidental autoerotic death (AAD) is proposed. A death is an AAD if it is solitary, accidental, and caused by a lethal paraphilia. On the basis of a series of 46 AADs, all occurring among men in the period 1933-1990 in Denmark, the definition cannot be rejected. A paraphilia is regarded as lethal if it is inherently life-threatening. The results of this study have been related to previous reports of similar autoerotic deaths in the literature. It is suggested that the present distinction between asphyxial AAD as typical and nonasphyxial ADD as atypical be replaced with lethal paraphilia with accompanying nonlethal paraphilia or props as typical AAD and lethal paraphilia with no accompanying nonlethal paraphilia or props as atypical AAD.

  12. Neurotoxicity and LSD treatment: a follow-up study of 151 patients in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jens Knud

    2016-06-01

    LSD was introduced in psychiatry in the 1950s. Between 1960 and 1973, nearly 400 patients were treated with LSD in Denmark. By 1964, one homicide, two suicides and four suicide attempts had been reported. In 1986 the Danish LSD Damages Law was passed after complaints by only one patient. According to the Law, all 154 applicants received financial compensation for LSD-inflicted harm. The Danish State Archives has preserved the case material of 151 of the 154 applicants. Most of the patients suffered from severe side effects of the LSD treatment many years afterwards. In particular, two-thirds of the patients had flashbacks. With the recent interest in LSD therapy, we should consider the neurotoxic potential of LSD. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Consumer perceptions: pork and pig production. Insights from France, England, Sweden and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Ngapo, T M; Dransfield, E; Martin, J-F; Magnusson, M; Bredahl, L; Nute, G R

    2004-01-01

    Consumer focus groups in France, England, Sweden and Denmark were used to obtain insights into the decision-making involved in the choice of fresh pork and attitudes towards today's pig production systems. Many positive perceptions of pork meat were evoked. Negative images of the production systems in use today were expressed, but rationalised in terms of consumer demands, market competition and by comparisons to previous systems of production. Knowledge of production systems appeared of little consequence in terms of any meat market potential as several groups freely remarked that there was no link between the negative images of production methods and their purchase behaviour. The groups were clearly confused and mistrusted the limited information available at the point of purchase. Careful consideration should be given to meat labelling, in particular taking account of the evident consumer ethnocentrism, to assure that such information is targeted to enhance consumer confidence.

  14. Risk Perception and Moralization among Smokers in the U.S. and Denmark: A Qualitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Helweg-Larsen, Marie; Tobias, Margaret R.; Cerban, Bettina M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The present research explored the role that culture plays in smokers’ description of their risk perceptions and experiences as targets of moralization. Methods We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 15 smokers each from Denmark (a smoking-lenient culture) and the U.S. (a smoking-prohibitive culture). Results Smokers said they were well aware of the risks of smoking yet minimized the risks of active and passive smoking; Danes were particularly likely to minimize these risks. Smokers also described many experiences as targets of moralization and accepted some elements of moralized attitudes although overall Danes more strongly rejected moralized opinions. Smokers described adjusting to moralization by changing when and where but not how much they smoked. Conclusion It is important to consider cultural influences on moralization and risk perception of smoking. PMID:20181322

  15. Modelling of transport and biogeochemical processes in pollution plumes: Vejen landfill, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, Adam; Engesgaard, Peter; Christensen, Thomas H.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2002-01-01

    A biogeochemical transport code is used to simulate leachate attenuation, biogeochemical processes, and development of redox zones in a pollution plume downstream of the Vejen landfill in Denmark. Calibration of the degradation parameters resulted in a good agreement with the observed distribution in the plume of a number of species, such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), Fe 2+, NO 3-, HCO 3-, SO 42-, CH 4, and pH. The simulated redox zones agree with observations confirming that the Fe-reducing zone played an important role in the attenuation of the DOC plume. Effective first-order rate constants for every redox zone were determined giving DOC half-lives ranging from 100 to 1-2 days going from the methanogenic to the aerobic zone. The order of decrease in DOC half-lives from the anaerobic to the aerobic zone corresponds to findings at other landfills.

  16. [Radium therapy in a county hospital on the island of Mors, Denmark].

    PubMed

    Søgaard, Ib; Topp, Sven W

    2010-01-01

    In Denmark it was decided early in the 20th century that therapy with radium should be restricted to major centres in the three largest cities, Copenhagen, Aarhus and Odense. In the northern part of Jutland the chief surgeon of Nykøbing Mors Hospital, Jacob Nordentoft (1881-1954), had studied radium treatment in Hamburg with Albers-Schönberg and in Paris with Marie Curie, and he had used radium in his private clinic since 1910. Naturally he wanted to continue this when he became chief in Nykøbing in 1922. As he was denied this the 22,000 inhabitants of this small island in 1931 collected 28,790 Danish Crowns for him as a birthday present and afterwards he could buy 94 mg pure radium from Belgium. With this amount he established a Radium Centre which lasted for 30 years.

  17. Response of the Denmark Strait overflow to Nordic Seas heat loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grist, Jeremy P.; Josey, Simon A.; Sinha, Bablu; Blaker, Adam T.

    2008-09-01

    The impact of extreme Nordic Seas heat loss on Denmark Strait (DS) dense water transport is examined in (1) control runs of the Hadley Centre HadCM3 and HadGEM1 coupled climate models and (2) perturbation experiments with the fast coupled model FORTE that allow heat flux effects to be isolated from wind stress. All three models show an approximately linear increase in southward DS transport of cold dense water with increasing Nordic Seas winter heat loss in the range -80 to -250 Wm-2. The propagation of the cold anomaly from the Nordic Seas source along a trajectory through the DS and into the Irminger Basin is also examined. A common response time is found with the strongest decrease in DS temperature occurring within 8-12 months of the heat loss signal. Our results show that Nordic Seas heat loss must be considered in addition to other processes in understanding DS variability.

  18. Ten and a half years seroepidemiology of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Lind, K.; Bentzon, M. W.

    1991-01-01

    The study was based on a computerized card index of 9161 patients who had at least one positive blood specimen in the Mycoplasma pneumoniae complement fixation test. A total of 12,562 specimens from these patients had been sent to Statens Seruminstitut from hospitals and general practitioners during a 10.5-year period. The period encompassed a previously described endemic period in a 30-year study of the epidemiological pattern of M. pneumoniae infection in Denmark. The serological data presented support the hypothesis advanced here that a more than sixfold increase of children in day care might have contributed to a change in the epidemiological pattern. The correlation between age and level of specific antibodies, as well as persistence of seropositivity, were also investigated. PMID:1908784

  19. Framing (implicitly) matters: the role of religion in attitudes toward immigrants and Muslims in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joel; Antalíková, Radka

    2014-12-01

    Denmark is currently experiencing the highest immigration rate in its modern history. Population surveys indicate that negative public attitudes toward immigrants actually stem from attitudes toward their (perceived) Islamic affiliation. We used a framing paradigm to investigate the explicit and implicit attitudes of Christian and Atheist Danes toward targets framed as Muslims or as immigrants. The results showed that explicit and implicit attitudes were more negative when the target was framed as a Muslim, rather than as an immigrant. Interestingly, implicit attitudes were qualified by the participants' religion. Specifically, analyses revealed that Christians demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward immigrants than Muslims. Conversely, Atheists demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward Muslims than Atheists. These results suggest a complex relationship between religion, and implicit and explicit prejudice. Both the religious affiliation of the perceiver and the perceived religious affiliation of the target are key factors in social perception.

  20. Bioethics in Denmark. Moving from first- to second-order analysis?

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Andersen, Martin Marchman

    2014-07-01

    This article examines two current debates in Denmark--assisted suicide and the prioritization of health resources--and proposes that such controversial bioethical issues call for distinct philosophical analyses: first-order examinations, or an applied philosophy approach, and second-order examinations, what might be called a political philosophical approach. The authors argue that although first-order examination plays an important role in teasing out different moral points of view, in contemporary democratic societies, few, if any, bioethical questions can be resolved satisfactorily by means of first-order analyses alone, and that bioethics needs to engage more closely with second-order enquiries and the question of legitimacy in general.

  1. United States and Denmark: different approaches to health care and family planning.

    PubMed

    David, H P; Morgall, J M; Osler, M; Rasmussen, N K; Jensen, B

    1990-01-01

    The findings of this study suggest that, compared to the United States, Danish health care policies and family planning services delivery systems are, in the aggregate, more conducive to the promotion of effective contraceptive practice, more instrumental in conveying information to high-risk groups, and more successful in reducing the incidence of unintended pregnancies and induced abortions. One of the major reasons for this difference may stem from the positive and nonambivalent climate of public opinion about sexuality in Denmark and the manner in which health care and family planning services are delivered to all segments of the population regardless of age, income, or location of residence. Research in reproductive behavior is greatly facilitated by the existence of automated population registers.

  2. Regulation of pharmaceutical prices: evidence from a reference price reform in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J; Rønde, Thomas; Ullrich, Hannes

    2014-07-01

    Reference price systems for prescription drugs constitute widely adopted cost containment tools. Under these regimes, patients co-pay a fraction of the difference between a drug's pharmacy retail price and a reference price that is set by the government. Reference prices are either externally (based on drug prices in other countries) or internally (based on domestic drug prices) determined. We study the effects of a change from external to internal reference pricing in Denmark in 2005. We find that the reform led to substantial reductions in retail prices, reference prices and patient co-payments as well as to sizable decreases in overall producer revenues and health care expenditures. The reform induced consumers to substitute away from branded drugs for which we estimate strong preferences. The increase in consumer welfare due to the reform therefore depends on whether or not we take perceived quality differences into account in its calculation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Men's Everyday Health Care: Practices, Tensions and Paradoxes, and Masculinities in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Nina

    2017-01-01

    My interest is in how masculinities are enacted and implicated in different care repertoires. Drawing on Mol's notion of "logic of care," I illustrate that in Denmark some men's care practices are an integral part of their life projects, and so they target both the human body, and sociality and relationality, as everyday care. In this way, men enact, embody, and weave together a self- and other-directed "caring masculinity" with practices of autonomy, self-discipline, and the aestheticization of male bodies. Contesting and enriching familiar framings of men's health care and masculinities, I draw attention to the value of considering practices of health care beyond individualized experiences, and of acknowledging the complex patterns of masculinity in health and illness.

  4. Heritability in political interest and efficacy across cultures: Denmark and the United States.

    PubMed

    Klemmensen, Robert; Hatemi, Peter K; Hobolt, Sara B; Skytthe, Axel; Nørgaard, Asbjørn S

    2012-02-01

    Interest in politics is important for a host of political behaviors and beliefs. Yet little is known about where political interest comes from. Most studies exploring the source of political interest focus on parental influences, economic status, and opportunity. Here, we investigate an alternative source: genetic transmission. Using two twin samples, one drawn from Denmark and the other from USA, we find that there is a high degree of heritability in political interest. Furthermore, we show that interest in politics and political efficacy share the same underlying, latent genetic factor. These findings add to the growing body of literature that documents political behaviors and attitudes as not simply the result of socialization, but also as part of an individual's genetically informed disposition.

  5. Application and development of IR techniques for building and construction sector in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melballe, Jens A.

    1990-03-01

    In Denmark IR-techniques have found a widespend use in the Building and Construction sector. The applications include control of insulation level of buildings, district heating networks, transformer stations, electrical networks and water pipes in buildings, electrically heated floors, etc. In this paper is first described the Danish voluntary system for inspection of building insulation. This work is supervised by a government agency. Some examples are given on how these activities are carried out in practice. An important question is how to develop IR-techniques for new applications and how to transfer this knowledge for practical use. In this paper we describe how activities of this kind are carried out in cooperation with government bodies, research organizations and users of thermography. Important aspects discussed include the initialization of development projects, the financial aspects, the organization of projects of this kind and the technology transfer. Some examples are given from work of this kind.

  6. A roller-like bird (Coracii) from the Early Eocene of Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Bourdon, Estelle; Kristoffersen, Anette V.; Bonde, Niels

    2016-01-01

    The fossil record of crown group birds (Neornithes) prior to the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary is scarce and fragmentary. Early Cenozoic bird fossils are more abundant, but are typically disarticulated and/or flattened. Here we report the oldest roller (Coracii), Septencoracias morsensis gen. et sp. nov. (Primobucconidae), based on a new specimen from the Early Eocene (about 54 million years ago) Fur Formation of Denmark. The new fossil is a nearly complete, three-dimensionally preserved and articulated skeleton. It lies at the lower end of the size range for extant rollers. Salient diagnostic features of Septencoracias relative to other Coracii include the proportionally larger skull and the small, ovoid and dorsally positioned narial openings. Our discovery adds to the evidence that the Coracii had a widespread northern hemisphere distribution in the Eocene. Septencoracias is the oldest substantial record of the Picocoraciae and provides a reliable calibration point for molecular phylogenetic studies. PMID:27670387

  7. HOMED-homicides eastern Denmark: an introduction to a forensic medical homicide database.

    PubMed

    Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Frisch, Morten; Lynnerup, Niels; Theilade, Peter

    2014-11-01

    An introduction to a forensic medical homicide database established at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Copenhagen. The database contains substantial clinical and demographic data obtained in conjunction with medico-legal autopsies of victims and forensic clinical examinations of perpetrators in homicide cases in eastern Denmark. The database contains information on all homicide cases investigated at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Copenhagen since 1971. Coverage for the catchment area of the department is assumed to be very good because of a medico-legal homicide autopsy rate close to 100%. Regional differences might exist however, due to the fact that the catchment area of the department is dominated by the city of Copenhagen. The strength of the database includes a long running time, near complete regional coverage and an exhaustive list of registered variables it is useful for research purposes, although specific data limitations apply. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  8. Integrative care and bridge building among health care providers in Norway and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Gamst, Are; Haahr, Niels; Kristoffersen, Agnete Egilsdatter; Launsø, Laila

    2006-03-01

    Patients in Norway and Demmark with the medical diagnoses of cancer, multiple sclerosis (MS), and HIV/AIDS use complementary and alternative treatment (CAT) in growing numbers, most often in addition to receiving conventional treatment. At the same time, the interest and demand from patients for more holistic-oriented care is strongly increasing. Following this, there is a desire and need for better communication and cooperation among the conventional medical establishment, CAT practitioners, and patients. This development raises new demands on research designs to incorporate complexity and diversity concerning the intervention, effect mechanisms, and outcomes. This article outlines different models used to combine conventional, complementary, and alternative treatment (CCAT), describing various degrees of integration among therapies. The authors are closely involved in three current and planned research projects in Norway and Denmark focusing on cancer, MS, and HIV/AIDS. These research projects are briefly introduced as examples of bridge-building efforts dealing with integrative care. Despite explicit political good will in Norway and Denmark, initiatives to enhance integration face challenges connected to lack of knowledge; resistance toward CCAT; lack of time, space, and economic resources; and patients left without any claim on insurance in the case of treatment failure. These challenges are outlined based on the researchers' experience from being involved in the research projects. To optimize treatment outcomes in the future, it is argued that the need for closer cooperation among conventional and alternative therapists across professional boundaries in an interactive partnership with patients is evident. Researchers have to rethink research design and methods in meeting the new trend toward bridge building based on integrative health care.

  9. Social disparities in diabetes care: a general population study in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Heltberg, Andreas; Andersen, John Sahl; Kragstrup, Jakob; Siersma, Volkert; Sandholdt, Håkon; Ellervik, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Objective We investigated the association between socioeconomic factors and the attainment of treatment goals and pharmacotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes in Denmark. Design A cross-sectional population study. Setting The municipality of Naestved, Denmark. Subjects We studied 907 patients with type 2 diabetes identified from a random sample of 21,205 Danish citizens. Main outcome measures The proportion of patients who were not achieving goals for diabetes care based on their HbA1c, LDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and lifestyle, and the proportion of patients who were treated with antihypertensive and cholesterol- and glucose-lowering medication. Methods We investigated the association of the socioeconomic factors such as age, gender, education, occupation, income, and civil status and attainment of treatment goals and pharmacotherapy in logistic regression analyses. We investigated effect modification of cardiovascular disease and kidney disease. Results Middle age (40–65 years), low education level (i.e. basic schooling), and low household income (i.e. less than 21,400 € per year) were associated with nonattainment of goals for diabetes care. The association of socioeconomic factors with attainment of individual treatment goals varied. Patients with low socioeconomic status were more often obese, physically inactive, smoking, and had elevated blood pressure. Socioeconomic factors were not associated with treatment goals for hyperglycemia. Socioeconomic factors were inconsistently associated with pharmacotherapy. There was no difference in contacts to general practitioners according to SES. Conclusions In a country with free access to health care, the socioeconomic factors such as middle age, low education, and low income were associated with nonattainment of goals for diabetes care. Key points Middle age, low education, and low income were associated with nonattainment of goals for diabetes care, especially for lifestyle goals. Patients with low

  10. Human exposure to carcinogens in ambient air in Denmark, Finland and Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauser, P.; Ketzel, M.; Becker, T.; Plejdrup, M. S.; Brandt, J.; Gidhagen, L.; Omstedt, G.; Skårman, T.; Bartonova, A.; Schwarze, P.; Karvosenoja, N.; Paunu, V.-V.; Kukkonen, J.; Karppinen, A.

    2017-10-01

    The concentrations of seventeen pollutants (particulate mass fractions PM2.5 and PM10, a range of metals, inorganic gases and organic compounds) are for the first time analyzed in a screening of the carcinogenic risk at a resolution of 1 × 1 km2 in ambient air in three Nordic countries. Modelled annual mean air concentrations in 2010 show no exceedances of the EU air quality limit, guideline or target values. The only modelled exceedance of US-EPA 1:100,000 cancer risk concentrations (0.12 ng/m3, US-EPA IRIS, 2015) occurs for B(a)P in Denmark, for approximately 80% of the Danish population. However, the EU target value threshold of 1 ng/m3 for B(a)P is not exceeded in the modelled values in any parts of Denmark. No emission data for B(a)P were available for the whole domain of the other two considered Nordic countries and important uncertainties are still related to the emissions. Long-range transport is significant for the concentrations of all of the considered pollutants, except for B(a)P that commonly originates mostly from local residential wood combustion. The ambient air concentrations of NOx, SO2, Cd, Cr and Pb also have significant contributions from national sources; 45-65% for NOx and SO2, and for the metals from 15 to 60% in urban areas and from 1 to 20% in rural areas, within the considered Nordic area. High national contributions occur especially in urban air, due to primarily road traffic, residential wood combustion, energy production and industrial point sources. It is recommended to monitor the influence from residential wood combustion more extensively, and to analyze longer time trends for long-term human exposure.

  11. Gastrointestinal parasites of cats in Denmark assessed by necropsy and concentration McMaster technique.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi-Storm, N; Mejer, H; Al-Sabi, M N S; Olsen, C S; Thamsborg, S M; Enemark, H L

    2015-12-15

    The large population of feral cats in Denmark may potentially transmit pathogens to household cats and zoonotic parasites to humans. A total of 99 euthanized cats; feral cats (n=92) and household cats with outdoor access (n=7), were collected from March to May 2014 from the Zealand region, Denmark. The sedimentation and counting technique (SCT) was used to isolate helminths and coproscopy was done by concentration McMaster technique (c-McMaster). Overall, 90.1% of the cats were infected and a total of 10 species were recorded by SCT: 5 nematode species: Toxocara cati (84.8%), Ollulanus tricuspis (13.1%), Aonchotheca putorii (7.1%), Paersonema spp. (3.0%), Strongyloides spp. (1.0%); 3 cestodes: Hydatigera taeniaeformis (36.4%), Mesocestoides sp. (3.0%), Dipylidium caninum (1.0%); and 2 trematodes: Cryptocotyle spp. (5.1%) and Pseudamphistomum truncatum (1.0%). O. tricuspis was the second most common gastrointestinal nematode of cats but had the highest intensity of infection. For T. cati, prevalence and worm burden were significantly higher in feral than household cats. No juvenile cats were infected with H. taeniaeformis, and age thus had a significant effect on prevalence and worm burdens of this species. Rural cats had a higher prevalence and worm burden of A. putorii than urban cats. By c-McMaster, ascarid, capillarid, strongylid or taeniid type eggs were found in 77.9% of the cats while Cystoisospora felis was found in 2.1%. The sensitivity of the c-McMaster was 82.5% for T. cati but 26.5% for taeniid eggs, using the SCT as gold standard. A positive correlation between faecal egg counts and worm burdens was seen for T. cati, but not for taeniid eggs (assumed to be H. taeniaeformis). Coprological examination also detected the eggs of extraintestinal Capillariidae species including Eucoleus aerophilus and Eucoleus boehmi, but further necropsy studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  12. Social disparities in diabetes care: a general population study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Heltberg, Andreas; Andersen, John Sahl; Kragstrup, Jakob; Siersma, Volkert; Sandholdt, Håkon; Ellervik, Christina

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the association between socioeconomic factors and the attainment of treatment goals and pharmacotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes in Denmark. A cross-sectional population study. The municipality of Naestved, Denmark. We studied 907 patients with type 2 diabetes identified from a random sample of 21,205 Danish citizens. The proportion of patients who were not achieving goals for diabetes care based on their HbA1c, LDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and lifestyle, and the proportion of patients who were treated with antihypertensive and cholesterol- and glucose-lowering medication. We investigated the association of the socioeconomic factors such as age, gender, education, occupation, income, and civil status and attainment of treatment goals and pharmacotherapy in logistic regression analyses. We investigated effect modification of cardiovascular disease and kidney disease. Middle age (40-65 years), low education level (i.e. basic schooling), and low household income (i.e. less than 21,400 € per year) were associated with nonattainment of goals for diabetes care. The association of socioeconomic factors with attainment of individual treatment goals varied. Patients with low socioeconomic status were more often obese, physically inactive, smoking, and had elevated blood pressure. Socioeconomic factors were not associated with treatment goals for hyperglycemia. Socioeconomic factors were inconsistently associated with pharmacotherapy. There was no difference in contacts to general practitioners according to SES. In a country with free access to health care, the socioeconomic factors such as middle age, low education, and low income were associated with nonattainment of goals for diabetes care. KEY POINTS Middle age, low education, and low income were associated with nonattainment of goals for diabetes care, especially for lifestyle goals. Patients with low socioeconomic status were more often obese, physically inactive, smoking, and had elevated

  13. Social and demographic drivers of trend and seasonality in elective abortions in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Bruckner, Tim A; Mortensen, Laust H; Catalano, Ralph A

    2017-07-04

    Elective abortions show a secular decline in high income countries. That general pattern, however, may mask meaningful differences-and a potentially rising trend-among age, income, and other racial/ethnic groups. We explore these differences in Denmark, a high-income, low-fertility country with excellent data on terminations and births. We examined monthly elective abortions (n = 225,287) from 1995 to 2009, by maternal age, parity, income level and mother's country of origin. We applied time-series methods to live births as well as spontaneous and elective abortions to approximate the denominator of pregnancies at risk of elective abortion. We used linear regression methods to identify trend and seasonal patterns. Despite an overall declining trend, teenage women show a rising proportion of pregnancies that end in an elective termination (56% to 67%, 1995 to 2009). Non-Western immigrant women also show a slight increase in incidence. Heightened economic disadvantage among non-Western immigrant women does not account for this rise. Elective abortions also show a sustained "summer peak" in June, July and August. Low-income women show the most pronounced summer peak. Identification of the causes of the increase over time in elective abortion among young women, and separately among non-Western immigrant women, represents key areas of further inquiry. The unexpected increase over time in elective abortions among teens and non-Western immigrants in Denmark may signal important social and cultural impediments to contraception. The summer peak in abortions among low-income women, moreover, conflicts with the conventional assumption that the social and demographic composition of mothers who electively end their pregnancy remains stable within a calendar year.

  14. High exposure rates of anticoagulant rodenticides in predatory bird species in intensively managed landscapes in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Thomas Kjær; Lassen, Pia; Elmeros, Morten

    2012-10-01

    The extensive use of anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) for rodent control has led to widespread secondary exposure in nontarget predatory wildlife species. We investigated exposure rates and concentrations of five ARs in liver samples from five raptors and six owls from Denmark. A total of 430 birds were analysed. ARs were detected in 84-100 % of individual birds within each species. Multiple AR exposure was detected in 73 % of all birds. Average number of substances detected in individual birds was 2.2 with no differences between owls and raptors. Difenacoum, bromadiolone, and brodifacoum were the most prevalent substances and occurred in the highest concentrations. Second-generation ARs made up 96 % of the summed AR burden. Among the six core species (sample size >30), summed AR concentrations were lower in rough-legged buzzard (Buteo lagopus) and long-eared owl (Asio otus) than in barn owl (Tyto alba), buzzard (B. buteo), kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), and tawny owl (Strix aluco). There was a strong tendency for seasonal variations in the summed AR concentration with levels being lowest during autumn, which is probably related to an influx of less-exposed migrating birds from northern Scandinavia during autumn. High hepatic AR residue concentrations (>100 ng/g wet weight), which have been associated with symptoms of rodenticide poisoning and increased mortality, were recorded high frequencies (12.9-37.4 %) in five of the six core species. The results suggest that the present use of ARs in Denmark, at least locally, may have adverse effects on reproduction and, ultimately, population status in some raptors and owls.

  15. Healthism in Denmark: State, market, and the search for a "Moral Compass".

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Dorthe Brogård; Lim, Ming; Askegaard, Søren

    2016-09-01

    This article focuses on contemporary responses to public health messages in Denmark, a country whose system of social welfare is, like that of the United Kingdom and the rest of Europe, undergoing increasing levels of marketization and privatization. Drawing primarily upon Robert Crawford's analysis of healthism as a neoliberal project, the aim of this article is to develop critical understandings of how individuals respond both bodily and emotionally to ideologies of health and the body in the context of a changing marketplace for the consumption of health and its messages. This article will analyze perceptions and practices of health in Denmark. The findings will then be discussed in relation to dimensions inspired by the work of Crawford, who regards "health" as a "super-value," an outcome of individual security strategies, and mode of citizenship in the marketplace. The article argues that Crawford's discussion does not fully capture the ways in which people use their bodies to valorize themselves. First, the perception of the state is perceived as being aligned with commercial interests. As a consequence, neither state- nor market-based (i.e. commercial health product and service providers) health advice is fully trusted. Instead, the opinions of non-market actors such as peers and friends as well as of alternative practitioners that are considered outside the market since they do not represent corporate interests become more attractive among citizen-consumers who are concerned about their health. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of our findings for theorization of public health and health policy.

  16. Leprosy in Denmark 1980-2010: a review of 15 cases.

    PubMed

    Aftab, Huma; Nielsen, Susanne D; Bygbjerg, Ib C

    2016-01-05

    Leprosy, caused by Mycobacterium leprae, is a chronic and progressive granulomatous disease affecting mainly the skin and the peripheral nervous system. If left unrecognized, the infection can lead to permanent nerve damage and disability. The clinical presentation depends on the immune response of the patient and can result in a wide spectrum of symptoms. Leprosy is a rare encounter in Scandinavia but remains endemic in some parts of the world, with some areas reporting an increasing incidence. We performed a retrospective record review of leprosy cases in Denmark from 1980 to 2010 with the purpose of presenting the most common geographical, demographic and clinical findings and to discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges of patients with leprosy. In total 15 cases were reviewed. The majority (87%) of leprosy patients in Denmark were born in South- and Southeast Asia, and were presumed to have contracted the infection in their countries of origin. Patients were predominately young males (mean age: 28.6 years). Anaesthetic skin lesion with or without nerve enlargement were the most common clinical presentations (73%). Immunological leprosy reactions were seen in 40% of the cases. Diagnoses were based on clinical findings and skin biopsies. Treatment length varied but all patients received multidrug regimens. Leprosy should be kept in mind when encountering patients with suspicious skin lesions originating from leprosy endemic areas or with history of travel or work in the tropics. Due to the long incubation period with symptoms presenting long after immigration or return, clinicians often do not have the diagnosis in mind. The wide spectrum of symptoms and immunological reactions further complicates the diagnostic process. Treatment of leprosy and the complicated immunological reactions, which frequently accompanies the infection, should be performed in collaboration with a specialist.

  17. Spatial localization and mesoscale modulation of mixing and transformation of the Denmark Strait Overflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koszalka, Inga; Haine, Thomas; Magaldi, Marcello

    2015-04-01

    The Denmark Strait Overflow (DSO) is a major export route for dense waters from the Nordic Seas forming the North Atlantic Deep Water, an important element of the climate system. Mixing processes in the Irminger Basin determine volume transport and properties of the DSO but are poorly resolved by sparse observations which hinders development of DSO mixing parameterizations in global circulation models (GCMs). We employ a high resolution circulation model (horizontal grid spacing of 2km and 210 levels in the vertical) to investigate transformation and mixing in the DSO in the Irminger Basin and quantify the effect of mesoscale (10-100km) flows unresolved by GCMs. Both the warming rate derived from model Lagrangian particles and the Eulerian eddy temperature flux divergence show elevated values in about a 200km long and 50km wide corridor downstream of the Denmark Strait sill and between the shelf break and the 2000m isobath. In this region, the DSO warms by about 1K, which constitutes most of the transformation along the entire 700km pathway in the Irminger Basin. The horizontal and vertical mixing is modulated by dense water boluses and overlying cyclonic eddies that propagate together through the Irminger Basin (`beddies'). The passage of beddies increase the squared vertical shear of horizontal velocity by a factor of 3, correspond to increase in the vertical velocity by ten times and double the eddy heat flux divergence leading to a warming of the bottom (densest) waters and a cooling of the interface layer of the overflow plume and the ambient water above. There is a clear correlation between the speed in the nose of the plume, the eddy kinetic energy and the vertical shear in the horizontal flow. The modulation of mixing by the mesoscale variability and the attendant mixing localization should be included in future overflow parameterizations in global circulation models. A targeted field campaign to empirically test these conjectures is another high priority.

  18. Trends in melanoma in the elderly in Denmark, 1980-2012.

    PubMed

    Hoejberg, Lise; Gad, Dorte; Gyldenkerne, Niels; Bastholt, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma is rising in Denmark. In the present paper we describe incidence, mortality and survival in Denmark from 1980 to 2012 focusing on age, comparing persons aged 70 years or more with those aged less than 70 years. Melanoma was defined as ICD-10 code C43. Data derived from the NORDCAN database with comparable data on incidence, mortality, survival in the Nordic countries, where the Danish data were delivered from the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Cause of Death Registry with follow-up until the end of 2013. In 1980, 21.4% of the patients diagnosed with melanoma were older than 70 years compared to 28.4% in 2012. In persons aged less than 70 years, the incidence rate was higher among women than in men, but men aged 70-89 years had an incidence rate almost twice that of women. Incidence rates were increasing, particularly among the elderly. In 1980, 32.6% of the patients who died from melanoma were older than 69 years compared to 56.2% in 2012. In 1980, the mortality rate was 121.4 per 100,000 person years, increasing to 353.1 in 2012. For the younger patients, the mortality rates are only slight increasing, but for the elder patients the mortality rates are increasing dramatically. In general the survival has increased for all age groups over the years. The incidence rates for all age groups are rising. The increase was mainly caused by a rising incidence among the elderly. Mortality among Danish patients with melanoma is increasing and especially the mortality in the elderly. This important knowledge must be kept in mind when future treatment strategies are planned.

  19. Providing medical care for undocumented migrants in Denmark: what are the challenges for health professionals?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The rights of undocumented migrants are frequently overlooked. Denmark has ratified several international conventions recognizing the right to health care for all human beings, but has very scanty legislation and no existing policies for providing health care to undocumented migrants. This study focuses on how health professionals navigate and how they experience providing treatment for undocumented migrants in the Danish health care system. Methods The study was carried out as part of an EU-project on European Best Practices in Access, Quality and Appropriateness of Health Services for Immigrants in Europe (EUGATE). This presentation is based on 12 semi-structured interviews with general practitioners (9) and emergency room physicians (3) in Denmark. Results The emergency room physicians express that treatment of undocumented migrants is no different from the treatment of any other person. However, care may become more complicated due to lack of previous medical records and contact persons. Contrary to this, general practitioners explain that undocumented migrants will encounter formal barriers when trying to obtain treatment. Additional problems in the treatment of undocumented migrants include language issues, financial aspects for general practitioners, concerns about how to handle the situation including possibilities of further referrals, and an uncertainty as to whether to involve the police. Conclusions The health professionals in our study describe that undocumented migrants experience an unequal access to primary care facilities and that great uncertainties exist amongst health professionals as how to respond in such situations. The lack of official policies concerning the right to health care for undocumented migrants continue to pass on the responsibility to health professionals and, thereby, leaves it up to the individual to decide whether treatment can be obtained or not. PMID:21711562

  20. [Last resort? Some incidents in the history of psychosurgery in Denmark].

    PubMed

    Kragh, Jesper Vaczy

    2007-01-01

    In 1935 psychosurgery was invented in Portugal by Egas Moniz. A few years later the new therapy for psychiatric patients were introduced and widely used in Danish mental hospitals. Why did Danish psychiatrists utilize an uncertain and unsafe treatment, and what conditions contributed to the extensive use of psychosurgery in Denmark? To answer these questions, this article focuses on the large archives from the Directorate of the State Mental Hospitals and various mental hospitals in order to investigate the negotiations regarding psychosurgery. Especially the case notes from the State Mental Hospital in Vordingborg, a hospital with 850 beds in southern Zealand, give an insight into the doctors' considerations, when they contemplated on using psychosurgery. In the archive in Vordingborg 336 patient records from lobotomized patients have been found and subjected to statistical analysis in this article. The analysis of the patient records from Vordingborg and other state mental hospitals shows that the practise of lobotomy was a complex matter, and a number of different factors played a part in the wide use of the therapy in Denmark. Especially the dire conditions of the mental hospitals in the 1940s and 1950s made doctors consider psychosurgery a solution for the many patients living a miserable life in the back wards of the hospitals. Patients, who had spent years of their lives in the hospital's "disturbed wards", were particularly exposed to psychosurgery. In the patients records the most common indications for psychosurgery were "unruly" and "aggressive" behaviour, but other factors such as the patient's lengths of stay in the hospital, patients racked with pain, and lack of response to other somatic treatments could also prompt psychiatrists to employ lobotomy.

  1. Hospitalization rates and prognosis of patients with anaphylactic shock in Denmark from 1995 through 2012.

    PubMed

    Jeppesen, Anni Nørgaard; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo; Frøslev, Trine; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2016-04-01

    Anaphylactic shock (AS) is an acute, potentially life-threatening hypersensitivity reaction. There are limited population-based data on changes in the hospitalization rate and prognosis of AS. We sought to examine the proportion of patients with AS admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU), the prognosis of AS, and time trends in AS hospitalization rates in Denmark from 1995 through 2012. We performed a population-based cohort study in Denmark from 1995 through 2012 (cumulative population, 7.1 million) using the Danish National Patient Registry and the Danish Civil Registration System. Outcomes included time trends in first-time AS hospitalization rates, percentage admitted to an ICU, and 30-day mortality overall and stratified by year. We included 6,707 patients with a first-time hospitalization for AS during 103,747,997 person-years of observation time. The average AS hospitalization rate was 64.6 (95% CI, 63.1-66.2) per 1,000,000 person-years. From 1995 to 2012, the annual AS hospitalization rate increased more than 2-fold (rate ratio, 2.6; 95% CI, 2.2-3.0). However, the annual hospitalization rate in children increased 10-fold (rate ratio, 10.75; 95% CI, 5.59-20.67). Only 0.7% of patients died within 30 days after admission (50 deaths), and most fatal AS cases occurred among patients aged 30 years or older. During the 2005-2012 period, 14.5% of patients hospitalized with AS were admitted to an ICU. The AS hospitalization rate increased from 1995 to 2012; however, the 30-day mortality was less than 1%. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Equine parasite control under prescription-only conditions in Denmark--awareness, knowledge, perception, and strategies applied.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, M K; Reist, M; Kaplan, R M; Pfister, K; van Doorn, D C K; Becher, A

    2014-07-30

    Due to widespread development of anthelmintic resistance in equine parasites, recommendations for their control are currently undergoing marked changes with a shift of emphasis toward more coprological surveillance and reduced treatment intensity. Denmark was the first nation to introduce prescription-only restrictions of anthelmintic drugs in 1999, but other European countries have implemented similar legislations over recent years. A questionnaire survey was performed in 2008 among Danish horse owners to provide a current status of practices and perceptions with relation to parasite control. Questions aimed at describing the current use of coprological surveillance and resulting anthelmintic treatment intensities, evaluating knowledge and perceptions about the importance of various attributes of parasite control, and assessing respondents' willingness to pay for advice and parasite surveillance services from their veterinarians. A total of 1060 respondents completed the questionnaire. A large majority of respondents (71.9%) were familiar with the concept of selective therapy. Results illustrated that the respondents' self-evaluation of their knowledge about parasites and their control associated significantly with their level of interest in the topic and their type of education (P<0.0001). The large majority of respondents either dewormed their horses twice a year and/or performed two fecal egg counts per horse per year. This approach was almost equally pronounced in foals, horses aged 1-3 years old, and adult horses. The respondents rated prevention of parasitic disease and prevention of drug resistance as the most important attributes, while cost and frequent fecal testing were rated least important. Respondents' actual spending on parasite control per horse in the previous year correlated significantly with the amount they declared themselves willing to spend (P<0.0001). However, 44.4% declared themselves willing to pay more than what they were spending

  3. Wind Technology, Cost, and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the European Union, and the United States: 2007 - 2012; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, Maureen

    2015-06-15

    This presentation provides a summary of IEA Wind Task 26 report on Wind Technology, Cost, and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the European Union, and the United States: 2007-2012

  4. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and mutagenicity in bus drivers and mail carriers exposed to urban air pollution in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Ase Marie; Wallin, Håkan; Binderup, Mona Lise; Dybdahl, Marianne; Autrup, Herman; Loft, Steffen; Knudsen, Lisbeth Ehlert

    2004-01-10

    Previous studies in Denmark have shown that bus drivers and tramway employees were at an increased risk for developing several types of cancer and that bus drives from central Copenhagen have high levels of biomarkers of DNA damage. The present study evaluates 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations and mutagenic activity in urine as biomarkers of exposure in non-smoking bus drivers in city and rural areas on a work day and a day off and in non-smoking mail carriers working outdoors (in the streets) and indoors (in the office). Twenty-four hour urine samples were collected on a working day and a day off from 60 non-smoking bus drivers in city and rural areas and from 88 non-smoking mail carriers working outdoors (in the streets) and indoors (in the office). The concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene was measured by means of HPLC and the mutagenic activity was assessed by the Ames assay with Salmonella tester strain YG1021 and S9 mix. The N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) phenotype was used as a biomarker for susceptibility to mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds. Bus drivers excreted more 1-hydroxypyrene in urine than did mail carriers. The differences were slightly smaller when NAT2 phenotype, cooking at home, exposure to vehicle exhaust, and performing physical exercise after work were included. The NAT2 slow acetylators had 29% (1.29 [CI: 1.15-1.98]) higher 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in urine than the fast acetylators. Male bus drivers had 0.92 revertants/mol creatinine [CI: 0.37-1.47] and female bus drivers 1.90 revertants/mol creatinine [CI: 1.01-2.79] higher mutagenic activity in urine than mail carriers. The present study indicates that bus drivers are more exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and mutagens than mail carriers. Mail carriers who worked outdoors had higher urinary concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene, a marker of exposure to PAH, than those working indoors. The individual levels of urinary mutagenic activity were not correlated to excretion of 1

  5. Genetic population structure of the prosobranch snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray) in Denmark using PCR-RAPD fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, R; Forbes, V E; Skovgaard, O

    1996-08-22

    Parthenogenetic species are often more widely distributed geographically than their sexual relatives. This success in colonizing can be explained either by dispersal of one or a few clones of wide physiological tolerance or by the distribution of many locally adapted clones. Here we test the hypothesis that successfully invading clones of Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray) are composed of a few broadly adapted genotypes by using polymerase chain reaction random amplified polymorphic DNA (PCR-RAPD) fingerprinting on six different populations of P. antipodarum from Denmark and three morphotypes of P. antipodarum from Britain. We detected two genotypes of P. antipodarum in six populations examined across Denmark using four decamer primers. The two genotypes were found to be morphologically and genetically indistinguishable from British P. antipodarum. In five of the six Danish populations only one genotype was found; at the remaining site, the two genotypes occurred sympatrically. The present study suggests that P. antipodarum successfully invaded Europe by the proliferation of very few clones.

  6. Cancer patient pathways in Denmark as a joint effort between bureaucrats, health professionals and politicians--a national Danish project.

    PubMed

    Probst, Helene Bilsted; Hussain, Zubair Butt; Andersen, Ole

    2012-04-01

    In 2007 and 2008 Danish Cancer Patient Pathways for 32 cancer types were developed and afterwards implemented on a national scale. Often bureaucrats, health professionals and politicians look upon the health sector in different ways and work independent of each other. In Denmark, as indeed internationally, patient pathways are frequently developed solely by health professionals and the consequence may be major difficulties in implementing the pathways on a national scale. In this article we describe how national Danish Cancer Patient Pathways were developed with a consensus seeking model and the impact it has had on the health system. The model used in Denmark ensured involvement and cooperation between bureaucrats, health professionals and politicians and afterwards a successful national implementation. The Cancer Patient Pathways has significantly reduced waiting times which is thought to increase survival. This experience gives important input to the continuous challenges on how to implement evidence based medicine on a national scale and stipulates a model for this process.

  7. The existential dimension in general practice: identifying understandings and experiences of general practitioners in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Assing Hvidt, Elisabeth; Søndergaard, Jens; Ammentorp, Jette; Bjerrum, Lars; Gilså Hansen, Dorte; Olesen, Frede; Pedersen, Susanne S; Timm, Helle; Timmermann, Connie; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study is to identify points of agreement and disagreements among general practitioners (GPs) in Denmark concerning how the existential dimension is understood, and when and how it is integrated in the GP-patient encounter. A qualitative methodology with semi-structured focus group interviews was employed. General practice setting in Denmark. Thirty-one GPs from two Danish regions between 38 and 68 years of age participated in seven focus group interviews. Although understood to involve broad life conditions such as present and future being and identity, connectedness to a society and to other people, the existential dimension was primarily reported integrated in connection with life-threatening diseases and death. Furthermore, integration of the existential dimension was characterized as unsystematic and intuitive. Communication about religious or spiritual questions was mostly avoided by GPs due to shyness and perceived lack of expertise. GPs also reported infrequent referrals of patients to chaplains. GPs integrate issues related to the existential dimension in implicit and non-standardized ways and are hindered by cultural barriers. As a way to enhance a practice culture in which GPs pay more explicit attention to the patients' multidimensional concerns, opportunities for professional development could be offered (courses or seminars) that focus on mutual sharing of existential reflections, ideas and communication competencies. Key points Although integration of the existential dimension is recommended for patient care in general practice, little is known about GPs' understanding and integration of this dimension in the GP-patient encounter. The existential dimension is understood to involve broad and universal life conditions having no explicit reference to spiritual or religious aspects. The integration of the existential dimension is delimited to patient cases where life-threatening diseases, life crises and unexplainable patient

  8. Secondary depression in severe anxiety disorders: a population-based cohort study in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Sandra M; Petersen, Liselotte; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mors, Ole; Mortensen, Preben B; Laursen, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Depression and anxiety disorders are highly comorbid conditions and a worldwide disease burden; however, large-scale studies delineating their association are scarce. In this retrospective study, we aimed to assess the effect of severe anxiety disorders on the risk and course of depression. Methods We did a population-based cohort study with prospectively gathered data in Denmark using data from three Danish population registers: The Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and the Danish National Hospital Registry. We selected the cohort from people born in Denmark between Jan 1, 1955, and Dec 31, 2002, who we followed up from Jan 1, 1994, to Dec 31, 2012. The cohort was restricted to individuals with known parents. First, we investigated the effect of specific anxiety diagnoses on risk of single depressive episodes and recurrent depressive disorder. Second, we investigated the effect of comorbid anxiety on risk of readmission for depression, adjusting for sex, age, calendar year, parental age, place at residence at time of birth, and the interaction of age with sex. Findings We included 3 380 059 individuals in our study cohort. The adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) for single depressive episodes was 3·0 (95% CI 2·8–3·1, p<0·0001) and for recurrent depressive disorder was 5·0 (4·8–5·2) in patients with severe anxiety disorders compared with the general population. Compared with control individuals, the offspring of parents with anxiety disorders were more likely to be diagnosed with single depressive episodes (1·9, 1·8–2·0) or recurrent depressive disorder (2·1, 1·9–2·2). Comorbid anxiety increased the readmission rates in both patients with single depressive episodes and patients with recurrent depressive disorder. Interpretation Severe anxiety constitutes a significant risk factor for depression. Focusing on specific anxiety disorders might help to identify individuals at risk of

  9. Atmospheric trajectory and heliocentric orbit of the Ejby meteorite fall in Denmark on February 6, 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spurný, P.; Borovička, J.; Baumgarten, G.; Haack, H.; Heinlein, D.; Sørensen, A. N.

    2017-09-01

    A very bright bolide illuminated the sky over Denmark and neighboring countries on February 6th, 2016 at 21:07:18-23UT. It terminated by a multiple meteorite fall in the heavily populated area of the western outskirts of Copenhagen. Several meteorites classified as the H5/6 ordinary chondrites have been found shortly after the fall and total recovered mass reached almost 9 kg (Haack, 2016). Although this spectacular bolide has been reported by many casual witnesses, the instrumental records are very scarce, mainly due to bad weather over Denmark and neighboring countries. Despite it we were able to collect five instrumental records taken from different locations which were useful for the analysis of this event. We used three high resolution digital photographic images taken in Germany, one high resolution radiometric light curve taken by the northernmost Czech automated fireball observatory and one video record taken by a surveillance camera on the Danish west coast where a part of the fireball trajectory was recorded. It allowed us to reliably determine basic parameters defining the luminous trajectory of the bolide in the atmosphere and also heliocentric orbit of the initial meteoroid causing this spectacular meteorite fall. We found that this event was caused by a relatively fragile 50 cm meteoroid with initial mass about 250 kg. It entered the atmosphere with velocity of 14.5 km s-1 and quite steep entry angle of 62°. Its luminous flight started at 85.5 km and after 76 km long trajectory it terminated at 18.3 km. The heliocentric orbit of this meteoroid was of Apollo type with low inclination of 1° and perihelion distance just inside the Earth's orbit. It had a relatively large semimajor axis of 2.8 AU and aphelion distance 4.64 AU. It is the second largest aphelion distance among all meteorites with known orbits and the orbit had the same character as that of the Košice meteorite (H5 ordinary chondrite), which fell on February 28, 2010 (Borovička et al

  10. Secondary depression in severe anxiety disorders: a population-based cohort study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Meier, Sandra M; Petersen, Liselotte; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mors, Ole; Mortensen, Preben B; Laursen, Thomas M

    2015-06-01

    Depression and anxiety disorders are highly comorbid conditions and a worldwide disease burden; however, large-scale studies delineating their association are scarce. In this retrospective study, we aimed to assess the effect of severe anxiety disorders on the risk and course of depression. We did a population-based cohort study with prospectively gathered data in Denmark using data from three Danish population registers: The Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and the Danish National Hospital Registry. We selected the cohort from people born in Denmark between Jan 1, 1955, and Dec 31, 2002, who we followed up from Jan 1, 1994, to Dec 31, 2012. The cohort was restricted to individuals with known parents. First, we investigated the effect of specific anxiety diagnoses on risk of single depressive episodes and recurrent depressive disorder. Second, we investigated the effect of comorbid anxiety on risk of readmission for depression, adjusting for sex, age, calendar year, parental age, place at residence at time of birth, and the interaction of age with sex. We included 3,380,059 individuals in our study cohort. The adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) for single depressive episodes was 3·0 (95% CI 2·8-3·1, p<0·0001) and for recurrent depressive disorder was 5·0 (4·8-5·2) in patients with severe anxiety disorders compared with the general population. Compared with control individuals, the offspring of parents with anxiety disorders were more likely to be diagnosed with single depressive episodes (1·9, 1·8-2·0) or recurrent depressive disorder (2·1, 1·9-2·2). Comorbid anxiety increased the readmission rates in both patients with single depressive episodes and patients with recurrent depressive disorder. Severe anxiety constitutes a significant risk factor for depression. Focusing on specific anxiety disorders might help to identify individuals at risk of depression, thereby providing new insights for prevention and

  11. Farmer driven national monitoring of nitrogen concentrations in drainage water in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piil, Kristoffer; Lemming, Camilla; Kolind Hvid, Søren; Knudsen, Leif

    2014-05-01

    Field drains are often considered to short circuit the hydrological cycle in agricultural catchments and lead to an increased risk of nitrogen loss to the environment. Because of increased regulation of agricultural practices due to catchment management plans, resulting from the implementation of the water frame directive, Danish farmers pushed for a large scale monitoring of nitrogen loss from field drains. Therefore, the knowledge centre for agriculture, Denmark, organized a three year campaign where farmers and local agricultural advisory centres collected water samples from field drains three to five times during the winter season. Samples were analysed for nitrate and total nitrogen. Combined, more than 600 drains were monitored over the three years. During the first two years of monitoring, average winter concentrations of total nitrogen ranged from 0.1 mg N L-1 to 31.1 mg N L-1, and the fraction of total nitrogen present as nitrate ranged from 0% to 100%. This variation is much larger than what is observed in the Danish national monitoring and assessment programme, which monitors only a few drains in selected catchments. Statistical analysis revealed that drainage water nitrogen concentrations were significantly correlated to the cropping system and the landscape type (high ground/lowlands/raised seabed) in which the monitored fields were situated. The average total nitrogen concentration was more than 2 mg N L-1 lower on raised seabed than on high ground, and the average fraction of total nitrogen present as nitrate was more than 20% lower. This indicates that substantial nitrate reduction occurs at or above the drain depth on raised sea flats, in particular in the north of Denmark. This inherent nitrogen retention on raised seabed is not taken into account in the current environmental regulation, nor in the first generation catchment management plans. The monitoring program demonstrated large variation in nitrogen concentrations in drainage water, in

  12. The existential dimension in general practice: identifying understandings and experiences of general practitioners in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Assing Hvidt, Elisabeth; Søndergaard, Jens; Ammentorp, Jette; Bjerrum, Lars; Gilså Hansen, Dorte; Olesen, Frede; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Timm, Helle; Timmermann, Connie; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to identify points of agreement and disagreements among general practitioners (GPs) in Denmark concerning how the existential dimension is understood, and when and how it is integrated in the GP–patient encounter. Design A qualitative methodology with semi-structured focus group interviews was employed. Setting General practice setting in Denmark. Subjects Thirty-one GPs from two Danish regions between 38 and 68 years of age participated in seven focus group interviews. Results Although understood to involve broad life conditions such as present and future being and identity, connectedness to a society and to other people, the existential dimension was primarily reported integrated in connection with life-threatening diseases and death. Furthermore, integration of the existential dimension was characterized as unsystematic and intuitive. Communication about religious or spiritual questions was mostly avoided by GPs due to shyness and perceived lack of expertise. GPs also reported infrequent referrals of patients to chaplains. Conclusion GPs integrate issues related to the existential dimension in implicit and non-standardized ways and are hindered by cultural barriers. As a way to enhance a practice culture in which GPs pay more explicit attention to the patients’ multidimensional concerns, opportunities for professional development could be offered (courses or seminars) that focus on mutual sharing of existential reflections, ideas and communication competencies. Key pointsAlthough integration of the existential dimension is recommended for patient care in general practice, little is known about GPs’ understanding and integration of this dimension in the GP–patient encounter.The existential dimension is understood to involve broad and universal life conditions having no explicit reference to spiritual or religious aspects.The integration of the existential dimension is delimited to patient cases where life

  13. Asylum seekers in Denmark--a study of health status and grade of traumatization of newly arrived asylum seekers.

    PubMed

    Masmas, Tania Nicole; Møller, Eva; Buhmannr, Caecilie; Bunch, Vibeke; Jensen, Jean Hald; Hansen, Trine Nørregård; Jørgensen, Louise Møller; Kjaer, Claes; Mannstaedt, Maiken; Oxholm, Annemette; Skau, Jutta; Theilade, Lotte; Worm, Lise; Ekstrøm, Morten

    2008-01-01

    An unknown number of asylum seekers arriving in Denmark have been exposed to torture or have experienced other traumatising events in their country of origin. The health of traumatised asylum seekers, both physically and mentally, is affected upon arrival to Denmark, and time in asylum centres leads to further deterioration in health. One hundred forty-two (N=142) newly arrived asylum seekers were examined at Center Sandholm by Amnesty International Danish Medical Group from the 1st of September until the 31st of December 2007. The asylum seekers came from 33 different countries, primarily representing Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, Syria, and Chechnya. Of the asylum seekers, 45 percent had been exposed to torture--approximately one-third within the year of arrival to Denmark. Unsystematic blows, personal threats or threats to family, degrading treatment, isolation, and witnessing torture of others were the main torture methods reported. The majority of the asylum seekers had witnessed armed conflict, persecution, and imprisonment. The study showed that physical symptoms were approximately twice as frequent and psychological symptoms were approximately two to three times as frequent among torture survivors as among non-tortured asylum seekers. However, even the health of non-tortured asylum seekers was affected. Among the torture survivors, 63 percent fulfilled the criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder, and 30-40 percent of the torture survivors were depressed, in anguish, anxious, and tearful in comparison to 5-10 percent of the non-tortured asylum seekers. Further, 42 percent of torture survivors had torture-related scars. Torture survivors amid newly arrived asylum seekers are an extremely vulnerable group, hence examination and inquiry about the torture history is extremely important in order to identify this population to initiate the necessary medical treatment and social assistance. Amnesty International Danish Medical group is currently planning a follow

  14. Large-scale climate variability and its effects on mean temperature and flowering time of Prunus and Betula in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gormsen, A. K.; Hense, A.; Toldam-Andersen, T. B.; Braun, P.

    2005-08-01

    Large-scale climate variability largely affects average climatic conditions and therefore is likely to influence the phenology of plants. In NW-Europe, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) particularly influences winter climate and, through climate interactions on plants, flowering time of all tree species. In Denmark, like in many other NW-European countries, flowering of most tree species has become earlier since the end of the 1980’s. To quantify a possible relation between NAO and flowering time of tree species, two sources of phenological information from the Copenhagen area (Denmark) were analysed, i.e. pollen counts of the genus Betula and observed first bloom dates of Prunus avium. The Winter NAO explained 29 and 37% of the variation of monthly mean temperature for February and March, respectively. The influence of temperature on flowering time was up to 56% to 60% for the February April mean. A direct correlation of Winter NAO-index and flowering time also revealed a clear relation but the time of influence was earlier (December to February). This was shown to be the likely result of a combination of direct and time-lagged effects of the NAO on air and sea surface temperature. The NAO signal is apparently stored in the North Sea and then influences temperature east up to the Baltic States. It is shown that Denmark is right in the centre of direct and time-lagged effects of the NAO. This offers the possibility of using the NAO-index for predicting flowering time of Prunus avium. The beginning of pollen flow appears to be influenced too much by short-term perturbations of the climate system decreasing the value of the NAO-index for prediction. However, it indicates a close relationship between natural climate variability, measured by the NAO index, and flowering time of tree species for Denmark.

  15. Large regional differences in incidence of arthroscopic meniscal procedures in the public and private sector in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Kristoffer Borbjerg; Vinther, Jesper Høeg; Lohmander, L Stefan; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch

    2015-01-01

    Objectives A recent study reported a large increase in the number of meniscal procedures from 2000 to 2011 in Denmark. We examined the nation-wide distribution of meniscal procedures performed in the private and public sector in Denmark since different incentives may be present and the use of these procedures may differ from region to region. Setting We included data on all patients who underwent an arthroscopic meniscal procedure performed in the public or private sector in Denmark. Participants Data were retrieved from the Danish National Patient Register on patients who underwent arthroscopic meniscus surgery as a primary or secondary procedure in the years 2000 to 2011. Hospital identification codes enabled linkage of performed procedures to specific hospitals. Primary and secondary outcome measures Yearly incidence of meniscal procedures per 100 000 inhabitants was calculated with 95% CIs for public and private procedures for each region. Results Incidence of meniscal procedures increased at private and at public hospitals. The private sector accounted for the largest relative and absolute increase, rising from an incidence of 1 in 2000 to 98 in 2011. In 2011, the incidence of meniscal procedures was three times higher in the Capital Region than in Region Zealand. Conclusions Our study identified a large increase in the use of meniscal procedures in the public and private sector in Denmark. The increase was particularly conspicuous in the private sector as its proportion of procedures performed increased from 1% to 32%. Substantial regional differences were present in the incidence and trend over time of meniscal procedures. PMID:25712820

  16. Risk of exposure to airborne Ambrosia pollen from local and distant sources in Europe - an example from Denmark.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Janne; Smith, Matt; Šikoparija, Branko; Kasprzyk, Idalia; Myszkowska, Dorota; Grewling, Łukasz; Skjøth, Carsten A

    2015-01-01

    Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. is a noxious invasive alien species in Europe. It is an important aeroallergen and millions of people are exposed to its pollen. The main aim of this study is to show that atmospheric concentrations of Ambrosia pollen recorded in Denmark can be derived from local or more distant sources. This was achieved by using a combination of pollen measurements, air mass trajectory calculations using the HYPLIT model and mapping all known Ambrosia locations in Denmark and relating them to land cover types. The annual pollen index recorded in Copenhagen during a 15-year period varied from a few pollen grains to more than 100. Since 2005, small quantities of Ambrosia pollen has been observed in the air every year. We have demonstrated, through a combination of Lagrangian back-trajectory calculations and atmospheric pollen measurements, that pollen arrived in Denmark via long-distance transport from centres of Ambrosia infection, such as the Pannonian Plain and Ukraine. Combining observations with results from a local scale dispersion model show that it is possible that Ambrosia pollen could be derived from local sources identified within Denmark. The high allergenic capacity of Ambrosia pollen means that only small amounts of pollen are relevant for allergy sufferers, and just a few plants will be sufficient to produce enough pollen to affect pollen allergy sufferers within a short distance from the source. It is necessary to adopt control measures to restrict Ambrosia numbers. Recommendations for the removal of all Ambrosia plants can effectively reduce the amount of local pollen, as long as the population of Ambrosia plants is small.

  17. [Adherence to international recommendations in the fight against antimicrobial resistance - Substantial difference between outpatient consumption in Spain and Denmark].

    PubMed

    Malo, Sara; Rabanaque, María José; Bjerrum, Lars

    2016-02-01

    Increasing antibiotic resistance represents a major public health threat that jeopardises the future treatment of bacterial infections. This study aims to describe the adherence to recommendations proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) Advisory Group on Integrated Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (AGISAR), in Spain and Denmark, and to analyse the relation between the outpatient use of Critically Important Antimicrobials (CIA) and the bacterial resistance rates to these agents. The Antimicrobial consumption interactive database (ESAC-Net) and Antimicrobial resistance interactive database (EARS-Net) provided data on outpatient use (2010-2013) of CIA (fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins) and the percentages of isolates of the main pathogens causing serious infections, resistant to these agents. The use of cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, as well as the percentage of bacteria resistant, is higher in Spain than in Denmark. Although consumption of macrolides in both countries is similar, the proportion of Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to macrolides is significantly higher in Spain. The high outpatient consumption of CIA agents in Spain deviates substantially from the WHO recommendations. Moreover, it has the effect of elevated rates of antimicrobial resistance, that are lower in Denmark.

  18. Health Effects of Unemployment in Denmark, Norway and Sweden 2007-2010: Differing Economic Conditions, Differing Results?

    PubMed

    Heggebø, Kristian

    2016-07-01

    This article investigates short-term health effects of unemployment for individuals in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden during an economic downturn (2007-2010) that hit the Scandinavian countries with diverging strength. The longitudinal part of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) data material is analyzed, and results from generalized least squares estimation indicate that Denmark is the only Scandinavian country in which health status deteriorated among the unemployed. The individual-level (and calendar year) fixed-effect results confirm the negative relationship between unemployment and health status in Denmark. This result is robust across different subsamples, model specifications, and changes in both the dependent and independent variable. Health status deteriorated especially among women and people in prime working age (30-59 years). There is, however, only scant evidence of short-term health effects among the recently unemployed in Norway and Sweden. The empirical findings are discussed in light of: (1) the adequacy of the unemployment insurance system, (2) the likelihood of re-employment for the displaced worker, and (3) selection patterns into and out of employment in the years preceding and during the economic downturn. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. MX Siting Investigation. Geotechnical Evaluation. Volume VII. Nevada - Utah Verification Studies, FY 79. Geotechnical Data Reveille - Railroad CDP, Nevada.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-24

    NEVADA 01 SITING INVESTIGATION final DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE - SAMSO 7-18 2UVL 73 AFV-43 I WIN 71i l SIL DESCRIPTION 11ES ANALYhIS I U SAI LL 101...IAILROAU COP. NEVADA III SITING INVESTIGATION OEPARTNENT OF THlE AIR FORCE -SASSO 7-24 j JUL0 TO AFV-43 P1I-T"-7- I I so M SOIL DESCRIPTION RENARKS...gravel; trace LOUS OF SURFICIAL SOIL SAMPLES 1 VERIFICATION SITE REVEILLE-RAILROAD COP, NEVADA SSPARTIMENT Of THE AIR FORCE - SANSO ae RSTN NETOTO 2

  20. Postgraduate education on electro-active polymers at Southern Denmark University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Richard W.

    2009-03-01

    A recently introduced elective to the Master's of Science in Mechatronics program at Southern Denmark University, entitled 'Mechatronics: Design and Build' concentrates on some of the interdisciplinary aspects of Mechatronics Engineering. The 'Motion Control of Mechatronic Devices' is the main theme of this elective. Within this 'theme' the modelling, identification and compensation of nonlinear effects such as friction, stiction and hysteresis are considered. One of the most important components of the elective considers 'Smart Materials' and their use for actuation purposes. The theory, modelling and properties of piezoceramics. magneto- and electro- rheological fluids and dielectric electro active polymers (DEAP) are introduced in the 'Smart Materials' component. This paper initially reviews the laboratory experiments that have been developed for the dielectric electro active polymer section of the 'Mechatronics: Design and Build' elective. In lectures the students are introduced to the basic theory and fabrication of tubular actuators, that use DEAP material based on smart compliant electrode technology. In the laboratory the students to (a) carry out a series of experiments to characterise the tubular actuators, and (b) design a closed-loop position controller and test the performance of the controlled actuator for both step changes in desired position and periodic input reference signals. The last part of this contribution reviews some of the DEAP-based demonstration devices that been developed by Danfoss PolyPower A/S using their PolyPowerTM material which utilizes smart compliant electrode technology.

  1. Ichnology of pelagic carbonate in New Zealand and Denmark: Shelf Sea or Deep Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdale, A.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Today, pelagic carbonate ooze is an exclusive feature of deep-sea environments 1 km or more in depth. In contrast, the extensive epicratonic seas that characterized the Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary received great thicknesses of pelagic carbonate sediment in environments only a few hundred meters deep. Distinguishing between deep-sea and shelf-sea carbonate is not an easy task, but ichnologic investigation helps. Biogenic sedimentary structures, ichnofacies, and ichnofabrics in Cretaceous-Tertiary epicratonic pelagic deposits display many similarities to those in deep-sea sediment. Ichnologic features in shelf-sea chalk and limestone in both New Zealand and northern Europe reveal some interesting paleobathymetric trends. These trends include a general decrease in crustacean traces (Thalassinoides, etc.) and bioerosion traces (Trypanites, etc.) with increasing water depth, accompanied by a concomitant increase in worm burrows (Zoophycos, etc.). Maastrichtian-Oligocene pelaic limestone in New Zealand and Maastrichtian-Paleocene chalk in Denmark neither of which represent a truly deep-sea setting, exhibit similar ichnofacies and ichnofabrics. Some notable differences exist because the New Zealand platform was less extensive and more tectonically active than the northern European shelf. Pelagic strata in New Zealand are associated with shallow-water quartzose sandstone beneath and fossiliferous calcarenite above, as well as deep-water bedded chert within, the pelagic carbonate sequence. In New Zealand strata Zoophycos-rich facies dominate Thalassinoides-rich facies, and bored hardgrounds are uncommon; in Danish chalk sequences the opposite is true in both cases.

  2. Preventive home visits to older people in Denmark--why, how, by whom, and when?

    PubMed

    Vass, M; Avlund, K; Hendriksen, C; Philipson, L; Riis, P

    2007-08-01

    In Denmark, political decisions improved the implementation of 'preventative thinking' into every-day clinical work. The potential benefits of preventive efforts have been supported by legislative and administrative incentives, and an ongoing effort to remain focused on the benefits of these initiatives towards older people is politically formulated and underlined as part of the new structured municipality reform. Evidence of beneficial effects of health promotion and prevention of disease in old age is well documented. In-home visits with individualised assessments make it possible to reach older persons not normally seen in the health care system. In-home assessment is not just a health check, but also an opportunity to meet individual needs that may be of importance for older people to stay independent. Preventive home visits may be part of an overall culture and strategy to avoid or prevent functional decline. There is an urgent need of an interdisciplinary teamwork and management for such programmes, incorporating flexible cooperation between the primary and secondary health care sector. The value and importance of geriatric and gerontological education is evidence based.

  3. Medicine, natural philosophy, and the influence of Melanchthon in reformation Denmark and Norway.

    PubMed

    Fink-Jensen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    In the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, all intellectual pursuits in Europe were colored by the religious conditions of the age. Accordingly, investigations into nature were unable to avoid issues dealing with the workings of divine power. The reestablishment of the University of Copenhagen after the Reformation of 1536 in the joint kingdom of Denmark and Norway prompted the formulation of an official Lutheran program for the study of medicine and natural philosophy (including anatomy). This program was wholly based on the ideas of the German reformer Philip Melanchthon, the aim being to apply knowledge of, for example, anatomy in support of the newly reformed Lutheran society. Thus, the crown and the church officially sanctioned Melanchthon's thoughts on natural philosophy as a means to apprehend, first, the majestic glory of divine providence; second, that man was truly created and assigned his place by God; and third, that it was demanded of all men and women that they submit themselves to the will of God and the laws of the public authorities.

  4. Seasonal Hydrometeorological Ensemble Prediction System; Forecast of Irrigation Potentials in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucatero, D.; Jensen, K. H.; Madsen, H.; Refsgaard, J. C.; Kidmose, J.

    2015-12-01

    The European Center for Medium Weather Forecast seasonal ensemble prediction system (ECMWF-SEPS) of weather variables such as precipitation, temperature and evapotranspiration is used as input to an integrated surface-subsurface hydrological model based on the MIKE SHE system to generate probabilistic forecasts of the irrigation requirements in the Skjern river catchment in Denmark. We demonstrate the usability of the ECMWF-SEPS and discuss the challenges and areas of opportunities when issuing forecasts generated with this methodology. A simple bias-correction and downscaling technique, namely linear scaling, is applied to the raw inputs to remove the bias intrinsic in ensemble prediction systems and to downscale the data to a scale appropriate for hydrological modelling. The forecasts of the meteorological variables are analysed for accuracy and reliability by comparing them to meteorological observations. Additionally, weather ensembles will be generated using the nearest-neighbour resampling technique with the purpose of exploring additional possibilities of hydrometeorological system input for complementing situations where the SEPS is lacking skill.

  5. Introducing out-of-pocket payment for general practice in Denmark: feasibility and support.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Camilla Aavang

    2014-07-01

    The financing of General Practice (GP) is a much-debated topic. In spite of out-of-pocket (OOP) payment for other primary health care provided by self-employed professionals, there is no OOP payment for the use of GP in Denmark. This article aims to explore the arguments, the actors and the decision-making context. An analysis of the healthcare-policy debate in Parliament and the media from 1990 until September 2012. The materials are parliamentary hearings/discussions and newspaper articles. Kingdon's model on Policy Windows and the Advocacy Coalition framework by Sabatier and Jenkins are used to investigate explanations. The arguments from the proponents are: that OOP payment for GP will reduce pressure on the primary sector; that the current allocation of OOP payment in the sector is historically conditioned; and that resistance towards OOP payment is based on emotions. The main argument from the opponents is that OOP payment will increase social inequality in health. There is little connection between the attitudes and ideological backgrounds of the political parties. Despite factors such as perceived expert/scientific evidence for OOP payment, changes of government, financial crisis and a market-based reform wave, no government has introduced OOP payment for GP. This article suggests that governmental positions, public- and especially health-professional support are important factors in the decision-making context. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Mobile phone use and the risk of skin cancer: a nationwide cohort study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Friis, Søren; Johansen, Christoffer; Jensen, Allan; Frei, Patrizia; Kjaear, Susanne Krüger; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Schüz, Joachim

    2013-07-15

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified radiofrequency radiation as possibly carcinogenic. Previous studies have focused on intracranial tumors, although the skin receives much radiation. In a nationwide cohort study, 355,701 private mobile phone subscribers in Denmark from 1987 to 1995 were followed up through 2007. We calculated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma by using Poisson regression models adjusted for age, calendar period, educational level, and income. Separate IRRs for head/neck tumors and torso/leg tumors were compared (IRR ratios) to further address potential confounders. We observed no overall increased risk for basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, or melanoma of the head and neck. After a follow-up period of at least 13 years, the IRRs for basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma remained near unity. Among men, the IRR for melanoma of the head and neck was 1.20 (95% confidence interval: 0.65, 2.22) after a minimum 13-year follow-up, whereas the corresponding IRR for the torso and legs was 1.16 (95% confidence interval: 0.91, 1.47), yielding an IRR ratio of 1.04 (95% confidence interval: 0.54, 2.00). A similar risk pattern was seen among women, though it was based on smaller numbers. In this large, population-based cohort study, little evidence of an increased skin cancer risk was observed among mobile phone users.

  7. 'Struensee's memoir on the situation of the King' (1772): Christian VII of Denmark.

    PubMed

    Schioldann, Johan

    2013-06-01

    Christian VII of Denmark (1749-1808) was insane throughout his long reign. The royal physician, Johann Friedrich Struensée (1737-72), usurped his power. In 1771 the King appointed him Privy Cabinet Minister. Struensée revolutionized the whole administration of the Danish-Norwegian kingdom and had an adulterous relationship with the Queen, Caroline Mathilda, George III's sister. In January 1772 he was arrested, sentenced to death for lese-majesty and executed. During his confinement, he wrote a memoir on the King's condition, which he considered to be caused by, or the effect of, masturbation. In 1906 Christiansen interpreted it as a case of dementia praecox, i.e. schizophrenia. It is now suggested that Christian's insanity, like that of George III (his cousin), might have been due to porphyria - the 'royal malady', possibly inherited through his mother, Princess Louise of England or his father, King Frederik V, who died from an illness which retrospectively resembles a case of porphyria.

  8. The role of serum methylglyoxal on diabetic peripheral and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy: the ADDITION Denmark study.

    PubMed

    Hansen, C S; Jensen, T M; Jensen, J S; Nawroth, P; Fleming, T; Witte, D R; Lauritzen, T; Sandbaek, A; Charles, M; Fleischer, J; Vistisen, D; Jørgensen, M E

    2015-06-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and diabetic peripheral neuropathy are common diabetic complications and independent predictors of cardiovascular disease. The glucose metabolite methylglyoxal has been suggested to play a causal role in the pathogeneses of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and possibly diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional association between serum methylglyoxal and diabetic peripheral neuropathy and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in a subset of patients in the ADDITION-Denmark study with short-term screen-detected Type 2 diabetes (duration ~ 5.8 years). The patients were well controlled with regard to HbA(1c), lipids and blood pressure. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy was assessed by measures of resting heart rate variability and cardiovascular autonomic reflex tests. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy was assessed by vibration detection threshold (n = 319), 10 g monofilament (n = 543) and the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument questionnaire (n = 966). Painful diabetic neuropathy was assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory short form (n = 882). No associations between methylglyoxal and cardiovascular autonomic reflex tests or any measures of diabetic peripheral neuropathy or painful diabetic neuropathy were observed. However, a positive association between methylglyoxal and several heart rate variability indices was observed, although these associations were not statistically significant when corrected for multiple testing. Serum methylglyoxal is not associated with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, diabetic peripheral neuropathy or painful diabetic neuropathy in this cohort of well-treated patients with short-term diabetes. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  9. The effect of communication and implicit associations on consuming insects: An experiment in Denmark and Italy.

    PubMed

    Verneau, Fabio; La Barbera, Francesco; Kolle, Susanne; Amato, Mario; Del Giudice, Teresa; Grunert, Klaus

    2016-11-01

    It has been widely noted that the introduction of insects in Westerns' diet might be a promising path towards a more sustainable food consumption. However, Westerns' are almost disgusted and sceptical about the eating of insects. In the current paper we report the results of an experiment conducted in two European countries-Denmark and Italy-different for food culture and familiarity with the topic of eating insects. We investigated the possibility to foster people's willingness to eat insect-based food through communication, also comparing messages based on individual vs. societal benefits of the eating of insects. Communication proved to be effective on intention and behaviour, and the societal message appeared to be more robust over time. The communication effect is significant across nation, gender, and previous knowledge about the topic. In addition, we investigated the impact of non-conscious negative associations with insects on the choice to eat vs. not eat insect-based food. Implicit attitudes proved to be a powerful factor in relation to behaviour, yet they did not impede the effectiveness of communication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Extent and variations in mobile phone use among drivers of heavy vehicles in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Troglauer, Thomas; Hels, Tove; Christens, Peter Falck

    2006-01-01

    A substantial body of research has shown that use of mobile phones while driving can impair driving performance and increase the risk of being involved in accidents. Similarly, mobile phone use seems to be an increasing activity thus representing a relevant traffic safety issue. This paper investigates the extent and variations in mobile phone use among drivers of heavy vehicles in Denmark. The data was collected through written questionnaires and had a response rate of 58%. It was found that more than 99% of the drivers used mobile phones while driving. Despite a prohibition of hand-held mobile phone use while driving 31% of the drivers reported to do so. Analysis of the variations in usage found a positive significant relationship between driving hours and phone use. A negative linear effect was found between age and phone use. Similarly, a positive significant association was found between the number of stops and the amount of phone use. 0.5% reported that their use of mobile phones had contributed to an accident, while 6% had experienced their mobile phone use causing a dangerous situation. However, 66% reported experiencing dangerous situations because of others road users' mobile phone use. Various implications of the findings are discussed particularly in relation to the drivers with high exposure.

  11. Faunistic review of the cuckoo wasps of Fennoscandia, Denmark and the Baltic countries (Hymenoptera: Chrysididae).

    PubMed

    Paukkunen, Juho; Rosa, Paolo; Soon, Villu; Johansson, Niklas; Ødegaard, Frode

    2014-09-19

    A critical and annotated review of published records of the Chrysididae of the Nordic and Baltic countries and the Russian part of Fennoscandia is presented with some taxonomic and faunistic notes. A total of 73 species are listed from the region. Additionally, 17 species are deleted. Three species are recorded for the first time from Denmark, six species from Estonia, one from Finland, eleven from Latvia, four from Norway, one from Sweden and 15 from Russian Fennoscandia. Elampus foveatus and Chrysis pulcherrima are reported for the first time from the Nordic and Baltic countries. Lectotypes are designated for Hedychrum cupreum Dahlbom, 1845, Chrysis zetterstedti Dahlbom, 1845, Chrysis succincta var. chrysoprasina Trautmann, 1927, Chrysis succincta var. virideocincta Trautmann, 1927 and Chrysis succincta var. nordstromi Trautmann, 1927. Information and images of the holotypes of Hedychrum metallicum Dahlbom, 1854, Chrysis var. westerlundi Trautmann, 1927 are given. Chrysis integra Dahlbom, 1829 is found to be a new synonym of Hedychridium ardens (Coquebert, 1801) and Chrysis scintillans Valkeila, 1971 a new synonym of Chrysis solida Haupt, 1957. Chrysis terminata Dahlbom, 1854 is reported for the first time as the valid name for C. ignita Form A sensu Linsenmaier, 1959.

  12. Environmental risk assessment of human pharmaceuticals in Denmark after normal therapeutic use.

    PubMed

    Stuer-Lauridsen, F; Birkved, M; Hansen, L P; Lützhøft, H C; Halling-Sørensen, B

    2000-04-01

    An environmental risk assessment is presented for the 25 most used pharmaceuticals in the primary health sector in Denmark. Predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) for the aquatic environment were calculated using conservative assumptions and all PECs exceeded 1 ng/l. Measured concentrations were in general within a factor of 2-5 of PECs and ranged from approximately 0.5 ng/l to 3 micrograms/l for nine of the pharmaceuticals reported in literature. The calculation of predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) based on aquatic ecotoxicity data was possible for six of the pharmaceuticals. PEC/PNEC ratio exceeded one for ibuprofen, acetylsalicylic acid, and paracetamol. For estrogens the PEC/PNEC ratio approached one when non-standard test was used. The ratio was below one for estrogens (standard test), diazepam and digoxin. For the terrestrial compartment, toxicity data were not available, and no assessment was carried out. Comparisons of predicted concentrations of furosemide, ibuprofen, oxytetracycline and ciprofloxacin in sludge based on either preliminary experimental sludge-water partition coefficients (Kd), octanol-water coefficients (Kow) or acid-base constants (pKa) revealed large variations.

  13. Risk factors associated with interdog aggression and shooting phobias among purebred dogs in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Rugbjerg, Helene; Proschowsky, Helle Friis; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer; Lund, Jørgen Damkjaer

    2003-04-30

    The prevalence of behaviour problems is reported from a questionnaire study among members of the Danish Kennel Club (DKC). In total, 4359 dog owners were included in the analyses. With logistic regression, we analysed four behaviour problems: dominance towards the owner, interdog dominance aggression, separation anxiety and shooting phobia. Compared to Labrador Retrievers, the following breeds and breed groups had higher odds of being reported to have interdog dominance aggression: Belgian Sheepdogs, Dachshunds, Dalmatians, German Shepherds, Hovawarts, Pinschers, Rottweilers, Scent dogs and Spitz dogs. Poodles, retrieving/flushing dogs, Sheepdogs, Spitz dogs and terriers had higher odds of shooting phobia. The odds of interdog dominance aggression were higher among dogs owned by younger dog owners compared to dogs owned by older dog owners. Dogs living in the capital area of Copenhagen had increased odds of interdog dominance aggression as compared to dogs living in other parts of Denmark. Dogs belonging to owners with limited knowledge of the breed before acquiring the dog had higher odds of interdog dominance aggression. Dogs attending obedience training classes had reduced odds of shooting phobia. Dogs belonging to dog breeders had reduced odds of being reported to have the investigated behaviour problems.

  14. Stroke in parents who lost a child: a nationwide follow-up study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiong; Johnsen, Søren P; Olsen, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    The association between psychological stress and stroke remains uncertain. We therefore examined whether or not one of the most extreme psychological stressors, the death of a child, was associated with the risk of stroke in a nationwide population-based follow-up study. All 21,062 parents who lost a child in Denmark during 1980-1996 were compared with 293,745 parents who had not lost a child. The overall adjusted relative risk (RR) of stroke was 1.00 (95% CI = 0.83-1.20) among the exposed after up to 18 years of follow-up. The RRs for fatal stroke and nonfatal stroke were 0.69 (95% CI = 0.37-1.26) and 1.03 (95% CI = 0.85-1.24), respectively. The RRs for hemorrhagic and nonhemorrhagic stroke were 1.02 (95% CI = 0.77-1.36) and 0.94 (95% CI = 0.74-1.20), respectively. The risk of stroke did not differ irrespective of whether the death of the child was unexpected or not. The death of a child was not associated with any substantially increased risk of stroke in the bereaved parents.

  15. Molecular characterization of melanoma cases in Denmark suspected of genetic predisposition.

    PubMed

    Wadt, Karin A W; Aoude, Lauren G; Krogh, Lotte; Sunde, Lone; Bojesen, Anders; Grønskov, Karen; Wartacz, Nine; Ek, Jakob; Tolstrup-Andersen, Morten; Klarskov-Andersen, Mette; Borg, Åke; Heegaard, Steffen; Kiilgaard, Jens F; Hansen, Thomas V O; Klein, Kerenaftali; Jönsson, Göran; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Dunø, Morten; Hayward, Nicholas K; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Both environmental and host factors influence risk of cutaneous melanoma (CM), and worldwide, the incidence varies depending on constitutional determinants of skin type and pigmentation, latitude, and patterns of sun exposure. We performed genetic analysis of CDKN2A, CDK4, BAP1, MC1R, and MITFp.E318K in Danish high-risk melanoma cases and found CDKN2A germline mutations in 11.3% of CM families with three or more affected individuals, including four previously undescribed mutations. Rare mutations were also seen in CDK4 and BAP1, while MC1R variants were common, occurring at more than twice the frequency compared to Danish controls. The MITF p.E318K variant similarly occurred at an approximately three-fold higher frequency in melanoma cases than controls. To conclude, we propose that mutation screening of CDKN2A and CDK4 in Denmark should predominantly be performed in families with at least 3 cases of CM. In addition, we recommend that testing of BAP1 should not be conducted routinely in CM families but should be reserved for families with CM and uveal melanoma, or mesothelioma.

  16. Quality-Shaping Factors and Endodontic Treatment amongst General Dental Practitioners with a Focus on Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Demant, Sune; Markvart, Merete; Bjørndal, Lars

    2012-01-01

    There is a gap between the endodontic outcome that can be achieved and the outcome observed on the basis of worldwide general dental practitioner data. The quality of root canal treatment (RCT) is shaped by the dentist's knowledge, attitude, and skills, but it may also be influenced by the patient's demands and degree of satisfaction. The topic has only been sparsely investigated. Although dental health has increased over the years in Denmark, the number of performed root fillings has also increased, probably because the number of tooth extractions have declined and more molar teeth have been treated. Caries appears to be the main cause for performing RCT and a preventive approach by employing stepwise excavation may reduce RCT, but this strategy does not remove the gap. Factors influencing RCT quality could be the status on adoption of nickel-titanium rotary technology, more focus on infection control (rubber dam use, knowledge of factors important for prognosis), as dentists often think that they are good at doing RCT, but often perform inadequately, an alteration of clinician's awareness of their performance in the context of dental practices, seems warranted. Finally, the development of new preventive modalities for pulp and apical inflammation are crucial. PMID:22536241

  17. Professional groups driving change toward patient-centred care: interprofessional working in stroke rehabilitation in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Burau, Viola; Carstensen, Kathrine; Lou, Stina; Kuhlmann, Ellen

    2017-09-16

    Patient-centred care based on needs has been gaining momentum in health policy and the workforce. This creates new demand for interprofessional teams and redefining roles and tasks of professionals, yet little is known on how to implement new health policies more effectively. Our aim was to analyse the role and capacity of health professions in driving organisational change in interprofessional working and patient-centred care. A case study of the introduction of interprofessional, early discharge teams in stroke rehabilitation in Denmark was conducted with focus on day-to-day coordination of care tasks and the professional groups' interests and strategies. The study included 5 stroke teams and 17 interviews with different health professionals conducted in 2015. Professional groups expressed highly positive professional interest in reorganised stroke rehabilitation concerning patients, professional practice and intersectoral relations; individual professional and collective interprofessional interests strongly coincided. The corresponding strategies were driven by a shared goal of providing needs-based care for patients. Individual professionals worked independently and on behalf of the team. There was also a degree of skills transfer as individual team members screened patients on behalf of other professional groups. The study identified supportive factors and contexts of patient-centred care. This highlights capacity to improve health workforce governance through professional participation, which should be explored more systematically in a wider range of healthcare services.

  18. Phylogenetic and epidemiological analysis of measles outbreaks in Denmark, 2013 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Lasse Dam; Fonager, Jannik; Knudsen, Lisbet Krause; Andersen, Peter Henrik Senten; Rønn, Jesper; Poulsen, Mille Weismann; Franck, Kristina Træholt; Fischer, Thea Kølsen

    2015-01-01

    Despite the introduction of safe, effective vaccines decades ago and joint global public health efforts to eliminate measles, this vaccine-preventable disease continues to pose threats to children's health worldwide. During 2013 and 2014, measles virus was introduced into Denmark through several independent importations. This resulted in a number of secondary cases (n=7), with two clusters in 2013 and one in 2014. In total, there were 44 cases of measles. Most cases (n=41) were laboratory confirmed by detection of measles virus genome by real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and IgM antibodies. The viruses from confirmed cases were genotyped by sequencing. Only one genotype circulated each year, i.e. D8 and B3, respectively. Sequencing of measles virus from different clinical specimens from the same patients revealed that sequence variants of measles viruses might co-exist and co-transmit during an outbreak. The majority of the cases were unvaccinated (n=27) or recipients of one dose of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine (n=7). In addition, two fully vaccinated adult cases were reported in 2014. We demonstrate the transmission of measles virus in a population in which the two-dose MMR vaccination coverage rate was 80% and how even vaccinated individuals may be at risk of contracting measles once transmission has been established.

  19. The prevalence and clinical significance of intestinal parasites in HIV-infected patients in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Stensvold, Christen Rune; Nielsen, Susanne Dam; Badsberg, Jens-Henrik; Engberg, Jørgen; Friis-Møller, Nina; Nielsen, Sanne Søgaard; Nielsen, Henrik Vedel; Friis-Møller, Alice

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence and clinical significance of intestinal parasites in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, faecal specimens from 96 HIV-infected patients were submitted to microbiological analyses, including microscopy and polymerase chain reaction for protozoa and enteropathogenic bacteria. Results of microbiological analyses were compared with self-reported gastrointestinal complaints collected using a validated questionnaire. Thirty-two (33%) patients were positive for parasites. However, opportunistic parasites (Isospora and Cryptosporidium) were detected in only 2 instances. Entamoeba dispar was detected in 10 cases, 9 of which represented men who have sex with men (MSM). Despite generally low HIV RNA loads and high CD4+ T-cell counts, 42% of the 76 patients reporting symptoms complained of diarrhoea, 31% of whom were parasite-positive. The presence of diarrhoea was not associated with the presence or absence of parasites; neither was it associated with receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in general, or protease inhibitors (PI) in particular. A CD4+ T-cell count <200 cells/mm³ was not associated with parasitic infection or with diarrhoea. The data show that diarrhoea is a common symptom among HIV-infected patients in Denmark, but do not indicate that the diarrhoea is due to intestinal parasites.

  20. Salmonella in pork cuttings in supermarkets and butchers' shops in Denmark in 2002 and 2006.

    PubMed

    Hansen, T B; Christensen, B B; Aabo, S

    2010-11-01

    The prevalence of Salmonella in fresh pork cuttings in Denmark in the years 2002 and 2006 was investigated at retail and compared with the retail supply pattern. A total of 1025 and 3473 samples were taken in 2002 from butcher's shops and supermarkets, respectively. The corresponding numbers in 2006 were 259 from butchers' shops and 628 from supermarkets. In 2002, 1.2% of all samples were positive for Salmonella; butchers' shops and supermarkets had 1.8% and 1.0% positive samples, respectively. The overall prevalence in 2006 was 4.2%, with prevalence of 8.1% and 2.6% for butchers' shops and supermarkets, respectively. Hence, increases around 3- to 5-fold were found. There was neither observed any parallel increase in Salmonella positive carcasses in Danish slaughterhouses during the study period, nor were any changes in supply routes towards slaughterhouses with higher prevalence observed, which could explain the apparent increase. We hypothesize that hygiene levels and ability to avoid cross-contamination and prevent growth of the organism, in the meat processing chain after slaughter were the most likely responsible factors. Results from this study indicate that the hygiene performance, particularly at retail, has a significant impact on the occurrence of Salmonella. This implies that there is no direct link between slaughterhouse Salmonella surveillance data and the level of Salmonella contamination at retail. To improve risk assessment of Salmonella in fresh pork meat, this study underlines the need for comprehensive retail data. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Knowledge and perceptions of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in four ethnic groups in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, T Rune; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2016-03-01

    Older people from ethnic minorities are underrepresented in dementia care. Some of the determinants of access to care are knowledge and perceptions of dementia, which may vary between ethnic groups in the population. The aims of this study were to compare knowledge and perceptions of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) among four ethnic groups in Copenhagen, Denmark, and to assess the influence of education and acculturation. Quantitative survey data from 260 participants were analyzed: 100 native Danish, and 47 Polish, 51 Turkish, and 62 Pakistani immigrants. Knowledge and perceptions of dementia and AD were assessed with the Dementia Knowledge Questionnaire (DKQ) supplemented with two questions from the Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Test (ADAT). Knowledge and perceptions of dementia and AD in the four groups were compared, and the influence of education and acculturation was assessed. Group differences were found on the DKQ total score as well as all sub-domains. Turkish and Pakistani people were most likely to hold normalizing and stigmatizing views of AD. Level of education and acculturation had limited influence on dementia knowledge, accounting for 22% of the variance at most and had only minor influence on perceptions of AD. Lacking knowledge and certain perceptions of dementia and AD may hamper access to services in some ethnic minority groups. Ongoing efforts to raise awareness that dementia and AD are not part of normal aging, particularly among Turkish and Pakistani communities, should be a high priority for educational outreach. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Cluster of Legionnaires disease in a newly built block of flats, Denmark, December 2008 - January 2009.

    PubMed

    Krøjgaard, L H; Krogfelt, K A; Albrechtsen, H J; Uldum, S A

    2011-01-06

    During December 2008 to January 2009, two persons contracted Legionnaires’ disease in a newly built block of flats in a suburb of Copenhagen in Denmark. Polymerase chain reaction and culture was used to diagnose Legionnaires’ disease in this cluster. Isolates from both patients tested positive for Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 subgroup Philadelphia sequence type 1 and the same strain was detected in hot water samples taken from the residential area indicating that the hot water supply system was the most likely source of infection. Legionella was not detected in the cold water. Two interventions were conducted to limit the Legionella colonisation of the piping and storage tanks and the effect was monitored by investigating water samples from various sites in the block of flats. Only the second intervention had a sufficient effect on the Legionella colonisation. The cluster described here points to several risk factors regarding growth of Legionella in hot water systems: (i) stagnancy of water from when the building is constructed and piping installed and until residents move in, (ii) stagnancy and low temperature (from room temperature to approximately 38°C) of water in shower hoses and (iii) failure in operation of and control measures for the hot water system.

  3. Benzene exposure and the effect of traffic pollution in Copenhagen, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skov, Henrik; Hansen, Asger B.; Lorenzen, Gitte; Andersen, Helle Vibeke; Løfstrøm, Per; Christensen, Carsten S.

    Benzene is a carcinogenic compound, which is emitted from petrol-fuelled cars and thus is found ubiquitous in all cities. As part of the project Monitoring of Atmospheric Concentrations of Benzene in European Towns and Homes (MACBETH) six campaigns were carried out in the Municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark. The campaigns were distributed over 1 year. In each campaign, the personal exposure to benzene of 50 volunteers (non-smokers living in non-smoking families) living and working in Copenhagen was measured. Simultaneously, benzene was measured in their homes and in an urban network distributed over the municipality. The Radiello diffusive sampler was applied to sample 5 days averages of benzene and other hydrocarbons. Comparison of the results with those from a BTX-monitor showed excellent agreement. The exposure and the concentrations in homes and in the urban area were found to be close to log-normal distribution. The annual averages of the geometrical mean values were 5.22, 4.30 and 2.90 μg m -3 for personal exposure, home concentrations and urban concentrations, respectively. Two main parameters are controlling the general level of benzene in Copenhagen: firstly, the emission from traffic and secondly, dispersion due to wind speed. The general level of exposure to benzene and home concentrations of benzene were strongly correlated with the outdoor level of benzene, which indicated that traffic is an important source for indoor concentrations of benzene and for the exposure to benzene.

  4. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in children living in city and rural residences in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Ase Marie; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Knudsen, Lisbeth Ehlert

    2005-07-15

    The present study aims to assess the biological uptake in children of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons measured as 1-hydroxypyrene in urine from children living in city and rural residences. 103 children living in Copenhagen and 101 children living in rural residences of Denmark collected urine samples Monday to Friday morning. Each day, the family filled in a printed diary that included questions about the time and activity patterns of the child. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify predictors of the excreted 1-hydroxypyrene level. During the week, the children excreted on average 0.07 [95% CI: 0.01-0.41] mumol urinary 1-hydroxypyrene per mol creatinine. Children living in urban residences excreted 0.02 [95% CI: 0.01-0.05] mumol more 1-hydroxypyrene than children living in rural residences. This was confirmed in the multiple regression analysis showing a 29% (95% CI: 2-64%) higher excretion among urban children than rural children. Moreover, the regression analysis showed that for each hour per day spent outside the children excreted 58% (1.58 [1.22-2.03]) more 1-hydroxypyrene in urine. The present study indicates that children living in urban residences are more exposed to PAH than children living in rural residences. Time spent outdoors increased the excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene, which was most evident among urban children. Higher concentrations of ambient air pollution in urban areas may explain this finding. No influence of environmental tobacco smoke, cooking habits, and heating facilities was detected.

  5. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in children living in city and rural residences in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Ase Marie; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Knudsen, Lisbeth Ehlert

    2006-06-15

    The present study aims to assess the biological uptake in children of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons measured as 1-hydroxypyrene in urine from children living in city and rural residences. 103 children living in Copenhagen and 101 children living in rural residences of Denmark collected urine samples Monday to Friday morning. Each day, the family filled in a printed diary that included questions about the time and activity patterns of the child. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify predictors of the excreted 1-hydroxypyrene level. During the week, the children excreted on average 0.07 [95% CI: 0.01-0.41] micromol urinary 1-hydroxypyrene per mol creatinine. Children living in urban residences excreted 0.02 [95% CI: 0.01-0.05] micromol more 1-hydroxypyrene than children living in rural residences. This was confirmed in the multiple regression analysis showing a 29% (95% CI: 2-64%) higher excretion among urban children than rural children. Moreover, the regression analysis showed that for each hour per day spent outside the children excreted 58% (1.58 [1.22-2.03]) more 1-hydroxypyrene in urine. The present study indicates that children living in urban residences are more exposed to PAH than children living in rural residences. Time spent outdoors increased the excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene, which was most evident among urban children. Higher concentrations of ambient air pollution in urban areas may explain this finding. No influence of environmental tobacco smoke, cooking habits, and heating facilities was detected.

  6. Resistance differences between chlorpyrifos and synthetic pyrethroids in Cimex lectularius population from Denmark.

    PubMed

    Kilpinen, Ole; Kristensen, Michael; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn

    2011-11-01

    Bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., populations were investigated for resistance against permethrin and chlorpyrifos in a topical application bioassay, after an initial establishment of a discriminating dose with a susceptible population. For both insecticides, ca. two times the lethal dose LD(99) was selected: 2,560 ng of permethrin and 200 ng of chlorpyrifos per bed bug, respectively. Bed bugs were collected from infested homes in Denmark at ten locations and bred in the laboratory. The frequency of permethrin-resistant individuals was high in Danish bed bug populations as susceptible individuals were only found in three of ten populations. In contrast, the frequency of chlorpyrifos-resistant individuals was low in Danish bed bug populations, but resistant individuals were found in five of ten populations. To test the significance of the observed resistance, we performed tarsal contact test with commercially available insecticides. The test indicated that both a permethrin and a deltamethrin product had very low efficacy against the field-collected bed bug populations. Despite the reduced sensitivity to synthetic pyrethroids, all populations tested in the tarsal test on the commercial product with micro-encapsulated chlorpyrifos resulted in close to 100% mortality.

  7. Waste collection systems for recyclables: An environmental and economic assessment for the municipality of Aarhus (Denmark)

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, A.W.; Merrild, H.; Moller, J.; Christensen, T.H.

    2010-05-15

    Recycling of paper and glass from household waste is an integrated part of waste management in Denmark, however, increased recycling is a legislative target. The questions are: how much more can the recycling rate be increased through improvements of collection schemes when organisational and technical limitations are respected, and what will the environmental and economic consequences be? This was investigated in a case study of a municipal waste management system. Five scenarios with alternative collection systems for recyclables (paper, glass, metal and plastic packaging) were assessed by means of a life cycle assessment and an assessment of the municipality's costs. Kerbside collection would provide the highest recycling rate, 31% compared to 25% in the baseline scenario, but bring schemes with drop-off containers would also be a reasonable solution. Collection of recyclables at recycling centres was not recommendable because the recycling rate would decrease to 20%. In general, the results showed that enhancing recycling and avoiding incineration was recommendable because the environmental performance was improved in several impact categories. The municipal costs for collection and treatment of waste were reduced with increasing recycling, mainly because the high cost for incineration was avoided. However, solutions for mitigation of air pollution caused by increased collection and transport should be sought.

  8. Assessment of dissociation in Bosnian treatment-seeking refugees in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Palic, Sabina; Carlsson, Jessica; Armour, Cherie; Elklit, Ask

    2015-05-01

    Dissociative experiences are common in traumatized individuals, and can sometimes be mistaken for psychosis. It is difficult to identify pathological dissociation in the treatment of traumatized refugees, because there is a lack of systematic clinical descriptions of dissociative phenomena in refugees. Furthermore, we are currently unaware of how dissociation measures perform in this clinical group. To describe the phenomenology of dissociative symptoms in Bosnian treatment-seeking refugees in Denmark. As a part of a larger study, dissociation was assessed systematically in 86 Bosnian treatment-seeking refugees using a semi-structured clinical interview (Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress-dissociation subscale; SIDES-D) and a self-report scale (Dissociative Experiences Scale; DES). The SIDES-D indicated twice as high prevalence of pathological dissociation as the DES. According to the DES, 30% of the refugees had pathological dissociation 15 years after their resettlement. On the SIDES-D, depersonalization and derealization experiences were the most common. Also, questions about depersonalization and derealization at times elicited reporting of visual and perceptual hallucinations, which were unrelated to traumatic re-experiencing. Questions about personality alteration elicited spontaneous reports of a phenomenon of "split" pre- and post-war identity in the refugee group. Whether this in fact is a dissociative phenomenon, characteristic of severe traumatization in adulthood, needs further examination. Knowledge of dissociative symptoms in traumatized refugees is important in clinical settings to prevent misclassification and to better target psychotherapeutic interventions. Much development in the measurement of dissociation in refugees is needed.

  9. Waste collection systems for recyclables: an environmental and economic assessment for the municipality of Aarhus (Denmark).

    PubMed

    Larsen, A W; Merrild, H; Møller, J; Christensen, T H

    2010-05-01

    Recycling of paper and glass from household waste is an integrated part of waste management in Denmark, however, increased recycling is a legislative target. The questions are: how much more can the recycling rate be increased through improvements of collection schemes when organisational and technical limitations are respected, and what will the environmental and economic consequences be? This was investigated in a case study of a municipal waste management system. Five scenarios with alternative collection systems for recyclables (paper, glass, metal and plastic packaging) were assessed by means of a life cycle assessment and an assessment of the municipality's costs. Kerbside collection would provide the highest recycling rate, 31% compared to 25% in the baseline scenario, but bring schemes with drop-off containers would also be a reasonable solution. Collection of recyclables at recycling centres was not recommendable because the recycling rate would decrease to 20%. In general, the results showed that enhancing recycling and avoiding incineration was recommendable because the environmental performance was improved in several impact categories. The municipal costs for collection and treatment of waste were reduced with increasing recycling, mainly because the high cost for incineration was avoided. However, solutions for mitigation of air pollution caused by increased collection and transport should be sought. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Registry-based studies of atrial fibrillation from Sweden and Denmark, 2000-2014.

    PubMed

    Frost, Lars; Grøndal, Anne Krogh; Benjamin, Emelia J; Friberg, Leif; Rosenqvist, Mårten; Johnsen, Søren Paaske

    We have noticed an increasing number of publications in relation to atrial fibrillation (AF) based on Swedish and Danish health care registries and therefore found it of interest to perform a systematic review of study aims, data sources, exposures, outcomes, journal impact factor, and citation statistics. We searched PubMed from 2000 to 31 December 2014. We included publications which were entirely or partly based on administrative registries and clinical quality databases, and where AF defined the study population or constituted the study exposure or outcome. Our review returned 1445 studies, of which 173 met the criteria for inclusion in the reviews. We noticed an abundant diversity in study aims, data sources, exposures, and outcome. The annual number of publications increased from 1 to 50. The mean (range) and median journal impact factor in the year of publication was 6.9 (0.8-51.7) and 5.7. The total cumulated number of citations up to the end of 2014 for all 173 publications was 3721, and the mean (range) and median cumulated number of citations per publication was 22.4 (0-250) and 6.0, respectively. The number of registry-based studies on AF reported from Sweden and Denmark increased substantially from 2000 to 2014, had a great diversity, were well cited and have added information to the understanding of AF epidemiology.

  11. Translation and Adaptation of the Genetic Counselling Outcome Scale (GCOS-24) for Use in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Diness, Birgitte Rode; Overbeck, Gritt; Hjortshøj, Tina Duelund; Hammer, Trine Bjørg; Timshel, Susanne; Sørensen, Else; McAllister, Marion

    2017-03-06

    Outcome measurement in clinical genetics is challenging. Robust outcome measures are needed to provide evidence to support service development within genetic counseling. The Genetic Counselling Outcome Scale (GCOS-24), a Patient Reported Outcome Measure (PROM), was developed in English and validated with clinical genetics patients in the British NHS. This study reports the translation and adaptation of the GCOS-24 for use in Denmark. GCOS-24 was translated and back translated, supervised by an expert committee. Feedback on the first version was collected from genetic counseling patients in qualitative interviews focusing on instructions for use, response options and specific items considered semantically difficult. After further adjustment the adapted and translated version was administered to a second sample of patients, with responses analyzed using descriptive statistics. Eighteen interviews were conducted, and led to adjustment of item wording. Sixty-one patients completed the final version GCOS-24dk. Internal consistency is good (Cronbach's α =0.79), with an acceptable number of missing responses and no floor or ceiling effect observed. GCOS-24 has been successfully translated and adapted for use in a Danish setting. The study confirms the feasibility of local adaptation of patient reported outcome measures and stresses the importance of adaptation, even across quite similar populations and health care systems.

  12. A quantification of occupational skin exposures and the use of protective gloves among hairdressers in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Lysdal, Susan Hovmand; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Søsted, Heidi

    2012-06-01

    Occupational hand eczema is common in hairdressers, owing to excessive exposure to wet work and hairdressing chemicals. To quantify occupational skin exposure and the use of protective gloves among hairdressers in Denmark. A register-based study was conducted comprising all graduates from hairdressing vocational schools from 1985 to 2007 (n = 7840). The participants received a self-administered postal questionnaire in May 2009, including questions on hairdressing tasks performed in the past week at work and the extent of glove use. A response rate of 67.9% (n = 5324) was obtained. Of the respondents, 55.7% still worked as hairdressers, and they formed the basis of this study. Daily wet work was excessive; 86.6% had wet hands for ≥2 hr, and 54% for ≥ 4 hr. Glove use was fairly frequent for full head hair colouring and bleaching procedures (93-97.7%), but less frequent for highlighting/lowlighting procedures (49.7-60.5%) and permanent waving (28.3%). Gloves were rarely worn during hair washing (10%), although this was more frequently the case after hair colouring procedures (48.9%). Occupational skin exposure was excessive among hairdressers; the extent of wet work and chemical treatments was high, and glove use was inconsistent, especially for certain hair colouring procedures and wet work tasks. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Predicting phosphorus losses with the PLEASE model on a local scale in Denmark and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van der Salm, Caroline; Dupas, Remi; Grant, Ruth; Heckrath, Goswin; lversen, Bo V; Kronvang, Brian; Levi, Clémentine; Rubaek, Gitte; Schoumans, Oscar F

    2011-01-01

    To reduce losses from agricultural soils to surface water, mitigation options have to be implemented as a local scale. For a cost-effective implementation of these measures, an instrument to identify critical areas for P leaching is indispensable. In many countries, P-index methods are used to identify areas as risk for P losses to surface water. In flat areas, where losses by leaching are dominant, these methods have their limitations because leaching is often not described in detail, PLEASE, is a simple mechanistic model designed to stimulate P Losses by leaching at the field scale using a limited amount of local field data. In this study, PLEASE, was applied to 17 lowland sites in Denmark and 14 lowland sites in the Netherlands. Results show that the simple model simulated measured fluxes and concentrations in water from pipe drains, suction cups, and groundwater quite well. The modeling efficiency ranged from 0.92 for modeling total-P fluxes to 0.36 fr modeling concentrations in groundwater. Poor results were obtained for heavy clay soils and eutrophic peat soils, where fluxes and concentration were strongly underestimated by the model. The poot performance for the heavy clay soil can be explained by the transport of P through macropores to the drain pipes and the underestimation of overland flow on this heavy-textured soil. In the eutrophic peat soils, fluxes were underestimated due to the release of P from deep soil layers.

  14. Does Educational Status Impact Adult Mortality in Denmark? A Twin Approach

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Mia; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Christensen, Kaare; Andersen, Per Kragh; Osler, Merete

    2010-01-01

    To disentangle an independent effect of educational status on mortality risk from direct and indirect selection mechanisms, the authors used a discordant twin pair design, which allowed them to isolate the effect of education by means of adjustment for genetic and environmental confounding per design. The study is based on data from the Danish Twin Registry and Statistics Denmark. Using Cox regression, they estimated hazard ratios for mortality according to the highest attained education among 5,260 monozygotic and 11,088 dizygotic same-sex twin pairs born during 1921–1950 and followed during 1980–2008. Both standard cohort and intrapair analyses were conducted separately for zygosity, gender, and birth cohort. Educational differences in mortality were demonstrated in the standard cohort analyses but attenuated in the intrapair analyses in all subgroups but men born during 1921–1935, and no effect modification by zygosity was observed. Hence, the results are most compatible with an effect of early family environment in explaining the educational inequality in mortality. However, large educational differences were still reflected in mortality risk differences within twin pairs, thus supporting some degree of independent effect of education. In addition, the effect of education may be more pronounced in older cohorts of Danish men. PMID:20530466

  15. Extraterrestrial amino acids in Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary sediments at Stevns Klint, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Meixun; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    1989-06-01

    SINCE the discovery1 nearly a decade ago that Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary layers are greatly enriched in iridium, a rare element in the Earth's crust, there has been intense controversy on the relationship between this Ir anomaly and the massive extinction of organisms ranging from dinosaurs to marine plankton that characterizes the K/T boundary. Convincing evidence suggests that both the Ir spike and the extinction event were caused by the collision of a large bolide (>10 km in diameter) with the Earth1-11. Alternative explanations claim that extensive, violent volcanism12-14 can account for the Ir, and that other independent causes were responsible for the mass extinctions15,16. We surmise that the collision of a massive extraterrestrial object with the Earth may have produced a unique organic chemical signature because certain meteorites, and probably comets, contain organic compounds which are either rare or non-existent on the Earth17. In contrast, no organic compounds would be expected to be associated with volcanic processes. Here we find that K/T boundary sediments at Stevns Klint, Denmark, contain both α-amino-isobutyric acid [AIB, (CH3)2CNH2COOH] and racemic isovaline [ISOVAL, CH3CH2(CH3)CNH2COOH], two amino acids that are exceedingly rare on the Earth but which are major amino acids in carbonaceous chondrites17,18. An extraterrestrial source is the most reasonable explanation for the presence of these amino acids.

  16. How Do I Look? Body Image Perceptions among University Students from England and Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Walid El; Clausen, Susanne Vodder; Mabhala, Andi; Stock, Christiane

    2010-01-01

    This study examined differences in body image perception between university students in two European countries, United Kingdom and Denmark. A total of 816 British and 548 Danish university students participated in a cross-sectional survey. A self-administered questionnaire assessed socio-demographic information, body image perception (as “too thin”, “just right” or “too fat”), and the association of related factors with body image perception (nutrition behaviour, social support, perceived stressors and quality of life). The proportions of students who perceived themselves as “too thin”, “just right”, or “too fat” were 8.6%, 37.7%, and 53.7% respectively. Multi-factorial logistic regression analysis showed that students who perceived themselves as “too fat” were more likely to be from the British university, to be females, to be older than 30 years, to report stress due to their financial situation and were less likely to have a high quality of life. The findings highlight the need for interventions with focus on healthy food choices whilst acknowledging financial stressors and quality of life. PMID:20616992

  17. Sedation practice for paediatric nuclear medicine procedures in Denmark related to EANM guidelines.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Linda; Andersen, Trine Borup; Petersen, Lars J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine sedation practices for paediatric nuclear medicine examinations. A questionnaire was sent to all nuclear medicine departments in Denmark about sedation practices during 2012. The response rate was 100% (18 departments). Three departments did not examine children at all. The total number of paediatric examinations among the remaining 15 sites varied from 20 to 1,583 (median 191). Sedation practice showed that approximately 50% of the sites regularly (>50% of the patients) used pharmacological sedation for renography in children aged 6-12 months and 1-3 years. A minority of centres (∼15%) regularly used sedation in children aged 0-6 months, and no sites regularly used sedation in children aged and 4-6 years. Similar findings were found for renal scintigraphy. However, one large site used no sedation in children aged 1-3 years for renography but approximately 50% of patients used it in the same age group receiving renal scintigraphy with SPET. There was a trend for reduced use of sedation with increasing total number of paediatric medicine procedures. The most frequently used agents were benzodiazepines and barbiturates. The most common route of administration was rectal, oral, and intravenous. The sedation practices varied considerably among Danish nuclear medicine departments. The sedation of children in clinical practice seemed to be more prevalent than is recommended by guidelines.

  18. Sublethal effects of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides on Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark and Muma (Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Zanuzo Zanardi, Odimar; Pavan Bordini, Gabriela; Aparecida Franco, Aline; Jacob, Cynthia Renata Oliveira; Takao Yamamoto, Pedro

    2017-08-17

    The predator mite Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma is an important biological-control agent of mite pests, and it is one of the most common species found in citrus orchards. This study assessed, under laboratory conditions, the toxicity and duration of the harmful effects of five insecticides, the three pyrethroids deltamethrin, esfenvalerate and lambda-cyhalothrin, and the two neonicotinoids imidacloprid and thiamethoxam on I. zuluagai. Furthermore, we estimated the life-table parameters of the predator. Our results showed that deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin caused higher mortality of larvae and adults than imidacloprid and thiamethoxam. In contrast, esfenvalerate provided larval mortality similar to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, but it did not cause significant adult mortality of the predator. Mites that developed on pyrethroid residues showed lower survival of the immature stages, fecundity, and longevity compared to neonicotinoid residues and the control treatment. The estimated life-table parameters indicated that deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and esfenvalerate caused greater reduction in R o and r of I. zuluagai compared with imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, which were similar to the control treatment. Besides the impacts on biological and population parameters, the duration of the harmful activity of pyrethroid insecticides was longer than the neonicotinoids. Therefore, the use of pyrethroid insecticides to control pest insects may involve serious implications for integrated pest-management programs that aim to exploit the biological control by I. zuluagai in citrus orchards.

  19. Health care cost containment in Denmark and Norway: a question of relative professional status?

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lotte B

    2014-04-01

    The demand for publicly subsidized health care services is insatiable, but the costs can be contained in different ways: formal rules can limit access to and the number of subsidized services, demand and supply can be regulated through the price mechanism, the relevant profession can contain the costs through state-sanctioned self-regulation, and other professions can contain the costs (e.g. through referrals). The use of these cost containment measures varies between countries, depending on demand and supply factors, but the relative professional status of the health professions may help explain why different countries use cost containment measures differently for different services. This article compares cost containment measures in Denmark and Norway because these countries vary with regard to the professional status of the medical profession relative to other health care providers, while other relevant variables are approximately similar. The investigation is based on formal agreements and rules, historical documents, existing analyses and an analysis of 360 newspaper articles. It shows that high relative professional status seems to help professions to avoid user fees, steer clear of regulation from other professions and regulate the services produced by others. This implies that relative professional status should be taken into consideration in analyses of health care cost containment.

  20. The incidence of metastatic basal cell carcinoma (mBCC) in Denmark, 1997-2010.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Nielsen, Mary; Wang, Lisa; Pedersen, Lars; Olesen, Anne Braae; Hou, Jeannie; Mackey, Howard; McCusker, Margaret; Basset-Seguin, Nicole; Fryzek, Jon; Vyberg, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Few data exist on the occurrence of metastatic basal cell carcinoma (mBCC). To identify all cases of mBCC in Denmark over a 14-year period. We searched the Danish National Patient Registry covering all Danish hospitals, the Danish Cancer Registry, the National Pathology Registry and the Causes of Death Registry during the period 1997 to 2010 for potential cases of mBCC registered according to the International classification of diseases ICD-10 and the International Systemized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED). We identified 126,627 patients with a history of primary basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in the registries during the 14-year study period. Using case identifications from the four registries, a total of 170 potential mBCC cases were identified. However, after a pathology review, only five cases could be confirmed, of which three were basosquamous carcinomas. The 14-year cumulative incidence proportion of mBCC was 0.0039% (95% CI 0.0016-0.0083) among individuals with a history of previous BCC (n = 126,627) and 0.0001% (95% CI 0.0000-0.0002) in the general population. MBCC is a rare disease and only a small proportion of potential cases identified in automated clinical databases or registries can be confirmed by pathology and medical record review.