Science.gov

Sample records for eve pihl jt

  1. Registration of 'Eve' winter hulless barley

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Eve’ (Reg. No. CV- PI 659067 ), a six-row winter hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) developed and tested as VA01H-68 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in May 2007. Eve was derived from the cross SC860974 / VA94-42-13. Eve is widely adapted and provides producers with ...

  2. Bootstrapping white matter segmentation, Eve++

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plassard, Andrew; Hinton, Kendra E.; Venkatraman, Vijay; Gonzalez, Christopher; Resnick, Susan M.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-03-01

    Multi-atlas labeling has come in wide spread use for whole brain labeling on magnetic resonance imaging. Recent challenges have shown that leading techniques are near (or at) human expert reproducibility for cortical gray matter labels. However, these approaches tend to treat white matter as essentially homogeneous (as white matter exhibits isointense signal on structural MRI). The state-of-the-art for white matter atlas is the single-subject Johns Hopkins Eve atlas. Numerous approaches have attempted to use tractography and/or orientation information to identify homologous white matter structures across subjects. Despite success with large tracts, these approaches have been plagued by difficulties in with subtle differences in course, low signal to noise, and complex structural relationships for smaller tracts. Here, we investigate use of atlas-based labeling to propagate the Eve atlas to unlabeled datasets. We evaluate single atlas labeling and multi-atlas labeling using synthetic atlases derived from the single manually labeled atlas. On 5 representative tracts for 10 subjects, we demonstrate that (1) single atlas labeling generally provides segmentations within 2mm mean surface distance, (2) morphologically constraining DTI labels within structural MRI white matter reduces variability, and (3) multi-atlas labeling did not improve accuracy. These efforts present a preliminary indication that single atlas labels with correction is reasonable, but caution should be applied. To purse multi-atlas labeling and more fully characterize overall performance, more labeled datasets would be necessary.

  3. Apollo 8's Christmas Eve 1968 Message

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Apollo 8, the first manned mission to the moon, entered lunar orbit on Christmas Eve, Dec. 24, 1968. That evening, the astronauts--Commander Frank Borman, Command Module Pilot Jim Lovell, and Lunar...

  4. JT8D engine performance retention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, A. D.; Weisel, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    The attractive performance retention characteristics of the JT8D engine are described. Because of its moderate bypass ratio and turbine temperature, and stiff structural design, the performance retention versus flight cycles of the JT8D engine sets a standard that is difficult for other engines to equal. In addition, the significant benefits of refurbishment of the JT8D engine are presented. Cold section refurbishment offers thrust specific fuel consumption improvements of up to 2 percent and payback in less than a year, making a very attractive investment option for the airlines.

  5. After "Eve": whither proxy decision-making?

    PubMed Central

    Kluge, E H

    1987-01-01

    One of the most difficult problems facing physicians is how to approach proxy decisions made on behalf of congenitally incompetent patients. The author considers two recent court cases that attempt to provide guidelines: Re Stephen Dawson, which opts for a substituted-judgement approach, and Eve v. Mrs E.) which injoins best-interests considerations. The author explores the impact of Eve v. Mrs. E. as superseding Re Stephen Dawson, considers its ethical implications and attempts to clarify the best-interests criterion by sketching some guidelines for its interpretation. In so doing, he tries to reconcile the two decisions by laying bare their common underlying ethical rationale. The author concludes by pointing out some ethically questionable implications of Eve v. Mrs. E. in the area of allocation of health care resources. PMID:3651942

  6. Wall conditioning in JT-60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Akino, N.; Kodama, K.; Nakamura, H.; Niikura, S.; Takatsu, H.; Shimizu, M.; Ohkubo, M.; Ohta, M.; JT-60 Team

    1987-02-01

    The vacuum vessel of JT-60 has a volume of 160 m 3 and a vacuum side surface of 2750 m 2 containing the surfaces of the first wall and many types of ports. The first wall is made of 20 μm TiC coated molybdenum and Inconel 625, bolted to the inner surface of the vacuum vessel. The vacuum vessel is evacuated with four identical pumping systems with a total pumping speed of 29 m 3/s for hydrogen. The wall conditioning procedure consisted of two wipes with special cloths wetted by freon after hot water and freon jet cleaning, and three bakeouts were carried out before the first plasma production. An ultimate pressure of 7.4 × 10 -7 Pa and an outgassing rate of 6.8 × 10 -10 Pa m 3/s m 2 were obtained. Low current pulse discharge cleaning (TDC) was carried out for two weeks at a vacuum vessel temperature of 200°C. The TDC is performed typically with a plasma current of 30 kA, a pulse duration of 40 ms, a repetition period in the range from 0.3 s to 1.2 s, a hydrogen pressure of 5.0 × 10 -3 Pa, and a toroidal field of 0.45 T. The TDC conditioning for 50 h removed a quantity of water vapor corresponding to approximately 0.3 g. The main residual gases consisting of hydrocarbons, were monitored in addition to hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  7. The JT8D and JT9D engine component improvement: Performance improvement program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffin, W. O.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA sponsored Engine Component Improvement - Performance Improvement Program at Pratt & Whitney Aircraft advanced the state of the art of thermal barrier coatings and ceramic seal systems, demonstrated the practicality of an advanced turbine clearance control system and an advanced fan design in the JT9D engine, and demonstrated the advantages of modern cooling, sealing, and aerodynamic designs in the high pressure turbine and compressor of the JT8D engine. Several of these improvements are already in airline service in JT8D and JT9D engines, and others will enter service soon in advanced models of these engines. In addition, the technology advances are being transferred to completely new engine configurations, the PW2037 engine and the NASA sponsored Energy Efficient Engine.

  8. Enceladus Environmental Explorer (EVE): A Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, M. J.; Amador, E. S.; Carrier, B. L.; Albuja, A.; Bapst, J.; Cahill, K. R. S.; Ebersohn, F.; Gainey, S.; Gartrelle, G.; Greenberger, R. N.; Hale, J. M.; Johnston, S.; Olivares, J.; Parcheta, C. E.; Sheehan, J. P.; Thorpe, A. K.; Zareh, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    Enceladus is an intriguing planetary body, which possibly has the ingredients needed for life. Further, it has numerous (over 100) continuously erupting geysers that eject material into the atmosphere which provide a unique opportunity to sample the body's internal chemistry from orbit. At JPL's Planetary Science Summer School, Team X and a group of students developed a mission concept to directly sample Enceladus' plumes. The mission, named Enceladus Environmental Explorer (EVE), follows NASA's Planetary Science Decadal survey and would assess the potential habitability of Saturn's icy satellite through analysis of the chemistry of the subsurface ocean and the nature of the organic chemistry in the plume. EVE would look at geological and geophysical surface processes of Enceladus by investigating the heat output of Enceladus, plumes' mechanics, the extent of the liquid subsurface reservoir(s), and gravitational variation. The EVE mission concept aimed for a January 2023 launch on an Atlas 551 class launch vehicle and would arrive at Saturn July 2031. A two-year-long Saturn moon tour would allow sufficient deceleration to permit a polar orbital insertion around Enceladus in March 2035, remaining stable for 54 weeks of observation. The proposed instrument payload includes: 1) SUb MilliMeter Enceladus Radiometer (SUMMER; equivalent to Rosetta MIRO), 2) Enceladus Dust and Gas Experiment (EDGE; an enhanced version of Rosetta COSIMA), 3) MAGnetometer for Ionic Concentration (MAGIC; equivalent to MMS/ InSIGHT magnetometer), 4) Visual Imaging Camera with Topographic Observational Resolution (VICTOR) and 5) Enceladus Radio Gravity Science (ERGS). Our suggested orbital timeline would allow the most comprehensive dataset yet collected of a moon in the outer solar system, mapping the entire surface twice with SUMMER and VICTOR, while sampling the plume directly 232 times with EDGE. MAGIC would also provide over a year of sampling of the magnetic field variations from orbit

  9. Wavelengths for EVE coronal dimming signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, H. S.; Simoes, P. J. D. A.; Kukstas, E.

    2014-12-01

    The EVE instrument on SDO detects post-flare dimmings, mainly in the spectral regions of Fe IX-XII in its MEGS-A range. We have shown that dimmings occurred in most of the 31 X-class flares that occurred between SDO launch and the end of April 2014. Based upon earlier X-ray observations, we interpret these dimmings as the result of CME mass ejections from the low corona. We can estimate the masses involved in these dimmings by deriving a best pre-event temperature and emission measure in the dimmed region from EVE, and a source volume from AIA images. The dimming for SOL2011-02-15, the first of these events, "peaked" at -3.4% in Fe IX in terms of the pre-event emission from the whole Sun, with smaller relative depletions in higher ionization states of Fe. Because of its high photon throughput, EVE data determine line centroids with precisions of a few km/s equivalent. In the present study we analyze the wavelengths of the dimmed regions, characterizing their displacements from the mean wavelengths as functions of heliographic position, time, event magnitude, and excitation state of Fe.

  10. The EVE Doppler Sensitivity and Flare Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, H. S.; Woods, T. N.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Didkovsky, L.; Del Zanna, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Extreme-ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) obtains continuous EUV spectra of the Sun viewed as a star. Its primary objective is the characterization of solar spectral irradiance, but its sensitivity and stability make it extremely interesting for observations of variability on time scales down to the limit imposed by its basic 10 s sample interval. In this paper we characterize the Doppler sensitivity of the EVE data. We find that the 30.4 nm line of He II has a random Doppler error below 0.001 nm (1 pm, better than 10 km/s as a redshift), with ample stability to detect the orbital motion of its satellite, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Solar flares also displace the spectrum, both because of Doppler shifts and because of EVE's optical layout, which (as with a slitless spectrograph) confuses position and wavelength. As a flare develops, the centroid of the line displays variations that reflect Doppler shifts and therefore flare dynamics. For the impulsive phase of the flare SOL2010-06-12, we find the line centroid to have a redshift of 16.8 +/- 5.9 km/s relative to that of the flare gradual phase (statistical errors only). We find also that high-temperature lines, such as Fe XXIV 19.2 nm, have well-determined Doppler components for major flares, with decreasing apparent blueshifts as expected from chromospheric evaporation flows.

  11. The EVE Doppler Sensitivity and Flare Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, H. S.; Woods, T. N.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Didkovsky, L.; Del Zanna, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Extreme-ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) obtains continuous EUV spectra of the Sun viewed as a star. Its primary objective is the characterization of solar spectral irradiance, but its sensitivity and stability make it extremely interesting for observations of variability on time scales down to the limit imposed by its basic 10 s sample interval. In this paper we characterize the Doppler sensitivity of the EVE data. We find that the 30.4 nm line of He II has a random Doppler error below 0.001 nm (1 pm, better than 10 km/s as a redshift), with ample stability to detect the orbital motion of its satellite, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Solar flares also displace the spectrum, both because of Doppler shifts and because of EVE's optical layout, which (as with a slitless spectrograph) confuses position and wavelength. As a flare develops, the centroid of the line displays variations that reflect Doppler shifts and therefore flare dynamics. For the impulsive phase of the flare SOL2010-06-12, we find the line centroid to have a redshift of 16.8 +/- 5.9 km/s relative to that of the flare gradual phase (statistical errors only). We find also that high-temperature lines, such as Fe XXIV 19.2 nm, have well-determined Doppler components for major flares, with decreasing apparent blueshifts as expected from chromospheric evaporation flows.

  12. Heart rate dependency of JT interval sections.

    PubMed

    Hnatkova, Katerina; Johannesen, Lars; Vicente, Jose; Malik, Marek

    2017-08-09

    Little experience exists with the heart rate correction of J-Tpeak and Tpeak-Tend intervals. In a population of 176 female and 176 male healthy subjects aged 32.3±9.8 and 33.1±8.4years, respectively, curve-linear and linear relationship to heart rate was investigated for different sections of the JT interval defined by the proportions of the area under the vector magnitude of the reconstructed 3D vectorcardiographic loop. The duration of the JT sub-section between approximately just before the T peak and almost the T end was found heart rate independent. Most of the JT heart rate dependency relates to the beginning of the interval. The duration of the terminal T wave tail is only weakly heart rate dependent. The Tpeak-Tend is only minimally heart rate dependent and in studies not showing substantial heart rate changes does not need to be heart rate corrected. For any correction formula that has linear additive properties, heart rate correction of JT and JTpeak intervals is practically the same as of the QT interval. However, this does not apply to the formulas in the form of Int/RR(a) since they do not have linear additive properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Drosophila eve insulator Homie promotes eve expression and protects the adjacent gene from repression by polycomb spreading.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Miki; Sun, Guizhi; Jaynes, James B

    2013-10-01

    Insulators can block the action of enhancers on promoters and the spreading of repressive chromatin, as well as facilitating specific enhancer-promoter interactions. However, recent studies have called into question whether the activities ascribed to insulators in model transgene assays actually reflect their functions in the genome. The Drosophila even skipped (eve) gene is a Polycomb (Pc) domain with a Pc-group response element (PRE) at one end, flanked by an insulator, an arrangement also seen in other genes. Here, we show that this insulator has three major functions. It blocks the spreading of the eve Pc domain, preventing repression of the adjacent gene, TER94. It prevents activation of TER94 by eve regulatory DNA. It also facilitates normal eve expression. When Homie is deleted in the context of a large transgene that mimics both eve and TER94 regulation, TER94 is repressed. This repression depends on the eve PRE. Ubiquitous TER94 expression is "replaced" by expression in an eve pattern when Homie is deleted, and this effect is reversed when the PRE is also removed. Repression of TER94 is attributable to spreading of the eve Pc domain into the TER94 locus, accompanied by an increase in histone H3 trimethylation at lysine 27. Other PREs can functionally replace the eve PRE, and other insulators can block PRE-dependent repression in this context. The full activity of the eve promoter is also dependent on Homie, and other insulators can promote normal eve enhancer-promoter communication. Our data suggest that this is not due to preventing promoter competition, but is likely the result of the insulator organizing a chromosomal conformation favorable to normal enhancer-promoter interactions. Thus, insulator activities in a native context include enhancer blocking and enhancer-promoter facilitation, as well as preventing the spread of repressive chromatin.

  14. The Drosophila eve Insulator Homie Promotes eve Expression and Protects the Adjacent Gene from Repression by Polycomb Spreading

    PubMed Central

    Fujioka, Miki; Sun, Guizhi; Jaynes, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Insulators can block the action of enhancers on promoters and the spreading of repressive chromatin, as well as facilitating specific enhancer-promoter interactions. However, recent studies have called into question whether the activities ascribed to insulators in model transgene assays actually reflect their functions in the genome. The Drosophila even skipped (eve) gene is a Polycomb (Pc) domain with a Pc-group response element (PRE) at one end, flanked by an insulator, an arrangement also seen in other genes. Here, we show that this insulator has three major functions. It blocks the spreading of the eve Pc domain, preventing repression of the adjacent gene, TER94. It prevents activation of TER94 by eve regulatory DNA. It also facilitates normal eve expression. When Homie is deleted in the context of a large transgene that mimics both eve and TER94 regulation, TER94 is repressed. This repression depends on the eve PRE. Ubiquitous TER94 expression is “replaced” by expression in an eve pattern when Homie is deleted, and this effect is reversed when the PRE is also removed. Repression of TER94 is attributable to spreading of the eve Pc domain into the TER94 locus, accompanied by an increase in histone H3 trimethylation at lysine 27. Other PREs can functionally replace the eve PRE, and other insulators can block PRE-dependent repression in this context. The full activity of the eve promoter is also dependent on Homie, and other insulators can promote normal eve enhancer-promoter communication. Our data suggest that this is not due to preventing promoter competition, but is likely the result of the insulator organizing a chromosomal conformation favorable to normal enhancer-promoter interactions. Thus, insulator activities in a native context include enhancer blocking and enhancer-promoter facilitation, as well as preventing the spread of repressive chromatin. PMID:24204298

  15. JT8D and JT9D jet engine performance improvement program. Task 1: Feasibility analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffin, W. O.; Webb, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    JT8D and JT9D component performance improvement concepts which have a high probability of incorporation into production engines were identified and ranked. An evaluation method based on airline payback period was developed for the purpose of identifying the most promising concepts. The method used available test data and analytical models along with conceptual/preliminary designs to predict the performance improvements, weight, installation characteristics, cost for new production and retrofit, maintenance cost, and qualitative characteristics of candidate concepts. These results were used to arrive at the concept payback period, which is the time required for an airline to recover the investment cost of concept implementation.

  16. [A peaceful Christmas Eve at the hospital].

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Ramshanker; Brabrand, Mikkel; Folkestad, Lars; Hallas, Peter

    2011-12-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate admittance rates and doctors workload during Christmas. In addition, we examined if admittance data supports the common notions that overeating during Christmas results in increased rate of admittances for abdominal problems and that there is an increase in admittance of the elderly at the end of Christmas (i.e. "granny dumping"). A retrospective study analyzing data from the database of the hospital units of Sydvestjysk Sygehus was performed. Data covered admittance in the months spanning from November through January in 1994-2010. Data from Christmas was compared with data from adjacent months. During Christmas more patients with abdominal complaints were admitted to the hospital (p < 0.001). However, there were no differences in mortality for patients with abdominal complaints or heart disease. There was a significant increase of patients admitted primarily because of lack of care at home during Christmas (p < 0.001). The number of admittance reached an absolute minimum on Christmas Eve. No increased admittance among the elderly at the end of Christmas was observed in our data. We conclude that overeating during the festivities of Christmas probably results in increased admittance rates in Danish hospitals. Christmas Eve is the day on which doctors can expect the lowest workload. Although the rate of admission due to lack of care at home was high, we could find no evidence of "granny dumping".

  17. Data Processing and Analysis Systems for JT-60U

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, T.; Totsuka, T.; Tsugita, T.; Oshima, T.; Sakata, S.; Sato, M.; Iwasaki, K.

    2002-09-15

    The JT-60U data processing system is a large computer complex gradually modernized by utilizing progressive computer and network technology. A main computer using state-of-the-art CMOS technology can handle {approx}550 MB of data per discharge. A gigabit ethernet switch with FDDI ports has been introduced to cope with the increase of handling data. Workstation systems with VMEbus serial highway drivers for CAMAC have been developed and used to replace many minicomputer systems. VMEbus-based fast data acquisition systems have also been developed to enlarge and replace a minicomputer system for mass data.The JT-60U data analysis system is composed of a JT-60U database server and a JT-60U analysis server, which are distributed UNIX servers. The experimental database is stored in the 1TB RAID disk of the JT-60U database server and is composed of ZENKEI and diagnostic databases. Various data analysis tools are available on the JT-60U analysis server. For the remote collaboration, technical features of the data analysis system have been applied to the computer system to access JT-60U data via the Internet. Remote participation in JT-60U experiments has been successfully conducted since 1996.

  18. Eve Bunting: She Loves To Tell a Story!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smuda, Janice; Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1998-01-01

    Eve Bunting is an award-winning author of 167 books for children and young adults. After a series of interview questions and responses, activities are suggested to accompany several Bunting picture books. (AEF)

  19. Eve Bunting: She Loves To Tell a Story!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smuda, Janice; Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1998-01-01

    Eve Bunting is an award-winning author of 167 books for children and young adults. After a series of interview questions and responses, activities are suggested to accompany several Bunting picture books. (AEF)

  20. Epiphyseal, vertebral, and ear (EVE) dysplasia: a new syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Amiel, J.; Cormier-Daire, V.; Journeau, P.; Mussat, P.; Munnich, A.; Lyonnet, S.

    1999-01-01

    We report on the association of epiphyseal, vertebral, and ear dysplasia in two sisters with normal stature and psychomotor development born to distantly related, healthy parents. This distinctive association has not been reported previously and is likely to represent a new condition with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. For this syndrome, we propose the acronym EVE standing for epiphyseal, vertebral, and ear dysplasia.


Keywords: epiphyseal; verterbal; and ear (EVE) dysplasia; new syndrome PMID:10424819

  1. Disruption Studies in JT-60U

    SciTech Connect

    Kawano, Y.; Yoshino, R.; Neyatani, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Tokuda, S.; Tamai, H.

    2002-09-15

    Intensive studies on the physics of disruptions and developments of avoidance/mitigation methods of disruption-related phenomena have being carried out in JT-60U. The characteristics of the disruption sequence were well understood from the observation of the relationship between the heat pulse onto divertor plates during thermal quench and the impurity influx into the plasma, which determined the speed of the following current quench. A fast shutdown was first demonstrated by injecting impurity ice pellets to the plasma and intensively reducing the heat flux on first wall. The halo current and its toroidal asymmetry were precisely measured, and the halo current database was made for ITER in a wide parameter range. It was found that TPF x I{sub h}/I{sub p0} was 0.52 at the maximum in a large tokamak like the JT-60U, whereas the higher factor of 0.75 had been observed in medium-sized tokamaks such as Alcator C-Mod and ASDEX-Upgrade. The vertical displacement event (VDE) at the start of the current quench was carefully investigated, and the neutral point where the VDE hardly occurs was discovered. MHD simulations clarified the onset mechanisms of the VDE, in which the eddy current effect of the up-down asymmetric resistive shell was essential. The real-time Z{sub j} measurement was improved for avoiding VDEs during slow current quench, and plasma-wall interaction was avoided by a well-optimized plasma equilibrium control. Magnetic fluctuations that were spontaneously generated at the disruption and/or enhanced by the externally applied helical field have been shown to avoid the generation of runaway electrons. Numerical analysis clarified an adequate rate of collisionless loss of runaway electrons in turbulent magnetic fields, which was consistent with the avoidance of runaway electron generation by magnetic fluctuations observed in JT-60U. Once generated, runaway electrons were suppressed when the safety factor at the plasma surface was reduced to 3 or 2.

  2. JT9D jet engine diagnostics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsson, W. J.; Stromberg, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    Performance deterioration in the JT9D-7 is a flight sensitive phenomenon caused by one short term and two long term wear modes. The short term deterioration occurs primarily during airplane acceptance testing and therefore does not affect airline operation. The long term wear takes place continuously over the engine life so that the performance loss can be minimized by a sound maintenance program. Short term deterioration is primarily due to flight load induced blade and gas path seal wear which result in increased gas path running clearances. The wear occurs in all engine modules but has the most deleterious effect on the low pressure compressor and high pressure turbine performance. The wear occurs during conditions that combine minimum axisymmetric running clearances and maximum engine distortion or asymmetric closure.

  3. JT-60SA superconducting magnet system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koide, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Wanner, M.; Barabaschi, P.; Cucchiaro, A.; Davis, S.; Decool, P.; Di Pietro, E.; Disset, G.; Genini, L.; Hajnal, N.; Heller, R.; Honda, A.; Ikeda, Y.; Kamada, Y.; Kashiwa, Y.; Kizu, K.; Kamiya, K.; Murakami, H.; Michel, F.; Marechal, J. L.; Phillips, G.; Polli, G. M.; Rossi, P.; Shibanuma, K.; Takahata, K.; Tomarchio, V.; Tsuchiya, K.; Usui, K.; Verrecchia, M.; Zani, L.

    2015-08-01

    The most distinctive feature of the superconducting magnet system for JT-60SA is the optimized coil structure in terms of the space utilization as well as the highly accurate coil manufacturing, thus meeting the requirements for the steady-state tokamak research: a conceptually new outer inter-coil structure separated from the casing is introduced to the toroidal field coils to realize their slender shape, allowing large-bore diagnostic ports for detailed plasma measurements. A method to minimize the manufacturing error of the equilibrium-field coils has been established, aiming at the precise plasma shape/position control. A compact butt-joint has been successfully developed for the Central Solenoid, which allows an optimized utilization of the limited space for the Central Solenoid to extend the duration of the plasma pulse.

  4. "ADAM' or "EVE'?--a toxicological conundrum.

    PubMed

    Cox, D E; Williams, K R

    1996-01-12

    The 3,4-methylenedioxy ring-substituted amphetamines, including "ADAM' and "EVE', are currently popular drugs of abuse. Adverse reactions are reported in the clinical literature but few fatal cases are documented and little toxicological data is available to guide those determining the cause or manner of death in such cases. We report two deaths presenting in a similar manner and with similar clinical features. Various body fluid samples were analysed for amphetamines by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In one case, amphetamine alone was detected at levels of 1.54 mg/l and 1.47 mg/l in postmortem blood and admission serum, respectively. The other involved several 3,4-methylenedioxy ring-substituted amphetamines, namely MDA, MDMA and MDEA, at levels of 0.25 mg/l, 0.43 mg/l and 0.3 mg/l, respectively in postmortem femoral blood and 0.24 mg/l, 0.55 mg/l and 0.49 mg/l in admission blood. The interpretation of these toxicological results and some novel legal issues are discussed.

  5. 75 FR 80717 - Safety Zone; Sacramento New Year's Eve, Fireworks Display, Sacramento, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sacramento New Year's Eve, Fireworks... is establishing a temporary safety zone in support of the Sacramento New Year's Eve Fireworks Display... Convention and Visitors Bureau will sponsor the Sacramento New Year's Eve Fireworks Displays from 8:45...

  6. 76 FR 78820 - Safety Zone; City of Beaufort's Tricentennial New Year's Eve Fireworks Display, Beaufort River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... Eve Fireworks Display, Beaufort River, Beaufort, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final... Beaufort, South Carolina, during the City of Beaufort's Tricentennial New Year's Eve Fireworks Display. The... navigable waters of the United States. Discussion of Rule On New Year's Eve, a fireworks display will...

  7. JT8D-100 turbofan engine, phase 1. [noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The JT8D turbofan engine, widely used in short and medium range transport aircraft, contributes substantially to airport community noise. The jet noise is predominant in the JT8D engine and may be reduced in a modified engine, without loss of thrust, by increasing the airflow to reduce jet velocity. A configuration study evaluated the effects of fan airflow, fan pressure ratio, and bypass ratio on noise, thrust, and fuel comsumption. The cycle selected for the modified engine was based upon an increased diameter, single-stage fan and two additional core engine compressor stages, which replace the existing two-stage fan. Modifications were also made to the low pressure turbine to provide the increased torque required by the larger diameter fan. The resultant JT8D-100 engine models have the following characteristics at take-off thrust, compared to the current JT8D engine: Airflow and bypass ratio are increased, and fan pressure ratio and engine speed are reduced. The resultant engine is also longer, larger in diameter, and heavier than the JT8D base model, but these latter changes are compensated by the increased thrust and decreased fuel comsumption of the modified engine, thus providing the capability for maintaining the performance of the current JT8D-powered aircraft.

  8. Doppler-Shifted Flare Emissions Observed by SDO/EVE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2012-01-01

    The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) has been obtaining unprecedented observations of solar variation on times scales of seconds during flares and over the rising phase of Solar Cycle 24 since its start of normal operations in May 2010. Unexpectedly, as first pointed out in Hudson et. al., Ap.j. (2011), even with EVE's spectral resolution of 0.1 nm and 'irradiance' measurements, EVE has the ability to very accurately determine Doppler shifts in all emissions during solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The technique for deriving these absolute velocities is not straightforward, as the optical and instrumental effects must first be eliminated in order to separate the absolute plasma velocities from the instrument effects. This talk will discuss these efforts to eliminate the instrumental component, as well as show some of the first results of absolute velocities of multiple emissions at a wide range of temperatures during solar flares.

  9. Measuring and Modeling Solar Flares with SDO EVE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Woods, Thomas N.; Wilson, Anne; Lindholm, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) currently provides estimations of the solar Vacuum Ultra-Violet (VUV; 0.1-190 nm) irradiance from 1947 to present at 1 nm bins and 60 second temporal resolution. The accuracy of FISM is limited to 1nm because the TIMED SEE Level 3 and Level 3A measurement, for which the FISM relationships were based on, were at Inm. With the launch of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) in Feb 2010, the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) will provide more accurate, increased spectral resolution (0.1 nm) measurements from 6 nm to 106 nm every 10-seconds and almost 100% duty cycle. EVE also observes additional broadband measurements for 0.1-7 nm, some EUV bands from 16 nm to 40 nm, and Hydrogen Lyman alpha at 121.6 nm. Along with the better spectral resolution of EVE leading to similar spectral resolution improvements in FISM, other significant improvements provide by SDO/EVE measurements will be multi-thermal gradual phase decay, impulsive phase center-to-limb variation characterization, non-flare sub-daily variations, and multi-thermal proxies. SDO/EVE observations of various solar flares with different characteristics will be presented, with the discussion theme focused on how EVE observations will help improve the accuracy of the FISM in the future. The final topic will present the updated FISM website that now has easier access to the FISM results and produce real-time updates that are useful for Space Weather studies.

  10. A key esterase required for the mineralization of quizalofop-p-ethyl by a natural consortium of Rhodococcus sp. JT-3 and Brevundimonas sp. JT-9.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Li, Mengya; Li, Jie; Wang, Guangli; Li, Feng; Xu, Dayong; Liu, Yuan; Xiong, Minghua

    2017-04-05

    A natural consortium, named L1, of Rhodococcus sp. JT-3 and Brevundimonas sp. JT-9 was obtained from quizalofop-p-ethyl (QE) polluted soil. The consortium was able to use QE as a sole carbon source for growth and degraded 100mgL(-1) of QE in 60h. Strain JT-3 initiated the catabolism of QE to quizalofop acid (QA), which was used by strain JT-9 as carbon source for growth and to simultaneously feed strain JT-3. A novel esterase EstS-JT, which was responsible for the transformation of QE to QA and essential for the mineralization of QE by the consortium, was cloned from strain JT-3. EstS-JT showed low amino acid identity to other reported esterases from esterase family VIII and represents a new member of this family. The deduced amino acid sequence contained the esterase family VIII conserved motifs S-X-X-K, YSV and WAG. The purified recombinant EstS-JT displayed maximal esterase activity at 35°C and pH 7.5. An inhibitor assay, site-directed mutagenesis and 3D modeling analysis revealed that S64, K67 and Y175 were essential for catalysis and probably comprised the catalytic center of EstS-JT. Additionally, EstS-JT had broad substrate specificity and was capable of hydrolyzing p-nitrophenyl esters (C2-C8) and various AOPP herbicides.

  11. ADAM binding protein Eve-1 is required for ectodomain shedding of epidermal growth factor receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Motonari; Nanba, Daisuke; Mori, Seiji; Shiba, Fumio; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Yoshino, Koichiro; Matsuura, Nariaki; Higashiyama, Shigeki

    2004-10-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAMs) are implicated in the ectodomain shedding of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands in EGFR transactivation. However, the activation mechanisms of ADAMs remain elusive. To analyze the regulatory mechanisms of ADAM activation, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening using the cytoplasmic domain of ADAM12 as bait, and identified a protein that we designated Eve-1. Two cDNAs were cloned and characterized. They encode alternatively spliced isoforms of Eve-1, called Eve-1a and Eve-1b, that have four and five tandem Src homology 3 (SH3) domains in the carboxyl-terminal region, respectively, and seven proline-rich SH3 domain binding motifs in the amino-terminal region. The short forms of Eve-1, Eve-1c and Eve-1d, translated at Met-371 are human counterparts of mouse Sh3d19. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that Eve-1 is abundantly expressed in skeletal muscle and heart. Western blot analysis revealed the dominant production of Eve-1c in human cancer cell lines. Knockdown of Eve-1 by small interfering RNA in HT1080 cells reduced the shedding of proHB-EGF induced by angiotensin II and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, as well as the shedding of pro-transforming growth factor-alpha, promphiregulin, and proepiregulin by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, suggesting that Eve-1 plays a role in positively regulating the activity of ADAMs in the signaling of EGFR-ligand shedding.

  12. JT15D simulated flight data evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    The noise characteristics of the JT15D turbofan engine was analyzed with the objectives of: (1) assessing the state-of-art ability to simulate flight acoustic data using test results acquired in wind tunnel and outdoor (turbulence controlled) environments; and (2) predicting the farfield noise directivity of the blade passage frequency (BPF) tonal components using results from rotor blade mounted dynamic pressure instrumentation. Engine rotor tip speeds at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic conditions were evaluated. The ability to simulate flight results was generally within 2-3 dB for both outdoor and wind tunnel acoustic results. Some differences did occur in the broadband noise level and in the multiple-pure-tone harmonics at supersonic tip speeds. The prediction of blade passage frequency tone directivity from dynamic pressure measurements was accomplished for the three tip speed conditions. Predictions were made of the random and periodic components of the tone directivity. The technique for estimating the random tone component used hot wire data to establish a correlation between dynamic pressure and turbulence intensity. This prediction overestimated the tone level by typically 10 dB with the greatest overestimates occurring at supersonic conditions.

  13. Satan's Temptation of Eve in "Paradise Lost": A Rhetorical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Dee Ann Duke

    John Milton employs classical rhetorical techniques in "Paradise Lost" to accomplish Satan's temptation of Eve which begins on line 524 and ends with line 732 of Book 9; however, Satan's oration resembles pejorative sophistry and Milton uses Ciceronian arrangement for Satan's argument. Milton envisions Satan as a clever, cunning creature…

  14. Satan's Temptation of Eve in "Paradise Lost": A Rhetorical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Dee Ann Duke

    John Milton employs classical rhetorical techniques in "Paradise Lost" to accomplish Satan's temptation of Eve which begins on line 524 and ends with line 732 of Book 9; however, Satan's oration resembles pejorative sophistry and Milton uses Ciceronian arrangement for Satan's argument. Milton envisions Satan as a clever, cunning creature…

  15. Recent progress of the JT-60SA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, H.; Barabaschi, P.; Kamada, Y.; the JT-60SA Team

    2017-10-01

    The JT-60SA project has been implemented for the purpose of an early realization of fusion energy. With a powerful and versatile NBI and ECRF system, a flexible plasma-shaping capability, and various kinds of in-vessel coils to suppress MHD instabilities, JT-60SA plays an essential role in addressing the key physics and engineering issues of ITER and DEMO. It aims to achieve the long sustainment of high integrated performance plasmas under the high β N condition required in DEMO. The fabrication and installation of components and systems of JT-60SA procured by the EU and Japan are steadily progressing. The installation of toroidal field (TF) coils around the vacuum vessel started in December 2016. The commissioning of the cryogenic system and power supply system has been implemented in the Naka site, and JT-60SA will start operation in 2019. The JT-60SA research plan covers a wide area of issues in ITER and DEMO relevant operation regimes, and has been regularly updated on the basis of intensive discussion among European and Japanese researchers.

  16. Performance verification tests of JT-60SA CS model coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obana, Tetsuhiro; Murakami, Haruyuki; Takahata, Kazuya; Hamaguchi, Shinji; Chikaraishi, Hirotaka; Mito, Toshiyuki; Imagawa, Shinsaku; Kizu, Kaname; Natsume, Kyohei; Yoshida, Kiyoshi

    2015-11-01

    As a final check of the coil manufacturing method of the JT-60 Super Advanced (JT-60SA) central solenoid (CS), we verified the performance of a CS model coil. The model coil comprised a quad-pancake wound with a Nb3Sn cable-in-conduit conductor. Measurements of the critical current, joint resistance, pressure drop, and magnetic field were conducted in the verification tests. In the critical-current measurement, the critical current of the model coil coincided with the estimation derived from a strain of -0.62% for the Nb3Sn strands. As a result, critical-current degradation caused by the coil manufacturing process was not observed. The results of the performance verification tests indicate that the model coil met the design requirements. Consequently, the manufacturing process of the JT-60SA CS was established.

  17. Dynamic design of gas sorption J-T refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, C. K.

    1986-01-01

    A long-life Joule-Thomson refrigerator which is heat powered, involves no sealing, and has few mechanical parts is desirable for long-term sensor cooling in space. In the gas-sorption J-T refrigerator, cooling is achieved by gas sorption (either adsorption or absorption) processes. Currently, a modular, single-stage refrigerator is being designed and built to be operated at 20 K. The design was analyzed using a dynamic model, which is described here. The model includes the kinetics of the compressors and the heat switches, the heat transfer of the pre-coolers and the heat exchangers, the on/off ratio of the check valves, and the impedance of the J-T valve. The cooling power, the cycle time, and the operating conditions were obtained in terms of the power input, the heat sink temperature, and the J-T impedance.

  18. Performance of JT-60SA divertor Thomson scattering diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Kajita, Shin; Hatae, Takaki; Tojo, Hiroshi; Hamano, Takashi; Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Kawashima, Hisato; Enokuchi, Akito

    2015-08-15

    For the satellite tokamak JT-60 Super Advanced (JT-60SA), a divertor Thomson scattering measurement system is planning to be installed. In this study, we improved the design of the collection optics based on the previous one, in which it was found that the solid angle of the collection optics became very small, mainly because of poor accessibility to the measurement region. By improvement, the solid angle was increased by up to approximately five times. To accurately assess the measurement performance, background noise was assessed using the plasma parameters in two typical discharges in JT-60SA calculated from the SONIC code. Moreover, the influence of the reflection of bremsstrahlung radiation by the wall is simulated by using a ray tracing simulation. The errors in the temperature and the density are assessed based on the simulation results for three typical field of views.

  19. [Calling patients on the eve of their day surgery procedure].

    PubMed

    Boule, Marie; Darribère, Véronique; Derouard, Nathalie; Goyenetche, Maryline; Peyroulet, Christel; Coquet, Marie-Monique

    2015-01-01

    In day surgery, the call on the eve of the procedure is a key stage in the patient's care pathway. Systematically carried out by the nurse, it helps to establish a relationship of trust with the nursing team. Through this exchange, the nurse ensures various aspects of the patient management are taken care of and optimises the organisation of the following day's programme. A team from Pau shares its practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. CONSTRAINING SOLAR FLARE DIFFERENTIAL EMISSION MEASURES WITH EVE AND RHESSI

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, Amir; McTiernan, James M.; Warren, Harry P.

    2014-06-20

    Deriving a well-constrained differential emission measure (DEM) distribution for solar flares has historically been difficult, primarily because no single instrument is sensitive to the full range of coronal temperatures observed in flares, from ≲2 to ≳50 MK. We present a new technique, combining extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory with X-ray spectra from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), to derive, for the first time, a self-consistent, well-constrained DEM for jointly observed solar flares. EVE is sensitive to ∼2-25 MK thermal plasma emission, and RHESSI to ≳10 MK; together, the two instruments cover the full range of flare coronal plasma temperatures. We have validated the new technique on artificial test data, and apply it to two X-class flares from solar cycle 24 to determine the flare DEM and its temporal evolution; the constraints on the thermal emission derived from the EVE data also constrain the low energy cutoff of the non-thermal electrons, a crucial parameter for flare energetics. The DEM analysis can also be used to predict the soft X-ray flux in the poorly observed ∼0.4-5 nm range, with important applications for geospace science.

  1. Constraining Solar Flare Differential Emission Measures with EVE and RHESSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspi, Amir; McTiernan, James M.; Warren, Harry P.

    2014-06-01

    Deriving a well-constrained differential emission measure (DEM) distribution for solar flares has historically been difficult, primarily because no single instrument is sensitive to the full range of coronal temperatures observed in flares, from lsim2 to gsim50 MK. We present a new technique, combining extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory with X-ray spectra from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), to derive, for the first time, a self-consistent, well-constrained DEM for jointly observed solar flares. EVE is sensitive to ~2-25 MK thermal plasma emission, and RHESSI to gsim10 MK together, the two instruments cover the full range of flare coronal plasma temperatures. We have validated the new technique on artificial test data, and apply it to two X-class flares from solar cycle 24 to determine the flare DEM and its temporal evolution; the constraints on the thermal emission derived from the EVE data also constrain the low energy cutoff of the non-thermal electrons, a crucial parameter for flare energetics. The DEM analysis can also be used to predict the soft X-ray flux in the poorly observed ~0.4-5 nm range, with important applications for geospace science.

  2. Solar Flare Impulsive Phase Emission Observed with SDO/EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Michael B.; Milligan, Ryan O.; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Keenan, Francis P.

    2013-12-01

    Differential emission measures (DEMs) during the impulsive phase of solar flares were constructed using observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) and the Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method. Emission lines from ions formed over the temperature range log Te = 5.8-7.2 allow the evolution of the DEM to be studied over a wide temperature range at 10 s cadence. The technique was applied to several M- and X-class flares, where impulsive phase EUV emission is observable in the disk-integrated EVE spectra from emission lines formed up to 3-4 MK and we use spatially unresolved EVE observations to infer the thermal structure of the emitting region. For the nine events studied, the DEMs exhibited a two-component distribution during the impulsive phase, a low-temperature component with peak temperature of 1-2 MK, and a broad high-temperature component from 7 to 30 MK. A bimodal high-temperature component is also found for several events, with peaks at 8 and 25 MK during the impulsive phase. The origin of the emission was verified using Atmospheric Imaging Assembly images to be the flare ribbons and footpoints, indicating that the constructed DEMs represent the spatially average thermal structure of the chromospheric flare emission during the impulsive phase.

  3. Solar flare impulsive phase emission observed with SDO/EVE

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, Michael B.; Milligan, Ryan O.; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Keenan, Francis P.

    2013-12-10

    Differential emission measures (DEMs) during the impulsive phase of solar flares were constructed using observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) and the Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method. Emission lines from ions formed over the temperature range log T{sub e} = 5.8-7.2 allow the evolution of the DEM to be studied over a wide temperature range at 10 s cadence. The technique was applied to several M- and X-class flares, where impulsive phase EUV emission is observable in the disk-integrated EVE spectra from emission lines formed up to 3-4 MK and we use spatially unresolved EVE observations to infer the thermal structure of the emitting region. For the nine events studied, the DEMs exhibited a two-component distribution during the impulsive phase, a low-temperature component with peak temperature of 1-2 MK, and a broad high-temperature component from 7 to 30 MK. A bimodal high-temperature component is also found for several events, with peaks at 8 and 25 MK during the impulsive phase. The origin of the emission was verified using Atmospheric Imaging Assembly images to be the flare ribbons and footpoints, indicating that the constructed DEMs represent the spatially average thermal structure of the chromospheric flare emission during the impulsive phase.

  4. Commissioning of the JT-60SA helium refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, Koji; Natsume, Kyohei; Ohtsu, Kiichi; Oishi, Makoto; Honda, Atsushi; Kashiwa, Yoshitoshi; Kizu, Kaname; Koide, Yoshihiko; Hoa, Christine; Michel, Frederic; Roussel, Pascal; Lamaison, Valerie; Bonne, Francois; Dipietro, Enrico; Cardella, Antonino; Wanner, Manfred; Legrand, Jerome; Pudys, Vincent; Langevin, Baptiste

    2017-09-01

    The JT-60SA project will use superconducting magnets to confine the plasma and achieve a plasma current with a typical flat top duration of 100 second in purely inductive mode. The helium refrigerator has an equivalent cooling power of 9 kW at 4.5 K providing 3.7 K, 4.5 K, 50 K and 80 K for the diverter cryopump, the superconducting magnets, the HTS current leads, and the thermal shields, respectively. This paper summarizes the JT-60SA helium refrigerator commissioning activities aiming at successful operation of heat load smoothing technology to manage the 12 kW heat pulses by 9 kW cooling power using a 7000 liter liquid helium.

  5. MIXING STUDY FOR JT-71/72 TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.

    2013-11-26

    All modeling calculations for the mixing operations of miscible fluids contained in HBLine tanks, JT-71/72, were performed by taking a three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach. The CFD modeling results were benchmarked against the literature results and the previous SRNL test results to validate the model. Final performance calculations were performed by using the validated model to quantify the mixing time for the HB-Line tanks. The mixing study results for the JT-71/72 tanks show that, for the cases modeled, the mixing time required for blending of the tank contents is no more than 35 minutes, which is well below 2.5 hours of recirculation pump operation. Therefore, the results demonstrate the adequacy of 2.5 hours’ mixing time of the tank contents by one recirculation pump to get well mixed.

  6. JT9D ceramic outer air seal system refinement program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffin, W. O.

    1982-01-01

    The abradability and durability characteristics of the plasma sprayed system were improved by refinement and optimization of the plasma spray process and the metal substrate design. The acceptability of the final seal system for engine testing was demonstrated by an extensive rig test program which included thermal shock tolerance, thermal gradient, thermal cycle, erosion, and abradability tests. An interim seal system design was also subjected to 2500 endurance test cycles in a JT9D-7 engine.

  7. SDO/EVE Data Product Improvements, Additions, and Algorithms Updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodraska, Donald

    2016-10-01

    The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) provides full-disk integrated solar irradiance at high cadence and 0.1 nm resolution. Here we present improvements in data reduction for creation of the solar irradiance spectrum to improved routine data products. This includes improved degradation corrections to remove instrumental effects, 1-minute data products to accommodate longer integration times, and also a new data filtering technique to reduce the internal and external noise in the CCD detector measurements. We also demonstrate that new data products could be produced including higher resolution flare spectra with improved wavelength registration from the MEGS-A detector.

  8. Conceptual design of the JT-60SA cryogenic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamaison, V.; Beauvisage, J.; Fejoz, P.; Girard, S.; Gonvalves, R.; Gondé, R.; Heloin, V.; Michel, F.; Hoa, C.; Kamiya, K.; Roussel, P.; Vallet, J.-C.; Wanner, M.; Yoshida, K.

    2014-01-01

    The superconducting tokamak JT-60 Super Advanced (JT-60SA) is part of the Broader Approach Programme agreed between Europe and Japan. Among other in kind contributions, CEA is in charge of supplying the Cryogenic System which includes a Warm Compression Station, the Refrigerator Cold Box, the Auxiliary Cold Box, a compressed air station and the vacuum systems. The cryogenic system requires a refrigeration capacity of about 8 kW equivalent at 4.5 K. It will supply cryopump panels at 3.7 K, superconducting magnets and cold structures at 4.4 K, HTS current leads at 50 K, and thermal shields between 80 K and 100 K. The contract for design, manufacture, installation and commissioning was signed between CEA and Air Liquide Advanced Technologies (AL-AT) in November 2012. The Cryogenic System shall be operational in 2016. The paper presents the main technical requirements and the limit of supply, the description of the process proposed by AL-AT, the main components, the preliminary layout and the interfaces at the JT-60SA Naka site.

  9. RF heating and current drive experiment on JT-60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-09-01

    Recent experimental results of Lower Hybrid and Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (LHRF and ICRF) heating and current drive are presented on JT-60 at JAERI. Three LHRF at 2 GHz and one ICRF at 120 MHz system are installed in JT-60. Each unit has launched 2.1-2.4 MW of RF power into the JT-60, so far. Steady current up to 2 MA for 2.5 sec have been maintained only by LHCD at a density of ne=0.32×1019 m-3 with 3.1 MW. The current drive efficiency defined by ɛCD=ne (1019 m-3)R(m)IRF(MA)/PLH(MW) reach 1.5-3.0 by combination of LHCD and NBI heating. High central electron heating up to 6 keV is demonstrated at the density ne=1.7×10-19 m-3. Current profile control and improvement of energy confinement time via LHCD is observed with and without NBI heating. Optimization of the second harmonic ICRF heating is studied with 2×2 phased loop antenna. In combination heating of ICRF and NBI, remarkable beam acceleration is observed in the plasma core.

  10. Results of acoustic testing of the JT8D-109 refan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burdsall, E. A.; Brochu, F. P.; Scaramella, V. M.

    1975-01-01

    A JT8D engine was modified to reduce jet noise levels by 6-8 PNdB at takeoff power without increasing fan generated noise levels. Designated the JT8D-109, the modified engines featured a larger single stage fan, and acoustic treatment in the fan discharge ducts. Noise levels were measured on an outdoor test facility for eight engine/acoustic treatment configurations. Compared to the baseline JT8D, the fully treated JT8D-109 showed reductions of 6 PNdB at takeoff, and 11 PNdB at a typical approach power setting.

  11. The New SDO/EVE Coronal Dimming Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, James

    2016-10-01

    Coronal dimmings are hours-long voids in the solar corona that can be indicative of plasma density depletion from CMEs. Much prior work has established the theoretical case for this link – tying the emission measure to the mass of the departing CME. These studies have always relied primarily on spectral images of the corona (e.g., SDO/AIA). Our recent work has demonstrated that coronal dimming is observable with irradiance data using SDO/EVE, which can provide higher temperature resolution than relatively broadband spectral imagers. We extend our prior studies which focused on a handful of events to the entire 4 history of SDO/EVE/MEGS-A data, which includes hundreds to thousands of events. We characterize the dimming light curves in terms of dimming depth and slope and compare this statistically sized sample to CME masses and speeds determined with SOHO/LASCO coronagraph data in the CDAW catalog. We will present preliminary statistics on this new extensive dimming catalog and its comparison to the CDAW CME catalog.

  12. Progress Report on Doppler Shift Results from SDO/EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2015-04-01

    The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) has been obtaining unprecedented observations of solar variation on times scales of seconds during flares and over the rising phase of Solar Cycle 24 since its start of normal operations in May 2010. Unexpectedly, as first pointed out in Hudson et. al., Ap. J. (2011), even with EVE’s spectral resolution of 0.1 nm and ‘irradiance’ measurements, EVE has the ability to very accurately determine Doppler shifts in all emissions during solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The technique for deriving these absolute velocities is not straightforward, as the optical and instrumental effects must first be eliminated in order to separate the absolute plasma velocities from the instrument effects. Initial results were first presented at the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Meeting in Cambridge, MD in March 2013. This presentation will discuss the progress that has been made since then on the efforts to eliminate the instrumental component, as well as show some of the updated results of absolute velocities of multiple emissions at a wide range of temperatures during solar flares.

  13. Evaluation of Atlas-Based White Matter Segmentation with Eve.

    PubMed

    Plassard, Andrew J; Hinton, Kendra E; Venkatraman, Vijay; Gonzalez, Christopher; Resnick, Susan M; Landman, Bennett A

    2015-03-20

    Multi-atlas labeling has come in wide spread use for whole brain labeling on magnetic resonance imaging. Recent challenges have shown that leading techniques are near (or at) human expert reproducibility for cortical gray matter labels. However, these approaches tend to treat white matter as essentially homogeneous (as white matter exhibits isointense signal on structural MRI). The state-of-the-art for white matter atlas is the single-subject Johns Hopkins Eve atlas. Numerous approaches have attempted to use tractography and/or orientation information to identify homologous white matter structures across subjects. Despite success with large tracts, these approaches have been plagued by difficulties in with subtle differences in course, low signal to noise, and complex structural relationships for smaller tracts. Here, we investigate use of atlas-based labeling to propagate the Eve atlas to unlabeled datasets. We evaluate single atlas labeling and multi-atlas labeling using synthetic atlases derived from the single manually labeled atlas. On 5 representative tracts for 10 subjects, we demonstrate that (1) single atlas labeling generally provides segmentations within 2mm mean surface distance, (2) morphologically constraining DTI labels within structural MRI white matter reduces variability, and (3) multi-atlas labeling did not improve accuracy. These efforts present a preliminary indication that single atlas labels with correction is reasonable, but caution should be applied. To purse multi-atlas labeling and more fully characterize overall performance, more labeled datasets would be necessary.

  14. Evaluation of Atlas-Based White Matter Segmentation with Eve

    PubMed Central

    Plassard, Andrew J.; Hinton, Kendra E.; Venkatraman, Vijay; Gonzalez, Christopher; Resnick, Susan M.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-atlas labeling has come in wide spread use for whole brain labeling on magnetic resonance imaging. Recent challenges have shown that leading techniques are near (or at) human expert reproducibility for cortical gray matter labels. However, these approaches tend to treat white matter as essentially homogeneous (as white matter exhibits isointense signal on structural MRI). The state-of-the-art for white matter atlas is the single-subject Johns Hopkins Eve atlas. Numerous approaches have attempted to use tractography and/or orientation information to identify homologous white matter structures across subjects. Despite success with large tracts, these approaches have been plagued by difficulties in with subtle differences in course, low signal to noise, and complex structural relationships for smaller tracts. Here, we investigate use of atlas-based labeling to propagate the Eve atlas to unlabeled datasets. We evaluate single atlas labeling and multi-atlas labeling using synthetic atlases derived from the single manually labeled atlas. On 5 representative tracts for 10 subjects, we demonstrate that (1) single atlas labeling generally provides segmentations within 2mm mean surface distance, (2) morphologically constraining DTI labels within structural MRI white matter reduces variability, and (3) multi-atlas labeling did not improve accuracy. These efforts present a preliminary indication that single atlas labels with correction is reasonable, but caution should be applied. To purse multi-atlas labeling and more fully characterize overall performance, more labeled datasets would be necessary. PMID:25914503

  15. Ex-Vivo Uterine Environment (EVE) Therapy Induced Limited Fetal Inflammation in a Premature Lamb Model

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Yuichiro; Saito, Masatoshi; Usuda, Haruo; Woodward, Eleanor; Rittenschober-Böhm, Judith; Kannan, Paranthaman S.; Musk, Gabrielle C.; Matsuda, Tadashi; Newnham, John P.; Kemp, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ex-vivo uterine environment (EVE) therapy uses an artificial placenta to provide gas exchange and nutrient delivery to a fetus submerged in an amniotic fluid bath. Development of EVE may allow us to treat very premature neonates without mechanical ventilation. Meanwhile, elevations in fetal inflammation are associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. In the present study, we analysed fetal survival, inflammation and pulmonary maturation in preterm lambs maintained on EVE therapy using a parallelised umbilical circuit system with a low priming volume. Methods Ewes underwent surgical delivery at 115 days of gestation (term is 150 days), and fetuses were transferred to EVE therapy (EVE group; n = 5). Physiological parameters were continuously monitored; fetal blood samples were intermittently obtained to assess wellbeing and targeted to reference range values for 2 days. Age-matched animals (Control group; n = 6) were surgically delivered at 117 days of gestation. Fetal blood and tissue samples were analysed and compared between the two groups. Results Fetal survival time in the EVE group was 27.0 ± 15.5 (group mean ± SD) hours. Only one fetus completed the pre-determined study period with optimal physiological parameters, while the other 4 animals demonstrated physiological deterioration or death prior to the pre-determined study end point. Significant elevations (p<0.05) in: i) inflammatory proteins in fetal plasma; ii) selected cytokine/chemokine mRNA expression levels in fetal tissues; and iii) histological inflammatory score in fetal lung, were observed in the EVE group compared to the Control group. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in surfactant protein mRNA expression level between the two groups. Conclusion In this study, we achieved limited fetal survival using EVE therapy. Despite this, EVE therapy only induced a modest fetal inflammatory response and did not promote lung maturation. These data provide additional insight into

  16. Ex-Vivo Uterine Environment (EVE) Therapy Induced Limited Fetal Inflammation in a Premature Lamb Model.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yuichiro; Saito, Masatoshi; Usuda, Haruo; Woodward, Eleanor; Rittenschober-Böhm, Judith; Kannan, Paranthaman S; Musk, Gabrielle C; Matsuda, Tadashi; Newnham, John P; Kemp, Matthew W

    2015-01-01

    Ex-vivo uterine environment (EVE) therapy uses an artificial placenta to provide gas exchange and nutrient delivery to a fetus submerged in an amniotic fluid bath. Development of EVE may allow us to treat very premature neonates without mechanical ventilation. Meanwhile, elevations in fetal inflammation are associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. In the present study, we analysed fetal survival, inflammation and pulmonary maturation in preterm lambs maintained on EVE therapy using a parallelised umbilical circuit system with a low priming volume. Ewes underwent surgical delivery at 115 days of gestation (term is 150 days), and fetuses were transferred to EVE therapy (EVE group; n = 5). Physiological parameters were continuously monitored; fetal blood samples were intermittently obtained to assess wellbeing and targeted to reference range values for 2 days. Age-matched animals (Control group; n = 6) were surgically delivered at 117 days of gestation. Fetal blood and tissue samples were analysed and compared between the two groups. Fetal survival time in the EVE group was 27.0 ± 15.5 (group mean ± SD) hours. Only one fetus completed the pre-determined study period with optimal physiological parameters, while the other 4 animals demonstrated physiological deterioration or death prior to the pre-determined study end point. Significant elevations (p<0.05) in: i) inflammatory proteins in fetal plasma; ii) selected cytokine/chemokine mRNA expression levels in fetal tissues; and iii) histological inflammatory score in fetal lung, were observed in the EVE group compared to the Control group. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in surfactant protein mRNA expression level between the two groups. In this study, we achieved limited fetal survival using EVE therapy. Despite this, EVE therapy only induced a modest fetal inflammatory response and did not promote lung maturation. These data provide additional insight into markers of treatment efficacy for the

  17. All About EVE: Education and Public Outreach for the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) of the NASA Solar Dynamic Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eparvier, F. G.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Buhr, S. M.

    2008-12-01

    With the aim of meeting NASA goals for education and public outreach as well as support education reform efforts including the National Science Education Standards, a suite of education materials and strategies have been developed by the Cooperative Institute for Environmental Sciences (CIRES) with the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) at the University of Colorado for the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE), which is an instrument aboard the Solar Dynamic Observatory. This paper will examine the education materials that have been developed for teachers in the classroom and scientists who are conducting outreach, including handouts, a website on space weather for teachers, a slideshow presentation about the overall Solar Dynamic Observatory mission, and a DVD with videos explaining the construction and goals of the EVE instrument, a tour of LASP, and an overview of space science careers. The results and potential transferability of a pilot project developed through this effort that engaged English Second Language learners in a semester-long course on space weather that incorporated the used of a Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance (SID) Monitor will be highlighted.

  18. 76 FR 72130 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney JT9D Series Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... JT9D Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... applies to all Pratt & Whitney (PW) JT9D series turbofan engines. The existing AD currently requires... critical life-limited rotating engine part failure, which could result in an uncontained engine failure and...

  19. Production of a novel monoclonal antibody, JT-95, which can detect antigen of thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Takeyama, H; Hosoya, T; Sakurai, K; Mori, Y; Watanabe, M; Kisaki, H; Ohno, T

    1996-04-15

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) JT-95 was produced by immunization of mice with membrane fractions of a human thyroid carcinoma. Immuno-histochemical staining has demonstrated that the antigen recognized by JT-95 is strongly expressed in 95 (95%) of 100 cases of papillary carcinomas and in 3 (75%) of 4 cases of follicular carcinomas. In benign diseases of the thyroid gland, MAb JT-95 reacted with 0 (0%) of 39 adenomas, 1 (4%) of 21 adenomatous goiters, 0 (0%) of 8 hyperthyroidism specimens, and 3 (38%) of 8 chronic thyroiditis specimens. The antigen detected by MAb JT-95 has an apparent Mr 250,000 in thyroid carcinomas. Moreover, circulating antigen in thyroid carcinoma patients was detected by MAb JT-95 in an ELISA and in Western blotting. The circulating antigen has a Mr 105,000. MAb JT-95 conjugated with (131) I was administrated to nude mice bearing a human thyroid carcinoma. JT-95 131I accumulation at the transplanted tumor was visualized by autoradiography with 2.68-14.75-fold higher levels detected at the xenograft compared to that for normal organs. Based on these data, MAb JT-95 may be useful in the diagnosis detection and therapy of thyroid carcinoma.

  20. Development of a J-T Micro Compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champagne, P.; Olson, J. R.; Nast, T.; Roth, E.; Collaco, A.; Kaldas, G.; Saito, E.; Loung, V.

    2015-12-01

    Lockheed Martin has developed and tested a space-quality compressor capable of delivering closed-loop gas flow with a high pressure ratio, suitable for driving a Joule- Thomson cold head. The compressor is based on a traditional “Oxford style” dual-opposed piston compressor with linear drive motors and flexure-bearing clearance-seal technology for high reliability and long life. This J-T compressor retains the approximate size, weight, and cost of the ultra-compact, 200 gram Lockheed Martin Pulse Tube Micro Compressor, despite the addition of a flow-rectifying system to convert the AC pressure wave into a steady flow.

  1. Specification of motoneuron fate in Drosophila: integration of positive and negative transcription factor inputs by a minimal eve enhancer.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jocelyn A; Fujioka, Miki; Odden, Joanne P; Jaynes, James B; Doe, Chris Q

    2003-11-01

    We are interested in the mechanisms that generate neuronal diversity within the Drosophila central nervous system (CNS), and in particular in the development of a single identified motoneuron called RP2. Expression of the homeodomain transcription factor Even-skipped (Eve) is required for RP2 to establish proper connectivity with its muscle target. Here we investigate the mechanisms by which eve is specifically expressed within the RP2 motoneuron lineage. Within the NB4-2 lineage, expression of eve first occurs in the precursor of RP2, called GMC4-2a. We identify a small 500 base pair eve enhancer that mediates eve expression in GMC4-2a. We show that four different transcription factors (Prospero, Huckebein, Fushi tarazu, and Pdm1) are all expressed in GMC4-2a, and are required to activate eve via this minimal enhancer, and that one transcription factor (Klumpfuss) represses eve expression via this element. All four positively acting transcription factors act independently, regulating eve but not each other. Thus, the eve enhancer integrates multiple positive and negative transcription factor inputs to restrict eve expression to a single precursor cell (GMC4-2a) and its RP2 motoneuron progeny. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) Multiple EUV Grating Spectrographs (MEGS): Radiometric Calibrations and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hock, R. A.; Woods, T. N.; Crotser, D.; Eparvier, F. G.; Woodraska, D. L.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Woods, E. C.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), scheduled for launch in early 2010, incorporates a suite of instruments including the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE). EVE has multiple instruments including the Multiple Extreme ultraviolet Grating Spectrographs (MEGS) A, B, and P instruments, the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), and the Extreme ultraviolet SpectroPhotometer (ESP). The radiometric calibration of EVE, necessary to convert the instrument counts to physical units, was performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF III) located in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This paper presents the results and derived accuracy of this radiometric calibration for the MEGS A, B, P, and SAM instruments, while the calibration of the ESP instrument is addressed by Didkovsky et al. . In addition, solar measurements that were taken on 14 April 2008, during the NASA 36.240 sounding-rocket flight, are shown for the prototype EVE instruments.

  3. gEVE: a genome-based endogenous viral element database provides comprehensive viral protein-coding sequences in mammalian genomes.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, So; Takahashi, Mahoko Ueda

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, approximately 10% of genome sequences correspond to endogenous viral elements (EVEs), which are derived from ancient viral infections of germ cells. Although most EVEs have been inactivated, some open reading frames (ORFs) of EVEs obtained functions in the hosts. However, EVE ORFs usually remain unannotated in the genomes, and no databases are available for EVE ORFs. To investigate the function and evolution of EVEs in mammalian genomes, we developed EVE ORF databases for 20 genomes of 19 mammalian species. A total of 736,771 non-overlapping EVE ORFs were identified and archived in a database named gEVE (http://geve.med.u-tokai.ac.jp). The gEVE database provides nucleotide and amino acid sequences, genomic loci and functional annotations of EVE ORFs for all 20 genomes. In analyzing RNA-seq data with the gEVE database, we successfully identified the expressed EVE genes, suggesting that the gEVE database facilitates studies of the genomic analyses of various mammalian species.Database URL: http://geve.med.u-tokai.ac.jp.

  4. gEVE: a genome-based endogenous viral element database provides comprehensive viral protein-coding sequences in mammalian genomes

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, So; Takahashi, Mahoko Ueda

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, approximately 10% of genome sequences correspond to endogenous viral elements (EVEs), which are derived from ancient viral infections of germ cells. Although most EVEs have been inactivated, some open reading frames (ORFs) of EVEs obtained functions in the hosts. However, EVE ORFs usually remain unannotated in the genomes, and no databases are available for EVE ORFs. To investigate the function and evolution of EVEs in mammalian genomes, we developed EVE ORF databases for 20 genomes of 19 mammalian species. A total of 736,771 non-overlapping EVE ORFs were identified and archived in a database named gEVE (http://geve.med.u-tokai.ac.jp). The gEVE database provides nucleotide and amino acid sequences, genomic loci and functional annotations of EVE ORFs for all 20 genomes. In analyzing RNA-seq data with the gEVE database, we successfully identified the expressed EVE genes, suggesting that the gEVE database facilitates studies of the genomic analyses of various mammalian species. Database URL: http://geve.med.u-tokai.ac.jp PMID:27242033

  5. Transcriptional bursting in Drosophila development: Stochastic dynamics of eve stripe 2 expression.

    PubMed

    Holloway, David M; Spirov, Alexander V

    2017-01-01

    Anterior-posterior (AP) body segmentation of the fruit fly (Drosophila) is first seen in the 7-stripe spatial expression patterns of the pair-rule genes, which regulate downstream genes determining specific segment identities. Regulation of pair-rule expression has been extensively studied for the even-skipped (eve) gene. Recent live imaging, of a reporter for the 2nd eve stripe, has demonstrated the stochastic nature of this process, with 'bursts' in the number of RNA transcripts being made over time. We developed a stochastic model of the spatial and temporal expression of eve stripe 2 (binding by transcriptional activators (Bicoid and Hunchback proteins) and repressors (Giant and Krüppel proteins), transcriptional initiation and termination; with all rate parameters constrained by features of the experimental data) in order to analyze the noisy experimental time series and test hypotheses for how eve transcription is regulated. These include whether eve transcription is simply OFF or ON, with a single ON rate, or whether it proceeds by a more complex mechanism, with multiple ON rates. We find that both mechanisms can produce long (multi-minute) RNA bursts, but that the short-time (minute-to-minute) statistics of the data is indicative of eve being transcribed with at least two distinct ON rates, consistent with data on the joint activation of eve by Bicoid and Hunchback. We also predict distinct statistical signatures for cases in which eve is repressed (e.g. along the edges of the stripe) vs. cases in which activation is reduced (e.g. by mutagenesis of transcription factor binding sites). Fundamental developmental processes such as gene transcription are intrinsically noisy; our approach presents a new way to quantify and analyze time series data during developmental patterning in order to understand regulatory mechanisms and how they propagate noise and impact embryonic robustness.

  6. Improvement of JT-60U Negative Ion Source Performance

    SciTech Connect

    L.R. Grisham; M. Kuriyama; M. Kawai; T. Itoh; N. Umeda; JT-60U Team

    2000-11-15

    The negative ion neutral beam system now operating on JT-60U was the first application of negative ion technology to the production of beams of high current and power for conversion to neutral beams, and has successfully demonstrated the feasibility of negative ion beam heating systems for ITER and future tokamak reactors [1, 2]. It also demonstrated significant electron heating[3] and high current drive efficiency in JT-60U[4]. Because this was such a large advance in the state of the art with respect to all system parameters, many new physical processes appeared during the earlier phases of the beam injection experiments. We have explored the physical mechanisms responsible for these processes, and implemented solutions for some of them, in particular excessive beam stripping, the secular dependence of the arc and beam parameters, and nonuniformity of the plasma illuminating the beam extraction grid. This has reduced the percentage of beam heat loading on the downstream grids by roug hly a third, and permitted longer beam pulses at higher powers. Progress is being made in improving the negative ion current density, and in coping with the sensitivity of the cesium in the ion sources to oxidation by tiny air or water leaks, and the cathode operation is being altered.

  7. Scale model testing of the jet noise characteristics of the JT8D refan engine nozzle system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, D. H.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of static scale model acoustic tests of the nozzle system for the JT8D-9 baseline engine and candidate nozzle systems for JT8D-109, JT8D-115, and JT8D-117 refan engines. The objective of these tests was to determine the jet noise benefit of the three refan engine cycles relative to the baseline JT8D-9, and to provide acoustic information toward selection of the optimum primary-secondary area match and centerbody contour for the refan engine cycles. One of the nozzle configurations was tested with and without simulated turbine exit swirl to determine what effect, if any, swirl has no jet noise. The JT8D-109 cycle was found to afford approximately 9 db (0ASPL) jet noise reduction relative to the JT8D-9 when compared on an equal static thrust basis. The JT8D-115 and JT8D-117 afford an 8 db and 6 db reduction, respectively, relative to the JT8D-9, at equal static thrust. Turbine exit swirl was found to have no significant effect on the jet noise of the JT8D-109 nozzle system.

  8. Performance Study on ST/JT Hybrid Cryocoolers Working at Liquid Helium Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongli, Liu; Xuan, Tao; Xiao, Sun; Zhihua, Gan

    The ST/JT hybridcryocooler consists of a Stirling-typecryocooler and a J-T loop. The common process of steady-state operation is given. Pressure-Enthalpy map analysis and thermodynamic calculation showhow the precooling temperature, high pressure and recuperator effectiveness affect thecooling powerat liquid helium temperature. Applying the current performance level of the Stirling cooler,the overall COP of the hybrid cryocooleris roughly optimized. This performance study shows that the hybrid cryocooler can develop its performance potential with improved J-T compressors with larger pressure ratio and aprecooler working at lower temperature.

  9. Overexpression of EVE1, a novel ubiquitin family protein, arrests inflorescence stem development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Hoyeun; Jeong, Young-Min; Choi, Monica Y; Lee, So-Young; Kim, Sang-Gu

    2011-08-01

    In Arabidopsis, inflorescence stem formation is a critical process in phase transition from the vegetative to the reproductive state. Although inflorescence stem development has been reported to depend on the expression of a variety of genes during floral induction and repression, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the control of inflorescence stem formation. By activation T-DNA tagging mutagenesis of Arabidopsis, a dominant gain-of-function mutation, eve1-D (eternally vegetative phase1-Dominant), which has lost the ability to form an inflorescence stem, was isolated. The eve1-D mutation exhibited a dome-shaped primary shoot apical meristem (SAM) in the early vegetative stage, similar to that seen in the wild-type SAM. However, the SAM in the eve1-D mutation failed to transition into an inflorescence meristem (IM) and eventually reached senescence without ever leaving the vegetative phase. The eve1-D mutation also displayed pleiotropic phenotypes, including lobed and wavy rosette leaves, short petioles, and an increased number of rosette leaves. Genetic analysis indicated that the genomic location of the EVE1 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana corresponded to a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) F4C21 from chromosome IV at ∼17cM which encoded a novel ubiquitin family protein (At4g03350), consisting of a single exon. The EVE1 protein is composed of 263 amino acids, contains a 52 amino acid ubiquitin domain, and has no glycine residue related to ubiquitin activity at the C-terminus. The eve1-D mutation provides a way to study the regulatory mechanisms that control phase transition from the vegetative to the reproductive state. © 2011 The Author(s).

  10. Miniature Joule Thomson (JT) CryoCoolers for Propellant Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapat, Jay; Chow, Louis

    2002-01-01

    A proof-of-concept project is proposed here that would attempt to demonstrate how miniature cryocoolers can be used to chill the vacuum jacket line of a propellant transfer line and thus to achieve transfer line pre-chill, zero boil off and possible propellant densification. The project would be performed both at UCF and KSC, with all of the cryogenic testing taking place in the KSC cryogenic test bed. A LN2 line available in that KSC test facility would serve to simulate a LOX transfer line. Under this project, miniature and highly efficient cold heads would be designed. Two identical cold heads will be fabricated and then integrated with a JT-type cryogenic system (consisting of a common compressor and a common external heat exchanger). The two cold heads will be integrated into the vacuum jacket of a LN2 line in the KSC cryo lab, where the testing will take place.

  11. JT8D high pressure compressor performance improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffin, W.O.

    1981-11-01

    An improved performance high pressure compressor with potential application to all models of the JT8D engine was designed. The concept consisted of a trenched abradable rubstrip which mates with the blade tips for each of the even rotor stages. This feature allows tip clearances to be set so blade tips run at or near the optimum radius relative to the flowpath wall, without the danger of damaging the blades during transients and maneuvers. The improved compressor demonstrated thrust-specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature improvements of 1.0% and at least 10/sup 0/C over the takeoff and climb power range at sea level static conditions, compared to a bill-of-material high pressure compressor. Surge margin also improved 4 percentage points over the high power operating range. A thrust-specific fuel consumption improvement of 0.7% at typical cruise conditions was calculated based on the sea level test results.

  12. JT8D high pressure compressor performance improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffin, W. O.

    1981-01-01

    An improved performance high pressure compressor with potential application to all models of the JT8D engine was designed. The concept consisted of a trenched abradable rubstrip which mates with the blade tips for each of the even rotor stages. This feature allows tip clearances to be set so blade tips run at or near the optimum radius relative to the flowpath wall, without the danger of damaging the blades during transients and maneuvers. The improved compressor demonstrated thrust specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature improvements of 1.0 percent and at least 10 C over the takeoff and climb power range at sea level static conditions, compared to a bill-of-material high pressure compressor. Surge margin also improved 4 percentage points over the high power operating range. A thrust specific fuel consumption improvement of 0.7 percent at typical cruise conditions was calculated based on the sea level test results.

  13. Miniature Joule Thomson (JT) CryoCoolers for Propellant Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapat, Jay; Chow, Louis

    2002-01-01

    A proof-of-concept project is proposed here that would attempt to demonstrate how miniature cryocoolers can be used to chill the vacuum jacket line of a propellant transfer line and thus to achieve transfer line pre-chill, zero boil off and possible propellant densification. The project would be performed both at UCF and KSC, with all of the cryogenic testing taking place in the KSC cryogenic test bed. A LN2 line available in that KSC test facility would serve to simulate a LOX transfer line. Under this project, miniature and highly efficient cold heads would be designed. Two identical cold heads will be fabricated and then integrated with a JT-type cryogenic system (consisting of a common compressor and a common external heat exchanger). The two cold heads will be integrated into the vacuum jacket of a LN2 line in the KSC cryo lab, where the testing will take place.

  14. EVE Doppler Signatures in X-class Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, H. S.; Chamberlin, P. C.; MacKinnon, A.; Woods, T. N.

    2016-12-01

    The MEGS-A spectroscopy of the Sun as a star has produced a greatdeal of interesting solar physics, but without much exploitationyet of its Doppler capabilities (see Chamberlin, 2016 for details).In this presentation we examine the He II 304 line specifically andin specifically on the database of X-class flares from MEGS-A'sactive lifetime (34 events). The gradual-phase emission allows usto obtain a local reference for the rest wavelength to good accuracy,and the impulsive-phase centroid wavelengths typically shift to thered with values consistent with those of Milligan and Dennis (2009),but with smaller uncertainties. The exception events include SOL2014-02-25 (X4.9), which we find to have a blueshifted He IIline at an apparent 105 +- 5 km/s relative to its rest value. Thisevent also includes an unusual coronal hard X-ray source and aFermi/LAT high-energy gamma-ray emission. The EVE Doppler shiftanalysis can also be done at many other emission lines, includingthose covered by MEGS-B in the 33-106 nm range.

  15. Birds flee en mass from New Year's Eve fireworks.

    PubMed

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Dokter, Adriaan M; van Gasteren, Hans; van Loon, E Emiel; Leijnse, Hidde; Bouten, Willem

    2011-11-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances of wildlife, such as noise, human presence, hunting activity, and motor vehicles, are becoming an increasing concern in conservation biology. Fireworks are an important part of celebrations worldwide, and although humans often find fireworks spectacular, fireworks are probably perceived quite differently by wild animals. Behavioral responses to fireworks are difficult to study at night, and little is known about the negative effects fireworks may have on wildlife. Every year, thousands of tons of fireworks are lit by civilians on New Year's Eve in the Netherlands. Using an operational weather radar, we quantified the reaction of birds to fireworks in 3 consecutive years. Thousands of birds took flight shortly after midnight, with high aerial movements lasting at least 45 min and peak densities measured at 500 m altitude. The highest densities were observed over grasslands and wetlands, including nature conservation sites, where thousands of waterfowl rest and feed. The Netherlands is the most important winter staging area for several species of waterfowl in Europe. We estimate that hundreds of thousands of birds in the Netherlands take flight due to fireworks. The spatial and temporal extent of disturbance is substantial, and potential consequences are discussed. Weather radar provides a unique opportunity to study the reaction of birds to fireworks, which has otherwise remained elusive.

  16. "Mitochondrial Eve", "Y Chromosome Adam", testosterone, and human evolution.

    PubMed

    Howard, James Michael

    2002-01-01

    I suggest primate evolution began as a consequence of increased testosterone in males which increased aggression and sexuality, therefore, reproduction and success. With time, negative effects of excessive testosterone reduced spermatogenesis and started a decline of the group. Approximately 30-40 million years ago, the gene DAZ (Deleted in AZoospermia) appeared on the Y chromosome, increased spermatogenesis, and rescued the early primates from extinction. (Note: DAZ is considered by some to specifically, positively affect spermatogenesis; others suggest it has no effect on spermatogenesis.) Hominid evolution continued with increasing testosterone. The advent of increased testosterone in females of Homo erectus (or Homo ergaster) increased the female-to-male body size ratio, and eventually produced another era of excessive testosterone. Excessive testosterone caused a reduction in population size (bottleneck) that produced the "Mitochondrial Eve" (ME) mechanism. (Only certain females continued during the bottleneck to transmit their mitochondrial DNA.) That is, the ME mechanism culminated, again, in excessive testosterone and reduced spermatogenesis in the hominid line. Approximately 50,000 to 200,000 years ago, a "doubling" of the DAZ gene occurred on the Y chromosome in hominid males which rescued the hominid line with increased spermatogenesis in certain males. This produced the "Y Chromosome Adam" event. The doubling of DAZ allowed further increases in testosterone in hominids that resulted in the increased size and development of the brain. Modern humans periodically fluctuate between the positive and negative consequences of increased levels of testosterone, currently identifiable as the secular trend, increased infections, and reduced spermatogenesis.

  17. Pathology of deaths associated with "ecstasy" and "eve" misuse.

    PubMed Central

    Milroy, C M; Clark, J C; Forrest, A R

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To study the postmortem pathology associated with ring substituted amphetamine (amphetamine derivatives) misuse. METHODS: The postmortem findings in deaths associated with the ring substituted amphetamines 3,4-methylenedioxymethyl-amphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA, eve) were studied in seven young white men aged between 20 and 25 years. RESULTS: Striking changes were identified in the liver, which varied from foci of individual cell necrosis to centrilobular necrosis. In one case there was massive hepatic necrosis. Changes consistent with catecholamine induced myocardial damage were seen in five cases. In the brain perivascular haemorrhagic and hypoxic changes were identified in four cases. Overall, the changes in four cases were the same as those reported in heart stroke, although only two cases had a documented history of hyperthermia. Of these four cases, all had changes in their liver, three had changes in their brains, and three in their heart. Of the other three cases, one man died of fulminant liver failure, one of water intoxication and one probably from a cardiac arrhythmia associated with myocardial fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that there is more than one mechanism of damage in ring substituted amphetamine misuse, injury being caused by hyperthermia in some cases, but with ring substituted amphetamines also possibly having a toxic effect on the liver and other organs in the absence of hyperthermia. Images PMID:8655682

  18. Achievement and improvement of the JT-60U negative ion source for JT-60 Super Advanced (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, A.; Hanada, M.; Tanaka, Y.; Inoue, T.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, M.; Kashiwagi, M.; Umeda, N.; Tobari, H.; Grisham, L. R.; Collaboration: JT-60 NBI Group

    2010-02-15

    Developments of the large negative ion source have been progressed in the high-energy, high-power, and long-pulse neutral beam injector for JT-60 Super Advanced. Countermeasures have been studied and tested for critical issues of grid heat load and voltage holding capability. As for the heat load of the acceleration grids, direct interception of D{sup -} ions was reduced by adjusting the beamlet steering. As a result, the heat load was reduced below an allowable level for long-pulse injections. As for the voltage holding capability, local electric field was mitigated by tuning gap lengths between large-area acceleration grids in the accelerator. As a result, the voltage holding capability was improved up to the rated value of 500 kV. To investigate the voltage holding capability during beam acceleration, the beam acceleration test is ongoing with new extended gap.

  19. Repression activity of Tailless on h 1 and eve 1 pair-rule stripes.

    PubMed

    Andrioli, Luiz Paulo; Dos Santos, Wesley Silva; Aguiar, Francisco Dos Santos; Digiampietri, Luciano Antonio

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that several transcriptional repressors are necessary to set the boundaries of anterior pair-rule stripes in Drosophila. Specifically, we tested whether Tailless (Tll) is part of a repression mechanism that correctly sets the anterior boundaries of hairy 1 (h 1) and even-skipped 1 (eve 1) stripes. Single mutant tll embryos displayed subtle deviations from the normal positions of h 1 and eve 1 stripes. Moreover, we observed stronger stripe deviations in embryos lacking both Tll and Sloppy-paired 1 (Slp 1), a common repressor for anterior pair-rule stripes. Using h 1 and eve 1 reporter constructs in the genetic assays, we provided further evidence that interference with normal mechanisms of stripe expression is mediated by Tll repression. Indeed, Tll represses both h 1 and eve 1 reporter stripes when misexpressed. Investigating the expression of other anterior gap genes in different genetic backgrounds and in the misexpression assays strengthened Tll direct repression in the regulation of h 1 and eve 1. Our results are consistent with tll being a newly-identified component of a combinatorial network of repressor genes that control pair-rule stripe formation in the anterior blastoderm of Drosophila. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genome-wide analysis of EgEVE_1, a transcriptionally active endogenous viral element associated to small RNAs in Eucalyptus genomes.

    PubMed

    Marcon, Helena Sanches; Costa-Silva, Juliana; Lorenzetti, Alan Péricles Rodrigues; Marino, Celso Luis; Domingues, Douglas Silva

    2017-01-01

    Endogenous viral elements (EVEs) are the result of heritable horizontal gene transfer from viruses to hosts. In the last years, several EVE integration events were reported in plants by the exponential availability of sequenced genomes. Eucalyptus grandis is a forest tree species with a sequenced genome that is poorly studied in terms of evolution and mobile genetic elements composition. Here we report the characterization of E. grandis endogenous viral element 1 (EgEVE_1), a transcriptionally active EVE with a size of 5,664 bp. Phylogenetic analysis and genomic distribution demonstrated that EgEVE_1 is a newly described member of the Caulimoviridae family, distinct from the recently characterized plant Florendoviruses. Genomic distribution of EgEVE_1 and Florendovirus is also distinct. EgEVE_1 qPCR quantification in Eucalyptus urophylla suggests that this genome has more EgEVE_1 copies than E. grandis. EgEVE_1 transcriptional activity was demonstrated by RT-qPCR in five Eucalyptus species and one intrageneric hybrid. We also identified that Eucalyptus EVEs can generate small RNAs (sRNAs),that might be involved in de novo DNA methylation and virus resistance. Our data suggest that EVE families in Eucalyptus have distinct properties, and we provide the first comparative analysis of EVEs in Eucalyptus genomes.

  1. Genome-wide analysis of EgEVE_1, a transcriptionally active endogenous viral element associated to small RNAs in Eucalyptus genomes

    PubMed Central

    Marcon, Helena Sanches; Costa-Silva, Juliana; Lorenzetti, Alan Péricles Rodrigues; Marino, Celso Luis; Domingues, Douglas Silva

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Endogenous viral elements (EVEs) are the result of heritable horizontal gene transfer from viruses to hosts. In the last years, several EVE integration events were reported in plants by the exponential availability of sequenced genomes. Eucalyptus grandis is a forest tree species with a sequenced genome that is poorly studied in terms of evolution and mobile genetic elements composition. Here we report the characterization of E. grandis endogenous viral element 1 (EgEVE_1), a transcriptionally active EVE with a size of 5,664 bp. Phylogenetic analysis and genomic distribution demonstrated that EgEVE_1 is a newly described member of the Caulimoviridae family, distinct from the recently characterized plant Florendoviruses. Genomic distribution of EgEVE_1 and Florendovirus is also distinct. EgEVE_1 qPCR quantification in Eucalyptus urophylla suggests that this genome has more EgEVE_1 copies than E. grandis. EgEVE_1 transcriptional activity was demonstrated by RT-qPCR in five Eucalyptus species and one intrageneric hybrid. We also identified that Eucalyptus EVEs can generate small RNAs (sRNAs),that might be involved in de novo DNA methylation and virus resistance. Our data suggest that EVE families in Eucalyptus have distinct properties, and we provide the first comparative analysis of EVEs in Eucalyptus genomes. PMID:28235127

  2. Program for refan JT8D engine design, fabrication and test, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, J. A.; Zimmerman, E. S.; Scaramella, V. M.

    1975-01-01

    The objective of the JT8D refan program was to design, fabricate, and test certifiable modifications of the JT8D engine which would reduce noise generated by JT8D powered aircraft. This was to be accomplished without affecting reliability and maintainability, at minimum retrofit cost, and with no performance penalty. The mechanical design, engine performance and stability characteristics at sea-level and altitude, and the engine noise characteristics of the test engines are documented. Results confirmed the structural integrity of the JT8D-109. Engine operation was stable throughout the airplane flight envelope. Fuel consumption of the test engines was higher than that required to meet the goal of no airplane performance penalty, but the causes were identified and corrected during a normal pre-certification engine development program. Compared to the baseline JT8D-109 engine, the acoustically treated JT8D-109 engine showed noise reductions of 6 PNdB at takeoff and 11 PNdB at a typical approach power setting.

  3. Septic patients with mitochondrial DNA haplogroup JT have higher respiratory complex IV activity and survival rate.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Leonardo; Martín, María M; López-Gallardo, Ester; Ferreres, José; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Labarta, Lorenzo; Díaz, César; Jiménez, Alejandro; Montoya, Julio; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo

    2016-06-01

    The influence of mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA) haplogroup or oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS) function on survival of septic patients has been scarcely studied. However, the association between mtDNA haplogroup, OXPHOS capacity at diagnosis of severe sepsis, and survival has been not previously reported, and that was the objective of the present study. This was a prospective, multicenter, observational study. Blood samples from 198 patients at diagnosis of severe sepsis were analyzed to determine mtDNA haplogroup and platelet respiratory complex IV (CIV) specific activity. The end point of the study was 30-day survival. Septic patients with mtDNA haplogroup JT showed higher 30-day survival than those with mtDNA haplogroup non-JT (31/38 [81.6%] vs 99/160 [61.9%]; P= .02). Septic patients with mtDNA haplogroup JT showed higher platelet CIV specific activity than those with mtDNA haplogroup non-JT (P= .002). The main novel finding of our study, including the largest series providing data on platelet CIV specific activity according to mtDNA haplogroup in severe septic patients, was that those with mtDNA haplogroup JT showed higher survival and higher platelet CIV specific activity at diagnosis of severe sepsis than patients with mtDNA haplogroup non-JT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 78 FR 77359 - Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; New Year's Eve Celebration/City of Mobile...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; New Year's Eve Celebration/City of Mobile; Mobile Channel; Mobile, AL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the City of Mobile New Year's Eve Celebration...

  5. EUV irradiance observations from SDO/EVE as a diagnostic of solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, Ryan O.

    For the past six years, the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory has been monitoring changes in the Sun's extreme ultraviolet output over a range of timescales. Its primary function is to provide measurements of the solar spectral irradiance that is responsible for driving fluctuations in Earth's ionosphere and thermosphere. However, despite its modest spectral resolution and lack of spatial information, the EVE spectral range contains many lines and continua that have become invaluable for diagnosing the response of the lower solar atmosphere itself to an injection of energy, particularly during a flare's impulsive phase. In addition, high temperature emission lines can also be used to track changes in temperature and density of flaring plasma in the corona. The high precision of EVE observations are therefore crucial in helping us understand particle acceleration and energy transport mechanisms during solar flares, as well as the origins of the Sun's most geoeffective emission.

  6. Dynamic regulation of eve stripe 2 expression reveals transcriptional bursts in living Drosophila embryos.

    PubMed

    Bothma, Jacques P; Garcia, Hernan G; Esposito, Emilia; Schlissel, Gavin; Gregor, Thomas; Levine, Michael

    2014-07-22

    We present the use of recently developed live imaging methods to examine the dynamic regulation of even-skipped (eve) stripe 2 expression in the precellular Drosophila embryo. Nascent transcripts were visualized via MS2 RNA stem loops. The eve stripe 2 transgene exhibits a highly dynamic pattern of de novo transcription, beginning with a broad domain of expression during nuclear cycle 12 (nc12), and progressive refinement during nc13 and nc14. The mature stripe 2 pattern is surprisingly transient, constituting just ∼15 min of the ∼90-min period of expression. Nonetheless, this dynamic transcription profile faithfully predicts the limits of the mature stripe visualized by conventional in situ detection methods. Analysis of individual transcription foci reveals intermittent bursts of de novo transcription, with duration cycles of 4-10 min. We discuss a multistate model of transcription regulation and speculate on its role in the dynamic repression of the eve stripe 2 expression pattern during development.

  7. 78 FR 75898 - Safety Zone; Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display, Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ...The Coast Guard will enforce the 1,000 foot safety zone in the navigable waters of the Sacramento River in Sacramento, CA on December 31, 2013 during the Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display. The fireworks display will occur from 9 p.m. to 9:20 p.m. on December 31, 2013 for the annual Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display. This action is necessary to control vessel traffic and to help protect the safety of event participants and spectators. During the enforcement period, unauthorized persons or vessels are prohibited from entering into, transiting through, or anchoring in the safety zone, unless authorized by the Patrol Commander (PATCOM).

  8. An Innovative Aperture Cover Mechanism Used on SDO/EVE and MMS/SDP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steg, Stephen; Vermeer, William; Tucker, Scott; Passe, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an aperture cover mechanism that was successfully flown in four locations on SDO/EVE, and is awaiting launch in sixteen locations on MMS. This design uses a paraffin actuator and a latch that secures the cover closed and removes the actuator from the load path. This latch allows the assembly to operate both as a light weight contamination cover (SDO/EVE), and also as a high-strength sensor restraint mechanism (MMS/SDP). The paper provides design/analysis/test information about the mechanism.

  9. 78 FR 75248 - Safety Zone; Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display, Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ...The Coast Guard will enforce the 1,000 foot safety zone in the navigable waters of the Sacramento River in Sacramento, CA on December 31, 2013 during the Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display. The fireworks display will occur from 9 p.m. to 9:20 p.m. on December 31, 2013 for the annual Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display. This action is necessary to control vessel traffic and to help protect the safety of event participants and spectators. During the enforcement period, unauthorized persons or vessels are prohibited from entering into, transiting through, or anchoring in the safety zone, unless authorized by the Patrol Commander (PATCOM).

  10. EPO for the NASA SDO Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) Learning Suite for Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellagher, Emily; Scherrer, D. K.

    2013-07-01

    EVE Education and Public Outreach (EPO) promotes an understanding of the process of science and concepts within solar science and sun-earth connections. EVE EPO also features working scientists, current research and career awareness. One of the highlights for of this years projects is the digitization of solar lessons and the collaboration with the other instrument teams to develop new resources for students and educators. Digital lesson suite: EVE EPO has taken the best solar lessons and reworked then to make then more engaging, to reflect SDO data and made them SMARTboard compatible. We are creating a website that Students and teachers can access these lesson and use them online or download them. Project team collaboration: The SDO instruments (EVE, AIA and HMI) teams have created a comic book series for upper elementary and middle school students with the SDO mascot Camilla. These comics may be printed or read on mobile devices. Many teachers are looking for resources to use with their students via the Ipad so our collaboration helps supply teachers with a great resource that teachers about solar concepts and helps dispel solar misconceptions.Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): EVE Education and Public Outreach (EPO) promotes an understanding of the process of science and concepts within solar science and sun-earth connections. EVE EPO also features working scientists, current research and career awareness. One of the highlights for of this years projects is the digitization of solar lessons and the collaboration with the other instrument teams to develop new resources for students and educators. Digital lesson suite: EVE EPO has taken the best solar lessons and reworked then to make then more engaging, to reflect SDO data and made them SMARTboard compatible. We are creating a website that Students and teachers can access these lesson and use them online or download them. Project team collaboration: The SDO instruments (EVE, AIA and HMI) teams have created a

  11. Prominences in SDO/EVE spectra: contributions from large solar structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrosse, Nicolas; Hudson, Hugh; Kazachenko, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The EVE instrument on SDO is making accurate measurements of the solar spectral irradiance in the EUV between 30 and 1069 Å, with 1 Å spectral resolution and 10 s sampling rate. These data define solar variability in the ``Sun-as-a-star'' mode and reveal many interesting kinds of variation. Its high sensitivity also makes it suitable for spectroscopic diagnostics of solar features such as flares. Here we present EVE's potential contribution to the diagnostics of large-scale, slowly evolving features such as prominences and active regions, and what we can learn from this.

  12. Transient simulation of a miniature Joule-Thomson (J-T) cryocooler with and without the distributed J-T effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damle, R. M.; Atrey, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a transient program for the simulation of a miniature Joule-Thomson (J-T) cryocooler to predict its cool-down characteristics. A one dimensional transient model is formulated for the fluid streams and the solid elements of the recuperative heat exchanger. Variation of physical properties due to pressure and temperature is considered. In addition to the J-T expansion at the end of the finned tube, the distributed J-T effect along its length is also considered. It is observed that the distributed J-T effect leads to additional cooling of the gas in the finned tube and that it cannot be neglected when the pressure drop along the length of the finned tube is large. The mathematical model, method of resolution and the global transient algorithm, within a modular object-oriented framework, are detailed in this paper. As a part of verification and validation of the developed model, cases available in the literature are simulated and the results are compared with the corresponding numerical and experimental data.

  13. Antimisting kerosene JT3 engine fuel system integration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorentino, A.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical study and laboratory tests were conducted to assist NASA in determining the safety and mission suitability of the modified fuel system and flight tests for the Full-Scale Transport Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID) program. This twelve-month study reviewed and analyzed both the use of antimisting kerosene (AMK) fuel and the incorporation of a fuel degrader on the operational and performance characteristics of the engines tested. Potential deficiencies and/or failures were identified and approaches to accommodate these deficiencies were recommended to NASA Ames -Dryden Flight Research Facility. The result of flow characterization tests on degraded AMK fuel samples indicated levels of degradation satisfactory for the planned missions of the B-720 aircraft. The operability and performance with the AMK in a ground test engine and in the aircraft engines during the test flights were comparable to those with unmodified Jet A. For the final CID test, the JT-3C-7 engines performed satisfactorily while operating on AMK right up to impact.

  14. The JT9D Jet Engine Diagnostics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsson, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    The various engine deterioration phenomena that affect JT9D performance retention were studied, and approaches to improve performance retention of engines were identified. The program included surveys of historical data, monitoring of in service engines, ground and flight testing of instrumented engines, analysis, and analytical modeling. Performance deterioration is made up of both short and long term modes, both of which are flight cycle related phenomena. Short term deterioration occurs primarily during airplane acceptance testing prior to delivery to the airline. This effect is caused by flight load and power induced clearance closures and engine deflections with resulting rubbing of airfoils and seals. Long term deterioration is caused by erosion of airfoils and gas path seals during ground operation and take off and by cyclic induced thermal distortion of the high pressure turbine airfoils. Studies of possible remedial approaches have shown that performance retention within 1 to 2 percent of initial revenue service performance can be achieved with a proper program of hot section and cold section maintenance.

  15. Improvement of JT-60U negative ion source performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grisham, L. R.; Kuriyama, M.; Kawai, M.; Itoh, T.; Umeda, N.; JT-60U Team

    2001-05-01

    The several hundred keV neutral beamline which is now operating on JT-60U marks the first usage of negative ion sources to produce high power neutral beams. Because this was such a large advance in the state of the art with respect to all system parameters, many new physical processes appeared during the earlier phases of the beam injection experiments. The physical mechanisms responsible for these processes have been explored, and solutions have been implemented for some of them, in particular excessive beam stripping, the secular dependence of the arc and beam parameters, and the non-uniformity of the plasma illuminating the beam extraction grid. This has reduced the percentage of beam heat loading on the downstream grids by roughly a third and has permitted longer beam pulses at higher powers. Progress is being made in improving the negative ion current density and in coping with the sensitivity of the caesium in the ion sources to oxidation by tiny air or water leaks, and the cathode operation is being altered.

  16. Cryogenic thermometry for refrigerant distribution system of JT-60SA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsume, K.; Murakami, H.; Kizu, K.; Yoshida, K.; Koide, Y.

    2015-12-01

    JT-60SA is a fully superconducting fusion experimental device involving Japan and Europe. The cryogenic system supplies supercritical or gaseous helium to superconducting coils through valve boxes or coil terminal boxes and in-cryostat pipes. There are 86 temperature measurement points at 4 K along the distribution line. Resistance temperature sensors will be installed on cooling pipes in vacuum. In this work, two sensor attachment methods, two types of sensor, two thermal anchoring methods, and two sensor fixation materials have been experimentally evaluated in terms of accuracy and mass productivity. Finally, the verification test of thermometry has been conducted using the sample pipe fabricated in the same way to the production version, which has been decided by the comparison experiments. The TVO sensor is attached by the saddle method with Apiezon N grease and the measurement wires made of phosphor bronze are wound on the pipe with Stycast 2850FT as the thermal anchoring. A Cernox sensor is directly immersed in liquid helium as a reference thermometer during the experiment. The measured temperature difference between the attached one and reference one has been within ±15 mK in the range of 3.40-4.73 K. It has satisfies the accuracy requirement of 0.1 K.

  17. Confined alpha particle diagnostics in JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusama, Y.; Tobita, K.; Itoh, T.; Nemoto, M.; Tsukahara, Y.; Kimura, H.; Takeuchi, H.

    1990-10-01

    In reactor-grade tokamaks, it is important to investigate confinement properties of alpha particles. A double charge-exchange method using a high-energy probing beam is considered to be the most reliable one in diagnostic methods proposed for the measurement. In JT-60U, an alpha particle production experiment by D-3He ICRF heating will be performed to study the behavior of fusion product alphas. The alpha particle measurement is planned using a helium diagnostic beam (200 keV) and a mass-resolved neutral particle energy analyzer. The expected flux and spectral shape were evaluated by taking into account multistep ionization of helium beam atoms and neutralized alphas. The beam energy is lower than desirable for measuring fast confined alphas near the birth energy. However, by using the beam system, it has been found from the evaluation that we can investigate the confinement properties of fusion product alphas from the spectral shape. And also such a system using a present-day He beam is useful to diagnose behavior of confined alphas in reactor-grade tokamak such as ITER.

  18. Oxygen chemisorption compressor study for cryogenic J-T refrigeration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Blue, Gary D.

    1987-01-01

    Over twenty potentially reversible heat-powered oxide reactions have been studied and/or tested to determine their potential use as thermochemical oxygen compressors for cryogenic J-T LO2 refrigerators. One gas-solid compound family, Pr(1-n)Ce(n)O(x), proved to be completely reversible with fast kinetics for all pressure ranges tested below 650 C. With a heat-powered charcoal/methane physical adsorption upper stage and a Pr(1-n)Ce(n)O(x) chemisorption lower stage, temperatures should be attainable in the 55-80 K range for less power and over five times less weight than for charcoal/nitrogen sorption refrigeration systems. Total system power requirements with a hydride chemisorption lower stage (10 K to 7 K minimum) are about three times less than any mechanical refrigerator, and spacecraft refrigeration weights are about twenty times less. Due to the lack of wear-related moving parts in sorption refrigerators, life expectancy is at least ten years, and there essentially no vibration.

  19. Oxygen chemisorption compressor study for cryogenic J-T refrigeration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Blue, Gary D.

    1987-01-01

    Over twenty potentially reversible heat-powered oxide reactions have been studied and/or tested to determine their potential use as thermochemical oxygen compressors for cryogenic J-T LO2 refrigerators. One gas-solid compound family, Pr(1-n)Ce(n)O(x), proved to be completely reversible with fast kinetics for all pressure ranges tested below 650 C. With a heat-powered charcoal/methane physical adsorption upper stage and a Pr(1-n)Ce(n)O(x) chemisorption lower stage, temperatures should be attainable in the 55-80 K range for less power and over five times less weight than for charcoal/nitrogen sorption refrigeration systems. Total system power requirements with a hydride chemisorption lower stage (10 K to 7 K minimum) are about three times less than any mechanical refrigerator, and spacecraft refrigeration weights are about twenty times less. Due to the lack of wear-related moving parts in sorption refrigerators, life expectancy is at least ten years, and there essentially no vibration.

  20. Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) Multiple EUV Grating Spectrographs (MEGS): Radiometric Calibrations and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hock, R. A.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Woods, T. N.; Crotser, D.; Eparvier, F. G.; Woodraska, D. L.; Woods, E. C.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), scheduled for launch in early 2010, incorporates a suite of instruments including the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE). EVE has multiple instruments including the Multiple Extreme ultraviolet Grating Spectrographs (MEGS) A, B, and P instruments, the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), and the Extreme ultraviolet SpectroPhotometer (ESP). The radiometric calibration of EVE, necessary to convert the instrument counts to physical units, was performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF III) located in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This paper presents the results and derived accuracy of this radiometric calibration for the MEGS A, B, P, and SAM instruments, while the calibration of the ESP instrument is addressed by Didkovsky et al. ( Solar Phys., 2010, doi:10.1007/s11207-009-9485-8). In addition, solar measurements that were taken on 14 April 2008, during the NASA 36.240 sounding-rocket flight, are shown for the prototype EVE instruments.

  1. A Young Researcher's Project on the Benefits of Early Language Learning: An Interview with Eve Wallwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Mary Lynn

    2007-01-01

    In this interview, Eve Wallwork, a junior at David W. Butler High School in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg (NC) School District, talks about her research project on the field of early language learning. Wallwork shares the most important findings of her research, the benefits of early language learning, and her plans in the future.

  2. The Right to Control One's Own Body: A Look at the "Eve" Decision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rioux, Marcia; Yarmol, Karen

    1987-01-01

    The article reviews the arguments and decision of the "Eve" sterilization case decided by the Supreme Court of Canada. The court held that no one, including the courts themselves, has the power to approve the sterilization, for contraceptive purposes, of any person, mentally handicapped or not, who does not give consent. (DB)

  3. A Young Researcher's Project on the Benefits of Early Language Learning: An Interview with Eve Wallwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Mary Lynn

    2007-01-01

    In this interview, Eve Wallwork, a junior at David W. Butler High School in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg (NC) School District, talks about her research project on the field of early language learning. Wallwork shares the most important findings of her research, the benefits of early language learning, and her plans in the future.

  4. Eve-3: a liver enriched suppressor of Ras/MAPK signaling.

    PubMed

    King, James A J; Corcoran, Niall M; D'Abaco, Giovanna M; Straffon, Andrew F; Smith, Craig T; Poon, Carole L C; Buchert, Michael; I, Stacey; Hall, Nathan E; Lock, Peter; Hovens, Christopher M

    2006-04-01

    The developed liver is able to tightly control cellular proliferation, rapidly switching from quiescence to growth in response to specific stimuli. This suggests that growth inhibitors may be involved in the control of liver growth. We analyzed the role of the Spred-family of growth inhibitors in the liver. We screened human EST databases for Spred-related sequences. Clones were isolated, sequenced, epitope-tagged and expressed. Subcellular localization of clones were determined and their effects on cellular signaling pathways analysed using specific antibodies. Cell cycle progression assays and protein interaction studies were initiated. Organ distribution of transcripts and their expression throughout liver development and in primary hepatocytes were recorded. We have identified a new, liver-restricted protein, Eve-3, containing a single Ena Vasp homology (EVH1) domain that can potently block activation of the Ras/MAPK pathway. Eve-3 is specific in inhibiting the Ras/MAPK pathway. Eve-3 can block serum-mediated cell cycle progression and its expression is highly regulated during liver development. The liver is the only organ that can regulate its growth and mass. Eve-3 may act as an inhibitor of proliferation pathways in the mature liver and be involved in modulating the unique regenerative capacity of this organ.

  5. B747/JT9D flight loads and their effect on engine running clearances and performance deterioration; BCAC NAIL/P and WA JT9D engine diagnostics programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsson, W. J.; Martin, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Flight loads on the 747 propulsion system and resulting JT9D blade to outer airseal running clearances during representative acceptance flight and revenue flight sequences were measured. The resulting rub induced clearance changes, and engine performance changes were then analyzed to validate and refine the JT9D-7A short term performance deterioration model.

  6. Performance analysis of a miniature Joule-Thomson cryocooler with and without the distributed J-T effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damle, Rashmin; Atrey, Milind

    2015-12-01

    Cryogenic temperatures are obtained with Joule-Thomson (J-T) cryocoolers in an easier way as compared to other cooling techniques. Miniature J-T cryocoolers are often employed for cooling of infrared sensors, cryoprobes, biological samples, etc. A typical miniature J-T cryocooler consists of a storage reservoir/compressor providing the high pressure gas, a finned tube recuperative heat exchanger, an expansion valve/orifice, and the cold end. The recuperative heat exchanger is indispensable for attaining cryogenic temperatures. The geometrical parameters and the operating conditions of the heat exchanger drastically affect the cryocooler performance in terms of cool down time and cooling effect. In the literature, the numerical models for the finned recuperative heat exchanger have neglected the distributed J-T effect. The distributed J-T effect accounts for the changes in enthalpy of the fluid due to changes of pressure in addition to those due to changes of temperature. The objective of this work is to explore the distributed J-T effect and study the performance of a miniature J-T cryocooler with and without the distributed J-T effect. A one dimensional transient model is employed for the numerical analysis of the cryocooler. Cases with different operating conditions are worked out with argon and nitrogen as working fluids.

  7. Pratt and Whitney Aircraft JT8D turbofan engine. performance improvement to offset rising fuel costs

    SciTech Connect

    Fahle, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    A Pratt and Whitney Aircraft Group program begun in 1978 has led to the development of retrofit kit packages and major engine modifications that will provide thrust-specific fuel consumption (TSFC) reductions of 2.1% for the JT8D-1 and -7 engines, 3.0% for the JT8D-9 engine, and 5.5% for the JT8D-15, -17, and -17R engines under cruise conditions, and comparable fuel savings under other conditions. The modifications being made will affect the fan, compressor, and turbine sections of the engines to improve component efficiency. The retrofit kits will be used on existing in-service engines; other modifications will be introduced in service during 1981 and 1982. Fuel savings per engine per year could range from 27,000 to 91,000 gal, and fleet savings could amount to several hundred million gallons per year.

  8. Pollution reduction technology program for class T4(JT8D) engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, R.; Fiorentino, A. J.; Diehl, L. A.

    1977-01-01

    The technology required to develop commercial gas turbine engines with reduced exhaust emissions was demonstrated. Can-annular combustor systems for the JT8D engine family (EPA class T4) were investigated. The JT8D turbofan engine is an axial-flow, dual-spool, moderate-bypass-ratio design. It has a two-stage fan, a four-stage low-pressure compressor driven by a three-stage low-pressure turbine, and a seven-stage high-pressure compressor driven by a single-stage high-pressure turbine. A cross section of the JT8D-17 showing the mechanical configuration is given. Key specifications for this engine are listed.

  9. Biosynthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense JT1, a Plant Pathogenic Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Thakker, Janki N.; Dalwadi, Pranay; Dhandhukia, Pinakin C.

    2013-01-01

    The development of reliable processes for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles is an important aspect of current nanotechnology research. Recently, reports are published on the extracellular as well as intracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using microorganisms. However, these methods of synthesis are rather slow. In present study, rapid and extracellular synthesis of gold nanoparticles using a plant pathogenic fungus F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense JT1 (FocJT1) is reported. Incubation of FocJT1 mycelium with auric chloride solution produces gold nanoparticles in 60 min. Gold nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, and particle size analysis. The particles synthesized were of 22 nm sized, capped by proteins, and posed antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas sp. PMID:25969773

  10. Summary and analysis of performance and stability characteristics of the refan JT8D-109 engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanberg, K. G.; Mogielnicki, R. M.; Davis, J. C.; Scaramella, V. M.

    1975-01-01

    The refan JT8D-109 performance and stability characteristics are reported as determined from sea level testing, altitude testing, and DC-9 flight testing. The test results are summarized as follows: (1) TSFC at SLS achieved design goal of 12.66 percent reduction. (2) TSFC at altitude average cruise power 0.5 percent higher than design goal, (3) TSFC at altitude maximum cruise power 1.7-3.7 percent higher than design goal, (4) ground starting consistent with JT8D-9 base engine, (5) successful flight starts without starter assist, (6) transient surge margin equivalent to JT8D-9, (7) stable engine operation with inlet distortion, and (8) stable engine operation during snap acceleration and deceleration. A flight idle setting is required for acceptable aborted-landing go-around acceleration time due to increase in low-rotor moment of inertia, and a performance improvement program should be conducted as part of any future certification program.

  11. Atomization and combustion characteristics of antimisting fuels using JT8D and air-boost injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, J. B.; Florentino, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    The atomization levels of antimisting fuels are presently determined for a JT8D fuel injector, a low emission airblast JT8D injector, and an air-boost injector, at operating conditions simulating engine operating conditions. The effects of the use of antimisting kerosene (AMK) on component performance are also studied in the case of an in-service JT8D engine. The use of the AMK fuel causes a decline in the quality of the spray, most notably as a large increase in the Sauter mean diameter for all three injector types. In addition, the idle patternation data obtained indicate that the low emission injector fuel distribution changed from a hollow cone Jet A spray having no fuel at its center to a semihollow spray cone in the case of AMK; this change could disrupt the combustor primary zone recirculation pattern.

  12. Development of a cryogenic mixed fluid J-T cooling computer code, 'JTMIX'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1991-01-01

    An initial study was performed for analyzing and predicting the temperatures and cooling capacities when mixtures of fluids are used in Joule-Thomson coolers and in heat pipes. A computer code, JTMIX, was developed for mixed gas J-T analysis for any fluid combination of neon, nitrogen, various hydrocarbons, argon, oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide. When used in conjunction with the NIST computer code, DDMIX, it has accurately predicted order-of-magnitude increases in J-T cooling capacities when various hydrocarbons are added to nitrogen, and it predicts nitrogen normal boiling point depressions to as low as 60 K when neon is added.

  13. Effect of external magnetic field on the coexistence of superconductivity and JT distortion in iron pnictides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, B.; Goi, S. K.; Mishra, R. N.

    2016-12-01

    We have presented a theoretical study for the coexistence of superconductivity (SC) and Jahn-Teller (JT) effect with applied magnetic field on iron based high-Tc superconductors in s-wave symmetry. The analytic expressions for the temperature dependence of the SC and JT order parameters are derived by Zubarev's technique of double time single particle Green's function method and solved self-consistently. It is observed that in the interplay region, both the gap parameters exhibit very strong dependence of their gap values. The effect of external magnetic field on the gap parameters and the electronic density of states (DOS) is studied.

  14. 75 FR 78726 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning the Fairplay Hoss and the Fairplay Eve...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ...This document provides notice that U.S. Customs and Border Protection (``CBP'') has issued a final determination concerning the country of origin of the Fairplay Hoss and the Fairplay Eve lines of electric vehicles. Based upon the facts presented, CBP has concluded in the final determination that the United States is the country of origin of the Fairplay Hoss and Eve lines of electric vehicles for purposes of U.S. Government procurement.

  15. Functional analysis of eve stripe 2 enhancer evolution in Drosophila: rules governing conservation and change.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, M Z; Patel, N H; Kreitman, M

    1998-03-01

    Experimental investigations of eukaryotic enhancers suggest that multiple binding sites and trans-acting regulatory factors are often required for wild-type enhancer function. Genetic analysis of the stripe 2 enhancer of even-skipped (eve), an important developmental gene in Drosophila, provides support for this view. Given the importance of even-skipped expression in early Drosophila development, it might be predicted that many structural features of the stripe 2 enhancer will be evolutionarily conserved, including the DNA sequences of protein binding sites and the spacing between them. To test this hypothesis, we compared sequences of the stripe 2 enhancer between four species of Drosophila: D. melanogaster, D. yakuba, D. erecta and D. pseudoobscura. Our analysis revealed a large number of nucleotide substitutions in regulatory protein binding sites for bicoid, hunchback, Kruppel and giant, as well as a systematic change in the size of the enhancer. Some of the binding sites in D. melanogaster are either absent or modified in other species. One functionally important bicoid-binding site in D. melanogaster appears to be recently evolved. We, therefore, investigated possible functional consequences of sequence differences among these stripe 2 enhancers by P-element-mediated transformation. This analysis revealed that the eve stripe 2 enhancer from each of the four species drove reporter gene expression at the identical time and location in D. melanogaster embryos. Double staining of native eve protein and transgene mRNA in early embryos showed that the reporter gene mimicked native eve expression and, in every case, produced sharply defined stripes at the blastoderm stage that were coincident with eve stripe 2 protein. We argue that stripe 2 eve expression in Drosophila evolution can be viewed as being under constant stabilizing selection with respect to the location of the anterior and posterior borders of the stripe. We further hypothesize that the stripe 2

  16. eveƒue2‚esv‚yeh2gy‚€y‚e„syx ivwixhy‚p2 es‚2py‚gi2feƒi ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-02-08

    ... xy‚„r2fv…pp2pegi e†i eve r2ƒtreet ‡rs„xi‰2‚yeh ieƒ„ QrdF2eveF ... iƒ„ Qrd p2ƒtreet gr‚sƒ„ixƒix ‡iƒ„ eve Pnd hrive eve ‡iƒ„ ieƒ„ eve ieƒ„ g‚iiu2eve ...

  17. DC-9 flight demonstration program with refanned JT8D engines. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The design, analysis, fabrication, and ground and flight testing of DC-9 airframe/nacelle hardware with prototype JT8D-109 engines are discussed. The installation of the JT8D-109 engine on the DC-9 Refan airplane required new or modified hardware for the pylon, nacelle, and fuselage. The acoustic material used in the nose cowl was bonded aluminum honeycomb sandwich and the exhaust duct acoustic material was Inconel 625 Stresskin. The sea level static, standard day bare engine takeoff thrust, the cruise TSFC and the maximum available cruise thrust for the JT8D-109 engine were compared with those of the JT8D-9 engine. The range capabilities of the DC-9 Refan and the production DC-9 airplane were also compared. The Refan airplane demonstrated flight characteristics similar to the production DC-9-30 and satisfied airworthiness requirements. Flyover noise levels were determined for the DC-9 Refan and the DC-9 C-9A airplane for takeoff and landing conditions. Cost estimates were also made.

  18. Stability of the toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes in JT-60U ICRF experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, G.Y.; Cheng, C.Z.; Kimura, H.; Ozeki, T.; Saigusa, M.

    1996-04-01

    It is shown that the stability of toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TIE) in JT-60U ICRF experiments is strongly dependent on mode location. This dependence results in sequential excitation of high-n TIE modes as the central safety factor, q, drops in time.

  19. On the possibility to diagnose a kappa-distribution from EVE flare spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzifcakova, Elena; Dudík, Jaroslav

    2015-08-01

    X-ray flare emission is strongly affected by the non-thermal part of the electron distribution. RHESSI observations and also recent theoretical derivations showed that the electron distribution function in coronal X-ray sources could be a kappa-distribution. An effect of kappa-distribution on the relative intensities of spectral lines of Fe XVIII - Fe XXIV observed in SDO/EVE flare spectra was calculated using KAPPA package based on the CHIANTI. Together with CHIANTI, this allows us to estimate the influence of the kappa-distributions on the diagnostics of electron density and temperature from the flare spectra. The possibility to diagnose parameters of the kappa-distribution from EVE flare spectra is discussed. The synthetic spectra for the kappa-distribution are compared with the observed flare spectra.

  20. 77 FR 75556 - Safety Zone; Sacramento New Year's Eve Fireworks Display, Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ...The Coast Guard will enforce the 1,000 foot safety zones during the Sacramento New Year's Eve Fireworks Display in the navigable waters of the Sacramento River on December 31, 2012 and January 1, 2013. The fireworks displays will occur from 9 p.m. to 9:15 p.m. on December 31, 2011 and from 11:59 p.m. on December 31, 2012 until 12:15 a.m. on January 1, 2013 for the annual Sacramento New Year's Eve Fireworks Display. During the enforcement period, unauthorized persons or vessels are prohibited from entering into, transiting through, or anchoring in the safety zone, unless authorized by the Patrol Commander (PATCOM).

  1. The slowly varying corona from DEMs with the EVE data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonfeld, Samuel J.; White, Stephen M.; Hock, Rachel A.; McAteer, James

    2016-05-01

    We present a differential emission measure (DEM) analysis of the slowly varying corona during the first half of solar cycle 24. Using the Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) and the CHIANTI atomic line database we identify strong isolated iron emission lines present in the non-flaring spectrum with peak emissions covering the coronal temperature range of 5.7 < log(T) < 6.5. These lines are used to generate daily DEMs from EVE spectra to observe the long term variability of global coronal thermal properties. We discuss the choice of emission lines and the implications of this data set for the relationship between EUV and the F10.7 radio flux.

  2. 76 FR 81827 - Safety Zone; Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display, Sacramento, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ...The Coast Guard will enforce the 1,000 foot safety zones during the Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display in the navigable waters of the Sacramento River during the dates and times noted below. This action is necessary to control vessel traffic and to ensure the safety of event participants and spectators. During the enforcement period, unauthorized persons or vessels are prohibited from entering into, transiting through, or anchoring in the safety zone, unless authorized by the Patrol Commander (PATCOM).

  3. Treatment of diabetes mellitus-associated neuropathy with vitamin E and Eve primrose.

    PubMed

    Ogbera, Anthonia Okeoghene; Ezeobi, Emmanuel; Unachukwu, Chioma; Oshinaike, Olajumoke

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this report was to assess the efficacy and safety of a combination of vitamin E, an antioxidant, and Eve Primrose in the management of painful diabetes mellitus (DM) neuropathy. This was an interventional study that evaluated the efficacy and safety of a combination of vitamin E and Eve Primrose in the management of DM neuropathy. The study was conducted at the Diabetic Centre of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja. Eighty individuals with type 2 DM who had painful neuropathy were recruited for this study, which took place for a duration of 1 year. The study subjects underwent clinical and biochemical assessment at baseline and were given vitamin E in a dose of 400 mg in combination with Eve Primrose in doses ranging 500-1000 mg/day. They were afterward assessed for relief of symptoms and possible untoward effects after 2 weeks and, thereafter, monthly for 3 months. The main outcome measure was amelioration of symptoms of neuropathy. The mean age and age range of the study subjects were 58.2 years and 37-70 years, respectively. A total of 70 patients (88%) of the study population reported relief from neuropathic pains. Clinical parameters were comparable between the responders and non-responders. One characteristic feature of the non-responders was that they all had vibration perception threshold of ≥25 mV, which was indicative of severe neuropathy. The combination of vitamin E and Eve Primrose is beneficial in the management of mild to moderate diabetic neuropathy.

  4. Mixed-refrigerant Joule-Thomson (MR JT) mini-cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzabar, Nir

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the progress in our ongoing research on Mixed-Refrigerant (MR) Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocoolers. The research begun by exploring different MRs and testing various compressors: oil-lubricated and oil-free, reciprocating and linear, custom-made and commercial. Closed-cycle JT cryocoolers benefit from the fact that the compressor might be located far from the cold-end and thus there are no moving parts, no vibrations, and no heat emission near the cold-end. As a consequence, the compressor may be located where there are no severe size limitations, its heat can be conveniently removed, and it can be easily maintained. However, in some applications there is still a demand for a small compressor to drive a JT cryocooler although it is located far from the cooled device. Recently, we have developed a miniature oil-free compressor for MR JT cryocoolers that weighs about 700 g and its volume equals about 300 cc. The cryocooler operates with a MR that contains Ne, N2, and Hydrocarbons. This MR has been widely investigated with different compressors and varying operating conditions and proved to be stable. The current research investigates the performances of MR JT mini-cryocooler operating with the MR mentioned above, driven with our miniature compressor, and a cold-finger prototype. A Dewar with heat load of about 230 mW is cooled to about 80 K at ambient temperatures between 0°C and 40°C. The experimental results obtained are stable and demonstrate the ability to control the cooling temperature by changing the rotation speed of the compressor.

  5. Thermal Evolution and Radiative Output of Solar Flares Observed by the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, P. C.; Milligan, R. O.; Woods, T. N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the methods used to obtain the thermal evolution and radiative output during solar flares as observed by the Extreme u ltraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Ob servatory (SDO). Presented and discussed in detail are how EVE measur ements, due to its temporal cadence, spectral resolution and spectral range, can be used to determine how the thermal plasma radiates at v arious temperatures throughout the impulsive and gradual phase of fla res. EVE can very accurately determine the radiative output of flares due to pre- and in-flight calibrations. Events are presented that sh ow the total radiated output of flares depends more on the flare duration than the typical GOES X-ray peak magnitude classification. With S DO observing every flare throughout its entire duration and over a la rge temperature range, new insights into flare heating and cooling as well as the radiative energy release in EUV wavelengths support exis ting research into understanding the evolution of solar flares.

  6. Overview of Key Results from SDO Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Tom

    2016-10-01

    The SDO Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) includes several channels to observe the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral irradiance from 1 to 106 nm. These channels include the Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph (MEGS) A, B, and P channels from the University of Colorado (CU) and the EUV SpectroPhometer (ESP) channels from the University of Southern California (USC). The solar EUV spectrum is rich in many different emission lines from the corona, transition region, and chromosphere. The EVE full-disk irradiance spectra are important for studying the solar impacts in Earth’s ionosphere and thermosphere and are useful for space weather operations. In addition, the EVE observations, with its high spectral resolution of 0.1 nm and in collaboration with AIA solar EUV images, have proven valuable for studying active region evolution and explosive energy release during flares and coronal eruptions. These SDO measurements have revealed interesting results such as understanding the flare variability over all wavelengths, discovering and classifying different flare phases, using coronal dimming measurements to predict CME properties of mass and velocity, and exploring the role of nano-flares in continual heating of active regions.

  7. Flare Comparisons of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) to Preliminary SDO EVE Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlon, Phillip C.

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) launched February 11, 2010 from Kennedy Space Center and started normal science operations in April 2010. One of the instruments onboard SDO, the EUV Variability- Experiment (EVE), will measure the solar EUV irradiance from 0.1-105 nm with 0.1 nm spectral resolution as well as a measure of the broad-band Lyman-Alpha emission (121.0 rim), all with less than 10 percent uncertainties. One of the biggest improvements of EVE over its predecessors is its ability to continuously measure the complete spectrum ever y 10 seconds, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. This temporal coverage and cadence will greatly enhance the knowledge of the solar EUV variations during solar flares. This paper will present a comparison of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM), which can produce an estimated EUV spectrum at 10 seconds temporal resolution, to the preliminary flare observation results from SDO EVE. The discussion will focus on the short-term EUV flare variations and evolution.

  8. Comparisons of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) to Preliminary SDO EVE Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) launched February 11,2010 from Kennedy Space Center and started normal science operations in April 2010. One of the instruments onboard SDO, the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE), will measure the solar EUV irradiance from 0.1-105 nm with 0.1 nm spectral resolution as well as a measure of the broad-band Lyman-Alpha emission (121.6 nm), all with less than 10 percent uncertainties. One of the biggest improvements of EVE over its predecessors is its ability to continuously measure the complete spectrum every 10 seconds, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. This temporal coverage and cadence will greatly enhance the knowledge of the solar EUV variations during solar flares. This paper will present a comparison of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM), which can produce an estimated EUV spectrum at 10 seconds temporal resolution, to the preliminary results from SDO EVE. The discussion will focus on the short-term EUV flare variations and evolution.

  9. CME Mass Estimates via EVE Coronal Dimmings for X-class Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Hugh S.; Hannah, Iain; Schrijver, Karel

    2014-06-01

    The EVE instrument on SDO detects post-flare dimmings, mainly in the spectral regions of Fe IX-XII in its MEGS-A range, which is available for most of the 29 X-class flares that have occurred between SDO launch and the end of April 2014. Based upon earlier X-ray observations we interpret these dimmings as the result of CME mass ejection from the low corona. We estimate the masses involved in these dimmings by deriving a best pre-event temperature and emission measure in the dimmed region from EVE, and a source volume from AIA images. The dimming for SOL2011-02-15, the first of these events, "peaked"at -3.4% in Fe IX in terms of the pre-event emission from the whole Sun, with smaller relative depletions in higher ionization states of Fe. The "maximum" occurred more than one hour after GOES peak. The dimming signature is generally cleanly measurable in the EVE/MEGS-A spectral samples at10 s cadence, with the dominant source of uncertainty stemming from the "sun-as-a-star" integrations; for example flare-related excess emission at a given wavelength tends to compensate for the dimming,and in this sense the mass estimate must be considered a lower limit. We address these uncertainties for the solar case by appealing to the AIA images, but for analogous processes in stellar flares one would not have this luxury.

  10. Comparisons of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) to Preliminary SDO EVE Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) launched February 11,2010 from Kennedy Space Center and started normal science operations in April 2010. One of the instruments onboard SDO, the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE), will measure the solar EUV irradiance from 0.1-105 nm with 0.1 nm spectral resolution as well as a measure of the broad-band Lyman-Alpha emission (121.6 nm), all with less than 10 percent uncertainties. One of the biggest improvements of EVE over its predecessors is its ability to continuously measure the complete spectrum every 10 seconds, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. This temporal coverage and cadence will greatly enhance the knowledge of the solar EUV variations during solar flares. This paper will present a comparison of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM), which can produce an estimated EUV spectrum at 10 seconds temporal resolution, to the preliminary results from SDO EVE. The discussion will focus on the short-term EUV flare variations and evolution.

  11. Flare Comparisons of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) to Preliminary SDO EVE Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlon, Phillip C.

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) launched February 11, 2010 from Kennedy Space Center and started normal science operations in April 2010. One of the instruments onboard SDO, the EUV Variability- Experiment (EVE), will measure the solar EUV irradiance from 0.1-105 nm with 0.1 nm spectral resolution as well as a measure of the broad-band Lyman-Alpha emission (121.0 rim), all with less than 10 percent uncertainties. One of the biggest improvements of EVE over its predecessors is its ability to continuously measure the complete spectrum ever y 10 seconds, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. This temporal coverage and cadence will greatly enhance the knowledge of the solar EUV variations during solar flares. This paper will present a comparison of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM), which can produce an estimated EUV spectrum at 10 seconds temporal resolution, to the preliminary flare observation results from SDO EVE. The discussion will focus on the short-term EUV flare variations and evolution.

  12. Structural genomics reveals EVE as a new ASCH/PUA-related domain

    PubMed Central

    Bertonati, Claudia; Punta, Marco; Fischer, Markus; Yachdav, Guy; Forouhar, Farhad; Zhou, Weihong; Kuzin, Alexander P.; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Abashidze, Mariam; Ramelot, Theresa A.; Kennedy, Michael A.; Cort, John R.; Belachew, Adam; Hunt, John F.; Tong, Liang; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Rost, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    Summary We report on several proteins recently solved by structural genomics consortia, in particular by the Northeast Structural Genomics consortium (NESG). The proteins considered in this study differ substantially in their sequences but they share a similar structural core, characterized by a pseudobarrel five-stranded beta sheet. This core corresponds to the PUA domain-like architecture in the SCOP database. By connecting sequence information with structural knowledge, we characterize a new subgroup of these proteins that we propose to be distinctly different from previously described PUA domain-like domains such as PUA proper or ASCH. We refer to these newly defined domains as EVE. Although EVE may have retained the ability of PUA domains to bind RNA, the available experimental and computational data suggests that both the details of its molecular function and its cellular function differ from those of other PUA domain-like domains. This study of EVE and its relatives illustrates how the combination of structure and genomics creates new insights by connecting a cornucopia of structures that map to the same evolutionary potential. Primary sequence information alone would have not been sufficient to reveal these evolutionary links. PMID:19191354

  13. EVE (external variance estimation) increases statistical power for detecting differentially expressed genes.

    PubMed

    Wille, Anja; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Bühlmann, Peter; Hennig, Lars

    2007-11-01

    Accurately identifying differentially expressed genes from microarray data is not a trivial task, partly because of poor variance estimates of gene expression signals. Here, after analyzing 380 replicated microarray experiments, we found that probesets have typical, distinct variances that can be estimated based on a large number of microarray experiments. These probeset-specific variances depend at least in part on the function of the probed gene: genes for ribosomal or structural proteins often have a small variance, while genes implicated in stress responses often have large variances. We used these variance estimates to develop a statistical test for differentially expressed genes called EVE (external variance estimation). The EVE algorithm performs better than the t-test and LIMMA on some real-world data, where external information from appropriate databases is available. Thus, EVE helps to maximize the information gained from a typical microarray experiment. Nonetheless, only a large number of replicates will guarantee to identify nearly all truly differentially expressed genes. However, our simulation studies suggest that even limited numbers of replicates will usually result in good coverage of strongly differentially expressed genes.

  14. Structural genomics reveals EVE as a new ASCH/PUA-related domain.

    PubMed

    Bertonati, Claudia; Punta, Marco; Fischer, Markus; Yachdav, Guy; Forouhar, Farhad; Zhou, Weihong; Kuzin, Alexander P; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Abashidze, Mariam; Ramelot, Theresa A; Kennedy, Michael A; Cort, John R; Belachew, Adam; Hunt, John F; Tong, Liang; Montelione, Gaetano T; Rost, Burkhard

    2009-05-15

    We report on several proteins recently solved by structural genomics consortia, in particular by the Northeast Structural Genomics consortium (NESG). The proteins considered in this study differ substantially in their sequences but they share a similar structural core, characterized by a pseudobarrel five-stranded beta sheet. This core corresponds to the PUA domain-like architecture in the SCOP database. By connecting sequence information with structural knowledge, we characterize a new subgroup of these proteins that we propose to be distinctly different from previously described PUA domain-like domains such as PUA proper or ASCH. We refer to these newly defined domains as EVE. Although EVE may have retained the ability of PUA domains to bind RNA, the available experimental and computational data suggests that both the details of its molecular function and its cellular function differ from those of other PUA domain-like domains. This study of EVE and its relatives illustrates how the combination of structure and genomics creates new insights by connecting a cornucopia of structures that map to the same evolutionary potential. Primary sequence information alone would have not been sufficient to reveal these evolutionary links.

  15. Studies on capillary tube expansion device used in J-T refrigerators operating with nitrogen-hydrocarbon mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harish Kruthiventi, S. S.; Venkatarathnam, G.

    2017-10-01

    Capillary tube expansion devices are used extensively in small closed cycle J-T refrigerators operating with refrigerant mixtures due to its low cost and the absence of any moving parts. It is possible for J-T refrigerators operating with mixtures that the velocity of refrigerant mixture at capillary tube outlet reaches a value where it equals the speed of sound at certain conditions. The variation of the speed of sound of nitrogen-hydrocarbon mixtures used in J-T refrigerators has been studied in two phase (vapour-liquid) and three-phase (Vapour-liquid-liquid) region as a function of temperature and pressure in this work. Also the conditions under which choking occurs in practical J-T refrigerators is investigated.

  16. Passive coolers for pre-cooling of JT loops for deep space infrared imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Burt; Larson, Melora; Rodriguez, Jose

    2010-09-01

    Infrared instruments (IR) for deep space imaging missions, such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and Planck, require cryogenic cooling for proper operation of their focal plane arrays (FPA) in far infrared and sub-millimeter wavelength ranges. The FPA is sometimes located meters away from the spacecraft. To meet such remote cooling requirement, a Joule-Thomson (J-T) loop becomes a convenient choice for either direct cooling for the FPA or for serving as a heat sink for a cascade cooling system. The refrigerant lines of the JT loop inevitably suffer parasitic heat leak primarily due to IR backload as they traverse from the spacecraft to the FPA. An actively cooled JT loop using a mechanical pre-cooler located at the spacecraft will experience the highest parasitic heat leak since the lines are cold through the entire length whereas a passively cooled JT loop can utilize a number of radiators to cool the lines down gradually in stages and hence reduce the heat leak. In addition to savings in power and mass, a passive cooler offers consistent and predictable performance with practically no performance degradation in a thermally stable orbit, such as one around the Sun-Earth L2 point. Passive coolers are less popular in low temperature applications when their cooling capacity diminishes rapidly in proportion to T4 until the temperature reaches a point where either the parasitic heat leak becomes so significant or its size becomes so excessive that the passive cooling scheme becomes impractical. Despite the limited capacity, passive cooling may still prove to be a viable alternative to active cooling depending on the operating temperature and heat dissipation rate of the FPA. The current effort aims at evaluating the merit of using passive coolers as an alternative to using a mechanical cooler for pre-cooling of a JT loop for remote IR instrument cooling. A parametric study is conducted to explore the merits of passive cooling of a JT loop in a temperature range

  17. Severe Septic Patients with Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup JT Show Higher Survival Rates: A Prospective, Multicenter, Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Martín, María M.; López-Gallardo, Esther; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Blanquer, José; Labarta, Lorenzo; Díaz, César; Borreguero-León, Juan María; Jiménez, Alejandro; Montoya, Julio; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Objective In a previous cohort study (n=96), we found an association between mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplogroup JT and increased survival of severe septic patients, after controlling for age and serum lactic acid levels. The aim of this research was to increase the predictive accuracy and to control for more confounder variables in a larger cohort (n=196) of severe septic patients, to confirm whether mtDNA haplogroup JT influences short and medium-term survival in these patients. Methods We conducted a prospective, multicenter, observational study in six Spanish Intensive Care Units. We determined 30-day and 6-month survival and mtDNA haplogroup in this second cohort of 196 patients and in the global cohort (first and second cohorts combined) with 292 severe septic patients. Multiple logistic regression and Cox regression analyses were used to test for the association of mtDNA haplogroups JT with survival at 30-days and 6-months, controlling for age, sex, serum interleukin-6 levels and SOFA score. Results Logistic and Cox regression analyses showed no differences in 30-day and 6-month survival between patients with mtDNA haplogroup JT and other haplogroups in the first cohort (n=96). In the second cohort (n=196), these analyses showed a trend to higher 30-day and 6-month survival in those with haplogroup JT. In the global cohort (n=292), logistic and Cox regression analyses showed higher 30-day and 6-month survival for haplogroup JT. There were no significant differences between J and T sub-haplogroups in 30-day and 6-month survival. Conclusions The global cohort study (first and second cohorts combined), the largest to date reporting on mtDNA haplogroups in septic patients, confirmed that haplogroup JT patients showed increased 30-day and 6-month survival. This finding may be due to single nucleotide polymorphism defining the whole haplogroup JT and not separately for J or T sub-haplogroups. PMID:24069186

  18. Severe septic patients with mitochondrial DNA haplogroup JT show higher survival rates: a prospective, multicenter, observational study.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Leonardo; Iceta, Ruth; Martín, María M; López-Gallardo, Esther; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Blanquer, José; Labarta, Lorenzo; Díaz, César; Borreguero-León, Juan María; Jiménez, Alejandro; Montoya, Julio; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    In a previous cohort study (n=96), we found an association between mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplogroup JT and increased survival of severe septic patients, after controlling for age and serum lactic acid levels. The aim of this research was to increase the predictive accuracy and to control for more confounder variables in a larger cohort (n=196) of severe septic patients, to confirm whether mtDNA haplogroup JT influences short and medium-term survival in these patients. We conducted a prospective, multicenter, observational study in six Spanish Intensive Care Units. We determined 30-day and 6-month survival and mtDNA haplogroup in this second cohort of 196 patients and in the global cohort (first and second cohorts combined) with 292 severe septic patients. Multiple logistic regression and Cox regression analyses were used to test for the association of mtDNA haplogroups JT with survival at 30-days and 6-months, controlling for age, sex, serum interleukin-6 levels and SOFA score. Logistic and Cox regression analyses showed no differences in 30-day and 6-month survival between patients with mtDNA haplogroup JT and other haplogroups in the first cohort (n=96). In the second cohort (n=196), these analyses showed a trend to higher 30-day and 6-month survival in those with haplogroup JT. In the global cohort (n=292), logistic and Cox regression analyses showed higher 30-day and 6-month survival for haplogroup JT. There were no significant differences between J and T sub-haplogroups in 30-day and 6-month survival. The global cohort study (first and second cohorts combined), the largest to date reporting on mtDNA haplogroups in septic patients, confirmed that haplogroup JT patients showed increased 30-day and 6-month survival. This finding may be due to single nucleotide polymorphism defining the whole haplogroup JT and not separately for J or T sub-haplogroups.

  19. 76 FR 77107 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Corp. (PW) JT9D-7R4H1 Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA-2011-0731; Directorate Identifier 2010-NE-39-AD; Amendment 39-16886; AD 2011-25-10] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Corp. (PW) JT9D-7R4H1 Turbofan... new airworthiness directive (AD) for all PW JT9D-7R4H1 turbofan engines. This AD was prompted...

  20. Measuring Solar Doppler Velocities in the He ii 30.38 nm Emission Using the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlin, P. C.

    2016-08-01

    The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory has provided unprecedented measurements of the solar EUV irradiance at high temporal cadence with good spectral resolution and range since May 2010. The main purpose of EVE was to connect the Sun to the Earth by providing measurements of the EUV irradiance as a driver for space weather and Living With a Star studies, but after launch the instrument has demonstrated the significance of its measurements in contributing to studies looking at the sources of solar variability for pure solar physics purposes. This paper expands upon previous findings that EVE can in fact measure wavelength shifts during solar eruptive events and therefore provide Doppler velocities for plasma at all temperatures throughout the solar atmosphere from the chromosphere to hot flaring temperatures. This process is not straightforward as EVE was not designed or optimized for these types of measurements. In this paper we describe the many detailed instrumental characterizations needed to eliminate the optical effects in order to provide an absolute baseline for the Doppler shift studies. An example is given of a solar eruption on 7 September 2011 (SOL2011-09-07), associated with an X1.2 flare, where EVE Doppler analysis shows plasma ejected from the Sun in the He ii 30.38 nm emission at a velocity of almost 120 km s^{-1} along the line-of-sight.

  1. Measuring Solar Doppler Velocities in the He II 30.38 nm Emission Using the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip Clyde

    2016-01-01

    The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory has provided unprecedented measurements of the solar EUV irradiance at high temporal cadence with good spectral resolution and range since May 2010. The main purpose of EVE was to connect the Sun to the Earth by providing measurements of the EUV irradianceas a driver for space weather and Living With a Star studies, but after launch the instrument has demonstrated the significance of its measurements in contributing to studies looking at the sources of solar variability for pure solar physics purposes. This paper expands upon previous findings that EVE can in fact measure wavelength shifts during solar eruptive events and therefore provide Doppler velocities for plasma at all temperatures throughout the solar atmosphere from the chromosphere to hot flaring temperatures. This process is not straightforward as EVE was not designed or optimized for these types of measurements. In this paper we describe the many detailed instrumental characterizations needed to eliminate the optical effects in order to provide an absolute baseline for the Doppler shift studies. An example is given of a solar eruption on 7 September 2011 (SOL2011-09-07), associated with an X1.2 flare, where EVE Doppler analysis shows plasma ejected from the Sun in the He II 30.38 nm emission at a velocity of almost 120 km s(exp -1) along the line-of-sight.

  2. Measuring Solar Doppler Velocities in the He II 30.38 nm Emission Using the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip Clyde

    2016-01-01

    The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory has provided unprecedented measurements of the solar EUV irradiance at high temporal cadence with good spectral resolution and range since May 2010. The main purpose of EVE was to connect the Sun to the Earth by providing measurements of the EUV irradianceas a driver for space weather and Living With a Star studies, but after launch the instrument has demonstrated the significance of its measurements in contributing to studies looking at the sources of solar variability for pure solar physics purposes. This paper expands upon previous findings that EVE can in fact measure wavelength shifts during solar eruptive events and therefore provide Doppler velocities for plasma at all temperatures throughout the solar atmosphere from the chromosphere to hot flaring temperatures. This process is not straightforward as EVE was not designed or optimized for these types of measurements. In this paper we describe the many detailed instrumental characterizations needed to eliminate the optical effects in order to provide an absolute baseline for the Doppler shift studies. An example is given of a solar eruption on 7 September 2011 (SOL2011-09-07), associated with an X1.2 flare, where EVE Doppler analysis shows plasma ejected from the Sun in the He II 30.38 nm emission at a velocity of almost 120 km s(exp -1) along the line-of-sight.

  3. Engine component improvement: Performance improvement, JT9D-7 3.8 AR fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffin, W. O.

    1980-01-01

    A redesigned, fuel efficient fan for the JT9D-7 engine was tested. Tests were conducted to determine the effect of the 3.8 AR fan on performance, stability, operational characteristics, and noise of the JT9D-7 engine relative to the current 4.6 AR Bill-of-Material fan. The 3.8 AR fan provides increased fan efficiency due to a more advanced blade airfoil with increased chord, eliminating one part span shroud and reducing the number of fan blades and fan exit guide vanes. Engine testing at simulated cruise conditions demonstrated the predicted 1.3 percent improvement in specific fuel consumption with the redesigned 3.8 AR fan. Flight testing and sea level stand engine testing demonstrated exhaust gas temperature margins, fan and low pressure compressor stability, operational suitability, and noise levels comparable to the Bill-of-Material fan.

  4. Physics and operation oriented activities in preparation of the JT-60SA tokamak exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giruzzi, G.; Yoshida, M.; Artaud, J. F.; Asztalos, Ö.; Barbato, E.; Bettini, P.; Bierwage, A.; Boboc, A.; Bolzonella, T.; Clement-Lorenzo, S.; Coda, S.; Cruz, N.; Day, Chr.; De Tommasi, G.; Dibon, M.; Douai, D.; Dunai, D.; Enoeda, M.; Farina, D.; Figini, L.; Fukumoto, M.; Galazka, K.; Galdon, J.; Garcia, J.; Garcia-Muñoz, M.; Garzotti, L.; Gil, C.; Gleason-Gonzalez, C.; Goodman, T.; Granucci, G.; Hayashi, N.; Hoshino, K.; Ide, S.; Imazawa, R.; Innocente, P.; Isayama, A.; Itami, K.; Joffrin, E.; Kamada, Y.; Kamiya, K.; Kawano, Y.; Kawashima, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Kojima, A.; Kubo, H.; Lang, P.; Lauber, Ph.; de la Luna, E.; Maget, P.; Marchiori, G.; Mastrostefano, S.; Matsunaga, G.; Mattei, M.; McDonald, D. C.; Mele, A.; Miyata, Y.; Moriyama, S.; Moro, A.; Nakano, T.; Neu, R.; Nowak, S.; Orsitto, F. P.; Pautasso, G.; Pégourié, B.; Pigatto, L.; Pironti, A.; Platania, P.; Pokol, G. I.; Ricci, D.; Romanelli, M.; Saarelma, S.; Sakurai, S.; Sartori, F.; Sasao, H.; Scannapiego, M.; Shimizu, K.; Shinohara, K.; Shiraishi, J.; Soare, S.; Sozzi, C.; Stępniewski, W.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Szepesi, T.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, K.; Terranova, D.; Toma, M.; Urano, H.; Vega, J.; Villone, F.; Vitale, V.; Wakatsuki, T.; Wischmeier, M.; Zagórski, R.

    2017-08-01

    The JT-60SA tokamak, being built under the Broader Approach agreement jointly by Europe and Japan, is due to start operation in 2020 and is expected to give substantial contributions to both ITER and DEMO scenario optimisation. A broad set of preparation activities for an efficient start of the experiments on JT-60SA is being carried out, involving elaboration of the Research Plan, advanced modelling in various domains, feasibility and conception studies of diagnostics and other sub-systems in connection with the priorities of the scientific programme, development and validation of operation tools. The logic and coherence of this approach, as well as the most significant results of the main activities undertaken are presented and summarised.

  5. Progress of ITER and JT-60SA Magnet Development in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koizumi, N.; Nunoya, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Barabaschi, P.

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), as the Japan Domestic Agency (JADA), has the responsibility to procure 9 ITER toroidal field (TF) coils, 19 TF coil (TFC) structures, 25% of the TF conductors and 100% of the central solenoid (CS) conductors in ITER and, in addition, CS and equilibrium field (EF) coils including their conductors in JT-60SA, which is being developed as a satellite facility for ITER. In ITER, more than 90% of TF conductor fabrication was completed and finalization of the manufacturing procedure of TF coils is in progress through full-scale trials, such as trial fabrication of dummy double pancakes (DPs). In JT-60SA, fabrication of the EF4 coil was completed and the EF5 and EF6 coils are being assembled.

  6. Observation of a Complex Multistage Transition in the JT-60U H-mode Edge

    SciTech Connect

    Kamiya, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Matsunaga, G.; Kojima, A.; Urano, H.; Oyama, N.; Koide, Y.; Kamada, Y.; Ida, K.

    2010-07-23

    A complex multistage transition of the edge radial electric field is observed in JT-60U H-mode phase without edge localized mode. An interesting feature is that the poloidal rotation velocity of the carbon impurity ions changes in the later H-phase without a comparable change in the main ion pressure gradient, indicating a change in the parallel momentum (and particle) balance channel.

  7. The p-EVES study design and methodology: a randomised controlled trial to compare portable electronic vision enhancement systems (p-EVES) to optical magnifiers for near vision activities in visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Taylor, John; Bambrick, Rachel; Dutton, Michelle; Harper, Robert; Ryan, Barbara; Tudor-Edwards, Rhiannon; Waterman, Heather; Whitaker, Chris; Dickinson, Chris

    2014-09-01

    To describe the study design and methodology for the p-EVES study, a trial designed to determine the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of portable Electronic Vision Enhancement System (p-EVES) devices and conventional optical low vision aids (LVAs) for near tasks in people with low vision. The p-EVES study is a prospective two-arm randomised cross-over trial to test the hypothesis that, in comparison to optical LVAs, p-EVES can be: used for longer duration; used for a wider range of tasks than a single optical LVA and/or enable users to do tasks that they were not able to do with optical LVAs; allow faster performance of instrumental activities of daily living; and allow faster reading. A total of 100 adult participants with visual impairment are currently being recruited from Manchester Royal Eye Hospital and randomised into either Group 1 (receiving the two interventions A and B in the order AB), or Group 2 (receiving the two interventions in the order BA). Intervention A is a 2-month period with conventional optical LVAs and a p-EVES device, and intervention B is a 2-month period with conventional optical LVAs only. The study adopts a mixed methods approach encompassing a broad range of outcome measures. The results will be obtained from the following primary outcome measures: Manchester Low Vision Questionnaire, capturing device 'usage' data (which devices are used, number of times, for what purposes, and for how long) and the MNRead test, measuring threshold print size, critical print size, and acuity reserve in addition to reading speed at high (≈90%) contrast. Results will also be obtained from a series of secondary outcome measures which include: assessment of timed instrumental activities of daily living and a 'near vision' visual functioning questionnaire. A companion qualitative study will permit comparison of results on how, where, and under what circumstances, p-EVES devices and LVAs are used in daily life. A health economic

  8. Modelling of the test of the JT-60SA HTS current leads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappatore, A.; Heller, R.; Savoldi, L.; Zanino, R.

    2017-07-01

    The CURLEAD code, which was developed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), implements an integrated 1D transient model of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) current lead (CL) including the room termination (RT), the meander-flow type heat exchanger (HX), and the HTS module. CURLEAD was successfully used for the design of the 70 kA ITER demonstrator and of the W7-X and JT-60SA CLs. Recently the code was successfully applied to the prediction and analysis of steady state operation of the ITER correction coils (CC) HTS CL. Here the steady state and pulsed operation of the JT-60SA HTS CLs are analysed, which requires also the modelling of the HX shell and of the vacuum shell, which was not present in the ITER CC. The CURLEAD model extension is presented and the capability of the new version of CURLEAD to reproduce the transient experimental data of the JT-60SA HTS CL is shown. The results obtained provide a better understanding of key parameters of the CL, among which the temperature evolution at the HX-HTS interface, the GHe mass flow rate needed in the HX to achieve the target temperature at that location and the heat load at the cold end.

  9. Simulation of the Effect of Plasma Flows in DIII-D, JET, and JT-60U

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, G D; Rognlien, T D; Rensink, M E; Loarte, A; Asakura, N; Takenaga, H; Mathews, G

    2002-05-17

    The results of 2D fluid plasma simulations of the ion flow in the boundary plasma of DIII-D, JET, and JT-60U are reported. The model includes the effects of drifts and of impurity radiation using a multi-species model of intrinsic carbon impurities. Drift effects are important in determining the primary and impurity ion fluxes in the SOL and the private region, with ExB drifts dominant. Simulated parallel velocities are consistent with experimental measurement on the high field side of JT-60U, where the parallel flow is determined by ion sources. Simulated parallel velocities are significantly less than seen in experiment at the outer midplane of JT-60U, and at the top of JET where the flow is sensitive to poloidal variations of the turbulence driven transport, suggesting the velocity in these regions is determined by transport. Parallel flows are reversed by changing the direction of the ion VB drift relative to the X-point.

  10. Ionospheric model-observation comparisons: E layer at Arecibo Incorporation of SDO-EVE solar irradiances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sojka, Jan J.; Jensen, Joseph B.; David, Michael; Schunk, Robert W.; Woods, Tom; Eparvier, Frank; Sulzer, Michael P.; Gonzalez, Sixto A.; Eccles, J. Vincent

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluates how the new irradiance observations from the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) can, with its high spectral resolution and 10 s cadence, improve the modeling of the E region. To demonstrate this a campaign combining EVE observations with that of the NSF Arecibo incoherent scatter radar (ISR) was conducted. The ISR provides E region electron density observations with high-altitude resolution, 300 m, and absolute densities using the plasma line technique. Two independent ionospheric models were used, the Utah State University Time-Dependent Ionospheric Model (TDIM) and Space Environment Corporation's Data-Driven D Region (DDDR) model. Each used the same EVE irradiance spectrum binned at 1 nm resolution from 0.1 to 106 nm. At the E region peak the modeled TDIM density is 20% lower and that of the DDDR is 6% higher than observed. These differences could correspond to a 36% lower (TDIM) and 12% higher (DDDR) production rate if the differences were entirely attributed to the solar irradiance source. The detailed profile shapes that included the E region altitude and that of the valley region were only qualitatively similar to observations. Differences on the order of a neutral-scale height were present. Neither model captured a distinct dawn to dusk tilt in the E region peak altitude. A model sensitivity study demonstrated how future improved spectral resolution of the 0.1 to 7 nm irradiance could account for some of these model shortcomings although other relevant processes are also poorly modeled.

  11. 76 FR 81371 - Safety Zone; San Francisco New Year's Eve Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ...The Coast Guard will enforce the safety zone for the annual San Francisco New Year's Eve Fireworks Display in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco area of responsibility during the dates and times noted below. This action is necessary to protect life and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated with the fireworks display. During the enforcement period, unauthorized persons or vessels are prohibited from entering into, transiting through, or anchoring in the safety zone, unless authorized by the Patrol Commander (PATCOM).

  12. Primary and secondary coronary heart disease prevention using statins: is targeting Adam or Eve equally effective?

    PubMed

    Kakafika, Anna I; Athyros, Vasilios G; Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Karagiannis, Asterios; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2008-06-01

    Women differ from men in terms of their cardiovascular disease risk. The existing data suggest that primary cardiovascular disease prevention treatment with a statin could be cost effective for women and men with a high cardiovascular disease risk. In secondary cardiovascular disease prevention both men and women seem to benefit equally from statin treatment. However, the relatively small number of women included in several statin trials has limited the evidence available. With regard to the question of whether Eve is becoming Adam, the answer is not yet: we need more evidence!

  13. Behavioral health services in separate CHIP programs on the eve of parity.

    PubMed

    Garfield, Rachel L; Beardslee, William R; Greenfield, Shelly F; Meara, Ellen

    2012-05-01

    The Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) plays a vital role in financing behavioral health services for low-income children. This study examines behavioral health benefit design and management in separate CHIP programs on the eve of federal requirements for behavioral health parity. Even before parity implementation, many state CHIP programs did not impose service limits or cost sharing for behavioral health benefits. However, a substantial share of states imposed limits or cost sharing that might hinder access to care. The majority of states use managed care to administer behavioral health benefits. It is important to monitor how states adapt their programs to comply with parity.

  14. EUV variability experiment (EVE); multiple EUV grating spectrographs (MEGS), radiometric calibrations and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Hock, Rachel A.; Crotser, David A.; Eparvier, Francis G.; Furst, Mitch; Triplett, Matthew A.; Woodraska, Donald L.; Woods, Thomas N.

    2007-09-01

    The NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), scheduled for launch in early 2009, incorporates a suite of instruments including the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE). Two channels of EVE, the Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph (MEGS) A and B channels use concave reflection gratings to image solar spectra onto CCDs to measure the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance from 5 to 105 nm. MEGS provides these spectra at 0.1nm spectral resolution every 10 seconds with an absolute accuracy of better than 25% over the SDO 5-year mission. The calibration of the MEGS channels in order to convert the instrument counts in to physical units of W/m2/nm was performed at the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility III (SURF III) located in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Although the final post-environmental calibrations have yet to be performed, preliminary results from the pre-environmental calibrations show very good agreement with the theoretical optical design given by Crotser et al. Further analysis is still needed in regards to the higher order contributions to determine the final first order QT for all channels, but two techniques are currently being analyzed and show promising results.

  15. Progress in long-pulse production of powerful negative ion beams for JT-60SA and ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, A.; Umeda, N.; Hanada, M.; Yoshida, M.; Kashiwagi, M.; Tobari, H.; Watanabe, K.; Akino, N.; Komata, M.; Mogaki, K.; Sasaki, S.; Seki, N.; Nemoto, S.; Shimizu, T.; Endo, Y.; Ohasa, K.; Dairaku, M.; Yamanaka, H.; Grisham, L. R.

    2015-06-01

    Significant progress in the extension of pulse durations of powerful negative ion beams has been made to realize the neutral beam injectors for JT-60SA and ITER. In order to overcome common issues of the long-pulse production/acceleration of negative ion beams in JT-60SA and ITER, new technologies have been developed in the JT-60SA ion source and the MeV accelerator in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. As for the long-pulse production of high-current negative ions for the JT-60SA ion source, the pulse durations have been successfully increased from 30 s at 13 A on JT-60U to 100 s at 15 A by modifying the JT-60SA ion source, which satisfies the required pulse duration of 100 s and 70% of the rated beam current for JT-60SA. This progress was based on the R&D efforts for the temperature control of the plasma grid and uniform negative ion productions with the modified tent-shaped filter field configuration. Moreover, each parameter of the required beam energy, current and pulse has been achieved individually by these R&D efforts. The developed techniques are useful to design the ITER ion source because the sustainment of the caesium coverage in the large extraction area is one of the common issues between JT-60SA and ITER. As for the long-pulse acceleration of high power density beams in the MeV accelerator for ITER, the pulse duration of MeV-class negative ion beams has been extended by more than 2 orders of magnitude by modifying the extraction grid with a high cooling capability and a high transmission of negative ions. A long-pulse acceleration of 60 s has been achieved at 70 MW m-2 (683 keV, 100 A m-2) which has reached the power density of JT-60SA level of 65 MW m-2. No degradations of the voltage holding capability of the acceleration voltage and the beam optics due to the distortion of the acceleration grids have been observed in this power density level. These results are the longest pulse durations of high-current and high-power-density negative ion beams in the

  16. Nemo phosphorylates Even-skipped and promotes Eve-mediated repression of odd-skipped in even parasegments during Drosophila embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Braid, Lorena R; Lee, Wendy; Uetrecht, Andrea C; Swarup, Sharan; Papaianni, Gina; Heiler, Amanda; Verheyen, Esther M

    2010-07-01

    Drosophila nemo (nmo) and other Nemo-like kinase family members (Nlks) are well-established key regulators of numerous conserved signaling pathways, such as Wg and BMP. nmo mutants display pleiotropic defects at different developmental stages, including the embryo. In this study we describe a detailed characterization of embryonic cuticle patterning defects associated with maternal loss of nmo. nmo mutant embryos consistently show segmentation defects, most frequently fusions of pairs of denticle belts in alternating segments. These phenotypes are reminiscent of those associated with defects in pair-rule patterning. Genetic interaction studies demonstrate that Nmo promotes Even-skipped (Eve) activity and is required to promote the expression of the Eve target, engrailed (en), in even numbered parasegments. We find that Nmo regulates a subset of Eve activities by stimulating Eve-mediated suppression of the odd-skipped (odd) repressor. Furthermore, we isolate Nmo in a protein complex with Eve and show that Nmo phosphorylates Eve in in vitro kinase assays. These studies reveal a novel role for the Nmo kinase in embryonic pattern formation through its regulation of the homeodomain-containing transcription factor Eve. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 75 FR 3217 - J&T Hydro Company; H. Dean Brooks and W. Bruce Cox; Notice of Application for Transfer of License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission J&T Hydro Company; H. Dean Brooks and W. Bruce Cox; Notice of Application... 30, 2009, J&T Hydro Company (transferor) and W. Dean Brooks, and H. Bruce Cox (transferees) filed...

  18. Phase 2 program on ground test of refanned JT8D turbofan engines and nacelles for the 727 airplane. Volume 3: Ground tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The NASA Refan Program included full-scale performance and noise ground tests of both a current production (JT8D-15) and a refanned (JT8D-115) engine. A description of the two ground tests including detailed propulsion, noise, and structural test results is presented. The primary objectives of the total test program were comparison of JT8D-15 and JT8D-115 overall propulsion system performance and noise characteristics and determination of incremental component noise levels. Other objectives of the test program included: (1) determination of acoustic treatment effectiveness; (2) measurement of internal sound pressure levels; (3) measurement of inlet and exhaust hardware performance; (4) determination of center-engine surge margin; and (5) evaluation of certain structural characteristics associated with the 727 refan center-engine inlet duct and JT8D refan engine exhaust system. The JT8D-15 and -115 tests were conducted during September 1974 and January to March 1975, respectively. Analyses of the test data indicated that the JT8D-115, as compared to the JT8D-15, demonstrates a 12.5 percent to 13.2 percent reduction in static specific fuel consumption, and a reduction of 6 to 7 PNdB in a weighted average value of static tone corrected perceived noise level. Separated into noise components, a significant reduction was shown for the inlet fan, aft fan, exhaust duct flow, turbine, and jet noises. However, core noise was increased. Photographs of test stands and test equipment are shown.

  19. Variable RNA expression from recently acquired, endogenous viral elements (EVE) of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Utari, Heny Budi; Soowannayan, Chumporn; Flegel, Timothy W; Whityachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Kruatrachue, Maleeya

    2017-11-01

    The viral accommodation hypothesis proposes that endogenous viral elements (EVE) from both RNA and DNA viruses are being continually integrated into the shrimp genome by natural host processes and that they can result in tolerance to viral infection by fortuitous production of antisense, immunospecific RNA (imRNA). Thus, we hypothesized that previously reported microarray results for the presence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) open reading frames (ORFs) formerly called 151, 366 and 427 in a domesticated giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) breeding stock might have represented expression from EVE, since the stock had shown uninterrupted freedom from white spot disease (WSD) for many generations. To test this hypothesis, 128 specimens from a current stock generation were confirmed for freedom from WSSV infection using two nested PCR detection methods. Subsequent nested-PCR testing revealed 33/128 specimens (26%) positive for at least one of the ORF at very high sequence identity (95-99%) to extant WSSV. Positive results for ORF 366 (now known to be a fragment of the WSSV capsid protein gene) dominated (28/33 = 84.8%), so 9 arbitrarily selected 366-positive specimens were tested by strand-specific, nested RT-PCR using DNase-treated RNA templates. This revealed variable RNA expression in individual shrimp including no RNA transcripts (n = 1), sense transcripts only (n = 1), antisense transcripts only (n = 2) or transcripts of both sense (n = 5). The latter 7 expression products indicated specimens producing putative imRNA. The variable types and numbers of the EVE and the variable RNA expression (including potential imRNA) support predictions of the viral accommodation hypothesis that EVE are randomly produced and expressed. Positive nested PCR test results for EVE of ORF 366 using DNA templates derived from shrimp sperm (germ cells), indicated that they were heritable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. dbx mediates neuronal specification and differentiation through cross-repressive, lineage-specific interactions with eve and hb9.

    PubMed

    Lacin, Haluk; Zhu, Yi; Wilson, Beth A; Skeath, James B

    2009-10-01

    Individual neurons adopt and maintain defined morphological and physiological phenotypes as a result of the expression of specific combinations of transcription factors. In particular, homeodomain-containing transcription factors play key roles in determining neuronal subtype identity in flies and vertebrates. dbx belongs to the highly divergent H2.0 family of homeobox genes. In vertebrates, Dbx1 and Dbx2 promote the development of a subset of interneurons, some of which help mediate left-right coordination of locomotor activity. Here, we identify and show that the single Drosophila ortholog of Dbx1/2 contributes to the development of specific subsets of interneurons via cross-repressive, lineage-specific interactions with the motoneuron-promoting factors eve and hb9 (exex). dbx is expressed primarily in interneurons of the embryonic, larval and adult central nervous system, and these interneurons tend to extend short axons and be GABAergic. Interestingly, many Dbx(+) interneurons share a sibling relationship with Eve(+) or Hb9(+) motoneurons. The non-overlapping expression of dbx and eve, or dbx and hb9, within pairs of sibling neurons is initially established as a result of Notch/Numb-mediated asymmetric divisions. Cross-repressive interactions between dbx and eve, and dbx and hb9, then help maintain the distinct expression profiles of these genes in their respective pairs of sibling neurons. Strict maintenance of the mutually exclusive expression of dbx relative to that of eve and hb9 in sibling neurons is crucial for proper neuronal specification, as misexpression of dbx in motoneurons dramatically hinders motor axon outgrowth.

  1. Edge safety factor at the onset of plasma disruption during VDEs in JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugihara, Masayoshi; Lukash, Victor; Khayrutdinov, Rustam; Neyatani, Yuzuru

    2004-10-01

    Detailed examinations of the value of the edge safety factor (qa) at the onset of thermal quench (TQ) during intentional vertical displacement event (VDE) experiments in JT-60U are carried out using two different reconstruction methods, FBI/FBEQU and DINA. The results from the two methods are very similar and show that the TQ occurs when the qa value is in the range between 1.5 and 2. This result suggests that the predictive simulations for VDEs should be performed within this range of q to examine the subsequent differences in the halo currents, plasma movement and other plasma behaviour during the current quench.

  2. Optical modeling and physical performances evaluations for the JT-60SA ECRF antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Platania, P. Figini, L.; Farina, D.; Micheletti, D.; Moro, A.; Sozzi, C.; Isayama, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Moriyama, S.

    2015-12-10

    The purpose of this work is the optical modeling and physical performances evaluations of the JT-60SA ECRF launcher system. The beams have been simulated with the electromagnetic code GRASP® and used as input for ECCD calculations performed with the beam tracing code GRAY, capable of modeling propagation, absorption and current drive of an EC Gaussion beam with general astigmatism. Full details of the optical analysis has been taken into account to model the launched beams. Inductive and advanced reference scenarios has been analysed for physical evaluations in the full poloidal and toroidal steering ranges for two slightly different layouts of the launcher system.

  3. Design of tangential viewing phase contrast imaging for turbulence measurements in JT-60SA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K.; Coda, S.; Yoshida, M.; Sasao, H.; Kawano, Y.; Imazawa, R.; Kubo, H.; Kamada, Y.

    2016-11-01

    A tangential viewing phase contrast imaging system is being designed for the JT-60SA tokamak to investigate microturbulence. In order to obtain localized information on the turbulence, a spatial-filtering technique is applied, based on magnetic shearing. The tangential viewing geometry enhances the radial localization. The probing laser beam is injected tangentially and traverses the entire plasma region including both low and high field sides. The spatial resolution for an Internal Transport Barrier discharge is estimated at 30%-70% of the minor radius at k = 5 cm-1, which is the typical expected wave number of ion scale turbulence such as ion temperature gradient/trapped electron mode.

  4. ASASSN-16jt: Discovery of A Probable Supernova in ESO 344-G 021

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimacombe, J.; Brown, J. S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shields, J.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Dong, Subo; Bose, S.; Chen, Ping; Krannich, G.; Masi, G.; Nicholls, B.; Nicolas, J.; Post, R. S.; Stone, G.

    2016-08-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN or "Assassin"), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Cassius" telescope in Cerro Tololo, Chile, we discovered a new transient source, most likely a supernova, in the galaxy ESO 344-G 021. ASASSN-16jt was discovered in images obtained on UT 2016-08-31.09 at V~16.2 mag. We do not detect (V > 17.8) the object in images taken on UT 2016-08-26.24 and before.

  5. JT8D-15/17 High Pressure Turbine Root Discharged Blade Performance Improvement. [engine design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janus, A. S.

    1981-01-01

    The JT8D high pressure turbine blade and seal were modified, using a more efficient blade cooling system, improved airfoil aerodynamics, more effective control of secondary flows, and improved blade tip sealing. Engine testing was conducted to determine the effect of these improvements on performance. The modified turbine package demonstrated significant thrust specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature improvements in sea level and altitude engine tests. Inspection of the improved blade and seal hardware after testing revealed no unusual wear or degradation.

  6. Characteristics of a large multijunction launcher for high-power LHCD experiments on JT-60U

    SciTech Connect

    Seki, M.; Ikeda, Y.; Ushigusa, K.; Naito, O.; Kondoh, T.; Wolfe, S.W.; Imai, T. )

    1994-10-15

    This paper presents overview of a large multijunction launcher for JT-60U. The launcher is featured by the multijunction module with the oversized taper waveguide, in order to simplify structure of the launcher. This launcher allows high performances of current drive and current profile control by using very sharp and highly directive spectrum. Initial result of coupling property is also described. A good coupling was observed at a power level of [similar to]0.8 MW with plasma-launcher distance of [lt]14 cm.

  7. Optical modeling and physical performances evaluations for the JT-60SA ECRF antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platania, P.; Figini, L.; Farina, D.; Isayama, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Micheletti, D.; Moriyama, S.; Moro, A.; Sozzi, C.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this work is the optical modeling and physical performances evaluations of the JT-60SA ECRF launcher system. The beams have been simulated with the electromagnetic code GRASP® and used as input for ECCD calculations performed with the beam tracing code GRAY, capable of modeling propagation, absorption and current drive of an EC Gaussion beam with general astigmatism. Full details of the optical analysis has been taken into account to model the launched beams. Inductive and advanced reference scenarios has been analysed for physical evaluations in the full poloidal and toroidal steering ranges for two slightly different layouts of the launcher system.

  8. 8/9 February 2012 SDO-EVE and Arecibo ISR Ionospheric Capaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sojka, J. J.; David, M.; Jensen, J.; Schunk, R. W.; Woods, T. N.; Eparvier, F.; Sulzer, M. P.; Gonzalez, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA SDO-EVE solar irradiance observations provide unprecedented high resolution in both time cadence and wavelength. The irradiance wavelengths of the highest importance in driving the altitude structure of the E- and F1-regions lie in two bands, a short wavelength XUV, 2 to 20 nm, and an EUV band from about 80 to 103 nm. Because of the low altitude of the E-region, 100-120 km, only remote sensing techniques are able to observe this region. Two main observational techniques are ionosondes and incoherent scatter radars (ISR). However, only the ISR can distinguish the critical valley region between the E- and F1-regions. A first EVE Arecibo ISR campaign was held on 8/9 February 2012. During daylight hours in the Puerto Rico sector the NSF Arecibo ISR operated in a special high resolution altitude mode through the ionosphere's E- and F1-regions. A total of 22 altitude profiles were obtained. The SDO-EVE instrument also operated its full instrument complement during these daylight hours. In terms of geomagnetic activity and solar dynamics, the entire period was very quiet. This study uses the USU Time Dependent Ionospheric Model (TDIM) to explore the challenges of modeling the E- and F1-region under these quiet conditions. The full irradiance, with excellent wavelength resolution, defines the major input to the TDIM. The Arecibo ISR observations provide the ground truth with both excellent plasma line electron density calibration and better than 1 km altitude resolution. The major objective of this first study is to determine both the sensitivity of the model to various other drivers such as photoelectron secondary ionization, [NO], neutral winds, and the neutral atmosphere as represented by a standard thermosphere model, i.e. MSIS86 and determine what is a necessary ISR observation altitude resolution for the E- and F1-region studies. Additional complications are observed in this dataset including a descending layer and also occurrence of sporadic E. Neither of

  9. JT9D engine diagnostics. Task 2: Feasibility study of measuring in-service flight loads. [747 aircraft performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kafka, P. G.; Skibo, M. A.; White, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of measuring JT9D propulsion system flight inertia loads on a 747 airplane is studied. Flight loads background is discussed including the current status of 747/JT9D loads knowledge. An instrumentation and test plan is formulated for an airline-owned in-service airplane and the Boeing-owned RA001 test airplane. Technical and cost comparisons are made between these two options. An overall technical feasibility evaluation is made and a cost summary presented. Conclusions and recommendations are presented in regard to using existing inertia loads data versus conducting a flight test to measure inertia loads.

  10. Polymer-based blood vessel models with micro-temperature sensors in EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizoshiri, Mizue; Ito, Yasuaki; Hayakawa, Takeshi; Maruyama, Hisataka; Sakurai, Junpei; Ikeda, Seiichi; Arai, Fumihito; Hata, Seiichi

    2017-04-01

    Cu-based micro-temperature sensors were directly fabricated on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) blood vessel models in EVE using a combined process of spray coating and femtosecond laser reduction of CuO nanoparticles. CuO nanoparticle solution coated on a PDMS blood vessel model are thermally reduced and sintered by focused femtosecond laser pulses in atmosphere to write the sensors. After removing the non-irradiated CuO nanoparticles, Cu-based microtemperature sensors are formed. The sensors are thermistor-type ones whose temperature dependences of the resistance are used for measuring temperature inside the blood vessel model. This fabrication technique is useful for direct-writing of Cu-based microsensors and actuators on arbitrary nonplanar substrates.

  11. Plant protection in Poland on the eve of obligatory integrated pest management implementation.

    PubMed

    Matyjaszczyk, Ewa

    2013-09-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) will be obligatory in all European Union (EU) member states from January 1, 2014. Successful IPM implementation will depend not only on the sound guidelines and goodwill of the farmers, but also on conditions in farmers' environment. This paper presents the most important factors influencing IPM implementation in Poland. The most favorable aspects on the eve of obligatory IPM implementation are the relatively low use of plant protection products and popularity of some non-chemical methods of pest control, such as sowing cereal in mixture. The most important challenges are the improvement of advisory service and the crop structure with almost three-quarters of sown area covered by cereals. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Thermodynamic Spectrum of Solar Flares Based on SDO/EVE Observations: Techniques and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuming; Zhou, Zhenjun; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Kai; Liu, Rui; Shen, Chenglong; Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2016-03-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) provides rich information on the thermodynamic processes of solar activities, particularly on solar flares. Here, we develop a method to construct thermodynamic spectrum (TDS) charts based on the EVE spectral lines. This tool could potentially be useful for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) astronomy to learn about the eruptive activities on distant astronomical objects. Through several cases, we illustrate what we can learn from the TDS charts. Furthermore, we apply the TDS method to 74 flares equal to or greater than the M5.0 class, and reach the following statistical results. First, EUV peaks are always behind the soft X-ray (SXR) peaks and stronger flares tend to have faster cooling rates. There is a power-law correlation between the peak delay times and the cooling rates, suggesting a coherent cooling process of flares from SXR to EUV emissions. Second, there are two distinct temperature drift patterns, called Type I and Type II. For Type I flares, the enhanced emission drifts from high to low temperature like a quadrilateral, whereas for Type II flares the drift pattern looks like a triangle. Statistical analysis suggests that Type II flares are more impulsive than Type I flares. Third, for late-phase flares, the peak intensity ratio of the late phase to the main phase is roughly correlated with the flare class, and the flares with a strong late phase are all confined. We believe that the re-deposition of the energy carried by a flux rope, which unsuccessfully erupts out, into thermal emissions is responsible for the strong late phase found in a confined flare. Furthermore, we show the signatures of the flare thermodynamic process in the chromosphere and transition region in the TDS charts. These results provide new clues to advance our understanding of the thermodynamic processes of solar flares and associated solar eruptions, e.g., coronal mass ejections.

  13. EUV SpectroPhotometer (ESP) in Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE): Algorithms and Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, L.; Judge, D.; Wieman, S.; Woods, T.; Jones, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Extreme ultraviolet SpectroPhotometer (ESP) is one of five channels of the Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The ESP channel design is based on a highly stable diffraction transmission grating and is an advanced version of the Solar Extreme ultraviolet Monitor (SEM), which has been successfully observing solar irradiance onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) since December 1995. ESP is designed to measure solar Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) irradiance in four first-order bands of the diffraction grating centered around 19 nm, 25 nm, 30 nm, and 36 nm, and in a soft X-ray band from 0.1 to 7.0 nm in the zeroth-order of the grating. Each band’s detector system converts the photo-current into a count rate (frequency). The count rates are integrated over 0.25-second increments and transmitted to the EVE Science and Operations Center for data processing. An algorithm for converting the measured count rates into solar irradiance and the ESP calibration parameters are described. The ESP pre-flight calibration was performed at the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Calibration parameters were used to calculate absolute solar irradiance from the sounding-rocket flight measurements on 14 April 2008. These irradiances for the ESP bands closely match the irradiance determined for two other EUV channels flown simultaneously: EVE’s Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph (MEGS) and SOHO’s Charge, Element and Isotope Analysis System/ Solar EUV Monitor (CELIAS/SEM).

  14. Thermodynamic Spectrum of Solar Flares Based on SDO/EVE Observations: Techniques and First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yuming; Zhou, Zhenjun; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Kai; Liu, Rui; Shen, Chenglong; Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2016-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) provides rich information on the thermodynamic processes of solar activities, particularly on solar flares. Here, we develop a method to construct thermodynamic spectrum (TDS) charts based on the EVE spectral lines. This tool could potentially be useful for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) astronomy to learn about the eruptive activities on distant astronomical objects. Through several cases, we illustrate what we can learn from the TDS charts. Furthermore, we apply the TDS method to 74 flares equal to or greater than the M5.0 class, and reach the following statistical results. First, EUV peaks are always behind the soft X-ray (SXR) peaks and stronger flares tend to have faster cooling rates. There is a power-law correlation between the peak delay times and the cooling rates, suggesting a coherent cooling process of flares from SXR to EUV emissions. Second, there are two distinct temperature drift patterns, called Type I and Type II. For Type I flares, the enhanced emission drifts from high to low temperature like a quadrilateral, whereas for Type II flares the drift pattern looks like a triangle. Statistical analysis suggests that Type II flares are more impulsive than Type I flares. Third, for late-phase flares, the peak intensity ratio of the late phase to the main phase is roughly correlated with the flare class, and the flares with a strong late phase are all confined. We believe that the re-deposition of the energy carried by a flux rope, which unsuccessfully erupts out, into thermal emissions is responsible for the strong late phase found in a confined flare. Furthermore, we show the signatures of the flare thermodynamic process in the chromosphere and transition region in the TDS charts. These results provide new clues to advance our understanding of the thermodynamic processes of solar flares and associated solar eruptions, e.g., coronal mass ejections.

  15. Korean epithelial ovarian cancer study (Ko-EVE): protocols and interim report.

    PubMed

    Ma, Seung Hyun; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Kim, Tae-Joong; Kim, Yong-Man; Kim, Jae Weon; Kang, Sokbom; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Park, Sue K

    2012-01-01

    There have been few studies of Asian ovarian cancer and benign tumors. The primary aim of this paper was to report the protocol of the Ko-EVE study to examine epidemiological and molecular factors for ovarian cancer and benign neoplasms and to ascertain the major risk factors for ovarian cancer control in Korea. This case-control study covers incident epithelial ovarian cancers and benign neoplasms, four major centers participating in enrolling incident cases and 3 hospitals enrolling healthy controls among health examinees. Standardized questionnaires were administered by trained interviewers, including sections on socio-demographics characteristics, past medical history, medication usage, family history, lifetime consumption of alcohol and tobacco, diet, physical activity, and reproductive factors for women. Various biological specimens were collected in the biorepository according to the standardized protocol. Annual follow-up for cancer cases and follow-up at the 1st year for benign tumor cases are performing to evaluate treatment effect and progression. Passive follow to see long-term survival will be conducting using record linkage with national data. The total number recruited in 2010-2011 was 246 epithelial ovarian cancer cases, 362 benign epithelial tumors and 345 controls. We are planning to collect subjects for at least 1,500 sets of ovarian cancer, 2,000 benign tumors and 1,500 controls till 2018. The Ko-EVE will provide unique and important data to probe the etiology and natural history of Korean epithelial ovarian cancer. It will be continued by genomic and proteomic epidemiological analyses and future intervention studies for the prevention of ovarian cancer among Koreans.

  16. An optical design and accuracy estimation for a JT-60SA edge Thomson scattering diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tojo, H.; Hatae, T.; Hamano, T.; Sakuma, T.; Itami, K.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the design of a collection optics used for the Thomson scattering diagnostic in JT-60SA. Good spatial resolution ( ~ 10mm) is necessary for the optics to measure detailed profiles of electron temperature (Te) and density (ne) in the plasma edge region. Six lenses forming a Petzval-like lens are employed in this design. The use of an anomalous dispersion glass material for two lenses suppresses severe chromatic aberration; two flat mirrors prevent interference with the port plug in which the collection optics is to be installed. The resultant spot radius (resolution) at the image for the peripheral region is approximately 0.2 mm. When another collection optics previously designed for core measurements is used simultaneously, the angle of laser polarization must be considered because the two collection optics are to be installed in different port-plugs accessing the vacuum vessel from the cryostat. Otherwise, the measured signal would be degraded, and the scattered spectra would be different from the expected ones. This paper evaluates the scattered spectra with relativistic effects without any approximations. This paper also provides a means to optimize the polarization angle by considering a simulated profile in JT-60SA and contributes to future devices that have limited space for collection optics.

  17. JT9D performance deterioration results from a simulated aerodynamic load test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stakolich, E. G.; Stromberg, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    The results of testing to identify the effects of simulated aerodynamic flight loads on JT9D engine performance are presented. The test results were also used to refine previous analytical studies on the impact of aerodynamic flight loads on performance losses. To accomplish these objectives, a JT9D-7AH engine was assembled with average production clearances and new seals as well as extensive instrumentation to monitor engine performance, case temperatures, and blade tip clearance changes. A special loading device was designed and constructed to permit application of known moments and shear forces to the engine by the use of cables placed around the flight inlet. The test was conducted in the Pratt & Whitney Aircraft X-Ray Test Facility to permit the use of X-ray techniques in conjunction with laser blade tip proximity probes to monitor important engine clearance changes. Upon completion of the test program, the test engine was disassembled, and the condition of gas path parts and final clearances were documented. The test results indicate that the engine lost 1.1 percent in thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC), as measured under sea level static conditions, due to increased operating clearances caused by simulated flight loads. This compares with 0.9 percent predicted by the analytical model and previous study efforts.

  18. Dynamic simulations for preparing the acceptance test of JT-60SA cryogenic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirillo, R.; Hoa, C.; Michel, F.; Poncet, J. M.; Rousset, B.

    2016-12-01

    Power generation in the future could be provided by thermo-nuclear fusion reactors like tokamaks. There inside, the fusion reaction takes place thanks to the generation of plasmas at hundreds of millions of degrees that must be confined magnetically with superconductive coils, cooled down to around 4.5 K. Within this frame, an experimental tokamak device, JT-60SA is currently under construction in Naka (Japan). The plasma works cyclically and the coil system is subject to pulsed heat loads. In order to size the refrigerator close to the average power and hence optimizing investment and operational costs, measures have to be taken to smooth the heat load. Here we present a dynamic model of the JT-60SA's Auxiliary Cold box (ACB) for preparing the acceptance tests of the refrigeration system planned in 2016 in Naka. The aim of this study is to simulate the pulsed load scenarios using different process controls. All the simulations have been performed with EcosimPro® and the associated cryogenic library: CRYOLIB.

  19. JT90 Ceramic Outer Air Seal System Refinement Program, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiembob, L. T.

    1982-01-01

    The sprayed ceramic gas turbine outer air seal system was tested in two JT9D engines to substantiate the abradability and durability of the seals. Of particular significance was that one of the tests, a 150 hour 1000 cycle endurance program at nominal JT9D operating conditions, was completed with minimal effect on the seals and received Federal Aviation Administration cognizance with respect to potential field service use by the airlines. The other engine test completed 1825 endurance cycles at severe operating conditions and no burn through or other serious defects in the structural integrity of a seal segment was observed. These test results combined with other Pratt and Whitney Aircraft engine tests substantiate the potential of the ceramic outer air seal system to attain the durability goal of 50000 hour engine operating capability. Both engine tests subjected the seals to intentional blade rubs and demonstrated good abradability with volume wear ratios greater than 100, far exceeding the design goal of 10. The improved volume wear ratio will allow the turbine tip clearance to be reduced, thereby resulting in an estimated thrust specific fuel consumption improvement of 0.3 percent.

  20. DC-9 Flight Demonstration Program with Refanned JT8D Engines. Volume 3; Performance and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The JT8D-109 engine has a sea level static, standard day bare engine takeoff thrust of 73,840 N. At sea level standard day conditions the additional thrust of the JT8D-109 results in 2,040 kg additional takeoff gross weight capability for a given field length. Range loss of the DC-9 Refan airplane for long range cruise was determined. The Refan airplane demonstrated stall, static longitudinal stability, longitudinal control, longitudinal trim, minimum control speeds, and directional control characteristics similar to the DC-9-30 production airplane and complied with airworthiness requirements. Cruise, climb, and thrust reverser performance were evaluated. Structural and dynamic ground test, flight test and analytical results substantiate Refan Program requirements that the nacelle, thrust reverser hardware, and the airplane structural modifications are flightworthy and certifiable and that the airplane meets flutter speed margins. Estimated unit cost of a DC-9 Refan retrofit program is 1.338 million in mid-1975 dollars with about an equal split in cost between airframe and engine.

  1. DC-9 flight demonstration program with refanned JT8D engines. Volume 4: Flyover noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Flyover noise tests were conducted to determine the noise reductions achievable by modifying the engines and nacelles of DC-9-30 airplanes. The two stage fan of the JT8D-9 engine was replaced with a larger diameter, single stage fan and sound absorbing materials were incorporated in the engines and nacelles. The noise levels were determined to be 95.3 EPNdB at the sideline, 96.2 EPNdB for a full thrust takeoff, 87.5 EPNdB for takeoff with thrust cutback, and 97.4 EPNdB for landing approach. The noise reductions relative to the hardwall JT8D-9 were 8.2 EPNdB for takeoff with cutback and 8.7 EPNdB for landing. The 90 EPNdB noise contour areas were reduced by 40% for missions requiring maximum design takeoff and landing weights. For typical mission weights, the reductions were 19% for full thrust takeoff and 34% for takeoff with cutback. The 95 EPNdB contour areas were reduced by 50% for takeoff and 30% for takeoff with cutback for both missions.

  2. Progress in integrated modeling of JT-60SA plasma operation scenarios with model validation and verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Garcia, Jeronimo; Honda, Mitsuru; Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Hoshino, Kazuo; Ide, Shunsuke; Giruzzi, Gerardo; Sakamoto, Yoshiteru; Suzuki, Takahiro; Urano, Hajime; JT-60 Team; JET EFDA Collaboration

    2014-10-01

    Development of plasma operation scenarios in JT-60SA has been progressing by using integrated modeling codes. In order to obtain an optimum set of models for the prediction, models are validated by using JT-60U and JET experimental data, and verified by integrated codes such as TOPICS and CRONOS. Predictive simulations are performed to assess the performance of each scenario and to develop optimum scenarios. In the scenario development, various physics aspects are studied by using various types of integrated modeling. The integrated divertor code SONIC showed that Ar seeding can reduce the heat flux on divertor plates below the preferable level (10 MW/m2) with keeping low separatrix density in the full non-inductive current drive scenario, however, there are some amounts of Ar influx to core region. We integrate TOPICS with a core impurity transport code IMPACT and study the Ar accumulation in the core and its effect on the performance. Other studies with integrated modeling will be also presented.

  3. Drive characteristics of a fast movable limiter in the JT-60 tokamak.

    PubMed

    Takashima, T; Ohta, M; Shimizu, M

    1978-02-01

    A pair of fast-acting movable limiters are to be installed in the vacuum chamber of the JT-60 tokamak being designed at JAERI. Their purpose is to suppress skin current in the plasma column. They should travel across the vacuum chamber over a stroke of about 1 m in 0.1 s during the build-up phase of the plasma current. Each movable limiter system consists of the drive system, a vacuum seal, a bearing usuable at high temperature in a vacuum, and a molybdenum rail limiter head. For the drive a hydraulic mechanism is used with servovalves to control the oil flow. To develop satisfactory movable limiters for JT-60, the full-scale model was constructed and tested. Overall tests with the model showed high reliability, reproducibility, controllability, and safety of the movable limiter. The drive pattern measured is in good agreement with that simulated. The movable limiters should prevent the skin effect of plasma current in the current rising phase and also provide information on particle diffusion during the flat-top phase of plasma current.

  4. Conceptual design of imaging bolometer for use of computed tomography in JT-60SA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Ryuichi; Mukai, Kiyofumi; Peterson, Byron J.; Fukumoto, Masakatsu; Hoshino, Kazuo

    2017-05-01

    An InfraRed imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB) system in JT-60SA has been designed for the two-dimensional (2D) Computed Tomography (CT) analysis of radiation. To achieve complete viewing of the whole poloidal cross section for plasmas having a low aspect ratio, a new IRVB concept, which has two sets of pin-hole camera systems viewing two different directions, has been introduced. Fields of view of the IRVB have been successfully designed by moving apertures to be sufficient for CT use without installation in tangential ports. The size of the aperture, which determines the width of the sightline of the IRVB channels, has also been optimized with respect to the reconstruction error with well-established solvers of tomography. The optimization indicates that the 7 mm square aperture is the best for this system, and the CT measurement without this optimization can become degraded. A synthetic image using an estimated radiation profile shows that the signal to noise (S/N) ratio of the designed IRVB is large enough to identify the incident radiation power. The result indicates that the designed IRVB can be used for the 2D CT measurement of radiation in JT-60SA.

  5. Overview of JT-60U results towards the resolution of key physics and engineering issues in ITER and JT-60SA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isayama, A.; JT-60 Team

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of recent results from JT-60U. Topics we particularly focus on are (1) the mechanism determining the rotation profile and the effect of rotation on/from transport and stability, (2) the edge localized mode (ELM) physics and active ELM control and (3) plasma-wall interactions. An analysis of the momentum transport showed that rotation with a high pressure gradient can be reproduced by introducing a residual stress term proportional to the momentum diffusivity and the pressure gradient. Also, the momentum diffusivity in an internal transport barrier (ITB) region was reduced to an order similar to that of the ion thermal diffusivity. A comparison of the edge pedestal characteristics between JT-60U and JET with matched shape and operational parameters showed that the edge pressure did not change with increasing toroidal field (TF) ripple up to 1%, whereas a linear shift of the rotation velocity to the counter-direction was observed with increasing TF ripple. The absolute evaluation of tungsten accumulation in the core plasma by a spectroscopic method clarified that tungsten accumulation increased with increasing toroidal rotation in the counter-direction while an H-mode was sustained even at a tungsten density of 10-3 times the electron density. Active control of neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) islands by the electron cyclotron current drive showed that the growth of NTM islands decelerated the plasma rotation. A transition to a low-rotation frequency state occurred for larger NTM islands. A statistical analysis of the precursor of type I ELM showed a small growth rate of γ/ωA ~ 10-3 (where γ and ωA are the growth rate and Alfvén angular frequency, respectively). The measurement of the precursor at different toroidal locations showed that the toroidal mode number was 8-10 or 14-16. Energetic-particle-driven wall modes (EWMs) were found to trigger ELMs and decrease the ELM amplitude to half of that without EWMs. Enhancement of the

  6. Solar Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Flare Observations and Findings from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) EUV Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Mason, James; Eparvier, Francis; Jones, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    There have been more than six thousand flares observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) since it launched in February 2010. The SDO mission is ideal for studying flares with 24/7 operations from its geosynchronous orbit (GEO) and with some 7000 TeraBytes of data taken so far. These data include more than 100,000,000 images of coronal full-disk images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Dopplergrams and magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and over 15,000,000 spectra of the solar EUV irradiance from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE). This presentation will focus primarily on the EVE flare observations and a couple key flare findings involving both AIA and EVE observations. One of these findings includes the discovery of the EUV late phase that occur in about 15% of flares. The EUV late phase is the brightening of warm coronal emissions in the EUV that starts much later after the main X-ray bright phase, lasts up to several hours, and can emit more total energy than the EUV radiation during the X-ray phase. The combination of EVE and AIA observations have revealed that the cause for the EUV late phase is a second set of post-flare coronal loops that form much higher than the primary post-flare loops near the source of the flare. This second set of loops is much longer and thus has a much slower cooling rate; consequently, the radiation from these loops appears much later after the main X-ray flare phase. Another key finding is that the EVE solar EUV irradiance observations in cool coronal emissions have dimming during and following eruptive flare events, which is often associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Furthermore, the magnitude of the EVE coronal dimming is consistent with the amount of mass lost, as observed near the flaring region by AIA. This result could be important for space weather operations because EVE’s near-realtime data products of its on-disk (Earth-facing) flare observations may provide an

  7. 75 FR 50945 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney JT8D-209, -217, -217A, -217C, and -219 Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... turbofan engines installed on airplanes of U.S. registry. We also estimate that it would take about 10 work... engine part failure, which could result in an uncontained engine failure and damage to the airplane... JT8D-209, -217, -217A, -217C, and -219 Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...

  8. A polarimeter for JT-60SA: chords layout study with V3FIT for q profile reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terranova, David; Boboc, Alexandru; Gil, Christophe; Soare, Sorin; Orsitto, Francesco; Imazawa, Ryota

    2016-10-01

    JT-60SA is the new tokamak device that is being built in Japan under the Broader Approach Satellite Tokamak Programme and the Japanese National Programme [JT-60SA Research Plan, Version 3.3, March 2016, www.jt60sa.org/pdfs/JT-60SA_Res_Plan.pdf] and will operate as a satellite machine for ITER. To provide valuable information for the steady state scenario for ITER and the design of DEMO, a high βN scenario is included in the program, where the real-time control of the q-profile is needed. In this work we present a study of the geometry of the polarimetry chords, derived from a true realistic CAD-driven feasibility study, aiming at an optimization in terms of q-profile reconstruction, using the V3FIT code. Some magnetic and kinetic measurements are considered along with the FIR poloidal polarimeter in order to assess the possibility of estimating q in the core with the required accuracy (around 10%) providing a diagnostic for a continuous measurement useful in high density pulses where MSE measurements would not have adequate time resolution.

  9. Solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) flare observations and findings from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) EUV Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Eparvier, Francis G.; Mason, James P.

    New solar soft X-ray (SXR) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance observations from NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) provide full coverage from 0.1 to 106 nm and continuously at a cadence of 10 seconds for spectra at 0.1 nm resolution. These observations during flares can usually be decomposed into four distinct characteristics: impulsive phase, gradual phase, coronal dimming, and EUV late phase. Over 6000 flares have been observed during the SDO mission; some flares show all four phases, and some only show the gradual phase. The focus is on the newer results about the EUV late phase and coronal dimming and its relationship to coronal mass ejections (CMEs). These EVE flare measurements are based on observing the sun-as-a-star, so these results could exemplify stellar flares. Of particular interest is that new coronal dimming measurements of stars could be used to estimate mass and velocity of stellar CMEs.

  10. 77 FR 75557 - Safety Zones; New Year's Eve Fireworks Displays Within the Captain of the Port Miami Zone, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing three temporary safety zones during New Year's Eve fireworks displays on certain navigable waterways in Biscayne Bay and Palm Beach, Florida. These safety zones are necessary to protect the public from the hazards associated with launching fireworks over navigable waters of the United States. Persons and vessels are prohibited from entering, transiting through, anchoring in, or remaining within any of the three safety zones unless authorized by the Captain of the Port Miami or a designated representative.

  11. Extent, nature and hospital costs of fireworks-related injuries during the Wednesday Eve festival in Iran.

    PubMed

    Alinia, Siros; Rezaei, Satar; Daroudi, Rajabali; Hadadi, Mashyaneh; Akbari Sari, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Fireworks are commonly used in local and national celebrations. The aim of this study is to explore the extent, nature and hospital costs of injuries related to the Persian Wednesday Eve festival in Iran. Data for injuries caused by fireworks during the 2009 Persian Wednesday Eve festival were collected from the national Ministry of Health database. Injuries were divided into nine groups and the average and total hospital costs were estimated for each group. The cost of care for patients with burns was estimated by reviewing a sample of 100 patients randomly selected from a large burn center in Tehran. Other costs were estimated by conducting semi structured interviews with expert managers at two large government hospitals. 1817 people were injured by fireworks during the 2009 Wednesday Eve festival. The most frequently injured sites were the hand (43.3%), eye (24.5%) and face (13.2%), and the most common types of injury were burns (39.9%), contusions/abrasions (24.6%) and lacerations (12.7%). The mean length of hospital stay was 8.15 days for patients with burns, 10.7 days for those with amputations, and 3 days for those with other types of injury. The total hospital cost of injuries was US$ 284 000 and the average cost per injury was US$ 156. The total hospital cost of patients with amputations was US$ 48 598. Most of the costs were related to burns (56.6%) followed by amputations (12.2%). Injuries related to the Persian Wednesday Eve festival are common and lead to extensive morbidity and medical costs. © 2013 KUMS, All rights reserved.

  12. OBSERVATIONS OF ENHANCED EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET CONTINUA DURING AN X-CLASS SOLAR FLARE USING SDO/EVE

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, Ryan O.; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Keenan, Francis P.; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Woods, Thomas N.; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Kowalski, Adam F.

    2012-03-20

    Observations of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission from an X-class solar flare that occurred on 2011 February 15 at 01:44 UT are presented, obtained using the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The complete EVE spectral range covers the free-bound continua of H I (Lyman continuum), He I, and He II, with recombination edges at 91.2, 50.4, and 22.8 nm, respectively. By fitting the wavelength ranges blueward of each recombination edge with an exponential function, light curves of each of the integrated continua were generated over the course of the flare, as was emission from the free-free continuum (6.5-37 nm). The He II 30.4 nm and Ly{alpha} 121.6 nm lines, and soft X-ray (SXR; 0.1-0.8 nm) emission from GOES are also included for comparison. Each free-bound continuum was found to have a rapid rise phase at the flare onset similar to that seen in the 25-50 keV light curves from RHESSI, suggesting that they were formed by recombination with free electrons in the chromosphere. However, the free-free emission exhibited a slower rise phase seen also in the SXR emission from GOES, implying a predominantly coronal origin. By integrating over the entire flare the total energy emitted via each process was determined. We find that the flare energy in the EVE spectral range amounts to at most a few percent of the total flare energy, but EVE gives us a first comprehensive look at these diagnostically important continuum components.

  13. Extent, nature and hospital costs of fireworks-related injuries during the Wednesday Eve Festival in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Alinia, Siros; Rezaei, Satar; Daroudi, Rajabali; Hadadi, Mashyaneh; Akbari Sari, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Fireworks are commonly used in local and national celebrations. The aim of this study is to explore the extent, nature and hospital costs of injuries related to the Persian Wednesday Eve festival in Iran. Methods: Data for injuries caused by fireworks during the 2009 Persian Wednesday Eve festival were collected from the national Ministry of Health database. Injuries were divided into nine groups and the average and total hospital costs were estimated for each group. The cost of care for patients with burns was estimated by reviewing a sample of 100 patients randomly selected from a large burn center in Tehran. Other costs were estimated by conducting semi structured interviews with expert managers at two large government hospitals. Results: 1817 people were injured by fireworks during the 2009 Wednesday Eve festival. The most frequently injured sites were the hand (43.3%), eye (24.5%) and face (13.2%), and the most common types of injury were burns (39.9%), contusions/abrasions (24.6%) and lacerations (12.7%). The mean length of hospital stay was 8.15 days for patients with burns, 10.7 days for those with amputations, and 3 days for those with other types of injury. The total hospital cost of injuries was US$ 284 000 and the average cost per injury was US$ 156. The total hospital cost of patients with amputations was US$ 48 598. Most of the costs were related to burns (56.6%) followed by amputations (12.2%). Conclusions: Injuries related to the Persian Wednesday Eve festival are common and lead to extensive morbidity and medical costs. PMID:21964162

  14. Epidemiological voice health map of the teaching population of Granollers (Barcelona) developed from the EVES questionnaire and the VHI.

    PubMed

    Godall, Pere; Gassull, Cecília; Godoy, Anna; Amador, Miquel

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research project was to carry out an epidemiological study on the voice health of the teaching population in Granollers (Barcelona) using the EVES questionnaire and to relate the collected data to the VHI results. The study sample consisted of 233 teachers from Granollers (Barcelona). The EVES questionnaire, which includes the VHI-10, was conducted online. A high percentage of the teachers consulted suffered voice disorders, which ranged from minor to more serious cases. In regard to the data obtained using the VHI, in 28.77% of the cases there was a moderate or a serious perception of voice problems. Out of these cases only one person, who had a moderate perception of their problem, was undergoing voice therapy with a speech therapist. There are three questions in the EVES questionnaire that can efficiently indicate the existence of a voice disorder in a straightforward manner, and the results for these were similar to those recorded for the VHI group of questions. Therefore, it may be argued that questions that refer to the perception of the degree of pleasantness of one's own voice should be included, because they would provide a useful way to indicate whether there is a voice problem at a preliminary screening stage.

  15. Design of tangential viewing phase contrast imaging for turbulence measurements in JT-60SA

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, K.; Coda, S.; Yoshida, M.; Sasao, H.; Kawano, Y.; Imazawa, R.; Kubo, H.; Kamada, Y.

    2016-11-15

    A tangential viewing phase contrast imaging system is being designed for the JT-60SA tokamak to investigate microturbulence. In order to obtain localized information on the turbulence, a spatial-filtering technique is applied, based on magnetic shearing. The tangential viewing geometry enhances the radial localization. The probing laser beam is injected tangentially and traverses the entire plasma region including both low and high field sides. The spatial resolution for an Internal Transport Barrier discharge is estimated at 30%–70% of the minor radius at k = 5 cm{sup −1}, which is the typical expected wave number of ion scale turbulence such as ion temperature gradient/trapped electron mode.

  16. Low electric field ? plasma-current start-up in JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshino, R.; Seki, M.

    1997-01-01

    Plasma breakdown for an electric field of 0741-3335/39/1/012/img2 (loop voltage of 1.7 V) was demonstrated in JT-60U using helium prefilling gas and LHRF heating. Runaway electrons were not generated even for the low prefilling pressure of 0741-3335/39/1/012/img3 required for plasma breakdown at low loop voltage. Preionization was not obtained by LHRF heating, but the time taken to pass the radiation barrier was significantly shortened and a subsequent plasma-current ramp-up at a plasma current of < 30 kA was successfully obtained. As a result, a plasma-current start-up of 0741-3335/39/1/012/img4 with a loop voltage of 0741-3335/39/1/012/img5 was demonstrated when the plasma current was 35 kA to 1 MA.

  17. Radial Patterns of Instability and Transport in JT-60U Internal Transport Barrier Discharges

    SciTech Connect

    G. Rewoldt; K.W. Hill; R. Nazikian; W.M. Tang; H Shirai; Y. Sakamoto; Y. Kishimoto; S.Ide; and T. Fujita

    2001-02-27

    One class of internal transport barrier discharges in the JT-60U tokamak is characterized by two relatively flatter regions of the pressure separated by a region with very large pressure gradient. Linear growth rates for toroidal drift-type modes are calculated for discharges in this class, without and with sheared E x B rotation effects. For cases with fully-developed barriers, the results with rotation are consistent with a picture in which the radial electric field generated in part by the steep pressure gradient causes local stabilization, and thus reduction of the local anomalous transport, which allows the steep pressure gradient to persist. If rotation is omitted from the calculation for these cases, or if rotation is included for cases without barriers or with partially developed barriers, the unstable region spreads into the steep pressure gradient region.

  18. Collapse of density pedestal by giant ELM on JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, N.; Shinohara, K.; Kamada, Y.; Miura, Y.; Oikawa, T.; Takeji, S.

    2001-05-01

    In JT-60U ELMy H-mode discharges, the detailed behaviour of giant (type I) ELMs was measured using a heterodyne reflectometer system in order to understand the collapse mechanism of the pedestal structure and consequences on the core/edge plasma. The phase signal of the reflectometer exhibits the movement of the cutoff layer (density layer) due to the collapse of the pedestal in a density profile by an ELM. An ELM event can be classified into a precursor phase, collapse phase, recovery phase and a relaxation phase. A certain density layer measured near the shoulder of the pedestal moves about 7 cm inside the plasma in the collapse phase. The precursor oscillation in a pedestal density and the relationship between the collapse of the pedestal structure and a Dα burst are also studied.

  19. JT8D revised high-pressure turbine cooling and other outer air seal program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffin, W. O.

    1979-01-01

    The JT8D high pressure turbine was revised to reduce leakage between the blade tip shrouds and the outer air seal, and engine testing was performed to determine the effect on performance. The addition of a second knife-edge on the blade tip shroud, the extension of the honeycomb seal land to cover the added knife-edge and an existing spoiler on the shroud, and a material substitution in the seal support ring to improve thermal growth characteristics are included. A relocation of the blade cooling air discharge to insure adequate cooling flow is required. Significant specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature improvements were demonstrated with the revised turbine in sea level and simulated altitude engine tests. Inspection of the revised seal hardware after these tests showed no unusual wear or degradation.

  20. The 727 airplane target thrust reverser static performance model test for refanned JT8D engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, C. T. P.; Atkey, E. N.

    1974-01-01

    The results of a scale model static performance test of target thrust reverser configurations for the Pratt and Whitney Aircraft JT8D-100 series engine are presented. The objective of the test was to select a series of suitable candidate reverser configurations for the subsequent airplane model wind tunnel ingestion and flight controls tests. Test results indicate that adequate reverse thrust performance with compatible engine airflow match is achievable for the selected configurations. Tapering of the lips results in loss of performance and only minimal flow directivity. Door pressure surveys were conducted on a selected number of lip and fence configurations to obtain data to support the design of the thrust reverser system.

  1. Fast neutron-gamma discrimination on neutron emission profile measurement on JT-60U

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, K.; Okamoto, A.; Kitajima, S.; Sasao, M.; Shinohara, K.; Ishikawa, M.; Baba, M.; Isobe, M.

    2010-10-15

    A digital signal processing (DSP) system is applied to stilbene scintillation detectors of the multichannel neutron emission profile monitor in JT-60U. Automatic analysis of the neutron-{gamma} pulse shape discrimination is a key issue to diminish the processing time in the DSP system, and it has been applied using the two-dimensional (2D) map. Linear discriminant function is used to determine the dividing line between neutron events and {gamma}-ray events on a 2D map. In order to verify the validity of the dividing line determination, the pulse shape discrimination quality is evaluated. As a result, the {gamma}-ray contamination in most of the beam heating phase was negligible compared with the statistical error with 10 ms time resolution.

  2. Simulation Study on the ITB Formation during LHCD in JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Zheng-ying; Osamu, Naito; Takeshi, Fukudai; Hiroshi, Shirai; Yoshitaka, Ikeda; Kenkichi, Ushigusa

    2002-04-01

    A transport simulation has been done by using a 1.5D time dependent transport code to reproduce a formation of the ITB on electron temperature profile during the long pulse LHCD in JT-60U tokamak. The transport coefficients were assumed to reduce with a reversed magnetic shear and the LH driven current profile was evaluated by fitting dynamic change in the measured current profile. The gradual increase in the central electron temperature could be explained by the change in the current profile during LHCD in the present simulation model. The estimated LH-driven current profile by the transport code analysis shows a finite current density at the plasma center. Analysis of transport simulation suggests some mechanisms for broadening the LH-driven current profile at the central region of the plasma.

  3. Localized MHD Activity near Transport Barriers in JT-60U and TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    . Kamada, Y.; Fujita, T.; Gorelenkov, N.; Isayama, A.; Manickam, J.; et al.

    1998-11-01

    Localized MHD activity observed in JT-60U and TFTR near transport barriers with their associated large pressure gradients is investigated. Stability analysis of equilibria modeling the experiments supports an identification of this MHD as being due to an ideal MHD n = 1 instability. The appearance of the instability depends on the local pressure gradient, local shear in the q profile, and the proximity of rational surfaces where q is approximately equal to m/n and m and n are the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers, respectively. The mode width is shown to depend on the local value of q, and is larger when q is smaller. In addition, the role of the edge current density in coupling the internal mode to the plasma edge and of the energetic particles which can drive fishbone-like modes is investigated.

  4. THERMODYNAMIC SPECTRUM OF SOLAR FLARES BASED ON SDO/EVE OBSERVATIONS: TECHNIQUES AND FIRST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuming; Zhou, Zhenjun; Liu, Kai; Liu, Rui; Shen, Chenglong; Zhang, Jie; Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2016-03-15

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) provides rich information on the thermodynamic processes of solar activities, particularly on solar flares. Here, we develop a method to construct thermodynamic spectrum (TDS) charts based on the EVE spectral lines. This tool could potentially be useful for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) astronomy to learn about the eruptive activities on distant astronomical objects. Through several cases, we illustrate what we can learn from the TDS charts. Furthermore, we apply the TDS method to 74 flares equal to or greater than the M5.0 class, and reach the following statistical results. First, EUV peaks are always behind the soft X-ray (SXR) peaks and stronger flares tend to have faster cooling rates. There is a power-law correlation between the peak delay times and the cooling rates, suggesting a coherent cooling process of flares from SXR to EUV emissions. Second, there are two distinct temperature drift patterns, called Type I and Type II. For Type I flares, the enhanced emission drifts from high to low temperature like a quadrilateral, whereas for Type II flares the drift pattern looks like a triangle. Statistical analysis suggests that Type II flares are more impulsive than Type I flares. Third, for late-phase flares, the peak intensity ratio of the late phase to the main phase is roughly correlated with the flare class, and the flares with a strong late phase are all confined. We believe that the re-deposition of the energy carried by a flux rope, which unsuccessfully erupts out, into thermal emissions is responsible for the strong late phase found in a confined flare. Furthermore, we show the signatures of the flare thermodynamic process in the chromosphere and transition region in the TDS charts. These results provide new clues to advance our understanding of the thermodynamic processes of solar flares and associated solar eruptions, e.g., coronal mass ejections.

  5. Umbilical cord gases in relation to the neonatal condition: the EveREst plot.

    PubMed

    Georgieva, Antoniya; Moulden, Mary; Redman, Christopher W G

    2013-06-01

    To validate umbilical arterial and venous pH and base deficit (pH(UA), pH(UV), BD(UA), and BD(UV), respectively), as well as venous-arterial pH differences, as measures of perinatal condition at birth (in relation to emergency intervention, resuscitation, facial mask, low Apgar, seizures, other cerebral problems or death); to investigate whether BD(UA) or pH(UA) better measures perinatal risk. A novel method (Event Rate Estimate (EveREst) plots) was used to analyze cord blood gases and perinatal outcomes of 34,510 term singleton deliveries: cord blood gas values were grouped into exclusive quantiles (containing equal proportions of cases); the quantiles were plotted against per cent rates (event rates) for perinatal outcomes; the event rates for the different blood gases were compared using the χ² test for difference of proportions. Low pH(UA) predicts poor perinatal outcome better than or comparably to high BD(UA): pH(UA) is significantly better than BD(UA) for predicting low Apgar, resuscitation and facial mask (p<0.001, p<0.05, and p<0.001, respectively). For seizures and other cerebral problems, low pH(UA) is better than high BD(UA) but the difference is not statistically significant. For death, both measures perform equally well. Interventions for the specific reason of "fetal distress" increased as pH(UA) decreased but only where electronic fetal monitoring was used. In acidemic neonates (pH(UA) ≤ 7.05, n=1752), significantly more cord prolapses and placenta abruptions were associated with large and small venous-arterial pH difference (pH(VAD)) respectively (p<0.01). EveREst plots display clearly the diagnostic value of cord gases. They allow for the easy identification of background rates and increases above background, thresholds of interest, and comparison of the blood gas measures. Overall pH(UA) is the best umbilical blood measure of perinatal outcome. BD(UA) is comparable or inferior. Extremes of pH(VAD) (large or small) identify higher proportions

  6. ABVD plus radiotherapy versus EVE plus radiotherapy in unfavorable stage IA and IIA Hodgkin's lymphoma: results from an Intergruppo Italiano Linfomi randomized study.

    PubMed

    Pavone, V; Ricardi, U; Luminari, S; Gobbi, P; Federico, M; Baldini, L; Iannitto, E; Ucci, G; Marcheselli, L; Orsucci, L; Angelucci, E; Liberati, M; Gavarotti, P; Levis, A

    2008-04-01

    In 1997, the Intergruppo Italiano Linfomi started a randomized trial to evaluate, in unfavorable stage IA and IIA Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) patients, the efficacy and toxicity of the low toxic epirubicin, vinblastine and etoposide (EVE) regimen followed by involved field radiotherapy in comparison to the gold standard doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine (ABVD) regimen followed by the same radiotherapy program. Patients should be younger than 65 years with unfavorable stage IA and IIA HL (i.e. stage IA or IIA with bulky disease and/or subdiaphragmatic disease, erythrocyte sedimentation rate higher than 40, extranodal (E) involvement, hilar involvement and more than three involved lymph node areas). Ninety-two patients were allocated to the ABVD arm and 89 to the EVE arm. Complete remission (CR) rates at the end of treatment program [chemotherapy (CT) + RT] were 93% and 92% for ABVD and EVE arms, respectively (P = NS). The 5-year relapse-free survival (RFS) rate was 95% for ABVD and 78% for EVE (P < 0.05). As a consequence of the different relapse rate, the 5-year failure-free survival (FFS) rate was significantly better for ABVD (90%) than for EVE (73%) arm (P < 0.05). No differences in terms of overall survival (OS) were observed for the two study arms. In unfavorable stage IA and IIA HL patients, no differences were observed between ABVD and EVE arms in terms of CR rate and OS. EVE CT, however, was significantly worse than ABVD in terms of RFS and FFS and cannot be recommended as initial treatment for HL.

  7. BioEve Search: A Novel Framework to Facilitate Interactive Literature Search

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed Toufeeq; Davulcu, Hasan; Tikves, Sukru; Nair, Radhika; Zhao, Zhongming

    2012-01-01

    Background. Recent advances in computational and biological methods in last two decades have remarkably changed the scale of biomedical research and with it began the unprecedented growth in both the production of biomedical data and amount of published literature discussing it. An automated extraction system coupled with a cognitive search and navigation service over these document collections would not only save time and effort, but also pave the way to discover hitherto unknown information implicitly conveyed in the texts. Results. We developed a novel framework (named “BioEve”) that seamlessly integrates Faceted Search (Information Retrieval) with Information Extraction module to provide an interactive search experience for the researchers in life sciences. It enables guided step-by-step search query refinement, by suggesting concepts and entities (like genes, drugs, and diseases) to quickly filter and modify search direction, and thereby facilitating an enriched paradigm where user can discover related concepts and keywords to search while information seeking. Conclusions. The BioEve Search framework makes it easier to enable scalable interactive search over large collection of textual articles and to discover knowledge hidden in thousands of biomedical literature articles with ease. PMID:22693501

  8. Spatial and temporal distributions of contaminants emitted because of Chinese New Year's Eve celebrations in Wuhan.

    PubMed

    Han, Ge; Gong, Wei; Quan, J H; Li, Jun; Zhang, Miao

    2014-04-01

    Activities involving firecrackers and fireworks on Chinese New Year's Eve (NYE) are common in Chinese culture. Previous studies revealed that such human activities significantly influence the ambient air quality and negatively impact human health. However, both the academia and the public lack a deep understanding of the extent and consequences of such human-induced air pollution. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the effects of these Spring Festival celebrations on ambient air quality at a large spatial scale and a fine temporal resolution. Data from ten monitoring stations distributed around Wuhan and a Lidar system provide a good opportunity to gain insight into spatial and temporal distribution of contaminants due to the NYE celebrations. Dramatic increases in PM₂.₅ and PM₁₀ mass concentrations due to NYE celebrations were observed in this study. Moreover, the ratio of residential to total area was found to be a significant factor in predicting the geographic distributions of contaminants. The vertical distribution of such human-induced and culture-related contaminants was first shown using a Mie Lidar. Contaminants emitted by firecrackers on the ground spread to a distance of over 450 m in the atmosphere. The vertical influence began to fade two hours after celebrations because of dry deposition. Moreover, it took over 15 hours for the contaminant levels to return to pre-celebration levels. Finally, estimations of PM₂.₅ emissions from firecrackers in Wuhan were 39.57 and 43.51 tons, based on regression and time series analyses, respectively.

  9. The Slowly Varying Corona: Findings using DEMs from the EVE MEGS-A Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonfeld, Samuel J.; White, Stephen M.; Hock, Rachel A.; Henney, Carl John; McAteer, James

    2017-08-01

    We present analysis of the complete spectral dataset from the Extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) Variability Experiment (EVE) MEGS-A instrument. With these data we construct daily differential emission measures (DEMs) and use them to analyze the long-term variability of the global corona. We identify a discontinuity in the DEMs separating solar minimum and maximum conditions that suggests a fundamental change in the coronal temperature structure with solar activity. Using the DEMs, we also study the relationship between EUV and F10.7, the 10.7 cm (2.8 GHz) solar activity proxy. We compare the F10.7 predictions from the DEMs and photospheric magnetic field observations with irradiance microwave observations to constrain the source mechanisms of F10.7 and their relative contribution as a function of solar activity. This has serious implications for the use of F10.7 as an activity proxy in terrestrial atmospheric modeling and we discuss our results in the context of previous work. Comparing the DEMs with microwave observations also allows for a determination of the coronal iron abundance and a measurement of the FIP effect.

  10. The Temporal Behaviour of Lyman-alpha During Solar Flares Using SDO/EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, Ryan

    2015-04-01

    The Lyα line of hydrogen at 1216Å is the strongest emission line in the solar spectrum. It is formed in the mid-to-upper chromosphere and is a primary driver of changes in terrestrial ionospheric density. It has also recently been shown to dominate the radiative losses during an X-class solar flare (Milligan et al. 2014). Despite the diagnostic potential of Lyα there are relatively few papers in the literature that discuss changes in Lyα emission during solar flares. The MEGS-P broadband (100Å) diode on SDO/EVE measures full-disk Lyα emission at 10s cadence making it ideal for studying such variations. Although formed in the chromosphere, the temporal variations in Lyα appear more gradual in nature, with rise times of tens of minutes, compared to just a few minutes in other chromospheric features, such as Hα, He II, Lyman continuum, C III, etc. In fact, in many large events, emission detected by MEGS-P appears to obey the Neupert Effect; i.e. the time derivate of Lyα closely matches that of impulsive chromospheric emission. Here I will discuss a number of conditions, both solar and instrumental, that may explain why this relationship seems to exist. I shall also compare MEGS-P observations with spectrally and temporally resolved Lyα measurements from SORCE/SOLSTICE.

  11. Ecstasy overdoses at a New Year's Eve rave--Los Angeles, California, 2010.

    PubMed

    2010-06-11

    Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) is an illegal synthetic amphetamine used as a stimulant and hallucinogen. On January 4, 2010, the Los Angeles County (LAC) Department of Public Health (DPH) learned of six MDMA-related emergency department (ED) visits and one death, all linked to a New Year's Eve event attended by approximately 45,000 persons. LAC DPH conducted an investigation to search for additional MDMA-related ED visits, characterize the cases, and determine whether drug contamination was involved. This report summarizes the results of the investigation, which determined that 18 patients visited EDs in LAC for MDMA-related illness within 12 hours of the rave. All were aged 16-34 years, and nine were female. In addition to using MDMA, 10 of the 18 had used alcohol, and five had used other drugs. Three patients were admitted to the hospital, including one to intensive care. A tablet obtained from one of the patients contained MDMA and caffeine, without known toxic contaminants. The cluster of apparent ecstasy overdoses occurred in the context of likely increasing MDMA use in the county during 2005-2009, as indicated by increased identification of MDMA-containing forensic specimens and a large increase in LAC residents entering drug treatment programs for MDMA. Collaboration between public health, police, fire, and emergency medical service (EMS) officials on a comprehensive prevention strategy might reduce the number of overdoses at similar events.

  12. Birds flee en mass from New Year’s Eve fireworks

    PubMed Central

    Dokter, Adriaan M.; van Gasteren, Hans; van Loon, E. Emiel; Leijnse, Hidde; Bouten, Willem

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances of wildlife, such as noise, human presence, hunting activity, and motor vehicles, are becoming an increasing concern in conservation biology. Fireworks are an important part of celebrations worldwide, and although humans often find fireworks spectacular, fireworks are probably perceived quite differently by wild animals. Behavioral responses to fireworks are difficult to study at night, and little is known about the negative effects fireworks may have on wildlife. Every year, thousands of tons of fireworks are lit by civilians on New Year’s Eve in the Netherlands. Using an operational weather radar, we quantified the reaction of birds to fireworks in 3 consecutive years. Thousands of birds took flight shortly after midnight, with high aerial movements lasting at least 45 min and peak densities measured at 500 m altitude. The highest densities were observed over grasslands and wetlands, including nature conservation sites, where thousands of waterfowl rest and feed. The Netherlands is the most important winter staging area for several species of waterfowl in Europe. We estimate that hundreds of thousands of birds in the Netherlands take flight due to fireworks. The spatial and temporal extent of disturbance is substantial, and potential consequences are discussed. Weather radar provides a unique opportunity to study the reaction of birds to fireworks, which has otherwise remained elusive. PMID:22476363

  13. Injuries and deaths at a pub fire in Bangkok, Thailand on New Year's Eve 2009.

    PubMed

    Jongcherdchootrakul, Kanlaya; Henderson, A K; Jiraphongsa, C

    2011-05-01

    This investigation describes the 67 people who died and the 153 who were hospitalized from a New Years' Eve fire in a Bangkok pub. We interviewed survivors and reviewed medical charts and forensic reports of decedents. Survivors were young (median age 27 years), single (84.7%) and lived in Thailand (93.6%). Most were on the concert floor when the fire started (74.0%), became aware of danger when they saw flames (61.5%) and escaped through the main entry door (42.9%). Common injuries were burns (75.6%), smoke inhalation (47.4%) and open wounds (32.1%). The decedents' median age was 27 years and 88.1% lived in Thailand. Most of the dead bodies were found at or near the main entrance. The main causes of death were asphyxia (88.1%) or burn (10.4%). Soot was present in the trachea of 95.5% of the decedents. Carboxyhemoglobin level in 37.5% was in the toxic range. The average percent of body surface burned was 75.0%. Loss of consciousness in the pub (RR 3.5, 95% CI 1.7-7.3) was a risk factor for severe injury and smoke inhalation (RR 9.3, 95% CI 3.1-28.0) was a risk factor for death. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Alternatives to the Wright-Fisher model: the robustness of mitochondrial Eve dating.

    PubMed

    Cyran, Krzysztof A; Kimmel, Marek

    2010-11-01

    Methods of calculating the distributions of the time to coalescence depend on the underlying model of population demography. In particular, the models assuming deterministic evolution of population size may not be applicable to populations evolving stochastically. Therefore the study of coalescence models involving stochastic demography is important for applications. One interesting approach which includes stochasticity is the O'Connell limit theory of genealogy in branching processes. Our paper explores how many generations are needed for the limiting distributions of O'Connell to become adequate approximations of exact distributions. We perform extensive simulations of slightly supercritical branching processes and compare the results to the O'Connell limits. Coalescent computations under the Wright-Fisher model are compared with limiting O'Connell results and with full genealogy-based predictions. These results are used to estimate the age of the so-called mitochondrial Eve, i.e., the root of the mitochondrial polymorphisms of the modern humans based on the DNA from humans and Neanderthal fossils. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 3-Methoxy-2-methyl-carbazole-1,4-quinone, carbazomycins D and F from Streptomyces sp. CMU-JT005.

    PubMed

    Ruanpanun, Pornthip; Dame, Zerihun Teklemariam; Laatsch, Hartmut; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2011-09-01

    3-Methoxy-2-methyl-carbazole-1,4-quinone (1) together with carbazomycins D (2) and F (3) were isolated from the crude extract of Streptomyces CMU-JT005, an actinomycete with nematicidal activity. 3-Methoxy-2-methyl-carbazole-1,4-quinone is reported here for the first time from nature. In this paper, we describe the isolation and structure elucidation of the compounds together with the characterization of the Streptomyces strain CMU-JT005.

  16. Upregulation of FGFR1 expression is associated with parathyroid carcinogenesis in HPT-JT syndrome due to an HRPT2 splicing mutation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Young; Kim, Su Yeon; Mo, Eun-Yeong; Kim, Eun-Sook; Han, Je-Ho; Maeng, Lee-So; Lee, An-Hee; Eun, Jung Woo; Nam, Suk Woo; Moon, Sung-Dae

    2014-08-01

    Mutations of the HRPT2 gene, which are responsible for hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome, have been implicated in the development of a high proportion of parathyroid carcinomas. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in expression of the most important genes connected with parathyroid carcinoma between HPT-JT syndrome due to an HRPT2 splicing mutation, normal parathyroid tissue and sporadic parathyroid adenoma. Total RNAs were extracted from parathyroid carcinoma in HPT-JT syndrome harbouring HRPT2 splicing mutation or sporadic parathyroid adenoma and normal parathyroid gland, and subjected to Illumina DASL-based gene expression assay. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis was used to compare gene expression in HPT-JT syndrome, sporadic parathyroid adenoma and normal parathyroid glands. We identified differentially regulated genes in HPT-JT syndrome and sporadic parathyroid adenoma relative to normal parathyroid glands using a combination of Welch's t-test and fold-change analysis. Quantitative PCR, RT-PCR and IHC were used for validation. Sixteen genes differentially regulated in the parathyroid carcinoma were associated with signal pathways, MAPK, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, prostate cancer and apoptosis. FGFR1 expression was confirmed to be significantly upregulated by validation experiments. Our gene expression profiling experiments suggest that upregulated FGFR1 expression appears to be associated with parathyroid carcinoma in HPT-JT syndrome due to an HRPT2 splicing mutation.

  17. Finite element-integral simulation of static and flight fan noise radiation from the JT15D turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Horowitz, S. J.

    1982-01-01

    An iterative finite element integral technique is used to predict the sound field radiated from the JT15D turbofan inlet. The sound field is divided into two regions: the sound field within and near the inlet which is computed using the finite element method and the radiation field beyond the inlet which is calculated using an integral solution technique. The velocity potential formulation of the acoustic wave equation was employed in the program. For some single mode JT15D data, the theory and experiment are in good agreement for the far field radiation pattern as well as suppressor attenuation. Also, the computer program is used to simulate flight effects that cannot be performed on a ground static test stand.

  18. Development of the negative ion beams relevant to ITER and JT-60SA at Japan Atomic Energy Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Hanada, M. Kojima, A.; Tobari, H.; Nishikiori, R.; Hiratsuka, J.; Kashiwagi, M.; Umeda, N.; Yoshida, M.; Ichikawa, M.; Watanabe, K.; Yamano, Y.; Grisham, L. R.

    2016-02-15

    In order to realize negative ion sources and accelerators to be applicable to International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and JT-60 Super Advanced, a large cesium (Cs)-seeded negative ion source and a multi-aperture and multi-stage electric acceleration have been developed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Long pulse production and acceleration of the negative ion beams have been independently carried out. The long pulse production of the high current beams has achieved 100 s at the beam current of 15 A by modifying the JT-60 negative ion source. The pulse duration time is increased three times longer than that before the modification. As for the acceleration, a pulse duration time has been also extended two orders of magnitudes from 0.4 s to 60 s. The developments of the negative ion source and acceleration at JAEA are well in progress towards the realization of the negative ion sources and accelerators for fusion applications.

  19. Development of the negative ion beams relevant to ITER and JT-60SA at Japan Atomic Energy Agency.

    PubMed

    Hanada, M; Kojima, A; Tobari, H; Nishikiori, R; Hiratsuka, J; Kashiwagi, M; Umeda, N; Yoshida, M; Ichikawa, M; Watanabe, K; Yamano, Y; Grisham, L R

    2016-02-01

    In order to realize negative ion sources and accelerators to be applicable to International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and JT-60 Super Advanced, a large cesium (Cs)-seeded negative ion source and a multi-aperture and multi-stage electric acceleration have been developed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Long pulse production and acceleration of the negative ion beams have been independently carried out. The long pulse production of the high current beams has achieved 100 s at the beam current of 15 A by modifying the JT-60 negative ion source. The pulse duration time is increased three times longer than that before the modification. As for the acceleration, a pulse duration time has been also extended two orders of magnitudes from 0.4 s to 60 s. The developments of the negative ion source and acceleration at JAEA are well in progress towards the realization of the negative ion sources and accelerators for fusion applications.

  20. Modelling of the fin type heat exchanger for the HTS current leads of W7-X and JT-60SA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, R.; Class, A.; Batta, A.; Lietzow, R.; Neumann, H.; Tischmacher, M.

    2010-03-01

    The Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe has taken over the responsibility for the design, construction and testing of the high temperature superconductor (HTS) current leads for two fusion experiments, i.e. the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) and the satellite tokamak JT-60SA. One important task for the design of the HTS current lead is the heat exchanger (HEX). In the current leads for W7-X and JT-60SA the HEX consists of the central conductor with meander flow fins to achieve a cross flow HEX. A design optimisation requires the knowledge of the heat transfer characteristics of the HEX. Therefore, 3D CFD simulations were performed to compute local Nusselt and Reynolds numbers. From the CFD results a 1D system code description and heat transfer correlations have been deduced. This paper describes the 3D-CFD and 1D system code as well as the results of the numerical calculations. The results were validated using experimental results of HEX mock-ups. The model was extended to the HEX covering the temperature range between 60 K and room temperature leading to a single Nusselt-Reynolds number correlation. Finally the parameters for optimised HTS current leads for W7-X and JT-60SA are presented.

  1. Modelling and Model-Based-Designed PID Control of the JT-60SA Cryogenic System Using the Simcryogenics Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonne, F.; Bonnay, P.; Hoa, C.; Mahoudeau, G.; Rousset, B.

    2017-02-01

    This papers deals with the Japan Torus-60 Super Advanced fusion experiment JT-60SA cryogenic system. A presentation of the JT-60SA cryogenic system model, from 300K to 4.4K -using the Matlab/Simulink/Simscape Simcryogenics library- will be given. As a first validation of our modelling strategy, the obtained operating point will be compared with the one obtained from HYSYS simulations. In the JT60-SA tokamak, pulsed heat loads are expected to be coming from the plasma and must be handled properly, using both appropriate refrigerator architecture and appropriate control model, to smooth the heat load. This paper presents model-based designed PID control schemes to control the helium mass inside the phase separator. The helium mass inside the phase separator as been chosen to be the variable of interest in the phase separator since it is independent of the pressure which can vary from 1 bar to 1.8 bar during load smoothing. Dynamics simulations will be shown to assess the legitimacy of the proposed strategy. This work is partially supported through the French National Research Agency (ANR), task agreement ANR-13-SEED-0005.

  2. A 727 airplane center duct inlet low speed performance confirmation model test for refanned JT8D engines, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaldschmidt, G.; Syltebo, B. E.; Ting, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    The results from testing of a 0.3 scale model center duct inlet (S duct) for the Pratt and Whitney Aircraft JT8D-100 engines are presented. The objective of this test was to demonstrate that the required airflow of the JT8D-100 engine (480 lb/sec as compared to 334 lb/sec for JT8D-15) can be achieved with minimum modifications to the existing 727 airplane structure at acceptable levels of total pressure recovery and distortion. Steady-state pressure recovery, steady-state pressure distortion, and dynamic pressure measurements were taken at the engine face station. Surface static pressure measurements were taken along the duct. Test results indicated that the required airflow was achieved with acceptable pressure recovery (comparable to the current 727-200 S duct). Inlet inflow angle variation within the 727 airplane operating regime (minus 5 to 5 degrees) had no effect on the inlet performance. Pressure distortion at static and forward speed at takeoff airflow conditions are within P and WA limits for the Phase II duct when equipped with vortex generators. Static crosswind operation between 10 knots and 25 knots appears feasible at full takeoff power.

  3. Development of Fast Measurement System of Neutron Emission Profile Using a Digital Signal Processing Technique in JT-60U

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, M.; Shinohara, K.; Itoga, T.; Okuji, T.; Nakhostin, M.; Baba, M.; Nishitani, T.

    2008-03-12

    Neutron emission profiles are routinely measured in JT-60U Tokamak. Stinbene neuron detectors (SNDs), which combine a Stilbene organic crystal scintillation detector (Stilbene detector) with an analog neutron-gamma pulse shape discrimination (PSD) circuit, have been used to measure neutron flux efficiently. Although the SND has many advantages as a neutron detector, the maximum count rate is limited up to {approx}1x 10{sup 5} counts/s due to the dead time of the analog PSD circuit. To overcome this issue, a digital signal processing (DSP) system using a Flash-ADC has been developed. In this system, anode signals from the photomultiplier of the Stilbene detector are fed to the Flash ADC and digitized. Then, the PSD between neutrons and gamma-rays are performed using software. The photomultiplier tube is also modified to suppress and correct gain fluctuation of the photomultiplier. The DSP system has been installed in the center channel of the vertical neutron collimator system in JT-60U and applied to measurements of neutron flux in JT-60U experiments. Neutron flux are successfully measured with count rate up to {approx}1x 10{sup 6} counts/s without the effect of pile up of detected pulses. The performance of the DSP system as a neutron detector is demonstrated.

  4. Assessment of the accuracy of plasma shape reconstruction by the Cauchy condition surface method in JT-60SA.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Y; Suzuki, T; Takechi, M; Urano, H; Ide, S

    2015-07-01

    For the purpose of stable plasma equilibrium control and detailed analysis, it is essential to reconstruct an accurate plasma boundary on the poloidal cross section in tokamak devices. The Cauchy condition surface (CCS) method is a numerical approach for calculating the spatial distribution of the magnetic flux outside a hypothetical surface and reconstructing the plasma boundary from the magnetic measurements located outside the plasma. The accuracy of the plasma shape reconstruction has been assessed by comparing the CCS method and an equilibrium calculation in JT-60SA with a high elongation and triangularity of plasma shape. The CCS, on which both Dirichlet and Neumann conditions are unknown, is defined as a hypothetical surface located inside the real plasma region. The accuracy of the plasma shape reconstruction is sensitive to the CCS free parameters such as the number of unknown parameters and the shape in JT-60SA. It is found that the optimum number of unknown parameters and the size of the CCS that minimizes errors in the reconstructed plasma shape are in proportion to the plasma size. Furthermore, it is shown that the accuracy of the plasma shape reconstruction is greatly improved using the optimum number of unknown parameters and shape of the CCS, and the reachable reconstruction errors in plasma shape and locations of strike points are within the target ranges in JT-60SA.

  5. Assessment of the accuracy of plasma shape reconstruction by the Cauchy condition surface method in JT-60SA

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Takechi, M.; Urano, H.; Ide, S.

    2015-07-15

    For the purpose of stable plasma equilibrium control and detailed analysis, it is essential to reconstruct an accurate plasma boundary on the poloidal cross section in tokamak devices. The Cauchy condition surface (CCS) method is a numerical approach for calculating the spatial distribution of the magnetic flux outside a hypothetical surface and reconstructing the plasma boundary from the magnetic measurements located outside the plasma. The accuracy of the plasma shape reconstruction has been assessed by comparing the CCS method and an equilibrium calculation in JT-60SA with a high elongation and triangularity of plasma shape. The CCS, on which both Dirichlet and Neumann conditions are unknown, is defined as a hypothetical surface located inside the real plasma region. The accuracy of the plasma shape reconstruction is sensitive to the CCS free parameters such as the number of unknown parameters and the shape in JT-60SA. It is found that the optimum number of unknown parameters and the size of the CCS that minimizes errors in the reconstructed plasma shape are in proportion to the plasma size. Furthermore, it is shown that the accuracy of the plasma shape reconstruction is greatly improved using the optimum number of unknown parameters and shape of the CCS, and the reachable reconstruction errors in plasma shape and locations of strike points are within the target ranges in JT-60SA.

  6. Assessment of the accuracy of plasma shape reconstruction by the Cauchy condition surface method in JT-60SA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Takechi, M.; Urano, H.; Ide, S.

    2015-07-01

    For the purpose of stable plasma equilibrium control and detailed analysis, it is essential to reconstruct an accurate plasma boundary on the poloidal cross section in tokamak devices. The Cauchy condition surface (CCS) method is a numerical approach for calculating the spatial distribution of the magnetic flux outside a hypothetical surface and reconstructing the plasma boundary from the magnetic measurements located outside the plasma. The accuracy of the plasma shape reconstruction has been assessed by comparing the CCS method and an equilibrium calculation in JT-60SA with a high elongation and triangularity of plasma shape. The CCS, on which both Dirichlet and Neumann conditions are unknown, is defined as a hypothetical surface located inside the real plasma region. The accuracy of the plasma shape reconstruction is sensitive to the CCS free parameters such as the number of unknown parameters and the shape in JT-60SA. It is found that the optimum number of unknown parameters and the size of the CCS that minimizes errors in the reconstructed plasma shape are in proportion to the plasma size. Furthermore, it is shown that the accuracy of the plasma shape reconstruction is greatly improved using the optimum number of unknown parameters and shape of the CCS, and the reachable reconstruction errors in plasma shape and locations of strike points are within the target ranges in JT-60SA.

  7. An assessment of Fe xx-Fe xxii emission lines in SDO/EVE data as diagnostics for high-density solar flare plasmas using EUVE stellar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, F. P.; Milligan, R. O.; Mathioudakis, M.; Christian, D. J.

    2017-06-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory obtains extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) spectra of the full-disc Sun at a spectral resolution of ˜1 Å and cadence of 10 s. Such a spectral resolution would normally be considered to be too low for the reliable determination of electron density (Ne) sensitive emission line intensity ratios, due to blending. However, previous work has shown that a limited number of Fe xxi features in the 90-160 Å wavelength region of EVE do provide useful Ne-diagnostics at relatively low flare densities (Ne ≃ 1011-1012 cm-3). Here, we investigate if additional highly ionized Fe line ratios in the EVE 90-160 Å range may be reliably employed as Ne-diagnostics. In particular, the potential for such diagnostics to provide density estimates for high Ne (˜1013 cm-3) flare plasmas is assessed. Our study employs EVE spectra for X-class flares, combined with observations of highly active late-type stars from the EUVE satellite plus experimental data for well-diagnosed tokamak plasmas, both of which are similar in wavelength coverage and spectral resolution to those from EVE. Several ratios are identified in EVE data, which yield consistent values of electron density, including Fe xx 113.35/121.85 and Fe xxii 114.41/135.79, with confidence in their reliability as Ne-diagnostics provided by the EUVE and tokamak results. These ratios also allow the determination of density in solar flare plasmas up to values of ˜1013 cm-3.

  8. Doppler speeds of the hydrogen Lyman lines in solar flares from EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Stephen A.; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Labrosse, Nicolas

    2016-11-01

    Aims: The hydrogen Lyman lines provide important diagnostic information about the dynamics of the chromosphere, but there have been few systematic studies of their variability during flares. We investigate Doppler shifts in these lines in several flares, and use these to calculate plasma speeds. Methods: We use spectral data from the Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph B (MEGS-B) detector of the Extreme-Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. MEGS-B obtains full-disk spectra of the Sun at a resolution of 0.1 nm in the range 37-105 nm, which we analyse using three independent methods. The first method performs Gaussian fits to the lines, and compares the quiet-Sun centroids with the flaring ones to obtain the Doppler shifts. The second method uses cross-correlation to detect wavelength shifts between the quiet-Sun and flaring line profiles. The final method calculates the "center-of-mass" of the line profile, and compares the quiet-Sun and flaring centroids to obtain the shift. Results: In a study of 6 flares we find strong signatures of both upflow and downflow in the Lyman lines, with speeds measured in Sun-as-a-Star data of around 10 km s-1, and speeds in the flare excess signal of around 30 km s-1. Conclusions: All events showing upflows in Lyman lines are associated with some kind of eruption or coronal flow in imaging data, which may be responsible for the net blueshifts. Events showing downflows in the Lyman lines may be associated with loop contraction or faint downflows, but it is likely that chromospheric condensation flows are also contributing.

  9. Doppler speeds of the hydrogen Lyman lines in solar flares from EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    The hydrogen Lyman lines provide important diagnostic information about the dynamics of the chromosphere, but until recently there have been few systematic studies of their variability during flares. We investigate Doppler shifts in these lines in several flares, and use these to calculate plasma speeds. We use spectral data from the Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph B (MEGS-B) detector on board the Extreme-Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. MEGS-B obtains full-disk spectra of the Sun at a resolution of 0.1nm in the range 37-105nm, which we analyse using three independent methods. The first method performs Gaussian fits to the lines, and compares the quiet-Sun centroids with the flaring ones to obtain the Doppler shifts. The second method uses cross-correlation to detect wavelength shifts between the quiet-Sun and flaring line profiles. The final method calculates the “center-of-mass" of the line profile, and compares the quiet-Sun and flaring centroids to obtain the shift. In a study of 6 flares we find signatures of both upflow and downflow in the Lyman lines, with speeds of around 10 km s^‑1 in the line profiles that have not undergone pre-flare subtraction, and speeds in the flare-excess profiles of around 30 km s^‑1 . We include analysis of AIA images of these events in order to understand potential contributions from material ejections, and find that not all upflows can be explained by ejecta. We discuss current and future attempts at modelling these line profiles.

  10. The Slowly Varying Corona. I. Daily Differential Emission Measure Distributions Derived from EVE Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonfeld, S. J.; White, S. M.; Hock-Mysliwiec, R. A.; McAteer, R. T. J.

    2017-08-01

    Daily differential emission measure (DEM) distributions of the solar corona are derived from spectra obtained by the Extreme-ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) over a 4 yr period starting in 2010 near solar minimum and continuing through the maximum of solar cycle 24. The DEMs are calculated using six strong emission features dominated by Fe lines of charge states viii, ix, xi, xii, xiv, and xvi that sample the nonflaring coronal temperature range 0.3-5 MK. A proxy for the non-Fe xviii emission in the wavelength band around the 93.9 Å line is demonstrated. There is little variability in the cool component of the corona (T < 1.3 MK) over the 4 yr, suggesting that the quiet-Sun corona does not respond strongly to the solar cycle, whereas the hotter component (T > 2.0 MK) varies by more than an order of magnitude. A discontinuity in the behavior of coronal diagnostics in 2011 February-March, around the time of the first X-class flare of cycle 24, suggests fundamentally different behavior in the corona under solar minimum and maximum conditions. This global state transition occurs over a period of several months. The DEMs are used to estimate the thermal energy of the visible solar corona (of order 1031 erg), its radiative energy loss rate ((2.5-8) × {10}27 erg s-1), and the corresponding energy turnover timescale (about an hour). The uncertainties associated with the DEMs and these derived values are mostly due to the coronal Fe abundance and density and the CHIANTI atomic line database.

  11. Midsummer Eve in Sweden: a natural fluid challenge in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Gudmundsson, Kristjan; Lyngå, Patrik; Karlsson, Helena; Rosenqvist, Mårten; Braunschweig, Frieder

    2011-11-01

    Volume overload exacerbations in patients with chronic heart failure (HF) are associated with a dismal prognosis and are often triggered by dietary incompliance. We aimed to describe the effects of dietary changes on measures of fluid retention in HF patients. Thirty-one HF patients with an implantable defibrillator (age 64 ± 11 years, ejection fraction 25 ± 12%, median NT-proBNP 2090 ng/L, resynchronization therapy: n= 25) were followed by daily body weight (BW) (telemonitoring) and intrathoracic impedance (by the implanted device) around Swedish Midsummer 2009, a holiday traditionally celebrated with meals including salty fish dishes and ample intake of fluids. Midsummer Eve celebrations caused a distinct and rapid increase in BW and a decrease in impedance indicating increased fluid retention. Compared with baseline values, peak BW increased by 1225 g [interquartile range (IQR) 475-2013 g)] which was accompanied by a decrease in impedance (3 Ω; IQR -5.2 to -1.2) and a clear deflection on the impedance-based fluid detection algorithm (OptiVol) that crossed the preset fluid-alert threshold six times following Midsummer. Body weight and impedance values were normalized after a period of 20 and 8 days, respectively. A clustering of minor clinical events following Midsummer suggests a possible adverse impact of dietary incompliance. However, none of the patients were hospitalized for HF. Dietary incompliance, e.g. on the occasion of a ceremonial meal, may lead to marked disturbances in the fluid balance of patients with HF reflected by increased BW and decreased intrathoracic impedance. These findings underline the importance of maintaining stable volume conditions in HF patients.

  12. Firework-related injuries in Tehran's Persian Wednesday Eve Festival (Chaharshanbe Soori).

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Hassan; Khashayar, Patricia; Amoli, Hadi Ahmadi; Esfandiari, Khalil; Ashegh, Hossein; Rezaii, Jalal; Salimi, Javad

    2011-03-01

    Fireworks are the leading cause of injuries such as burns and amputations during the Persian Wednesday Eve Festival (Chaharshanbeh Soori). This study was designed to explore the age of the high-risk population, the type of fireworks most frequently causing injury, the pattern of injury, and the frequency of permanent disabilities. This cohort study was performed by Tehran Emergency Medical Services at different medical centers all around Tehran, Iran, in individuals referred due to firework-related injuries during 1 month surrounding the festival in the year 2007. The following information was extracted from the patients' medical records: demographic data, the type of fireworks causing injury, the pattern and severity of the injury, the pre-hospital and hospital care provided for the patient, and the patient's condition at the time of discharge. In addition, information on the severity of the remaining disability was recorded 8 months after the injury. There were 197 patients enrolled in the study with a mean age of 20.94 ± 11.31 years; the majority of them were male. Fuse-detonated noisemakers and homemade grenades were the most frequent causes of injury. Hand injury was reported in 39.8% of the cases. Amputation and long-term disability were found in 6 and 12 cases, respectively. None of the patients died during the study period. The fireworks used during a Chaharshanbe Soori ceremony were responsible for a considerable number of injuries to different parts of the body, and some of them led to permanent disabilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 76 FR 72842 - Safety Zones; New Year's Eve Fireworks Displays within the Captain of the Port St. Petersburg...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing four temporary safety zones during New Year's Eve fireworks displays on certain navigable waterways in Naples, St. Petersburg, Cape Coral, and Sarasota, Florida. These safety zones are necessary to protect the public from the hazards associated with launching fireworks over navigable waters of the United States. Persons and vessels are prohibited from entering, transiting through, anchoring in, or remaining within any of the four safety zones unless authorized by the Captain of the Port St. Petersburg or a designated representative.

  14. Limits on light WIMPs with a germanium detector at 177 eVee threshold at the China Jinping Underground Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S. K.; Yue, Q.; Kang, K. J.; Cheng, J. P.; Wong, H. T.; Li, Y. J.; Lin, S. T.; Chang, J. P.; Chen, N.; Chen, Q. H.; Chen, Y. H.; Chuang, Y. C.; Deng, Z.; Du, Q.; Gong, H.; Hao, X. Q.; He, H. J.; He, Q. J.; Huang, H. X.; Huang, T. R.; Jiang, H.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. M.; Li, J.; Li, J.; Li, X.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. Y.; Li, Y. L.; Liao, H. Y.; Lin, F. K.; Lü, L. C.; Ma, H.; Mao, S. J.; Qin, J. Q.; Ren, J.; Ren, J.; Ruan, X. C.; Shen, M. B.; Singh, L.; Singh, M. K.; Soma, A. K.; Su, J.; Tang, C. J.; Tseng, C. H.; Wang, J. M.; Wang, L.; Wang, Q.; Wu, S. Y.; Wu, Y. C.; Wu, Y. C.; Xianyu, Z. Z.; Xiao, R. Q.; Xing, H. Y.; Xu, F. Z.; Xu, Y.; Xu, X. J.; Xue, T.; Yang, C. W.; Yang, L. T.; Yang, S. W.; Yi, N.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H.; Yu, X. Z.; Zeng, X. H.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, W.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Zhu, J. J.; Zhu, W. B.; Zhu, X. Z.; Zhu, Z. H.; CDEX Collaboration

    2014-08-01

    The China Dark Matter Experiment reports results on light WIMP dark matter searches at the China Jinping Underground Laboratory with a germanium detector array with a total mass of 20 g. The physics threshold achieved is 177 eVee ("ee" represents electron equivalent energy) at 50% signal efficiency. With 0.784 kg-days of data, exclusion region on spin-independent coupling with the nucleon is derived, improving over our earlier bounds at WIMP mass less than 4.6 GeV.

  15. Density fluctuation measurement using motional Stark effect optics in JT-60U

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, T.; Fujita, T.; Oyama, N.; Isayama, A.; Matsunaga, G.; Oikawa, T.; Asakura, N.; Takechi, M.

    2006-10-15

    The multichannel motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic system in JT-60U has been upgraded to measure density fluctuation profile. A 16-channel fast-sampling digitizer has been added in order to measure photomultiplier-tube signals at measurement frequency of 0.5-1 MHz. The new system works as a MSE and beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic. Spatially resolved electron density fluctuation profile measurement in various operation regimes is presented. In the core plasma, density fluctuation induced by rotation of tearing mode islands was observed. Temporal evolution of the fluctuation frequency agrees with that measured by Mirnov coils (poloidal and toroidal mode numbers: 2 and 1, respectively). The phases of the fluctuations on either side of the q=2 surface are inverted, which is consistent with electron cyclotron emission. These measurements show that the density fluctuation is caused by a rotating magnetic island structure induced by the tearing mode. In the scrape-off layer of a H-mode plasma with edge-localized-mode (ELM), i. e., ELMy H-mode outward propagation of strong intermittent emission corresponding to ELM crash was also observed. The propagation velocity is 0.69-2.2 km/s along the MSE measurement points, the time lag and distance between adjacent channels being 67{+-}35 {mu}s and 70 mm, respectively.

  16. Magnetic fluctuation profile measurement using optics of motional Stark effect diagnostics in JT-60U

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, T.; Isayama, A.; Matsunaga, G.; Oyama, N.; Fujita, T.; Oikawa, T.

    2008-10-15

    Motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostics in JT-60U works as polarimeter to measure the pitch angle of magnetic field as well as beam-emission-spectroscopy (BES) monochromator simultaneously at 30 spatial channels. Fluctuation in the BES signal using MSE optics (MSE/BES) contains fluctuations in not only the density but also the pitch angle (or the magnetic field). Correlation analysis of the magnetic fluctuation between two spatial channels is applied to high-beta plasma with a magnetohydrodynamic activity at frequency of about 0.9 kHz. It has been found that the magnetic fluctuation measured by the MSE/BES is spatially localized near the magnetic flux surface having safety factor and that the phase of the fluctuation is inverted at about the surface, suggesting magnetic island structure by tearing mode. The phase of the magnetic fluctuation measured by the MSE/BES at outside of the q=2 surface is consistent with that by the pickup coil placed outside the plasma.

  17. Performance deterioration based on in-service engine data: JT9D jet engine diagnostics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1979-01-01

    Results of analyses of engine performance deterioration trends and levels with respect to service usage are presented. Thirty-two JT9D-7A engines were selected for this purpose. The selection of this engine fleet provided the opportunity of obtaining engine performance data starting before the first flight through initial service such that the trend and levels of engine deterioration related to both short and long term deterioration could be more carefully defined. The performance data collected and analyzed included in-flight, on wing (ground), and test stand prerepair and postrepair performance calibrations with expanded instrumentation where feasible. The results of the analyses of these data were used to: (1) close gaps in previously obtained historical data as well as augment the historical data with more carefully obtained data; (2) refine preliminary models of performance deterioration with respect to usage; (3) establish an understanding of the relationships between ground and altitude performance deterioration trends; (4) refine preliminary recommendations concerning means to reduce and control deterioration; and (5) identify areas where additional effort is required to develop an understanding of complex deterioration issues.

  18. Behaviour of tritium in the vacuum vessel of JT-60U

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, K.; Miya, N.; Ikeda, Y.; Torikai, Y.; Saito, M.; Alimov, V.

    2015-03-15

    The disassembly of the JT-60U torus started in 2010 after 18 years of deuterium plasma operations. The vessel is made of Inconel 625. Therefore, it was very important to study the hydrogen isotope (particularly tritium) behavior in Inconel 625 from the viewpoint of the clearance procedure. Inconel 625 specimen was exposed to the D{sub 2} (92.8 %) - T{sub 2} (7.2 %) gas mixture at 573 K for 5 hours. The tritium release from the specimen at 298 K was controlled for about 1 year. After that a part of tritium remaining in the specimen was released by heating up to 1073 K. Other part of tritium trapped in the specimen was measured by chemical etching method. Most of the chemical form of the released tritium was HTO. The contaminated specimen by tritium was released continuously the diffusible tritium under the ambient condition. In the tritium release experiment, the amount of desorbed tritium was about 99% during 1 year. It was considered that the tritium in Inconel 625 was released easily.

  19. Development of a Lithium Beam Probe and Measurement of Density Pedestal in JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Atsushi; Kamiya, Kensaku; Fujita, Takaaki; Kubo, Hirotaka; Iguchi, Harukazu; Oyama, Naoyuki; Suzuki, Takahiro; Kamada, Yutaka; JT-60 Team

    A lithium beam probe (LiBP) has been developed for the measurement of electron density profiles with highly spatial and temporal resolutions in JT-60U. Using an electron beam heating ion source with a capability of 10 mA extraction, a 5.5 mA beam has been injected to the plasmas. It corresponds to the equivalent neutral beam current of 2 mA. A spectrum width of the beam emission has been small enough to separate Zeeman splitting. By use of the LiBP, time evolutions of pedestal density profiles during type I and grassy edge localized modes (ELMs) have been obtained for the first time. After a type I ELM crash, the drop of the line-integrated density measured by an interferometer delays by 2 ms later than that of the pedestal density. Comparing the line-integrated density to the line integration of the edge density profile measured by the LiBP, it is found that the recovery from the type I ELM crash is correlated with the reduction of core plasma density. As for grassy ELMs, grassy ELMs have smaller density crashes than that of type I ELMs, which is mainly derived from the narrower ELM affected area.

  20. Twenty-channel grating polychromator diagnostic system for electron cyclotron emission measurement in JT-60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, S.; Nagashima, A.; Sato, M.; Isei, N.; Matoba, T.

    1990-10-01

    A twenty-channel grating polychromator diagnostic system has been built to measure the temporal evolution of local electron temperatures in JT-60. A cross Czerny-Turner diffraction grating spectrometer is utilized for the measurement of second-harmonic electron cyclotron emission with extraordinary modes in the range 85-300 GHz, in which a grating plate grooved on both faces with different grating periods is applied effectively to yield a wide coverage for the toroidal fields. The grating angle is automatically set up by control of a stepping motor according to the relation of the grating equation. The diffracted light is detected by 20 indium-antimonide hot-electron bolometers cooled at 4.3 K in a modified Solvay cycle cryogenic refrigerator. A typical resolving power of the instrument was measured to be λ/Δλ˜130, providing a spatial resolution of 2.3 cm at the plasma center. The transmission line over ˜38 m long is composed of oversized S-band waveguides. The total transmissivity of this system is estimated to be ˜0.01.

  1. Performance deterioration due to acceptance testing and flight loads; JT90 jet engine diagnostic program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsson, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a flight loads test of the JT9D-7 engine are presented. The goals of this test program were to: measure aerodynamic and inertia loads on the engine during flight, explore the effects of airplane gross weight and typical maneuvers on these flight loads, simultaneously measure the changes in engine running clearances and performance resulting from the maneuvers, make refinements of engine performance deterioration prediction models based on analytical results of the tests, and make recommendations to improve propulsion system performance retention. The test program included a typical production airplane acceptance test plus additional flights and maneuvers to encompass the range of flight loads in revenue service. The test results indicated that aerodynamic loads, primarily at take-off, were the major cause of rub-indicated that aerodynamic loads, primarily at take-off, were the major cause of rub-induced deterioration in the cold sectin of the engine. Differential thermal expansion between rotating and static parts plus aerodynamic loads combined to cause blade-to-seal rubs in the turbine.

  2. Performance deterioration based on existing (historical) data; JT9D jet engine diagnostics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1978-01-01

    The results of the collection and analysis of historical data pertaining to the deterioration of JT9D engine performance are presented. The results of analyses of prerepair and postrepair engine test stand performance data from a number of airlines to establish the individual as well as average losses in engine performance with respect to service use are included. Analysis of the changes in mechanical condition of parts, obtained by inspection of used gas-path parts of varying age, allowed preliminary assessments of component performance deterioration levels and identification of the causitive factors. These component performance estimates, refined by data from special engine back-to-back testing related to module performance restoration, permitted the development of preliminary models of engine component/module performance deterioration with respect to usage. The preliminary assessment of the causes of module performance deterioration and the trends with usage are explained, along with the role each module plays in overall engine performance deterioration. Preliminary recommendations with respect to operating and maintenance practices which could be adopted to control the level of performance deterioration are presented. The needs for additional component sensitivity testing as well as outstanding issues are discussed.

  3. Numerical analyses of JT-60SA tokamak with tungsten divertor by COREDIV code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gałązka, K.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Stępniewski, W.; Zagórski, R.; Neu, R.; Romanelli, M.; Nakano, T.

    2017-04-01

    An analysis of radiative power exhaust for the JT-60SA tokamak with a tungsten divertor is performed with the help of the self-consistent, core-edge integrated COREDIV code. Two scenarios of operation (low and high density) were investigated in the scope of different parameters (electron density at the separatrix and the perpendicular transport in the scrape-off layer) with impurity seeding (Ne and Kr). The calculations show that in the case of the tungsten divertor the power load to the divertor plate is mitigated and the central plasma dilution is smaller compared to the carbon divertor. In the most cases the energy flux through the separatrix is above the L-H transition threshold. For the high density case with neon seeding operation in full detachment mode is observed. Changing the diffusion coefficient in the SOL has a strong influence on the result of the calculations as increased radial transport causes stronger screening effect. Also by changing the electron density on the separatrix the influx of heavy impurities (W, Kr) into the core region can be reduced. The results demonstrate that it is easier to achieve sustainable conditions in the divertor region for the high density scenario, whereas for the low density one reducing the auxiliary heating power seems unavoidable to prevent damaging of the target plate, even for strong seeding gas influx.

  4. Installation and pre-commissioning of the cryogenic system of JT-60SA tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoa, C.; Michel, F.; Roussel, P.; Fejoz, P.; Girard, S.; Goncalves, R.; Lamaison, V.; Natsume, K.; Kizu, K.; Koide, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Cardella, A.; Portone, A.; Verrecchia, M.; Wanner, M.; Beauvisage, J.; Bertholat, F.; Gaillard, G.; Heloin, V.; Langevin, B.; Legrand, J.; Maire, S.; Perrier, J. M.; Pudys, V.

    2017-02-01

    The cryogenic system for the superconducting tokamak JT-60SA is currently being commissioned in Naka, Japan and shall be ready for operation in summer 2016. This contribution is part of the Broader Approach agreement between Japan and Europe. With an equivalent refrigeration capacity of about 9.5 kW at 4.5 K the cryogenic system will supply cryo-pump panels at 3.7 K, superconducting magnets and their structures at 4.4 K, high temperature superconducting current leads at 50 K and thermal shields between 80 K and 100 K. The system has been specifically designed to handle large pulse loads at 4.4 K during plasma operation. The mechanical and electrical assembly of the cryogenic system has been achieved within six months by October 2015. The main contractor Air Liquide Advanced Technology (AL-aT) have supplied eight parallel working screw compressors with a common oil removal and dryer system, a Refrigeration Cold Box and an Auxiliary Cold box with cold rotating machines. F4E has provided six GHe storage vessels and QST has provided the complete infrastructure and the facilities for the utilities. The paper gives an overview of the main design features, the infrastructure and the status of installation and pre-commissioning.

  5. Gaseous exhaust emissions from a JT8D-109 turbofan engine at simulated cruise flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, L. A.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Gaseous emissions from a JT8D-109 turbofan engine were measured in an altitude facility at four simulated cruise flight conditions: Mach 0.8 at altitudes of 9.1, 10, 7, and 12.2 km and Mach 0.9 at 10.7 km. Engine inlet air temperature was held constant at 283 K for all tests. Emissions measurements were made at nominally 6 cm intervals across the horizontal diameter of the engine exhaust nozzle with a single-point traversing gas sample probe. Measured emissions of decreased with increasing altitude from an emission index of 10.4 to one of 8.3, while carbon monoxide increased with increasing altitude from an emission index of 1.6 to one of 4.4. Unburned hydrocarbon emissions were essentially negligible for all flight conditions. Since the engine inlet air temperatures were not correctly simulated, the NOx emission indices were corrected to true altitude conditions by using correlating parameters for changes in combustor inlet temperature, pressure, and temperature rise. The correction was small at the lowest altitude. At the 10.7 and 12.2 km, Mach 0.8 test conditions the correction decreased the measured values by 1 emission index.

  6. Fusion gamma-ray measurements for D-3He experiments at JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishitani, T.; Tobita, K.; Kusama, Y.; Shibata, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Fusion gamma rays were measured in D-3He experiments using negative ion-based neutral beam injection (N-NBI) in reverse shear plasmas of the JT-60 tokamak. 3He gas was puffed at plasma initiation and just before N-NB injection. The D-3He reaction produces 3.6 MeV alphas and 14.7 MeV protons, but there is also a small branch which provides 5Li and 16.7 MeV gamma rays. The total D-3He reaction rate can be evaluated from measurement of gamma rays of the 3He (d,γ) 5Li reactions using a 3 in. diam by 3 in. long Bi4Ge3O12 scintillator. The gamma-ray detector was located 17 m below the plasma center and measured the gamma-rays in a vertical line of sight. The detector was mounted inside a heavy collimator with polyethylene and lead shielding. The floor penetration, a 4×8 cm2 hole, was used as a precollimator. Energy calibration of the detector was done with photopeaks for neutron capture gamma rays from the structural materials in D-D discharges. The detection efficiency was calculated with Monte Carlo code MCNP-4B for 16.7 MeV gammas. The pulse height analysis of the gamma rays resulted in the D-3He fusion power of 110±30 kW in this experiment.

  7. Numerical analyses of baseline JT-60SA design concepts with the COREDIV code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagórski, R.; Gałązka, K.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Stępniewski, W.; Garzotti, L.; Giruzzi, G.; Neu, R.; Romanelli, M.

    2017-06-01

    JT-60SA reference design scenarios at high (#3) and low (#2) density have been analyzed with the help of the self-consistent COREDIV code. Simulations results for a standard C wall and full W wall have been compared in terms of the influence of impurities, both intrinsic (C, W) and seeded (N, Ar, Ne, Kr), on the radiation losses and plasma parameters. For scenario #3 in a C environment, the regime of detachment on divertor plates can be achieved with N or Ne seeding, whereas for the low density and high power scenario (#2), the C and seeding impurity radiation does not effectively reduce power to the targets. In this case, only an increase of either average density or edge density together with Kr seeding might help to develop conditions with strong radiation losses and semi-detached conditions in the divertor. The calculations show that, in the case of a W divertor, the power load to the plate is mitigated by seeding and the central plasma dilution is smaller compared to the C divertor. For the high density case (#3) with Ne seeding, operation in full detachment mode is predicted. Ar seems to be an optimal choice for the low-density high-power scenario #2, showing a wide operating window, whereas Ne leads to high plasma dilution at high seeding levels albeit not achieving semi-detached conditions in the divertor.

  8. Sensitivity study for N-NB-driven modes in JT-60U: boundary, diffusion, gyroaverage, compressibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierwage, A.; Todo, Y.; Aiba, N.; Shinohara, K.

    2016-10-01

    The sensitivity of the growth and nonlinear evolution of fast-ion-driven modes is examined with respect to the choice of particle boundary conditions, diffusion coefficients, fast ion gyroradii and bulk compressibility. The primary purpose of this work is to justify the choice of parameters to be used in the self-consistent long-time simulations of fast ion dynamics using global MHD-kinetic hybrid codes that include fast ion sources and collisions. The present study is conducted for a scenario based on the N-NB-driven JT-60U shot E039672, which is subject to abrupt large events (ALE). We use realistic geometry, a realistic fast ion distribution, and focus on experimentally observed harmonics with low toroidal mode numbers n  =  1, 2, 3. The use of realistic boundary conditions and finite Larmor radii for the fast ions is shown to be essential. The usual values {μ0}η =ν =χ ∼ {{10}-6}{{v}\\text{A0}}{{R}0} used for resistivity, viscosity and thermal diffusivity, and Γ=5/3 used for the specific heat ratio (controlling the effect of compressibility) are shown to be reasonable choices. Our method for performing the parameter scans around the threshold for the onset of convective amplification is proposed as a strategy for nonlinear benchmark studies.

  9. Pressure transfer function of a JT15D nozzle due to acoustic and convected entropy fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    An acoustic transmission matrix analysis of sound propagation in a variable area duct with and without flow is extended to include convected entropy fluctuations. The boundary conditions used in the analysis are a transfer function relating entropy and pressure at the nozzle inlet and the nozzle exit impedance. The nozzle pressure transfer function calculated is compared with JT15D turbofan engine nozzle data. The one dimensional theory for sound propagation in a variable area nozzle with flow but without convected entropy is good at the low engine speeds where the nozzle exit Mach number is low (M=0.2) and the duct exit impedance model is good. The effect of convected entropy appears to be so negligible that it is obscured by the inaccuracy of the nozzle exit impedance model, the lack of information on the magnitude of the convected entropy and its phase relationship with the pressure, and the scatter in the data. An improved duct exit impedance model is required at the higher engine speeds where the nozzle exit Mach number is high (M=0.56) and at low frequencies (below 120 Hz).

  10. Resolving Differences in Absolute Irradiance Measurements Between the SOHO/CELIAS/SEM and the SDO/EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, S. R.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Judge, D. L.

    2014-08-01

    The Solar EUV Monitor (SEM) onboard SOHO has measured absolute extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray solar irradiance nearly continuously since January 1996. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on SDO, in operation since April of 2010, measures solar irradiance in a wide spectral range that encompasses the band passes (26 - 34 nm and 0.1 - 50 nm) measured by SOHO/SEM. However, throughout the mission overlap, irradiance values from these two instruments have differed by more than the combined stated uncertainties of the measurements. In an effort to identify the sources of these differences and eliminate them, we investigate in this work the effect of reprocessing the SEM data using a more accurate SEM response function (obtained from synchrotron measurements with a SEM sounding-rocket clone instrument taken after SOHO was already in orbit) and time-dependent, measured solar spectral distributions - i.e., solar reference spectra that were unavailable prior to the launch of the SDO. We find that recalculating the SEM data with these improved parameters reduces mean differences with the EVE measurements from about 20 % to less than 5 % in the 26 - 34 nm band, and from about 35 % to about 15 % for irradiances in the 0.1 - 7 nm band extracted from the SEM 0.1 - 50 nm channel.

  11. Further replication studies of the EVE Consortium meta-analysis identifies 2 asthma risk loci in European Americans.

    PubMed

    Myers, Rachel A; Himes, Blanca E; Gignoux, Christopher R; Yang, James J; Gauderman, W James; Rebordosa, Cristina; Xie, Jianming; Torgerson, Dara G; Levin, Albert M; Baurley, James; Graves, Penelope E; Mathias, Rasika A; Romieu, Isabelle; Roth, Lindsey A; Conti, David; Avila, Lydiana; Eng, Celeste; Vora, Hita; LeNoir, Michael A; Soto-Quiros, Manuel; Liu, Jinghua; Celedón, Juan C; Galanter, Joshua M; Farber, Harold J; Kumar, Rajesh; Avila, Pedro C; Meade, Kelley; Serebrisky, Denise; Thyne, Shannon; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R; Borrell, Luisa N; Lemanske, Robert F; Bleecker, Eugene R; Meyers, Deborah A; London, Stephanie J; Barnes, Kathleen C; Raby, Benjamin A; Martinez, Fernando D; Gilliland, Frank D; Williams, L Keoki; Burchard, Esteban G; Weiss, Scott T; Nicolae, Dan L; Ober, Carole

    2012-12-01

    Genome-wide association studies of asthma have implicated many genetic risk factors, with well-replicated associations at approximately 10 loci that account for only a small proportion of the genetic risk. We aimed to identify additional asthma risk loci by performing an extensive replication study of the results from the EVE Consortium meta-analysis. We selected 3186 single nucleotide polymorphisms for replication based on the P values from the EVE Consortium meta-analysis. These single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in ethnically diverse replication samples from 9 different studies, totaling 7202 cases, 6426 controls, and 507 case-parent trios. Association analyses were conducted within each participating study, and the resulting test statistics were combined in a meta-analysis. Two novel associations were replicated in European Americans: rs1061477 in the KLK3 gene on chromosome 19 (combined odds ratio = 1.18; 95% CI, 1.10-1.25) and rs9570077 (combined odds ratio =1.20; 95% CI, 1.12-1.29) on chromosome 13q21. We could not replicate any additional associations in the African Americans or Latinos. This extended replication study identified 2 additional asthma risk loci in populations of European descent. The absence of additional loci for African Americans and Latinos highlights the difficulty in replicating associations in admixed populations. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Resolving Differences in Absolute Irradiance Measurements Between the SOHO/CELIAS/SEM and the SDO/EVE.

    PubMed

    Wieman, S R; Didkovsky, L V; Judge, D L

    The Solar EUV Monitor (SEM) onboard SOHO has measured absolute extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray solar irradiance nearly continuously since January 1996. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on SDO, in operation since April of 2010, measures solar irradiance in a wide spectral range that encompasses the band passes (26 - 34 nm and 0.1 - 50 nm) measured by SOHO/SEM. However, throughout the mission overlap, irradiance values from these two instruments have differed by more than the combined stated uncertainties of the measurements. In an effort to identify the sources of these differences and eliminate them, we investigate in this work the effect of reprocessing the SEM data using a more accurate SEM response function (obtained from synchrotron measurements with a SEM sounding-rocket clone instrument taken after SOHO was already in orbit) and time-dependent, measured solar spectral distributions - i.e., solar reference spectra that were unavailable prior to the launch of the SDO. We find that recalculating the SEM data with these improved parameters reduces mean differences with the EVE measurements from about 20 % to less than 5 % in the 26 - 34 nm band, and from about 35 % to about 15 % for irradiances in the 0.1 - 7 nm band extracted from the SEM 0.1 - 50 nm channel.

  13. The Adam and Eve story as exemplar of an early-life variant of the oedipus complex.

    PubMed

    Osman, M P

    2000-01-01

    The Adam and Eve story is construed as having an organizing function that facilitates the analytic understanding of certain patients. In this interpretation, the story epitomizes a psychodynamic in which progressive growth, with separation and individuation, of the young is experienced as perilous--not only to them, but also correspondingly to their procreators. In the myth, the increasing psychic and physical maturation of Adam and Eve produced a crisis. Not only was divine authority flouted, but also apprehensions were aroused that God might be humbled or diminished. This threatened him, evoking his wrath and leading to the punishment by abandonment of his youthful wards. It is suggested that the story depicts an emotional complex of widespread application and is an archaic version of the oedipus complex, continuous with the oedipus complex proper, but from an earlier stage of development. This archaic complex is delineated with clinical vignettes, and a clinical explication of its various components is provided. Clinical management is considered, particularly with reference to the challenge that a closed-system perspective (Fairbairn 1958) presents to a patient's development.

  14. An alpha2,6-sialyltransferase cloned from Photobacterium leiognathi strain JT-SHIZ-119 shows both sialyltransferase and neuraminidase activity.

    PubMed

    Mine, Toshiki; Katayama, Sakurako; Kajiwara, Hitomi; Tsunashima, Masako; Tsukamoto, Hiroshi; Takakura, Yoshimitsu; Yamamoto, Takeshi

    2010-02-01

    We cloned, expressed, and characterized a novel beta-galactoside alpha2,6-sialyltransferase from Photobacterium leiognathi strain JT-SHIZ-119. The protein showed 56-96% identity to the marine bacterial alpha2,6-sialyltransferases classified into glycosyltransferase family 80. The sialyltransferase activity of the N-terminal truncated form of the recombinant enzyme was 1477 U/L of Escherichia coli culture. The truncated recombinant enzyme was purified as a single band by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis through 3 column chromatography steps. The enzyme had distinct activity compared with known marine bacterial alpha2,6-sialyltransferases. Although alpha2,6-sialyltransferases cloned from marine bacteria, such as Photobacterium damselae strain JT0160, P. leiognathi strain JT-SHIZ-145, and Photobacterium sp. strain JT-ISH-224, show only alpha2,6-sialyltransferase activity, the recombinant enzyme cloned from P. leiognathi strain JT-SHIZ-119 showed both alpha2,6-sialyltransferase and alpha2,6-linkage-specific neuraminidase activity. Our results provide important information toward a comprehensive understanding of the bacterial sialyltransferases belonging to the group 80 glycosyltransferase family in the CAZy database.

  15. Anomalous temporal behaviour of broadband Lyα observations during solar flares from SDO/EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, Ryan O.; Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2016-03-01

    Although it is the most prominent emission line in the solar spectrum, there has been a notable lack of studies devoted to variations in Lyα emission during solar flares in recent years. However, the few examples that do exist have shown Lyα emission to be a substantial radiator of the total energy budget of solar flares (of the order of 10%). It is also a known driver of fluctuations in the Earth's ionosphere. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory now provides broadband, photometric Lyα data at 10 s cadence with its Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph-Photometer (MEGS-P) component, and has observed scores of solar flares in the 5 years since it was launched. However, the MEGS-P time profiles appear to display a rise time of tens of minutes around the time of the flare onset. This is in stark contrast to the rapid, impulsive increase observed in other intrinsically chromospheric features (Hα, Lyβ, LyC, C III, etc.). Furthermore, the emission detected by MEGS-P peaks around the time of the peak of thermal soft X-ray emission and not during the impulsive phase when energy deposition in the chromosphere (often assumed to be in the form of non-thermal electrons) is greatest. The time derivative of Lyα lightcurves also appears to resemble that of the time derivative of soft X-rays, reminiscent of the Neupert effect. Given that spectrally-resolved Lyα observations during flares from SORCE/SOLSTICE peak during the impulsive phase as expected, this suggests that the atypical behaviour of MEGS-P data is a manifestation of the broadband nature of the observations. This could imply that other lines and/or continuum emission that becomes enhanced during flares could be contributing to the passband. Users are hereby urged to exercise caution when interpreting broadband Lyα observations of solar flares. Comparisons have also been made with other broadband Lyα photometers such as PROBA2/LYRA and GOES/EUVS-E.

  16. Anomalous Temporal Behaviour of Broadband Ly Alpha Observations During Solar Flares from SDO/EVE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milligan, Ryan O.; Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2016-01-01

    Although it is the most prominent emission line in the solar spectrum, there has been a notable lack of studies devoted to variations in Lyman-alpha (Ly-alpha) emission during solar flares in recent years. However, the few examples that do exist have shown Ly-alpha emission to be a substantial radiator of the total energy budget of solar flares (of the order of 10 percent). It is also a known driver of fluctuations in the Earth's ionosphere. The EUV (Extreme Ultra-Violet) Variability Experiment (EVE) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) now provides broadband, photometric Ly-alpha data at 10-second cadence with its Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph-Photometer (MEGS-P) component, and has observed scores of solar flares in the 5 years since it was launched. However, the MEGS-P time profiles appear to display a rise time of tens of minutes around the time of the flare onset. This is in stark contrast to the rapid, impulsive increase observed in other intrinsically chromospheric features (H-alpha, Ly-beta, LyC, C III, etc.). Furthermore, the emission detected by MEGS-P peaks around the time of the peak of thermal soft X-ray emission and not during the impulsive phase when energy deposition in the chromosphere (often assumed to be in the form of non-thermal electrons) is greatest. The time derivative of Ly-alpha lightcurves also appears to resemble that of the time derivative of soft X-rays, reminiscent of the Neupert effect. Given that spectrally-resolved Ly-alpha observations during flares from SORCE / SOLSTICE (Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment / Solar Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment) peak during the impulsive phase as expected, this suggests that the atypical behaviour of MEGS-P data is a manifestation of the broadband nature of the observations. This could imply that other lines andor continuum emission that becomes enhanced during flares could be contributing to the passband. Users are hereby urged to exercise caution when interpreting

  17. Constraining Models Of The Solar Chromosphere Using An X2 Flare Observed By SDO/EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataramanasastry, A.; Murphy, N. A.; Avrett, E.

    2013-12-01

    The GOES X2 solar flare of Feb 15, 2011 is analyzed to draw observational constraints in constructing a model of the chromosphere of the Sun during a solar flare, using the Pandora computer program [1]. Spectra from the MEGS-A&B component of EVE [2] on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory are used to analyze the lines and continuum [3]. The irradiances before and after the flare are used for modeling the time-evolution of the impulsive and decay phases of the flare. Significant increase in the intensities of multiple coronal and chromospheric emission lines (H, He, C, N, O, Si etc.) is seen. The observed increase in intensities will serve as constraints to the model program. Pandora performs iterative calculations for non-LTE radiative transfer with multiple ions and atoms. It includes the effects of particle diffusion and flow velocities in the equations of radiative transfer and ionization equilibrium. The fraction of the area on the Sun contributing to the chromospheric flare emission is presented. The upper limit for the intensity in the Lyman continuum due to the flare is accounted to be approximately 7% of that due to the entire surface area. The Lyman, He II and He I continua provide strong constraints for characterizing the chromosphere. The emission lines from the CHIANTI atomic database in these wavelength ranges are considered in order to avoid using optically thin emission lines from the corona. The behavior of changes in line features with time is analyzed. The light curves of different lines that contribute substantially to the flare spectra are studied. The temperatures at the peak of the flare with respect to that at the quiet Sun is estimated at different continuum wavelengths. The pre-flare and post-flare values from these light-curves are adapted to construct the model during the rise and decay phases. The effective intensity due to the lines and the relative times at which these lines peak are presented. The observed irradiance values for pre

  18. A Partnership between English Language Learners and a Team of Rocket Scientists: EPO for the NASA SDO Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhr, S. M.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Eparvier, F.; Murillo, M.

    2008-05-01

    Recent immigrant high school students were successfully engaged in learning about Sun-Earth connections through a partnership with the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) project. The students were enrolled in a pilot course as part of the Math, Engineering and Science Achievement (MESA) program. The English Language Learner (ELL) students doubled their achievement on a pre- and post- assessment on the content of the course. Students learned scientific content and vocabulary in English with support in Spanish, attended field trips, hosted scientist speakers, built antenna and deployed space weather monitors as part of the Stanford SOLAR project, and gave final presentations in English, showcasing their new computer skills. Teachers who taught the students in other courses noted gains in the students' willingness to use English in class and noted gains in math skills. The course has been broken into modules for use in shorter after-school environments, or for use by EVE scientists who are outside of the Boulder area. Video footage of "The Making of a Satellite", and "All About EVE" is completed for use in the kits. Other EVE EPO includes upcoming professional development for teachers and content workshops for journalists.

  19. A Partnership between English Language Learners and a Team of Rocket Scientists: EPO for the NASA SDO Extreme-Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhr, S. M.; Eparvier, F.; McCaffrey, M.; Murillo, M.

    2007-12-01

    Recent immigrant high school students were successfully engaged in learning about Sun-Earth connections through a partnership with the NASA SDO Extreme-Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) project. The students were enrolled in a pilot course as part of the Math, Engineering and Science Achievement MESA) program. For many of the students, this was the only science option available to them due to language limitations. The English Language Learner (ELL) students doubled their achievement on a pre- and post-assessment on the content of the course. Students learned scientific content and vocabulary in English with support in Spanish, attended field trips, hosted scientist speakers, built and deployed space weather monitors as part of the Stanford SOLAR project, and gave final presentations in English, showcasing their new computer skills. Teachers who taught the students in other courses noted gains in the students' willingness to use English in class and noted gains in math skills. The MESA-EVE course won recognition as a Colorado MESA Program of Excellence and is being offered again in 2007-08. The course has been broken into modules for use in shorter after-school environments, or for use by EVE scientists who are outside of the Boulder area. Other EVE EPO includes professional development for teachers and content workshops for journalists.

  20. Functional endogenous viral elements (EVEs) in the genome of the parasitoid wasp cotesia congregata: insights into the evolutionary dynamics of bracoviruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bracoviruses represent the most complex Endogenous Viral Elements (EVEs) described to date. Nudiviral genes have been hosted within the genomes of parasitoid wasps since ~ 100 MYA (Million Years Ago) and are functionally integrated in the parasitoid wasp life cycle. They are involved in the producti...

  1. Ecology and Mary: An Ecological Theology of Mary as the New Eve in Response to the Church's Challenge for a Faith-Based Education in Ecological Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurmond, Gloria J.

    2007-01-01

    The Church's interpretation of the current ecological crisis as a moral crisis is the catalyst for this essay, which proposes a newly constructed faith-based model for ecological dialogue and education. The exploration and reinterpretation of the traditional Church doctrine of the Virgin Mary as the new Eve provides a theme from which an…

  2. Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO): Overview of Science Objectives, Instrument Design, Data Products, and Model Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, T. N.; Eparvier, F. G.; Hock, R.; Jones, A. R.; Woodraska, D.; Judge, D.; Didkovsky, L.; Lean, J.; Mariska, J.; Warren, H.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The highly variable solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is the major energy input to the Earth's upper atmosphere, strongly impacting the geospace environment, affecting satellite operations, communications, and navigation. The Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) will measure the solar EUV irradiance from 0.1 to 105 nm with unprecedented spectral resolution (0.1 nm), temporal cadence (ten seconds), and accuracy (20%). EVE includes several irradiance instruments: The Multiple EUV Grating Spectrographs (MEGS)-A is a grazingincidence spectrograph that measures the solar EUV irradiance in the 5 to 37 nm range with 0.1-nm resolution, and the MEGS-B is a normal-incidence, dual-pass spectrograph that measures the solar EUV irradiance in the 35 to 105 nm range with 0.1-nm resolution. To provide MEGS in-flight calibration, the EUV SpectroPhotometer (ESP) measures the solar EUV irradiance in broadbands between 0.1 and 39 nm, and a MEGS-Photometer measures the Sun s bright hydrogen emission at 121.6 nm. The EVE data products include a near real-time space-weather product (Level 0C), which provides the solar EUV irradiance in specific bands and also spectra in 0.1-nm intervals with a cadence of one minute and with a time delay of less than 15 minutes. The EVE higher-level products are Level 2 with the solar EUV irradiance at higher time cadence (0.25 seconds for photometers and ten seconds for spectrographs) and Level 3 with averages of the solar irradiance over a day and over each one-hour period. The EVE team also plans to advance existing models of solar EUV irradiance and to operationally use the EVE measurements in models of Earth s ionosphere and thermosphere. Improved understanding of the evolution of solar flares and extending the various models to incorporate solar flare events are high priorities for the EVE team.

  3. Active Region Soft X-Ray Spectra as Observed Using Sounding Rocket Measurements from the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), - a Modified SDO/EVE Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, S. R.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Woods, T. N.; Jones, A. R.; Caspi, A.; Warren, H. P.

    2015-12-01

    Observations of solar active regions (ARs) in the soft x-ray spectral range (0.5 to 3.0 nm) were made on sounding rocket flight NASA 36.290 using a modified Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), a pinhole camera on the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) sounding rocket instrument. The suite of EVE rocket instruments is designed for under-flight calibrations of the orbital EVE on SDO. While the sounding rocket EVE instrument is for the most part a duplicate of the EVE on SDO, the SAM channel on the rocket version was modified in 2012 to include a free-standing transmission grating so that it could provide spectrally resolved images of the solar disk with the best signal to noise ratio for the brightest features on it, such as ARs. Calibrations of the EVE sounding rocket instrument at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (NIST SURF) have provided a measurement of the SAM absolute spectral response function and a mapping of wavelength separation in the grating diffraction pattern. For solar observations, this spectral separation is on a similar scale to the spatial size of the AR on the CCD, so dispersed AR images associated with emission lines of similar wavelength tend to overlap. Furthermore, SAM shares a CCD detector with MEGS-A, a separate EVE spectrometer channel, and artifacts of the MEGS-A signal (a set of bright spectral lines) appear in the SAM images. For these reasons some processing and analysis of the solar images obtained by SAM must be performed in order to determine spectra of the observed ARs. We present a method for determining AR spectra from the SAM rocket images and report initial soft X-ray spectra for two of the major active regions (AR11877 and AR11875) observed on flight 36.290 on 21 October 2013 at about 18:30 UT. We also compare our results with concurrent measurements from other solar soft x-ray instrumentation.

  4. Neural-net predictor for beta limit disruptions in JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshino, R.

    2005-11-01

    Prediction of major disruptions occurring at the β -limit for tokamak plasmas with a normal magnetic shear in JT-60U was conducted using neural networks. Since no clear precursors are generally observed a few tens of milliseconds before the β -limit disruption, a sub-neural network is trained to output the value of the βN limit every 2 ms. The target βN limit is artificially set by the operator in the first step to train a network with non-disruptive shots as well as disruptive shots, and then in the second step the target limit is modified using the βN limit output from the trained network. The adjusted target greatly improves the consistency between the input data and the output. This training, the 'self-teaching method', has greatly reduced the false alarm rate triggered for non-disruptive shots. To improve the prediction performance further, the difference between the output βN limit and the measured βN, and 11 parameters, are inputted to the main neural network to calculate the 'stability level'. The occurrence of a major disruption is predicted when the stability level decreases to the 'alarm level'. Major disruptions at the β -limit have been predicted by the main network with a prediction success rate of 80% at 10 ms prior to the disruption while the false alarm rate is lower than 4% for non-disruptive shots. This 80% value is much higher than that obtained for a network trained with a fixed target βN limit set to be the maximum βN observed at the start of a major disruption, lower than 10%. A prediction success rate of 90% with a false alarm rate of 12% at 10 ms prior to the disruption has also been obtained. This 12% value is about half of that obtained for a network trained with a fixed target βN limit.

  5. Fast dynamics of type I and grassy ELMs in JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, A.; Oyama, N.; Sakamoto, Y.; Kamada, Y.; Urano, H.; Kamiya, K.; Fujita, T.; Kubo, H.; Aiba, N.; JT-60 Team

    2009-11-01

    In order to understand the physics of the ELM trigger and determine the ELM size, the fast ELM dynamics of type I and grassy ELMs have been studied in JT-60U, using new fast diagnostics with high spatial and temporal resolutions such as a lithium beam probe (Δt ~ 0.5 ms) and a charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (Δt ~ 2.5 ms), which can measure the electron density and the ion temperature, respectively. The evolution of the ion pressure profile in the pedestal region has been evaluated for the first time by detailed edge profile measurements. Then, the dynamics of the density, the ion temperature and the ion pressure in the ELM cycle has been investigated. The co-rotating plasmas are compared with the counter (ctr)-rotating plasmas for the understanding of the toroidal rotation effects. Type I ELMs observed in co-rotating plasmas exhibit a larger and wider ELM affected area (Δnped/nped ~ 30%, radial extent >15 cm) than ctr-rotating plasmas (Δnped/nped ~ 20%, radial extent ~10 cm). Just before a type I ELM crash, the pedestal ion pressure and its maximum gradient in co-rotating plasmas are 20% and 12% higher than those in ctr-rotating plasmas, respectively. It is found that the radial extent of the ion pressure gradient at the pedestal region in co-rotating plasmas is 14% wider than that in ctr-rotating plasmas. The experimental results suggest that the ELM size is connected with the structure of the plasma pressure in the whole pedestal region. As for the dynamics of grassy ELMs, the collapse of density pedestal is smaller (<20%) and narrower (~5 cm) than those of type I ELMs, as observed in the collapse of the electron temperature pedestal. Thus, it is confirmed that both conductive and convective losses due to grassy ELMs are small.

  6. Characterization of sorption compressor for mixed refrigerant J-T cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Rohitkumar; Bapat, Shridhar; Atrey, Milind

    2012-06-01

    The requirement of a cryocooler with minimum vibrations for space borne system and highly sophisticated electronic devices for ground application, has led to the development of sorption compressor type J-T cryocooler. The adsorption capacity of any adsorbent material increases with an increase in pressure and decreases with an increase in temperature. In a Sorption compressor, adsorbed gases are desorbed in a confined volume by raising temperature of the sorption bed which results in increase in pressure of gas. A uniform temperature across the sorption bed ensures maximum discharge from the compressor amounting to higher flow rates and longer cycle time on account of reduced residual loading. In addition, it is also very important to determine the adsorption capacity of any material with respect to the gas or gases to be adsorbed as this varies with source of the adsorbent. The present work reports the characterization of a fully operational two-cell sorption compressor developed. The sorption compressor is characterized for discharge pressure variation with cycle time; this is essentially a function of a) the amount of adsorbent, b) the adsorption capacity for respective gas or gases, c) desorption temperature and its uniformity, and d) system dead volume. The present paper analyses these aspects theoretically and the results are compared with the experimental data obtained for individual gases as well as for gas mixtures. The effect of gas distribution on temperature uniformity across the bed and of heater power on high pressure generated is also studied. The paper also discusses the pressure profile obtained for a given amount of adsorbent for different gas or gas mixture. The work, based on the results obtained so far is being further extended for a four cell sorption compressor.

  7. A Comparative Investigation on the JT Effect in Triangular Compounds of NaMnO2, NaNiO2 and NaTiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Sheng-De; Quan, Ya-Min; Liu, Da-Yong; Zou, Liang-Jian

    2011-06-01

    We present a study on the Jahn—Teller (JT) distortions of the TiO6, NiO6 and MnO6 complexes in NaTiO2, NaNiO2 and NaMnO2 triangular compounds with a C2/m structure. The JT vibronic normal modes are found to be Q3, Q'4 and Q6 by the group symmetry on the C2/m structure. The magnitude of the normal coordinates (Q3, Q'4, Q6) and the structural parameters of distorted octahedra MO6 (M=Ti, Ni, Mn) are obtained and in good agreement with experimental data. The energy level splitting of 3d orbitals and the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) character in the MO6 complex are also calculated in accordance with the JT distortions. These results provide a first insight into the groundstate and magnetic properties of distorted triangular compounds AMO2.

  8. Plasma equilibrium and confinement in a tokamak with nearly zero central current density in JT-60U.

    PubMed

    Fujita, T; Oikawa, T; Suzuki, T; Ide, S; Sakamoto, Y; Koide, Y; Hatae, T; Naito, O; Isayama, A; Hayashi, N; Shirai, H

    2001-12-10

    A high confinement equilibrium with nearly zero toroidal current in the central region (a "current hole") has been observed for the first time to persist stably for several seconds in the JT-60U tokamak. This observation indicates the possibility of stable tokamak operation without central toroidal current; the central current has previously been believed to be necessary in tokamaks. The radius of the current hole extended up to 40% of the plasma minor radius. It was observed that the current hole was formed by the increase of the off-axis noninductive current.

  9. Preliminary core-engine noise abatement experimental results of a fluid injection nozzle on a JT-15D turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, D. Y.; Wang, P.

    1975-01-01

    Jet noise, as induced by shear stress, in an jet exhaust is investigated. Experiments were performed on a JT-15D fan jet to verify the inward momentum stress reduction concept. The experiments involved making fan air flow convergently around the high velocity core jet with a small angle. Ring airfoils were used as flow separators for the minimization of the thrust loss. Jet exhaust noise reduction of ll db at 30 deg from the jet axis was recorded and 8 db integrated overall noise reduction over a hemisphere was measured with only 4.6% thrust loss, or 152 db/percent thrust loss.

  10. Loss of nuclear expression of parafibromin distinguishes parathyroid carcinomas and hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome-related adenomas from sporadic parathyroid adenomas and hyperplasias.

    PubMed

    Gill, Anthony J; Clarkson, Adele; Gimm, Oliver; Keil, Juliane; Dralle, Henning; Howell, Viive M; Marsh, Deborah J

    2006-09-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma is notoriously difficult to diagnose with confidence in borderline cases. Commonly there is a long lag time between diagnosis and clinical evidence of malignant behavior even in histopathologically straightforward lesions. There is therefore a need for a novel adjunctive marker to assist in the diagnosis of carcinoma. Parafibromin is the protein encoded by the putative tumor suppressor gene HRPT2. Mutations predicted to inactivate parafibromin were first detected in the germline of patients with hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome. Subsequently, somatic mutations have been identified in the majority of sporadic carcinomas. We performed immunohistochemistry for parafibromin on 115 parathyroid tissues comprising 4 HPT-JT-related tumors (3 adenomas and 1 carcinoma), 11 sporadic parathyroid carcinomas, 79 sporadic adenomas, 3 multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A-related adenomas, 2 sporadic primary hyperplasias, 2 multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN)-1-related hyperplasias, 6 secondary hyperplasias, 4 tertiary hyperplasias, and 4 normal parathyroid glands. There was complete absence of nuclear staining in 3 of 4 (75%) HPT-JT-related tumors and 8 of 11 (73%) sporadic parathyroid carcinomas and focal weak staining in 1 of 4 HPT-JT tumors and 2 of 11 sporadic parathyroid carcinomas. Only 1 parathyroid carcinoma exhibited diffuse strong nuclear expression of parafibromin. In contrast, 98 of 100 non-HPT-JT-related benign parathyroids showed diffuse strong nuclear positivity and 2 of 100 showed weak positive staining. We conclude that, in the correct clinical and pathologic context, complete absence of nuclear staining for parafibromin is diagnostic of parathyroid carcinoma or an HPT-JT-related tumor.

  11. Evaluation of the effects of transmission impairments on perceived video quality by exploiting ReTRiEVED dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudyal, Pradip; Battisti, Federica; Carli, Marco

    2017-03-01

    The robust design and adaptation of multimedia networks relies on the study of the influence of potential network impairments on the perceived quality. Video quality may be affected by network impairments, such as delay, jitter, packet loss, and bandwidth, and the perceptual impact of these impairments may vary according to the video content. The effects of packet loss and encoding artifacts on the perceived quality have been widely addressed in the literature. However, the relationship between video content and network impairments on the perceived video quality has not been deeply investigated. A detailed analysis of ReTRiEVED test video dataset, designed by considering a set of potential network impairments, is presented, and the effects of transmission impairments on perceived quality are analyzed. Furthermore, the impact on the perceived quality of the video content in the presence of transmission impairments is studied by using video content descriptors. Finally, the performances of well-known quality metrics are tested on the proposed dataset.

  12. A substorm-associated enhancement in the XUV radiation measuring channel observed by ESP/EVE/SDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yan; Wang, Hua-Ning; Shen, Chao; Du, Zhan-Le

    2016-06-01

    Comparing the ESP/EVE/SDO flux data of 2011 Feb 6, with the counterparts of XRS/GOES and SEM/SOHO, we find that there is an enhancement that is not apparent in the two latter datasets. The enhancement, possibly regarded as a flare at first glimpse, nevertheless, does not involve an energy-release from the Sun. Based on the enhancement, we combine data from SXI/GOES 15 into a synthesized analysis, and concluded that it arises from a particle-associated enhancement in the channel that measures XUV radiation. Paradoxically, it seems to be somewhat of a particle-avalanching process. Prior to the event, a moderate geomagnetic storm took place. Subsequently, while the event is proceeding, a geomagnetic substorm is simultaneously observed. Therefore, the particles, though unidentified, are probably energetic electrons induced by substorm injection.

  13. A surprise southern hemisphere meteor shower on New-Year's Eve 2015: the Volantids (IAU#758, VOL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P.; Baggaley, J.; Crumpton, I.; Aldous, P.; Gural, P. S.; Samuels, D.; Albers, J.; Soja, R.

    2016-04-01

    A new 32-camera CAMS network in New Zealand, spread over two stations on South Island, has detected a high southern declination shower that was active on New Year's Eve, 2015 December 31. During the observing interval from 09h12m - 15h45m UT, 21 out of 59 detected meteors radiated from the constellation of Volans, the flying fish, with a geocentric radiant at RA = 122.9 deg +- 4.7 deg, Dec = -71.9 deg +- 1.9 deg, and speed V_g = 28.4 +- 1.5 km/s. The new year arrived in New Zealand at 11h00m UT. Two more were detected the next night. No activity from this shower was observed the year prior. The meteoroids move in a 48 deg-inclined Jupiter-family comet orbit. The parent body has not yet been identified.

  14. Solar EUV Variability from FISM and SDO/EVE During Solar Minimum, Active, and Flaring Time Periods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2011-01-01

    The Living With a Star (LWS) Focus Science Team has identified three periods of different solar activity levels for which they will be determining the Earth's Ionosphere and Thermosphere response. Not only will the team be comparing individual models (e.g. FLIP, T1MEGCM, GLOW) outcome driven by the various levels of solar activity, but the models themselves will also be compared. These models all rely on the input solar EUV (0.1 -190 nm) irradiance to drive the variability. The Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) and the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard provide the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) provide the most accurate quantification of these irradiances. Presented and discussed are how much the solar EUV irradiance changes during these three scenarios, both as a function of activity and wavelength.

  15. Thermal Evolution of Solar Flares During the First Year of SDO as Seen by the EVE Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Woods, Thomas N.

    2011-01-01

    It is very evident during the first year of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) that the Sun awoke from its prolonged minimum and is well into solar cycle 24. There has been tens of moderate M-class flares and a large X-class event (as of abstract submission), with more surely to come as the solar cycle activity increases. With SDO's 24/7 observations, every single flare has been observed through their entire evolution, providing new insights in the thermal evolution of every flare. It is evident that this evolution is extremely different for many of the flares, even for flares with similar X-ray magnitude classifications. Presented and discussed will be these different flares with their varying thermal evolution profiles as observed by the Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO).

  16. Impact of ion diamagnetic drift on MHD stability at edge pedestal in JT-60U rotating plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiba, N.; Honda, M.; Kamiya, K.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of ion diamagnetic drift on the stability of peeling-ballooning modes in rotating tokamak plasmas has been analyzed numerically. The results show that plasma toroidal rotation can not only destabilize the peeling-ballooning mode but also can reduce the ion diamagnetic drift effect on the mode stability, even though the ion diamagnetic drift effect stabilizes the mode in a static plasma. Plasma poloidal rotation can also destabilize the mode and cancel the ion diamagnetic drift effect, even when the rotation frequency is much smaller than the toroidal one. These impacts of the rotation on the stability can resolve the discrepancy between the result of the numerical stability analysis and the experimental result in type-I ELMy H-mode plasmas in JT-60U. The reduction of the ion diamagnetic drift effect on ELM stability due to plasma rotation is shown to depend on the direction of the rotation, so that the ion diamagnetic drift effect becomes negligible only when the JT-60U plasma rotates in the direction counter to the plasma current.

  17. The 727 airplane side inlet low-speed performance confirmation model test for refanned JT8D engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuehle, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    The results of a low-speed wind tunnel test of a 0.3 scale model 727 airplane side inlet for JT8D-100 engines are presented. The objectives of the test were to develop lines for a full-scale flightworthy inlet, to evaluate inlet total pressure recovery and steady-state total pressure distortion, and to obtain model-scale distortion data which can be used in the assessment of the compatibility of the inlet with the JT8D-100 series engines. A secondary objective was to obtain internal/external cowl static pressures for the determination of nacelle loads. Two basic inlet models were tested at static, forward speed, angle-of-attack (inflow angle), and cross-wind conditions. One model was with and one without an acoustic ring. Two modifications to the models were also tested, one with the ring closer to the inlet throat and one with a larger lip. Test measurements consisted of inlet surface static pressure, engine face total pressure, inlet airflow, tunnel total pressure, tunnel total temperature and tunnel velocity. Total pressure traverses were taken directly behind the ring and strut. No dynamic measurements were taken.

  18. Compact antenna for two-dimensional beam scan in the JT-60U electron cyclotron heating/current drive system

    SciTech Connect

    Moriyama, S.; Kajiwara, K.; Takahashi, K.; Kasugai, A.; Seki, M.; Ikeda, Y.; Fujii, T.

    2005-11-15

    A compact antenna system was designed and fabricated to enable millimeter-wave beam scanning in the toroidal and poloidal directions of the JT-60U tokamak for electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) experiments. The antenna consists of a fast movable flat mirror mounted on the tokamak vacuum vessel and a rotary focusing mirror attached at the end of the waveguide that is supported from outside the vacuum vessel. This separate support concept enables a compact structure inside a shallow port (0.68x0.54x0.2 m) that is shared with a subport for an independent diagnostic system. During a plasma shot, the flat mirror is driven by a servomotor with a 3-m-long drive shaft to reduce the influence of the high magnetic field on the motor. The focusing mirror is rotated by a simple mechanism utilizing a push rod and an air cylinder. The antenna has been operated reliably for 3 years after a small improvement to the rotary drive mechanism. It has made significant contributions to ECH and ECCD experiments, especially the current profile control in JT-60U.

  19. Expanded study of feasibility of measuring in-flight 747/JT9D loads, performance, clearance, and thermal data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.; Martin, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    The JT9D jet engine exhibits a TSFC loss of about 1 percent in the initial 50 flight cycles of a new engine. These early losses are caused by seal-wear induced opening of running clearances in the engine gas path. The causes of this seal wear have been identified as flight induced loads which deflect the engine cases and rotors, causing the rotating blades to rub against the seal surfaces, producing permanent clearance changes. The real level of flight loads encountered during airplane acceptance testing and revenue service and the engine's response in the dynamic flight environment were investigated. The feasibility of direct measurement of these flight loads and their effects by concurrent measurement of 747/JT9D propulsion system aerodynamic and inertia loads and the critical engine clearance and performance changes during 747 flight and ground operations was evaluated. A number of technical options were examined in relation to the total estimated program cost to facilitate selection of the most cost effective option. It is concluded that a flight test program meeting the overall objective of determining the levels of aerodynamic and inertia load levels to which the engine is exposed during the initial flight acceptance test and normal flight maneuvers is feasible and desirable. A specific recommended flight test program, based on the evaluation of cost effectiveness, is defined.

  20. The EVE plus RHESSI DEM for Solar Flares, and Implications for Residual Non-Thermal X-Ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McTiernan, James; Caspi, Amir; Warren, Harry

    2016-05-01

    Solar flare spectra are typically dominated by thermal emission in the soft X-ray energy range. The low energy extent of non-thermal emission can only be loosely quantified using currently available X-ray data. To address this issue, we combine observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) with X-ray data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) to calculate the Differential Emission Measure (DEM) for solar flares. This improvement over the isothermal approximation helps to resolve the ambiguity in the range where the thermal and non-thermal components may have similar photon fluxes. This "crossover" range can extend up to 30 keV.Previous work (Caspi et.al. 2014ApJ...788L..31C) concentrated on obtaining DEM models that fit both instruments' observations well. For this current project we are interested in breaks and cutoffs in the "residual" non-thermal spectrum; i.e., the RHESSI spectrum that is left over after the DEM has accounted for the bulk of the soft X-ray emission. As in our earlier work, thermal emission is modeled using a DEM that is parametrized as multiple gaussians in temperature. Non-thermal emission is modeled as a photon spectrum obtained using a thin-target emission model ('thin2' from the SolarSoft Xray IDL package). Spectra for both instruments are fit simultaneously in a self-consistent manner.For this study, we have examined the DEM and non-thermal resuidual emission for a sample of relatively large (GOES M class and above) solar flares observed from 2011 to 2014. The results for the DEM and non-thermal parameters found using the combined EVE-RHESSI data are compared with those found using only RHESSI data.

  1. Active Control of Inlet Noise on the JT15D Turbofan Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jerome P.; Hutcheson, Florence V.; Burdisso, Ricardo A.; Fuller, Chris R.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the key results obtained by the Vibration and Acoustics Laboratories at Virginia Tech over the year from November 1997 to December 1998 on the Active Noise Control of Turbofan Engines research project funded by NASA Langley Research Center. The concept of implementing active noise control techniques with fuselage-mounted error sensors is investigated both analytically and experimentally. The analytical part of the project involves the continued development of an advanced modeling technique to provide prediction and design guidelines for application of active noise control techniques to large, realistic high bypass engines of the type on which active control methods are expected to be applied. Results from the advanced analytical model are presented that show the effectiveness of the control strategies, and the analytical results presented for fuselage error sensors show good agreement with the experimentally observed results and provide additional insight into the control phenomena. Additional analytical results are presented for active noise control used in conjunction with a wavenumber sensing technique. The experimental work is carried out on a running JT15D turbofan jet engine in a test stand at Virginia Tech. The control strategy used in these tests was the feedforward Filtered-X LMS algorithm. The control inputs were supplied by single and multiple circumferential arrays of acoustic sources equipped with neodymium iron cobalt magnets mounted upstream of the fan. The reference signal was obtained from an inlet mounted eddy current probe. The error signals were obtained from a number of pressure transducers flush-mounted in a simulated fuselage section mounted in the engine test cell. The active control methods are investigated when implemented with the control sources embedded within the acoustically absorptive material on a passively-lined inlet. The experimental results show that the combination of active control techniques with fuselage

  2. A beta-galactoside alpha2,6-sialyltransferase produced by a marine bacterium, Photobacterium leiognathi JT-SHIZ-145, is active at pH 8.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takeshi; Hamada, Yoko; Ichikawa, Masako; Kajiwara, Hitomi; Mine, Toshiki; Tsukamoto, Hiroshi; Takakura, Yoshimitsu

    2007-11-01

    A gene encoding a sialyltransferase produced by Photobacterium leiognathi JT-SHIZ-145 was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The sialyltransferase gene contained an open reading frame of 1494 base pairs (bp) encoding a predicted protein of 497 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence of the sialyltransferase had no significant similarity to mammalian sialyltransferases and did not contain sialyl motifs, but did show high homology to another marine bacterial sialyltransferase, a beta-galactoside alpha2,6-sialyltransferase produced by P. damselae JT0160. The acceptor substrate specificity of the new enzyme was similar to that of the alpha2,6-sialyltransferase from P. damselae JT0160, but its activity was maximal at pH 8. This property is quite different from the properties of all mammalian and bacterial sialyltransferases reported previously, which have maximal activity at acidic pH. In general, both sialosides and cytidine-5'-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid, the common donor substrate of sialyltransferases, are more stable under basic conditions. Therefore, a sialyltransferase with an optimum pH in the basic range should be useful for the preparation of sialosides and the modification of glycoconjugates, such as asialo-glycoproteins and asialo-glycolipids. Thus, the sialyltransferase obtained from P. leiognathi JT-SHIZ-145 is a promising tool for the efficient production of sialosides.

  3. Ionospheric ionization calculated from combined SolACES-SDO/EVE solar EUV spectra and comparison with global TEC at different time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Christoph; Unglaub, Claudia; Schmidtke, Gerhard; Schäfer, Robert; Brunner, Raimund; Woods, Tom; Jakowski, Norbert

    2015-04-01

    Ionospheric response to solar EUV variability during 2012 - 2014 is shown by the EUV-TEC proxy based on primary ionization calculations using combined solar spectra from SDO/EVE and SolACES on board the ISS. The in flight calibrated SolACES spectra have been used to calibrate the continuous SDO/EVE measurements. The results are compared with global TEC analyses. We found that EUV describes TEC variability better than conventional indices, especially during periods of strong solar flare activity. At time scales of the solar rotation, there is a time lag between EUV and TEC variability of about one day, indicating dynamical processes in the ionosphere. This lag is not seen at shorter time scales.

  4. Active Region Soft X-Ray Spectra and Temperature Analyses based on Sounding Rocket Measurements from the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), - a Modified SDO/EVE Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, Leonid V.; Wieman, Seth; Woods, Thomas N.; Jones, Andrew; Moore, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    Some initial results of soft x-ray spectral (0.5 to 3.0 nm) observations of active regions (AR11877 and AR11875) from a sounding rocket flight NASA 36.290 on 21 October 2013 at about 18:30 UT are reported. These observations were made by a Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), a rocket version of the EUV Variability Experiment’s (EVE) channel, a pinhole camera modified for EVE rocket suite of instruments to include a free-standing transmission grating (200 nm period), which provided spectrally-resolved images of the solar disk. Intensity ratios for strong emission lines extracted from temporally averaged SAM spectral profiles of the ARs were compared to appropriately convolved modeled CHIANTI spectra. These ratios represent the AR’s temperature structures, which are compared to the structures derived from some other observations and temperature models.

  5. [Sanitary service of West Special Military District on the eve and in the first days of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945].

    PubMed

    Shelepov, A M; Ishutin, O S; Leonik, S I

    2011-06-01

    This article evaluates military and political situation in the world and operational-strategic environment on the West Theater of operations on the eve of the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945). We analyze structure and overall condition of sanitary service of West Special Military District of the Workers and Peasants Red Army and causes of failure of mobilization, organization and deployment of military units and establishments from the beginning of aggression of Fascist Germany to the Soviet Union.

  6. Large-scale pharmacogenomic study of sulfonylureas and the QT, JT, and QRS intervals: CHARGE Pharmacogenomics Working Group

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, James S; Sitlani, Colleen M; Avery, Christy L; Noordam, Raymond; Li, Xiaohui; Smith, Albert V; Gogarten, Stephanie M; Li, Jin; Broer, Linda; Evans, Daniel S; Trompet, Stella; Brody, Jennifer A; Stewart, James D; Eicher, John D; Seyerle, Amanda A; Roach, Jeffrey; Lange, Leslie A; Lin, Henry J; Kors, Jan A; Harris, Tamara B; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Sattar, Naveed; Cummings, Steven R; Wiggins, Kerri L; Napier, Melanie D; Stürmer, Til; Bis, Joshua C; Kerr, Kathleen F; Uitterlinden, André G; Taylor, Kent D; Stott, David J; de Mutsert, Renée; Launer, Lenore J; Busch, Evan L; Méndez-Giráldez, Raúl; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Li, Yun; Duan, Qing; Rosendaal, Frits R; Slagboom, P Eline; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C; Reiner, Alexander P; Chen, Yii-Der I; Heckbert, Susan R; Kaplan, Robert C; Rice, Kenneth M; Jukema, J Wouter; Johnson, Andrew D; Liu, Yongmei; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Wilson, James G; Rotter, Jerome I; Laurie, Cathy C; Psaty, Bruce M; Whitsel, Eric A; Cupples, L Adrienne; Stricker, Bruno H

    2016-01-01

    Sulfonylureas, a commonly-used class of medication used to treat type 2 diabetes, have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Their effects on QT interval duration and related electrocardiographic phenotypes are potential mechanisms for this adverse effect. In eleven ethnically diverse cohorts that included 71 857 European, African American, and Hispanic/Latino ancestry individuals with repeated measures of medication use and electrocardiogram (ECG) measurements, we conducted a pharmacogenomic genome-wide association study of sulfonylurea use and three ECG phenotypes: QT, JT, and QRS intervals. In ancestry-specific meta-analyses, 8 novel pharmacogenomic loci met the threshold for genome-wide significance (P < 5 x 10−8), and a pharmacokinetic variant in CYP2C9 (rs1057910) that has been associated with sulfonylurea-related treatment effects and other adverse drug reactions in previous studies was replicated. Additional research is needed to replicate the novel findings and to understand their biological basis. PMID:27958378

  7. Investigation of performance deterioration of the CF6/JT9D, high-bypass ratio turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemianski, J. A.; Mehalic, C. M.

    1980-01-01

    The aircraft energy efficiency program within NASA is developing technology required to improve the fuel efficiency of commercial subsonic transport aricraft. One segment of this program includes engine diagnostics which is directed toward determining the sources and causes of performance deterioration in the Pratt and Whitney Aircraft JT9D and General Electric CF6 high-bypass ratio turbofan engines and developing technology for minimizing the performance losses. Results of engine performance deterioration investigations based on historical data, special engine tests, and specific tests to define the influence of flight loads and component clearances on performance are presented. The results of analysis of several damage mechanisms that contribute to performance deterioration such as blade tip rubs, airfoil surface roughness and erosion, and thermal distortion are also included. The significance of these damage mechanisms on component and overall engine performance is discussed.

  8. Comparison of several inflow control devices for flight simulation of fan tone noise using a JT15D-1 engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcardle, J. G.; Jones, W. L.; Heidelberg, L. J.; Homyak, L.

    1980-01-01

    To enable accurate simulation of in-flight fan tone noise during ground static tests, four devices intended to reduce inflow disturbances and turbulence were tested with a JT15D-1 turbofan engine. These inflow control devices (ICD's) consisted of honeycomb/screen structures mounted over the engine inlet. The ICD's ranged from 1.6 to 4 fan diameters in size, and differed in shape and fabrication method. All the ICD's significantly reduced the BPF tone in the far-field directivity patterns, but the smallest ICD's apparently introduced propagating modes which could be recognized by additional lobes in the speeds; at supersonic fan tip speed the smallest ICD's had some measurable loss, but the largest had no loss. Data from a typical transducer show that the unsteady inflow distortion modes (turbulence) were eliminated or significantly reduced when either of the ICD's was installed. However, some steady inflow distortion modes remained.

  9. JT9D-70/59 Improved High Pressure Turbine Active Clearance Control System. [for specific fuel consumption improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffin, W. O.

    1979-01-01

    The JT9D-70/59 high pressure turbine active clearance control system was modified to provide reduction of blade tip clearance when the system is activated during cruise operation. The modification increased the flow capacity and air impingement effectiveness of the cooling air manifold to augment turbine case shrinkage capability, and increased responsiveness of the airseal clearance to case shrinkage. The simulated altitude engine testing indicated a significant improvement in specific fuel consumption with the modified system. A 1000 cycle engine endurance test showed no unusual wear or performance deterioration effects on the engine or the clearance control system. Rig tests indicated that the air impingement and seal support configurations used in the engine tests are near optimum.

  10. Conductor and joint test results of JT-60SA CS and EF coils using the NIFS test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obana, Tetsuhiro; Takahata, Kazuya; Hamaguchi, Shinji; Kizu, Kaname; Murakami, Haruyuki; Chikaraishi, Hirotaka; Noguchi, Hiroki; Kobuchi, Takashi; Moriuchi, Sadatomo; Imagawa, Shinsaku; Mito, Toshiyuki; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Natsume, Kyohei; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Nomoto, Kazuhiro; Kim, Tae-hyun

    2016-01-01

    In 2007, JAEA and NIFS launched the test project to evaluate the performance of cable-in-conduit (CIC) conductors and conductor joints for the JT-60SA CS and EF coils. In this project, conductor tests for four types of coil conductor and joint tests for seven types of conductor joint have been conducted for the past eight years using the NIFS test facility. As a result, the test project indicated that the CIC conductors and conductor joints fulfill the design requirement for the CS and EF coils. In addition, the NIFS test facility is expected to be utilized as the test facility for the development of a conductor and conductor joint for the purpose of the DEMO nuclear fusion power plant, provided that the required magnetic field strength is within 9 T.

  11. Double-Null Divertor Design for JT-60SU, A 10-MA Class Long-Pulse Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    West, W.P.; Friend, M.E.; Baxi, C.B.; Humphreys, D.A.; Leuer, J.A.; Petrie, T.W.; Reis, E.E.; Ishida, S.; Kurita, G.; Neyatani, Y.; Sakasai, A.

    2001-01-15

    The design of a double-null divertor for use in JT-60SU is presented. The free-boundary equilibrium code EFIT is used to establish a symmetric highly triangular double-null plasma shape. The baffle shapes are highly contoured to match the equilibrium, with the plasma-facing surfaces intersecting the flux surfaces at steep angles in the regions of high heat flux. These contoured surfaces also provide a tightly baffled design with small-aperture pumping gaps near both the inner and outer divertor strike points. The gaps provide adequate throughput of D{sub 2} gas for active control of impurity entrainment at reasonable pressures. The structural design is shown to be consistent with both forces from disruptions and thermal stress during vacuum vessel bakeout.

  12. Numerical modeling of a 2K J-T heat exchanger used in Fermilab Vertical Test Stand VTS-1

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Prabhat Kumar; Rabehl, Roger

    2014-07-01

    Fermilab Vertical Test Stand-1 (VTS-1) is in operation since 2007 for testing the superconducting RF cavities at 2 K. This test stand has single layer coiled finned tubes heat exchanger before J-T valve. A finite difference based thermal model has been developed in Engineering Equation Solver (EES) to study its thermal performance during filling and refilling to maintain the constant liquid level of test stand. The model is also useful to predict its performance under other various operating conditions and will be useful to design the similar kind of heat exchanger for future needs. Present paper discusses the different operational modes of this heat exchanger and its thermal characteristics under these operational modes. Results of this model have also been compared with the experimental data gathered from the VTS-1 heat exchanger and they are in good agreement with the present model.

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of the Deep-Sea Bacterium Moritella sp. JT01 and Identification of Biotechnologically Relevant Genes.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Robert Cardoso de; Odisi, Estácio Jussie; Kato, Chiaki; da Silva, Marcus Adonai Castro; Lima, André Oliveira de Souza

    2017-07-22

    Deep-sea bacteria can produce various biotechnologically relevant enzymes due to their adaptations to high pressures and low temperatures. To identify such enzymes, we have sequenced the genome of the polycaprolactone-degrading bacterium Moritella sp. JT01, isolated from sediment samples from Japan Trench (6957 m depth), using a Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencer (12.1 million paired-end reads) and CLC Genomics Workbench (version 6.5.1) for the assembly, resulting in a 4.83-Mb genome (42 scaffolds). The genome was annotated using Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (RAST), Protein Homology/analogY Recognition Engine V 2.0 (PHYRE2), and BLAST2Go, revealing 4439 protein coding sequences and 101 RNAs. Gene products with industrial relevance, such as lipases (three) and esterases (four), were identified and are related to bacterium's ability to degrade polycaprolactone. The annotation revealed proteins related to deep-sea survival, such as cold-shock proteins (six) and desaturases (three). The presence of secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters suggests that this bacterium could produce nonribosomal peptides, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and bacteriocins. To demonstrate the potential of this genome, a lipase was cloned an introduced into Escherichia coli. The lipase was purified and characterized, showing activity over a wide temperature range (over 50% at 20-60 °C) and pH range (over 80% at pH 6.3 to 9). This enzyme has tolerance to the surfactant action of sodium dodecyl sulfate and shows 30% increased activity when subjected to a working pressure of 200 MPa. The genomic characterization of Moritella sp. JT01 reveals traits associated with survival in the deep-sea and their potential uses in biotechnology, as exemplified by the characterized lipase.

  14. Present status of the negative ion based NBI system for long pulse operation on JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Y.; Umeda, N.; Akino, N.; Ebisawa, N.; Grisham, L.; Hanada, M.; Honda, A.; Inoue, T.; Kawai, M.; Kazawa, M.; Kikuchi, K.; Komata, M.; Mogaki, K.; Noto, K.; Okano, F.; Ohga, T.; Oshima, K.; Takenouchi, T.; Tanai, Y.; Usui, K.; Yamazaki, H.; Yamamoto, T.

    2006-06-01

    The 500 keV negative-ion based neutral beam injector for JT-60U started operations in 1996. The availability of the negative ion based neutral beam injection system has been improved gradually by modifying the ion source and optimizing its operation parameters. Recently, the extension of the pulse duration up to 30 s has been intended to study quasi-steady state plasma on JT-60U. The most serious issue is to reduce the heat load on the grids for long pulse operation. Two modifications have been proposed to reduce the heat load. One is to suppress the spread of beamlet-bundle which may be caused by beamlet-beamlet interaction in the multi-aperture grid due to the space charge force. Indeed, the investigation of the beam deflection, which was measured by the infrared camera on the target plate set 3.5 m away from the grid, indicates that the spread of beamlet-bundle is in proportion to the current density. Field-shaping plates were attached on the extraction grid to modify the local electric field. The plate thickness was optimized to steer the beamlet deflection. The other is to reduce the stripping loss, where the electron of the negative ion beam is stripped and accelerated in the accelerator and then collides with the grids. The ion source was modified to reduce the pressure in the accelerator column to suppress the beam-ion stripping loss. To date, long pulse injection of 19 s of 1.5-1.6 MW at a high energy beam of 360 keV, 9-10 A for D- has been obtained by one ion source with these modifications.

  15. Energy loss for grassy ELMs and effects of plasma rotation on the ELM characteristics in JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, N.; Sakamoto, Y.; Isayama, A.; Takechi, M.; Gohil, P.; Lao, L. L.; Snyder, P. B.; Fujita, T.; Ide, S.; Kamada, Y.; Miura, Y.; Oikawa, T.; Suzuki, T.; Takenaga, H.; Toi, K.; JT-60 Team

    2005-08-01

    The energy loss for grassy edge localized modes (ELMs) has been studied to investigate the applicability of the grassy ELM regime to ITER. The grassy ELM regime is characterized by high frequency periodic collapses of 800-1500 Hz, which is ~15 times faster than that for type I ELMs. The divertor peak heat flux due to grassy ELMs is less than 10% of that for type I ELMs. This smaller heat flux is caused by a narrower radial extent of the collapse of the temperature pedestal. The different radial extent between type I ELMs and grassy ELMs agrees qualitatively with the different radial distribution of the eigenfunctions as determined from ideal MHD stability analysis. The dominant ELM energy loss for grassy ELMs appears to be caused by temperature reduction, and its ratio to the pedestal stored energy was 0.4-1%. This ratio is lower by a factor of about 10 than that for type I ELMs, which typically have between 2-10% fractional loss of the pedestal energy. A systematic study of the effects of counter (CTR) plasma rotation on the ELM characteristics has been performed using a combination of tangential and perpendicular neutral beam injections (NBIs) in JT-60U. In the high plasma triangularity (δ) regime, ELM characteristics (e.g. amplitude, frequency and type) can be changed from type I ELMs to high frequency grassy ELMs as the CTR plasma rotation is increased. On the other hand, in the low δ regime, complete ELM suppression (QH-mode) can be sustained for long periods up to 3.4 s (~18τE or energy confinement times), when the plasma position in terms of the clearance between the first wall and the plasma separatrix is optimized during the application of CTR-NBIs. In JT-60U, a transient QH phase was also observed during the CO-NBI phase with almost no net toroidal rotation at the plasma edge.

  16. Role of convective amplification of n = 1 energetic particle modes for N-NB ion dynamics in JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierwage, A.; Shinohara, K.; Aiba, N.; Todo, Y.

    2013-07-01

    The hybrid code MEGA is used to simulate an abrupt large-amplitude event (ALE) in JT-60U shot E039672 that was strongly driven by a pair of negative-ion-based neutral beams (N-NBs). This configuration is known to be unstable to energetic particle modes (EPMs) with toroidal mode number n = 1. The purpose of this study is to look for a threshold with respect to the on-axis fast ion beta value, βh0, beyond which the EPM undergoes convective amplification (CA) and causes significant fast ion transport. This is motivated by the hypothesis that such a threshold may work as a trigger mechanism for relaxation events, such as ALE. In order to facilitate quantitative comparisons with the experiment, a realistic geometry and bulk pressure is used. Furthermore, MEGA is initialized with a fast ion distribution computed for JT-60U by an orbit-following Monte-Carlo code, and a passive vacuum region allows particles to travel without encountering artificial loss boundaries. Consistently with the experiment, the simulation predicts a burst time of about 0.3 ms and peak magnetic fluctuation levels around δBϑ/B < 10-3 at the plasma boundary. As βh0 is increased, a gradual increase in the CA of the EPM and in the convective transport of both resonant and nonresonant particles is found. The absence of a sharp transition between low- and high-amplitude fluctuations leads to the conclusion that the onset of CA does not suffice as a trigger mechanism for ALE.

  17. Sounding Rocket Observations of Active Region Soft X-Ray Spectra Between 0.5 and 2.5 nm Using a Modified SDO/EVE Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, Seth; Didkovsky, Leonid; Woods, Thomas; Jones, Andrew; Moore, Christopher

    2016-12-01

    Spectrally resolved measurements of individual solar active regions (ARs) in the soft X-ray (SXR) range are important for studying dynamic processes in the solar corona and their associated effects on the Earth's upper atmosphere. They are also a means of evaluating atomic data and elemental abundances used in physics-based solar spectral models. However, very few such measurements are available. We present spectral measurements of two individual ARs in the 0.5 to 2.5 nm range obtained on the NASA 36.290 sounding rocket flight of 21 October 2013 (at about 18:30 UT) using the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), a channel of the Extreme Ultaviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) payload designed for underflight calibrations of the orbital EVE on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The EVE rocket instrument is a duplicate of the EVE on SDO, except the SAM channel on the rocket version was modified in 2012 to include a freestanding transmission grating to provide spectrally resolved images of the solar disk with the best signal to noise ratio for the brightest features, such as ARs. Calibrations of the EVE sounding rocket instrument at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (NIST/SURF) have provided a measurement of the SAM absolute spectral response function and a mapping of wavelength separation in the grating diffraction pattern. We discuss techniques (incorporating the NIST/SURF data) for determining SXR spectra from the dispersed AR images as well as the resulting spectra for NOAA ARs 11877 and 11875 observed on the 2013 rocket flight. In comparisons with physics-based spectral models using the CHIANTI v8 atomic database we find that both AR spectra are in good agreement with isothermal spectra (4 MK), as well as spectra based on an AR differential emission measure (DEM) included with the CHIANTI distribution, with the exception of the relative intensities of strong Fe xvii lines associated with 2p6-2p53{s} and 2p6-2p

  18. Charge exchange neutral particle measurements with natural diamond detector under the deuterium-deuterium neutron field on JT-60U tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, M.; Kusama, Y.; Takechi, M.; Nishitani, T.; Morioka, A.; Sasao, M.; Isobe, M.; Krasilnikov, A.; Kaschuck, Yu. A.

    2004-10-01

    A natural diamond detector (NDD) has been installed on the JT-60U tokamak to measure the flux and the energy distribution of charge exchange (CX) fast neutral particles. A NDD has many important advantages to be used as a CX neutral particle analyzer, for example very compact size, high energy resolution, and high radiation hardness etc., while the neutrons and {gamma} rays are a large noise source in the deuterium plasma. The shield was set up around the NDD to reduce those noises. Time-resolved energy distribution of CX neutral particles corresponding to injected beam energy have been successfully obtained under high intensity neutron yield Y{sub n}>10{sup 15} n/s. Further enhanced neutral particle fluxes during sawtooth oscillation and Alfven eigenmodes were observed with the NDD. The performance of the NDD as CX neutral particle spectrometer under high intensity neutron yield was demonstrated for the first time on JT-60U in this work.

  19. Some comparisons of the flyover noise characteristics of DC-9 aircraft having refanned and hardwalled JT8D engines, with special reference to measurement and analysis procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosier, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    Flyover noise measurements were made (using Federal Aviation Regulations, part 36 procedures) of two DC-9 aircraft, one equipped with refanned JT8D-109 engines and the other equipped with hardwalled JT8D-9 engines. NASA analyses show a refan centerline noise reduction of about 9.1 EPNdB and 10.0 EPNdB for takeoff with cutback and 50 deg. flap landing approach, respectively. A comparison of refan and hardwall PNLTM spectra shows that the refan noise reduction may be attributed to lower jet noise levels on takeoff and reduced high-frequency tonal content on landing approach. A general description of the test procedures and results are included along with detailed descriptions of the measurement and analysis systems.

  20. Beamlet deflection due to beamlet-beamlet interaction in a large-area multiaperture negative ion source for JT-60U

    SciTech Connect

    Kamada, M.; Hanada, M.; Ikeda, Y.; Grisham, L. R.; Jiang, W.

    2008-02-15

    The JT-60U negative ion source has been designed to produce high current beams of 22 A through grids of 1080 apertures (five segments with nine rows of 24 apertures). One of the key issues is to steer such a high current beam through the multiaperture grids in order to focus the overall beam envelope because the beamlet-beamlet interaction may deflect the outer beamlets outward due to unbalanced space charge repulsion. To clarify the beam deflection in the JT-60U negative ion source, the beamlet trajectory in a multiaperture ion source was calculated by a three-dimensional simulation code. The measured angles of the outmost beamlets were in agreement with the calculated results where space charge of the beamlets was taken into account. It is noticed that the deflection of the outermost beamlet due to the beamlet-beamlet interaction is saturated at 5.2 mrad outward for beamlets more than ten.

  1. Relationship between composition of mixture charged and that in circulation in an auto refrigerant cascade and a J-T refrigerator operating in liquid refrigerant supply mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenivas, Bura; Nayak, H. Gurudath; Venkatarathnam, G.

    2017-01-01

    The composition of the refrigerant mixture in circulation during steady state operation of J-T and allied refrigerators is not the same as that charged due to liquid hold up in the heat exchangers and phase separators, as well as the differential solubility of different refrigerant components in the compressor lubricating oil. The performance of refrigerators/liquefiers operating on mixed refrigerant cycles is dependent on the mixture composition. It is therefore important to charge the right mixture that results in an optimum composition in circulation during steady state operation. The relationship between the charged and circulating composition has been experimentally studied in a J-T refrigerator operating in the liquid refrigerant supply (LRS) mode and an auto refrigerant cascade refrigerator (with a phase separator) operating in the gas refrigerant supply (GRS) mode. The results of the study are presented in this work. The results show that the method presented earlier for J-T refrigerators operating in GRS mode is also applicable in the case of refrigerators studied in this work.

  2. The EVE plus RHESSI DEM for Solar Flares, and Implications for Residual Non-Thermal Soft X-Ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McTiernan, J. M.; Caspi, A.; Warren, H.

    2016-12-01

    We combine observations of solar flares from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) with X-ray data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) to calculate the Differential Emission Measure (DEM). This improvement over the isothermal approximation is intended to help to resolve ambiguities in the range where thermal and non-thermal emission overlap. For this current project we are interested in constraining cutoffs in the "residual" non-thermal spectrum; i.e., the RHESSI spectrum that is left over after the DEM has accounted for the bulk of the soft X-ray emission. (Previous work by Caspi et.al. 2014ApJ...788L..31C concentrated on obtaining DEM models that fit both instruments' observations well). Solar flare spectra are typically dominated by thermal bremsstrahlung emission in the soft X-ray (< 10 keV) energy range; at higher hard X-ray energies (> 30 keV) the emission is non-thermal from beams of electrons. The low energy extent of non-thermal emission can typically only be loosely quantified. In particular, it is difficult to obtain a lower limit for any possible non-thermal cutoff energy due to the larger amount of thermal emission. In this model, thermal emission is due to a DEM that is parametrized as multiple gaussians in Log(T). Non-thermal emission is modeled as a photon spectrum obtained using thin and thick-target emission models. Spectra for both instruments are fit simultaneously in a self-consistent manner. Preliminary results have been obtained using a sample of 102 large (GOES X and M class) solar flares observed between February 2011 and February 2013. These results show that it is possible to determine low energy cutoffs and breaks early during large flares, and to get good values for the low energy limit to the non-thermal cutoff.

  3. Adam, Eve and the reflux enigma: age and sex differences across the gastro-oesophageal reflux spectrum.

    PubMed

    Royston, Christine; Bardhan, Karna D

    2017-06-01

    We present demographic differences across the gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) spectrum in a UK District General Hospital. Data were prospectively collected over 37 years. At endoscopy patients were categorized as: erosive oesophagitis (EO), Barrett's oesophagus (BO) or nonerosive reflux disease (NER). Analysis 1: comparison of EO, BO and NER 1977-2001 when the database for GORD without BO closed. Analysis 2: demographic differences in oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) in total BO population diagnosed 1977-2011. GORD 1977-2001 (n=11 944): sex, male predominance in EO and BO but not NER; male : female ratios, 1.81, 1.65, 0.87, respectively (P<0.0001); mean age at presentation, EO 54 years, BO 62 years, NER 50 years; women were older than men by 10, 7 and 6 years, respectively.BO 1977-2011: prevalent OAC, 87/1468 (6%); male : female ratio, 4.1 (P<0.0001); incident OAC, 54/1381 (3.9%); male : female ratio, 3.5 (P<0.0001). Among all BO, more men developed OAC (3 vs. 0.9%). Within each sex, proportion of OAC higher among men (4.9 vs. 2.3%); at OAC diagnosis women were slightly but not significantly older (69.9 vs. 72.3 years, P=0.322). Two views may explain our findings. First, women have either milder reflux, or reduced mucosal sensitivity hence reflux remains silent for longer. Alternatively, women genuinely develop reflux later, that is, are more protected and for longer from developing GORD and its complications. Early evidence is emerging that female sex hormones may indeed have a protective role in GORD during the reproductive period. We suggest reflux and its consequences may be an example of 'protection' conferred on Eve.

  4. The Multi-Instrument (EVE-RHESSI) DEM for Solar Flares, and Implications for Non-thermal Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McTiernan, J. M.; Caspi, A.; Warren, H. P.

    2013-12-01

    Observations of hard X-ray bremmstrahlung from solar flares directly probe the non-thermal electron population. For low energies, however, the spectra are typically dominated by thermal emission and the low energy extent of the non-thermal spectrum can be only loosely quantified. To address this issue, we combine observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and X-ray data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). For a sample of solar flares, we model the emission using a Differential Emission Measure (DEM) for the thermal emission seen with both instruments and a power law fit for the non-thermal emission observed by RHESSI. Spectra for both instruments are fit simultaneously in a self-consistent manner. This improvement over the traditional isothermal approximation for thermal flare emission is intended to resolve the ambiguity in the range where the thermal and non-thermal components may have similar photon fluxes. This "crossover" range can extend up to 30 keV for medium to large solar flares. It is expected that a low energy cutoff of the non-thermal electron spectrum is in this energy range, but is obscured by thermal emission. For each flare in the sample we establish limits for the low energy cutoff of the non-thermal spectrum. These limits, in turn, can be used to establish limits on the energy of non-thermal electrons accelerated during the flare. This research is supported by NASA contract NAS5-98033 and NASA Heliophysics Guest Investigator Grant NNX12AH48G.

  5. Surface discharge related properties of fiberglass reinforced plastic insulator for use in neutral beam injector of JT-60U

    SciTech Connect

    Yamano, Y.; Takahashi, M.; Kobayashi, S.; Hanada, M.; Ikeda, Y.

    2008-02-15

    Neutral beam injection (NBI) used for JT-60U is required to generate negative ions of 500 keV energies. To produce such high-energy ions, three-stage electrostatic accelerators consisting of three insulator rings made of fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) are applied. The surface discharges along FRP insulators are one of the most serious problems in the development of NBI. To increase the hold-off voltage against surface flashover events, it is necessary to investigate the FRP insulator properties related to surface discharges in vacuum. This paper describes surface flashover characteristics for FRP and alumina samples under vacuum condition. The results show that the fold-off voltages for FRP samples are inferior to those of alumina ceramics. In addition, measurement results of surface resistivity and volume resistivity under vacuum and atmospheric conditions, secondary electron emission characteristics, and cathodoluminescence under some keV electron beam irradiation are also reported. These are important parameters to analyze surface discharge of insulators in vacuum.

  6. A CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid synthetase purified from a marine bacterium, Photobacterium leiognathi JT-SHIZ-145.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Hitomi; Mine, Toshiki; Miyazaki, Tatsuo; Yamamoto, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    A cytidine 5'-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-Neu5Ac) synthetase was found in a crude extract prepared from Photobacterium leiognathi JT-SHIZ-145, a marine bacterium that also produces a β-galactoside α2,6-sialyltransferase. The CMP-Neu5Ac synthetase was purified from the crude extract of the cells by a combination of anion-exchange and gel filtration column chromatography. The purified enzyme migrated as a single band (60 kDa) on sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The activity of the enzyme was maximal at 35 °C at pH 9.0, and the synthetase required Mg(2+) for activity. Although these properties are similar to those of other CMP-Neu5Ac synthetases isolated from bacteria, this synthetase produced not only CMP-Neu5Ac from cytidine triphosphate and Neu5Ac, but also CMP-N-glycolylneuraminic acid from cytidine triphosphate and N-glycolylneuraminic acid, unlike CMP-Neu5Ac synthetase purified from Escherichia coli.

  7. Optical designs of reflection and refraction collection optics for a JT-60SA core Thomson scattering system.

    PubMed

    Tojo, H; Hatae, T; Hamano, T; Sakuma, T; Itami, K

    2013-09-01

    Collection optics for core measurements in a JT-60SA Thomson scattering system were designed. The collection optics will be installed in a limited space and have a wide field of view and wide wavelength range. Two types of the optics are therefore suggested: refraction and reflection types. The reflection system, with a large primary mirror, avoids large chromatic aberrations. Because the size limit of the primary mirror and vignetting due to the secondary mirror affect the total collection throughput, conditions that provide the high throughput are found through an optimization. A refraction system with four lenses forming an Ernostar system is also employed. The use of high-refractive-index glass materials enhances the freedom of the lens curvatures, resulting in suppression of the spherical and coma aberration. Moreover, sufficient throughput can be achieved, even with smaller lenses than that of a previous design given in [H. Tojo, T. Hatae, T. Sakuma, T. Hamano, K. Itami, Y. Aida, S. Suitoh, and D. Fujie, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10D539 (2010)]. The optical resolutions of the reflection and refraction systems are both sufficient for understanding the spatial structures in plasma. In particular, the spot sizes at the image of the optics are evaluated as ~0.3 mm and ~0.4 mm, respectively. The throughput for the two systems, including the pupil size and transmissivity, are also compared. The results show that good measurement accuracy (<10%) even at high electron temperatures (<30 keV) can be expected in the refraction system.

  8. Large-scale pharmacogenomic study of sulfonylureas and the QT, JT and QRS intervals: CHARGE Pharmacogenomics Working Group.

    PubMed

    Floyd, J S; Sitlani, C M; Avery, C L; Noordam, R; Li, X; Smith, A V; Gogarten, S M; Li, J; Broer, L; Evans, D S; Trompet, S; Brody, J A; Stewart, J D; Eicher, J D; Seyerle, A A; Roach, J; Lange, L A; Lin, H J; Kors, J A; Harris, T B; Li-Gao, R; Sattar, N; Cummings, S R; Wiggins, K L; Napier, M D; Stürmer, T; Bis, J C; Kerr, K F; Uitterlinden, A G; Taylor, K D; Stott, D J; de Mutsert, R; Launer, L J; Busch, E L; Méndez-Giráldez, R; Sotoodehnia, N; Soliman, E Z; Li, Y; Duan, Q; Rosendaal, F R; Slagboom, P E; Wilhelmsen, K C; Reiner, A P; Chen, Y-DI; Heckbert, S R; Kaplan, R C; Rice, K M; Jukema, J W; Johnson, A D; Liu, Y; Mook-Kanamori, D O; Gudnason, V; Wilson, J G; Rotter, J I; Laurie, C C; Psaty, B M; Whitsel, E A; Cupples, L A; Stricker, B H

    2016-12-13

    Sulfonylureas, a commonly used class of medication used to treat type 2 diabetes, have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Their effects on QT interval duration and related electrocardiographic phenotypes are potential mechanisms for this adverse effect. In 11 ethnically diverse cohorts that included 71 857 European, African-American and Hispanic/Latino ancestry individuals with repeated measures of medication use and electrocardiogram (ECG) measurements, we conducted a pharmacogenomic genome-wide association study of sulfonylurea use and three ECG phenotypes: QT, JT and QRS intervals. In ancestry-specific meta-analyses, eight novel pharmacogenomic loci met the threshold for genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), and a pharmacokinetic variant in CYP2C9 (rs1057910) that has been associated with sulfonylurea-related treatment effects and other adverse drug reactions in previous studies was replicated. Additional research is needed to replicate the novel findings and to understand their biological basis.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 13 December 2016; doi:10.1038/tpj.2016.90.

  9. Surface discharge related properties of fiberglass reinforced plastic insulator for use in neutral beam injector of JT-60U.

    PubMed

    Yamano, Y; Takahashi, M; Kobayashi, S; Hanada, M; Ikeda, Y

    2008-02-01

    Neutral beam injection (NBI) used for JT-60U is required to generate negative ions of 500 keV energies. To produce such high-energy ions, three-stage electrostatic accelerators consisting of three insulator rings made of fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) are applied. The surface discharges along FRP insulators are one of the most serious problems in the development of NBI. To increase the hold-off voltage against surface flashover events, it is necessary to investigate the FRP insulator properties related to surface discharges in vacuum. This paper describes surface flashover characteristics for FRP and alumina samples under vacuum condition. The results show that the fold-off voltages for FRP samples are inferior to those of alumina ceramics. In addition, measurement results of surface resistivity and volume resistivity under vacuum and atmospheric conditions, secondary electron emission characteristics, and cathodoluminescence under some keV electron beam irradiation are also reported. These are important parameters to analyze surface discharge of insulators in vacuum.

  10. Aerodynamic performance of 0.4066-scale model of JT8D refan stage with S-duct inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. D.; Kovich, G.; Lewis, G. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A scale model of the JT8D refan stage was tested with a scale model of the S-duct inlet design for the refanned Boeing 727 center engine. Detailed survey data of pressures, temperatures, and flow angles were obtained over a range of flows at speeds from 70 to 97 percent of design speed. Two S-duct configurations were tested; one with a bellmouth inlet and the other with a flight lip inlet. The results indicated that the overall performance was essentially unaffected by the distortion generated by the S-duct inlet. The stall weight flow increased by less than 0.5 kg/sec (approximately 1.5% of design flow) with the S-duct inlet compared with that obtained with uniform flow. The detailed measurements indicated that the inlet guide vane (IGV) significantly reduced circumferential variations. For example, the flow angles ahead of the IGV were positive in the right half of the inlet and negative in the left half. Behind the IGV, the flow angles tended to be more uniform circumferentially.

  11. Titanium honeycomb acoustic lining structural and thermal test report. [for acoustic tailpipe for JT8D engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joynes, D.; Balut, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of static, fatigue and thermal testing of titanium honeycomb acoustic panels representing the acoustic tailpipe for the Pratt and Whitney Aircraft JT8D Refan engine which is being studied for use on the Boeing 727-200 airplane. Test specimens represented the engine and tailpipe flange joints, the rail to which the thrust reverser is attached and shear specimens of the tailpipe honeycomb. Specimens were made in four different batches with variations in configuration, materials and processes in each. Static strength of all test specimens exceeded the design ultimate load requirements. Fatigue test results confirmed that aluminum brazed titanium, as used in the Refan tailpipe design, meets the fatigue durability objectives. Quality of welding was found to be critical to life, with substandard welding failing prematurely, whereas welding within the process specification exceeded the panel skin life. Initial fatigue testing used short grip length bolts which failed prematurely. These were replaced with longer bolts and subsequent testing demonstrated the required life. Thermal tests indicate that perforated skin acoustic honeycomb has approximately twice the heat transfer of solid skin honeycomb.

  12. Detailed in situ laser calibration of the infrared imaging video bolometer for the JT-60U tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parchamy, H.; Peterson, B. J.; Konoshima, S.; Hayashi, H.; Seo, D. C.; Ashikawa, N.; JT-60U Team

    2006-10-01

    The infrared imaging video bolometer (IRVB) in JT-60U includes a single graphite-coated gold foil with an effective area of 9 × 7 cm 2 and a thickness of 2.5 μ m . The thermal images of the foil resulting from the plasma radiation are provided by an IR camera. The calibration technique of the IRVB gives confidence in the absolute levels of the measured values of the plasma radiation. The in situ calibration is carried out in order to obtain local foil properties such as the thermal diffusivity κ and the product of the thermal conductivity k and the thickness t f of the foil. These quantities are necessary for solving the two-dimensional heat diffusion equation of the foil which is used in the experiments. These parameters are determined by comparing the measured temperature profiles (for k t f ) and their decays (for κ ) with the corresponding results of a finite element model using the measured HeNe laser power profile as a known radiation power source. The infrared camera (Indigo/Omega) is calibrated by fitting the temperature rise of a heated plate to the resulting camera data using the Stefan-Boltzmann law.

  13. Spatial Variation of the Foil Parameters from in Situ Calibration of the JT-60U Imaging Bolometer Foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araghy, Homaira P.; Peterson, Byron J.; Hayashi, Hiromi; Konoshima, Shigeru; Ashikawa, Naoko; Seo, Dongcheol; JT-60U Team

    We obtained the local foil properties of the JT-60U imaging bolometer foil (a single graphite-coated gold foil with an effective area of 9 × 7 cm2 and a nominal thickness of 2.5 μm) such as the thermal diffusivity, κ, and the product of the thermal conductivity, k, and the thickness, tf , by calibrating some parts of the foil. Calibration of the foil was made in situ using a He-Ne laser (˜27 mW) as a known radiation source to heat the foil. The thermal images of the foil are provided by an infrared (IR) camera (microbolometer type). The parameters are determined by finite element modeling (FEM) of the foil temperature and comparing the solution to the experimental results. In this work we apply this calibration technique to investigate the spatial variation of the foil parameters. Significant variation in the local temperature rise of the foil due to local heating by the laser beam indicates a spatial variation of the foil parameters κ, k and tf. This variation is possibly due to nonuniformity in carbon coating and/or the thickness of the foil.

  14. The effect of the electron temperature and current density profiles on the plasma current decay in JT-60U disruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Y.; Isayama, A.; Miyamoto, S.; Kawakami, S.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Matsunaga, G.; Kawano, Y.; Lukash, V. E.; Khayrutdinov, R. R.; the JT-60 Team

    2014-04-01

    The plasma current decay during the initial phase of the current quench in JT-60U disruption has been calculated by a disruption simulation code (DINA) using the measured electron temperature Te profile. In the case of fast plasma current decay, Te has a peaked profile immediately after a thermal quench and the Te profile does not change significantly during the initial phase of the current quench. On the other hand, in the case of a slow plasma current decay, the Te profile is broader immediately after the thermal quench, and the Te profile shrinks. The results of the DINA simulation show that the plasma internal inductance Li increases during the initial phase of the current quench, whereas the plasma external inductance Le does not change over time. If the plasma is represented by a simple electrical circuit, the time derivative of Li functions as a resistance on the plasma current decay. It was confirmed that the increase in Li is caused by current diffusion toward the core plasma due to the decrease in Te in the intermediate and edge regions.

  15. Optical designs of reflection and refraction collection optics for a JT-60SA core Thomson scattering system

    SciTech Connect

    Tojo, H.; Hatae, T.; Hamano, T.; Sakuma, T.; Itami, K.

    2013-09-15

    Collection optics for core measurements in a JT-60SA Thomson scattering system were designed. The collection optics will be installed in a limited space and have a wide field of view and wide wavelength range. Two types of the optics are therefore suggested: refraction and reflection types. The reflection system, with a large primary mirror, avoids large chromatic aberrations. Because the size limit of the primary mirror and vignetting due to the secondary mirror affect the total collection throughput, conditions that provide the high throughput are found through an optimization. A refraction system with four lenses forming an Ernostar system is also employed. The use of high-refractive-index glass materials enhances the freedom of the lens curvatures, resulting in suppression of the spherical and coma aberration. Moreover, sufficient throughput can be achieved, even with smaller lenses than that of a previous design given in [H. Tojo, T. Hatae, T. Sakuma, T. Hamano, K. Itami, Y. Aida, S. Suitoh, and D. Fujie, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10D539 (2010)]. The optical resolutions of the reflection and refraction systems are both sufficient for understanding the spatial structures in plasma. In particular, the spot sizes at the image of the optics are evaluated as ∼0.3 mm and ∼0.4 mm, respectively. The throughput for the two systems, including the pupil size and transmissivity, are also compared. The results show that good measurement accuracy (<10%) even at high electron temperatures (<30 keV) can be expected in the refraction system.

  16. Self-consistent long-time simulation of chirping and beating energetic particle modes in JT-60U plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierwage, A.; Shinohara, K.; Todo, Y.; Aiba, N.; Ishikawa, M.; Matsunaga, G.; Takechi, M.; Yagi, M.

    2017-01-01

    Recurring bursts of chirping Alfvén modes that were observed in JT-60U tokamak plasmas driven by negative-ion-based neutral beams (N-NB) are reproduced in first-principle simulations performed with an extended version of the hybrid code MEGA. This code simulates the interactions between gyrokinetic fast ions and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes in the presence of a realistic fast ion source and collisions, so that it self-consistently captures dynamics across a wide range of time scales (0.01-100 ms). The simulation confirms that the experimentally observed phenomena known as ‘fast frequency sweeping (fast FS) modes’ are caused by bursts of energetic particle modes (EPM) with dominant toroidal mode number n  =  1. On the long time scale (1-10 ms), the simulation reproduces the chirping range (40-60 kHz), the burst duration (few ms) and intervals (5-10 ms). On the short time scale (0.01-0.1 ms), it reproduces pulsations and phase jumps, which we interpret as the result of beating between multiple resonant wave packets. Having reproduced at multiple levels of detail the dynamics of low-amplitude long-wavelength Alfvén modes driven by N-NB ions, the next goal is to reproduce and explain abrupt large-amplitude events (ALE) that were seen in the same experiments at longer time intervals (10-100 ms).

  17. Compatibility of advanced tokamak plasma with high density and high radiation loss operation in JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaga, H.; Asakura, N.; Kubo, H.; Higashijima, S.; Konoshima, S.; Nakano, T.; Oyama, N.; Porter, G. D.; Rognlien, T. D.; Rensink, M. E.; Ide, S.; Fujita, T.; Takizuka, T.; Kamada, Y.; Miura, Y.; JT-60 Team

    2005-12-01

    Compatibility of advanced tokamak plasmas with high density and high radiation loss has been investigated in both reversed shear (RS) plasmas and high βp H-mode plasmas with a weak positive shear on JT-60U. In the RS plasmas, the operating regime is extended to high density above the Greenwald density (nGW) with high confinement (HHy2 > 1) and high radiation loss fraction (frad > 0.9) by tailoring the internal transport barriers (ITBs). With a small plasma-wall gap, the radiation loss in the main plasma (inside the magnetic separatrix) reaches 80% of the heating power due to metal impurity accumulation. However, high confinement of HHy2 = 1.2 is sustained even with such a large radiation loss in the main plasma. By neon seeding, the divertor radiation loss is enhanced from 20% to 40% of the total radiation loss. In the high βp H-mode plasmas, high confinement (HHy2 = 0.96) is maintained at high density ( \\bar{n}_{\\rme}/n_GW=0.92 ) with high radiation loss fraction (frad ~ 1) by utilizing high-field-side pellets and argon (Ar) injection. The high \\bar{n}_{\\rme}/n_GW is attributed to the formation of strong density ITB. Strong core-edge parameter linkage for confinement improvement is observed, where the pedestal pressure and the core plasma confinement increase together. The measured radiation profile including contributions from all impurities in the main plasma is peaked, and the central radiation is ascribed to the contribution from Ar accumulated inside the ITB. Impurity transport analyses indicate that the Ar density profile, twice as peaked as the electron density profile, which is the same level as that observed in the high βp H-mode plasma, can yield an acceptable radiation profile even with a peaked density profile in a fusion reactor.

  18. Long-pulse production of high current negative ion beam by using actively temperature controlled plasma grid for JT-60SA negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, A.; Hanada, M.; Yoshida, M.; Umeda, N.; Hiratsuka, J.; Kashiwagi, M.; Tobari, H.; Watanabe, K.; Grisham, L. R.

    2015-04-08

    The temperature control system of the large-size plasma grid has been developed to realize the long pulse production of high-current negative ions for JT-60SA. By using this prototype system for the JT-60SA ion source, 15 A negative ions has been sustained for 100 s for the first time, which is three times longer than that obtained in JT-60U. In this system, a high-temperature fluorinated fluid with a high boiling point of 270 degree Celsius is circulated in the cooling channels of the plasma grids (PG) where a cesium (Cs) coverage is formed to enhance the negative ion production. Because the PG temperature control had been applied to only 10% of the extraction area previously, the prototype PG with the full extraction area (110 cm × 45 cm) was developed to increase the negative ion current in this time. In the preliminary results of long pulse productions of high-current negative ions at a Cs conditioning phase, the negative ion production was gradually degraded in the last half of 100 s pulse where the temperature of an arc chamber wall was not saturated. From the spectroscopic measurements, it was found that the Cs flux released from the wall might affect to the negative ion production, which implied the wall temperature should be kept low to control the Cs flux to the PG for the long-pulse high-current production. The obtained results of long-pulse production and the PG temperature control method contributes the design of the ITER ion source.

  19. Design and development of a four-cell sorption compressor based J-T cooler using R134a as working fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, R. N.; Bapat, S. L.; Atrey, M. D.

    2014-01-29

    The need of a cooler with no electromagnetic interference and practically zero vibration has led to sorption compressor based Joule-Thomson (J-T) coolers. These are useful for sophisticated electronic, ground based and space borne systems. In a Sorption compressor, adsorbed gases are desorbed into a confined volume by raising temperature of the sorption bed resulting in an increase in pressure of the liberated gas. In order to have the system (compressor) functioning on a continuous basis, with almost a constant gas flow rate, multiple cells are used with the adaptation of Temperature Swing Adsorption (TSA) process. As the mass of the desorbed gas dictates the compressor throughput, a combination of sorbent material with high adsorption capacity for a chosen gas or gas mixture has to be selected for efficient operation of the compressor. Commercially available (coconut-shell base) activated carbon has been selected for the present application. The characterization study for variation of discharge pressure is used to design the Four-cell sorption compressor based cryocooler with a desired output. Apart from compressor, the system includes a) After cooler b) Return gas heat exchanger c) capillary tube as the J-T expansion device and d) Evaporator.

  20. Characteristics of confinement and fusion reactivity in JT-60U high-{beta}{rho} and TFTR supershot regimes with deuterium neutral beam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.K.; Bell, M.G.; Yamada, M.

    1995-03-01

    The high performance regimes achieved in JT-60U and TFTR have produced peak DD fusion neutron rates up to 5.6 {times} 10{sup 16}/s for similar heating beam powers, in spite of considerable differences in machine operation and plasma configuration. A common scaling for the DD fusion neutron rate (S{sub DD} {proportional_to} P{sub abs}{sup 2.0} H{sub ne} V{sub p}{sup {minus}0.9}) is obtained, where P{sub abs} and H{sub ne} are the absorbed beam power and beam fueling peaking factor, respectively, and V{sub p} is the plasma volume. The maximum stored energy obtained in each machine has been up to 5.4 MJ in TFTR and 8.7 MJ in JT-60U. Further improvements in the fusion neutron rate and the stored energy are limited by the {beta}-limit in Troyon range, {beta}{sub N} {approximately} 2.0--2.5. A common scaling for the stored energy (W{sub tot} {proportional_to} P{sub abs}V{sub p}H{sub ne}{sup 0.2}) is also proposed.

  1. Numerical investigation of transient behaviour of the recuperative heat exchanger in a MR J-T cryocooler using different heat transfer correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damle, R. M.; Ardhapurkar, P. M.; Atrey, M. D.

    2016-12-01

    In J-T cryocoolers operating with mixed refrigerants (nitrogen-hydrocarbons), the recuperative heat exchange takes place under two-phase conditions. Simultaneous boiling of the low pressure stream and condensation of the high pressure stream results in higher heat transfer coefficients. The mixture composition, operating conditions and the heat exchanger design are crucial for obtaining the required cryogenic temperature. In this work, a one-dimensional transient algorithm is developed for the simulation of the two-phase heat transfer in the recuperative heat exchanger of a mixed refrigerant J-T cryocooler. Modified correlation is used for flow boiling of the high pressure fluid while different condensation correlations are employed with and without the correction for the low pressure fluid. Simulations are carried out for different mixture compositions and numerical predictions are compared with the experimental data. The overall heat transfer is predicted reasonably well and the qualitative trends of the temperature profiles are also captured by the developed numerical model.

  2. Design and development of a four-cell sorption compressor based J-T cooler using R134a as working fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, R. N.; Bapat, S. L.; Atrey, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    The need of a cooler with no electromagnetic interference and practically zero vibration has led to sorption compressor based Joule-Thomson (J-T) coolers. These are useful for sophisticated electronic, ground based and space borne systems. In a Sorption compressor, adsorbed gases are desorbed into a confined volume by raising temperature of the sorption bed resulting in an increase in pressure of the liberated gas. In order to have the system (compressor) functioning on a continuous basis, with almost a constant gas flow rate, multiple cells are used with the adaptation of Temperature Swing Adsorption (TSA) process. As the mass of the desorbed gas dictates the compressor throughput, a combination of sorbent material with high adsorption capacity for a chosen gas or gas mixture has to be selected for efficient operation of the compressor. Commercially available (coconut-shell base) activated carbon has been selected for the present application. The characterization study for variation of discharge pressure is used to design the Four-cell sorption compressor based cryocooler with a desired output. Apart from compressor, the system includes a) After cooler b) Return gas heat exchanger c) capillary tube as the J-T expansion device and d) Evaporator.

  3. Extensive scaling and nonuniformity of the Karhunen-Lo{grave e}ve decomposition for the spiral-defect chaos state

    SciTech Connect

    Zoldi, S.M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J.; Greenside, H.S.

    1998-12-01

    By analyzing large-aspect-ratio spiral-defect chaos (SDC) convection images, we show that the Karhunen-Lo{grave e}ve decomposition (KLD) scales extensively for subsystem sizes larger than 4d ({ital d} is the fluid depth), which strongly suggests that SDC is extensively chaotic. From this extensive scaling, the intensive length {xi}{sub KLD} is computed and found to have a different dependence on the Rayleigh number than the two-point correlation length {xi}{sub 2}. Local computations of {xi}{sub KLD} reveal a spatial nonuniformity of SDC images that extends over radii 18d{lt}r{lt}45d in a {Gamma}=109 aspect-ratio cell. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. SOLACES - Presenting the Level 3 dataset and a completion of the years 2010 to 2013 using the SDO/EVE experiment data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeifer, Marcel; Brunner, Raimund; Schmidtke, Gerhard; Nikutowski, Bernd; Erhardt, Christian; Eparvier, Francis G.

    In October 2013 the SolACES Team published the Level 2 dataset. It is a compilation of over 500 spectra ranging from 16-58 nm for the time period of 2008 - 2010. To complete the time period until end of 2013 the SolACES Team will present the process of calculating calibrated spectral data from spectrometer and ionization chamber measurements. We will also present a modelling process generating calibrated spectra directly from ionization chamber measurements. The evaluated dataset is interpolated using time series coming from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) - Extreme ultraviolet variability experiment (EVE) generating a full time series of data from the beginning of 2011 to the end of 2013.

  5. C.T. Jackson's 15 October 1846 letter to J.-B.A.L. Elie de Beaumont: Jackson's thoughts on Ether Day's Eve?

    PubMed

    Bause, George S; Sim, Patrick P

    2011-01-01

    As did the previous letter on 30 November 1845 from Charles T. Jackson to J.-B.A.L. Elie de Beaumont, this 15 October 1846 missive underscores the cordial professional relationship between the two geologists. Remarkably, in this "Ether Day's Eve" letter, Jackson never reveals whether he had any clue that W.T.G. Morton would be publicly demonstrating ether anesthesia for surgery the next morning. More importantly, since Elie de Beaumont would play a future pivotal role in assigning initial credit for "discovering anesthesia" to his geological colleague Jackson, rather than to Morton, letters such as these from November of 1845 and October of 1846 can only raise more questions about the impartiality of Elie de Beaumont.

  6. Temporal and spatial responses of temperature, density and rotation to electron cyclotron heating in JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, M.; Ide, S.; Takenaga, H.; Honda, M.; Urano, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Nakata, M.; Miyato, N.; Kamada, Y.

    2013-08-01

    The temporal and spatial responses of electron channels (the electron density, ne, and the electron temperature, Te) and ion channels (the ion temperature, Ti, and the toroidal rotation velocity, Vφ) to central electron cyclotron heating (ECH) have been investigated in positive shear H-mode plasmas with a relatively peaked Ti profile and internal transport barrier (ITB) plasmas on JT-60U. Ion temperature decreases with ECH after the increase in the electron temperature in the core region. The time scale of the change in Ti is ≈30-60 ms in H-mode plasmas and almost constant in radius. In ITB plasmas, the time scale is shorter around the ITB foot and becomes longer inside the ITB foot. The experimentally measured causality indicates that the decrease in Ti is consistent with the ion temperature gradient critical gradient reduction. This is also verified through a comparison with linear gyrokinetic stability analyses. The electron heat diffusivity increases with ECH in both H-mode and ITB plasmas, correlating to the increase in the ion heat diffusivity. Electron density with a relatively flat ne profile does not decrease with ECH. On the other hand, the electron density with a peaked ne profile decreases with ECH. The flattening of the ne profile is observed after the increase in the electron temperature in the core region. The time scale of the change in ne is about 200-350 ms. Linear gyrokinetic stability analyses imply that the growth rate of the trapped electron modes, which increase outward particle flux, becomes more pronounced during ECH. The counter intrinsic rotation with ECH is identified on H-mode plasmas with a small torque input (BAL-NBI). The counter intrinsic rotation is generated after the increase in the electron temperature and correlates to the change in the electron temperature with ECH around the EC deposition. The radial region where the counter intrinsic rotation is observed is wider than the radial region where the electron temperature

  7. How are women living with HIV in France coping with their perceived side effects of antiretroviral therapy? Results from the EVE study.

    PubMed

    Quatremère, Guillemette; Guiguet, Marguerite; Girardi, Patricia; Liaud, Marie-Noëlle; Mey, Coline; Benkhoucha, Cynthia; Barbier, Franck; Cattaneo, Graciela; Simon, Anne; Rojas Castro, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Side effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) can have a negative impact on health-related quality of life threatening long-term retention in HIV care and adherence to ART. The aim of the French community-based survey EVE was to document personal experiences with side effects, the related physician-patient communication, and solutions found to deal with them. Cross-sectional study of women between September 2013 to September 2014. An anonymous online questionnaire included the HIV Symptom Distress Module, which explores 20 symptoms. In all, 301 women on ART participated in the study (median age: 49 years; median duration of ART: 14 years). They reported having experienced a median of 12 symptoms (Q1-Q3: 9-15) during the previous 12 months. Overall, 56% of them reported having found at least a partial solution to dealing with their symptoms. Women reporting financial difficulties were twice less likely to have found solutions to coping with their side effects (AOR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3-0.8). Feeling supported by the health-care provider (AOR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1-3.9) and being in contact with HIV/AIDS organisations (AOR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2-3.2) were positively associated with coping. Seventeen percent reported having modified their ART regimen to improve tolerance, with only 2 in 3 informing their physician afterwards. Reporting financial difficulties and living with more bothersome symptoms increased the risk of ART regimen modification without health-care provider consultation. The EVE study has called attention to the large number of side effects experienced by WLWHIV, only half of whom have found self-care strategies to manage their symptoms. Modification of ART regimen by the women themselves was not uncommon.

  8. How are women living with HIV in France coping with their perceived side effects of antiretroviral therapy? Results from the EVE study

    PubMed Central

    Quatremère, Guillemette; Guiguet, Marguerite; Girardi, Patricia; Liaud, Marie-Noëlle; Mey, Coline; Benkhoucha, Cynthia; Barbier, Franck; Cattaneo, Graciela; Simon, Anne; Rojas Castro, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Objective Side effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) can have a negative impact on health-related quality of life threatening long-term retention in HIV care and adherence to ART. The aim of the French community-based survey EVE was to document personal experiences with side effects, the related physician-patient communication, and solutions found to deal with them. Design Cross-sectional study of women between September 2013 to September 2014 Methods An anonymous online questionnaire included the HIV Symptom Distress Module, which explores 20 symptoms. Results In all, 301 women on ART participated in the study (median age: 49 years; median duration of ART: 14 years). They reported having experienced a median of 12 symptoms (Q1-Q3: 9–15) during the previous 12 months. Overall, 56% of them reported having found at least a partial solution to dealing with their symptoms. Women reporting financial difficulties were twice less likely to have found solutions to coping with their side effects (AOR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3–0.8). Feeling supported by the health-care provider (AOR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1–3.9) and being in contact with HIV/AIDS organisations (AOR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2–3.2) were positively associated with coping. Seventeen percent reported having modified their ART regimen to improve tolerance, with only 2 in 3 informing their physician afterwards. Reporting financial difficulties and living with more bothersome symptoms increased the risk of ART regimen modification without health-care provider consultation. Conclusion The EVE study has called attention to the large number of side effects experienced by WLWHIV, only half of whom have found self-care strategies to manage their symptoms. Modification of ART regimen by the women themselves was not uncommon. PMID:28264016

  9. Effect of resistivity profile on current decay time of initial phase of current quench in neon-gas-puff inducing disruptions of JT-60U

    SciTech Connect

    Kawakami, S.; Ohno, N.; Shibata, Y.; Isayama, A.; Kawano, Y.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Takizuka, T.; Okamoto, M.

    2013-11-15

    According to an early work [Y. Shibata et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 025015 (2010)] on the behavior of the plasma current decay in the JT-60U disruptive discharges caused by the radiative collapse with a massive neon-gas-puff, the increase of the internal inductance mainly determined the current decay time of plasma current during the initial phase of current quench. To investigate what determines the increase of the internal inductance, we focus attention on the relationship between the electron temperature (or the resistivity) profile and the time evolution of the current density profile and carry out numerical calculations. As a result, we find the reason of the increase of the internal inductance: The current density profile at the start of the current quench is broader than an expected current density profile in the steady state, which is determined by the temperature (or resistivity) profile. The current density profile evolves into peaked one and the internal inductance is increasing.

  10. Improvement of uniformity of the negative ion beams by tent-shaped magnetic field in the JT-60 negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Masafumi Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Akino, Noboru; Endo, Yasuei; Komata, Masao; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; Nemoto, Shuji; Ohzeki, Masahiro; Seki, Norikazu; Sasaki, Shunichi; Shimizu, Tatsuo; Terunuma, Yuto; Grisham, Larry R.

    2014-02-15

    Non-uniformity of the negative ion beams in the JT-60 negative ion source with the world-largest ion extraction area was improved by modifying the magnetic filter in the source from the plasma grid (PG) filter to a tent-shaped filter. The magnetic design via electron trajectory calculation showed that the tent-shaped filter was expected to suppress the localization of the primary electrons emitted from the filaments and created uniform plasma with positive ions and atoms of the parent particles for the negative ions. By modifying the magnetic filter to the tent-shaped filter, the uniformity defined as the deviation from the averaged beam intensity was reduced from 14% of the PG filter to ∼10% without a reduction of the negative ion production.

  11. Improvement of uniformity of the negative ion beams by tent-shaped magnetic field in the JT-60 negative ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Masafumi; Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Grisham, Larry R.; Akino, Noboru; Endo, Yasuei; Komata, Masao; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; Nemoto, Shuji; Ohzeki, Masahiro; Seki, Norikazu; Sasaki, Shunichi; Shimizu, Tatsuo; Terunuma, Yuto

    2014-02-01

    Non-uniformity of the negative ion beams in the JT-60 negative ion source with the world-largest ion extraction area was improved by modifying the magnetic filter in the source from the plasma grid (PG) filter to a tent-shaped filter. The magnetic design via electron trajectory calculation showed that the tent-shaped filter was expected to suppress the localization of the primary electrons emitted from the filaments and created uniform plasma with positive ions and atoms of the parent particles for the negative ions. By modifying the magnetic filter to the tent-shaped filter, the uniformity defined as the deviation from the averaged beam intensity was reduced from 14% of the PG filter to ˜10% without a reduction of the negative ion production.

  12. Improvement of uniformity of the negative ion beams by tent-shaped magnetic field in the JT-60 negative ion source.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Masafumi; Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Grisham, Larry R; Akino, Noboru; Endo, Yasuei; Komata, Masao; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; Nemoto, Shuji; Ohzeki, Masahiro; Seki, Norikazu; Sasaki, Shunichi; Shimizu, Tatsuo; Terunuma, Yuto

    2014-02-01

    Non-uniformity of the negative ion beams in the JT-60 negative ion source with the world-largest ion extraction area was improved by modifying the magnetic filter in the source from the plasma grid (PG) filter to a tent-shaped filter. The magnetic design via electron trajectory calculation showed that the tent-shaped filter was expected to suppress the localization of the primary electrons emitted from the filaments and created uniform plasma with positive ions and atoms of the parent particles for the negative ions. By modifying the magnetic filter to the tent-shaped filter, the uniformity defined as the deviation from the averaged beam intensity was reduced from 14% of the PG filter to ∼10% without a reduction of the negative ion production.

  13. DC-9/JT8D refan, Phase 1. [technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting DC-9 aircraft with refan engine to achieve desired acoustic levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Analyses and design studies were conducted on the technical and economic feasibility of installing the JT8D-109 refan engine on the DC-9 aircraft. Design criteria included minimum change to the airframe to achieve desired acoustic levels. Several acoustic configurations were studied with two selected for detailed investigations. The minimum selected acoustic treatment configuration results in an estimated aircraft weight increase of 608 kg (1,342 lb) and the maximum selected acoustic treatment configuration results in an estimated aircraft weight increase of 809 kg (1,784 lb). The range loss for the minimum and maximum selected acoustic treatment configurations based on long range cruise at 10 668 m (35,000 ft) altitude with a typical payload of 6 804 kg (15,000 lb) amounts to 54 km (86 n. mi.) respectively. Estimated reduction in EPNL's for minimum selected treatment show 8 EPNdB at approach, 12 EPNdB for takeoff with power cutback, 15 EPNdB for takeoff without power cutback and 12 EPNdB for sideline using FAR Part 36. Little difference was estimated in EPNL between minimum and maximum treatments due to reduced performance of maximum treatment. No major technical problems were encountered in the study. The refan concept for the DC-9 appears technically feasible and economically viable at approximately $1,000,000 per airplane. An additional study of the installation of JT3D-9 refan engine on the DC-8-50/61 and DC-8-62/63 aircraft is included. Three levels of acoustic treatment were suggested for DC-8-50/61 and two levels for DC-8-62/63. Results indicate the DC-8 technically can be retrofitted with refan engines for approximately $2,500,000 per airplane.

  14. Off-axis Fishbone-like Instability and Excitation of the Resistive Wall Mode (RWM) in JT-60U and DIII-D Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabayashi, M.

    2010-11-01

    Advanced tokamak experiments in JT-60U [1] and DIII-D [2] have revealed that in high-beta q(0)>1 plasmas, where the resistive wall modes (RWMs) are predicted to be stable by kinetic effects of energetic particles, plasma rotation and a nearby conducting wall, off-axis fishbone-like instabilities often trigger RWMs. The rapid growth of these RWMs prevents high performance operation. The off-axis fishbone-like instability has some similarities to the classic m/n=1/1 internal fishbone instability in terms of its initial frequency near the energetic ion precession frequency, downward frequency-chirping, and a neutron rate drop of ˜20% during each burst. However, there are several unique non-ideal-MHD features in the off-axis fishbone-like instability. The waveform time behavior has strong non-sinusoidal distortion from the q˜2 area to the edge, synchronized with bursting energetic particle losses, while the plasma rotation is rapidly reduced within a few milliseconds. Based on experimental observations the following hypothesis emerges. In plasmas where rotation and kinetic effects are usually sufficient to stabilize the RWM, energetic particles can drive the fishbone instability of several kHz (larger than the inverse of the resistive wall time constant). The reduction of kinetic stabilization due to the resulting energetic particle loss and rapid decrease of plasma rotation makes the plasma more vulnerable to the near-zero frequency RWM. The impact on RWM stability by the off-axis fishbone with its radial and toroidal distortion of the mode structure is assessed by comparing the JT-60U/DIII-D results with theoretical predictions. 6pt [1] G. Matsunaga et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 045001. (2009). [2] M. Okabayashi et al., Nucl. Fusion 49 (2009) 125003.

  15. Off-axis fishbone-like instability and excitation of resistive wall modes in JT-60U and DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Okabayashi, M.; Solomon, W. M.; Budny, R. V.; Manickam, J.; Matsunaga, G.; Takechi, M.; Asakura, N.; Shinohara, K.; Grassie, J. S. de; Strait, E. J.; Jackson, G. L.; La Haye, R. J.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Zhu, Y. B.; In, Y.; Liu, Y. Q.

    2011-05-15

    An energetic-particle (EP)-driven ''off-axis-fishbone-like mode (OFM)'' often triggers a resistive wall mode (RWM) in JT-60U and DIII-D devices, preventing long-duration high-{beta}{sub N} discharges. In these experiments, the EPs are energetic ions (70-85 keV) injected by neutral beams to produce high-pressure plasmas. EP-driven bursting events reduce the EP density and the plasma rotation simultaneously. These changes are significant in high-{beta}{sub N} low-rotation plasmas, where the RWM stability is predicted to be strongly influenced by the EP precession drift resonance and by the plasma rotation near the q=2 surface (kinetic effects). Analysis of these effects on stability with a self-consistent perturbation to the mode structure using the MARS-K code showed that the impact of EP losses and rotation drop is sufficient to destabilize the RWM in low-rotation plasmas, when the plasma rotation normalized by Alfven frequency is only a few tenths of a percent near the q=2 surface. The OFM characteristics are very similar in JT-60U and DIII-D, including nonlinear mode evolution. The modes grow initially like a classical fishbone, and then the mode structure becomes strongly distorted. The dynamic response of the OFM to an applied n=1 external field indicates that the mode retains its external kink character. These comparative studies suggest that an energetic particle-driven 'off-axis-fishbone-like mode' is a new EP-driven branch of the external kink mode in wall-stabilized plasmas, analogous to the relationship of the classical fishbone branch to the internal kink mode.

  16. Magnetic shear effects on plasma transport and turbulence at high electron to ion temperature ratio in DIII-D and JT-60U plasmas

    DOE PAGES

    Yoshida, Maiko; McKee, George R.; Murakami, Masanori; ...

    2017-03-30

    We demonstrated negative magnetic shear in DIII-D and JT-60U in order to mitigate the confinement degradation typically observed with increasing the electron to ion temperature ratio (T-e/T-i). In recent experiments in DIII-D negative central magnetic shear (NCS) discharges, the thermal transport in the internal transport barrier formed around the radius of the minimum safety factor (q(min)) remained almost constant and modestly increased in the region outside of q(min) compared to the positive shear (PS) case, when T-e/T-i increased from about 0.8 to 1.1 through electron cyclotron heating (ECH). The benefit of NCS extending into the region outside of qmin canmore » be explained by the lower magnetic shear in the NCS plasma over the plasma radius relative to the PS plasma. Reduced confinement degradation at high T-e/T-i with NCS plasmas was commonly observed in DIII-D and JT-60U. Furthermore, the mechanism of the different transport responses between the NCS and PS plasmas has been assessed in terms of fluctuation measurements and gyrokinetic simulations in DIII-D; NCS gave a smaller rise in the low-wavenumber broadband turbulent fluctuations with the increase in T-e/T-i compared with the PS case. This is consistent with gyrokinetic simulations, and this shows a smaller rise in the growth rates of the ion temperature gradient mode in the NCS plasmas, with increasing T-e/T-i. Gyrokinetic simulations also showed a change in the stability of the electron modes with ECH applied, consistent with higher-wavenumber fluctuation measurements, although more detailed simulations are needed to give a quantitative explanation for the experimental observations. Control of q-profile and magnetic shear will allow confinement improvement in future machines with dominant electron heating.« less

  17. Magnetic shear effects on plasma transport and turbulence at high electron to ion temperature ratio in DIII-D and JT-60U plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, M.; McKee, G. R.; Murakami, M.; Grierson, B. A.; Nakata, M.; Davis, E. M.; Marinoni, A.; Ono, M.; Rhodes, T. L.; Sung, C.; Schmitz, L.; Petty, C. C.; Ferron, J. R.; Turco, F.; Garofalo, A. M.; Holcomb, C. T.; Collins, C. M.; Solomon, W. M.

    2017-05-01

    Negative magnetic shear has been demonstrated in DIII-D and JT-60U to mitigate the confinement degradation typically observed with increasing the electron to ion temperature ratio (T e/T i). In recent experiments in DIII-D negative central magnetic shear (NCS) discharges, the thermal transport in the internal transport barrier formed around the radius of the minimum safety factor (q min) remained almost constant and modestly increased in the region outside of q min compared to the positive shear (PS) case, when T e/T i increased from about 0.8 to 1.1 through electron cyclotron heating (ECH). The benefit of NCS extending into the region outside of q min can be explained by the lower magnetic shear in the NCS plasma over the plasma radius relative to the PS plasma. Reduced confinement degradation at high T e/T i with NCS plasmas was commonly observed in DIII-D and JT-60U. The mechanism of the different transport responses between the NCS and PS plasmas has been assessed in terms of fluctuation measurements and gyrokinetic simulations in DIII-D; NCS gave a smaller rise in the low-wavenumber broadband turbulent fluctuations with the increase in T e/T i compared with the PS case. This is consistent with gyrokinetic simulations, which show a smaller rise in the growth rates of the ion temperature gradient mode in the NCS plasmas, with increasing T e/T i. Gyrokinetic simulations also showed a change in the stability of the electron modes with ECH applied, consistent with higher-wavenumber fluctuation measurements, although more detailed simulations are needed to give a quantitative explanation for the experimental observations. Control of q-profile and magnetic shear will allow confinement improvement in future machines with dominant electron heating.

  18. Off-axis fishbone-like instability and excitation of resistive wall modes in JT-60U and DIII-Da)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabayashi, M.; Matsunaga, G.; deGrassie, J. S.; Heidbrink, W. W.; In, Y.; Liu, Y. Q.; Reimerdes, H.; Solomon, W. M.; Strait, E. J.; Takechi, M.; Asakura, N.; Budny, R. V.; Jackson, G. L.; Hanson, J. M.; La Haye, R. J.; Lanctot, M. J.; Manickam, J.; Shinohara, K.; Zhu, Y. B.

    2011-05-01

    An energetic-particle (EP)-driven "off-axis-fishbone-like mode (OFM)" often triggers a resistive wall mode (RWM) in JT-60U and DIII-D devices, preventing long-duration high-βN discharges. In these experiments, the EPs are energetic ions (70-85 keV) injected by neutral beams to produce high-pressure plasmas. EP-driven bursting events reduce the EP density and the plasma rotation simultaneously. These changes are significant in high-βN low-rotation plasmas, where the RWM stability is predicted to be strongly influenced by the EP precession drift resonance and by the plasma rotation near the q =2 surface (kinetic effects). Analysis of these effects on stability with a self-consistent perturbation to the mode structure using the MARS-K code showed that the impact of EP losses and rotation drop is sufficient to destabilize the RWM in low-rotation plasmas, when the plasma rotation normalized by Alfvén frequency is only a few tenths of a percent near the q =2 surface. The OFM characteristics are very similar in JT-60U and DIII-D, including nonlinear mode evolution. The modes grow initially like a classical fishbone, and then the mode structure becomes strongly distorted. The dynamic response of the OFM to an applied n =1 external field indicates that the mode retains its external kink character. These comparative studies suggest that an energetic particle-driven "off-axis-fishbone-like mode" is a new EP-driven branch of the external kink mode in wall-stabilized plasmas, analogous to the relationship of the classical fishbone branch to the internal kink mode.

  19. OPTIMOS-EVE optical design of a very efficient, high-multiplex, large spectral coverage, fiber-fed spectrograph at EELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanò, P.; Tosh, I.; Chemla, F.

    2010-07-01

    OPTIMOS-EVE is a fiber-fed, high-multiplex, high-efficiency, large spectral coverage spectrograph for EELT covering visible and near-infrared simultaneously. More than 200 seeing-limited objects will be observed at the same time over the full 7 arcmin field of view of the telescope, feeding the spectrograph, asking for very large multiplexing at the spectrograph side. The spectrograph consists of two identical units. Each unit will have two optimized channels to observe both visible and near-infrared wavelengths at the same time, covering from 0.37 to 1.7 micron. To maximize the scientific return, a large simultaneous spectral coverage per exposure was required, up to 1/3 of the central wavelength. Moreover, different spectral resolution modes, spanning from 5'000 to 30'000, were defined to match very different sky targets. Many different optical solutions were generated during the initial study phase in order to select that one that will maximize performances within given constraints (mass, space, cost). Here we present the results of this study, with special attention to the baseline design. Efforts were done to keep size of the optical components well within present state-of-the-art technologies. For example, large glass blank sizes were limited to ~35 cm maximum diameter. VPH gratings were selected as dispersers, to improve efficiency, following their superblaze curve. This led to scanning gratings and cameras. Optical design will be described, together with expected performances.

  20. How calibration and reference spectra affect the accuracy of absolute soft X-ray solar irradiance measured by the SDO/EVE/ESP during high solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, Leonid

    2016-10-01

    The Extreme ultraviolet Spectrophotometer (ESP), one of the channels of SDO’s Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE), measures solar irradiance in several EUV and soft x-ray (SXR) bands isolated using thin-film filters and a transmission diffraction grating, and includes a quad-diode detector positioned at the grating zeroth-order to observe in a wavelength band from about 0.1 to 7.0 nm. The quad diode signal also includes some contribution from shorter wavelength in the grating’s first-order and the ratio of zeroth-order to first-order signal depends on both source geometry, and spectral distribution. For example, radiometric calibration of the ESP zeroth-order at the NIST SURF BL-2 with a near-parallel beam provides a different zeroth-to-first-order ratio than modeled for solar observations. The relative influence of “uncalibrated” first-order irradiance during solar observations is a function of the solar spectral irradiance and the locations of large Active Regions or solar flares. We discuss how the “uncalibrated” first-order “solar” component and the use of variable solar reference spectra affect determination of absolute SXR irradiance which currently may be significantly overestimated during high solar activity.

  1. Flight effects on noise by the JT8D engine with inverted primary/fan flow as measured in the NASA-Ames 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strout, F. G.

    1978-01-01

    A JT8D-17R engine with inverted primary and fan flows was tested under static conditions as well as in the NASA Ames 40 by 80 Foot Wind Tunnel to determine static and flight noise characteristics, and flow profile of a large scale engine. Test and analysis techniques developed by a previous model and JT8D engine test program were used to determine the in-flight noise. The engine with inverted flow was tested with a conical nozzle and with a plug nozzle, 20 lobe nozzle, and an acoustic shield. Wind tunnel results show that forward velocity causes significant reduction in peak PNL suppression relative to uninverted flow. The loss of EPNL suppression is relatively modest. The in-flight peak PNL suppression of the inverter with conical nozzle was 2.5 PNdb relative to a static value of 5.5 PNdb. The corresponding EPNL suppression was 4.0 EPNdb for flight and 5.0 EPNdb for static operation. The highest in-flight EPNL suppression was 7.5 EPNdb obtained by the inverter with 20 lobe nozzle and acoustic shield. When compared with the JT8D engine with internal mixer, the inverted flow configuration provides more EPNL suppression under both static and flight conditions.

  2. Evidence against roles for phorbol binding protein Munc13-1, ADAM adaptor Eve-1, or vesicle trafficking phosphoproteins Munc18 or NSF as phospho-state-sensitive modulators of phorbol/PKC-activated Alzheimer APP ectodomain shedding.

    PubMed

    Ikin, Annat F; Causevic, Mirsada; Pedrini, Steve; Benson, Lyndsey S; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Lovestone, Simon; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Mustelin, Tomas; Burgoyne, Robert D; Gandy, Sam

    2007-12-09

    Shedding of the Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP) ectodomain can be accelerated by phorbol esters, compounds that act via protein kinase C (PKC) or through unconventional phorbol-binding proteins such as Munc13-1. We have previously demonstrated that application of phorbol esters or purified PKC potentiates budding of APP-bearing secretory vesicles at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and toward the plasma membrane where APP becomes a substrate for enzymes responsible for shedding, known collectively as alpha-secretase(s). However, molecular identification of the presumptive "phospho-state-sensitive modulators of ectodomain shedding" (PMES) responsible for regulated shedding has been challenging. Here, we examined the effects on APP ectodomain shedding of four phorbol-sensitive proteins involved in regulation of vesicular membrane trafficking of APP: Munc13-1, Munc18, NSF, and Eve-1. Overexpression of either phorbol-sensitive wildtype Munc13-1 or phorbol-insensitive Munc13-1 H567K resulted in increased basal APP ectodomain shedding. However, in contrast to the report of Rossner et al (2004), phorbol ester-dependent APP ectodomain shedding from cells overexpressing APP and Munc13-1 wildtype was indistinguishable from that observed following application of phorbol to cells overexpressing APP and Munc13-1 H567K mutant. This pattern of similar effects on basal and stimulated APP shedding was also observed for Munc18 and NSF. Eve-1, an ADAM adaptor protein reported to be essential for PKC-regulated shedding of pro-EGF, was found to play no obvious role in regulated shedding of sAPPalpha. Our results indicate that, in the HEK293 system, Munc13-1, Munc18, NSF, and EVE-1 fail to meet essential criteria for identity as PMES for APP.

  3. Evidence against roles for phorbol binding protein Munc13-1, ADAM adaptor Eve-1, or vesicle trafficking phosphoproteins Munc18 or NSF as phospho-state-sensitive modulators of phorbol/PKC-activated Alzheimer APP ectodomain shedding

    PubMed Central

    Ikin, Annat F; Causevic, Mirsada; Pedrini, Steve; Benson, Lyndsey S; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Lovestone, Simon; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Mustelin, Tomas; Burgoyne, Robert D; Gandy, Sam

    2007-01-01

    Background Shedding of the Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP) ectodomain can be accelerated by phorbol esters, compounds that act via protein kinase C (PKC) or through unconventional phorbol-binding proteins such as Munc13-1. We have previously demonstrated that application of phorbol esters or purified PKC potentiates budding of APP-bearing secretory vesicles at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and toward the plasma membrane where APP becomes a substrate for enzymes responsible for shedding, known collectively as α-secretase(s). However, molecular identification of the presumptive "phospho-state-sensitive modulators of ectodomain shedding" (PMES) responsible for regulated shedding has been challenging. Here, we examined the effects on APP ectodomain shedding of four phorbol-sensitive proteins involved in regulation of vesicular membrane trafficking of APP: Munc13-1, Munc18, NSF, and Eve-1. Results Overexpression of either phorbol-sensitive wildtype Munc13-1 or phorbol-insensitive Munc13-1 H567K resulted in increased basal APP ectodomain shedding. However, in contrast to the report of Roßner et al (2004), phorbol ester-dependent APP ectodomain shedding from cells overexpressing APP and Munc13-1 wildtype was indistinguishable from that observed following application of phorbol to cells overexpressing APP and Munc13-1 H567K mutant. This pattern of similar effects on basal and stimulated APP shedding was also observed for Munc18 and NSF. Eve-1, an ADAM adaptor protein reported to be essential for PKC-regulated shedding of pro-EGF, was found to play no obvious role in regulated shedding of sAPPα. Conclusion Our results indicate that, in the HEK293 system, Munc13-1, Munc18, NSF, and EVE-1 fail to meet essential criteria for identity as PMES for APP. PMID:18067682

  4. The Multi-Instrument (EVE-RHESSI) DEM for Solar Flares, and Implications for Residual Non-Thermal Soft X-Ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McTiernan, James M.; Caspi, Amir; Warren, Harry

    2015-04-01

    In the soft X-ray energy range, solar flare spectra are typically dominated by thermal emission. The low energy extent of non-thermal emission can only be loosely quantified using currently available X-ray data. To address this issue, we combine observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) with X-ray data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). The improvement over the isothermal approximation is intended to resolve the ambiguity in the range where the thermal and non-thermal components may have similar photon fluxes. This "crossover" range can extend up to 30 keV for medium to large solar flares.Previous work (Caspi et.al. 2014ApJ...788L..31C) has concentrated on obtaining DEM models that fit both instruments' observations well. Now we are interested in any breaks and cutoffs in the "residual" non-thermal spectrum; i.e., the RHESSI spectrum that is left over after the DEM has accounted for the bulk of the soft X-ray emission. Thermal emission is again modeled using a DEM that is parametrized as multiple gaussians in temperature; the non-thermal emission is modeled as a photon spectrum obtained using a thin-target emission model ('thin2' from the SolarSoft Xray IDL package). Spectra for both instruments are fit simultaneously in a self-consistent manner. The results for non-thermal parameters then are compared with those found using RHESSI data alone, with isothermal and double-thermal models.

  5. Prediction of response to antiretroviral therapy by human experts and by the EuResist data-driven expert system (the EVE study).

    PubMed

    Zazzi, M; Kaiser, R; Sönnerborg, A; Struck, D; Altmann, A; Prosperi, M; Rosen-Zvi, M; Petroczi, A; Peres, Y; Schülter, E; Boucher, C A; Brun-Vezinet, F; Harrigan, P R; Morris, L; Obermeier, M; Perno, C-F; Phanuphak, P; Pillay, D; Shafer, R W; Vandamme, A-M; van Laethem, K; Wensing, A M J; Lengauer, T; Incardona, F

    2011-04-01

    The EuResist expert system is a novel data-driven online system for computing the probability of 8-week success for any given pair of HIV-1 genotype and combination antiretroviral therapy regimen plus optional patient information. The objective of this study was to compare the EuResist system vs. human experts (EVE) for the ability to predict response to treatment. The EuResist system was compared with 10 HIV-1 drug resistance experts for the ability to predict 8-week response to 25 treatment cases derived from the EuResist database validation data set. All current and past patient data were made available to simulate clinical practice. The experts were asked to provide a qualitative and quantitative estimate of the probability of treatment success. There were 15 treatment successes and 10 treatment failures. In the classification task, the number of mislabelled cases was six for EuResist and 6-13 for the human experts [mean±standard deviation (SD) 9.1±1.9]. The accuracy of EuResist was higher than the average for the experts (0.76 vs. 0.64, respectively). The quantitative estimates computed by EuResist were significantly correlated (Pearson r=0.695, P<0.0001) with the mean quantitative estimates provided by the experts. However, the agreement among experts was only moderate (for the classification task, inter-rater κ=0.355; for the quantitative estimation, mean±SD coefficient of variation=55.9±22.4%). With this limited data set, the EuResist engine performed comparably to or better than human experts. The system warrants further investigation as a treatment-decision support tool in clinical practice. © 2010 British HIV Association.

  6. Phase 2 program on ground test of refanned JT8D turbofan engines and nacelles for the 727 airplane. Volume 4: Airplane evaluation and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The retrofit of JT8D-109 (refan) engines are evaluated on a 727-200 airplane in terms of airworthiness, performance, and noise. Design of certifiable hardware, manufacture, and ground testing of the essential nacelle components is included along with analysis of the certifiable airplane design to ensure airworthiness compliance and to predict the in-flight performance and noise characteristics of the modified airplane. The analyses confirm that the 727 refan airplane is certifiable. The refan airplane range would be 15% less that of the baseline airplane and block fuel would be increased by 1.5% to 3%. However, with this particular 727-200 model, with a brake release gross weight of 172,500 lb (78,245 kg), it is possible to operate the airplane (with minor structural modifications) at higher gross weights and increase the range up to 15% over the 727-200 (baseline) airplane. The refan airplane FAR Part 36 noise levels would be 6 to 8 EPNdB (effective perceived noise in decibels) below the baseline. Noise footprint studies showed that approach noise contour areas are small compared to takeoff areas. The 727 refan realizes a 68% to 83% reduction in annoyance-weighted area when compared to the 727-200 over a range of gross weights and operational procedures.

  7. Measurement of Type-I ELM Pulse Propagation in Scrape-Off Layer Using Optical System of Motional Stark Effect Diagnostics in JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Takahiro; Oyama, Naoyuki; Asakura, Nobuyuki

    2009-11-01

    Propagation of plasma ejected by type-I ELM has been measured in scrape-off layer (SOL), using optical system of motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostics in JT-60U as beam emission spectroscopy (BES) diagnostics. This MSE/BES system measures Dalpha emission from heating neutral beam excited by collisions with the ejected plasma, as well as background light (e.g. bremsstrahlung). In order to separate the beam emission and the background light, a two-wavelength detector is introduced into the MSE/BES system The detector observes simultaneously at the same spatial point in two distinct wavelengths using two photomultiplier tubes through two interference filters. One of the filters is adjusted to the central wavelength of the beam emission and the other is outside the beam emission spectrum Subtracting the background light, temporal change in the net beam emission in SOL has been evaluated Comparing conditionally-averaged beam emission with respect to 594 ELMs at 5 spatial channels (0.02-0.3 m outside the main plasma near equatorial plane), radial velocity of the ELM pulse propagation in SOL is about 0.8-1.8 km/s. Work supported by Grand-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B) No. 20760586

  8. Self-consistent long-time simulation of chirping energetic particle modes and abrupt large events in beam-driven JT-60U tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierwage, A.; Shinohara, K.; Todo, Y.; Aiba, N.; Ishikawa, M.; Matsunaga, G.; Takechi, M.; Yagi, M.

    2016-10-01

    Recurring bursts of chirping Alfvén modes as well as so-called Abrupt Large Events (ALE) that were observed in JT-60U tokamak plasmas driven by negative-ion-based neutral beams (N-NB) are reproduced in first-principle simulations performed with an extended version of the hybrid code MEGA. This code simulates the interactions between gyrokinetic fast ions and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes in the presence of a realistic fast ion source and collisions, so that it self-consistently captures dynamics across a wide range of time scales (0.01-100 ms). Detailed comparisons with experimental measurements are performed. On the long time scale (10-100 ms) the simulation reproduces ALEs with the associated avalanche-like transport of fast ions. ALEs are shown to occur when multiple modes with toroidal mode numbers n = 1 , 2 , 3 are excited to large amplitudes. On the meso time scale (1-10 ms), bursts of chirping modes are reproduced, which are shown to be n = 1 energetic particle modes (EPM). On the short time scale (0.01-0.1 ms), pulsations and phase jumps are reproduced, which we interpret as the result of beating between multiple resonant wave packets. JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (No. 25820443, 16K18341). NIFS Collaborative Research Program (NIFS12KNTT016).

  9. Statistical analysis of fluctuation characteristics at high- and low-field sides in L-mode SOL plasmas of JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, H.; Ohno, N.; Asakura, N.; Tsuji, Y.; Kawashima, H.; Takamura, S.; Uesugi, Y.; JT-60U Team

    2009-06-01

    For the first time, fluctuation characteristics at the high-field side (HFS) and low-field side (LFS) scrape-off-layers (SOLs) in L-mode plasmas of the JT-60U tokamak are compared in detail; the plasma transport is studied using reciprocating Langmuir probes. A statistical analysis based on probability density functions (PDFs) is employed to describe intermittent (nondiffusive) transport in SOL plasma fluctuations. It is found that positive bursty events associated with blobby plasma transport appear frequently at the LFS midplane. Further, the PDF at the LFS midplane is strongly positively skewed, while the PDF at the HFS SOL is close to a Gaussian distribution. The conventional conditional averaging method is improved by using the variable-interval time-averaging method along with it, which enables the precise reconstruction of the burst profile exhibiting a rapid increase and a slow decay. The radial evolution of plasma blobs is analysed by using an autocorrelation function, the short-time Fourier transform and wavelet analysis.

  10. Fast reciprocating probe system for local scrape-off layer measurements in front of the lower hybrid launcher on JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakura, N.; Tsuji-Iio, S.; Ikeda, Y.; Neyatani, Y.; Seki, M.

    1995-12-01

    A fast reciprocating probe system with a long drive shaft was incorporated into a multi-junction lower hybrid (LH) wave launcher on JT-60U in order to investigate an improved coupling mechanism of the radio frequency wave to the core plasma. The system has been operated reliably over a horizontal scan of 25 cm in 1.5 s using a compact pneumatic cylinder drive and springs. A double probe measurement provided the scrape-off layer plasma profile between the last closed flux surface and the first wall with the spatial resolution of 1-2 mm measured with a laser displacement gauge. The profiles of the electron density ne and temperature Te were in good agreement with those obtained with a triple probe method. During the LH wave injection with good coupling to the core plasma, an increase in the local Te was observed in front of the LH launcher mouth. The local ne was (7-10)×1016 m-3, consistent values needed for the good coupling.

  11. Fast reciprocating probe system for local scrape-off layer measurements in front of the lower hybrid launcher on JT-60U

    SciTech Connect

    Asakura, N.; Tsuji-Iio, S.; Ikeda, Y.; Neyatani, Y.; Seki, M.

    1995-12-01

    A fast reciprocating probe system with a long drive shaft was incorporated into a multi-junction lower hybrid (LH) wave launcher on JT-60U in order to investigate an improved coupling mechanism of the radio frequency wave to the core plasma. The system has been operated reliably over a horizontal scan of 25 cm in 1.5 s using a compact pneumatic cylinder drive and springs. A double probe measurement provided the scrape-off layer plasma profile between the last closed flux surface and the first wall with the spatial resolution of 1{minus}2 mm measured with a laser displacement gauge. The profiles of the electron density {ital n}{sub {ital e}} and temperature {ital T}{sub {ital e}} were in good agreement with those obtained with a triple probe method. During the LH wave injection with good coupling to the core plasma, an increase in the local {ital T}{sub {ital e}} was observed in front of the LH launcher mouth. The local {ital n}{sub {ital e}} was (7{minus}10){times}10{sup 16} m{sup {minus}3}, consistent values needed for the good coupling. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  12. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of transients in the HELIOS loop including a CICC section representative of the JT-60SA Central Solenoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carli, S.; Bonifetto, R.; Hoa, C.; Savoldi, L.; Zanino, R.

    2015-12-01

    The HELIOS facility at CEA Grenoble is a supercritical helium (SHe) loop which is being used to investigate the effects on the cryogenic cooling system of the pulsed heat loads which are typical of superconducting tokamak operation. In the standard configuration, the magnet heat load is simulated by electrical heaters wrapped around a section of cryoline. In the present work, the resistively heated section is substituted in the HELIOS model of the 4C code, already validated for the standard configuration of HELIOS, by a sub-size winding structure made of JT-60SA Cable-In-Conduit Conductors (CICCs). The new model is then used to highlight the differences in the circuit behaviour when the heated pipe is substituted by an actual magnet wound with CICCs, checking the representativeness of the control strategies developed for the present HELIOS configuration. The use of CICCs will be shown to produce an intrinsic smoothing of the temperature profiles which is not affecting the capability of the control strategies to smooth the heat loads to the cryoplant.

  13. Hybrid simulation of fast ion dynamics in the presence of off-axis fishbone-like modes in high-beta JT-60U plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierwage, Andreas; Aiba, Nobuyuki; Matsunaga, Go; Shinohara, Koji; Todo, Yasushi; Yagi, Masatoshi

    2013-10-01

    The MHD-PIC hybrid code MEGA is used to simulate high-beta JT-60U plasmas in regimes near marginal MHD ballooning stability and driven by neutral beams. The goal of this research is to study the transport of fast ions caused by experimentally observed fishbone-like modes that peak off-axis (near the q = 2 surface) and have frequencies well below the accumulation points of the beta-induced gap of the shear Alfvén continuum. The approach chosen is as follows. Before examining the physics via parameter scans and case studies, the relevance of the simulation model is verified by checking whether the code can reproduce a plasma response with properties similar to those seen in the experiments. For this purpose, the simulation scenario is set up as realistically as currently possible: with realistic plasma shape and bulk pressure, and a fast ion distribution that is consistent with particle sources and collisions. The methods used and first results are reported and discussed. This work is partly supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).

  14. Updates in SDO/EVE/EUV SpectroPhotometer (ESP) Data Processing and Inter-comparison of Calibrated ESP Irradiances with Measurements from Other On-orbit EUV Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, S. R.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Woodraska, D.

    2014-12-01

    Prior to the May 2014 anomaly which indefinitely suspended SDO/EVE Multiple EUV Spectrographs-A (MEGS-A) science operations, MEGS-A spectral distributions were used in the data processing algorithm for determining absolute EUV irradiance values from the SDO/EVE EUV Spectrophotometer (ESP) raw data. We discuss a revised ESP data processing algorithm which, in lieu of concurrently measured MEGS-A spectra, adopts reference spectra selected (based on solar activity at the time of the ESP observation) from a discrete set of spectra derived from MEGS-A spectra for various levels of activity observed prior to the anomaly. We present evaluations of the revised algorithm and adopted reference spectra based on comparisons of the resultant ESP irradiance values with EUV measurements from other on-orbit instrumentation including the SOHO/Solar EUV Monitor (SEM). The results of comparisons between ESP irradiances determined using the revised algorithm and those based on the pre-anomaly algorithm which uses concurrent MEGS-A spectra are also presented

  15. Measurement of type-I edge localized mode pulse propagation in scrape-off layer using optical system of motional Stark effect diagnostics in JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, T.; Oyama, N.; Asakura, N.

    2010-04-01

    Propagation of plasma ejected by type-I edge localized mode (ELM) has been measured in scrape-off layer (SOL) of the JT-60U tokamak, using optical system of motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostics as beam emission spectroscopy (BES) diagnostics through a new technique developed. This MSE/BES system measures Dα emission from heating neutral beam excited by collisions with the ejected plasma, as well as background light (e.g., bremsstrahlung). While spatio-temporal change in the beam emission gives information on propagation of the ejected plasma, the background light that is observed simultaneously in all spatial channels veils the information. In order to separate the beam emission and the background light, a two-wavelength detector is newly introduced into the MSE/BES system. The detector observes simultaneously at the same spatial point in two distinct wavelengths using two photomultiplier tubes through two interference filters. One of the filters is adjusted to the central wavelength of the beam emission for the MSE diagnostics, and the other is outside the beam emission spectrum. Eliminating the background light, temporal change in the net beam emission in the SOL has been evaluated. Comparing conditionally averaged beam emission with respect to 594 ELMs in a discharge at five spatial channels (0.02-0.3 m outside the main plasma near equatorial plane), radial velocity of the ELM pulse propagation in SOL is evaluated to be 0.8-1.8 km/s (˜1.4 km/s for least-mean-squared fitting).

  16. High heat flux experiment on B4C-converted carbon based materials for plasma facing materials of JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Ando, Toshiro; Satoh, Kazuyoshi; Yokoyama, Kenji; Suzuki, Satoshi; Dairakum, Masayuki; Araki, Masanori; Akiba, Masato

    1994-03-01

    High heat flux experiments have been previously carried out on three kinds, namely low pressure plasma spray (LPPS), chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and conversion (CVR) methods, of B4C-overlaid CFC's using the JAERI electron beam irradiation system (JEBIS). As a result, it turned out that CVR method has the best adhesion property between B4C layer and bulk carbon. However, thicker B4C layer is necessary to use in long period as the divertor tiles of JT-60U. The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the thermal property of B4C-converted carbon based materials which have thicker B4C layer than the previous experiments. Irradiations were performed under two different heating conditions, namely in the normal condition (5-20 MW/m(exp 2), 5 s) and in the disruption conditions (1100-1600 MW/m(exp 2), 2-3 ms). The dimensions of the samples were 25 mm x 25 mm x 25 mm, and B4C-converted layers were made on the three kinds of CFC's and fifth kinds of isotropic graphites. The thickness of B4C layer was 150-1300 (mu)m. Measurements were made with respect to the weight loss, changes of the surface morphology and the surface temperature. In the normal condition, the damages such as surface melting and exfoliation were not observed on the samples which have B4C layer below 600 (mu)m in thickness. In the disruption condition, melting and exfoliation were observed on the surfaces of the samples whose substrates were PD-330S, PD-600S and HCB-5S, and melting was observed on the surfaces of the samples whose substrates were PCC-2S, MFC-1, MCI-felt, ETP-10 and STP-60. It is considered that the porous layer in the B4C layer caused the severe exfoliation from the measurement of the surface composition.

  17. The results of low-speed wind tunnel tests to investigate the effects of the NASA refan JT8D engine nacelles on the stability and control characteristics of the Boeing 727-200

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirkey, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    The results from two low-speed wind tunnel tests of the Boeing 727-200 airplane as configured with the NASA refan JT8D-109 turbofan engines are presented. The objective of these tests was to determine the effects of the refan installation on the low-speed stability and control characteristics of the 727 airplane. Four side nacelle locations were tested to insure that aerodynamic interactions of the nacelles and empennage would be optimized. The optimum location was judged to be the same as that of the production JT8D-9 engines; the current production engine mounts can be used for this location. Some small changes in the basic airplane characteristics are attributable to the refan nacelles. The flaps up longitudinal and lateral-directional stability are both slightly increased for low angles of attack and sideslip respectively. The longitudinal stability at stall is improved for both the flaps up and landing flap configurations. The high attitude characteristics of the basic airplane are not significantly altered by the refan nacelle installation. Directional control capability is not affected by the refan nacelles.

  18. Were Adam and Eve Astronauts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, James

    1979-01-01

    Describes two ways of teaching mythology in the secondary school social studies classroom: myth as a cultural concept and myth as a fallacy. The first way provides students with an understanding of the concept of culture; the second, an opportunity to develop skills in critical thinking. (Author/KC)

  19. The Adam and Eve syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sexton, R O; Maddock, R C

    1978-07-01

    The concept of divine forgiveness is incomprehensible to most, since it involves principles that defy rational interpretation on the level of human cognition. As a result, individuals, and especially those who present themselves for treatment, find themselves caught up in a repetition of self-judgment and selfpunishment, which is a reenactment of the original sin and the disobedience encountered in the Garden of Eden. It can be pointed out to patients that this continuous, repetitious acting out of the functions of self-judgment and selfpunishment represents the worst sin of all-the original sin in which the power and authority of God are usurped and assumed, resulting eventually in a denial of God along with symptoms that are often incapacitating. When these functions are returned to God, punishment can be expected to be much less severe and intense, because of the nature and characteristics of divine forgiveness.

  20. Adam and Eve in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenner, Adrian M.

    1973-01-01

    The present conflict between creationists and evolutionists may appear to be focused on demanding equal time in school curriculum, but an attack may be made in the future on the scientific method itself. Stronger arguments should be made against creationists' viewpoint to uphold the rationale of scientific scrutiny before accepting a belief as…

  1. Dispersion of repolarization and beta-thalassemia major: the prognostic role of QT and JT dispersion for identifying the high-risk patients for sudden death.

    PubMed

    Russo, Vincenzo; Rago, Anna; Pannone, Bruno; Papa, Andrea A; Di Meo, Federica; Mayer, Maria C; Spasiano, Anna; Russo, Maria G; Golino, Paolo; Calabrò, Raffaele; Nigro, Gerardo

    2011-04-01

    Patients with beta-thalassemia major (β-TM) are at increased risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD). Heterogeneity of ventricular repolarization is considered to provide an electrophysiological substrate for malignant arrhythmias. QT dispersion (QTc-D) and JT dispersion (JTc-D) are electrocardiographic parameters indicative of heterogeneity of ventricular repolarization. The aim of our study was to evaluate the heterogeneity of ventricular repolarization in patients with beta-thalassemia and to test the hypothesis that an abnormal QTc and JTc dispersion may predict SCD in this population.  The study involved 51 patients with β-TM (age 33.9±8.4; 33M) and 51 healthy subjects used as controls, matched for age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). Among the β-TM group, 14 patients with β-TM (age 27±6.64; 11M) died from SCD during follow-up. For each patient, QTD and JTD intervals were calculated. Compared to the healthy control group, β-TM group presented increased values of the QTc-D (65.36±33.95 vs. 37, 62±17.65; P<0.003) and JTc-D (74.64±33.27 vs. 40.32±12.45; P<0.001). In the β-TM sudden death group, QTc-D and JTc-D were significantly greater than in survived β-TM group (92.70±44.24 vs. 56.14±23.80, P=0.0001; 101.54±47.93 vs. 64.47±17.90, P=0.0001). A cutoff value of 70ms for QTc-D had a sensitivity and specificity of 77% in identifying patients at risk for SCD. A cutoff value of 100ms for JTc-D had a sensitivity of 65% and a specificity of 94% in identifying this category of patients. β-TM is associated with significant changes in heterogeneity of ventricular repolarization. QTc and JTc dispersion are useful markers of risk of SCD in patients with β-TM. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Recent RF Experiments and Application of RF Waves to Real-Time Control of Safety Factor Profile in JT-60U

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, T.; Isayama, A.; Ide, S.; Fujita, T.; Oikawa, T.; Sakata, S.; Sueoka, M.; Hosoyama, H.; Seki, M.

    2005-09-26

    Two topics of applications of RF waves to current profile control in JT-60U are presented; application of lower-hybrid (LH) waves to safety factor profile control and electron cyclotron (EC) waves to neo-classical tearing mode (NTM) control. A real-time control system of safety factor (q) profile was developed. This system, for the first time, enables 1) real time evaluation of q profile using local magnetic pitch angle measurement by motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic and 2) control of current drive (CD) location ({rho}CD) by controlling the parallel refractive index N parallel of LH waves through control of phase difference ({delta}{phi}) of LH waves between multi-junction launcher modules. The method for real-time q profile evaluation was newly developed, without time-consuming reconstruction of equilibrium, so that the method requires less computational time. Safety factor profile by the real-time calculation agrees well with that by equilibrium reconstruction with MSE. The control system controls {rho}CD through {delta}{phi} in such a way to decrease the largest residual between the real-time evaluated q profile q(r) and its reference profile qref(r). The real-time control system was applied to a positive shear plasma (q(0){approx}1). The reference q profile was set to monotonic positive shear profile having qref(0)=1.3. The real-time q profile approached to the qref(r) during application of real-time control, and was sustained for 3s, which was limited by the duration of the injected LH power. Temporal evolution of current profile was consistent with relaxation of inductive electric field induced by theoretical LH driven current. An m/n=3/2 NTM that appeared at {beta}N{approx}3 was completely stabilized by ECCD applied to a fully-developed NTM. Precise ECCD at NTM island was essential for the stabilization. ECCD that was applied to resonant rational surface (q=3/2) before an NTM onset suppressed appearance of NTM. In order to keep NTM intensity below a

  3. ["Should the staff's attitude towards the patients remain unchanged, I will not guarantee anything." Protest masculinity and coping of "rebellious patients" at the Heidelberg University Psychiatric Hospital on the eve of deinstitutionalization].

    PubMed

    Schwamm, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the illness experiences of male patients from the Heidelberg University Psychiatric Hospital during the protests against Psychiatry in the year 1973. Protest is one of the most important expressions of masculinity in socially disadvantaged men, such as men with mental disorders. The analysis of 100 medical records shows that some patients tried to construct themselves as men in a way that was explicitly motivated by antipsychiatric ideas: They questioned psychiatric authority, behaved "sexually inappropriate", or used drugs. On the eve of psychiatric reform in West Germany those patients were well aware that the alternative--complying with the treatment--would put them at considerable risk. In addition to the usual inference of hegemonic or normative masculinities as risk-factors, the behavior of those ,,rebellious patients" has to be interpreted as individual coping strategies.

  4. Exhaust emissions characteristics and variability for Pratt and Whitney JT8D-7A gas turbine engines subjected to major overhaul and repair. Final report Nov 1978-Feb 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, E.E.; Frings, G.; Cavage, W.C.

    1980-09-01

    Seven Pratt and Whitney Aircraft (PWA) JT8D-7A turbofan engines were tested at Kennedy International Airport, New York, to evaluate exhaust emissions characteristics and data variability after overhaul. The measured data show that the engines tested did not meet the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emission standards. A comparison of the measured data, obtained from the seven overhauled engines evaluated under this program, with new engine data obtained from PWA show that there is a great deal of similarity between the two sets of data. Differences shown in this report between new engine and overhauled engine data are due to the quantity of the engines sampled; the new engine data represent a larger sample size. Satisfactory data can be measured by using the test procedures, instrumentation, and equipment defined in this report.

  5. Boundary condition for toroidal plasma flow imposed at the separatrix in high confinement JT-60U plasmas with edge localized modes and the physics process in pedestal structure formation

    SciTech Connect

    Kamiya, K.; Honda, M.; Urano, H.; Yoshida, M.; Kamada, Y.; Itoh, K.

    2014-12-15

    Modulation charge eXchange recombination spectroscopy measurements with high spatial and temporal resolution have made the evaluation of the toroidal plasma flow of fully stripped carbon impurity ions (V{sub ϕ}{sup C6+}) in the JT-60U tokamak peripheral region (including, in particular, the separatrix) possible with a better signal-to-noise ratio. By comparing co- and counter-neutral beam injection discharges experimentally, we have identified the boundary condition of V{sub ϕ}{sup C6+} and radial electric field shear (∇E{sub r}) imposed at the separatrix in high confinement (H-mode) plasmas with edge localized modes (ELMs). The V{sub ϕ}{sup C6+} value at the separatrix is not fixed at zero but varies with the momentum input direction. On the other hand, the ∇E{sub r} value is nearly zero (or very weakly positive) at the separatrix. Furthermore, the edge localized mode perturbation does not appear to affect both V{sub ϕ}{sup C6+} and ∇E{sub r} values at the separatrix as strongly as that in the pedestal region. The above experimental findings based on the precise edge measurements have been used to validate a theoretical model and develop a new empirical model. A better understanding of the physical process in the edge transport barrier (ETB) formation due to the sheared E{sub r} formation is also discussed.

  6. The results of a low speed wind tunnel test to investigate the effects of installing refan JT8D engines on the McDonnell Douglas DC-9-30

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrisenberry, H. E.; Doss, P. G.; Kressly, A. E.; Prichard, R. D.; Thorndike, C. S.

    1973-01-01

    A low speed wind tunnel test was conducted to assess the effects of the larger JT8D refan nacelles on the stability and control characteristics of the DC-9-30, with emphasis on the deep stall regime. Deep stall pitching moment and elevator hinge moment data, and low angle of attack tail-on and tail-off pitching moment data are presented. The refan nacelle was tested in conjunction with various pylons of reduced span relative to the production DC-9-30 pylon. Also, a horizontal tail that was larger than the production tail was tested. The data show that the refan installation has a small detrimental effect on the DC-9-30 deep stall recovery capability, that recovery characteristics are essentially independent of pylon span, and that the larger horizontal tail significantly increases recovery margins. The deep stall characteristics with the refan installation, within the range of pylon spans tested, are acceptable with no additional design changes anticipated.

  7. Magnetic stratigraphy of the Ordovician in the lower reach of the Kotuy River: the age of the Bysy-Yuryakh stratum and the rate of geomagnetic reversals on the eve of the superchron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, V. E.; Tolmacheva, T. Yu.; Veselovskiy, R. V.; Latyshev, A. V.; Fetisova, A. M.; Bigun, I. V.

    2017-09-01

    Until recently, the existing data prevented the geophysicists from accurately dating the Bysy-Yuryakh stratum, which outcrops in the middle reach of the Kotuy River, constraining the time of its formation to a wide interval from the end of the Late Cambrian to the beginning of the Silurian. The obtained paleomagnetic data unambiguously correlate the Bysy-Yuryakh stratum to the Nyaian regional stage and constrain its formation, at least a considerable part of it, by the Tremadocian. This result perfectly agrees with the data on the Bysy-Yuryakh conodonts studied in this work and yields a spectacular example of the successful application of paleomagnetic studies in solving important tasks of stratigraphy and, correspondingly, petroleum geology. Within the Bysy-Yuryakh stratum, we revealed a large normal-polarity interval corresponding to the long (>1 Ma) period when the geomagnetic reversals were absent. This result, in combination with the data for the Tremadocian and Middle-Upper Cambrian sequences of the other regions, indicates that (1) the rate of occurrence of the geomagnetic reversals on the eve of the Ordovician Moyero superchron of reversed polarity was at most one reversal per Ma; (2) the superchron does not switch on instantaneously but is preceded by a certain gradual change in the operation conditions of the dynamo mechanism which, inter alia, manifests itself by the reduction of the frequency of geomagnetic reversals with the approach of the superchron. This finding supports the views according to which a process preparing the establishment of the superchrons takes place at the core-mantle boundary.

  8. Hepatitis C Virus Positive Patients on the Waiting List for Liver Transplantation: Turnover and Characteristics of the Population on the Eve of the Therapeutic Revolution With Direct-Acting Antivirals.

    PubMed

    Trapani, S; Rizzato, L; Masiero, L; Ricci, A; Morabito, V; Peritore, D; Fiaschetti, P; Del Sordo, E; Cacciotti, A R; Montemurro, A; Nanni Costa, A

    2017-05-01

    Antivirals direct acting (DAA) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) have brought a revolution in the field of transplantation. It is likely to think that in the future patients on the waiting list for liver transplantation (LT) will no longer be registered for HCV-related cirrhosis but for liver disease from other causes. On the eve of this change, we show a snapshot of the Italian waiting list for LT. From October 1, 2012 to September 30, 2013, we estimated the total number of patients on the liver waiting list as intention to treat (ITT), the number of incident cases, and the delistings, particularly in the HCV positive (HCV+) population. Gender, median age, etiology and prognosis of liver disease, presence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), reason for delisting, mean waiting time for LT, and rate of death on waiting list were evaluated. In the time period, there were 517 new patients who were HCV+ (median age, 53 years): 255 (49.3%) mono-infected with HCV, 236 (45.7%) co-infected with HCV and hepatitis B virus (HBV), 11 (2.1%) co-infected with HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and 15 (2.9%) co-infected with HCV, HBV, and HIV. The median model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score at listing was 17 and HCC was present in 206 (39.8%) cases. HCV+ patients delisted were 442 (61.9%), 355 (80.3%) for LT. The mean waiting time to transplantation was 1.9 months; the percentage of death was 7.6%. This snapshot of the waiting list for LT in the year before the advent of DAA drugs will allow us to assess whether and how they will change the waiting list for LT when we start to look at the impact of new therapies on the waiting list. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Baseline characteristics in the Bardoxolone methyl EvAluation in patients with Chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Occurrence of renal eveNts (BEACON) trial.

    PubMed

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Chertow, Glenn M; Akizawa, Tadao; Audhya, Paul; Bakris, George L; Goldsberry, Angie; Krauth, Melissa; Linde, Peter; McMurray, John J; Meyer, Colin J; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Christ-Schmidt, Heidi; Toto, Robert D; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Wanner, Christoph; Wittes, Janet; Wrolstad, Danielle; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2013-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most important contributing cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide. Bardoxolone methyl, a nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 activator, augments estimated glomerular filtration. The Bardoxolone methyl EvAluation in patients with Chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Occurrence of renal eveNts (BEACON) trial was designed to establish whether bardoxolone methyl slows or prevents progression to ESRD. Herein, we describe baseline characteristics of the BEACON population. BEACON is a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial in 2185 patients with T2DM and chronic kidney disease stage 4 (eGFR between 15 and 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) designed to test the hypothesis that bardoxolone methyl added to guideline-recommended treatment including inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system slows or prevents progression to ESRD or cardiovascular death compared with placebo. Baseline characteristics (mean or percentage) of the population include age 68.5 years, female 43%, Caucasian 78%, eGFR 22.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and systolic/diastolic blood pressure 140/70 mmHg. The median urinary albumin:creatinine ratio was 320 mg/g and the frequency of micro- and macroalbuminuria was 30 and 51%, respectively. Anemia, abnormalities in markers of bone metabolism and elevations in cardiovascular biomarkers were frequently observed. A history of cardiovascular disease was present in 56%, neuropathy in 47% and retinopathy in 41% of patients. The BEACON trial enrolled a population heretofore unstudied in an international randomized controlled trial. Enrolled patients suffered with numerous co-morbid conditions and exhibited multiple laboratory abnormalities, highlighting the critical need for new therapies to optimize management of these conditions.

  10. Rewarding effects of the optical isomers of 3,4-methylenedioxy-methylamphetamine ('Ecstasy') and 3,4-methylenedioxy-ethylamphetamine ('Eve') measured by conditioned place preference in rats.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Anja; Mayerhofer, Andreas; Kovar, Karl-Artur; Schmidt, Werner J

    2002-09-27

    3,4-methylenedioxy-methylamphetamine (MDMA) ('Ecstasy') and its analogue 3,4-methylenedioxy-methylamphetamine (MDE) ('Eve') are well known illicit street drugs mainly abused by young people. In spite of the actual research going on, the classification of their abuse potential remains unclear. Since secondary reinforcers are the main factors responsible for craving and relapse, the aim of our study was to assess the potency of MDMA and MDE in a second order reinforcement paradigm, i.e. conditioned place preference (CPP). For the general assessment of our study conditions, we compared MDMA with amphetamine. Unexpectedly, no significant CPP for MDMA was found in contrast to amphetamine. Detailed analysis of current literature led us to the working hypothesis that social environment is crucial for the development of CPP. In a subsequent experiment we tested the influence of housing conditions on CPP using MDMA and demonstrated that isolated animals show significant CPP compared to group-housed ones. In order to better understand the rewarding mechanisms of Ecstasy-derivatives, we tested both the racemic drugs and the pure isomers in the CPP paradigm. Both MDMA's optical isomers and racemic MDMA showed significant CPP without notable differences, while MDE and its isomers completely failed to show any significant CPP. In conclusion, the mechanism by which MDMA induces addiction is much more complicated than assumed so far and more pronounced in isolated animals. The fact that both optical isomers of MDMA led to CPP implies that at least two pathways by which MDMA induces craving behaviour exist.

  11. Robotics Team Lights Up New Year's Eve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    A robotics team from Muncie, Indiana--the PhyXTGears--is made up of high school students from throughout Delaware County. The group formed as part of the FIRST Robotics program (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology), an international program founded by inventor Dean Kamen in which students work with professional engineers and…

  12. Titan on the eve of Voyager encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, J.

    1981-01-01

    A decade of scientific study of Titan is reviewed with emphasis on the composition and the extent of its atmosphere. Several viable models are briefly discussed including the inversion model of Danielsen et al. (1973), Hunten's model (1978) which includes an extensive troposphere and a warm surface, with nitrogen as the major component, and models with neon, primordial carbon monoxide, or various mixtures of hydrogen, helium, and CH4. Recent observations by Pioneer 11 and other satellites are examined.

  13. Robotics Team Lights Up New Year's Eve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    A robotics team from Muncie, Indiana--the PhyXTGears--is made up of high school students from throughout Delaware County. The group formed as part of the FIRST Robotics program (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology), an international program founded by inventor Dean Kamen in which students work with professional engineers and…

  14. Particle Physics on the Eve of Lhc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studenikin, Alexander I.

    2009-01-01

    Fundamentals of particle physics. The quantum number of color, colored quarks and dynamic models of Hadrons composed of quasifree quarks / V. Matveev, A. Tavkhelidze. Discovery of the color degree of freedom in particle physics: a personal perspective / O. W. Greenberg. The evolution of the concepts of energy, momentum, and mass from Newton and Lomonosov to Einstein and Feynman / L. Okun -- Physics at accelerators and studies in SM and beyond. Search for new physics at LHC (CMS) / N. Krasnikov. Measuring the Higgs Boson(s) at ATLAS / C. Kourkoumelis. Beyond the standard model physics reach of the ATLAS experiment / G. Unel. The status of the International Linear Collider / B. Foster. Review of results of the electron-proton collider HERA / V. Chekelian. Recent results from the Tevatron on CKM matrix elements from Bs oscillations and single top production, and studies of CP violation in Bs Decays / J. P. Fernández. Direct observation of the strange b Barion [symbol] / L. Vertogradov. Search for new physics in rare B Decays at LHCb / V. Egorychev. CKM angle measurements at LHCb / S. Barsuk. Collider searches for extra spatial dimensions and black holes / G. Landsberg -- Neutrino Physics. Results of the MiniBooNE neutrino oscillation experiment / Z. Djurcic. MINOS results and prospects / J. P. Ochoa-Ricoux. The new result of the neutrino magnetic moment measurement in the GEMMA experiment / A. G. Beda ... [et al.]. The Baikal neutrino experiment: status, selected physics results, and perspectives / V. Aynutdinov ... [et al.]. Neutrino telescopes in the deep sea / V. Flaminio. Double beta decay: present status / A. S. Barabash. Beta-beams / C. Volpe. T2K experiment / K. Sakashita. Non-standard neutrino physics probed by Tokai-to-Kamioka-Korea two-detector complex / N. Cipriano Ribeiro ... [et al.]. Sterile neutrinos: from cosmology to the LHC / F. Vannucci. From Cuoricino to Cuore towards the inverted hierarchy region / C. Nones. The MARE experiment: calorimetric approach to the direct measurement of the neutrino mass / E. Andreotti. Electron angular correlation in neutrinoless double beta decay and new physics / A. Ali, A. Borisov, D. Zhuridov. Neutrino energy quantization in rotating medium / A. Grigoriev, A. Studenikin. Neutrino propagation in dense magnetized matter / E. V. Arbuzova, A. E. Lobanov, E. M. Murchikova. Plasma induced neutrino spin flip via the neutrino magnetic moment / A. Kuznetsov, N. Mikheev -- Astroparticle physics and cosmology. International Russian-Italian mission "RIM-PAMELA" / A. M. Galper .. [et al.]. Dark Matter searches with AMS-02 experiment / A. Malinin. Investigating the dark halo / R. Bernabei ... [et al.]. Search for rare processes at Gran Sasso / P. Belli ... [et al.]. Anisotropy of Dark Matter annihilation and remnants of Dark Matter clumps in the galaxy / V. Berezinsky, V. Dokuchaev, Yu. Eroshenko. Current observational constraints on inflationary models / E. Mikheeva. Phase transitions in dense quark matter in a constant curvature gravitational field / D. Ebert, V. Ch. Zhukovsky, A. V. Tyukov. Construction of exact solutions in two-fields models / S. Yu. Vernov. Quantum systems bound by gravity / M. L. Fil'chenkov, S. V. Kopylov, Y. P. Laptev -- CP violation and rare decays. Some puzzles of rare B-Decays / A. B. Kaidalov. Measurements of CP violation in b decays and CKM parameters / J. Chauveau. Evidence for D[symbol] mixing at BaBar / M. V. Purohit. Search for direct CP violation in charged kaon decays from NA48/2 experiment / S. Balev. [symbol] scattering lengths from measurements of K[symbol] and K± -> [symbol] decays at NA48/2 / D. Madigozhin. Rare kaon and hyperon decays in NA48 experiment / N. Molokanova. THE K+ -> [symbol]+vv¯ experiment at CERN / Yu. Potrebenikov. Recent KLOE results / B. Di Micco.Decay constants and masses of heavy-light mesons in field correlator method / A. M. Badalian. Bilinear R-parity violation in rare meson decays / A. Ali, A. V. Borisov, M. V. Sidorova. Final state interaction in K -> 2[symbol] decay / E. Shabalin -- Hadron physics. Collective effects in central heavy-ion collisions / G. I. Lykasov ... [et al.]. Stringy phenomena in Yang-Mills plasma / V. I. Zakharov. Lattice results on gluon and ghost propagators in Landau gauge / I. L. Bogolubsky ... [et al.]. [symbol] and [symbol] excited states in field correlator method / I. Narodetskii, A. Veselov. Theory of quark-gluon plasma and phase transition / E. V. Komarov, Yu. A. Simonov. Chiral symmetry breaking and the Lorentz nature of confinement / A. V. Nefediev. Structure function moments of proton and neutron / M. Osipenko. Higgs decay to bb: different approaches to resummation of QCD effects / A. L. Kataev, V. T. Kim. A novel integral representation for the Adler function and its behavior at low energies / A. V. Nesterenko. QCD test of z-scaling for [symbol]-meson production in pp collisions at high energies / M. Tokarev, T. Dedovich. Quark mixing in the standard model and the space rotations / G. Dattoli, K. Zhukovsky. Analytic approach to constructing effective theory of strong interactions and its application to pion-nucleon scattering / A. N. Safronov -- New developments in quantum field theory. On the origin of families and their mass matrices with the approach unifying spin and charges, prediction for new families / N. S. Mankoc Borstnik. Z[symbol] electric strings and center vortices in SU(2) lattice gauge theory / M. I. Polikarpov, P. V. Buividovich. Upper bound on the lightest neutralino mass in the minimal non-minimal supersymmetric standard model / S. Hesselbach ... [et al.]. Application of higher derivative regularization to calculation of quantum corrections in N=l supersymmetric theories / K. Stepanyantz. Nonperturbative quantum relativistic effects in the confinement mechanism for particles in a deep potential well / K. A. Sveshnikov, M. V. Ulybyshev. Khalfin's theorem and neutral mesons subsystem / K. Urbanowski. Effective lagrangians and field theory on a lattice / O. V. Pavlovsky. String-like electrostatic interaction from QED with infinite magnetic field / A. E. Shabad, V. V. Usov. QFT systems with 2D spatial defects / I. V. Fialkovsky, V. N. Markov, Yu. M. Pismak. Bound state problems and radiative effects in extended electrodynamics with Lorentz violation / I. E. Frolov, O. G. Kharlanov, V. Ch. Zhukovsky. Particles with low binding energy in a strong stationary magnetic field / E. V. Arbuzova, G. A. Kravtsova, V. N. Rodionov. Triangle anomaly and radiatively induced Lorentz and CPT violation in electrodynamics / A. E. Lobanov, A. P. Venediktov. The comparative analysis of the angular distribution of synchrotron radiation for a spinless particle in classic and quantum theories / V. G. Bagrov, A. N. Burimova, A. A. Gusev. Problem of the spin light identification / V. A. Bordovitsyn, V. V. Telushkin. Simulation the nuclear interaction / T. F. Kamalov. Unstable leptons and (u - e - [symbol])-universality / O. Kosmachev. Generalized Dirac equation describing the quark structure of nucleons / A. Rabinowitch. Unique geometrization of material and electromagnetic wave fields / O. Olkhov -- Problems of intelligentsia. The conscience of the intelligentsia / J. K. Bleimaier.

  15. Titan on the eve of Voyager encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, J.

    1981-01-01

    A decade of scientific study of Titan is reviewed with emphasis on the composition and the extent of its atmosphere. Several viable models are briefly discussed including the inversion model of Danielsen et al. (1973), Hunten's model (1978) which includes an extensive troposphere and a warm surface, with nitrogen as the major component, and models with neon, primordial carbon monoxide, or various mixtures of hydrogen, helium, and CH4. Recent observations by Pioneer 11 and other satellites are examined.

  16. Dose intensity and efficacy of the combination of everolimus and exemestane (EVE/EXE) in a real-world population of hormone receptor-positive (ER+/PgR+), HER2-negative advanced breast cancer (ABC) patients: a multicenter Italian experience.

    PubMed

    Ciccarese, Mariangela; Fabi, Alessandra; Moscetti, Luca; Cazzaniga, Maria Elena; Petrucelli, Luciana; Forcignanò, Rosachiara; Lupo, Laura Isabella; De Matteis, Elisabetta; Chiuri, Vincenzo Emanuele; Cairo, Giuseppe; Febbraro, Antonio; Giordano, Guido; Giampaglia, Marianna; Bilancia, Domenico; La Verde, Nicla; Maiello, Evaristo; Morritti, Maria; Giotta, Francesco; Lorusso, Vito; Latorre, Agnese; Scavelli, Claudio; Romito, Sante; Cusmai, Antonio; Palmiotti, Gennaro; Surico, Giammarco

    2017-06-01

    This retrospective analysis focused on the effect of treatment with EVE/EXE in a real-world population outside of clinical trials. We examined the efficacy of this combination in terms of PFS and RR related to dose intensity (5 mg daily versus 10 mg daily) and tolerability. 163 HER2-negative ER+/PgR+ ABC patients, treated with EVE/EXE from May 2011 to March 2016, were included in the analysis. The primary endpoints were the correlation between the daily dose and RR and PFS, as well as an evaluation of the tolerability of the combination. Secondary endpoints were RR, PFS, and OS according to the line of treatment. Patients were classified into three different groups, each with a different dose intensity of everolimus (A, B, C). RR was 29.8% (A), 27.8% (B) (p = 0.953), and not evaluable (C). PFS was 9 months (95% CI 7-11) (A), 10 months (95% CI 9-11) (B), and 5 months (95% CI 2-8) (C), p = 0.956. OS was 38 months (95% CI 24-38) (A), median not reached (B), and 13 months (95% CI 10-25) (C), p = 0.002. Adverse events were stomatitis 57.7% (11.0% grade 3-4), asthenia 46.0% (6.1% grade 3-4), hypercholesterolemia 46.0% (0.6% grade 3-4), and hyperglycemia 35.6% (5.5% grade 3-4). The main reason for discontinuation/interruption was grade 2-3 stomatitis. No correlation was found between dose intensity (5 vs. 10 mg labeled dose) and efficacy in terms of RR and PFS. The tolerability of the higher dose was poor in our experience, although this had no impact on efficacy.

  17. JT/LJT connector insert material evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, J.R.F.

    1991-10-01

    Different insert (insulator) materials are undergoing evaluation to replace the Fiberite E-3938 BE96 material currently used. Also being evaluated is the reconfiguration of the insert and metal shell-edge geometries for the purpose of reducing the alleged interference principally responsible for insert damage.

  18. JT90 thermal barrier coated vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheffler, K. D.; Graziani, R. A.; Sinko, G. C.

    1982-01-01

    The technology of plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings applied to turbine vane platforms in modern high temperature commercial engines was advanced to the point of demonstrated feasibility for application to commercial aircraft engines. The three thermal barrier coatings refined under this program are zirconia stabilized with twenty-one percent magnesia (21% MSZ), six percent yttria (6% YSZ), and twenty percent yttria (20% YSZ). Improvement in thermal cyclic endurance by a factor of 40 times was demonstrated in rig tests. A cooling system evolved during the program which featured air impingement cooling for the vane platforms rather than film cooling. The impingement cooling system, in combination with the thermal barrier coatings, reduced platform cooling air requirements by 44% relative to the current film cooling system. Improved durability and reduced cooling air requirements were demonstrated in rig and engine endurance tests. Two engine tests were conducted, one of 1000 cycles and the other of 1500 cycles. All three coatings applied to vanes fabricated with the final cooling system configuration completed the final 1500 cycle engine endurance test. Results of this test clearly demonstrated the durability of the 6% YSZ coating which was in very good condition after the test. The 21% MSZ and 20% YSZ coatings had numerous occurrences of significant spalling in the test.

  19. "Eve" in Africa: Human Evolution Meets Molecular Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seager, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a discussion of recent evidence on the evolution of human forms on earth gathered and evaluated using mitochondrial DNA techniques. Theories regarding the possibility that a common female ancestor existed in Africa about 200,000 years ago are discussed. A list of teaching aids is provided. (CW)

  20. From Atom to Eve: An Interdisciplinary Unit on Origins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Karen C.; Letts, Kathleen P.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a Catholic high school science unit on the origins of energy, matter, stars, planets, and life. Explains how the three- to four-week unit seeks to promote a unifying vision of science and religion, physics and biology, art and chemistry, education and living. (DMM)

  1. Elongated Asteroid Will Safely Pass Earth on Christmas Eve

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-23

    The elongated asteroid in this radar image, named 2003 SD220, will safely fly past Earth on Thursday, Dec. 24, 2015, at a distance of 6.8 million miles (11 million kilometers). The image was taken on Dec. 22 by scientists using NASA's 230-foot (70-meter) Deep Space Network antenna at Goldstone, California, when the asteroid was approaching its flyby distance. This asteroid is at least 3,600 feet (1,100 meters) long. In 2018, it will safely pass Earth at a distance of 1.8 million miles (2.8 million kilometers). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20280

  2. All about Eve: Secret Sharing using Quantum Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Deborah J.

    2005-01-01

    This document discusses the nature of light (including classical light and photons), encryption, quantum key distribution (QKD), light polarization and beamsplitters and their application to information communication. A quantum of light represents the smallest possible subdivision of radiant energy (light) and is called a photon. The QKD key generation sequence is outlined including the receiver broadcasting the initial signal indicating reception availability, timing pulses from the sender to provide reference for gated detection of photons, the sender generating photons through random polarization while the receiver detects photons with random polarization and communicating via data link to mutually establish random keys. The QKD network vision includes inter-SATCOM, point-to-point Gnd Fiber and SATCOM-fiber nodes. QKD offers an unconditionally secure method of exchanging encryption keys. Ongoing research will focus on how to increase the key generation rate.

  3. Radar Image of Christmas Eve Asteroid 2003 SD2020

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-23

    This image of an asteroid that is at least 3,600 feet (1,100 meters) long was taken on Dec. 17, 2015, by scientists using NASA's 230-foot (70-meter) DSS-14 antenna at Goldstone, California. This asteroid, named 2003 SD2020, will safely fly past Earth on Thursday, Dec. 24, at a distance of 6.8 million miles (11 million kilometers). At the time this image was taken, the asteroid was about 7.3 million miles (12 million kilometers) from Earth. In 2018, this asteroid will fly past Earth at a distance of 1.8 million miles (2.8 million kilometers). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20279

  4. [Is male violence directed towards Eve or Mary?].

    PubMed

    Noronha, C V; Daltro, M E

    1991-01-01

    This paper analyses the different categories of violent death and other injuries occurred in Bahia. In Brazil, traffic accidents, homicides and suicides correspond to the third most common cause of death. Besides, violent acts tend to increase the emergency health services demand. The data were collected from the written press covering all the homicides, grave injuries and notified rapes during 1989. Police violence appeared as responsible for the death of a high proportion (24%) of young males, followed by the disagreement between criminals (18.6%). In relation to females, the quantitative dimension of crimes are lower, more diffused and registered in the family environment. The data point to the importance of male domination in the interpretation of those domestic violent acts. Resisting the ideology of women's inferiority means avoiding both injuries and homicides - a complex task for Brazilian society.

  5. Flavor anomalies on the eve of the Run-2 verdict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadagnoli, Diego

    2017-03-01

    The RK measurement by LHCb suggests nonstandard Lepton-Universality Violation (LUV) to occur in b → sℓ+ℓ- decays with effects in muons rather than electrons. It is intriguing that a number of other measurements of b → sℓ+ℓ- transitions by LHCb and B-factories are consistent in magnitude and sign with the RK effect, and fit a coherent effective-theory picture. Further indications of nonstandard LUV are provided by the long-standing discrepancies in b → cτν transitions via the ratios R(D) and R(D∗). We review in detail the experimental situation and its rich outlook, the theoretical efforts — and their challenges — towards convincing dynamics beyond the effective-theory level, and discuss the many directions of further investigation that propagate from the current situation.

  6. Pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension: on the eve of growing up.

    PubMed

    Douwes, Johannes M; Berger, Rolf M F

    2017-09-01

    Current recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) during childhood are expert opinion based, because of lacking pediatric data. In recent years, however, important pediatric data have emerged on PAH. PAH in children shows similarities as well as differences compared to adults. Neonates and children know specific clinical presentations and a hemodynamic profile that differs from adults with PAH. Children identified as acute vasodilator responders according to the criteria proposed for adults rather than the pediatric criteria have better outcome when treated with calcium channel blockers. For nonresponders, combination PAH-targeted therapy leads to improved outcome compared to monotherapy. In pediatric PAH, WHO functional class, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion were identified as surrogates for survival and therefore qualify to be treatment goals in a goal-oriented treatment strategy. In order to refine current pediatric treatment guidelines, data on efficacy of specific treatment regiments and strategies are needed. The recently validated composite endpoint of clinical worsening allows for trials that will provide these data. For the first time, evidence-based treatment goals have been identified that will allow for a goal-oriented treatment strategy. Furthermore, various prognostic predictors have been identified that may prove treatment goals in future.

  7. All about Eve: Secret Sharing using Quantum Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Deborah J.

    2005-01-01

    This document discusses the nature of light (including classical light and photons), encryption, quantum key distribution (QKD), light polarization and beamsplitters and their application to information communication. A quantum of light represents the smallest possible subdivision of radiant energy (light) and is called a photon. The QKD key generation sequence is outlined including the receiver broadcasting the initial signal indicating reception availability, timing pulses from the sender to provide reference for gated detection of photons, the sender generating photons through random polarization while the receiver detects photons with random polarization and communicating via data link to mutually establish random keys. The QKD network vision includes inter-SATCOM, point-to-point Gnd Fiber and SATCOM-fiber nodes. QKD offers an unconditionally secure method of exchanging encryption keys. Ongoing research will focus on how to increase the key generation rate.

  8. On The Eve Of IYA2009 In Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesser, James E.; Breland, K.; Hay, K.; Lane, D.; Lacasse, R.; Lemay, D.; Langill, P.; Percy, J.; Welch, D.; Woodsworth, A.

    2009-01-01

    Local events organized by astronomy clubs, colleges and universities across Canada will softly launch IYA on Saturday, 10 January and begin building awareness of opportunities for every Canadian to experience a `Galileo Moment’ in 2009. The launch typifies our `grass roots’ philosophy based upon our strong partnership of amateurs and professionals which already represents an IYA legacy. In this poster we anticipate the activities of the first half of 2009 and exhibit the educational and public outreach materials and programs we have produced in both official languages, e.g., Astronomy Trading Cards, Mary Lou's New Telescope, Star Finder, etc. Some of these play central roles in our tracking of participation, including allowing people to register to have their name launched into space in 2010. Several contests for youth are underway, with the prize in one being an hour of Gemini telescope observing. In the first half of 2009 some 30,000 grade 6 students will experience `Music of the Spheres’ astronomical orchestral programming conducted by Galileo (a.k.a. Tania Miller, Victoria Symphony). Audiences in Canada and the US will experience Taflemusik's marvelous new soundscape of music and words exploring the deep connections between astronomy and Baroque-era music. An Astronomy Kit featuring Galileoscope for classroom and astronomy club EPO will be tested. Canada Post will issue two stamps during 100 Hours of Astronomy. A new production, Galileo Live!, by Canadian planetaria involving live actors will premier, as will the national Galileo Legacy Lectures in which top astronomers familiarize the public with forefront research being done in Canada. Image exhibits drawing upon material generated by Canadian astronomers and artists, as well as from the IAU Cornerstones, FETTU and TWAN, are opening in malls and airports early in 2009. We will present the latest information about these and other events.

  9. JET, the largest tokamak on the eve of DT operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, L. D.

    2016-11-01

    The Joint European Torus (JET) is the world's largest operating tokamak and the only such machine capable of operating with the fuel mixture (deuterium-tritium) foreseen for a fusion reactor. Since it came into operation in 1983, JET has explored fusion plasmas "in conditions and dimensions approaching those of a fusion reactor" [1]. JET has demonstrated world-record levels of fusion power and energy production, in conditions where the ratio of the fusion power generated to the input power to the plasma, Q, approaches unity.

  10. Evaluating Eve: visceral states influence the evaluation of impulsive behavior.

    PubMed

    Nordgren, Loran F; van der Pligt, Joop; van Harreveld, Frenk

    2007-07-01

    Impulsive behavior is a common source of stigma. The authors argue that people often stigmatize impulsive behavior because they fail to appreciate the influence visceral impulses have on behavior. Because people tend to underestimate the motivational force of cravings for sex, drugs, food, and so forth, they are prone to stigmatize those who act on these impulses. In line with this reasoning, in 4 studies, the authors found that participants who were in a cold state (e.g., not hungry) made less favorable evaluations of a related impulsive behavior (impulsive eating) than did participants who were in a hot state (e.g., hungry). This empathy gap effect was tested with 3 different visceral states--fatigue, hunger, and sexual arousal--and was found both when participants evaluated others' impulsive behavior (Studies 1 & 2) and when participants evaluated their own impulsive behavior (Study 3). Study 3 also demonstrated that the empathy gap effect is due to different perceptions of the strength of the visceral state itself. Finally, Study 4 revealed that this effect is state specific: Hungry people, for example, evaluated only hunger-driven impulses, and not other forms of impulse, more favorably.

  11. From Atom to Eve: An Interdisciplinary Unit on Origins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Karen C.; Letts, Kathleen P.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a Catholic high school science unit on the origins of energy, matter, stars, planets, and life. Explains how the three- to four-week unit seeks to promote a unifying vision of science and religion, physics and biology, art and chemistry, education and living. (DMM)

  12. "Eve" in Africa: Human Evolution Meets Molecular Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seager, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a discussion of recent evidence on the evolution of human forms on earth gathered and evaluated using mitochondrial DNA techniques. Theories regarding the possibility that a common female ancestor existed in Africa about 200,000 years ago are discussed. A list of teaching aids is provided. (CW)

  13. Virucidal agents in the eve of manorapid synergy®

    PubMed Central

    Galabov, Angel S.

    2007-01-01

    Virucidal agents are chemical substances that attack and inactivate viral particles outside the cell (virions). In general this is accomplished by damaging their protein shells (capsid) or the substance penetrates the core itself, where it destroys the genetic material. Damage to the virion structure is also possible. These agents are used not only for traditional surface disinfection or sterilization of blood, blood products, and other medicinal products as well as in antiviral chemotherapy. They have also been used in recent times for inactivation of viruses in foodstuffs, detergents or cosmetics. Below is given an overview of the data currently available on the performance of these substances when used for the latter applications (cleaning and cosmetics). These include: hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorites, cupric and ferric ions, per-acids ethanol, parachlorometaxylenol in a sodium C14-16 olefin sulfonate, glutaraldehyde, quaternary ammonium salts, chlorhexidine and chlorhexidine gluconate, curdline sulphate, glycerol, lipids, azodicarbonamide, cicloxolone sodium, dichlorisocyanuric acid (sodium salt), benzalkonium salts, disulfate benzamides and benzisothiazolones, congo red, ascorbic acid, nonoxynol-9, para-aminobenzoic acid, bis(monosuccinamide) derivative of p,p’-bis(2-aminoethyl) diphenlyi-C60) (fullerene). merocyanine, benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A, rose bengal, hypericin, hypocrellin A, anthraquinones extracted from plants, sulfonated anthraquinones and other anthraquinone derivatives gramicidine, gossypol, garlic (Allium sativum) extract and its components: ajoene, diallyl thiosulfinate (allicin), allyl methyl thioulfinate, methyl allyl thiosulfinate, extracts of ledium, motherworth, celandine, black currant, coaberry and bilberry, extract of Cordia salicifolia, steam distillate from Houttuynia cordata (Saururaceae) and its component, 5,6,7-trimethoxyflavone from Calicarpa japonica, isoscullarein (5,7,8,4’-tetrahydroxyflavone) from Scutellaria baikalensis and isoscutellarein-8-methylether, alkaloids and phytosteryl ester compounds. PMID:20200679

  14. Pointblank: Acts on the Eve of War, 1938-1939

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    but failed to explore any course in depth. His quick summations of all three phases yielded nine reasons why he thought ACTS’ theory was flawed...Structure,” 18. 18 distribution networks and storage capability made the industry robust and Fairchild concluded it would be difficult to yield ...could be decisive.57 The analysis for the steel industry yielded the same recommendations. Steel was required to build a mechanized army, modern

  15. Russian Pedagogical Thinking on the Eve of October 1917.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikol' skaia, A. A.

    1996-01-01

    Surveys some of the more prominent views on education during the final years of tsarist Russia. Russian pedagogical thinking was largely influenced by progressive educational theories popular in the United States and Europe. Discusses the views and efforts of major Russian educational theorists at the time. (MJP)

  16. Sorption J-T refrigeration utilizing manganese nitride chemisorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack; Lund, Alan

    1990-01-01

    The equilibrium pressures and compositions have been measured for a system of finely powdered manganese nitride and nitrogen gas at 650, 700, 800, and 850 C for various nitrogen loadings. Pressures ranged from less than 0.02 MPa at 650 C to 6.38 MPa at 850 C. Analysis of the test results has shown that under certain conditions Mn(x)N(y) could potentially be used in a triple regenerative sorption compressor refrigeration system, but the potential power savings are small compared to the increased complexity and reliability problems associated with very high temperature (above 950 C) pressurized systems.

  17. Basics of Joule-Thomson Liquefaction and JT Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Waele, A. T. A. M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the basic operation of Joule-Thomson liquefiers and Joule-Thomson coolers. The discussion is based on the first law of thermodynamics mainly using hT-diagrams. It is limited to single-component fluids. A nitrogen liquefier and a helium cooler are discussed as important examples.

  18. Basics of Joule-Thomson Liquefaction and JT Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Waele, A. T. A. M.

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes the basic operation of Joule-Thomson liquefiers and Joule-Thomson coolers. The discussion is based on the first law of thermodynamics mainly using hT-diagrams. It is limited to single-component fluids. A nitrogen liquefier and a helium cooler are discussed as important examples.

  19. Sorption J-T refrigeration utilizing manganese nitride chemisorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack; Lund, Alan

    1990-01-01

    The equilibrium pressures and compositions have been measured for a system of finely powdered manganese nitride and nitrogen gas at 650, 700, 800, and 850 C for various nitrogen loadings. Pressures ranged from less than 0.02 MPa at 650 C to 6.38 MPa at 850 C. Analysis of the test results has shown that under certain conditions Mn(x)N(y) could potentially be used in a triple regenerative sorption compressor refrigeration system, but the potential power savings are small compared to the increased complexity and reliability problems associated with very high temperature (above 950 C) pressurized systems.

  20. Miniature J-T refrigators using adsorption compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, C. K.; Tward, E.; Elleman, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    More sophisticated cooling systems for the employed detectors will be needed to satisfy the demand for higher resolution and sensitivity of various detectors used in space missions. The design of the cooling system must take into consideration the unique environment of space vehicles. It is pointed out that a deep space vehicle usually has an ample supply of waste heat from a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) and has a heat sink near zero Kelvin. Passive radiative coolers have been used for cooling temperatures above 90 K. Cooling below 90 K is currently handled by phase changes of solid or liquid cryogens or mechanical refrigeration. However, the weight of the cryogen may be a problem in a long duration space mission. Refrigerators of small cooling capacity are required in many spacecraft applications. For some future NASA missions, a multistage Joule-Thomson refrigerator using adsorption compressors appears particularly attractive. A study is discussed of four different refrigeration stages which use charcoal as the adsorbent. The adsorbed gases are nitrogen, helium, hydrogen, and neon.

  1. JT8D Engine Internal Exhaust Mixer Technology Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    fabricability and cost considerations. In addition, this material has excellent repairability properties for service usage. The aluminum fan duct fairing...this period. (3) Along with noise and performance, ambient air temperature, rela- tive humidity, barometric pressure, and wind velocity were re- corded...at each test condition. Neither noise nor performance were recorded when the wind speed exceeded 8 knots or when the crosswind component exceeded 5

  2. Poster — Thur Eve — 20: CTDI Measurements using a Radiochromic Film-based clinical protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Quintero, C.; Bekerat, H.; DeBlois, F.; Tomic, N.; Devic, S.; Seuntjens, J.

    2014-08-15

    The purpose of the study was evaluating accuracy and reproducibility of a radiochromic film-based protocol to measure computer tomography dose index (CTDI) as a part of annual QA on CT scanners and kV-CBCT systems attached to linear accelerators. Energy dependence of Gafchromic XR-QA2 ® film model was tested over imaging beam qualities (50 – 140 kVp). Film pieces were irradiated in air to known values of air-kerma (up to 10 cGy). Calibration curves for each beam quality were created (Film reflectance change Vs. Air-kerma in air). Film responses for same air-kerma values were compared. Film strips were placed into holes of a CTDI phantom and irradiated for several clinical scanning protocols. Film reflectance change was converted into dose to water and used to calculate CTDIvol values. Measured and tabulated CTDIvol values were compared. Average variations of ±5.2% in the mean film reflectance change were observed in the energy range of 80 to 140 keV, and 11.1% between 50 and 140 keV. Measured CTDI values were in average 10% lower than tabulated CTDI values for CT-simulators, and 44% higher for CBCT systems. Results presented a mean variation for the same machine and protocol of 2.6%. Variation of film response is within ±5% resulting in ±15% systematic error in dose estimation if a single calibration curve is used. Relatively large discrepancy between measured and tabulated CTDI values strongly support the trend towards replacing CTDI value with equilibrium dose measurement in the center of cylindrical phantom, as suggested by TG- 111.

  3. Poster — Thur Eve — 49: Unexpected Output Drops: Pitted Blackholes in Tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, A; Pierce, G

    2014-08-15

    During the daily measurement of radiation output of a 6 MV beam on a Varian Trilogy Linear Accelerator the output dropped below 2% and initiated a call to action by physics to determine the cause. Over the course of weeks the cause of the issue was diagnosed to be a defect in the target, resulting in a drop in output and an asymmetry of the beam. Steps were taken to return the machine to clinical service while parts were on order while ensuring the safety of patient treatment. The machine target was replaced and the machine continues to operate as expected. A drop in output is usually a rarity and a defect in the target is possibly more rare. This experience demonstrated the importance of routine QC measurement, recording and analyzing daily output and symmetry values. In addition, this event showcased the importance of a multi-disciplinary approach in a high-pressure situation to effectively troubleshoot unique events to ensure consistence, safety patient treatment.

  4. Poster — Thur Eve — 19: Performance assessment of a 160-leaf beam collimation system

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, E. S. M.; La Russa, D. J.; Vandervoort, E.

    2014-08-15

    In this study, the performance of the new beam collimation system with 160 leaves, each with a 5 mm leaf width projected at isocenter, is evaluated in terms of positional accuracy and plan/delivery quality. Positional accuracy was evaluated using a set of static and dynamic MLC/jaw delivery patterns at different gantry angles, dose rates, and MLC/jaw speeds. The impact on IMRT plan quality was assessed by comparing against a previous generation collimation system using the same optimization parameters, while delivery quality was quantified using a combination of patient-specific QA measurements with ion chambers, film, and a bi-planar diode array. Positional accuracy for four separate units was comparable. The field size accuracy, junction width, and total displacement over 16 cm leaf travel are 0.3 ± 0.2 mm, 0.4 ± 0.3 mm, and 0.5 ± 0.2 mm, respectively. The typical leaf minor offset is 0.05 ± 0.04 mm, and MLC hysteresis effects are 0.2 ± 0.1 mm over 16 cm travel. The dynamic output is linear with MU and MLC/jaw speed, and is within 0.7 ± 0.3 % of the planning system value. Plan quality is significantly improved both in terms of target coverage and OAR sparing due, in part, to the larger allowable MLC and jaw speeds. γ-index pass rates for the patient-specific QA measurements exceeded 97% using criteria of 2%/2 mm. In conclusion, the performance of the Agility system is consistent among four separate installations, and is superior to its previous generations of collimation systems.

  5. Poster — Thur Eve — 08: Rotational errors with on-board cone beam computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, E. S. M.; Webb, R.; Nyiri, B.

    2014-08-15

    The focus of this study is on the Elekta XVI on-board cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) system. A rotational mismatch as large as 0.5° is observed between clockwise (CW) and counter-clockwise (CCW) CBCT scans. The error could affect non-isocentric treatments (e.g., lung SBRT and acoustic neuroma), as well as off-axis organs-at-risk. The error is caused by mislabeling of the projections with a lagging gantry angle, which is caused by the finite image acquisition time and delays in the imaging system. A 30 cm diameter cylindrical phantom with 5 mm diameter holes is used for the scanning. CW and CCW scans are acquired for five gantry speeds (360 to 120 deg./min.) on six linacs from three generations (MLCi, MLCi2, and Agility). Additional scans are acquired with different x-ray pulse widths for the same mAs. In the automated CBCT analysis (using ImageJ), the CW/CCW mismatch in a series of line profiles is identified and used to calculate the rotational error. Results are consistent among all linacs and indicate that the error varies linearly with gantry speed. The finite width of the x-ray pulses is a major but predictable contributor to the delay causing the error. For 40 ms pulses, the delay is 34 ± 1 ms. A simple solution applied in our clinic is adjusting the gantry angle offset to make the CCW one-minute scans correct. A more involved approach we are currently investigating includes adjustments of pulse width and mA, resulting in focal spot changes, with potential impact on image quality.

  6. Poster — Thur Eve — 29: Characterization of Patient Immobilization for Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Courneyea, L; Mullins, J; Howard, M; Beltran, C; Brinkmann, D; Pafundi, D

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Evaluate an immobilization system to determine its adequacy for the reduced margins required for proton therapy. Methods: Twelve head-and-neck cancer patients were immobilized for conventional photon radiotherapy and imaged with pre- and post-treatment cone beam CTs (CBCTs) for each treatment fraction. To quantify the patient positioning reproducibility, each CBCT was registered to the simulation CT offline. Registrations were performed using auto-match tools and a matching volume-of-interest (VOI) consisting of a 5mm expansion around the mandible, occipital bone, C1/C2 and C7/T1. For each registration, the bony anatomy in the VOI was evaluated for agreement with the simulation position using 3 and 5mm margins. Registrations were initially restricted to translational corrections. If the bony anatomy did not agree with the simulation position to within 3mm or 5mm, the auto-match was repeated with 3 additional rotational corrections. Intrafraction motion was calculated as the difference between the pre- and post-treatment CBCT matches. Results: Pre-treatment patient positioning agreed with the simulation CT to within 3mm/5mm for 62%/86% of fractions using translational matching and 84%/100% of fractions when rotations were included. Intrafraction motion averaged 1.1±0.8mm, with 12% of fractions having >2mm intrafraction motion. Post-treatment positioning accuracy was 57%/84% and 80%/100% for registrations without/with rotations. For the mandible, positioning accuracy dropped from 93% pre-treatment to 82% post-treatment. Conclusion: If rotational corrections are available, the immobilization system studied created reproducible patient positioning to within 3mm for 84% of fractions. However, intrafraction motion caused additional anatomy to fall outside the 3mm margin by the end of treatment.

  7. Poster - Thur Eve - 38: Review of couch parameters using an FMEA.

    PubMed

    Larouche, R; Doucet, R; Rémy, E; Filion, A; Poirier, L

    2012-07-01

    To improve patient safety during positioning, we undertook a systematic review of the processes used by our center to obtain couch positions. We used a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) framework and fifteen different possible failures were identified and rated. The three major failures were 1) Loss of planned couch position and bias from the previous day's couch position, 2) DICOM origin or isocenter is different between two plans (imaging or treatment), and 3) Patient shift in opposite direction than intended. The main effect of these failures was to cause an override of couch parameters. Based on these results, we modified our processes, introduced new QA and software checks and developed new tolerance tables so as to improve system robustness and increase our success rate at catching failures before they can affect the patient. It has been a year since we made these modifications. Based on our results, we have reduced the number of overrides at our center from a maximum of 20.5% to a maximum of 6.3%, with an average at 4% of daily treatments. Our results suggest that FMEA is an effective tool in improving treatment quality that could be used in other centers. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  8. [The socio-demographic situation of Morocco on the eve of the year 2000].

    PubMed

    Yaakoubd, A I

    1997-01-01

    "Slowing down of demographic growth, acceleration of urbanisation rhythm, pronounced youth of population, high potential of reproduction, continuous decline of fertility, [rising] age at first marriage, persistence of rural exodus, intensification of inter-urban migrations: those are the main features that have marked the demographic evolution of [the] Moroccan population during the last decades." The author discusses trends in literacy, youth unemployment, women's access to contraception, neonatal mortality, and living conditions in rural and urban areas. (EXCERPT)

  9. Poster — Thur Eve — 71: A 4D Multimodal Lung Phantom for Regmentation Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, D; Levesque, I R; El Naqa, I

    2014-08-15

    Segmentation and registration of medical imaging data are two processes that can be integrated (a process termed regmentation) to iteratively reinforce each other, potentially improving efficiency and overall accuracy. A significant challenge is presented when attempting to validate the joint process particularly with regards to minimizing geometric uncertainties associated with the ground truth while maintaining anatomical realism. This work demonstrates a 4D MRI, PET, and CT compatible tissue phantom with a known ground truth for evaluating registration and segmentation accuracy. The phantom consists of a preserved swine lung connected to an air pump via a PVC tube for inflation. Mock tumors were constructed from sea sponges contained within two vacuum-sealed compartments with catheters running into each one for injection of radiotracer solution. The phantom was scanned using a GE Discovery-ST PET/CT scanner and a 0.23T Phillips MRI, and resulted in anatomically realistic images. A bifurcation tracking algorithm was implemented to provide a ground truth for evaluating registration accuracy. This algorithm was validated using known deformations of up to 7.8 cm using a separate CT scan of a human thorax. Using the known deformation vectors to compare against, 76 bifurcation points were selected. The tracking accuracy was found to have maximum mean errors of −0.94, 0.79 and −0.57 voxels in the left-right, anterior-posterior and inferior-superior directions, respectively. A pneumatic control system is under development to match the respiratory profile of the lungs to a breathing trace from an individual patient.

  10. The Sociology of the Gene: Genetics and Education on the Eve of the Biotech Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rifkin, Jeremy

    1998-01-01

    Researchers in molecular biology are discovering an increasing genetic basis for a wide range of mental diseases, moods, behaviors, and personality traits. Findings are creating the context for a new sociobiology favoring a genetic interpretation of human motivations and drives. Genetic engineering will give some people unprecedented power over…

  11. Poster — Thur Eve — 54: Radiotherapy and Non-Radiotherapy Safety Practices Beyond Licensing Expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Kosierb, Rick

    2014-08-15

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) regulates the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect the health, safety and security of Canadians and the environment, and to implement Canada's international obligations on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. In order to perform this regulatory activity, the CNSC issue licences and has its staff perform inspections to verify conformity to the aspects of those licences. Within the CNSC, the Accelerators and Class II Facilities Division (ACFD) is responsible for the regulatory oversight of Class II Prescribed Equipment used in medical, academic, and industrial sectors in Canada. In performing inspections, ACFD has encountered licensees with practices that are either below, meet or exceed regulatory expectations in specific areas. Unfortunately, none of these practices are ever communicated to the broader Class II community to help other licensees avoid the same problem or achieve high standards. In this poster, ACFD will highlight safety practices that go beyond expectations. These practices are taken from observations during site inspections between 2007 and 2013 and will be presented in six areas: Procedures, Participation, Awareness, Equipment, Servicing and Software. Each area briefly discusses a number of practices that the CNSC feels went beyond the expectations dictated by the licence. Where possible, names are added of the contact people at the centres who can be reached for full details of their implementations. It is hoped that this communication will assist other licensees to achieve these same high levels of compliance and possibly go beyond.

  12. Poster - Thur Eve - 15: Production and assessment of astatine-211 for targeted alpha therapy.

    PubMed

    Crawford, J; Beckham, W; Jirasek, A; Ruth, T

    2012-07-01

    Biologically-targeted alpha-particle radiation is the basis of new and promising treatments for eliminating disseminated micrometastases and the residual microscopic malignancies that remain after surgery or radiation therapy. The short-range alpha-particles are highly cytotoxic and capable of inactivating single, isolated cancer cells which may otherwise cause recurrence. Astatine-211 is a promising alpha emitter for therapy; the 7.2 hour half-life of (211) At provides sufficient time for biological-targeting to take place. However, this radionuclide is in short supply and future treatment strategies still require extensive preclinical evaluation. The present work aims to develop technologies that (1) increase the world-wide availability of (211) At for clinical use, and (2) assess the risks of (211) At-based therapies by quantifying the activity distributions in animal models. At TRIUMF (Vancouver, BC), the feasibility of a novel generator system for (211) At is under investigation which would allow distribution of (211) At across Canada and internationally. Briefly, a longer-lived parent radionuclide of (211) At, radon-211, would be produced and allowed to decay in containment to yield (211) At in solution. Additionally, a supplementary study is underway in collaboration with the University of Washington to evaluate the sub-organ biodistributions of astatinated targeting biomolecules, with cell-level resolution. These measurements involve high resolution quantitative alpha-particle imaging in thin tissue samples and can be done for a selection of applications (eg. lymphoma, metastatic prostate cancer, etc) using animal models. The planned alpha-camera measurements are primarily designed to predict and assess the risk of toxicity associated with (211) At-based therapies and aid in developing the future clinical applications. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  13. Crisis of Black Athletes on the Eve of the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry

    2000-01-01

    Asserts that the dynamics of black youth sports involvement and the blind faith of black youths and families in sports as a vehicle for self-realization and socioeconomic advancement generate complex problems for black society. Black families often push their children toward sports careers, neglecting personal and cultural development. Discusses…

  14. Professional Schools of International Affairs on the Eve of the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Louis W.; And Others

    This report offers a descriptive and prescriptive discussion of changes under way at member schools of the Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs (APSIA). It analyzes data provided by a 1994 survey of all 15 member schools on the manner and extent to which they are adapting their programs to better prepare their students to…

  15. The Y2K Problem: Will It Just Be Another New Year's Eve?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwanowski, Jay

    1998-01-01

    Potential problems for college and university computing functions posed by arrival of the year 2000 (Y2K) are discussed, including arithmetic calculations and sorting functions based on two-digit year dates, embedding of two-digit dates in archival data, system coordination for data exchange, unique number generation, and leap year calculations. A…

  16. The Social Studies Classroom on the Eve of the Cyber Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Jana Sackman

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how to integrate technology into the classroom in order to take advantage of the benefits technology has to offer students, teachers, and parents. Describes how to create a class website that enables students and parents to view information about class activities, assignments, and Internet resources. Offers some technology-based…

  17. The two faces of Eve: gaseous anaesthesia and inert gas narcosis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Cameron R; Spiess, Bruce D

    2010-06-01

    Gaseous anaesthesia has been a great boon for medicine. These drugs form a foundation from which modern surgery has sprung, yet their mechanism(s) of actions remains poorly understood. Inert gas narcosis is a limitation of deep sea diving, and its mechanisms also remain poorly understood. In this review article we summarise what is known about the mechanisms of both gaseous anaesthesia and inert gas narcosis, including both lipid-based biophysical models and protein-based biochemical models, as well as explore some striking similarities between the two. These two phenomena may, in reality, be gradations of the same underlying mechanism. Recent findings include biochemical evidence suggesting that both gaseous anaesthesia and inert gas narcosis may be mediated by the occupation of minute spaces within the structure of many biologically important proteins, impairing their ability to undergo conformational changes and biological actions. This is exemplified by exploring the effects of the noble gas xenon, which can behave as either a narcotic gas or gaseous anaesthetic, depending on the partial pressure in which it is present.

  18. Life, Death, and Society in the Maritimes at the Eve of Confederation. Documents in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    Outlines activities using the 1867 quarterly returns for the Registry of Deaths for Pictou County, Nova Scotia, to link population themes in early Canada to today's global issues. Learning activities include having students research the age of mortality, cause of death, human migration, and occupational profile. (MJP)

  19. Studies of short-period comets on the eve of Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozuelos, F. J.; Moreno, F.; Aceituno, F.; Casanova, V.; Sota, A.; López-Moreno, J. J.; Cometas-Obs Team

    2015-05-01

    We present an extended study of the dust environment of a sample of short-period comets and their dynamical history. With this aim, we characterized the dust tails when the comets are active, and we make a statistical study to determine their dynamical evolution. The targets selected were 22P/Kopff, 30P/Reinmuth 1, 78P/Gehrels 2, 81P/Wild 2, 103P/Hartley 2, 115P/Maury, 118P/Shoemaker-Levy 4, 123P/West-Hartley, 157P/Tritton, 185P/Petriew, P/2011 W2 (Rinner).

  20. Electrodynamic model of atmospheric and ionospheric processes on the eve of an earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, V. M.; Ruzhin, Yu. Ya.

    2015-09-01

    Electric field generation and its accompanying phenomena in the atmosphere-ionosphere system have been intensively studied in recent years. This paper considers the results of these studies, which have served as the physical basis for the model of lithosphere-ionosphere coupling. According to our model, the intensive processes in the lower atmosphere and lithosphere have an electrodynamic effect on the ionospheric plasma. The model was used to conduct theoretical studies of plasma and electromagnetic effects accompanying the generation of conduction current in the global circuit. It has been shown that the electrodynamic model of the influence of seismic and meteorological processes on cosmic plasma can serve as a physical basis for a satellite system to monitor earthquake precursors and the catastrophic phase of typhoon development. The model makes it possible to couple the satellite data of electromagnetic and plasma measurements with electrophysical and meteorological characteristics of the lower atmosphere at the stage of earthquake preparation and typhoon initiation. The model suggests that the numerous effects in the cosmic plasma have a single source: a change in the conduction current flowing in the atmosphere-ionosphere circuit.

  1. Poster - Thur Eve - 04: Online review of beam output and profile constancy using statistical process control.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, R; Abbas, A; Yeung, I

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this work was to create a comprehensive online tool to evaluate and review the performance of quality assurance measurements that assess beam output and profile constancy as soon as they are acquired using statistical process control. As part of routine quality assurance: output, flatness and symmetry measurements are acquired daily and weekly with DQA3 and the Matrix and symmetry and flatness are acquired on a monthly basis with Profiler2. An individuals control chart and a moving range control chart was plotted for each set of data. Upper and lower control limits were calculated using measurements acquired during a several month period when the linear accelerators were operating optimally. The existing action levels, established according to TG142 and CAPCA guidelines were compared with the calculated statistical control limits. Tighter tolerance limits were recommended for output, symmetry and flatness Matrix measurements and DQA3 flatness measurements. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  2. Poster - Thur Eve - 71: Improved dose accuracy for plan checking IMRT breast plans.

    PubMed

    Corns, R; Thomas, S; Dubrowski, P; Huang, V; Shahine, L

    2012-07-01

    Dose verification as part of plan checking is a critical component of high quality patient care. IMSure QA is a software platform used at the BC Cancer Agency that facilitates dose verification for both conformal and IMRT plans. We have recently initiated treating breast tangents using IMRT at the Fraser Valley Centre and noted increased dose discrepancies (mean difference of -3%) between Eclipse and IMSure's QA module. We identified two potential sources of error: air flash and tissue heterogeneity. We extend our generated fluences 3cm past the breast contour and into air to account for breathing, set-up uncertainties and swelling. IMSure does not account for the fluence in air or air flash. We present an air-flash-correction factor based on the ratios of TMRs and Phantom Scatter Factors which use the field sizes of fields with and without the air flash. In addition, we present a method to improve the heterogeneity correction used by IMSure to better match that used by AAA. Effectively we remove the IMSure's inherent heterogeneity correction and manually apply a AAA-based heterogeneity-correction factor. We evaluated our correction factors on a sample of 8 patients (32 fields) using ANOVA methods to determine which dose corrections most accurately reproduce Eclipse's values. We found the air-flash correction coupled with IMSure's inherent-heterogeneity correction has the best dose accuracy (mean difference improved from -3% to 0.3%). The AAA-heterogeneity correction alone also improved the accuracy (mean difference improved from -3% to - 1.5%), which is acceptable for plan checking purposes. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  3. Poster - Thur Eve - 27: Scattering foil redesign for modulated electron radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Connell, T; Seuntjens, J

    2012-07-01

    This work serves to build on existing work that discussed the advantages of removing the scattering foil from the beamline for modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) much like flattening filter-free beams in photon IMRT. Due to concerns about the ability of the accelerators transmission ionization chamber to function normally with narrow, minimally-scattered beams as well as a limited maximum field size, this study focused on the design of a new custom scattering foil that was optimized for MERT applications. Different foil parameters such as material, thickness and shape were investigated to produce a minimally scattered beam, as opposed to a flat beam in the case of the clinical foil, while preserving the dosimetric benefits of a reduced thickness foil such as dramatically higher dose rate and reduced photon contamination in the bremsstrahlung tail. Using a Monte Carlo model that was verified against measured data, fluence profiles at the level of the transmission ionization chamber were produced and analyzed for all foil configurations, as well as PDDs and profiles in a water phantom. It was found that a simple foil of slab geometry made of low to medium Z material with the thickness determined by the maximum desirable field size and chosen electron energy produced a sufficiently scattered beam that maintained the dosimetric advantages of a scattering-foil-free beamline. These new foils, when applied to MERT, have the advantage of reducing treatment time due to higher dose rates and reducing dose to healthy tissue due to reduced dose in the bremsstrahlung tail. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  4. Poster - Thur Eve - 36: Out-of-Field dose in craniospinal irradiation.

    PubMed

    Jalbout, W; Howell, R; Newhauser, W; Geara, F; Khater, N; Taddei, P

    2012-07-01

    The risk of radiotherapy induced secondary cancer depends on the integral dose delivered to the patient where the dose delivered within the radiation field is accounted for, as well as dose to out-of-field organs from scattered and leakage radiation. While commercial treatment planning systems allow accurate determination of in-field dose, they are generally not capable of accurate out-of-field dose prediction. Secondary cancer risk is especially an issue in craniospinal treatments where involved patients are often children or young adults. In this work we therefore propose a mathematical model that accurately predicts out-of-field dose for patients treated by craniospinal irradiation at the American University of Beirut Medical Center. An anthropomorphic phantom was imaged, planned and treated, with thermoluminescent dosimeters inserted in the phantom at in-field and out-of-field locations. The measurements showed that our treatment planning system calculated accurately (within 2%) dose inside the field, but did not perform well at points just outside the field edge and consistently underestimated the dose at points further away from the field edge. From the out-of-field measured data, a model was developed that predicts out-of-field dose at a point in the patient based on the distance of that point to the treatment field edge. The developed model is of the double-gaussian type; it contains parameters that can be tuned to make it applicable in other centers where linac geometry and treatment techniques may differ. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  5. Poster - Thur Eve - 21: ROC analysis in patient specific quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Carlone, M; Cruje, C; McCabe, R; Nielsen, M; Macpherson, M

    2012-07-01

    Many institutions rely on a patient specific measurement for IMRT/VMAT patient QA. In diagnostic imaging, radiologists use Receiver Operator Curves (ROC) to help quantify the value of a diagnostic imaging test. The purpose of this work is to investigate the value or ROC methodology for patient specific IMRT QA. Beam fluences for 34 prostate IMRT patients were analyzed using gamma analysis. For half of these, measurements were done using the planned beam fluences. For the rest, perturbations to the MLC leaf positions were introduced. Gamma analysis was then used to measure fluence differences. Assuming that the unperturbed fluencies were positive measurements, distributions of true positive and false negatives were calculated. For poorly performing beam delivery systems the choice of γ-DTA criterion has little effect on test sensitivity and specificity. The AUC is increased by about 10% for high performance beam delivery systems. For a 3%/3mm γ-DTA condition, ideal cut off values are reasonably independent of MLC performance. At a tighter γ-DTA condition of 2%/2mm, then the optimal sensitivity and specificity of the test is more dependent on MLC performance. For a pass-fail test such as the γ-DTA map is, it is important to choose an optimal cut off value to maximize the sensitivity and specificity of the test. ROC methodology allows users to follow a prescriptive method to obtain ideal cut-off values for gamma analysis, and to assess improvements in sensitivity and specificity for higher performing beam delivery system. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  6. Global ocean tide models on the eve of Topex/Poseidon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    Some existing global ocean tide models that can provide tide corrections to Topex/Poseidon altimeter data are described. Emphasis is given to the Schwiderski and Cartwright-Ray models, as these are the most comprehensive, highest resolution models, but other models that will soon appear are mentioned. Differences between models for M2 often exceed 10 cm over vast stretches of the ocean. Comparisons to 80 selected pelagic and island gauge measurements indicate the Schwiderski model is more accurate for the major solar tides, Cartwright-Ray for the major lunar tides. The adequacy of available tide models for studying basin-scale motions is probably marginal at best.

  7. Poster - Thur Eve - 49: Application of plastic scintillating detectors to orthovoltage x-ray measurements.

    PubMed

    Nasonkin, S; Syme, A

    2012-07-01

    Plastic scintillating detectors (PSDs) have found numerous dosimetric applications in radiotherapy due to their approximate water equivalence at high energies and their small physical size. At low photon energies, however, the ratio of mass attenuation coefficients (PSD : water) deviates from unity, which potentially limits their utility in this range. In this work, measurements of orthovoltage cutout factors were made with PSDs and and ion chamber. Results were compared to Monte Carlo simulations of the same geometry. Results indicated that the PSDs performed better than the IC in almost all field sizes. Further work is required to more thoroughly characterize the Monte Carlo model of the x-ray unit and to investigate any discrepancies that might have resulted from slight differences in the effective point of measurement of the two detector systems. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  8. Poster - Thur Eve - 02: Regulatory oversight of the robotic radiosurgery facilities.

    PubMed

    Broda, K

    2012-07-01

    Following a recent review of the Class II Nuclear Facilities and Prescribed Equipment Regulations and regulatory oversight of particle accelerators, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) has changed its policy concerning the regulation of particle accelerators. In November 2011, the CNSC began to exercise its regulatory authority with respect to all particle accelerators operating at a beam energy of 1 (one) MeV or greater. The CNSC already licences and inspects particle accelerators capable of operating at or above 10 MeV. The decision to now include low energy particle accelerators (i.e., those operating at or above 1 MeV) ensures adequate, uniform and consistent regulatory oversight for all Class II accelerators. The CNSC expects these facilities to comply with CNSC requirements by December 2013. Besides conventional linear accelerators of lower energy (6 MeV or below) typically found in cancer clinics, two types of equipment now fall under the CNSC's regulatory oversight as a result of the above change: robotic radiosurgery and tomotherapy equipment and facilities. A number of clinics in Canada already operates these types of equipment and facilities. The safety aspects of radiosurgery equipment differ slightly from those for conventional linear accelerators. This poster aims to present an approach taken by the CNSC to regulate robotic radiosurgery equipment and facilities. The presentation will explain how to meet regulatory requirements of the Class II Nuclear Facilities and Prescribed Equipment Regulations by licensees operating or planning to acquire these types of equipment and facilities. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  9. Primary care access for new patients on the eve of health care reform.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Karin V; Kenney, Genevieve M; Friedman, Ari B; Saloner, Brendan; Lawson, Charlotte C; Chearo, David; Wissoker, Douglas; Polsky, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Current measures of access to care have intrinsic limitations and may not accurately reflect the capacity of the primary care system to absorb new patients. To assess primary care appointment availability by state and insurance status. We conducted a simulated patient study. Trained field staff, randomly assigned to private insurance, Medicaid, or uninsured, called primary care offices requesting the first available appointment for either routine care or an urgent health concern. The study included a stratified random sample of primary care practices treating nonelderly adults within each of 10 states (Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Iowa, Massachusetts, Montana, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, and Texas), selected for diversity along numerous dimensions. Collectively, these states comprise almost one-third of the US nonelderly, Medicaid, and currently uninsured populations. Sampling was based on enrollment by insurance type by county. Analyses were weighted to obtain population-based estimates for each state. The ability to schedule an appointment and number of days to the appointment. We also examined cost and payment required at the visit for the uninsured. Between November 13, 2012, and April 4, 2013, we made 12,907 calls to 7788 primary care practices requesting new patient appointments. Across the 10 states, 84.7% (95% CI, 82.6%-86.8%) of privately insured and 57.9% (95% CI, 54.8%-61.0%) of Medicaid callers received an appointment. Appointment rates were 78.8% (95% CI, 75.6%-82.0%) for uninsured patients with full cash payment but only 15.4% (95% CI, 13.2%-17.6%) if payment required at the time of the visit was restricted to $75 or less. Conditional on getting an appointment, median wait times were typically less than 1 week (2 weeks in Massachusetts), with no differences by insurance status or urgency of health concern. Although most primary care physicians are accepting new patients, access varies widely across states and insurance status. Navigator programs are needed, not only to help patients enroll but also to identify practices accepting new patients within each plan's network. Tracking new patient appointment availability over time can inform policies designed to strengthen primary care capacity and enhance the effectiveness of the coverage expansions with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

  10. Poster - Thur Eve - 39: SBRT imaging analysis - patient results and QA of imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Mason, D; Neath, C

    2012-07-01

    Our centre began offering stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) treatments for peripheral lung lesions in 2011. As a high-precision technique, SBRT requires precise positioning of the target, and precise quality assurance (QA) of the imaging systems; these may be dependent on local equipment and procedures. We aimed to maintain target position within 3 mm throughout each treatment, and imaging and mechanical systems to at least 2 mm accuracy. A retrospective analysis was done of patient cone-beam (CB) data, and of our imaging system QA, to assess our spatial objectives and look for opportunities for improvement. The data indicated that, using our immobilization and imaging procedures, target position was maintained within 3 mm 96% of the time, and 75% within 2 mm, similar to results from other centres. Imaging system QA using the standard ball-bearing test showed system accuracy was maintained well within 1 mm. These results were compared with a simpler daily QA procedure using a Pentaguide phantom. The mean and standard deviation of the radial difference in the kV-MV isocenter coincidence for the two techniques was 0.62mm +/- 0.23mm. With appropriate choice of tolerance and action level, the morning QA was sufficient for identifying outliers requiring further investigation. This analysis gives us confidence in understanding the performance of our SBRT lung treatments, and gives baselines for analyzing changes to patient immobilization or imaging procedures. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  11. Poster - Thur Eve - 22: Bone heterogeneity in kV x-ray radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chow, J; Grigorov, G

    2012-07-01

    This study evaluated the dosimetric impact of bone heterogeneity on the surface dose and dose prescription, when dose is assumed to be prescribed on a homogeneous medium in kV x-ray radiotherapy. A heterogeneous phantom containing a thin water layer (thickness = 1-5 mm) over a bone (thickness =1 cm) was used to mimic treatment sites of forehead, knee and chest wall. The phantom was irradiated by a 220 kVp photon beam with field size of 5 cm diameter. Percentage depth dose, surface dose and photon energy spectrum with different thicknesses of water were determined using Monte Carlo simulations (the EGSnrc code) with experimental verifications using parallel-plate ionization chamber and radiochormatic film. Our results (treatment cone of 5 cm diameter) showed that the surface dose increased in a range of 2.5-3.7% when the water layer above the bone was increased from 1 to 5 mm. However, the surface dose did not increase linearly with the increase of water thickness, and the maximum increase of surface dose was found at a water thickness of 3 mm. Results of the percentage depth dose showed that the maximum bone dose was about 210% higher than the surface dose in the heterogeneous phantom. It is concluded that in treatment sites having a thin layer of tissue over a bone in kV x-ray radiotherapy, if increased surface dose due to bone heterogeneity is not considered, this will result in an additional dosimetric uncertainty narrowing down the total error margin (5%). © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  12. Poster - Thur Eve - 65: Optimization of an automatic image contouring system for radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, T; Nedialkov, N; Wierzbicki, M

    2012-07-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is an advanced technique used to concentrate the prescribed dose in the tumour while minimizing exposure to healthy tissues. Success in IMRT is greatly dependent upon the localization of the target volume and normal tissue, thus accurate contouring is crucial. In this paper, we describe an automated atlas-based image contouring system and our approach for improving the system by performing a full-scale optimization of registration parameters using high-performance computing. To achieve this, we use manually pre-contoured CT images of ten head and neck patients. For any parameter set, each patient data is registered with the remaining patients. Accuracy of the resulting contours is determined automatically by comparing their overlap with manually defined targets using Dice's similarity coefficient (DSC). This allows us to compare all permutations of the image registration parameter sets and input data to investigate their impact on final contour accuracy. Investigating the parameter space required 27,000 image registrations and 216,000 DSC computations. To perform these registrations we introduced a large cluster of high-performance computers and developed a parallel testing harness. The metrics collected from the tests show a wide range of performance, indicating that parameter selection is crucial in our contouring system. By selecting an optimized parameter set, we increased the mean overlap of the automatically contoured regions of interest by 50% and reduced registration time by 50% compared to the original parameters. Our findings illustrate that full-scale optimization is an effective method for improving the performance of the automated image contouring system. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  13. Poster - Thur Eve - 25: In vivo dosimetric verification of intensity-modulated radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Chytyk-Praznik, K; Van Uytven, E; Van Beek, T; McCurdy, Bmc

    2012-07-01

    Dosimetric verification of patient treatment plans has become increasingly important due to the widespread use of complicated delivery techniques. IMRT and VMAT treatments are typically verified prior to start of the patient's course of treatment, using a point dose and/or a film measurement. Pre-treatment verification will not detect patient or machine-related errors; therefore, in vivo dosimetric verification is the only way to determine if the patient's treatment was delivered correctly. Portal images were acquired throughout the course of five prostate and six head-and-neck patient IMRT treatments. The corresponding predicted images were calculated using a previously developed portal dose image prediction algorithm, which combines a versatile fluence model with a patient scatter and EPID dose prediction model. The prostate patient image agreement was found to vary day-to-day due to rectal gas pockets and the effect of adjustable support rails on the patient couch. The head-and-neck patient images were observed to be more consistent daily, but an increased measured dose was evident at the periphery of the patient, likely due to patient weight loss. The majority of the fields agreed within 3% and 3 mm for greater than 90% of the pixels, as established by the χ-comparison. This work demonstrates the changes in patient anatomy that are detectable with the portal dose image prediction model. Prior to clinical implementation, the effect of the couch must be incorporated into the model, the image acquisition must be automatically scheduled and routine EPID QA must be undertaken to ensure the collection of high-quality EPID images. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  14. Poster - Thur Eve - 29: Detecting changes in IMRT QA using statistical process control.

    PubMed

    Drever, L; Salomons, G

    2012-07-01

    Statistical process control (SPC) methods were used to analyze 239 measurement based individual IMRT QA events. The selected IMRT QA events were all head and neck (H&N) cases with 70Gy in 35 fractions, and all prostate cases with 76Gy in 38 fractions planned between March 2009 and 2012. The results were used to determine if the tolerance limits currently being used for IMRT QA were able to indicate if the process was under control. The SPC calculations were repeated for IMRT QA of the same type of cases that were planned after the treatment planning system was upgraded from Eclipse version 8.1.18 to version 10.0.39. The initial tolerance limits were found to be acceptable for two of the three metrics tested prior to the upgrade. After the upgrade to the treatment planning system the SPC analysis found that the a priori limits were no longer capable of indicating control for 2 of the 3 metrics analyzed. The changes in the IMRT QA results were clearly identified using SPC, indicating that it is a useful tool for finding changes in the IMRT QA process. Routine application of SPC to IMRT QA results would help to distinguish unintentional trends and changes from the random variation in the IMRT QA results for individual plans. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  15. Poster - Thur Eve - 24: Clinical application of the new dosimetry formalism for composite nonstandard beams.

    PubMed

    Chung, E; Conneely, E; Ruo, R; Foley, M; Seuntjens, J

    2012-07-01

    The IAEA-AAPM new dosimetry formalism [Med. Phys. 35, 5179 (2008)] was applied to clinical IMRT quality assurance (QA). Twenty different IMRT QA fields were created on the CT images of a 30×30×17 cm(3) Solid Water™ phantom. Two Farmer-type chambers, Exradin A12 and NE2571, and a smaller Exradin A1SL ionization chamber were cross-calibrated against a reference detector, the PTW micro liquid ion chamber (microLion), in the lowest dose gradient region in each IMRT QA field delivery. Based on the new dosimetry formalism, the clinical correction factor was measured in a fully-rotated delivery and a delivery at a single gantry angle, a collapsed delivery. For the calibrated Exradin A12, the measured dose with the clinical correction factor was compared with a calculated dose using Monte Carlo (MC) methods. The clinical correction factor deviated from unity by up to 2.4% and 3.7% in the fully-rotated and collapsed deliveries, respectively, depending on the dose distribution in the chamber collecting volume. For the Exradin A1SL, the correction factor was generally closer to unity due to the reduced dose gradient on the smaller collecting volume. In the fully-rotated delivery, the measured dose with the clinical correction factor is different from the MC-calculated dose to within 4%; while the discrepancy was greater, up to 8%, in the collapsed delivery due to the much heterogeneous dose distribution in the chamber collecting volume. This work proves that the suggested dosimetry technique is effective to improve the dosimetric consistency of clinical IMRT QA. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  16. Poster - Thur Eve - 32: Water tank referenced calibration method for detector array devices.

    PubMed

    Foottit, C; Gerig, L

    2012-07-01

    Detector array devices, such as the I'mRT Matrixx (IBA Dosimetry), provide a means of evaluating beam profiles with respect to gantry for a range of dose rates and monitor units. The relative calibration of these devices is typically highly susceptible to even relatively small variations in beam output. An alternative method is proposed here, which directly references the device detector response to water tank data. The Matrixx response was measured at the four cardinal angles for three devices. A calibration factor was determined for each orientation of the Matrixx device by dividing a water tank measured profile by the Matrixx response for the in-plane and cross-plane detectors. A geometric mean of each orientation was used as the estimate of the calibration coefficient. Before calibration, the three-detector average of the deviation from the profile measured in the water tank centered on each of the horns was 0.4% (SD 0.2%); applying the calibration procedure reduced this to 0.1% (SD 0.1%). The energy independence of the proposed relative calibration was also confirmed. A comparison of the linac output for relatively short Matrixx acquisitions to the longer water tank acquisition suggested some difference. This difference was mitigated by averaging. The proposed water tank reference calibration procedure is an effective means of determining the relative calibration of a detector array and mitigates the effect of compound error by avoiding the recursive algorithm of typical calibration methods. In addition it has the benefit of being directly relatable to commissioning beam data. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  17. Poster - Thur Eve - 35: Characterization of performance of two deformable registration software.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, J-F; Varfalvy, N; Cyr, M F; Archambault, L

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the performance of two deformable registration softwares (a commercial and an open source software) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. We used a set of 34 lung patients with generally large tumors each having between 1 and 20 CBCT scans. A radiation oncologist resident contoured GTVs on each CBCTs using planning CT contours as reference. Deformable registrations were performed on CT scans to adapt it to the first CBCT of each patient independently with both software. Then each CBCT was registered to the next CBCT. Contour structures have been deformed in the process for the commercial software and for the open source software contours have been drawn manually on deformed images. Mean remaining volume (±SD) for manual GTV contours was 59 ± 32 %. GTVs obtained with the open source software were closer to the manual GTV in size than the commercial software. Mean relative errors on volume were 45 ± 60 % for the commercial system (33 patients) and 9 ± 2 % for the open source software (6 patients). Relative errors for the commercial software increased exponentially with the volume reduction but were constant over all CBCT for the open source software. Mean Jaccard and Dice's index were 0.57 and 0.71 for the commercial software (24 patients) and 0.80 and 0.88 for the open source software (6 patients). Open source software shown tendency to give better results than commercial software but was slower than the commercial software. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  18. "Eve Did No Wrong": Effective Literacy at a Public College for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, David

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I test claims made about rhetorical education for women in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by examining Florida State College for Women (FSCW), one of eight public women's colleges in the South. I recover the voices of instructors and students by looking both at the interweaving strands of literature, journalism,…

  19. Safe Sex in the 1970s: Community Practitioners on the Eve of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Blair, Thomas R

    2017-06-01

    In the 1970s, groups of gay and gay-allied health professionals began to formulate guidelines for safer sexual activity, several years before HIV/AIDS. Through such organizations as the National Coalition of Gay Sexually Transmitted Disease Services, Bay Area Physicians for Human Rights, and the Sisters of Perpetual Indulgence, these practitioners developed materials that would define sexual health education for the next four decades, as well as such concepts as "bodily fluids" and the "safe sex hanky." To do so, they used their dual membership in the community and the health professions. Although the dichotomy between the gay community and the medical establishment helped define the early history of HIV/AIDS, the creative work of these socially "amphibious" activists played an equally important part. Amid current debates over preexposure prophylaxis against HIV and Zika virus transmission, lessons for sexual health include the importance of messaging, the difficulty of behavioral change, and the vitality of community-driven strategies to mitigate risk.

  20. Poster - Thur Eve - 54: A software solution for ongoing DVH quality assurance in radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Annis, S-L; Zeng, G; Wu, X; Macpherson, M

    2012-07-01

    A program has been developed in MATLAB for use in quality assurance of treatment planning of radiation therapy. It analyzes patient DVH files and compiles dose volume data for review, trending, comparison and analysis. Patient DVH files are exported from the Eclipse treatment planning system and saved according to treatment sites and date. Currently analysis is available for 4 treatment sites; Prostate, Prostate Bed, Lung, and Upper GI, with two functions for data report and analysis: patient-specific and organ-specific. The patient-specific function loads one patient DVH file and reports the user-specified dose volume data of organs and targets. These data can be compiled to an external file for a third party analysis. The organ-specific function extracts a requested dose volume of an organ from the DVH files of a patient group and reports the statistics over this population. A graphical user interface is utilized to select clinical sites, function and structures, and input user's requests. We have implemented this program in planning quality assurance at our center. The program has tracked the dosimetric improvement in GU sites after VMAT was implemented clinically. It has generated dose volume statistics for different groups of patients associated with technique or time range. This program allows reporting and statistical analysis of DVH files. It is an efficient tool for the planning quality control in radiation therapy. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  1. Poster - Thur Eve - 19: Risk assessment of clinical radiation processes using failure modes and effect analysis.

    PubMed

    Angers, C; Studinski, R; La Russa, D; Bahm, J; Renaud, J; Clark, B G

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this work was to apply failure modes and effect analysis (FMEA) to assess risk in two radiation planning and treatment processes; our on-call (out-of-clinical hours) process and our tomotherapy process. The motivation was provided by analysis of 2506 adverse incidents reported over a 5 year period, the on-call process for giving rise to a higher than expected number of incidents and our tomotherapy process for the reverse. For the on-call scenario, three separate processes were analysed: our current process, our current process incorporating a software upgrade eliminating several planning steps and a fully integrated process in which the patient is imaged, planned and treated on a single platform (TomoTherapy Hi Art, Accuray Incorporated, Sunnyvale, CA). After construction of a detailed process map for each case, a multidisciplinary group identified potential failure modes for each process step, the effects of each failure and existing controls. Risk probability numbers were determined from severity, frequency of occurrence and detectability scores assigned to each failure mode according to a standard scale. The results were analysed to identify and prioritise feasible and effective process improvements. For the on-call process, our current workflow was identified as incurring the highest risk of the three processes analysed, demonstrating quantitatively the value of the software upgrade and providing a clear rationale for the associated expense. In summary, we have found FMEA to be a feasible tool for assessing relative risk in a clinical process. However, operational and resource issues must be considered separately. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  2. Poster - Thur Eve - 30: Comparison of treatment planning and delivery performance of VMAT versus IMRT.

    PubMed

    Bergman, A; Vollans, E; Duzenli, C

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether VMAT (Varian RapidArc ™) treatment planning and delivery performance is in compliance with accepted quality assurance tolerances developed for sliding window IMRT. We present an analysis of data for over 1300 patients treated with VMAT and IMRT over a period of three years. Data was acquired on 6 dosimetrically matched linacs for sites including head and neck, brain, gynaecological, and a variety of other cancer cases treated with 6 MV. We have demonstrated that it is possible to dosimetrically match multiple Varian iX linacs with the millennium series MLC using a sliding gap and intercept test. QA is performed by Monte Carlo simulation and ion chamber measurement comparisons with Varian Eclipse TPS as well as linac log file analysis of MLC positions, gantry angles and monitor units on each patient. Point dose and 3D gamma analysis indicate that agreement between Eclipse and measurement or Monte Carlo calculation is site specific, with the dosimetric leaf gap parameter in Eclipse optimized for the most frequently treated site Point dose agreement within 2% and gamma pass rate of > 95% (3%/ 3 mm) is achievable for all sites for both IMRT and VMAT. Linac log file analysis indicates that planned MLC positions are achieved within 2 mm >99.7% of the time for both sliding window IMRT and VMAT. Planned gantry angles are achieved within 0.6 mm 99.8% of the time and planned MU's within 0.1 mm are achieved 99.8% of the time for VMAT. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  3. Mirrors for the Queen: A Letter from Christine de Pizan on the Eve of Civil War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Samuel

    2008-01-01

    As a rhetorical figure, the example is constitutively split between the structural vocations of the Greek "paradeigma" (emphasizing illumination and belonging) and the Latin "exemplum" (emphasizing detachment and exclusion). This bifurcation enables the example to function as a strategic resource of ambiguity. Christine de…

  4. Work and Relationship: Is Vocational Psychology on the Eve of Construction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    In proposing a "work and relationship" perspective for vocational psychology, Richardson builds on a rich intellectual (social constructionist) tradition and offers incisive social commentary. In this reaction, the author examines several of her foci--in particular, the four-part division of life's social contexts, her views on relationships, and…

  5. Poster - Thur Eve - 12: Dosimetric manifestation of harmonic mode imaging for seed implant brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, G; Angyalfi, S; Dunscombe, P; Khan, R

    2012-07-01

    To demonstrate the dosimetric effects of observer variability in defining the prostate and critical organs, using Tissue Harmonic (H) ultrasound imaging mode for permanent seed implant brachytherapy. Images were acquired using a B -K medical 8848 probe with Brightness (B) and H mode for ten prostate brachytherapy patients. The prostate, rectum and urethra were contoured independently by five observers. The clinically used treatment plans based on B mode imaging fulfilling the dosimetric criteria were applied on these contours. Dosimetric parameters (prostate: D90, V100 and V200; rectum: V100; urethra: V140, V150 and V160) were computed using SPOT PRO™ planning system. Interobserver variability in dosimetric parameters was tested using standard deviations as percentages of means. Two-factor analysis of variances showed significant (p<0.05) interobserver variability in all dosimetric parameters for both modes. Interobserver agreement in dosimetric parameters improves in H mode due to improved interobserver consistency in contouring these organs on H mode images compared to B mode. There is no significant difference observed (paired student t test, p>0.05) in the mean values of dosimetric parameters in H and B mode for prostate and critical organs. H mode due to its better image quality helped to improve the interobserver agreement in contouring the prostate and critical organs and hence better interobserver consistency in all dosimetric parameter. Because the difference in the mean value of dosimetric parameters between two imaging modes is not statistically significant, H mode does not appear to offer any clinical advantages in terms of improving the dosimetric outcome. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  6. Poster - Thur Eve - 60: Physical and dynamic wedges in radiotherapy for rectal cancer: A dosimetric comparison.

    PubMed

    Isa, M; Iqbal, K; Afzal, M; Buzdar, S; Chow, J

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the dosimetry of the physical wedge (PW) and enhanced dynamic wedge (EDW) in radiotherapy of rectal cancer. Two wedge angles of 45° and 60° were used in the comparison due to the size of the pelvis contour. 6 and 15 MV photon beams produced from a Varian 21 CD linear accelerator were used. Thirty rectum patients were investigated using the three-field technique. Treatment plans using the PWs and EDWs were created using the Eclipse treatment planning system. Monitor units, plan normalization value, maximum and minimum doses in the planning target volume (PTV), dose conformity index, dose homogeneity index and uniformity index were determined for each treatment plan. The average dose coverage for the PTV with EDW and PW plans were compared. The PTV received prescription doses of 100.9±0.74%, 101.01±1.63% for the EDW (45°, 60°) compared to 101.2±1.65%, 101.3±1.33% for the PW (45°, 60°). Homogeneity indices were (0.11±0.02%, 0.11±0.05%) for the EDW (45°, 60°), and (0.15±0.1%, 0.16±0.11%) for the PW (45°, 60°), respectively. The EDW at 45° had better target coverage with higher conformity index value of 0.98 ± 0.01 compared to the other wedges. A statistically significant (p < 0.01) change in plan normalization values and fewer monitor units were found using the EDW at 45°. We conclude that the EDW at 45° results in an improvement to the plan evaluation parameters presented and thus increases dose efficacy for radiotherapy of rectal cancer. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  7. Poster - Thur Eve - 42: Dynamic delivery quality assurance on Elekta linacs.

    PubMed

    Munger, P; Nicol, S

    2012-07-01

    Introduction Recently, Elekta linacs have gained the capability to deliver dynamic fields, such as sliding window IMRT or VMAT fields. Because of the potential complexity of such delivery modes, linac QA and patient-specific QA are of prime importance. The aim of this paper is to explain the fundamental concepts of this new mode of operation on Elekta linacs as well as to introduce the linear-α slit, a novel dynamic QA sequence which allows the performance of the delivery system to be objectively aassessed against dosimetric measurements. In the Elekta dynamic mode, dose rate can only take a limited number of discontinuous values. We have used the uniform slit, a simple slit moving at a constant speed across the field to verify how the linac selects leaf speed and dose rate for a given MU setting. Based on this, we expose the principles behind the linear-α slit, which exhibits two main characteristics: 1) it exercises the linac over a range of dose rates and 2) it produces a dose distribution which is theoretically equivalent to the uniform slit. Discrepancies between measurements of the linear-α slit and the uniform slit directly reflects problems with the delivery. The linear-α slit has been recently introduced in our routine monthly linac QA. We hope it will nicely complement patient-specific QA, and exising linac-QA. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  8. Randomized controlled study on resistive vibration exercise (EVE study): protocol, implementation and feasibility.

    PubMed

    Beijer, Å; Rosenberger, A; Weber, T; Zange, J; May, F; Schoenau, E; Mester, J; Bloch, W; Rittweger, J

    2013-06-01

    A training intervention comparing resistance exercise with or without whole-body vibration (WBV) was conducted to compare acute and chronic effects on functional and molecular parameters. A six-week training intervention was performed including 26 healthy males (26 years, SD=4). Two groups were analyzed in a parallel design performing either resistive exercise (RE, n=13) or resistive vibration exercise (RVE, n=13) training with weekly increasing vibration frequencies (20-40Hz). Resting and exercising blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and after the 6-week intervention. Both training interventions decreased resting systolic blood pressure (P=0.003). Resting diastolic blood pressure was significantly decreased only in the RVE group (P=0.01). Exercising diastolic blood pressure was significantly decreased during the final training (P<0.001) with no additional effect of superimposed vibrations. Resistance exercise with superimposed vibrations evoked back pain to a higher degree than resistance exercise alone when training at frequencies above 30Hz (P<0.01). These data suggest positive effects of resistance exercise upon cardiovascular health and vascular responsiveness and a further beneficial effect of superimposed vibrations in decreasing resting diastolic blood pressure. Finally, development of back pain may be fostered by superimposed vibrations to high training loads, particularly at higher frequencies.

  9. Poster — Thur Eve — 14: Improving Tissue Segmentation for Monte Carlo Dose Calculation using DECT

    SciTech Connect

    Di Salvio, A.; Bedwani, S.; Carrier, J-F.; Bouchard, H.

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To improve Monte Carlo dose calculation accuracy through a new tissue segmentation technique with dual energy CT (DECT). Methods: Electron density (ED) and effective atomic number (EAN) can be extracted directly from DECT data with a stoichiometric calibration method. Images are acquired with Monte Carlo CT projections using the user code egs-cbct and reconstructed using an FDK backprojection algorithm. Calibration is performed using projections of a numerical RMI phantom. A weighted parameter algorithm then uses both EAN and ED to assign materials to voxels from DECT simulated images. This new method is compared to a standard tissue characterization from single energy CT (SECT) data using a segmented calibrated Hounsfield unit (HU) to ED curve. Both methods are compared to the reference numerical head phantom. Monte Carlo simulations on uniform phantoms of different tissues using dosxyz-nrc show discrepancies in depth-dose distributions. Results: Both SECT and DECT segmentation methods show similar performance assigning soft tissues. Performance is however improved with DECT in regions with higher density, such as bones, where it assigns materials correctly 8% more often than segmentation with SECT, considering the same set of tissues and simulated clinical CT images, i.e. including noise and reconstruction artifacts. Furthermore, Monte Carlo results indicate that kV photon beam depth-dose distributions can double between two tissues of density higher than muscle. Conclusions: A direct acquisition of ED and the added information of EAN with DECT data improves tissue segmentation and increases the accuracy of Monte Carlo dose calculation in kV photon beams.

  10. Crisis of Black Athletes on the Eve of the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry

    2000-01-01

    Asserts that the dynamics of black youth sports involvement and the blind faith of black youths and families in sports as a vehicle for self-realization and socioeconomic advancement generate complex problems for black society. Black families often push their children toward sports careers, neglecting personal and cultural development. Discusses…

  11. Manifest Destiny and Competing Voices on the Eve of the Cherokee Removal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Prentice T.

    2011-01-01

    Manifest Destiny, the idea that Providence guided the conquest and settlement of North America, is one of the most contested ideas in American culture and history. One's opinion about this central aspect of American mythology depends heavily on one's point of view. Exploring westward expansion and the Cherokee Trail of Tears with primary sources…

  12. On the eve of animal radiation: phylogeny, ecology and evolution of the Ediacara biota.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shuhai; Laflamme, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Ediacara fossils document an important evolutionary episode just before the Cambrian explosion and hold critical information about the early evolution of macroscopic and complex multicellular life. They also represent an enduring controversy in paleontology. How are the Ediacara fossils related to living animals? How did they live? Do they share any evolutionary patterns with other life forms? Recent developments indicate that Ediacara fossils epitomize a phylogenetically diverse biosphere, probably including animals, protists, algae, fungi and others. Their simple ecology is dominated by epibenthic osmotrophs, deposit feeders and grazers, but few if any predators. Their evolution started with an early morphospace expansion followed by taxonomic diversification within confined morphospace, and concluded by extinction of many taxa at the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary.

  13. Getting It All Together: Career Education. A Teacher Handbook Developed by Project EVE. [Elementary Vocational Education].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Educational Cooperative, Palatine, IL.

    The teaching developed handbook was designed to assist teachers in implementing career education instructional programs at all levels of primary and junior high school instruction. The first section provides career education concepts and materials for primary grades, offering suggested activities and a unit outline for kindergarten students.…

  14. Poster — Thur Eve — 37: Respiratory gating with an Elekta flattening filter free photon beam

    SciTech Connect

    Péloquin, S; Furstoss, C; Munger, P; Wierzbicki, W; Carrier, J-F

    2014-08-15

    In cases where surgery is not possible for lung cancer treatment, stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) may be an option. One problem when treating this type of cancer is the motion of the lungs caused by the patient's respiration. It is possible to reduce the impact of this movement with the use of respiratory gating. By combining respiratory gating with a flattening filter free (FFF) photon beam linac, the increased treatment time caused by a reduced beam-on time of respiratory gating methods can be compensated by the inherent increased dose rate of FFF beams. This project's aim is to create hardware and software interfaces allowing free respiration gating on an Elekta Synergy-S linac specially modified to deliver 6 MV FFF photon beams. First, a printed circuit board was created for reading the signal from a Bellows Belt from Philips (a respiration monitor belt) and transmitting an On/Off signal to the accelerator. A software was also developed to visualize patient respiration. Secondly, a FFF model was created with the Pinnacle treatment planning system from Philips. Gamma (Γ) analysis (2%, 2 mm) was used to evaluate model. For fields going from 5.6 × 5.6 to 12 × 12 cm{sup 2}, central axis depth dose model fitting shows an average gamma value of 0.2 and 100% of gamma values remain under the Γ = 1 limit. For smaller fields (0.8 × 0.8 and 1.6 × 1.6 cm{sup 2}), Pinnacle has more trouble trying to fit the measurements, overestimating dose in penumbra and buildup regions.

  15. Work and Relationship: Is Vocational Psychology on the Eve of Construction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    In proposing a "work and relationship" perspective for vocational psychology, Richardson builds on a rich intellectual (social constructionist) tradition and offers incisive social commentary. In this reaction, the author examines several of her foci--in particular, the four-part division of life's social contexts, her views on relationships, and…

  16. "Eve Did No Wrong": Effective Literacy at a Public College for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, David

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I test claims made about rhetorical education for women in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by examining Florida State College for Women (FSCW), one of eight public women's colleges in the South. I recover the voices of instructors and students by looking both at the interweaving strands of literature, journalism,…

  17. Global ocean tide models on the eve of Topex/Poseidon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    Some existing global ocean tide models that can provide tide corrections to Topex/Poseidon altimeter data are described. Emphasis is given to the Schwiderski and Cartwright-Ray models, as these are the most comprehensive, highest resolution models, but other models that will soon appear are mentioned. Differences between models for M2 often exceed 10 cm over vast stretches of the ocean. Comparisons to 80 selected pelagic and island gauge measurements indicate the Schwiderski model is more accurate for the major solar tides, Cartwright-Ray for the major lunar tides. The adequacy of available tide models for studying basin-scale motions is probably marginal at best.

  18. World Trends And Issues In Adult Education On The Eve Of The Twenty-First Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhola, H. S.

    1998-09-01

    The forces of globalization today seem to have overwhelmed the historical political-cultural mission of adult education. Both in the North and the South, adult education is asked to contribute directly to productivity and thereby to competitiveness in the global market. The social component that survives is expected to help in coping with globalization. Voices of conscience and sanity have been raised at world summits in Rio (1992), Cairo (1994), Copenhagen (1995), Beijing (1995), and elsewhere. However, policies, plans and practices have not matched the declarations and agendas from the summits. The programs spawned by the Education for All conference of 1990 side-lined adult education, and so did the Report to UNESCO of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century (1996). The Fifth International Conference on Adult Education held in Hamburg during July 14-18, 1997 was marked by renewed commitment and solidarity. However, challenges of problematizing globalization, democratizing development, and socializing humanity for life together in the new century remain.

  19. Authoritarianism, perceived threat and exclusionism on the eve of the Disengagement: Evidence from Gaza

    PubMed Central

    Canetti, Daphna; Halperin, Eran; Hobfoll, Stevan E.; Shapira, Oren; Hirsch-Hoefler, Sivan

    2011-01-01

    Major political events such as terrorist attacks and forced relocation of citizens may have an immediate effect on attitudes towards ethnic minorities associated with these events. The psychological process that leads to political exclusionism of minority groups was examined using a field study among Israeli settlers in Gaza days prior to the Disengagement Plan adopted by the Israeli government on June 6, 2004 and enacted in August 2005. Lending credence to integrated threat theory and to theory on authoritarianism, our analyses show that the positive effect of religiosity on political exclusionism results from the two-staged mediation of authoritarianism and perceived threat. We conclude that religiosity fosters authoritarianism, which in turn tends to move people towards exclusionism both directly and through the mediation of perceived threat. PMID:22140286

  20. Authoritarianism, perceived threat and exclusionism on the eve of the Disengagement: Evidence from Gaza.

    PubMed

    Canetti, Daphna; Halperin, Eran; Hobfoll, Stevan E; Shapira, Oren; Hirsch-Hoefler, Sivan

    2009-11-01

    Major political events such as terrorist attacks and forced relocation of citizens may have an immediate effect on attitudes towards ethnic minorities associated with these events. The psychological process that leads to political exclusionism of minority groups was examined using a field study among Israeli settlers in Gaza days prior to the Disengagement Plan adopted by the Israeli government on June 6, 2004 and enacted in August 2005. Lending credence to integrated threat theory and to theory on authoritarianism, our analyses show that the positive effect of religiosity on political exclusionism results from the two-staged mediation of authoritarianism and perceived threat. We conclude that religiosity fosters authoritarianism, which in turn tends to move people towards exclusionism both directly and through the mediation of perceived threat.

  1. Mending the Butterfly: The New Historicism and Keats's "Eve of St. Agnes."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Jacqueline

    1995-01-01

    Argues that among the branches of historicism practiced by literary critics today, a branch of New Historicism that is broadly humanistic as opposed to narrowly political is the most illuminating. Describes the development and theoretical premises of this branch. Shows how it may be applied to the analysis of a literary work such as Keats's…

  2. The café fire on New Year's Eve in Volendam, the Netherlands: description of events.

    PubMed

    Welling, L; van Harten, S M; Patka, P; Bierens, J J L M; Boers, M; Luitse, J S K; Mackie, D P; Trouwborst, A; Gouma, D J; Kreis, R W

    2005-08-01

    The café fire at Volendam occurred shortly after midnight on the first of January 2001 and resulted in one of the worst mass burn incidents in recent Dutch history. The aim of this study was to provide insight into medical and organisational requirements of a major burns incident. Shortly after the fire, two university hospitals and a burn center in the region of the accident developed a plan for evaluation of medical care given during and after this major burn incident. A multidisciplinary research group investigated the management of victims at the scene, in the emergency departments (ED) and during admission in the hospitals. All 245 casualties were included in this study. A brief severe fire occurred in a crowded cafe with around 350 young visitors on a small embankment of a relatively isolated town, resulting in a unusually high number of severely injured burn victims. Four died immediately. The ensuing rescue effort was hampered by poor access and chaotic circumstances. At the scene of the incident, mobile medical teams ensured orderly transport and treatment priority for the injured. There were 245 victims with a median total body surface area burned of 12%. Inhalation injury was present in 96 patients. A total of 182 victims were admitted, with 112 to intensive care. Ten patients died in the hospital. Seventy-eight patients were secondarily transported, many to specialised centers in the Netherlands and abroad. In total, 36 hospitals in three countries participated. An incident with high numbers of burn victims poses a challenge to any health care system. The difficult circumstances at the site demonstrated the need for robust organisational structures. The primary and secondary distribution of patients required coordination, general hospitals were able to provide initial medical care to these major burn casualties.

  3. [Borders, immigration, and international relations on the eve of World War II].

    PubMed

    Pierre, C

    1997-01-01

    The author investigates international migratory movements in Europe between the two world wars, with a focus on the impact of economic and social changes brought about by World War I. "The economic crisis brought out new behavioral patterns. Although the number of foreign migrant workers was decreasing, there appeared xenophobic attitudes....The terrible events that led to the War questioned and upset the efforts towards stabilization made by most foreigners. They were soon considered as would-be enemies....[The] hard times further reinforced the precarious situation of foreigners living in border areas." (EXCERPT)

  4. Poster — Thur Eve — 22: A water calorimeter for low-energy particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Renaud, J; Sarfehnia, A; Seuntjens, J; Rossomme, S; Vynckier, S

    2014-08-15

    In this work, the feasibility of absolute dose to water measurements in low-energy electron beams using a water calorimeter specifically developed for shallow measurements is established. The calorimeter design consists of a cylindrical glass vessel encased in a block of expanded polystyrene. The vessel has a front window thickness of 1.1 mm, a 4 cm radius, and is 2.5 cm in depth. The vessel-block assembly sits inside a thermally-insulated box and is air-cooled to an operating temperature of 4 °C. Radiation-induced thermal gradients were simulated in a geometric model of the calorimeter using a finite element analysis software package. 52 absorbed dose to water measurements were performed in a 6 and 8 MeV electron beam (z{sub max} of 1.32 and 1.76 cm, respectively) for 60 seconds at a repetition rate of 400 MU/min and an SSD of 120 cm. Within the vessel, the depth of measurement was set to 1.08 cm relative to the inner front window. The average measured dose to water was 59.6 ± 0.2 cGy/100 MU (6 MeV), and 63.7 ± 0.3 cGy/100 MU (8 MeV). The associated heat transfer corrections were determined to be 1.026 ± 0.003 and 1.017 ± 0.004 for the 6 and 8 MeV beams, respectively. The most significant source of uncertainty in this study was the repeatability (type A, 0.42%). It is expected that performing fewer consecutive measurements under higher dose rate conditions will improve the stability of the thermal background, thereby improving the repeatability and reducing the overall standard uncertainty.

  5. Citizenship Education in the Seattle Schools on the Eve of the Japanese American Incarceration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pak, Yoon K.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the approach to citizenship education within the Seattle (Washington) Public Schools when Japanese American citizenship status was being questioned. Addresses the World War II era experiences of Japanese American students, focusing on two primary source documents: (1) a 1930's curriculum guide; and (2) a collection of classroom…

  6. Poster - Thur Eve - 46: The upcoming international code of practice for small static photon field dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Palmans, H; Alfonso, R; Andreo, P; Capote, R; Huq, M S; Izewska, J; Johansson, J; Kilby, W; Mackie, T R; Meghzifene, A; Rosser, K; Seuntjens, J; Ullrich, W

    2012-07-01

    The increased use of small photon fields in stereotactic and intensity-modulated radiotherapy has raised the need for standardizing the dosimetry of such fields using procedures consistent with those for conventional radiotherapy. An international working group, established by the IAEA in collaboration with AAPM and IPEM, is finalising a Code of Practice for the dosimetry of small static photon fields. Procedures for reference dosimetry in nonstandard machine specific reference (msr) fields are provided following the formalism of Alfonso et al. (Med. Phys. 35: 5179; 2008). Reference dosimetry using ionization chambers in machines that cannot establish a conventional 10 cm × 10 cm reference field is based on either a direct calibration in the msr field traceable to primary standards, a calibration in a reference field and a generic correction factor or the product of a correction factor for a virtual reference field and a correction factor for the difference between the msr and virtual fields. For the latter method, procedures are provided for determining the beam quality in non-reference conditions. For the measurement of field output factors in small fields, procedures for connecting large field measurements using ionization chambers to small field measurements using high-resolution detectors such as diodes, diamond, liquid ion chambers, organic scintillators and radiochromic film are given. The Code of Practice also presents consensus data on correction factors for use in conjunction with measured, detector-specific output factors. Further research to determine missing data according to the proposed framework will be strongly encouraged by publication of this document. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  7. On the eve of war: authoritarianism, social dominance, and American students' attitudes toward attacking Iraq.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Sam G

    2005-03-01

    In the week before the 2003 American attack on Iraq, the effects of authoritarianism and the social dominance orientation on support for the attack were examined. Based on prior research on the nature of these constructs, a structural model was developed and tested. As predicted, authoritarianism strengthened support for the attack by intensifying the perception that Iraq threatened America. Social dominance increased support by reducing concern for the likely human costs of the war. Both also increased blind patriotism, which in turn reduced concern for the war's human costs and was reciprocally related to the belief that Iraq threatened America.

  8. Poster — Thur Eve — 74: Distributed, asynchronous, reactive dosimetric and outcomes analysis using DICOMautomaton

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Haley; Wu, Jonn; Moiseenko, Vitali; Thomas, Steven

    2014-08-15

    Many have speculated about the future of computational technology in clinical radiation oncology. It has been advocated that the next generation of computational infrastructure will improve on the current generation by incorporating richer aspects of automation, more heavily and seamlessly featuring distributed and parallel computation, and providing more flexibility toward aggregate data analysis. In this report we describe how a recently created — but currently existing — analysis framework (DICOMautomaton) incorporates these aspects. DICOMautomaton supports a variety of use cases but is especially suited for dosimetric outcomes correlation analysis, investigation and comparison of radiotherapy treatment efficacy, and dose-volume computation. We describe: how it overcomes computational bottlenecks by distributing workload across a network of machines; how modern, asynchronous computational techniques are used to reduce blocking and avoid unnecessary computation; and how issues of out-of-date data are addressed using reactive programming techniques and data dependency chains. We describe internal architecture of the software and give a detailed demonstration of how DICOMautomaton could be used to search for correlations between dosimetric and outcomes data.

  9. Poster — Thur Eve — 58: Dosimetric validation of electronic compensation for radiotherapy treatment planning

    SciTech Connect

    Gräfe, James; Khan, Rao; Meyer, Tyler

    2014-08-15

    In this study we investigate the deliverability of dosimetric plans generated by the irregular surface compensator (ISCOMP) algorithm for 6 MV photon beams in Eclipse (Varian Medical System, CA). In contrast to physical tissue compensation, the electronic ISCOMP uses MLCs to dynamically modulate the fluence of a photon beam in order to deliver a uniform dose at a user defined plane in tissue. This method can be used to shield critical organs that are located within the treatment portal or improve dose uniformity by tissue compensation in inhomogeneous regions. Three site specific plans and a set of test fields were evaluated using the γ-metric of 3%/ 3 mm on Varian EPID, MapCHECK, and Gafchromic EBT3 film with a clinical tolerance of >95% passing rates. Point dose measurements with an NRCC calibrated ionization chamber were also performed to verify the absolute dose delivered. In all cases the MapCHECK measured plans met the gamma criteria. The mean passing rate for the six EBT3 film field measurements was 96.2%, with only two fields at 93.4 and 94.0% passing rates. The EPID plans passed for fields encompassing the central ∼10 × 10 cm{sup 2} region of the detector; however for larger fields and greater off-axis distances discrepancies were observed and attributed to the profile corrections and modeling of backscatter in the portal dose calculation. The magnitude of the average percentage difference for 21 ion chamber point dose measurements and 17 different fields was 1.4 ± 0.9%, and the maximum percentage difference was −3.3%. These measurements qualify the algorithm for routine clinical use subject to the same pre-treatment patient specific QA as IMRT.

  10. 'Mary' and 'Eve's' Social Reproduction in the 'Big Apple'; Colombian Voices. Occasional Paper No. 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Mary Garcia

    This paper presents research on the immigration, employment, familial, and social experiences of Colombian women in New York City. The data discussed are derived from both a literature review and extensive interviews with Colombian women residing in the city during recent years. It is hypothesized that Colombian women's perceptions of their actual…

  11. Characteristics of acute heart failure in very elderly patients - EVE study (EAHFE very elderly).

    PubMed

    Herrero-Puente, Pablo; Marino-Genicio, Rocio; Martín-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Vázquez-Alvarez, Joaquín; Jacob, Javier; Bermudez, Manuel; Llorens, Pere; Miró, Oscar; Pérez-Durá, María José; Gil, Victor; Alonso-Morilla, Ana

    2014-06-01

    To determine the characteristics and prognostic factors of early death in the very elderly with acute heart failure (AHF). We performed a prospective, observational study of AHF patients attended in Emergency Departments (ED), analyzing 45 variables collected in ED and studying troponin, natriuretic peptides and echocardiographies, not always available in the ED. The patients were divided into 2 groups: nonagenarian (age ≥ 90 years) and controls (age < 90 years). The study variables were mortality and death or reconsultation to the ED for AHF within 30 days after inclusion. We included 4700 patients (nonagenarians: 520, 11.1%). The 30-day mortality was 21.5% and 8.7% (p<0.01), respectively with a combined event of 33.3% and 26.7% (p=0.001). Age ≥ 90 years was maintained in all the models associated with death (OR: 1.94, CI 95%: 1.40-2.70). In nonagenarians, chronic kidney insufficiency (OR: 2.07, CI95%: 1.16-3.69), severe functional dependence (OR: 2.18, CI95%; 1.30-3.64) and basal oxygen saturation <90% (OR: 1.97, CI95%: 1.17-3.32) and hyponatremia <135 mEq/L (OR: 1.89, CI95%: 1.05-3.42) were predictive variables of mortality. We observed an association between elevated troponin levels and natriuretic peptide values > 5,180 pg/mL and mortality (OR: 4.26, CI95%: 1.83-9.89; and OR: 3.51, CI95%: 1.45-8.48; respectively). The profile of nonagenarians with AHF differs from that of younger patients. Although very advanced age is an independent prognostic factor of mortality, these patients have fewer predictive factors of mortality, being only functional deterioration, basal kidney disease, hyponatremia and respiratory insufficiency on arrival at the ED and probably troponin values and elevated natriuretic peptides. Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Manifest Destiny and Competing Voices on the Eve of the Cherokee Removal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Prentice T.

    2011-01-01

    Manifest Destiny, the idea that Providence guided the conquest and settlement of North America, is one of the most contested ideas in American culture and history. One's opinion about this central aspect of American mythology depends heavily on one's point of view. Exploring westward expansion and the Cherokee Trail of Tears with primary sources…

  13. Mirrors for the Queen: A Letter from Christine de Pizan on the Eve of Civil War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Samuel

    2008-01-01

    As a rhetorical figure, the example is constitutively split between the structural vocations of the Greek "paradeigma" (emphasizing illumination and belonging) and the Latin "exemplum" (emphasizing detachment and exclusion). This bifurcation enables the example to function as a strategic resource of ambiguity. Christine de…

  14. A new gene for asthma: would you ADAM and Eve it?

    PubMed

    Cookson, William

    2003-04-01

    Recently, a novel gene was reported to underlie asthma. Linkage to the short arm of chromosome 20 in a genome screen was followed by positive tests of association that centre on the gene for a membrane-anchored zinc-dependent metalloproteinase known as ADAM33. The domain structure of the ADAM33 protein gives capabilities of proteolysis, adhesion, cell fusion and intracellular signalling. Although its function is at present unknown, these potential actions of ADAM33 provide many possibilities for further research.

  15. The Three Faces of Eve (or Adam): The Integration of "Our Other Lives" with Our Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caffarella, Rosemary S.

    Integrating one's career as an adult educator with the other parts of one's life is not an easy task for many adult educators. One reason for the difficulty is that there are many facets to this integration process: time, emotionality, conflict, complexity, change, and situational factors. Individuals need to decide what faces or roles are…

  16. Adam (MDMA) and Eve (MDEA) misuse: an immunohistochemical study on three fatal cases.

    PubMed

    Fineschi, V; Centini, F; Mazzeo, E; Turillazzi, E

    1999-09-30

    Three fatal cases of MDMA/MDEA misuse have been examined. These referred to white males between 19 and 20 years of age, in which post-mortem toxicology showed the presence of MDMA (in one case), MDEA (in one case) and both (in one case). The clinical data were analysed and the histopathological findings were studied following immunohistochemical investigations. A complete immunohistochemical study has made it possible to demonstrate rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuria with alterations of the organs typical of a DIC. Clinical, histopathological and toxicological data suggest that severe or fatal complications following ecstasy ingestion could be related to idiosyncratic response.

  17. [Eve and Adam--is a partnership between the male and female actually possible?].

    PubMed

    Günzel, S

    1989-03-01

    Whereas the girl can pattern the formation of her post-oedipal gender-typical selfrepresentation on the model of her mother, the boy must give up the maternal object and turn to the father. The author believes that the reorientation consumes energy which the boy lacks when forming his ego structures, his frustration tolerance, his capacity for relationships. This deficit model is invoked to explain the commonly deplored typically male behavioral and attitudinal characteristics.

  18. Poster — Thur Eve — 72: Clinical Subtleties of Flattening-Filter-Free Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Corns, Robert; Thomas, Steven; Huang, Vicky

    2014-08-15

    Flattening-filter-free (fff) beams offer superior dose rates, reducing treatment times for important techniques that utilize small field sizes, such as stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). The impact of ion collection efficiency (P{sub ion}) on the percent depth dose (PDD) has been discussed at length in the literature. Relative corrections of the order of l%–2% are possible. In the process of commissioning 6fff and 10fff beams, we identified a number of other important details that influence commissioning. We looked at the absolute dose difference between corrected and uncorrected PDD. We discovered a curve with a broad maximum between 10 and 20 cm. We wondered about the consequences of this PDD correction on the absolute dose calibration of the linac because the TG-51 protocol does not correct the PDD curve. The quality factor k{sub Q} depends on the PDD, so in principle, a correction to the PDD will alter the absolute calibration of the linac. Finally, there are other clinical tables, such as TMR, which are derived from PDD. Attention to details on how this computation is performed is important because different corrections are possible depending the method of calculation.

  19. The Sociology of the Gene: Genetics and Education on the Eve of the Biotech Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rifkin, Jeremy

    1998-01-01

    Researchers in molecular biology are discovering an increasing genetic basis for a wide range of mental diseases, moods, behaviors, and personality traits. Findings are creating the context for a new sociobiology favoring a genetic interpretation of human motivations and drives. Genetic engineering will give some people unprecedented power over…

  20. Life, Death, and Society in the Maritimes at the Eve of Confederation. Documents in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    Outlines activities using the 1867 quarterly returns for the Registry of Deaths for Pictou County, Nova Scotia, to link population themes in early Canada to today's global issues. Learning activities include having students research the age of mortality, cause of death, human migration, and occupational profile. (MJP)

  1. Point contact germanium detectors at 500 eVee threshold for light dark matter searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soma, Arun Kumar; Li, Hau-Bin; Lin, Shin-Ted; Wong, Henry Tsz-King; TEXONO Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    Germanium detectors with sub-keV sensitivities can probe low-mass WIMP Dark Matter. This experimental approach is pursued at Kuo-Sheng Neutrino Laboratory (KSNL) in Taiwan and at China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China via TEXONO and CDEX programs, respectively. The highlights of R&D efforts on point contact germanium detectors and in particular the differentiation of surface and bulk events by pulse shape analysis are described. The latest results on WIMP-nucleon scattering cross-sections are also presented. Some of the allowed parameter space implied by other experiments are probed and excluded.

  2. Invisible transmission in quantum cryptography using continuous variables: A proof of Eve's vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navez, Patrick; Gatti, Alessandra; Lugiato, Luigi A.

    2002-03-01

    By analogy to classical cryptography, we develop a quantum cryptographic scheme in which the two public and private keys consist in each of two entangled beams of squeezed light. An analog secret information is encrypted by modulating the phase of the beam sent in public. The knowledge of the degree of nonclassical correlation between the beam quadratures measured in private and in public allows only the receiver to decrypt the secret information. Finally, in a view towards absolute security, we formally prove that any external intervention of an eavesdropper makes him vulnerable to any subsequent detection.

  3. Poster — Thur Eve — 47: Monte Carlo Simulation of Scp, Sc and Sp

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, Lixin; Jiang, Runqing; Osei, Ernest K.

    2014-08-15

    The in-water output ratio (Scp), in-air output ratio (Sc), and phantom scattering factor (Sp) are important parameters for radiotherapy dose calculation. Experimentally, Scp is obtained by measuring the dose rate ratio in water phantom, and Sc the water Kerma rate ratio in air. There is no method that allows direct measurement of Sp. Monte Carlo (MC) method has been used to simulate Scp and Sc in literatures, similar to experimental setup, but no MC direct simulation of Sp available yet to the best of our knowledge. We propose in this report a method of performing direct MC simulation of Sp. Starting from the definition, we derived that Sp of a clinical photon beam can be approximated by the ratio of the dose rates contributed from the primary beam for a given field size to the reference field size. Since only the primary beam is used, any Linac head scattering should be excluded from the simulation, which can be realized by using the incident electron as a scoring parameter for MU. We performed MC simulations for Scp, Sc and Sp. Scp matches well with golden beam data. Sp obtained by the proposed method agrees well with what is obtained using the traditional method, Sp=Scp/Sc. Since the smaller the field size, the more the primary beam dominates, our Sp simulation method is accurate for small field. By analyzing the calculated data, we found that this method can be used with no problem for large fields. The difference it introduced is clinically insignificant.

  4. Poster — Thur Eve — 50: Common Regulatory Non-Compliances and How to Avoid Them

    SciTech Connect

    Heimann, M.

    2014-08-15

    The Accelerators and Class II Facilities Division (ACFD) of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), is responsible for the oversight of radiotherapy facilities containing Class II prescribed equipment in Canada. Over the past several years, ACFD has been performing compliance inspections of Class II nuclear facilities across the country (medical and otherwise), and in that time, has issued several hundred corrective actions to licensees due to non-compliance with regulatory requirements. Recently, a study was done to determine the most common regulatory non-compliances. The purpose of this poster presentation is to disseminate information to the licensee community about the nature of these non-compliances, and how they can be avoided by licensees in the future.

  5. Global ocean tide models on the eve of Topex/Poseidon

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, R.D. )

    1993-03-01

    Some existing global ocean tide models that can provide tide corrections to Topex/Poseidon altimeter data are described. Emphasis is given to the Schwiderski and Cartwright-Ray models, as these are the most comprehensive, highest resolution models, but other models that will soon appear are mentioned. Differences between models for M[sub 2] often exceed 10 cm over vast stretches of the ocean. Comparisons to 80 selected pelagic and island gauge measurements indicate the Schwiderski model is more accurate for the major solar tides, Cartwright-Ray for the major lunar tides. The adequacy of available tide models for studying basin-scale motions is probably marginal at best. The subject, however, is in a state of flux, and one may expect rapid advancement over the next several years.

  6. Bretton Woods Institution Narratives about Inequality and Economic Vulnerability on the Eve of South African Austerity.

    PubMed

    Bond, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In South Africa, at a time when National Health Insurance should be generously funded (7 years after its approval as public policy by the ruling party), state fiscal austerity appears certain to nip the initiative in the bud. The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund issued separate reports about South Africa in late 2014, following a new finance minister's mid-term budget speech. In justifying austerity, they revealed 2 important conceptual blockages regarding inequality and international financial relations. The resulting political bias in the macroeconomic debate has, in turn, given neoliberal policy advocates intellectual weaponry to impose deeper austerity. In contrast, the rise of a "united front" of labor, community-based, and social movement activists, along with a vigorous left opposition party in Parliament, ensure that one of the world's most visible class struggles ratchets up in intensity in the years ahead.

  7. Jupiter's Thermal Structure on the Eve of Juno's Arrival and an NEB Expansion Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Leigh N.; Orton, Glenn S.; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Sinclair, James; Giles, Rohini; Irwin, Patrick; Rogers, John; Encrenaz, Therese

    2016-04-01

    We report on a continuing program of ground-based thermal-infrared imaging spectroscopy to explore variability in Jupiter's atmospheric temperatures, winds, clouds and composition in support of the NASA/Juno mission, scheduled to arrive at Jupiter in July 2016. Observations during the 2015/16 apparition, centred on opposition on March 8th 2016, will be presented from NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) as part of a world-wide campaign to characterise the Jovian atmosphere to support Juno. Thermal and chemical contrasts, combined with the visible-light record from the amateur community, show that Jupiter's North Equatorial Belt (NEB) is presently expanding northwards. The combination of thermal and visible observations will allow us to determine the environmental conditions underlying this belt/zone variability. Radiometrically calibrated spectral scan maps of Jupiter have been regularly obtained using the TEXES instrument (Texas Echelon cross Echelle Spectrograph, Lacy et al. 2002, PASP 114, p153-168) on the IRTF since 2012, and observations are planned in January and April 2016. Ten settings between 5 and 25 μm (10-20 cm-1 wide settings at spectral resolutions of 2000-10000) were selected to be sensitive to jovian temperatures (via H2, CH4 and CH3D), tropospheric phosphine and ammonia, tropospheric haze opacity and stratospheric hydrocarbons ethane and acetylene. These will be supplemented by photometric imaging from the VLT/VISIR instrument (Lagage et al., 2004, Messenger 117, p12-16) in ten narrow-band filters to determine temperatures associated with discrete phenomena (vortices, plumes, waves) at higher diffraction-limited spatial resolution. Spectra and images are inverted via the NEMESIS retrieval algorithm (Irwin et al., 2008, JSQRT 109, p1136-1150) to map temperatures at multiple altitudes (1-600 mbar), winds, aerosol opacity and gaseous composition. Our most recent observations (November 2015) revealed (i) a regular stratospheric wave pattern in stratospheric temperatures between 20 and 30°N (i.e., above the North Tropical Zone and Temperate Belt, NTropZ and NTB, respectively), possibly associated with the northward expansion of the broad North Equatorial Belt (NEB); (ii) tropospheric thermal variability along the NEB itself with correlations between aerosol variability in the 600-mbar region (sensed at 8.6 μm) and the 2-3 bar region (sensed at 5 μm). This appears to coincide with similar NEB and NTropZ wave structure observed in reflected sunlight near 2 μm, based on images from the SpeX instrument on the IRTF. Zonal mean distributions of temperature, phosphine, ammonia, aerosols and hydrocarbons will be compared to those derived by the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) 15 years earlier. High-resolution VLT images of the Great Red Spot will be compared between 2008 and 2016 to understand the thermochemical changes associated with its recent shrinkage. All images and maps of retrieved properties will be assembled as a database (JCliD) to aid in the interpretation of Juno data during 2016-2017.

  8. [Burns in childhood. Social implications in the eve of the year 2000].

    PubMed

    Abad, P; Acosta, D; Martínez Ibáñez, V; Lloret, J; Patiño, B; Gubern, L; Carol, J; Boix Ochoa, J

    2000-07-01

    The thermic wounds in childhood are the third cause of morbility at hospital in our ambiance. The knowledge about incidence, the causal agents more frequent, and the detailed analysis of different variants about the subject are the unique manner to try to establish precautions against. The aim of this project is to analyse the factors and situations associated with thermic wound, through the retrospective study about the patients admitted. During three years, 362 patients were admitted at hospital, between 0 and 14 years old, following the criterion: barge burn size more than 10%, critical location (hands, face, neck), causal agent (electricity, chemical) or social situation. Different facts were analyzed about provenance, place, causal agent, burned part of the body, degree of lesion and the average stay at hospital. There were 59.6% males, and 40.3% females. Children between 1 and 5 years old, represented the largest group of patients, 205 cases. The 66% were from other hospital were they receive the first aid. The 98.7% were burned at home, and the place more frequent was kitchen, 51%. The causal agent was liquid in 65.4%, specially scald with water about 104 cases. The zones more affected were the face (39.2%), and the superior extremities, about 81% second degree superficial or deep. The size was 10 to 20% in 19% of patients, and more than 40% in 0.2% of children. The average stay was 17.47 days at hospital.

  9. DC-9 flight demonstration program with refanned JT8D engines. Volume 2: Design and construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The nacelle configuration selected for the DC-9 had a 1595.6 mm Refan length inlet and an 1811.8 mm exhaust duct. The inlet had 1234.4 mm of acoustic treatment and the tailpipe had 1305.5 mm of equivalent length acoustic treatment. The pylon was reduced in width from 425.5 mm to 204.5 mm. Fuselage frames and titanium skin panels in the area of the pylon were reinforced or replaced to support the higher loads and engine thrust. Experimental type tooling, fabrication and assembly were used on all hardware. The design is considered certifiable and representative of the hardware that would be built as retrofit kits.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW HEAT LEAK CFRP STAND FOR MIRI COOLER JT HEAT EXCHANGER STAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Makowski, K. P.; Hayashil, B.; Larson, M. E.; Loc, A. S.; Zhang, B. X.; Leland, R. S.

    2010-04-09

    A low heat leak stand is being developed for the Heat exchanger Stage Assembly (HSA) of the cryocooler subsystem for the Mid Infra-Red Instrument (MIRI) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The HSA stand is a hexapod structure supporting the 18 K HSA in a nominal 40 K background environment. Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) has been selected for this application to meet the stringent design requirements of a low parasitic heat leak (less than 3.8 mW including both conductive and radiative heat loads for the thermal environment defined above) and a resonance frequency above 120 Hz. A directional lay-up of T300/polycyanate has been chosen for the construction of the hexapod struts. End fittings made of Invar 36 are bonded to the struts to provide structural interfaces. The development effort includes fabricating and testing (including cryogenic thermal cycling) six types of coupons for material characterization, determination of structural degradation due to thermal cycling, and selection of the joint bonding epoxy. Consequently, strut samples are used for final material characterization, performance assessment, and bond joint design evaluation. This paper describes the development process and addresses the challenges in meeting the design requirements. Results of finite element analysis (FEA) for the composite structure and experimental data collected through structural and thermal testing are also presented.

  11. Short-term performance deterioration in JT9D-7A(SP) engine 695743

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouchard, R. J.; Beyerly, W. R.; Sallee, G. P.

    1978-01-01

    The level of performance deterioration that occurred during early service was studied and also the contribution of each engine module to the overall level of engine performance deterioration. To assist in the distribution of the performance losses to the module level, testing with expanded experimental instrumentation was accomplished to permit direct measurement of module performance. An analytical teardown of the engine was accomplished to permit assignment of module performance losses to individual mechanical damage mechanisms including blade and seal wear, roughness, and thermal distortion of turbine parts. The results of the testing show that the engine deteriorated 1.5 percent in thrust specific fuel consumption from its performance when new. Initial testing, which included water washing, showed that 0.2 percent in performance deterioration was due to surface contamination (dirt) and 0.1 percent was due to drift of the engine vane control system, leaving 1.2 percent in basic TSFC deterioration. This 1.2 percent TSFC loss was distributed among the engine modules with 0.6 percent caused by clearance changes, 0.4 percent loss due to thermal distortion, and 0.2 percent loss due to increased roughness of the fan and low-pressure compressor airfoils.

  12. Preliminary evaluation of hermetic JT/LJT/R P connector socket contact design

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, J.R.F.

    1991-10-01

    This report presents a precursory examination of a number of issues pertaining to socket contacts in hermetic connectors. The principal issues addressed are high-contact resistance and contact chatter (circuit discontinuities). Efforts examining the characteristics of the existing socket contact design, the possibility of connector/contact rework, quick-fix solutions, and contact redesigns are summarized.

  13. Internal Mixer Investigation for JT8D Engine Jet Noise Reduction. Volume 1 Results.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-01

    were compared with~ re- suilts from other con tigurations. Scale Mo1 del Peru rmanc Tests Tlwo mixer". and the rt ference sytem were tested by thle...PN. curves in Vi,. uro 5.4’. Tite slort mixcr peroduccd about I P"NO1 1110K. 10is re. duction Mhan did the longs mixert &tInjakienwi takeoff and

  14. ASASSN-17jt and ASASSN-17jw: Discovery of Two ASAS-SN Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimacombe, J.; Stone, G.; Fernandez, J. M.; Masi, G.; Brown, J. S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shields, J.; Thompson, T. A.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Dong, Subo; Bose, S.; Chen, Ping; Kiyota, S.; Marples, P.; Post, R. S.

    2017-07-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN, Shappee et al. 2014), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Brutus" telescope in Haleakala, Hawaii, we discovered two new transient sources, most likely a supernovae, in the galaxies CGCG 426-012 and SDSS J144937.71+184159.5.

  15. Field reversal effects on divertor plasmas under radiative and detached conditions in JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakura, N.; Hosogane, H.; Tsuji-Iio, S.; Itami, K.; Shimizu, K.; Shimada, M.

    1996-06-01

    Reversal effects of the toroidal field Bt on the principal divertor plasma parameters were investigated under radiative and detached divertor conditions in L mode discharges. The ion flux to the inboard separatrix strike point decreased before a MARFE occurred, irrespective of the ion Del B drift direction. The local electron temperature, Te, div, decreased to around 10 eV. The maximum fraction of power radiated in the divertor was comparable between the two directions of Bt. With the power flowing into the two divertor fans being slightly larger on the outboard than on the inboard, a nearly symmetric in-out heat load was observed for the ion Del B drift away from the target. This was due to the outboard enhanced asymmetries in the particle flux and radiation loss distributions. From the viewpoint of in-out symmetry in the target heat load and Te, div, operation with the ion Del B drift away from the target plate is desirable as long as the attached divertor condition is maintained. On the contrary, during the MARFE, although deterioration of the energy confinement as well as the increase in the fuelling efficiency were comparable, for the ion Del B drift towards the target the plasma did not detach completely, and the strong in-out asymmetry in the particle recycling was relaxed to a relatively symmetric distribution. From the viewpoint of particle exhaust to the divertor, operation with the ion Del B drift towards the target is favourable

  16. Development of a hermetically sealed brushless DC motor for a J-T cryocooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joscelyn, Edwin; Hochler, Irwin; Ferri, Andrew; Rott, Heinz; Soukaris, Ted

    1996-01-01

    This development was sponsored by Ball Aerospace for the Cryogenic On-Orbit LongLife Active Refrigerator (COOLLAR) program. The cryocooler is designed to cool objects to 65 K and operate in space for at least 7 years. The system also imports minimal impact to the spacecraft in terms of vibration and heat. The basic Joule-Thompson cycle involves compressing a working fluid, nitrogen in this case, at near-constant temperature from 17.2 KPa to 6.89 MPa. The nitrogen is then expanded through a Joule-Thompson valve. The pure nitrogen gas must be kept clean; therefore, any contamination from motor organic materials must be eliminated. This requirement drove the design towards sealing of the motor within a titanium housing without sacrificing motor performance. It is estimated that an unsealed motor would have contributed 1.65 g of contaminants, due to the organic insulation and potting materials, over the 7-year life. This paper describes the motor electrical and mechanical design, as well as the sealing difficulties encountered, along with their solutions.

  17. Performance characterization of a 6-K multiple JT helium adsorption cryocooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, S.; Johnson, D. L.; Lindersmith, C. A.; Sirbi, A.

    2002-01-01

    We present the work done at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for a Helium Adsorption Cooler to produce continuous cooling power at a temperature around 6 K. The goal of this development is to be able to propose for future space mission a long lifetime, vibration free cooler, which can cover the temperature range 18 K to 5 K.

  18. Performance deterioration based on simulated aerodynamic loads test, JT9D jet engine diagnostics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stromberg, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    An engine was specially prepared with extensive instrumentation to monitor performance, case temperatures, and clearance changes. A special loading device was used to apply known loads on the engine by the use of cables placed around the flight inlet. These loads simulated the estimated aerodynamic pressure distributions that occur on the inlet in various segments of a typical airplane flight. Test results indicate that the engine lost 1.3 percent in take-off thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC) during the course of the test effort. Permanent clearance changes due to the loads accounted for 1.1 percent; increase in low pressure compressor airfoil roughness and thermal distortion in the high pressure turbine accounted for 0.2 percent. Pretest predicted performance loss due to clearance changes was 0.9 percent in TSFC. Therefore, the agreement between measurement and prediction is considered to be excellent.

  19. Performance characterization of a 6-K multiple JT helium adsorption cryocooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, S.; Johnson, D. L.; Lindersmith, C. A.; Sirbi, A.

    2002-01-01

    We present the work done at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for a Helium Adsorption Cooler to produce continuous cooling power at a temperature around 6 K. The goal of this development is to be able to propose for future space mission a long lifetime, vibration free cooler, which can cover the temperature range 18 K to 5 K.

  20. Poster — Thur Eve — 69: Computational Study of DVH-guided Cancer Treatment Planning Optimization Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Ghomi, Pooyan Shirvani; Zinchenko, Yuriy

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To compare methods to incorporate the Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) curves into the treatment planning optimization. Method: The performance of three methods, namely, the conventional Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) model, a convex moment-based constrained optimization approach, and an unconstrained convex moment-based penalty approach, is compared using anonymized data of a prostate cancer patient. Three plans we generated using the corresponding optimization models. Four Organs at Risk (OARs) and one Tumor were involved in the treatment planning. The OARs and Tumor were discretized into total of 50,221 voxels. The number of beamlets was 943. We used commercially available optimization software Gurobi and Matlab to solve the models. Plan comparison was done by recording the model runtime followed by visual inspection of the resulting dose volume histograms. Conclusion: We demonstrate the effectiveness of the moment-based approaches to replicate the set of prescribed DVH curves. The unconstrained convex moment-based penalty approach is concluded to have the greatest potential to reduce the computational effort and holds a promise of substantial computational speed up.