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Sample records for event-related fmri investigation

  1. Auditory context effects in picture naming investigated with event-related fMRI.

    PubMed

    de Zubicaray, Greig I; McMahon, Katie L

    2009-09-01

    Naming an object entails a number of processing stages, including retrieval of a target lexical concept and encoding of its phonological word form. We investigated these stages using the picture-word interference task in an fMRI experiment. Participants named target pictures in the presence of auditorily presented semantically related, phonologically related, or unrelated distractor words or in isolation. We observed BOLD signal changes in left-hemisphere regions associated with lexical-conceptual and phonological processing, including the mid-to-posterior lateral temporal cortex. However, these BOLD responses manifested as signal reductions for all distractor conditions relative to naming alone. Compared with unrelated words, phonologically related distractors showed further signal reductions, whereas only the pars orbitalis of the left inferior frontal cortex showed a selective reduction in response in the semantic condition. We interpret these findings as indicating that the word forms of lexical competitors are phonologically encoded and that competition during lexical selection is reduced by phonologically related distractors. Since the extended nature of auditory presentation requires a large portion of a word to be presented before its meaning is accessed, we attribute the BOLD signal reductions observed for semantically related and unrelated words to lateral inhibition mechanisms engaged after target name selection has occurred, as has been proposed in some production models.

  2. Pictures of a thousand words: Investigating the neural mechanisms of reading with extremely rapid event-related fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Yarkoni, Tal; Speer, Nicole K.; Balota, David A.; McAvoy, Mark P.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    Reading is one of the most important skills human beings can acquire, but has proven difficult to study naturalistically using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We introduce a novel Event-Related Reading (ERR) fMRI approach that enables reliable estimation of the neural correlates of single-word processing during reading of rapidly presented narrative text (200–300 ms / word). Application to an fMRI experiment in which subjects read coherent narratives and made no overt responses revealed widespread effects of orthographic, phonological, contextual, and semantic variables on brain activation. Word-level variables predicted activity in classical language areas as well as the inferotemporal visual word form area, specifically supporting a role for the latter in mapping visual forms onto articulatory or acoustic representations. Additional analyses demonstrated that ERR results replicate across experiments and predict reading comprehension. The ERR approach represents a powerful and extremely flexible new approach for studying reading and language behavior with fMRI. PMID:18554928

  3. Neural correlates of opposing effects of emotional distraction on working memory and episodic memory: an event-related FMRI investigation.

    PubMed

    Dolcos, Florin; Iordan, Alexandru D; Kragel, James; Stokes, Jared; Campbell, Ryan; McCarthy, Gregory; Cabeza, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental question in the emotional memory literature is why emotion enhances memory in some conditions but disrupts memory in other conditions. For example, separate studies have shown that emotional stimuli tend to be better remembered in long-term episodic memory (EM), whereas emotional distracters tend to impair working memory (WM) maintenance. The first goal of this study was to directly compare the neural correlates of EM enhancement (EME) and WM impairing (WMI) effects, and the second goal was to explore individual differences in these mechanisms. During event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants maintained faces in WM while being distracted by emotional or neutral pictures presented during the delay period. EM for the distracting pictures was tested after scanning and was used to identify successful encoding activity for the picture distracters. The first goal yielded two findings: (1) emotional pictures that disrupted face WM but enhanced subsequent EM were associated with increased amygdala (AMY) and hippocampal activity (ventral system) coupled with reduced dorsolateral PFC (dlPFC) activity (dorsal system); (2) trials in which emotion enhanced EM without disrupting WM were associated with increased ventrolateral PFC activity. The ventral-dorsal switch can explain EME and WMI, while the ventrolateral PFC effect suggests a coping mechanism. The second goal yielded two additional findings: (3) participants who were more susceptible to WMI showed greater amygdala increases and PFC reductions; (4) AMY activity increased and dlPFC activity decreased with measures of attentional impulsivity. Taken together, these results clarify the mechanisms linking the enhancing and impairing effects of emotion on memory, and provide insights into the role of individual differences in the impact of emotional distraction.

  4. Processing of Emotional Distraction is both Automatic and Modulated by Attention: Evidence from an Event-Related fMRI Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, A.T.; Matveychuk, D.; Penney, T.; O’Hare, A.J.; Stokes, J.; Dolcos, F.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, emotional stimuli have been thought to be automatically processed via a bottom-up automatic “capture of attention” mechanism. Recently, this view has been challenged by evidence that emotion processing depends on the availability of attentional resources. Although these two views are not mutually exclusive, direct evidence reconciling them is lacking. One limitation of previous investigations supporting the traditional or competing views is that they have not systematically investigated the impact of emotional charge of task-irrelevant distraction in conjunction with manipulations of attentional demands. Using event-related fMRI, we investigated the nature of emotion-cognition interactions in a perceptual discrimination task with emotional distraction, by manipulating both the emotional charge of the distracting information and the demands of the main task. Findings suggest that emotion processing is both automatic and modulated by attention, but emotion and attention were only found to interact when finer assessments of emotional charge (comparison of most vs. least emotional conditions) were considered along with an effective manipulation of processing load (high vs. low). The study also identified brain regions reflecting the detrimental impact of emotional distraction on performance as well as regions involved in helping with such distraction. Activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and ventrolateral PFC was linked to a detrimental impact of emotional distraction, whereas the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and lateral occiptal cortex were involved in helping with emotional distraction. These findings demonstrate that task-irrelevant emotion processing is subjective to both the emotional content of distraction and the level of attentional demand. PMID:22332805

  5. Temporal sensitivity of event-related fMRI.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Luis; Badre, David; Noll, Douglas; Jonides, John

    2002-10-01

    The temporal resolution of event-related fMRI is limited by the low sampling rate of typical MR whole brain protocols and by the slow rate of the BOLD response. Within the assumptions of the General Linear Model, we explore the tolerance of regression analyses of fMRI data to errors in the timing of the model relative to the experimental data under a number of circumstances. Given the sensitivity of the analysis to temporal shifts of the model relative to the data, one can search for the time a neuronal event occurs with temporal resolution on the order of a few hundred milliseconds with 95% confidence. This confidence level is strongly dependent on the signal-to-noise ratio of the observed BOLD responses (approximately +/-200 ms in our example of visual stimulation data collected at 1.5 T).

  6. Material-dependent and material-independent selection processes in the frontal and parietal lobes: an event-related fMRI investigation of response competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazeltine, Eliot; Bunge, Silvia A.; Scanlon, Michael D.; Gabrieli, John D E.

    2003-01-01

    The present study used the flanker task [Percept. Psychophys. 16 (1974) 143] to identify neural structures that support response selection processes, and to determine which of these structures respond differently depending on the type of stimulus material associated with the response. Participants performed two versions of the flanker task while undergoing event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Both versions of the task required participants to respond to a central stimulus regardless of the responses associated with simultaneously presented flanking stimuli, but one used colored circle stimuli and the other used letter stimuli. Competition-related activation was identified by comparing Incongruent trials, in which the flanker stimuli indicated a different response than the central stimulus, to Neutral stimuli, in which the flanker stimuli indicated no response. A region within the right inferior frontal gyrus exhibited significantly more competition-related activation for the color stimuli, whereas regions within the middle frontal gyri of both hemispheres exhibited more competition-related activation for the letter stimuli. The border of the right middle frontal and inferior frontal gyri and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were significantly activated by competition for both types of stimulus materials. Posterior foci demonstrated a similar pattern: left inferior parietal cortex showed greater competition-related activation for the letters, whereas right parietal cortex was significantly activated by competition for both materials. These findings indicate that the resolution of response competition invokes both material-dependent and material-independent processes.

  7. Material-dependent and material-independent selection processes in the frontal and parietal lobes: an event-related fMRI investigation of response competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazeltine, Eliot; Bunge, Silvia A.; Scanlon, Michael D.; Gabrieli, John D E.

    2003-01-01

    The present study used the flanker task [Percept. Psychophys. 16 (1974) 143] to identify neural structures that support response selection processes, and to determine which of these structures respond differently depending on the type of stimulus material associated with the response. Participants performed two versions of the flanker task while undergoing event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Both versions of the task required participants to respond to a central stimulus regardless of the responses associated with simultaneously presented flanking stimuli, but one used colored circle stimuli and the other used letter stimuli. Competition-related activation was identified by comparing Incongruent trials, in which the flanker stimuli indicated a different response than the central stimulus, to Neutral stimuli, in which the flanker stimuli indicated no response. A region within the right inferior frontal gyrus exhibited significantly more competition-related activation for the color stimuli, whereas regions within the middle frontal gyri of both hemispheres exhibited more competition-related activation for the letter stimuli. The border of the right middle frontal and inferior frontal gyri and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were significantly activated by competition for both types of stimulus materials. Posterior foci demonstrated a similar pattern: left inferior parietal cortex showed greater competition-related activation for the letters, whereas right parietal cortex was significantly activated by competition for both materials. These findings indicate that the resolution of response competition invokes both material-dependent and material-independent processes.

  8. Neural Correlates of Opposing Effects of Emotional Distraction on Working Memory and Episodic Memory: An Event-Related fMRI Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Dolcos, Florin; Iordan, Alexandru D.; Kragel, James; Stokes, Jared; Campbell, Ryan; McCarthy, Gregory; Cabeza, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental question in the emotional memory literature is why emotion enhances memory in some conditions but disrupts memory in other conditions. For example, separate studies have shown that emotional stimuli tend to be better remembered in long-term episodic memory (EM), whereas emotional distracters tend to impair working memory (WM) maintenance. The first goal of this study was to directly compare the neural correlates of EM enhancement (EME) and WM impairing (WMI) effects, and the second goal was to explore individual differences in these mechanisms. During event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants maintained faces in WM while being distracted by emotional or neutral pictures presented during the delay period. EM for the distracting pictures was tested after scanning and was used to identify successful encoding activity for the picture distracters. The first goal yielded two findings: (1) emotional pictures that disrupted face WM but enhanced subsequent EM were associated with increased amygdala (AMY) and hippocampal activity (ventral system) coupled with reduced dorsolateral PFC (dlPFC) activity (dorsal system); (2) trials in which emotion enhanced EM without disrupting WM were associated with increased ventrolateral PFC activity. The ventral-dorsal switch can explain EME and WMI, while the ventrolateral PFC effect suggests a coping mechanism. The second goal yielded two additional findings: (3) participants who were more susceptible to WMI showed greater amygdala increases and PFC reductions; (4) AMY activity increased and dlPFC activity decreased with measures of attentional impulsivity. Taken together, these results clarify the mechanisms linking the enhancing and impairing effects of emotion on memory, and provide insights into the role of individual differences in the impact of emotional distraction. PMID:23761770

  9. Neural Correlates of Opposing Effects of Emotional Distraction on Perception and Episodic Memory: An Event-Related fMRI Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, Andrea T.; Dolcos, Florin

    2012-01-01

    A main question in emotion and memory literature concerns the relationship between the immediate impact of emotional distraction on perception and the long-term impact of emotion on memory. While previous research shows both automatic and resource-mediated mechanisms to be involved in initial emotion processing and memory, it remains unclear what the exact relationship between the immediate and long-term effects is, and how this relationship may change as a function of manipulations at perception favoring the engagement of either more automatic or mediated mechanisms. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we varied the degree of resource availability for processing task-irrelevant emotional information, to determine how the initial (impairing) impact of emotional distraction related to the long-term (enhancing) impact of emotion on memory. Results showed that a direct relationship between emotional distraction and memory was dependent on automatic mechanisms, as this was found only under conditions of limited resource availability and engagement of amygdala (AMY)-hippocampal (HC) mechanisms to both impairing and enhancing effects. A hemispheric disassociation was also identified in AMY-HC, where while both sides were associated with emotional distraction and left AMY and anterior HC were linked to emotional memory, functional asymmetry was only identified in the posterior HC, with only the left side contributing to emotional memory. Finally, areas dissociating between the two opposing effects included the medial frontal, precentral, superior temporal, and middle occipital gyri (linked to emotional distraction), and the superior parietal cortex (linked to emotional memory). These findings demonstrate the relationship between emotional distraction and memory is context dependent and that specific brain regions may be more or less susceptible to the direction of emotional modulation (increased or decreased), depending on the task manipulation, and

  10. Comparison of blocked and event-related fMRI designs for pre-surgical language mapping.

    PubMed

    Tie, Yanmei; Suarez, Ralph O; Whalen, Stephen; Radmanesh, Alireza; Norton, Isaiah H; Golby, Alexandra J

    2009-08-01

    Language functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a promising non-invasive technique for pre-surgical planning in patients whose lesions are adjacent to or within critical language areas. Most language fMRI studies in patients use blocked experimental design. In this study, we compared a blocked design and a rapid event-related design with a jittered inter-stimulus-interval (ISI) (or stochastic design) for language fMRI in six healthy controls, and eight brain tumor patients, using a vocalized antonym generation task. Comparisons were based on visual inspection of fMRI activation maps and degree of language lateralization, both of which were assessed at a constant statistical threshold for each design. The results indicated a relatively high degree of discordance between the two task designs. In general, the event-related design provided maps with more robust activations in the putative language areas than the blocked design, especially for brain tumor patients. Our results suggest that the rapid event-related design has potential for providing comparable or even higher detection power over the blocked design for localizing language function in brain tumor patients, and therefore may be able to generate more sensitive language maps. More patient studies, and further investigation and optimization of language fMRI paradigms will be needed to determine the utility and validity of this approach for pre-surgical planning.

  11. Event-Related fMRI of Category Learning: Differences in Classification and Feedback Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Deborah M.; Shin, Silvia S.; Sisco, Shannon M.; Thulborn, Keith R.

    2006-01-01

    Eighteen healthy young adults underwent event-related (ER) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the brain while performing a visual category learning task. The specific category learning task required subjects to extract the rules that guide classification of quasi-random patterns of dots into categories. Following each classification…

  12. Decreased Parahippocampal Activity in Associative Priming: Evidence from an Event-Related fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jiongjiong; Meckingler, Axel; Xu, Mingwei; Zhao, Yanbing; Weng, Xuchu

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, there has been intense debate on the neural basis of associative priming, particularly on the role of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in retrieving associative information without awareness. In this study, event-related fMRI was used while healthy subjects performed a perceptual identification task on briefly presented unrelated…

  13. Decreased Parahippocampal Activity in Associative Priming: Evidence from an Event-Related fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jiongjiong; Meckingler, Axel; Xu, Mingwei; Zhao, Yanbing; Weng, Xuchu

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, there has been intense debate on the neural basis of associative priming, particularly on the role of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in retrieving associative information without awareness. In this study, event-related fMRI was used while healthy subjects performed a perceptual identification task on briefly presented unrelated…

  14. A METHOD FOR USING BLOCKED AND EVENT-RELATED FMRI DATA TO STUDY “RESTING STATE” FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Fair, Damien A.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.; Cohen B.A., Alexander L.; Miezin, Francis M.; Dosenbach, Nico U.F.; Wenger, Kristin K.; Fox, Michael D.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Raichle, Marcus E.; Petersen, Steven E.

    2007-01-01

    Resting state functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) has become a particularly useful tool for studying regional relationships in typical and atypical populations. Because many investigators have already obtained large datasets of task related fMRI, the ability to use this existing task data for resting state fcMRI is of considerable interest. Two classes of datasets could potentially be modified to emulate resting state data. These datasets include: 1) “interleaved” resting blocks from blocked or mixed blocked/event-related sets, and 2) residual timecourses from event-related sets that lack rest blocks. Using correlation analysis, we compared the functional connectivity of resting epochs taken from a mixed blocked/event-related design fMRI data set and the residuals derived from event-related data with standard continuous resting state data to determine which class of data can best emulate resting state data. We show that despite some differences, the functional connectivity for the interleaved resting periods taken from blocked designs is both qualitatively and quantitatively very similar to that of “continuous” resting state data. In contrast, despite being qualitatively similar to “continuous” resting state data, residuals derived from event-related design data had several distinct quantitative differences. These results suggest that the interleaved resting state data such as those taken from blocked or mixed blocked/event-related fMRI designs are well-suited for resting state functional connectivity analyses. Although using event-related data residuals for resting state functional connectivity may still be useful, results should be interpreted with care. PMID:17239622

  15. Overcoming confounds of stimulus blocking: an event-related fMRI design of semantic processing.

    PubMed

    Pilgrim, L K; Fadili, J; Fletcher, P; Tyler, L K

    2002-07-01

    The way in which meaning is represented and processed in the brain is a key issue in cognitive neuroscience, which can be usefully addressed by functional imaging techniques. In contrast to previous imaging studies of semantic knowledge, which have primarily used blocked designs, in this study we use an event-related fMRI (erfMRI) design, which has the advantage of enabling events to be presented pseudorandomly, thus reducing strategic processes and enabling more direct comparison with psychological behavioral studies. We used a semantic categorization task in which events were words representing either artifact or natural kinds concepts. Significant areas of activation for semantic processing included inferior frontal lobe bilaterally (BA 47) and left temporal regions, both inferior (BA 36 and 20) and middle (BA 21). These are areas that have been identified in previous neuroimaging studies of semantic knowledge. However, there were no significant differences between artifact and natural kinds concepts. These results are consistent with our previous imaging studies using blocked designs and suggest that conceptual knowledge is represented in a unitary, distributed neural system undifferentiated by domain of knowledge. These findings demonstrate that event-related designs can generate activations that are similar to those seen in blocked designs investigating semantics and, moreover, offer a greater capacity for interpretation free from the confounds of block effects.

  16. Acute effects of nicotine administration during prospective memory, an event related fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Rusted, Jennifer; Ruest, Torsten; Gray, Marcus A

    2011-07-01

    We previously demonstrated that stimulating neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors modulates prospective memory (PM), the ability to remember and implement a prior intention. Here we used fMRI to explore the neuronal correlates of acute nicotinic (1mg) modulation during PM, employing a double blind, valence-matched placebo-controlled design, and a solely event-related analysis. Eight healthy adults completed on two occasions (1 week washout) a simple attentional task containing infrequent PM trials. PM activated bilateral parietal, prefrontal (BA10) and anterior cingulate, and deactivated genual cingulate and medial prefrontal regions. Further, acute nicotine administration decreased activity within a largely overlapping right parietal region. This data validates a purely event-related approach to exploring PM, and suggests procholinergic modulation of PM by parietal rather than BA10/frontal regions.

  17. Silent speechreading in the absence of scanner noise: an event-related fMRI study.

    PubMed

    MacSweeney, M; Amaro, E; Calvert, G A; Campbell, R; David, A S; McGuire, P; Williams, S C; Woll, B; Brammer, M J

    2000-06-05

    In a previous study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate activation in auditory cortex during silent speechreading. Since image acquisition during fMRI generates acoustic noise, this pattern of activation could have reflected an interaction between background scanner noise and the visual lip-read stimuli. In this study we employed an event-related fMRI design which allowed us to measure activation during speechreading in the absence of acoustic scanner noise. In the experimental condition, hearing subjects were required to speechread random numbers from a silent speaker. In the control condition subjects watched a static image of the same speaker with mouth closed and were required to subvocally count an intermittent visual cue. A single volume of images was collected to coincide with the estimated peak of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response to these stimuli across multiple baseline and experimental trials. Silent speechreading led to greater activation in lateral temporal cortex relative to the control condition. This indicates that activation of auditory areas during silent speechreading is not a function of acoustic scanner noise and confirms that silent speechreading engages similar regions of auditory cortex as listening to speech.

  18. Spatiotemporal characteristics of form analysis in the human visual cortex revealed by rapid event-related fMRI adaptation.

    PubMed

    Kourtzi, Zoe; Huberle, Elisabeth

    2005-11-01

    The integration of local elements to coherent forms is at the core of understanding visual perception. Accumulating evidence suggests that both early retinotopic and higher occipitotemporal areas contribute to the integration of local elements to global forms. However, the spatiotemporal characteristics of form analysis in the human visual cortex remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate form analysis at different spatial (global vs. local structure) and temporal (different stimulus presentation rates) scales across stages of visual analysis (from V1 to the lateral occipital complex-LOC) in the human brain. We used closed contours rendered by Gabor elements and manipulated either the global contour structure or the orientation of the local Gabor elements. Our rapid event-related fMRI adaptation studies suggest that contour integration and form processing in early visual areas is transient and limited within the local neighborhood of their cells' receptive field. In contrast, higher visual areas appear to process the perceived global form in a more sustained manner. Finally, we demonstrate that these spatiotemporal properties of form processing in the visual cortex are modulated by attention. Attention to the global form maintains sustained processing in occipitotemporal areas, whereas attention to local elements enhances their integration in early visual areas. These findings provide novel neuroimaging evidence for form analysis at different spatiotemporal scales across human visual areas and validate the use of rapid event-related fMRI adaptation for investigating processing across stages of visual analysis in the human brain.

  19. On the characterization of single-event related brain activity from functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) measurements.

    PubMed

    Khoram, Nafiseh; Zayane, Chadia; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Djellouli, Rabia

    2014-01-01

    We propose an efficient numerical technique for calibrating the mathematical model that describes the single-event related brain response when fMRI measurements are given. This method employs a regularized Newton technique in conjunction with a Kalman filtering procedure. We have applied this method to estimate the biophysiological parameters of the Balloon model that describes the hemodynamic brain responses. Illustrative results obtained with both synthetic and real fMRI measurements are presented.

  20. Event-Related fMRI Studies of Episodic Encoding and Retrieval: Meta-Analyses Using Activation Likelihood Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaniol, Julia; Davidson, Patrick S. R.; Kim, Alice S. N.; Han, Hua; Moscovitch, Morris; Grady, Cheryl L.

    2009-01-01

    The recent surge in event-related fMRI studies of episodic memory has generated a wealth of information about the neural correlates of encoding and retrieval processes. However, interpretation of individual studies is hampered by methodological differences, and by the fact that sample sizes are typically small. We submitted results from studies of…

  1. Event-Related fMRI Studies of Episodic Encoding and Retrieval: Meta-Analyses Using Activation Likelihood Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaniol, Julia; Davidson, Patrick S. R.; Kim, Alice S. N.; Han, Hua; Moscovitch, Morris; Grady, Cheryl L.

    2009-01-01

    The recent surge in event-related fMRI studies of episodic memory has generated a wealth of information about the neural correlates of encoding and retrieval processes. However, interpretation of individual studies is hampered by methodological differences, and by the fact that sample sizes are typically small. We submitted results from studies of…

  2. Neural mechanisms of planning: A computational analysis using event-related fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Fincham, Jon M.; Carter, Cameron S.; van Veen, Vincent; Stenger, V. Andrew; Anderson, John R.

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the neural mechanisms of planning, we used a novel adaptation of the Tower of Hanoi (TOH) task and event-related functional MRI. Participants were trained in applying a specific strategy to an isomorph of the five-disk TOH task. After training, participants solved novel problems during event-related functional MRI. A computational cognitive model of the task was used to generate a reference time series representing the expected blood oxygen level-dependent response in brain areas involved in the manipulation and planning of goals. This time series was used as one term within a general linear modeling framework to identify brain areas in which the time course of activity varied as a function of goal-processing events. Two distinct time courses of activation were identified, one in which activation varied parametrically with goal-processing operations, and the other in which activation became pronounced only during goal-processing intensive trials. Regions showing the parametric relationship comprised a frontoparietal system and include right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex [Brodmann's area (BA 9)], bilateral parietal (BA 40/7), and bilateral premotor (BA 6) areas. Regions preferentially engaged only during goal-intensive processing include left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44). The implications of these results for the current model, as well as for our understanding of the neural mechanisms of planning and functional specialization of the prefrontal cortex, are discussed. PMID:11880658

  3. Changes in fMRI magnitude data and phase data observed in block-design and event-related tasks.

    PubMed

    Arja, Sunil Kumar; Feng, Zhaomei; Chen, Zikuan; Caprihan, Arvind; Kiehl, Kent A; Adali, Tülay; Calhoun, Vince D

    2010-02-15

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data are acquired as a complex image pair including magnitude and phase information. The vast majority of fMRI experiments do not attempt to take advantage of the time varying phase information. The phase of the MRI signal is related to the local magnetic field changes, suggesting it may contain useful information about the source of hemodynamic activity. Analysis of phase data acquired from different fMRI experiments has shown the presence of activity in response to various stimuli. However, there have been no studies that have examined phase data in a larger group of subjects for multiple types of fMRI tasks nor have studies examined phase changes due to event-related stimuli. In this paper, we evaluate the correspondence between the magnitude and phase changes at a group level in a block-design motor tapping task and in an event-related auditory oddball task. The results for both block-design and event-related tasks indicate the presence of task-related information in the phase data with phase-only and magnitude-only approaches showing signal changes in the expected brain regions. Although there is more overall activity detected with magnitude data, the phase-only analysis also reveals activity in regions expected to be involved in the task, some of which were not significantly activated in the magnitude-only analysis, suggesting that the phase might provide some unique information. In addition, the phase can potentially increase sensitivity within regions also showing magnitude changes. Future work should focus on additional methods for combining the magnitude and phase data. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Neural correlates of conceptual object priming in young and older adults: An event-related fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Bischof, Gérard N.; Goh, Joshua O.; Park, Denise C.

    2012-01-01

    In this event-related fMRI study, we investigated age-related differences in brain activity associated with conceptual repetition priming in young and older adults. Participants performed a speeded “living/non-living” classification task with three repetitions of familiar objects. Both young and older adults showed a similar magnitude of behavioral priming to repeated objects and evidencing repetition-related activation reductions in fusiform gyrus, superior occipital, middle and inferior temporal cortex, as well as inferior frontal and insula regions. The neural priming effect in young adults was extensive and continued through both the second and third stimulus repetitions, whereas neural priming in older adults was markedly attenuated and reached floor at the second repetition. In young adults, greater neural priming in multiple brain regions correlated with greater behavioral facilitation whereas in older adults, only activation reduction in the left inferior frontal correlated with faster behavioral responses. These findings provide evidence for altered neural priming in older adults despite preserved behavioral priming, and suggest the possibility that age-invariant behavioral priming is observed as a result of more sustained neural processing of stimuli in older adults which may be a form of compensatory neural activity. PMID:23102512

  5. Enhanced Olfactory Sensory Perception of Threat in Anxiety: An Event-Related fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Krusemark, Elizabeth A.; Li, Wen

    2012-01-01

    The current conceptualization of threat processing in anxiety emphasizes emotional hyper-reactivity, which mediates various debilitating symptoms and derangements in anxiety disorders. Here, we investigated olfactory sensory perception of threat as an alternative causal mechanism of anxiety. Combining an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm with an olfactory discrimination task, we examined how anxiety modulates basic perception of olfactory threats at behavioral and neural levels. In spite of subthreshold presentation of negative and neutral odors, a positive systematic association emerged between negative odor discrimination accuracy and anxiety levels. In parallel, the right olfactory primary (piriform) cortex indicated augmented response to subthreshold negative (vs. neutral) odors as a function of individual differences in anxiety. Using a psychophysiological interaction analysis, we further demonstrated amplified functional connectivity between the piriform cortex and emotion-related regions (amygdala and hippocampus) in response to negative odor, particularly in anxiety. Finally, anxiety also intensified skin conductance response to negative (vs. neutral) odor, indicative of potentiated emotional arousal to subliminal olfactory threat in anxiety. Together, these findings elucidate exaggerated processing of olfactory threat in anxiety across behavioral, autonomic physiological, and neural domains. Critically, our data emphasized anxiety-related hyper-sensitivity of the primary olfactory cortex and basic olfactory perception in response to threat, highlighting neurosensory mechanisms that may underlie the deleterious symptoms of anxiety. PMID:22866182

  6. The modulating effect of personality traits on neural error monitoring: evidence from event-related FMRI.

    PubMed

    Sosic-Vasic, Zrinka; Ulrich, Martin; Ruchsow, Martin; Vasic, Nenad; Grön, Georg

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the association between traits of the Five Factor Model of Personality (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness for Experiences, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness) and neural correlates of error monitoring obtained from a combined Eriksen-Flanker-Go/NoGo task during event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging in 27 healthy subjects. Individual expressions of personality traits were measured using the NEO-PI-R questionnaire. Conscientiousness correlated positively with error signaling in the left inferior frontal gyrus and adjacent anterior insula (IFG/aI). A second strong positive correlation was observed in the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACC). Neuroticism was negatively correlated with error signaling in the inferior frontal cortex possibly reflecting the negative inter-correlation between both scales observed on the behavioral level. Under present statistical thresholds no significant results were obtained for remaining scales. Aligning the personality trait of Conscientiousness with task accomplishment striving behavior the correlation in the left IFG/aI possibly reflects an inter-individually different involvement whenever task-set related memory representations are violated by the occurrence of errors. The strong correlations in the ACC may indicate that more conscientious subjects were stronger affected by these violations of a given task-set expressed by individually different, negatively valenced signals conveyed by the ACC upon occurrence of an error. Present results illustrate that for predicting individual responses to errors underlying personality traits should be taken into account and also lend external validity to the personality trait approach suggesting that personality constructs do reflect more than mere descriptive taxonomies.

  7. Nicotine and attention: event-related potential investigations in nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Knott, Verner; Shah, Dhrasti; Fisher, Derek; Millar, Anne; Prise, Stephanie; Scott, Terri Lynn; Thompson, Mackenzie

    2009-01-01

    Research into the effects of nicotine and smoking on cognition has largely confirmed the subjective reports of smoking in smokers on mental functions, showing smoking abstinence to disrupt and smoking/nicotine to restore cognitive functioning. Evidence of performance improvements in nonsmokers has provided partial support for the absolute effects of nicotine on cognitive processes, which are independent of withdrawal relief, but the mechanisms underlying its pro-cognitive properties still remain elusive. The attentional facilitation frequently reported with smoking/nicotine may be indirectly related to its diffuse arousal-enhancing actions, as evidenced by electroencephalographic (EEG) fast frequency power increments, or it may reflect nicotine's direct modulating effects on specific neural processes governing stimulus encoding, selection and rejection. Event-related potential (ERP) components extracted during the performance of cognitive tasks have proven to be sensitive to early pre-attentive and later attention-dependent processes that are not otherwise reflected in behavioral probes. To date, the majority of ERP studies have been conducted with smokers using passive non-task paradigms or relatively non-demanding "oddball" tasks. This paper will emphasize our recent ERP investigations with acute nicotine polacrilex (6 mg) administered to nonsmokers, and with a battery of ERP and behavioral performance paradigms focusing on intra- and inter-modal selective attention and distraction processes. These ERP findings of nicotine-augmented early attentional processing add support to the contention that nicotine may be be used by smokers as a "pharmacological tool" for tuning cognitive functions relating to the automatic and controlled aspects of sensory input detection and selection.

  8. Analysis of event-related fMRI data using diffusion maps.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xilin; Meyer, François G

    2005-01-01

    The blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal in response to brief periods of stimulus can be detected using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (ER-fMRI). In this paper, we propose a new approach for the analysis of ER-fMRI data. We regard the time series as vectors in a high dimensional space (the dimension is the number of time samples). We believe that all activated times series share a common structure and all belong to a low dimensional manifold. On the other hand, we expect the background time series (after detrending) to form a cloud around the origin. We construct an embedding that reveals the organization of the data into an activated manifold and a cluster of non-activated time series. We use a graph partitioning technique-the normalized cut to find the separation between the activated manifold and the background time series. We have conducted several experiments with synthetic and in-vivo data that demonstrate the performance of our approach.

  9. Effect of Intentional Bias on Agency Attribution of Animated Motion: An Event-Related fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Osaka, Naoyuki; Ikeda, Takashi; Osaka, Mariko

    2012-01-01

    Animated movements of simple geometric shapes can readily be interpreted as depicting social events in which animate agents are engaged in intentional activity. However, the brain regions associated with such intention have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, intentional bias was manipulated using shape and pattern animations while measuring associated brain activity using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-five higher-intention involved and twenty-five lower-intention involved animations were presented to participants. Behavioral results showed that the degree of agency attribution of the mental state increased as intentional involvement increased. fMRI results revealed that the posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS), inferior temporal gyrus (ITG), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), premotor, temporal pole, supramarginal gyrus, and superior parietal lobule (SPL) were activated while participants viewed the high-intention animations. In contrast, occipital, lingual, and middle frontal gyri were activated while the participants viewed the low-intention animations. These findings suggest that as agent attribution increases, the visual brain changes its functional role to the intentional brain and becomes a flexible network for processing information about social interaction. PMID:23155450

  10. Effect of intentional bias on agency attribution of animated motion: an event-related fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Osaka, Naoyuki; Ikeda, Takashi; Osaka, Mariko

    2012-01-01

    Animated movements of simple geometric shapes can readily be interpreted as depicting social events in which animate agents are engaged in intentional activity. However, the brain regions associated with such intention have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, intentional bias was manipulated using shape and pattern animations while measuring associated brain activity using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-five higher-intention involved and twenty-five lower-intention involved animations were presented to participants. Behavioral results showed that the degree of agency attribution of the mental state increased as intentional involvement increased. fMRI results revealed that the posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS), inferior temporal gyrus (ITG), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), premotor, temporal pole, supramarginal gyrus, and superior parietal lobule (SPL) were activated while participants viewed the high-intention animations. In contrast, occipital, lingual, and middle frontal gyri were activated while the participants viewed the low-intention animations. These findings suggest that as agent attribution increases, the visual brain changes its functional role to the intentional brain and becomes a flexible network for processing information about social interaction.

  11. Is Broca's Area Involved in the Processing of Passive Sentences? An Event-Related fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokoyama, Satoru; Watanabe, Jobu; Iwata, Kazuki; Ikuta, Naho; Haji, Tomoki; Usui, Nobuo; Taira, Masato; Miyamoto, Tadao; Nakamura, Wataru; Sato, Shigeru; Horie, Kaoru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2007-01-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether activation in Broca's area is greater during the processing of passive versus active sentences in the brains of healthy subjects. Twenty Japanese native speakers performed a visual sentence comprehension task in which they were asked to read a visually presented sentence…

  12. Is Broca's Area Involved in the Processing of Passive Sentences? An Event-Related fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokoyama, Satoru; Watanabe, Jobu; Iwata, Kazuki; Ikuta, Naho; Haji, Tomoki; Usui, Nobuo; Taira, Masato; Miyamoto, Tadao; Nakamura, Wataru; Sato, Shigeru; Horie, Kaoru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2007-01-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether activation in Broca's area is greater during the processing of passive versus active sentences in the brains of healthy subjects. Twenty Japanese native speakers performed a visual sentence comprehension task in which they were asked to read a visually presented sentence…

  13. Semantic ambiguity processing in sentence context: Evidence from event-related fMRI.

    PubMed

    Zempleni, Monika-Zita; Renken, Remco; Hoeks, John C J; Hoogduin, Johannes M; Stowe, Laurie A

    2007-02-01

    Lexical semantic ambiguity is the phenomenon when a word has multiple meanings (e.g. 'bank'). The aim of this event-related functional MRI study was to identify those brain areas, which are involved in contextually driven ambiguity resolution. Ambiguous words were selected which have a most frequent, dominant, and less frequent, subordinate meaning. These words were presented in two types of sentences: (1) a sentence congruent with the dominant interpretation and (2) a sentence congruent with the subordinate interpretation. Sentences without ambiguous words served as a control condition. The ambiguous words always occurred early in the sentences and were biased towards one particular meaning by the final word(s) of the sentence; the event at the end of the sentences was modeled. The results indicate that a bilaterally distributed network supports semantic ambiguity comprehension: left (BA 45/44) and right (BA 47) inferior frontal gyri and left (BA 20/37) and right inferior/middle temporal gyri (BA 20). The pattern of activation is most consistent with a scenario in which initially a frequency-based probabilistic choice is made between the alternative meanings, and the meaning is updated when this interpretation does not fit into the final disambiguating context. The neural pattern is consistent with the results of other neuroimaging experiments which manipulated various aspects of integrative and context processing task demands. The presence of a bilateral network is also in line with the lesion and divided visual field literature, but contrary to earlier claims, the two hemispheres appear to play similar roles during semantic ambiguity resolution.

  14. Cortical Response Variation with Different Sound Pressure Levels: A Combined Event-Related Potentials and fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Arrubla, Jorge; Warbrick, Tracy; Hitz, Konrad; Wyss, Christine; Boers, Frank; Shah, N. Jon

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Simultaneous recording of electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides high spatial and temporal resolution. In this study we combined EEG and fMRI to investigate the structures involved in the processing of different sound pressure levels (SPLs). Methods EEG data were recorded simultaneously with fMRI from 16 healthy volunteers using MR compatible devices at 3 T. Tones with different SPLs were delivered to the volunteers and the N1/P2 amplitudes were included as covariates in the fMRI data analysis in order to compare the structures activated with high and low SPLs. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and ROI analysis were also performed. Additionally, source localisation analysis was performed on the EEG data. Results The integration of averaged ERP parameters into the fMRI analysis showed an extended map of areas exhibiting covariation with the BOLD signal related to the auditory stimuli. The ANOVA and ROI analyses also revealed additional brain areas other than the primary auditory cortex (PAC) which were active with the auditory stimulation at different SPLs. The source localisation analyses showed additional sources apart from the PAC which were active with the high SPLs. Discussion The PAC and the insula play an important role in the processing of different SPLs. In the fMRI analysis, additional activation was found in the anterior cingulate cortex, opercular and orbito-frontal cortices with high SPLs. A strong response of the visual cortex was also found with the high SPLs, suggesting the presence of cross-modal effects. PMID:25279457

  15. Cortical response variation with different sound pressure levels: a combined event-related potentials and FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Neuner, Irene; Kawohl, Wolfram; Arrubla, Jorge; Warbrick, Tracy; Hitz, Konrad; Wyss, Christine; Boers, Frank; Shah, N Jon

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous recording of electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides high spatial and temporal resolution. In this study we combined EEG and fMRI to investigate the structures involved in the processing of different sound pressure levels (SPLs). EEG data were recorded simultaneously with fMRI from 16 healthy volunteers using MR compatible devices at 3 T. Tones with different SPLs were delivered to the volunteers and the N1/P2 amplitudes were included as covariates in the fMRI data analysis in order to compare the structures activated with high and low SPLs. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and ROI analysis were also performed. Additionally, source localisation analysis was performed on the EEG data. The integration of averaged ERP parameters into the fMRI analysis showed an extended map of areas exhibiting covariation with the BOLD signal related to the auditory stimuli. The ANOVA and ROI analyses also revealed additional brain areas other than the primary auditory cortex (PAC) which were active with the auditory stimulation at different SPLs. The source localisation analyses showed additional sources apart from the PAC which were active with the high SPLs. The PAC and the insula play an important role in the processing of different SPLs. In the fMRI analysis, additional activation was found in the anterior cingulate cortex, opercular and orbito-frontal cortices with high SPLs. A strong response of the visual cortex was also found with the high SPLs, suggesting the presence of cross-modal effects.

  16. How Brooding Minds Inhibit Negative Material: An Event-Related fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; Baeken, Chris; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Luypaert, Rob; De Mey, Johan; De Raedt, Rudi

    2013-01-01

    Depressive brooding--a passive ruminative focus on one's problems, negative mood and their consequences--is a thinking style that places individuals at a greater risk to develop future psychopathology. In this study, we investigated whether inter-individual differences in depressive brooding are related to neural differences underlying the…

  17. How Brooding Minds Inhibit Negative Material: An Event-Related fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; Baeken, Chris; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Luypaert, Rob; De Mey, Johan; De Raedt, Rudi

    2013-01-01

    Depressive brooding--a passive ruminative focus on one's problems, negative mood and their consequences--is a thinking style that places individuals at a greater risk to develop future psychopathology. In this study, we investigated whether inter-individual differences in depressive brooding are related to neural differences underlying the…

  18. Single trial classification for the categories of perceived emotional facial expressions: an event-related fMRI study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sutao; Huang, Yuxia; Long, Zhiying; Zhang, Jiacai; Chen, Gongxiang; Wang, Shuqing

    2016-03-01

    Recently, several studies have successfully applied multivariate pattern analysis methods to predict the categories of emotions. These studies are mainly focused on self-experienced emotions, such as the emotional states elicited by music or movie. In fact, most of our social interactions involve perception of emotional information from the expressions of other people, and it is an important basic skill for humans to recognize the emotional facial expressions of other people in a short time. In this study, we aimed to determine the discriminability of perceived emotional facial expressions. In a rapid event-related fMRI design, subjects were instructed to classify four categories of facial expressions (happy, disgust, angry and neutral) by pressing different buttons, and each facial expression stimulus lasted for 2s. All participants performed 5 fMRI runs. One multivariate pattern analysis method, support vector machine was trained to predict the categories of facial expressions. For feature selection, ninety masks defined from anatomical automatic labeling (AAL) atlas were firstly generated and each were treated as the input of the classifier; then, the most stable AAL areas were selected according to prediction accuracies, and comprised the final feature sets. Results showed that: for the 6 pair-wise classification conditions, the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were all above chance prediction, among which, happy vs. neutral , angry vs. disgust achieved the lowest results. These results suggested that specific neural signatures of perceived emotional facial expressions may exist, and happy vs. neutral, angry vs. disgust might be more similar in information representation in the brain.

  19. Language control and lexical competition in bilinguals: an event-related FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Abutalebi, Jubin; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Zimine, Ivan; Pegna, Alan J; Seghier, Mohamed L; Lee-Jahnke, Hannelore; Lazeyras, François; Cappa, Stefano F; Khateb, Asaid

    2008-07-01

    Language selection (or control) refers to the cognitive mechanism that controls which language to use at a given moment and context. It allows bilinguals to selectively communicate in one target language while minimizing the interferences from the nontarget language. Previous studies have suggested the participation in language control of different brain areas. However, the question remains whether the selection of one language among others relies on a language-specific neural module or general executive regions that also allow switching between different competing behavioral responses including the switching between various linguistic registers. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the neural correlates of language selection processes in German-French bilingual subjects during picture naming in different monolingual and bilingual selection contexts. We show that naming in the first language in the bilingual context (compared with monolingual contexts) increased activation in the left caudate and anterior cingulate cortex. Furthermore, the activation of these areas is even more extended when the subjects are using a second weaker language. These findings show that language control processes engaged in contexts during which both languages must remain active recruit the left caudate and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in a manner that can be distinguished from areas engaged in intralanguage task switching.

  20. Fast joint detection-estimation of evoked brain activity in event-related FMRI using a variational approach.

    PubMed

    Chaari, Lotfi; Vincent, Thomas; Forbes, Florence; Dojat, Michel; Ciuciu, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    In standard within-subject analyses of event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, two steps are usually performed separately: detection of brain activity and estimation of the hemodynamic response. Because these two steps are inherently linked, we adopt the so-called region-based joint detection-estimation (JDE) framework that addresses this joint issue using a multivariate inference for detection and estimation. JDE is built by making use of a regional bilinear generative model of the BOLD response and constraining the parameter estimation by physiological priors using temporal and spatial information in a Markovian model. In contrast to previous works that use Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques to sample the resulting intractable posterior distribution, we recast the JDE into a missing data framework and derive a variational expectation-maximization (VEM) algorithm for its inference. A variational approximation is used to approximate the Markovian model in the unsupervised spatially adaptive JDE inference, which allows automatic fine-tuning of spatial regularization parameters. It provides a new algorithm that exhibits interesting properties in terms of estimation error and computational cost compared to the previously used MCMC-based approach. Experiments on artificial and real data show that VEM-JDE is robust to model misspecification and provides computational gain while maintaining good performance in terms of activation detection and hemodynamic shape recovery.

  1. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Malingered Memory Impairment: Event-related fMRI of Deception on a Recognition Memory Task

    PubMed Central

    Browndyke, Jeffrey N.; Paskavitz, James; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Cohen, Ronald A.; Tucker, Karen A.; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A.; Burke, James R.; Schmechel, Donald E.

    2010-01-01

    Primary objective Event-related, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired in healthy participants during purposefully malingered and normal recognition memory performances to evaluate the neural substrates of feigned memory impairment. Methods and procedures Pairwise, between-condition contrasts of neural activity associated with discrete recognition memory responses were conducted to isolate dissociable neural activity between normal and malingered responding while simultaneously controlling for shared stimulus familiarity and novelty effects. Response timing characteristics were also examined for any association with observed between-condition activity differences. Outcomes and results Malingered recognition memory errors, regardless of type, were associated with inferior parietal and superior temporal activity relative to normal performance, while feigned recognition target misses produced additional dorsomedial frontal activation and feigned foil false alarms activated bilateral ventrolateral frontal regions. Malingered response times were associated with activity in the dorsomedial frontal, temporal, and inferior parietal regions. Normal memory responses were associated with greater inferior occipitotemporal and dorsomedial parietal activity, suggesting greater reliance upon visual/attentional networks for proper task performance. Conclusions The neural substrates subserving feigned recognition memory deficits are influenced by response demand and error type, producing differential activation of cortical regions important to complex visual processing, executive control, response planning, and working memory processes. PMID:18465389

  2. Fast joint detection-estimation of evoked brain activity in event-related FMRI using a variational approach

    PubMed Central

    Chaari, Lotfi; Vincent, Thomas; Forbes, Florence; Dojat, Michel; Ciuciu, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    In standard within-subject analyses of event-related fMRI data, two steps are usually performed separately: detection of brain activity and estimation of the hemodynamic response. Because these two steps are inherently linked, we adopt the so-called region-based Joint Detection-Estimation (JDE) framework that addresses this joint issue using a multivariate inference for detection and estimation. JDE is built by making use of a regional bilinear generative model of the BOLD response and constraining the parameter estimation by physiological priors using temporal and spatial information in a Markovian model. In contrast to previous works that use Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques to sample the resulting intractable posterior distribution, we recast the JDE into a missing data framework and derive a Variational Expectation-Maximization (VEM) algorithm for its inference. A variational approximation is used to approximate the Markovian model in the unsupervised spatially adaptive JDE inference, which allows automatic fine-tuning of spatial regularization parameters. It provides a new algorithm that exhibits interesting properties in terms of estimation error and computational cost compared to the previously used MCMC-based approach. Experiments on artificial and real data show that VEM-JDE is robust to model mis-specification and provides computational gain while maintaining good performance in terms of activation detection and hemodynamic shape recovery. PMID:23096056

  3. Error-related processing following severe traumatic brain injury: an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study.

    PubMed

    Sozda, Christopher N; Larson, Michael J; Kaufman, David A S; Schmalfuss, Ilona M; Perlstein, William M

    2011-10-01

    Continuous monitoring of one's performance is invaluable for guiding behavior towards successful goal attainment by identifying deficits and strategically adjusting responses when performance is inadequate. In the present study, we exploited the advantages of event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine brain activity associated with error-related processing after severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI). fMRI and behavioral data were acquired while 10 sTBI participants and 12 neurologically-healthy controls performed a task-switching cued-Stroop task. fMRI data were analyzed using a random-effects whole-brain voxel-wise general linear model and planned linear contrasts. Behaviorally, sTBI patients showed greater error-rate interference than neurologically-normal controls. fMRI data revealed that, compared to controls, sTBI patients showed greater magnitude error-related activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and an increase in the overall spatial extent of error-related activation across cortical and subcortical regions. Implications for future research and potential limitations in conducting fMRI research in neurologically-impaired populations are discussed, as well as some potential benefits of employing multimodal imaging (e.g., fMRI and event-related potentials) of cognitive control processes in TBI.

  4. Frontolimbic dysfunction in response to facial emotion in borderline personality disorder: an event-related fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Minzenberg, Michael J.; Fan, Jin; New, Antonia S.; Tang, Cheuk Y.; Siever, Larry J.

    2007-01-01

    Clinical hallmarks of borderline personality disorder (BPD) include social and emotional dysregulation. We tested a model of frontolimbic dysfunction in facial emotion processing in BPD. Groups of 12 unmedicated adults with BPD by DSM-IV and 12 demographically-matched healthy controls (HC) viewed facial expressions (Conditions) of neutral emotion, fear and anger, and made gender discriminations during rapid event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Analysis of variance of Region of Interest signal change revealed a statistically significant effect of the Group-by-Region-by-Condition interaction. This was due to the BPD group exhibiting a significantly larger magnitude of deactivation (relative to HC) in the bilateral rostral/subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to fear and in the left ACC to fear minus neutral; and significantly greater activation in the right amygdala to fear minus neutral. There were no significant between-group differences in ROI signal change in response to anger. In voxel-wise analyses constrained within these ROIs, the BPD group exhibited significant changes in the fear minus neutral contrast, with relatively less activation in the bilateral rostral/subgenual ACC, and greater activation in the right amygdala. In the anger minus neutral contrast this pattern was reversed, with the BPD group showing greater activation in the bilateral rostral/subgenual ACC and less activation in the bilateral amygdala. We conclude that adults with BPD exhibit changes in fronto-limbic activity in the processing of fear stimuli, with exaggerated amygdala response and impaired emotion-modulation of ACC activity. The neural substrates underlying processing of anger may also be altered. These changes may represent an expression of the volumetric and serotonergic deficits observed in these brain areas in BPD. PMID:17601709

  5. Functionally integrated neural processing of linguistic and talker information: An event-related fMRI and ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Caicai; Pugh, Kenneth R.; Mencl, W. Einar; Molfese, Peter J.; Frost, Stephen J.; Magnuson, James S.; Peng, Gang; Wang, William S-Y

    2016-01-01

    Speech signals contain information of both linguistic content and a talker’s voice. Conventionally, linguistic and talker processing are thought to be mediated by distinct neural systems in the left and right hemispheres respectively, but there is growing evidence that linguistic and talker processing interact in many ways. Previous studies suggest that talker-related vocal tract changes are processed integrally with phonetic changes in the bilateral posterior superior temporal gyrus/superior temporal sulcus (STG/STS), because the vocal tract parameter influences the perception of phonetic information. It is yet unclear whether the bilateral STG are also activated by the integral processing of another parameter – pitch, which influences the perception of lexical tone information and are related to talker differences in tone languages. In this study, we conducted separate functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potential (ERP) experiments to examine the spatial and temporal loci of interactions of lexical tone and talker-related pitch processing in Cantonese. We found that the STG was activated bilaterally during the processing of talker changes when listeners attended to lexical tone changes in the stimuli and during the processing of lexical tone changes when listeners attended to talker changes, suggesting that lexical tone and talker processing are functionally integrated in the bilateral STG. It extends the previous study, providing evidence for a general neural mechanism of integral phonetic and talker processing in the bilateral STG. The ERP results show interactions of lexical tone and talker processing 500–800 ms after auditory word onset (a simultaneous posterior P3b and a frontal negativity). Moreover, there is some asymmetry in the interaction, such that unattended talker changes affect linguistic processing more than vice versa, which may be related to the ambiguity that talker changes cause in speech perception and

  6. Modulation of spontaneous breathing via limbic/paralimbic-bulbar circuitry: An event related fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Karleyton C.; Dougherty, Darin D.; Schmid, Annette M.; Scannell, Elizabeth; McCallister, Adrienne; Benson, Herbert; Dusek, Jeffery A.; Lazar, Sara W.

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that pacemaker neurons in the brainstem provide automatic control of breathing for metabolic homeostasis and survival. During waking spontaneous breathing, cognitive and emotional demands can modulate the intrinsic brainstem respiratory rhythm. However the neural circuitry mediating this modulation is unknown. Studies of supra-pontine influences on the control of breathing have implicated limbic/paralimbic-bulbar circuitry, but these studies have been limited to either invasive surgical electrophysiological methods or neuroimaging during substantial respiratory provocation. Here we probed the limbic/paralimbic-bulbar circuitry for respiratory related neural activity during unlabored spontaneous breathing at rest as well as during a challenging cognitive task (sustained random number generation). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with simultaneous physiological monitoring (heart rate, respiratory rate, tidal volume, end-tidal CO2) was acquired in 14 healthy subjects during each condition. The cognitive task produced expected increases in breathing rate, while end-tidal CO2 and heart rate did not significantly differ between conditions. The respiratory cycle served as the input function for breath-by-breath, event-related, voxel-wise, random-effects image analyses in SPM5. Main effects analyses (cognitive task + rest) demonstrated the first evidence of coordinated neural activity associated with spontaneous breathing within the medulla, pons, midbrain, amygdala, anterior cingulate and anterior insular cortices. Between-condition paired t-tests (cognitive task > rest) demonstrated modulation within this network localized to the dorsal anterior cingulate and pontine raphe magnus nucleus. We propose that the identified limbic/paralimbic-bulbar circuitry plays a significant role in cognitive and emotional modulation of spontaneous breathing. PMID:19450692

  7. The Neural Circuitry of Reward Processing in Complex Social Comparison: Evidence from an Event-Related fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Wei, DongTao; Li, Wenfu; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    In this study, Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted to investigate the mechanisms by which the brain activity in a complex social comparison context. One true subject and two pseudo-subjects were asked to complete a simple number estimate task at the same time which including upward and downward comparisons. Two categories of social comparison rewards (fair and unfair rewards distributions) were mainly presented by comparing the true subject with other two pseudo-subjects. Particularly, there were five conditions of unfair distribution when all the three subjects were correct but received different rewards. Behavioral data indicated that the ability to self-regulate was important in satisfaction judgment when the subject perceived an unfair reward distribution. fMRI data indicated that the interaction between the ventral striatum and the prefrontal cortex was important in self-regulation under specific conditions in complex social comparison, especially under condition of reward processing when there were two different reward values and the subject failed to exhibit upward comparison. PMID:24340037

  8. Medial temporal lobe activity for recognition of recent and remote famous names: an event-related fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Douville, Kelli; Woodard, John L; Seidenberg, Michael; Miller, Sarah K; Leveroni, Catherine L; Nielson, Kristy A; Franczak, Malgorzata; Antuono, Piero; Rao, Stephen M

    2005-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies examining recognition of famous faces have identified activation of an extensive bilateral neural network [Gorno Tempini, M. L., Price, C. J., Josephs, O., Vandenberghe, R., Cappa, S. F., Kapur, N. et al. (1998). The neural systems sustaining face and proper-name processing. Brain, 121, 2103-2118], including the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and specifically the hippocampal complex [Haist, F., Bowden, G. J., & Mao, H. (2001). Consolidation of human memory over decades revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Nature Neuroscience, 4, 1139-1145; Leveroni, C. L., Seidenberg, M., Mayer, A. R., Mead, L. A., Binder, J. R., & Rao, S. M. (2000). Neural systems underlying the recognition of familiar and newly learned faces. Journal of Neuroscience, 20, 878-886]. One model of hippocampal functioning in autobiographical, episodic memory retrieval argues that the hippocampal complex remains active in retrieval tasks regardless of time or age of memory (multiple trace theory, MTT), whereas another proposal posits that the hippocampal complex plays a time-limited role in retrieval of autobiographical memories. The current event-related fMRI study focused on the medial temporal lobe and its response to recognition judgments of famous names from two distinct time epochs (1990s and 1950s) in 15 right-handed healthy older adults (mean age=70 years). A pilot study with an independent sample of young and older subjects ensured that the stimuli were representative of a recent and remote time period. Increased MR signal activity was observed on a bilateral basis for both the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) during recognition of familiar names from both the recent and remote time periods when compared to non-famous names. However, the impulse response functions in the right hippocampus and right PHG demonstrated a differential response to stimuli from different time epochs, with the 1990s names showing the greatest MR signal intensity

  9. Fixation based event-related fmri analysis: using eye fixations as events in functional magnetic resonance imaging to reveal cortical processing during the free exploration of visual images.

    PubMed

    Marsman, Jan Bernard C; Renken, Remco; Velichkovsky, Boris M; Hooymans, Johanna M M; Cornelissen, Frans W

    2012-02-01

    Eye movements, comprising predominantly fixations and saccades, are known to reveal information about perception and cognition, and they provide an explicit measure of attention. Nevertheless, fixations have not been considered as events in the analyses of data obtained during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments. Most likely, this is due to their brevity and statistical properties. Despite these limitations, we used fixations as events to model brain activation in a free viewing experiment with standard fMRI scanning parameters. First, we found that fixations on different objects in different task contexts resulted in distinct cortical patterns of activation. Second, using multivariate pattern analysis, we showed that the BOLD signal revealed meaningful information about the task context of individual fixations and about the object being inspected during these fixations. We conclude that fixation-based event-related (FIBER) fMRI analysis creates new pathways for studying human brain function by enabling researchers to explore natural viewing behavior.

  10. The functional organization of trial-related activity in lexical processing after early left hemispheric brain lesions: An event-related fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Fair, Damien A; Choi, Alexander H; Dosenbach, Yannic B L; Coalson, Rebecca S; Miezin, Francis M; Petersen, Steven E; Schlaggar, Bradley L

    2010-08-01

    Children with congenital left hemisphere damage due to perinatal stroke are capable of acquiring relatively normal language functions despite experiencing a cortical insult that in adults often leads to devastating lifetime disabilities. Although this observed phenomenon is accepted, its neurobiological mechanisms are not well characterized. In this paper we examined the functional neuroanatomy of lexical processing in 13 children/adolescents with perinatal left hemispheric damage. In contrast to many previous perinatal infarct fMRI studies, we used an event-related design, which allowed us to isolate trial-related activity and examine correct and error trials separately. Using both group and single subject analysis techniques we attempt to address several methodological factors that may contribute to some discrepancies in the perinatal lesion literature. These methodological factors include making direct statistical comparisons, using common stereotactic space, using both single subject and group analyses, and accounting for performance differences. Our group analysis, investigating correct trial-related activity (separately from error trials), showed very few statistical differences in the non-involved right hemisphere between patients and performance matched controls. The single subject analysis revealed atypical regional activation patterns in several patients; however, the location of these regions identified in individual patients often varied across subjects. These results are consistent with the idea that alternative functional organization of trial-related activity after left hemisphere lesions is in large part unique to the individual. In addition, reported differences between results obtained with event-related designs and blocked designs may suggest diverging organizing principles for sustained and trial-related activity after early childhood brain injuries.

  11. The functional organization of trial-related activity in lexical processing after early left hemispheric brain lesions: An event-related fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Fair, Damien A.; Choi, Alexander H.; Dosenbach, Yannic B.L.; Coalson, Rebecca S.; Miezin, Francis M.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2009-01-01

    Children with congenital left hemisphere damage due to perinatal stroke are capable of acquiring relatively normal language functions despite experiencing a cortical insult that in adults often leads to devastating lifetime disabilities. Although this observed phenomenon accepted, its neurobiological mechanisms are not well characterized. In this paper we examined the functional neuroanatomy of lexical processing in 13 children/adolescents with perinatal left hemispheric damage. In contrast to many previous perinatal infarct fMRI studies, we use an event-related design, which allowed us to isolate trial related activity and examine correct and error trials separately. Using both group and single subject analysis techniques we attempt to address several methodological factors that may contribute to some discrepancies in the perinatal lesion literature. These methodological factors include making direct statistical comparisons, using common stereotactic space, using both single-subject and group analyses, and accounting for performance differences. Our group analysis, investigating correct trial related activity (separately from error trials), showed very few statistical differences in the non-involved right hemisphere between patients and performance matched controls. The single subject analysis revealed atypical regional activation patterns in several patients; however, the location of these regions identified in individual patients often varied across subjects. These results are consistent with the idea that alternative functional organization of trial-related activity after left hemisphere lesions is in large part unique to the individual. In addition, reported differences between results obtained with event-related designs and blocked designs may suggest diverging organizing principles for sustained and trial-related activity after early childhood brain injuries. PMID:19819000

  12. Re-Evaluating Dissociations between Implicit and Explicit Category Learning: An Event-Related fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gureckis, Todd M.; James, Thomas W.; Nosofsky, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent fMRI studies have found that distinct neural systems may mediate perceptual category learning under implicit and explicit learning conditions. In these previous studies, however, different stimulus-encoding processes may have been associated with implicit versus explicit learning. The present design was aimed at decoupling the influence of…

  13. Re-Evaluating Dissociations between Implicit and Explicit Category Learning: An Event-Related fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gureckis, Todd M.; James, Thomas W.; Nosofsky, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent fMRI studies have found that distinct neural systems may mediate perceptual category learning under implicit and explicit learning conditions. In these previous studies, however, different stimulus-encoding processes may have been associated with implicit versus explicit learning. The present design was aimed at decoupling the influence of…

  14. Quantifying learning-dependent changes in the brain: Single-trial multivoxel pattern analysis requires slow event-related fMRI.

    PubMed

    Visser, Renée M; de Haan, Michelle I C; Beemsterboer, Tinka; Haver, Pia; Kindt, Merel; Scholte, H Steven

    2016-08-01

    Single-trial analysis is particularly useful for assessing cognitive processes that are intrinsically dynamic, such as learning. Studying these processes with fMRI is problematic, as the low signal-to-noise ratio of fMRI requires the averaging over multiple trials, obscuring trial-by-trial changes in neural activation. The superior sensitivity of multivoxel pattern analysis over univariate analyses has opened up new possibilities for single-trial analysis, but this may require different fMRI designs. Here, we measured fMRI and pupil dilation responses during discriminant aversive conditioning, to assess associative learning in a trial-by-trial manner. The impact of design choices was examined by varying trial spacing and trial order in a series of five experiments (total n = 66), while keeping stimulus duration constant (4.5 s). Our outcome measure was the change in similarity between neural response patterns related to two consecutive presentations of the same stimulus (within-stimulus) and between patterns related to pairs of different stimuli (between-stimulus) that shared a specific outcome (electric stimulation vs. no consequence). This trial-by-trial similarity analysis revealed clear single-trial learning curves in conditions with intermediate (8.1-12.6 s) and long (16.5-18.4 s) intervals, with effects being strongest in designs with long intervals and counterbalanced stimulus presentation. No learning curves were observed in designs with shorter intervals (1.6-6.1 s), indicating that rapid event-related designs-at present, the most common designs in fMRI research-are not suited for single-trial pattern analysis. These findings emphasize the importance of deciding on the type of analysis prior to data collection. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  15. [Event-related EEG and evoked potential investigations in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Rajna, Péter; Hidasi, Zoltán; Waldemar, Szelenberger

    2005-11-20

    Considering the limits of the traditional EEG techniques the authors review the main methods and clinical importance of the event-related EEG investigations. According to methods, these can be classified into the spectral analysis of task-related, pre-task and post-task recordings as well as stimulus-controlled measurements based on evoked potential techniques. The main results of clinical studies on the event-related EEG methods are summarized according to chief disease groups (Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, dyslexia, depression). The authors discuss the stimulus-dependent EEG discharges (P300, cognitive potential) in detail. They present the meta-analysis of 224 recent publications on human application of these methods. They analyze the involved scientific areas and the frequency by which these methods were applied in each. Following this, the results of 83 selected clinical studies are summarized. The frequency of the application of the various event-related EEG methods and the tested wave components and other parameters are listed. Finally a summary of the main clinical results is presented again by groups of diseases (schizophrenia, behavioral disorders, traumatic lesions, enuresis nocturna, depression, memory disturbance and dementia, drug effect). Finally, the potential perspectives and the limitations of the event-related EEG methods are briefly discussed.

  16. On the tip of the tongue: an event-related fMRI study of semantic retrieval failure and cognitive conflict.

    PubMed

    Maril, A; Wagner, A D; Schacter, D L

    2001-08-30

    The tip of the tongue (TOT) state refers to a temporary inaccessibility of information that one is sure exists in long-term memory and is on the verge of recovering. Using event-related fMRI, we assessed the neural correlates of this semantic retrieval failure to determine whether the anterior cingulate-lateral prefrontal neural circuit posited to mediate conflict resolution is engaged during metacognitive conflicts that arise during the TOT. Results revealed that, relative to successful retrieval or unsuccessful retrieval not accompanied by a TOT, retrieval failures accompanied by TOTs elicited a selective response in anterior cingulate-prefrontal cortices. During a TOT, cognitive control mechanisms may be recruited in attempts to resolve the conflict and retrieval failure that characterize this state.

  17. Gesture Subtype–Dependent Left Lateralization of Praxis Planning: An Event-Related fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Bohlhalter, S.; Hattori, N.; Wheaton, L.; Fridman, E.; Shamim, E. A.; Garraux, G.

    2009-01-01

    Ideomotor apraxia is a disorder mainly of praxis planning, and the deficit is typically more evident in pantomiming transitive (tool related) than intransitive (communicative) gestures. The goal of the present study was to assess differential hemispheric lateralization of praxis production using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based analysis demonstrated significant activations in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and premotor cortex (PMC) association areas, which were predominantly left hemispheric, regardless of whether planning occurred for right or left hand transitive or intransitive pantomimes. Furthermore, region of interest–based calculation of mean laterality index (LI) revealed a significantly stronger left lateralization in PPC/PMC clusters for planning intransitive (LI = −0.49 + 0.10, mean + standard deviation [SD]) than transitive gestures (−0.37 + 0.08, P = 0.02, paired t-tests) irrespective of the hand involved. This differential left lateralization for planning remained significant in PMC (LI = −0.47 + 0.14 and −0.36 + 0.13, mean + SD, P = 0.04), but not in PPC (−0.56 + 0.11 and −0.45 + 0.12, P = 0.11), when both regions were analyzed separately. In conclusion, the findings point to a left-hemispheric specialization for praxis planning, being more pronounced for intransitive gestures in PMC, possibly due to their communicative nature. PMID:18796430

  18. Gesture subtype-dependent left lateralization of praxis planning: an event-related fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Bohlhalter, S; Hattori, N; Wheaton, L; Fridman, E; Shamim, E A; Garraux, G; Hallett, M

    2009-06-01

    Ideomotor apraxia is a disorder mainly of praxis planning, and the deficit is typically more evident in pantomiming transitive (tool related) than intransitive (communicative) gestures. The goal of the present study was to assess differential hemispheric lateralization of praxis production using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based analysis demonstrated significant activations in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and premotor cortex (PMC) association areas, which were predominantly left hemispheric, regardless of whether planning occurred for right or left hand transitive or intransitive pantomimes. Furthermore, region of interest-based calculation of mean laterality index (LI) revealed a significantly stronger left lateralization in PPC/PMC clusters for planning intransitive (LI = -0.49 + 0.10, mean + standard deviation [SD]) than transitive gestures (-0.37 + 0.08, P = 0.02, paired t-tests) irrespective of the hand involved. This differential left lateralization for planning remained significant in PMC (LI = -0.47 + 0.14 and -0.36 + 0.13, mean + SD, P = 0.04), but not in PPC (-0.56 + 0.11 and -0.45 + 0.12, P = 0.11), when both regions were analyzed separately. In conclusion, the findings point to a left-hemispheric specialization for praxis planning, being more pronounced for intransitive gestures in PMC, possibly due to their communicative nature.

  19. Common neural systems associated with the recognition of famous faces and names: an event-related fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Nielson, Kristy A; Seidenberg, Michael; Woodard, John L; Durgerian, Sally; Zhang, Qi; Gross, William L; Gander, Amelia; Guidotti, Leslie M; Antuono, Piero; Rao, Stephen M

    2010-04-01

    Person recognition can be accomplished through several modalities (face, name, voice). Lesion, neurophysiology and neuroimaging studies have been conducted in an attempt to determine the similarities and differences in the neural networks associated with person identity via different modality inputs. The current study used event-related functional-MRI in 17 healthy participants to directly compare activation in response to randomly presented famous and non-famous names and faces (25 stimuli in each of the four categories). Findings indicated distinct areas of activation that differed for faces and names in regions typically associated with pre-semantic perceptual processes. In contrast, overlapping brain regions were activated in areas associated with the retrieval of biographical knowledge and associated social affective features. Specifically, activation for famous faces was primarily right lateralized and famous names were left-lateralized. However, for both stimuli, similar areas of bilateral activity were observed in the early phases of perceptual processing. Activation for fame, irrespective of stimulus modality, activated an extensive left hemisphere network, with bilateral activity observed in the hippocampi, posterior cingulate, and middle temporal gyri. Findings are discussed within the framework of recent proposals concerning the neural network of person identification.

  20. Age-related functional recruitment for famous name recognition: an event-related fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Nielson, Kristy A; Douville, Kelli L; Seidenberg, Michael; Woodard, John L; Miller, Sarah K; Franczak, Malgorzata; Antuono, Piero; Rao, Stephen M

    2006-10-01

    Recent neuroimaging research shows that older adults exhibit recruitment, or increased activation on various cognitive tasks. The current study evaluated whether a similar pattern also occurs in semantic memory by evaluating age-related differences during recognition of Recent (since the 1990s) and Enduring (1950s to present) famous names. Fifteen healthy older and 15 healthy younger adults performed the name recognition task with a high and comparable degree of accuracy, although older adults had slower reaction time in response to Recent famous names. Event-related functional MRI showed extensive networks of activation in the two groups including posterior cingulate, right hippocampus, temporal lobe and left prefrontal regions. The Recent condition produced more extensive activation than the Enduring condition. Older adults had more extensive and greater magnitude of activation in 15 of 20 regions, particularly for the Recent condition (15 of 15; 7 of 15 also differed for Enduring); young adults did not show greater activation magnitude in any region. There were no group differences for non-famous names, indicating that age differences are task-specific. The results support and extend the existing literature to semantic memory tasks, indicating that older adult brains use functional recruitment to support task performance, even when task performance accuracy is high.

  1. The Temporal Lobes Differentiate between the Voices of Famous and Unknown People: An Event-Related fMRI Study on Speaker Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Bethmann, Anja; Scheich, Henning; Brechmann, André

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the perception of human voices is supported by neural structures located along the superior temporal sulci. However, there is an ongoing discussion to what extent the activations found in fMRI studies are evoked by the vocal features themselves or are the result of phonetic processing. To show that the temporal lobes are indeed engaged in voice processing, short utterances spoken by famous and unknown people were presented to healthy young participants whose task it was to identify the familiar speakers. In two event-related fMRI experiments, the temporal lobes were found to differentiate between familiar and unfamiliar voices such that named voices elicited higher BOLD signal intensities than unfamiliar voices. Yet, the temporal cortices did not only discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar voices. Experiment 2, which required overtly spoken responses and allowed to distinguish between four familiarity grades, revealed that there was a fine-grained differentiation between all of these familiarity levels with higher familiarity being associated with larger BOLD signal amplitudes. Finally, we observed a gradual response change such that the BOLD signal differences between unfamiliar and highly familiar voices increased with the distance of an area from the transverse temporal gyri, especially towards the anterior temporal cortex and the middle temporal gyri. Therefore, the results suggest that (the anterior and non-superior portions of) the temporal lobes participate in voice-specific processing independent from phonetic components also involved in spoken speech material. PMID:23112826

  2. Event-Related Fmri Evidence of Frontotemporal Involvement in Aberrant Response Inhibition and Task Switching in Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamm, Leanne; Menon, Vinod; Ringel, Jessica; Reiss, Allan L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Response inhibition deficits are characteristic of individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies investigating the neural correlates of this dysfunction have used block designs, making it difficult to disentangle activation differences specifically related…

  3. The effect of encoding strategies on medial temporal lobe activations during the recognition of words: an event-related fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Tsukiura, Takashi; Mochizuki-Kawai, Hiroko; Fujii, Toshikatsu

    2005-04-01

    It is known that manipulation of the encoding strategy affects behavioral and activation data during later retrieval. In the present fMRI study, we examined brain activity during the recognition of words encoded using three different strategies formed by the combination of two factors of relational and self-performed processes. The first encoding strategy involved subjects learning words using both relational and self-performed processes (R+S+). In the second, subjects learned words using only a relational process (R+S-). In the third, subjects learned words without using either process (R-S-). During fMRI after encoding, subjects were randomly presented with words encoded previously and with new words (New) and were required to judge whether or not the word presented had been previously encoded. The fMRI experiment was performed with the event-related design. Compared to New, activation of the left medial temporal lobe (MTL) occurred during the recognition of words encoded using R+S+ and R+S-, whereas right MTL activations only occurred with the R+S+ strategy. ROI analysis for the bilateral hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus showed a linear increase in left MTL activity (hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus) during the recognition of words encoded with the R-S-, R+S-, to R+S+, whereas right MTL activity (parahippocampal gyrus) was only increased with the R+S+ strategy. The findings suggest that the left and right MTL structures may contribute differentially to the processes involved in the recognition of stimuli and that these differential activities may depend on the encoding strategies formed by the two factors of relational and self-performed processes.

  4. Functional-anatomic study of episodic retrieval. II. Selective averaging of event-related fMRI trials to test the retrieval success hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Buckner, R L; Koutstaal, W; Schacter, D L; Dale, A M; Rotte, M; Rosen, B R

    1998-04-01

    In a companion paper (R. L. Buckner et al., 1998, NeuroImage 7, 151-162) we used fMRI to identify brain areas activated by episodic memory retrieval. Prefrontal areas were shown to differentiate component processes related to retrieval success and retrieval effort in block-designed paradigms. Importantly, a right anterior prefrontal area was most active during task blocks involving greatest retrieval success, consistent with an earlier PET study by M. D. Rugg et al. (1996, Brain 119, 2073-2083). However, manipulation of these variables within the context of blocked trials confounds differences related to varying levels of retrieval success with potential shifts in subjects' strategies due to changes in the probability of target events across blocks. To test more rigorously the hypothesis that certain areas are directly related to retrieval success, we adopted recently developed procedures for event-related fMRI. Fourteen subjects studied words under deep encoding and were then tested in a mixed trial paradigm where old and new words were randomly presented. This recognition testing procedure activated similar areas to the blocked trial paradigm, with all areas showing similar levels of activation across old and new items. Of critical importance, significant activation was detected in right anterior prefrontal cortex for new items when subjects correctly indicated they were new (correct rejections). These findings go against the retrieval success hypothesis as formally proposed and provide an important constraint for interpretation of this region's role in episodic retrieval. Furthermore, anterior prefrontal activation was found to occur late, relative to other brain areas, suggesting that it may be involved in retrieval verification or monitoring processes or perhaps even in anticipation of subsequent trial events (although an alternative possibility, that the late onset is mediated by a late vascular response, cannot be ruled out). These findings and their

  5. Investigating the familiarity effect in texture segmentation by means of event-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Becker, L; Smith, D T; Schenk, T

    2017-09-21

    The familiarity effect (FE) refers to the phenomenon that it is easier to find an unfamiliar element on a background of familiar elements than vice versa. In this study, we examined the FE in texture segmentation while recording event-related brain potentials with the aim to find out which processing stages were influenced by familiarity. In two experiments, with different levels of texture homogeneity, the N1, the N2p, and the P3 components were investigated. It was found that the FE in texture segmentation is associated with a modulation of the early N1 and of the intermediate N2p component for homogeneous textures. For inhomogeneous (jittered) textures, the FE was found for the intermediate N2p and for the late P3 components, but not for the N1 component. Our findings suggest that increasing texture inhomogeneity shifts the FE occurrence to later processing stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The neural implementation of task rule activation in the task-cuing paradigm: an event-related fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yiquan; Zhou, Xiaolin; Müller, Hermann J; Schubert, Torsten

    2010-07-01

    To isolate the neural correlates for task rule activation from those related to general task preparation, the effect of a cue explicitly specifying the S-R correspondences (rule-cue) was contrasted with the effects of a cue specifying only the task to performed (task-cue). While the task-cue provides merely information about the type of task, the rule-cue is explicit about both the task type and the task rule (i.e., the set of S-R correspondences). The rule-cue was expected to activate the task rule more efficiently in the preparation period (prior to target presentation); by contrast, in the task-cue condition, part of the task rule activation was expected to be postponed into the task execution period (following the presentation of the target). In an event-related fMRI experiment, we found the right anterior and middle parts of the middle frontal and superior frontal gyri, the right inferior frontal junction, the pre-SMA, as well as the right superior and inferior parietal lobes to show larger activation elicited by the rule-cue than by the task-cue prior to target presentation. Conversely, the results revealed larger activations in these regions in the task-cue than in the rule-cue condition during the task execution period. In summary, this study identified some of the neural correlates of task rule activation and showed that these are a subset of the general task preparation network.

  7. The Brain’s Orienting Response: An Event-Related Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, David; Goldman, Robin; Stern, Yaakov; Brown, Truman R.

    2009-01-01

    An important function of the brain’s orienting response is to enable the evaluation of novel, environmental events in order to prepare for potential behavioral action. Here, we assessed the event-related hemodynamic (erfMRI) correlates of this phenomenon using unexpected (i.e., novel) environmental sounds presented within the context of an auditory novelty oddball paradigm. In ERP investigations of the novelty oddball, repetition of the identical novel sound leads to habituation of the novelty P3, an ERP sign of the orienting response. Repetition also leads to an enhancement of a subsequent positivity that appears to reflect semantic analysis of the environmental sounds. In this adaptation for erfMRI recording, frequent tones were intermixed randomly with infrequent target tones and equally infrequent novel, environmental sounds. Subjects responded via speeded button press to targets. To assess habituation, some of the environmental sounds were repeated 2 blocks after their initial presentation. As expected, novel sounds and target tones led to activation of widespread, but somewhat different, neural networks. Contrary to expectation, however, there were no significant areas in which activation was reduced in response to second compared to first presentations of the novel sounds. Conversely, novel sounds relative to target tones engendered activity in the inferior frontal gyrus (BA 45) consistent with semantic analysis of these events. We conclude that a key concomitant of the orienting response is the extraction of meaning, thereby enabling one to determine the significance of the environmental perturbation and take appropriate goal-directed action. PMID:18465750

  8. An Event-Related Potential Investigation of Fear Generalization and Intolerance of Uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Brady D; Weinberg, Anna; Pawluk, Joe; Gawlowska, Magda; Proudfit, Greg H

    2015-09-01

    Fear generalization is a key process in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Psychobiological investigations of fear generalization have predominantly focused on defensive system activation (e.g., startle reflex), and it is unclear whether aberrant attentional processing contributes to fear generalization. The late positive potential (LPP) is an event-related potential component that indexes sustained attention and elaborative processing of motivationally salient information, and is larger in response to arousing compared to nonarousing stimuli. In the present study 48 participants completed a fear generalization paradigm using electric shocks. The LPP and retrospective risk ratings of shock likelihood were measured in response to the conditioned stimulus (CS+) and multiple generalization stimuli (GS) that varied in perceptual similarity to the CS+. In addition, intolerance of uncertainty (IU) was examined in relation to fear generalization. The LPP was enhanced for the CS+relative to the GS, but the GS did not differ from one another. Thus, overall the LPP did not reflect fear generalization. However, the LPP to the GS differed as a function of IU, such that high Prospective IU was associated with an attenuated LPP to the GS, and this was independent of trait anxiety. Risk ratings tracked fear generalization irrespective of IU. We discuss the potential influence of IU and attentional processing on fear generalization. Overall, the present study supports the LPP as a useful tool for examining individual differences in fear generalization.

  9. Resolving the orthographic ambiguity during visual word recognition in Arabic: an event-related potential investigation

    PubMed Central

    Taha, Haitham; Khateb, Asaid

    2013-01-01

    The Arabic alphabetical orthographic system has various unique features that include the existence of emphatic phonemic letters. These represent several pairs of letters that share a phonological similarity and use the same parts of the articulation system. The phonological and articulatory similarities between these letters lead to spelling errors where the subject tends to produce a pseudohomophone (PHw) instead of the correct word. Here, we investigated whether or not the unique orthographic features of the written Arabic words modulate early orthographic processes. For this purpose, we analyzed event-related potentials (ERPs) collected from adult skilled readers during an orthographic decision task on real words and their corresponding PHw. The subjects' reaction times (RTs) were faster in words than in PHw. ERPs analysis revealed significant response differences between words and the PHw starting during the N170 and extending to the P2 component, with no difference during processing steps devoted to phonological and lexico-semantic processing. Amplitude and latency differences were found also during the P6 component which peaked earlier for words and where source localization indicated the involvement of the classical left language areas. Our findings replicate some of the previous findings on PHw processing and extend them to involve early orthographical processes. PMID:24348367

  10. Craving correlates with mesolimbic responses to heroin-related cues in short-term abstinence from heroin: an event-related fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Wang, Yarong; Zhang, Yi; Li, Wei; Yang, Weichuan; Zhu, Jia; Wu, Ning; Chang, Haifeng; Zheng, Ying; Qin, Wei; Zhao, Liyan; Yuan, Kai; Liu, Jixin; Wang, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2012-08-21

    Craving is an important factor in relapse to drug abuse, and cue-induced craving is an especially powerful form of this construct. Neuroimaging methods have been utilized to study drug cue-induced craving and neural correlates in the human brain. However, very few studies have focused on characterizing craving and the neural responses to heroin-related cues in short-term abstinent heroin-dependent patients. Twenty-four heroin-dependent subjects and 20 demographically matched drug-naïve subjects participated in this study. An event-related cue-reactivity paradigm was employed, while changes in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals were acquired by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The heroin-dependent group reported significantly increased craving following exposure to heroin-related cues. Direct comparison between the two groups showed that brain activation to heroin-related minus neutral cues was significantly greater for the heroin-dependent group in the bilateral nucleus accumbens (NAc), caudate, putamen, amygdala, hippocampus/parahippocampus, midcingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), medial frontal gyrus (MeFG), midbrain, thalamus, left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and subcallosal gyrus. Changes in craving in the heroin-dependent group correlated positively with brain activation in the bilateral NAc, caudate, right putamen, and left ACC. The abstinence duration correlated positively with brain activation in the left caudate and right parahippocampal gyrus. In conclusion, the cue-reactivity paradigm significantly activated neural responses in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system and prefrontal cortex (PFC) and induced increased craving in short-term abstinent heroin-dependent patients. We suggest that these response patterns characterize the high vulnerability of relapse in short-term abstinent heroin-dependent subjects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All

  11. Different Anaphoric Expressions Are Investigated by Event-Related Brain Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streb, Judith; Hennighausen, Erwin; Rosler, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Event-related potentials were recorded to substantiate the claim of a distinct psycholinguistic status of (a) pronouns vs. proper names and (b) ellipses vs. proper names. In two studies 41 students read sentences in which the number of intervening words between the anaphor and its antecedent was either small or large. Comparing the far with the…

  12. Motor Readiness Increases Brain Connectivity Between Default-Mode Network and Motor Cortex: Impact on Sampling Resting Periods from fMRI Event-Related Studies.

    PubMed

    Bazán, Paulo Rodrigo; Biazoli, Claudinei Eduardo; Sato, João Ricardo; Amaro, Edson

    2015-12-01

    The default-mode network (DMN) has been implicated in many conditions. One particular function relates to its role in motor preparation. However, the possibly complex relationship between DMN activity and motor preparation has not been fully explored. Dynamic interactions between default mode and motor networks may compromise the ability to evaluate intrinsic connectivity using resting period data extracted from task-based experiments. In this study, we investigated alterations in connectivity between the DMN and the motor network that are associated with motor readiness during the intervals between motor task trials. fMRI data from 20 normal subjects were acquired under three conditions: pure resting state; resting state interleaved with brief, cued right-hand movements at constant intervals (lower readiness); and resting state interleaved with the same movements at unpredictable intervals (higher readiness). The functional connectivity between regions of motor and DMNs was assessed separately for movement periods and intertask intervals. We found a negative relationship between the DMN and the left sensorimotor cortex during the task periods for both motor conditions. Furthermore, during the intertask intervals of the unpredictable condition, the DMN showed a positive relationship with right sensorimotor cortex and a negative relation with the left sensorimotor cortex. These findings indicate a specific modulation on motor processing according to the state of motor readiness. Therefore, connectivity studies using task-based fMRI to probe DMN should consider the influence of motor system modulation when interpreting the results.

  13. An Event-Related Potential (ERP) Investigation of Filler-Gap Processing in Native and Second Language Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallas, Andrea; DeDe, Gayle; Nicol, Janet

    2013-01-01

    The current study employed a neuro-imaging technique, Event-Related Potentials (ERP), to investigate real-time processing of sentences containing filler-gap dependencies by late-learning speakers of English as a second language (L2) with a Chinese native language background. An individual differences approach was also taken to examine the role of…

  14. An Event-Related Potential (ERP) Investigation of Filler-Gap Processing in Native and Second Language Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallas, Andrea; DeDe, Gayle; Nicol, Janet

    2013-01-01

    The current study employed a neuro-imaging technique, Event-Related Potentials (ERP), to investigate real-time processing of sentences containing filler-gap dependencies by late-learning speakers of English as a second language (L2) with a Chinese native language background. An individual differences approach was also taken to examine the role of…

  15. The dynamics of deductive reasoning: an fMRI investigation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Moreno, Diana; Hirsch, Joy

    2009-03-01

    Although the basis for deductive reasoning has been a traditional focus of philosophical discussion, the neural correlates and mechanisms that underlie deductive reasoning have only recently become the focus of scientific investigation. In syllogistic deductive reasoning information presented in two related sequential premises leads to a subsequent conclusion. While previous imaging studies have identified frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital complexes that are activated during these reasoning events, there are substantive differences among the findings with respect to the specific regions engaged in reasoning and the contribution of language areas. Further, little is known about the various stages of information processing during reasoning. Using event-related fMRI and an auditory and visual conjunction technique, we identified a long-range supramodal network active during reasoning processes including areas in the left frontal and parietal regions as well as the bilateral caudate nucleus. Time courses of activation for each of these regions suggest that reasoning processes emerge during the presentation of the second premise, and remain active until the validation of the conclusion. Thus, areas within the frontal and parietal regions are differentially engaged at different time points in the reasoning process consistent with coordinated intra-network interactions.

  16. Impulsivity in Decision-Making: An Event-Related Potential Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Laura E.; Potts, Geoffrey F.

    2009-01-01

    Impulsive individuals make risky choices, motivated more by immediate reward than potential long-term negative consequences. We used event-related potentials to study the impact of reward and punishment sensitivity in impulsivity on risky decision-making in a two-card choice task in groups of 14 high and 14 low impulsive undergraduates formed by a median split on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale score. The high impulsives had a larger P3 and the low impulsives a smaller P3 to the cards when making a low-risk choice suggesting that the high-risk option was the default choice of the high impulsives and the low-risk choice the default for the low impulsives. The low, but not the high impulsives had a larger error-related negativity following high-risk choice indicating that the low impulsives evaluated the risky choice as a poor decision. The results indicate that high impulsive individuals are biased towards immediate reward during option evaluation but are less sensitive to the negative consequences of their choices. PMID:20126284

  17. Masked Cross-Modal Repetition Priming: An Event-Related Potential Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Kiyonaga, Kristi; Grainger, Jonathan; Midgley, Katherine; Holcomb, Phillip J.

    2007-01-01

    We report three experiments that combine the masked priming paradigm with the recording of event-related potentials in order to examine the time-course of cross-modal interactions during word recognition. Visually presented masked primes preceded either visually or auditorily presented targets that were or were not the same word as the prime. Experiment 1 used the lexical decision task, and in Experiments 2 and 3 participants monitored target words for animal names. The results show a strong modulation of the N400 and an earlier ERP component (N250 ms) in within-modality (visual-visual) repetition priming, and a much weaker and later N400-like effect (400–700 ms) in the cross-modal (visual-auditory) condition with prime exposures of 50 ms (Experiments 1 & 2). With a prime duration of 67 ms (Experiment 3), cross-modal ERP priming effects arose earlier during the traditional N400 epoch (300–500 ms) and were also larger overall than at the shorter prime duration. PMID:18163153

  18. Do children with autism 'switch off' to speech sounds? An investigation using event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2008-07-01

    Autism is a disorder characterized by a core impairment in social behaviour. A prominent component of this social deficit is poor orienting to speech. It is unclear whether this deficit involves an impairment in allocating attention to speech sounds, or a sensory impairment in processing phonetic information. In this study, event-related potentials of 15 children with high functioning autism (mean nonverbal IQ = 109.87) and 15 typically developing children (mean nonverbal IQ = 115.73) were recorded in response to sounds in two oddball conditions. Participants heard two stimulus types: vowels and complex tones. In each condition, repetitive 'standard' sounds (condition 1: vowel; condition 2: complex tone) were replaced by a within stimulus-type 'deviant' sound and a between stimulus-type 'novel' sound. Participants' level of attention was also varied between conditions. Children with autism had significantly diminished obligatory components in response to the repetitive speech sound, but not to the repetitive nonspeech sound. This difference disappeared when participants were required to allocate attention to the sound stream. Furthermore, the children with autism showed reduced orienting to novel tones presented in a sequence of speech sounds, but not to novel speech sounds presented in a sequence of tones. These findings indicate that high functioning children with autism can allocate attention to novel speech sounds. However, they use top-down inhibition to attenuate responses to repeated streams of speech. This suggests that problems with speech processing in this population involve efferent pathways.

  19. A new approach to measure single-event related brain activity using real-time fMRI: feasibility of sensory, motor, and higher cognitive tasks.

    PubMed

    Posse, S; Binkofski, F; Schneider, F; Gembris, D; Frings, W; Habel, U; Salloum, J B; Mathiak, K; Wiese, S; Kiselev, V; Graf, T; Elghahwagi, B; Grosse-Ruyken, M L; Eickermann, T

    2001-01-01

    Real-time fMRI is a rapidly emerging methodology that enables monitoring changes in brain activity during an ongoing experiment. In this article we demonstrate the feasibility of performing single-event sensory, motor, and higher cognitive tasks in real-time on a clinical whole-body scanner. This approach requires sensitivity optimized fMRI methods: Using statistical parametric mapping we quantified the spatial extent of BOLD contrast signal changes as a function of voxel size and demonstrate that sacrificing spatial resolution and readout bandwidth improves the detection of signal changes in real time. Further increases in BOLD contrast sensitivity were obtained by using real-time multi-echo EPI. Real-time image analysis was performed using our previously described Functional Imaging in REal time (FIRE) software package, which features real-time motion compensation, sliding window correlation analysis, and automatic reference vector optimization. This new fMRI methodology was validated using single-block design paradigms of standard visual, motor, and auditory tasks. Further, we demonstrate the sensitivity of this method for online detection of higher cognitive functions during a language task using single-block design paradigms. Finally, we used single-event fMRI to characterize the variability of the hemodynamic impulse response in primary and supplementary motor cortex in consecutive trials using single movements. Real-time fMRI can improve reliability of clinical and research studies and offers new opportunities for studying higher cognitive functions.

  20. Investigation of brain electrophysiological properties among heroin addicts: Quantitative EEG and event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Motlagh, Farid; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Rashid, Rusdi; Seghatoleslam, Tahereh; Habil, Hussain

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to introduce a new approach of a comprehensive paradigm to evaluate brain electrophysiological properties among addicts. Electroencephalographic spectral power as well as amplitudes and latencies of mismatch negativity (MMN), P300, and P600 components were evaluated among 19 male heroin addicts and 19 healthy nonsmoker subjects using a paradigm consisting of three subparadigms, namely (1) digit span Wechsler test, (2) auditory oddball, and (3) visual cue-reactivity oddball paradigms. Task 1 provided auditory P300 and P600 in association with working memory. Task 2 provided auditory P300 as well as small and large deviant MMN event-related potential (ERPs). Finally, task 3 provided visual cue-reactivity P300. Results show that beta power was higher among heroin addicts while delta, theta, and alpha powers were decreased compared with healthy subjects. ERP analysis confirmed the decline of brain-evoked potential amplitudes when compared with healthy subjects, thus indicating a broad neurobiological vulnerability of preattentive and attentional processing including attentional deficits and compromise of discrimination abilities. The prolonged latency of ERPs reflects poor cognitive capacity in the engagement of attention and memory resources. On the other hand, an increase of attention towards the heroin-related stimuli could be concluded from the increase of P300 in the cue-reactivity condition among heroin addicts. Findings suggest that applying this paradigm in addiction studies benefits comprehensive evaluation of neuroelectrophysiological activity among addicts, which can promote a better understanding of drugs' effects on the brain as well as define new neuroelectrophysiological characteristics of addiction properties. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The special involvement of the rostrolateral prefrontal cortex in planning abilities: an event-related fMRI study with the Tower of London paradigm.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Gerd; Koch, Kathrin; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Sauer, Heinrich; Schlösser, Ralf G M

    2006-01-01

    Planning abilities are essential for the successful management of everyday life activities. Although several neuroimaging studies provide evidence that the prefrontal cortex is crucially involved in planning, the differential roles of its subregions are still a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to investigate the neural correlates of planning by focusing on the functional differentiation between the dorsolateral and rostrolateral prefrontal cortex using the Tower of London (ToL) task and a parametric event-related functional MRI design. In order to control for activations unspecific to planning, two control conditions were presented, which were matched for the length of single events in the ToL task. Seventeen right-handed healthy subjects participated in this study. All statistics were reported with corrections for multiple comparisons (p < 0.05). Compared to control conditions, activations in the ToL task were observed in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex bilaterally, the right ventrolateral and left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex along with the thalamus, as well as in the parietal and premotor cortex bilaterally. Task complexity dependent analyses revealed that only the left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex showed a BOLD signal increase over the four planning levels, which could not be observed in the control conditions. Hence, current findings suggest that planning involves an extensive fronto-parieto-thalamic network. Within this network, the rostrolateral prefrontal cortex seems to be the only region that is exclusively reactive to planning specific processes, which we described in terms of simultaneous monitoring of internally generated and externally presented information.

  2. Modulation of cognitive control levels via manipulation of saccade trial-type probability assessed with event-related BOLD fMRI.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Jordan E; McDowell, Jennifer E

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive control supports flexible behavior adapted to meet current goals and can be modeled through investigation of saccade tasks with varying cognitive demands. Basic prosaccades (rapid glances toward a newly appearing stimulus) are supported by neural circuitry, including occipital and posterior parietal cortex, frontal and supplementary eye fields, and basal ganglia. These trials can be contrasted with complex antisaccades (glances toward the mirror image location of a stimulus), which are characterized by greater functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the aforementioned regions and recruitment of additional regions such as dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The current study manipulated the cognitive demands of these saccade tasks by presenting three rapid event-related runs of mixed saccades with a varying probability of antisaccade vs. prosaccade trials (25, 50, or 75%). Behavioral results showed an effect of trial-type probability on reaction time, with slower responses in runs with a high antisaccade probability. Imaging results exhibited an effect of probability in bilateral pre- and postcentral gyrus, bilateral superior temporal gyrus, and medial frontal gyrus. Additionally, the interaction between saccade trial type and probability revealed a strong probability effect for prosaccade trials, showing a linear increase in activation parallel to antisaccade probability in bilateral temporal/occipital, posterior parietal, medial frontal, and lateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast, antisaccade trials showed elevated activation across all runs. Overall, this study demonstrated that improbable performance of a typically simple prosaccade task led to augmented BOLD signal to support changing cognitive control demands, resulting in activation levels similar to the more complex antisaccade task. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Neurovascular and Neurometabolic Couplings in Dynamic Calibrated fMRI: Transient Oxidative Neuroenergetics for Block-Design and Event-Related Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Hyder, Fahmeed; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Herman, Peter; Coman, Daniel; Maandag, Natasja J. G.; Behar, Kevin L.; Blumenfeld, Hal; Rothman, Douglas L.

    2010-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast is an important tool for mapping brain activity. Interest in quantitative fMRI has renewed awareness in importance of oxidative neuroenergetics, as reflected by cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption(CMRO2), for supporting brain function. Relationships between BOLD signal and the underlying neurophysiological parameters have been elucidated to allow determination of dynamic changes inCMRO2 by “calibrated fMRI,” which require multi-modal measurements of BOLD signal along with cerebral blood flow (CBF) and volume (CBV). But how doCMRO2 changes, steady-state or transient, derived from calibrated fMRI compare with neural activity recordings of local field potential (LFP) and/or multi-unit activity (MUA)? Here we discuss recent findings primarily from animal studies which allow high magnetic fields studies for superior BOLD sensitivity as well as multi-modal CBV and CBF measurements in conjunction with LFP and MUA recordings from activated sites. A key observation is that while relationships between neural activity and sensory stimulus features range from linear to non-linear, associations between hyperemic components (BOLD, CBF, CBV) and neural activity (LFP, MUA) are almost always linear. More importantly, the results demonstrate good agreement between the changes inCMRO2 and independent measures of LFP or MUA. The tight neurovascular and neurometabolic couplings, observed from steady-state conditions to events separated by <200 ms, suggest rapid oxygen equilibration between blood and tissue pools and thus calibrated fMRI at high magnetic fields can provide high spatiotemporal mapping ofCMRO2 changes. PMID:20838476

  4. Effects of Additional Tasks on Language Perception: An Event-Related Brain Potential Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohlfeld, Annette; Sangals, Jorg; Sommer, Werner

    2004-01-01

    The authors investigated effects of task and overlapping processing load on semantic processing. In 3 experiments the brain potential component N400 was elicited by synonymous and nonsynonymous spoken noun pairs that were to be classified according to semantic relatedness. The time course of the N=400 component to the nouns was delayed, and its…

  5. Attributions, deception, and event related potentials: an investigation of the self-serving bias.

    PubMed

    Krusemark, Elizabeth A; Keith Campbell, W; Clementz, Brett A

    2008-07-01

    Self-serving attributions occur when negative personal outcomes are ascribed to external circumstances and when positive outcomes are ascribed to internal factors. Individuals strategically employ the self-serving bias to maintain and protect positive self-views. The current study investigated the neural correlates of the self-serving bias using dense array EEG, giving 20 participants false (success or failure) feedback during a facial working memory task. Participants made self-serving attributions during the task, primarily following failure feedback. Voltage and source analyses in response to attribution stimuli revealed that, compared to self-serving responses, non-self-serving attributions were preceded by enhanced dorsomedial frontal cortex activity. This finding suggests that unbiased attributions require greater self-control, overriding the automatic tendency for self-enhancement.

  6. Dissociable but inter-related systems of cognitive control and reward during decision making: evidence from pupillometry and event-related fMRI.

    PubMed

    Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel; Parker, Jamie; Ramaratnam, Mohana; Buckner, Randy L

    2007-09-01

    Decision making involves the allocation of cognitive resources in response to expectations and feedback. Here we explored how frontal networks respond in a gambling paradigm in which uncertainty was manipulated to increase demands for cognitive control. In one experiment, pupil diameter covaried with uncertainty during decision making and with the degree to which subsequent outcomes violated reward expectations. In a second experiment, fMRI showed that both uncertainty and unexpected outcomes modulated activation in a network of frontal regions. Thus, the frontal network supports multiple phases of the decision-making process including information regarding reward uncertainty and reward outcome. In contrast, striatal activation only tracked reward delivery, suggesting a distinct reward pathway that might, under certain circumstances, oppose the frontal network. These results are consistent with the interpretation that reward signals may bias recruitment of frontal networks that are linked to allocation of cognitive resources.

  7. Some Alternatives? Event-Related Potential Investigation of Literal and Pragmatic Interpretations of Some Presented in Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Barbet, Cécile; Thierry, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    In sentence verification tasks involving under-informative statements such as Some elephants are mammals, some adults appear more tolerant to pragmatic violations than others. The underlying causes of such inter-individual variability remain however essentially unknown. Here, we investigated inter-individual variation in adults deriving the scalar inference “not all” triggered by the quantifier some. We first assessed the individual intolerance to pragmatic violations in adult participants presented with under-informative some-statements (e.g., Some infants are young). We then recorded event-related brain potentials in the same participants using an oddball paradigm where an ambiguous deviant word some presented in isolation had to be taken either as a match (in its literal interpretation “at least some”) or as a mismatch (in its pragmatic interpretation “some but not all”) and where an unambiguous deviant target word all was featured as control. Mean amplitude modulation of the classic P3b provided a measure of the ease with which participants considered some and all as deviants within each experimental block. We found that intolerance to pragmatic violations was associated with a reduction in the magnitude of the P3b effect elicited by the target some when it was to be considered a literal match. Furthermore, we failed to replicate a straightforward literal interpretation facilitation effect in our experiment which offers a control for task demands. We propose that the derivation of scalar inferences also relies on general, but flexible, mismatch resolution processes. PMID:27746751

  8. Familial Risk for Distress and Fear Disorders and Emotional Reactivity in Adolescence: An Event-Related Potential Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Brady D.; Perlman, Greg; Hajcak, Greg; Klein, Daniel N.; Kotov, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Background The late positive potential (LPP) is an event-related potential component that is sensitive to the motivational salience of stimuli. Children with a parental history of depression, an indicator of risk, have been found to exhibit an attenuated LPP to emotional stimuli. Research on depressive and anxiety disorders has organized these conditions into two empirical classes: distress and fear disorders. The present study examined whether parental history of distress and fear disorders was associated with the LPP to emotional stimuli in a large sample of adolescent girls. Methods The sample of 550 girls (ages 13.5–15.5) with no lifetime history of depression completed an emotional picture-viewing task and the LPP was measured in response to neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures. Parental lifetime history of psychopathology was determined via semi-structured diagnostic interview with a biological parent, and a confirmatory factor analysis was used to model distress and fear dimensions. Results Parental distress risk was associated with an attenuated LPP to all stimuli. In contrast, parental fear risk was associated with an enhanced LPP to unpleasant pictures but was unrelated to the LPP to neutral and pleasant pictures. Furthermore, these results were independent of the adolescent girls’ current depression and anxiety symptoms and pubertal status. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that familial risk for distress and fear disorders may have unique profiles in terms of electrocortical measures of emotional information processing. This study is also one of the first to investigate emotional/motivational processes underlying the distress and fear disorder dimensions. PMID:25851615

  9. An event-related potential investigation of spatial attention orientation in children trained with mental abacus calculation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoqin

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term mental abacus calculation training (MACT) on children’s spatial attention orientation. Fifteen children with intensive MACT (MACT group) and 15 children without MACT (non-MACT group) were selected. The two groups of children were matched in age, sex, handedness, and academic grade. The participants were tested with a Posner spatial cueing task while their neural activities were recorded with a 32-channel electroencephalogram system. The participants’ behavior scores (reaction time and accuracy) as well as early components of event-related potential (ERP) during the tests were statistically analyzed. The behavioral scores showed no significant difference between the two groups of children, although the MACT group tended to have a shorter reaction time. The early ERP components showed that under valid cueing condition, the MACT group had significantly higher P1 amplitude [F(1, 28)=5.06, P<0.05, effective size=0.72] and lower N1 amplitude [F(1, 28)=6.05, P<0.05, effective size=0.82] in the occipital region compared with the non-MACT group. In the centrofrontal brain region, the MACT group had lower N1 amplitude [F(1, 28)=4.89, P<0.05, effect size=0.70] and longer N1 latency [F(1, 28)=6.26, P<0.05, effect size=0.80] than the non-MACT group. In particular, the MACT group also showed a higher centrofrontal P2 amplitude in the right hemisphere [F(1, 28)=4.82, P<0.05, effect size 0.81] compared with the left hemisphere and the middle location. MACT enhances the children’s spatial attention orientation, which can be detected in the early components of ERP. PMID:27831960

  10. Using temporally aligned event-related potentials for the investigation of attention shifts prior to and during saccades.

    PubMed

    Huber-Huber, Christoph; Ditye, Thomas; Marchante Fernández, María; Ansorge, Ulrich

    2016-11-01

    According to the pre-motor theory of attention, attention is shifted to a saccade's landing position before the saccade is executed. Such pre-saccadic attention shifts are usually studied in psychophysical dual-task conditions, with a target-discrimination task before saccade onset. Here, we present a novel approach to investigate pre-saccadic attention shifts with the help of event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants executed one or two saccades to color-defined targets while ERPs and eye-movements were recorded. In single-target blocks participants executed a single saccade. In two-targets blocks participants made either a single saccade to one of the targets, or two successive saccades to both targets. Importantly, in two-targets blocks, targets could appear on the same or on opposite sides of the vertical midline. This allowed us to study contra-to-ipsilateral ERP differences (such as the N2pc or PCN) that reflect attention shifts to the targets, prior to saccade onset and during saccades. If pre-saccadic attention shifts to saccade target locations are necessary for saccade execution and if searched-for saccade targets capture attention, there should be enhanced attentional competition (1) between two targets compared to single targets; (2) between two opposite-sides targets compared to two same-side targets; and (3) in two saccades rather than one saccade conditions: More attentional competition was expected to delay saccade latency and to weaken pre-saccadic laterality effects in ERPs. Hypotheses were tested by means of temporally aligned ERPs that were simultaneously time-locked to stimulus onsets, saccade onsets, and saccade offsets. Predictions (1) and (2) were partly and fully confirmed, respectively, but no evidence was found for (3). We explain the implications of our results for the role of attention during saccade preparation, and we point out how temporally aligned ERPs compare to ICA-based electroencephalogram (EEG) artifact correction

  11. The functional role of dorso-lateral premotor cortex during mental rotation: an event-related fMRI study separating cognitive processing steps using a novel task paradigm.

    PubMed

    Lamm, Claus; Windischberger, Christian; Moser, Ewald; Bauer, Herbert

    2007-07-15

    Subjects deciding whether two objects presented at angular disparity are identical or mirror versions of each other usually show response times that linearly increase with the angle between objects. This phenomenon has been termed mental rotation. While there is widespread agreement that parietal cortex plays a dominant role in mental rotation, reports concerning the involvement of motor areas are less consistent. From a theoretical point of view, activation in motor areas suggests that mental rotation relies upon visuo-motor rather than visuo-spatial processing alone. However, the type of information that is processed by motor areas during mental rotation remains unclear. In this study we used event-related fMRI to assess whether activation in parietal and dorsolateral premotor areas (dPM) during mental rotation is distinctively related to processing spatial orientation information. Using a newly developed task paradigm we explicitly separated the processing steps (encoding, mental rotation proper and object matching) required by mental rotation tasks and additionally modulated the amount of spatial orientation information that had to be processed. Our results show that activation in dPM during mental rotation is not strongly modulated by the processing of spatial orientation information, and that activation in dPM areas is strongest during mental rotation proper. The latter finding suggests that dPM is involved in more generalized processes such as visuo-spatial attention and movement anticipation. We propose that solving mental rotation tasks is heavily dependent upon visuo-motor processes and evokes neural processing that may be considered as an implicit simulation of actual object rotation.

  12. Integral calculus problem solving: an fMRI investigation.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Frank; Spampinato, Maria Vittoria; Pardini, Matteo; Pajevic, Sinisa; Wood, Jacqueline N; Weiss, George H; Landgraf, Steffen; Grafman, Jordan

    2008-07-16

    Only a subset of adults acquires specific advanced mathematical skills, such as integral calculus. The representation of more sophisticated mathematical concepts probably evolved from basic number systems; however its neuroanatomical basis is still unknown. Using fMRI, we investigated the neural basis of integral calculus while healthy participants were engaged in an integration verification task. Solving integrals activated a left-lateralized cortical network including the horizontal intraparietal sulcus, posterior superior parietal lobe, posterior cingulate gyrus, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Our results indicate that solving of more abstract and sophisticated mathematical facts, such as calculus integrals, elicits a pattern of brain activation similar to the cortical network engaged in basic numeric comparison, quantity manipulation, and arithmetic problem solving.

  13. Tracking the time-course of attentional involvement in spatial working memory: an event-related potential investigation.

    PubMed

    Jha, Amishi P

    2002-12-01

    Spatial working memory is a cognitive brain mechanism that enables the temporary maintenance and manipulation of spatial information. Recent neuroimaging and behavioral studies have led to the proposal that directed spatial attention is the mechanism by which location information is maintained in spatial working memory. Yet it is unclear whether attentional involvement is required throughout the period of active maintenance or is only invoked during discrete task-phases such as mnemonic encoding. In the current study, we aimed to track the time-course of attentional involvement during spatial working memory by recording event-related brain potentials (ERPs) from healthy volunteers. In Experiment 1, subjects performed a delayed-recognition task. Each trial began with the presentation of a brief stimulus (S1) that indicated the relevant location that subjects were to maintain in working memory. A 4.8-5.3 sec delay interval followed during which a single task-irrelevant probe was presented. The delay interval concluded with a test item (S2) to which subjects made a response indicating whether the S2-location was the same as the S1-memory location. To determine if attention was differentially engaged during discrete phases of the trial, task-irrelevant probes were presented early (400-800 msec following S1-offset) or late (2600-3000 msec following S1-offset) during the delay interval. Sensory-evoked ERPs (P1 and N1) elicited by these irrelevant probes showed attention-like modulations with greater amplitude responses for probes occurring at the S1-memory locations in comparison to probes presented at other locations. This pattern was obtained for both early- and late-delay probes. Probe-evoked activity during delayed-recognition trials was similar to activity observed when spatial attention was explicitly focused on a location in visual space (Experiment 2). These results are consistent with a model of spatial working memory in which perceptual level selective

  14. EEG and FMRI coregistration to investigate the cortical oscillatory activities during finger movement.

    PubMed

    Formaggio, Emanuela; Storti, Silvia Francesca; Avesani, Mirko; Cerini, Roberto; Milanese, Franco; Gasparini, Anna; Acler, Michele; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto; Fiaschi, Antonio; Manganotti, Paolo

    2008-12-01

    Electroencephalography combined with functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) may be used to identify blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal changes associated with physiological and pathological EEG event. In this study we used EEG-fMRI to determine the possible correlation between topographical movement-related EEG changes in brain oscillatory activity recorded from EEG electrodes over the scalp and fMRI-BOLD cortical responses in motor areas during finger movement. Thirty-two channels of EEG were recorded in 9 subjects during eyes-open condition inside a 1.5 T magnetic resonance (MR) scanner using a MR-compatible EEG recording system. Off-line MRI artifact subtraction software was applied to obtain continuous EEG data during fMRI acquisition. For EEG data analysis we used the event-related-synchronization/desynchronization (ERS/ERD) approach to investigate where movement-related decreases in alpha and beta power are located. For image statistical analysis we used a general linear model (GLM) approach. There was a significant correlation between the positive-negative ratio of BOLD signal peaks and ERD values in the electrodes over the region of activation. We conclude that combined EEG-fMRI may be used to investigate movement-related oscillations of the human brain inside an MRI scanner and the movement-related changes in the EMG or EEG signals are useful to identify the brain activation sources responsible for BOLD-signal changes.

  15. An fMRI investigation of syllable sequence production.

    PubMed

    Bohland, Jason W; Guenther, Frank H

    2006-08-15

    Fluent speech comprises sequences that are composed from a finite alphabet of learned words, syllables, and phonemes. The sequencing of discrete motor behaviors has received much attention in the motor control literature, but relatively little has been focused directly on speech production. In this paper, we investigate the cortical and subcortical regions involved in organizing and enacting sequences of simple speech sounds. Sparse event-triggered functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure responses to preparation and overt production of non-lexical three-syllable utterances, parameterized by two factors: syllable complexity and sequence complexity. The comparison of overt production trials to preparation only trials revealed a network related to the initiation of a speech plan, control of the articulators, and to hearing one's own voice. This network included the primary motor and somatosensory cortices, auditory cortical areas, supplementary motor area (SMA), the precentral gyrus of the insula, and portions of the thalamus, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Additional stimulus complexity led to increased engagement of the basic speech network and recruitment of additional areas known to be involved in sequencing non-speech motor acts. In particular, the left hemisphere inferior frontal sulcus and posterior parietal cortex, and bilateral regions at the junction of the anterior insula and frontal operculum, the SMA and pre-SMA, the basal ganglia, anterior thalamus, and the cerebellum showed increased activity for more complex stimuli. We hypothesize mechanistic roles for the extended speech production network in the organization and execution of sequences of speech sounds.

  16. The neural substrates of mindfulness: an fMRI investigation.

    PubMed

    Ives-Deliperi, Victoria L; Solms, Mark; Meintjes, Ernesta M

    2011-01-01

    "Mindfulness" is a capacity for heightened present-moment awareness that we all possess to a greater or lesser extent. Enhancing this capacity through training has been shown to alleviate stress and promote physical and mental well-being. As a consequence, interest in mindfulness is growing and so is the need to better understand it. This study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify the brain regions involved in state mindfulness and to shed light on its mechanisms of action. Significant signal decreases were observed during mindfulness meditation in midline cortical structures associated with interoception, including bilateral anterior insula, left ventral anterior cingulate cortex, right medial prefrontal cortex, and bilateral precuneus. Significant signal increase was noted in the right posterior cingulate cortex. These findings lend support to the theory that mindfulness achieves its positive outcomes through a process of disidentification.

  17. FMRI investigation of cross-cultural music comprehension.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Steven J; Demorest, Steven M; Aylward, Elizabeth H; Cramer, Steven C; Maravilla, Kenneth R

    2003-09-01

    The popular view of music as a "universal" language ignores the privileged position of the cultural insider in comprehending musical information unique to their own tradition. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that listeners would demonstrate different neural activity in response to culturally familiar and unfamiliar music and that those differences may be affected by the extent of subjects' formal musical training. Just as familiar languages have been shown to use distinct brain processes, we hypothesized that an analogous difference might be found in music and that it may depend in part on subjects' formal musical knowledge. Using fMRI we compared the activation patterns of professional musicians and untrained controls reared in the United States as they listened to music from their culture (Western) and from an unfamiliar culture (Chinese). No overall differences in activation were observed for either subject group in response to the two musical styles, although there were differences in recall performance based on style and there were activation differences based on training. Trained listeners demonstrated additional activation in the right STG for both musics and in the right and left midfrontal regions for Western music and Chinese music, respectively. Our findings indicate that listening to culturally different musics may activate similar neural resources but with dissimilar results in recall performance.

  18. Politics on the Brain: An fMRI Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, Kristine M.; Wood, Jacqueline N.; Spampinato, Maria V.; Grafman, Jordan

    2006-01-01

    We assessed political attitudes using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) in which participants were presented faces and names of well-known Democrat and Republican politicians along with positive and negative words while undergoing functional MRI. We found a significant behavioral IAT effect for the face, but not the name, condition. The fMRI face condition results indicated that ventromedial and anterior prefrontal cortices were activated during political attitude inducement. Amygdala and fusiform gyrus were activated during perceptual processing of familiar faces. Amygdala activation also was associated with measures of strength of emotion. Frontopolar activation was positively correlated with an implicit measure of bias and valence strength (how strongly the participants felt about the politicians), while strength of affiliation with political party was negatively correlated with lateral PFC, lending support to the idea that two distinct but interacting networks-one emphasizing rapid, stereotypic, and emotional associative knowledge and the other emphasizing more deliberative and factual knowledge-cooperate in the processing of politicians. Our findings of ventromedial PFC activation suggests that when processing the associative knowledge concerned with politicians, stereotypic knowledge is activated, but in addition, the anterior prefrontal activations indicate that more elaborative, reflective knowledge about the politician is activated. PMID:17372621

  19. Investigating emotion with music: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Koelsch, Stefan; Fritz, Thomas; V Cramon, D Yves; Müller, Karsten; Friederici, Angela D

    2006-03-01

    The present study used pleasant and unpleasant music to evoke emotion and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine neural correlates of emotion processing. Unpleasant (permanently dissonant) music contrasted with pleasant (consonant) music showed activations of amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and temporal poles. These structures have previously been implicated in the emotional processing of stimuli with (negative) emotional valence; the present data show that a cerebral network comprising these structures can be activated during the perception of auditory (musical) information. Pleasant (contrasted to unpleasant) music showed activations of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, inferior Brodmann's area (BA) 44, BA 45, and BA 46), the anterior superior insula, the ventral striatum, Heschl's gyrus, and the Rolandic operculum. IFG activations appear to reflect processes of music-syntactic analysis and working memory operations. Activations of Rolandic opercular areas possibly reflect the activation of mirror-function mechanisms during the perception of the pleasant tunes. Rolandic operculum, anterior superior insula, and ventral striatum may form a motor-related circuitry that serves the formation of (premotor) representations for vocal sound production during the perception of pleasant auditory information. In all of the mentioned structures, except the hippocampus, activations increased over time during the presentation of the musical stimuli, indicating that the effects of emotion processing have temporal dynamics; the temporal dynamics of emotion have so far mainly been neglected in the functional imaging literature. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Studying overt word reading and speech production with event-related fMRI: a method for detecting, assessing, and correcting articulation-induced signal changes and for measuring onset time and duration of articulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jie; Francis, Andrea P; Carr, Thomas H

    2008-01-01

    A quantitative method is introduced for detecting and correcting artifactual signal changes in BOLD time series data arising from the magnetic field warping caused by motion of the articulatory apparatus when speaking aloud, with extensions to detection of subvocal articulatory activity during silent reading. Whole-head images allow the large, spike-like signal changes from the moving tongue and other components of the articulatory apparatus to be detected and localized in time, providing a measure of the time of vocalization onset, the vocalization duration, and also an estimate of the magnitude and shape of the signal change resulting from motion. Data from brain voxels are then examined during the vocalization period, and statistical outliers corresponding to contamination from articulatory motion are removed and replaced by linear interpolation from adjacent, uncontaminated data points. This quantitative approach to cleansing brain time series data of articulatory-motion-induced artifact is combined with a pre-scanning training regimen that reduces gross head movement during reading aloud to the levels observed during reading silently, which can be corrected with available image registration techniques. The combination of quantitative analysis of articulatory motion artifacts and pre-scanning training makes possible a much wider range of tasks involving overt speech than are currently being used in fMRI studies of language and cognition, as well as characterization of subvocal movements of the articulatory apparatus that are relevant to theories of reading skill, verbal rehearsal in working memory, and problem solving.

  1. The processing of number and gender agreement in Spanish: an event-related potential investigation of the effects of structural distance.

    PubMed

    Alemán Bañón, José; Fiorentino, Robert; Gabriele, Alison

    2012-05-25

    Previous research suggests that the processing of agreement is affected by the distance between the agreeing elements. However, the unique contribution of structural distance (number of intervening syntactic phrases) to the processing of agreement remains an open question, since previous investigations do not tease apart structural and linear distance (number of intervening words). We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the extent to which structural distance impacts the processing of Spanish number and gender agreement. Violations were realized both within the phrase and across the phrase. Across both levels of structural distance, linear distance was kept constant, as was the syntactic category of the agreeing elements. Number and gender agreement violations elicited a robust P600 between 400 and 900 ms, a component associated with morphosyntactic processing. No amplitude differences were observed between number and gender violations, suggesting that the two features are processed similarly at the brain level. Within-phrase agreement yielded more positive waveforms than across-phrase agreement, both for agreement violations and for grammatical sentences (no agreement by distance interaction). These effects can be interpreted as evidence that structural distance impacts the establishment of agreement overall, consistent with sentence processing models which predict that hierarchical structure impacts the processing of syntactic dependencies. However, due to the lack of an agreement by distance interaction, the possibility cannot be ruled out that these effects are driven by differences in syntactic predictability between the within-phrase and across-phrase configurations, notably the fact that the syntactic category of the critical word was more predictable in the within-phrase conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Beta event-related desynchronization as an index of individual differences in processing human facial expression: further investigations of autistic traits in typically developing adults

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Nicholas R.; Simpson, Andrew; Till, Amy; Simmons, Kelly; Puzzo, Ignazio

    2013-01-01

    The human mirror neuron system (hMNS) has been associated with various forms of social cognition and affective processing including vicarious experience. It has also been proposed that a faulty hMNS may underlie some of the deficits seen in the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In the present study we set out to investigate whether emotional facial expressions could modulate a putative EEG index of hMNS activation (mu suppression) and if so, would this differ according to the individual level of autistic traits [high versus low Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) score]. Participants were presented with 3 s films of actors opening and closing their hands (classic hMNS mu-suppression protocol) while simultaneously wearing happy, angry, or neutral expressions. Mu-suppression was measured in the alpha and low beta bands. The low AQ group displayed greater low beta event-related desynchronization (ERD) to both angry and neutral expressions. The high AQ group displayed greater low beta ERD to angry than to happy expressions. There was also significantly more low beta ERD to happy faces for the low than for the high AQ group. In conclusion, an interesting interaction between AQ group and emotional expression revealed that hMNS activation can be modulated by emotional facial expressions and that this is differentiated according to individual differences in the level of autistic traits. The EEG index of hMNS activation (mu suppression) seems to be a sensitive measure of the variability in facial processing in typically developing individuals with high and low self-reported traits of autism. PMID:23630489

  3. Auditory Verb Perception Recruits Motor Systems in the Developing Brain: An fMRI Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Karin Harman; Maouene, Josita

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated neural activation patterns during verb processing in children, using fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging). Preschool children (aged 4-6) passively listened to lists of verbs and adjectives while neural activation was measured. Findings indicated that verbs were processed differently than adjectives, as the verbs…

  4. Auditory Verb Perception Recruits Motor Systems in the Developing Brain: An fMRI Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Karin Harman; Maouene, Josita

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated neural activation patterns during verb processing in children, using fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging). Preschool children (aged 4-6) passively listened to lists of verbs and adjectives while neural activation was measured. Findings indicated that verbs were processed differently than adjectives, as the verbs…

  5. Antipsychotic Drug Effects in Schizophrenia: A Review of Longitudinal fMRI Investigations and Neural Interpretations

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, C.C.; Jaramillo, A.; Wilcox, C.E.; Hamilton, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    The evidence that antipsychotics improve brain function and reduce symptoms in schizophrenia is unmistakable, but how antipsychotics change brain function is poorly understood, especially within neuronal systems. In this review, we investigated the hypothesized normalization of the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood oxygen level dependent signal in the context of antipsychotic treatment. First, we conducted a systematic PubMed search to identify eight fMRI investigations that met the following inclusion criteria: case-control, longitudinal design; pre- and post-treatment contrasts with a healthy comparison group; and antipsychotic-free or antipsychotic-naïve patients with schizophrenia at the start of the investigation. We hypothesized that aberrant activation patterns or connectivity between patients with schizophrenia and healthy comparisons at the first imaging assessment would no longer be apparent or “normalize” at the second imaging assessment. The included studies differed by analysis method and fMRI task but demonstrated normalization of fMRI activation or connectivity during the treatment interval. Second, we reviewed putative mechanisms from animal studies that support normalization of the BOLD signal in schizophrenia. We provided several neuronal-based interpretations of these changes of the BOLD signal that may be attributable to long-term antipsychotic administration. PMID:23157635

  6. Experience of negative emotions in Parkinson's disease: An fMRI investigation.

    PubMed

    Schienle, Anne; Ille, Rottraut; Wabnegger, Albert

    2015-11-16

    Amygdala abnormalities have been discussed as a possible mechanism underlying reduced reactivity to negative stimuli in Parkinson's disease (PD). The present investigation used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in order to test this hypothesis. We compared brain activation of 17 nondepressed and nondemented PD patients with 22 healthy controls during the elicitation of negative affective states. The patients suffered from moderate motor symptoms for an average of 75 months and had stopped their antiparkinson medication 10-12h prior to the fMRI testing. All participants were shown images which depicted disgusting, fear-relevant and neutral contents and they answered self-report scales for the assessment of disgust proneness and trait anxiety. Both groups did not differ from each other in affective state and trait ratings. In line with the self-report, the fMRI data showed similar activation (including the amygdala) in both groups during disgust and fear elicitation. This fMRI investigation found no indication of diminished disgust and fear experience in PD. Previously reported affective processing deficits in PD might be due to insufficiently controlled confounding variables (medication, depression, cognitive impairment). Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Combining a semantic differential with fMRI to investigate brands as cultural symbols.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Michael; Rotte, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Traditionally, complex cultural symbols like brands are investigated with psychological approaches. Often this is done by using semantic differentials, in which participants are asked to rate a brand regarding different pairs of adjectives. Only recently, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to examine brands. In the current work we used fMRI in combination with a semantic differential to cross-validate both methods and to improve the characterization of the basic factors constituting the semantic space. To this end we presented pictures of brands while recording subject's brain activity during an fMRI experiment. Results of the semantic differential arranged the brands in a semantic space illustrating their relationships to other cultural symbols. FMRI results revealed activation of the medial prefrontal cortex for brands that loaded high on the factor 'social competence', suggesting an involvement of a cortical network associated with social cognitions. In contrast, brands closely related to the factor 'potency' showed decreased activity in the superior frontal gyri, possibly related to working memory during task performance. We discuss the results as a different engagement of the prefrontal cortex when perceiving brands as cultural symbols.

  8. Using fMRI to Investigate Memory in Young Children Born Small for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    de Bie, Henrica M. A.; de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Ouwendijk, Mieke; Oostrom, Kim J.; Wilke, Marko; Boersma, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can lead to infants being born small for gestational age (SGA). SGA is associated with differences in brain anatomy and impaired cognition. We investigated learning and memory in children born SGA using neuropsychological testing and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Study Design 18 children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and 34 SGA born children (18 with and 16 without postnatal catch-up growth) participated in this study. All children were between 4 and 7 years old. Cognitive functioning was assessed by IQ and memory testing (Digit/Word Span and Location Learning). A newly developed fMRI picture encoding task was completed by all children in order to assess brain regions involved in memory processes. Results Neuropsychological testing demonstrated that SGA children had IQ’s within the normal range but lower than in AGA and poorer performances across measures of memory. Using fMRI, we observed memory related activity in posterior parahippocampal gyrus as well as the hippocampus proper. Additionally, activation was seen bilaterally in the prefrontal gyrus. Children born SGA showed less activation in the left parahippocampal region compared to AGA. Conclusions This is the first fMRI study demonstrating different brain activation patterns in 4-7 year old children born SGA, suggesting that intrauterine growth restriction continues to affect neural functioning in children later-on. PMID:26132815

  9. Using fMRI to Investigate Memory in Young Children Born Small for Gestational Age.

    PubMed

    de Bie, Henrica M A; de Ruiter, Michiel B; Ouwendijk, Mieke; Oostrom, Kim J; Wilke, Marko; Boersma, Maria; Veltman, Dick J; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can lead to infants being born small for gestational age (SGA). SGA is associated with differences in brain anatomy and impaired cognition. We investigated learning and memory in children born SGA using neuropsychological testing and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). 18 children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and 34 SGA born children (18 with and 16 without postnatal catch-up growth) participated in this study. All children were between 4 and 7 years old. Cognitive functioning was assessed by IQ and memory testing (Digit/Word Span and Location Learning). A newly developed fMRI picture encoding task was completed by all children in order to assess brain regions involved in memory processes. Neuropsychological testing demonstrated that SGA children had IQ's within the normal range but lower than in AGA and poorer performances across measures of memory. Using fMRI, we observed memory related activity in posterior parahippocampal gyrus as well as the hippocampus proper. Additionally, activation was seen bilaterally in the prefrontal gyrus. Children born SGA showed less activation in the left parahippocampal region compared to AGA. This is the first fMRI study demonstrating different brain activation patterns in 4-7 year old children born SGA, suggesting that intrauterine growth restriction continues to affect neural functioning in children later-on.

  10. Investigations on spinal cord fMRI of cats under ketamine.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Adad, J; Hoge, R D; Leblond, H; Xie, G; Beaudoin, G; Song, A W; Krueger, G; Doyon, J; Benali, H; Rossignol, S

    2009-01-15

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the spinal cord has been the subject of intense research for the last ten years. An important motivation for this technique is its ability to detect non-invasively neuronal activity in the spinal cord related to sensorimotor functions in various conditions, such as after spinal cord lesions. Although promising results of spinal cord fMRI have arisen from previous studies, the poor reproducibility of BOLD activations and their characteristics remain a major drawback. In the present study we investigated the reproducibility of BOLD fMRI in the spinal cord of cats (N=9) by repeating the same stimulation protocol over a long period (approximately 2 h). Cats were anaesthetized with ketamine, and spinal cord activity was induced by electrical stimulation of cutaneous nerves of the hind limbs. As a result, task-related signals were detected in most cats with relatively good spatial specificity. However, BOLD response significantly varied within and between cats. This variability was notably attributed to the moderate intensity of the stimulus producing a low amplitude haemodynamic response, variation in end-tidal CO(2) during the session, low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in spinal fMRI time series and animal-specific vascular anatomy. Original contributions of the present study are: (i) first spinal fMRI experiment in ketamine-anaesthetized animals, (ii) extensive study of intra- and inter-subject variability of activation, (iii) characterisation of static and temporal SNR in the spinal cord and (iv) investigation on the impact of CO(2) end-tidal level on the amplitude of BOLD response.

  11. The Perception of Dynamic and Static Facial Expressions of Happiness and Disgust Investigated by ERPs and fMRI Constrained Source Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Trautmann-Lengsfeld, Sina Alexa; Domínguez-Borràs, Judith; Escera, Carles; Herrmann, Manfred; Fehr, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    A recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study by our group demonstrated that dynamic emotional faces are more accurately recognized and evoked more widespread patterns of hemodynamic brain responses than static emotional faces. Based on this experimental design, the present study aimed at investigating the spatio-temporal processing of static and dynamic emotional facial expressions in 19 healthy women by means of multi-channel electroencephalography (EEG), event-related potentials (ERP) and fMRI-constrained regional source analyses. ERP analysis showed an increased amplitude of the LPP (late posterior positivity) over centro-parietal regions for static facial expressions of disgust compared to neutral faces. In addition, the LPP was more widespread and temporally prolonged for dynamic compared to static faces of disgust and happiness. fMRI constrained source analysis on static emotional face stimuli indicated the spatio-temporal modulation of predominantly posterior regional brain activation related to the visual processing stream for both emotional valences when compared to the neutral condition in the fusiform gyrus. The spatio-temporal processing of dynamic stimuli yielded enhanced source activity for emotional compared to neutral conditions in temporal (e.g., fusiform gyrus), and frontal regions (e.g., ventromedial prefrontal cortex, medial and inferior frontal cortex) in early and again in later time windows. The present data support the view that dynamic facial displays trigger more information reflected in complex neural networks, in particular because of their changing features potentially triggering sustained activation related to a continuing evaluation of those faces. A combined fMRI and EEG approach thus provides an advanced insight to the spatio-temporal characteristics of emotional face processing, by also revealing additional neural generators, not identifiable by the only use of an fMRI approach. PMID:23818974

  12. Semantic divergence and creative story generation: an fMRI investigation.

    PubMed

    Howard-Jones, Paul A; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Samuel, Elspeth A; Summers, Ian R; Claxton, Guy

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this fMRI investigation was to identify those areas of the brain associated with approaching a story generation task creatively and to investigate the effects upon these correlates of incorporating a set of words that were unrelated to each other-a strategy considered to encourage semantic divergence. Preliminary experiments were undertaken to investigate the possible confounding effects of the scanner environment upon creativity and to reveal the effects of creative effort and word relatedness upon the creativity of those who would be participating in the fMRI scan. In the final part of the investigation, a factorial fMRI design was used to elucidate brain regions involved in increased creative effort and also the effect upon activity in these regions when participants incorporated words that bore little semantic relationship with each other. Results support the notion that areas of the right prefrontal cortex are critical to the types of divergent semantic processing involved with creativity in this context.

  13. An investigation of fMRI time series stationarity during motor sequence learning foot tapping tasks.

    PubMed

    Muhei-aldin, Othman; VanSwearingen, Jessie; Karim, Helmet; Huppert, Theodore; Sparto, Patrick J; Erickson, Kirk I; Sejdić, Ervin

    2014-04-30

    Understanding complex brain networks using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is of great interest to clinical and scientific communities. To utilize advanced analysis methods such as graph theory for these investigations, the stationarity of fMRI time series needs to be understood as it has important implications on the choice of appropriate approaches for the analysis of complex brain networks. In this paper, we investigated the stationarity of fMRI time series acquired from twelve healthy participants while they performed a motor (foot tapping sequence) learning task. Since prior studies have documented that learning is associated with systematic changes in brain activation, a sequence learning task is an optimal paradigm to assess the degree of non-stationarity in fMRI time-series in clinically relevant brain areas. We predicted that brain regions involved in a "learning network" would demonstrate non-stationarity and may violate assumptions associated with some advanced analysis approaches. Six blocks of learning, and six control blocks of a foot tapping sequence were performed in a fixed order. The reverse arrangement test was utilized to investigate the time series stationarity. Our analysis showed some non-stationary signals with a time varying first moment as a major source of non-stationarity. We also demonstrated a decreased number of non-stationarities in the third block as a result of priming and repetition. Most of the current literature does not examine stationarity prior to processing. The implication of our findings is that future investigations analyzing complex brain networks should utilize approaches robust to non-stationarities, as graph-theoretical approaches can be sensitive to non-stationarities present in data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An investigation of fMRI time series stationarity during motor sequence learning foot tapping tasks

    PubMed Central

    Muhei-aldin, Othman; VanSwearingen, Jessie; Karim, Helmet; Huppert, Theodore; Sparto, Patrick J.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Sejdić, Ervin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Understanding complex brain networks using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is of great interest to clinical and scientific communities. To utilize advanced analysis methods such as graph theory for these investigations, the stationarity of fMRI time series needs to be understood as it has important implications on the choice of appropriate approaches for the analysis of complex brain networks. New Method: In this paper, we investigated the stationarity of fMRI time series acquired from twelve healthy participants while they performed a motor (foot tapping sequence) learning task. Since prior studies have documented that learning is associated with systematic changes in brain activation, a sequence learning task is an optimal paradigm to assess the degree of non-stationarity in fMRI time-series in clinically relevant brain areas. We predicted that brain regions involved in a “learning network” would demonstrate non-stationarity and may violate assumptions associated with some advanced analysis approaches. Six blocks of learning, and six control blocks of a foot tapping sequence were performed in a fixed order. The reverse arrangement test was utilized to investigate the time series stationarity. Results: Our analysis showed some non-stationary signals with a time varying first moment as a major source of non-stationarity. We also demonstrated a decreased number of non-stationarities in the third block as a result of priming and repetition. Comparison with Existing Methods: Most of the current literature does not examine stationarity prior to processing. Conclusions: The implication of our findings is that future investigations analyzing complex brain networks should utilize approaches robust to non-stationarities, as graph-theoretical approaches can be sensitive to non-stationarities present in data. PMID:24530436

  15. Mal-Adaptation of Event-Related EEG Responses Preceding Performance Errors

    PubMed Central

    Eichele, Heike; Juvodden, Hilde T.; Ullsperger, Markus; Eichele, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Recent EEG and fMRI evidence suggests that behavioral errors are foreshadowed by systematic changes in brain activity preceding the outcome by seconds. In order to further characterize this type of error precursor activity, we investigated single-trial event-related EEG activity from 70 participants performing a modified Eriksen flanker task, in particular focusing on the trial-by-trial dynamics of a fronto-central independent component that previously has been associated with error and feedback processing. The stimulus-locked peaks in the N2 and P3 latency range in the event-related averages showed expected compatibility and error-related modulations. In addition, a small pre-stimulus negative slow wave was present at erroneous trials. Significant error-preceding activity was found in local stimulus sequences with decreased conflict in the form of less negativity at the N2 latency (310–350 ms) accumulating across five trials before errors; concomitantly response times were speeding across trials. These results illustrate that error-preceding activity in event-related EEG is associated with the performance monitoring system and we conclude that the dynamics of performance monitoring contribute to the generation of error-prone states in addition to the more remote and indirect effects in ongoing activity such as posterior alpha power in EEG and default mode drifts in fMRI. PMID:20740080

  16. Processing counterfactual and hypothetical conditionals: an fMRI investigation.

    PubMed

    Kulakova, Eugenia; Aichhorn, Markus; Schurz, Matthias; Kronbichler, Martin; Perner, Josef

    2013-05-15

    Counterfactual thinking is ubiquitous in everyday life and an important aspect of cognition and emotion. Although counterfactual thought has been argued to differ from processing factual or hypothetical information, imaging data which elucidate these differences on a neural level are still scarce. We investigated the neural correlates of processing counterfactual sentences under visual and aural presentation. We compared conditionals in subjunctive mood which explicitly contradicted previously presented facts (i.e. counterfactuals) to conditionals framed in indicative mood which did not contradict factual world knowledge and thus conveyed a hypothetical supposition. Our results show activation in right occipital cortex (cuneus) and right basal ganglia (caudate nucleus) during counterfactual sentence processing. Importantly the occipital activation is not only present under visual presentation but also with purely auditory stimulus presentation, precluding a visual processing artifact. Thus our results can be interpreted as reflecting the fact that counterfactual conditionals pragmatically imply the relevance of keeping in mind both factual and supposed information whereas the hypothetical conditionals imply that real world information is irrelevant for processing the conditional and can be omitted. The need to sustain representations of factual and suppositional events during counterfactual sentence processing requires increased mental imagery and integration efforts. Our findings are compatible with predictions based on mental model theory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Spatial embedding of fMRI for investigating local coupling in human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Gopikrishna; LaConte, Stephen M.; Peltier, Scott; Hu, Xiaoping

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, we have investigated local spatial couplings in the human brain by applying nonlinear dynamical techniques on fMRI data. We have recorded BOLD-contrast echo-planar fMRI data along with high-resolution T1-weighted anatomical images from the resting brain of healthy human subjects and performed physiological correction on the functional data. The corrected data from resting subjects is spatially embedded into its phase space and the largest Lyapunov exponent of the resulting attractor is calculated and whole slice maps are obtained. In addition, we segment the high-resolution anatomical image and obtain a down sampled mask corresponding to gray and white matter, which is used to obtain mean indices of the exponents for both the tissues separately. The results show the existence of local couplings, its tissue specificity (more local coupling in gray matter than white matter) and dependence on the size of the neighborhood (larger the neighborhood, lesser the coupling). We believe that these techniques capture the information of a nonlinear and evolving system like the brain that may not be evident from static linear methods. The results show that there is evidence of spatio-temporal chaos in the brain, which is a significant finding hitherto not reported in literature to the best of our knowledge. We try to interpret our results from healthy resting subjects based on our knowledge of the native low frequency fluctuations in the resting brain and obtain a better understanding of the local spatial behavior of fMRI. This exploratory study has demonstrated the utility of nonlinear dynamical techniques like spatial embedding in analyzing fMRI data to gain meaningful insights into the working of human brain.

  18. Investigating the neural mechanisms of aware and unaware fear memory with FMRI.

    PubMed

    Knight, David C; Wood, Kimberly H

    2011-10-06

    Pavlovian fear conditioning is often used in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in humans to investigate the neural substrates of associative learning. In these studies, it is important to provide behavioral evidence of conditioning to verify that differences in brain activity are learning-related and correlated with human behavior. Fear conditioning studies often monitor autonomic responses (e.g. skin conductance response; SCR) as an index of learning and memory. In addition, other behavioral measures can provide valuable information about the learning process and/or other cognitive functions that influence conditioning. For example, the impact unconditioned stimulus (UCS) expectancies have on the expression of the conditioned response (CR) and unconditioned response (UCR) has been a topic of interest in several recent studies. SCR and UCS expectancy measures have recently been used in conjunction with fMRI to investigate the neural substrates of aware and unaware fear learning and memory processes. Although these cognitive processes can be evaluated to some degree following the conditioning session, post-conditioning assessments cannot measure expectations on a trial-to-trial basis and are susceptible to interference and forgetting, as well as other factors that may distort results. Monitoring autonomic and behavioral responses simultaneously with fMRI provides a mechanism by which the neural substrates that mediate complex relationships between cognitive processes and behavioral/autonomic responses can be assessed. However, monitoring autonomic and behavioral responses in the MRI environment poses a number of practical problems. Specifically, 1) standard behavioral and physiological monitoring equipment is constructed of ferrous material that cannot be safely used near the MRI scanner, 2) when this equipment is placed outside of the MRI scanning chamber, the cables projecting to the subject can carry RF noise that produces artifacts in

  19. Taking one's time in feeling other-race pain: an event-related potential investigation on the time-course of cross-racial empathy.

    PubMed

    Sessa, Paola; Meconi, Federica; Castelli, Luigi; Dell'Acqua, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    Using the event-related potential (ERP) approach, we tracked the time-course of white participants' empathic reactions to white (own-race) and black (other-race) faces displayed in a painful condition (i.e. with a needle penetrating the skin) and in a nonpainful condition (i.e. with Q-tip touching the skin). In a 280-340 ms time-window, neural responses to the pain of own-race individuals under needle penetration conditions were amplified relative to neural responses to the pain of other-race individuals displayed under analogous conditions. This ERP reaction to pain, whose source was localized in the inferior frontal gyrus, correlated with the empathic concern ratings of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index questionnaire. In a 400-750 ms time-window, the difference between neural reactions to the pain of own-race individuals, localized in the middle frontal gyrus and other-race individuals, localized in the temporoparietal junction was reduced to nil. These findings support a functional, neural and temporal distinction between two sequential processing stages underlying empathy, namely, a race-biased stage of pain sharing/mirroring followed by a race-unbiased stage of cognitive evaluation of pain.

  20. Taking one’s time in feeling other-race pain: an event-related potential investigation on the time-course of cross-racial empathy

    PubMed Central

    Meconi, Federica; Castelli, Luigi; Dell’Acqua, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Using the event-related potential (ERP) approach, we tracked the time-course of white participants’ empathic reactions to white (own-race) and black (other-race) faces displayed in a painful condition (i.e. with a needle penetrating the skin) and in a nonpainful condition (i.e. with Q-tip touching the skin). In a 280–340 ms time-window, neural responses to the pain of own-race individuals under needle penetration conditions were amplified relative to neural responses to the pain of other-race individuals displayed under analogous conditions. This ERP reaction to pain, whose source was localized in the inferior frontal gyrus, correlated with the empathic concern ratings of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index questionnaire. In a 400–750 ms time-window, the difference between neural reactions to the pain of own-race individuals, localized in the middle frontal gyrus and other-race individuals, localized in the temporoparietal junction was reduced to nil. These findings support a functional, neural and temporal distinction between two sequential processing stages underlying empathy, namely, a race-biased stage of pain sharing/mirroring followed by a race-unbiased stage of cognitive evaluation of pain. PMID:23314008

  1. Mindfulness training for adolescents: A neurodevelopmental perspective on investigating modifications in attention and emotion regulation using event-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Sanger, Kevanne Louise; Dorjee, Dusana

    2015-09-01

    Mindfulness training is increasingly being introduced in schools, yet studies examining its impact on the developing brain have been scarce. A neurodevelopmental perspective on mindfulness has been advocated as a powerful tool to enhance our understanding of underlying neurocognitive changes that have implications for developmental well-being research and the implementation of mindfulness in education. To stimulate more research in the developmental cognitive neuroscience of mindfulness, this article outlines possible indexes of mindfulness-based change in adolescence, with a focus on event-related brain potential (ERP) markers. We provide methodological recommendations for future studies and offer examples of research paradigms. We also discuss how mindfulness practice could impact on the development of prefrontal brain structures and enhance attention control and emotion regulation skills in adolescents, impacting in turn on their self-regulation and coping skills. We highlight advantages of the ERP methodology in neurodevelopmental research of mindfulness. It is proposed that research using established experimental tasks targeting ERP components such as the contingent negative variability, N200, error-related negativity and error positivity, P300, and late positive potential could elucidate developmentally salient shifts in the neural plasticity of the adolescent brain induced by mindfulness practice.

  2. Childhood trauma affects processing of social interactions in borderline personality disorder: An event-related potential study investigating empathy for pain.

    PubMed

    Flasbeck, Vera; Enzi, Björn; Brüne, Martin

    2017-06-15

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have difficulties in empathising with others and show disturbances in social interactions. Using a 'Social Interaction Empathy Task', we found that BPD patients judged neutral and psychologically painful conditions as more painful than healthy subjects. Here, we present the neural correlates underlying these differences in empathy for pain. Female BPD patients and healthy controls completed the 'Social Interaction Empathy Task' during EEG recording. Event-related potentials (ERP) were analysed for an early anterior component and a late latency positivity. Empathic abilities were assessed using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index and early aversive experiences were measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). ERPs in the patient group matched the behaviour results and correlated with the level of personal distress and CTQ. In addition, ERPs of patients were predicted by childhood maltreatment and stress. Taken together, our findings indicate that the observed behavioural differences between patients with BPD and controls might be due to modulatory effects of empathic abilities on the evaluation of pain-related social stimuli, which are supposed to be based on childhood maltreatment.

  3. Distinct neural correlates for pragmatic and semantic meaning processing: an event-related potential investigation of scalar implicature processing using picture-sentence verification.

    PubMed

    Politzer-Ahles, Stephen; Fiorentino, Robert; Jiang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2013-01-15

    The present study examines the brain-level representation and composition of meaning in scalar quantifiers (e.g., some), which have both a semantic meaning (at least one) and a pragmatic meaning (not all). We adopted a picture-sentence verification design to examine event-related potential (ERP) effects of reading infelicitous quantifiers for which the semantic meaning was correct with respect to the context but the pragmatic meaning was not, compared to quantifiers for which the semantic meaning was inconsistent with the context and no additional pragmatic meaning is available. In the first experiment, only pragmatically inconsistent quantifiers, not semantically inconsistent quantifiers, elicited a sustained posterior negative component. This late negativity contrasts with the N400 effect typically elicited by nouns that are incongruent with their context, suggesting that the recognition of scalar implicature errors elicits a qualitatively different ERP signature than the recognition of lexico-semantic errors. We hypothesize that the sustained negativity reflects cancellation of the pragmatic inference and retrieval of the semantic meaning. In our second experiment, we found that the process of re-interpreting the quantifier was independent from lexico-semantic processing: the N400 elicited by lexico-semantic violations was not modulated by the presence of a pragmatic inconsistency. These findings suggest that inferential pragmatic aspects of meaning are processed using different mechanisms than lexical or combinatorial semantic aspects of meaning, that inferential pragmatic meaning can be realized rapidly, and that the computation of meaning involves continuous negotiation between different aspects of meaning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Distinct neural correlates for pragmatic and semantic meaning processing: An event-related potential investigation of scalar implicature processing using picture-sentence verification

    PubMed Central

    Politzer-Ahles, Stephen; Fiorentino, Robert; Jiang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the brain-level representation and composition of meaning in scalar quantifiers (e.g., some), which have both a semantic meaning (at least one) and a pragmatic meaning (not all). We adopted a picture-sentence verification design to examine event-related potential (ERP) effects of reading infelicitous quantifiers for which the semantic meaning was correct with respect to the context but the pragmatic meaning was not, compared to quantifiers for which the semantic meaning was inconsistent with the context and no additional pragmatic meaning is available. In the first experiment, only pragmatically inconsistent quantifiers, not semantically inconsistent quantifiers, elicited a sustained posterior negative component. This late negativity contrasts with the N400 effect typically elicited by nouns that are incongruent with their context, suggesting that the recognition of scalar implicature errors elicits a qualitatively different ERP signature than the recognition of lexico-semantic errors. We hypothesize that the sustained negativity reflects cancellation of the pragmatic inference and retrieval of the semantic meaning. In our second experiment, we found that the process of re-interpreting the quantifier was independent from lexico-semantic processing: the N400 elicited by lexico-semantic violations was not modulated by the presence of a pragmatic inconsistency. These findings suggest that inferential pragmatic aspects of meaning are processed using different mechanisms than lexical or combinatorial semantic aspects of meaning, that inferential pragmatic meaning can be realized rapidly, and that the computation of meaning involves continuous negotiation between different aspects of meaning. PMID:23103410

  5. Automatic numerical-spatial association in synaesthesia: An fMRI investigation.

    PubMed

    Arend, Isabel; Ashkenazi, Sarit; Yuen, Kenneth; Ofir, Shiran; Henik, Avishai

    2017-01-27

    A horizontal mental number line (MNL) is used to describe how quantities are represented across space. In humans, the neural correlates associated with such a representation are found in different areas of the posterior parietal cortex, especially, the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). In a phenomenon known as number-space synaesthesia, individuals visualise numbers in specific spatial locations. The experience of a MNL for number-space synaesthetes is explicit, idiosyncratic, and highly stable over time. It remains an open question whether the mechanisms underlying numerical-spatial association are shared by synaesthetes and nonsynaesthetes. We address the neural correlates of number-space association by examining the brain response in a number-space synaestheste (MkM) whose MNL differs dramatically in its ordinality and direction from that of a control group. MkM and 15 nonsynaesthetes compared the physical size of two numbers, while ignoring their numerical value, during an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging session (fMRI). Two factors were analysed: the numerical distance effect (NDE; e.g., 2-4 small distance vs. 1-6 large distance), and the size congruity effect (e.g., 2-8 congruent vs. 2-8 incongruent). Only for MkM, the NDE elicited significant activity in the left and right IPS, supramarginal gyrus (bilateral), and in the left angular gyrus. These results strongly support the role of the parietal cortex in the automatic coding of space and quantity in number-space synaesthesia, even when numerical values are task-irrelevant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Working memory dysfunction in delusional disorders: an fMRI investigation.

    PubMed

    Oflaz, Serap; Akyuz, Fatma; Hamamci, Andac; Firat, Zeynep; Keskinkılıç, Cahit; Kilickesmez, Ozgur; Cihangiroglu, Mutlu

    2014-09-01

    Delusional disorder (DD) is a rare and understudied psychiatric disorder. There is limited number of studies concerning cognitive characteristics in DD. Using an established working memory paradigm with variable levels of memory load, we investigated alterations in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of brain regions in patients with DD. This case control study included 9 patients with DD and 9 healthy control subjects matched for age, sex, and education level. Diagnosis of DD was confirmed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I. The severity of the symptoms was evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. All patients were asked to perform 0-back and 2-back tasks during fMRI experiments. Functional imaging was performed using the 3.0 T Philips whole-body scanner using an 8-channel head coil. Participants with DD had less neural activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in fMRI scans obtained during performance tasks. On the other hand, neural activation of the left and right superior temporal gyrus, left middle and inferior temporal gyrus, right and left posterior cingulate gyrus, right amygdala, left and right fusiform gyrus was more prominent in patients with DD in comparison with the control group. Patients with DD had dysfunction in the prefrontal, temporal and limbic regions of the brain in particular, during performance tasks of working memory. Our findings were in line with the findings of the early reports on deficient functioning in temporal or limbic regions of the brain. Further, patients with DD displayed prefrontal dysfunction as seen in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigating Inhibitory Control in Children with Epilepsy: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Triplett, Regina L.; Velanova, Katerina; Luna, Beatriz; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Gaillard, William D.; Asato, Miya R.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Deficits in executive function are increasingly noted in children with epilepsy and have been associated with poor academic and psychosocial outcomes. Impaired inhibitory control contributes to executive dysfunction in children with epilepsy; however, its neuroanatomic basis has not yet been investigated. We used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to probe the integrity of activation in brain regions underlying inhibitory control in children with epilepsy. Methods This cross-sectional study consisted of 34 children aged 8 to 17 years: 17 with well-controlled epilepsy and 17 age-and sex-matched controls. Participants performed the antisaccade (AS) task, representative of inhibitory control, during fMRI scanning. We compared AS performance during neutral and reward task conditions and evaluated task-related blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation. Results Children with epilepsy demonstrated impaired AS performance compared to controls during both neutral (non-reward) and reward trials, but exhibited significant task improvement during reward trials. Post-hoc analysis revealed that younger patients made more errors than older patients and all controls. fMRI results showed preserved activation in task-relevant regions in patients and controls, with the exception of increased activation in the left posterior cingulate gyrus in patients specifically with generalized epilepsy across neutral and reward trials. Significance Despite impaired inhibitory control, children with epilepsy accessed typical neural pathways as did their peers without epilepsy. Children with epilepsy showed improved behavioral performance in response to the reward condition, suggesting potential benefits of the use of incentives in cognitive remediation. PMID:25223606

  8. Compromised fronto-striatal functioning in HIV: an fMRI investigation of semantic event sequencing.

    PubMed

    Melrose, Rebecca J; Tinaz, Sule; Castelo, J Mimi Boer; Courtney, Maureen G; Stern, Chantal E

    2008-04-09

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) damages fronto-striatal regions, and is associated with deficits in executive functioning. We recently developed a semantic event sequencing task based on the Picture Arrangement subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III for use with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and found recruitment of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia in healthy participants. To assess the impact of HIV on the functioning of the basal ganglia and prefrontal cortex, we administered this task to 11 HIV+ and 11 Control participants matched for age and education. Neuropsychological evaluation demonstrated that the HIV+ group had mild impairment in memory retrieval and motor functioning, but was not demented. Morphometric measurements suggested no atrophy in basal ganglia regions. The results of the fMRI analysis revealed hypoactivation of the left caudate, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and bilateral ventral prefrontal cortex in the HIV+ group. Functional connectivity analysis demonstrated less functional connectivity between the caudate and prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia regions in the HIV+ group. In contrast, the HIV+ group demonstrated increased activation of right postcentral/supramarginal gyrus, and greater connectivity between the caudate and this same anterior parietal region. The results of this study extend previous investigations by demonstrating compromised function of the caudate and connected prefrontal regions in HIV during cognition. This disruption of fronto-striatal circuitry likely precedes the development of cognitive impairment in HIV.

  9. Advantages and disadvantages of a fast fMRI sequence in the context of EEG-fMRI investigation of epilepsy patients: A realistic simulation study.

    PubMed

    Safi-Harb, Mouna; Proulx, Sébastien; von Ellenrieder, Nicolas; Gotman, Jean

    2015-10-01

    EEG-fMRI is an established technique to allow mapping BOLD changes in response to interictal discharges recorded in the EEG of epilepsy patients. Traditional fMRI experiments rely on an echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence with a time resolution given by its time-to-repetition (TR) of ~2 s. Recently, multiple fast fMRI sequences have been developed to get around the limited temporal resolution of the EPI sequence, and achieved a TR in the 100 ms range or lower. One such sequence is called Magnetic Resonance EncephaloGraphy (MREG). Its high temporal resolution should offer increased detection sensitivity and statistical power in the context of epilepsy studies and in fMRI experiments in general. The aim of this work was to investigate the advantages and disadvantages offered by MREG. This was done by superimposing artificial event-related BOLD responses on EPI and MREG background signals, from 5 epileptic patients, that were free of epileptic discharges (spikes) on simultaneously recorded EEG. These functional datasets simulated different spiking rates and hemodynamic response amplitudes, and were analyzed with the commonly used General Linear Model (GLM) with the canonical hemodynamic response function (HRF) as a fixed model of the response. Robustness to violation of the assumptions of the GLM was additionally assessed with similar simulations using variable spike-to-spike response amplitudes and 8 non-canonical HRFs. Consistent with previous work, MREG yields higher maximum statistical t-values than EPI, but our simulations showed these statistics to be inflated, as the false positive rate at a standard threshold was high. At thresholds set to appropriately control specificity, EPI showed better true positive rate and larger cluster size than MREG. However, the lack of an appropriate calibration of the amplitude of the responses across the sequences precludes definitive judgment on their relative sensitivity. In addition, we show that a mismatch between the assumed

  10. The effects of musical training on movement pre-programming and re-programming abilities: an event-related potential investigation.

    PubMed

    Anatürk, Melis; Jentzsch, Ines

    2015-03-01

    Two response precuing experiments were conducted to investigate effects of musical skill level on the ability to pre- and re-programme simple movements. Participants successfully used advance information to prepare forthcoming responses and showed response slowing when precue information was invalid rather than valid. This slowing was, however, only observed for partially invalid but not fully invalid precues. Musicians were generally faster than non-musicians, but no group differences in the efficiency of movement pre-programming or re-programming were observed. Interestingly, only musicians exhibited a significant foreperiod lateralized readiness potential (LRP) when response hand was pre-specified or full advance information was provided. These LRP findings suggest increased effector-specific motor preparation in musicians than non-musicians. However, here the levels of effector-specific preparation did not predict preparatory advantages observed in behaviour. In sum, combining the response precuing and ERP paradigms serves a valuable tool to examine influences of musical training on movement pre- or re-programming processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The brain effects of laser acupuncture in healthy individuals: an FMRI investigation.

    PubMed

    Quah-Smith, Im; Sachdev, Perminder S; Wen, Wei; Chen, Xiaohua; Williams, Mark A

    2010-09-07

    As laser acupuncture is being increasingly used to treat mental disorders, we sought to determine whether it has a biologically plausible effect by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the cerebral activation patterns from laser stimulation of relevant acupoints. Ten healthy subjects were randomly stimulated with a fibreoptic infrared laser on 4 acupoints (LR14, CV14, LR8 and HT7) used for depression following the principles of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), and 1 control non-acupoint (sham point) in a blocked design (alternating verum laser and placebo laser/rest blocks), while the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI response was recorded from the whole brain on a 3T scanner. Many of the acupoint laser stimulation conditions resulted in different patterns of neural activity. Regions with significantly increased activation included the limbic cortex (cingulate) and the frontal lobe (middle and superior frontal gyrus). Laser acupuncture tended to be associated with ipsilateral brain activation and contralateral deactivation that therefore cannot be simply attributed to somatosensory stimulation. We found that laser stimulation of acupoints lead to activation of frontal-limbic-striatal brain regions, with the pattern of neural activity somewhat different for each acupuncture point. This is the first study to investigate laser acupuncture on a group of acupoints useful in the management of depression. Differing activity patterns depending on the acupoint site were demonstrated, suggesting that neurological effects vary with the site of stimulation. The mechanisms of activation and deactivation and their effects on depression warrant further investigation.

  12. The effects of skin tone on race-related amygdala activity: an fMRI investigation

    PubMed Central

    Denson, Thomas F.; Lickel, Brian; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Nandy, Anirvan; Maddox, Keith B.

    2007-01-01

    Previous work has shown differential amygdala response to African-American faces by Caucasian individuals. Furthermore, behavioral studies have demonstrated the existence of skin tone bias, the tendency to prefer light skin to dark skin. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether skin tone bias moderates differential race-related amygdala activity. Eleven White participants viewed photographs of unfamiliar Black and White faces with varied skin tone (light, dark). Replicating past research, greater amygdala activity was observed for Black faces than White faces. Furthermore, dark-skinned targets elicited more amygdala activity than light-skinned targets. However, these results were qualified by a significant interaction between race and skin tone, such that amygdala activity was observed at equivalent levels for light- and dark-skinned Black targets, but dark-skinned White targets elicited greater amygdala activity than light-skinned White targets. PMID:18985117

  13. The effects of skin tone on race-related amygdala activity: an fMRI investigation.

    PubMed

    Ronquillo, Jaclyn; Denson, Thomas F; Lickel, Brian; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Nandy, Anirvan; Maddox, Keith B

    2007-03-01

    Previous work has shown differential amygdala response to African-American faces by Caucasian individuals. Furthermore, behavioral studies have demonstrated the existence of skin tone bias, the tendency to prefer light skin to dark skin. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether skin tone bias moderates differential race-related amygdala activity. Eleven White participants viewed photographs of unfamiliar Black and White faces with varied skin tone (light, dark). Replicating past research, greater amygdala activity was observed for Black faces than White faces. Furthermore, dark-skinned targets elicited more amygdala activity than light-skinned targets. However, these results were qualified by a significant interaction between race and skin tone, such that amygdala activity was observed at equivalent levels for light- and dark-skinned Black targets, but dark-skinned White targets elicited greater amygdala activity than light-skinned White targets.

  14. An fMRI investigation of the impact of withdrawal on regional brain activity during nicotine anticipation

    PubMed Central

    Gloria, Rebecca; Angelos, Lisa; Schaefer, Hillary S.; Davis, James M.; Majeskie, Matthew; Richmond, Burke S.; Curtin, John J.; Davidson, Richard J.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research indicates that drug motivational systems are instantiated in structures that process information related to incentive, motivational drive, memorial, motor/habit, craving, and cognitive control processing. The present research tests the hypothesis that activity in such systems will be powerfully affected by the combination of drug anticipation and drug withdrawal. Event-related fMRI was used to examine activation in response to a pre-infusion warning cue in two experimental sessions that manipulated withdrawal status. Significant cue-induced effects were seen in the caudate, ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus, the insula, subcallosal gyrus, nucleus accumbens, and anterior cingulate. These results suggest that withdrawal and nicotine anticipation produce (1) different motor preparatory and inhibitory response processing and (2) different craving related processing. PMID:19490513

  15. Investigating the Group-Level Impact of Advanced Dual-Echo fMRI Combinations

    PubMed Central

    Kettinger, Ádám; Hill, Christopher; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán; Windischberger, Christian; Nagy, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    Multi-echo fMRI data acquisition has been widely investigated and suggested to optimize sensitivity for detecting the BOLD signal. Several methods have also been proposed for the combination of data with different echo times. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether these advanced echo combination methods provide advantages over the simple averaging of echoes when state-of-the-art group-level random-effect analyses are performed. Both resting-state and task-based dual-echo fMRI data were collected from 27 healthy adult individuals (14 male, mean age = 25.75 years) using standard echo-planar acquisition methods at 3T. Both resting-state and task-based data were subjected to a standard image pre-processing pipeline. Subsequently the two echoes were combined as a weighted average, using four different strategies for calculating the weights: (1) simple arithmetic averaging, (2) BOLD sensitivity weighting, (3) temporal-signal-to-noise ratio weighting and (4) temporal BOLD sensitivity weighting. Our results clearly show that the simple averaging of data with the different echoes is sufficient. Advanced echo combination methods may provide advantages on a single-subject level but when considering random-effects group level statistics they provide no benefit regarding sensitivity (i.e., group-level t-values) compared to the simple echo-averaging approach. One possible reason for the lack of clear advantages may be that apart from increasing the average BOLD sensitivity at the single-subject level, the advanced weighted averaging methods also inflate the inter-subject variance. As the echo combination methods provide very similar results, the recommendation is to choose between them depending on the availability of time for collecting additional resting-state data or whether subject-level or group-level analyses are planned. PMID:28018165

  16. Disrupted Prefrontal Activity during Emotion Processing in Complicated Grief: an fMRI Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Arizmendi, Brian; Kaszniak, Alfred W.; O’Connor, Mary-Frances

    2015-01-01

    Complicated Grief, marked by a persistent and intrusive grief lasting beyond the expected period of adaptation, is associated with a relative inability to disengage from idiographic loss-relevant stimuli (O’Connor & Arizmendi, 2014). In other populations, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies investigating the neural networks associated with this bias consistently implicate the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during emotion regulation. In the present study, twenty-eight older adults were categorized into three groups based on grief severity: Complicated Grief (n=8), Non-Complicated Grief (n=9), and Nonbereaved, married controls (n=11). Using a block design, all participants completed 8 blocks (20 stimuli per block) of the ecStroop task during fMRI data acquisition. Differences in neural activity during grief-related (as opposed to neutral) stimuli across groups were examined. Those with Complicated Grief showed an absence of increased rostral ACC (rACC) and fronto-cortical recruitment relative to Nonbereaved controls. Activity in the orbitofrontal cortex (x=6, y=54, z=−10) was significantly elevated in the Non-Complicated Grief group when compared to Nonbereaved controls. Post hoc analysis evidenced activity in the dorsal ACC in the Complicated Grief and Nonbereaved groups late in the task. These findings, supported by behavioral data, suggest a relative inability to recruit the regions necessary for successful completion of this emotional task in those with Complicated Grief. This deficit was not observed in recruitment of the orbitofrontal cortex and the rACC during processing of idiographic semantic stimuli in Non-Complicated Grief. PMID:26434802

  17. Disrupted prefrontal activity during emotion processing in complicated grief: An fMRI investigation.

    PubMed

    Arizmendi, Brian; Kaszniak, Alfred W; O'Connor, Mary-Frances

    2016-01-01

    Complicated Grief, marked by a persistent and intrusive grief lasting beyond the expected period of adaptation, is associated with a relative inability to disengage from idiographic loss-relevant stimuli (O'Connor and Arizmendi, 2014). In other populations, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies investigating the neural networks associated with this bias consistently implicate the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during emotion regulation. In the present study, twenty-eight older adults were categorized into three groups based on grief severity: Complicated Grief (n=8), Non-Complicated Grief (n=9), and Nonbereaved, married controls (n=11). Using a block design, all participants completed 8 blocks (20 stimuli per block) of the ecStroop task during fMRI data acquisition. Differences in neural activity during grief-related (as opposed to neutral) stimuli across groups were examined. Those with Complicated Grief showed an absence of increased rostral ACC (rACC) and fronto-cortical recruitment relative to Nonbereaved controls. Activity in the orbitofrontal cortex (x=6, y=54, z=-10) was significantly elevated in the Non-Complicated Grief group when compared to Nonbereaved controls. Post hoc analysis evidenced activity in the dorsal ACC in the Complicated Grief and Nonbereaved groups late in the task. These findings, supported by behavioral data, suggest a relative inability to recruit the regions necessary for successful completion of this emotional task in those with Complicated Grief. This deficit was not observed in recruitment of the orbitofrontal cortex and the rACC during processing of idiographic semantic stimuli in Non-Complicated Grief. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigation of effective connectivity in the motor cortex of fMRI data using Granger causality model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xingchun; Tang, Ni; Yin, Kai; Wu, Xia; Wen, Xiaotong; Yao, Li; Zhao, Xiaojie

    2007-03-01

    Effective connectivity of brain regions based on brain data (e.g. EEG, fMRI, etc.) is a focused research at present. Many researchers tried to investigate it using different methods. Granger causality model (GCM) is presently used to investigate effective connectivity of brain regions more and more. It can explore causal relationship between time series, meaning that if a time-series y causes x, then knowledge of y should help predict future values of x. In present work, time invariant GCM was applied to fMRI data considering slow changing of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD). The time invariant GCM often requires determining model order, estimating model parameters and significance test. In particular, we extended significance test method to make results more reasonable. The fMRI data were acquired from finger movement experiment of two right-handed subjects. We obtained the activation maps of two subjects using SPM'2 software firstly. Then we chose left SMA and left SMC as regions of interest (ROIs) with different radiuses, and calculated causality from left SMA to left SMC using the mean time courses of the two ROIs. The results from both subjects showed that left SMA influenced on left SMC. Hence GCM was suggested to be an effective approach in investigation of effective connectivity based on fMRI data.

  19. Neuroimaging measures of error-processing: Extracting reliable signals from event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Steele, Vaughn R; Anderson, Nathaniel E; Claus, Eric D; Bernat, Edward M; Rao, Vikram; Assaf, Michal; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Calhoun, Vince D; Kiehl, Kent A

    2016-05-15

    Error-related brain activity has become an increasingly important focus of cognitive neuroscience research utilizing both event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Given the significant time and resources required to collect these data, it is important for researchers to plan their experiments such that stable estimates of error-related processes can be achieved efficiently. Reliability of error-related brain measures will vary as a function of the number of error trials and the number of participants included in the averages. Unfortunately, systematic investigations of the number of events and participants required to achieve stability in error-related processing are sparse, and none have addressed variability in sample size. Our goal here is to provide data compiled from a large sample of healthy participants (n=180) performing a Go/NoGo task, resampled iteratively to demonstrate the relative stability of measures of error-related brain activity given a range of sample sizes and event numbers included in the averages. We examine ERP measures of error-related negativity (ERN/Ne) and error positivity (Pe), as well as event-related fMRI measures locked to False Alarms. We find that achieving stable estimates of ERP measures required four to six error trials and approximately 30 participants; fMRI measures required six to eight trials and approximately 40 participants. Fewer trials and participants were required for measures where additional data reduction techniques (i.e., principal component analysis and independent component analysis) were implemented. Ranges of reliability statistics for various sample sizes and numbers of trials are provided. We intend this to be a useful resource for those planning or evaluating ERP or fMRI investigations with tasks designed to measure error-processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The anatomy and time course of semantic priming investigated by fMRI and ERPs.

    PubMed

    Rossell, Susan L; Price, Cathy J; Nobre, A Christina

    2003-01-01

    We combined complementary non-invasive brain imaging techniques with behavioural measures to investigate the anatomy and time course of brain activity associated with semantic priming in a lexical-decision task. Participants viewed pairs of stimuli, and decided whether the second item was a real word or not. There were two variables, the semantic relationship between the prime and the target (related or unrelated) and the interval between the onset of prime and target (200 or 1000 ms), to vary the degree of semantic expectancy that was possible during task performance. Behavioural results replicated the well-established finding that identification of the target is facilitated by a preceding semantically related prime. Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (efMRI) identified two brain areas involved in the semantic-priming effect. Activity in the anterior medial temporal cortex was diminished when target words were primed by semantically related words, suggesting involvement of this brain region during active semantic association or integration. In contrast, activity in the left supramarginal gyrus in the temporal-parietal junction was enhanced for target words primed by semantically related words. Brain areas influenced by the interval between prime and target words, and by the interaction between word interval and semantic priming were also identified. A parallel experiment using event-related potentials (ERPs) unveiled a striking difference in the time course of semantic priming as a function of expectancy. In line with previous reports, the primary effect of semantic priming on ERPs was the attenuation of the N400 component, in both short- and long-interval conditions. However, the priming effect started significantly earlier in the long-interval condition. Activity in the anterior medial temporal cortex has previously been shown to contribute to the N400 component, a finding that links the priming results obtained with efMRI and ERP methods.

  1. An fMRI Study Investigating Adolescent Brain Activation by Rewards and Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won-Hee; Kim, Yeoung-Rang; Oh, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Ick; Shin, Chul-Jin; Kim, Sie-Kyeong; Ju, Gawon; Lee, Seungbok; Jo, Seongwoo; Ha, Tae Hyon

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the adolescent brain activation patterns in response to performance feedback (PF), social reward (SR) and monetary reward (MR) and their association with psychological factors. Methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed while middle school boys (n=15) performed tests pertained to PF, SR and MR. The brain activation pattern in each condition was investigated, and the extent of brain activation in each of the three conditions was compared at once. Results The caudate and the dorsal prefrontal area were activated in all three conditions. Furthermore, the cuneus showed significantly greater activation in the PF condition than the SR or MR condition. And the self - related areas, such as the right precentral gyrus and paracenral lobule, were more activated in the SR condition than the PF or MR condition. The left middle frontal gyrus was more activated in the MR condition than the PF or SR condition. Conclusion Not only various reward stimuli but also feedback stimulus might commonly activate dorsal prefrontal and subcortical area in adolescents. Moreover, several different brain activation patterns were also observed in each condition. The results of this study could be applied to planning of learning and teaching strategy for adolescents in various ways. PMID:23482680

  2. Functional topography of the corpus callosum investigated by DTI and fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Fabri, Mara; Pierpaoli, Chiara; Barbaresi, Paolo; Polonara, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    This short review examines the most recent functional studies of the topographic organization of the human corpus callosum, the main interhemispheric commissure. After a brief description of its anatomy, development, microstructure, and function, it examines and discusses the latest findings obtained using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography (DTT) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), three recently developed imaging techniques that have significantly expanded and refined our knowledge of the commissure. While DTI and DTT have been providing insights into its microstructure, integrity and level of myelination, fMRI has been the key technique in documenting the activation of white matter fibers, particularly in the corpus callosum. By combining DTT and fMRI it has been possible to describe the trajectory of the callosal fibers interconnecting the primary olfactory, gustatory, motor, somatic sensory, auditory and visual cortices at sites where the activation elicited by peripheral stimulation was detected by fMRI. These studies have demonstrated the presence of callosal fiber tracts that cross the commissure at the level of the genu, body, and splenium, at sites showing fMRI activation. Altogether such findings lend further support to the notion that the corpus callosum displays a functional topographic organization that can be explored with fMRI. PMID:25550994

  3. Combining fMRI and SNP Data to Investigate Connections Between Brain Function and Genetics Using Parallel ICA

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingyu; Pearlson, Godfrey; Windemuth, Andreas; Ruano, Gualberto; Perrone-Bizzozero, Nora I.; Calhoun, Vince

    2009-01-01

    There is current interest in understanding genetic influences on both healthy and disordered brain function. We assessed brain function with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data collected during an auditory oddball task—detecting an infrequent sound within a series of frequent sounds. Then, task-related imaging findings were utilized as potential intermediate phenotypes (endophenotypes) to investigate genomic factors derived from a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. Our target is the linkage of these genomic factors to normal/abnormal brain functionality. We explored parallel independent component analysis (paraICA) as a new method for analyzing multimodal data. The method was aimed to identify simultaneously independent components of each modality and the relationships between them. When 43 healthy controls and 20 schizophrenia patients, all Caucasian, were studied, we found a correlation of 0.38 between one fMRI component and one SNP component. This fMRI component consisted mainly of parietal lobe activations. The relevant SNP component was contributed to significantly by 10 SNPs located in genes, including those coding for the nicotinic α-7cholinergic receptor, aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, disrupted in schizophrenia 1, among others. Both fMRI and SNP components showed significant differences in loading parameters between the schizophrenia and control groups (P = 0.0006 for the fMRI component; P = 0.001 for the SNP component). In summary, we constructed a framework to identify interactions between brain functional and genetic information; our findings provide a proof-of-concept that genomic SNP factors can be investigated by using endophenotypic imaging findings in a multivariate format. PMID:18072279

  4. Investigating the impact of sex and cortisol on implicit fear conditioning with fMRI.

    PubMed

    Merz, Christian J; Tabbert, Katharina; Schweckendiek, Jan; Klucken, Tim; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf; Wolf, Oliver T

    2010-01-01

    Fear conditioning is influenced by stress but opposing effects in males and females have often been reported. In a previous human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we observed acute effects of the stress hormone cortisol on prefrontal structures. Men showed evidence for impaired fear conditioning after cortisol treatment, while the opposite pattern was found for women. In the current experiment, we tested whether similar sex-dependent effects would occur on the neural level if contingency awareness was prevented experimentally to investigate implicit learning processes. A differential fear conditioning experiment with transcutaneous electrical stimulation as unconditioned stimulus and geometric figures as conditioned stimuli (CS) was conducted. One figure was always paired (CS+), whereas the other (CS-) was never paired with the UCS. Thirty-nine (19 female) subjects participated in this fMRI study, receiving either placebo or 30 mg cortisol (hydrocortisone) before conditioning. Dependent variables were skin conductance responses (SCRs) and neural activity (BOLD signal). In line with prior findings in unaware participants, no differential learning could be observed for the SCRs. However, a sex x cortisol interaction was detected with a reduced mean response to the CS after cortisol treatment in men, while the opposite pattern was observed in women (enhanced mean SCR under cortisol). In the contrast CS+ minus CS-, neural activity showed a sex x cortisol interaction in the insula and further trends in the hippocampus and the thalamus. In these regions, cortisol reduced the CS+/CS- differentiation in men but enhanced it in women. In contrast to these sex specific effects, differential amygdala activation was found in the placebo group but not in the cortisol group, irrespective of sex. Further, differential neural activity in the amygdala and thalamus were positively correlated with the SCRs in the placebo group only. The present study in contingency

  5. Paying attention to emotion: an fMRI investigation of cognitive and emotional stroop tasks.

    PubMed

    Compton, Rebecca J; Banich, Marie T; Mohanty, Aprajita; Milham, Michael P; Herrington, John; Miller, Gregory A; Scalf, Paige E; Webb, Andrew; Heller, Wendy

    2003-06-01

    In this research, we investigated the degree to which brain systems involved in ignoring emotionally salient information differ from those involved in ignoring nonemotional information. The design allowed examination of regional brain activity, using fMRI during color-word and emotional Stroop tasks. Twelve participants indicated the color of words while ignoring word meaning in conditions in which neutral words were contrasted to emotionally negative, emotionally positive, and incongruent color words. Dorsolateral frontal lobe activity was increased by both negative and incongruent color words, indicating a common system for maintaining an attentional set in the presence of salient distractors. In posterior regions of the brain, activity depended on the nature of the information to be ignored. Ignoring color-incongruent words increased left parietal activity and decreased parahippocampal gyrus activity, whereas ignoring negative emotional words increased bilateral occipito-temporal activity and decreased amygdala activity. The results indicate that emotion and attention are intimately related via a network of regions that monitor for salient information, maintain attention on the task, suppress irrelevant information, and select appropriate responses.

  6. An fMRI investigation of responses to peer rejection in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Masten, Carrie L; Colich, Natalie L; Rudie, Jeffrey D; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Eisenberger, Naomi I; Dapretto, Mirella

    2011-07-01

    Peer rejection is particularly pervasive among adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, how adolescents with ASD differ from typically developing adolescents in their responses to peer rejection is poorly understood. The goal of the current investigation was to examine neural responses to peer exclusion among adolescents with ASD compared to typically developing adolescents. Nineteen adolescents with ASD and 17 typically developing controls underwent fMRI as they were ostensibly excluded by peers during an online game called Cyberball. Afterwards, participants reported their distress about the exclusion. Compared to typically developing adolescents, those with ASD displayed less activity in regions previously linked with the distressing aspect of peer exclusion, including the subgenual anterior cingulate and anterior insula, as well as less activity in regions previously linked with the regulation of distress responses during peer exclusion, including the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum. Interestingly, however, both groups self-reported equivalent levels of distress. This suggests that adolescents with ASD may engage in differential processing of social experiences at the neural level, but be equally aware of, and concerned about, peer rejection. Overall, these findings contribute new insights about how this population may differentially experience negative social events in their daily lives.

  7. Neural correlates of an illusory touch experience investigated with fMRI.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Donna M; McKenzie, Kirsten J; Brown, Richard J; Poliakoff, Ellen

    2011-10-01

    When asked to judge the presence or absence of near-threshold tactile stimuli, participants often report touch experiences when no tactile stimulation has been delivered ('false alarms'). The simultaneous presentation of a light flash during the stimulation period can increase the frequency of touch reports, both when touch is and is not present. Using fMRI, we investigated the BOLD response during both light-present and light-absent false alarms, testing predictions concerning two possible neural mechanisms underlying these illusory touch experiences: activation of a tactile representation in primary somatosensory cortex (SI) and/or activation of a tactile representation in late processing areas outside of sensory-specific cortex, such as medial prefrontal cortex (MPC). Our behavioural results showed that participants made false alarms in light-present and light-absent trials, both of which activated regions of the medial parietal and medial prefrontal cortex including precuneus, posterior cingulate and paracingulate cortex, suggesting the same underlying mechanism. However, only a non-significant increase in SI activity was measured in response to false alarm vs. correct rejection trials. We argue that our results provide evidence for the role of top-down regions in somatic misperception, consistent with findings from studies in humans and non-human primates.

  8. Semantic association investigated with fMRI and independent component analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang Ki; Karunanayaka, Prasanna; Privitera, Michael D.; Holland, Scott K.; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.

    2010-01-01

    Semantic association, an essential element of human language, enables discourse and inference. Neuroimaging studies have revealed localization and lateralization of semantic circuitry making substantial contributions to cognitive neuroscience. However, due to methodological limitations, these investigations have only identified individual functional components rather than capturing the behavior of the entire network. To overcome these limitations, we have implemented group independent component analysis (ICA) to investigate the cognitive modules used by healthy adults performing fMRI semantic decision task. When compared to the results of a standard GLM analysis, ICA detected several additional brain regions subserving semantic decision. Eight task-related group ICA maps were identified including left inferior frontal gyrus (BA44/45), middle posterior temporal gyrus (BA39/22), angular gyrus/inferior parietal lobule (BA39/40), posterior cingulate (BA30), bilateral lingual gyrus (BA18/23), inferior frontal gyrus (L>R, BA47), hippocampus with parahippocampal gyrus (L>R, BA35/36) and anterior cingulate (BA32/24). While most of the components were represented bilaterally, we found a single, highly left-lateralized component that included the inferior frontal gyrus and the medial and superior temporal gyri, the angular and supramarginal gyri and the inferior parietal cortex. The presence of these spatially independent ICA components implies functional connectivity and can be equated with their modularity. These results are analyzed and presented in the framework of a biologically plausible theoretical model in preparation for similar analyses in patients with right- or left-hemispheric epilepsies. PMID:21296027

  9. fMRI investigation of unexpected somatosensory feedback perturbation during speech.

    PubMed

    Golfinopoulos, Elisa; Tourville, Jason A; Bohland, Jason W; Ghosh, Satrajit S; Nieto-Castanon, Alfonso; Guenther, Frank H

    2011-04-01

    Somatosensory feedback plays a critical role in the coordination of articulator movements for speech production. In response to unexpected resistance to lip or jaw movements during speech, fluent speakers can use the difference between the somatosensory expectations of a speech sound and the actual somatosensory feedback to adjust the trajectories of functionally relevant but unimpeded articulators. In an effort to investigate the neural substrates underlying the somatosensory feedback control of speech, we used an event-related sparse sampling functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm and a novel pneumatic device that unpredictably blocked subjects' jaw movements. In comparison to speech, perturbed speech, in which jaw perturbation prompted the generation of compensatory speech motor commands, demonstrated increased effects in bilateral ventral motor cortex, right-lateralized anterior supramarginal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus pars triangularis and ventral premotor cortex, and bilateral inferior posterior cerebellum (lobule VIII). Structural equation modeling revealed a significant increased influence from left anterior supramarginal gyrus to right anterior supramarginal gyrus and from left anterior supramarginal gyrus to right ventral premotor cortex as well as a significant increased reciprocal influence between right ventral premotor cortex and right ventral motor cortex and right anterior supramarginal gyrus and right inferior frontal gyrus pars triangularis for perturbed speech relative to speech. These results suggest that bilateral anterior supramarginal gyrus, right inferior frontal gyrus pars triangularis, right ventral premotor and motor cortices are functionally coupled and influence speech motor output when somatosensory feedback is unexpectedly perturbed during speech production.

  10. fMRI investigation of unexpected somatosensory feedback perturbation during speech

    PubMed Central

    Golfinopoulos, Elisa; Tourville, Jason A.; Bohland, Jason W.; Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Nieto-Castanon, Alfonso; Guenther, Frank H.

    2011-01-01

    Somatosensory feedback plays a critical role in the coordination of articulator movements for speech production. In response to unexpected resistance to lip or jaw movements during speech, fluent speakers can use the difference between the somatosensory expectations of a speech sound and the actual somatosensory feedback to adjust the trajectories of functionally relevant but unimpeded articulators. In an effort to investigate the neural substrates underlying the somatosensory feedback control of speech, we used an event-related sparse sampling functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm and a novel pneumatic device that unpredictably blocked subjects’ jaw movements. In comparison to speech, perturbed speech, in which jaw perturbation prompted the generation of compensatory speech motor commands, demonstrated increased effects in bilateral ventral motor cortex, right-lateralized anterior supramarginal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus pars triangularis and ventral premotor cortex, and bilateral inferior posterior cerebellum (lobule VIII). Structural equation modeling revealed a significant increased influence from left anterior supramarginal gyrus to right anterior supramarginal gyrus and from left anterior supramarginal gyrus to right ventral premotor cortex as well as a significant increased reciprocal influence between right ventral premotor cortex and right ventral motor cortex and right anterior supramarginal gyrus and right inferior frontal gyrus pars triangularis for perturbed speech relative to speech. These results suggest that bilateral anterior supramarginal gyrus, right inferior frontal gyrus pars triangularis, right ventral premotor and motor cortices are functionally coupled and influence speech motor output when somatosensory feedback is unexpectedly perturbed during speech production. PMID:21195191

  11. Neural correlates of fine-grained meaning distinctions: An fMRI investigation of scalar quantifiers.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Jiayu; Jiang, Xiaoming; Politzer-Ahles, Stephen; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2017-08-01

    Communication involves successfully deriving a speaker's meaning beyond the literal expression. Using fMRI, it was investigated how the listener's brain realizes distinctions between enrichment-based meanings and literal semantic meanings. The neural patterns of the Mandarin scalar quantifier you-de (similar to some in English) which implies the meanings not all and not most via scalar enrichment, with the specific quantifier shao-shu-de (similar to less than half in English) which lexico-semantically encodes the meanings not all and not most, were compared. Listeners heard sentences using either quantifier, paired with pictures in which either less than half, more than half, or all of the people depicted in the picture were doing the described activity; thus, the conditions included both implicature-based and semantics-based picture-sentence mismatches. Imaging results showed bilateral ventral IFG was activated for both kinds of mismatch, whereas basal ganglia and left dorsal IFG were activated uniquely for implicature-based mismatch. These findings suggest that resolving conflicts involving inferential aspects of meaning employs different neural mechanisms than the processing based on literal semantic meaning, and that the dorsal prefrontal/basal ganglia pathway makes a contribution to implicature-based interpretation. Furthermore, within the implicature-based conditions, different neural generators were implicated in the processing of strong implicature mismatch (you-de in the context of a picture in which "all" would have been true) and weak implicature mismatch (you-de in the context of a picture in which "most" would have been true), which may have important implications for theories of pragmatic comprehension. Hum Brain Mapp 38:3848-3864, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Social economic decision-making across the lifespan: an fMRI investigation

    PubMed Central

    Harlé, Katia M.; Sanfey, Alan G.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research in neuroeconomics suggests that social economic decision-making may be best understood as a dual-systems process, integrating the influence of deliberative and affective subsystems. However, most of this research has focused on young adults and it remains unclear whether our current models extend to healthy aging. To address this question, we investigated the behavioral and neural basis of simple economic decisions in 18 young and 20 older healthy adults. Participants made decisions which involved accepting or rejecting monetary offers from human and non-human (computer) partners in an Ultimatum Game, while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The partners’ proposals involved splitting an amount of money between the two players, and ranged from $1 to $5 (from a $10 pot). Relative to young adults, older participants expected more equitable offers and rejected moderately unfair offers ($3) to a larger extent. Imaging results revealed that, relative to young participants, older adults had higher activations in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) when receiving unfair offers ($1–$3). Age group moderated the relationship between left DLPFC activation and acceptance rates of unfair offers. In contrast, older adults showed lower activation of bilateral anterior insula in response to unfair offers. No age group difference was observed when participants received fair ($5) offers. These findings suggest that healthy aging may be associated with a stronger reliance on computational areas subserving goal maintenance and rule shifting (DLPFC) during interactive economic decision-making. Consistent with a well-documented “positivity effect”, older age may also decrease recruitment of areas involved in emotion processing and integration (anterior insula) in the face of social norm violation. PMID:22414593

  13. Social economic decision-making across the lifespan: An fMRI investigation.

    PubMed

    Harlé, Katia M; Sanfey, Alan G

    2012-06-01

    Recent research in neuroeconomics suggests that social economic decision-making may be best understood as a dual-systems process, integrating the influence of deliberative and affective subsystems. However, most of this research has focused on young adults and it remains unclear whether our current models extend to healthy aging. To address this question, we investigated the behavioral and neural basis of simple economic decisions in 18 young and 20 older healthy adults. Participants made decisions which involved accepting or rejecting monetary offers from human and non-human (computer) partners in an Ultimatum Game, while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The partners' proposals involved splitting an amount of money between the two players, and ranged from $1 to $5 (from a $10 pot). Relative to young adults, older participants expected more equitable offers and rejected moderately unfair offers ($3) to a larger extent. Imaging results revealed that, relative to young participants, older adults had higher activations in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) when receiving unfair offers ($1-$3). Age group moderated the relationship between left DLPFC activation and acceptance rates of unfair offers. In contrast, older adults showed lower activation of bilateral anterior insula in response to unfair offers. No age group difference was observed when participants received fair ($5) offers. These findings suggest that healthy aging may be associated with a stronger reliance on computational areas subserving goal maintenance and rule shifting (DLPFC) during interactive economic decision-making. Consistent with a well-documented "positivity effect", older age may also decrease recruitment of areas involved in emotion processing and integration (anterior insula) in the face of social norm violation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Chemosensory anxiety cues moderate the experience of social exclusion - an fMRI investigation with Cyberball.

    PubMed

    Wudarczyk, Olga A; Kohn, Nils; Bergs, Rene; Gur, Raquel E; Turetsky, Bruce; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the experience of stress can be communicated between individuals via chemosensory cues. Little is known, however, about the impact of these cues on neurophysiological responses during a socially threatening situation. In the current investigation we implemented a widely used paradigm to study social exclusion-Cyberball-to examine whether chemosensory cues signaling anxiety modulate the neuronal effects of ostracism. In a double-blind, within-subjects design, 24 healthy, normosmic participants were presented with chemosensory cues of anxiety (or control samples) and completed the Cyberball task while in a 3T fMRI scanner. Axillary sweat collected from male students awaiting an oral examination served as the anxiety cues while the chemosensory control stimuli consisted of sweat collected from the same individuals participating in an ergometer training session. The neuroimaging data revealed that under the control chemosensory condition, exclusion from Cyberball was associated with significantly higher orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex activity, which is consistent with previous studies in the field. However, when participants were primed with the anxiety sweat, the activity in these regions was not observed. Further, under exposure to anxiety cues during ostracism the participants showed deactivations in brain regions involved in memory (hippocampus), social cognition (middle temporal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus) and processing of salience (inferior frontal gyrus). These results suggest that successful communication of anxiety via the chemosensory domain may moderate the experience of social exclusion. It is possible that the anxiety signals make it easier for the individuals to detach from the group, pointing to the communicative role of chemosensory anxiety cues in enhancing adjustment mechanisms in light of a distressing situation.

  15. An fMRI Investigation of the Neural Correlates Underlying the Processing of Novel Metaphoric Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashal, N.; Faust, M.; Hendler, T.; Jung-Beeman, M.

    2007-01-01

    The neural networks associated with processing related pairs of words forming literal, novel, and conventional metaphorical expressions and unrelated pairs of words were studied in a group of 15 normal adults using fMRI. Subjects read the four types of linguistic expressions and decided which relation exists between the two words (metaphoric,…

  16. Differences in Processing of Taxonomic and Sequential Relations in Semantic Memory: An fMRI Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchinke, Lars; van der Meer, Elke; Krueger, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Conceptual knowledge of our world is represented in semantic memory in terms of concepts and semantic relations between concepts. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the cortical regions underlying the processing of sequential and taxonomic relations. Participants were presented verbal cues and performed three tasks:…

  17. An fMRI Investigation of the Neural Correlates Underlying the Processing of Novel Metaphoric Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashal, N.; Faust, M.; Hendler, T.; Jung-Beeman, M.

    2007-01-01

    The neural networks associated with processing related pairs of words forming literal, novel, and conventional metaphorical expressions and unrelated pairs of words were studied in a group of 15 normal adults using fMRI. Subjects read the four types of linguistic expressions and decided which relation exists between the two words (metaphoric,…

  18. Differences in Processing of Taxonomic and Sequential Relations in Semantic Memory: An fMRI Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchinke, Lars; van der Meer, Elke; Krueger, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Conceptual knowledge of our world is represented in semantic memory in terms of concepts and semantic relations between concepts. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the cortical regions underlying the processing of sequential and taxonomic relations. Participants were presented verbal cues and performed three tasks:…

  19. Event-related Potentials Reveal Age Differences in the Encoding and Recognition of Scenes

    PubMed Central

    Gutchess, Angela H.; Ieuji, Yoko; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2009-01-01

    The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate how the encoding and recognition of complex scenes change with normal aging. Although functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified more drastic age impairments at encoding than at recognition, ERP studies accumulate more evidence for age differences at retrieval. However, stimulus type and paradigm differences across the two literatures have made direct comparisons difficult. Here, we collected young and elderly adults’ encoding- and recognition-phase ERPs using the same materials and paradigm as a previous fMRI study. Twenty young and 20 elderly adults incidentally encoded and then recognized photographs of outdoor scenes. During encoding, young adults showed a frontocentral subsequent memory effect, with high-confidence hits exhibiting greater positivity than misses. Elderly adults showed a similar subsequent memory effect, which, however, did not differ as a function of confidence. During recognition, young adults elicited a widespread old/new effect, and high-confidence hits were distinct from both low-confidence hits and false alarms. Elderly adults elicited a smaller and later old/new effect, which was unaffected by confidence, and hits and false alarms were indistinguishable in the waveforms. Consistent with prior ERP work, these results point to important age-related changes in recognition-phase brain activity, even when behavioral measures of memory and confidence pattern similarly across groups. We speculate that memory processes with different time signatures contribute to the apparent differences across encoding and retrieval stages, and across methods. PMID:17583986

  20. Emotional facial expression processing in depression: data from behavioral and event-related potential studies.

    PubMed

    Delle-Vigne, D; Wang, W; Kornreich, C; Verbanck, P; Campanella, S

    2014-04-01

    Behavioral literature investigating emotional processes in depressive populations (i.e., unipolar and bipolar depression) states that, compared to healthy controls, depressive subjects exhibit disrupted emotional processing, indexed by lower performance and/or delayed response latencies. The development of brain imaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), provided the possibility to visualize the brain regions engaged in emotional processes and how they fail to interact in psychiatric diseases. However, fMRI suffers from poor temporal resolution and cognitive function involves various steps and cognitive stages (serially or in parallel) to give rise to a normal performance. Thus, the origin of a behavioral deficit may result from the alteration of a cognitive stage differently situated along the information-processing stream, outlining the importance of access to this dynamic "temporal" information. In this paper, we will illustrate, through depression, the role that should be attributed to cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs). Indeed, owing to their optimal temporal resolution, ERPs can monitor the neural processes engaged in disrupted cognitive function and provide crucial information for its treatment, training of the impaired cognitive functions and guidelines for clinicians in the choice and monitoring of appropriate medication for the patient.

  1. Dimensionality of ICA in resting-state fMRI investigated by feature optimized classification of independent components with SVM

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanlu; Li, Tie-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Different machine learning algorithms have recently been used for assisting automated classification of independent component analysis (ICA) results from resting-state fMRI data. The success of this approach relies on identification of artifact components and meaningful functional networks. A limiting factor of ICA is the uncertainty of the number of independent components (NIC). We aim to develop a framework based on support vector machines (SVM) and optimized feature-selection for automated classification of independent components (ICs) and use the framework to investigate the effects of input NIC on the ICA results. Seven different resting-state fMRI datasets were studied. 18 features were devised by mimicking the empirical criteria for manual evaluation. The five most significant (p < 0.01) features were identified by general linear modeling and used to generate a classification model for the framework. This feature-optimized classification of ICs with SVM (FOCIS) framework was used to classify both group and single subject ICA results. The classification results obtained using FOCIS and previously published FSL-FIX were compared against manually evaluated results. On average the false negative rate in identifying artifact contaminated ICs for FOCIS and FSL-FIX were 98.27 and 92.34%, respectively. The number of artifact and functional network components increased almost linearly with the input NIC. Through tracking, we demonstrate that incrementing NIC affects most ICs when NIC < 33, whereas only a few limited ICs are affected by direct splitting when NIC is incremented beyond NIC > 40. For a given IC, its changes with increasing NIC are individually specific irrespective whether the component is a potential resting-state functional network or an artifact component. Using FOCIS, we investigated experimentally the ICA dimensionality of resting-state fMRI datasets and found that the input NIC can critically affect the ICA results of resting-state fMRI data. PMID

  2. Dimensionality of ICA in resting-state fMRI investigated by feature optimized classification of independent components with SVM.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanlu; Li, Tie-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Different machine learning algorithms have recently been used for assisting automated classification of independent component analysis (ICA) results from resting-state fMRI data. The success of this approach relies on identification of artifact components and meaningful functional networks. A limiting factor of ICA is the uncertainty of the number of independent components (NIC). We aim to develop a framework based on support vector machines (SVM) and optimized feature-selection for automated classification of independent components (ICs) and use the framework to investigate the effects of input NIC on the ICA results. Seven different resting-state fMRI datasets were studied. 18 features were devised by mimicking the empirical criteria for manual evaluation. The five most significant (p < 0.01) features were identified by general linear modeling and used to generate a classification model for the framework. This feature-optimized classification of ICs with SVM (FOCIS) framework was used to classify both group and single subject ICA results. The classification results obtained using FOCIS and previously published FSL-FIX were compared against manually evaluated results. On average the false negative rate in identifying artifact contaminated ICs for FOCIS and FSL-FIX were 98.27 and 92.34%, respectively. The number of artifact and functional network components increased almost linearly with the input NIC. Through tracking, we demonstrate that incrementing NIC affects most ICs when NIC < 33, whereas only a few limited ICs are affected by direct splitting when NIC is incremented beyond NIC > 40. For a given IC, its changes with increasing NIC are individually specific irrespective whether the component is a potential resting-state functional network or an artifact component. Using FOCIS, we investigated experimentally the ICA dimensionality of resting-state fMRI datasets and found that the input NIC can critically affect the ICA results of resting-state fMRI data.

  3. Processing of zero-derived words in English: an fMRI investigation.

    PubMed

    Pliatsikas, Christos; Wheeldon, Linda; Lahiri, Aditi; Hansen, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    Derivational morphological processes allow us to create new words (e.g. punish (V) to noun (N) punishment) from base forms. The number of steps from the basic units to derived words often varies (e.g., nationalityinvestigated derivational processes in which morphological complexity is related to a change in surface form. It is therefore unclear whether the effects reported are attributable to underlying morphological complexity or to the processing of multiple surface morphemes. Here we report the first study to investigate morphological processing where derivational steps are not overtly marked (e.g., bridge-N>bridge-V) i.e., zero-derivation (Aronoff, 1980). We compared the processing of one-step (soakingfMRI experiment. Participants were presented with derived forms of words (soaking, bridging) in a lexical decision task. Although the surface derived -ing forms can be contextually participles, gerunds, or even nouns, they are all derived from verbs since the suffix -ing can only be attached to verb roots. Crucially, the verb root is the basic form for the one-step words, whereas for the two-step words the verb root is zero derived from a basic noun. Significantly increased brain activity was observed for complex (one-step and two-step) versus simple (zero-step) forms in regions involved in morphological processing, such as the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG). Critically, activation was also more pronounced for two-step compared to one-step forms. Since both types of derived words have the same surface structure, our findings suggest that morphological processing is based on underlying morphological complexity, independent of overt

  4. Brain correlates of discourse processing: an fMRI investigation of irony and conventional metaphor comprehension.

    PubMed

    Eviatar, Zohar; Just, Marcel Adam

    2006-01-01

    Higher levels of discourse processing evoke patterns of cognition and brain activation that extend beyond the literal comprehension of sentences. We used fMRI to examine brain activation patterns while 16 healthy participants read brief three-sentence stories that concluded with either a literal, metaphoric, or ironic sentence. The fMRI images acquired during the reading of the critical sentence revealed a selective response of the brain to the two types of nonliteral utterances. Metaphoric utterances resulted in significantly higher levels of activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus and in bilateral inferior temporal cortex than the literal and ironic utterances. Ironic statements resulted in significantly higher activation levels than literal statements in the right superior and middle temporal gyri, with metaphoric statements resulting in intermediate levels in these regions. The findings show differential hemispheric sensitivity to these aspects of figurative language, and are relevant to models of the functional cortical architecture of language processing in connected discourse.

  5. Brain correlates of discourse processing: An fMRI investigation of irony and conventional metaphor comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Eviatar, Zohar; Just, Marcel Adam

    2006-01-01

    Higher levels of discourse processing evoke patterns of cognition and brain activation that extend beyond the literal comprehension of sentences. We used fMRI to examine brain activation patterns while 16 healthy participants read brief three-sentence stories that concluded with either a literal, metaphoric, or ironic sentence. The fMRI images acquired during the reading of the critical sentence revealed a selective response of the brain to the two types of nonliteral utterances. Metaphoric utterances resulted in significantly higher levels of activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus and in bilateral inferior temporal cortex than the literal and ironic utterances. Ironic statements resulted in significantly higher activation levels than literal statements in the right superior and middle temporal gyri, with metaphoric statements resulting in intermediate levels in these regions. The findings show differential hemispheric sensitivity to these aspects of figurative language, and are relevant to models of the functional cortical architecture of language processing in connected discourse. PMID:16806316

  6. Investigation of fMRI neurofeedback of differential primary motor cortex activity using kinesthetic motor imagery.

    PubMed

    Chiew, Mark; LaConte, Stephen M; Graham, Simon J

    2012-05-15

    Functional MRI neurofeedback (fMRI NF) is an emerging technique that trains subjects to regulate their brain activity while they manipulate sensory stimulus representations of fMRI signals in "real-time". Here we report an fMRI NF study of brain activity associated with kinesthetic motor imagery (kMI), analyzed using partial least squares (PLS), a multivariate analysis technique. Thirteen healthy young adult subjects performed kMI involving each hand separately, with NF training targeting regions of interest (ROIs) in the left and right primary motor cortex (M1). Throughout, subjects attempted to maximize a laterality index (LI) of brain activity-the difference in activity between the contralateral ROI (relative to the hand involved in kMI) and the ipsilateral M1 ROI-while receiving real-time updates on a visual display. Six of 13 subjects were successful in increasing the LI value, whereas the other 7 were not successful and performed similarly to 5 control subjects who received sham NF training. Ability to suppress activity in the ipsilateral M1 ROI was the primary driver of successful NF performance. Multiple PLS analyses depicted activated networks of brain regions involved with imagery, self-awareness, and feedback processing, and additionally showed that activation of the task positive network was correlated with task performance. These results indicate that fMRI NF of kMI is capable of modulating brain activity in primary motor regions in a subset of the population. In the future, such methods may be useful in the development of NF training methods for enhancing motor rehabilitation following stroke. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reciprocal Benefits of Mass-Univariate and Multivariate Modeling in Brain Mapping: Applications to Event-Related Functional MRI, H2 15O-, and FDG-PET

    PubMed Central

    Habeck, Christian G.

    2006-01-01

    In brain mapping studies of sensory, cognitive, and motor operations, specific waveforms of dynamic neural activity are predicted based on theoretical models of human information processing. For example in event-related functional MRI (fMRI), the general linear model (GLM) is employed in mass-univariate analyses to identify the regions whose dynamic activity closely matches the expected waveforms. By comparison multivariate analyses based on PCA or ICA provide greater flexibility in detecting spatiotemporal properties of experimental data that may strongly support alternative neuroscientific explanations. We investigated conjoint multivariate and mass-univariate analyses that combine the capabilities to (1) verify activation of neural machinery we already understand and (2) discover reliable signatures of new neural machinery. We examined combinations of GLM and PCA that recover latent neural signals (waveforms and footprints) with greater accuracy than either method alone. Comparative results are illustrated with analyses of real fMRI data, adding to Monte Carlo simulation support. PMID:23165047

  8. Effects of progressive muscle relaxation on cerebral activity: An fMRI investigation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, S; Koitabashi, K

    2016-06-01

    Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) is one of the self-management relaxation techniques that can be used in the general population and patients with specific issues. However, no study to date has revealed the brain activity associated with PMR. Therefore, we assessed the changes in brain activity induced by PMR using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We conducted an intervention study with PMR and control sessions. The subjects were twelve healthy adult men who had no prior experience of PMR. Subjects performed a control session in which muscles were repeatedly simply tensed and relaxed. Subsequently, a PMR session took place, during which muscle tension was reduced through a systematic procedure of tensing and relaxing of muscle groups combined with structured breathing. We identified and visualised brain activity based on individual and group-level analysis of fMRI data. Eleven subjects' data were analysed. In the control session, brain activity broadly changed, while the change was limited to specific parts of the cerebral cortex and limbic system in the PMR session. PMR gradually decreased activity in the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). In a region of interest (ROI) analysis, interactions between sessions were observed in the putamen, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), postcentral gyrus (PCG), and insula. That PMR led to few areas showing changed activity suggests that the technique may suppress brain activity. Even novices may be able to induce such a focused mental state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Phantom-based investigation of nonrigid registration constraints in mapping fMRI to anatomical MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studholme, Colin; Constable, R. Todd; Duncan, James S.

    2000-06-01

    In previous work we have introduced an approach to improving the registration of EPI fMRI data with anatomical MRI by accounting for differences in magnetic field induced geometric distortion in the two types of MRI acquisition. In particular we began to explore the use of imaging physics based constraints in a non-rigid multi-modality registration algorithm. In this paper we present phantom based experimental work examining the behavior of different non-rigid registration constraints compared to a field map acquisition of the MRI distortion. This acquisition provides a pixel by pixel 'ground truth' estimate of the displacement field within the EPI data. In our registration based approach we employ a B-spline based estimate of the relative geometric distortion with a multi-grid optimization scheme. We maximize the normalized mutual information between the two types of MRI scans to estimate the B-Spline parameters. Using the field map estimates as a gold standard, registration estimates using no additional geometric constraints are compared to those using the spin echo based signal conservation. We also examine the use of logarithmic EPI values in the criteria to provide additional sensitivity in areas of low signal. Results indicate that registration of EPI to conventional MRI incorporating a spin echo distortion model can provide comparable estimates of geometric distortion to those from field mapping data without the need for significant additional acquisitions during each fMRI sequence.

  10. Event related potentials using visual stimulation.

    PubMed

    Varner, J L; Rohrbaugh, J W

    1993-01-01

    Visual patterns are used to elicit event related potentials. Equipment is available for generating visual geometric patterns such as checkerboards. Slides may be used for patterns which are more complex but preparation is costly and time consuming. A variety of programs exist on PC's for making very elaborate color pictures and in most cases the programs are easy to use making them ideal for generating visual patterns for event related potential experiments. A necessary requirement in event related potential experiments is the ability to control and/or determine precisely when the stimulus is presented to the subject. We have observed that timing is a problem with stimuli generated by the PC as a result of the raster scan and use in many cases of high level system calls in the software. This paper describes a technique which allows for precise control of the time of stimulus presentation using the video control signals to the monitor.

  11. Describing response-event relations: Babel revisited

    PubMed Central

    Lattal, Kennon A.; Poling, Alan D.

    1981-01-01

    The terms used to describe the relations among the three components of contingencies of reinforcement and punishment include many with multiple meanings and imprecise denotation. In particular, usage of the term “contingency” and its variants and acceptance of unsubstantiated functional, rather than procedural, descriptions of response-event relations are especially troublesome in the behavior analysis literature. Clarity seems best served by restricting the term “contingency” to its generic usage and by utilizing procedural descriptions of response-event relations. PMID:22478546

  12. Mental Lapses and Event-Related Potentials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    AD-A219 454 A9 MENTAL LAPSES AND i’: EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS R.R. STANNY 41 DTIC LECTE MAR2 aalAs ospace Medical Research Lzhoratory Naval Air... Mental Lapses and Event-Related Potentials 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) R. R. Stannv 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Yeir, Month...of perception and judgment. Several rapid methods of estimating mental state from ERP data were examined. FINDINGS All of the procedures examined

  13. Event-Related Brain Potential Correlates of Emotional Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eimer, Martin; Holmes, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    Results from recent event-related brain potential (ERP) studies investigating brain processes involved in the detection and analysis of emotional facial expression are reviewed. In all experiments, emotional faces were found to trigger an increased ERP positivity relative to neutral faces. The onset of this emotional expression effect was…

  14. Event-Related Brain Potential Correlates of Emotional Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eimer, Martin; Holmes, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    Results from recent event-related brain potential (ERP) studies investigating brain processes involved in the detection and analysis of emotional facial expression are reviewed. In all experiments, emotional faces were found to trigger an increased ERP positivity relative to neutral faces. The onset of this emotional expression effect was…

  15. A pilot study for investigating cortical binocularity in humans using fMRI adaptation.

    PubMed

    Jurcoane, Alina; Choubey, Bhaskar; Muckli, Lars; Sireteanu, Ruxandra

    2007-01-01

    Disrupted stereovision is a feature that accompanies strabismus. This study uses an fMRI adaptation paradigm to assess the amount of cortical binocularity in subjects with normal or impaired stereopsis. We present data from a pilot study of two normally-sighted and one stereodeficient subject with alternating fixation. We adapted one eye to diagonally oriented sinusoidal gratings and tested either the same (monocular test) or the other eye (interocular transfer), using either the same or an orthogonal orientation. In normally-sighted subjects, we observed monocular adaptation but only weak interocular transfer in the striate cortex, whereas in the extrastriate cortex we found strong monocular as well as interocular adaptation. In the stereodeficient subject, monocular adaptation but no interocular transfer was obtained in the extrastriate cortex. These results suggest that impaired stereopsis is related to reduced interocular transfer of adaptation at higher levels of the cortical visual pathway.

  16. Effects of personal space intrusion in affective contexts: an fMRI investigation with women suffering from borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Schienle, Anne; Wabnegger, Albert; Schöngassner, Florian; Leutgeb, Verena

    2015-10-01

    The amygdala and the parietal cortex play a key role in the neural representation of personal space. Although the concept of personal space is clinically very relevant for borderline personality disorder (BPD), especially in affective contexts, it has not been investigated thus far with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In this fMRI study, 25 female BPD patients and 25 healthy women were exposed to photos of angry, disgusted and neutral facial expressions. All stimuli were once shown as still photos, and once were zoomed-in in order to simulate intrusion into one's own personal space. Approaching faces generally provoked activation of the amygdala and the somatosensory cortex. BPD patients showed an increased activation within both regions, but only toward approaching disgusted faces. Their amygdala activation in this specific condition positively correlated with self-disgust scores. Moreover, the clinical group indicated an enhanced personal distance preference, which was associated with parietal activation. The present study revealed altered personal space processing of BPD patients, especially in situations that relate to social contexts involving disgust. Future studies should focus on the temporal stability of personal space processing during the natural course of BPD as well as during therapy.

  17. An fMRI Investigation of Cerebellar Function During Verbal Working Memory in Methadone Maintenance Patients

    PubMed Central

    Marvel, Cherie L.; Faulkner, Monica L.; Strain, Eric C.; Mintzer, Miriam Z.; Desmond, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Working memory is impaired in opioid-dependent individuals, yet the neural underpinnings of working memory in this population are largely unknown. Previous studies in healthy adults have demonstrated that working memory is supported by a network of brain regions that includes a cerebro-cerebellar circuit. The cerebellum, in particular, may be important for inner speech mechanisms that assist verbal working memory. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine brain activity associated with working memory in 5 opioid-dependent, methadone-maintained patients and 5 matched, healthy controls. An item recognition task was administered in two conditions: 1) a low working memory load “match” condition in which participants determined whether target letters presented at the beginning of the trial matched a probe item, and 2) a high working memory load “manipulation” condition in which participants counted two alphabetical letters forward of each of the targets and determined whether either of these new items matched a probe item. Response times and accuracy scores were not significantly different between the groups. FMRI analyses indicated that, in association with higher working memory load (“manipulation” condition), the patient group exhibited hyperactivity in the superior and inferior cerebellum and amygdala relative to that of controls. At a more liberal statistical threshold, patients exhibited hypoactivity in the left prefrontal and medial frontal/pre-SMA regions. These results indicate that verbal working memory in opioid-dependent individuals involves a disrupted cerebro-cerebellar circuit, and shed light on the neuroanatomical basis of working memory impairments in this population. PMID:21892700

  18. Attentional Networks in Adolescents with High-functioning Autism: An fMRI Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Hames, Elizabeth C.; Rajmohan, Ravi; Fang, Dan; Anderson, Ronald; Baker, Mary; Richman, David M.; O’Boyle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Attentional deficits in Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are often noted, but their specific nature remains unclear. Objective: The present study used the child Attentional Network Task (Child ANT) in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine if the consistently cited deficits of orienting attention are truly due to dysfunctions of orienting-based networks. We hypothesized that these observations are, in fact, a reflection of executive dysfunctions. As such, we expected that although ASD adolescents would perform worse on the orienting portion of the Child ANT, the strongest differences in activation between them and the neurotypical (NT) control group would be in areas classically associated with executive functioning (e.g., the frontal gyri and anterior cingulate cortex). Method: The brain activity of six high-functioning adolescents with ASD and six NT adolescents was recorded while these individuals performed the three subcomponents of the Child ANT. Results: ASDs were shown to be more accurate than NTs for the alerting, less accurate for the orienting, and similar in accuracy for the executive portions of the Child ANT. fMRI data showed increased bilateral frontal gyri recruitment, areas conventionally associated with executive control, during the orienting task for the ASD group. Conclusion: We submit that the increased activations represent neurocorrelates of signal fixation attributable to the subset of executive control responsible for sustained maintenance signals, not the main components of orienting. Therefore, excessive fixation in ASD adolescents is likely due to dysfunctions of executive control and not the orienting subcomponent of the attention network. PMID:27843514

  19. Deficient prefrontal attentional control in late-life generalized anxiety disorder: an fMRI investigation.

    PubMed

    Price, R B; Eldreth, D A; Mohlman, J

    2011-10-04

    Younger adults with anxiety disorders are known to show an attentional bias toward negative information. Little is known regarding the role of biased attention in anxious older adults, and even less is known about the neural substrates of any such bias. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to assess the mechanisms of attentional bias in late life by contrasting predictions of a top-down model emphasizing deficient prefrontal cortex (PFC) control and a bottom-up model emphasizing amygdalar hyperreactivity. In all, 16 older generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients (mean age=66 years) and 12 non-anxious controls (NACs; mean age=67 years) completed the emotional Stroop task to assess selective attention to negative words. Task-related fMRI data were concurrently acquired. Consistent with hypotheses, GAD participants were slower to identify the color of negative words relative to neutral, whereas NACs showed the opposite bias, responding more quickly to negative words. During negative words (in comparison with neutral), the NAC group showed PFC activations, coupled with deactivation of task-irrelevant emotional processing regions such as the amygdala and hippocampus. By contrast, GAD participants showed PFC decreases during negative words and no differences in amygdalar activity across word types. Across all participants, greater attentional bias toward negative words was correlated with decreased PFC recruitment. A significant positive correlation between attentional bias and amygdala activation was also present, but this relationship was mediated by PFC activity. These results are consistent with reduced prefrontal attentional control in late-life GAD. Strategies to enhance top-down attentional control may be particularly relevant in late-life GAD treatment.

  20. [Olfactory functional magnetic resonance imaging with modified OEP-98C olfactometer and event-related design].

    PubMed

    You, Hui; Wang, Jian; Liu, Jian-Feng; Feng, Feng; Ni, Dao-Feng; Jin, Zheng-Yu

    2009-04-01

    To explore the feasibility of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in analysis of olfaction function with modified OEP-98C olfactometer and event-related design. Six young right-handed men underwent olfactory fMRI with event-related design. OEP-98C olfactometer was modified to accommodate MR environment. There were 2 types of tasks in the experiment. In one task, only isoamyl acetate was used as odorant. In the other task, to avoid possible decreased olfactory attention, vanillin was given before each presentation of isoamyl acetate. In both tasks, uniform activation in piriform cortex and secondary olfactory cortexes was determined. The activation of piriform cortex was not significantly different between the two tasks (P > 0.01). With isoamyl acetate as odorant, modified OEP-98C olfactometer, and event-related design, olfaction fMRI can depict cortex activation at primary and secondary olfactory cortex. Applying other odorant with similar quality to avoid olfactory attention decrease can not promote depiction of activation in primary olfactory cortex.

  1. Event-related Single-shot Volumetric Functional Magnetic Resonance Inverse Imaging of Visual Processing

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Witzel, Thomas; Mandeville, Joseph B.; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Zeffiro, Thomas A.; Greve, Douglas N.; Wiggins, Graham; Wald, Lawrence L.; Belliveau, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Developments in multi-channel radio-frequency (RF) coil array technology have enabled functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with higher degrees of spatial and temporal resolution. While modest improvement in temporal acceleration has been achieved by increasing the number of RF coils, in parallel data acquisition techniques, the maximum attainable acceleration is intrinsically limited only by the amount of independent spatial information in the combined array channels. Since the geometric configuration of a large-n MRI head coil array is similar to that used in EEG electrode or MEG SQUID sensor arrays, the source localization algorithms used in MEG or EEG source imaging can be extended to also process MRI coil array data, resulting in greatly improved temporal resolution by minimizing k-space traversal during signal acquisition. Using a novel approach, we acquire multi-channel MRI head coil array data and then apply inverse reconstruction methods to obtain volumetric fMRI estimates of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast at unprecedented whole-brain acquisition rates of 100 ms per sample. We call this combination of techniques magnetic resonance Inverse Imaging (InI), a method that provides estimates of dynamic spatially-resolved signal change that can be used to construct statistical maps of task-related brain activity. We demonstrate the sensitivity and inter-subject reliability of volumetric InI using an event-related design to probe the hemodynamic signal modulations in primary visual cortex. Robust results from both single subject and group analyses demonstrate the sensitivity and feasibility of using volumetric InI in high temporal resolution investigations of human brain function. PMID:18538587

  2. Event-related single-shot volumetric functional magnetic resonance inverse imaging of visual processing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Witzel, Thomas; Mandeville, Joseph B; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Zeffiro, Thomas A; Greve, Douglas N; Wiggins, Graham; Wald, Lawrence L; Belliveau, John W

    2008-08-01

    Developments in multi-channel radio-frequency (RF) coil array technology have enabled functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with higher degrees of spatial and temporal resolution. While modest improvement in temporal acceleration has been achieved by increasing the number of RF coils, the maximum attainable acceleration in parallel MRI acquisition is intrinsically limited only by the amount of independent spatial information in the combined array channels. Since the geometric configuration of a large-n MRI head coil array is similar to that used in EEG electrode or MEG SQUID sensor arrays, the source localization algorithms used in MEG or EEG source imaging can be extended to also process MRI coil array data, resulting in greatly improved temporal resolution by minimizing k-space traversal during signal acquisition. Using a novel approach, we acquire multi-channel MRI head coil array data and then apply inverse reconstruction methods to obtain volumetric fMRI estimates of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast at unprecedented whole-brain acquisition rates of 100 ms. We call this combination of techniques magnetic resonance Inverse Imaging (InI), a method that provides estimates of dynamic spatially-resolved signal change that can be used to construct statistical maps of task-related brain activity. We demonstrate the sensitivity and inter-subject reliability of volumetric InI using an event-related design to probe the hemodynamic signal modulations in primary visual cortex. Robust results from both single subject and group analyses demonstrate the sensitivity and feasibility of using volumetric InI in high temporal resolution investigations of human brain function.

  3. An fMRI investigation of the cultural specificity of music memory

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Steven J.; Stambaugh, Laura A.; Beken, Münir; Richards, Todd L.; Johnson, Clark

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the role of culture in shaping music perception and memory. We tested the hypothesis that listeners demonstrate different patterns of activation associated with music processing—particularly right frontal cortex—when encoding and retrieving culturally familiar and unfamiliar stimuli, with the latter evoking broader activation consistent with more complex memory tasks. Subjects (n = 16) were right-handed adults born and raised in the USA (n = 8) or Turkey (n = 8) with minimal music training. Using fMRI procedures, we scanned subjects during two tasks: (i) listening to novel musical examples from their own culture and an unfamiliar culture and (ii) identifying which among a series of brief excerpts were taken from the longer examples. Both groups were more successful remembering music of their home culture. We found greater activation for culturally unfamiliar music listening in the left cerebellar region, right angular gyrus, posterior precuneus and right middle frontal area extending into the inferior frontal cortex. Subjects demonstrated greater activation in the cingulate gyrus and right lingual gyrus when engaged in recall of culturally unfamiliar music. This study provides evidence for the influence of culture on music perception and memory performance at both a behavioral and neurological level. PMID:20035018

  4. An fMRI investigation of the effects of culture on evaluations of stigmatized individuals.

    PubMed

    Krendl, Anne C

    2016-01-01

    Certain groups (e.g., women, older adults, and the economically disadvantaged) are universally stigmatized. Numerous studies, however, have identified cross-cultural differences in the attitudes expressed toward stigmatized groups. These differences may potentially be due to existing cross-cultural dissimilarities in social status for some groups. The current study used fMRI to examine whether Chinese and Caucasian-American participants engage the same cognitive and affective mechanisms when perceiving stigmatized individuals with similarly low social status in both cultures (homeless individuals), but different cognitive and/or affective processes when evaluating stigmatized individuals whose status differs across cultures (older adults). Using a social neuroscience approach can provide unique insight into this question because the neural regions involved in cognitive and affective evaluations of stigmatized individuals have been well characterized. Results revealed that Chinese participants and Caucasian-American participants engaged similar patterns of negative affective processing associated with disgust (left anterior insula) when evaluating homeless individuals. Moreover, self-reported negative explicit attitudes toward homeless individuals were associated with increased activity in the insula. However, Chinese participants and Caucasian-American participants engaged increased activity in neural regions associated with status (ventral striatum) when they evaluated older adults. Moreover, self-reported attitudes toward older adults and ventral striatal activity were correlated with the extent to which participants reported being affiliated with their respective cultural traditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lexical Processing in Deaf Readers: An fMRI Investigation of Reading Proficiency

    PubMed Central

    Corina, David P.; Lawyer, Laurel A.; Hauser, Peter; Hirshorn, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with significant hearing loss often fail to attain competency in reading orthographic scripts which encode the sound properties of spoken language. Nevertheless, some profoundly deaf individuals do learn to read at age-appropriate levels. The question of what differentiates proficient deaf readers from less-proficient readers is poorly understood but topical, as efforts to develop appropriate and effective interventions are needed. This study uses functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine brain activation in deaf readers (N = 21), comparing proficient (N = 11) and less proficient (N = 10) readers’ performance in a widely used test of implicit reading. Proficient deaf readers activated left inferior frontal gyrus and left middle and superior temporal gyrus in a pattern that is consistent with regions reported in hearing readers. In contrast, the less-proficient readers exhibited a pattern of response characterized by inferior and middle frontal lobe activation (right>left) which bears some similarity to areas reported in studies of logographic reading, raising the possibility that these individuals are using a qualitatively different mode of orthographic processing than is traditionally observed in hearing individuals reading sound-based scripts. The evaluation of proficient and less-proficient readers points to different modes of processing printed English words. Importantly, these preliminary findings allow us to begin to establish the impact of linguistic and educational factors on the neural systems that underlie reading achievement in profoundly deaf individuals. PMID:23359269

  6. An fMRI investigation of expectation violation in magic tricks.

    PubMed

    Danek, Amory H; Öllinger, Michael; Fraps, Thomas; Grothe, Benedikt; Flanagin, Virginia L

    2015-01-01

    Magic tricks violate the expected causal relationships that form an implicit belief system about what is possible in the world around us. Observing a magic effect seemingly invalidates our implicit assumptions about what action causes which outcome. We aimed at identifying the neural correlates of such expectation violations by contrasting 24 video clips of magic tricks with 24 control clips in which the expected action-outcome relationship is upheld. Using fMRI, we measured the brain activity of 25 normal volunteers while they watched the clips in the scanner. Additionally, we measured the professional magician who had performed the magic tricks under the assumption that, in contrast to naïve observers, the magician himself would not perceive his own magic tricks as an expectation violation. As the main effect of magic - control clips in the normal sample, we found higher activity for magic in the head of the caudate nucleus (CN) bilaterally, the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left anterior insula. As expected, the magician's brain activity substantially differed from these results, with mainly parietal areas (supramarginal gyrus bilaterally) activated, supporting our hypothesis that he did not experience any expectation violation. These findings are in accordance with previous research that has implicated the head of the CN in processing changes in the contingency between action and outcome, even in the absence of reward or feedback.

  7. An fMRI investigation of the cultural specificity of music memory.

    PubMed

    Demorest, Steven M; Morrison, Steven J; Stambaugh, Laura A; Beken, Münir; Richards, Todd L; Johnson, Clark

    2010-06-01

    This study explored the role of culture in shaping music perception and memory. We tested the hypothesis that listeners demonstrate different patterns of activation associated with music processing-particularly right frontal cortex-when encoding and retrieving culturally familiar and unfamiliar stimuli, with the latter evoking broader activation consistent with more complex memory tasks. Subjects (n = 16) were right-handed adults born and raised in the USA (n = 8) or Turkey (n = 8) with minimal music training. Using fMRI procedures, we scanned subjects during two tasks: (i) listening to novel musical examples from their own culture and an unfamiliar culture and (ii) identifying which among a series of brief excerpts were taken from the longer examples. Both groups were more successful remembering music of their home culture. We found greater activation for culturally unfamiliar music listening in the left cerebellar region, right angular gyrus, posterior precuneus and right middle frontal area extending into the inferior frontal cortex. Subjects demonstrated greater activation in the cingulate gyrus and right lingual gyrus when engaged in recall of culturally unfamiliar music. This study provides evidence for the influence of culture on music perception and memory performance at both a behavioral and neurological level.

  8. An fMRI investigation of expectation violation in magic tricks

    PubMed Central

    Danek, Amory H.; Öllinger, Michael; Fraps, Thomas; Grothe, Benedikt; Flanagin, Virginia L.

    2015-01-01

    Magic tricks violate the expected causal relationships that form an implicit belief system about what is possible in the world around us. Observing a magic effect seemingly invalidates our implicit assumptions about what action causes which outcome. We aimed at identifying the neural correlates of such expectation violations by contrasting 24 video clips of magic tricks with 24 control clips in which the expected action-outcome relationship is upheld. Using fMRI, we measured the brain activity of 25 normal volunteers while they watched the clips in the scanner. Additionally, we measured the professional magician who had performed the magic tricks under the assumption that, in contrast to naïve observers, the magician himself would not perceive his own magic tricks as an expectation violation. As the main effect of magic – control clips in the normal sample, we found higher activity for magic in the head of the caudate nucleus (CN) bilaterally, the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left anterior insula. As expected, the magician’s brain activity substantially differed from these results, with mainly parietal areas (supramarginal gyrus bilaterally) activated, supporting our hypothesis that he did not experience any expectation violation. These findings are in accordance with previous research that has implicated the head of the CN in processing changes in the contingency between action and outcome, even in the absence of reward or feedback. PMID:25699001

  9. Cross-cultural reading the mind in the eyes: an fMRI investigation.

    PubMed

    Adams, Reginald B; Rule, Nicholas O; Franklin, Robert G; Wang, Elsie; Stevenson, Michael T; Yoshikawa, Sakiko; Nomura, Mitsue; Sato, Wataru; Kveraga, Kestutis; Ambady, Nalini

    2010-01-01

    The ability to infer others' thoughts, intentions, and feelings is regarded as uniquely human. Over the last few decades, this remarkable ability has captivated the attention of philosophers, primatologists, clinical and developmental psychologists, anthropologists, social psychologists, and cognitive neuroscientists. Most would agree that the capacity to reason about others' mental states is innately prepared, essential for successful human social interaction. Whether this ability is culturally tuned, however, remains entirely uncharted on both the behavioral and neural levels. Here we provide the first behavioral and neural evidence for an intracultural advantage (better performance for same- vs. other-culture) in mental state decoding in a sample of native Japanese and white American participants. We examined the neural correlates of this intracultural advantage using fMRI, revealing greater bilateral posterior superior temporal sulci recruitment during same- versus other-culture mental state decoding in both cultural groups. These findings offer preliminary support for cultural consistency in the neurological architecture subserving high-level mental state reasoning, as well as its differential recruitment based on cultural group membership.

  10. Identifying brain systems for gaze orienting during reading: fMRI investigation of the Landolt paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Hillen, Rebekka; Günther, Thomas; Kohlen, Claudia; Eckers, Cornelia; van Ermingen-Marbach, Muna; Sass, Katharina; Scharke, Wolfgang; Vollmar, Josefine; Radach, Ralph; Heim, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The Landolt reading paradigm was created in order to dissociate effects of eye movements and attention from lexical, syntactic, and sub-lexical processing. While previous eye-tracking and behavioral findings support the usefulness of the paradigm, it remains to be shown that the paradigm actually relies on the brain networks for occulomotor control and attention, but not on systems for lexical/syntactic/orthographic processing. Here, 20 healthy volunteers underwent fMRI scanning while reading sentences (with syntax) or unconnected lists of written stimuli (no syntax) consisting of words (with semantics) or pseudowords (no semantics). In an additional “Landolt reading” condition, all letters were replaced by closed circles, which should be scanned for targets (Landolt's rings) in a reading-like fashion from left to right. A conjunction analysis of all five conditions revealed the visual scanning network which involved bilateral visual cortex, premotor cortex, and superior parietal cortex, but which did not include regions for semantics, syntax, or orthography. Contrasting the Landolt reading condition with all other regions revealed additional involvement of the right superior parietal cortex (areas 7A/7P/7PC) and postcentral gyrus (area 2) involved in deliberate gaze shifting. These neuroimaging findings demonstrate for the first time that the linguistic and orthographic brain network can be dissociated from a pure gaze-orienting network with the Landolt paradigm. Consequently, the Landolt paradigm may provide novel insights into the contributions of linguistic and non-linguistic factors on reading failure e.g., in developmental dyslexia. PMID:23908615

  11. Bi-Directional Tuning of Amygdala Sensitivity in Combat Veterans Investigated with fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Brashers-Krug, Tom; Jorge, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Combat stress can be followed by persistent emotional consequences. It is thought that these emotional consequences are caused in part by increased amygdala reactivity. It is also thought that amygdala hyper-reactivity results from decreased inhibition from portions of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in which activity is negatively correlated with activity in the amygdala. However, experimental support for these proposals has been inconsistent. Methods We showed movies of combat and civilian scenes during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session to 50 veterans of recent combat. We collected skin conductance responses (SCRs) as measures of emotional arousal. We examined the relation of blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) signal in the amygdala and ACC to symptom measures and to SCRs. Results Emotional arousal, as measured with SCR, was greater during the combat movie than during the civilian movie and did not depend on symptom severity. As expected, amygdala signal during the less-arousing movie increased with increasing symptom severity. Surprisingly, during the more-arousing movie amygdala signal decreased with increasing symptom severity. These differences led to the unexpected result that amygdala signal in highly symptomatic subjects was lower during the more-arousing movie than during the less-arousing movie. Also unexpectedly, we found no significant inverse correlation between any portions of the amygdala and ACC. Rather, signal throughout more than 80% of the ACC showed a strong positive correlation with signal throughout more than 90% of the amygdala. Conclusions Amygdala reactivity can be tuned bi-directionally, either up or down, in the same person depending on the stimulus and the degree of post-traumatic symptoms. The exclusively positive correlations in BOLD activity between the amygdala and ACC contrast with findings that have been cited as evidence for inhibitory control of the amygdala by the ACC. The

  12. A longitudinal fMRI investigation in acute post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    PubMed

    Ke, Jun; Zhang, Li; Qi, Rongfeng; Li, Weihui; Hou, Cailan; Zhong, Yuan; He, Zhong; Li, Lingjiang; Lu, Guangming

    2016-11-01

    Background Neuroimaging studies have implicated limbic, paralimbic, and prefrontal cortex in the pathophysiology of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, little is known about the neural substrates of acute PTSD and how they change with symptom improvement. Purpose To examine the neural circuitry underlying acute PTSD and brain function changes during clinical recovery from this disorder. Material and Methods Nineteen acute PTSD patients and nine non-PTSD subjects who all experienced a devastating mining accident underwent clinical assessment as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning while viewing trauma-related and neutral pictures. Two years after the accident, a subgroup of 17 patients completed a second clinical evaluation, of which 13 were given an identical follow-up scan. Results Acute PTSD patients demonstrated greater activation in the vermis and right posterior cingulate, and greater deactivation in the bilateral medial prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal lobules than controls in the traumatic versus neutral condition. At follow-up, PTSD patients showed symptom reduction and decreased activation in the right middle frontal gyrus, bilateral posterior cingulate/precuneus, and cerebellum. Correlation results confirmed these findings and indicated that brain activation in the posterior cingulate/precuneus and vermis was predictive of PTSD symptom improvement. Conclusion The findings support the involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule, posterior cingulate, and vermis in the pathogenesis of acute PTSD. Brain activation in the vermis and posterior cingulate/precuneus appears to be a biological marker of recovery potential from PTSD. Furthermore, decreased activation of the middle frontal gyrus, posterior cingulate/precuneus, and cerebellum may reflect symptom improvement.

  13. An fMRI investigation of cerebellar function during verbal working memory in methadone maintenance patients.

    PubMed

    Marvel, Cherie L; Faulkner, Monica L; Strain, Eric C; Mintzer, Miriam Z; Desmond, John E

    2012-03-01

    Working memory is impaired in opioid-dependent individuals, yet the neural underpinnings of working memory in this population are largely unknown. Previous studies in healthy adults have demonstrated that working memory is supported by a network of brain regions that includes a cerebro-cerebellar circuit. The cerebellum, in particular, may be important for inner speech mechanisms that assist verbal working memory. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain activity associated with working memory in five opioid-dependent, methadone-maintained patients and five matched, healthy controls. An item recognition task was administered in two conditions: (1) a low working memory load "match" condition in which participants determined whether target letters presented at the beginning of the trial matched a probe item, and (2) a high working memory load "manipulation" condition in which participants counted two alphabetical letters forward of each of the targets and determined whether either of these new items matched a probe item. Response times and accuracy scores were not significantly different between the groups. FMRI analyses indicated that, in association with higher working memory load ("manipulation" condition), the patient group exhibited hyperactivity in the superior and inferior cerebellum and amygdala relative to that of controls. At a more liberal statistical threshold, patients exhibited hypoactivity in the left prefrontal and medial frontal/pre-SMA regions. These results indicate that verbal working memory in opioid-dependent individuals involves a disrupted cerebro-cerebellar circuit and shed light on the neuroanatomical basis of working memory impairments in this population.

  14. Investigating Focal Connectivity Deficits in Alzheimer's Disease Using Directional Brain Networks Derived from Resting-State fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Sinan; Rangaprakash, D; Venkataraman, Archana; Liang, Peipeng; Deshpande, Gopikrishna

    2017-01-01

    Connectivity analysis of resting-state fMRI has been widely used to identify biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) based on brain network aberrations. However, it is not straightforward to interpret such connectivity results since our understanding of brain functioning relies on regional properties (activations and morphometric changes) more than connections. Further, from an interventional standpoint, it is easier to modulate the activity of regions (using brain stimulation, neurofeedback, etc.) rather than connections. Therefore, we employed a novel approach for identifying focal directed connectivity deficits in AD compared to healthy controls. In brief, we present a model of directed connectivity (using Granger causality) that characterizes the coupling among different regions in healthy controls and Alzheimer's disease. We then characterized group differences using a (between-subject) generative model of pathology, which generates latent connectivity variables that best explain the (within-subject) directed connectivity. Crucially, our generative model at the second (between-subject) level explains connectivity in terms of local or regionally specific abnormalities. This allows one to explain disconnections among multiple regions in terms of regionally specific pathology; thereby offering a target for therapeutic intervention. Two foci were identified, locus coeruleus in the brain stem and right orbitofrontal cortex. Corresponding disrupted connectivity network associated with the foci showed that the brainstem is the critical focus of disruption in AD. We further partitioned the aberrant connectomic network into four unique sub-networks, which likely leads to symptoms commonly observed in AD. Our findings suggest that fMRI studies of AD, which have been largely cortico-centric, could in future investigate the role of brain stem in AD. PMID:28729831

  15. Neural Dynamics Underlying Event-Related Potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Ankoor S.; Bressler, Steven L.; Knuth, Kevin H.; Ding, Ming-Zhou; Mehta, Ashesh D.; Ulbert, Istvan; Schroeder, Charles E.

    2003-01-01

    There are two opposing hypotheses about the brain mechanisms underlying sensory event-related potentials (ERPs). One holds that sensory ERPs are generated by phase resetting of ongoing electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, and the other that they result from signal averaging of stimulus-evoked neural responses. We tested several contrasting predictions of these hypotheses by direct intracortical analysis of neural activity in monkeys. Our findings clearly demonstrate evoked response contributions to the sensory ERP in the monkey, and they suggest the likelihood that a mixed (Evoked/Phase Resetting) model may account for the generation of scalp ERPs in humans.

  16. Emotional perception: correspondence of early and late event-related potentials with cortical and subcortical functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Sabatinelli, Dean; Keil, Andreas; Frank, David W; Lang, Peter J

    2013-03-01

    This research examines the relationship between brain activity recorded with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event related potentials (ERP) as these responses varied over a series of emotionally evocative and neutral pictures. We investigate the relationship of early occipitotemporal and later centroparietal emotion-modulated ERPs in one sample to fMRI estimates of neural activity in another sample in a replicated experiment. Using this approach, we aimed to link effects found in time-resolved electrocortical measures to specific neural structures across individual emotional and nonemotional picture stimuli. The centroparietal late positive potential (LPP) showed covariation with emotion-modulated regions of hemodynamic activation across multiple dorsal and ventral visual cortical structures, while the early occipitotemporal potential was not reliably associated. Subcortical and corticolimbic structures involved in the perception of motivationally relevant stimuli also related to modulation of the LPP, and were modestly associated to the amplitude of the early occipitotemporal potential. These data suggest that early occipitotemporal potentials may reflect multiple sources of modulation including motivational relevance, and supports the perspective that the slow-wave LPP represents aggregate cortical and subcortical structures involved in emotional discrimination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. How Much We Think of Ourselves and How Little We Think of Others: An Investigation of the Neuronal Signature of Self-Consciousness between Different Personality Traits through an Event-Related Potential Study.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Auwal Bello; Begum, Tahamina; Reza, Mohammed Faruque; Yusoff, Nasir

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have revealed that self-related tasks (items) receive more attention than non-self-related, and that they elicit event-related potential (ERP) components with larger amplitudes. Since personality has been reported as one of the biological correlates influencing these components, as well as our behavioural differences, it is important to examine how it affects our self-consciousness in relation to tasks of varied relevance and the neurological basis. A total of 33 male and female undergraduate Malaysian medical students of Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) participated in the study. The participants were divided into two groups, Ambivert (n = 18) and Extravert (n = 15) groups, using the USM personality inventory questionnaire. In the ERP experiment, squares containing standard stimuli of any word other than self and non-self-related nouns (e.g., Bola, Gigi, Anak, etc.; in English: Ball, Teeth, Kids, etc., respectively), those containing self-related pronouns (Saya, Kami or Kita; in English: I, Us or We, respectively), and non-self-related pronouns (Dia, Anda or Mereka; in English: He/She, You or They, respectively), were shown 58%, 21% and 21% of the time, respectively, in a three-stimulus visual oddball paradigm. All words were presented in Bahasa Melayu. The participants were instructed to press 1 for self and 2 for non-self, and ignore standard stimuli. Comparison of both N200 and P300 amplitudes for self-related and non-self-related pronouns in the Extravert group revealed significant differences at seven electrode sites, with self-related having larger amplitude at anterior electrodes and less at posterior. This was not seen in the Ambivert group. The present study suggests that self-relevant pronouns are psychologically more important to extraverts than to ambiverts; hence, they have more self-awareness. This may be due to large amount of dopamine in the brains of extraverts, which is more concentrated in the frontal lobe.

  18. How Much We Think of Ourselves and How Little We Think of Others: An Investigation of the Neuronal Signature of Self-Consciousness between Different Personality Traits through an Event-Related Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Auwal Bello; Begum, Tahamina; Reza, Mohammed Faruque; Yusoff, Nasir

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have revealed that self-related tasks (items) receive more attention than non-self-related, and that they elicit event-related potential (ERP) components with larger amplitudes. Since personality has been reported as one of the biological correlates influencing these components, as well as our behavioural differences, it is important to examine how it affects our self-consciousness in relation to tasks of varied relevance and the neurological basis. Methods A total of 33 male and female undergraduate Malaysian medical students of Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) participated in the study. The participants were divided into two groups, Ambivert (n = 18) and Extravert (n = 15) groups, using the USM personality inventory questionnaire. In the ERP experiment, squares containing standard stimuli of any word other than self and non-self-related nouns (e.g., Bola, Gigi, Anak, etc.; in English: Ball, Teeth, Kids, etc., respectively), those containing self-related pronouns (Saya, Kami or Kita; in English: I, Us or We, respectively), and non-self-related pronouns (Dia, Anda or Mereka; in English: He/She, You or They, respectively), were shown 58%, 21% and 21% of the time, respectively, in a three-stimulus visual oddball paradigm. All words were presented in Bahasa Melayu. The participants were instructed to press 1 for self and 2 for non-self, and ignore standard stimuli. Results Comparison of both N200 and P300 amplitudes for self-related and non-self-related pronouns in the Extravert group revealed significant differences at seven electrode sites, with self-related having larger amplitude at anterior electrodes and less at posterior. This was not seen in the Ambivert group. Conclusion The present study suggests that self-relevant pronouns are psychologically more important to extraverts than to ambiverts; hence, they have more self-awareness. This may be due to large amount of dopamine in the brains of extraverts, which is more concentrated in

  19. Warp-averaging event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Wang, K; Begleiter, H; Porjesz, B

    2001-10-01

    To align the repeated single trials of the event-related potential (ERP) in order to get an improved estimate of the ERP. A new implementation of the dynamic time warping is applied to compute a warp-average of the single trials. The trilinear modeling method is applied to filter the single trials prior to alignment. Alignment is based on normalized signals and their estimated derivatives. These features reduce the misalignment due to aligning the random alpha waves, explaining amplitude differences in latency differences, or the seemingly small amplitudes of some components. Simulations and applications to visually evoked potentials show significant improvement over some commonly used methods. The new implementation of the dynamic time warping can be used to align the major components (P1, N1, P2, N2, P3) of the repeated single trials. The average of the aligned single trials is an improved estimate of the ERP. This could lead to more accurate results in subsequent analysis.

  20. Event related potentials in children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Naziel, B; Yavaş, G; Arikan, Z; Ozon, O; Aksoy Ozmenek, O; Irkeç, C

    2007-09-01

    Assessment of ERPs (Event Related Potentials) is a special area of interest in research on vulnerability to alcoholism in human subjects. ERP not only provide information about potential neurofunctional anomalies in healthy individuals, but also relate those neurofunctional characteristics to the cognitive process involved. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of chronic alcoholism and alcoholism risk on children of alcoholic fathers by using ERP parameters. 24 children of alcoholic fathers (9 boys, 15 girls) with a mean age of 18 +/- 3 (range: 15-25) and 17 control subjects (children of non-alcoholic fathers with out a family history of alcoholism) were included to the study. The age range was from 15 to 25 (mean: 21 +/- 3). N200 potential latency recorded from the parietal electrode position was significantly prolonged (p = 0.032) and amplitudes of P200 potential also recorded from the parietal region was significantly low (p = 0.043) relative to controls. However, the rest of the event-related potential parameters including P300 latency and amplitudes recorded from FZ, CZ, PZ electrode positions did not differ significantly from the children of non-alcoholic fathers. The difference in our results from the previous studies may be due to various factors. Genetic, gender, environmental, educational and social factors may have an overall effect on ERP and we believe these factors may be the cause of the differences seen in our study when compared to the previous ones. We believe the gender differences in our group may have had effected the overall results. Consecutive studies with more subject participation are needed to confirm and settle this issue.

  1. Under-Reactive but Easily Distracted: An fMRI Investigation of Attentional Capture in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Keehn, Brandon; Nair, Aarti; Lincoln, Alan J.; Townsend, Jeanne; Müller, Ralph-Axel

    2015-01-01

    For individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), salient behaviorally-relevant information often fails to capture attention, while subtle behaviorally-irrelevant details commonly induce a state of distraction. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neurocognitive networks underlying attentional capture in sixteen high-functioning children and adolescents with ASD and twenty-one typically developing (TD) individuals. Participants completed a rapid serial visual presentation paradigm designed to investigate activation of attentional networks to behaviorally-relevant targets and contingent attention capture by task-irrelevant distractors. In individuals with ASD, target stimuli failed to trigger bottom-up activation of the ventral attentional network and the cerebellum. Additionally, the ASD group showed no differences in behavior or occipital activation associated with contingent attentional capture. Rather, results suggest that to-be-ignored distractors that shared either task-relevant or irrelevant features captured attention in ASD. Results indicate that individuals with ASD may be under-reactive to behaviorally-relevant stimuli, unable to filter irrelevant information, and that both top-down and bottom-up attention networks function atypically in ASD. Lastly, deficits in target-related processing were associated with autism symptomatology, providing further support for the hypothesis that non-social attentional processes and their neurofunctional underpinnings may play a significant role in the development of sociocommunicative impairments in ASD. PMID:26708773

  2. Using fMRI to investigate a component process of reflection: prefrontal correlates of refreshing a just-activated representation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Marcia K; Raye, Carol L; Mitchell, Karen J; Greene, Erich J; Cunningham, William A; Sanislow, Charles A

    2005-09-01

    Using fMRI, we investigated the functional organization of prefrontal cortex (PFC) as participants briefly thought of a single just-experienced item (i.e., refreshed an active representation). The results of six studies, and a meta-analysis including previous studies, identified regions in left dorsolateral, anterior, and ventrolateral PFC associated in varying degrees with refreshing different types of information (visual and auditory words, drawings, patterns, people, places, or locations). In addition, activity increased in anterior cingulate with selection demands and in orbitofrontal cortex when a nonselected item was emotionally salient, consistent with a role for these areas in cognitive control (e.g., overcoming "mental rubbernecking"). We also found evidence that presenting emotional information disrupted an anterior component of the refresh circuit. We suggest that refreshing accounts for some neural activity observed in more complex tasks, such as working memory, long-term memory, and problem solving, and that its disruption (e.g., from aging or emotion) could have a broad impact.

  3. Interaction of phonological awareness and 'magnocellular' processing during normal and dyslexic reading: behavioural and fMRI investigations.

    PubMed

    Heim, Stefan; Grande, Marion; Pape-Neumann, Julia; van Ermingen, Muna; Meffert, Elisabeth; Grabowska, Anna; Huber, Walter; Amunts, Katrin

    2010-08-01

    We investigated whether phonological deficits are a consequence of magnocellular processing deficits in dyslexic and control children. In Experiment 1, children were tested for reading ability, phonological awareness, visuo-magnocellular motion perception, and attention shifting (sometimes considered as magnocellular function). A two-step cluster analysis of the behavioural scores revealed four clusters of children. Phonological awareness was correlated with attention (cluster musical sharp1) or motion detection (cluster musical sharp2), whereas attention and motion detection were correlated in cluster musical sharp3. In cluster musical sharp4, all variables were uncorrelated. In Experiment 2, the same variables plus auditory discrimination were tested with fMRI in a sub-sample of Experiment 1. Although dyslexics had reduced activation in visual or auditory cortex during motion detection or auditory discrimination, respectively, they had increased right frontal activation in areas 44 and 45 in all 'magnocellular' (including auditory) tasks. In contrasts, during phonological decisions, there was higher activation for good readers than dyslexics in left areas 44 and 45. Together, the two experiments give insight into the interplay of phonological and magnocellular processing during reading. Distinct left versus right frontal effects reveal partly different underlying neural mechanisms. These data contradict the view that phonological processing deficits in dyslexia necessarily result from impaired magnocellular functioning. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Minds, persons, and space: an fMRI investigation into the relational complexity of higher-order intentionality.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Anna; Werning, Markus; Rakoczy, Hannes; von Cramon, D Yves; Schubotz, Ricarda I

    2008-06-01

    Mental state reasoning or theory-of-mind has been the subject of a rich body of imaging research. Although such investigations routinely tap a common set of regions, the precise function of each area remains a contentious matter. With the help of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we sought to determine which areas are involved when processing mental state or intentional metarepresentations by focusing on the relational aspect of such representations. Using non-intentional relational representations such as spatial relations between persons and between objects as a contrast, the results ascertained the involvement of the precuneus, the temporal poles, and the medial prefrontal cortex in the processing of intentional representations. In contrast, the anterior superior temporal sulcus and the left temporo-parietal junction were implicated when processing representations that refer to the presence of persons in relational contexts in general. The right temporo-parietal junction, however, was specifically activated for persons entering spatial relations. The level of representational complexity, a previously unexplored factor, was also found to modulate the neural response in some brain regions, such as the medial prefrontal cortex and the right temporo-parietal junction. These findings highlight the need to take into account the critical roles played by an extensive network of neural regions during mental state reasoning.

  5. The Event-Related Low-Frequency Activity of Highly and Average Intelligent Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Tongran; Shi, Jiannong; Zhao, Daheng; Yang, Jie

    2008-01-01

    Using time-frequency analysis techniques to investigate the event-related low-frequency (delta: 0.5-4 Hz; theta: 4-8 Hz) activity of auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) data of highly and average intelligent children, 18 intellectually gifted children, and 18 intellectually average children participated the present study. Present findings…

  6. The Event-Related Low-Frequency Activity of Highly and Average Intelligent Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Tongran; Shi, Jiannong; Zhao, Daheng; Yang, Jie

    2008-01-01

    Using time-frequency analysis techniques to investigate the event-related low-frequency (delta: 0.5-4 Hz; theta: 4-8 Hz) activity of auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) data of highly and average intelligent children, 18 intellectually gifted children, and 18 intellectually average children participated the present study. Present findings…

  7. Event-related oscillations versus event-related potentials in a P300 task as biomarkers for alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Colin; Fein, George

    2010-04-01

    It has been proposed that event-related oscillation (ERO) measures of EEG activity recorded in P300 tasks provide more powerful biomarkers of alcoholism than event-related potential (ERP) measures. This study examines this question in a group of long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTAAs). EEGs were recorded on 48 LTAAs and 48 age and gender-matched nonalcoholic controls (NACs) during the performance of a 3-condition visual target detection task. The event-related data were analyzed to extract ERP amplitude measures and total and evoked ERO power measures. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of covariance to determine the contributions of ERO versus ERP measures to discriminate between the LTAA versus NAC groups. The LTAA group showed significantly lower evoked delta ERO power and total delta and theta ERO power compared to the control group. The evoked and total ERO power measures provide an alternative (but not more powerful) representation of the group difference than does P3b amplitude. There was a weak suggestion that nonphase-locked theta ERO power (which contributes to total ERO power) might provide independent discriminatory information. Reduced evoked ERO power in the response to target stimuli provided an alternative and comparable representation of the reduced P3b amplitude in LTAA. This is not surprising as the evoked ERO power measures are derived from time-frequency representations of the ERP waveform. Induced theta oscillations might provide independent discriminatory information beyond ERP amplitude measures, but separate analysis of the event-related nonphase-locked activity is required to investigate this further.

  8. An fMRI Investigation of Covertly and Overtly Produced Mono- And Multisyllabic Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuster, Linda I.; Lemieux, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    Studies suggest that the left insula may play an important role in speech motor programming. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the role of the left insula in the production of monosyllabic or multisyllabic words during overt and covert speech conditions. The left insula did not show a BOLD response for multisyllabic…

  9. The Effect of Sublexical and Lexical Frequency on Speech Production: An fMRI Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuster, Linda I.

    2009-01-01

    There is no consensus regarding the fundamental phonetic units that underlie speech production. There is, however, general agreement that the frequency of occurrence of these units is a significant factor. Investigators often use the effects of manipulating frequency to support the importance of particular units. Studies of pseudoword production…

  10. The Effect of Sublexical and Lexical Frequency on Speech Production: An fMRI Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuster, Linda I.

    2009-01-01

    There is no consensus regarding the fundamental phonetic units that underlie speech production. There is, however, general agreement that the frequency of occurrence of these units is a significant factor. Investigators often use the effects of manipulating frequency to support the importance of particular units. Studies of pseudoword production…

  11. An fMRI Investigation of Covertly and Overtly Produced Mono- And Multisyllabic Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuster, Linda I.; Lemieux, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    Studies suggest that the left insula may play an important role in speech motor programming. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the role of the left insula in the production of monosyllabic or multisyllabic words during overt and covert speech conditions. The left insula did not show a BOLD response for multisyllabic…

  12. Systematic review of ERP and fMRI studies investigating inhibitory control and error processing in people with substance dependence and behavioural addictions

    PubMed Central

    Luijten, Maartje; Machielsen, Marise W.J.; Veltman, Dick J.; Hester, Robert; de Haan, Lieuwe; Franken, Ingmar H.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Several current theories emphasize the role of cognitive control in addiction. The present review evaluates neural deficits in the domains of inhibitory control and error processing in individuals with substance dependence and in those showing excessive addiction-like behaviours. The combined evaluation of event-related potential (ERP) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings in the present review offers unique information on neural deficits in addicted individuals. Methods We selected 19 ERP and 22 fMRI studies using stop-signal, go/no-go or Flanker paradigms based on a search of PubMed and Embase. Results The most consistent findings in addicted individuals relative to healthy controls were lower N2, error-related negativity and error positivity amplitudes as well as hypoactivation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), inferior frontal gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These neural deficits, however, were not always associated with impaired task performance. With regard to behavioural addictions, some evidence has been found for similar neural deficits; however, studies are scarce and results are not yet conclusive. Differences among the major classes of substances of abuse were identified and involve stronger neural responses to errors in individuals with alcohol dependence versus weaker neural responses to errors in other substance-dependent populations. Limitations Task design and analysis techniques vary across studies, thereby reducing comparability among studies and the potential of clinical use of these measures. Conclusion Current addiction theories were supported by identifying consistent abnormalities in prefrontal brain function in individuals with addiction. An integrative model is proposed, suggesting that neural deficits in the dorsal ACC may constitute a hallmark neurocognitive deficit underlying addictive behaviours, such as loss of control. PMID:24359877

  13. Body image distortions in bulimia nervosa: investigating body size overestimation and body size satisfaction by fMRI.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Harald Matthias; Röder, Christian; Zimmermann, Jan; Hummel, Dennis; Negele, Alexa; Grabhorn, Ralph

    2011-06-01

    Body image distortion is a key symptom of eating disorders. In behavioral research two components of body image have been defined: attitudes towards the body and body size estimation. Only few fMRI-studies investigated the neural correlates of body image in bulimia; those are constrained by the lack of a direct distinction between these different body image components. The present study investigates the neural correlates of two aspects of the body image using fMRI: satisfaction rating and size estimation of distorted own body photographs in bulimia nervosa patients (15) and controls (16). Patients were less satisfied with their current body shape than controls and preferred to be thinner. The amount of insula activity reflects the pattern of the satisfaction rating for patients and controls. Patients also overestimated their own body size. For control subjects, an activated cluster in lateral occipital cortex was sensitive for body size distortions, whereas bulimic patients did not demonstrate such a modulation. Furthermore, bulimic subjects did not recruit the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) in contrast to controls during the body size estimation task, maybe indicating a reduced spatial manipulation capacity. Therefore, this activation pattern of lateral occipital cortex and MFG might be responsible for body size overestimation in bulimia. The present results show that bulimic patients exhibit two distinct deficits in body image representations similar to anorectic patients and that specifically associated neuronal correlates can be identified. Concludingly, our study support psychotherapeutic strategies specifically targeting these two aspects of body image distortions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Event-related oscillations (ERO) and event-related potentials (ERP) in emotional face recognition.

    PubMed

    Balconi, Michela; Pozzoli, Uberto

    2008-10-01

    The study aims to explore the significance of event-related potentials (ERPs) and event-related brain oscillations (EROs) (delta, theta, and alpha power) in response to emotional face during 180-250 poststimulus time interval. Twenty-one adults looked at emotional (sad, happy, fearful) or neutral faces. The results demonstrated that the emotional face elicited a negative peak at approximately 230 ms (N230). Moreover EEG measures showed that motivational significance of face (stimulus type) can modulate the amplitude of EEG, especially for theta and delta. Regression analysis showed that theta oscillations mainly effect as oscillation activity at the N2 latency. Thus, this frequency band variation could represent a complex set of cognitive processes, whereby selective attention becomes focused on an emotional relevant stimulus.

  15. Event-related brain potentials - Comparison between children and adults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courchesne, E.

    1977-01-01

    The reported investigation shows that nontarget stimuli which are infrequently presented and deviate from the background elicit Nc and Pc waves in children. The same stimuli elicit P3 waves in adults. The scalp distribution of P3 waves in adults appears to vary with the ease of stimulus recognition or the degree of stimulus novelty. However, the Nc and Pc distributions in children do not seem to vary with these factors. The differences between children and adults in event-related potentials suggest corresponding differences in the mode of processing employed by each when rare, deviant stimuli are encountered

  16. Event-related brain potentials - Comparison between children and adults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courchesne, E.

    1977-01-01

    The reported investigation shows that nontarget stimuli which are infrequently presented and deviate from the background elicit Nc and Pc waves in children. The same stimuli elicit P3 waves in adults. The scalp distribution of P3 waves in adults appears to vary with the ease of stimulus recognition or the degree of stimulus novelty. However, the Nc and Pc distributions in children do not seem to vary with these factors. The differences between children and adults in event-related potentials suggest corresponding differences in the mode of processing employed by each when rare, deviant stimuli are encountered

  17. Can Machines Think? Interaction and Perspective Taking with Robots Investigated via fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Krach, Sören; Hegel, Frank; Wrede, Britta; Sagerer, Gerhard; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Kircher, Tilo

    2008-01-01

    Background When our PC goes on strike again we tend to curse it as if it were a human being. Why and under which circumstances do we attribute human-like properties to machines? Although humans increasingly interact directly with machines it remains unclear whether humans implicitly attribute intentions to them and, if so, whether such interactions resemble human-human interactions on a neural level. In social cognitive neuroscience the ability to attribute intentions and desires to others is being referred to as having a Theory of Mind (ToM). With the present study we investigated whether an increase of human-likeness of interaction partners modulates the participants' ToM associated cortical activity. Methodology/Principal Findings By means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (subjects n = 20) we investigated cortical activity modulation during highly interactive human-robot game. Increasing degrees of human-likeness for the game partner were introduced by means of a computer partner, a functional robot, an anthropomorphic robot and a human partner. The classical iterated prisoner's dilemma game was applied as experimental task which allowed for an implicit detection of ToM associated cortical activity. During the experiment participants always played against a random sequence unknowingly to them. Irrespective of the surmised interaction partners' responses participants indicated having experienced more fun and competition in the interaction with increasing human-like features of their partners. Parametric modulation of the functional imaging data revealed a highly significant linear increase of cortical activity in the medial frontal cortex as well as in the right temporo-parietal junction in correspondence with the increase of human-likeness of the interaction partner (computer

  18. Can machines think? Interaction and perspective taking with robots investigated via fMRI.

    PubMed

    Krach, Sören; Hegel, Frank; Wrede, Britta; Sagerer, Gerhard; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Kircher, Tilo

    2008-07-09

    When our PC goes on strike again we tend to curse it as if it were a human being. Why and under which circumstances do we attribute human-like properties to machines? Although humans increasingly interact directly with machines it remains unclear whether humans implicitly attribute intentions to them and, if so, whether such interactions resemble human-human interactions on a neural level. In social cognitive neuroscience the ability to attribute intentions and desires to others is being referred to as having a Theory of Mind (ToM). With the present study we investigated whether an increase of human-likeness of interaction partners modulates the participants' ToM associated cortical activity. By means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (subjects n = 20) we investigated cortical activity modulation during highly interactive human-robot game. Increasing degrees of human-likeness for the game partner were introduced by means of a computer partner, a functional robot, an anthropomorphic robot and a human partner. The classical iterated prisoner's dilemma game was applied as experimental task which allowed for an implicit detection of ToM associated cortical activity. During the experiment participants always played against a random sequence unknowingly to them. Irrespective of the surmised interaction partners' responses participants indicated having experienced more fun and competition in the interaction with increasing human-like features of their partners. Parametric modulation of the functional imaging data revealed a highly significant linear increase of cortical activity in the medial frontal cortex as well as in the right temporo-parietal junction in correspondence with the increase of human-likeness of the interaction partner (computer

  19. Default distrust? An fMRI investigation of the neural development of trust and cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Gromann, Paula M.; Giampietro, Vincent; Shergill, Sukhi S.; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    The tendency to trust and to cooperate increases from adolescence to adulthood. This social development has been associated with improved mentalizing and age-related changes in brain function. Thus far, there is limited imaging data investigating these associations. We used two trust games with a trustworthy and an unfair partner to explore the brain mechanisms underlying trust and cooperation in subjects ranging from adolescence to mid-adulthood. Increasing age was associated with higher trust at the onset of social interactions, increased levels of trust during interactions with a trustworthy partner and a stronger decline in trust during interactions with an unfair partner. Our findings demonstrate a behavioural shift towards higher trust and an age-related increase in the sensitivity to others’ negative social signals. Increased brain activation in mentalizing regions, i.e. temporo-parietal junction, posterior cingulate and precuneus, supported the behavioural change. Additionally, age was associated with reduced activation in the reward-related orbitofrontal cortex and caudate nucleus during interactions with a trustworthy partner, possibly reflecting stronger expectations of trustworthiness. During unfair interactions, age-related increases in anterior cingulate activation, an area implicated in conflict monitoring, may mirror the necessity to inhibit pro-social tendencies in the face of the partner’s actual levels of cooperation. PMID:23202661

  20. An fMRI investigation of the effects of attempted naming on word retrieval in aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Shiree; McMahon, Katie L.; Nickels, Lyndsey A.; Angwin, Anthony; MacDonald, Anna D.; van Hees, Sophia; McKinnon, Eril; Johnson, Kori; Copland, David A.

    2015-01-01

    In healthy controls, picture naming performance can be facilitated by a single prior exposure to the same picture (“priming”). This priming phenomenon is utilized in the treatment of aphasia, which often includes repeated picture naming as part of a therapeutic task. The current study sought to determine whether single and/or multiple exposures facilitate subsequent naming in aphasia and whether such facilitatory effects act through normal priming mechanisms. A functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm was employed to explore the beneficial effects of attempted naming in two individuals with aphasia and a control group. The timing and number of prior exposures was manipulated, with investigation of both short-term effects (single prior exposure over a period of minutes) and long-term effects (multiple presentations over a period of days). Following attempted naming, both short-term and long-term facilitated items showed improvement for controls, while only the long-term condition showed benefits at a behavioral level for the participants with aphasia. At a neural level, effects of long-term facilitation were noted in the left precuneus for one participant with aphasia, a result also identified for the equivalent contrast in controls. It appears that multiple attempts are required to improve naming performance in the presence of anomia and that for some individuals with aphasia the source of facilitation may be similar to unimpaired mechanisms engaged outside the language network. PMID:26074801

  1. Default distrust? An fMRI investigation of the neural development of trust and cooperation.

    PubMed

    Fett, Anne-Kathrin J; Gromann, Paula M; Giampietro, Vincent; Shergill, Sukhi S; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2014-04-01

    The tendency to trust and to cooperate increases from adolescence to adulthood. This social development has been associated with improved mentalizing and age-related changes in brain function. Thus far, there is limited imaging data investigating these associations. We used two trust games with a trustworthy and an unfair partner to explore the brain mechanisms underlying trust and cooperation in subjects ranging from adolescence to mid-adulthood. Increasing age was associated with higher trust at the onset of social interactions, increased levels of trust during interactions with a trustworthy partner and a stronger decline in trust during interactions with an unfair partner. Our findings demonstrate a behavioural shift towards higher trust and an age-related increase in the sensitivity to others' negative social signals. Increased brain activation in mentalizing regions, i.e. temporo-parietal junction, posterior cingulate and precuneus, supported the behavioural change. Additionally, age was associated with reduced activation in the reward-related orbitofrontal cortex and caudate nucleus during interactions with a trustworthy partner, possibly reflecting stronger expectations of trustworthiness. During unfair interactions, age-related increases in anterior cingulate activation, an area implicated in conflict monitoring, may mirror the necessity to inhibit pro-social tendencies in the face of the partner's actual levels of cooperation.

  2. Empathy and moral emotions in post-apartheid South Africa: an fMRI investigation.

    PubMed

    Fourie, Melike M; Stein, Dan J; Solms, Mark; Gobodo-Madikizela, Pumla; Decety, Jean

    2017-06-01

    Moral emotions elicited in response to others' suffering are mediated by empathy and affect how we respond to their pain. South Africa provides a unique opportunity to study group processes given its racially divided past. The present study seeks insights into aspects of the moral brain by investigating behavioral and functional MRI responses of White and Black South Africans who lived through apartheid to in- and out-group physical and social pain. Whereas the physical pain task featured faces expressing dynamic suffering, the social pain task featured victims of apartheid violence from the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission to elicit heartfelt emotion. Black participants' behavioral responses were suggestive of in-group favoritism, whereas White participants' responses were apparently egalitarian. However, all participants showed significant in-group biases in activation in the amygdala (physical pain), as well as areas involved in mental state representation, including the precuneus, temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and frontal pole (physical and social pain). Additionally, Black participants reacted with heightened moral indignation to own-race suffering, whereas White participants reacted with heightened shame to Black suffering, which was associated with blunted neural empathic responding. These findings provide ecologically valid insights into some behavioral and brain processes involved in complex moral situations. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Empathy and moral emotions in post-apartheid South Africa: an fMRI investigation

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Dan J.; Solms, Mark; Gobodo-Madikizela, Pumla; Decety, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Moral emotions elicited in response to others’ suffering are mediated by empathy and affect how we respond to their pain. South Africa provides a unique opportunity to study group processes given its racially divided past. The present study seeks insights into aspects of the moral brain by investigating behavioral and functional MRI responses of White and Black South Africans who lived through apartheid to in- and out-group physical and social pain. Whereas the physical pain task featured faces expressing dynamic suffering, the social pain task featured victims of apartheid violence from the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission to elicit heartfelt emotion. Black participants’ behavioral responses were suggestive of in-group favoritism, whereas White participants’ responses were apparently egalitarian. However, all participants showed significant in-group biases in activation in the amygdala (physical pain), as well as areas involved in mental state representation, including the precuneus, temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and frontal pole (physical and social pain). Additionally, Black participants reacted with heightened moral indignation to own-race suffering, whereas White participants reacted with heightened shame to Black suffering, which was associated with blunted neural empathic responding. These findings provide ecologically valid insights into some behavioral and brain processes involved in complex moral situations. PMID:28338783

  4. The effect of sublexical and lexical frequency on speech production: An fMRI investigation.

    PubMed

    Shuster, Linda I

    2009-10-01

    There is no consensus regarding the fundamental phonetic units that underlie speech production. There is, however, general agreement that the frequency of occurrence of these units is a significant factor. Investigators often use the effects of manipulating frequency to support the importance of particular units. Studies of pseudoword production have been used to show the importance of sublexical units, such as initial syllables, phonemes, and biphones. However, it is not clear that these units play the same role when the production of pseudowords is compared to the production of real words. In this study, participants overtly repeated real and pseudowords that were similar for length, complexity, and initial syllable frequency while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to real words, production of pseudowords produced greater activation in much of the speech production network, including bilateral inferior frontal cortex, precentral gyri and supplementary motor areas and left superior temporal cortex and anterior insula. Only middle right frontal gyrus showed greater activation for real words than for pseudowords. Compared to a no-speech control condition, production of pseudowords or real words resulted in activation of all of the areas shown to comprise the speech production network. Our data, in conjunction with previous studies, suggest that the unit that is identified as the basic unit of speech production is influenced by the nature of the speech that is being studied, i.e., real words as compared to other real words, pseudowords as compared to other pseudowords, or real words as compared to pseudowords.

  5. Loss of laterality in chronic cocaine users: an fMRI investigation of sensorimotor control

    PubMed Central

    Hanlon, Colleen A.; Wesley, Michael J.; Roth, Alicia J.; Miller, Mack D.; Porrino, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    Movement disturbances are often overlooked consequences of chronic cocaine abuse. The purpose of this study was to systematically investigate sensorimotor performance in chronic cocaine users and characterize changes in brain activity among movement-related regions of interest (ROIs) in these users. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from fourteen chronic cocaine users and fifteen age and gender matched controls. All participants performed a sequential finger-tapping task with their dominant, right hand interleaved with blocks of rest. For each participant, percent signal change from rest was calculated for seven movement related ROIs in both the left and right hemisphere. Cocaine users had significantly longer reaction times and higher error rates than controls. Whereas the controls used a left-sided network of motor-related brain areas to perform the task, cocaine users activated a less lateralized pattern of brain activity. Users had significantly more activity in the ipsilateral (right) motor and premotor cortical areas, anterior cingulate cortex and the putamen than controls. These data demonstrate that, in addition to the cognitive and affective consequences of chronic cocaine abuse, there are also pronounced alterations in sensorimotor control in these individuals, which are associated with functional alterations throughout movement-related neural networks. PMID:19959345

  6. Weed or wheel! FMRI, behavioural, and toxicological investigations of how cannabis smoking affects skills necessary for driving.

    PubMed

    Battistella, Giovanni; Fornari, Eleonora; Thomas, Aurélien; Mall, Jean-Frédéric; Chtioui, Haithem; Appenzeller, Monique; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Favrat, Bernard; Maeder, Philippe; Giroud, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug, however its effects on cognitive functions underlying safe driving remain mostly unexplored. Our goal was to evaluate the impact of cannabis on the driving ability of occasional smokers, by investigating changes in the brain network involved in a tracking task. The subject characteristics, the percentage of Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol in the joint, and the inhaled dose were in accordance with real-life conditions. Thirty-one male volunteers were enrolled in this study that includes clinical and toxicological aspects together with functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and measurements of psychomotor skills. The fMRI paradigm was based on a visuo-motor tracking task, alternating active tracking blocks with passive tracking viewing and rest condition. We show that cannabis smoking, even at low Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol blood concentrations, decreases psychomotor skills and alters the activity of the brain networks involved in cognition. The relative decrease of Blood Oxygen Level Dependent response (BOLD) after cannabis smoking in the anterior insula, dorsomedial thalamus, and striatum compared to placebo smoking suggests an alteration of the network involved in saliency detection. In addition, the decrease of BOLD response in the right superior parietal cortex and in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex indicates the involvement of the Control Executive network known to operate once the saliencies are identified. Furthermore, cannabis increases activity in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortices, suggesting an increase in self-oriented mental activity. Subjects are more attracted by intrapersonal stimuli ("self") and fail to attend to task performance, leading to an insufficient allocation of task-oriented resources and to sub-optimal performance. These effects correlate with the subjective feeling of confusion rather than with the blood level of Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol

  7. Weed or Wheel! fMRI, Behavioural, and Toxicological Investigations of How Cannabis Smoking Affects Skills Necessary for Driving

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Aurélien; Mall, Jean-Frédéric; Chtioui, Haithem; Appenzeller, Monique; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Favrat, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug, however its effects on cognitive functions underling safe driving remain mostly unexplored. Our goal was to evaluate the impact of cannabis on the driving ability of occasional smokers, by investigating changes in the brain network involved in a tracking task. The subject characteristics, the percentage of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in the joint, and the inhaled dose were in accordance with real-life conditions. Thirty-one male volunteers were enrolled in this study that includes clinical and toxicological aspects together with functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and measurements of psychomotor skills. The fMRI paradigm was based on a visuo-motor tracking task, alternating active tracking blocks with passive tracking viewing and rest condition. We show that cannabis smoking, even at low Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol blood concentrations, decreases psychomotor skills and alters the activity of the brain networks involved in cognition. The relative decrease of Blood Oxygen Level Dependent response (BOLD) after cannabis smoking in the anterior insula, dorsomedial thalamus, and striatum compared to placebo smoking suggests an alteration of the network involved in saliency detection. In addition, the decrease of BOLD response in the right superior parietal cortex and in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex indicates the involvement of the Control Executive network known to operate once the saliencies are identified. Furthermore, cannabis increases activity in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortices, suggesting an increase in self-oriented mental activity. Subjects are more attracted by intrapersonal stimuli (“self”) and fail to attend to task performance, leading to an insufficient allocation of task-oriented resources and to sub-optimal performance. These effects correlate with the subjective feeling of confusion rather than with the blood level of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol

  8. Are abstract action words embodied? An fMRI investigation at the interface between language and motor cognition.

    PubMed

    Sakreida, Katrin; Scorolli, Claudia; Menz, Mareike M; Heim, Stefan; Borghi, Anna M; Binkofski, Ferdinand

    2013-01-01

    The cognitive and neural representation of abstract words is still an open question for theories of embodied cognition. Generally, it is proposed that abstract words are grounded in the activation of sensorimotor or at least experiential properties, exactly as concrete words. Further behavioral theories propose multiple representations evoked by abstract and concrete words. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study to investigate the neural correlates of concrete and abstract multi-word expressions in an action context. Participants were required to read simple sentences which combined each concrete noun with an adequate concrete verb and an adequate abstract verb, as well as an adequate abstract noun with either kind of verbs previously used. Thus, our experimental design included a continuum from pure concreteness to mere abstractness. As expected, comprehension of both concrete and abstract language content activated the core areas of the sensorimotor neural network namely the left lateral (precentral gyrus) and medial (supplementary motor area) premotor cortex. While the purely concrete multi-word expressions elicited activations within the left inferior frontal gyrus (pars triangularis) and two foci within the left inferior parietal cortex, the purely abstract multi-word expressions were represented in the anterior part of left middle temporal gyrus that is part of the language processing system. Although the sensorimotor neural network is engaged in both concrete and abstract language contents, the present findings show that concrete multi-word processing relies more on the sensorimotor system, and abstract multi-word processing relies more on the linguistic system.

  9. Are abstract action words embodied? An fMRI investigation at the interface between language and motor cognition

    PubMed Central

    Sakreida, Katrin; Scorolli, Claudia; Menz, Mareike M.; Heim, Stefan; Borghi, Anna M.; Binkofski, Ferdinand

    2013-01-01

    The cognitive and neural representation of abstract words is still an open question for theories of embodied cognition. Generally, it is proposed that abstract words are grounded in the activation of sensorimotor or at least experiential properties, exactly as concrete words. Further behavioral theories propose multiple representations evoked by abstract and concrete words. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study to investigate the neural correlates of concrete and abstract multi-word expressions in an action context. Participants were required to read simple sentences which combined each concrete noun with an adequate concrete verb and an adequate abstract verb, as well as an adequate abstract noun with either kind of verbs previously used. Thus, our experimental design included a continuum from pure concreteness to mere abstractness. As expected, comprehension of both concrete and abstract language content activated the core areas of the sensorimotor neural network namely the left lateral (precentral gyrus) and medial (supplementary motor area) premotor cortex. While the purely concrete multi-word expressions elicited activations within the left inferior frontal gyrus (pars triangularis) and two foci within the left inferior parietal cortex, the purely abstract multi-word expressions were represented in the anterior part of left middle temporal gyrus that is part of the language processing system. Although the sensorimotor neural network is engaged in both concrete and abstract language contents, the present findings show that concrete multi-word processing relies more on the sensorimotor system, and abstract multi-word processing relies more on the linguistic system. PMID:23576972

  10. Chemosensory anxiety cues moderate the experience of social exclusion – an fMRI investigation with Cyberball

    PubMed Central

    Wudarczyk, Olga A.; Kohn, Nils; Bergs, Rene; Gur, Raquel E.; Turetsky, Bruce; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the experience of stress can be communicated between individuals via chemosensory cues. Little is known, however, about the impact of these cues on neurophysiological responses during a socially threatening situation. In the current investigation we implemented a widely used paradigm to study social exclusion—Cyberball—to examine whether chemosensory cues signaling anxiety modulate the neuronal effects of ostracism. In a double-blind, within-subjects design, 24 healthy, normosmic participants were presented with chemosensory cues of anxiety (or control samples) and completed the Cyberball task while in a 3T fMRI scanner. Axillary sweat collected from male students awaiting an oral examination served as the anxiety cues while the chemosensory control stimuli consisted of sweat collected from the same individuals participating in an ergometer training session. The neuroimaging data revealed that under the control chemosensory condition, exclusion from Cyberball was associated with significantly higher orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex activity, which is consistent with previous studies in the field. However, when participants were primed with the anxiety sweat, the activity in these regions was not observed. Further, under exposure to anxiety cues during ostracism the participants showed deactivations in brain regions involved in memory (hippocampus), social cognition (middle temporal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus) and processing of salience (inferior frontal gyrus). These results suggest that successful communication of anxiety via the chemosensory domain may moderate the experience of social exclusion. It is possible that the anxiety signals make it easier for the individuals to detach from the group, pointing to the communicative role of chemosensory anxiety cues in enhancing adjustment mechanisms in light of a distressing situation. PMID:26500572

  11. The Neurotopography of Written Word Production: An fMRI Investigation of the Distribution of Sensitivity to Length and Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Brenda; Dufor, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This research is directed at charting the neurotopography of the component processes of the spelling system by using fMRI to identify the neural substrates that are sensitive to the factors of lexical frequency and word length. In spelling, word frequency effects index orthographic long-term memory whereas length effects, as measured by the number…

  12. Visual, Auditory, and Cross Modal Sensory Processing in Adults with Autism: An EEG Power and BOLD fMRI Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Hames, Elizabeth’ C.; Murphy, Brandi; Rajmohan, Ravi; Anderson, Ronald C.; Baker, Mary; Zupancic, Stephen; O’Boyle, Michael; Richman, David

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) and blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imagining (BOLD fMRI) assessed the neurocorrelates of sensory processing of visual and auditory stimuli in 11 adults with autism (ASD) and 10 neurotypical (NT) controls between the ages of 20–28. We hypothesized that ASD performance on combined audiovisual trials would be less accurate with observable decreased EEG power across frontal, temporal, and occipital channels and decreased BOLD fMRI activity in these same regions; reflecting deficits in key sensory processing areas. Analysis focused on EEG power, BOLD fMRI, and accuracy. Lower EEG beta power and lower left auditory cortex fMRI activity were seen in ASD compared to NT when they were presented with auditory stimuli as demonstrated by contrasting the activity from the second presentation of an auditory stimulus in an all auditory block vs. the second presentation of a visual stimulus in an all visual block (AA2-VV2).We conclude that in ASD, combined audiovisual processing is more similar than unimodal processing to NTs. PMID:27148020

  13. The Neurotopography of Written Word Production: An fMRI Investigation of the Distribution of Sensitivity to Length and Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Brenda; Dufor, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This research is directed at charting the neurotopography of the component processes of the spelling system by using fMRI to identify the neural substrates that are sensitive to the factors of lexical frequency and word length. In spelling, word frequency effects index orthographic long-term memory whereas length effects, as measured by the number…

  14. Visual, Auditory, and Cross Modal Sensory Processing in Adults with Autism: An EEG Power and BOLD fMRI Investigation.

    PubMed

    Hames, Elizabeth' C; Murphy, Brandi; Rajmohan, Ravi; Anderson, Ronald C; Baker, Mary; Zupancic, Stephen; O'Boyle, Michael; Richman, David

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) and blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imagining (BOLD fMRI) assessed the neurocorrelates of sensory processing of visual and auditory stimuli in 11 adults with autism (ASD) and 10 neurotypical (NT) controls between the ages of 20-28. We hypothesized that ASD performance on combined audiovisual trials would be less accurate with observable decreased EEG power across frontal, temporal, and occipital channels and decreased BOLD fMRI activity in these same regions; reflecting deficits in key sensory processing areas. Analysis focused on EEG power, BOLD fMRI, and accuracy. Lower EEG beta power and lower left auditory cortex fMRI activity were seen in ASD compared to NT when they were presented with auditory stimuli as demonstrated by contrasting the activity from the second presentation of an auditory stimulus in an all auditory block vs. the second presentation of a visual stimulus in an all visual block (AA2-VV2).We conclude that in ASD, combined audiovisual processing is more similar than unimodal processing to NTs.

  15. Free Language Selection in the Bilingual Brain: An Event-Related fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Wang, Tao; Huang, Peiyu; Li, Dan; Qiu, Jiang; Shen, Tong; Xie, Peng

    2015-07-16

    Bilingual speakers may select between two languages either on demand (forced language selection) or on their own volition (free language selection). However, the neural substrates underlying free and forced language selection may differ. While the neural substrates underlying forced language selection have been well-explored with language switching paradigms, those underlying free language selection have remained unclear. Using a modified digit-naming switching paradigm, we addressed the neural substrates underlying free language selection by contrasting free language switching with forced language switching. For a digit-pair trial, Chinese-English bilinguals named each digit in Chinese or English either on demand under forced language selection condition or on their own volition under free language selection condition. The results revealed activation in the frontoparietal regions that mediate volition of language selection. Furthermore, a comparison of free and forced language switching demonstrated differences in the patterns of brain activation. Additionally, free language switching showed reduced switching costs as compared to forced language switching. These findings suggest differences between the mechanism(s) underlying free and forced language switching. As such, the current study suggests interactivity between control of volition and control of language switching in free language selection, providing insights into a model of bilingual language control.

  16. Free Language Selection in the Bilingual Brain: An Event-Related fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Wang, Tao; Huang, Peiyu; Li, Dan; Qiu, Jiang; Shen, Tong; Xie, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Bilingual speakers may select between two languages either on demand (forced language selection) or on their own volition (free language selection). However, the neural substrates underlying free and forced language selection may differ. While the neural substrates underlying forced language selection have been well-explored with language switching paradigms, those underlying free language selection have remained unclear. Using a modified digit-naming switching paradigm, we addressed the neural substrates underlying free language selection by contrasting free language switching with forced language switching. For a digit-pair trial, Chinese-English bilinguals named each digit in Chinese or English either on demand under forced language selection condition or on their own volition under free language selection condition. The results revealed activation in the frontoparietal regions that mediate volition of language selection. Furthermore, a comparison of free and forced language switching demonstrated differences in the patterns of brain activation. Additionally, free language switching showed reduced switching costs as compared to forced language switching. These findings suggest differences between the mechanism(s) underlying free and forced language switching. As such, the current study suggests interactivity between control of volition and control of language switching in free language selection, providing insights into a model of bilingual language control. PMID:26177885

  17. Feasibility of measuring event related desynchronization with electroencephalography during walking.

    PubMed

    Severens, M; Nienhuis, B; Desain, P; Duysens, J

    2012-01-01

    Brain Computer Interfaces could be useful in rehabilitation of movement, perhaps also for gait. Until recently, research on movement related brain signals has not included measuring electroencephalography (EEG) during walking, because of the potential artifacts. We investigated if it is possible to measure the event Related Desynchronization (ERD) and event related spectral perturbations (ERSP) during walking. Six subjects walked on a treadmill with a slow speed, while EEG, electromyography (EMG) of the neck muscles and step cycle were measured. A Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) was used to remove EMG artifacts from the EEG signals. It was shown that this method correctly deleted EMG components. A strong ERD in the mu band and a somewhat less strong ERD in the beta band were found during walking compared to a baseline period. Furthermore, lateralized ERSPs were found, depending on the phase in the step cycle. It is concluded that this is a promising method to use in BCI research on walking. These results therefore pave the way for using brain signals related to walking in a BCI context.

  18. Combining sudomotor nerve impulse estimation with fMRI to investigate the central sympathetic response to nausea.

    PubMed

    Sclocco, Roberta; Citi, Luca; Garcia, Ronald G; Cerutti, Sergio; Bianchi, Anna M; Kuo, Braden; Napadow, Vitaly; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    The skin conductance (SC) signal is one of the most important non-invasive indirect measures of autonomic outflow. Several mathematical models have been proposed in the literature to characterize specific SC features. In this work, we present a method for the estimation of central control of sudomotor nerve impulse (SMI) function using SC. The method is based on a differential formulation decomposed into two first order differential equations. We validate our estimation framework by applying it on an experimental protocol where eleven motion sickness-prone subjects were exposed to a nauseogenic visual stimulus while SC and fMRI signals were recorded. Our results show an expected significant increase in the mean amplitude of SMI peaks during the highest reported nausea, as well as a decreasing trend during recovery, which was not evident for skin conductance level. Importantly, SMI/fMRI analysis found a negative association between SMI and fMRI signal in orbitofrontal, dorsolateral prefrontal, and posterior insula cortices, consistent with previous studies correlating brain fMRI and microneurographic signals.

  19. Causal Inference and Language Comprehension: Event-Related Potential Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Tristan S.

    2014-01-01

    The most important information conveyed by language is often contained not in the utterance itself, but in the interaction between the utterance and the comprehender's knowledge of the world and the current situation. This dissertation uses psycholinguistic methods to explore the effects of a common type of inference--causal inference--on language…

  20. Causal Inference and Language Comprehension: Event-Related Potential Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Tristan S.

    2014-01-01

    The most important information conveyed by language is often contained not in the utterance itself, but in the interaction between the utterance and the comprehender's knowledge of the world and the current situation. This dissertation uses psycholinguistic methods to explore the effects of a common type of inference--causal inference--on language…

  1. An event-related analysis of P300 by simultaneous EEG/fMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li-qun; Wang, Mingshi; Mizuhara, Hiroaki

    2006-09-01

    In this study, P300 that induced by visual stimuli was examined with simultaneous EEG/fMRI. For the purpose of combine the best temporary resolution with the best special resolution together to estimate the brain function, event-related analysis contributed to this methodological trial. A 64 channel MRT-compatible MR EEG amplifier (BrainAmp: made of Brain Production GmbH, Gennany) was used in the measurement simultaneously with fMRI scanning. The reference channel is between Fz, Cz and Pz. Sampling rate of raw EEG was 5 kHz, and the MRT noise reduction was performed. EEG recording synchronized with MRI scan by our original stimulus system, and an oddball paradigm (four-oriented Landolt Ring presentation) was performed in the official manner. After P300 segmentation, the timing of P300 was exported to event-related analysis of fMRI data with SPM99 software. In single subject study, the significant activations appear in the left superior frontal, Broca's area and on both sides of the parietal lobule when P300 occurred. It is suggest that P300 may be an integration carried out by top-down signal from frontal to the parietal lobule, which regulates an Attention-Logical Judgment process. Compared with other current methods, the event related analysis by simultaneous EEG/IMRI is excellent in the point that can describe the cognitive process with reality unifying further temporary and spatial information. It is expected that examination and demonstration of the obtained result will supply with the promotion of this powerful methods.

  2. Common and Segregated Neural Substrates for Automatic Conceptual and Affective Priming as Revealed by Event-Related Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hongyan; Hu, Zhiguo; Peng, Danling; Yang, Yanhui; Li, Kuncheng

    2010-01-01

    The brain activity associated with automatic semantic priming has been extensively studied. Thus far there has been no prior study that directly contrasts the neural mechanisms of semantic and affective priming. The present study employed event-related fMRI to examine the common and distinct neural bases underlying conceptual and affective priming…

  3. Common and Segregated Neural Substrates for Automatic Conceptual and Affective Priming as Revealed by Event-Related Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hongyan; Hu, Zhiguo; Peng, Danling; Yang, Yanhui; Li, Kuncheng

    2010-01-01

    The brain activity associated with automatic semantic priming has been extensively studied. Thus far there has been no prior study that directly contrasts the neural mechanisms of semantic and affective priming. The present study employed event-related fMRI to examine the common and distinct neural bases underlying conceptual and affective priming…

  4. The effects of left or right hemispheric epilepsy on language networks investigated with semantic decision fMRI task and independent component analysis.

    PubMed

    Karunanayaka, Prasanna; Kim, Kwang Ki; Holland, Scott K; Szaflarski, Jerzy P

    2011-04-01

    Chronic and progressive brain injury, as seen in epilepsy, may alter brain networks that underlie cognitive functions. To evaluate the effect of epilepsy on language functions we investigated the neuroanatomical basis of semantic processing in patients with left (LHE) or right (RHE) hemispheric onset epilepsy using semantic decision fMRI paradigm and group independent component analysis (ICA); we then compared the results of our investigations with language networks in healthy subjects examined with the same language task (Kim K, Karunanayaka P, Privitera M, Holland S, Szaflarski J. Semantic association investigated with fMRI and independent component analysis. In press). Group ICA is a data-driven technique capable of revealing the functional organization of the human brain based on fMRI data. In addition to providing functional connectivity information, ICA can also provide information about the temporal dynamics of underlying networks subserving specific cognitive functions. In this study, we implemented two complementary analyses to investigate group differences in underlying network dynamics based on associated independent component (IC) time courses (a priori defined criterion or a posteriori identified maximum likelihood descriptor). We detected several differences between healthy controls and patients with epilepsy not previously observed with standard fMRI analysis methods. Our analyses confirmed the presence of different effects of LHE or RHE on the behavior of the language network. In particular, a major difference was noted in the nodes subserving verbal encoding and retrieval in the bilateral medial temporal regions. These effects were dependent on the side of the epilepsy onset; that is, effects were different with left or right hemispheric epilepsy. These findings may explain the differences in verbal and nonverbal memory abilities between patients with left and those with right hemispheric epilepsy. Further, although the effects on other nodes of

  5. Event-related potentials during mental imagery of animal sounds.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianhui; Mai, Xiaoqin; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Zheng, Yaqin; Luo, Yuejia

    2006-11-01

    To investigate the neural correlates of imagined animal sounds, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while subjects were presented with (1) animal pictures without any imagery instruction (control) or (2) animal pictures with instructions to imagine the corresponding sounds (imagery). The results revealed imagery effects starting with an enhancement of the P2, possibly indexing the top-down allocation of attention to the imagery task, and continuing into a more positive-going deflection in the time window of 350-600 ms poststimulus, probably reflecting the formation of auditory imagery. A centro-parietally distributed late positive complex (LPC) was identified in the difference waveform (imagery minus control) and might reflect two subprocesses of imagery formation: sound retrieval from stored information and representation in working memory.

  6. Colours’ Impact on Morality: Evidence from Event-related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Tian; Fang, Wei; Ge, Liezhong

    2016-01-01

    Black and white have been shown to be representations of moral concepts. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether colours other than black and white have similar effects on words related to morality and to determine the time course of these effects. We presented moral and immoral words in three colours (red, green and blue) in a Moral Stroop task and used the event-related potential (ERP) technique to identify the temporal dynamics of the impact of colours on moral judgement. The behavioural results showed that it took longer for people to judge immoral words than moral words when the words were coloured green than when they were red or blue. The ERP results revealed the time course of these effects. Three stages were identified in the significant effects of P200, N300 and LPC. These findings suggest a metaphorical association between the colour green and moral information. PMID:28004749

  7. When memory meets beauty: Insights from event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Marzi, T; Viggiano, M P

    2010-05-01

    Facial attractiveness plays a key role in human social and affective behavior. To study the time course of the neural processing of attractiveness and its influence on recognition memory we investigated the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited in an old/new recognition task in response to faces with a neutral expression that, at encoding, were rated for their attractiveness. Highly attractive faces elicited a specific early positive-going component on frontal sites; in addition, with respect to less attractive faces, they elicited larger later components related to structural encoding and recognition memory. All in all, our results show that facial attractiveness, independently from facial expression, modulates face processing throughout all stages from encoding to retrieval.

  8. [fMRI study of deliberate deception].

    PubMed

    Kireev, M V; Korotkov, A D; Medvedev, C V

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to study the deliberate deception. Event related functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) imaging technique was used to assess the changes in functional brain activity by virtue of recording blood oxygen level dependant signal (BOLD-signal). 12 right-handed healthy volunteers aged 19-44 participated in the study. BOLD images were acquired in three different experimental trials. There were deliberate deception, manipulative honest and control truthful trials (catch trials). The main finding of the present study is that the deliberate deception and manipulative honest actions in comparison with instructed truthful responding was characterized by BOLD signal increase within the anterior cingulated cortex (ACC), frontal and parietal areas as well. Comparison of present fMRI data with results demonstrated in our previous research implemented with event related potentials technique points to the involvement of the brain mechanism of error detection to brain processing of deliberate deception.

  9. Neural Correlates of Perceiving Emotional Faces and Bodies in Developmental Prosopagnosia: An Event-Related fMRI-Study

    PubMed Central

    Van den Stock, Jan; van de Riet, Wim A. C.; Righart, Ruthger; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2008-01-01

    Many people experience transient difficulties in recognizing faces but only a small number of them cannot recognize their family members when meeting them unexpectedly. Such face blindness is associated with serious problems in everyday life. A better understanding of the neuro-functional basis of impaired face recognition may be achieved by a careful comparison with an equally unique object category and by a adding a more realistic setting involving neutral faces as well facial expressions. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neuro-functional basis of perceiving faces and bodies in three developmental prosopagnosics (DP) and matched healthy controls. Our approach involved materials consisting of neutral faces and bodies as well as faces and bodies expressing fear or happiness. The first main result is that the presence of emotional information has a different effect in the patient vs. the control group in the fusiform face area (FFA). Neutral faces trigger lower activation in the DP group, compared to the control group, while activation for facial expressions is the same in both groups. The second main result is that compared to controls, DPs have increased activation for bodies in the inferior occipital gyrus (IOG) and for neutral faces in the extrastriate body area (EBA), indicating that body and face sensitive processes are less categorically segregated in DP. Taken together our study shows the importance of using naturalistic emotional stimuli for a better understanding of developmental face deficits. PMID:18797499

  10. Emotional perception: Correspondence of early and late event-related potentials with cortical and subcortical functional MRI

    PubMed Central

    Sabatinelli, Dean; Keil, Andreas; Frank, David W.; Lang, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a picture perception task, here we investigate the relationship of early occipitotemporal and later centroparietal emotion-modulated event-related potentials (ERPs) in one sample to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) estimates of neural activity in another sample in a replicated experiment. Using this approach, we aimed to link effects found in time-resolved electrocortical measures to specific cerebral structures across individual emotional and nonemotional picture stimuli. The centroparietal late positive potential (LPP) showed covariation with emotion-modulated regions of hemodynamic activation across multiple dorsal and ventral visual cortical structures, while the early occipitotemporal potential was not reliably associated. Subcortical and corticolimbic structures involved in the perception of motivationally relevant stimuli also related to modulation of the LPP, and were modestly associated to the amplitude of the early occipitotemporal potential. These data suggest that early occipitotemporal potentials may reflect multiple sources of modulation including motivational relevance, and supports the perspective that the slow-wave LPP represents aggregate cortical and subcortical structures involved in emotional discrimination. PMID:22560889

  11. Neural correlates of experienced moral emotion: an fMRI investigation of emotion in response to prejudice feedback.

    PubMed

    Fourie, Melike M; Thomas, Kevin G F; Amodio, David M; Warton, Christopher M R; Meintjes, Ernesta M

    2014-01-01

    Guilt, shame, and embarrassment are quintessential moral emotions with important regulatory functions for the individual and society. Moral emotions are, however, difficult to study with neuroimaging methods because their elicitation is more intricate than that of basic emotions. Here, using functional MRI (fMRI), we employed a novel social prejudice paradigm to examine specific brain regions associated with real-time moral emotion, focusing on guilt and related moral-negative emotions. The paradigm induced intense moral-negative emotion (primarily guilt) in 22 low-prejudice individuals through preprogrammed feedback indicating implicit prejudice against Black and disabled people. fMRI data indicated that this experience of moral-negative emotion was associated with increased activity in anterior paralimbic structures, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and anterior insula, in addition to areas associated with mentalizing, including the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus. Of significance was prominent conflict-related activity in the supragenual ACC, which is consistent with theories proposing an association between acute guilt and behavioral inhibition. Finally, a significant negative association between self-reported guilt and neural activity in the pregenual ACC suggested a role of self-regulatory processes in response to moral-negative affect. These findings are consistent with the multifaceted self-regulatory functions of moral-negative emotions in social behavior.

  12. fMRI investigation of response inhibition, emotion, impulsivity, and clinical high-risk behavior in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Matthew R. G.; Benoit, James R. A.; Juhás, Michal; Dametto, Ericson; Tse, Tiffanie T.; MacKay, Marnie; Sen, Bhaskar; Carroll, Alan M.; Hodlevskyy, Oleksandr; Silverstone, Peter H.; Dolcos, Florin; Dursun, Serdar M.; Greenshaw, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    High-risk behavior in adolescents is associated with injury, mental health problems, and poor outcomes in later life. Improved understanding of the neurobiology of high-risk behavior and impulsivity shows promise for informing clinical treatment and prevention as well as policy to better address high-risk behavior. We recruited 21 adolescents (age 14–17) with a wide range of high-risk behavior tendencies, including medically high-risk participants recruited from psychiatric clinics. Risk tendencies were assessed using the Adolescent Risk Behavior Screen (ARBS). ARBS risk scores correlated highly (0.78) with impulsivity scores from the Barratt Impulsivity scale (BIS). Participants underwent 4.7 Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing an emotional Go/NoGo task. This task presented an aversive or neutral distractor image simultaneously with each Go or NoGo stimulus. Risk behavior and impulsivity tendencies exhibited similar but not identical associations with fMRI activation patterns in prefrontal brain regions. We interpret these results as reflecting differences in response inhibition, emotional stimulus processing, and emotion regulation in relation to participant risk behavior tendencies and impulsivity levels. The results are consistent with high impulsivity playing an important role in determining high risk tendencies in this sample containing clinically high-risk adolescents. PMID:26483645

  13. How instructions modify perception: An fMRI study investigating brain areas involved in attributing human agency

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, James; Gowen, Emma; Miall, R. Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Behavioural studies suggest that the processing of movement stimuli is influenced by beliefs about the agency behind these actions. The current study examined how activity in social and action related brain areas differs when participants were instructed that identical movement stimuli were either human or computer generated. Participants viewed a series of point-light animation figures derived from motion-capture recordings of a moving actor, while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to monitor patterns of neural activity. The stimuli were scrambled to produce a range of stimulus realism categories; furthermore, before each trial participants were told that they were about to view either a recording of human movement or a computer-simulated pattern of movement. Behavioural results suggested that agency instructions influenced participants' perceptions of the stimuli. The fMRI analysis indicated different functions within the paracingulate cortex: ventral paracingulate cortex was more active for human compared to computer agency instructed trials across all stimulus types, whereas dorsal paracingulate cortex was activated more highly in conflicting conditions (human instruction, low realism or vice versa). These findings support the hypothesis that ventral paracingulate encodes stimuli deemed to be of human origin, whereas dorsal paracingulate cortex is involved more in the ascertainment of human or intentional agency during the observation of ambiguous stimuli. Our results highlight the importance of prior instructions or beliefs on movement processing and the role of the paracingulate cortex in integrating prior knowledge with bottom-up stimuli. PMID:20398769

  14. A portable experimental apparatus for human olfactory fMRI experiments.

    PubMed

    Sezille, C; Messaoudi, B; Bertrand, A; Joussain, P; Thévenet, M; Bensafi, M

    2013-08-15

    Human olfactory perception can be measured using psychophysical tools or more complex odor generating devices systems, namely olfactometers. The present paper is aimed at presenting a new inexpensive, non-voluminous portable olfactometer adapted for human fMRI experiments. The system adjusts odorant stimulus presentation to human nasal respiration and records behavioral responses in the same experimental device. Validation by psychophysical measures and photo-ionization detection showed a linear increase in both odor intensity perception and vapor concentration as a function of odorant concentration. Further validation by brain imaging revealed neural activation in typical olfactory areas. In summary, the system represents a new low-cost, easy-use, easy-maintenance portable olfactometry tool for brain imaging, opening up new possibilities for investigating neural response to odors using event-related fMRI designs.

  15. A Critical Review of ERP and fMRI Evidence on L2 Syntactic Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotz, Sonja A.

    2009-01-01

    The current review focuses on recent event-related brain potential (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in L2 syntactic processing data. To this end, critical factors influencing both the dynamics of neural mechanisms (ERPs) and critical functional brain correlates (fMRI) are discussed. These entail the critical period…

  16. A Critical Review of ERP and fMRI Evidence on L2 Syntactic Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotz, Sonja A.

    2009-01-01

    The current review focuses on recent event-related brain potential (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in L2 syntactic processing data. To this end, critical factors influencing both the dynamics of neural mechanisms (ERPs) and critical functional brain correlates (fMRI) are discussed. These entail the critical period…

  17. Effective methylphenidate treatment of an adult Aspergers Syndrome and a comorbid ADHD: a clinical investigation with fMRI.

    PubMed

    Roy, Mandy; Dillo, Wolfgang; Bessling, Svenja; Emrich, Hinderk M; Ohlmeier, Martin D

    2009-01-01

    Aspergers Syndrome can present as comorbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Very few cases of the assessment and treatment of this comorbidity in adulthood are described in the research literature. A 26-year-old patient as suffering from ADHD in combination with Aspergers Syndrome is diagnosed. Treatment is started with methylphenidate (MPH), and the patient's clinical response is observed, psychological tests concerning attention are analyzed, and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) examination is performed during an attention-task. On the functional magnetic resonance imaging, a reduction of cerebral activity bilaterally in the parietal lobe under the influence of MPH is detected. Besides the neurophysiological findings, this case reports the complex impairment caused by the combination of AD/HD with Aspergers Syndrome and the broad social and behavioral benefits of treatment with MPH for this comorbidity.

  18. Novel vibrotactile discrimination task for investigating the neural correlates of short-term learning with fMRI.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kenneth; Staines, W Richard; Black, Sandra E; McIlroy, William E

    2009-03-30

    Innovative perceptual-motor learning paradigms applicable for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) offer much potential for elucidating the specific cortical mechanisms that underpin short-term learning. In this study, a novel, fMRI-compatible, vibrotactile discrimination task, adapted from a tactile version of the Morse-code, was introduced. Uniquely, this task featured distinct components of training and testing, such that cortical changes associated with these modalities of learning may be dissociated. During testing, the ability to correctly associate matching and non-matching vibrotactile/visual stimulus pairs was assessed. Initial testing in naïve healthy subjects (n = 23) revealed a training-dependent decrease in discrimination error rates and discrimination reaction time over the course of a single fMRI session. The rate and extent of learning were significantly decreased when the complexity of vibrotactile stimuli to be discriminated was increased. In a subgroup of subjects (n = 15) who participated in repeated testing, it was revealed that both initial testing and retesting sessions were characterized by similar within-subject training-related behavioral properties, when different vibrotactile patterns of similar challenge level were presented for the retesting session. Preliminary functional imaging data from a single subject case-study revealed task-related cortical activations over a widely distributed frontoparietal network, which demonstrated spatial consistency within- and also between-sessions (test-retest). Observed behavioral and cortical properties suggest that the current methodology may be suitable for assessing neural changes linked to short-term vibrotactile learning. In addition, demonstrated test-retest capability of the proposed task may uniquely permit applications where test conditions are to be manipulated within-subjects.

  19. MEG language lateralization in partial epilepsy using dSPM of auditory event-related fields.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Manoj; Li, Zhimin; Carlson, Chad; Anderson, Christopher T; Stout, Jeffrey; Sabsevitz, David S; Swanson, Sara J; Binder, Jeffrey R

    2017-08-01

    Methods employed to determine hemispheric language dominance using magnetoencephalography (MEG) have differed significantly across studies in the choice of language-task, the nature of the physiological response studied, recording hardware, and source modeling methods. Our goal was to determine whether an analysis based on distributed source modeling can replicate the results of prior studies that have used dipole-modeling of event-related fields (ERFs) generated by an auditory word-recognition task to determine language dominance in patients with epilepsy. We analyzed data from 45 adult patients with drug-resistant partial epilepsy who performed an auditory word-recognition task during MEG recording and also completed a language fMRI study as part of their evaluation for epilepsy surgery. Source imaging of auditory ERFs was performed using dynamic statistical parametric mapping (dSPM). Language laterality indices (LIs) were calculated for four regions of interest (ROIs) by counting above-threshold activations within a 300-600ms time window after stimulus onset. Language laterality (LL) classifications based on these LIs were compared to the results from fMRI. The most lateralized MEG responses to language stimuli were observed in a parietal region that included the angular and supramarginal gyri (AngSmg). In this region, using a half-maximal threshold, source activations were left dominant in 32 (71%) patients, right dominant in 8 (18%), and symmetric in 5 patients (11%). The best agreement between MEG and fMRI on the ternary classification of regional language dominance into left, right, or symmetric groups was also found at the AngSmg ROI (69%). This was followed by the whole-hemisphere and temporal ROIs (both 62%). The frontal ROI showed the least agreement with fMRI (51%). Gross discordances between MEG and FMRI findings were disproportionately of the type where MEG favored atypical right-hemispheric language in a patient with right-hemispheric seizure origin

  20. fMRI of global visual perception in simultanagnosia.

    PubMed

    Himmelbach, Marc; Erb, Michael; Klockgether, Thomas; Moskau, Susanna; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2009-03-01

    The integration of visual elements into global perception seems to be implemented separately to single object perception. This assumption is supported by the existence of patients with simultanagnosia who can identify single objects but are incapable of integrating multiple visual items. We investigated a case of simultanagnosia due to posterior cortical atrophy without structural brain damage who demonstrated an incomplete simultanagnosia. The patient successfully recognized a global stimulus in one trial but failed to do so just a few seconds later. Using event-related fMRI, we contrasted post hoc selected trials of successful global perception with trials of global recognition failure. We found circumscribed clusters of activity at the right and left primary intermediate sulci and a bilateral cluster at the ventral precuneus. The integration of multiple visual elements resulting in a conscious perception of their gestalt seems to rely on these bilateral structures in the human lateral and medial inferior parietal cortex.

  1. Investigating Effective Brain Connectivity from fMRI Data: Past Findings and Current Issues with Reference to Granger Causality Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Interactions between brain regions have been recognized as a critical ingredient required to understand brain function. Two modes of interactions have held prominence—synchronization and causal influence. Efforts to ascertain causal influence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data have relied primarily on confirmatory model-driven approaches, such as dynamic causal modeling and structural equation modeling, and exploratory data-driven approaches such as Granger causality analysis. A slew of recent articles have focused on the relative merits and caveats of these approaches. The relevant studies can be classified into simulations, theoretical developments, and experimental results. In the first part of this review, we will consider each of these themes and critically evaluate their arguments, with regard to Granger causality analysis. Specifically, we argue that simulations are bounded by the assumptions and simplifications made by the simulator, and hence must be regarded only as a guide to experimental design and should not be viewed as the final word. On the theoretical front, we reason that each of the improvements to existing, yet disparate, methods brings them closer to each other with the hope of eventually leading to a unified framework specifically designed for fMRI. We then review latest experimental results that demonstrate the utility and validity of Granger causality analysis under certain experimental conditions. In the second part, we will consider current issues in causal connectivity analysis—hemodynamic variability, sampling, instantaneous versus causal relationship, and task versus resting states. We highlight some of our own work regarding these issues showing the effect of hemodynamic variability and sampling on Granger causality. Further, we discuss recent techniques such as the cubature Kalman filtering, which can perform blind deconvolution of the hemodynamic response robustly well, and hence enabling wider

  2. Investigating effective brain connectivity from fMRI data: past findings and current issues with reference to Granger causality analysis.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Hu, Xiaoping

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between brain regions have been recognized as a critical ingredient required to understand brain function. Two modes of interactions have held prominence-synchronization and causal influence. Efforts to ascertain causal influence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data have relied primarily on confirmatory model-driven approaches, such as dynamic causal modeling and structural equation modeling, and exploratory data-driven approaches such as Granger causality analysis. A slew of recent articles have focused on the relative merits and caveats of these approaches. The relevant studies can be classified into simulations, theoretical developments, and experimental results. In the first part of this review, we will consider each of these themes and critically evaluate their arguments, with regard to Granger causality analysis. Specifically, we argue that simulations are bounded by the assumptions and simplifications made by the simulator, and hence must be regarded only as a guide to experimental design and should not be viewed as the final word. On the theoretical front, we reason that each of the improvements to existing, yet disparate, methods brings them closer to each other with the hope of eventually leading to a unified framework specifically designed for fMRI. We then review latest experimental results that demonstrate the utility and validity of Granger causality analysis under certain experimental conditions. In the second part, we will consider current issues in causal connectivity analysis-hemodynamic variability, sampling, instantaneous versus causal relationship, and task versus resting states. We highlight some of our own work regarding these issues showing the effect of hemodynamic variability and sampling on Granger causality. Further, we discuss recent techniques such as the cubature Kalman filtering, which can perform blind deconvolution of the hemodynamic response robustly well, and hence enabling wider application of

  3. Are There Multiple Kinds of Episodic Memory? An fMRI Investigation Comparing Autobiographical and Recognition Memory Tasks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Yu; Gilmore, Adrian W; Nelson, Steven M; McDermott, Kathleen B

    2017-03-08

    What brain regions underlie retrieval from episodic memory? The bulk of research addressing this question with fMRI has relied upon recognition memory for materials encoded within the laboratory. Another, less dominant tradition has used autobiographical methods, whereby people recall events from their lifetime, often after being cued with words or pictures. The current study addresses how the neural substrates of successful memory retrieval differed as a function of the targeted memory when the experimental parameters were held constant in the two conditions (except for instructions). Human participants studied a set of scenes and then took two types of memory test while undergoing fMRI scanning. In one condition (the picture memory test), participants reported for each scene (32 studied, 64 nonstudied) whether it was recollected from the prior study episode. In a second condition (the life memory test), participants reported for each scene (32 studied, 64 nonstudied) whether it reminded them of a specific event from their preexperimental lifetime. An examination of successful retrieval (yes responses) for recently studied scenes for the two test types revealed pronounced differences; that is, autobiographical retrieval instantiated with the life memory test preferentially activated the default mode network, whereas hits in the picture memory test preferentially engaged the parietal memory network as well as portions of the frontoparietal control network. When experimental cueing parameters are held constant, the neural underpinnings of successful memory retrieval differ when remembering life events and recently learned events.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Episodic memory is often discussed as a solitary construct. However, experimental traditions examining episodic memory use very different approaches, and these are rarely compared to one another. When the neural correlates associated with each approach have been directly contrasted, results have varied considerably and

  4. Assessing the spatiotemporal evolution of neuronal activation with single-trial event-related potentials and functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Eichele, Tom; Specht, Karsten; Moosmann, Matthias; Jongsma, Marijtje L A; Quiroga, Rodrigo Quian; Nordby, Helge; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2005-12-06

    The brain acts as an integrated information processing system, which methods in cognitive neuroscience have so far depicted in a fragmented fashion. Here, we propose a simple and robust way to integrate functional MRI (fMRI) with single trial event-related potentials (ERP) to provide a more complete spatiotemporal characterization of evoked responses in the human brain. The idea behind the approach is to find brain regions whose fMRI responses can be predicted by paradigm-induced amplitude modulations of simultaneously acquired single trial ERPs. The method was used to study a variant of a two-stimulus auditory target detection (odd-ball) paradigm that manipulated predictability through alternations of stimulus sequences with random or regular target-to-target intervals. In addition to electrophysiologic and hemodynamic evoked responses to auditory targets per se, single-trial modulations were expressed during the latencies of the P2 (170-ms), N2 (200-ms), and P3 (320-ms) components and predicted spatially separated fMRI activation patterns. These spatiotemporal matches, i.e., the prediction of hemodynamic activation by time-variant information from single trial ERPs, permit inferences about regional responses using fMRI with the temporal resolution provided by electrophysiology.

  5. Agency attribution: event-related potentials and outcome monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bednark, Jeffery G; Franz, Elizabeth A

    2014-04-01

    Knowledge about the effects of our actions is an underlying feature of voluntary behavior. Given the importance of identifying the outcomes of our actions, it has been proposed that the sensory outcomes of self-made actions are inherently different from those of externally caused outcomes. Thus, the outcomes of self-made actions are likely to be more motivationally significant for an agent. We used event-related potentials to investigate the relationship between the perceived motivational significance of an outcome and the attribution of agency in the presence of others. In our experiment, we assessed agency attribution in the presence of another agent by varying the degree of contiguity between participants' self-made actions and the sensory outcome. Specifically, we assessed the feedback correct-related positivity (fCRP) and the novelty P3 measures of an outcome's motivational significance and unexpectedness, respectively. Results revealed that both the fCRP and participants' agency attributions were significantly influenced by action-outcome contiguity. However, when action-outcome contiguity was ambiguous, novelty P3 amplitude was a reliable indicator of agency attribution. Prior agency attributions were also found to influence attribution in trials with ambiguous and low action-outcome contiguity. Participants' use of multiple cues to determine agency is consistent with the cue integration theory of agency. In addition to these novel findings, this study supports growing evidence suggesting that reinforcement processes play a significant role in the sense of agency.

  6. Multiple Component Event-Related Potential (mcERP) Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, K. H.; Clanton, S. T.; Shah, A. S.; Truccolo, W. A.; Ding, M.; Bressler, S. L.; Trejo, L. J.; Schroeder, C. E.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We show how model-based estimation of the neural sources responsible for transient neuroelectric signals can be improved by the analysis of single trial data. Previously, we showed that a multiple component event-related potential (mcERP) algorithm can extract the responses of individual sources from recordings of a mixture of multiple, possibly interacting, neural ensembles. McERP also estimated single-trial amplitudes and onset latencies, thus allowing more accurate estimation of ongoing neural activity during an experimental trial. The mcERP algorithm is related to informax independent component analysis (ICA); however, the underlying signal model is more physiologically realistic in that a component is modeled as a stereotypic waveshape varying both in amplitude and onset latency from trial to trial. The result is a model that reflects quantities of interest to the neuroscientist. Here we demonstrate that the mcERP algorithm provides more accurate results than more traditional methods such as factor analysis and the more recent ICA. Whereas factor analysis assumes the sources are orthogonal and ICA assumes the sources are statistically independent, the mcERP algorithm makes no such assumptions thus allowing investigators to examine interactions among components by estimating the properties of single-trial responses.

  7. Vowels in early words: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Mani, Nivedita; Mills, Debra L; Plunkett, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Previous behavioural research suggests that infants possess phonologically detailed representations of the vowels and consonants in familiar words. These tasks examine infants' sensitivity to mispronunciations of a target label in the presence of a target and distracter image. Sensitivity to the mispronunciation may, therefore, be contaminated by the degree of mismatch between the distracter label and the heard mispronounced label. Event-related potential (ERP) studies allow investigation of infants' sensitivity to the relationship between a heard label (correct or mispronounced) and the referent alone using single picture trials. ERPs also provide information about the timing of lexico-phonological activation in infant word recognition. The current study examined 14-month-olds' sensitivity to vowel mispronunciations of familiar words using ERP data from single picture trials. Infants were presented with familiar images followed by a correct pronunciation of its label, a vowel mispronunciation or a phonologically unrelated non-word. The results support and extend previous behavioural findings that 14-month-olds are sensitive to mispronunciations of the vowels in familiar words using an ERP task. We suggest that the presence of pictorial context reinforces infants' sensitivity to mispronunciations of words, and that mispronunciation sensitivity may rely on infants accessing the cross-modal associations between word forms and their meanings. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Multiple Component Event-Related Potential (mcERP) Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, K. H.; Clanton, S. T.; Shah, A. S.; Truccolo, W. A.; Ding, M.; Bressler, S. L.; Trejo, L. J.; Schroeder, C. E.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We show how model-based estimation of the neural sources responsible for transient neuroelectric signals can be improved by the analysis of single trial data. Previously, we showed that a multiple component event-related potential (mcERP) algorithm can extract the responses of individual sources from recordings of a mixture of multiple, possibly interacting, neural ensembles. McERP also estimated single-trial amplitudes and onset latencies, thus allowing more accurate estimation of ongoing neural activity during an experimental trial. The mcERP algorithm is related to informax independent component analysis (ICA); however, the underlying signal model is more physiologically realistic in that a component is modeled as a stereotypic waveshape varying both in amplitude and onset latency from trial to trial. The result is a model that reflects quantities of interest to the neuroscientist. Here we demonstrate that the mcERP algorithm provides more accurate results than more traditional methods such as factor analysis and the more recent ICA. Whereas factor analysis assumes the sources are orthogonal and ICA assumes the sources are statistically independent, the mcERP algorithm makes no such assumptions thus allowing investigators to examine interactions among components by estimating the properties of single-trial responses.

  9. Event Related Potentials Index Rapid Recalibration to Audiovisual Temporal Asynchrony

    PubMed Central

    Simon, David M.; Noel, Jean-Paul; Wallace, Mark T.

    2017-01-01

    Asynchronous arrival of multisensory information at the periphery is a ubiquitous property of signals in the natural environment due to differences in the propagation time of light and sound. Rapid adaptation to these asynchronies is crucial for the appropriate integration of these multisensory signals, which in turn is a fundamental neurobiological process in creating a coherent perceptual representation of our dynamic world. Indeed, multisensory temporal recalibration has been shown to occur at the single trial level, yet the mechanistic basis of this rapid adaptation is unknown. Here, we investigated the neural basis of rapid recalibration to audiovisual temporal asynchrony in human participants using a combination of psychophysics and electroencephalography (EEG). Consistent with previous reports, participant’s perception of audiovisual temporal synchrony on a given trial (t) was influenced by the temporal structure of stimuli on the previous trial (t−1). When examined physiologically, event related potentials (ERPs) were found to be modulated by the temporal structure of the previous trial, manifesting as late differences (>125 ms post second-stimulus onset) in central and parietal positivity on trials with large stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). These findings indicate that single trial adaptation to audiovisual temporal asynchrony is reflected in modulations of late evoked components that have previously been linked to stimulus evaluation and decision-making. PMID:28381993

  10. Stability of auditory event-related potentials in coma research.

    PubMed

    Schorr, Barbara; Schlee, Winfried; Arndt, Marion; Lulé, Dorothée; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Lopez-Rolon, Alex; Lopez-Rolon, Alexander; Bender, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) or in minimally conscious state (MCS) after brain injury show significant fluctuations in their behavioural abilities over time. As the importance of event-related potentials (ERPs) in the detection of traces of consciousness increases, we investigated the retest reliability of ERPs with repeated tests at four different time points. Twelve healthy controls and 12 inpatients (8 UWS, 4 MCS; 6 traumatic, 6 non-traumatic) were tested twice a day (morning, afternoon) for 2 days with an auditory oddball task. ERPs were recorded with a 256-channel-EEG system, and correlated with behavioural test scores in the Coma Recovery Scale-revised (CRS-R). The number of identifiable P300 responses varied between zero and four in both groups. Reliabilities varied between Krippendorff's α = 0.43 for within-day comparison, and α = 0.25 for between-day comparison in the patient group. Retest reliability was strong for the CRS-R scores for all comparisons (α = 0.83-0.95). The stability of auditory information processing in patients with disorders of consciousness is the basis for other, even more demanding tasks and cognitive potentials. The relatively low ERP-retest reliability suggests that it is necessary to perform repeated tests, especially when probing for consciousness with ERPs. A single negative ERP test result may be mistaken for proof that a UWS patient truly is unresponsive.

  11. Emoticons in mind: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Churches, Owen; Nicholls, Mike; Thiessen, Myra; Kohler, Mark; Keage, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    It is now common practice, in digital communication, to use the character combination ":-)", known as an emoticon, to indicate a smiling face. Although emoticons are readily interpreted as smiling faces, it is unclear whether emoticons trigger face-specific mechanisms or whether separate systems are utilized. A hallmark of face perception is the utilization of regions in the occipitotemporal cortex, which are sensitive to configural processing. We recorded the N170 event-related potential to investigate the way in which emoticons are perceived. Inverting faces produces a larger and later N170 while inverting objects which are perceived featurally rather than configurally reduces the amplitude of the N170. We presented 20 participants with images of upright and inverted faces, emoticons and meaningless strings of characters. Emoticons showed a large amplitude N170 when upright and a decrease in amplitude when inverted, the opposite pattern to that shown by faces. This indicates that when upright, emoticons are processed in occipitotemporal sites similarly to faces due to their familiar configuration. However, the characters which indicate the physiognomic features of emoticons are not recognized by the more laterally placed facial feature detection systems used in processing inverted faces.

  12. Event-related distress in kidney disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Germain, Anne; Dohar, Sheena; Unruh, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Background. Non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD) and dialysis-dependent Stage 5 CKD (CKD5) are associated with a significant physical and psychosocial burden. Little is known, however, about the impact of stressful life events on CKD and CKD5 patients. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of stressful life events in CKD and CKD5 patients and identify the factors correlated with high levels of event-related distress. Methods. This cross-sectional study’s sample consisted of 181 patients (91 with non-dialysis-dependent CKD Stages 4 and 5, 90 with CKD5) who filled out the Impact of Event Scale (IES), which measures subjective distress related to stressful life events. Other measures included scores from the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Dialysis Symptom Index (DSI). Results. One hundred and three subjects reported stressors on the IES. Almost half the stressors (49.5%) related to personal health; the rest fell into other categories. There were significant differences between the no stressor, low event-related distress and high event-related distress groups in age (P < 0.001), PHQ-9 score (P < 0.001) and DSI score (P = 0.002). After adjustment, PHQ-9 score was associated with high event-related distress [odds ratio (OR) 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10–1.32], as was DSI score (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02–1.07) in a separate model. Conclusions. Event-related distress is common in CKD and CKD5 patients. High event-related distress is associated with worse depressive symptoms and greater somatic and emotional symptom burden, even with adjustments for age and gender. The renal practitioner may need to address patients’ event-related distress in order to provide optimal care. PMID:21624943

  13. Schizophrenia Symptom and Functional Correlates of Anterior Cingulate Cortex Activation to Emotion Stimuli: An fMRI Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Brady D.; Bjorkquist, Olivia A.; Olsen, Emily K.; Herbener, Ellen S.

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic mental illness characterized by distinct positive and negative symptoms and functional impairment. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a region of the brain’s limbic system that is hypoactive during emotion processing in schizophrenia. Recent evidence suggests the hypoactive ACC in schizophrenia is due to negative (and not positive) symptoms. However, this finding has not been replicated and the functional significance of this relationship remains unclear. The present study examined the association between positive and negative symptoms, ACC activation to emotional images, and functional outcome in schizophrenia. Specifically, 16 schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (SZ/SZAF) and 15 control (CON) participants underwent an fMRI scan while completing an emotional picture-rating task. SZ/SZAF participants also completed clinician-rated measures of positive and negative symptoms and functional abilities. SZ/SZAF participants with high negative symptoms had reduced ACC activation to pleasant images relative to those with low negative symptoms and CON, who did not differ. Furthermore, amongst all SZ/SZAF participants poorer social functioning was associated with decreased ACC activation to pleasant images. Finally, ACC activation partially mediated the relationship between negative symptoms and social dysfunction. These results provide evidence of the functional significance of the relationship between negative symptoms and ACC dysfunction in schizophrenia. PMID:26596521

  14. Investigation of decision-making under uncertainty in healthy subjects: a multi-centric fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Krug, A; Cabanis, M; Pyka, M; Pauly, K; Walter, H; Landsberg, M; Shah, N Jon; Winterer, G; Wölwer, W; Musso, F; Müller, B W; Wiedemann, G; Herrlich, J; Schnell, K; Vogeley, K; Schilbach, L; Langohr, K; Rapp, A; Klingberg, S; Kircher, T

    2014-03-15

    Decision-making is an everyday routine that entails several subprocesses. Decisions under uncertainty occur when either prior information is incomplete or the outcomes of the decision are unclear. The aim of the present study was to disentangle the neural correlates of information gathering as well as reaching a decision and to explore effects of uncertainty acceptance or avoidance in a large sample of healthy subjects. Sixty-four healthy volunteers performed a decision-making under uncertainty task in a multi-center approach while BOLD signal was measured with fMRI. Subjects either had to indicate via button press from which of two bottles red or blue balls were drawn (decision-making under uncertainty condition), or they had to indicate whether 8 red balls had been presented (baseline condition). During the information gathering phase (contrasted against the counting phase) a widespread network was found encompassing (pre-)frontal, inferior temporal and inferior parietal cortices. Reaching a decision was correlated with activations in the medial frontal cortex as well as the posterior cingulate and the precuneus. Effects of uncertainty acceptance were found within a network comprising of the superior frontal cortex as well as the insula and precuneus while uncertainty avoidance was correlated with activations in the right middle frontal cortex. The results depict two distinct networks for information gathering and the indication of having made a decision. While information-gathering networks are modulated by uncertainty avoidance and - acceptance, underlying networks of the decision itself are independent of these factors.

  15. Neural Control of Voluntary Eye Closure: A Case Study and an fMRI Investigation of Blinking and Winking

    PubMed Central

    van Koningsbruggen, Martijn G.; Peelen, Marius V.; Davies, Eilir; Rafal, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    The current paper describes a rare case of a patient who suffered from unilateral apraxia of eye closure as a result of a bilateral stroke. Interestingly, the patient’s ability to voluntarily close both eyelids (i.e. blinking) was not affected, indicating that different neural mechanisms control each type of eye closure. The stroke caused damage to a large part of the right frontal cortex, including the motor cortex, pre-motor cortex and the frontal eye field (FEF). The lesion in the left hemisphere was restricted to the FEF. In order to further study the neural mechanisms of eye closure, we conducted an fMRI study in a group of neurological healthy subjects. We found that all areas of the oculomotor cortex were activated by both left and right winking, including the FEF, supplementary eye field (SEF), and posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Blinking activated FEF and SEF, but not PPC. Both FEF and PPC were significantly more active during winking than blinking. Together, these results provide evidence for a critical role of the FEF in voluntary unilateral eye closure. PMID:22530264

  16. Investigating the field-dependence of the Davis model: Calibrated fMRI at 1.5, 3 and 7T.

    PubMed

    Hare, Hannah V; Blockley, Nicholas P; Gardener, Alexander G; Clare, Stuart; Bulte, Daniel P

    2015-05-15

    Gas calibrated fMRI in its most common form uses hypercapnia in conjunction with the Davis model to quantify relative changes in the cerebral rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2) in response to a functional stimulus. It is most commonly carried out at 3T but, as 7T research scanners are becoming more widespread and the majority of clinical scanners are still 1.5T systems, it is important to investigate whether the model used remains accurate across this range of field strengths. Ten subjects were scanned at 1.5, 3 and 7T whilst performing a bilateral finger-tapping task as part of a calibrated fMRI protocol, and the results were compared to a detailed signal model. Simulations predicted an increase in value and variation in the calibration parameter M with field strength. Two methods of defining experimental regions of interest (ROIs) were investigated, based on (a) BOLD signal and (b) BOLD responses within grey matter only. M values from the latter ROI were in closer agreement with theoretical predictions; however, reassuringly, ROI choice had less impact on CMRO2 than on M estimates. Relative changes in CMRO2 during motor tasks at 3 and 7T were in good agreement but were over-estimated at 1.5T as a result of the lower signal to noise ratio. This result is encouraging for future studies at 7T, but also highlights the impact of imaging and analysis choices (such as ASL sequence and ROI definition) on the calibration parameter M and on the calculation of CMRO2. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Blind Source Separation of Event-Related EEG/MEG.

    PubMed

    Metsomaa, Johanna; Sarvas, Jukka; Ilmoniemi, Risto Juhani

    2017-09-01

    Blind source separation (BSS) can be used to decompose complex electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetoencephalography data into simpler components based on statistical assumptions without using a physical model. Applications include brain-computer interfaces, artifact removal, and identifying parallel neural processes. We wish to address the issue of applying BSS to event-related responses, which is challenging because of nonstationary data. We introduce a new BSS approach called momentary-uncorrelated component analysis (MUCA), which is tailored for event-related multitrial data. The method is based on approximate joint diagonalization of multiple covariance matrices estimated from the data at separate latencies. We further show how to extend the methodology for autocovariance matrices and how to apply BSS methods suitable for piecewise stationary data to event-related responses. We compared several BSS approaches by using simulated EEG as well as measured somatosensory and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) evoked EEG. Among the compared methods, MUCA was the most tolerant one to noise, TMS artifacts, and other challenges in the data. With measured somatosensory data, over half of the estimated components were found to be similar by MUCA and independent component analysis. MUCA was also stable when tested with several input datasets. MUCA is based on simple assumptions, and the results suggest that MUCA is robust with nonideal data. Event-related responses and BSS are valuable and popular tools in neuroscience. Correctly designed BSS is an efficient way of identifying artifactual and neural processes from nonstationary event-related data.

  18. Electrodermal Recording and fMRI to Inform Sensorimotor Recovery in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    MacIntosh, Bradley J.; McIlroy, William E.; Mraz, Richard; Staines, W. Richard; Black, Sandra E.; Graham, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) appears to be useful for investigating motor recovery after stroke. Some of the potential confounders of brain activation studies, however, could be mitigated through complementary physiological monitoring. Objective To investigate a sensorimotor fMRI battery that included simultaneous measurement of electrodermal activity in subjects with hemiparetic stroke to provide a measure related to the sense of effort during motor performance. Methods Bilateral hand and ankle tasks were performed by 6 patients with stroke (2 subacute, 4 chronic) during imaging with blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI using an event-related design. BOLD percent changes, peak activation, and laterality index values were calculated in the sensorimotor cortex. Electrodermal recordings were made concurrently and used as a regressor. Results Sensorimotor BOLD time series and percent change values provided evidence of an intact motor network in each of these well-recovered patients. During tasks involving the hemiparetic limb, electrodermal activity changes were variable in amplitude, and electrodermal activity time-series data showed significant correlations with fMRI in 3 of 6 patients. No such correlations were observed for control tasks involving the unaffected lower limb. Conclusions Electrodermal activity activation maps implicated the contralesional over the ipsilesional hemisphere, supporting the notion that stroke patients may require higher order motor processing to perform simple tasks. Electrodermal activity recordings may be useful as a physiological marker of differences in effort required during movements of a subject’s hemiparetic compared with the unaffected limb during fMRI studies. PMID:18784267

  19. An fMRI investigation of the fronto-striatal learning system in women who exhibit eating disorder behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Celone, Kim A.; Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Ross, Robert S.; Pratt, Elizabeth M.; Stern, Chantal E.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we sought to examine whether the fronto-striatal learning system, which has been implicated in bulimia nervosa, would demonstrate altered BOLD activity during probabilistic category learning in women who met subthreshold criteria for bulimia nervosa (Sub-BN). Sub-BN, which falls within the clinical category of Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS), is comprised of individuals who demonstrate recurrent binge eating, efforts to minimize their caloric intake and caloric retention, and elevated levels of concern about shape, weight, and/or eating, but just fail to meet the diagnostic threshold for bulimia nervosa (BN). fMRI data were collected from eighteen women with subthreshold-BN (Sub-BN) and nineteen healthy control women group-matched for age, education and body mass index (MC) during the weather prediction task. Sub-BN participants demonstrated increased caudate nucleus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activation during the learning of probabilistic categories. Though the two subject groups did not differ in behavioral performance, over the course of learning, Sub-BN participants showed a dynamic pattern of brain activity differences when compared to matched control participants. Regions implicated in episodic memory, including the medial temporal lobe (MTL), retrosplenial cortex, middle frontal gyrus, and anterior and posterior cingulate cortex showed decreased activity in the Sub-BN participants compared to MCs during early learning which was followed by increased involvement of the DLPFC during later learning. These findings demonstrate that women with Sub-BN demonstrate differences in fronto-striatal learning system activity, as well as a distinct functional pattern between fronto-striatal and MTL learning systems during the course of implicit probabilistic category learning. PMID:21419229

  20. Iconic Meaning in Music: An Event-Related Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qiuling; Huang, Hong; Mo, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been extensive research on the processing of the emotional meaning of music, little is known about other aspects of listeners’ experience of music. The present study investigated the neural correlates of the iconic meaning of music. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded while a group of 20 music majors and a group of 20 non-music majors performed a lexical decision task in the context of implicit musical iconic meaning priming. ERP analysis revealed a significant N400 effect of congruency in time window 260-510 ms following the onset of the target word only in the group of music majors. Time-course analysis using 50 ms windows indicated significant N400 effects both within the time window 410-460 ms and 460-510 ms for music majors, whereas only a partial N400 effect during time window 410-460 ms was observed for non-music majors. There was also a trend for the N400 effects in the music major group to be stronger than those in the non-major group in the sub-windows of 310-360ms and 410-460ms. Especially in the sub-window of 410-460 ms, the topographical map of the difference waveforms between congruent and incongruent conditions revealed different N400 distribution between groups; the effect was concentrated in bilateral frontal areas for music majors, but in central-parietal areas for non-music majors. These results imply probable neural mechanism differences underlying automatic iconic meaning priming of music. Our findings suggest that processing of the iconic meaning of music can be accomplished automatically and that musical training may facilitate the understanding of the iconic meaning of music. PMID:26161561

  1. Iconic Meaning in Music: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    PubMed

    Cai, Liman; Huang, Ping; Luo, Qiuling; Huang, Hong; Mo, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been extensive research on the processing of the emotional meaning of music, little is known about other aspects of listeners' experience of music. The present study investigated the neural correlates of the iconic meaning of music. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded while a group of 20 music majors and a group of 20 non-music majors performed a lexical decision task in the context of implicit musical iconic meaning priming. ERP analysis revealed a significant N400 effect of congruency in time window 260-510 ms following the onset of the target word only in the group of music majors. Time-course analysis using 50 ms windows indicated significant N400 effects both within the time window 410-460 ms and 460-510 ms for music majors, whereas only a partial N400 effect during time window 410-460 ms was observed for non-music majors. There was also a trend for the N400 effects in the music major group to be stronger than those in the non-major group in the sub-windows of 310-360 ms and 410-460 ms. Especially in the sub-window of 410-460 ms, the topographical map of the difference waveforms between congruent and incongruent conditions revealed different N400 distribution between groups; the effect was concentrated in bilateral frontal areas for music majors, but in central-parietal areas for non-music majors. These results imply probable neural mechanism differences underlying automatic iconic meaning priming of music. Our findings suggest that processing of the iconic meaning of music can be accomplished automatically and that musical training may facilitate the understanding of the iconic meaning of music.

  2. Tracking the implicit self using event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Egenolf, Yvonne; Stein, Maria; Koenig, Thomas; Grosse Holtforth, Martin; Dierks, Thomas; Caspar, Franz

    2013-12-01

    Negative biases in implicit self-evaluation are thought to be detrimental to subjective well-being and have been linked to various psychological disorders, including depression. An understanding of the neural processes underlying implicit self-evaluation in healthy subjects could provide a basis for the investigation of negative biases in depressed patients, the development of differential psychotherapeutic interventions, and the estimation of relapse risk in remitted patients. We thus studied the brain processes linked to implicit self-evaluation in 25 healthy subjects using event-related potential (ERP) recording during a self-relevant Implicit Association Test (sIAT). Consistent with a positive implicit self-evaluation in healthy subjects, they responded significantly faster to the congruent (self-positive mapping) than to the incongruent sIAT condition (self-negative mapping). Our main finding was a topographical ERP difference in a time window between 600 and 700 ms, whereas no significant differences between congruent and incongruent conditions were observed in earlier time windows. This suggests that biases in implicit self-evaluation are reflected only indirectly, in the additional recruitment of control processes needed to override the positive implicit self-evaluation of healthy subjects in the incongruent sIAT condition. Brain activations linked to these control processes can thus serve as an indirect measure for estimating biases in implicit self-evaluation. The sIAT paradigm, combined with ERP, could therefore permit the tracking of the neural processes underlying implicit self-evaluation in depressed patients during psychotherapy.

  3. From prosodic structure to acoustic saliency: A fMRI investigation of speech rate, clarity, and emphasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golfinopoulos, Elisa

    Acoustic variability in fluent speech can arise at many stages in speech production planning and execution. For example, at the phonological encoding stage, the grouping of phonemes into syllables determines which segments are coarticulated and, by consequence, segment-level acoustic variation. Likewise phonetic encoding, which determines the spatiotemporal extent of articulatory gestures, will affect the acoustic detail of segments. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure brain activity of fluent adult speakers in four speaking conditions: fast, normal, clear, and emphatic (or stressed) speech. These speech manner changes typically result in acoustic variations that do not change the lexical or semantic identity of productions but do affect the acoustic saliency of phonemes, syllables and/or words. Acoustic responses recorded inside the scanner were assessed quantitatively using eight acoustic measures and sentence duration was used as a covariate of non-interest in the neuroimaging analysis. Compared to normal speech, emphatic speech was characterized acoustically by a greater difference between stressed and unstressed vowels in intensity, duration, and fundamental frequency, and neurally by increased activity in right middle premotor cortex and supplementary motor area, and bilateral primary sensorimotor cortex. These findings are consistent with right-lateralized motor planning of prosodic variation in emphatic speech. Clear speech involved an increase in average vowel and sentence durations and average vowel spacing, along with increased activity in left middle premotor cortex and bilateral primary sensorimotor cortex. These findings are consistent with an increased reliance on feedforward control, resulting in hyper-articulation, under clear as compared to normal speech. Fast speech was characterized acoustically by reduced sentence duration and average vowel spacing, and neurally by increased activity in left anterior frontal

  4. Are Vowels and Consonants Processed Differently? Event-Related Potential Evidence with a Delayed Letter Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carreiras, Manuel; Gillon-Dowens, Margaret; Vergara, Marta; Perea, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the neural bases of consonant and vowel processing, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read words and pseudowords in a lexical decision task. The stimuli were displayed in three different conditions: (i) simultaneous presentation of all letters (baseline condition); (ii) presentation of all letters,…

  5. An Event-Related Potentials Study of Mental Rotation in Identifying Chemical Structural Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chin-Fei; Liu, Chia-Ju

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how mental rotation strategies affect the identification of chemical structural formulas. This study conducted event-related potentials (ERPs) experiments. In addition to the data collected in the ERPs, a Chemical Structure Conceptual Questionnaire and interviews were also admin-istered for data…

  6. Adapting to Changing Memory Retrieval Demands: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, Roland G.; Werkle-Bergner, Markus; Mecklinger, Axel; Kray, Jutta

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated preparatory processes involved in adapting to changing episodic memory retrieval demands. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants performed a general old/new recognition task and a specific task that also required retrieval of perceptual details. The relevant task remained either constant or changed…

  7. Early Processing of Emotional Faces in Children with Autism: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batty, Magali; Meaux, Emilie; Wittemeyer, Kerstin; Roge, Bernadette; Taylor, Margot J.

    2011-01-01

    Social deficits are one of the most striking manifestations of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Among these social deficits, the recognition and understanding of emotional facial expressions has been widely reported to be affected in ASDs. We investigated emotional face processing in children with and without autism using event-related potentials…

  8. Atypical Brain Responses to Reward Cues in Autism as Revealed by Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohls, Gregor; Peltzer, Judith; Schulte-Ruther, Martin; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Remschmidt, Helmut; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    Social motivation deficit theories suggest that children with autism do not properly anticipate and appreciate the pleasure of social stimuli. In this study, we investigated event-related brain potentials evoked by cues that triggered social versus monetary reward anticipation in children with autism. Children with autism showed attenuated P3…

  9. Cognitive Association Formation in Episodic Memory: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Alice S. N.; Vallesi, Antonino; Picton, Terence W.; Tulving, Endel

    2009-01-01

    The present study focused on the processes underlying cognitive association formation by investigating subsequent memory effects. Event-related potentials were recorded as participants studied pairs of words, presented one word at a time, for later recall. The findings showed that a frontal-positive late wave (LW), which occurred 1-1.6 s after the…

  10. Pitch Processing in Tonal-Language-Speaking Children with Autism: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Luodi; Fan, Yuebo; Deng, Zhizhou; Huang, Dan; Wang, Suiping; Zhang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated pitch processing in Mandarin-speaking children with autism using event-related potential measures. Two experiments were designed to test how acoustic, phonetic and semantic properties of the stimuli contributed to the neural responses for pitch change detection and involuntary attentional orienting. In comparison…

  11. Developmental Changes in Memory Encoding: Insights from Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Leslie; Riggins, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate developmental changes in encoding processes between 6-year-old children and adults using event-related potentials (ERPs). Although episodic memory ("EM") effects have been reported in both children and adults at retrieval and subsequent memory effects have been established in adults, no…

  12. Event Related Potentials in the Understanding of Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Analytical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeste, Shafali S.; Nelson, Charles A., III

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we critically review the literature on the use of event related potentials (ERPs) to elucidate the neural sources of the core deficits in autism. We review auditory and visual ERP studies, and then review the use of ERPs in the investigation of executive function. We conclude that, in autism, impairments likely exist in both low and…

  13. Atypical Brain Responses to Reward Cues in Autism as Revealed by Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohls, Gregor; Peltzer, Judith; Schulte-Ruther, Martin; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Remschmidt, Helmut; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    Social motivation deficit theories suggest that children with autism do not properly anticipate and appreciate the pleasure of social stimuli. In this study, we investigated event-related brain potentials evoked by cues that triggered social versus monetary reward anticipation in children with autism. Children with autism showed attenuated P3…

  14. (De-)Accentuation and the Processing of Information Status: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, Stefan; Schumacher, Petra B.

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports on a perception experiment in German that investigated the neuro-cognitive processing of information structural concepts and their prosodic marking using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Experimental conditions controlled the information status (given vs. new) of referring and non-referring target expressions (nouns vs.…

  15. Cognitive Association Formation in Episodic Memory: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Alice S. N.; Vallesi, Antonino; Picton, Terence W.; Tulving, Endel

    2009-01-01

    The present study focused on the processes underlying cognitive association formation by investigating subsequent memory effects. Event-related potentials were recorded as participants studied pairs of words, presented one word at a time, for later recall. The findings showed that a frontal-positive late wave (LW), which occurred 1-1.6 s after the…

  16. Similar Neural Correlates for Language and Sequential Learning: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Morten H.; Conway, Christopher M.; Onnis, Luca

    2012-01-01

    We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the time course and distribution of brain activity while adults performed (1) a sequential learning task involving complex structured sequences and (2) a language processing task. The same positive ERP deflection, the P600 effect, typically linked to difficult or ungrammatical syntactic…

  17. (De-)Accentuation and the Processing of Information Status: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, Stefan; Schumacher, Petra B.

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports on a perception experiment in German that investigated the neuro-cognitive processing of information structural concepts and their prosodic marking using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Experimental conditions controlled the information status (given vs. new) of referring and non-referring target expressions (nouns vs.…

  18. Are Vowels and Consonants Processed Differently? Event-Related Potential Evidence with a Delayed Letter Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carreiras, Manuel; Gillon-Dowens, Margaret; Vergara, Marta; Perea, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the neural bases of consonant and vowel processing, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read words and pseudowords in a lexical decision task. The stimuli were displayed in three different conditions: (i) simultaneous presentation of all letters (baseline condition); (ii) presentation of all letters,…

  19. Pitch Processing in Tonal-Language-Speaking Children with Autism: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Luodi; Fan, Yuebo; Deng, Zhizhou; Huang, Dan; Wang, Suiping; Zhang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated pitch processing in Mandarin-speaking children with autism using event-related potential measures. Two experiments were designed to test how acoustic, phonetic and semantic properties of the stimuli contributed to the neural responses for pitch change detection and involuntary attentional orienting. In comparison…

  20. Early Processing of Emotional Faces in Children with Autism: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batty, Magali; Meaux, Emilie; Wittemeyer, Kerstin; Roge, Bernadette; Taylor, Margot J.

    2011-01-01

    Social deficits are one of the most striking manifestations of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Among these social deficits, the recognition and understanding of emotional facial expressions has been widely reported to be affected in ASDs. We investigated emotional face processing in children with and without autism using event-related potentials…

  1. Developmental Changes in Memory Encoding: Insights from Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Leslie; Riggins, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate developmental changes in encoding processes between 6-year-old children and adults using event-related potentials (ERPs). Although episodic memory ("EM") effects have been reported in both children and adults at retrieval and subsequent memory effects have been established in adults, no…

  2. Impaired target detection in schizophrenia and the ventral attentional network: Findings from a joint event-related potential–functional MRI analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, Jonathan K.; Jimenez, Amy M.; Roach, Brian J.; Korb, Alexander; Lee, Junghee; Horan, William P.; Ford, Judith M.; Green, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients have abnormal neural responses to salient, infrequent events. We integrated event-related potentials (ERP) and fMRI to examine the contributions of the ventral (salience) and dorsal (sustained) attention networks to this dysfunctional neural activation. Twenty-one schizophrenia patients and 22 healthy controls were assessed in separate sessions with ERP and fMRI during a visual oddball task. Visual P100, N100, and P300 ERP waveforms and fMRI activation were assessed. A joint independent components analysis (jICA) on the ERP and fMRI data were conducted. Patients exhibited reduced P300, but not P100 or N100, amplitudes to targets and reduced fMRI neural activation in both dorsal and ventral attentional networks compared with controls. However, the jICA revealed that the P300 was linked specifically to activation in the ventral (salience) network, including anterior cingulate, anterior insula, and temporal parietal junction, with patients exhibiting significantly lower activation. The P100 and N100 were linked to activation in the dorsal (sustained) network, with no group differences in level of activation. This joint analysis approach revealed the nature of target detection deficits that were not discernable by either imaging methodology alone, highlighting the utility of a multimodal fMRI and ERP approach to understand attentional network deficits in schizophrenia. PMID:26448909

  3. Impaired target detection in schizophrenia and the ventral attentional network: Findings from a joint event-related potential-functional MRI analysis.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Jonathan K; Jimenez, Amy M; Roach, Brian J; Korb, Alexander; Lee, Junghee; Horan, William P; Ford, Judith M; Green, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients have abnormal neural responses to salient, infrequent events. We integrated event-related potentials (ERP) and fMRI to examine the contributions of the ventral (salience) and dorsal (sustained) attention networks to this dysfunctional neural activation. Twenty-one schizophrenia patients and 22 healthy controls were assessed in separate sessions with ERP and fMRI during a visual oddball task. Visual P100, N100, and P300 ERP waveforms and fMRI activation were assessed. A joint independent components analysis (jICA) on the ERP and fMRI data were conducted. Patients exhibited reduced P300, but not P100 or N100, amplitudes to targets and reduced fMRI neural activation in both dorsal and ventral attentional networks compared with controls. However, the jICA revealed that the P300 was linked specifically to activation in the ventral (salience) network, including anterior cingulate, anterior insula, and temporal parietal junction, with patients exhibiting significantly lower activation. The P100 and N100 were linked to activation in the dorsal (sustained) network, with no group differences in level of activation. This joint analysis approach revealed the nature of target detection deficits that were not discernable by either imaging methodology alone, highlighting the utility of a multimodal fMRI and ERP approach to understand attentional network deficits in schizophrenia.

  4. Brain Event-Related Potential Correlates of Concept Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federico, Pat-Anthony

    An irrelevant auditory probe procedure was used to evoke brain event-related potentials (ERPs) in 56 Navy recruits while they learned pulsed radar concepts presented to them in study booklets. A mastery test was administered to assess concept acquisition. The research issue was whether brain ERPs recorded while students are in the process of…

  5. Event-Related Potentials and the Stroop Effect.

    PubMed

    Sahinoglu, Babur; Dogan, Gamze

    2016-02-01

    In this manuscript, the researches on the Event-Related Potentials (ERP) elicited by the standard Stroop effect were reviewed. For the sake of clarity, only the parts of the manuscripts that reported the standard Stroop effect - ERPs relation were taken into consideration.

  6. Auditory Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) in Audiovisual Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilling, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: It has recently been reported (e.g., V. van Wassenhove, K. W. Grant, & D. Poeppel, 2005) that audiovisual (AV) presented speech is associated with an N1/P2 auditory event-related potential (ERP) response that is lower in peak amplitude compared with the responses associated with auditory only (AO) speech. This effect was replicated.…

  7. Event-Related Potentials Index Segmentation of Nonsense Sounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Lisa D.; Ameral, Victoria; Sayles, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    To understand the world around us, continuous streams of information including speech must be segmented into units that can be mapped onto stored representations. Recent evidence has shown that event-related potentials (ERPs) can index the online segmentation of sound streams. In the current study, listeners were trained to recognize sequences of…

  8. Event-Related Potentials Index Segmentation of Nonsense Sounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Lisa D.; Ameral, Victoria; Sayles, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    To understand the world around us, continuous streams of information including speech must be segmented into units that can be mapped onto stored representations. Recent evidence has shown that event-related potentials (ERPs) can index the online segmentation of sound streams. In the current study, listeners were trained to recognize sequences of…

  9. Auditory Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) in Audiovisual Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilling, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: It has recently been reported (e.g., V. van Wassenhove, K. W. Grant, & D. Poeppel, 2005) that audiovisual (AV) presented speech is associated with an N1/P2 auditory event-related potential (ERP) response that is lower in peak amplitude compared with the responses associated with auditory only (AO) speech. This effect was replicated.…

  10. Intelligence and Spatiotemporal Patterns of Event-Related Desynchronization (ERD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neubauer, Aljoscha; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between psychometric intelligence, determined by Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, and spatiotemporal patterns of cortical activation, determined by quantifying event-related desynchronization, was studied in 17 college students. Findings support the hypothesis of a more efficient use of the brain in higher IQ individuals.…

  11. A comparison of brain activity evoked by single content and function words: an fMRI investigation of implicit word processing.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Michele T; McCarthy, Gregory

    2009-07-28

    Content and function words have different roles in language and differ greatly in their semantic content. Although previous research has suggested that these different roles may be mediated by different neural substrates, the neuroimaging literature on this topic is particularly scant. Moreover, fMRI studies that have investigated differences between content and function words have utilized tasks that focus the subjects' attention on the differences between these word types. It is possible, then, that task-related differences in attention, working memory, and decision-making contribute to the differential patterns of activation observed. Here, subjects were engaged in a continuous working memory cover task while single, task-irrelevant content and function words were infrequently and irregularly presented. Nonword letter strings were displayed in black font at a fast rate (2/s). Subjects were required to either remember or retrieve occasional nonwords that were presented in colored fonts. Incidental and irrelevant to the memory task, content and function words were interspersed among nonwords at intervals of 12 to 15 s. Both word types strongly activated temporal-parietal cortex, middle and anterior temporal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and orbital frontal cortex. Activations were more extensive in the left hemisphere. Content words elicited greater activation than function words in middle and anterior temporal cortex, a sub-region of orbital frontal cortex, and the parahippocampal region. Words also evoked extensive deactivation, most notably in brain regions previously associated with working memory and attention.

  12. Multi-channel linear descriptors for event-related EEG collected in brain computer interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Xiao-mei; Zheng, Chong-xun; Xu, Jin; Bin, Guang-yu; Wang, Hong-wu

    2006-03-01

    By three multi-channel linear descriptors, i.e. spatial complexity (Ω), field power (Σ) and frequency of field changes (Φ), event-related EEG data within 8-30 Hz were investigated during imagination of left or right hand movement. Studies on the event-related EEG data indicate that a two-channel version of Ω, Σ and Φ could reflect the antagonistic ERD/ERS patterns over contralateral and ipsilateral areas and also characterize different phases of the changing brain states in the event-related paradigm. Based on the selective two-channel linear descriptors, the left and right hand motor imagery tasks are classified to obtain satisfactory results, which testify the validity of the three linear descriptors Ω, Σ and Φ for characterizing event-related EEG. The preliminary results show that Ω, Σ together with Φ have good separability for left and right hand motor imagery tasks, which could be considered for classification of two classes of EEG patterns in the application of brain computer interfaces.

  13. Modulations in oscillatory activity with amplitude asymmetry can produce cognitively relevant event-related responses.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Hanneke; van der Werf, Jurrian; Mazaheri, Ali; Medendorp, W Pieter; Jensen, Ole

    2010-01-12

    Event-related responses and oscillatory activity are typically regarded as manifestations of different neural processes. Recent work has nevertheless revealed a mechanism by which slow event-related responses are created as a direct consequence of modulations in brain oscillations with nonsinusoidal properties. It remains unknown if this mechanism applies to cognitively relevant event-related responses. Here, we investigated whether sustained event-related fields (ERFs) measured during working memory maintenance can be explained by modulations in oscillatory power. In particular, we focused on contralateral delayed activity (CDA) typically observed in working memory tasks in which hemifield specific attention is manipulated. Using magnetoencephalography, we observed sustained posterior ERFs following the presentation of the memory target. These ERFs were systematically lateralized with respect to the hemisphere in which the target was presented. A strikingly similar pattern emerged for modulations in alpha (9-13 Hz) power. The alpha power and ERF lateralization were strongly correlated over subjects. Based on a mechanistic argument pertaining to the nonsinusoidal properties of the alpha activity, we conclude that the ERFs modulated by working memory are likely to be directly produced by the modulations in oscillatory alpha activity. Given that posterior alpha activity typically reflects disengagement, we conclude that the CDA is not attributable to an additive process reflecting memory maintenance per se but, rather, is a consequence of how attentional resources are allocated.

  14. Give me a sign: decoding complex coordinated hand movements using high-field fMRI.

    PubMed

    Bleichner, Martin G; Jansma, Johan M; Sellmeijer, Jim; Raemaekers, Mathijs; Ramsey, Nicolas F

    2014-03-01

    Decoding movements from the human cortex has been a topic of great interest for controlling an artificial limb in non-human primates and severely paralyzed people. Here we investigate feasibility of decoding gestures from the sensorimotor cortex in humans, using 7 T fMRI. Twelve healthy volunteers performed four hand gestures from the American Sign Language Alphabet. These gestures were performed in a rapid event related design used to establish the classifier and a slow event-related design, used to test the classifier. Single trial patterns were classified using a pattern-correlation classifier. The four hand gestures could be classified with an average accuracy of 63 % (range 35–95 %), which was significantly above chance (25 %). The hand region was, as expected, the most active region, and the optimal volume for classification was on average about 200 voxels, although this varied considerably across individuals. Importantly, classification accuracy correlated significantly with consistency of gesture execution. The results of our study demonstrate that decoding gestures from the hand region of the sensorimotor cortex using 7 T fMRI can reach very high accuracy, provided that gestures are executed in a consistent manner. Our results further indicate that the neuronal representation of hand gestures is robust and highly reproducible. Given that the most active foci were located in the hand region, and that 7 T fMRI has been shown to agree with electrocorticography, our results suggest that this confined region could serve to decode sign language gestures for intracranial brain–computer interfacing using surface grids.

  15. Sex-Related Hemispheric Lateralization of Amygdala Function in Emotionally Influenced Memory: An fMRI Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Larry; Uncapher, Melina; Kilpatrick, Lisa; Alkire, Mike T.; Turner, Jessica

    2004-01-01

    The amygdala appears necessary for enhanced long-term memory associated with emotionally arousing events. Recent brain imaging investigations support this view and indicate a sex-related hemispheric lateralization exists in the amygdala relationship to memory for emotional material. This study confirms and further explores this finding. Healthy…

  16. Interaction of Phonological Awareness and "Magnocellular" Processing during Normal and Dyslexic Reading: Behavioural and fMRI Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heim, Stefan; Grande, Marion; Pape-Neumann, Julia; van Ermingen, Muna; Meffert, Elisabeth; Grabowska, Anna; Huber, Walter; Amunts, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether phonological deficits are a consequence of magnocellular processing deficits in dyslexic and control children. In Experiment 1, children were tested for reading ability, phonological awareness, visuo-magnocellular motion perception, and attention shifting (sometimes considered as magnocellular function). A two-step cluster…

  17. Receptive Vocabulary Knowledge in Low-Functioning Autism as Assessed by Eye Movements, Pupillary Dilation, and Event-Related Potentials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    INTRODUCTION Approximately 50% of individuals affected by autism fail to develop useful speech , and many of these individuals never learn to communicate...Functioning Autism as Assessed by Eye Movements, Pupillary Dilation, and Event-Related Potentials PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Barry Gordon...Knowledge in Low-Functioning Autism as Assessed by Eye- Movements, Pupillary Dilation, and Event-Related Potentials 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0404

  18. Event-related nociceptive arousal enhances memory consolidation for neutral scenes.

    PubMed

    Schwarze, Ulrike; Bingel, Ulrike; Sommer, Tobias

    2012-01-25

    The superior memory for emotional events has been attributed to the beneficial effects of noradrenaline released into the amygdala attributable to arousal. Noradrenaline mediates the effects of different hormones and neurotransmitters, including adrenal stress hormones on consolidation (McGaugh, 2004; Roozendaal et al., 2009). The majority of human fMRI studies of the enhancement of emotional memories contrasted successful encoding of emotionally arousing and neutral stimuli (LaBar and Cabeza, 2006; Murty et al., 2010). Recently, it was highlighted that emotional stimuli elicit not only arousal but also intensify cognitive processes that contribute to the enhanced memory. In particular, the enhanced use of selective attention as well as the greater distinctiveness and semantic relatedness of emotional stimuli influence memory formation (Talmi et al., 2007a). The present study aimed to explore the effects of arousal on memory formation independent of these cognitive factors in an event-related manner. Arousal was induced by the application of a nociceptive stimulus briefly after the presentation of neutral scenes. The results show a purely arousal-driven memory enhancement for the neutral scenes that differs in critical aspects from the superior memory for emotional stimuli. In particular, the enhancement was only evident after consolidation and exclusively based on an increase in item familiarity but not recollection. Moreover, successful memory formation for stimuli followed by arousal was correlated with activity in the parahippocampal cortex but not the amygdala, as is the case for emotional stimuli.

  19. Bistable illusory rebound motion: Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging of perceptual states and switches.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, P-J; Caplovitz, G P; Tse, P U

    2006-08-15

    The neural correlates of a recently discovered visual illusion that we call 'illusory rebound motion' (IRM) are described. This illusion is remarkable because motion is perceived in the absence of any net motion energy in the stimulus. When viewing bars alternating between white and black on a gray background, the percept alternates between one of flashing bars (veridical) and the IRM illusion, where the bars appear to shoot back and forth rather like the opening and closing of a zipper. The event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data reported here reveal that (1) the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the human analog of macaque motion processing area MT (hMT+) increases when there is a perceptual change from "no-IRM" to "see-IRM" and decreases when there is a perceptual change from "see-IRM" to "no-IRM," although the stimulus remains constant; and (2) the BOLD signal in early retinotopic areas (V1, V2, and V3d) shows switch-related activation whenever there is a perceptual change, regardless whether from IRM to no-IRM or vice versa. We conclude that hMT+ is a neural correlate of this novel illusory motion percept because BOLD signal in hMT+ modulates with the perception of IRM.

  20. Event-related potentials reveal early activation of body part representations in action concept comprehension.

    PubMed

    Lu, Aitao; Liu, Jing; Zhang, John X

    2012-03-09

    With tasks involving action concept comprehension, many fMRI studies have reported brain activations in sensori-motor regions specific to effectors of the referent action. There is relatively less evidence whether such activations reflect early semantic access or late conceptual re-processing. Here we recorded event-related potentials when participants recognized noun-verb pairs. For Congruent pairs, the verb was the one most commonly associated with the noun (e.g., football-kick). Compared with a control condition, verbs in Congruent pairs showed priming effects in the time windows of 100-150 ms and 210-260 ms. Such activation seems to be specific to body part but not other aspects of the action as similar priming effect was also found when the noun and verb involved different actions though sharing the same body part (e.g., football-jump), documenting for the first time the early activation of body part representations in action concept comprehension.

  1. Spatio-Temporal Information Analysis of Event-Related BOLD Responses

    PubMed Central

    Alpert, Galit Fuhrmann; Handwerker, Dan; Sun, Felice T.; D’Esposito, Mark; Knight, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    A new approach for analysis of event related fMRI (BOLD) signals is proposed. The technique is based on measures from information theory and is used both for spatial localization of task related activity, as well as for extracting temporal information regarding the task dependent propagation of activation across different brain regions. This approach enables whole brain visualization of voxels (areas) most involved in coding of a specific task condition, the time at which they are most informative about the condition, as well as their average amplitude at that preferred time. The approach does not require prior assumptions about the shape of the hemodynamic response function (HRF), nor about linear relations between BOLD response and presented stimuli (or task conditions). We show that relative delays between different brain regions can also be computed without prior knowledge of the experimental design, suggesting a general method that could be applied for analysis of differential time delays that occur during natural, uncontrolled conditions. Here we analyze BOLD signals recorded during performance of a motor learning task. We show that during motor learning, the BOLD response of unimodal motor cortical areas precedes the response in higher-order multimodal association areas, including posterior parietal cortex. Brain areas found to be associated with reduced activity during motor learning, predominantly in prefrontal brain regions, are informative about the task typically at significantly later times. PMID:17188515

  2. Sample Selected Averaging Method for Analyzing the Event Related Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Akira; Ono, Youhei; Kimura, Tomoaki

    The event related potential (ERP) is often measured through the oddball task. On the oddball task, subjects are given “rare stimulus” and “frequent stimulus”. Measured ERPs were analyzed by the averaging technique. In the results, amplitude of the ERP P300 becomes large when the “rare stimulus” is given. However, measured ERPs are included samples without an original feature of ERP. Thus, it is necessary to reject unsuitable measured ERPs when using the averaging technique. In this paper, we propose the rejection method for unsuitable measured ERPs for the averaging technique. Moreover, we combine the proposed method and Woody's adaptive filter method.

  3. Using conditional FCM to mine event-related brain dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zigkolis, Christos N; Laskaris, Nikolaos A

    2009-04-01

    We introduce a framework for mining event related dynamics based on conditional FCM (CFCM). For a given set of responses, the variation in the data is summarized by means of a small set of meaningful prototypes accompanied with a low-dimensional graph capturing their relative relationships. CFCM enables prototyping in a principled manner. User-defined constraints, which are imposed by the nature of experimental data and/or dictated by the neuroscientist's intuition, direct the process of knowledge extraction and can robustify single-trial analysis. The method is introduced using simulated data and demonstrated using actual encephalographic data.

  4. Common and distinct neural networks involved in fMRI studies investigating morality: an ALE meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Eres, Robert; Louis, Winnifred R; Molenberghs, Pascal

    2017-07-27

    Morality is an important social construct necessary for understanding what is right and wrong. Neuroimaging studies investigating morality have used a wide variety of paradigms and implicated many different brain areas. Yet, it remains unclear whether differences amongst morality tasks are the cause for such heterogeneous findings. Therefore, in the present study, a series of activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analyses were conducted on 123 datasets (inclusive of 1963 participants) to address this question. The ALE meta-analyses revealed a series of common brain areas associated with all moral tasks, including medial prefrontal cortex, lateral orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, temporoparietal junction, and precuneus. However, individual and contrast analyses also revealed unique networks associated with each moral modality, suggesting that different moral tasks recruit specialised brain regions.

  5. Cortical event-related potentials in preclinical familial Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Golob, E J; Ringman, J M; Irimajiri, R; Bright, S; Schaffer, B; Medina, L D; Starr, A

    2009-11-17

    To define changes in cortical function in persons inheriting familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) mutations before the onset of cognitive decline. Twenty-six subjects with a family history of FAD were divided into 2 subgroups according to genotype (FAD mutation carriers, n = 15; FAD noncarriers, n = 11). Subjects were given standardized tests of cognitive function and the Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR). Sensory (P50, N100, P200) and cognitive (N200, P300) event-related potentials were recorded during an auditory discrimination task. Amplitudes and latencies of cortical potentials were compared among FAD mutation carriers and noncarriers. FAD mutation carriers and noncarriers did not significantly differ in age or on measures of cognitive function, but FAD carriers had a greater incidence of 0.5 CDR scores (1/10 noncarriers, 5/15 carriers). Relative to noncarriers, FAD mutation carriers had significantly longer latencies of the N100, P200, N200, and P300 components, and smaller slow wave amplitudes. Subanalyses of subjects having CDR scores of 0.0 also showed latency increases in FAD mutation carriers. Auditory sensory and cognitive cortical potentials in persons with familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) mutations are abnormal approximately 10 years before dementia will be manifest. Longer event-related potential latencies suggest slowing of cortical information processing in FAD mutation carriers.

  6. [Perioperative adverse events related to antidepressive agents use].

    PubMed

    Rozec, B; Cinotti, R; Blanloeil, Y

    2011-11-01

    Depression is the most common psychiatric disease, which is treated by the use of antidepressive agents possessing various mechanisms of action. Thus, the use in preoperative period of antidepressive agents is frequent (7% of patients scheduled for surgery). The objective of this review was to update the knowledge on the drug interactions between antidepressive agents and drugs used in perioperative period. (i) Medline and Ovid databases using combination of antidepressive agent and perioperative period as keywords; (ii) national and European epidemiologic database; (iii) expert recommendation and official French health agency; (iv) reference book chapters. The clinical practice showed a limited risk of adverse event related to antidepressant agents interaction with perioperative used drugs. In the two past decades, few relevant observations of adverse event related with imipramine and monoamine oxidase inhibitors use was reported. The most recent antidepressive agents had no serious adverse interaction. Nevertheless, the serotonin syndrome has to be known as far as it is more and more reported. In case of hypotension, the use of vasopressive agent has to be careful because of excessive response. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. What's Unique about Unique Entities? An fMRI Investigation of the Semantics of Famous Faces and Landmarks

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Ingrid R.

    2012-01-01

    Famous people and artifacts are referred to as “unique entities” (UEs) due to the unique nature of the knowledge we have about them. Past imaging and lesion experiments have indicated that the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) as having a special role in the processing of UEs. It has remained unclear which attributes of UEs were responsible for the observed effects in imaging experiments. In this study, we investigated what factors of UEs influence brain activity. In a training paradigm, we systematically varied the uniqueness of semantic associations, the presence/absence of a proper name, and the number of semantic associations to determine factors modulating activity in regions subserving the processing of UEs. We found that a conjunction of unique semantic information and proper names modulated activity within a section of the left ATL. Overall, the processing of UEs involved a wider left-hemispheric cortical network. Within these regions, brain activity was significantly affected by the unique semantic attributes especially in the presence of a proper name, but we could not find evidence for an effect of the number of semantic associations. Findings are discussed in regard to current models of ATL function, the neurophysiology of semantics, and social cognitive processing. PMID:22021913

  8. fMRI investigation of working memory for faces in autism: visual coding and underconnectivity with frontal areas.

    PubMed

    Koshino, Hideya; Kana, Rajesh K; Keller, Timothy A; Cherkassky, Vladimir L; Minshew, Nancy J; Just, Marcel Adam

    2008-02-01

    Brain activation and functional connectivity were investigated in high functioning autism using functional magnetic resonance imaging in an n-back working memory task involving photographic face stimuli. The autism group showed reliably lower activation compared with controls in the inferior left prefrontal area (involved in verbal processing and working memory maintenance) and the right posterior temporal area (associated with theory of mind processing). The participants with autism also showed activation in a somewhat different location in the fusiform area than the control participants. These results suggest that the neural circuitry of the brain for face processing in autism may be analyzing the features of the face more as objects and less in terms of their human significance. The functional connectivity results revealed that the abnormal fusiform activation was embedded in a larger context of smaller and less synchronized networks, particularly indicating lower functional connectivity with frontal areas. In contrast to the underconnectivity with frontal areas, the autism group showed no underconnectivity among posterior cortical regions. These results extend previous findings of abnormal face perception in autism by demonstrating that the abnormalities are embedded in an abnormal cortical network that manages to perform the working memory task proficiently, using a visually oriented, asocial processing style that minimizes reliance on prefrontal areas.

  9. An fMRI investigation of the effects of belief in free will on third-party punishment.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Frank; Hoffman, Morris; Walter, Henrik; Grafman, Jordan

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between belief in free will (BFW) and third-party punishment (TPP) of criminal norm violations has been the subject of great debate among philosophers, criminologists and neuroscientists. We combined a TPP task with functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how lay people's BFW might affect their punishment of hypothetical criminal offenses varying in affective content. Our results revealed that people with strong BFW punished more harshly than people with weak BFW, but only in low affective cases, likely driven by a more robust commitment to moral responsibility. This effect was mirrored by a stronger activation in the right temporo-parietal junction, a region presumably involved in attentional selection to salient stimuli and attribution of temporary intentions and beliefs of others. But, for high affective cases, the BFW-based behavioral and neural differences disappeared. Both groups similarly punished high affective cases and showed higher activation in the right insula. The right insula is typically activated during aversive interoceptive-emotional processing for extreme norm violations. Our results demonstrated that the impact of BFW on TPP is context-dependent; perhaps explaining in part why the philosophical debate between free will and determinism is so stubbornly persistent.

  10. An fMRI investigation of the effects of belief in free will on third-party punishment

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Morris; Walter, Henrik; Grafman, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between belief in free will (BFW) and third-party punishment (TPP) of criminal norm violations has been the subject of great debate among philosophers, criminologists and neuroscientists. We combined a TPP task with functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how lay people’s BFW might affect their punishment of hypothetical criminal offenses varying in affective content. Our results revealed that people with strong BFW punished more harshly than people with weak BFW, but only in low affective cases, likely driven by a more robust commitment to moral responsibility. This effect was mirrored by a stronger activation in the right temporo-parietal junction, a region presumably involved in attentional selection to salient stimuli and attribution of temporary intentions and beliefs of others. But, for high affective cases, the BFW-based behavioral and neural differences disappeared. Both groups similarly punished high affective cases and showed higher activation in the right insula. The right insula is typically activated during aversive interoceptive-emotional processing for extreme norm violations. Our results demonstrated that the impact of BFW on TPP is context-dependent; perhaps explaining in part why the philosophical debate between free will and determinism is so stubbornly persistent. PMID:23887810

  11. Heschl's gyrification pattern is related to speech-listening hemispheric lateralization: FMRI investigation in 281 healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Tzourio-Mazoyer, N; Marie, D; Zago, L; Jobard, G; Perchey, G; Leroux, G; Mellet, E; Joliot, M; Crivello, F; Petit, L; Mazoyer, B

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the structure-function relationships between the anatomy of Heschl's gyri (HG) and speech hemispheric lateralization in 281 healthy volunteers (135 left-handers). Hemispheric lateralization indices (HFLIs) were calculated with Wilke's method from the activations obtained via functional magnetic resonance imaging while listening to lists of words (LIST). The mean HFLI during LIST was rightward asymmetrical, and left-handers displayed a trend toward decreased rightward asymmetry. The correlations between LIST BOLD contrast maps and individual HFLIs demonstrated that among the cortical areas showing significant asymmetry during LIST, only phonological regions explained HFLI variability. Significant positive correlations were present among the left HG, supramarginal gyri, and the anterior insula. Significant negative correlations occurred in the mid-part of the right superior temporal sulcus. Left HG had the largest functional activity during LIST and explained 10% of the HFLI variance. There was a strong anatomo-functional link in the HG: duplication was associated with a decrease in both the surface area of the anterior HG and HG functional activity. Participants with a single left HG exhibited leftward anatomical and functional asymmetry of HG, but participants with a left duplication lost either anatomical and/or functional leftward asymmetries. Finally, manual preference was related to HG anatomy, but not to HG functional asymmetries measured during LIST. The anatomical characteristics of left-handers (lower occurrence of right HG duplication and a smaller surface area of the right first HG) thus appeared to be unrelated to variations in speech lateralization with handedness.

  12. Spatial–temporal modelling of fMRI data through spatially regularized mixture of hidden process models

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yuan; Mayhew, Stephen D.; Kourtzi, Zoe; Tiňo, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Previous work investigated a range of spatio-temporal constraints for fMRI data analysis to provide robust detection of neural activation. We present a mixture-based method for the spatio-temporal modelling of fMRI data. This approach assumes that fMRI time series are generated by a probabilistic superposition of a small set of spatio-temporal prototypes (mixture components). Each prototype comprises a temporal model that explains fMRI signals on a single voxel and the model's “region of influence” through a spatial prior over the voxel space. As the key ingredient of our temporal model, the Hidden Process Model (HPM) framework proposed in Hutchinson et al. (2009) is adopted to infer the overlapping cognitive processes triggered by stimuli. Unlike the original HPM framework, we use a parametric model of Haemodynamic Response Function (HRF) so that biological constraints are naturally incorporated in the HRF estimation. The spatial priors are defined in terms of a parameterised distribution. Thus, the total number of parameters in the model does not depend on the number of voxels. The resulting model provides a conceptually principled and computationally efficient approach to identify spatio-temporal patterns of neural activation from fMRI data, in contrast to most conventional approaches in the literature focusing on the detection of spatial patterns. We first verify the proposed model in a controlled experimental setting using synthetic data. The model is further validated on real fMRI data obtained from a rapid event-related visual recognition experiment (Mayhew et al., 2012). Our model enables us to evaluate in a principled manner the variability of neural activations within individual regions of interest (ROIs). The results strongly suggest that, compared with occipitotemporal regions, the frontal ones are less homogeneous, requiring two HPM prototypes per region. Despite the rapid event-related experimental design, the model is capable of disentangling the

  13. An fMRI Investigation of Analogical Mapping in Metaphor Comprehension: The Influence of Context and Individual Cognitive Capacities on Processing Demands

    PubMed Central

    Prat, Chantel S.; Mason, Robert A.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2014-01-01

    This study used fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of analogical mapping during metaphor comprehension, with a focus on dynamic configuration of neural networks with changing processing demands and individual abilities. Participants with varying vocabulary sizes and working memory capacities read 3-sentence passages ending in nominal critical utterances of the form “X is a Y.” Processing demands were manipulated by varying preceding contexts. Three figurative conditions manipulated difficulty by varying the extent to which preceding contexts mentioned relevant semantic features for relating the vehicle and topic of the critical utterance to one another. In the easy condition, supporting information was mentioned. In the neutral condition, no relevant information was mentioned. In the most difficult condition, opposite features were mentioned, resulting in an ironic interpretation of the critical utterance. A fourth, literal condition included context that supported a literal interpretation of the critical utterance. Activation in lateral and medial frontal regions increased with increasing contextual difficulty. Lower vocabulary readers also had greater activation across conditions in the right inferior frontal gyrus. In addition, volumetric analyses showed increased right temporo-parietal junction and superior medial frontal activation for all figurative conditions over the literal condition. The results from this experiment imply that the cortical regions are dynamically recruited in language comprehension as a function of the processing demands of a task. Individual differences in cognitive capacities were also associated with differences in recruitment and modulation of working memory and executive function regions, highlighting the overlapping computations in metaphor comprehension and general thinking and reasoning. PMID:22122242

  14. The other face of the other-race effect: An fMRI investigation of the other-race face categorization advantage

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lu; Liu, Jiangang; Wang, Zhe; Li, Jun; Li, Ling; Ge, Liezhong; Tian, Jie; Lee, Kang

    2011-01-01

    The present study was the first to use the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) methodology to investigate the neural correlates of race categorization of own- and other-race faces. We found that Chinese participants categorized the race of Caucasian faces more accurately and faster than that of Chinese faces, replicating the robust effect of the other-race categorization advantage. Regions of interest (ROI) analyses revealed greater neural activations when participants were categorizing own-race faces than other-race faces in the bilateral ventral occipito-temporal cortex (VOT) such as the fusiform face areas (FFA) and the occipital face areas (OFA). Within the left FFA, there was also a significant negative correlation between the behavioral difference of own- and other-race face categorization accuracy and the activation difference between categorizing own- and other-race faces. Whole brain analyses showed that categorizing own-race faces induced greater activations in the right medial frontal cortex (MFC) and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) than categorizing other-race faces. Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analyses revealed that the frontal cortical regions interacted more strongly with the posterior VOT during the categorization of own-race faces than that of other-race faces. Overall, our findings suggest that relative to the categorization of other-race faces, more cortical resources are engaged during the categorization of own-race faces with which we have a higher level of processing expertise. This increased involvement of cortical neural sources perhaps serves to provide more in-depth processing of own-race faces (such as individuation), which in turn paradoxically results in the behavioral other-race categorization advantage. PMID:21971308

  15. Intuitive decision making as a gradual process: investigating semantic intuition-based and priming-based decisions with fMRI.

    PubMed

    Zander, Thea; Horr, Ninja K; Bolte, Annette; Volz, Kirsten G

    2016-01-01

    Intuition has been defined as the instantaneous, experience-based impression of coherence elicited by cues in the environment. In a context of discovery, intuitive decision-making processes can be conceptualized as occurring within two stages, the first of which comprises an implicit perception of coherence that is not (yet) verbalizable. Through a process of spreading activation, this initially non-conscious perception gradually crosses over a threshold of awareness and thereby becomes explicable. Because of its experiential basis, intuition shares conceptual similarities with implicit memory processes. Based on these, the study addresses two research questions: (1) Is the gradual nature of intuitive processes reflected on a neural level? (2) Do intuition-based decisions differ neurally from priming-based decisions? To answer these questions, we conducted an fMRI study using the triads task and presented participants with coherent word triads that converge on a common fourth concept, and incoherent word triads that do not converge on a common fourth concept. Participants had to perform semantic coherence judgments as well as to indicate whether they immediately knew the fourth concept. To enable investigating intuition-based and priming-based decisions within the same task and with the same participants, we implemented a conceptual priming procedure into the coherence judgment task. We realized this by priming participants with concepts associated with incoherent triads in separate priming blocks prior to the coherence judgments. For intuition-based decisions, imaging results mainly revealed activity within the orbitofrontal cortex, within the inferior frontal gyrus and the middle temporal gyrus. Activity suppression in the right temporo-occipital complex was observed for priming-based decisions. With respect to research question 1, our data support a continuity model of intuition because the two intuitive stages show quantitatively distinct brain activation

  16. Common and differential neural networks of emotion regulation by Detachment, Reinterpretation, Distraction, and Expressive Suppression: a comparative fMRI investigation.

    PubMed

    Dörfel, Denise; Lamke, Jan-Peter; Hummel, Falk; Wagner, Ullrich; Erk, Susanne; Walter, Henrik

    2014-11-01

    Emotions are an indispensable part of our mental life. The term emotion regulation refers to those processes that influence the generation, the experience and the expression of emotions. There is a great variety of strategies to regulate emotions efficiently, which are used in daily life and that have been investigated by cognitive neuroscience. Distraction guides attention to a secondary task. Reinterpretation, a variant of cognitive reappraisal, works by changing the meaning of an emotional stimulus. Detachment, another reappraisal strategy, refers to distancing oneself from an emotional stimulus, thereby reducing its personal relevance. Expressive Suppression modifies the behavioral or physiological response to an emotional stimulus. These four strategies are not equally effective in terms of emotion regulation success and have been shown to partly rely on different neuronal systems. Here, we compare for the first time the neural mechanisms of these typical strategies directly in a common functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm of downregulation of negative emotions. Our results indicate that three of those strategies (Detachment, Expressive Suppression and Distraction) conjointly increase brain activation in a right prefronto-parietal regulation network and significantly reduce activation of the left amygdala. Compared to the other regulation strategies, Reinterpretation specifically recruited a different control network comprising left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal gyrus and was not effective in downregulation of the amygdala. We conclude that Detachment, Distraction and Expressive Suppression recruit very similar emotion regulation networks, whereas Reinterpretation is associated with activation of a qualitatively different network, making this regulation strategy a special one. Notably, Reinterpretation also proved to be the least effective strategy in neural terms, as measured by downregulation of amygdala activation.

  17. Emergency Department Visits for Adverse Events Related to Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Geller, Andrew I; Shehab, Nadine; Weidle, Nina J; Lovegrove, Maribeth C; Wolpert, Beverly J; Timbo, Babgaleh B; Mozersky, Robert P; Budnitz, Daniel S

    2015-10-15

    Dietary supplements, such as herbal or complementary nutritional products and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals), are commonly used in the United States, yet national data on adverse effects are limited. We used nationally representative surveillance data from 63 emergency departments obtained from 2004 through 2013 to describe visits to U.S. emergency departments because of adverse events related to dietary supplements. On the basis of 3667 cases, we estimated that 23,005 (95% confidence interval [CI], 18,611 to 27,398) emergency department visits per year were attributed to adverse events related to dietary supplements. These visits resulted in an estimated 2154 hospitalizations (95% CI, 1342 to 2967) annually. Such visits frequently involved young adults between the ages of 20 and 34 years (28.0% of visits; 95% CI, 25.1 to 30.8) and unsupervised children (21.2% of visits; 95% CI, 18.4 to 24.0). After the exclusion of unsupervised ingestion of dietary supplements by children, 65.9% (95% CI, 63.2 to 68.5) of emergency department visits for single-supplement-related adverse events involved herbal or complementary nutritional products; 31.8% (95% CI, 29.2 to 34.3) involved micronutrients. Herbal or complementary nutritional products for weight loss (25.5%; 95% CI, 23.1 to 27.9) and increased energy (10.0%; 95% CI, 8.0 to 11.9) were commonly implicated. Weight-loss or energy products caused 71.8% (95% CI, 67.6 to 76.1) of supplement-related adverse events involving palpitations, chest pain, or tachycardia, and 58.0% (95% CI, 52.2 to 63.7) involved persons 20 to 34 years of age. Among adults 65 years of age or older, choking or pill-induced dysphagia or globus caused 37.6% (95% CI, 29.1 to 46.2) of all emergency department visits for supplement-related adverse events; micronutrients were implicated in 83.1% (95% CI, 73.3 to 92.9) of these visits. An estimated 23,000 emergency department visits in the United States every year are attributed to adverse events

  18. Effect of confounding variables on hemodynamic response function estimation using averaging and deconvolution analysis: An event-related NIRS study.

    PubMed

    Aarabi, Ardalan; Osharina, Victoria; Wallois, Fabrice

    2017-07-15

    Slow and rapid event-related designs are used in fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) experiments to temporally characterize the brain hemodynamic response to discrete events. Conventional averaging (CA) and the deconvolution method (DM) are the two techniques commonly used to estimate the Hemodynamic Response Function (HRF) profile in event-related designs. In this study, we conducted a series of simulations using synthetic and real NIRS data to examine the effect of the main confounding factors, including event sequence timing parameters, different types of noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), temporal autocorrelation and temporal filtering on the performance of these techniques in slow and rapid event-related designs. We also compared systematic errors in the estimates of the fitted HRF amplitude, latency and duration for both techniques. We further compared the performance of deconvolution methods based on Finite Impulse Response (FIR) basis functions and gamma basis sets. Our results demonstrate that DM was much less sensitive to confounding factors than CA. Event timing was the main parameter largely affecting the accuracy of CA. In slow event-related designs, deconvolution methods provided similar results to those obtained by CA. In rapid event-related designs, our results showed that DM outperformed CA for all SNR, especially above -5 dB regardless of the event sequence timing and the dynamics of background NIRS activity. Our results also show that periodic low-frequency systemic hemodynamic fluctuations as well as phase-locked noise can markedly obscure hemodynamic evoked responses. Temporal autocorrelation also affected the performance of both techniques by inducing distortions in the time profile of the estimated hemodynamic response with inflated t-statistics, especially at low SNRs. We also found that high-pass temporal filtering could substantially affect the performance of both techniques by removing the low-frequency components of

  19. Event-Related Potentials and Emotion Processing in Child Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Chronaki, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in the neural mechanisms underlying altered emotional processes in children and adolescents with psychopathology. This review provides a brief overview of the most up-to-date findings in the field of event-related potentials (ERPs) to facial and vocal emotional expressions in the most common child psychopathological conditions. In regards to externalizing behavior (i.e., ADHD, CD), ERP studies show enhanced early components to anger, reflecting enhanced sensory processing, followed by reductions in later components to anger, reflecting reduced cognitive-evaluative processing. In regards to internalizing behavior, research supports models of increased processing of threat stimuli especially at later more elaborate and effortful stages. Finally, in autism spectrum disorders abnormalities have been observed at early visual-perceptual stages of processing. An affective neuroscience framework for understanding child psychopathology can be valuable in elucidating underlying mechanisms and inform preventive intervention. PMID:27199803

  20. Enhancement of event related potentials by iterative restoration algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomalaza-Raez, Carlos A.; McGillem, Clare D.

    1986-12-01

    An iterative procedure for the restoration of event related potentials (ERP) is proposed and implemented. The method makes use of assumed or measured statistical information about latency variations in the individual ERP components. The signal model used for the restoration algorithm consists of a time-varying linear distortion and a positivity/negativity constraint. Additional preprocessing in the form of low-pass filtering is needed in order to mitigate the effects of additive noise. Numerical results obtained with real data show clearly the presence of enhanced and regenerated components in the restored ERP's. The procedure is easy to implement which makes it convenient when compared to other proposed techniques for the restoration of ERP signals.

  1. Innovations in neuropsychological assessment using event-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Connolly, J F; D'Arcy, R C

    2000-07-01

    Historically, clinicians have utilized evoked potentials for evaluating sensory functions and neuropsychological tests for evaluating cognitive functions. However, the clinical implementation of event-related brain potentials (ERPs), an on-line index of cognitive processing, remains to be developed fully. We describe a new method for assessing language functions using neuropsychological tests that are formatted for computer presentation with simultaneous ERP recordings. From its inception, there have been two major objectives of this ERP language assessment research. Practically, we have sought to develop assessment techniques that would enable clinicians to evaluate the language functions of individuals with limited behavioral and communicative abilities. Conceptually, we have endeavored to increase the precision of neuropsychological testing through the development of measures that are sensitive to readily identifiable and objective neural responses. This article summarizes the issues central to the development of ERP assessment techniques, reviews recent normative studies with healthy individuals, and suggests some future avenues of research in this area.

  2. Facing a real person: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Pönkänen, Laura M; Hietanen, Jari K; Peltola, Mikko J; Kauppinen, Pasi K; Haapalainen, Antti; Leppänen, Jukka M

    2008-03-05

    Although faces are typically perceived in the context of human interaction, face processing is commonly studied by displaying faces on a computer screen. This study on event-related potential examined whether the processing of faces differs depending on whether participants are viewing faces live or on a computer screen. In both the conditions, the participants were shown a real face, a dummy face, and a control object. N170 and early posterior negativity discriminated between faces and control object in both the conditions. Interestingly, early posterior negativity differentiated between the real face and the dummy face only in the live condition. The results indicate that a live face, as a potentially interacting stimulus, is processed differently than an inanimate face already at the early processing stages.

  3. Probabilistic delay differential equation modeling of event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Ostwald, Dirk; Starke, Ludger

    2016-08-01

    "Dynamic causal models" (DCMs) are a promising approach in the analysis of functional neuroimaging data due to their biophysical interpretability and their consolidation of functional-segregative and functional-integrative propositions. In this theoretical note we are concerned with the DCM framework for electroencephalographically recorded event-related potentials (ERP-DCM). Intuitively, ERP-DCM combines deterministic dynamical neural mass models with dipole-based EEG forward models to describe the event-related scalp potential time-series over the entire electrode space. Since its inception, ERP-DCM has been successfully employed to capture the neural underpinnings of a wide range of neurocognitive phenomena. However, in spite of its empirical popularity, the technical literature on ERP-DCM remains somewhat patchy. A number of previous communications have detailed certain aspects of the approach, but no unified and coherent documentation exists. With this technical note, we aim to close this gap and to increase the technical accessibility of ERP-DCM. Specifically, this note makes the following novel contributions: firstly, we provide a unified and coherent review of the mathematical machinery of the latent and forward models constituting ERP-DCM by formulating the approach as a probabilistic latent delay differential equation model. Secondly, we emphasize the probabilistic nature of the model and its variational Bayesian inversion scheme by explicitly deriving the variational free energy function in terms of both the likelihood expectation and variance parameters. Thirdly, we detail and validate the estimation of the model with a special focus on the explicit form of the variational free energy function and introduce a conventional nonlinear optimization scheme for its maximization. Finally, we identify and discuss a number of computational issues which may be addressed in the future development of the approach.

  4. A new method for FMRI activation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jianing; Talavage, Thomas M.; Pollak, Ilya

    2009-02-01

    The objective of fMRI data analysis is to detect the region of the brain that gets activated in response to a specific stimulus presented to the subject. We develop a new algorithm for activation detection in event-related fMRI data. We utilize a forward model for fMRI data acquisition which explicitly incorporates physiological noise, scanner noise and the spatial blurring introduced by the scanner. After slice-by-slice image restoration procedure that independently restores each data slice corresponding to each time index, we estimate the parameters of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) model for each pixel of the restored data. In order to enforce spatial regularity in our estimates, we model the prior distribution of the HRF parameters as a generalized Gaussian Markov random field (GGMRF) model. We develop an algorithm to compute the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimates of the parameters. We then threshold the amplitude parameters to obtain the final activation map. We illustrate our algorithm by comparing it with the widely used general linear model (GLM) method. In synthetic data experiments, under the same probability of false alarm, the probability of correct detection for our method is up to 15% higher than GLM. In real data experiments, through anatomical analysis and benchmark testing using block paradigm results, we demonstrate that our algorithm produces fewer false alarms than GLM.

  5. Episodic Memory in Former Professional Football Players with a History of Concussion: An Event-Related Functional Neuroimaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Giovanello, Kelly S.; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Previous research has demonstrated that sport-related concussions can have short-term effects on cognitive processes, but the long-term consequences are less understood and warrant more research. This study was the first to use event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine long-term differences in neural activity during memory tasks in former athletes who have sustained multiple sport-related concussions. In an event-related fMRI study, former football players reporting multiple sport-related concussions (i.e., three or more) were compared with players who reported fewer than three concussions during a memory paradigm examining item memory (i.e., memory for the particular elements of an event) and relational memory (i.e., memory for the relationships between elements). Behaviorally, we observed that concussion history did not significantly affect behavioral performance, because persons in the low and high concussion groups had equivalent performance on both memory tasks, and in addition, that concussion history was not associated with any behavioral memory measures. Despite demonstrating equivalent behavioral performance, the two groups of former players demonstrated different neural recruitment patterns during relational memory retrieval, suggesting that multiple concussions may be associated with functional inefficiencies in the relational memory network. In addition, the number of previous concussions significantly correlated with functional activity in a number of brain regions, including the medial temporal lobe and inferior parietal lobe. Our results provide important insights in understanding the long-term functional consequences of sustaining multiple sports-related concussions. PMID:23679098

  6. Episodic memory in former professional football players with a history of concussion: an event-related functional neuroimaging study.

    PubMed

    Ford, Jaclyn H; Giovanello, Kelly S; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2013-10-15

    Previous research has demonstrated that sport-related concussions can have short-term effects on cognitive processes, but the long-term consequences are less understood and warrant more research. This study was the first to use event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine long-term differences in neural activity during memory tasks in former athletes who have sustained multiple sport-related concussions. In an event-related fMRI study, former football players reporting multiple sport-related concussions (i.e., three or more) were compared with players who reported fewer than three concussions during a memory paradigm examining item memory (i.e., memory for the particular elements of an event) and relational memory (i.e., memory for the relationships between elements). Behaviorally, we observed that concussion history did not significantly affect behavioral performance, because persons in the low and high concussion groups had equivalent performance on both memory tasks, and in addition, that concussion history was not associated with any behavioral memory measures. Despite demonstrating equivalent behavioral performance, the two groups of former players demonstrated different neural recruitment patterns during relational memory retrieval, suggesting that multiple concussions may be associated with functional inefficiencies in the relational memory network. In addition, the number of previous concussions significantly correlated with functional activity in a number of brain regions, including the medial temporal lobe and inferior parietal lobe. Our results provide important insights in understanding the long-term functional consequences of sustaining multiple sports-related concussions.

  7. Common Neural Systems Associated with the Recognition of Famous Faces and Names: An Event-Related fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielson, Kristy A.; Seidenberg, Michael; Woodard, John L.; Durgerian, Sally; Zhang, Qi; Gross, William L.; Gander, Amelia; Guidotti, Leslie M.; Antuono, Piero; Rao, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    Person recognition can be accomplished through several modalities (face, name, voice). Lesion, neurophysiology and neuroimaging studies have been conducted in an attempt to determine the similarities and differences in the neural networks associated with person identity via different modality inputs. The current study used event-related…

  8. Common Neural Systems Associated with the Recognition of Famous Faces and Names: An Event-Related fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielson, Kristy A.; Seidenberg, Michael; Woodard, John L.; Durgerian, Sally; Zhang, Qi; Gross, William L.; Gander, Amelia; Guidotti, Leslie M.; Antuono, Piero; Rao, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    Person recognition can be accomplished through several modalities (face, name, voice). Lesion, neurophysiology and neuroimaging studies have been conducted in an attempt to determine the similarities and differences in the neural networks associated with person identity via different modality inputs. The current study used event-related…

  9. Analysis and visualization of single-trial event-related potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, T. P.; Makeig, S.; Westerfield, M.; Townsend, J.; Courchesne, E.; Sejnowski, T. J.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a linear decomposition technique, independent component analysis (ICA), is applied to single-trial multichannel EEG data from event-related potential (ERP) experiments. Spatial filters derived by ICA blindly separate the input data into a sum of temporally independent and spatially fixed components arising from distinct or overlapping brain or extra-brain sources. Both the data and their decomposition are displayed using a new visualization tool, the "ERP image," that can clearly characterize single-trial variations in the amplitudes and latencies of evoked responses, particularly when sorted by a relevant behavioral or physiological variable. These tools were used to analyze data from a visual selective attention experiment on 28 control subjects plus 22 neurological patients whose EEG records were heavily contaminated with blink and other eye-movement artifacts. Results show that ICA can separate artifactual, stimulus-locked, response-locked, and non-event-related background EEG activities into separate components, a taxonomy not obtained from conventional signal averaging approaches. This method allows: (1) removal of pervasive artifacts of all types from single-trial EEG records, (2) identification and segregation of stimulus- and response-locked EEG components, (3) examination of differences in single-trial responses, and (4) separation of temporally distinct but spatially overlapping EEG oscillatory activities with distinct relationships to task events. The proposed methods also allow the interaction between ERPs and the ongoing EEG to be investigated directly. We studied the between-subject component stability of ICA decomposition of single-trial EEG epochs by clustering components with similar scalp maps and activation power spectra. Components accounting for blinks, eye movements, temporal muscle activity, event-related potentials, and event-modulated alpha activities were largely replicated across subjects. Applying ICA and ERP image

  10. Analysis and visualization of single-trial event-related potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, T. P.; Makeig, S.; Westerfield, M.; Townsend, J.; Courchesne, E.; Sejnowski, T. J.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a linear decomposition technique, independent component analysis (ICA), is applied to single-trial multichannel EEG data from event-related potential (ERP) experiments. Spatial filters derived by ICA blindly separate the input data into a sum of temporally independent and spatially fixed components arising from distinct or overlapping brain or extra-brain sources. Both the data and their decomposition are displayed using a new visualization tool, the "ERP image," that can clearly characterize single-trial variations in the amplitudes and latencies of evoked responses, particularly when sorted by a relevant behavioral or physiological variable. These tools were used to analyze data from a visual selective attention experiment on 28 control subjects plus 22 neurological patients whose EEG records were heavily contaminated with blink and other eye-movement artifacts. Results show that ICA can separate artifactual, stimulus-locked, response-locked, and non-event-related background EEG activities into separate components, a taxonomy not obtained from conventional signal averaging approaches. This method allows: (1) removal of pervasive artifacts of all types from single-trial EEG records, (2) identification and segregation of stimulus- and response-locked EEG components, (3) examination of differences in single-trial responses, and (4) separation of temporally distinct but spatially overlapping EEG oscillatory activities with distinct relationships to task events. The proposed methods also allow the interaction between ERPs and the ongoing EEG to be investigated directly. We studied the between-subject component stability of ICA decomposition of single-trial EEG epochs by clustering components with similar scalp maps and activation power spectra. Components accounting for blinks, eye movements, temporal muscle activity, event-related potentials, and event-modulated alpha activities were largely replicated across subjects. Applying ICA and ERP image

  11. Event-Related Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Changes during Relational Retrieval in Normal Aging and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Giovanello, Kelly S.; De Brigard, Felipe; Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Kaufer, Daniel I.; Burke, James R.; Browndyke, Jeffrey N.; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    The earliest cognitive deficits observed in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) appear to center on memory tasks that require relational memory (RM), the ability to link or integrate unrelated pieces of information. RM impairments in aMCI likely reflect neural changes in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC). We tested the hypothesis that individuals with aMCI, as compared to cognitively normal (CN) controls, would recruit neural regions outside of the MTL and PPC to support relational memory. To this end, we directly compared the neural underpinnings of successful relational retrieval in aMCI and CN groups, using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), holding constant the stimuli and encoding task. The fMRI data showed that the CN, compared to the aMCI, group activated left precuneus, left angular gyrus, right posterior cingulate, and right parahippocampal cortex during relational retrieval, while the aMCI group, relative to the CN group, activated superior temporal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus for this comparison. Such findings indicate an early shift in the functional neural architecture of relational retrieval in aMCI, and may prove useful in future studies aimed at capitalizing on functionally intact neural regions as targets for treatment and slowing of the disease course. PMID:22622022

  12. Verum and sham acupuncture exert distinct cerebral activation in pain processing areas: a crossover fMRI investigation in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Usichenko, Taras I; Wesolowski, Toni; Lotze, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Although acupuncture is effective for treating pain, its site-specificity is questioned. The aim was to compare the cerebral responses of needling applied to an acupuncture point to the needling of a sham point, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-one healthy male volunteers were enrolled. Manual stimulation of the acupuncture (ST44) and sham points on the dorsum of the left foot was applied during fMRI in a crossover manner. fMRI data analysis was performed contrasting the ST44 and the sham conditions. Stimulation intensity, subjective discrimination of the needling site and the incidence of "Qi" sensation were additionally recorded. Stimulation of ST44 acupoint, in comparison to the sham procedure, was associated with an increased fMRI-activation in the primary somatosensory, the inferior parietal and the prefrontal cortex and the posterior insula. Sham needling was associated with increased activation in the anterior cingulate cortex and the anterior insula. Verum acupuncture increased the activity of discriminative somatosensory and cognitive pain processing areas of the brain, whereas sham needling activated the areas responsible for affective processing of pain. This may explain favorable effects of verum acupuncture in clinical studies about treatment of chronic pain patients.

  13. Comparative neuroimaging in children with cerebral palsy using fMRI and a novel EEG-based brain mapping during a motor task--a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Jin; Lee, Dong Ryul; Shin, Yoon Kyum; Lee, Nam Gi; Han, Bong S; You, Sung Joshua Hyun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare topographical maps using a novel EEG-based brain mapping system with fMRI in normal and children with cerebral palsy (CP) during a grasping motor task. A normal child (mean ± SD = 13 ± 0 yrs) and four children with CP (mean ± SD = 10.25 ± 2.86 yrs) were recruited from a local community school and medical center. A novel EEG-based brain mapping system with 30 scalp sites (an extension of the 10-20 system) and a 3T MR scanner were used to observe cortical activation patterns during a grasping motor task. Descriptive analysis. In the EEG brain mapping data, the sensorimotor cortex (SMC) and inferior parietal cortex (IPC) were activated in all of the children. The children with CP showed additional activation areas in the premotor cortex (PMC), superior parietal cortex (SPC), and prefrontal cortex (PFC). In the fMRI brain mapping data, SMC activation was observed in all of the children, and the children with CP showed additional activation areas in the PMC and primary somatosensory cortex (PSC). The EEG-based topographical maps were equivalent to the maps obtained from fMRI during the grasping motor task. The results indicate that our novel EEG-based brain mapping system is useful for probing cortical activation patterns in normal children and children with CP.

  14. Event-related Potential Signatures of Relational Memory

    PubMed Central

    Hannula, Deborah E.; Federmeier, Kara D.; Cohen, Neal J.

    2009-01-01

    Various lines of evidence suggest that memory for the relations among arbitrarily paired items acquired prior to testing can influence early processing of a probe stimulus. The event-related potential experiment reported here was designed to explore how early in time memory for a previously established face-scene relationship begins to influence processing of faces, under sequential presentation conditions in which a preview of the scene can promote expectancies about the to-be-presented face. Prior to the current work, the earliest component documented to be sensitive to memory for the relations among arbitrarily paired items was the late positive complex (LPC), but here relational memory effects were evident as early as 270-350 msec after face onset. The latency of these relational memory effects suggests that they may be the precursor to similar effects observed in eye movement behavior. As expected, LPC amplitude was also affected by memory for face-scene relationships, and N400 amplitude reflected some combination of memory for items and memory for the relations among items. PMID:17069477

  15. Event-Related Oscillations in Alcoholism Research: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Ashwini K; Kamarajan, Chella; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Porjesz, Bernice

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is characterized as a multi-factorial disorder caused by a complex interaction between genetic and environmental liabilities across development. A variety of neurocognitive deficits/dysfunctions involving impairments in different brain regions and/or neural circuitries have been associated with chronic alcoholism, as well as with a predisposition to develop alcoholism. Several neurobiological and neurobehavioral approaches and methods of analyses have been used to understand the nature of these neurocognitive impairments/deficits in alcoholism. In the present review, we have examined relatively novel methods of analyses of the brain signals that are collectively referred to as event-related oscillations (EROs) and show promise to further our understanding of human brain dynamics while performing various tasks. These new measures of dynamic brain processes have exquisite temporal resolution and allow the study of neural networks underlying responses to sensory and cognitive events, thus providing a closer link to the physiology underlying them. Here, we have reviewed EROs in the study of alcoholism, their usefulness in understanding dynamical brain functions/dysfunctions associated with alcoholism as well as their utility as effective endophenotypes to identify and understand genes associated with both brain oscillations and alcoholism. PMID:24273686

  16. Sexual Assault Characteristics and Perceptions of Event-Related Distress.

    PubMed

    Blayney, Jessica A; Read, Jennifer P

    2015-11-20

    Sexual assault (SA) is a potent psychological stressor, linked to harmful mental health outcomes in both the short- and long-term. Specific assault characteristics can add to the toxicity of SA events. Although research has assessed characteristics of the assault itself (e.g., force, penetration), few studies have examined the larger socioenvironmental context in which SA takes place. This was the purpose of the present study. Young adults (N = 220; 80% female; 54% current students) reported on their most recent SA during college. Cross-sectional associations were tested via structural equation modeling to determine the contributions of socioenvironmental context and assault characteristics in predicting event-related distress. Socioenvironmental context from the most recent assault included assault setting, intoxication at the time of the assault, perpetrator relationship, and prior consensual sexual experiences with the perpetrator. We also examined assault characteristics, including physical force and penetration. Participants reported how upsetting the most recent assault was (a) at the time it occurred and (b) currently. Results revealed differential patterns for socioenvironmental context and assault characteristics based on the timing of distress (past or present). Notably, many of the socioenvironmental factors showed associations with distress above and beyond the powerful effects of physical force and penetration. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the unique factors that contribute to and maintain psychological distress in sexually victimized young adults. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. What event-related potentials (ERPs) bring to social neuroscience?

    PubMed

    Ibanez, Agustin; Melloni, Margherita; Huepe, David; Helgiu, Elena; Rivera-Rei, Alvaro; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Baker, Phil; Moya, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    Social cognitive neuroscience is a recent interdisciplinary field that studies the neural basis of the social mind. Event-related potentials (ERPs) provide precise information about the time dynamics of the brain. In this study, we assess the role of ERPs in cognitive neuroscience, particularly in the emerging area of social neuroscience. First, we briefly introduce the technique of ERPs. Subsequently, we describe several ERP components (P1, N1, N170, vertex positive potential, early posterior negativity, N2, P2, P3, N400, N400-like, late positive complex, late positive potential, P600, error-related negativity, feedback error-related negativity, contingent negative variation, readiness potential, lateralized readiness potential, motor potential, re-afferent potential) that assess perceptual, cognitive, and motor processing. Then, we introduce ERP studies in social neuroscience on contextual effects on speech, emotional processing, empathy, and decision making. We provide an outline of ERPs' relevance and applications in the field of social cognitive neuroscience. We also introduce important methodological issues that extend classical ERP research, such as intracranial recordings (iERP) and source location in dense arrays and simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging recordings. Further, this review discusses possible caveats of the ERP question assessment on neuroanatomical areas, biophysical origin, and methodological problems, and their relevance to explanatory pluralism and multilevel, contextual, and situated approaches to social neuroscience.

  18. Visual motion event related potentials distinguish aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Roberto; Monacelli, Anthony; Duffy, Charles J

    2013-01-01

    Aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) disrupt visuospatial processing and visual motion evoked potentials in a manner linked to navigational deficits. Our goal is to determine if aging and AD have distinct effects on visual cortical motion processing for navigation. We recorded visual motion event related potentials (ERPs) in young (YNC) and older normal controls (ONC), and early AD patients (EADs) who viewed rapidly changing optic flow stimuli that simulate naturalistic changes in heading direction, like those that occur when following a path of self-movement through the environment. After a random series of optic flow stimuli, a vertical motion stimulus was presented to verify sustained visual attention by demanding a rapid push-button response. Optic flow evokes robust ERPs that are delayed in aging and diminished in AD. The interspersed vertical motion stimuli yielded shorter N200 latencies in EADs, matching those in ONCs, but the EADs' N200 amplitudes remained small. Aging and AD have distinct effects on visual sensory processing: aging delays evoked response, whereas AD diminishes responsiveness.

  19. Cholinergic modulation of event-related oscillations (ERO)

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Robledo, Patricia; Wills, Derek N.; Havstad, James; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2014-01-01

    The cholinergic system in the brain modulates patterns of activity involved in general arousal, attention processing, memory and consciousness. In the present study we determined the effects of selective cholinergic lesions of the medial septum area (MS) or nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) on amplitude and phase characteristics of event related oscillations (EROs). A time–frequency based representation was used to determine ERO energy, phase synchronization across trials, recorded within a structure (phase lock index, PLI), and phase synchronization across trials, recorded between brain structures (phase difference lock index, PDLI), in the frontal cortex (Fctx), dorsal hippocampus (DHPC) and central amygdala (Amyg). Lesions in MS produced: (1) decreases in ERO energy in delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma frequencies in Amyg, (2) reductions in gamma ERO energy and PLI in Fctx, (3) decreases in PDLI between the Fctx–Amyg in the theta, alpha, beta and gamma frequencies, and (4) decreases in PDLI between the DHPC–Amyg and Fctx–DHPC in the theta frequency bands. Lesions in NBM resulted in: (1) increased ERO energy in delta and theta frequency bands in Fctx, (2) reduced gamma ERO energy in Fctx and Amyg, (3) reductions in PLI in the theta, beta and gamma frequency ranges in Fctx, (4) reductions in gamma PLI in DHPC and (5) reduced beta PLI in Amyg. These studies suggest that the MS cholinergic system can alter phase synchronization between brain areas whereas the NBM cholinergic system modifies phase synchronization/phase resetting within a brain area. PMID:24594019

  20. Social Comparison Manifests in Event-related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yi; Feng, Chunliang; Wu, Tingting; Broster, Lucas S.; Cai, Huajian; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Yue-jia

    2015-01-01

    Social comparison, a widespread phenomenon in human society, has been found to affect outcome evaluation. The need to belong to a social group may result in distinct neural responses to diverse social comparison outcomes. To extend previous studies by examining how social comparison with hierarchical characteristics is temporally processed, electroencephalography responses were recorded in the current study. Participants played a lottery game with two pseudo-players simultaneously and received both their own and the other two players’ outcomes. Results of three event-related potential components, including the P2, the feedback-related negativity (FRN), and the late positive component (LPC), indicate that social comparison manifests in three stages. First, outcomes indicating a different performance from others elicited a larger P2 than evenness. Second, the FRN showed hierarchical sensitivity to social comparison outcomes. This effect manifested asymmetrically. Finally, large difference between the participant’s outcome and the other two players’ evoked a larger LPC than the medium difference and the even condition. We suggest that during social comparison, people detect if there is any difference between self and others, and then evaluate the information of this difference hierarchically, and finally interpret the situations in which oneself deviates from the group as most motivationally salient. PMID:26183734

  1. Event-related potential alterations in fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Knoth, Inga S; Lippé, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of X-linked intellectual disability (ID), associated with a wide range of cognitive and behavioral impairments. FXS is caused by a trinucleotide repeat expansion in the FMR1 gene located on the X-chromosome. FMR1 is expected to prevent the expression of the "fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP)", which results in altered structural and functional development of the synapse, including a loss of synaptic plasticity. This review aims to unveil the contribution of electrophysiological signal studies for the understanding of the information processing impairments in FXS patients. We discuss relevant event-related potential (ERP) studies conducted with full mutation FXS patients and clinical populations sharing symptoms with FXS in a developmental perspective. Specific deviances found in FXS ERP profiles are described. Alterations are reported in N1, P2, Mismatch Negativity (MMN), N2, and P3 components in FXS compared to healthy controls. Particularly, deviances in N1 and P2 amplitude seem to be specific to FXS. The presented results suggest a cascade of impaired information processes that are in line with symptoms and anatomical findings in FXS.

  2. Auditory event-related potentials in poor readers.

    PubMed

    Bernal, J; Harmony, T; Rodríguez, M; Reyes, A; Yáñez, G; Fernández, T; Galán, L; Silva, J; Fernández- Bouzas, A; Rodríguez, H; Guerrero, V; Marosi, E

    2000-04-01

    Although poor readers (PR) are considered the major group among reading-disabled children, there are not event-related potentials (ERP) studies reported of PR on the subject. In this study, attentional and memory processes were studied in an auditory oddball task in PR and normal controls. ERP to auditory stimuli were recorded in 19 leads of the 10/20 system, using linked earlobes as references, in 20 normal children (10 female) and 20 PR (10 female) of the same age (10-12 years old). Two pure tones (1000 and 3000 Hz) were used in an oddball paradigm. No significant differences were observed in the amplitudes and latencies of N100 between the groups. However, N200 to frequent stimuli and P200 to both frequent and infrequent stimuli were of higher amplitude in poor readers than in normal children. There were no differences between groups in the latency and amplitude of P300. The results suggest that PR use more attentional resources in the components occurring before P300 to both frequent and infrequent stimuli than the normal children, and this finding is particularly marked for PR girls.

  3. Communication of ALS Patients by Detecting Event-Related Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanou, Naoyuki; Sakuma, Kenji; Nakashima, Kenji

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis(ALS) patients are unable to successfully communicate their desires, although their mental capacity is the same as non-affected persons. Therefore, the authors put emphasis on Event-Related Potential(ERP) which elicits the highest outcome for the target visual and hearing stimuli. P300 is one component of ERP. It is positive potential that is elicited when the subject focuses attention on stimuli that appears infrequently. In this paper, the authors focused on P200 and N200 components, in addition to P300, for their great improvement in the rate of correct judgment in the target word-specific experiment. Hence the authors propose the algorithm that specifies target words by detecting these three components. Ten healthy subjects and ALS patient underwent the experiment in which a target word out of five words, was specified by this algorithm. The rates of correct judgment in nine of ten healthy subjects were more than 90.0%. The highest rate was 99.7%. The highest rate of ALS patient was 100.0%. Through these results, the authors found the possibility that ALS patients could communicate with surrounding persons by detecting ERP(P200, N200 and P300) as their desire.

  4. Affective recognition memory processing and event-related brain potentials

    PubMed Central

    Kaestner, Erik J.

    2011-01-01

    Recognition memory was examined for visual affective stimuli using behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) measures. Images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) that varied systematically in arousal level (low, high) and valence direction (unpleasant, pleasant) were first viewed passively. Then, during a response phase, the original images were intermixed with an equal number of new images and presented, and participants were instructed to press a button to indicate whether each stimulus picture was previously viewed (target) or new (foil). Participants were more sensitive to unpleasant- than to pleasant-valence stimuli and were biased to respond to high-arousal unpleasant stimuli as targets, whether the stimuli were previously viewed or new. Response times (RTs) to target stimuli were systematically affected by valence, whereas RTs to foil stimuli were influenced by arousal level. ERP component amplitudes were generally larger for high than for low arousal levels. The P300 (late positive component) amplitude was largest for high-arousal unpleasant target images. These and other amplitude effects suggest that high-arousal unpleasant stimuli engage a privileged memory-processing route during stimulus processing. Theoretical relationships between affective and memory processes are discussed. PMID:21384231

  5. Gender differences in the processing of standard emotional visual stimuli: integrating ERP and fMRI results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Tian, Jie; Wang, Xiaoxiang; Hu, Jin

    2005-04-01

    The comprehensive understanding of human emotion processing needs consideration both in the spatial distribution and the temporal sequencing of neural activity. The aim of our work is to identify brain regions involved in emotional recognition as well as to follow the time sequence in the millisecond-range resolution. The effect of activation upon visual stimuli in different gender by International Affective Picture System (IAPS) has been examined. Hemodynamic and electrophysiological responses were measured in the same subjects. Both fMRI and ERP study were employed in an event-related study. fMRI have been obtained with 3.0 T Siemens Magnetom whole-body MRI scanner. 128-channel ERP data were recorded using an EGI system. ERP is sensitive to millisecond changes in mental activity, but the source localization and timing is limited by the ill-posed 'inversed' problem. We try to investigate the ERP source reconstruction problem in this study using fMRI constraint. We chose ICA as a pre-processing step of ERP source reconstruction to exclude the artifacts and provide a prior estimate of the number of dipoles. The results indicate that male and female show differences in neural mechanism during emotion visual stimuli.

  6. Simultaneous EEG-fMRI in Patients with Unverricht-Lundborg Disease: Event-Related Desynchronization/Synchronization and Hemodynamic Response Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Visani, Elisa; Minati, Ludovico; Canafoglia, Laura; Gilioli, Isabella; Salvatoni, Lucia; Varotto, Giulia; Fazio, Patrik; Aquino, Domenico; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia; Franceschetti, Silvana; Panzica, Ferruccio

    2010-01-01

    We performed simultaneous acquisition of EEG-fMRI in seven patients with Unverricht-Lundborg disease (ULD) and in six healthy controls using self-paced finger extension as a motor task. The event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) analysis showed a greater and more diffuse alpha desynchronization in central regions and a strongly reduced post-movement beta-ERS in patients compared with controls, suggesting a significant dysfunction of the mechanisms regulating active movement and movement end. The event-related hemodynamic response obtained from fMRI showed delayed BOLD peak latency in the contralateral primary motor area suggesting a less efficient activity of the neuronal populations driving fine movements, which are specifically impaired in ULD. PMID:20111730

  7. Simultaneous EEG-fMRI in patients with Unverricht-Lundborg disease: event-related desynchronization/synchronization and hemodynamic response analysis.

    PubMed

    Visani, Elisa; Minati, Ludovico; Canafoglia, Laura; Gilioli, Isabella; Salvatoni, Lucia; Varotto, Giulia; Fazio, Patrik; Aquino, Domenico; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia; Franceschetti, Silvana; Panzica, Ferruccio

    2010-01-01

    We performed simultaneous acquisition of EEG-fMRI in seven patients with Unverricht-Lundborg disease (ULD) and in six healthy controls using self-paced finger extension as a motor task. The event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) analysis showed a greater and more diffuse alpha desynchronization in central regions and a strongly reduced post-movement beta-ERS in patients compared with controls, suggesting a significant dysfunction of the mechanisms regulating active movement and movement end. The event-related hemodynamic response obtained from fMRI showed delayed BOLD peak latency in the contralateral primary motor area suggesting a less efficient activity of the neuronal populations driving fine movements, which are specifically impaired in ULD.

  8. Variation in Event-Related Potentials by State Transitions.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Hiroshi; Minami, Tetsuto; Nakauchi, Shigeki

    2017-01-01

    The probability of an event's occurrence affects event-related potentials (ERPs) on electroencephalograms. The relation between probability and potentials has been discussed by using a quantity called surprise that represents the self-information that humans receive from the event. Previous studies have estimated surprise based on the probability distribution in a stationary state. Our hypothesis is that state transitions also play an important role in the estimation of surprise. In this study, we compare the effects of surprise on the ERPs based on two models that generate an event sequence: a model of a stationary state and a model with state transitions. To compare these effects, we generate the event sequences with Markov chains to avoid a situation that the state transition probability converges with the stationary probability by the accumulation of the event observations. Our trial-by-trial model-based analysis showed that the stationary probability better explains the P3b component and the state transition probability better explains the P3a component. The effect on P3a suggests that the internal model, which is constantly and automatically generated by the human brain to estimate the probability distribution of the events, approximates the model with state transitions because Bayesian surprise, which represents the degree of updating of the internal model, is highly reflected in P3a. The global effect reflected in P3b, however, may not be related to the internal model because P3b depends on the stationary probability distribution. The results suggest that an internal model can represent state transitions and the global effect is generated by a different mechanism than the one for forming the internal model.

  9. Robust estimation of event-related potentials via particle filter.

    PubMed

    Fukami, Tadanori; Watanabe, Jun; Ishikawa, Fumito

    2016-03-01

    In clinical examinations and brain-computer interface (BCI) research, a short electroencephalogram (EEG) measurement time is ideal. The use of event-related potentials (ERPs) relies on both estimation accuracy and processing time. We tested a particle filter that uses a large number of particles to construct a probability distribution. We constructed a simple model for recording EEG comprising three components: ERPs approximated via a trend model, background waves constructed via an autoregressive model, and noise. We evaluated the performance of the particle filter based on mean squared error (MSE), P300 peak amplitude, and latency. We then compared our filter with the Kalman filter and a conventional simple averaging method. To confirm the efficacy of the filter, we used it to estimate ERP elicited by a P300 BCI speller. A 400-particle filter produced the best MSE. We found that the merit of the filter increased when the original waveform already had a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) (i.e., the power ratio between ERP and background EEG). We calculated the amount of averaging necessary after applying a particle filter that produced a result equivalent to that associated with conventional averaging, and determined that the particle filter yielded a maximum 42.8% reduction in measurement time. The particle filter performed better than both the Kalman filter and conventional averaging for a low SNR in terms of both MSE and P300 peak amplitude and latency. For EEG data produced by the P300 speller, we were able to use our filter to obtain ERP waveforms that were stable compared with averages produced by a conventional averaging method, irrespective of the amount of averaging. We confirmed that particle filters are efficacious in reducing the measurement time required during simulations with a low SNR. Additionally, particle filters can perform robust ERP estimation for EEG data produced via a P300 speller. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Event-related potential correlates of mindfulness meditation competence

    PubMed Central

    Atchley, Rachel; Klee, Dan; Memmott, Tabatha; Goodrich, Elena; Wahbeh, Helané; Oken, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Objective This cross-sectional study evaluated event-related potentials (ERPs) across three groups: naïve, novice, and experienced meditators as potential physiological markers of mindfulness meditation competence. Methods Electroencephalographic (EEG) data was collected during a target tone detection task and a Breath Counting task. The Breath Counting task served as the mindfulness meditation condition for the novice and experienced meditator groups. Participants were instructed to respond to target tones with a button press in the first task (Tones), and then ignore the primed tones while breath counting. The primary outcomes were ERP responses to target tones, namely the N2 and P3, as markers of stimulus discrimination and attention, respectively. Results As expected, P3 amplitudes elicited by target tones were attenuated within groups during the Breath Counting task in comparison to the Tones task (p < .001). There was a task by group interaction for P3 (p = .039). Both meditator groups displayed greater change in peak-to-trough P3 amplitudes, with higher amplitudes during the Tones condition and more pronounced reductions in P3 amplitudes during the Breath Counting meditation task in comparison to the naïve group. Conclusions Meditators had stronger P3 amplitude responses to target tones when instructed to attend to the tones, and a greater attenuation of P3 amplitudes when instructed to ignore the same tones during the Breath Counting task. This study introduces the idea of identifying ERP markers as a means of measuring mindfulness meditation competence, and results suggest this may be a valid approach. This information has the potential to improve mindfulness meditation interventions by allowing objective assessment of mindfulness meditation quality. PMID:26850995

  11. Event-related potential correlates of mindfulness meditation competence.

    PubMed

    Atchley, R; Klee, D; Memmott, T; Goodrich, E; Wahbeh, H; Oken, B

    2016-04-21

    This cross-sectional study evaluated event-related potentials (ERPs) across three groups: naïve, novice, and experienced meditators as potential physiological markers of mindfulness meditation competence. Electroencephalographic (EEG) data were collected during a target tone detection task and a Breath Counting task. The Breath Counting task served as the mindfulness meditation condition for the novice and experienced meditator groups. Participants were instructed to respond to target tones with a button press in the first task (Tones), and then ignore the primed tones while Breath Counting. The primary outcomes were ERP responses to target tones, namely the N2 and P3, as markers of stimulus discrimination and attention, respectively. As expected, P3 amplitudes elicited by target tones were attenuated within groups during the Breath Counting task in comparison to the Tones task (p<.001). There was a task by group interaction for P3 (p=.039). Both meditator groups displayed greater change in peak-to-trough P3 amplitudes, with higher amplitudes during the Tones condition and more pronounced reductions in P3 amplitudes during the Breath Counting meditation task in comparison to the naïve group. Meditators had stronger P3 amplitude responses to target tones when instructed to attend to the tones, and a greater attenuation of P3 amplitudes when instructed to ignore the same tones during the Breath Counting task. This study introduces the idea of identifying ERP markers as a means of measuring mindfulness meditation competence, and results suggest this may be a valid approach. This information has the potential to improve mindfulness meditation interventions by allowing objective assessment of mindfulness meditation quality. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Variation in Event-Related Potentials by State Transitions

    PubMed Central

    Higashi, Hiroshi; Minami, Tetsuto; Nakauchi, Shigeki

    2017-01-01

    The probability of an event's occurrence affects event-related potentials (ERPs) on electroencephalograms. The relation between probability and potentials has been discussed by using a quantity called surprise that represents the self-information that humans receive from the event. Previous studies have estimated surprise based on the probability distribution in a stationary state. Our hypothesis is that state transitions also play an important role in the estimation of surprise. In this study, we compare the effects of surprise on the ERPs based on two models that generate an event sequence: a model of a stationary state and a model with state transitions. To compare these effects, we generate the event sequences with Markov chains to avoid a situation that the state transition probability converges with the stationary probability by the accumulation of the event observations. Our trial-by-trial model-based analysis showed that the stationary probability better explains the P3b component and the state transition probability better explains the P3a component. The effect on P3a suggests that the internal model, which is constantly and automatically generated by the human brain to estimate the probability distribution of the events, approximates the model with state transitions because Bayesian surprise, which represents the degree of updating of the internal model, is highly reflected in P3a. The global effect reflected in P3b, however, may not be related to the internal model because P3b depends on the stationary probability distribution. The results suggest that an internal model can represent state transitions and the global effect is generated by a different mechanism than the one for forming the internal model. PMID:28289380

  13. Cue Reactivity in Smokers: An Event-Related Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Erika Litvin; Potts, Geoffrey F.; Evans, David E.; Drobes, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Drugs-of-abuse may increase the salience of drug cues by sensitizing the dopaminergic (DA) system (Robinson & Berridge, 1993), leading to differential attention to smoking stimuli. Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used to assess attention to smoking cues but not using an ERP component associated with DA-mediated salience evaluation. In this study the DA-related P2a and the P3, were compared in smokers (N=21) and non-smokers (N=21) during an attention selection cue exposure task including both cigarette and neutral images. We predicted that both the P2a and P3 would be larger to targets than non-targets, but larger to non-target cigarette images than non-target neutral images only in the smokers, reflecting smokers’ evaluation of smoking stimuli as relevant even when they were not targets. Results indicated that smokers showed behavioral cue reactivity, with more false alarms to cigarette images (responding to cigarette images when they were not targets) than non-smokers; however, both smokers and non-smokers had a larger P2a and P3 to cigarette images. Thus, while smokers showed behavioral evidence of differential salience evaluation of the cigarette images, this group difference was not reflected in differential brain activity. These findings may reflect characteristics of the ERPs (both ERP components were smaller in the smokers), the smoking sample (they were not more impulsive, i.e. reward sensitive, than the non-smokers, in contrast to prior studies) and the design (all participants were aware that the aim of the study was related to smoking). PMID:23958866

  14. Cholinergic modulation of event-related oscillations (ERO).

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Robledo, Patricia; Wills, Derek N; Havstad, James; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2014-04-22

    The cholinergic system in the brain modulates patterns of activity involved in general arousal, attention processing, memory and consciousness. In the present study we determined the effects of selective cholinergic lesions of the medial septum area (MS) or nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) on amplitude and phase characteristics of event related oscillations (EROs). A time-frequency based representation was used to determine ERO energy, phase synchronization across trials, recorded within a structure (phase lock index, PLI), and phase synchronization across trials, recorded between brain structures (phase difference lock index, PDLI), in the frontal cortex (Fctx), dorsal hippocampus (DHPC) and central amygdala (Amyg). Lesions in MS produced: (1) decreases in ERO energy in delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma frequencies in Amyg, (2) reductions in gamma ERO energy and PLI in Fctx, (3) decreases in PDLI between the Fctx-Amyg in the theta, alpha, beta and gamma frequencies, and (4) decreases in PDLI between the DHPC-Amyg and Fctx-DHPC in the theta frequency bands. Lesions in NBM resulted in: (1) increased ERO energy in delta and theta frequency bands in Fctx, (2) reduced gamma ERO energy in Fctx and Amyg, (3) reductions in PLI in the theta, beta and gamma frequency ranges in Fctx, (4) reductions in gamma PLI in DHPC and (5) reduced beta PLI in Amyg. These studies suggest that the MS cholinergic system can alter phase synchronization between brain areas whereas the NBM cholinergic system modifies phase synchronization/phase resetting within a brain area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Say It with Flowers! An fMRI Study of Object Mediated Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tylen, Kristian; Wallentin, Mikkel; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Human communicational interaction can be mediated by a host of expressive means from words in a natural language to gestures and material symbols. Given the proper contextual setting even an everyday object can gain a mediating function in a communicational situation. In this study we used event-related fMRI to study the brain activity caused by…

  16. Lying about Facial Recognition: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatt, S.; Mbwana, J.; Adeyemo, A.; Sawyer, A.; Hailu, A.; VanMeter, J.

    2009-01-01

    Novel deception detection techniques have been in creation for centuries. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a neuroscience technology that non-invasively measures brain activity associated with behavior and cognition. A number of investigators have explored the utilization and efficiency of fMRI in deception detection. In this study,…

  17. Lying about Facial Recognition: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatt, S.; Mbwana, J.; Adeyemo, A.; Sawyer, A.; Hailu, A.; VanMeter, J.

    2009-01-01

    Novel deception detection techniques have been in creation for centuries. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a neuroscience technology that non-invasively measures brain activity associated with behavior and cognition. A number of investigators have explored the utilization and efficiency of fMRI in deception detection. In this study,…

  18. Study Design in fMRI: Basic Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaro, Edson, Jr.; Barker, Gareth J.

    2006-01-01

    There is a wide range of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study designs available for the neuroscientist who wants to investigate cognition. In this manuscript we review some aspects of fMRI study design, including cognitive comparison strategies (factorial, parametric designs), and stimulus presentation possibilities (block,…

  19. Analysis of FMRI data using an integrated principal component analysis and supervised affinity propagation clustering approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiang; Tuo, Xianguo; Yuan, Zhen; Liao, Wei; Chen, Huafu

    2011-11-01

    Clustering analysis is a promising data-driven method for analyzing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series data. The huge computational load, however, creates practical difficulties for this technique. We present a novel approach, integrating principal component analysis (PCA) and supervised affinity propagation clustering (SAPC). In this method, fMRI data are initially processed by PCA to obtain a preliminary image of brain activation. SAPC is then used to detect different brain functional activation patterns. We used a supervised Silhouette index to optimize clustering quality and automatically search for the optimal parameter p in SAPC, so that the basic affinity propagation clustering is improved by applying SAPC. Four simulation studies and tests with three in vivo fMRI datasets containing data from both block-design and event-related experiments revealed that functional brain activation was effectively detected and different response patterns were distinguished using our integrated method. In addition, the improved SAPC method was superior to the k -centers clustering and hierarchical clustering methods in both block-design and event-related fMRI data, as measured by the average squared error. These results suggest that our proposed novel integrated approach will be useful for detecting brain functional activation in both block-design and event-related experimental fMRI data.

  20. Event-related potential indices of workload in a single task paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horst, R. L.; Munson, R. C.; Ruchkin, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    Many previous studies of both behavioral and physiological correlates of cognitive workload have burdened subjects with a contrived secondary task in order to assess the workload of a primary task. The present study investigated event-related potential (ERP) indices of workload in a single task paradigm. Subjects monitored changing digital readouts for values that went 'out-of-bounds'. The amplitude of a long-latency positivity in the ERPs elicited by readout changes increased with the number of readouts being monitored. This effect of workload on ERPs is reported, along with plans for additional analyses to address theoretical implications.

  1. Cognitive conflict in audiovisual integration: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Yin, Qinqing; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin; Wen, Xiaohui

    2008-03-26

    This study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the electrophysiological correlates of cognitive conflict in audiovisual integration during an audiovisual task. ERP analyses revealed: (i) the anterior N1 and P1 were elicited in both matched and mismatched conditions and (ii) audiovisual mismatched answers elicited a more negative ERP deflection at 490 ms (N490) than matched answers. Dipole analysis of the difference wave (mismatched minus matched) localized the generator of the N490 to the posterior cingulate cortex, which may be involved in the control and modulation of conflict processing of Chinese characters when visual and auditory information is mismatched.

  2. Facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia: an event-related potentials study.

    PubMed

    Tempesta, Daniela; Stratta, Paolo; Marrelli, Alfonso; Aloisi, Paolo; Arnone, Benedetto; Gasbarri, Antonella; Rossi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies extensively reported an impaired ability to recognize emotional stimuli in patients with schizophrenia. We used pictures from Ekman and Friesen in an event-related potentials study to investigate the neurophysiological correlates of the fear emotional processing compared with happiness in patients with schizophrenia versus healthy subjects. A significant lower P300 amplitude for fear processing but not for P100, N170 and N250 amplitude was found in schizophrenics compared to controls. These data suggest that the ability of basic visual processing is preserved in schizophrenia, whereas facial affect processing is impaired.

  3. Event-related potential indices of workload in a single task paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horst, R. L.; Munson, R. C.; Ruchkin, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    Many previous studies of both behavioral and physiological correlates of cognitive workload have burdened subjects with a contrived secondary task in order to assess the workload of a primary task. The present study investigated event-related potential (ERP) indices of workload in a single task paradigm. Subjects monitored changing digital readouts for values that went 'out-of-bounds'. The amplitude of a long-latency positivity in the ERPs elicited by readout changes increased with the number of readouts being monitored. This effect of workload on ERPs is reported, along with plans for additional analyses to address theoretical implications.

  4. Event-related theta synchronization predicts deficit in facial affect recognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Csukly, Gábor; Stefanics, Gábor; Komlósi, Sarolta; Czigler, István; Czobor, Pál

    2014-02-01

    Growing evidence suggests that abnormalities in the synchronized oscillatory activity of neurons in schizophrenia may lead to impaired neural activation and temporal coding and thus lead to neurocognitive dysfunctions, such as deficits in facial affect recognition. To gain an insight into the neurobiological processes linked to facial affect recognition, we investigated both induced and evoked oscillatory activity by calculating the Event Related Spectral Perturbation (ERSP) and the Inter Trial Coherence (ITC) during facial affect recognition. Fearful and neutral faces as well as nonface patches were presented to 24 patients with schizophrenia and 24 matched healthy controls while EEG was recorded. The participants' task was to recognize facial expressions. Because previous findings with healthy controls showed that facial feature decoding was associated primarily with oscillatory activity in the theta band, we analyzed ERSP and ITC in this frequency band in the time interval of 140-200 ms, which corresponds to the N170 component. Event-related theta activity and phase-locking to facial expressions, but not to nonface patches, predicted emotion recognition performance in both controls and patients. Event-related changes in theta amplitude and phase-locking were found to be significantly weaker in patients compared with healthy controls, which is in line with previous investigations showing decreased neural synchronization in the low frequency bands in patients with schizophrenia. Neural synchrony is thought to underlie distributed information processing. Our results indicate a less effective functioning in the recognition process of facial features, which may contribute to a less effective social cognition in schizophrenia. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Altered Dynamics of the fMRI Response to Faces in Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinhans, Natalia M.; Richards, Todd; Greenson, Jessica; Dawson, Geraldine; Aylward, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal fMRI habituation in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has been proposed as a critical component in social impairment. This study investigated habituation to fearful faces and houses in ASD and whether fMRI measures of brain activity discriminate between ASD and typically developing (TD) controls. Two identical fMRI runs presenting masked…

  6. Altered Dynamics of the fMRI Response to Faces in Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinhans, Natalia M.; Richards, Todd; Greenson, Jessica; Dawson, Geraldine; Aylward, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal fMRI habituation in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has been proposed as a critical component in social impairment. This study investigated habituation to fearful faces and houses in ASD and whether fMRI measures of brain activity discriminate between ASD and typically developing (TD) controls. Two identical fMRI runs presenting masked…

  7. Molecular fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Bartelle, Benjamin B.; Barandov, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive analysis of brain function depends on understanding the dynamics of diverse neural signaling processes over large tissue volumes in intact animals and humans. Most existing approaches to measuring brain signaling suffer from limited tissue penetration, poor resolution, or lack of specificity for well-defined neural events. Here we discuss a new brain activity mapping method that overcomes some of these problems by combining MRI with contrast agents sensitive to neural signaling. The goal of this “molecular fMRI” approach is to permit noninvasive whole-brain neuroimaging with specificity and resolution approaching current optical neuroimaging methods. In this article, we describe the context and need for molecular fMRI as well as the state of the technology today. We explain how major types of MRI probes work and how they can be sensitized to neurobiological processes, such as neurotransmitter release, calcium signaling, and gene expression changes. We comment both on past work in the field and on challenges and promising avenues for future development. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Brain researchers currently have a choice between measuring neural activity using cellular-level recording techniques, such as electrophysiology and optical imaging, or whole-brain imaging methods, such as fMRI. Cellular level methods are precise but only address a small portion of mammalian brains; on the other hand, whole-brain neuroimaging techniques provide very little specificity for neural pathways or signaling components of interest. The molecular fMRI techniques we discuss have particular potential to combine the specificity of cellular-level measurements with the noninvasive whole-brain coverage of fMRI. On the other hand, molecular fMRI is only just getting off the ground. This article aims to offer a snapshot of the status and future prospects for development of molecular fMRI techniques. PMID:27076413

  8. Combining self-organizing mapping and supervised affinity propagation clustering approach to investigate functional brain networks involved in motor imagery and execution with fMRI measurements.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiang; Liu, Qi; Chen, Huafu; Yuan, Zhen; Huang, Jin; Deng, Lihua; Lu, Fengmei; Zhang, Junpeng; Wang, Yuqing; Wang, Mingwen; Chen, Liangyin

    2015-01-01

    Clustering analysis methods have been widely applied to identifying the functional brain networks of a multitask paradigm. However, the previously used clustering analysis techniques are computationally expensive and thus impractical for clinical applications. In this study a novel method, called SOM-SAPC that combines self-organizing mapping (SOM) and supervised affinity propagation clustering (SAPC), is proposed and implemented to identify the motor execution (ME) and motor imagery (MI) networks. In SOM-SAPC, SOM was first performed to process fMRI data and SAPC is further utilized for clustering the patterns of functional networks. As a result, SOM-SAPC is able to significantly reduce the computational cost for brain network analysis. Simulation and clinical tests involving ME and MI were conducted based on SOM-SAPC, and the analysis results indicated that functional brain networks were clearly identified with different response patterns and reduced computational cost. In particular, three activation clusters were clearly revealed, which include parts of the visual, ME and MI functional networks. These findings validated that SOM-SAPC is an effective and robust method to analyze the fMRI data with multitasks.

  9. Altered hub configurations within default mode network following acupuncture at ST36: a multimodal investigation combining fMRI and MEG.

    PubMed

    You, Youbo; Bai, Lijun; Dai, Ruwei; Cheng, Hao; Liu, Zhenyu; Wei, Wenjuan; Tian, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture, an externally somatosensory stimulation in the Traditional Chinese Medicine, has been proposed about its modulations on the brain's default mode network (DMN). However, it is still unknown on how the internal brain resting networks are modulated and what inferences can be made about the physiological processes underlying these changes. Combining high spatial resolution of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with high temporal resolution of magnetoencephalography (MEG), in the current multimodal study, we sought to explore spatiotemporally whether or not band-specific DMN hub configurations would be induced by verum acupuncture, compared with sham control. Spatial independent component analysis was applied to fMRI data, followed by the discrete regional sources seeded into MEG data. Partial correlation analysis was further adopted to estimate the intrinsic functional connectivity and network hub configurations. One of the most striking findings is that the posterior cingulate cortex is not only validated as a robust DMN hub, but served as a hub only within the delta and gamma bands following the verum acupuncture, compared with its consistently being a DMN hub in sham control group. Our preliminary results may provide a new perspective to lend support for the specificity of neural mechanism underlying acupuncture.

  10. Combining self-organizing mapping and supervised affinity propagation clustering approach to investigate functional brain networks involved in motor imagery and execution with fMRI measurements

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiang; Liu, Qi; Chen, Huafu; Yuan, Zhen; Huang, Jin; Deng, Lihua; Lu, Fengmei; Zhang, Junpeng; Wang, Yuqing; Wang, Mingwen; Chen, Liangyin

    2015-01-01

    Clustering analysis methods have been widely applied to identifying the functional brain networks of a multitask paradigm. However, the previously used clustering analysis techniques are computationally expensive and thus impractical for clinical applications. In this study a novel method, called SOM-SAPC that combines self-organizing mapping (SOM) and supervised affinity propagation clustering (SAPC), is proposed and implemented to identify the motor execution (ME) and motor imagery (MI) networks. In SOM-SAPC, SOM was first performed to process fMRI data and SAPC is further utilized for clustering the patterns of functional networks. As a result, SOM-SAPC is able to significantly reduce the computational cost for brain network analysis. Simulation and clinical tests involving ME and MI were conducted based on SOM-SAPC, and the analysis results indicated that functional brain networks were clearly identified with different response patterns and reduced computational cost. In particular, three activation clusters were clearly revealed, which include parts of the visual, ME and MI functional networks. These findings validated that SOM-SAPC is an effective and robust method to analyze the fMRI data with multitasks. PMID:26236217

  11. Fluctuation amplitude and local synchronization of brain activity in the ultra-low frequency band: An fMRI investigation of continuous feedback of finger force.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hang; Zhang, Lijuan; Zang, Yufeng

    2015-12-10

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of motor feedback have suggested that brain activity in the ultra-low frequency band (0-0.01Hz) may be physiologically significant for various feedback conditions, i.e., real and sham feedback. However, the functional role of the ultra-low frequency band of brain activity during the feedback procedure remains unclear. Here, we carried out an fMRI study of continuous feedback (8min) of finger force and assessed two important properties of brain activity: the fluctuation amplitude and local synchronization in the ultra-low frequency band. Two intriguing results were obtained: (1) real feedback recruited a stronger fluctuation amplitude and local synchronization in the basal ganglia compared with sham feedback; however, no significant correlation was found between the two properties across subjects; and (2) the behavioral performance was significantly correlated with the fluctuation amplitude but was not correlated with local synchronization in the basal ganglia. These findings contribute to characterization of the functional role of brain activity in the ultra-low frequency band and further suggest that the fluctuation amplitude and local synchronization in the basal ganglia may contribute differently to motor feedback.

  12. Enhanced Development of Auditory Change Detection in Musically Trained School-Aged Children: A Longitudinal Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putkinen, Vesa; Tervaniemi, Mari; Saarikivi, Katri; Ojala, Pauliina; Huotilainen, Minna

    2014-01-01

    Adult musicians show superior auditory discrimination skills when compared to non-musicians. The enhanced auditory skills of musicians are reflected in the augmented amplitudes of their auditory event-related potential (ERP) responses. In the current study, we investigated longitudinally the development of auditory discrimination skills in…

  13. Right Hemisphere Sensitivity to Word- and Sentence-Level Context: Evidence From Event-Related Brain Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulson, Seana; Federmeier, Kara D.; Van Petten, Cyma; Kutas, Marta

    2005-01-01

    Researchers using lateralized stimuli have suggested that the left hemisphere is sensitive to sentence-level context, whereas the right hemisphere (RH) primarily processes word-level meaning. The authors investigated this message-blind RH model by measuring associative priming with event-related brain potentials (ERPs). For word pairs in…

  14. Hemispheric Differences in the Time-Course of Semantic Priming Processes: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials (ERPs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouaffre, Sarah; Faita-Ainseba, Frederique

    2007-01-01

    To investigate hemispheric differences in the timing of word priming, the modulation of event-related potentials by semantic word relationships was examined in each cerebral hemisphere. Primes and targets, either categorically (silk-wool) or associatively (needle-sewing) related, were presented to the left or right visual field in a go/no-go…

  15. Hemispheric Differences in the Time-Course of Semantic Priming Processes: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials (ERPs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouaffre, Sarah; Faita-Ainseba, Frederique

    2007-01-01

    To investigate hemispheric differences in the timing of word priming, the modulation of event-related potentials by semantic word relationships was examined in each cerebral hemisphere. Primes and targets, either categorically (silk-wool) or associatively (needle-sewing) related, were presented to the left or right visual field in a go/no-go…

  16. Familiarization, Attention, and Recognition Memory in Infancy: An Event-Related Potential and Cortical Source Localization Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Greg D.; Richards, John E.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of familiarization and attention on event-related potential (ERP) correlates of recognition memory in infants. Infants 4.5, 6, or 7.5 months of age were either familiarized with 2 stimuli that were used during later testing or presented 2 stimuli that were not used later. Then, infants were presented with a…

  17. Use of Contextual Information and Prediction by Struggling Adult Readers: Evidence from Reading Times and Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Shukhan; Payne, Brennan R.; Steen, Allison A.; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A. L.; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2017-01-01

    We employed self-paced reading and event-related potential measures to investigate how adults of varying literacy levels use sentence context information when reading. Community-dwelling participants read strongly and weakly constraining sentences that ended with expected or unexpected target words. Skilled readers showed N400s that were graded by…

  18. Right Hemisphere Sensitivity to Word- and Sentence-Level Context: Evidence From Event-Related Brain Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulson, Seana; Federmeier, Kara D.; Van Petten, Cyma; Kutas, Marta

    2005-01-01

    Researchers using lateralized stimuli have suggested that the left hemisphere is sensitive to sentence-level context, whereas the right hemisphere (RH) primarily processes word-level meaning. The authors investigated this message-blind RH model by measuring associative priming with event-related brain potentials (ERPs). For word pairs in…

  19. Individual Differences in Nonverbal Number Discrimination Correlate with Event-Related Potentials and Measures of Probabilistic Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, David J.; Woldorff, Marty G.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the neural activity patterns associated with numerical sensitivity in adults. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while adults observed sequentially presented display arrays (S1 and S2) of non-symbolic numerical stimuli (dots) and made same/different judgments of these stimuli by pressing a button only when…

  20. The Relative Importance of Spatial Versus Temporal Structure in the Perception of Biological Motion: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirai, Masahiro; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    We investigated how the spatiotemporal structure of animations of biological motion (BM) affects brain activity. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs) during the perception of BM under four conditions: normal spatial and temporal structure; scrambled spatial and normal temporal structure; normal spatial and scrambled temporal structure; and…

  1. Enhanced Development of Auditory Change Detection in Musically Trained School-Aged Children: A Longitudinal Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putkinen, Vesa; Tervaniemi, Mari; Saarikivi, Katri; Ojala, Pauliina; Huotilainen, Minna

    2014-01-01

    Adult musicians show superior auditory discrimination skills when compared to non-musicians. The enhanced auditory skills of musicians are reflected in the augmented amplitudes of their auditory event-related potential (ERP) responses. In the current study, we investigated longitudinally the development of auditory discrimination skills in…

  2. Familiarization, Attention, and Recognition Memory in Infancy: An Event-Related Potential and Cortical Source Localization Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Greg D.; Richards, John E.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of familiarization and attention on event-related potential (ERP) correlates of recognition memory in infants. Infants 4.5, 6, or 7.5 months of age were either familiarized with 2 stimuli that were used during later testing or presented 2 stimuli that were not used later. Then, infants were presented with a…

  3. Individual Differences in Nonverbal Number Discrimination Correlate with Event-Related Potentials and Measures of Probabilistic Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, David J.; Woldorff, Marty G.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the neural activity patterns associated with numerical sensitivity in adults. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while adults observed sequentially presented display arrays (S1 and S2) of non-symbolic numerical stimuli (dots) and made same/different judgments of these stimuli by pressing a button only when…

  4. Resting-state FMRI confounds and cleanup

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Kevin; Birn, Rasmus M.; Bandettini, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) is to investigate the brain’s functional connections by using the temporal similarity between blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals in different regions of the brain “at rest” as an indicator of synchronous neural activity. Since this measure relies on the temporal correlation of FMRI signal changes between different parts of the brain, any non-neural activity-related process that affects the signals will influence the measure of functional connectivity, yielding spurious results. To understand the sources of these resting-state FMRI confounds, this article describes the origins of the BOLD signal in terms of MR physics and cerebral physiology. Potential confounds arising from motion, cardiac and respiratory cycles, arterial CO2 concentration, blood pressure/cerebral autoregulation, and vasomotion are discussed. Two classes of techniques to remove confounds from resting-state BOLD time series are reviewed: 1) those utilising external recordings of physiology and 2) data-based cleanup methods that only use the resting-state FMRI data itself. Further methods that remove noise from functional connectivity measures at a group level are also discussed. For successful interpretation of resting-state FMRI comparisons and results, noise cleanup is an often over-looked but essential step in the analysis pipeline. PMID:23571418

  5. Changes in event-related potentials in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and their siblings.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chengqing; Zhang, Tianhong; Li, Zezhi; Heeramun-Aubeeluck, Anisha; Liu, Na; Huang, Nan; Zhang, Jie; He, Leiying; Li, Hui; Tang, Yingying; Chen, Fazhan; Wang, Jijun; Lu, Zheng

    2017-01-17

    This study aimed to explore the characteristics of event-related potentials induced by facial emotion recognition in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and in their siblings. In this case-control study, 30 first-episode schizophrenia patients, 26 siblings, and 30 healthy controls were enrolled. They completed facial emotion recognition tasks from the Ekman Standard Faces Database as an induction for evoked potentials. Evoked potential data were obtained using a 64-channel electroencephalography system. Average evoked potential waveforms were computed from epochs for each stimulus type. The amplitudes and latency of the event-related potentials for P100 (positive potential 100 ms after stimulus onset), N170 (negative potential 170 ms after stimulus onset), and N250 (fronto-central peak) were investigated at O1, O2, P7, and P8 electrode locations. There were significant differences between the groups for P100 amplitude (F = 11.526, P < 0.001), electrode position (F = 450.592, P < 0.001), emotion (disgust vs. happiness vs. fear) (F = 1722.467, P < 0.001), and emotion intensity (low vs. moderate vs. high) (F = 1737.169, P < 0.001). Post hoc analysis showed significantly larger amplitudes in the schizophrenia group at the O1, O2, P7, and P8 electrode positions. There were no significant differences between the siblings of schizophrenia patients and the healthy controls. Patients with schizophrenia showed abnormalities in P100 amplitude, but similar results were not observed in their siblings. These results provide evidence of dysfunctional event-related potential patterns underlying facial emotion processing in patients with schizophrenia. P100 may be a characteristic index of schizophrenia.

  6. Neurovascular coupling in normal aging: A combined optical, ERP and fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Fabiani, Monica; Gordon, Brian A.; Maclin, Edward L.; Pearson, Melanie A.; Brumback-Peltz, Carrie R.; Low, Kathy A.; McAuley, Edward; Sutton, Bradley P.; Kramer, Arthur F.; Gratton, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Brain aging is characterized by changes in both hemodynamic and neuronal responses, which may be influenced by the cardiorespiratory fitness of the individual. To investigate the relationship between neuronal and hemodynamic changes, we studied the brain activity elicited by visual stimulation (checkerboard reversals at different frequencies) in younger adults and in older adults varying in physical fitness. Four functional brain measures were used to compare neuronal and hemodynamic responses obtained from BA17: two reflecting neuronal activity (the event-related optical signal, EROS, and the C1 response of the ERP), and two reflecting functional hemodynamic changes (functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI, and near-infrared spectroscopy, NIRS). The results indicated that both younger and older adults exhibited a quadratic relationship between neuronal and hemodynamic effects, with reduced increases of the hemodynamic response at high levels of neuronal activity. Although older adults showed reduced activation, similar neurovascular coupling functions were observed in the two age groups when fMRI and deoxy-hemoglobin measures were used. However, the coupling between oxy-and deoxy-hemoglobin changes decreased with age and increased with increasing fitness. These data indicate that departures from linearity in neurovascular coupling may be present when using hemodynamic measures to study neuronal function. PMID:23664952

  7. Reduced event-related current density in the anterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Mulert, C; Gallinat, J; Pascual-Marqui, R; Dorn, H; Frick, K; Schlattmann, P; Mientus, S; Herrmann, W M; Winterer, G

    2001-04-01

    There is good evidence from neuroanatomic postmortem and functional imaging studies that dysfunction of the anterior cingulate cortex plays a prominent role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. So far, no electrophysiological localization study has been performed to investigate this deficit. We investigated 18 drug-free schizophrenic patients and 25 normal subjects with an auditory choice reaction task and measured event-related activity with 19 electrodes. Estimation of the current source density distribution in Talairach space was performed with low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). In normals, we could differentiate between an early event-related potential peak of the N1 (90-100 ms) and a later N1 peak (120-130 ms). Subsequent current-density LORETA analysis in Talairach space showed increased activity in the auditory cortex area during the first N1 peak and increased activity in the anterior cingulate gyrus during the second N1 peak. No activation difference was observed in the auditory cortex between normals and patients with schizophrenia. However, schizophrenics showed significantly less anterior cingulate gyrus activation and slowed reaction times. Our results confirm previous findings of an electrical source in the anterior cingulate and an anterior cingulate dysfunction in schizophrenics. Our data also suggest that anterior cingulate function in schizophrenics is disturbed at a relatively early time point in the information-processing stream (100-140 ms poststimulus).

  8. Event-related potentials indicate bi-hemispherical changes in speech sound processing during aphasia rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Becker, Frank; Reinvang, Ivar

    2007-10-01

    To investigate changes in brain activation related to tone and speech sound processing during aphasia rehabilitation. Longitudinal study investigating patients with stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury 3 and 7 months post-injury. Eight patients with aphasia, reflecting a wide range of auditory comprehension impairment. Token test and Norwegian Basic Aphasia Assessment were used to measure auditory comprehension function. Brain event-related potentials were recorded in passive paradigms with harmonically rich tones and syllables in order to obtain the mismatch negativity component that reflects automatic stimulus discrimination. In an active syllable discrimination paradigm, stimulus feature integration (N1), attended stimulus discrimination and classification (N2), and target detection (P3) were studied. Auditory comprehension scores improved approximately 10% during the observation period. Ipsilesional frontal P3- and N2-amplitude increased significantly. A significant shift in topographical distribution from the contralesional to the ipsilesional hemisphere was observed for the N2 component. The study of individual waveforms indicates inter-individual differences in reorganization after brain injury. Hemispherical distribution of brain activation correlating with speech sound processing in aphasia can change during the first months after brain injury. Event-related potentials are a potentially useful method for detecting individual activation patterns relevant to recovery in aphasia rehabilitation.

  9. Event-related potentials to visual, auditory, and bimodal (combined auditory-visual) stimuli.

    PubMed

    Isoğlu-Alkaç, Ummühan; Kedzior, Karina; Keskindemirci, Gonca; Ermutlu, Numan; Karamursel, Sacit

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the response properties of event related potentials to unimodal and bimodal stimulations. The amplitudes of N1 and P2 were larger during bimodal evoked potentials (BEPs) than auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) in the anterior sites and the amplitudes of P1 were larger during BEPs than VEPs especially at the parieto-occipital locations. Responses to bimodal stimulation had longer latencies than responses to unimodal stimulation. The N1 and P2 components were larger in amplitude and longer in latency during the bimodal paradigm and predominantly occurred at the anterior sites. Therefore, the current bimodal paradigm can be used to investigate the involvement and location of specific neural generators that contribute to higher processing of sensory information. Moreover, this paradigm may be a useful tool to investigate the level of sensory dysfunctions in clinical samples.

  10. Anticipatory regulation of action control in a simon task: behavioral, electrophysiological, and FMRI correlates.

    PubMed

    Strack, Gamze; Kaufmann, Christian; Kehrer, Stefanie; Brandt, Stephan; Stürmer, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    With the present study we investigated cue-induced preparation in a Simon task and measured electroencephalogram and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data in two within-subjects sessions. Cues informed either about the upcoming (1) spatial stimulus-response compatibility (rule cues), or (2) the stimulus location (position cues), or (3) were non-informative. Only rule cues allowed anticipating the upcoming compatibility condition. Position cues allowed anticipation of the upcoming location of the Simon stimulus but not its compatibility condition. Rule cues elicited fastest and most accurate performance for both compatible and incompatible trials. The contingent negative variation (CNV) in the event-related potential (ERP) of the cue-target interval is an index of anticipatory preparation and was magnified after rule cues. The N2 in the post-target ERP as a measure of online action control was reduced in Simon trials after rule cues. Although compatible trials were faster than incompatible trials in all cue conditions only non-informative cues revealed a compatibility effect in additional indicators of Simon task conflict like accuracy and the N2. We thus conclude that rule cues induced anticipatory re-coding of the Simon task that did not involve cognitive conflict anymore. fMRI revealed that rule cues yielded more activation of the left rostral, dorsal, and ventral prefrontal cortex as well as the pre-SMA as compared to POS and NON-cues. Pre-SMA and ventrolateral prefrontal activation after rule cues correlated with the effective use of rule cues in behavioral performance. Position cues induced a smaller CNV effect and exhibited less prefrontal and pre-SMA contributions in fMRI. Our data point to the importance to disentangle different anticipatory adjustments that might also include the prevention of upcoming conflict via task re-coding.

  11. Hemodynamic Nonlinearities Affect BOLD fMRI Response Timing and Amplitude

    PubMed Central

    de Zwart, Jacco A; van Gelderen, Peter; Jansma, J Martijn; Fukunaga, Masaki; Bianciardi, Marta; Duyn, Jeff H

    2009-01-01

    The interpretation of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies based on Blood Oxygen-Level Dependent (BOLD) contrast generally relies on the assumption of a linear relationship between evoked neuronal activity and fMRI response. While nonlinearities in this relationship have been suggested by a number of studies, it remains unclear to what extent they relate to the neurovascular response and are therefore inherent to BOLD-fMRI. Full characterization of potential vascular nonlinearities is required for accurate inferences about the neuronal system under study. To investigate the extent of vascular nonlinearities, evoked activity was studied in humans with BOLD-fMRI (n=28) and Magnetoencephalography (MEG) (n=5). Brief (600-800 ms) rapidly repeated (1 Hz) visual stimuli were delivered using a stimulation paradigm that minimized neuronal nonlinearities. Nevertheless, BOLD-fMRI experiments showed substantial remaining nonlinearities. The smallest stimulus separation (200-400 ms) resulted in significant response broadening (15-20% amplitude decrease; 10-12% latency increase; 6-14% duration increase) with respect to a linear prediction. The substantial slowing and widening of the response in the presence of preceding stimuli suggests a vascular rather than neuronal origin to the observed non-linearity. This was confirmed by the MEG data, which showed no significant neuro-electric nonlinear interactions between stimuli as little as 200 ms apart. The presence of substantial vascular nonlinearities has important implications for rapid event-related studies by fMRI and other imaging modalities that infer neuronal activity from hemodynamic parameters. PMID:19520175

  12. Event-related responses to pronoun and proper name anaphors in parallel and nonparallel discourse structures.

    PubMed

    Streb, J; Rösler, F; Hennighausen, E

    1999-11-01

    The present study investigated event-related potential (ERP) effects of pronoun and proper name anaphors in both parallel and nonparallel discourse structures. Thirty-seven students processed 400 semantically different text passages. Each trial consisted of two sentences and a comprehension question. The first sentence introduced a protagonist who was referred to by an anaphoric word in the second sentence. The anaphoric word was either a pronoun or a repetition of the proper name of the protagonist and had either the same or a different syntactic role as its antecedent (subject or object). The sentences were presented word by word as rapid serial visual display. Event-related potentials were recorded from 61 scalp electrodes. In agreement with the parallel function strategy, nonparallel discourse structures required longer decision times and exhibited higher error rates than parallel structures. The ERPs revealed two effects: First, pronoun anaphors evoked a more pronounced negativity than proper name anaphors between 270 and 420 ms latency over the frontal cortex electrodes. Another relative negativity occurred between 510 and 600 ms over the parietal cortex electrodes. Second, anaphors in nonparallel positions were accompanied by a more pronounced negativity over the parietal cortex. These data support the idea that an anaphor in nonparallel position triggers extra processing steps, probably search processes in working memory which integrate currently encountered information with previously activated representations.

  13. Lithium excessively enhances event related beta oscillations in patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Atagün, Murat İlhan; Güntekin, Bahar; Tan, Devran; Tülay, Emine Elif; Başar, Erol

    2015-01-01

    Previous resting-state electroencephalography studies have consistently shown that lithium enhances delta and theta oscillations in default mode networks. Cognitive task based networks differ from resting-state networks and this is the first study to investigate effects of lithium on evoked and event-related beta oscillatory responses of patients with bipolar disorder. The study included 16 euthymic patients with bipolar disorder on lithium monotherapy, 22 euthymic medication-free patients with bipolar disorder and 21 healthy participants. The maximum peak-to-peak amplitudes were measured for each subject's averaged beta responses (14-28 Hz) in the 0-300 ms time window. Auditory simple and oddball paradigm were presented to obtain evoked and event-related beta oscillatory responses. There were significant differences in beta oscillatory responses between groups (p=0.010). Repeated measures ANOVA revealed location (p=0.007), laterality X group (p=0.043) and stimulus X location (p=0.013) type effects. Serum lithium levels were correlated with beta responses. The lithium group had higher number of previous episodes, suggesting that patients of the lithium were more severe cases than patients of the medication-free group. Lithium stimulates neuroplastic cascades and beta oscillations become prominent during neuroplastic changes. Excessively enhanced beta oscillatory responses in the lithium-treated patients may be indicative of excessive activation of the neuron groups of the certain cognitive networks and dysfunctional GABAergic modulation during cognitive activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The other-race effect for face perception: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, M J; Schreppel, T; Jäger, D; Koehler, S; Ehlis, A-C; Fallgatter, A J

    2007-07-01

    It is well known that a recognition bias can be observed whenever subjects have to decide whether they have seen a person before that belongs to a different ethnical group. Although this "other-race effect" is well documented on a behavioural level, its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. One plausible explanation might be that cortical areas involved in face processing are not as effective for other-race faces due to a missing experience with individuals from other ethnical groups. This interpretation is strongly supported by a functional magnetic resonance imaging study showing decreased brain activity on other-race faces. Furthermore, two event-related potential studies revealed differences in brain activity in the first 250 ms after face presentation, but with inconsistent results. Therefore, we investigated 12 Caucasian subjects, showing them faces of Asian and Caucasian subjects in a perceptual priming paradigm and measured the event-related brain potentials. On a behavioural level we found slower reaction times to Asian faces compared to Caucasian faces in the unprimed condition, reflecting a deficit for Caucasian subjects to process other-race faces. In accordance with these behavioural data we see a significantly reduced late N250r amplitude in the unprimed condition to the Asian faces compared to the Caucasian faces. These results clearly indicate that the other-race effect was present in our sample and very specific only in the unprimed condition around 350-450 ms after stimulus onset.

  15. The effect of mastication on human cognitive processing: a study using event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kiwako; Nakata, Hiroki; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to clarify the effect of mastication on cognitive processing using reaction time (RT) and event-related potentials (ERPs). The two experiments consisted of two conditions, Mastication (chewing gum) and Control (relaxing without chewing gum) in Experiment 1, and Jaw Movement (opening and closing the jaw) and Finger Tapping (tapping the right index finger) in Experiment 2. The subjects performed four sessions of an auditory oddball paradigm. RT and ERPs were recorded in these four sessions, Pre (before chewing), and Post 1, Post 2 and Post 3 (after chewing). In Mastication for RT and the peak latencies of P300 and N100, the values were significantly longer in Pre than in Post 2 or Post 3. By contrast, in Control, Jaw Movement, and Finger Tapping, they were almost identical among sessions or significantly shorter in Pre than in Post 2 or Post 3. Mastication influences cognitive processing time as reflected by RT and the latency of ERP waveforms. This is the first study investigating the effect of mastication on the central nervous system using event-related potentials.

  16. Tactile event-related potentials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): Implications for brain-computer interface.

    PubMed

    Silvoni, S; Konicar, L; Prats-Sedano, M A; Garcia-Cossio, E; Genna, C; Volpato, C; Cavinato, M; Paggiaro, A; Veser, S; De Massari, D; Birbaumer, N

    2016-01-01

    We investigated neurophysiological brain responses elicited by a tactile event-related potential paradigm in a sample of ALS patients. Underlying cognitive processes and neurophysiological signatures for brain-computer interface (BCI) are addressed. We stimulated the palm of the hand in a group of fourteen ALS patients and a control group of ten healthy participants and recorded electroencephalographic signals in eyes-closed condition. Target and non-target brain responses were analyzed and classified offline. Classification errors served as the basis for neurophysiological brain response sub-grouping. A combined behavioral and quantitative neurophysiological analysis of sub-grouped data showed neither significant between-group differences, nor significant correlations between classification performance and the ALS patients' clinical state. Taking sequential effects of stimuli presentation into account, analyses revealed mean classification errors of 19.4% and 24.3% in healthy participants and ALS patients respectively. Neurophysiological correlates of tactile stimuli presentation are not altered by ALS. Tactile event-related potentials can be used to monitor attention level and task performance in ALS and may constitute a viable basis for future BCIs. Implications for brain-computer interface implementation of the proposed method for patients in critical conditions, such as the late stage of ALS and the (completely) locked-in state, are discussed. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of white noise on event-related potentials in somatosensory Go/No-go paradigms.

    PubMed

    Ohbayashi, Wakana; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Nakata, Hiroki

    2017-09-06

    Exposure to auditory white noise has been shown to facilitate human cognitive function. This phenomenon is termed stochastic resonance, and a moderate amount of auditory noise has been suggested to benefit individuals in hypodopaminergic states. The present study investigated the effects of white noise on the N140 and P300 components of event-related potentials in somatosensory Go/No-go paradigms. A Go or No-go stimulus was presented to the second or fifth digit of the left hand, respectively, at the same probability. Participants performed somatosensory Go/No-go paradigms while hearing three different white noise levels (45, 55, and 65 dB conditions). The peak amplitudes of Go-P300 and No-go-P300 in ERP waveforms were significantly larger under 55 dB than 45 and 65 dB conditions. White noise did not affect the peak latency of N140 or P300, or the peak amplitude of N140. Behavioral data for the reaction time, SD of reaction time, and error rates showed the absence of an effect by white noise. This is the first event-related potential study to show that exposure to auditory white noise at 55 dB enhanced the amplitude of P300 during Go/No-go paradigms, reflecting changes in the neural activation of response execution and inhibition processing.

  18. Habituation and recovery of a slow negative wave of the event-related brain potential.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Heinz

    2002-03-01

    This study is concerned with the question of whether the late, slow negative wave 2 (SNW2) component of the event-related brain potential is a component of the orienting response (OR). As habituation of the SNW2 would be an argument for such a link with the OR, it was investigated using a variant of the classical repetition/change paradigm. Results supported major claims to be made for a component of the OR: the amplitude of the vertex SNW2 exhibited roughly the typical exponential decline with repeated stimulations (six numeric verbal stimuli presented seriatim in an ascending order) and responded incrementally to a change, at least in a narrow time slot, i.e. it exhibited partial recovery to an out-of-sequence stimulus. These findings were accompanied by similar effects on an exemplary OR component, the skin conductance response, and on such possible components of the OR as heart rate deceleration and the vertex P3 of the event-related brain potential. In so far as OR components should behave in comparable fashion in response to orienting stimuli, it is thus reasonable to suppose that the SNW2 relates to the OR.

  19. Event-related potential P2 correlates of implicit aesthetic experience.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyi; Huang, Yujing; Ma, Qingguo; Li, Nan

    2012-10-03

    Using event-related potential measures, the present study investigated the affective responses to aesthetic experience. To differentiate the objective aesthetic value from subjective aesthetic evaluation, an amended oddball task was used in which pendant pictures were presented as frequent nontarget stimuli, whereas the landscape pictures were presented as a rare target. The pendant pictures were chosen from the largest online store in China and divided into beautiful and less beautiful conditions by the sales ranking. A positive component, P2, was recorded for each condition on the participants' frontal, central and parietal scalp areas. Less beautiful pendants elicited greater amplitudes of P2 than the beautiful ones. This indicates that emotion arousal seems to occur at the early stage of processing of aesthetics and can be detected by the P2 component, implying that the event-related potential methodology may be a more sensitive measure of the beauty-related attention bias. From the perspective of artwork design and marketing, our finding also shows that P2 can potentially be used as a reference measure in consumer aesthetic experience.

  20. Depression-Related Brain Connectivity Analyzed by EEG Event-Related Phase Synchrony Measure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuezhi; Kang, Cheng; Qu, Xingda; Zhou, Yunfei; Wang, Wuyi; Hu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    This study is to examine changes of functional connectivity in patients with depressive disorder using synchronous brain activity. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were acquired during a visual oddball task in 14 patients with depressive disorder and 19 healthy controls. Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings were analyzed using event-related phase coherence (ERPCOH) to obtain the functional network. Alteration of the phase synchronization index (PSI) of the functional network was investigated. Patients with depression showed a decreased number of significant electrode pairs in delta phase synchronization, and an increased number of significant electrode pairs in theta, alpha and beta phase synchronization, compared with controls. Patients with depression showed lower target-dependent PSI increment in the frontal-parietal/temporal/occipital electrode pairs in delta-phase synchronization than healthy participants. However, patients with depression showed higher target-dependent PSI increments in theta band in the prefrontal/frontal and frontal-temporal electrode pairs, higher PSI increments in alpha band in the prefrontal pairs and higher increments of beta PSI in the central and right frontal-parietal pairs than controls. It implied that the decrease in delta PSI activity in major depression may indicate impairment of the connection between the frontal and parietal/temporal/occipital regions. The increase in theta, alpha and beta PSI in the frontal/prefrontal sites might reflect the compensatory mechanism to maintain normal cognitive performance. These findings may provide a foundation for a new approach to evaluate the effectiveness of therapeutic strategies for depression. PMID:27725797

  1. Disrupting pre-SMA activity impairs facial happiness recognition: an event-related TMS study.

    PubMed

    Rochas, Vincent; Gelmini, Lauriane; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre; Poulet, Emmanuel; Saoud, Mohamed; Brunelin, Jerome; Bediou, Benoit

    2013-07-01

    It has been suggested that the left pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) could be implicated in facial emotion expression and recognition, especially for laughter/happiness. To test this hypothesis, in a single-blind, randomized crossover study, we investigated the impact of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on performances of 18 healthy participants during a facial emotion recognition task. Using a neuronavigation system based on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of each participant, TMS (5 pulses, 10 Hz) was delivered over the pre-SMA or the vertex (control condition) in an event-related fashion after the presentation of happy, fear, and angry faces. Compared with performances during vertex stimulation, we observed that TMS applied over the left pre-SMA specifically disrupted facial happiness recognition (FHR). No difference was observed between the 2 conditions neither for fear and anger recognition nor for reaction times (RT). Thus, interfering with pre-SMA activity with event-related TMS after stimulus presentation produced a selective impairment in the recognition of happy faces. These findings provide new insights into the functional implication of the pre-SMA in FHR, which may rely on the mirror properties of pre-SMA neurons.

  2. Synthetic event-related potentials: a computational bridge between neurolinguistic models and experiments.

    PubMed

    Barrès, Victor; Simons, Arthur; Arbib, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Our previous work developed Synthetic Brain Imaging to link neural and schema network models of cognition and behavior to PET and fMRI studies of brain function. We here extend this approach to Synthetic Event-Related Potentials (Synthetic ERP). Although the method is of general applicability, we focus on ERP correlates of language processing in the human brain. The method has two components: Phase 1: To generate cortical electro-magnetic source activity from neural or schema network models; and Phase 2: To generate known neurolinguistic ERP data (ERP scalp voltage topographies and waveforms) from putative cortical source distributions and activities within a realistic anatomical model of the human brain and head. To illustrate the challenges of Phase 2 of the methodology, spatiotemporal information from Friederici's 2002 model of auditory language comprehension was used to define cortical regions and time courses of activation for implementation within a forward model of ERP data. The cortical regions from the 2002 model were modeled using atlas-based masks overlaid on the MNI high definition single subject cortical mesh. The electromagnetic contribution of each region was modeled using current dipoles whose position and orientation were constrained by the cortical geometry. In linking neural network computation via EEG forward modeling to empirical results in neurolinguistics, we emphasize the need for neural network models to link their architecture to geometrically sound models of the cortical surface, and the need for conceptual models to refine and adopt brain-atlas based approaches to allow precise brain anchoring of their modules. The detailed analysis of Phase 2 sets the stage for a brief introduction to Phase 1 of the program, including the case for a schema-theoretic approach to language production and perception presented in detail elsewhere. Unlike Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) and Bojak's mean field model, Synthetic ERP builds on models of networks

  3. Fractals properties of EEG during event-related desynchronization of motor imagery.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ngoc Quang; Truong, Quang Dang Khoa; Kondo, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Chaos and fractal dimension are emerging modalities for the research of electroencephalogram (EEG) signal processing. The capability of measuring non-linear characteristics of the fractal dimension enables new methodologies to identify distinct brain activities. Recent studies on the topic focus on utilizing various types of fractals as features in order to design better brain state classification system. However, we have little insight about the EEG signals projected in fractal dimension. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between the non-linear characteristics of ongoing EEG signals and event-related desynchronization (ERD) during motor imagery. We observed a considerable synchronization between ERD and fractal dimension. This finding suggests further usage of chaos and fractal theory in investigating brain activities.

  4. Event-related changes of the prefrontal cortex oxygen delivery and metabolism during driving measured by hyperspectral fNIRS

    PubMed Central

    Nosrati, Reyhaneh; Vesely, Kristin; Schweizer, Tom A.; Toronov, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    Recent technological advancements in optical spectroscopy allow for the construction of hyperspectral (broadband) portable tissue oximeters. In a series of our recent papers we have shown that hyperspectral NIRS (hNIRS) has similar or better capabilities in the absolute tissue oximetry as frequency-domain NIRS, and that hNIRS is also very efficient in measuring temporal changes in tissue hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation. In this paper, we extend the application of hNIRS to the measurement of event-related hemodynamic and metabolic functional cerebral responses during simulated driving. In order to check if hNIRS can detect event-related changes in the brain, we measured the concentration changes of oxygenated (HbO2) and deoxygenated (HHb) hemoglobin and of the oxidized state of cytochrome c oxidase, on the right and left prefrontal cortices (PFC) simultaneously during simulated driving on sixteen healthy right-handed participants (aged between 22–32). We used our in-house hNIRS system based on a portable spectrometer with cooled CCD detector and a driving simulator with a fully functional steering wheel and foot pedals. Each participant performed different driving tasks and participants were distracted during some driving conditions by asking general knowledge true/false questions. Our findings suggest that more complex driving tasks (non-distracted) deactivate PFC while distractions during driving significantly activate PFC, which is in agreement with previous fMRI results. Also, we found the changes in the redox state of the cytochrome C oxidase to be very consistent with those in the concentrations of HbO2 and HHb. Overall our findings suggest that in addition to the suitability of absolute tissue oximetry, hyperspectral NIRS may also offer advantages in functional brain imaging. In particular, it can be used to measure the metabolic functional brain activity during actual driving. PMID:27446658

  5. Differences in the hemodynamic response to event-related motor and visual paradigms as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasdzewski, G.; Strangman, G.; Wagner, J.; Kwong, K. K.; Poldrack, R. A.; Boas, D. A.; Sutton, J. P. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Several current brain imaging techniques rest on the assumption of a tight coupling between neural activity and hemodynamic response. The nature of this neurovascular coupling, however, is not completely understood. There is some evidence for a decoupling of these processes at the onset of neural activity, which manifests itself as a momentary increase in the relative concentration of deoxyhemoglobin (HbR). The existence of this early component of the hemodynamic response function, however, is controversial, as it is inconsistently found. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) allows quantification of levels of oxyhemoglobin (HbO(2)) and HbR during task performance in humans. We acquired NIRS data during performance of simple motor and visual tasks, using rapid-presentation event-related paradigms. Our results demonstrate that rapid, event-related NIRS can provide robust estimates of the hemodynamic response without artifacts due to low-frequency signal components, unlike data from blocked designs. In both the motor and visual data the onset of the increase in HbO(2) occurs before HbR decreases, and there is a poststimulus undershoot. Our results also show that total blood volume (HbT) drops before HbO(2) and undershoots baseline, raising a new issue for neurovascular models. We did not find early deoxygenation in the motor data using physiologically plausible values for the differential pathlength factor, but did find one in the visual data. We suggest that this difference, which is consistent with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, may be attributable to different capillary transit times in these cortices.

  6. Differences in the hemodynamic response to event-related motor and visual paradigms as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasdzewski, G.; Strangman, G.; Wagner, J.; Kwong, K. K.; Poldrack, R. A.; Boas, D. A.; Sutton, J. P. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Several current brain imaging techniques rest on the assumption of a tight coupling between neural activity and hemodynamic response. The nature of this neurovascular coupling, however, is not completely understood. There is some evidence for a decoupling of these processes at the onset of neural activity, which manifests itself as a momentary increase in the relative concentration of deoxyhemoglobin (HbR). The existence of this early component of the hemodynamic response function, however, is controversial, as it is inconsistently found. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) allows quantification of levels of oxyhemoglobin (HbO(2)) and HbR during task performance in humans. We acquired NIRS data during performance of simple motor and visual tasks, using rapid-presentation event-related paradigms. Our results demonstrate that rapid, event-related NIRS can provide robust estimates of the hemodynamic response without artifacts due to low-frequency signal components, unlike data from blocked designs. In both the motor and visual data the onset of the increase in HbO(2) occurs before HbR decreases, and there is a poststimulus undershoot. Our results also show that total blood volume (HbT) drops before HbO(2) and undershoots baseline, raising a new issue for neurovascular models. We did not find early deoxygenation in the motor data using physiologically plausible values for the differential pathlength factor, but did find one in the visual data. We suggest that this difference, which is consistent with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, may be attributable to different capillary transit times in these cortices.

  7. Event-related complexity analysis and its application in the detection of facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhidong; Zhang, Zimu

    2014-11-01

    In this study, an event-related complexity (ERC) analysis method is proposed and used to explore the neural correlates of facial attractiveness detection in the context of a cognitive experiment. The ERC method gives a quantitative index for measuring the diverse brain activation properties that represent the neural correlates of event-related responses. This analysis reveals distinct effects of facial attractiveness processing and also provides further information that could not have been achieved from event-related potential alone.

  8. fMRI paradigm designing and post-processing tools

    PubMed Central

    James, Jija S; Rajesh, PG; Chandran, Anuvitha VS; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we first review some aspects of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm designing for major cognitive functions by using stimulus delivery systems like Cogent, E-Prime, Presentation, etc., along with their technical aspects. We also review the stimulus presentation possibilities (block, event-related) for visual or auditory paradigms and their advantage in both clinical and research setting. The second part mainly focus on various fMRI data post-processing tools such as Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) and Brain Voyager, and discuss the particulars of various preprocessing steps involved (realignment, co-registration, normalization, smoothing) in these software and also the statistical analysis principles of General Linear Modeling for final interpretation of a functional activation result. PMID:24851001

  9. Information Structure Influences Depth of Syntactic Processing: Event-Related Potential Evidence for the Chomsky Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Bastiaansen, Marcel; Yang, Yufang; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Information structure facilitates communication between interlocutors by highlighting relevant information. It has previously been shown that information structure modulates the depth of semantic processing. Here we used event-related potentials to investigate whether information structure can modulate the depth of syntactic processing. In question-answer pairs, subtle (number agreement) or salient (phrase structure) syntactic violations were placed either in focus or out of focus through information structure marking. P600 effects to these violations reflect the depth of syntactic processing. For subtle violations, a P600 effect was observed in the focus condition, but not in the non-focus condition. For salient violations, comparable P600 effects were found in both conditions. These results indicate that information structure can modulate the depth of syntactic processing, but that this effect depends on the salience of the information. When subtle violations are not in focus, they are processed less elaborately. We label this phenomenon the Chomsky illusion. PMID:23110131

  10. Information structure influences depth of syntactic processing: event-related potential evidence for the Chomsky illusion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Bastiaansen, Marcel; Yang, Yufang; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Information structure facilitates communication between interlocutors by highlighting relevant information. It has previously been shown that information structure modulates the depth of semantic processing. Here we used event-related potentials to investigate whether information structure can modulate the depth of syntactic processing. In question-answer pairs, subtle (number agreement) or salient (phrase structure) syntactic violations were placed either in focus or out of focus through information structure marking. P600 effects to these violations reflect the depth of syntactic processing. For subtle violations, a P600 effect was observed in the focus condition, but not in the non-focus condition. For salient violations, comparable P600 effects were found in both conditions. These results indicate that information structure can modulate the depth of syntactic processing, but that this effect depends on the salience of the information. When subtle violations are not in focus, they are processed less elaborately. We label this phenomenon the Chomsky illusion.

  11. Event-related potential evidence of accessing gender stereotypes to aid source monitoring.

    PubMed

    Leynes, P Andrew; Crawford, Jarret T; Radebaugh, Anne M; Taranto, Elizabeth

    2013-01-23

    Source memory for the speaker's voice (male or female) was investigated when semantic knowledge (gender stereotypes) could and could not inform the episodic source judgment while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Source accuracy was greater and response times were faster when stereotypes could predict the speaker's voice at test. Recollection supported source judgments in both conditions as indicated by significant parietal "old/new" ERP effects (500-800ms). Prototypical late ERP effects (the right frontal "old/new" effect and the late posterior negativity, LPN) were evident when source judgment was based solely on episodic memory. However, these two late ERP effects were diminished and a novel, frontal-negative ERP with left-central topography was observed when stereotypes aided source judgments. This pattern of ERP activity likely reflects activation of left frontal or left temporal lobes when semantic knowledge, in the form of a gender stereotype, is accessed to inform the episodic source judgment.

  12. Developmental changes in memory encoding: insights from event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Rollins, Leslie; Riggins, Tracy

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate developmental changes in encoding processes between 6-year-old children and adults using event-related potentials (ERPs). Although episodic memory ('EM') effects have been reported in both children and adults at retrieval and subsequent memory effects have been established in adults, no previous ERP studies have examined subsequent memory effects in children. This represents a critical gap in the literature because encoding processes, and changes in neural correlates supporting encoding, partially account for age-related improvements in children's memory performance. Results revealed that subsequent memory effects differed between children and adults temporally, directionally, and topographically. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that encoding processes and their neural correlates are an important source of change in memory development. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at http://youtu.be/sH83_qVimgc. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. [Registering event-related auditory potentials (P300) in patients with cochlear implants].

    PubMed

    Mühler, Roland; Ziese, Michael; von Specht, Hellmut

    2003-01-01

    Event-related auditory evoked potentials can contribute to the evaluation of discrimination abilities of cochlear implant users. Auditory P300 potentials to a frequency contrast were obtained in six post-lingually deaf adults using a cochlear implant and in a control group of normal hearing subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate how these potentials were determined by the stimulation pattern of the cochlear implant. To visualise these stimulation patterns colour-coded plots (stimulograms) were calculated based on the stimulus and the fitting file of the individual subject as inputs. These stimulograms were used to evaluate the influence of various stimulation parameters on the stimulation contrast used in an oddball paradigm. The influence of discrimination difficulty on the P300 response is demonstrated.

  14. Event-related potential correlates of the extraverts' sensitivity to valence changes in positive stimuli.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jiajin; He, Yuanyuan; Lei, Yi; Yang, Jiemin; Li, Hong

    2009-08-05

    This study investigated whether the human sensitivity to valence intensity changes in positive stimuli varies with extraversion. Event-related potentials were recorded for highly positive, moderately positive, and neutral stimuli while participants (extraverts and nonextraverts) performed a standard/deviant categorization task, irrespective of the emotionality of deviants. The results of extraverts showed larger P2 and P3 amplitudes during highly positive condition than during moderately positive condition which, in turn, elicited larger P2 than neutral condition. Conversely, nonextraverts showed no differences at both P2 and P3 components. Thus, extraverts, unlike less extraverted individuals, are sensitive to valence changes in positive stimuli, which may be underlain by certain biogenetic mechanism.

  15. Syntactic and referential processes in second-language learners: event-related brain potential evidence.

    PubMed

    Isel, Frédéric

    2007-12-03

    Automatic phrase-building processes were investigated in second-language (L2) learners of French (native German speakers). Event-related brain potentials were recorded while participants listened to syntactically or semantically correct or incorrect French sentences containing a subject-modifying relative clause. Phrase structure violations in the subject-modifying relative clause leading to difficulties in reference processing of the subject noun in the main clause (syntactic condition) were associated with a frontal negativity (150-600 ms) followed by a late anterior negativity (750-1500 ms). Violations of the selectional restriction (semantic condition) elicited the classical N400 (300-600 ms). Taken together, our results suggest that automatic syntactic phrase-building processes can also be involved in L2 learners, at least when the word category violation occurs in a syntactically obligatory constituent such as predicative prepositional phrase.

  16. Joint attention helps infants learn new words: event-related potential evidence.

    PubMed

    Hirotani, Masako; Stets, Manuela; Striano, Tricia; Friederici, Angela D

    2009-04-22

    This study investigated the role of joint attention in infants' word learning. Infants aged 18-21 months were taught new words in two social contexts, joint attention (eye contact, positive tone of voice) or non-joint attention (no eye contact, neutral tone of voice). Event-related potentials were measured as the infants saw objects either congruent or incongruent with the taught words. For both social contexts, an early negativity was observed for the congruent condition, reflecting a phonological-lexical priming effect between objects and the taught words. In addition, for the joint attention, the incongruent condition elicited a late, widely distributed negativity, attributed to semantic integration difficulties. Thus, social cues have an impact on how words are learned and represented in a child's mental lexicon.

  17. Decomposing N2 NOGO wave of event-related potentials into independent components.

    PubMed

    Kropotov, Juri D; Ponomarev, Valery A

    2009-12-09

    Inconsistencies in previous attempts to localize the N2 wave in the GO/NOGO task led to the present investigation. The inconsistencies were probably because of heterogeneity of psychological operations involved in GO/NOGO tasks. We applied the independent component analysis to a collection of individual event-related potentials in response to GO and NOGO cues in the two stimulus visual GO/NOGO task. The selected six independent components with different topographies and time courses constituted 87% of the artifact-free signal variance. Three of them were loaded into the frontally distributed N2 wave. According to standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography these three independent components were generated in the supplementary motor cortex, left angular gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex.

  18. P300 component of event-related potentials in persons with asperger disorder.

    PubMed

    Iwanami, Akira; Okajima, Yuka; Ota, Haruhisa; Tani, Masayuki; Yamada, Takashi; Yamagata, Bun; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Kanai, Chieko; Takashio, Osamu; Inamoto, Atsuko; Ono, Taisei; Takayama, Yukiko; Kato, Nobumasa

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, we investigated auditory event-related potentials in adults with Asperger disorder and normal controls using an auditory oddball task and a novelty oddball task. Task performance and the latencies of P300 evoked by both target and novel stimuli in the two tasks did not differ between the two groups. Analysis of variance revealed that there was a significant interaction effect between group and electrode site on the mean amplitude of the P300 evoked by novel stimuli, which indicated that there was an altered distribution of the P300 in persons with Asperger disorder. In contrast, there was no significant interaction effect on the mean P300 amplitude elicited by target stimuli. Considering that P300 comprises two main subcomponents, frontal-central-dominant P3a and parietal-dominant P3b, our results suggested that persons with Asperger disorder have enhanced amplitude of P3a, which indicated activated prefrontal function in this task.

  19. Atypical brain responses to reward cues in autism as revealed by event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Kohls, Gregor; Peltzer, Judith; Schulte-Rüther, Martin; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Remschmidt, Helmut; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin

    2011-11-01

    Social motivation deficit theories suggest that children with autism do not properly anticipate and appreciate the pleasure of social stimuli. In this study, we investigated event-related brain potentials evoked by cues that triggered social versus monetary reward anticipation in children with autism. Children with autism showed attenuated P3 activity in response to cues associated with a timely reaction to obtain a reward, irrespective of reward type. We attribute this atypical P3 activity in response to reward cues as reflective of diminished motivated attention to reward signals, a possible contributor to reduced social motivation in autism. Thus, our findings suggest a general reward processing deficit rather than a specific social reward dysfunction in autism.

  20. P3a of event-related potential in chronic methamphetamine dependence.

    PubMed

    Iwanami, A; Kuroki, N; Iritani, S; Isono, H; Okajima, Y; Kamijima, K

    1998-12-01

    To investigate the psychophysiological features of methamphetamine (MAP) dependence, we recorded auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in 15 patients with MAP dependence and in 15 age-matched normal controls. ERPs were recorded during a standard oddball task and a read task similar to those employed by Squires et al. (Squires NK, Squires KC, Hillyard SA [1975] Two varieties of long-latency positive waves evoked by unpredictable auditory stimuli in man. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 38:387-401). The patients with MAP dependence showed reduced P3a amplitude and area in the read task and delayed P3b latency with normal P3b amplitude and area in the oddball task. These results suggest that central noradrenergic dysregulation may persist after the remission of acute psychotic symptoms in MAP psychosis and that chronic MAP dependence would produce impairment of the frontal cortex.

  1. Integrating the meaning of person names into discourse context: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Yang, Yufang

    2013-01-01

    The meaning of person names is determined by their associated information. This study used event related potentials to investigate the time course of integrating the newly constructed meaning of person names into discourse context. The meaning of person names was built by two-sentence descriptions of the names. Then we manipulated the congruence of person names relative to discourse context in a way that the meaning of person names either matched or did not match the previous context. ERPs elicited by the names were compared between the congruent and the incongruent conditions. We found that the incongruent names elicited a larger N400 as well as a larger P600 compared to the congruent names. The results suggest that the meaning of unknown names can be effectively constructed from short linguistic descriptions and that the established meaning can be rapidly retrieved and integrated into contexts.

  2. Primary task event-related potentials related to different aspects of information processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munson, Robert C.; Horst, Richard L.; Mahaffey, David L.

    1988-01-01

    The results of two studies which investigated the relationships between cognitive processing and components of transient event-related potentials (ERPs) are presented in a task in which mental workload was manipulated. The task involved the monitoring of an array of discrete readouts for values that went out of bounds, and was somewhat analogous to tasks performed in cockpits. The ERPs elicited by the changing readouts varied with the number of readouts being monitored, the number of monitored readouts that were close to going out of bounds, and whether or not the change took a monitored readout out of bounds. Moreover, different regions of the waveform differentially reflected these effects. The results confirm the sensitivity of scalp-recorded ERPs to the cognitive processes affected by mental workload and suggest the possibility of extracting useful ERP indices of primary task performance in a wide range of man-machine settings.

  3. Event Related Potentials in the Understanding of Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Analytical Review

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we critically review the literature on the use of event related potentials (ERPs) to elucidate the neural sources of the core deficits in autism. We review auditory and visual ERP studies, and then review the use of ERPs in the investigation of executive function. We conclude that, in autism, impairments likely exist in both low and higher level auditory and visual processing, with prominent impairments in the processing of social stimuli. We also discuss the putative neural circuitry underlying these deficits. As we look to the future, we posit that tremendous insight can be gained by applying ERPs to the definition of endophenotypes, which, in turn, can facilitate early diagnosis and the creation of informed interventions for children with autism. PMID:18850262

  4. Event-related potential study on image-symmetry discrimination in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Sambul, Alwin Melkie; Murayama, Nobuki; Igasaki, Tomohiko

    2013-01-01

    The human visual system seems to have a highly perceptual sensitivity to symmetry. However, where and when the discrimination of symmetrical properties begins in the context of visual information processing is largely unclear. This study investigates event-related potential (ERP) patterns in humans when perceiving symmetry-varied complex object images. ERP responses were derived from electroencephalography (EEG) data recorded from eight healthy subjects using 128-channel scalp electrodes. Visual stimulation was provided using gray-scaled photographs of a car with six different viewpoints, hence disrupting the vertical symmetry, where one of the stimuli was intentionally made symmetric by mirroring the image about its center vertical axis. The results show that discrimination of image symmetry is revealed by potential deflection in early ERP components recorded at occipito-temporal sites and can be significantly observed around 220 ms after stimulus onset.

  5. Learning without consciously knowing: evidence from event-related potentials in sequence learning.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiufang; Bin, Guangyu; Dienes, Zoltan; Fu, Xiaolan; Gao, Xiaorong

    2013-03-01

    This paper investigated how implicit and explicit knowledge is reflected in event-related potentials (ERPs) in sequence learning. ERPs were recorded during a serial reaction time task. The results showed that there were greater RT benefits for standard compared with deviant stimuli later than early on, indicating sequence learning. After training, more standard triplets were generated under inclusion than exclusion tests and more standard triplets under exclusion than chance level, indicating that participants acquired both explicit and implicit knowledge. However, deviant targets elicited enhanced N2 and P3 components for targets with explicit knowledge but a larger N2 effect for targets with implicit knowledge, revealing that implicit knowledge expresses itself in relatively early components (N2) and explicit knowledge in additional P3 components. The results help resolve current debate about the neural substrates supporting implicit and explicit learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bilingualism and increased attention to speech: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Jan Rouke; Thierry, Guillaume

    2015-10-01

    A number of studies have shown that from an early age, bilinguals outperform their monolingual peers on executive control tasks. We previously found that bilingual children and adults also display greater attention to unexpected language switches within speech. Here, we investigated the effect of a bilingual upbringing on speech perception in one language. We recorded monolingual and bilingual toddlers' event-related potentials (ERPs) to spoken words preceded by pictures. Words matching the picture prime elicited an early frontal positivity in bilingual participants only, whereas later ERP amplitudes associated with semantic processing did not differ between groups. These results add to the growing body of evidence that bilingualism increases overall attention during speech perception whilst semantic integration is unaffected. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Event-related potentials increase the discrimination performance of the autonomic-based concealed information test.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Izumi; Nittono, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Tokihiro

    2011-12-01

    The concealed information test (CIT) assesses an examinee's crime-relevant memory on the basis of physiological differences between crime-relevant and irrelevant items. The CIT based on autonomic measures has been used for criminal investigations, while the CIT based on event-related potentials (ERPs) has been suggested as a useful alternative. To combine these two methods, we developed a quantification method of ERPs measured in the autonomic-based CIT where each item was repeated only 5 times. Results showed that the peak amplitude of the ERP difference wave between crime-relevant and irrelevant items could discriminate between guilty and innocent participants effectively even when only 5 trials were used for averaging. This ERP measure could detect some participants who were missed by the autonomic measures. Combining the ERP and autonomic measures significantly improved the discrimination performance of the autonomic-based CIT.

  8. Event-related EEG time-frequency PCA and the orienting reflex to auditory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Barry, Robert J; De Blasio, Frances M; Bernat, Edward M; Steiner, Genevieve Z

    2015-04-01

    We recently reported an auditory habituation series with counterbalanced indifferent and significant (counting) instructions. Time-frequency (t-f) analysis of electrooculogram-corrected EEG was used to explore event-related synchronization (ERS)/desynchronization (ERD) in four EEG bands using arbitrarily selected time epochs and traditional frequency ranges. ERS in delta, theta, and alpha, and subsequent ERD in theta, alpha, and beta, showed substantial decrement over trials, yet effects of stimulus significance (count vs. no-task) were minimal. Here, we used principal components analysis (PCA) of the t-f data to investigate the natural frequency and time combinations involved in such stimulus processing. We identified four ERS and four ERD t-f components: six showed decrement over trials, four showed count > no-task effects, and six showed Significance × Trial interactions. This increased sensitivity argues for the wider use of our data-driven t-f PCA approach.

  9. Effect of emotional valence on episodic memory stages as indexed by event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Marc E; O'Connor, Kieron P

    Several investigations have shown that emotional events show superior recall than non-emotional ones. However, the cortical mechanisms underlying the episodic recall of emotional scenes are still poorly understood. Our main aim was to compare the magnitude of the Event-Related brain Potentials (ERP) old-new effect related to emotionally unpleasant, pleasant and neutral photographic images. As expected, correct recognition of all types of images elicited three topographically distinct ERP components sensitive to the classical old-new recognition effect. The results revealed that the behavioral performances were mainly sensitive to arousal, while the ERP old/new effect over posterior regions (300 - 1000 ms) was exclusively affected by unpleasantness. A later component (1000 - 1400 ms) showed an inverted old/ new effect at parietal sites, which was also sensitive to unpleasantness. These results imply that ERP reflecting episodic conscious recollection and post-retrieval monitoring are clearly affected both by valence and arousal.

  10. Bilingual memory representations in less fluent Chinese-English bilinguals: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao-Ying; Zhang, John Xuexin; Li, Li; Wang, Ruiming

    2015-02-01

    The present study was designed to investigate bilingual memory representations in less fluent Chinese-English bilinguals and the effect of word familiarity on bilingual memory representations with a translation priming paradigm and the event-related potential (ERP) technique. Three factors (translation order, word familiarity, and repetition status) were manipulated in this study, and the major dependent variable was the magnitude of the N400 repetition effect, which is related to semantic expectation and is an important physiological index of language processing. The results confirmed the asymmetry in bilingual memory with stronger L2-LI links compared to L1-L2 links in less fluent Chinese-English bilinguals, and that word familiarity was an important factor in the memory representations of these less fluent bilinguals.

  11. Effects of Grammaticality and Morphological Complexity on the P600 Event-Related Potential Component.

    PubMed

    Mehravari, Alison S; Tanner, Darren; Wampler, Emma K; Valentine, Geoffrey D; Osterhout, Lee

    2015-01-01

    We investigated interactions between morphological complexity and grammaticality on electrophysiological markers of grammatical processing during reading. Our goal was to determine whether morphological complexity and stimulus grammaticality have independent or additive effects on the P600 event-related potential component. Participants read sentences that were either well-formed or grammatically ill-formed, in which the critical word was either morphologically simple or complex. Results revealed no effects of complexity for well-formed stimuli, but the P600 amplitude was significantly larger for morphologically complex ungrammatical stimuli than for morphologically simple ungrammatical stimuli. These findings suggest that some previous work may have inadequately characterized factors related to reanalysis during morphosyntactic processing. Our results show that morphological complexity by itself does not elicit P600 effects. However, in ungrammatical circumstances, overt morphology provides a more robust and reliable cue to morphosyntactic relationships than null affixation.

  12. Positive bias in self-appraisals from friend's perspective: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Li, Shifeng; Xu, Kepeng; Xu, Qiongying; Xia, Ruixue; Ren, Deyun; Zhou, Aibao

    2016-06-15

    The present study investigated how positive bias in self-appraisals is differentially modulated when taking a friend's versus a stranger's perspective. Reaction time and event-related potentials were recorded while the participants performed a self-descriptiveness task with positive and negative trait adjectives from one's own perspective, a friend's perspective, or a stranger's perspective. The results showed that faster reaction times and reduced N400 amplitudes were induced by positive relative to negative words both in the self-perspective and friend-perspective conditions, but not in the stranger-perspective condition. This suggests that the perceived closeness between oneself and the other may modulate the neural basis of positive bias in self-appraisals during perspective taking.

  13. The effects of cortisol administration on approach-avoidance behavior: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    van Peer, Jacobien M; Roelofs, Karin; Rotteveel, Mark; van Dijk, J Gert; Spinhoven, Philip; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2007-10-01

    We investigated the effects of cortisol administration (50 mg) on approach and avoidance tendencies in low and high trait avoidant healthy young men. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured during a reaction time task, in which participants evaluated the emotional expression of photographs of happy and angry faces by making an approaching (flexion) or avoiding (extension) arm movement. The task consisted of an affect-congruent (approach happy faces and avoid angry faces) and an affect-incongruent (reversed instruction) condition. Behavioral and ERP analyses showed that cortisol enhanced congruency effects for angry faces in highly avoidant individuals only. The ERP effects involved an increase of both early (P150) and late (P3) positive amplitudes, indicative of increased processing of the angry faces in high avoidant subjects after cortisol administration. Together, these results suggest a context-specific effect of cortisol on processing of, and adaptive responses to, motivationally significant threat stimuli, particularly in participants highly sensitive to threat signals.

  14. When mental fatigue maybe characterized by Event Related Potential (P300) during virtual wheelchair navigation.

    PubMed

    Lamti, Hachem A; Gorce, Philippe; Ben Khelifa, Mohamed Moncef; Alimi, Adel M

    2016-12-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate the influence of mental fatigue on the event related potential P300 features (maximum pick, minimum amplitude, latency and period) during virtual wheelchair navigation. For this purpose, an experimental environment was set up based on customizable environmental parameters (luminosity, number of obstacles and obstacles velocities). A correlation study between P300 and fatigue ratings was conducted. Finally, the best correlated features supplied three classification algorithms which are MLP (Multi Layer Perceptron), Linear Discriminate Analysis and Support Vector Machine. The results showed that the maximum feature over visual and temporal regions as well as period feature over frontal, fronto-central and visual regions were correlated with mental fatigue levels. In the other hand, minimum amplitude and latency features didn't show any correlation. Among classification techniques, MLP showed the best performance although the differences between classification techniques are minimal. Those findings can help us in order to design suitable mental fatigue based wheelchair control.

  15. Gender difference in event related potentials to masked emotional stimuli in the oddball task.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Park, Gewnhi; Kim, Sangrae; Kim, Imyel; Chae, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Hyun Taek

    2013-06-01

    We investigated gender differences in event-related potential (ERP) responses to subliminally presented threat-related stimuli. Twenty-four participants were presented with threat-related and neutral pictures for a very brief period of time (17 ms). To explore gender differences in ERP responses to subliminally presented stimuli, we examined six ERP components [P1, N170, N250, P300, Early Posterior Negativity (EPN) and Late Positive Potential (LPP)]. The result revealed that only female participants showed significant increases in the N170 and the EPN in response to subliminally presented threat-related stimuli compared to neutral stimuli. Our results suggest that female participants exhibit greater cortical processing of subliminally presented threat-related stimuli than male participants.

  16. Gender Difference in Event Related Potentials to Masked Emotional Stimuli in the Oddball Task

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Young; Park, Gewnhi; Kim, Sangrae; Kim, Imyel; Chae, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Hyun Taek

    2013-01-01

    Objective We investigated gender differences in event-related potential (ERP) responses to subliminally presented threat-related stimuli. Methods Twenty-four participants were presented with threat-related and neutral pictures for a very brief period of time (17 ms). To explore gender differences in ERP responses to subliminally presented stimuli, we examined six ERP components [P1, N170, N250, P300, Early Posterior Negativity (EPN) and Late Positive Potential (LPP)]. Results The result revealed that only female participants showed significant increases in the N170 and the EPN in response to subliminally presented threat-related stimuli compared to neutral stimuli. Conclusion Our results suggest that female participants exhibit greater cortical processing of subliminally presented threat-related stimuli than male participants. PMID:23798965

  17. Pitch Processing in Tonal-Language-Speaking Children with Autism: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Luodi; Fan, Yuebo; Deng, Zhizhou; Huang, Dan; Wang, Suiping; Zhang, Yang

    2015-11-01

    The present study investigated pitch processing in Mandarin-speaking children with autism using event-related potential measures. Two experiments were designed to test how acoustic, phonetic and semantic properties of the stimuli contributed to the neural responses for pitch change detection and involuntary attentional orienting. In comparison with age-matched (6-12 years) typically developing controls (16 participants in Experiment 1, 18 in Experiment 2), children with autism (18 participants in Experiment 1, 16 in Experiment 2) showed enhanced neural discriminatory sensitivity in the nonspeech conditions but not for speech stimuli. The results indicate domain specificity of enhanced pitch processing in autism, which may interfere with lexical tone acquisition and language development for children who speak a tonal language.

  18. Conveying the concept of movement in music: An event-related brain potential study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Linshu; Jiang, Cunmei; Wu, Yingying; Yang, Yufang

    2015-10-01

    This study on event-related brain potential investigated whether music can convey the concept of movement. Using a semantic priming paradigm, natural musical excerpts were presented to non-musicians, followed by semantically congruent or incongruent pictures that depicted objects either in motion or at rest. The priming effects were tested in object decision and implicit recognition tasks to distinguish the effects of automatic conceptual activation from response competition. Results showed that in both tasks, pictures that were incongruent to preceding musical excerpts elicited larger N400 than congruent pictures, suggesting that music can prime the representations of movement concepts. Results of the multiple regression analysis showed that movement expression could be well predicted by specific acoustic and musical features, indicating the associations between music per se and the processing of iconic musical meaning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Integrating the Meaning of Person Names into Discourse Context: An Event-Related Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Yang, Yufang

    2013-01-01

    The meaning of person names is determined by their associated information. This study used event related potentials to investigate the time course of integrating the newly constructed meaning of person names into discourse context. The meaning of person names was built by two-sentence descriptions of the names. Then we manipulated the congruence of person names relative to discourse context in a way that the meaning of person names either matched or did not match the previous context. ERPs elicited by the names were compared between the congruent and the incongruent conditions. We found that the incongruent names elicited a larger N400 as well as a larger P600 compared to the congruent names. The results suggest that the meaning of unknown names can be effectively constructed from short linguistic descriptions and that the established meaning can be rapidly retrieved and integrated into contexts. PMID:24349462

  20. Transient and sustained BOLD signal time courses affect the detection of emotion-related brain activation in fMRI.

    PubMed

    Paret, Christian; Kluetsch, Rosemarie; Ruf, Matthias; Demirakca, Traute; Kalisch, Raffael; Schmahl, Christian; Ende, Gabriele

    2014-12-01

    A tremendous amount of effort has been dedicated to unravel the functional neuroanatomy of the processing and regulation of emotion, resulting in a well-described picture of limbic, para-limbic and prefrontal regions involved. Studies applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) often use the block-wise presentation of stimuli with affective content, and conventionally model brain activation as a function of stimulus or task duration. However, there is increasing evidence that regional brain responses may not always translate to task duration and rather show stimulus onset-related transient time courses. We assume that brain regions showing transient responses cannot be detected in block designs using a conventional fMRI analysis approach. At the same time, the probability of detecting these regions with conventional analyses may be increased when shorter stimulus timing or a more intense stimulation during a block is used. In a within-subject fMRI study, we presented aversive pictures to 20 healthy subjects and investigated the effect of experimental design (i.e. event-related and block design) on the detection of brain activation in limbic and para-limbic regions of interest of emotion processing. In addition to conventional modeling of sustained activation during blocks of stimulus presentation, we included a second response function into the general linear model (GLM), suited to detect transient time courses at block onset. In the conventional analysis, several regions like the amygdala, thalamus and periaqueductal gray were activated irrespective of design. However, we found a positive BOLD response in the anterior insula (AI) in event-related but not in block-design analyses. GLM analyses suggest that this difference may result from a transient response pattern which cannot be captured by the conventional fMRI analysis approach. Our results indicate that regions with a transient response profile like the AI can be missed in block designs if analyses

  1. Event-related functional MRI: Past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Bruce R.; Buckner, Randy L.; Dale, Anders M.

    1998-01-01

    The past two decades have seen an enormous growth in the field of human brain mapping. Investigators have extensively exploited techniques such as positron emission tomography and MRI to map patterns of brain activity based on changes in cerebral hemodynamics. However, until recently, most studies have investigated equilibrium changes in blood flow measured over time periods upward of 1 min. The advent of high-speed MRI methods, capable of imaging the entire brain with a temporal resolution of a few seconds, allows for brain mapping based on more transient aspects of the hemodynamic response. Today it is now possible to map changes in cerebrovascular parameters essentially in real time, conferring the ability to observe changes in brain state that occur over time periods of seconds. Furthermore, because robust hemodynamic alterations are detectable after neuronal stimuli lasting only a few tens of milliseconds, a new class of task paradigms designed to measure regional responses to single sensory or cognitive events can now be studied. Such “event related” functional MRI should provide for fundamentally new ways to interrogate brain function, and allow for the direct comparison and ultimately integration of data acquired by using more traditional behavioral and electrophysiological methods. PMID:9448240

  2. Archery performance level and repeatability of event-related EMG.

    PubMed

    Soylu, A R; Ertan, H; Korkusuz, F

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of the current study was to compare the repeatability of electromyographic linear envelopes (LE) of archery groups. Surface electromyography (EMG) signals of musculus flexor digitorum superficialis (MFDS) and extensor digitorum (MED) of 23 participants (seven skilled, six beginner archers and ten non-archers) were recorded during archery shooting. Two-second periods (clicker falls at first second) of 12 shots' EMG data were recorded, full-wave rectified and filtered (60 ms moving-average filter) for each participant's drawing arm. Repeatability was investigated by using a statistical criterion, variance ratio (VR). Archers' performances were evaluated in terms of FITA scores. The results showed that FITA scores were significantly correlated to the VRs of MFDS and MED. EMG LEs were more repeatable among archers than non-archers. Therefore, we inferred that VRs of MFDS and MED might be important variables for (a) assessing shooting techniques, (b) evaluation of archers' progress, and (c) selection of talented archers.

  3. Research of personal decision process using event-related potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaofeng

    2011-10-01

    To gain insights into the neural basis of such adaptive decision-making processes, we investigated the nature of learning process in humans playing a competitive game with binary choices, using a matching pennies game. As in reinforcement learning, the subject's choice during a competitive game was biased by its choice and reward history, as well as by the strategies of its opponent. Analyses of ERP data focused on the feedback-related negativity (FRN), we found that the magnitude of ERPs after losing to the computer opponent predicted whether subjects would change decision behavior on the subsequent trial. These findings provide novel evidence that humans engage a reinforcement learning process to adjust representations of competing decision options.

  4. Event-related activity and phase locking during a psychomotor vigilance task over the course of sleep deprivation

    PubMed Central

    HOEDLMOSER, KERSTIN; GRIESSENBERGER, HERMANN; FELLINGER, ROBERT; FREUNBERGER, ROMAN; KLIMESCH, WOLFGANG; GRUBER, WALTER; SCHABUS, MANUEL

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY There is profound knowledge that sleep restriction increases tonic (event-unrelated) electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. In the present study we focused on time-locked activity by means of phasic (event-related) EEG analysis during a psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) over the course of sleep deprivation. Twenty healthy subjects (10 male; mean age ± SD: 23.45 ± 1.97 years) underwent sleep deprivation for 24 h. Subjects had to rate their sleepiness hourly (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale) and to perform a PVT while EEG was recorded simultaneously. Tonic EEG changes in the δ (1–4 Hz), θ (4–8 Hz) and α (8–12 Hz) frequency range were investigated by power spectral analyses. Single-trial (phase-locking index, PLI) and event-related potential (ERP) analyses (P1, N1) were used to examine event-related changes in EEG activity. Subjective sleepiness, PVT reaction times and tonic EEG activity (delta and theta spectral power) significantly increased over the night. In contrast, event-related EEG parameters decreased throughout sleep deprivation. Specifically, the ERP component P1 diminished in amplitude, and delta and theta PLI estimates decreased progressively over the night. It is suggested that event-related EEG measures (such as the amplitude of the P1 and especially delta/theta phase-locking) serve as a complimentary method to track the deterioration of attention and performance during sleep loss. As these measures actually reflect the impaired response to specific events rather than tonic changes during sleep deprivation they are a promising tool for future sleep research. PMID:20977513

  5. Event-related potential N270 correlates of brand extension.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingguo; Wang, Xiaoyi; Dai, Shenyi; Shu, Liangchao

    2007-07-02

    The aim of this study is to investigate the neural mechanism of extending a brand in a specific product category to other product categories. Facing two sequential stimuli in pairs consisting of beverage brand names (stimulus 1) and product names (stimulus 2) in other categories, 16 participants were asked to indicate the suitability of extending the brand in stimulus 1 to the product category in stimulus 2. These stimulus pairs were divided into four conditions depending on the product category in stimulus 2: beverage, snack, clothing, and household appliance. A negative component, N270, was recorded for each condition on the participants' scalps,whereas the maximum amplitude was observed at the frontal area. Greater N270 amplitude was observed when participants were presented with stronger conflict between the brand product category (stimulus 1) and the extension category (stimulus 2). It suggests that N270 can be evoked not only by a conflict of physical attributes (different shapes of words of brand and product names) but also by that of lexical content. From the marketing perspective, N270 can be potentially used as a reference measure in brand-extension attempts.

  6. Non-extensive entropy and the extraction of BOLD spatial information in event-related functional MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturzbecher, M. J.; Tedeschi, W.; Cabella, B. C. T.; Baffa, O.; Neves, U. P. C.; de Araujo, D. B.

    2009-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analysis has been carried out recently in the framework of information theory, by means of the Shannon entropy. As a natural extension, a method based on the generalized Tsallis entropy was developed to the analysis event-related (ER-fMRI), where a brief stimulus is presented, followed by a long period of rest. The new technique aims for spatial localization neuronal activity due to a specific task. This method does not require a priori hypothesis of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) shape and the linear relation between BOLD responses with the presented task. Numerical simulations were performed so as to determine the optimal values of the Tsallis q parameter and the number of levels, L. In order to avoid undesirable divergences of the Tsallis entropy, only positive q values were studied. Results from simulated data (with L = 3) indicated that, for q = 0.8, the active brain areas are detected with the highest performance. Moreover, the method was tested for an in vivo experiment and demonstrated the ability to discriminate active brain regions that selectively responded to a bilateral motor task.

  7. The neural basis of love as a subliminal prime: an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Ortigue, S; Bianchi-Demicheli, F; Hamilton, A F de C; Grafton, S T

    2007-07-01

    Throughout the ages, love has been defined as a motivated and goal-directed mechanism with explicit and implicit mechanisms. Recent evidence demonstrated that the explicit representation of love recruits subcorticocortical pathways mediating reward, emotion, and motivation systems. However, the neural basis of the implicit (unconscious) representation of love remains unknown. To assess this question, we combined event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a behavioral subliminal priming paradigm embedded in a lexical decision task. In this task, the name of either a beloved partner, a neutral friend, or a passionate hobby was subliminally presented before a target stimulus (word, nonword, or blank), and participants were required to decide if the target was a word or not. Behavioral results showed that subliminal presentation of either a beloved's name (love prime) or a passion descriptor (passion prime) enhanced reaction times in a similar fashion. Subliminal presentation of a friend's name (friend prime) did not show any beneficial effects. Functional results showed that subliminal priming with a beloved's name (as opposed to either a friend's name or a passion descriptor) specifically recruited brain areas involved in abstract representations of others and the self, in addition to motivation circuits shared with other sources of passion. More precisely, love primes recruited the fusiform and angular gyri. Our findings suggest that love, as a subliminal prime, involves a specific neural network that surpasses a dopaminergic-motivation system.

  8. Infant Auditory Processing and Event-related Brain Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Musacchia, Gabriella; Ortiz-Mantilla, Silvia; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Roesler, Cynthia P.; Benasich, April A.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid auditory processing and acoustic change detection abilities play a critical role in allowing human infants to efficiently process the fine spectral and temporal changes that are characteristic of human language. These abilities lay the foundation for effective language acquisition; allowing infants to hone in on the sounds of their native language. Invasive procedures in animals and scalp-recorded potentials from human adults suggest that simultaneous, rhythmic activity (oscillations) between and within brain regions are fundamental to sensory development; determining the resolution with which incoming stimuli are parsed. At this time, little is known about oscillatory dynamics in human infant development. However, animal neurophysiology and adult EEG data provide the basis for a strong hypothesis that rapid auditory processing in infants is mediated by oscillatory synchrony in discrete frequency bands. In order to investigate this, 128-channel, high-density EEG responses of 4-month old infants to frequency change in tone pairs, presented in two rate conditions (Rapid: 70 msec ISI and Control: 300 msec ISI) were examined. To determine the frequency band and magnitude of activity, auditory evoked response averages were first co-registered with age-appropriate brain templates. Next, the principal components of the response were identified and localized using a two-dipole model of brain activity. Single-trial analysis of oscillatory power showed a robust index of frequency change processing in bursts of Theta band (3 - 8 Hz) activity in both right and left auditory cortices, with left activation more prominent in the Rapid condition. These methods have produced data that are not only some of the first reported evoked oscillations analyses in infants, but are also, importantly, the product of a well-established method of recording and analyzing clean, meticulously collected, infant EEG and ERPs. In this article, we describe our method for infant EEG net

  9. Event-Related Potential and Time-Frequency Endophenotypes for Schizophrenia and Psychotic Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ethridge, Lauren E.; Hamm, Jordan P.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Tamminga, Carol A.; Sweeney, John A.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Clementz, Brett A.

    2017-01-01

    Background The investigators compared event related potential (ERP) amplitude measurements and event-related oscillations across a broad frequency range during an auditory oddball task using a comprehensive analysis approach to describe shared and unique neural auditory processing characteristics among healthy subjects (HP), schizophrenia probands (SZ) and their first-degree relatives (SZrel), and bipolar disorder I with psychosis probands (BDP) and their first-degree relatives (BDPrel). Methods This Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) sample consisted of clinically stable SZ (n=229) and BDP (n=188), healthy subjects (HP, n=284), SZrel (n=264) and BDPrel (n=239). They were administered an auditory oddball task in the electroencephalography (EEG) environment. Principal components analysis (PCA) derived data-driven frequency bands for measurement of evoked power. Spatial PCA reduced ERP and frequency data to component waveforms for each subject. Clusters of time-bins with significant group differences on magnitude of response were assessed for patterns of proband/relative differences from HP and familiality. Results Nine variables survived a linear discriminant analysis between HP, SZ, and BDP. Of those, two showed evidence (deficit in relatives and familiality) as genetic risk markers more specific to SZ (N1, P3b) while one was specific to BDP (P2) and one for psychosis in general (N2). Conclusions This study provides support for both shared and unique deficits in early sensory and late cognitive processing across psychotic diagnostic groups Additional ERP and time-frequency component alterations (frontal N2/P2, late high, early mid and low- frequency) may provide insight into deficits in underlying neural architecture and potential protective/compensatory mechanisms in unaffected relatives. PMID:24923619

  10. Emotional Granularity Effects on Event-Related Brain Potentials during Affective Picture Processing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ja Y.; Lindquist, Kristen A.; Nam, Chang S.

    2017-01-01

    There is debate about whether emotional granularity, the tendency to label emotions in a nuanced and specific manner, is merely a product of labeling abilities, or a systematic difference in the experience of emotion during emotionally evocative events. According to the Conceptual Act Theory of Emotion (CAT) (Barrett, 2006), emotional granularity is due to the latter and is a product of on-going temporal differences in how individuals categorize and thus make meaning of their affective states. To address this question, the present study investigated the effects of individual differences in emotional granularity on electroencephalography-based brain activity during the experience of emotion in response to affective images. Event-related potentials (ERP) and event-related desynchronization and synchronization (ERD/ERS) analysis techniques were used. We found that ERP responses during the very early (60–90 ms), middle (270–300 ms), and later (540–570 ms) moments of stimulus presentation were associated with individuals’ level of granularity. We also observed that highly granular individuals, compared to lowly granular individuals, exhibited relatively stable desynchronization of alpha power (8–12 Hz) and synchronization of gamma power (30–50 Hz) during the 3 s of stimulus presentation. Overall, our results suggest that emotional granularity is related to differences in neural processing throughout emotional experiences and that high granularity could be associated with access to executive control resources and a more habitual processing of affective stimuli, or a kind of “emotional complexity.” Implications for models of emotion are also discussed. PMID:28392761

  11. Event-related oscillations to affective stimuli: heritability, linkage and relationship to externalizing disorders.

    PubMed

    Criado, Jose R; Gizer, Ian R; Slutske, Wendy S; Phillips, Evie; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2012-02-01

    Event-related oscillations (EROs) are heritable electrophysiological measures associated with cognitive activity and have been shown to be particularly informative for the genetic analysis of substance dependence and other psychiatric disorders. In the present study associations between the cortical event-related oscillations (EROs) elicited by affective stimuli, and the diagnosis of ASPD or CD (ASPD/CD) were investigated, and heritability and linkage analyses conducted in 662 individuals residing in an American Indian community. Results from this study found that participants with ASPD/CD showed increased alpha ERO energy in centro-parietal leads in the 0-250 ms time window in response to all three emotional expressions (sad, neutral and happy faces). Participants with ASPD/CD also showed increased alpha ERO energy in centro-parietal leads in the 400-700 ms time window in response to happy and neutral faces. Variance components analysis suggested a significant familial component to each of the described ERO phenotypes. Although a follow-up genome-wide linkage analysis failed to detect significant evidence of genetic linkage for any of these phenotypes, centro-parietal alpha energy in response to happy faces showed suggestive evidence of linkage to chromosome 1p36.31 (LOD = 2.40), in an area found in previous studies to be associated with externalizing phenotypes. Findings from this study suggest greater activation of neural circuits required to perform a facial recognition task in participants with ASPD/CD. The observed increase in alpha ERO energy may represent a heritable endophenotype associated with select externalizing disorders in this population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Leading the follower: an fMRI investigation of dynamic cooperativity and leader-follower strategies in synchronization with an adaptive virtual partner.

    PubMed

    Fairhurst, Merle T; Janata, Petr; Keller, Peter E

    2014-01-01

    From everyday experience we know that it is generally easier to interact with someone who adapts to our behavior. Beyond this, achieving a common goal will very much depend on who adapts to whom and to what degree. Therefore, many joint action tasks such as musical performance prove to be more successful when defined leader-follower roles are established. In the present study, we present a novel approach to explore the mechanisms of how individuals lead and, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), probe the neural correlates of leading. Specifically, we implemented an adaptive virtual partner (VP), an auditory pacing signal, with which individuals were instructed to tap in synchrony while maintaining a steady tempo. By varying the degree of temporal adaptation (period correction) implemented by the VP, we manipulated the objective control individuals had to exert to maintain the overall tempo of the pacing sequence (which was prone to tempo drift with high levels of period correction). Our imaging data revealed that perceiving greater influence and leading are correlated with right lateralized frontal activation of areas involved in cognitive control and self-related processing. Using participants' subjective ratings of influence and task difficulty, we classified a subgroup of our cohort as "leaders", individuals who found the task of synchronizing easier when they felt more in control. Behavioral tapping measures showed that leaders employed less error correction and focused more on self-tapping (prioritizing the instruction to maintain the given tempo) than on the stability of the interaction (prioritizing the instruction to synchronize with the VP), with correlated activity in areas involved in self-initiated action including the pre-supplementary motor area.

  13. Connectivity-based parcellation increases network detection sensitivity in resting state fMRI: An investigation into the cingulate cortex in autism.

    PubMed

    Balsters, Joshua H; Mantini, Dante; Apps, Matthew A J; Eickhoff, Simon B; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Although resting state fMRI (RS-fMRI) is increasingly used to generate biomarkers of psychiatric illnesses, analytical choices such as seed size and placement can lead to variable findings. Seed placement especially impacts on RS-fMRI studies of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), because individuals with ASD are known to possess more variable network topographies. Here, we present a novel pipeline for analysing RS-fMRI in ASD using the cingulate cortex as an exemplar anatomical region of interest. Rather than using seeds based on previous literature, or gross morphology, we used a combination of structural information, task-independent (RS-fMRI) and task-dependent functional connectivity (Meta-Analytic Connectivity Modeling) to partition the cingulate cortex into six subregions with unique connectivity fingerprints and diverse behavioural profiles. This parcellation was consistent between groups and highly replicable across individuals (up to 93% detection) suggesting that the organisation of cortico-cingulo connections is highly similar between groups. However, our results showed an age-related increase in connectivity between the anterior middle cingulate cortex and right lateral prefrontal cortex in ASD, whilst this connectivity decreased in controls. There was also a Group × Grey Matter (GM) interaction, showing increased connectivity between the anterior cingulate cortex and the rectal gyrus in concert with increasing rectal gyrus GM in controls. By comparing our approach to previously established methods we revealed that our approach improves network detection in both groups, and that the ability to detect group differences using 4 mm radius spheres varies greatly with seed placement. Using our multi-modal approach we find disrupted cortico-cingulo circuits that, based on task-dependent information, may contribute to ASD deficits in attention and social interaction. Moreover, we highlight how more sensitive approaches to RS-fMRI are crucial for establishing

  14. Decreasing Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Activity During Sequential Risk-Taking: An fMRI Investigation of the Balloon Analog Risk Task

    PubMed Central

    Schonberg, Tom; Fox, Craig R.; Mumford, Jeanette A.; Congdon, Eliza; Trepel, Christopher; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2012-01-01

    Functional imaging studies examining the neural correlates of risk have mainly relied on paradigms involving exposure to simple chance gambles and an economic definition of risk as variance in the probability distribution over possible outcomes. However, there is little evidence that choices made during gambling tasks predict naturalistic risk-taking behaviors such as drug use, extreme sports, or even equity investing. To better understand the neural basis of naturalistic risk-taking, we scanned participants using fMRI while they completed the Balloon Analog Risk Task, an experimental measure that includes an active decision/choice component and that has been found to correlate with a number of naturalistic risk-taking behaviors. In the task, as in many naturalistic settings, escalating risk-taking occurs under uncertainty and might be experienced either as the accumulation of greater potential rewards, or as exposure to increasing possible losses (and decreasing expected value). We found that areas previously linked to risk and risk-taking (bilateral anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) were activated as participants continued to inflate balloons. Interestingly, we found that ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) activity decreased as participants further expanded balloons. In light of previous findings implicating the vmPFC in value calculation, this result suggests that escalating risk-taking in the task might be perceived as exposure to increasing possible losses (and decreasing expected value) rather than the increasing potential total reward relative to the starting point of the trial. A better understanding of how neural activity changes with risk-taking behavior in the task offers insight into the potential neural mechanisms driving naturalistic risk-taking. PMID:22675289

  15. Connectivity-based parcellation increases network detection sensitivity in resting state fMRI: An investigation into the cingulate cortex in autism

    PubMed Central

    Balsters, Joshua H.; Mantini, Dante; Apps, Matthew A.J.; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Although resting state fMRI (RS-fMRI) is increasingly used to generate biomarkers of psychiatric illnesses, analytical choices such as seed size and placement can lead to variable findings. Seed placement especially impacts on RS-fMRI studies of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), because individuals with ASD are known to possess more variable network topographies. Here, we present a novel pipeline for analysing RS-fMRI in ASD using the cingulate cortex as an exemplar anatomical region of interest. Rather than using seeds based on previous literature, or gross morphology, we used a combination of structural information, task-independent (RS-fMRI) and task-dependent functional connectivity (Meta-Analytic Connectivity Modeling) to partition the cingulate cortex into six subregions with unique connectivity fingerprints and diverse behavioural profiles. This parcellation was consistent between groups and highly replicable across individuals (up to 93% detection) suggesting that the organisation of cortico-cingulo connections is highly similar between groups. However, our results showed an age-related increase in connectivity between the anterior middle cingulate cortex and right lateral prefrontal cortex in ASD, whilst this connectivity decreased in controls. There was also a Group × Grey Matter (GM) interaction, showing increased connectivity between the anterior cingulate cortex and the rectal gyrus in concert with increasing rectal gyrus GM in controls. By comparing our approach to previously established methods we revealed that our approach improves network detection in both groups, and that the ability to detect group differences using 4 mm radius spheres varies greatly with seed placement. Using our multi-modal approach we find disrupted cortico-cingulo circuits that, based on task-dependent information, may contribute to ASD deficits in attention and social interaction. Moreover, we highlight how more sensitive approaches to RS-fMRI are crucial for establishing

  16. Interoception in insula subregions as a possible state marker for depression—an exploratory fMRI study investigating healthy, depressed and remitted participants

    PubMed Central

    Wiebking, Christine; de Greck, Moritz; Duncan, Niall W.; Tempelmann, Claus; Bajbouj, Malek; Northoff, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Background: Interoceptive awareness (iA), the awareness of stimuli originating inside the body, plays an important role in human emotions and psychopathology. The insula is particularly involved in neural processes underlying iA. However, iA-related neural activity in the insula during the acute state of major depressive disorder (MDD) and in remission from depression has not been explored. Methods: A well-established fMRI paradigm for studying (iA; heartbeat counting) and exteroceptive awareness (eA; tone counting) was used. Study participants formed three independent groups: patients suffering from MDD, patients in remission from MDD or healthy controls. Task-induced neural activity in three functional subdivisions of the insula was compared between these groups. Results: Depressed participants showed neural hypo-responses during iA in anterior insula regions, as compared to both healthy and remitted participants. The right dorsal anterior insula showed the strongest response to iA across all participant groups. In depressed participants there was no differentiation between different stimuli types in this region (i.e., between iA, eA and noTask). Healthy and remitted participants in contrast showed clear activity differences. Conclusions: This is the first study comparing iA and eA-related activity in the insula in depressed participants to that in healthy and remitted individuals. The preliminary results suggest that these groups differ in there being hypo-responses across insula regions in the depressed participants, whilst non-psychiatric participants and patients in remission from MDD show the same neural activity during iA in insula subregions implying a possible state marker for MDD. The lack of activity differences between different stimulus types in the depressed group may account for their symptoms of altered external and internal focus. PMID:25914633

  17. Neural correlates of "analytical-specific visual perception" and degree of task difficulty as investigated by the Mangina-Test: a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Mangina, Constantine A; Beuzeron-Mangina, Helen; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Pietrini, Pietro; Chiarenza, Giuseppe A; Casarotto, Silvia

    2009-08-01

    The Mangina-Test is a neuropsychometric method for evaluating varying degrees of "analytical-specific perception" as they relate to learning abilities and disabilities. It consists of the identification of simple stimuli which are masked within a complex configuration according to their exact size, dimension, direction, spatial orientation, and shape within a limited span of time. This test has been successfully applied in clinical settings for the assessment of cognitive abilities and disorders in young and elderly populations. This investigation aimed to examine the neural correlates of analytical-specific visual perceptual processes as measured by the Mangina-Test. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) was recorded during the administration of a computer-adapted version of the Mangina-Test in twelve young healthy adults. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to estimate the overall brain activation during task accomplishment. In addition, the fMRI response area was correlated with task difficulty, in order to explore the spatial distribution of brain regions modulated by increasing task demand. Results indicate that a widely distributed bilateral network of brain regions, including the ventral and dorsal occipital cortex, parietal lobule, frontal and supplementary eye field, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and supplementary motor area, was significantly activated during test performance. Moreover, increasing difficulty significantly enhanced the neural response of ventral and dorsal occipital regions, frontal eye field, and superior parietal sulcus bilaterally, as well as the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Conversely, neural activity in the left temporo-parietal junction, inferior frontal gyrus, and bilateral middle-superior temporal cortex was inversely correlated with task difficulty. Results also indicate that performance in the Mangina-Test requires an optimal integration between the enhancement of activity in specific task

  18. Performance monitoring in autism spectrum disorders: A systematic literature review of event-related potential studies.

    PubMed

    Hüpen, Philippa; Groen, Yvonne; Gaastra, Geraldina F; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is marked by impairments in social-emotional situations, executive functioning, and behavioral regulation. These symptoms may be related to deficits in performance monitoring, i.e., the ability to observe and evaluate one's own behavior and performance which is necessary for the regulation of future behavior. The present literature review investigated electroencephalic correlates of performance monitoring in ASD. Event-related potentials (ERPs) considered in this review included internal performance monitoring components (error-related negativity, error positivity), external performance monitoring components (feedback-related negativity, feedback-P3), and observational performance monitoring components (observer error-related negativity, observer feedback-related negativity). The majority of studies point to reduced internal performance monitoring in ASD. External performance monitoring in reward-processing paradigms, where rewards are independent of performance, seems to be intact in ASD. So far, no studies have investigated the observer error-related negativity in ASD. Available data on the observer feedback-related negativity are inconclusive, since only two studies with differential study results investigated this construct in ASD. In general, results suggest that individuals with ASD have problems with internal performance monitoring and with learning from external, abstract feedback. In contrast, the processing of external, concrete feedback seems to be largely intact in ASD.

  19. Enhancement of activity of the primary visual cortex during processing of emotional stimuli as measured with event-related functional near-infrared spectroscopy and event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Martin J; Huter, Theresa; Plichta, Michael M; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Alpers, Georg W; Mühlberger, Andreas; Fallgatter, Andreas J

    2008-01-01

    In this study we investigated whether event-related near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is suitable to measure changes in brain activation of the occipital cortex modulated by the emotional content of the visual stimuli. As we found in a previous pilot study that only positive but not negative stimuli differ from neutral stimuli (with respect to oxygenated haemoglobin), we now measured the event-related EEG potentials and NIRS simultaneously during the same session. Thereby, we could evaluate whether the subjects (n = 16) processed the positive as well as the negative emotional stimuli in a similar way. During the task, the subjects passively viewed positive, negative, and neutral emotional pictures (40 presentations were shown in each category, and pictures were taken from the International Affective Picture System, IAPS). The stimuli were presented for 3 s in a randomized order (with a mean of 3 s interstimulus interval). During the task, we measured the event-related EEG potentials over the electrode positions O1, Oz, O2, and Pz and the changes of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin by multichannel NIRS over the occipital cortex. The EEG results clearly show an increased early posterior negativity over the occipital cortex for both positive as well as negative stimuli compared to neutral. The results for the NIRS measurement were less clear. Although positive as well as negative stimuli lead to significantly higher decrease in deoxygenated haemoglobin than neutral stimuli, this was not found for the oxygenated haemoglobin.

  20. Areas of the Brain Modulated by Single-Dose Methylphenidate Treatment in Youth with ADHD During Task-Based fMRI: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Czerniak, Suzanne M.; Sikoglu, Elif M.; King, Jean A.; Kennedy, David N.; Mick, Eric; Frazier, Jean; Moore, Constance M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a psychiatric disorder affecting 5% of children. Methylphenidate (MPH) is a common medication for ADHD. Studies examining MPH's effect on pediatric ADHD patients' brain function using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) have not been compiled. The goals of this systematic review were to determine (1) which area(s) of the brain in pediatric ADHD patients are modulated by a single dose of MPH, (2) if areas modulated by MPH differ by task type performed during fMRI data acquisition, (3) whether changes in brain activation due to MPH relate to clinical improvements in ADHD-related symptoms. Method We searched the electronic databases PubMed and PsycINFO (1967 to 2011) using the following terms: ADHD AND (methylphenidate OR MPH OR ritalin) AND (neuroimaging OR MRI OR fMRI OR BOLD OR event related) and identified 200 abstracts, 9 of which were reviewed based on predefined criteria. Results The middle and inferior frontal gyri, basal ganglia, and cerebellum were most often affected by MPH within ADHD patients. The middle and inferior frontal gyri were frequently affected by MPH during inhibitory control tasks. Correlation between brain regions and clinical improvement was not possible due to the lack of symptom improvement measures within the included studies. Conclusions Throughout nine task-based fMRI studies investigating MPH's effect on the brains of pediatric patients with ADHD, MPH resulted in increased activation within frontal lobes, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. In most cases, this increase “normalized” activation of at least some brain areas to that seen in typically developing children. PMID:23660970

  1. Causality in the Association between P300 and Alpha Event-Related Desynchronization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiguo; Hu, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings indicated that both P300 and alpha event-related desynchronization (α-ERD) were associated, and similarly involved in cognitive brain functioning, e.g., attention allocation and memory updating. However, an explicit causal influence between the neural generators of P300 and α-ERD has not yet been investigated. In the present study, using an oddball task paradigm, we assessed the task effect (target vs. non-target) on P300 and α-ERD elicited by stimuli of four sensory modalities, i.e., audition, vision, somatosensory, and pain, estimated their respective neural generators, and investigated the information flow among their neural generators using time-varying effective connectivity in the target condition. Across sensory modalities, the scalp topographies of P300 and α-ERD were similar and respectively maximal at parietal and occipital regions in the target condition. Source analysis revealed that P300 and α-ERD were mainly generated from posterior cingulate cortex and occipital lobe respectively. As revealed by time-varying effective connectivity, the cortical information was consistently flowed from α-ERD sources to P300 sources in the target condition for all four sensory modalities. All these findings showed that P300 in the target condition is modulated by the changes of α-ERD, which would be useful to explore neural mechanism of cognitive information processing in the human brain. PMID:22511933

  2. An Event-Related Potential Study of Social Information Processing in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    diFilipo, Danielle; Grose-Fifer, Jillian

    2016-01-01

    Increased social awareness is a hallmark of adolescence. The primary aim of this event-related potential study was to investigate whether adolescents, in comparison to adults, would show relatively enhanced early neural processing of complex pictures containing socially-relevant information. A secondary aim was to investigate whether there are also gender and age differences in the ways adolescents and adults process social and nonsocial information. We recorded EEGs from 12-17 year-olds and 25-37 year-olds (N = 59) while they viewed pleasant pictures from the International Affective Picture System. We found age-related amplitude differences in the N1 and the LPP, and gender-related differences in the N2 region for socially-relevant stimuli. Social pictures (featuring mostly young children and adults) elicited larger N1s than nonsocial stimuli in adolescents, but not adults, whereas larger LPPs to social stimuli were seen in adults, but not adolescents. Furthermore, in general, males (regardless of age) showed larger N2s to nonsocial than to social images, but females did not. Our results imply that compared to adults, adolescents show relatively greater initial orientation toward social than toward nonsocial stimuli.

  3. Test-retest reliability of infant event related potentials evoked by faces.

    PubMed

    Munsters, N M; van Ravenswaaij, H; van den Boomen, C; Kemner, C

    2017-04-05

    Reliable measures are required to draw meaningful conclusions regarding developmental changes in longitudinal studies. Little is known, however, about the test-retest reliability of face-sensitive event related potentials (ERPs), a frequently used neural measure in infants. The aim of the current study is to investigate the test-retest reliability of ERPs typically evoked by faces in 9-10 month-old infants. The infants (N=31) were presented with neutral, fearful and happy faces that contained only the lower or higher spatial frequency information. They were tested twice within two weeks. The present results show that the test-retest reliability of the face-sensitive ERP components is moderate (P400 and Nc) to substantial (N290). However, there is low test-retest reliability for the effects of the specific experimental manipulations (i.e. emotion and spatial frequency) on the face-sensitive ERPs. To conclude, in infants the face-sensitive ERP components (i.e. N290, P400 and Nc) show adequate test-retest reliability, but not the effects of emotion and spatial frequency on these ERP components. We propose that further research focuses on investigating elements that might increase the test-retest reliability, as adequate test-retest reliability is necessary to draw meaningful conclusions on individual developmental trajectories of the face-sensitive ERPs in infants.

  4. Impairments of event-related magnetic fields in schizophrenia patients with predominant negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Yefet, Keren; Goldstein, Abraham; Rabany, Liron; Levkovitz, Yechiel

    2015-03-30

    Recently there is a growing understanding that patients suffering from negative symptoms of schizophrenia represent a distinct patient population. However, despite the abundance of EEG studies characterizing schizophrenia patients in general, only a handful of studies have focused on the electrophysiological correlates of negative symptoms. The current study examined whether the impairments in event-related magnetic fields (ERFs) commonly reported in heterogeneous groups of patients with mixed positive and negative symptoms also occur in patients with predominantly negative symptoms, and investigated their correlation to clinical symptoms and cognitive deficits. Twenty schizophrenia patients suffering from predominant negative symptoms and 25 healthy subjects underwent neuropsychological and electromagnetic assessments. ERFs were recorded during a three-stimuli novelty oddball and a sensory gating paradigm, and M50, P300m and Novelty-P3m components were investigated. Patients displayed impaired M50 ratios, reduced left P300m and frontal Novelty-P3m amplitudes. These electromagnetic measures correlated significantly with the severity of negative symptoms (SANS scale). The electrophysiological abnormalities which have been proposed as candidate biomarkers for schizophrenia are also manifested in patients with predominantly negative symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Emotional processing and psychopathic traits in male college students: An event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Medina, Amy L; Kirilko, Elvira; Grose-Fifer, Jillian

    2016-08-01

    Emotional processing deficits are often considered a hallmark of psychopathy. However, there are relatively few studies that have investigated how the late positive potential (LPP) elicited by both positive and negative emotional stimuli is modulated by psychopathic traits, especially in undergraduates. Attentional deficits have also been posited to be associated with emotional blunting in psychopathy, consequently, results from previous studies may have been influenced by task demands. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between the neural correlate