Science.gov

Sample records for everyday life lessons

  1. Emotions in Everyday Life

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of research establishing the causes and consequences of emotions in the laboratory, we know surprisingly little about emotions in everyday life. We developed a smartphone application that monitored real-time emotions of an exceptionally large (N = 11,000+) and heterogeneous participants sample. People’s everyday life seems profoundly emotional: participants experienced at least one emotion 90% of the time. The most frequent emotion was joy, followed by love and anxiety. People experienced positive emotions 2.5 times more often than negative emotions, but also experienced positive and negative emotions simultaneously relatively frequently. We also characterized the interconnections between people’s emotions using network analysis. This novel approach to emotion research suggests that specific emotions can fall into the following categories 1) connector emotions (e.g., joy), which stimulate same valence emotions while inhibiting opposite valence emotions, 2) provincial emotions (e.g., gratitude), which stimulate same valence emotions only, or 3) distal emotions (e.g., embarrassment), which have little interaction with other emotions and are typically experienced in isolation. Providing both basic foundations and novel tools to the study of emotions in everyday life, these findings demonstrate that emotions are ubiquitous to life and can exist together and distinctly, which has important implications for both emotional interventions and theory. PMID:26698124

  2. Emotions in Everyday Life.

    PubMed

    Trampe, Debra; Quoidbach, Jordi; Taquet, Maxime

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of research establishing the causes and consequences of emotions in the laboratory, we know surprisingly little about emotions in everyday life. We developed a smartphone application that monitored real-time emotions of an exceptionally large (N = 11,000+) and heterogeneous participants sample. People's everyday life seems profoundly emotional: participants experienced at least one emotion 90% of the time. The most frequent emotion was joy, followed by love and anxiety. People experienced positive emotions 2.5 times more often than negative emotions, but also experienced positive and negative emotions simultaneously relatively frequently. We also characterized the interconnections between people's emotions using network analysis. This novel approach to emotion research suggests that specific emotions can fall into the following categories 1) connector emotions (e.g., joy), which stimulate same valence emotions while inhibiting opposite valence emotions, 2) provincial emotions (e.g., gratitude), which stimulate same valence emotions only, or 3) distal emotions (e.g., embarrassment), which have little interaction with other emotions and are typically experienced in isolation. Providing both basic foundations and novel tools to the study of emotions in everyday life, these findings demonstrate that emotions are ubiquitous to life and can exist together and distinctly, which has important implications for both emotional interventions and theory.

  3. Power in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pamela K; Hofmann, Wilhelm

    2016-09-06

    How does power manifest itself in everyday life? Using experience-sampling methodology, we investigated the prevalence, sources, and correlates of power in people's natural environments. Participants experienced power-relevant situations regularly, though not frequently. High power was not restricted to a limited few: almost half of the sample reported experiencing high-power positions. Positional power and subjective feelings of power were strongly related but had unique relations with several individual difference measures and independent effects on participants' affect, cognition, and interpersonal relations. Subjective feelings of power resulted more from within-participant situational fluctuation, such as the social roles participants held at different times, than from stable differences between people. Our data supported some theoretical predictions about power's effects on affect, cognition, and interpersonal relations, but qualified others, particularly highlighting the role of responsibility in power's effects. Although the power literature has focused on high power, we found stronger effects of low power than high power.

  4. Power in everyday life

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    How does power manifest itself in everyday life? Using experience-sampling methodology, we investigated the prevalence, sources, and correlates of power in people’s natural environments. Participants experienced power-relevant situations regularly, though not frequently. High power was not restricted to a limited few: almost half of the sample reported experiencing high-power positions. Positional power and subjective feelings of power were strongly related but had unique relations with several individual difference measures and independent effects on participants’ affect, cognition, and interpersonal relations. Subjective feelings of power resulted more from within-participant situational fluctuation, such as the social roles participants held at different times, than from stable differences between people. Our data supported some theoretical predictions about power’s effects on affect, cognition, and interpersonal relations, but qualified others, particularly highlighting the role of responsibility in power’s effects. Although the power literature has focused on high power, we found stronger effects of low power than high power. PMID:27551069

  5. Chemicals in Everyday Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Raymond B.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the dependencies of people on chemicals in various aspects of life. Describes some of the natural and synthetic chemicals currently used in food production, clothing, shelter, travel and exploration, sports and recreation, ventilation, heating and cooling, communications, decoration, sanitation, and education. (TW)

  6. Chemicals in Everyday Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Raymond B.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the dependencies of people on chemicals in various aspects of life. Describes some of the natural and synthetic chemicals currently used in food production, clothing, shelter, travel and exploration, sports and recreation, ventilation, heating and cooling, communications, decoration, sanitation, and education. (TW)

  7. Integrating Somatic Learning into Everyday Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Charlotte

    1999-01-01

    Studied how proponents of somatic learning transfer their learning to the everyday life context by determining the experiences of six adults who had an average of six years experience with body-centered approaches to somatic education. Results show how subjects use their somatic learning in everyday situations of distress. (SLD)

  8. Computational Everyday Life Human Behavior Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motomura, Yoichi; Nishida, Yoshifumi

    Human behavior understanding in everyday life is promising but not established research field. Our project named 'open life matrix' is focused on this field. In these years, many sensor houses and robotic room projects have been studied and sensing and network technology have been established. However, still we have problems to realize everyday life support information systems and services. There are two major problems. The first one is data representation and computational modeling problem in everyday life. The second one is that we don't have a good way to realize valuable services from research outcomes. We propose a challenge to solve these problems by a scheme for accumulating common data set and probabilistic causal modeling during everyday life services.

  9. Business Math in Everyday Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Phil

    The material presented in this booklet is designed to provide supplemental information and exercises to aid in the development of basic everyday skills in business math. Seven units are presented with each unit containing basic information on the unit topic, followed by student exercises, and a review section. The seven units are (1) check writing…

  10. Business Math in Everyday Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Phil

    The material presented in this booklet is designed to provide supplemental information and exercises to aid in the development of basic everyday skills in business math. Seven units are presented with each unit containing basic information on the unit topic, followed by student exercises, and a review section. The seven units are (1) check writing…

  11. Life lessons

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Reminiscing about his younger self: “I mean I can’t very well just 86 [in American slang, to “86” is to eject, remove, or discard someone or something, J.R.N.] this guy from my life. On the other hand, if through some as yet undeveloped technology I were to run into him today, how comfortable would I feel about lending him money, or for that matter even stepping down the street to have a beer and talk over old times?” ― Thomas Pynchon, Slow Learner PMID:26734084

  12. The Creative Pathways of Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents two studies of how the conduct of life in itself can be a creative act. Very often, creativity research is concerned with the study of what enables people to express themselves creatively or aesthetically or to produce creative ideas and products. Creativity as it arises in the mundane processes of everyday life is, however,…

  13. The Creative Pathways of Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents two studies of how the conduct of life in itself can be a creative act. Very often, creativity research is concerned with the study of what enables people to express themselves creatively or aesthetically or to produce creative ideas and products. Creativity as it arises in the mundane processes of everyday life is, however,…

  14. Memory: from the laboratory to everyday life.

    PubMed

    Schacter, Daniel L

    2013-12-01

    One of the key goals of memory research is to develop a basic understanding of the nature and characteristics of memory processes and systems. Another important goal is to develop useful applications of basic research to everyday life. This editorial considers two lines of work that illustrate some of the prospects for applying memory research to everyday life: interpolated quizzing to enhance learning in educational settings, and specificity training to enhance memory and associated functions in individuals who have difficulties remembering details of their past experiences.

  15. Music and Informal Learning in Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batt-Rawden, Kari; Denora, Tia

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the authors focus on informal learning as it is situated in and derived from everyday life experience (Lave, 1988; Lave and Wenger, 1991). Their concern is with informal musical learning and its link to health, well-being and the care of self, an area that has already received some attention from research in music therapy,…

  16. Music and Informal Learning in Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batt-Rawden, Kari; Denora, Tia

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the authors focus on informal learning as it is situated in and derived from everyday life experience (Lave, 1988; Lave and Wenger, 1991). Their concern is with informal musical learning and its link to health, well-being and the care of self, an area that has already received some attention from research in music therapy,…

  17. The Life Cycle of Everyday Stuff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeske, Mike; Ireton, Shirley Watt

    Life cycle assessment is an important tool for technology planning as solid waste disposal options dwindle and energy prices continue to increase. This guide investigates the life cycles of products. The activities in this book are suitable for secondary earth science, environmental science, physical science, or integrated science lessons. The…

  18. The Life Cycle of Everyday Stuff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeske, Mike; Ireton, Shirley Watt

    Life cycle assessment is an important tool for technology planning as solid waste disposal options dwindle and energy prices continue to increase. This guide investigates the life cycles of products. The activities in this book are suitable for secondary earth science, environmental science, physical science, or integrated science lessons. The…

  19. Positive upshots of cortisol in everyday life

    PubMed Central

    Hoyt, Lindsay T.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Adam, Emma K.

    2016-01-01

    Cortisol, the major physiological end-product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, is usually associated with stress and negative affect. However, a new body of research highlights the complex, adaptive significance of elevated cortisol within individuals in everyday life. Whereas most studies do not have the power to test the dynamic transactions between cortisol and affect within a person throughout the entire waking day, we employed an intensive study protocol analyzing hourly diary reports of affect in relation to hourly salivary cortisol samples among 24 healthy adults from morning to bedtime, across two consecutive weekdays (n = 862 total samples). Utilizing multi-leveling modeling and focusing on within-person effects, we examined whether momentary increases in cortisol could be mood protective, or energy enhancing, in everyday life, supporting the cortisol boost hypothesis. Results revealed no significant associations between cortisol and current affective state; however, within-person increases in cortisol were significantly associated with subsequent rises in activeness, alertness, and relaxation, and trend-level reductions in stress and nervousness. This study adds to growing evidence that cortisol plays a positive role in regulating affect in everyday life. PMID:26950364

  20. Hestian Education: Everyday Life as a Curricular Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Patricia J.

    Everyday life as a curricular paradigm is discussed in this paper, beginning with a look at public and private feminist dilemmas, at the creation of nonpatriarchal categories, and at the everyday world seen both as phenomenon and as problematic. Numerous feminist scholars have addressed the question of a feminist standpoint on everyday life, and…

  1. [Spasticity and everyday life in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Donzé, C; De Sèze, J

    2012-04-01

    Spasticity is one of the most commonly seen symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis. However, evaluation of the symptom often uses clinical scales that do not incorporate its impact on activities of daily living and quality of life. The everyday life of patients is affected primarily in actions related to mobility and walking capacity, such as the use of transport, gardening, household activities and, ultimately, basic activities such as bathing and dressing. Yet, so far, no study has described the impact of spasticity on the daily life of patients with multiple sclerosis. Nevertheless, assessing the effects of spasticity on such a young population would appear to be essential for meeting the needs of these patients with appropriate therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. "I Will Count My Sheep": Creativity and the "Everyday Life Project"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Cecilia A.; Souza, Jusamara

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on a project called, "Everyday life as a perspective on music education in the classroom." Part of this project involved the construction of texts and lyrics by a group of students from year 5, in weekly music lessons at a regular primary school from Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The article…

  3. "I Will Count My Sheep": Creativity and the "Everyday Life Project"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Cecilia A.; Souza, Jusamara

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on a project called, "Everyday life as a perspective on music education in the classroom." Part of this project involved the construction of texts and lyrics by a group of students from year 5, in weekly music lessons at a regular primary school from Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The article…

  4. Everyday robotic action: lessons from human action control

    PubMed Central

    de Kleijn, Roy; Kachergis, George; Hommel, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Robots are increasingly capable of performing everyday human activities such as cooking, cleaning, and doing the laundry. This requires the real-time planning and execution of complex, temporally extended sequential actions under high degrees of uncertainty, which provides many challenges to traditional approaches to robot action control. We argue that important lessons in this respect can be learned from research on human action control. We provide a brief overview of available psychological insights into this issue and focus on four principles that we think could be particularly beneficial for robot control: the integration of symbolic and subsymbolic planning of action sequences, the integration of feedforward and feedback control, the clustering of complex actions into subcomponents, and the contextualization of action-control structures through goal representations. PMID:24672474

  5. Everyday robotic action: lessons from human action control.

    PubMed

    de Kleijn, Roy; Kachergis, George; Hommel, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Robots are increasingly capable of performing everyday human activities such as cooking, cleaning, and doing the laundry. This requires the real-time planning and execution of complex, temporally extended sequential actions under high degrees of uncertainty, which provides many challenges to traditional approaches to robot action control. We argue that important lessons in this respect can be learned from research on human action control. We provide a brief overview of available psychological insights into this issue and focus on four principles that we think could be particularly beneficial for robot control: the integration of symbolic and subsymbolic planning of action sequences, the integration of feedforward and feedback control, the clustering of complex actions into subcomponents, and the contextualization of action-control structures through goal representations.

  6. Breathing Life into Engineering: A Lesson Study Life Science Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Maria; Yang, Li-Ling; Briggs, May; Hession, Alicia; Koussa, Anita; Wagoner, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    A fifth grade life science lesson was implemented through a lesson study approach in two fifth grade classrooms. The research lesson was designed by a team of four elementary school teachers with the goal of emphasizing engineering practices consistent with the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) (Achieve Inc. 2013). The fifth…

  7. Breathing Life into Engineering: A Lesson Study Life Science Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Maria; Yang, Li-Ling; Briggs, May; Hession, Alicia; Koussa, Anita; Wagoner, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    A fifth grade life science lesson was implemented through a lesson study approach in two fifth grade classrooms. The research lesson was designed by a team of four elementary school teachers with the goal of emphasizing engineering practices consistent with the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) (Achieve Inc. 2013). The fifth…

  8. Everyday life for women with celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Roos, Susanne; Hellström, Ingrid; Hallert, Claes; Wilhelmsson, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore how women with celiac disease experience everyday life. It is important that healthcare professionals understand what it is like to live with a chronic illness, and also the factors that affect the lives of women who have celiac disease. The study has a qualitative approach and the data were collected using interviews with 16 women. A conventional content analysis was used for the subjective interpretation of the qualitative interviews. Three main themes emerged in the analysis: illness trajectory and treatment, socializing with others, and feelings of loneliness and worry. The findings indicate that living with celiac disease affects the person's entire life from the past, in the present, and into the future, especially when daily routines must be altered. The women expressed a sense of loneliness and invisibility, especially when socializing with others. The diet could be a friend, enemy, obstacle, or opportunity in terms of enjoying a good life. Supporting women diagnosed with celiac disease appears to be a major task for healthcare professionals. Such professionals need to pay attention to women's symptoms, worries, and their feeling of being invisible.

  9. Everyday life memory deficits in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Cuttler, Carrie; Graf, Peter; Pawluski, Jodi L; Galea, Liisa A M

    2011-03-01

    Converging evidence indicates that pregnant women report experiencing problems with memory, but the results of studies using objective measures are ambiguous. The present study investigated potential reason(s) for the discrepancy between findings of subjective and objective memory deficits, as well as potential source(s) of pregnant women's problems with memory. Sixty-one pregnant and 24 nonpregnant women completed a series of memory tests which included field and laboratory measures of prospective memory. Three standardized questionnaires were used to assess subjective aspects of memory. The influence of cortisol, depressed mood, anxiety, physical symptoms, sleep/fatigue, and busyness on pregnancy-related deficits was also examined. The findings revealed objective pregnancy-related deficits on two of the field measures of prospective memory. Pregnancy-related subjective deficits were also detected on all of the questionnaires. In contrast, no objective pregnancy-related deficits were found on the laboratory measures of memory. Increased physical symptoms accounted for one of the objective deficits in memory, while depressed mood and physical symptoms accounted for two of the subjective memory deficits. Collectively, these findings suggest that pregnant women experience everyday life problems with memory that are not readily detected in the laboratory environment. The predominant use of laboratory tests may explain the myriad of previous failures to detect objective deficits in pregnant women's memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. The Role of Reminiscence in Everyday Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Fred B.; And Others

    Although the role of reminiscence in subjective adjustment has been studied among older adults, very little research has examined the functions of reminiscence in the everyday lives of younger people. A study was conducted to extend previous work on reminiscence in the elderly to younger populations by exploring the relationship between…

  11. Celebrating Geography: Geography in Everyday Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    The paper suggests that the five fundamental themes of geography can serve as a good starting point for understanding how geography affects lives everyday in every way. Geography serves to remind people how interwoven geographic concepts are in individuals' lives. Ten activities are suggested to incorporate the five fundamental themes into a…

  12. The Dynamic Structure of Everyday Life

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-12

    1986. Available as Technical Report 918, MIT Artificial Intelligence Lab- oratory, 1986. Pierre Bourdieu , Outline of a theory of practice, Cambridge...everyday cognition (see for example Bourdieu 1977, Garfinkel 1967, Lave 1988, Rogoff and Lave 1984, Scribner 198-1, Wertsch 1985). Much of this work is

  13. Social psychology. Comment on "Morality in everyday life".

    PubMed

    Voelkle, Manuel C

    2015-05-15

    In examining morality in everyday life, Hofmann et al. (Reports, 12 September 2014, p. 1340) conclude that being the target of (im)moral deeds impacts happiness, whereas committing them primarily affects one's sense of purpose. I point to shortcomings in the analyses and interpretations and caution that, based on the methodological approach, conclusions about everyday life relationships between morality and happiness/purpose are premature. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Patients' experiences of everyday life after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Doris; Jensen, Birte Østergaard

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the experiences of everyday life after lung transplantation of patients with previous chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Compared with patients being transplanted due to other indications, those with COPD prior to lung transplantation report more problems in the form of shortness of breath, fatigue, sexual problems, insomnia and increased appetite. In addition, they are often faced with problems returning to normal working life. How these problems influence the patient's everyday life is unknown. An exploratory qualitative study. Ten COPD patients (five females and five males) aged 51-69 and more than six months post transplantation, were interviewed using of a semi-structured interview guide. All interviews were taperecorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis revealed four themes of experience: a second chance; an ordinary life without chronic rejection; even minor daily activities take time with chronic rejection; and need for support and knowledge that were considered important by the participants for their situation and daily life. This is the first study describing the experiences of everyday life after lung transplantation of patients with COPD prior to surgery. The findings highlight the importance of addressing these patients' experiences of gratitude, positive life orientation and informational needs in relation to everyday life. Health professionals should be aware of the kind of problems both women and men may experience a long time after the lung transplantation. They constitute a basic knowledge of a patient's everyday life that is important when planning individual counselling and rehabilitation.

  15. Learning to Compute: Computerization and Ordinary, Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Joseph F.

    2009-01-01

    This study utilizes the basic framework of classical sociology as a foundation for examining the intersection of the structural history of the computer revolution with ordinary, everyday life. Just as the classical forefathers of modern sociology--Marx, Durkheim, and Weber--attempted to understand their eras of structural transformation, this…

  16. Physics and Everyday Life--New Modules to Motivate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holubova, Renata

    2013-01-01

    The question "how to improve the interest of students to study physics" has been discussed in the author's previous papers too. Within the framework of the project, the author prepared various new interdisciplinary projects to demonstrate how inventions in physics are used in everyday life. Now, about one year later, the author found out…

  17. Learning to Compute: Computerization and Ordinary, Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Joseph F.

    2009-01-01

    This study utilizes the basic framework of classical sociology as a foundation for examining the intersection of the structural history of the computer revolution with ordinary, everyday life. Just as the classical forefathers of modern sociology--Marx, Durkheim, and Weber--attempted to understand their eras of structural transformation, this…

  18. Parental Reports of Children's Scale Errors in Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosengren, Karl S.; Gutierrez, Isabel T.; Anderson, Kathy N.; Schein, Stevie S.

    2009-01-01

    Scale errors refer to behaviors where young children attempt to perform an action on an object that is too small to effectively accommodate the behavior. The goal of this study was to examine the frequency and characteristics of scale errors in everyday life. To do so, the researchers collected parental reports of children's (age range = 13-21…

  19. Parental Reports of Children's Scale Errors in Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosengren, Karl S.; Gutierrez, Isabel T.; Anderson, Kathy N.; Schein, Stevie S.

    2009-01-01

    Scale errors refer to behaviors where young children attempt to perform an action on an object that is too small to effectively accommodate the behavior. The goal of this study was to examine the frequency and characteristics of scale errors in everyday life. To do so, the researchers collected parental reports of children's (age range = 13-21…

  20. Everyday Mental Health: A Guide to Assessing Life Strengths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivnick, Helen Q.

    1993-01-01

    The Life Strengths Interview Guide is a framework based on eight psychosocial themes: hope and faith; willfulness, independence, and control; competence and hard work; values and sense of self; love and friendship; care and productivity; and wisdom and perspective. It can be used to conceptualize everyday mental health in working with older…

  1. Subjective acceleration of time experience in everyday life across adulthood.

    PubMed

    John, Dennis; Lang, Frieder R

    2015-12-01

    Most people believe that time seems to pass more quickly as they age. Building on assumptions of socioemotional selectivity theory, we investigated whether awareness that one's future lifetime is limited is associated with one's experience of time during everyday activities across adulthood in 3 studies. In the first 2 studies (Study 1: N = 608; Study 2: N = 398), participants completed a web-based version of the day reconstruction method. In Study 3 (N = 392) participants took part in a newly developed tomorrow construction method, a web-based experimental method for assessing everyday life plans. Results confirmed that older adults' subjective interpretation of everyday episodes is that these episodes pass more quickly compared with younger adults. The subjective acceleration of time experience in old age was more pronounced during productive activities than during regenerative-consumptive activities. The age differences were partly related to limited time remaining in life. In addition, subjective acceleration of time experience was associated with positive evaluations of everyday activities. Findings suggest that subjective acceleration of time in older adults' daily lives reflects an adaptation to limitations in time remaining in life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. High on Walking : Conquering Everyday Life.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, Bente; Haahr, Anita; Dreyer, Pia; Norlyk, Annelise

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to discuss the meaning of walking impairment among people who have previously been able to walk on their own. The study is based on findings from three different life situations: older people recovering after admission in intermediate care, people who have lost a leg, and people who live with Parkinson's disease. The analysis of the data is inspired by Paul Ricoeur's philosophy of interpretation. Four themes were identified: (a) I feel high in two ways; (b) Walking has to be automatic; (c) Every Monday, I walk with the girls in the park; and (d) I dream of walking along the street without sticks and things like that. The findings demonstrate that inability to walk profoundly affected the participants' lives. Other problems seemed small by comparison because walking impairment was at the same time experienced as a concrete physical limit and an existential deficit.

  3. Everyday life of Jews under Nazi occupation: methodological issues.

    PubMed

    Ofer, D; Greenwood, N

    1995-01-01

    Despite the dire circumstances of Jews under Nazi occupation, individuals continued to persevere in their efforts to maintain patterns of everyday life. An understanding of daily routines may help us comprehend the reality of the Holocaust, but it may also contribute to the trivialization and banalization of the topic. To counter this danger, the methodology proposed in this article asserts that the individual's struggle reveals another perspective on the state of mind and the social order of various strata of Jewish society under Nazi occupation. Invoking the concepts of Berger and Luckmann in their analysis of understanding the knowledge of everyday life, this article examines the perception of reality of intellectuals in the ghetto.

  4. Hearing aid use in everyday life: managing contextual variability.

    PubMed

    Williger, Bettina; Lang, Frieder R

    2015-01-01

    We investigated usage of and satisfaction with hearing aid devices in everyday life among older adults with hearing loss. Our research further advances the role of hearing contexts for hearing aid use and satisfaction. A central assumption was that hearing aid owners adapt the usage of the hearing aid devices to contextual demands of hearing depending on their personal resources. In a sample of 158 hearing aid owners aged 50-88 years, we examined proactive hearing aid use in everyday life and its association with the usage of, and satisfaction with, hearing aids. The study was administered online. Using an adapted version of the day-reconstruction method, participants reported hearing episodes during the preceding day. Hearing aid use was assessed via the proportion of waking time with hearing aids. Satisfaction with hearing aids was measured via the Satisfaction with Daily Amplification scale. When using the hearing aids more often, and when reporting greater satisfaction, older adults indicated more diverse listening situations and experienced less variability in hearing quality with hearing aids. Our findings suggest that hearing aid owners may proactively use the hearing devices to master situation-specific demands and difficulties in hearing quality. Such findings underline that hearing aid use and satisfaction depend on the extent to which the devices help to manage everyday life successfully. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Patients' experience with intermittent catheterisation in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Cobussen-Boekhorst, Hanny; Hermeling, Erna; Heesakkers, John; van Gaal, Betsie

    2016-05-01

    This study reports about the experiences of 11 patients in the Netherlands who use intermittent self-catheterisation to manage their symptoms. The aim of the study was to get insight in underlying barriers and facilitators for patients dealing with intermittent catheterisation in everyday life. Studies show that intermittent catheterisation has an impact on everyday life. A positive effect does not guarantee that patients maintain catheterisation over a longer period of time. After the implementation of a guideline, a quantitative study was performed to determine successful intermittent catheterisation. The patients of this study had previously taken part in this quantitative study. This is a qualitative multicentre study using semistructured in-depth interviews with 11 patients between March-May 2013. Inclusion criteria included patients of a quantitative study (n = 124) with a variety of diagnoses referred to the outpatient clinic. Those who received instruction from the researcher and who at start of the study performed catheterisation ≤3 months were excluded. Of the total number that met the inclusion criteria, every fourth patient was invited to participate in an interview. Patients were asked about the introducing of intermittent catheterisation, the incorporation into everyday life, the progress after the instruction and guidance perceived, the cause of the bladder problem and the motivation to start intermittent catheterisation. Eleven interviews were performed (six males/five females). All patients described the instruction and follow-up care as positive. Barriers were the preparation before the handling, which is more difficult than the catheterisation itself, and the fact that patients felt constrained by the need to plan convenient times to catheterise themselves. This study shows that patients who perform catheterisation are satisfied about the instruction and follow-up care. Important barriers in everyday life are the preparation and the need to

  6. Aesthetic engagements: "being" in everyday life with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    la Cour, Karen; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2012-03-01

    Living with advanced cancer can present an overwhelming challenge. It may impact the everyday life of the individual with respect to an array of psychological, physical, social, and existential issues. We focus on ways in which people with advanced cancer experience and use their engagement in daily activities when confronting nearing death. Through a phenomenological analysis based on Heidegger's thinking, we illuminate the complexities of "being toward death" and the human striving for authentic being through engagement in daily living. The main findings demonstrate how sensory experiences support being through an appreciation of everyday aesthetics. Furthermore, the making of material things was identified as a means to express the value of self and others in relation to the involved individual's past, present, and future.

  7. Involvement in everyday life for people with a life threatening illness.

    PubMed

    Svidén, Gerd Andersson; Tham, Kerstin; Borell, Lena

    2010-09-01

    In many studies, everyday life has been shown to be of great significance in the context of life-threatening cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate how people with cancer who are receiving palliative care engage in and undertake activities in their everyday lives. This is a qualitative interview study adopting a grounded theory approach. The sample was composed of participants receiving services from palliative hospital-based home care and day care services. A total of 47 individuals were interviewed. Despite experiencing the threat of progressive loss of functioning, the participants were striving to remain involved in and to be active in everyday life. Continued involvement in everyday life with lowered expectations concerning performance gave the participants the possibility to continue doing daily activities as well as to perform new and engaging activities that were a source of pleasure and enabled the patients to feel a sense of competence. This study has demonstrated the power of being involved in everyday life activities. The proposed model, explaining individuals' desire to continue to live an active life despite a progressive loss of functioning, can provide a model to help the reasoning of professionals when supporting patients in their everyday life.

  8. Finding meaning in everyday life with dementia: A case study.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Jane M

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a case study exploring an older woman's perspective on the quality of her life with dementia. The case study establishes the importance of coherence across the life course in understanding how she evaluates her changed situation in the present compared to the past. The metaphoric description of moving from 'up there' to 'down here' represents the perceived struggle to maintain a sense of worth despite a marginalised social position. Being able to define self and social identity in ways that preserve a sense of social status is important to find meaning in everyday life. Finding meaning involves looking backwards to sustain continuity with the past and looking forwards to maintain momentum and keep going. A narrative framework is valuable in showing that quality of life is a dimension of meaning associated with maintaining a sense of social worth.

  9. Changes in everyday life after discharge from day care rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Tollén, Anita; Kamwendo, Kitty; Ivarsson, Ann-Britt

    2011-01-01

    Community-based day care that provides rehabilitation (DCR) targets elderly people with physical disabilities. The goal of these programmes is mainly to improve physical ability in order to enable participants to remain in their ordinary homes. Knowledge of the outcomes of DCR is limited as well as knowledge of what it is that makes a difference for the individual. The aim of this study was to describe what changes in everyday life elderly persons experienced after discharge from a community-based day care rehabilitation centre and to give possible explanations for these changes. Fifteen elderly people were interviewed after that they had been discharged from DCR. A narrative approach was used for analysing the interview data. Four case stories constitute the findings, each of them with unique descriptions of changes in everyday life as well as possible explanations for these changes. The first case story described resumption of daily activities that made the days more eventful and meaningful. The second described how everyday life became an arena for exercising, which create confidence for the future. The third described how an increased sense of certainty and security in the movements led to an increased appetite for life. Finally, the fourth case story described both the stay at the DCR centre and the promise of a new period there as uplifting that made the days easier. Concerning possible explanations for these changes, the findings indicate that it was a combination of several events that together contributed to the changes. Examples were physical training, counselling about how to live in an active and healthy lifestyle, and socialisation with other patients in formal as well as in informal sessions. PMID:21423596

  10. Older Adults' Use of Retrieval Strategies in Everyday Life.

    PubMed

    Frank, David J; Jordano, Megan L; Browne, Kelly; Touron, Dayna R

    2016-01-01

    Despite declines in cognitive abilities, older adults often perform comparable to younger adults in everyday tasks [J Am Geriatr Soc 1999;47:172-183]. Older adults may compensate for cognitive declines by using more efficient strategies. People often improve their efficiency by switching from an algorithmic strategy where information is computed or looked-up, to a strategy where the information is retrieved directly from memory [J Exp Psychol Gen 1988;117:258-275]. However, older adults are reluctant to shift from algorithmic strategies to retrieval strategies in the laboratory, and this reluctance to use retrieval is driven by both bottom-up (slower learning) and top-down influences (memory confidence, motivation to be quick/accurate) [Psychol Aging 2004;19:452-466; Mem Cognit 2004;32:298-310]. We investigated whether bottom-up and top-down factors influence younger and older adults' decisions to use retrieval-based or algorithmic strategies in everyday life. In two studies, participants completed a daily diary for 5 (study 1) or 7 (study 2) days. Participants were asked if and how they completed daily activities within several everyday task domains. They also indicated for how long and how often they completed the specific activity (bottom-up factors), as well as how confident they were in using their memory and how motivated they were to perform the specific activity quickly and accurately (top-down influences). Both studies provided evidence for bottom-up and top-down influences. Additionally, study 2 found that top-down factors (memory confidence and motivation to be quick) were more important for older compared to younger adults. These results indicate that strategy choices influence older adults' cognitive efficiency in everyday as well as laboratory learning. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. How the behavioral approach system predicts everyday life outcomes.

    PubMed

    Izadikhah, Zahra; Jackson, Chris J

    2010-01-01

    This study tested crucial components of Gray's reinforcement sensitivity theory that have generally been overlooked in the literature. We tested whether the perceived amount of reward moderates the behavioral approach system (BAS) and the importance of reward mediates BAS in the prediction of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Results from 514 participants employed in part-time and full-time jobs provided support for our model, such that the indirect effect of BAS through the importance of reward was strongest when reward was provided. This model advances our understanding of reinforcement sensitivity theory and offers a solid foundation for predicting outcomes in everyday life.

  12. Relatives of patients with depression: experiences of everyday life.

    PubMed

    Skundberg-Kletthagen, Hege; Wangensteen, Sigrid; Hall-Lord, Marie Louise; Hedelin, Birgitta

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe experiences of everyday life as a relative of a person diagnosed with depression. A qualitative and descriptive design with a phenomenographic approach was chosen, and individual interviews with 24 relatives were carried out. Approval was given by the Regional Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics, Norway (South East) ref 2010/126. The findings show the main category 'Living on the other person's terms', which may be expressed in terms of consideration for the next of kin, thus presenting a challenge and a need to be balanced against taking care of oneself. In addition, three descriptive categories emerged: 'Ambivalent relationship', 'Adjusting daily life' and 'Managing the situation'. In conclusion, the relatives of persons with depression may be in danger of developing their own health problems and in need for attention from health personnel. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  13. The interleaving of actions in everyday life multitasking demands.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Stefan; Förstl, Sabine; Legler, Angela; Schöpe, Sabine; Goebel, Hans

    2012-09-01

    It has been argued that executive tests should capture central aspects of executive functions in everyday life such as initiating and monitoring parallel actions in low-structured environments (so-called multitasking; see Burgess, 2000). We present a cooking task in order to assess executive function impairments in brain-damaged patients, which focuses on a central feature of multitasking, the interleaving of tasks (Burgess, 2000). Behavioural performance of 21 brain-damaged patients (stroke, traumatic brain injury) and of a group of matched controls was analysed on the basis of a standardized protocol. In comparison to controls, the patients explored less, were less successful in monitoring their actions and corrected errors less efficiently. Interleaving of actions was observed less frequently in patients, with respect to both cooking itself as well as to subordinate goals (e.g., cleaning up). Interleaving proved efficient, as it was associated with less time to complete the task. Patients' scores in the cooking task correlated with performance in both the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS) Zoo Map Test and the BADS Six Elements Test, but not with tests of attention, verbal memory, or figural fluency, thus demonstrating convergent and discriminant validity. In summary, our task demonstrates that cooking can provide a valid testing ground for assessing a central aspect of everyday multitasking demands, namely, the interleaving of actions.

  14. Manual Wheelchair Use: Bouts of Mobility in Everyday Life

    PubMed Central

    Sonenblum, Sharon Eve; Sprigle, Stephen; Lopez, Ricardo A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. This study aimed to describe how people move about in manual wheelchairs (MWCs) during everyday life by evaluating bouts of mobility or continuous periods of movement. Methods. A convenience sample of 28 MWC users was recruited. Participants' everyday mobility was measured using a wheel-mounted accelerometer and seat occupancy switch for 1-2 weeks. Bouts of mobility were recorded and characterized. Results. Across 29,200 bouts, the median bout lasted 21 seconds and traveled 8.6 m at 0.43 m/s. 85% of recorded bouts lasted less than 1 minute and traveled less than 30 meters. Participants' daily wheelchair activity included 90 bouts and 1.6 km over 54 minutes. Average daily occupancy time was 11 hours during which participants wheeled 10 bouts/hour and spent 10% of their time wheeling. Spearman-Brown Prophecy analysis suggested that 7 days were sufficient to achieve a reliability of 0.8 for all bout variables. Conclusions. Short, slow bouts dominate wheelchair usage in a natural environment. Therefore, clinical evaluations and biomechanical research should reflect this by concentrating on initiating movement, maneuvering wheelchairs, and stopping. Bouts of mobility provide greater depth to our understanding of wheelchair use and are a more stable metric (day-to-day) than distance or time wheeled. PMID:22848837

  15. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Autobiographical Memories in Everyday Life

    PubMed Central

    Schönfeld, Sabine; Ehlers, Anke

    2017-01-01

    Evidence from self-reports and laboratory studies suggests that recall of nontrauma autobiographical memories may be disturbed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but investigations in everyday life are sparse. This study investigated unintentional nontrauma and trauma memories in trauma survivors with and without PTSD (N = 52), who kept an autobiographical memory diary for a week. We investigated whether unintentional nontrauma memories show an overgeneral memory bias and further memory abnormalities in people with PTSD, and whether unintentional trauma memories show distinct features. Compared to the no-PTSD group, the PTSD group recorded fewer nontrauma memories, which were more overgeneral, more often from before the trauma or related to the trauma, were perceived as distant, and led to greater dwelling. Trauma memories were more vivid, recurrent, and present and led to greater suppression and dwelling. Within the PTSD group, the same features distinguished trauma and nontrauma memories. Results are discussed regarding theories of autobiographical memory and PTSD. PMID:28781928

  16. Green tea consumption in everyday life and mental health.

    PubMed

    Shimbo, Mari; Nakamura, Keiko; Jing Shi, Hui; Kizuki, Masashi; Seino, Kaoruko; Inose, Tomoko; Takano, Takehito

    2005-12-01

    Green tea has been widely acknowledged in Japan to induce a pleasurable mental feeling. Recent laboratory studies have suggested positive psychological effects as a result of consuming green tea. The present study examined whether green tea consumption in everyday life in Japan is associated with positive mental health. A cross-sectional study was performed in February-March 2002. The subjects of the study consisted of a general population of 600 Japanese aged 20-69 years. Responses of 380 subjects, obtained by home-visit interview, were analysed. The questionnaire inquired about consumption of brewed green tea and other beverages, perceived mental health status, lifestyle and others. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 12) was used for the assessment of mental ill-health (GHQ score >or=4). After adjustments for age, area, perceived mental stress, lifestyle and daily caffeine intake, the consumption of brewed green tea was not statistically associated with any decrease in risk of mental ill-health among either males or females (odds ratio (OR)=0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.47-1.29 for males; OR=0.77, 95% CI=0.51-1.14 for females). Daily caffeine intake (100 mg) inclusive of green tea, black tea, coffee and other caffeine-containing beverages was associated with a higher risk of mental ill-health among females (OR=1.26, 95% CI=1.01-1.56). The results provide population-based evidence on the consumption of brewed green tea in everyday life and mental health, together with information on consumption patterns of various beverages and lifestyles.

  17. Colour blindness in everyday life and car driving.

    PubMed

    Tagarelli, Antonio; Piro, Anna; Tagarelli, Giuseppe; Lantieri, Pasquale Bruno; Risso, Domenico; Olivieri, Rosario Luciano

    2004-08-01

    The aim of the present work was to ascertain, through the administration of a psychosocial questionnaire, the difficulties that subjects with defective colour vision experience in carrying out everyday tasks and work, including driving a car with a driver's licence held for no more than 3 years. Subjects with defective colour vision (n = 151) and subjects with normal vision (n = 302) completed a psychosocial questionnaire regarding the difficulties associated with congenital colour vision deficiency in daily life, work and driving a car. Subjects were diagnosed as colour-blind using the Ishihara test. Statistically significant differences between the two samples were found for daily life activities. Subjects with defective colour vision preferred daytime driving. At night, subjects with defective colour vision had difficulty identifying reflectors on the road and the rear signal lights of cars ahead of them. Colour-blind Calabrian subjects admitted to experiencing colour-related difficulties with a wide range of occupational tasks and leisure pursuits. In particular, colour-blind Calabrian subjects preferred daytime driving, and fewer drove regularly, compared to orthochromatics, who were indifferent to night or daytime driving.

  18. Mood and transient cardiac dysfunction in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Mimi R; Steptoe, Andrew

    2011-02-01

    Emotion in daily life may be associated with transient myocardial ischemia, ventricular tachycardia and impaired autonomic function in cardiac patients, but the precise temporal sequence is unclear. Eighty-eight patients with suspected coronary artery disease underwent 24-h electrocardiographic monitoring, and affect was measured with the Day Reconstruction Method. Thirteen patients (15%) experienced one or more episodes of ST depression or ventricular tachycardia, nine of whom provided concurrent mood data. Mood and heart rate variability were analyzed for the 15 min before, during, and 15 min after each ST depression/ventricular tachycardia episode, and were compared with control periods not associated with cardiac dysfunction. Patients reported more negative mood in the 15 min preceding cardiac dysfunction compared with control periods (P = 0.02). Heart rate increased in the 5 min before cardiac dysfunction (P = 0.005), whereas low frequency heart rate variability was reduced at onset but not before cardiac dysfunction (P = 0.007). There were not changes in high frequency heart rate variability. This small study indicates that emotional state may contribute to vulnerability of cardiac dysfunction in everyday life.

  19. Life at the Margins. Literacy, Language, and Technology in Everyday Life. Language and Literacy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrifield, Juliet; Bingman, Mary Beth; Hemphill, David; deMarrais, Kathleen P. Bennett

    This book develops an understanding of literacy and illiteracy through the life stories of 12 adults from diverse backgrounds living in the United States, 6 in Appalachia and 6 in California. Part 1 provides a summary of three areas of research offering insights and descriptive data about literacy: ethnographic studies of everyday literacy,…

  20. Psychometric evaluation of a new assessment of the ability to manage technology in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Malinowsky, Camilla; Nygård, Louise; Kottorp, Anders

    2011-03-01

    Technology increasingly influences the everyday lives of most people, and the ability to manage technology can be seen as a prerequisite for participation in everyday occupations. However, knowledge of the ability and skills required for management of technology is sparse. This study aimed to validate a new observation-based assessment, the Management of Everyday Technology Assessment (META). The META has been developed to assess the ability to manage technology in everyday life. A sample of 116 older adults with and without cognitive impairment were observed and interviewed by the use of the META when managing their everyday technology at home. The results indicate that the META demonstrates acceptable person response validity and technology goodness-of-fit. Additionally, the META can separate individuals with higher ability from individuals with lower ability to manage everyday technology. The META can be seen as a complement to existing ADL assessment techniques and is planned to be used in both research and practice.

  1. Youth, Life, and Politics: Examining the Everyday in Comparative Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortuoste, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The traditional way of introducing comparative politics to freshmen, which is through the study of institutions, is contrasted with an alternative approach. An everyday-politics approach compares the daily struggles of global youth--how they cope in times of peace and war, and with issues of wealth and poverty, identity, education and employment,…

  2. Subjective Acceleration of Time Experience in Everyday Life across Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Dennis; Lang, Frieder R.

    2015-01-01

    Most people believe that time seems to pass more quickly as they age. Building on assumptions of socioemotional selectivity theory, we investigated whether awareness that one's future lifetime is limited is associated with one's experience of time during everyday activities across adulthood in 3 studies. In the first 2 studies (Study 1: N = 608;…

  3. Subjective Acceleration of Time Experience in Everyday Life across Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Dennis; Lang, Frieder R.

    2015-01-01

    Most people believe that time seems to pass more quickly as they age. Building on assumptions of socioemotional selectivity theory, we investigated whether awareness that one's future lifetime is limited is associated with one's experience of time during everyday activities across adulthood in 3 studies. In the first 2 studies (Study 1: N = 608;…

  4. Youth, Life, and Politics: Examining the Everyday in Comparative Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortuoste, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The traditional way of introducing comparative politics to freshmen, which is through the study of institutions, is contrasted with an alternative approach. An everyday-politics approach compares the daily struggles of global youth--how they cope in times of peace and war, and with issues of wealth and poverty, identity, education and employment,…

  5. Everyday life for the spouses of patients with untreated OSA syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stålkrantz, Anna; Broström, Anders; Wiberg, Jan; Svanborg, Eva; Malm, Dan

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to generate a theoretical model describing concerns for spouses of patients with untreated obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) and how they manage these concerns in their everyday life. Twelve spouses were interviewed about their experiences and how they manage everyday life. The interviews were analysed according to the Grounded Theory method as described by Strauss and Corbin. Two main categories emerged from the data: 'Social adjustment' and 'New feelings'. 'Social adjustment' reveals how the spouses made adjustments in their daily lives, both according to their partners' tiredness and owing to their own fatigue. 'New feelings' reveals emotional reactions related to the effects of their partner's illness and the impact it had on the spouse's everyday life. These two main categories could be seen in relation to four dimensions describing how the spouses manage their everyday life: 'Sacrificing', 'Controlling', 'Changing' and 'Understanding'. The results show how the spouses made adjustments in everyday life and how their feelings were affected by their partner's OSAS. Healthcare personnel could use information from this study to gain a deeper understanding and knowledge of what spouses of untreated patients with OSAS experience as their main concerns and how they manage their everyday life. This knowledge can be used to improve the support to the spouses, as well as in the educational situation concerning the illness, as well as the treatment. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2011 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  6. Benefits in tasks related to everyday life competences after a working memory training in older adults.

    PubMed

    Cantarella, Alessandra; Borella, Erika; Carretti, Barbara; Kliegel, Matthias; de Beni, Rossana

    2017-01-01

    The impact of working memory (WM) training on everyday life functioning has rarely been examined, and it is not clear whether WM training gains are transferred to reasoning abilities. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a verbal WM training in older adults, in terms of specific gains and transfer effects to everyday life and reasoning abilities. Thirty-six community dwelling older adults (from 65 to 75 years of age) were randomly assigned to a training or an active control group. The specific gains in a WM task similar to the one trained were assessed. Transfer effects to everyday life and reasoning abilities were also examined using (i) objective performance-based tasks (the Everyday Problem Test and the Timed Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale) and (ii) the Cattell test and Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices, respectively. Only the trained group showed specific benefits and transfer effects to one of the everyday abilities measures (the Everyday Problem Test) and in the two reasoning tasks. These results suggest that WM training can positively impact cognitive functioning and, more importantly, older adults' abilities in everyday living. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Participation after acquired brain injury: Associations with everyday technology and activities in daily life.

    PubMed

    Fallahpour, Mandana; Kottorp, Anders; Nygård, Louise; Lund, Maria Larsson

    2015-01-01

    The development of the information society has led to increased use of everyday technology and changed the conditions for participation. Enabling participation in everyday life situations is an important rehabilitation goal after acquired brain injury (ABI). Identifying factors associated with individuals' experienced participation and problems therein is therefore essential. This study aimed at exploring the relationship between perceived difficulty in everyday technology use, perceived ability in the activities of daily living (ADL), and perceived participation, and participation problems in persons with ABI. Eighty-one persons with ABI participated in the study and were assessed by the Impact on Participation and Autonomy questionnaire, the Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire, and the ADL taxonomy. Findings showed that the combined model of difficulty in everyday technology (ET) use, ADL ability, and the interaction between them explained both participation in various domains of everyday life, and also overall level of perceived participation and the perceived problems. The findings underscore the importance of evaluating individuals' ability in both ET use and ADL after ABI to increase the probability of explaining these persons' participation in desired everyday life situations and, also, for rehabilitation design.

  8. Everyday Life in Distance Education: One Family's Home Schooling Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Nicole C.

    2006-01-01

    This article offers a narrative portrait of one family enrolled in a school of distance education in Queensland, Australia. Most of the families own or manage sheep and/or beef grazing properties, and their children receive their education by correspondence papers and daily UHF radio lessons. The students complete their school work at home with a…

  9. Bioreactors in Everyday Life: Ethanol and the Maize Craze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Silas

    2010-01-01

    This project served as a capstone event for the United States Military Academy sophomore Calculus II course. This multi-disciplinary problem-solving exercise motivated the link between math and biology and many other fields of study. The seven-lesson block of instruction was developed to show students how mathematics play a role in every…

  10. Everyday Life in Distance Education: One Family's Home Schooling Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Nicole C.

    2006-01-01

    This article offers a narrative portrait of one family enrolled in a school of distance education in Queensland, Australia. Most of the families own or manage sheep and/or beef grazing properties, and their children receive their education by correspondence papers and daily UHF radio lessons. The students complete their school work at home with a…

  11. Bioreactors in Everyday Life: Ethanol and the Maize Craze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Silas

    2010-01-01

    This project served as a capstone event for the United States Military Academy sophomore Calculus II course. This multi-disciplinary problem-solving exercise motivated the link between math and biology and many other fields of study. The seven-lesson block of instruction was developed to show students how mathematics play a role in every…

  12. An Individualized and Everyday Life Approach to Cognitive Rehabilitation in Schizophrenia: A Case Illustration

    PubMed Central

    Levaux, M.-N.; Fonteneau, B.; Larøi, F.; Offerlin-Meyer, I.; Danion, J.-M.; Van der Linden, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The effectiveness of an individualized and everyday approach to cognitive rehabilitation for schizophrenia was examined in a case study. Method. After cognitive and functional assessment, concrete objectives were targeted for the person's everyday complaints. Strategies were constructed based on an analysis of the cognitive profile, daily life functioning, and processes involved in activities. They included a memory strategy for reading, a diary to compensate memory difficulties, and working memory exercises to improve immediate processing of information when reading and following conversations. Efficacy was assessed with outcome measures. Results. The program had beneficial effects on the person's cognitive and everyday functioning, which persisted at a 3-year follow-up. Conclusion. Findings provide suggestive evidence that an individualized and everyday approach may be a useful alternative in order to obtain a meaningfully lasting transfer of training to daily life, compared to the nomothetic ones which dominate the field. PMID:22997585

  13. Quality of interactions influences everyday life in psychiatric inpatient care—patients’ perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Molin, Jenny; Graneheim, Ulla H.; Lindgren, Britt-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Everyday life consists of daily activities that are taken for granted. It forms the foundation for human efforts and contains elements of both comfort and boredom. Because everyday life escapes no one, life in a psychiatric ward will become ordinary while staying there. This study aims to explore everyday life in psychiatric inpatient care based on patients’ experiences. We individually interviewed 16 participants with experiences of psychiatric inpatient care and analysed the data in accordance with the methods of grounded theory. Data collection and analysis continued in parallel in accordance with the method. Our results showed that everyday life is linked to the core category quality of interactions influences everyday life, and three constructed categories—staff makes the difference, looking for shelter in a stigmatizing environment, and facing a confusing care content—were related to the core category. Our results highlight the importance of ordinary relationships between staff and patients in psychiatric inpatient care. These results can be used to develop nursing interventions to improve psychiatric inpatient care and might also be used as a basis for reflective dialogues among staff. PMID:26806313

  14. Quality of interactions influences everyday life in psychiatric inpatient care--patients' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Molin, Jenny; Graneheim, Ulla H; Lindgren, Britt-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Everyday life consists of daily activities that are taken for granted. It forms the foundation for human efforts and contains elements of both comfort and boredom. Because everyday life escapes no one, life in a psychiatric ward will become ordinary while staying there. This study aims to explore everyday life in psychiatric inpatient care based on patients' experiences. We individually interviewed 16 participants with experiences of psychiatric inpatient care and analysed the data in accordance with the methods of grounded theory. Data collection and analysis continued in parallel in accordance with the method. Our results showed that everyday life is linked to the core category quality of interactions influences everyday life, and three constructed categories-staff makes the difference, looking for shelter in a stigmatizing environment, and facing a confusing care content-were related to the core category. Our results highlight the importance of ordinary relationships between staff and patients in psychiatric inpatient care. These results can be used to develop nursing interventions to improve psychiatric inpatient care and might also be used as a basis for reflective dialogues among staff.

  15. Couples' approaches to changes in everyday life during the first year after stroke.

    PubMed

    Ekstam, Lisa; Tham, Kerstin; Borell, Lena

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the study was to identify and describe two couples' approaches to changes in everyday life during the first year after a stroke. An additional aim was to describe how the couples viewed rehabilitation as well as their own personal training relative to changes in everyday life during the first year at home after stroke. The study design was a prospective longitudinal case study based on two couples where one of the spouses in each couple had experienced a stroke. Data collection consisted of interviews and a questionnaire and took place in the participants' homes. Data analysis utilized a constant comparative method. The findings showed a divergence in the couples' approaches to changes in their everyday life at home and were described through the following categorizations: engaging in occupations, getting experience and thereby feedback from doing, changing one's occupational needs and demands, contributing to a picture of a possible future and, integrating training in everyday life. Getting experience and feedback from doing was found to be a key category or "driver" in the change process. The couples' experiences of changes in everyday life after stroke illustrated two very divergent approaches, which is discussed in the paper. The approaches in turn had consequences for how daily life was spent after stroke which is also discussed.

  16. From ideals to resignation - interprofessional teams perspectives on everyday life processes in psychiatric inpatient care.

    PubMed

    Molin, Jenny; Graneheim, Ulla Hällgren; Ringnér, Anders; Lindgren, Britt-Marie

    2016-11-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Psychiatric inpatient care has been described by both ward staff and patients as being demanding and disorganized, lacking opportunities for quality interactions in everyday life through joint activities. Qualitative research on interprofessional teams' perspectives on everyday life processes in psychiatric inpatient care is lacking. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Staff have ideals about care and collaboration, but the obstacles they face in everyday life, such as a poor environment, power asymmetry, lacking structure and the demands of managing chaos, mean that they appear to resign and shift focus from the patients' best interests to self-survival. Different professions in general describe the same obstacles in everyday life on the wards but there are also profession-specific perspectives on distancing and feelings of abandonment. To our knowledge, these findings have not been reported in the international evidence. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Given these findings we suggest interventions such as Protected Engagement Time as well as reflective dialogues within interprofessional teams. This would help staff to resume their caring role in everyday life in psychiatric inpatient care and put their ideals into practice.

  17. Meeting reality: young adult cancer survivors' experiences of reentering everyday life after cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Hauken, May Aasebø; Larsen, Torill Marie Bogsnes; Holsen, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Cancer in young adults is rare, but the intensity of cancer treatment increases the risk of physical and psychosocial impacts on patients' entire lives. Young adult survivors are underrepresented in research, and knowledge of cancer survivors in this age group is scarce, especially knowledge of transition from cancer treatment to everyday life. The objective of this study was to explore how young adult cancer survivors experience reentering everyday life after cancer treatment. A qualitative, phenomenological approach was used and included 20 young adult survivors (aged 24-35 years) with different cancer diagnoses allocated to a rehabilitation program. Semistructured interviews were conducted, and the transcripts were analyzed qualitatively using Systematic Text Condensation method. "Meeting reality" was identified as a bridging theme, explained by 4 main themes important to the informants: (1) lack of preparation, (2) late effects, (3) lack of understanding, and (4) being neither sick nor healthy. Informants were unprepared for reentering everyday life after cancer treatment and experienced a mismatch of their expectations with reality, particularly in the holistic impact of late effects. Moreover, reentering everyday life was characterized by a lack of understanding from their network and even healthcare providers who conducted follow-ups. The informants experienced reentering everyday life as being much harder than expected, and they felt isolated as well as neither sick nor healthy. The results suggest a major shortcoming in both preparation for survivorship, multidisciplinary follow-ups, and knowledge. A shift to a more holistic perspective in survivorship care is suggested.

  18. Changing everyday activities of couples in late life: converging and keeping up.

    PubMed

    van Nes, Fenna; Jonsson, Hans; Abma, Tineke; Deeg, Dorly

    2013-01-01

    The influence of mutual spousal interrelations in domains such as health and wellbeing has been demonstrated, but little is known about the domain of everyday activities of couples in late life. In the present explorative study, we considered all of the activities participating couples talked about to be their everyday activities. Its aim was to understand, over time, changes in everyday activities as experienced by late-life community-dwelling couples. In a two-year period, 41 individual and joint interviews were conducted with 8 couples, who were purposefully selected from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Analyses involved the construction of couple narratives and constant comparisons within and across couples. Changing everyday activities in late-life couples was interpreted to be a two-way process of (1) converging, and (2) keeping up, which occurred in three fluid phases. Converging was a slow inward movement with a shift towards diminished everyday activities performed in a smaller world. Keeping up was an outward movement in order to resist the converging process by using everyday activities as a means to keep fit, physically and mentally, and to connect with the wider social world. In the first phase, couples maintained their unique linked activity pattern. In the second phase, spouses resisted converging by keeping up. In the third phase, spouses co-performed everyday activities closely together. The findings support the need to develop couple-oriented interventions that aim to enhance the couples' functioning in the domain of everyday activities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Surviving Violence in Everyday Life: A Communicative Approach to Homelessness.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Elaine

    2017-02-17

    In this narrative review, the author synthesizes the literature on homelessness across various disciplines (e.g., public health, social work, sociology, and communication) to demonstrate how the experiences of homelessness can be created, maintained, and reinforced through communication, including interpersonal interactions and public discourse. By conceptualizing homelessness as a culturally constructed and socially situated phenomenon, the author examines (a) the complex conceptualization of homelessness, (b) everyday violence faced by people who are homeless, and (c) coping strategies of people who are homeless. In summary, homelessness is a complex social phenomenon, involving tensions between individuals, families, and social systems, all of which are situated in the larger sociocultural and sociopolitical contexts of a specific time and place.

  20. The presentation of science in everyday life: the science show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watermeyer, Richard

    2013-09-01

    This paper constitutes a case-study of the `science show' model of public engagement employed by a company of science communicators focused on the popularization of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subject disciplines with learner constituencies. It examines the potential of the science show to foster the interest and imagination of young learners in STEM; challenge popular pre/misconceptions of science and scientists; reveal the broadness, plurality and everyday relevance of science; and induce a more fluent and equitable science nexus between expert and non-expert or learner groups. Discussion focuses on conversations with members of a UK and university based science communication outfit who comment on the potential of the science show as a model of non-formal science education and science engagement and the necessary conditions for its success.

  1. German Anxiety Barometer—Clinical and Everyday-Life Anxieties in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Adolph, Dirk; Schneider, Silvia; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test a time-efficient screening instrument to assess clinically relevant and everyday-life (e.g., economic, political, personal) anxieties. Furthermore, factors influencing these anxieties, correlations between clinical and everyday anxieties and, for the first time, anxiety during different stages of life were assessed in a representative sample of the general population (N = 2229). Around 30% of the respondents manifested at least one disorder-specific key symptom within 1 year (women > men), 8% reported severe anxiety symptoms. Two thirds of respondents reported minor everyday anxieties and 5% were strongly impaired, whereby persons with severe clinical symptoms were more frequently affected. A variety of potential influencing factors could be identified. These include, in addition to socioeconomic status, gender, general health, risk-taking, and leisure behavior, also some up to now little investigated possible protective factors, such as everyday-life mental activity. The observed effects are rather small, which, however, given the heterogeneity of the general population seems plausible. Although the correlative design of the study does not allow direct causal conclusions, it can, however, serve as a starting point for experimental intervention studies in the future. Together with time series from repeated representative surveys, we expect these data to provide a better understanding of the processes that underlie everyday-life and clinical anxieties. PMID:27667977

  2. German Anxiety Barometer-Clinical and Everyday-Life Anxieties in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Adolph, Dirk; Schneider, Silvia; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test a time-efficient screening instrument to assess clinically relevant and everyday-life (e.g., economic, political, personal) anxieties. Furthermore, factors influencing these anxieties, correlations between clinical and everyday anxieties and, for the first time, anxiety during different stages of life were assessed in a representative sample of the general population (N = 2229). Around 30% of the respondents manifested at least one disorder-specific key symptom within 1 year (women > men), 8% reported severe anxiety symptoms. Two thirds of respondents reported minor everyday anxieties and 5% were strongly impaired, whereby persons with severe clinical symptoms were more frequently affected. A variety of potential influencing factors could be identified. These include, in addition to socioeconomic status, gender, general health, risk-taking, and leisure behavior, also some up to now little investigated possible protective factors, such as everyday-life mental activity. The observed effects are rather small, which, however, given the heterogeneity of the general population seems plausible. Although the correlative design of the study does not allow direct causal conclusions, it can, however, serve as a starting point for experimental intervention studies in the future. Together with time series from repeated representative surveys, we expect these data to provide a better understanding of the processes that underlie everyday-life and clinical anxieties.

  3. Elementary neurocognitive function, learning potential and everyday life skills in schizophrenia: what is their relationship?

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Matthew M; Jeffrey, Sarah B; Rose, Jennifer

    2010-02-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationships between static, elementary neurocognitive functions, dynamic measures of learning potential and functional status in schizophrenia, despite the putative role of learning potential in models of the relationship between static neurocognitive function and functional status (e.g., Green et al., 2000). The current study sought to clarify these relationships. One-hundred and twenty-five outpatients with schizophrenia were administered the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II), as an index of learning potential, along with measures of sustained attention, verbal prose recall, working memory, problem-solving and processing speed, and a capacity measure of everyday life skills (Study 1). A subset of 48 outpatients with schizophrenia who were impaired on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were also administered a test-train-test version of the WCST as a second measure of learning potential (Study 2). As expected, several static, elementary neurocognitive measures were linked to measures of everyday life skills in both samples. There was no evidence, however, that either measure of learning potential contributed unique variance beyond that explained by elementary cognitive skill to measures of everyday life skills. Learning potential was also tested as a mediator and moderator of the relationship between static neurocognitive function and measures of everyday life skills. Neither learning potential measure mediated the relationship between static measures of neurocognition and everyday life skills. Learning potential, as measured by the CVLT-II, was found to moderate the relationship of processing speed and everyday life skills. Taken together, these findings raise questions as to the explanatory value of measures of learning potential as predictors of functional status in schizophrenia. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Elementary Neurocognitive Function, Learning Potential and Everyday Life Skills in Schizophrenia: What is Their Relationship?

    PubMed Central

    Kurtz, Matthew M.; Jeffrey, Sarah B.; Rose, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have investigated relationships between static, elementary neurocognitive functions, dynamic measures of learning potential and functional status in schizophrenia, despite the putative role of learning potential in models of the relationship between static neurocognitive function and functional status (e.g., Green et al., 2000). The current study sought to clarify these relationships. One-hundred and twenty-five outpatients with schizophrenia were administered the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II), as an index of learning potential, along with measures of sustained attention, verbal prose recall, working memory, problem-solving and processing speed, and a capacity measure of everyday life skills (Study 1). A subset of 48 outpatients with schizophrenia who were impaired on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were also administered a test-train-test version of the WCST as a second measure of learning potential (Study 2). As expected, several static, elementary neurocognitive measures were linked to measures of everyday life skills in both samples. There was no evidence, however, that either measure of learning potential contributed unique variance beyond that explained by elementary cognitive skill to measures of everyday life skills. Learning potential was also tested as a mediator and moderator of the relationship between static neurocognitive function and measures of everyday life skills. Neither learning potential measure mediated the relationship between static measures of neurocognition and everyday life skills. Learning potential, as measured by the CVLT-II, was found to moderate the relationship of processing speed and everyday life skills. Taken together, these findings raise questions as to the explanatory value of measures of learning potential as predictors of functional status in schizophrenia. PMID:19747800

  5. Media multitasking and failures of attention in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Ralph, Brandon C W; Thomson, David R; Cheyne, James Allan; Smilek, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Using a series of online self-report measures, we examine media multitasking, a particularly pervasive form of multitasking, and its relations to three aspects of everyday attention: (1) failures of attention and cognitive errors (2) mind wandering, and (3) attentional control with an emphasis on attentional switching and distractibility. We observed a positive correlation between levels of media multitasking and self-reports of attentional failures, as well as with reports of both spontaneous and deliberate mind wandering. No correlation was observed between media multitasking and self-reported memory failures, lending credence to the hypothesis that media multitasking may be specifically related to problems of inattention, rather than cognitive errors in general. Furthermore, media multitasking was not related with self-reports of difficulties in attention switching or distractibility. We offer a plausible causal structural model assessing both direct and indirect effects among media multitasking, attentional failures, mind wandering, and cognitive errors, with the heuristic goal of constraining and motivating theories of the effects of media multitasking on inattention.

  6. This Harlem life: black families and everyday life in the 1920s and 1930s.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Stephen; White, Shane; Garton, Stephen; White, Graham

    2010-01-01

    This article uses Probation Department files to reconstruct the lives of five ordinary residents of Harlem. It highlights what that black metropolis offered those outside the political and cultural elite, who have dominated historical scholarship, showing how ordinary blacks negotiated the challenges of life in northern neighborhoods, and drew on institutions and organizations, to establish and sustain new lives. We offer the kind of individualized perspective on everyday life that other scholars have provided for high culture, but which does not exist for other realms of existence in Harlem, even in early twentieth century sociological studies of black life. Where scholars seeking to distinguish the neighborhood from a slum have pointed to the prevailing pride and self-confidence of its residents, this article directs attention to more immediate, concrete supports that sustained and enriched life in Harlem. Relationships with spouses, children, siblings and cousins sustained individuals faced with the social reality of living in overcrowded, deteriorating, disease infested housing, subject to the racism of white police, politicians and employers; so too did friendships made in nightclubs, speakeasies, dances and movie theatres, and membership of churches, fraternal organizations, social clubs, and sports clubs and teams.

  7. Alcohol and cognitive function: assessment in everyday life and laboratory settings using mobile phones.

    PubMed

    Tiplady, Brian; Oshinowo, Bami; Thomson, Joanne; Drummond, Gordon Blair

    2009-12-01

    Mobile phone (cellphone) technology makes it practicable to assess cognitive function in a natural setting. We assessed this method and compared impairment of performance due to alcohol in everyday life with measurements made in the laboratory. Thirty-eight volunteers (20 male, aged 18-54 years) took part in the everyday study, completing assessments twice a day for 14 days following requests sent by text messages to the mobile phone. Twenty-six of them (12 male, aged 19-54) took part in a subsequent two-period crossover lab study comparing alcohol with no alcohol (placebo). Everyday entries with 5 or more units of alcohol consumed in the past 6 hours (inferred mean blood alcohol concentration 95 ml/100 ml) showed higher scores for errors in tests of attention and working memory compared with entries with no alcohol consumed that day. Response times were impaired for only 1 test, sustained attention to response. The laboratory comparison of alcohol (mean blood alcohol concentration 124 mg/100 ml) with placebo showed impairment to both reaction time and error scores for all tests. A similar degree of subjective drunkenness was reported in both settings. We found that mobile phones allowed practical research on cognitive performance in an everyday life setting. Alcohol impaired function in both laboratory and everyday life settings at relevant doses of alcohol.

  8. Climate Change and Everyday Life: Repertoires children use to negotiate a socio-scientific issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Jenny; Ideland, Malin; Malmberg, Claes; Grace, Marcus

    2014-06-01

    There are only a few studies about how primary school students engage in socio-scientific discussions. This study aims to add to this field of research by focusing on how 9-10-year-olds in Sweden and England handle climate change as a complex environmental socio-scientific issue (SSI), within the context of their own lives and in relation to society at large. It focuses on how different interpretative repertoires were used by the students in discussions to legitimise or question their everyday lifestyles. They discussed four possible options that a government might consider to help reduce carbon dioxide production. Six main repertoires were identified: Everyday life, Self-Interest, Environment, Science and Technology, Society and Justice. The Everyday life repertoire was used when students related their discussion to their everyday lifestyles. Science and technology-related solutions were offered to maintain or improve things, but these were sometimes rather unrealistic. Arguments related to environment and health frequently appeared to have a superior status compared to the others. Findings also highlighted how conflicts between the students were actually productive by bringing in several perspectives to negotiate the solutions. These primary school students were, therefore, able to discuss and negotiate a complex real-world SSI. Students positioned themselves as active contributors to society, using their life experiences and limited knowledge to understand the problems that affected their everyday lives. Honing these skills within a school science community of practice could facilitate primary students' engagement with SSIs and empower them as citizens.

  9. Social ruptures and the everyday life of homeless people: an ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Fiorati, Regina Célia; Carretta, Regina Yoneko Dakuzaku; Kebbe, Leonardo Martins; Cardoso, Beatriz Lobato; Xavier, Joab Jefferson da Silva

    2017-07-20

    To discover the generators of disruptions in social support networks and identify the everyday life and projects of life of homeless people. Ethnographic study conducted between 2012 and 2013 in Ribeirão Preto -SP, Brazil. The participants were fifteen homeless people. Data were collected through video-recorded interviews addressing histories of life and a field diary. Data analysis was based on Habermas' Theory of Communicative Action. Results revealed that the participants' families have faced inequalities for many generations and that everyday life is marked by violence and death, poverty and exclusion, disrupted social networks, loneliness, alcohol and drug consumption, and other socially determined diseases. The situation of living on the streets stems from several factors present in the organization of the Brazilian society and social determinants condition the life and health of homeless people.

  10. Shift work to balance everyday life - a salutogenic nursing perspective in home help service in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Agosti, Madelaine Törnquist; Andersson, Ingemar; Ejlertsson, Göran; Janlöv, Ann-Christin

    2015-01-01

    Nurses in Sweden have a high absence due to illness and many retire before the age of sixty. Factors at work as well as in private life may contribute to health problems. To maintain a healthy work-force there is a need for actions on work-life balance in a salutogenic perspective. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions of resources in everyday life to balance work and private life among nurses in home help service. Thirteen semi-structured individual interviews and two focus group interviews were conducted with home help service nurses in Sweden. A qualitative content analysis was used for the analyses. In the analyses, six themes of perceptions of recourses in everyday life emerged; (i) Reflecting on life. (ii) Being healthy and taking care of yourself. (iii) Having a meaningful job and a supportive work climate. (iv) Working shifts and part time. (v) Having a family and a supporting network. (vi) Making your home your castle. The result points out the complexity of work-life balance and support that the need for nurses to balance everyday life differs during different phases and transitions in life. In this salutogenic study, the result differs from studies with a pathogenic approach. Shift work and part time work were seen as two resources that contributed to flexibility and a prerequisite to work-life balance. To have time and energy for both private life and work was seen as essential. To reflect on and discuss life gave inner strength to set boundaries and to prioritize both in private life and in work life. Managers in nursing contexts have a great challenge to maintain and strengthen resources which enhance the work-life balance and health of nurses. Salutogenic research is needed to gain an understanding of resources that enhance work-life balance and health in nursing contexts.

  11. Everyday problem solving across the adult life span: solution diversity and efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Mienaltowski, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Everyday problem solving involves examining the solutions that individuals generate when faced with problems that take place in their everyday experiences. Problems can range from medication adherence and meal preparation to disagreeing with a physician over a recommended medical procedure or compromising with extended family members over where to host Thanksgiving dinner. Across the life span, research has demonstrated divergent patterns of change in performance based on the type of everyday problems used as well as based on the way that problem-solving efficacy is operationally defined. Advancing age is associated with worsening performance when tasks involve single-solution or fluency-based definitions of effectiveness. However, when efficacy is defined in terms of the diversity of strategies used, as well as by the social and emotional impact of solution choice on the individual, performance is remarkably stable and sometimes even improves in the latter half of life. This article discusses how both of these approaches to everyday problem solving inform research on the influence that aging has on everyday functioning. PMID:22023569

  12. Everyday problem solving across the adult life span: solution diversity and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Mienaltowski, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    Everyday problem solving involves examining the solutions that individuals generate when faced with problems that take place in their everyday experiences. Problems can range from medication adherence and meal preparation to disagreeing with a physician over a recommended medical procedure or compromising with extended family members over where to host Thanksgiving dinner. Across the life span, research has demonstrated divergent patterns of change in performance based on the type of everyday problems used as well as based on the way that problem-solving efficacy is operationally defined. Advancing age is associated with worsening performance when tasks involve single-solution or fluency-based definitions of effectiveness. However, when efficacy is defined in terms of the diversity of strategies used, as well as by the social and emotional impact of solution choice on the individual, performance is remarkably stable and sometimes even improves in the latter half of life. This article discusses how both of these approaches to everyday problem solving inform research on the influence that aging has on everyday functioning. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. The Everyday Life of Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Janet

    2008-01-01

    Background: Aspects of daily life have been considered in a population of people with Down syndrome, followed repeatedly from infancy to 21-years old, and again at 30-, 35- and 40-years old. A control sample of non-disabled babies were seen at the same ages. Method: Parents (usually the mothers) and/or carers were interviewed about the people's…

  14. Critical Thinking: Nine Strategies for Everyday Life, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Linda; Paul, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Lists nine strategies that help students move from being an "unreflective thinker" to a "master thinker," discussing in detail the last five strategies: reshaping character; dealing with egocentrism; redefining the way to see things; getting in touch with emotions; and analyzing group influences on life. (PGS)

  15. The Everyday Life of Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Janet

    2008-01-01

    Background: Aspects of daily life have been considered in a population of people with Down syndrome, followed repeatedly from infancy to 21-years old, and again at 30-, 35- and 40-years old. A control sample of non-disabled babies were seen at the same ages. Method: Parents (usually the mothers) and/or carers were interviewed about the people's…

  16. Making Sense of an Information World: The Everyday-Life Information Behavior of Preteens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Eric M.; Fisher, Karen E.; Marcoux, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an empirically-grounded framework for mediating the everyday-life information worlds of youth aged 9-13. "Tweens" are a sandwiched population with behaviors, circumstances, and needs distinct from children and young adults. Little research has addressed their information-seeking, especially regarding nonschool contexts. Thus,…

  17. Autobiographical Memory Sharing in Everyday Life: Characteristics of a Good Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Jacqueline M.; Bluck, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Storytelling is a ubiquitous human activity that occurs across the lifespan as part of everyday life. Studies from three disparate literatures suggest that older adults (as compared to younger adults) are (a) less likely to recall story details, (b) more likely to go off-target when sharing stories, and, in contrast, (c) more likely to receive…

  18. Teaching and Learning in Rural Mexico: A Portrait of Student Responsibility in Everyday School Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, L.A.; McLaughlin, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we examined on the sociocultural environment and personal experiences of children from a rural Mexican escuela unitaria (one-room, one-teacher school), because many of our immigrant children come to the US from rural Mexican communities. We present a portrait of everyday school life in which students assume responsibility: (a) for…

  19. Exploring the Everyday Life Information Needs, Practices, and Challenges of Emerging Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson-Baldauf, Dana

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation research addresses a gap in the library and information science literature on everyday life information (ELI) needs and experiences of emerging adults with intellectual disabilities (I/DD). Emerging adulthood refers to the period between the late teen years and mid-twenties. Although this is a period of significant change for all…

  20. HIV/AIDS Content Knowledge and Presentation Strategies in Biology for Effective Use in Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mnguni, Lindelani; Abrie, Mia

    2012-01-01

    HIV/AIDS education should empower students to create knowledge using everyday life experiences. Such knowledge should then be used to construe experience and resolve social problems such as risk behaviour that leads to infection. In South Africa, attempts to reduce the spread of HIV include incorporating HIV/AIDS education in the biology…

  1. (Critical) Learning in/through Everyday Life in a Global Consumer Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Robin Redmon; Sandlin, Jennifer A.

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on the intersection of three areas of Peter Jarvis's work that have profoundly influenced the field of adult education generally and the authors own research trajectories, in particular: (a) learning from everyday life and in social context, (b) incidental and tacit learning in consumer societies in a globalised world (i.e.…

  2. Hand preference patterns in expert basketball players: interrelations between basketball-specific and everyday life behavior.

    PubMed

    Stöckel, Tino; Vater, Christian

    2014-12-01

    In the present study we examined the interrelation of everyday life handedness and hand preference in basketball, as an area of expertise that requires individuals being proficient with both their non-dominant and dominant hand. A secondary aim was to elucidate the link between basketball-specific practice, hand preference in basketball and everyday life handedness. Therefore, 176 expert basketball players self-reported their hand preference for activities of daily living and for basketball-specific behavior as well as details about their basketball-specific history via questionnaire. We found that compared to the general population the one-hand bias was significantly reduced for both everyday life and basketball-specific hand preference (i.e., a higher prevalence of mixed-handed individuals), and that both concepts were significantly related. Moreover, only preference scores for lay-up and dribbling skills were significantly related to measures of basketball-specific practice. Consequently, training-induced modulations of lateral preference seem to be very specific to only a few basketball-specific skills, and do not generalize to other skills within the domain of basketball nor do they extend into everyday life handedness. The results are discussed in terms of their relevance regarding theories of handedness and their practical implications for the sport of basketball. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. HIV/AIDS Content Knowledge and Presentation Strategies in Biology for Effective Use in Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mnguni, Lindelani; Abrie, Mia

    2012-01-01

    HIV/AIDS education should empower students to create knowledge using everyday life experiences. Such knowledge should then be used to construe experience and resolve social problems such as risk behaviour that leads to infection. In South Africa, attempts to reduce the spread of HIV include incorporating HIV/AIDS education in the biology…

  4. Empowering Interviews: Narrative Interviews in the Study of Information Literacy in Everyday Life Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckerdal, Johanna Rivano

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This paper presents a way to design and conduct interviews, within a sociocultural perspective, for studying information literacy practices in everyday life. Methods: A framework was developed combining a socio-cultural perspective with a narrative interview was developed. Interviewees were invited to participate by talking and using…

  5. Autobiographical Memory Sharing in Everyday Life: Characteristics of a Good Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Jacqueline M.; Bluck, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Storytelling is a ubiquitous human activity that occurs across the lifespan as part of everyday life. Studies from three disparate literatures suggest that older adults (as compared to younger adults) are (a) less likely to recall story details, (b) more likely to go off-target when sharing stories, and, in contrast, (c) more likely to receive…

  6. Memory performance of patients with major depression in an everyday life situation.

    PubMed

    Beblo, Thomas; Kater, Leona; Baetge, Sharon; Driessen, Martin; Piefke, Martina

    2017-02-01

    Although patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) report severe memory impairment in their everyday life, memory tests indicate only moderate deficits. In order to clarify these conflicting observations, the present study aimed at the investigation of MDD patients' memory performance in a real everyday life situation. The study included 20 MDD patients and 20 healthy control subjects. Nonverbal memory was assessed by means of the Rey Complex Figure Test whereas verbal memory was assessed by the recall of a 20-item wordlist with supermarket products. For the assessment of everyday life memory, subjects had to purchase as many products as possible of the 20-item wordlist in a real supermarket. Furthermore, subjects were asked for memory complaints. MDD patients' performance in the supermarket resembled memory test results and was not significantly impaired. MDD patients' self-reports, however, indicated severe memory problems that clearly fell below their performance in the supermarket. This study helped to identify everyday life-related factors that do not impair MDD patients' cognitive performance beyond their performance in standard laboratory testing situations. These factors may not be relevant for remediation programs that are specifically developed for depressed patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Two Mazahua (Mexican) Communities: Introducing a Collective Orientation into Everyday School Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradise, Ruth; Robles, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an ethnographic description of parents' and other community members' participation in the everyday life of two rural schools in indigenous Mexican communities. Adults and children, together with school authorities, transform their schools by introducing a collective orientation that contrasts with the emphasis on individual…

  8. Inclusion and Participation in Everyday School Life: Experiences of Children with Physical (Dis)Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asbjørnslett, Mona; Engelsrud, Gunn Helene; Helseth, Sølvi

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the school experiences of children with physical (dis)abilities. Based on 39 interviews with 15 Norwegian children, participation in everyday school life is introduced as a central theme and divided into three sub-themes: community and independence; adequate help and influence in the classroom; and influence in planning and…

  9. Two Mazahua (Mexican) Communities: Introducing a Collective Orientation into Everyday School Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradise, Ruth; Robles, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an ethnographic description of parents' and other community members' participation in the everyday life of two rural schools in indigenous Mexican communities. Adults and children, together with school authorities, transform their schools by introducing a collective orientation that contrasts with the emphasis on individual…

  10. Teaching and Learning in Rural Mexico: A Portrait of Student Responsibility in Everyday School Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, L.A.; McLaughlin, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we examined on the sociocultural environment and personal experiences of children from a rural Mexican escuela unitaria (one-room, one-teacher school), because many of our immigrant children come to the US from rural Mexican communities. We present a portrait of everyday school life in which students assume responsibility: (a) for…

  11. Exploring the Everyday Life Information Needs, Practices, and Challenges of Emerging Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson-Baldauf, Dana

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation research addresses a gap in the library and information science literature on everyday life information (ELI) needs and experiences of emerging adults with intellectual disabilities (I/DD). Emerging adulthood refers to the period between the late teen years and mid-twenties. Although this is a period of significant change for all…

  12. Making Sense of an Information World: The Everyday-Life Information Behavior of Preteens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Eric M.; Fisher, Karen E.; Marcoux, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an empirically-grounded framework for mediating the everyday-life information worlds of youth aged 9-13. "Tweens" are a sandwiched population with behaviors, circumstances, and needs distinct from children and young adults. Little research has addressed their information-seeking, especially regarding nonschool contexts. Thus,…

  13. Michael Jordan Meets C. Wright Mills: Illustrating the Sociological Imagination with Objects from Everyday Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Discusses an exercise that uses objects from everyday life to demonstrate to students how their personal biographies intersect with history. Encourages active engagement between teacher, students, and subject matter in a mutual quest for knowledge and understanding. Outlines the exercise, assesses its success, and makes additional recommendations.…

  14. Affective and Motivational Factors Mediate the Relation between Math Skills and Use of Math in Everyday Life

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Brenda R. J.; Schmitz, Eva A.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the use of math in everyday life (the propensity to recognize and solve quantitative issues in real life situations). Data from a Dutch nation-wide research on math among adults (N = 521) were used to investigate the question whether math anxiety and perceived math competence mediated the relationship between math skills and use of math in everyday life, taken gender differences into account. Results showed that women reported higher math anxiety, lower perceived math competence, and lower use of math in everyday life, compared to men. Women's skills were estimated at a lower level than men's. For both women and men, higher skills were associated with higher perceived math competence, which in turn was associated with more use of math in everyday life. Only for women, math anxiety also mediated the relation between math skills and use of math in everyday life. PMID:27148122

  15. Affective and Motivational Factors Mediate the Relation between Math Skills and Use of Math in Everyday Life.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Brenda R J; Schmitz, Eva A; van der Maas, Han L J

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the use of math in everyday life (the propensity to recognize and solve quantitative issues in real life situations). Data from a Dutch nation-wide research on math among adults (N = 521) were used to investigate the question whether math anxiety and perceived math competence mediated the relationship between math skills and use of math in everyday life, taken gender differences into account. Results showed that women reported higher math anxiety, lower perceived math competence, and lower use of math in everyday life, compared to men. Women's skills were estimated at a lower level than men's. For both women and men, higher skills were associated with higher perceived math competence, which in turn was associated with more use of math in everyday life. Only for women, math anxiety also mediated the relation between math skills and use of math in everyday life.

  16. The impact of prostate cancer on men's everyday life.

    PubMed

    Appleton, L; Wyatt, D; Perkins, E; Parker, C; Crane, J; Jones, A; Moorhead, L; Brown, V; Wall, C; Pagett, M

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer impacts on the daily lives of men, particularly their physical and emotional health, relationships and social life. This paper highlights how men cope with disease and treatment and the strategies they employ to manage their diagnosis alongside daily life. Twenty-seven men were interviewed at different stages in their disease pathway: nine men prior to radiotherapy, eight men at 6-8 months post radiotherapy and 10 men at 12-18 months post radiotherapy. A grounded theory approach was used to collect and analyse the data. Regardless of the point at which they were interviewed four areas emerged as important to the men: the pathway to diagnosis; the diagnosis; the impact of prostate cancer and its treatment on daily life; and living with prostate cancer. Prostate cancer was diagnosed using the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, rectal examination and biopsy. Many men did not understand the consequences of a high PSA reading before they undertook the test. Painful investigative biopsies were viewed as the worst part of the disease experience. Radiotherapy was considered less invasive than other treatments, although preparatory regimes were associated with stress and inconvenience. Men used various strategies to deal with treatment-induced threats to their masculinity in the long term. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The role of gender in very old age: profiles of functioning and everyday life patterns.

    PubMed

    Smith, J; Baltes, M M

    1998-12-01

    Older men and women have different life contexts as a function of differential longevity and socio-structural opportunities over the life course. The question is whether gender-related differences also occur in psychological and everyday functioning in older adults. Examined were 258 men and 258 women between the ages of 70 and 103 years (M = 85 years), participants in the Berlin Aging Study. Significant gender differences were observed in 13 of 28 aspects of personality, social relationships, everyday activity patterns, and reported well-being. Cluster analysis identified 11 subgroups whose profiles of life conditions and health and psychological functioning could be categorized as more or less desirable (functional). The relative risk of a less desirable profile was 1.6 times higher for women than for men. For older adults, gender as a variable carries differences in physical frailty and life conditions that likely have consequences for psychological functioning.

  18. Adult experiences of science and technology in everyday life: Some educational implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Tim

    1992-12-01

    This paper outlines a project that is focussed on examining the complex ways in which adults experience science and technology in different areas of their everyday life including paid work, the home, health and leisure. The research has involved interviews with individual adults situated in a diverse range of life situations in New Zealand. A case study is presented to indicate the type of data being analysed and the implications emerging for education from the project.

  19. Computational Everyday Life Human Behavior Model as Servicable Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motomura, Yoichi; Nishida, Yoshifumi

    A project called `Open life matrix' is not only a research activity but also real problem solving as an action research. This concept is realized by large-scale data collection, probabilistic causal structure model construction and information service providing using the model. One concrete outcome of this project is childhood injury prevention activity in new team consist of hospital, government, and many varieties of researchers. The main result from the project is a general methodology to apply probabilistic causal structure models as servicable knowledge for action research. In this paper, the summary of this project and future direction to emphasize action research driven by artificial intelligence technology are discussed.

  20. Small Science: Infants and Toddlers Experiencing Science in Everyday Family Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikder, Shukla; Fleer, Marilyn

    2014-09-01

    Vygotsky (1987) stated that the restructured form of everyday concepts learned at home and in the community interact with scientific concepts introduced in formal school settings, leading to a higher level of scientific thinking for school-aged children. But, what does this mean for the scientific learning of infants and toddlers? What kinds of science learning are afforded at home during this early period of life? The study reported in this paper sought to investigate the scientific development of infants-toddlers (10 to 36 months) growing up in Bangladeshi families living in Australia and Singapore. Four families were studied over 2 years. Digital video observations were made of everyday family life and analysed using Vygotsky's theoretical framework of everyday concepts and scientific concepts (51 h of digital observations). While there are many possibilities for developing scientific concepts in infants-toddlers' everyday life, our study found four categories of what we have called small science: multiple possibilities for science; discrete science; embedded science and counter intuitive science. The findings of this study contribute to the almost non-existent literature into infants and toddlers' scientific development and advance new understandings of early childhood science education.

  1. Small Science: Infants and Toddlers Experiencing Science in Everyday Family Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikder, Shukla; Fleer, Marilyn

    2015-06-01

    Vygotsky (1987) stated that the restructured form of everyday concepts learned at home and in the community interact with scientific concepts introduced in formal school settings, leading to a higher level of scientific thinking for school-aged children. But, what does this mean for the scientific learning of infants and toddlers? What kinds of science learning are afforded at home during this early period of life? The study reported in this paper sought to investigate the scientific development of infants-toddlers (10 to 36 months) growing up in Bangladeshi families living in Australia and Singapore. Four families were studied over 2 years. Digital video observations were made of everyday family life and analysed using Vygotsky's theoretical framework of everyday concepts and scientific concepts (51 h of digital observations). While there are many possibilities for developing scientific concepts in infants-toddlers' everyday life, our study found four categories of what we have called small science: multiple possibilities for science; discrete science; embedded science and counter intuitive science. The findings of this study contribute to the almost non-existent literature into infants and toddlers' scientific development and advance new understandings of early childhood science education.

  2. Do Metacognitions and Intolerance of Uncertainty Predict Worry in Everyday Life? An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study.

    PubMed

    Thielsch, Carolin; Andor, Tanja; Ehring, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Cognitive models of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) suggest that excessive worry is due to positive and negative metacognitive beliefs and/or intolerance of uncertainty. Empirical support mainly derives from cross-sectional studies with limited conclusiveness, using self-report measures and thereby possibly causing recall biases. The aim of the present study therefore was to examine the power of these cognitive variables to predict levels of worry in everyday life using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA). Metacognitions and intolerance of uncertainty were assessed using well-established self-report questionnaires in 41 nonclinical participants who subsequently completed ratings on worry intensity and burden on a portable device for 1week at seven times a day once every 2hours. Results showed significant associations of negative metacognitive beliefs and intolerance of uncertainty, but not positive metacognitive beliefs, with worry in everyday life. In multilevel regression analyses, a substantial proportion of variance of everyday worry could be accounted for by negative metacognitions over and above trait worry and daily hassles. Intolerance of uncertainty likewise emerged as a valid predictor when tested in isolation, but did not explain additional variance once negative metacognitions were controlled. The findings support current cognitive models of excessive worry and highlight the role of negative metacognitions. By using EMA to assess levels of worry in everyday life, they extend earlier findings focusing exclusively on retrospective questionnaire measures. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. The meaning of activity and participation in everyday life when living with hand osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Bromann Bukhave, Elise; la Cour, Karen; Huniche, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is, first, to advance the understanding of participation and its relationship to activity; second, to add to discussions or understandings of the ICF by contributing an empirically derived understanding of participation and its relationship to activity connected to the conduct of everyday life in people with hand osteoarthritis (hand OA). Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 31 men and women living with hand OA because existing research on this group and the challenges they encounter in their everyday life is sparse. The analytical process was inspired by Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis and informed by critical psychology and social practice theory as interpretive frameworks. Our empirical findings indicate that persons with hand OA experience participation restrictions in their everyday lives and activity limitations as aspects of participation. This indicates that activity and participation are experienced as interrelated across social contexts. Participation in everyday life seems complex: what to participate in, how to participate and with whom seem of importance for subjective meaning-making. Implications are discussed in relation to methodology, the empirical findings, and clinical practice.

  4. Health factors in the everyday life and work of public sector employees in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Erlandsson, Lena-Karin; Carlsson, Gunilla; Horstmann, Vibeke; Gard, Gunvor; Holmström, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to explore aspects of everyday life in addition to established risk factors and their relationship to subjective health and well-being among public sector employees in Sweden. Gainful employment impact on employees' health and well-being, but work is only one part of everyday life and a broader perspective is essential in order to identify health-related factors. Data were obtained from employees at six Social Insurance Offices in Sweden, 250 women and 50 men. A questionnaire based on established instruments and questions specifically designed for this study was used. Relationships between five factors of everyday life, subjective health and well-being were investigated by means of multivariate logistic regression analysis. The final model revealed a limited importance of certain work-related factors. A general satisfaction with everyday activities, a stress-free environment and general control in addition to not having monotonous movements at work were found to be factors explaining 46.3% of subjective good health and well-being. A person's entire activity pattern, including work, is important, and strategies for promoting health should take into account the person's situation as a whole. The interplay between risk and health factors is not clear and further research is warranted.

  5. Coeliac disease--women's experiences in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Jacobsson, Lisa R; Hallert, Claes; Milberg, Anna; Friedrichsen, Maria

    2012-12-01

    To describe what life is like as a woman living with coeliac disease. The therapy for coeliac disease is a gluten-free diet, and if sufferers keep strictly to this, it is suggested that they will stay well. However, previous studies point out that people who are treated for coeliac disease, particularly women, experience various kinds of inconvenience in relation to having coeliac disease and to being treated with gluten-free diet. A qualitative research design was chosen. A phenomenological approach as devised by Giorgi was used. Tape-recorded qualitative interviews with a total of 15 women who were being treated for coeliac disease were conducted in 2008 in Sweden. The results demonstrated that coeliac disease can influence women's lives in different ways. The general structure of being a woman with coeliac disease was described as a striving towards a normalised lifeworld. Three conditions necessary to achieve a normalised life were described, namely being secure, being in control and being seen and included. Understanding factors affecting the ability to live with coeliac disease as normally as possible can help caregivers, and others, to support these women in their aims. Nurses should help women to adopt facilitating thoughts in relation to the disease and, in so doing, help them to select appropriate coping strategies. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Sounds like a Narcissist: Behavioral Manifestations of Narcissism in Everyday Life

    PubMed Central

    Holtzman, Nicholas S.; Vazire, Simine; Mehl, Matthias R.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about narcissists’ everyday behavior. The goal of this study was to describe how narcissism is manifested in everyday life. Using the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR), we obtained naturalistic behavior from participants’ everyday lives. The results suggest that the defining characteristics of narcissism that have been established from questionnaire and laboratory-based studies are borne out in narcissists’ day-to-day behaviors. Narcissists do indeed behave in more extraverted and less agreeable ways than non-narcissists, skip class more (among narcissists high in exploitativeness/entitlement only), and use more sexual language. Furthermore, we found that the link between narcissism and disagreeable behavior is strengthened when controlling for self-esteem, thus extending prior questionnaire-based findings (Paulhus, Robins, Trzesniewski, & Tracy, 2004) to observed, real-world behavior. PMID:20711512

  7. Cognitive assistive technology and professional support in everyday life for adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Lindstedt, Helena; Umb-Carlsson, Oie

    2013-09-01

    An evaluation of a model of intervention in everyday settings, consisting of cognitive assistive technology (CAT) and support provided by occupational therapists to adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The purpose was to study how professional support and CAT facilitate everyday life and promote community participation of adults with ADHD. The intervention was implemented in five steps and evaluated in a 15-month study (March 200  = T1 to June 2007 = T2). One questionnaire and one protocol describe the CATs and provided support. Two questionnaires were employed at T1 and T2 for evaluation of the intervention in everyday settings. The participants tried 74 CATs, with weekly schedules, watches and weighted blankets being most highly valued. Carrying out a daily routine was the most frequent support. More participants were working at T2 than at T1. Frequency of performing and satisfaction with daily occupations as well as life satisfaction were stable over the one-year period. The results indicate a higher frequency of participating in work but only a tendency of increased subjectively experienced life satisfaction. However, to be of optimal usability, CAT requires individually tailored, systematic and structured support by specially trained professionals. Implications for Rehabilitation Adults with ADHD report an overall satisfaction with the cognitive assistive technology, particularly with low-technological products such as weekly schedules and weighted blankets. Using cognitive assistive technology in everyday settings indicate a higher frequency of participating in work, but only a tendency of increased subjectively experienced life satisfaction for adults with ADHD. Prescription of cognitive assistive technology to adults with ADHD in everyday settings requires individually tailored, systematic and structured support by specially trained professionals.

  8. Neuroscience and everyday life: Facing the translation problem.

    PubMed

    Francken, Jolien C; Slors, Marc

    2017-09-10

    To enable the impact of neuroscientific insights on our daily lives, careful translation of research findings is required. However, neuroscientific terminology and common-sense concepts are often hard to square. For example, when neuroscientists study lying to allow the use of brain scans for lie-detection purposes, the concept of lying in the scientific case differs considerably from the concept in court. Furthermore, lying and other cognitive concepts are used unsystematically and have an indirect and divergent mapping onto brain activity. Therefore, scientific findings cannot inform our practical concerns in a straightforward way. How then can neuroscience ultimately help determine if a defendant is legally responsible, or help someone understand their addiction better? Since the above-mentioned problems provide serious obstacles to move from science to common-sense, we call this the 'translation problem'. Here, we describe three promising approaches for neuroscience to face this translation problem. First, neuroscience could propose new 'folk-neuroscience' concepts, beyond the traditional folk-psychological array, which might inform and alter our phenomenology. Second, neuroscience can modify our current array of common-sense concepts by refining and validating scientific concepts. Third, neuroscience can change our views on the application criteria of concepts such as responsibility and consciousness. We believe that these strategies to deal with the translation problem should guide the practice of neuroscientific research to be able to contribute to our day-to-day life more effectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Maintaining ordinariness around food: partners' experiences of everyday life with a dying person.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Viktoria; Carlander, Ida; Sandman, Per-Olof; Ternestedt, Britt-Marie; Håkanson, Cecilia

    2014-10-01

    To explore partners' experiences of everyday life in caring for a dying person with eating deficiencies at home. When a dying person receives care at home, eating deficiencies can influence everyday life for family members, who often take responsibility for the provision of food and meals. The literature reveals this to be emotionally stressful. Partners of dying persons are challenged both as caregivers and as partners who will soon lose their life companion. There is a need for studies that provide enhanced understanding about the influence of dying persons' eating deficiencies on their partners, from the perspective of everyday life. A qualitative design was chosen to obtain experience-based knowledge of relevance for the clinical context of palliative home care. Nine people were purposefully selected and interviewed three-six months after the death of their partner. Data collection and analysis were guided by an interpretive descriptive method. The partners described experiences of how eating deficiencies brought about changes in the participants' everyday lives. Two patterns of experiences were identified: the challenge of doing the best for their dying partner around matters involving food and mealtimes, and experiences of striving to maintain ordinariness, including holding on to social values around food, despite experiences of unfamiliarity when the dying partners' habits were changed. Living close to a person who has eating deficiencies at the end of life is challenging, both from a caring perspective and for personal well-being. The findings can assist palliative home care teams and other healthcare professionals to give support that goes beyond giving practical advice about food. Initiating talk about the current situation around food and meals at home, by posing questions and opening the way for conversations, is suggested. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Siblings of children with complex care needs: their perspectives and experiences of participating in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Woodgate, R L; Edwards, M; Ripat, J D; Rempel, G; Johnson, S F

    2016-07-01

    Participating in everyday life is essential to the healthy development and emotional well-being of children. However, little is known about siblings of children with complex care needs (CCN), and their perspectives and experiences of participating in everyday life. The aim of this paper is to present research findings that add to our understanding of how siblings of children with CCN view and experience participation in everyday life. To arrive at a detailed and accurate understanding of the siblings' perspectives and experiences, we used the qualitative research design of ethnography. Sixteen siblings (seven brothers, nine sisters) of children with CCN were recruited. The siblings ranged in age between 7 and 25 years, with a mean age of 14 years. All siblings took part in opened-ended interviews and completed ecomaps to describe how they participate. Five siblings also took part in the photovoice method. Analysis involved several iterative steps, congruent with ethnography. Four main themes emerged as follows: (1) participation is about being part of a group; (2) it feels good; (3) I love my sibling but…; and (4) promoting participation. Siblings of children with CCN identified challenges to participation and also described ways that they participate that relate to the care of their sibling. Siblings prioritized the relationship with their sisters and brothers with CCN in their life, and a great deal of their participation was chosen with their sibling in mind. Sibling-to-sibling relationships were distinct and meaningful and, as a result, participation was always done mindfully and with the family needs at the forefront. Nonetheless, clinicians caring for children with CCN must keep in mind the challenges that siblings of children with CCN experience and provide strategies to siblings that will help to promote their participation in everyday life. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Esthetic, Functional, and Everyday Life Assessment of Individuals with Cleft Lip and/or Palate

    PubMed Central

    Papamanou, Despina A.; Karamolegkou, Marina; Dorotheou, Domna

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the level of satisfaction of individuals with cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) and their parents concerning the esthetic and functional treatment outcomes, the impact of the cleft on everyday life, and potential associations with treatment outcome satisfaction. Subjects and Methods. The sample consisted of 33 patients (7 CP, 20 unilateral CLP, and 6 bilateral CLP; median age: 17.1, range: 9.0–33.1 years) and 30 parents, who responded to a questionnaire in an interview-guided session. All participants received their orthodontic treatment at the Department of Orthodontics in the University of Athens. Results. Patients and their parents were quite satisfied with esthetics and function. Patients with UCLP primarily were concerned about nose esthetics (BCLP about lip esthetics and CP about speech). Increased satisfaction was associated with decreased influence of the cleft in everyday life (0.35 < rho < 0.64, P < 0.05). Parents reported significant influence of the cleft on family life, while patients did not. Conclusions. Despite the limited sample size of subgroups, the main concerns of patients with different cleft types and the importance of satisfying lip, nose, and speech outcomes for an undisturbed everyday life were quite evident. Thus, the need for targeted treatment strategies is highlighted for individuals with cleft lip and/or palate. PMID:26064918

  12. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in everyday life with chronic hand eczema: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mollerup, A; Johansen, J D; Thing, L F

    2013-11-01

    Chronic hand eczema is a common disease that may impact quality of life and have occupational and social consequences. Self-management is pivotal, both in handling acute eruptions and avoiding relapses. However, little is known about how people with hand eczema self-manage and integrate their disease into everyday life. To explore the knowledge, attitudes and everyday life behaviours of patients with chronic hand eczema in order to generate insights about barriers in self-management. Qualitative, semistructured, focus group interviews were carried out. Twenty-three people with hand eczema participated in the four group sessions. The content of the interviews was analysed according to a template of concepts, categories and codes. Patients felt they lacked knowledge about the causes of eczema and how best to manage it. They perceived it as a complex condition, yet only simple solutions were offered. The patients found it difficult to apply preventive strategies in everyday life. They wanted to take an active role in their course of illness, but experienced barriers such as discomfort from emollient treatment or feelings of stigmatization. The patients stated that the need to focus constantly on prevention was energy-consuming. Self-management support in chronic hand eczema needs to be individualized in order to provide specific knowledge relevant to the patient, so that the patient has realistic expectations concerning the course of disease and can adopt new habits that minimize effort in preventive behaviour. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  13. Couples' happiness and its relationship to functioning in everyday life after brain injury.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Gunilla; Tham, Kerstin; Fugl-Meyer, Axel R

    2005-03-01

    The objective of this survey was to identify couples' joint perception of their satisfaction with life as a whole when one of the persons in the couple had acquired brain injury between one and five years earlier. The focus was on the influence that functioning and disability in everyday life have on the couple's joint life satisfaction after brain injury. The sample consisted of 55 couples, and the mean age of the brain-injured persons was 51 years. Both persons in the couple answered a mailed questionnaire encompassing questions concerning perceived impairments, activity limitations, participation restrictions, and life satisfaction. The results showed that in 16 of the 55 couples both partners were satisfied with life as a whole. The joint experience of life satisfaction was significantly related to the couple's functioning in everyday life, and specifically to perceived participation in leisure time and in their social life, and in their ability to wash clothes. Important implications from this study, showing that only one-third of the couples were satisfied, are that the partners should be included to a greater extent in the rehabilitation process and the couple's perspective of what they find difficult to deal with should serve as a guide during rehabilitation.

  14. Ecological validity of the Multiple Errands Test using predictive models of dysexecutive problems in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Cuberos-Urbano, Gustavo; Caracuel, Alfonso; Vilar-López, Raquel; Valls-Serrano, Carlos; Bateman, Andrew; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The"dysexecutive syndrome" is composed of a range of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral deficits that are difficult to evaluate using traditional neuropsychological tests. The Multiple Errands Test (MET) was originally developed to systematize the assessment of the more elusive manifestations of the dysexecutive syndrome. The aims of this study were to examining the reliability of the MET and to investigate the predictive ability of its indices to explain a range of "dysexecutive"-related symptoms in everyday life. Thirty patients with acquired brain injury participated in this study. The MET showed an adequate inter-rater reliability and ecological validity. The main performance indices from the MET were able to significantly predict severity of everyday life executive problems, with different indices predicting particular manifestations of different components of executive functions.

  15. The Internet in the Everyday Life-World: A Comparison between High-School Students in China and Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Fengshu

    2010-01-01

    Based on in-depth interviews, this study offers a comparison of how high-school students in China and Norway are actively constructing the Internet as an element of their everyday lives. Through the Schutzian notions of everyday life-world, social-biographical situation and relevance, the study has revealed striking differences between the Chinese…

  16. The Internet in the Everyday Life-World: A Comparison between High-School Students in China and Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Fengshu

    2010-01-01

    Based on in-depth interviews, this study offers a comparison of how high-school students in China and Norway are actively constructing the Internet as an element of their everyday lives. Through the Schutzian notions of everyday life-world, social-biographical situation and relevance, the study has revealed striking differences between the Chinese…

  17. Family health in everyday life: a qualitative study on well-being in families with children.

    PubMed

    Astedt-Kurki, P; Hopia, H; Vuori, A

    1999-03-01

    This article describes the subjective health views of young Finnish families with children. The data were collected in unstructured focused interviews with 19 families, most of whom were interviewed twice. Set within a phenomenological-hermeneutic framework, the study applies a qualitative method in order to uncover the meanings attached by the families to different facets of their everyday life. Health is an integral part of the everyday life of families with children, comprising various dimensions of experienced well-being and unwell-being, security and different life-habits. Social networks are crucial to family health: they can either strengthen or undermine experienced health. Professionals working with families in the health care system need to have at least a basic knowledge of the different dimensions of family health: this helps to identify and understand the individual ways in which families work to promote their health and well-being. This knowledge of family health is also important for research purposes. Health care professionals also need to know more about how families cope with their everyday problems and about how client families can be supported. More research is needed on the concepts of family health and on how those concepts are applied to practice in different health care sectors and in education.

  18. Age differences in prospective memory for everyday life intentions: A diary approach.

    PubMed

    Schnitzspahn, Katharina M; Scholz, Urte; Ballhausen, Nicola; Hering, Alexandra; Ihle, Andreas; Lagner, Prune; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The age benefit found in many naturalistic prospective memory (PM) tasks has been taken as evidence that PM performance in real life may be spared from aging. However, this conclusion lacks empirical confirmation. Hence, the aim of the present study was to examine possible age differences in the content of everyday PM intentions and their performance. Everyday PM was assessed in young and older adults using a diary approach. Results confirmed a general age benefit for real-life PM tasks. Importantly, this finding was qualified by revealing that the benefit only held true for specific types of intentions such as health and social intentions. Further, moderation analyses showed that the relationships between cognitive functioning and everyday PM were different for young and older adults. While better inhibition, short-term and long-term memory were related with successful PM performance in the young, this was not the case in the older adults. The present findings suggest that the age benefit found in naturalistic experimenter-given tasks extends to real-life PM performance, but may differ depending on the type of intention. Furthermore, cognitive functioning predicts performance in the young, but not in the older adults.

  19. Strategies to manage activities in everyday life after a pain rehabilitation program.

    PubMed

    Kallhed, Cecilia; Mårtensson, Lena

    2017-01-31

    Owing to the complexity of the pain experience, it is important to understand how persons with chronic pain manage their condition, in order to provide an indication of how occupational therapists can enable participation in meaningful everyday activities during pain rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to explore how persons with chronic pain reason about their use and choice of strategies to manage activities of everyday life. A qualitative approach was used to capture experiences of strategies employed to manage activities while living with chronic pain. Eight persons agreed to participate. An overall theme, 'adjusting to life with chronic pain', encompasses the underlying meaning and the relations between the categories: finding new ways to perform activities, reaching for a reasonable balance of activities and using activities to achieve other purposes. Persons with chronic pain use various strategies as means to enable performance in activities of everyday life despite living with pain, which supports the conception that occupational therapists should focus on activities and strategies rather than the pain condition during pain rehabilitation.

  20. Non-specific chronic orofacial pain patients' experiences of everyday life situations: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Eva; Nilner, Maria; Petersson, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Chronic orofacial pain is a complex condition with consequences that affect daily living. The aim was to analyse nonspecific chronic orofacial pain patients'experiences of everyday life situations, using a qualitative approach. Eleven women and 3 men (21 to 77years) were selected through a purposive sampling among chronic orofacial pain patients referred to the Faculty of Odontology's orofacial pain unit at Malmö University, Malmö Sweden. All selected subjects agreed to participate. Data were obtained via two thematic in-depth interviews with each subject. Interviews were taped and transcribed verbatim.Text dealing with the subjects' daily experiences was identified in all interviews and analysed using qualitative content analysis that focused on manifest content. In everyday life situations, the analysis of nonspecific chronic orofacial pain patients' narrations exposed a fear of conflict, of personal weakness, and of the intangible; they also exposed self-blame and avoidance of fear-triggering situations. Eight of the 14 subjects did not spontaneously mention any situation in which they were content during daily living. When the patients spoke about everyday life experiences, the main finding was that unpleasant emotions dominated the subjects'experiences. In conclusion, the chronic orofacial pain condition cannot be understood as an isolated phenomenon; it must be considered in rela- tion to the person who is suffering from the condition.

  1. Participation in everyday life and life satisfaction in persons with stroke and their caregivers 3-6 months after onset.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Aileen L; von Koch, Lena; Andersson, Magnus; Tham, Kerstin; Eriksson, Gunilla

    2015-06-01

    To explore and describe persons with stroke and their caregivers' restrictions in participation in everyday occupations, i.e. occupational gaps, 3-6 months post-stroke, in relation to life satisfaction, combined life satisfaction, care-giver burden, perceived impact of stroke, and activities of daily living. Cross-sectional study. Persons with stroke and their caregivers (105 dyads). The Occupational Gaps Questionnaire, Life Satisfaction Checklist, Caregiver Burden Scale, Stroke Impact Scale and Barthel Index were used. Correlations were analysed with Spearman's rank, and regression analyses used life satisfaction as the dependent variable. At least one person in 86% of the dyads perceived restrictions in participation, with the most common gap in travelling for pleasure. Correlations were low between the numbers of occupational gaps and life satisfaction (R = -0.33, R = -0.31); however, life satisfaction accounted for occupational gaps both for persons with stroke and for caregivers. A greater number of occupational gaps were perceived in the dyads with combined low levels of life satisfaction compared with those with combined high levels of life satisfaction. Participation in everyday occupations is related to life satisfaction even for caregivers of persons with stroke. The results of this study add to our knowledge about the stroke-caregiver dyad and will help to inform family-centred approaches within stroke rehabilitation.

  2. Coming of age under Hitler and Stalin: the everyday life of adolescent girls in occupied Latvia.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the possibility of the continuation of everyday life in occupied Europe through a case study of the lives of twenty-five adolescent girls and young women living in Latvia between 1939 and 1944. Late adolescence is the period in which young women are struggling to establish some degree of independence, especially through leaving the parental home and entering the labour market. These transitions are the conventional markers of adulthood in modern societies. The article explores how occupation by the Soviet Union and the Third Reich affected daily life and the speed and nature of the transition to adulthood.

  3. The only gay in the village? Everyday life of gays and lesbians in rural Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Kuhar, Roman; Svab, Alenka

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the comparison of the characteristics, experiences, and perceptions of everyday life of gays and lesbians living in rural and urban areas of Slovenia. We focus on the following thematic aspects: (1) coming out; (2) intimate partnerships; (3) the access and the use of gay infrastructure; and (4) violence against gays and lesbians. The article also addresses and discusses the urban/rural divide as a Western construct that might not be completely applicable to other social and cultural contexts. Taking Slovenia as an example, this article questions the self-evidence of rural/urban divide as an analytical concept. On the basis of our research, we conclude that this concept requires continuous revisions and reinterpretations in a concrete social and cultural context(s). The characteristics of gay and lesbian everyday life either in rural or in urban context in Slovenia lead to the conclusion that even within a specific social and cultural context, the concept of urban/rural divide should be used carefully, taking into account complexities of everyday lives and various factors that influence them.

  4. Emergent technologies against the background of everyday life: discursive psychology as a technology assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Veen, M; Gremmen, B; te Molder, H; van Woerkum, C

    2011-11-01

    To understand prospective users' reactions to emergent technologies, it is crucial to examine the interactional contexts within which these reactions take place as people's reactions are shaped by issues that are not necessarily related to science or technology. These issues are often overshadowed or remain blind spots when descriptions or scenarios of proposed technologies are thematized as being the core objects of reference. We therefore recommend also studying prospective users' everyday-life practices in their own right, and in naturalistic settings. Insight into the social actions people accomplish in their everyday talk, such as establishing a particular identity, can help innovators translate prospective users' concerns into relevant technology characteristics. We propose discursive psychology as an analytic tool to do this and show its merit with a few illustrative examples.

  5. Understanding everyday life of morbidly obese adults-habits and body image.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Bjørg; Borge, Lisbet; Fagermoen, May Solveig

    2012-01-01

    Morbid obesity is a progressive, chronic condition associated with failed attempts at change and repeated relapses. There seems to be little previous research into the understanding of the everyday life of morbidly obese adults. We wanted to gain more knowledge about characteristics of eating habits and body image as well as motivational forces for change. A qualitative approach was chosen in order to gain insight into how morbidly obese adults experience everyday life. Qualitative interviews are well suited to provide insight into themes from the interviewee's life story from the subjects' own perspectives. To gain insight into such processes, a narrative approach that allowed the informants to give voice to their ways of doing, thinking and feeling in daily life, was adopted. The informants comprised seven women and four men aged of 26-56 years, recruited from a population of obese individuals who had participated in a weight reduction course. A hermeneutic approach was used where the research question was the basis for a reflective interpretation. The following meaning-units were identified: to be perceived as overweight; and to see oneself as overweight. Ingrained habits: the struggle between knowing and doing; acting without knowing; and eating is soothing. Seeing oneself as an obese person is a gradual process that implied experiencing oneself as different from significant others, such as (slim) siblings and friends. To experience a gap between knowing and doing concerning food habits in everyday life indicates that informants value they have a choice. This is an important insight to consider when framing interventions to support this vulnerable group.

  6. Understanding everyday life of morbidly obese adults-habits and body image

    PubMed Central

    Borge, Lisbet; Fagermoen, May Solveig

    2012-01-01

    Background Morbid obesity is a progressive, chronic condition associated with failed attempts at change and repeated relapses. Aim There seems to be little previous research into the understanding of the everyday life of morbidly obese adults. We wanted to gain more knowledge about characteristics of eating habits and body image as well as motivational forces for change. Methods A qualitative approach was chosen in order to gain insight into how morbidly obese adults experience everyday life. Qualitative interviews are well suited to provide insight into themes from the interviewee's life story from the subjects’ own perspectives. To gain insight into such processes, a narrative approach that allowed the informants to give voice to their ways of doing, thinking and feeling in daily life, was adopted. The informants comprised seven women and four men aged of 26–56 years, recruited from a population of obese individuals who had participated in a weight reduction course. A hermeneutic approach was used where the research question was the basis for a reflective interpretation. Results The following meaning-units were identified: to be perceived as overweight; and to see oneself as overweight. Ingrained habits: the struggle between knowing and doing; acting without knowing; and eating is soothing. Conclusions Seeing oneself as an obese person is a gradual process that implied experiencing oneself as different from significant others, such as (slim) siblings and friends. To experience a gap between knowing and doing concerning food habits in everyday life indicates that informants value they have a choice. This is an important insight to consider when framing interventions to support this vulnerable group. PMID:22866062

  7. A day to be lived. Elderly peoples' possessions for everyday life in assisted living.

    PubMed

    Nord, Catharina

    2013-04-01

    This study is a qualitative interview study about the household possessions that elderly women and men brought with them when moving into assisted living. The move implied a substantial reduction of their possessions since, in all cases, they had left a larger dwelling than the one they moved to. The study gives a glimpse into the everyday life of the oldest old in assisted living. The things the elderly participants brought were of three types; cherished objects, representations of who they were, and mundane objects. The most important objects indicated by the elderly often belonged to the third type, and were preferred for the significance they had for the everyday life of the individual. These objects revealed a circumscribed but dignified life in their private bed-sitting room, often in solitude, where the elderly individuals pursued various interests and small-scale activities. However, this life was organized and preferred by the individuals themselves, in accordance with the principles of resident autonomy and individual choice that are promoted in assisted living. The author suggests that these self-engaged pursuits can contribute to bridging the gap between disengagement and activity theories. The study results also contribute to making visible the private life of the oldest old in assisted living. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Everyday activities for people with dementia in residential aged care: associations with person-centredness and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Edvardsson, David; Petersson, Lisa; Sjogren, Karin; Lindkvist, Marie; Sandman, Per-Olof

    2014-12-01

    Providing everyday activities is central to high quality residential aged care, but further research is needed on the association between activity participation, person-centred care and quality of life. To explore the point-prevalence of participation in everyday activities for residents with dementia within a national sample of Swedish residential aged care units and to explore if residents participating in everyday activities lived in more person-centred units and/or had higher quality of life as compared to residents not participating in everyday activities. A cross-sectional design was used to collect valid and reliable questionnaire data on activity participation, unit person-centredness and quality of life in a sample of residents in residential aged care (n = 1266). Only 18% of residents participated in everyday activities such as making coffee, setting or clearing the table, cleaning or watering plants, 62% participated in outdoor walks, 27% participated in parlour games, and 14% and 13% participated in excursions and church visits, respectively. Those residents who had participated in everyday activities lived in more person-centred units, had significantly higher quality of life and higher cognitive scores as compared to those residents who had not participated in everyday activities. Even though the prevalence of resident participation in everyday activities was low, resident participation was significantly associated with unit person-centredness and resident quality of life. It seems that everyday activities that are routine and commonplace to residential aged care can be potent nursing interventions for promoting resident quality of life. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Everyday life for users of electric wheelchairs - a qualitative interview study.

    PubMed

    Blach Rossen, Camilla; Sørensen, Bodil; Würtz Jochumsen, Bente; Wind, Gitte

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore how users of electric wheelchairs experience their everyday life and how their electric wheelchairs influence their daily occupation. Occupation is defined as a personalized dynamic interaction between person, task and environment, and implies the value and meaning attached. Nine semi-structured interviews were conducted with experienced electric wheelchair users. ValMo was used as the theoretical framework for both interviewing and the analysis. The transcribed interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Findings revealed key elements in electric wheelchair users' experience of how the use of a wheelchair influences everyday life and occupation. Four central themes emerged from the participants' experiences 1) The functionality of the wheelchair, 2) The wheelchair as an extension of the body, 3) The wheelchair and social life, and 4) The wheelchair and identity issues. The themes were interrelated and show how all levels of occupation were influenced both in a positive and negative way, and how it affected identity. It is essential that professionals working with electric wheelchair users are aware of how all levels of occupation and identity are influenced by using a wheelchair. This will assist professionals in supporting the users living an autonomous and meaningful life.

  10. It means everything: continuing normality of everyday life for people with rheumatoid arthritis in early remission.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, T M; Primdahl, J; Antoft, R; Hørslev-Petersen, K

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this follow-up study was twofold: firstly, to explore how people who were clinically regarded to be in a state of remission experienced their everyday lives with rheumatoid arthritis (RA); secondly, to explore the experiences of people in early remission with healthcare provision and their perceived support needs. Two focus group interviews were conducted with 11 participants in total. Interview data were analysed using content analysis methods. All participants felt that they were able to continue their normal everyday activities at home, at leisure and at work. They were also able to maintain their normal roles. Continuing the normality of everyday life seemed to be the most important defining variable for experiencing being in remission. Support needs were directly related to the participants' positive experiences of actual support from the healthcare providers and were related to the continuity of the care provider, coherence, being taken care of, having a personal and trusting relationship with the health professionals and being properly informed about RA and how to manage it. The participants wanted to concentrate on wellness and tended to avoid thinking of possible side effects, being chronic ill and the development of RA in the future. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Teachers’ experiences of adolescents’ pain in everyday life: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Gudrun; Westergren, Thomas; Haraldstad, Kristin; Johannessen, Berit; Høie, Magnhild; Helseth, Sølvi; Fegran, Liv; Slettebø, Åshild

    2015-01-01

    Objectives More adolescents report pain now than previously. In Norway, episodic pain problems have been reported by 60% of children and adolescents aged 8–18 years, with 21% reporting duration of pain of more than 3 months. Since adolescents spend much time at school, the attitude and behaviour of teachers play important roles regarding the experience of pain felt by adolescents in everyday life. Yet research on how teachers perceive the pain experienced by adolescents in a school setting is limited. We therefore seek to gain insight to teachers’ classroom experiences with (1) adolescent's self-reported pain symptoms; (2) adolescents management of their pain and (3) how to help adolescents manage their pain. Setting Teachers in 5 junior high schools in Norway representing municipalities in 3 rural areas and 2 cities. Research design A qualitative study with an explorative design comprising 5 focus group interviews. Each group consisted of 3–8 junior high school teachers. A semistructured interview guide was used to cover the issues. The transcribed text was analysed with qualitative content analysis. Participants 22 teachers participated (5 men, 17 women; age range 29–62 years) with teaching experience ranging from 3 to nearly 40 years. Results The main theme describing the experience of teachers with adolescents’ pain in everyday life is that pain and management of pain is a social, physical and psychological interwoven phenomenon. Through empirical analyses, 3 subcategories emerged: (1) everyday pain—expressing strenuous life; (2) managing pain—escaping struggle and (3) strategies of teachers—support and normalisation. Conclusions Teachers have a biopsychosocial understanding and approach to pain experienced by adolescents. This understanding influences the role of teachers as significant others in the lives of adolescents with regard to pain and management of their pain in a school setting. PMID:26338838

  12. Teachers' experiences of adolescents' pain in everyday life: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Gudrun; Westergren, Thomas; Haraldstad, Kristin; Johannessen, Berit; Høie, Magnhild; Helseth, Sølvi; Fegran, Liv; Slettebø, Åshild

    2015-09-03

    More adolescents report pain now than previously. In Norway, episodic pain problems have been reported by 60% of children and adolescents aged 8-18 years, with 21% reporting duration of pain of more than 3 months. Since adolescents spend much time at school, the attitude and behaviour of teachers play important roles regarding the experience of pain felt by adolescents in everyday life. Yet research on how teachers perceive the pain experienced by adolescents in a school setting is limited. We therefore seek to gain insight to teachers' classroom experiences with (1) adolescent's self-reported pain symptoms; (2) adolescents management of their pain and (3) how to help adolescents manage their pain. Teachers in 5 junior high schools in Norway representing municipalities in 3 rural areas and 2 cities. A qualitative study with an explorative design comprising 5 focus group interviews. Each group consisted of 3-8 junior high school teachers. A semistructured interview guide was used to cover the issues. The transcribed text was analysed with qualitative content analysis. 22 teachers participated (5 men, 17 women; age range 29-62 years) with teaching experience ranging from 3 to nearly 40 years. The main theme describing the experience of teachers with adolescents' pain in everyday life is that pain and management of pain is a social, physical and psychological interwoven phenomenon. Through empirical analyses, 3 subcategories emerged: (1) everyday pain--expressing strenuous life; (2) managing pain--escaping struggle and (3) strategies of teachers--support and normalisation. Teachers have a biopsychosocial understanding and approach to pain experienced by adolescents. This understanding influences the role of teachers as significant others in the lives of adolescents with regard to pain and management of their pain in a school setting. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  13. Children's experiences of managing Type 1 diabetes in everyday life: a thematic synthesis of qualitative studies.

    PubMed

    Rankin, D; Harden, J; Jepson, R; Lawton, J

    2017-08-01

    To explore the everyday experiences of children (aged ≤ 12 years) with Type 1 diabetes to identify factors that help or hinder diabetes self-management practices. Eight databases (Embase, Medline, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsychInfo, ASSIA, ERIC and ProQuest Dissertations) were searched in 2016 to identify qualitative studies exploring children's views about self-managing diabetes. Data were extracted, coded and analysed using thematic synthesis. Eighteen studies from five countries were included in the review. Synthesis of studies' findings resulted in the identification of three overarching analytical themes. The first theme, 'Understandings of diabetes and involvement in self-management', outlines ways in which children understand diabetes and develop self-management responsibilities. The second theme, 'Disruption to life and getting on with it', reports children's frustrations at disruptions to everyday life when managing diabetes, and how attempts to appear normal to family and friends affect self-management practices. The third theme, 'Friends' support', describes how friends' reactions and responses to diabetes affect children's ability to appear normal and willingness to disclose information about diabetes, and support provided by 'informed friends', or peers with diabetes. Although the synthesis has identified how children's everyday life experiences inform ways in which they undertake diabetes self-management, it was not possible to determine new ways to provide support. To help children optimise their glycaemic control, further work should be undertaken to identify their need for support and which takes into account the potential ways in which parents, friends and peers can offer assistance. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  14. Getting close to Rwandans since the genocide: studying everyday life in highly politicized research settings.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Research with people in highly politicized research settings illuminates the gap between the images that most African governments strive to represent and the sociopolitical realities of everyday life. This article discusses the opportunities and challenges of doing research in postgenocide Rwanda and is a useful resource for researchers contemplating their own projects under such conditions, whether in Rwanda or elsewhere. It discusses the importance of creating personal relationships and meeting people on their terms, as well as such topics as the identification of the research site, building rapport and trust with respondents, safeguarding anonymity and confidentiality, and working with local research assistants and partners.

  15. Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS) and performance of everyday life tasks: Actual Reality.

    PubMed

    Goverover, Yael; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; DeLuca, John

    2016-04-01

    Recently, a brief cognitive assessment (Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis: BICAMS) has been recommended for use with patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) to screen for cognitive impairments. However, the relationship between the BICAMS and everyday life activity has not been examined. The aim of this study was to examine whether the BICAMS can predict performance of activities of daily living using Actual Reality(TM) (AR) in persons with MS. A between-subjects design was utilized to compare 41 individuals with MS and 32 healthy controls (HC) performing BICAMS and an AR task. Participants were asked to access the internet to purchase a flight ticket or cookies, and were administered the BICAMS and questionnaires to assess quality of life (QOL), affect symptomatology, and prior internet experience. Participants with MS performed significantly worse than HC on the BICAMS and the AR. Additionally, better BICAMS performance was associated with more independent AR performance. Self-reports of QOL were not correlated with AR or BICAMS performance. Individuals with MS have greater problems with actual everyday life tasks as compared to HC. The BICAMS is a promising cognitive screening tool to predict actual functional performance in participants with MS. © The Author(s), 2015.

  16. Science at the supermarket: multiplication, personalization and consumption of science in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Tateo, Luca

    2014-06-01

    Which is the kind science's psychological guidance upon everyday life? I will try to discuss some issues about the role that techno-scientific knowledge plays in sense-making and decision making about practical questions of life. This relation of both love and hate, antagonism and connivance is inscribable in a wider debate between a trend of science to intervene in fields that are traditionally prerogative of political, religious or ethical choices, and, on the other side, the position of those who aim at stemming "technocracy" and governing these processes. I argue that multiplication, personalization and consumption are the characteristics of the relationship between science, technology and society in the age of "multiculturalism" and "multi-scientism". This makes more difficult but intriguing the study and understanding of the processes through which scientific knowledge is socialized. Science topics, like biotech, climate change, etc. are today an unavoidable reference frame. It is not possible to not know them and to attach them to the most disparate questions. Like in the case of Moscovici's "Freud for all seasons", the fact itself that the members of a group or a society believe in science as a reference point for others, roots its social representation and the belief that it can solve everyday life problems.

  17. The cultural grounding of personal relationship: the importance of attractiveness in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Stephanie L; Adams, Glenn; Plaut, Victoria C

    2008-08-01

    Previous research has suggested that physically attractive people experience more positive life outcomes than do unattractive people. However, the importance of physical attractiveness in everyday life may vary depending on the extent to which different cultural worlds afford or require individual choice in the construction and maintenance of personal relationships. The authors hypothesized that attractiveness matters more for life outcomes in settings that promote voluntaristic-independent constructions of relationship as the product of personal choice than it does in settings that promote embedded-interdependent constructions of relationship as an environmental affordance. Study 1 examined self-reported outcomes of attractive and unattractive persons. Study 2 examined expectations about attractive and unattractive targets. Results provide support for the hypothesis along four dimensions: national context, relationship context, rural-urban context, and experimental manipulation of relationship constructions. These patterns suggest that the importance of physical attractiveness documented by psychological research is the product of particular constructions of reality.

  18. Connecting rehabilitation and everyday life--the lived experiences among women with stress-related ill health.

    PubMed

    Hellman, Therese; Jonsson, Hans; Johansson, Ulla; Tham, Kerstin

    2013-10-01

    The aim was to describe and understand how connecting rehabilitation experiences and everyday life was characterised in the lived experiences during the rehabilitation in women with stress-related ill health. Five women were interviewed on three occasions during a rehabilitation programme and once 3 months later. Data were analysed using the Empirical, Phenomenological and Psychological method. The participants experienced connections between their rehabilitation and their previous, present and future everyday life influencing both rehabilitation and everyday life in a back-and-forth process. These connections were experienced in mind or in doing, mostly targeting the private arena in everyday life. Connecting rehabilitation experiences to their working situations was more challenging and feelings of frustration and being left alone were experienced. Although the participants described constructive connections between rehabilitation experiences and the private arena in everyday life, they mostly failed to experience connections that facilitated a positive return to work. Recommended support in the return to work process in rehabilitation comprises the provision of practical work-related activities during rehabilitation; being supportive in a constructive dialogue between the participant and the workplace, and continuing this support in follow-ups after the actual rehabilitation period. Rehabilitation for persons with stress-related ill health needs to focus on the private arena as well as the work situation in everyday life. Creative activities may enable experiences that inspire connections in mind and connections targeting the private arena in everyday life. The work situation needs to be thoroughly discussed during rehabilitation for enabling the participants to experience a support in the return to work process. Rehabilitation including practical work-related activities, support in a constructive dialogue between the participant and the manager at the workplace

  19. Everyday politics, social practices and movement networks: daily life in Barcelona's social centres.

    PubMed

    Yates, Luke

    2015-06-01

    The relations between everyday life and political participation are of interest for much contemporary social science. Yet studies of social movement protest still pay disproportionate attention to moments of mobilization, and to movements with clear organizational boundaries, tactics and goals. Exceptions have explored collective identity, 'free spaces' and prefigurative politics, but such processes are framed as important only in accounting for movements in abeyance, or in explaining movement persistence. This article focuses on the social practices taking place in and around social movement spaces, showing that political meanings, knowledge and alternative forms of social organization are continually being developed and cultivated. Social centres in Barcelona, Spain, autonomous political spaces hosting cultural and educational events, protest campaigns and alternative living arrangements, are used as empirical case studies. Daily practices of food provisioning, distributing space and dividing labour are politicized and politicizing as they unfold and develop over time and through diverse networks around social centres. Following Melucci, such latent processes set the conditions for social movements and mobilization to occur. However, they not only underpin mobilization, but are themselves politically expressive and prefigurative, with multiple layers of latency and visibility identifiable in performances of practices. The variety of political forms - adversarial, expressive, theoretical, and routinized everyday practices, allow diverse identities, materialities and meanings to overlap in movement spaces, and help explain networks of mutual support between loosely knit networks of activists and non-activists. An approach which focuses on practices and networks rather than mobilization and collective actors, it is argued, helps show how everyday life and political protest are mutually constitutive.

  20. The Scriptural Economy, the Forbes Figuration and the Racial Order: Everyday Life in South Africa 1850-1930.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Liz

    2015-10-01

    Social change and large-scale transformations are as important to everyday life sociology as to macro sociology approaches. South Africa has been a 'hotspot' of change with a number of such transitions occurring in a condensed time-period, in particular regarding 'race' matters. A large South African family collection, concerning the Forbes family, is used to explore how the processes of change regarding the racial order can be analysed within an everyday sociology framework, focusing on the period 1850 to 1930. A range of documents throwing light on 'the space of the day', 'the world and the word' and other aspects of everyday experience are discussed.

  1. Life in Presidial California. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lothrop, Gloria Ricci; Herczog, Michelle

    2000-01-01

    Provides background information on the presidio, a frontier palace or garrison. Offers a lesson to help students understand the chronological context of events in presidial California in relation to developments in the English colonies and Europe. Includes four handouts. (CMK)

  2. Manipulation tactics of patients with neurotic disorders in everyday life and during therapy.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Eugenia; Horak, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the repertoire and intensity of manipulation tactics of neurotic patients in everyday life and during therapy, as well as diagnosing the intensity of Machiavellianism in neurotic patients. There were 111 study subjects: 44 patients with diagnosed neurotic disorders, 44 people from the control group and 23 therapists. The manipulation tactics were measured by means of survey methods of E. Mandal and D. Kocur and Machiavellianism was measured using the MACH-IV scale of M. Christi and F. Geis. In comparison to people from the control group, the patients were more willing to use manipulation tactics such as guilt induction, threatening to break up the relationship, and self-mutilation but less willing to use supplication/begging. The intensity of tendency to undertake manipulation was higher in everyday life than during therapy. The Machiavellianism of patients was positively correlated with the tendency to employ manipulation tactics. Differences within the scope of general Machiavellianism between the patients and the control group were not noted. The manipulation tactics of neurotic patients are of morbid nature. They are related to anxiety, feeling of guilt and hostility. The tendency to manipulate correlates with Machiavellianism.

  3. Resisting social disenfranchisement: negotiating collective identities and everyday life with memory loss.

    PubMed

    Beard, Renée L; Fox, Patrick J

    2008-04-01

    Being diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease marks a status passage formally legitimating the incorporation of forgetfulness into daily life. Based on interviews with diagnosed individuals in California, USA, we examine the mechanisms through which an Alzheimer's label is employed to justify forgetfulness, to manage social interactions, and to garner support when deemed necessary, while simultaneously combating the associated demented "master status." For diagnosed individuals, the transition from experience to symptom requires a redefinition of everyday forgetfulness into a medical problem. That is, respondents did not routinely perceive their experiences as pathological but rather were socialised into viewing age-related forgetfulness as symbolic of disease. Support groups sponsored by the Alzheimer's Association and memory clinics have a profound impact not only on the formation of group identity, but also on socialising forgetful individuals into diseased identities. The social disenfranchisement accompanying a diagnosis of dementia transforms forgetful older adults into "Alzheimer's patients," who must manage not only the manifestations of their disease, but also negotiate their interactions and identities. Their adaptation to the "symptoms" of forgetfulness and resultant social relations forms new interactional strategies whereby the diagnosis becomes a resource utilised to get through everyday life. Rather than being passive recipients of a diagnosis, respondents employ the label both as a resource, and as a phenomenon that needs to be incorporated into their self identity.

  4. Internet and everyday life: the perceived implications of internet use on memory and ability to concentrate.

    PubMed

    Näsi, Matti; Koivusilta, Leena

    2013-02-01

    The growing role of Internet in all aspects of everyday life has led to speculations over the impacts beyond the traditional questions of access or sociability. This in mind, the main focus in this article was to examine how Finns, for majority of whom Internet use has become commonplace activity, perceive the impacts of Internet use since first adopting the technology. In this study, we examine how Internet user history and perceived computer skills, along with different sociodemographic factors, appear to reflect on the perceived impacts of Internet adoption in terms of memory and ability to concentrate. According to the results, almost one in five of the respondents reported changes concerning their memory or ability to concentrate, with skilled computer users and nonworkers, in particular, perceiving the change. Factors such as age-related differences and exposure to potential information overload at work were identified to explain the perceived change. Our data were collected in a survey-gathering information on the everyday life and well-being of Finns. The sample consisted of 2000 Finnish speakers aged 15 to 64 years. The response rate was 46 percent (N=908).

  5. Following Young Children's Health and Functioning in Everyday Life Through Their Cancer Trajectory.

    PubMed

    Darcy, Laura; Björk, Maria; Knutsson, Susanne; Granlund, Mats; Enskär, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of living with childhood cancer, through the trajectory, is sparse. The aim of this study was to follow young children's health and functioning in everyday life through their cancer trajectory. Data were gathered longitudinally from a group of 13 young children and their parents connected to a pediatric oncology unit in Sweden. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for Children and Youth structure was used to identify difficulties in health and functioning in everyday life, in interview and questionnaire data. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed to show patterns of difficulty over a 3-year period from diagnosis. Difficulties experienced by children declined and changed over time. An increase in difficulties with personal interactions with others and access to and support from health care professionals was seen 2 to 3 years after diagnosis and start of treatment. Similar patterns are seen within individual children's trajectories in relation to diagnosis but individual patterns were seen for each child. Health care professionals need to plan for ongoing contact with school services and information and support pathways, beyond the treatment period. A person-centered philosophy of care is required throughout the cancer trajectory. © 2015 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  6. Preclinical evaluation of posterior spine stabilization devices: can the current standards represent basic everyday life activities?

    PubMed

    La Barbera, Luigi; Galbusera, Fabio; Wilke, Hans-Joachim; Villa, Tomaso

    2016-09-01

    To discuss whether the available standard methods for preclinical evaluation of posterior spine stabilization devices can represent basic everyday life activities and how to compare the results obtained with different procedures. A comparative finite element study compared ASTM F1717 and ISO 12189 standards to validated instrumented L2-L4 segments undergoing standing, upper body flexion and extension. The internal loads on the spinal rod and the maximum stress on the implant are analysed. ISO recommended anterior support stiffness and force allow for reproducing bending moments measured in vivo on an instrumented physiological segment during upper body flexion. Despite the significance of ASTM model from an engineering point of view, the overly conservative vertebrectomy model represents an unrealistic worst case scenario. A method is proposed to determine the load to apply on assemblies with different anterior support stiffnesses to guarantee a comparable bending moment and reproduce specific everyday life activities. The study increases our awareness on the use of the current standards to achieve meaningful results easy to compare and interpret.

  7. Everyday life for black american adults: stress, emotions, and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Brown, Debra J

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the stress process in Black Americans by exploring chronic stress, emotions, age, body mass index, and blood pressure within the context of gender and socioeconomic position (SEP). The convenience sample of middle-class Black Americans ( N = 211) ranged from ages 25 to 79 years. A sociopsychophysiological model of everyday life for Black American adults was tested using structural equation modeling. The model explained 27% of the variance in systolic and 17% of the variance in diastolic blood pressure. SEP had a significant effect on chronic stress, and chronic stress had a significant effect on negative affect. Although men had lower negative affect scores than women, men's diastolic blood pressures were on average 4 mm Hg higher than women's. These findings are useful to the development and implementation of interventions to eliminate health disparities and improve years of healthy life for Black Americans.

  8. The life and death of a street boy in East Africa: everyday violence in the time of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, Chris

    2008-03-01

    This article focuses on the life history of a single street boy in northwestern Tanzania, whom I name Juma. I suggest that Juma's experiences and the life trajectory of himself and of significant individuals around him (particularly his mother) were structured by everyday violence. I describe everyday violence in terms of a conjuncture between macrostructural forces in East Africa (including a history of failed development schemes and the contemporary political economy of neoliberalism) and the lived experience of individuals as they negotiate local, contextual factors (including land-tenure practices, the power dynamics between immediate and extended kin, life on the streets, and constructions of gender and sexuality). I suggest that AIDS and its many impacts on Juma's life course can only be understood in a broader context of everyday violence. From this basis, I draw several general conclusions regarding AIDS prevention and intervention strategies.

  9. Lived experiences of everyday life during curative radiotherapy in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer: A phenomenological study

    PubMed Central

    Petri, Suzanne; Berthelsen, Connie B.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To explore and describe the essential meaning of lived experiences of the phenomenon: Everyday life during curative radiotherapy in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Background Radiotherapy treatment in patients with NSCLC is associated with severe side effects such as fatigue, anxiety, and reduced quality of life. However, little is known about the patients’ experience of everyday life during the care trajectory. Design This study takes a reflective lifeworld approach using an empirical application of phenomenological philosophy described by Dahlberg and colleagues. Method A sample of three patients treated with curative radiotherapy for NSCLC was interviewed 3 weeks after the end of radiotherapy treatment about their experiences of everyday life during their treatment. Data were collected in 2014 and interviews and analysis were conducted within the descriptive phenomenological framework. Findings The essential meaning structure of the phenomenon studied was described as “Hope for recovery serving as a compass in a changed everyday life,” which was a guide for the patients through the radiotherapy treatment to support their efforts in coping with side effects. The constituents of the structure were: Radiotherapy as a life priority, A struggle for acceptance of an altered everyday life, Interpersonal relationships for better or worse, and Meeting the health care system. Conclusion The meaning of hope was essential during radiotherapy treatment and our results suggest that interpersonal relationships can be a prerequisite to the experience of hope. “Hope for recovery serving as a compass in a changed everyday life,” furthermore identifies the essentials in the patients’ assertive approach to believing in recovery and thereby enabling hope in a serious situation. PMID:26610116

  10. Lived experiences of everyday life during curative radiotherapy in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer: A phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Petri, Suzanne; Berthelsen, Connie B

    2015-01-01

    To explore and describe the essential meaning of lived experiences of the phenomenon: Everyday life during curative radiotherapy in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Radiotherapy treatment in patients with NSCLC is associated with severe side effects such as fatigue, anxiety, and reduced quality of life. However, little is known about the patients' experience of everyday life during the care trajectory. This study takes a reflective lifeworld approach using an empirical application of phenomenological philosophy described by Dahlberg and colleagues. A sample of three patients treated with curative radiotherapy for NSCLC was interviewed 3 weeks after the end of radiotherapy treatment about their experiences of everyday life during their treatment. Data were collected in 2014 and interviews and analysis were conducted within the descriptive phenomenological framework. The essential meaning structure of the phenomenon studied was described as "Hope for recovery serving as a compass in a changed everyday life," which was a guide for the patients through the radiotherapy treatment to support their efforts in coping with side effects. The constituents of the structure were: Radiotherapy as a life priority, A struggle for acceptance of an altered everyday life, Interpersonal relationships for better or worse, and Meeting the health care system. The meaning of hope was essential during radiotherapy treatment and our results suggest that interpersonal relationships can be a prerequisite to the experience of hope. "Hope for recovery serving as a compass in a changed everyday life," furthermore identifies the essentials in the patients' assertive approach to believing in recovery and thereby enabling hope in a serious situation.

  11. Age Related Differences of Executive Functioning Problems in Everyday Life of Children and Adolescents in the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Bergh, Sanne F. W. M.; Scheeren, Anke M.; Begeer, Sander; Koot, Hans M.; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies investigated executive functioning (EF) problems in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using laboratory EF tasks. As laboratory task performances often differ from real life observations, the current study focused on EF in everyday life of 118 children and adolescents with ASD (6-18 years). We investigated age-related and…

  12. Age Related Differences of Executive Functioning Problems in Everyday Life of Children and Adolescents in the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Bergh, Sanne F. W. M.; Scheeren, Anke M.; Begeer, Sander; Koot, Hans M.; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies investigated executive functioning (EF) problems in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using laboratory EF tasks. As laboratory task performances often differ from real life observations, the current study focused on EF in everyday life of 118 children and adolescents with ASD (6-18 years). We investigated age-related and…

  13. Cognitive and Affective Aspects of Creative Option Generation in Everyday Life Situations

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, T. Sophie; Schmalenberger, Katja M.; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A.; Mojzisch, Andreas; Kaiser, Stefan; Funke, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Which factors influence a human being’s ability to develop new perspectives and be creative? This ability is pivotal for any context in which new cognitions are required, such as innovative endeavors in science and art, or psychotherapeutic settings. In this article, we seek to bring together two research programs investigating the generation of creative options: On the one hand, research on option generation in the decision-making literature and, on the other hand, cognitive and clinical creativity research. Previous decision-making research has largely neglected the topic of generating creative options. Experiments typically provided participants with a clear set of options to choose from, but everyday life situations are less structured and allow countless ways to react. Before choosing an option, agents have to self-generate a set of options to choose from. Such option generation processes have only recently moved to the center of attention. The present study examines the creative quality of self-generated options in daily life situations. A student sample (N = 48) generated options for action in 70 briefly described everyday life scenarios. We rated the quality of the options on three dimensions of creativity- originality, feasibility, and divergence -and linked these qualities to option generation fluency (speed and number of generated options), situational features like the familiarity and the affective valence of the situation in which the options were generated, and trait measures of cognitive performance. We found that when situations were familiar to the participant, greater negative affective valence of the situation was associated with more originality and divergence of generated options. We also found that a higher option generation fluency was associated with a greater maximal originality of options. We complete our article with a joint research agenda for researchers in the decision-making field focusing on option generation and, on the other hand

  14. Cognitive and Affective Aspects of Creative Option Generation in Everyday Life Situations.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, T Sophie; Schmalenberger, Katja M; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A; Mojzisch, Andreas; Kaiser, Stefan; Funke, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Which factors influence a human being's ability to develop new perspectives and be creative? This ability is pivotal for any context in which new cognitions are required, such as innovative endeavors in science and art, or psychotherapeutic settings. In this article, we seek to bring together two research programs investigating the generation of creative options: On the one hand, research on option generation in the decision-making literature and, on the other hand, cognitive and clinical creativity research. Previous decision-making research has largely neglected the topic of generating creative options. Experiments typically provided participants with a clear set of options to choose from, but everyday life situations are less structured and allow countless ways to react. Before choosing an option, agents have to self-generate a set of options to choose from. Such option generation processes have only recently moved to the center of attention. The present study examines the creative quality of self-generated options in daily life situations. A student sample (N = 48) generated options for action in 70 briefly described everyday life scenarios. We rated the quality of the options on three dimensions of creativity- originality, feasibility, and divergence -and linked these qualities to option generation fluency (speed and number of generated options), situational features like the familiarity and the affective valence of the situation in which the options were generated, and trait measures of cognitive performance. We found that when situations were familiar to the participant, greater negative affective valence of the situation was associated with more originality and divergence of generated options. We also found that a higher option generation fluency was associated with a greater maximal originality of options. We complete our article with a joint research agenda for researchers in the decision-making field focusing on option generation and, on the other hand

  15. Experiences of everyday life in men with alcohol dependency--a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Thurang, Anna Maria; Palmstierna, Tom; Tops, Anita Bengtsson

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to describe and understand the meaning of living with alcohol dependency (AD) as a man. Studies point out a high prevalence of AD in men and the reasons for, and consequences of, that are complex. However, today there is a lack of knowledge about men's lived experiences of having AD. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 alcohol dependent men and analyzed using a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach. In the comprehensive understanding, findings from the naïve understanding and the structural analysis were interpreted with help from both gender and caring theoretical perspectives. "A Fallible Man" and "A Man with Powerfulness" were disclosed as two main gender formations influencing senses of well-being. A Fallible Man involved varying experiences of restrictions, being in control, and meaninglessness. Being in control promoted a sense of well-being. A Man with Powerfulness involved energetic activity, and the development and maintaining of interests as well as risk-taking. Being powerful diminished feelings of meaninglessness, cravings, and social alienation. The results show, among other things, that the men live an incompatible life and, because of that, need support and guidance to find a more meaningful life. This can be accomplished if caregivers allow men to be in focus and involved in planning their own care. To avoid limiting the men while they are in treatment, the health care professionals also need to focus on the men's everyday life. This focus involves acknowledging the men's individual experiences of what enriches and limits their everyday lives.

  16. Impact of a child's cancer disease on parents' everyday life: a longitudinal study from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hovén, Emma; Grönqvist, Helena; Pöder, Ulrika; von Essen, Louise; Lindahl Norberg, Annika

    2017-01-01

    A child's cancer disease may disrupt the daily life of the affected family for a long period. The aim was to describe restrictions on parents' leisure activities and work/studies during and after the child's treatment. This study used data from a cohort of mothers and fathers (n = 246) of children diagnosed with cancer. Data was collected five times from two months after diagnosis to one year after end of treatment. Reports of restrictions were evaluated over time, between mothers and fathers, and in relation to parent-reported child symptom burden (The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale) and partial post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (The PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version). Two (51%) and four (45%) months after diagnosis, about half reported that their leisure activities were restricted at least some of the time. Corresponding percentages for restrictions on work/studies were 84% and 77%. One year after end of treatment, the great majority reported that their leisure activities (91%) and/or work/studies (76%) were never/seldom restricted. During treatment, more mothers than fathers reported restrictions on work/studies all/most of the time. After end of treatment, gender was only related to reports of restrictions among parents not reporting partial PTSD. More parents who reported being restricted all/most of the time also reported partial PTSD and/or a greater symptom burden for the child. Parents report frequent restrictions on everyday life during treatment. One year after end of treatment, parents report only a limited impact of the child's cancer on their leisure activities and work/studies. More parents who report restrictions also report partial PTSD and/or a greater child symptom burden. The effect of gender on restrictions varies depending on reports of partial PTSD. Future studies of gender differences regarding the impact of a child's cancer on parents' everyday life should thus consider mothers' and fathers' level of psychological distress.

  17. How Things Work: The Physics of Everyday Life, 3rd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, Louis A.

    2005-09-01

    This book is an unconventional introduction to physics and science that starts with whole objects and looks inside them to see what makes them work. It's written for students who seek a connection between science and the world in which they live. How Things Work brings science to the reader rather than the reverse. Like the course in which it developed, this book has always been for nonscientists and is written with their interests in mind. Nonetheless, it has attracted students from the sciences, engineering, architecture, and other technical fields who wish to put scientific concepts into context. This book is written in English and organized in a case-study fashion. It conveys an understanding and appreciation for physics by finding physics concepts and principles within the familiar objects of everyday experience. Because its structure is defined by real-life examples, this book necessarily discusses concepts as they're needed and then revisits them later on when they reappear in other objects. Lou Bloomfield is a highly dedicated teacher and one of the most popular professors at University of Virginia, and was the recipient of the 1998 State of Virginia Outstanding Faculty Award. Lou has given talks all over the country on teaching physics through everyday objects. He has extreme attention to detail and knowledge of technical physics. He is very tech savvy and has been able to provide many of the photos and illustrations for the text himself.

  18. Life on the Great Plains. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    In this four-part lesson, students examine the concept of geographic region by exploring the history of the United States Great Plains. In Part I, students gather information about the location and environment of the Great Plains in order to produce a map outlining the region in formal terms. In Part II, students examine how the region has been…

  19. How families of children with complex care needs participate in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Woodgate, Roberta Lynn; Edwards, Marie; Ripat, Jacquie

    2012-11-01

    While we have some understanding of the impact caring for children with complex care needs has on families, little is known about how these families experience participation. This longitudinal qualitative study aimed to extend our limited understanding of how the changing geographies of care influence the ways that Canadian families with children with complex care needs participate in everyday life. The findings in this article focus on parents' conceptualizations of participation including their perspectives of participation involving themselves, their children, and their family unit. Sixty-eight parents from 40 families took part in the study. Conradson's (2005) conceptualization of therapeutic landscapes that focuses on the relational dimensions of the self-landscape encounter guided the study. Data collection methods included ethnographic methods of interviewing and photovoice. As a summary of their views, parents within this study described participation as a dynamic and reciprocal social process of involvement in being with others. For participation in everyday life to be meaningful, the attributes of choice, safety, acceptance, accessibility, and accommodation had to be present. Participation was valued by parents because it resulted in positive outcomes. Overall, meaningful participation contributed to them and their children having a life. Having a life referred to being involved in a place where families feel that they belong, are accepted, and are able to contribute to the landscape they participate in. The decision to choose to participate became contingent upon the availability of resources and the parents' ability to harness them. Harnessing resources referred to the work parents must do to get the necessary resources to make it possible for them and their children to have a life. Having a life for parents required significant physical, mental, psychological and spiritual work by parents. At times the personal resources of parents were so taxed that

  20. Breathlessness in everyday life from a patient perspective: a qualitative study using diaries.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Nasser S; Månsson, Jörgen; Lindblad, Ulf; Hildingh, Cathrine

    2014-06-01

    Breathlessness is a subjective symptom, which makes it difficult to define and understand. The aim of the present study was to illuminate how patients suffering from breathlessness experience their everyday life. The study was a qualitative study, and the focus of the analysis was the patients' descriptions of their experiences of breathlessness using a diary with two unstructured questions for a period of 7 consecutive days. Sixteen participants: 7 men, mean age 65 ± 7 (range 55-73 years old), and 9 women, mean age 65 ± 9 (range 50-72 years old) participated in the study. Two themes emerged from the analysis: 1) Impaired quality of life and 2) symptom tolerance and adaptation. The theme "impaired quality of life" included the categories limited physical ability, psychological burdens, and social life barriers. The theme "symptom tolerance and adaptation" included importance of health care, social support, hobbies and leisure activities, and coping strategies. The findings in our study showed that patients, in spite of considerable difficulties with shortness of breath, found relief in several types of activities, in addition to drug therapy. The result indicates that the "biopsychosocial model" is an appealing approach that should be discussed further to gain a better understanding of breathlessness.

  1. Features of everyday life in psychiatric inpatient care for self-harming: an observational study of six women.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Britt-Marie; Aminoff, Carina; Hällgren Graneheim, Ulla

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to describe the features of everyday life in psychiatric inpatient care as experienced by women who self-harm. Participant observations and informal interviews were conducted with six women and were subjected to qualitative content analysis. The major feature of everyday life in psychiatric inpatient care was 'being surrounded by disorder', which consisted of 'living in a confusing environment, being subject to routines and rules that offer safety but lack consistency' and 'waiting both in loneliness and in togetherness'. The nursing staff spent minimal time with the patients and the women turned to each other for support, care and companionship.

  2. Living with rheumatoid arthritis and experiencing everyday life with TNF-α blockers.

    PubMed

    Lindén, Charlotte; Björklund, Anita

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe how persons with RA from an area in western Sweden experience everyday life with TNF-α blockers. A purposive sampling of 11 women and four men, with an age ranging from 25 to 70 years, was conducted. A phenomenological approach was used in the study. The data were collected by unstructured in-depth interviews. The data analysis resulted in six code groups, of which four have appurtenant sub-groups. The six code groups are: "A noticeable change dominates the picture"; "Change in bodily and mental symptoms enables activity"; "Enabling care for oneself and others"; "Enabling improved or continued productivity"; "More rewarding leisure time"; and "Drawbacks of the medication". The findings show that most of the informants had experienced dramatic changes in their daily lives since the medication reduced their symptoms, resulting in an increased level of activity.

  3. Reproductive strategies and Islamic discourse: Malian migrants negotiate everyday life in Paris, France.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Carolyn F

    2006-03-01

    Approximately 37 thousand Malians currently reside in France as part of the West African diaspora. Primarily Muslim, both women and men confront challenges to their understandings of Islamic prohibitions and expectations, especially those addressing conjugal relations and reproduction. Biomedical policies generate marital conflicts and pose health dilemmas for women who face family and community pressures to reproduce but biomedical encouragement to limit childbearing. For many women, contraception represents a reprieve from repeated pregnancies and fatigue in spite of resistance from those who contest women's reproductive decisions as antithetical to Islam. French social workers play a particularly controversial role by introducing women to a discourse of women's rights that questions the authority of husbands and of religious doctrine. Women and men frame decisions and debate in diverse interpretations of Islam as they seek to manage the contradictions of everyday life and assert individual agency in the context of immigration and health politics.

  4. Implicit theories about willpower predict self-regulation and grades in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Job, Veronika; Walton, Gregory M; Bernecker, Katharina; Dweck, Carol S

    2015-04-01

    Laboratory research shows that when people believe that willpower is an abundant (rather than highly limited) resource they exhibit better self-control after demanding tasks. However, some have questioned whether this "nonlimited" theory leads to squandering of resources and worse outcomes in everyday life when demands on self-regulation are high. To examine this, we conducted a longitudinal study, assessing students' theories about willpower and tracking their self-regulation and academic performance. As hypothesized, a nonlimited theory predicted better self-regulation (better time management and less procrastination, unhealthy eating, and impulsive spending) for students who faced high self-regulatory demands. Moreover, among students taking a heavy course load, those with a nonlimited theory earned higher grades, which was mediated by less procrastination. These findings contradict the idea that a limited theory helps people allocate their resources more effectively; instead, it is people with the nonlimited theory who self-regulate well in the face of high demands.

  5. Commentary on: Are we overpathologizing everyday life? A tenable blueprint for behavioral addiction research

    PubMed Central

    Brevers, Damien; Noel, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Background This paper is a commentary to a debate article entitled: “Are we overpathologizing everyday life? A tenable blueprint for behavioral addiction research”, by Billieux et al. (2015). Methods and aim This brief response focused on the necessity to better characterize psychological and related neurocognitive determinants of persistent deleterious actions associated or not with substance utilization. Results A majority of addicted people could be driven by psychological functional reasons to keep using drugs, gambling or buying despite the growing number of related negative consequences. In addition, a non-negligible proportion of them would need assistance to restore profound disturbances in basic learning processes involved in compulsive actions. Conclusions The distinction between psychological functionality and compulsive aspects of addictive behaviors should represent a big step towards more efficient treatments. PMID:26551899

  6. Treatment motives as predictors of acquisition and transfer of relaxation methods to everyday life.

    PubMed

    Krampen, Günter; von Eye, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This article presents results from four studies of the significance of type and number of initial treatment motives for acquisition and transfer to everyday life of progressive relaxation (PR) and autogenic training (AT). On the basis of theories of treatment motivation and compliance, we hypothesize that motives for participation are determinants of learning and transfer. Results are reported from (1) two studies with 113 participants in introductory courses on AT and 94 participants in introductory courses on PR and (2) two replication studies with 94 (AT) and 101 participants (PR). Participants indicated their motives for participation. Short-term indicators of treatment success include number of dropouts and subjective evaluations of relaxation exercises; long-term outcomes include transfer of relaxation exercises to everyday life and evaluations of exercise evaluations at follow-up 3 to 6 months after the end of course. Results suggest that for both AT and PR, dropout and subjective relaxation exercise evaluations can be predicted from participation motives. Long-term outcomes can be predicted only for AT. However, for both PR and AT it is shown that for up to four motives, the number of initial course motives is correlated with short-term and long-term predictors of course outcome. We conclude that motivation for participation is highly relevant to client-course matching and adaptive indication of relaxation therapies. Results lead to a threshold hypothesis about the relationship between the number of participation motives and short-term as well as long-term learning and transfer outcome.

  7. A parental questionnaire to evaluate children's Auditory Behavior in Everyday Life (ABEL).

    PubMed

    Purdy, Suzanne C; Farrington, Denise R; Moran, Carolyn A; Chard, Linda L; Hodgson, Shirley-Anne

    2002-12-01

    The Auditory Behavior in Everyday Life (ABEL) questionnaire was developed to assess parental perceptions of their children's auditory behavior. The original 49-item questionnaire was intended to assess auditory communication, environmental awareness, functional independence, and social/ communication skills. Our goal was to capture some of the changes in children's everyday auditory behavior in a reliable and easily quantifiable manner. Parents of 28 children aged 4 to 14 years with varying degrees of hearing loss (mild-profound) completed the questionnaire. The results were used to examine the reliability and factor structure of the questionnaire. Eleven items had poor item-total correlations. After these items were removed, the questionnaire had an overall reliability of 0.94 (Cronbach's alpha), and three factors accounted for 20.5% of the variance in the data. In a pilot investigation of the ABEL to determine its appropriateness for children with cochlear implants, questionnaires were also given to a separate group of parents of seven children aged 3 to 12 years who were about to receive a cochlear implant. Questionnaire and speech perception results were obtained preimplant and at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months. Complete (6 visits) or near-complete (4 visits) results were obtained for four children. There were significant improvements over time for both speech perception and questionnaire ratings and there was significant agreement between the two measures. Overall the results indicate excellent reliability and validity of the ABEL questionnaire. Our intent was to develop a simple, quick tool for parents to rate children's auditory skills in everyday life. A shorter questionnaire can be achieved by eliminating items with the poorest reliability and factor loadings. The resultant 24-item ABEL questionnaire has an excellent overall reliability of 0.95. The items fall within three factors, "Aural-oral," "Auditory Awareness," and "Social/Conversational Skills

  8. On reflexivity and the conduct of the self in everyday life: reflections on Bourdieu and Archer.

    PubMed

    Akram, Sadiya; Hogan, Anthony

    2015-12-01

    This article provides a critique of the concept of reflexivity in social theory today and argues against the tendency to define agency exclusively in terms of reflexivity. Margaret Archer, in particular, is highlighted as a key proponent of this thesis. Archer argues that late modernity is characterized by reflexivity but, in our view, this position neglects the impact of more enduring aspects of agency, such as the routinization of social life and the role of the taken-for-granted. These concepts were pivotal to Bourdieu and Giddens' theorization of everyday life and action and to Foucault's understanding of technologies of the self. We offer Bourdieu's habitus as a more nuanced approach to theorizing agency, and provide an alternative account of reflexivity. Whilst accepting that reflexivity is a core aspect of agency, we argue that it operates to a backdrop of the routinization of social life and operates from within and not outside of habitus. We highlight the role of the breach in reflexivity, suggesting that it opens up a critical window for agents to initiate change. The article suggests caution in over-ascribing reflexivity to agency, instead arguing that achieving reflexivity and change is a difficult and fraught process, which has emotional and moral consequences. The effect of this is that people often prefer the status quo, rather than to risk change and uncertainty. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  9. Improvements of task performance in daily life after acquired brain injury using commonly available everyday technology.

    PubMed

    Lindén, Anita; Lexell, Jan; Larsson Lund, Maria

    2011-01-01

    To investigate how individualised occupation-based interventions with commonly available everyday technology (ET) can compensate for perceived difficulties with daily life tasks after an aquired brain injury (ABI) and improve satisfaction with occupational performance. This intervention study was designed as a multiple case study according to Yin. Ten men and women with an ABI (traumatic or non-traumatic) participated. Data were collected through interviews, observations and field notes before and after the intervention and at follow-up (on average 11 weeks afterwards). The interventions focused on enabling each participant's prioritised goals related to task performance in daily life. All participants achieved all their goals by learning to use both new functions in their own familiar ET and new ET. The participant's perceived difficulties in occupational performance decreased and their satisfaction with occupational performance increased with the use of ET. An individualised intervention process, involving the use of own familiar ET or ET off-the-shelf, has the potential to compensate for perceived difficulties following an ABI and improve satisfaction with occupational performance in daily life.

  10. Dietary education must fit into everyday life: a qualitative study of people with a Pakistani background and type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hempler, Nana F; Nicic, Sara; Ewers, Bettina; Willaing, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Background The high prevalence of diabetes among South Asian populations in European countries partially derives from unhealthy changes in dietary patterns. Limited studies address perspectives of South Asian populations with respect to utility of diabetes education in everyday life. This study explores perspectives on dietary diabetes education and healthy food choices of people living in Denmark who have a Pakistani background and type 2 diabetes. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted between October 2012 and December 2013 with 12 participants with type 2 diabetes who had received dietary diabetes education. Data analysis was systematic and was based on grounded theory principles. Results Participants described the process of integrating and utilizing dietary education in everyday life as challenging. Perceived barriers of the integration and utilization included a lack of a connection between the content of the education and life conditions, a lack of support from their social networks for dietary change, difficulty integrating the education into everyday life, and failure to include the participants’ taste preferences in the educational setting. Conclusion Dietary education that is sensitive to the attitudes, wishes, and preferences of the participants and that aims at establishing a connection to the everyday life of the participants might facilitate successful changes in dietary practices among people with a Pakistani background and type 2 diabetes. The findings suggest that more focus should be placed on collaborative processes in the dietary educational setting in order to achieve appropriate education and to improve communication between this population and health care professionals. PMID:25750523

  11. Everyday experiences of life, body and well-being in children with overweight.

    PubMed

    Mériaux, Benita Gunnarsson; Berg, Marie; Hellström, Anna-Lena

    2010-03-01

    Childhood overweight is presented as a complex problem to solve. To elaborate efforts required in striving for normal weight in overweight children healthy signs of life from the child's point of view should be identified and promoted. The aim of the present study is to describe everyday experiences of life, body and well-being in children with overweight. A qualitative descriptive design based on lifeworld perspective was used in 16 open-ended interviews with overweight children aged 10-12 years. Child overweight was defined by body mass index (kg/m(2)) for each age. Drawings and body pictograms were used to supplement the interviews. Text was analysed using qualitative content analysis. The primary finding was the respondents' search for a sense of community in daily life. The respondents yearned to be part of a community but spent a lot of time alone. Parents and other family members were an important source of community but were not present enough in the respondents' daily life. The respondents had a sound body image, were concerned about their bodies and were aware of a healthy lifestyle. Nevertheless, they did not manage to implement this awareness in practice. Unhealthy sleeping, eating and exercise habits along with a sense of victimization were revealed in the interviews. Well-being meant self-esteem, trust and satisfaction and was preserved and improved through exciting relationships and activities. Feeling well was equal to feeling capable, feeling happy and feeling a sense of community. Findings emphasize the problem of loneliness in the children studied. Their healthy signs of life were not promoted in an acceptable way. They spent too much time alone doing sedentary activities with easy access to junk food. Findings indicate they should be provided with company at all meals and during activities on a daily basis.

  12. Good Relations between Foster Parents and Birth Parents: A Swedish Study of Practices Promoting Successful Cooperation in Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedin, Lena

    2015-01-01

    The importance for foster children's well-being of good relations between foster parents and birth parents is a common topic of research. This article aims to contribute to an understanding of how co-parenting by foster parents and birth parents works in everyday life, from both parties' perspectives, whether or not they knew each other…

  13. Good Relations between Foster Parents and Birth Parents: A Swedish Study of Practices Promoting Successful Cooperation in Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedin, Lena

    2015-01-01

    The importance for foster children's well-being of good relations between foster parents and birth parents is a common topic of research. This article aims to contribute to an understanding of how co-parenting by foster parents and birth parents works in everyday life, from both parties' perspectives, whether or not they knew each other…

  14. Problem Solving in Relation to Resources in Everyday Life in Families of Children with Disabilities: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ylven, Regina; Granlund, Mats; Persson, Carina

    2012-01-01

    Problem solving is recognized as a skill, helping families of children with disabilities to manage problems in everyday life. Family problem-solving skills may therefore be seen as an important outcome of a child and youth habilitation service. The aim of this pilot feasibility study was to examine the design of a future web-based questionnaire…

  15. Everyday Physical Activity of Students in Nyíregyháza

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fintor, János Gábor

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of physical education lessons has already been demonstrated by a lot of essays, however, it has also been revealed that this popularity, as well as the frequency of doing sports, tends to decrease at later ages of life. Pursuing sports has a positive effect on academic performance. Introducing PE as an everyday lesson at schools was…

  16. Everyday Physical Activity of Students in Nyíregyháza

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fintor, János Gábor

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of physical education lessons has already been demonstrated by a lot of essays, however, it has also been revealed that this popularity, as well as the frequency of doing sports, tends to decrease at later ages of life. Pursuing sports has a positive effect on academic performance. Introducing PE as an everyday lesson at schools was…

  17. Managing occupations in everyday life for people with advanced cancer living at home.

    PubMed

    Peoples, Hanne; Brandt, Åse; Wæhrens, Eva E; la Cour, Karen

    2017-01-01

    People with advanced cancer are able to live for extended periods of time. Advanced cancer can cause functional limitations influencing the ability to manage occupations. Although studies have shown that people with advanced cancer experience occupational difficulties, there is only limited research that specifically explores how these occupational difficulties are managed. To describe and explore how people with advanced cancer manage occupations when living at home. A sub-sample of 73 participants from a larger occupational therapy project took part in the study. The participants were consecutively recruited from a Danish university hospital. Qualitative interviews were performed at the homes of the participants. Content analysis was applied to the data. Managing occupations were manifested in two main categories; (1) Conditions influencing occupations in everyday life and (2) Self-developed strategies to manage occupations. The findings suggest that people with advanced cancer should be supported to a greater extent in finding ways to manage familiar as well as new and more personally meaningful occupations to enhance quality of life.

  18. Factors of subjective heat stress of urban citizens in contexts of everyday life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Hackenbruch, Julia; Schipper, Janus Willem

    2016-04-01

    Heat waves and the consequent heat stress of urban populations have a growing relevance in urban risk management and strategies of urban adaptation to climate change. In this context, social science studies on subjective experiencing of heat as stress by urban citizens are a new emerging field. To contribute to the understanding of self-reported subjective heat stress and its major determinants in a daily life perspective, we conducted a questionnaire survey with 323 respondents in Karlsruhe, Germany, after heat waves in July and August 2013. Statistical data analysis showed that subjective heat stress is an issue permeating everyday activities. Subjective heat stress at home was lower than at work and in general. Subjective heat stress in general, at home, and at work was determined by the health impairments experienced during the heat and the feeling of being helplessly exposed to the heat. For subjective heat stress at home, characteristics of the residential building and the built environment additionally played a role. Although the rate of implemented coping measures was rather high, coping measures showed no uniform effect for the subjective heat stress. We conclude that in terms of urban adaptation strategies, further research is needed to understand how various processes of daily social (work) life enable or limit individual coping and that communication strategies are important for building capacities to better cope with future heat waves.

  19. Continuous Glucose Profiles in Healthy Subjects under Everyday Life Conditions and after Different Meals

    PubMed Central

    Freckmann, Guido; Hagenlocher, Sven; Baumstark, Annette; Jendrike, Nina; Gillen, Ralph C.; Rössner, Katja; Haug, Cornelia

    2007-01-01

    Background This study investigated continuous glucose profiles in nondiabetic subjects. Methods Continuous interstitial glucose measurement was performed under everyday life conditions (2 days) and after ingestion of four meals with standardized carbohydrate content (50 grams), but with different types of carbohydrates and variable protein and fat content. Twenty-four healthy volunteers (12 female, 12 male, age 27.1 ± 3.6 years) participated in the study. Each subject wore two microdialysis devices (SCGM1, Roche Diagnostics) simultaneously. Results The mean 24-hour interstitial glucose concentration under everyday life conditions was 89.3 ± 6.2 mg/dl (mean ± SD, n = 21), and mean interstitial glucose concentrations at daytime and during the night were 93.0 ± 7.0 and 81.8 ± 6.3 mg/dl, respectively. The highest postprandial glucose concentrations were observed after breakfast: 132.3 ± 16.7 mg/dl (range 101–168 mg/dl); peak concentrations after lunch and dinner were 118.2 ± 13.4 and 123.0 ± 16.9 mg/dl, respectively. Mean time to peak glucose concentration was between 46 and 50 minutes. After ingestion of standardized meals with fast absorption characteristics, peak interstitial glucose concentrations were 133.2 ± 14.4 and 137.2 ± 21.1 mg/dl, respectively. Meals with a higher fiber, protein, and fat content induced a smaller increase and a slower decrease of postprandial glucose concentrations with peak values of 99.2 ± 10.5 and 122.1 ± 20.4 mg/dl, respectively. Conclusions This study provided continuous glucose profiles in nondiabetic subjects and demonstrated that differences in meal composition are reflected in postprandial interstitial glucose concentrations. Regarding the increasing application of continuous glucose monitoring in diabetic patients, these data suggest that detailed information about the ingested meals is important for adequate interpretation of postprandial glucose profiles. PMID:19885137

  20. Everyday life with rheumatoid arthritis and implications for patient education and clinical practice: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Tine Mechlenborg; Primdahl, Jette; Antoft, Rasmus; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to explore how everyday life is affected by rheumatoid arthritis (RA), in order to inform patient education and clinical practice and generate further research. Six focus group interviews were conducted with, in total, 32 participants. Interview data were analysed using content analysis methods. The study showed that RA affected almost every aspect of participants' everyday lives, particularly self-identity, social relationships, work and relationships with health and social care professionals. A small number of the participants did not have these experiences, due to receiving fast diagnosis and effective medical treatment. The findings point to a need to increase knowledge about RA, support symptom management and reduce the physical, social and psychological challenges posed by RA in everyday life. An individualized and engaged approach to patient education, taking the individual experiences as the point of departure, is suggested. The results indicate directions for further research. The general implications for patient education that emerge from this study might not address the support needs of those who did not experience significant changes in everyday life. A more detailed and in-depth understanding about living with RA in the first years after diagnosis would provide a valuable supplement to the many retrospective studies, and useful knowledge in the design of patient education tailored to those who are newly diagnosed with RA. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. The Scriptural Economy, the Forbes Figuration and the Racial Order: Everyday Life in South Africa 1850–1930

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Liz

    2015-01-01

    Social change and large-scale transformations are as important to everyday life sociology as to macro sociology approaches. South Africa has been a ‘hotspot’ of change with a number of such transitions occurring in a condensed time-period, in particular regarding ‘race’ matters. A large South African family collection, concerning the Forbes family, is used to explore how the processes of change regarding the racial order can be analysed within an everyday sociology framework, focusing on the period 1850 to 1930. A range of documents throwing light on ‘the space of the day’, ‘the world and the word’ and other aspects of everyday experience are discussed. PMID:26456982

  2. Anytime-Anywhere? Mobile Communicative Practices and the Management of Relationships in Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno Becerra, Tabita Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines how mobile practices of social-media use are integrated into individuals' everyday lives as a way to manage their relationships. Mobile communication technologies and social-media use intersect in people's everyday communicative practices, allowing individuals to engage in continuous interactions that take place on the…

  3. Anytime-Anywhere? Mobile Communicative Practices and the Management of Relationships in Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno Becerra, Tabita Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines how mobile practices of social-media use are integrated into individuals' everyday lives as a way to manage their relationships. Mobile communication technologies and social-media use intersect in people's everyday communicative practices, allowing individuals to engage in continuous interactions that take place on the…

  4. Maintaining everyday life in a family with a dying parent: Teenagers' experiences of adapting to responsibility.

    PubMed

    Melcher, Ulrica; Sandell, Rolf; Henriksson, Anette

    2015-12-01

    Teenagers are living through a turbulent period in their development, when they are breaking away from the family to form their own identities, and so they are particularly vulnerable to the stressful situation of having a parent affected by a progressive and incurable illness. The current study sought to gain more knowledge about the ways that teenagers themselves describe living in a family with a seriously ill and dying parent. More specifically, the aims were to describe how teenagers are emotionally affected by everyday life in a family with a dying parent and to determine how they attempt to adapt to this situation. The study employed a descriptive and interpretive design using qualitative content analysis. A total of 10 teenagers (aged 14-19 years, 7 boys and 3 girls) participated through repeated, individual, informal interviews that were carried out as free-ranging conversations. While contending with their own vulnerable developmental period of life, the teenagers were greatly affected by their parent's illness and took on great responsibility for supporting their parents and siblings, and for maintaining family life. Lacking sufficient information and support left them rather unprepared, having to guess and to interpret the vague signs of failing health on their own, with feelings of uncertainty and loneliness as a consequence. Support from healthcare professionals should be designed to help and encourage parents to have open communications about their illness with their teenaged children. Our results add further support to the literature, reinforcing the need for an approach that uses a systemic perspective and considers the family to be the appropriate unit of care and offers a suitable support system.

  5. Until Death Do Us Part: Adult Relatives' Experiences of Everyday Life Close to Persons with Mental Ill-Health.

    PubMed

    Graneheim, Ulla Hällgren; Åström, Sture

    2016-08-01

    This study illuminates adult relatives' experiences of everyday life close to a person with mental ill-health. The study was based on nine diaries and four narrative interviews with relatives of people with mental ill-health. Data were subjected to qualitative content analysis. The participants experienced everyday life as a constant fight, for better and for worse, with psychiatric care. They were fighting for the mentally ill person's right to care; sometimes they felt resigned, but yet they had a confidence in the care. Their mission in life was to sacrifice themselves, meaning that they felt indispensable and became lonely and socially isolated. They considered their mission to last until death set them apart because they were keeping a family secret, and had great worries about the future. We conclude that relatives experience a two-folded stigma in living close to a person with mental ill-health and in becoming lonely and socially isolated.

  6. Understanding health through social practices: performance and materiality in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Maller, Cecily Jane

    2015-01-01

    The importance of recognising structure and agency in health research to move beyond methodological individualism is well documented. To progress incorporating social theory into health, researchers have used Giddens' and Bourdieu's conceptualisations of social practice to understand relationships between agency, structure and health. However, social practice theories have more to offer than has currently been capitalised upon. This article delves into contemporary theories of social practice as used in consumption and sustainability research to provide an alternative, and more contextualised means, of understanding and explaining human action in relation to health and wellbeing. Two key observations are made. Firstly, the latest formulations of social practice theory distinguish moments of practice performance from practices as persistent entities across time and space, allowing empirical application to explain practice histories and future trajectories. Secondly, they emphasise the materiality of everyday life, foregrounding things, technologies and other non-humans that cannot be ignored in a technologically dependent social world. In concluding, I argue the value of using contemporary social practice theories in health research is that they reframe the way in which health outcomes can be understood and could inform more effective interventions that move beyond attitudes, behaviour and choices. © 2015 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. [Social inclusion of individuals with mental health problems: building social networks in everyday life].

    PubMed

    Salles, Mariana Moraes; Barros, Sônia

    2013-07-01

    The support of social networks is a fundamental aspect for the social inclusion of people with mental health problems. This study seeks to identify and analyze the difficulties and possibilities of users of a Psychosocial Care Center (CAPS) in building their extended social network. The qualitative approach was used as the research methodology and Ágnes Heller's concept about everyday life was used as a philosophical benchmark. The subjects in this investigation were frequenters of Psychosocial Care Centers with people from their social network. Semi-structured interviews were conducted for the data gathering and discourse analysis was used for examining the data. It was seen that although this population is living in the community it is frequently segregated and isolated from living together with other people, thereby leading to social exclusion. Nevertheless, CAPS are a space of belonging and welcoming that undeniably produce favorable changes in the users' lives. People with mental health problems have also been able to relate to others in CAPS. By using the available opportunities, they make new friends and maintain friendships they already had. Living with others in the community is highly conducive to the formation of relationships.

  8. Pediatric Evaluation of the ClearVoice™ Speech Enhancement Algorithm in Everyday Life

    PubMed Central

    Noël-Petroff, Nathalie; Mathias, Nathalie; Ulmann, Cécile; Abbeele, Thierry Van Den

    2013-01-01

    ClearVoice™ enables Advanced Bionics cochlear implant users to improve their speech understanding in difficult listening environments, without compromising performance in quiet situations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the benefits of ClearVoice in children. Children between six and fourteen years of age randomly tested two modalities of ClearVoice for one month each. The baseline program, HiRes 120™, and both ClearVoice programs were evaluated with a sentence test in quiet and noise. Parents and teachers completed a questionnaire related to everyday noisy situations. The switchover to ClearVoice was uneventful for both modalities. Adjustments to thresholds and comfort levels were required. Seven out of the nine children preferred a ClearVoice program. No impact of ClearVoice on performance in quiet was observed and both modalities of ClearVoice improved speech understanding in noise compared to the baseline program, significantly with ClearVoice high. Positive outcomes were obtained from the questionnaires and discussions with parents and children. This study showed that children benefited from using ClearVoice in their daily life. There was a clear trend towards improved speech understanding in noise with ClearVoice, without affecting performance in quiet; therefore ClearVoice can be used by children all day, without having to change programs. PMID:26557346

  9. Disturbing Information and Denial in the Classroom and Beyond: Climate Change, Emotions and Everyday Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norgaard, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    Global warming is the most significant environmental issue of our time, yet public response in Western nations has been meager. Why have so few taken any action? Most studies of public response to climate change have focused on information deficit approaches. Many in the general public and environmental community have presumed that the public's failure to engage is a function of lack of concern about climate change. Instead, using interviews and ethnographic research on how knowledge of climate change is experienced in everyday life I describe "the social organization of climate denial" and discuss how it impacts classroom learning and the broader social understanding of climate change. Disturbing emotions of guilt, helplessness and fear of the future arose when people were confronted with the idea of climate change. People then normalized these disturbing emotions by changing the subject of conversations, shifting their attention elsewhere, telling jokes, and drawing on stock social discourses that deflected responsibility to others. The difficulty people have in making sense of climate change is in direct relation to the social world around them. This research suggests that educational strategies in the classroom and for the general public that consider and target the social, cultural and political aspects of the meaning of climate change will be most effective (in addition to factors that affect individual cognition).

  10. Pediatric Evaluation of the ClearVoice™ Speech Enhancement Algorithm in Everyday Life.

    PubMed

    Noël-Petroff, Nathalie; Mathias, Nathalie; Ulmann, Cécile; Abbeele, Thierry Van Den

    2013-01-02

    ClearVoice™ enables Advanced Bionics cochlear implant users to improve their speech understanding in difficult listening environments, without compromising performance in quiet situations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the benefits of ClearVoice in children. Children between six and fourteen years of age randomly tested two modalities of ClearVoice for one month each. The baseline program, HiRes 120™, and both ClearVoice programs were evaluated with a sentence test in quiet and noise. Parents and teachers completed a questionnaire related to everyday noisy situations. The switchover to ClearVoice was uneventful for both modalities. Adjustments to thresholds and comfort levels were required. Seven out of the nine children preferred a ClearVoice program. No impact of ClearVoice on performance in quiet was observed and both modalities of ClearVoice improved speech understanding in noise compared to the baseline program, significantly with ClearVoice high. Positive outcomes were obtained from the questionnaires and discussions with parents and children. This study showed that children benefited from using ClearVoice in their daily life. There was a clear trend towards improved speech understanding in noise with ClearVoice, without affecting performance in quiet; therefore ClearVoice can be used by children all day, without having to change programs.

  11. Recognition of flow in everyday life using sensor agent robot with laser range finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goshima, Misa; Mita, Akira

    2011-04-01

    In the present paper, we suggest an algorithm for a sensor agent robot with a laser range finder to recognize the flows of residents in the living spaces in order to achieve flow recognition in the living spaces, recognition of the number of people in spaces, and the classification of the flows. House reform is or will be demanded to prolong the lifetime of the home. Adaption for the individuals is needed for our aging society which is growing at a rapid pace. Home autonomous mobile robots will become popular in the future for aged people to assist them in various situations. Therefore we have to collect various type of information of human and living spaces. However, a penetration in personal privacy must be avoided. It is essential to recognize flows in everyday life in order to assist house reforms and aging societies in terms of adaption for the individuals. With background subtraction, extra noise removal, and the clustering based k-means method, we got an average accuracy of more than 90% from the behavior from 1 to 3 persons, and also confirmed the reliability of our system no matter the position of the sensor. Our system can take advantages from autonomous mobile robots and protect the personal privacy. It hints at a generalization of flow recognition methods in the living spaces.

  12. Everyday life, culture, and recovery: carer experiences in care homes for individuals with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Javier; Cubero, Mercedes; Crawford, Paul

    2012-09-01

    Supported homes or Care Homes (CHs) have become in-services that play a fundamental role in social-health systems, particularly in mental health systems in Europe and the United States. They provide settings where residents' day-to-day routines are supervised by in-house non-clinician professional carers. Ten semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted by expert professional carers of persons with schizophrenia to explore interactions and activities between carers and users living in special "Care Homes". Analysis focused primarily on the functions of everyday life and daily routines in the recovery process. Social positioning analysis was used to investigate meanings and subjective experiences of professionals. The analysis revealed the importance of personal interactions in daily routines for recovery. We identified two main concerns guiding professionals' interactions with users: "Bring [users] to the here and now" and "give them the initiative to start actions". We suggest that CHs promote the construction of privileged identity in western urban societies, forming part of the process towards recovery and better social integration.

  13. The Reappearance Hypothesis Revisited: Recurrent Involuntary Memories after Traumatic Events and in Everyday Life

    PubMed Central

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Rubin, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Recurrent involuntary memories are autobiographical memories that come to mind with no preceding retrieval attempt and that are subjectively experienced as being repetitive. Clinically, they are classified as a symptom of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The present work is the first to systematically examine recurrent involuntary memories outside clinical settings. Study 1 examines recurrent involuntary memories among survivors of the tsunami catastrophe in Southeast Asia in 2004. Study 2 examines recurrent involuntary memories in a large general population. Study 3 examines whether the contents of recurrent involuntary memories recorded in a diary study are duplicates of, or differ from, one another. We show that recurrent involuntary memories are not limited to clinical populations or to emotionally negative experiences, that they typically do not come to mind in a fixed and unchangeable form, and that they show the same pattern regarding accessibility as autobiographical memories in general. We argue that recurrent involuntary memories after traumas and in everyday life can be explained in terms of general and well-established mechanisms of autobiographical memory. PMID:18426073

  14. Searching for life in the universe: lessons from the earth.

    PubMed

    Nealson, K H

    2001-12-01

    Space programs will soon allow us to search for life in situ on Mars and to return samples for analysis. A major focal point is to search for evidence of present or past life in these samples, evidence that, if found, would have far-reaching consequences for both science and religion. A search strategy will consider the entire gamut of life on our own planet, using that information to frame a search that would recognize life even if it were fundamentally different from that we know on Earth. We discuss here how the lessons learned from the study of life on Earth can be used to allow us to develop a general strategy for the search for life in the Universe.

  15. Searching for life in the universe: lessons from the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nealson, K. H.

    2001-01-01

    Space programs will soon allow us to search for life in situ on Mars and to return samples for analysis. A major focal point is to search for evidence of present or past life in these samples, evidence that, if found, would have far-reaching consequences for both science and religion. A search strategy will consider the entire gamut of life on our own planet, using that information to frame a search that would recognize life even if it were fundamentally different from that we know on Earth. We discuss here how the lessons learned from the study of life on Earth can be used to allow us to develop a general strategy for the search for life in the Universe.

  16. Searching for life in the universe: lessons from the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nealson, K. H.

    2001-01-01

    Space programs will soon allow us to search for life in situ on Mars and to return samples for analysis. A major focal point is to search for evidence of present or past life in these samples, evidence that, if found, would have far-reaching consequences for both science and religion. A search strategy will consider the entire gamut of life on our own planet, using that information to frame a search that would recognize life even if it were fundamentally different from that we know on Earth. We discuss here how the lessons learned from the study of life on Earth can be used to allow us to develop a general strategy for the search for life in the Universe.

  17. The Association between Short Periods of Everyday Life Activities and Affective States: A Replication Study Using Ambulatory Assessment.

    PubMed

    Bossmann, Thomas; Kanning, Martina; Koudela-Hamila, Susanne; Hey, Stefan; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Regularly conducted exercise programs effectively influence affective states. Studies suggest that this is also true for short bouts of physical activity (PA) of 10 min or less. Accordingly, everyday life activities of short duration might be used to regulate affective states. However, this association has rarely been studied in reference to unstructured activities in ongoing real-life situations. The current study examined the influence of various everyday life activities on three dimensions of mood (valence, calmness, energetic arousal) in a predominantly inactive sample. Ambulatory Assessment (AA) was used to investigate the association between actual PA and affective states during the course of 1 day. Seventy-seven students ages 19-30 participated in the study. PA was assessed with accelerometers, and affective state assessments were conducted hourly using an e-diary with a six-item mood scale that was specially designed for AA. Multilevel analyses indicated that the mood dimensions energetic arousal (p = 0.001) and valence (p = 0.005) were positively influenced by the intensity of the activity carried out in the 10-min prior to the assessment. As their activity increased, the participants' positive feelings and energetic arousal increased. However, the students' calmness was not affected by their activity levels. The findings highlight the importance of integrating short activity intervals of 10 min or less into everyday life routines to improve affective states.

  18. The everyday life of the young child shortly after receiving a cancer diagnosis, from both children's and parent's perspectives.

    PubMed

    Darcy, Laura; Knutsson, Susanne; Huus, Karina; Enskar, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Providing qualified, evidence-based healthcare to children requires increased knowledge of how cancer affects the young child's life. There is a dearth of research focusing on the young child's experience of everyday life. The purpose of this study was to explore young children's and their parents' perceptions of how cancer affects the child's health and everyday life shortly after diagnosis. Thirteen children with newly diagnosed cancer aged 1 to 6 years and their parents, connected to a pediatric oncology unit in Southern Sweden, participated in this study through semistructured interviews. Child and parent data were analyzed as a family unit, using qualitative content analysis. Everyday life was spent at hospital or at home waiting to go back to hospital. Analysis led to the following categories: feeling like a stranger, feeling powerless, and feeling isolated. The child wants to be seen as a competent individual requiring information and participation in care. Parents need to be a safe haven for their child and not feel forced to legitimize painful and traumatic procedures by assisting with them. Nurses play a major role in the lives of children. Research with and on the young child is necessary and a way of making them visible and promoting their health and well-being. Nurses need to reevaluate the newly diagnosed child's care routines so as to shift focus from the illness to the child. This requires competent nurses, secure in their caring role.

  19. What Remains Invariant: Life Lessons from Abdus Salam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, T. Z.

    Abdus Salam was a multi-dimensional man who straddled research and institution-building with enviable flair; he was both religious and iconoclastic, a true citizen of the world yet deeply nationalistic, a scientist and a lover of literature, a villager and a cosmopolitan. While the specific details of his life belong to the man alone, Salam's rich experiences exemplify certain values, attitudes and lessons that are universal...

  20. Are Your Cells Pregnant? Relating Biology Laboratory Exercises to Everyday Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Simon J.; Banner, Lisa R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a laboratory exercise that allows students to investigate the principles of hormone release from endocrine cells, which is highly relevant to students' everyday lives. (Contains 17 references.) (ASK)

  1. Parents of children surviving a brain tumor: burnout and the perceived disease-related influence on everyday life.

    PubMed

    Norberg, Annika Lindahl

    2010-10-01

    Parents of children diagnosed with a brain tumor often report distress, even after successfully completed cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to examine predictors of burnout (ie stress-induced exhaustion) in parents of children who have had a brain tumor. Twenty-four mothers and 20 fathers completed self-report questionnaires on 2 occasions at an interval of 7 months. Controlling for generic stress, parents' perception of the influence of the disease on everyday life-predicted burnout symptoms. Moreover, parents' appraisal of a disease-related influence on everyday life showed stability, implying that parental stress may be chronic. The findings encourage furthermore investigation of chronic stress among parents of children diagnosed with cancer.

  2. Should We Bother with the Speed of Light in Everyday Life? A Closer Look at GSM Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawalec, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    The speed of light, or more generally, the speed of electromagnetic waves, seems to be incredibly high. 300 000 km s[superscript -1] is far greater than the typical speed of a car, a plane or even a rocket, which is just several kilometres per second. It is thus natural that we treat the speed of light as infinite in everyday life. It appears,…

  3. Should We Bother with the Speed of Light in Everyday Life? A Closer Look at GSM Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawalec, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    The speed of light, or more generally, the speed of electromagnetic waves, seems to be incredibly high. 300 000 km s[superscript -1] is far greater than the typical speed of a car, a plane or even a rocket, which is just several kilometres per second. It is thus natural that we treat the speed of light as infinite in everyday life. It appears,…

  4. Anticipatory scaling of grip forces when lifting objects of everyday life.

    PubMed

    Hermsdörfer, Joachim; Li, Yong; Randerath, Jennifer; Goldenberg, Georg; Eidenmüller, Sandra

    2011-07-01

    The ability to predict and anticipate the mechanical demands of the environment promotes smooth and skillful motor actions. Thus, the finger forces produced to grasp and lift an object are scaled to the physical properties such as weight. While grip force scaling is well established for neutral objects, only few studies analyzed objects known from daily routine and none studied grip forces. In the present study, eleven healthy subjects each lifted twelve objects of everyday life that encompassed a wide range of weights. The finger pads were covered with force sensors that enabled the measurement of grip force. A scale registered load forces. In a control experiment, the objects were wrapped into paper to prevent recognition by the subjects. Data from the first lift of each object confirmed that object weight was anticipated by adequately scaled forces. The maximum grip force rate during the force increase phase emerged as the most reliable measure to verify that weight was actually predicted and to characterize the precision of this prediction, while other force measures were scaled to object weight also when object identity was not known. Variability and linearity of the grip force-weight relationship improved for time points reached after liftoff, suggesting that sensory information refined the force adjustment. The same mechanism seemed to be involved with unrecognizable objects, though a lower precision was reached. Repeated lifting of the same object within a second and third presentation block did not improve the precision of the grip force scaling. Either practice was too variable or the motor system does not prioritize the optimization of the internal representation when objects are highly familiar.

  5. Impact of cancer on everyday life: a systematic appraisal of the research evidence

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Ikumi; Wright, David; Foster, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective  To conduct a systematic appraisal of the published literature reviews related to the impact of cancer on everyday life. This theme was identified as the top priority area for research by participants in the Macmillan Listening Study, which was the first UK‐wide public consultation exercise to identify patients’ priorities for cancer research. Search strategy  The top priority area was divided into ten sub‐themes, and a modified systematic review was undertaken for each sub‐theme using electronic searches. Inclusion criteria  Literature review papers were included if they were written in English, involved patients diagnosed ≥18 years, any cancer types and published between 2000 and 2006. Data extraction and synthesis  Two thousand and two hundred and fifty‐two potentially eligible papers were identified. Abstracts were read by the first author and selected for inclusion in the review. Twenty percentages of the papers were also read independently by other authors. Sixty‐two review papers were finally selected. Main results  The systematic appraisal revealed that some sub‐themes of the patient‐identified priority area (e.g., how to support family members of cancer patients) were under‐researched, while other sub‐themes (e.g., anxiety and depression experienced by cancer patients) had been explored to some extent. Certain areas of research interest to patients were found to have been explored; however, their significance was limited by the quality of the research. Conclusion  The systematic appraisal highlights important areas for future research and the need for more effective dissemination of study findings to wider audiences, including service users. This study also indicates the need for further research to enhance the generalizability and/or significance of findings. PMID:21332618

  6. The perception of odor objects in everyday life: a review on the processing of odor mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Thomas-Danguin, Thierry; Sinding, Charlotte; Romagny, Sébastien; El Mountassir, Fouzia; Atanasova, Boriana; Le Berre, Elodie; Le Bon, Anne-Marie; Coureaud, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Smelling monomolecular odors hardly ever occurs in everyday life, and the daily functioning of the sense of smell relies primarily on the processing of complex mixtures of volatiles that are present in the environment (e.g., emanating from food or conspecifics). Such processing allows for the instantaneous recognition and categorization of smells and also for the discrimination of odors among others to extract relevant information and to adapt efficiently in different contexts. The neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning this highly efficient analysis of complex mixtures of odorants is beginning to be unraveled and support the idea that olfaction, as vision and audition, relies on odor-objects encoding. This configural processing of odor mixtures, which is empirically subject to important applications in our societies (e.g., the art of perfumers, flavorists, and wine makers), has been scientifically studied only during the last decades. This processing depends on many individual factors, among which are the developmental stage, lifestyle, physiological and mood state, and cognitive skills; this processing also presents striking similarities between species. The present review gathers the recent findings, as observed in animals, healthy subjects, and/or individuals with affective disorders, supporting the perception of complex odor stimuli as odor objects. It also discusses peripheral to central processing, and cognitive and behavioral significance. Finally, this review highlights that the study of odor mixtures is an original window allowing for the investigation of daily olfaction and emphasizes the need for knowledge about the underlying biological processes, which appear to be crucial for our representation and adaptation to the chemical environment. PMID:24917831

  7. From donation to everyday life: Living kidney donors' experiences three months after donation.

    PubMed

    Agerskov, Hanne; Ludvigsen, Mette Spliid; Bistrup, Claus; Pedersen, Birthe D

    2016-03-01

    As the number of patients with end stage kidney disease continues to rise internationally, living kidney donation remains a favourable treatment option. Long waiting times on dialysis can be avoided and short and long-term outcomes are better, when compared with deceased donor transplantation. Living kidney donation is a safe procedure for healthy individuals who have completed a rigorous screening programme. Significant experiences can occur during the recovery period. To investigate donors' experiences of donation and their recovery period, in the first three months after donation. The study took a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach. Open interviews were conducted three months after donation. Data were interpreted and discussed in accordance with Ricoeur's text interpretation theory on three levels: naïve reading, structural analysis and critical interpretation and discussion. The donation process was experienced as an 'expedition', including preparations, the operation, recovery and everyday life. Positive feelings were challenging to describe; however health troubles and vulnerability were evident. A closer relationship and a need to follow the recipient's progress implied that patient and donor felt they were a part of each other. Support from relatives was important but could also be a burden. The kidney donation process is experienced as being like on an expedition, involving positive feelings, vulnerability, a closer patient-donor relationship and challenges around family relationships. It is essential that nurses are aware of the complexity of the situation and focus on the impact of the process, to support and facilitate donors' needs. © 2015 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  8. Dynamics of everyday life: rigorous modular modeling in neurobiology based on Bloch's dynamical theorem.

    PubMed

    McCollum, Gin; Roberts, Patrick D

    2004-12-01

    Natural, everyday sensorimotor behaviors, such as rising from sitting, typically have an intrinsic organization of several levels of analysis. Taking this intrinsic organization as key to understanding neural dynamics is neither a top-down nor a bottom-up approach, but rather a meshing of multiple centers and levels of analysis. Motor control requires body dynamics that are consistent with physical dynamics, besides the more microscopic levels of neural dynamics. The dynamics of separate movements have been investigated as if the ends can be capped off, separated from the rest of the individual's life. Is this dynamically correct? Even chaotic behavior is deterministic. However, the mathematics of nonlinear oscillations is not all of dynamics. This paper relates Bloch's dynamical theorem to the modular, conditional approach to sensorimotor and other neural functioning. Bloch's dynamical theorem lays a foundation for the piecewise study of structurally accurate dynamics in theoretical neurobiology. Piecewise studies can be used as a modeling option complementary to the methods of nonlinear oscillator dynamics. By applying Bloch's theorem, dynamics of movements analyzed piecewise can be extended into a smooth flow on any manifold, either as a whole or conditionally. Conditional dynamics makes dynamical modeling options explicit, often depending on what variables the organism can control, and allows one to take different modeling options at different junctures in analyzing the same phenomenon. For example, this approach allows the study of complex motor control problems to be reduced to modular constructions using singularities and flow lines. Dynamical contingencies are expressed using the mathematics of ordered structures. This paper presents Bloch's dynamical theorem and its relevance to model construction in theoretical neurobiology. Specific examples, integrated into physiological and behavioral context, are cited from the literature.

  9. Experiences of using mobile phones in everyday life among persons with stroke and their families in Uganda - a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Kamwesiga, Julius T; Tham, Kerstin; Guidetti, Susanne

    2017-03-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to describe the experiences and meaning of using mobile phones in everyday life after stroke, among persons with stroke and their family members. Methods Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted among 11 persons with stroke and 9 family members 2 months to 2 years after the stroke. The interviews were analysed by using constant comparative grounded theory (GT) approach. Results Seven categories were identified from the analysis of the participants' experiences. The mobile phone: (1) as an enabler of communication and connections with other people, (2) a source of inspiration for agency, (3) structuring routine and activities in daily life, (4) as a facilitator of social and economic wellbeing of an individual or family, (5) promoter of belonging and participation in social relationships, (6) facilitator of reintegration to community living and (7) enabler of family members to feel secure. From these categories, a core category emerged: The mobile phone as a "life line" and an extension of the body enabling connection, belonging and agency to act in a complex everyday life situation. Conclusion The study gives support for the possibility of using mobile phones to facilitate change and community integration in the rehabilitation process after stroke. Implications for Rehabilitation Stroke leads to decreased functioning in everyday life due to impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions as well caregiver burden. Mobile phones seem to be an accessible and affordable technology used in daily life of persons with stroke and family members and connects them to the needed services and social relationships. The mobile phone technology reduces resource and infrastructural challenges and increases accessibility to rehabilitation interventions. The mobile phone was an important instrument that facilitated the quality of life of persons with stroke and their family members and could increase their participation in

  10. Life Functions and Cells: Level II, Unit 7, Lesson 1; Cell Structure: Lesson 2; Tissues, Organs, Systems: Lesson 3; Growth and Nutrition: Lesson 4; Metabolism: Lesson 5. Advanced General Education Program. A High School Self-Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    This self-study program for high-school level contains lessons on: Life Functions and Cells; Cell Structure; Tissues, Organs, Systems; Growth and Nutrition; and Metabolism. Each of the lessons concludes with a Mastery Test to be completed by the student. (DB)

  11. Struggle and adjustment to an insecure everyday life and an unpredictable life course. Living with juvenile idiopathic arthritis from childhood to adult life - an interview study.

    PubMed

    Ostlie, Ingrid Landgraff; Johansson, Inger; Möller, Anders

    2009-01-01

    . To obtain a deeper understanding of the meaning of living with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) through childhood and adolescence into adult life as described by young adults with JIA themselves. Based on a qualitative study design, 15 young adults were interviewed individually. The data were analysed using a qualitative content analysis approach. Living with JIA involves struggle and adjustment to an insecure everyday life and an unpredictable life course. The informants' experiences emerged as dichotomies on a continuum describing the dynamics in life experiences individually and over time. The categories include bodily experiences of limitations or freedom, being acknowledged or set aside in interpersonal relationships, and intrapersonal experiences of insecurity or confidence. The findings indicate a change to greater acceptance and adjustment to the disease over time. The impact of JIA on life in a time of transition from childhood to adult life involves complex challenges on coping strategies and adjustment processes. Understanding this complexity is urgent for health professionals to contribute to both normal developmental task achievements and overall well-being for young people with JIA. Further investigations should focus on coping and adjustment processes when facing disease fluctuations and unpredictability in a life-span perspective.

  12. Everyday life of young adults with intellectual disabilities: inclusionary and exclusionary processes among young adults of parents with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Starke, Mikaela

    2013-06-01

    Ten young adults with an intellectual disability whose parents, too, have an intellectual disability were interviewed and completed questionnaires for this exploratory study aimed at charting their experiences of everyday life. Most of the participants reported high life satisfaction, especially with the domains of friends, leisure time, and family, and considered their families as a resource for their empowerment and development of resilience. The study participants' informal networks were composed of only a few individuals who, moreover, were mostly of dissimilar age and also included support professionals. The participants typically described themselves as excluded from others, an experience that was articulated most conspicuously in their narratives about the special schools they were attending.

  13. Family members' lived experiences of everyday life after intensive care treatment of a loved one: a phenomenological hermeneutical study.

    PubMed

    Frivold, Gro; Slettebø, Åshild; Dale, Bjørg

    2016-02-01

    To illuminate relatives' experiences of everyday life after a loved one's stay in an intensive care unit. Relatives of intensive care patients experience considerable stress that can have a long-lasting effect on their everyday lives. Relatives frequently report anxiety, depression and complicated grief as a result of their experiences in the intensive care unit. A qualitative design was chosen. Thirteen relatives were interviewed 3 months to 1 year after the discharge or death of an intensive care unit patient. A phenomenological hermeneutical method was used to explore family members' lived experiences upon returning home after their loved ones' stay in the intensive care unit. Two themes emerged from the analysis of the data: (1) changes in everyday life and emotional reactions, and (2) managing changes and need of support and follow-up from the ICU. Family members experience changes in emotions, roles and responsibilities after returning home. They must maintain control of themselves and adapt to the changes to face the future. They cope by using their personal resources and support from others. Some are in further need of follow-up from the intensive care unit staff. Nursing education could focus increasingly more on the significance of communication and personal support, which helps family members cope during patients' stay and experience a sense of personal strength when returning home. Further research should address how to identify and support those with special needs after the intensive care unit stay. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A naturalistic observation study of the links between parental depressive symptoms and preschoolers' behaviors in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Slatcher, Richard B; Trentacosta, Christopher J

    2011-06-01

    Previous research has shown that parental depressive symptoms are linked to a number of negative child outcomes. However, the associations between parental depressive symptoms and actual child behaviors in everyday life remain largely unknown. The aims of this study were to investigate the links between parental depressive symptoms and everyday child behaviors and emotional language use using a novel observational methodology, and to explore the potential moderating role of parent-child conflict. We tracked the behaviors and language use of 35 preschool-aged children for two 1-day periods separated by one year using a child version of the Electronically Activated Recorder, a digital voice recorder that records ambient sounds while participants go about their daily lives. Parental depressive symptoms were positively associated with multiple problem behaviors among children (i.e., crying, acting mad, watching TV) when measured both concurrently and prospectively, and with negative emotion word use prospectively. Further, the links between parental depressive symptoms and child crying were moderated by parents' perceptions of parent-child conflict. This study offers the first empirical evidence of direct links between parental depressive symptoms and child behaviors in daily life and presents a promising research tool for the study of everyday child behaviors. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  15. Representations of everyday life: a proposal for capturing social values from the Marxist perspective of knowledge production.

    PubMed

    Soares, Cássia Baldini; Santos, Vilmar Ezequiel Dos; Campos, Célia Maria Sivalli; Lachtim, Sheila Aparecida Ferreira; Campos, Fernanda Cristina

    2011-12-01

    We propose from the Marxist perspective of the construction of knowledge, a theoretical and methodological framework for understanding social values by capturing everyday representations. We assume that scientific research brings together different dimensions: epistemological, theoretical and methodological that consistently to the other instances, proposes a set of operating procedures and techniques for capturing and analyzing the reality under study in order to expose the investigated object. The study of values reveals the essentiality of the formation of judgments and choices, there are values that reflect the dominant ideology, spanning all social classes, but there are values that reflect class interests, these are not universal, they are formed in relationships and social activities. Basing on the Marxist theory of consciousness, representations are discursive formulations of everyday life - opinion or conviction - issued by subjects about their reality, being a coherent way of understanding and exposure social values: focus groups show is suitable for grasping opinions while interviews show potential to expose convictions.

  16. Tracing the successful incorporation of assistive technology into everyday life for younger people with dementia and family carers.

    PubMed

    Arntzen, Cathrine; Holthe, Torhild; Jentoft, Rita

    2016-07-01

    Research shows that people with late-onset dementia and their relatives can benefit from using assistive technology (AT). Few researchers have investigated the use and utility of AT in everyday life for younger people with dementia (YPD) and their family carers. The aim of this study is to explore what characterised the implementation process when the AT was experienced as beneficial to the YPD and the family carer in their daily life. The qualitative longitudinal study followed 12 younger people (i.e. those under 65 years of age), who had recently been diagnosed with dementia and 14 of their family carers. In-depth interviews and observations during the process were conducted at the beginning, and were repeated every 3rd month for up to 12 months. The data were analysed, and the participants' experiences further discussed on the basis of embodied, social- and everyday life-situated approaches, in order to provide a deeper understanding of the interactive processes involved in the trajectory. Five elements in the process were identified as important for the experience of usefulness and successful incorporation of AT. The AT had to: (1) be valuable by addressing practical, emotional, and relational challenges; (2) fit well into, or be a better solution for, habitual practice and established strategies; (3) generate positive emotions, and become a reliable and trustworthy tool; (4) be user-friendly, adaptable, and manageable; and (5) interest and engage the family carer. The study demonstrated the importance of understanding the use and utility of AT on the basis of embodied and social participation in daily life. The family carers played a significant role in whether or not, and in which ways, AT was absorbed into the everyday life practice of YPD. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Everyday life, healthcare, and self-care management among people with irritable bowel syndrome: an integrative review of qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Håkanson, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a commonly recognized chronic disease in all healthcare settings. This integrative review investigated current knowledge about adults' illness-related experiences of this disease from the perspectives of everyday life, healthcare, and self-care management. The overarching findings related to everyday life with irritable bowel syndrome were life-limiting experiences of the body-self as unfamiliar and of the body and symptoms as shameful and unpredictable. The limitations manifested as lack of ability to move about freely, fulfill ambitions or commitments at work, maintain social activities, uphold or develop close and/or sexual relationships and parenting, and live a life with spontaneity. Physical condition, knowledge about disease/illness-related matters, and one's own perceived ability to find adequate strategies were significant for the ability of self-care management. Healthcare was experienced as being unsupportive and not providing information and guidance for enabling self-care management. These results suggest a need for controlled intervention trials of healthcare models that take as their point of departure the individual's experience of illness, needs, and life situation, and that enable learning and sharing of illness experiences, combined with the provision of scientific knowledge and advice from healthcare professionals.

  18. Seeing the Chemistry around Me--Helping Students Identify the Relevance of Chemistry to Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Tracy Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The study attempted to determine whether the use of a series of reading and response assignments decreased students' perceptions of chemistry difficulty and enhanced students' perceptions of the relevance of chemistry in their everyday lives. Informed consent volunteer students enrolled in General Chemistry II at a community college in the…

  19. The ADHD Spectrum and Everyday Life: Experience Sampling of Adolescent Moods, Activities, Smoking, and Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Carol K.; Jamner, Larry D.; Henker, Barbara; Delfino, Ralph J.; Lozano, Jorie M.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the everyday lives of adolescents with low, middle, or high levels of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as assessed by either parent or teen. Found that adolescents with high ADHD levels recorded more negative moods, lower alertness, more entertaining activities relative to achievement-oriented pursuits, more time with…

  20. "Small Science": Infants and Toddlers Experiencing Science in Everyday Family Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikder, Shukla; Fleer, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    Vygotsky (1987) stated that the restructured form of everyday concepts learned at home and in the community interact with scientific concepts introduced in formal school settings, leading to a higher level of scientific thinking for school-aged children. But, what does this mean for the scientific learning of infants and toddlers? What kinds of…

  1. Cognitive Development through Schooling and Everyday Life: A Natural Experiment among Kharwar Children in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouwers, Symen A.; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Mishra, Ramesh C.

    2017-01-01

    The influences of schooling and everyday experiences on cognitive development are typically confounded. In the present study, we unraveled the influence of chronological age and years of schooling on the development of general cognitive competency in a two-wave longitudinal design with a three-year interval among 181 Kharwar children in India,…

  2. "Small Science": Infants and Toddlers Experiencing Science in Everyday Family Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikder, Shukla; Fleer, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    Vygotsky (1987) stated that the restructured form of everyday concepts learned at home and in the community interact with scientific concepts introduced in formal school settings, leading to a higher level of scientific thinking for school-aged children. But, what does this mean for the scientific learning of infants and toddlers? What kinds of…

  3. Perceiving, Understanding, and Coping with the World Relations of Everyday Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alger, Chadwick F.

    This document on teaching about the effects of the world on everyday lives argues that this knowledge does not come naturally because of the traditions in teaching and research in international relations. This field of study traditionally has focused on the relations between territorial states in the interstate system, and on the foreign policies…

  4. Everyday Physical Activity as a Predictor of Late-Life Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipperfield, Judith G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The present study hypothesized that simple, everyday physical activity (EPA) would decline with advancing age; that women would have a more favorable EPA profile than would men; and that EPA would have a survival benefit. Design and Methods: Community-dwelling participants (aged 80-98 years, n = 198) wore mechanical actigraphs in order…

  5. Violence and Mental Health in Everyday Life: Prevention and Intervention Strategies for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    Clinical psychologist Daniel J. Flannery reveals the impact of violence and victimization in the lives of children and adolescents from a developmental perspective. He explores how young people experience violence in their everyday lives and how this impacts their mental health and ability to cope with challenges and crises. His case studies show…

  6. Violence and Mental Health in Everyday Life: Prevention and Intervention Strategies for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    Clinical psychologist Daniel J. Flannery reveals the impact of violence and victimization in the lives of children and adolescents from a developmental perspective. He explores how young people experience violence in their everyday lives and how this impacts their mental health and ability to cope with challenges and crises. His case studies show…

  7. Towards ICT in Everyday Life in Finnish Schools: Seeking Conditions for Good Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Hannele; Kynaslahti, Heikki; Vahtivuori-Hanninen, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses how to strengthen educational use of information and communication technology (ICT) in Finnish schools. The conceptions and experiences of the successful integration of ICT in everyday school settings are reported. Participant observations in 20 schools in different parts of Finland were carried out, including discussions…

  8. Towards ICT in Everyday Life in Finnish Schools: Seeking Conditions for Good Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Hannele; Kynaslahti, Heikki; Vahtivuori-Hanninen, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses how to strengthen educational use of information and communication technology (ICT) in Finnish schools. The conceptions and experiences of the successful integration of ICT in everyday school settings are reported. Participant observations in 20 schools in different parts of Finland were carried out, including discussions…

  9. The ADHD Spectrum and Everyday Life: Experience Sampling of Adolescent Moods, Activities, Smoking, and Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Carol K.; Jamner, Larry D.; Henker, Barbara; Delfino, Ralph J.; Lozano, Jorie M.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the everyday lives of adolescents with low, middle, or high levels of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as assessed by either parent or teen. Found that adolescents with high ADHD levels recorded more negative moods, lower alertness, more entertaining activities relative to achievement-oriented pursuits, more time with…

  10. The importance of a daily rhythm in a supportive environment--promoting ability in activities in everyday life among older women living alone with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Cederbom, Sara; Wågert, Petra von Heideken; Söderlund, Anne; Söderbäck, Maja

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how older women living alone with chronic musculoskeletal pain, describe their ability in performing activities in everyday life and what could promote their ability in activities in everyday life as well as their perceived meaning of a changed ability to perform activities in everyday life. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 12 women, and an inductive content analysis was used. The results showed the importance of a daily rhythm of activities. Activities included in the daily rhythm were socializing with family and friends, physical activities, doing own activities as well as activities supported by relatives and the community. The activities described by the women also promoted their ability in activities in everyday life. Other findings were the women's perceived meaning of being independent and maintaining that independency, along with the meaning of accepting and adapting to a changed life situation. This paper concludes that it is important to be sensitive of individual needs regarding the daily rhythm of activities when health-care professionals intervene in the activities in everyday life of older women living alone, promote the women's independency, and enable them to participate in the community. Implications for Rehabilitation A daily rhythm of activities is important for older women who live alone with chronic musculoskeletal pain. The importance of health-care professionals being sensitive to individual needs to promote ability in activities in everyday life and to encourage the everyday activities into a daily rhythm. Facilitate the women's desire and will of independency, despite their needs of help from their environment to manage their everyday life.

  11. The Biological Relevance of Artificial Life: Lessons from Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, Silvano

    2000-01-01

    There is no fundamental reason why A-life couldn't simply be a branch of computer science that deals with algorithms that are inspired by, or emulate biological phenomena. However, if these are the limits we place on this field, we miss the opportunity to help advance Theoretical Biology and to contribute to a deeper understanding of the nature of life. The history of Artificial Intelligence provides a good example, in that early interest in the nature of cognition quickly was lost to the process of building tools, such as "expert systems" that, were certainly useful, but provided little insight in the nature of cognition. Based on this lesson, I will discuss criteria for increasing the biological relevance of A-life and the probability that this field may provide a theoretical foundation for Biology.

  12. The Biological Relevance of Artificial Life: Lessons from Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, Silvano

    2000-01-01

    There is no fundamental reason why A-life couldn't simply be a branch of computer science that deals with algorithms that are inspired by, or emulate biological phenomena. However, if these are the limits we place on this field, we miss the opportunity to help advance Theoretical Biology and to contribute to a deeper understanding of the nature of life. The history of Artificial Intelligence provides a good example, in that early interest in the nature of cognition quickly was lost to the process of building tools, such as "expert systems" that, were certainly useful, but provided little insight in the nature of cognition. Based on this lesson, I will discuss criteria for increasing the biological relevance of A-life and the probability that this field may provide a theoretical foundation for Biology.

  13. "Time for dialysis as time to live": experiences of time in everyday life of the Swedish next of kin of hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ziegert, Kristina; Fridlund, Bengt; Lidell, Evy

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the content of time in everyday life as experienced by the next of kin of patients on hemodialysis in Sweden. Chronic renal disease often requires hemodialysis, which is a time-consuming treatment that makes it necessary to carefully plan everyday life and involves the next of kin to a large degree. This study used a descriptive design with a content analysis approach. The analysis of the data from the twenty interviews revealed the experiences of time in the everyday lives of the next of kin of a patient on hemodialysis. The content of time in everyday life can be described as follows: fragmented time, vacuous time, and uninterrupted time. The findings show how everyday life time for the next of kin is minimized and that the common life space is contracted. The next of kin must be provided with supervision in order to provide them with more of their own time in everyday life, which can benefit their health.

  14. Cognitive impairment and its consequences in everyday life: experiences of people with mild cognitive impairment or mild dementia and their relatives.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Maria M; Marcusson, Jan; Wressle, Ewa

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore experiences of cognitive impairment, its consequences in everyday life and need for support in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia and their relatives. A qualitative approach with an explorative design with interviews was chosen. The participants included five people with MCI and eight people with mild dementia and their relatives. All participants were recruited at a geriatric memory clinic in Sweden. The Grounded Theory method was used. The following categories emerged: noticing cognitive changes; changed activity patterns; coping strategies; uncertainty about own ability and environmental reactions; support in everyday life; support from the healthcare system; consequences in everyday life for relatives; and support for relatives. The main findings were that people with MCI and dementia experienced cognitive changes that could be burdensome and changed activity patterns. Most of them, however, considered themselves capable of coping on their own. The relatives noticed cognitive changes and activity disruptions to a greater extent and tried to be supportive in everyday life. Degree of awareness varied and lack of awareness could lead to many problems in everyday life. Perceived cognitive impairment and its consequences in everyday life were individual and differed among people with MCI or dementia and their relatives. Thus, healthcare professionals must listen to both people with cognitive impairment and their relatives for optimal individual care planning. Support such as education groups and day care could be more tailored towards the early stages of dementia.

  15. Evidence for Ancient Life in Mars Meteorites: Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, D. S.

    1998-01-01

    The lines of evidence we first proposed as supporting a hypothesis of early life on Mars are discussed by Treiman, who presents pros and cons of our hypothesis in the light of subsequent research by many groups. Our assessment of the current status of the many controversies over our hypothesis is given in reports by Gibson et al. Rather than repeat or elaborate on that information, I prefer to take an overview and present what I think are some of the "lessons learned" by our team in particular, and by the science community in general.

  16. An Interview with Joe McMann: His Life Lessons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMann, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Pica Kahn conducted "An Interview with Joe McMann: His Life Lessons" on May 23, 2011. With over 40 years of experience in the aerospace industry, McMann has gained a wealth of knowledge. Many have been interested in his biography, progression of work at NASA, impact on the U.S. spacesuit, and career accomplishments. This interview highlighted the influences and decision-making methods that impacted his technical and management contributions to the space program. McMann shared information about the accomplishments and technical advances that committed individuals can make.

  17. Design for Life. Abortion. A Student's Lesson Plan [and] A Teacher's Lesson Plan [and] A Lawyer's Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Estelle; And Others

    One of a series of secondary level teaching units presenting case studies with pro and con analyses of particular legal problems, the document consists of a student's lesson plan, a teacher's lesson plan, and a lawyer's lesson plan for a unit on abortion. The lessons are designed to expose students to the Supreme Court's decision concerning…

  18. Healthy bodies, social bodies: men's and women's concepts and practices of health in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Saltonstall, R

    1993-01-01

    Using interview data from white, middle-class men and women, ages 35-55, the research explores the phenomenological, embodied aspects of health. Health is found to be grounded in a sense of self and a sense of body, both of which are tied to conceptions of past and future actions. Gender is a leitmotif. The body, as the focal point of self-construction as well as health construction, implicates gender in the everyday experience of health. The interplay between health, self, body, and gender at the individual level is linked to the creation of a sense of healthiness in the body politic of society. If social psychological theories of health are to reflect adequately the everyday experience of health, they must begin to take into account the body as individually and socially problematic.

  19. New lessons of nurturing life for geriatric patients.

    PubMed

    Butler, James P; Fujii, Masahiko; Sasaki, Hidetada

    2012-01-01

    Our new lessons of nurturing life to make happiness and well-being of geriatric patients suggest comprise several important steps. First, geriatric patient care should not be delegated to specialists who focus on individual organ system. Instead, we should respond to the patient's condition based on comprehensive assessment to identify the single pathogenesis. Second, we should appreciate that the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) often reflect the behavioral and psychological symptoms of the caregiver (BPSC), and in particular the caregiver's attitude. Third, pleasant stimulations to the limbic system should receive more emphasis than attempting brain training in atrophied portions of the neocortex. Fourth, we should aim not for "successful aging," but for "balanced aging." Fifth, we should rely less on drug-based therapy and utilize more non-pharmacologic approaches to appropriate therapy. Geriatric patients should be cared for based on our new lessons of nurturing life rather than the heavily medicalized treatment modalities that are in wide use today.

  20. Difficulties in everyday life: young persons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorders perspectives. A chat-log analysis.

    PubMed

    Ahlström, Britt H; Wentz, Elisabet

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the everyday life of young persons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There are follow-up studies describing ADHD, and ASD in adults, and residual impairments that affect life. Few qualitative studies have been conducted on the subject of their experiences of everyday life, and even fewer are from young persons' perspectives. This study's aim was to describe how young persons with ADHD and ASD function and how they manage their everyday life based on analyses of Internet-based chat logs. Twelve young persons (7 males and 5 females aged 15-26) diagnosed with ADHD and ASD were included consecutively and offered 8 weeks of Internet-based Support and Coaching (IBSC). Data were collected from 12 chat logs (445 pages of text) produced interactively by the participants and the coaches. Qualitative content analysis was applied. The text was coded and sorted into subthemes and further interpreted into themes. The findings revealed two themes: "fighting against an everyday life lived in vulnerability" with the following subthemes: "difficult things," "stress and rest," and "when feelings and thoughts are a concern"; and the theme "struggling to find a life of one's own" with the following subthemes: "decide and carry out," "making life choices," and "taking care of oneself." Dealing with the problematic situations that everyday encompasses requires personal strength and a desire to find adequate solutions, as well as to discover a role in society. This study, into the provision of support and coaching over the Internet, led to more in-depth knowledge about these young persons' everyday lives and revealed their ability to use IBSC to express the complexity of everyday life for young persons with ADHD and ASD. The implications of the findings are that using online coaching makes available new opportunities for healthcare professionals to acknowledge these young persons' problems.

  1. How older adults with mild cognitive impairment relate to technology as part of present and future everyday life: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Annicka; Lindqvist, Eva; Nygård, Louise

    2016-03-31

    Existing everyday technology as well as potential future technology may offer both challenges and possibilities in the everyday occupations of persons with cognitive decline. To meet their wishes and needs, the perspective of the persons themselves is an important starting point in intervention planning involving technology. The aim of this study was to explore how persons with mild cognitive impairment relate to technology as a part of and as potential support in everyday life - both present and future. Qualitative in-depth interviews with six participants aged 61-86 were conducted and analyzed, using a grounded theory approach. The findings describe the participants' different ways of relating to existing and potential future technology in everyday occupations as a continuum of downsizing, retaining, and updating. Multiple conditions in different combinations affected both their actions taken and assumptions made towards technology in this continuum. Both when downsizing doing and technology use to achieve simplicity in everyday life and when striving for or struggling with updating, trade-offs between desired and adverse outcomes were made, challenging take-off runs were endured, and negotiations of the price worth paying took place. Our findings suggest that persons with mild cognitive impairment may relate to technology in various ways to meet needs of downsized doing, but are reluctant to adopt video-based monitoring technology intended to support valued occupations. Feasibility testing of using already-incorporated everyday technologies such as smartphones and tablets as platforms for future technology support in everyday occupations is suggested.

  2. In Old Pompeii. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    In this Web-based interdisciplinary lesson (involving social studies, geography, history, and language arts) students take a virtual field trip to the ruins of Pompeii to learn about everyday life in Roman times, then create a travelogue to attract visitors to the site and write an account of their field trip modeled on a description of Pompeii…

  3. Constipation is casting a shadow over everyday life - a systematic review on older people's experience of living with constipation.

    PubMed

    Tvistholm, Nina; Munch, Lene; Danielsen, Anne Kjaergaard

    2017-04-01

    To explore and summarise best evidence of how constipation affects the daily living of older people from their own perspective. Furthermore, to assess how interventions aimed at treating constipation in older people affect patient-reported outcome such as quality of life. Constipation is a common and overlooked problem with an impact on everyday life, especially among older people. Older people seem to have individual preconceptions on constipation which can influence the strategies used to prevent and treat constipation. A systematic review, integrating findings from both qualitative and quantitative studies. Systematic searches were carried out in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO and EMBASE on the 31st of July 2014. A search strategy was constructed with key concepts identified using PICO to identify quantitative studies and PIC(o) to identify qualitative studies. Search terms included constipation, elderly, aged, elderly people, aged people, quality of life, patient experience, patient perspective, meaning, emotion, psychological. Reference lists were searched manually. A total of nine studies were included in the review, five quantitative and four qualitative. Three main themes crystallised from the results of the included studies: bodily experiences, everyday life shadowed by constipation and adverse psychological effects. Constipation among older people was connected to subjective and comprehensive experiences. It had a negative impact on physical and mental well-being as well as the social life of older people. The review also showed that older people had individual and personal strategies, based on their own beliefs. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of the experiences of living with constipation as well as the range of strategies used by patients to prevent and treat constipation. The patient perspective on constipation needs to be integrated in the strategies and actions carried out by healthcare professionals. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Speech acts: sampling the social construction of mental retardation in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Danforth, S; Navarro, V

    1998-02-01

    A sample of speech acts in everyday discourse referring to persons or events having to do with the term mental retardation was analyzed in order to investigate the belief that language use both constructs and reflects cultural norms that define the social roles of persons reduced to object status through categorical membership. Speech acts gathered suggest four emergent themes: the discourse of category membership, the dichotomy of normal and abnormal, issues of place and space, and fear. These themes were explicated from a social constructionist perspective, displaying the way speech acts construct mental retardation and subvert individuals with the label into demeaned and ridiculed objects of cultural fear.

  5. The everyday life of adolescent coeliacs: issues of importance for compliance with the gluten-free diet.

    PubMed

    Olsson, C; Hörnell, A; Ivarsson, A; Sydner, Y M

    2008-08-01

    Noncompliance with the gluten-free diet is often reported among adolescents with coeliac disease. However, knowledge is limited regarding their own perspectives and experiences of managing the disease and the prescription of a gluten-free diet. The aim of this study was to explore how adolescents with coeliac disease perceive and manage their everyday lives in relation to a gluten-free diet. In total, 47 adolescents with coeliac disease, divided into 10 focus groups, were interviewed. In the qualitative analysis, themes emerged to illustrate and explain the adolescents' own perspectives on life with a gluten-free diet. The probability of compliance with the gluten-free diet was comprised by insufficient knowledge of significant others, problems with the availability and sensory acceptance of gluten-free food, insufficient social support and their perceived dietary deviance. Three different approaches to the gluten-free diet emerged: compliers, occasional noncompliers, and noncompliers. Each approach, as a coping strategy, was rational in the sense that it represented the adolescents' differing views of everyday life with coeliac disease and a prescription of a gluten-free diet. dolescents with coeliac disease experience various dilemmas related to the gluten-free diet. The study demonstrated unmet needs and implies empowerment strategies for optimum clinical outcomes.

  6. Social participation in young people with nonepileptic seizures (NES): A qualitative study of managing legitimacy in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Karterud, Hilde Nordahl; Haavet, Ole Rikard; Risør, Mette Bech

    2016-04-01

    This qualitative study explored social participation in young people with nonepileptic seizures (NES), particularly how legitimacy of illness is managed in everyday life. Young people with NES, all female and aged between 14 and 24 years (N=11), were interviewed and followed up over a 14-month period. The transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four main themes were elaborated: 1) Delegitimizing experiences from families, schoolteachers, colleagues, and employers were part of everyday life. 2) Fear of being exposed to delegitimizing events resulted in the young people trying to conceal the diagnosis; for some, this resulted in isolation from all social arenas, apart from their closest relationships. 3) Support from close relationships was protective against delegitimization and contributed towards greater social participation. 4) Perceiving NES as a legitimate disorder contributed to increased social participation. We found a relationship between legitimacy of illness experienced by the participants and the extent to which they either participated or retreated socially. Those who had an illness perception that was personally meaningful experienced their condition as being more legitimate and participated more socially. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Negotiating disability in everyday life: ethnographical accounts of women with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Prodinger, Birgit; Shaw, Lynn; Laliberte Rudman, Debbie; Stamm, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on data from a larger study, the aim of this paper is to illuminate how the everyday doings of women with disabilities are coordinated to and shaped by organizational processes and social context, particularly as these relate to the potential of being labelled disabled. An institutional ethnography was conducted with seven Austrian women diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Interviews and participant observations were conducted, and texts about the historical development of disability policies were identified. Data analysis included grouping similar doings of participants together to subsequently explore links between what the women did and how their doings are shaped by disability policies and the social context. The women, who participated in this study, spent time and effort to keep the disease invisible, resist disability and negotiate a disability pass. By drawing upon the historical development of Austrian disability policies, the interpretation reveals how this development infiltrates into participants' lives and shapes their everyday doing. This study furthers understanding of how broader policies and practices, shaped over historical time, infiltrate into the daily lives of women with disabilities. It illustrates how full participation may not necessarily be a lived reality for people with disabilities at this point in Austria. Implications for Rehabilitation Maximising full participation for people with rheumatoid arthritis is important. This requires focusing not only on the bodily health of people with rheumatoid arthritis but also on their interaction with the social, cultural and political context in their daily lives. This requires also understanding how knowledge about disability is passed on from previous generations.

  8. Aggression, Recognition and Qualification: On the Social Psychology of Adult Education in Everyday Life. [Publications from the Adult Education Research Group].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Kirsten

    This paper discusses the impact of life history and everyday life in the context of training unskilled adults for social work in Denmark. It describes origins of these two texts used as empirical material: a discussion by a group of long-term unemployed skilled adult male workers who went through a 2-year training program to obtain permanent…

  9. Daily life with depressive symptoms: Gender differences in adolescents' everyday emotional experiences.

    PubMed

    Frost, Allison; Hoyt, Lindsay T; Chung, Alissa Levy; Adam, Emma K

    2015-08-01

    Depression is a prevalent and debilitating illness facing many adolescents, especially adolescent girls, whose risk for this disorder is approximately twice that of boys. Many studies have identified mechanisms that place girls at higher risk for depression during adolescence. Few, however, have examined differences in the everyday emotional experiences of boys and girls with varying levels of depressive symptoms. Using the Experience Sampling Method, this study investigated the roles of gender and depressive symptomatology in the emotional experiences of a community sample of youth (11-18 year-olds) from the Sloan 500 Family Study. Females with higher levels of depressive symptoms were more likely than females with fewer depressive symptoms and all males to experience strong negative emotions and to attribute the cause of these emotions to other people. These results suggest that emotional reactivity in interpersonal contexts is especially important to understand gender differences in the daily experience of depressive symptoms.

  10. Differential Determinants of Men’s and Women’s Everyday Physical Activity in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Chipperfield, Judith G.; Newall, Nancy E.; Chuchmach, Loring P.; Swift, Audrey U.; Haynes, Tara L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The present study of a representative sample of older adults quantified everyday physical activity (EPA) by having participants wear actigraphs. Our objectives were to examine whether poor health may partly explain why older adults become less physically active with advancing age and whether gender might moderate the extent to which health status predicts EPA. Methods We performed multiple regression analyses on a sample of older, community-dwelling adults (aged 80–98 years, N = 198; women = 63.1%). Results The results imply that age-related declines in EPA may be partially accounted for by health (in men) and by living arrangements (in women). Discussion We consider reasons why poorer health might erode EPA for men (but not women) and why living alone might erode EPA for women (but not men). PMID:18689770

  11. It's the power of food: individual differences in food cue responsiveness and snacking in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Schüz, Benjamin; Schüz, Natalie; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2015-12-07

    Discretionary eating behaviour ("snacking") is dependent on internal and external cues. Individual differences in the effects of these cues suggest that some people are more or less likely to snack in certain situations than others. Previous research is limited to laboratory-based experiments or survey-based food recall. This study for the first time examines everyday snacking using real-time assessment, and examines whether individual differences in cue effects on snacking can be explained by the Power of Food scale (PFS). Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) study with 53 non-clinical participants over an average of 10 days. Multiple daily assessments: Participants reported every snack and responded to randomly timed surveys during the day. Internal and external cues were measured during both types of assessment. Demographic data and PFS scores were assessed during a baseline lab visit. Data were analysed using multilevel linear and multilevel logistic regression with random intercepts and random slopes as well as cross-level interactions with PFS scores. Higher individual PFS scores were associated with more daily snacking on average (B = 0.05, 95% CI = 0.02,0.08, p < .001). More average daily snacking was associated with higher BMI (B = 1.42, 95% CI = 0.19,2.65, p = .02). Cue effects (negative affect, arousal, activities, company) on snacking were significantly moderated by PFS: People with higher PFS were more likely to snack when experiencing negative affect, high arousal, engaging in activities, and being alone compared to people with lower PFS scores. PFS scores moderate the effects of snacking cues on everyday discretionary food choices. This puts people with higher PFS at higher risk for potentially unhealthy and obesogenic eating behaviour.

  12. Self-Regulatory Strategies in Daily Life: Selection, Optimization, and Compensation and Everyday Memory Problems.

    PubMed

    Stephanie, Robinson; Margie, Lachman; Elizabeth, Rickenbach

    2016-03-01

    The effective use of self-regulatory strategies, such as selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) requires resources. However, it is theorized that SOC use is most advantageous for those experiencing losses and diminishing resources. The present study explored this seeming paradox within the context of limitations or constraints due to aging, low cognitive resources, and daily stress in relation to everyday memory problems. We examined whether SOC usage varied by age and level of constraints, and if the relationship between resources and memory problems was mitigated by SOC usage. A daily diary paradigm was used to explore day-to-day fluctuations in these relationships. Participants (n=145, ages 22 to 94) completed a baseline interview and a daily diary for seven consecutive days. Multilevel models examined between- and within-person relationships between daily SOC use, daily stressors, cognitive resources, and everyday memory problems. Middle-aged adults had the highest SOC usage, although older adults also showed high SOC use if they had high cognitive resources. More SOC strategies were used on high stress compared to low stress days. Moreover, the relationship between daily stress and memory problems was buffered by daily SOC use, such that on high-stress days, those who used more SOC strategies reported fewer memory problems than participants who used fewer SOC strategies. The paradox of resources and SOC use can be qualified by the type of resource-limitation. Deficits in global resources were not tied to SOC usage or benefits. Conversely, under daily constraints tied to stress, the use of SOC increased and led to fewer memory problems.

  13. Self-Regulatory Strategies in Daily Life: Selection, Optimization, and Compensation and Everyday Memory Problems

    PubMed Central

    Stephanie, Robinson; Margie, Lachman; Elizabeth, Rickenbach

    2015-01-01

    The effective use of self-regulatory strategies, such as selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) requires resources. However, it is theorized that SOC use is most advantageous for those experiencing losses and diminishing resources. The present study explored this seeming paradox within the context of limitations or constraints due to aging, low cognitive resources, and daily stress in relation to everyday memory problems. We examined whether SOC usage varied by age and level of constraints, and if the relationship between resources and memory problems was mitigated by SOC usage. A daily diary paradigm was used to explore day-to-day fluctuations in these relationships. Participants (n=145, ages 22 to 94) completed a baseline interview and a daily diary for seven consecutive days. Multilevel models examined between- and within-person relationships between daily SOC use, daily stressors, cognitive resources, and everyday memory problems. Middle-aged adults had the highest SOC usage, although older adults also showed high SOC use if they had high cognitive resources. More SOC strategies were used on high stress compared to low stress days. Moreover, the relationship between daily stress and memory problems was buffered by daily SOC use, such that on high-stress days, those who used more SOC strategies reported fewer memory problems than participants who used fewer SOC strategies. The paradox of resources and SOC use can be qualified by the type of resource-limitation. Deficits in global resources were not tied to SOC usage or benefits. Conversely, under daily constraints tied to stress, the use of SOC increased and led to fewer memory problems. PMID:26997686

  14. Feasibility of a Computerized Method to Measure Quality of "Everyday" Life in Children with Neuromuscular Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Paula; Bundy, Anita C.; Ryan, Monique M.; North, Kathryn N.

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of quality of life is becoming increasingly important in health care. Self-reported quality of life is the preferred method of gathering this information, but children are often excluded from this process, their input being replaced by parent-proxy report. This feasibility study tested assessment of "daily" quality-of-life by a…

  15. When everyday life becomes a storm on the horizon: families' experiences of good mental health while hiking in nature.

    PubMed

    Baklien, Børge; Ytterhus, Borgunn; Bongaardt, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Hiking in nature is often presented as a yearning for lost harmony premised on an alleged divide between nature as authentically healthy and society as polluted. This paper's aim is to question this strict divide and the strong belief in nature as having an innate health-providing effect, the biophilia hypothesis, by examining what Norwegian families with young children experience when walking in the forest. Twenty-four conversations with families during a hiking trip in the forest were recorded, and the data were analysed with Giorgi's descriptive phenomenological research method. The paper introduces the general descriptive meaning structure of the phenomenon 'family-hiking with young children'. It shows that a hiking trip clears space for the family in their everyday lives which is largely dominated by relations with non-family members at both work and leisure. The families experience that they actively generate a different existence with a sense of here-and-now presences that can strengthen core family relations and also provide the opportunity to pass down experiences that can be recollected and realized by future generations. This experience is complex and constituted by social practices, which indicate that the biophilia hypothesis seems to be an insufficient explanation of why families go hiking in nature. Nature rather represents a peaceful background that allows for the perpetuation of the family as a social institution and the recreation of cohesion in everyday life.

  16. Genetic analysis of a temperament test as a tool to select against everyday life fearfulness in Rough Collie.

    PubMed

    Arvelius, P; Eken Asp, H; Fikse, W F; Strandberg, E; Nilsson, K

    2014-11-01

    Fear-related problems are common among Rough Collies in Sweden. Annually, on average, >200 Rough Collies are subjected to the dog mentality assessment (DMA), a temperament test during which 33 behavioral reactions are rated. Previous research has shown that a dog's DMA result can be condensed into 5 underlying personality traits. The aim of the study was to evaluate if it is possible to use the DMA for selection for temperament in Swedish Rough Collies, in particular to decrease everyday life fearfulness. We also wanted to compare 2 methods to compute the personality traits: summated scales (SS) and factor scores (FS). The DMA data for 2,953 Rough Collies were used to estimate genetic parameters for the 5 personality traits (both SS and FS), using a linear animal model including fixed effects of sex, year and month of test, and random effects of litter, judge, test occasion, genetic effect of the individual, and residual. Age at test was included as linear and quadratic regressions. The DMA personality trait heritability estimates ranged from 0.13 to 0.25. The SS showed greater or equal heritability estimates compared with the FS. To validate the DMA, data on everyday life behavior of 1,738 Rough Collies were collected using an extended version of the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire. Each dog's questionnaire result was condensed into 18 underlying behavioral subscales. Genetic parameters for the subscales were estimated using a linear animal model, including a fixed effect of sex and random genetic effect of the individual and residual. Age when the questionnaire was completed was included as linear and quadratic regressions. Heritability estimates for the questionnaire subscales were 0.06 to 0.36. There were high and significant genetic correlations between DMA personality traits and questionnaire subscales. For instance, the DMA personality trait Curiosity/Fearlessness correlated strongly genetically to the questionnaire subscale Non

  17. Musculoskeletal symptoms and computer use among Finnish adolescents--pain intensity and inconvenience to everyday life: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hakala, Paula T; Saarni, Lea A; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Wallenius, Marjut A; Nygård, Clas-Håkan; Rimpelä, Arja H

    2012-03-22

    Musculoskeletal symptoms among adolescents are related to the time spent using a computer, but little is known about the seriousness of the symptoms or how much they affect everyday life. The purpose of the present study was to examine the intensity of musculoskeletal pain and level of inconvenience to everyday life, in relation to time spent using a computer. In a survey, 436 school children (12 to 13 and 15 to 16 years of age), answered a questionnaire on musculoskeletal and computer-associated musculoskeletal symptoms in neck-shoulder, low back, head, eyes, hands, and fingers or wrists. Pain intensity (computer-associated symptoms) and inconvenience to everyday life (musculoskeletal symptoms) were measured using a visual analogue scale. Based on the frequency and intensity, three categories were formed to classify pain at each anatomic site: none, mild, and moderate/severe. The association with time spent using the computer was analyzed by multinomial logistic regression. Moderate/severe pain intensity was most often reported in the neck-shoulders (21%); head (20%); and eyes (14%); and moderate/severe inconvenience to everyday life was most often reported due to head (29%), neck-shoulders (21%), and low back (16%) pain. Compared with those using the computer less than 3.6 hours/week, computer use of ≥ 14 hours/week, was associated with moderate/severe increase in computer-associated musculoskeletal pain at all anatomic sites (odds ratio [OR] = 2.9-4.4), and moderate/severe inconvenience to everyday life due to low back (OR = 2.5) and head (OR = 2.0) pain. Musculoskeletal symptoms causing moderate/severe pain and inconvenience to everyday life are common among adolescent computer users. Daily computer use of 2 hours or more increases the risk for pain at most anatomic sites.

  18. Lessons from Cacti: How to Survive the Prickles of Life during Tough Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigger, Alan S.; Bigger, Linda B.

    2009-01-01

    The saguaro cactus looked a little like humans, in different shapes and sizes. How on earth do they survive in a climate that seems so inhospitable? It is possible to learn lessons for life from a cactus, if one can only get beyond the thorns, and that these lessons will assist one to survive during tough or prickly times. These plants survive…

  19. The Effect of Engagement in Everyday Occupations, Role Overload and Social Support on Health and Life Satisfaction among Mothers.

    PubMed

    Bar, Michal Avrech; Jarus, Tal

    2015-05-28

    One of the founding assumptions underlying the health professions is the belief that there is a strong relationship between engagement in occupations, health, and wellbeing. The ability to perform everyday occupations (occupational performance) has a positive effect on health and wellbeing. However, there is also conflicting evidence indicating that participation in multiple roles or in certain occupations may lead to poorer health. Therefore, there is a need to better understand this relationship. The purpose of the present study was to examine three possible theoretical models to explain mothers' health and life satisfaction from the perspective of their occupational performance, their role load, and their social support. 150 married mothers, ages of 25-45, who had at least one child between the ages of one to ten years, participated in the study. Data were collected by using seven self-report questionnaires. The models were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling. The results show that social support has a direct effect on mothers' physical health and life satisfaction and an indirect effect, mediated through the occupational performance variables, on mothers' mental health and life satisfaction. Role overload does not affect mothers' health and life satisfaction. These results suggest that mothers could benefit from health programs that help them manage their occupational routines. Such programs should focus on improving the mother's occupational performance and adapting her social environment to fit her occupational needs.

  20. The Effect of Engagement in Everyday Occupations, Role Overload and Social Support on Health and Life Satisfaction among Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Avrech Bar, Michal; Jarus, Tal

    2015-01-01

    One of the founding assumptions underlying the health professions is the belief that there is a strong relationship between engagement in occupations, health, and wellbeing. The ability to perform everyday occupations (occupational performance) has a positive effect on health and wellbeing. However, there is also conflicting evidence indicating that participation in multiple roles or in certain occupations may lead to poorer health. Therefore, there is a need to better understand this relationship. The purpose of the present study was to examine three possible theoretical models to explain mothers’ health and life satisfaction from the perspective of their occupational performance, their role load, and their social support. 150 married mothers, ages of 25–45, who had at least one child between the ages of one to ten years, participated in the study. Data were collected by using seven self-report questionnaires. The models were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling. The results show that social support has a direct effect on mothers’ physical health and life satisfaction and an indirect effect, mediated through the occupational performance variables, on mothers’ mental health and life satisfaction. Role overload does not affect mothers’ health and life satisfaction. These results suggest that mothers could benefit from health programs that help them manage their occupational routines. Such programs should focus on improving the mother’s occupational performance and adapting her social environment to fit her occupational needs. PMID:26030472

  1. Problem solving in relation to resources in everyday life in families of children with disabilities: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ylvén, Regina; Granlund, Mats; Persson, Carina

    2012-06-01

    Problem solving is recognized as a skill, helping families of children with disabilities to manage problems in everyday life. Family problem-solving skills may therefore be seen as an important outcome of a child and youth habilitation service. The aim of this pilot feasibility study was to examine the design of a future web-based questionnaire study focusing on problem-solving patterns in relation to resources in families of children with disabilities. The descriptive statistical analyses built on data from 13 families and findings showed an overall satisfactory score distribution for three of the included instruments, whereas two instruments showed floor effects in one third of the items. Findings indicated design problems with data collection related to adapting questionnaires to a web-based survey format and to problems with the stop function that was added. Implementing the main study using web-based surveys needs critical considerations according to the choice of the web tool and the recruitment process.

  2. Passage of time judgments in everyday life are not related to duration judgments except for long durations of several minutes.

    PubMed

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Trahanias, Panos; Maniadakis, Michail

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated relations between judgments of passage of time and judgments of long durations in everyday life with an experience sampling method. Several times per day, the participants received an alert via mobile phone. On each alert, at the same time as reporting their experience of the passage of time, the participants also estimated durations, between 3 and 33s in Experiment 1, and between 2 and 8min in Experiment 2. The participants' affective states and the difficulty and attentional demands of their current activity were also assessed. The results replicated others showing that affective states and the focus of attention on current activity are significant predictors of individual differences in passage-of-time judgments. In addition, the passage-of-time judgments were significantly related to the duration judgments but only for long durations of several minutes.

  3. Should we bother with the speed of light in everyday life? A closer look at GSM technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawalec, Tomasz

    2012-09-01

    The speed of light, or more generally, the speed of electromagnetic waves, seems to be incredibly high. 300 000 km s-1 is far greater than the typical speed of a car, a plane or even a rocket, which is just several kilometres per second. It is thus natural that we treat the speed of light as infinite in everyday life. It appears, however, that even such a high but finite speed causes problems that have to be solved in one of the most popular electronic devices—cellular phones. Here we look more closely how the global system for mobile communications (GSM) phone works and how it deals with the speed of electromagnetic waves.

  4. What remains invariant: Life lessons from Abdus Salam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, T. Z.

    2017-03-01

    Abdus Salam was a multi-dimensional man who straddled research and institution-building with enviable flair; he was both religious and iconoclastic, a true citizen of the world yet deeply nationalistic, a scientist and a lover of literature, a villager and a cosmopolitan. While the specific details of his life belong to the man alone, Salam’s rich experiences exemplify certain values, attitudes and lessons that are universal. In this talk, we attempt to draw out those truths, by looking through the lens of physics. Our analysis of Salam’s personal journey mirrors the search for the invariants of a physical system in that we look beyond the particularities of his unique set of circumstances, to the essence that both categorizes, and transcends, explicit events. Thus we move through Salam’s life, collecting ’invariants’ that apply as much to us today as they did to him several decades ago. Together, these constitute an enduring wisdom that can prove invaluable to young scientists — especially those from developing countries — as they navigate different cultures, manage diverse loyalties, and balance the lure of research with the demands of service.

  5. Everyday Physical Activity as a Predictor of Late-Life Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Chipperfield, Judith G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present study hypothesized that simple, everyday physical activity (EPA) would decline with advancing age; that women would have a more favorable EPA profile than would men; and that EPA would have a survival benefit. Design and Methods Community-dwelling participants (aged 80–98 years, n = 198) wore mechanical actigraphs in order for EPA to be assessed. Individuals were classified as active, inactive, and sedentary based on their level of EPA exhibited over a substantial part of the day. Survival status was available at approximately 2 years. Results Mean EPA scores decreased with advancing age and, in contrast to men, women in their early eighties appeared to be protected from declining EPA. This partially supported the hypothesis that women would have a more favorable EPA profile. What is most important is that mean EPA scores predicted mortality. Moreover, when compared with their less sedentary counterparts, sedentary adults were more than three times as likely to be deceased 2 years later. Implications Researchers need to conduct new trials to determine whether or how physical activity is associated with mortality. PMID:18591360

  6. Cognitive dissonance induction in everyday life: An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Jan; Byrne, Mark; Kehoe, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study explored the neural substrates of cognitive dissonance during dissonance "induction." A novel task was developed based on the results of a separate item selection study (n = 125). Items were designed to generate dissonance by prompting participants to reflect on everyday personal experiences that were inconsistent with values they had expressed support for. One experimental condition (dissonance) and three control conditions (justification, consonance, and non-self-related inconsistency) were used for comparison. Items of all four types were presented to each participant (n = 14) in a randomized design. The fMRI analysis used a whole-brain approach focusing on the moments dissonance was induced. Results showed that in comparison with the control conditions the dissonance experience led to higher levels of activation in several brain regions. Specifically dissonance was associated with increased neural activation in key brain regions including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), anterior insula, inferior frontal gyrus, and precuneus. This supports current perspectives that emphasize the role of anterior cingulate and insula in dissonance processing. Less extensive activation in the prefrontal cortex than in some previous studies is consistent with this study's emphasis on dissonance induction, rather than reduction. This article also contains a short review and comparison with other fMRI studies of cognitive dissonance.

  7. The speed of our mental soundtracks: Tracking the tempo of involuntary musical imagery in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Farrugia, Nicolas; Halpern, Andrea R; Sankarpandi, Sathish K; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-11-01

    The study of spontaneous and everyday cognitions is an area of rapidly growing interest. One of the most ubiquitous forms of spontaneous cognition is involuntary musical imagery (INMI), the involuntarily retrieved and repetitive mental replay of music. The present study introduced a novel method for capturing temporal features of INMI within a naturalistic setting. This method allowed for the investigation of two questions of interest to INMI researchers in a more objective way than previously possible, concerning (1) the precision of memory representations within INMI and (2) the interactions between INMI and concurrent affective state. Over the course of 4 days, INMI tempo was measured by asking participants to tap to the beat of their INMI with a wrist-worn accelerometer. Participants documented additional details regarding their INMI in a diary. Overall, the tempo of music within INMI was recalled from long-term memory in a highly veridical form, although with a regression to the mean for recalled tempo that parallels previous findings on voluntary musical imagery. A significant positive relationship was found between INMI tempo and subjective arousal, suggesting that INMI interacts with concurrent mood in a similar manner to perceived music. The results suggest several parallels between INMI and voluntary imagery, music perceptual processes, and other types of involuntary memories.

  8. Correlates of psychopathic personality traits in everyday life: results from a large community survey

    PubMed Central

    Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Latzman, Robert D.; Watts, Ashley L.; Smith, Sarah F.; Dutton, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Although the traits of psychopathic personality (psychopathy) have received extensive attention from researchers in forensic psychology, psychopathology, and personality psychology, the relations of these traits to aspects of everyday functioning are poorly understood. Using a large internet survey of members of the general population (N = 3388), we examined the association between psychopathic traits, as measured by a brief but well-validated self-report measure, and occupational choice, political orientation, religious affiliation, and geographical residence. Psychopathic traits, especially those linked to fearless dominance, were positively and moderately associated with holding leadership and management positions, as well as high-risk occupations. In addition, psychopathic traits were positively associated with political conservatism, lack of belief in God, and living in Europe as opposed to the United States, although the magnitudes of these statistical effects were generally small in magnitude. Our findings offer preliminary evidence that psychopathic personality traits display meaningful response penetration into daily functioning, and raise provocative questions for future research. PMID:25101019

  9. Lodging in a Fluitship: The Material Setting of Everyday Life on Board Anna Maria of 1694

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, Niklas

    2015-04-01

    Historical archaeology may be characterised by an intricate relationship between written sources and material remains. In research focusing on shipwrecks, this often results in descriptions of the events associated with one particular ship. These are narratives written from a historical horizon, where written sources provide the explanation to material remains. The aim of this paper is to show that a combination of material remains and written sources may be used as a departure point for a discussion on social conditions on board merchant ships in a more general sense. The case used is the fluit or fluitship Anna Maria, launched in 1694 and which foundered in Dalarö harbour, Sweden, in 1709. The site is ideal for such a study partly as it has been surveyed archaeologically on several occasions since the 1960s and most recently in 2010, and partly because historical research has been carried out on the related written accounts. Taken together, this material enables a unique opportunity to reconstruct and study the everyday environment on board a large fluitship.

  10. For Millions of Americans, Everyday Life Takes Toll on Their Hearing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Their Hearing Contrary to popular opinion, work-related noise not the main culprit, CDC reports To use ... 2017 TUESDAY, Feb. 7, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The noise of modern life causes permanent hearing damage to ...

  11. Casual Video Games as Training Tools for Attentional Processes in Everyday Life.

    PubMed

    Stroud, Michael J; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss

    2015-11-01

    Three experiments examined the attentional components of the popular match-3 casual video game, Bejeweled Blitz (BJB). Attentionally demanding, BJB is highly popular among adults, particularly those in middle and later adulthood. In experiment 1, 54 older adults (Mage = 70.57) and 33 younger adults (Mage = 19.82) played 20 rounds of BJB, and completed online tasks measuring reaction time, simple visual search, and conjunction visual search. Prior experience significantly predicted BJB scores for younger adults, but for older adults, both prior experience and simple visual search task scores predicted BJB performance. Experiment 2 tested whether BJB practice alone would result in a carryover benefit to a visual search task in a sample of 58 young adults (Mage = 19.57) who completed 0, 10, or 30 rounds of BJB followed by a BJB-like visual search task with targets present or absent. Reaction times were significantly faster for participants who completed 30 but not 10 rounds of BJB compared with the search task only. This benefit was evident when targets were both present and absent, suggesting that playing BJB improves not only target detection, but also the ability to quit search effectively. Experiment 3 tested whether the attentional benefit in experiment 2 would apply to non-BJB stimuli. The results revealed a similar numerical but not significant trend. Taken together, the findings suggest there are benefits of casual video game playing to attention and relevant everyday skills, and that these games may have potential value as training tools.

  12. Performance on an everyday life activity in persons diagnosed with alcohol dependency compared to healthy controls: relations between a computerized shopping task and cognitive and clinical variables.

    PubMed

    Laloyaux, Julien; Michel, Céline; Mourad, Haitham; Bertrand, Hervé; Domken, Marc-André; Van der Linden, Martial; Larøi, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Persons diagnosed with alcohol dependency often suffer from cognitive impairments. Little is known, however, concerning how these cognitive deficits impact complex, everyday life activities. We set out to better characterize the nature of everyday life difficulties in patients with alcohol dependency using a computerized shopping task. A computerized real-life activity task (shopping task) required participants to shop for a list of eight grocery store items. Twenty individuals diagnosed with alcohol dependency and 20 healthy controls were administered a battery of cognitive tests, clinical scales and the shopping task. Performance on the shopping task significantly differentiated patients and healthy controls for several variables and, in particular, for total time. Total time to complete the task correlated significantly with poor performance on measures of processing speed, verbal episodic memory, cognitive flexibility and inhibition. Total time was significantly correlated with poorer everyday life functioning and longer duration of illness. This computerized task is a good proxy measure of the level of everyday life and cognitive functioning of persons diagnosed with alcohol dependency.

  13. Difficulties in everyday life: Young persons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorders perspectives. A chat-log analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ahlström, Britt H; Wentz, Elisabet

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the everyday life of young persons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There are follow-up studies describing ADHD, and ASD in adults, and residual impairments that affect life. Few qualitative studies have been conducted on the subject of their experiences of everyday life, and even fewer are from young persons’ perspectives. This study's aim was to describe how young persons with ADHD and ASD function and how they manage their everyday life based on analyses of Internet-based chat logs. Twelve young persons (7 males and 5 females aged 15–26) diagnosed with ADHD and ASD were included consecutively and offered 8 weeks of Internet-based Support and Coaching (IBSC). Data were collected from 12 chat logs (445 pages of text) produced interactively by the participants and the coaches. Qualitative content analysis was applied. The text was coded and sorted into subthemes and further interpreted into themes. The findings revealed two themes: “fighting against an everyday life lived in vulnerability” with the following subthemes: “difficult things,” “stress and rest,” and “when feelings and thoughts are a concern”; and the theme “struggling to find a life of one's own” with the following subthemes: “decide and carry out,” “making life choices,” and “taking care of oneself.” Dealing with the problematic situations that everyday encompasses requires personal strength and a desire to find adequate solutions, as well as to discover a role in society. This study, into the provision of support and coaching over the Internet, led to more in-depth knowledge about these young persons’ everyday lives and revealed their ability to use IBSC to express the complexity of everyday life for young persons with ADHD and ASD. The implications of the findings are that using online coaching makes available new opportunities for healthcare professionals to acknowledge these young

  14. Mary Cassatt: Celebrating Everyday Life. Teacher's Guide. School Arts: Looking/Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denker, Eric

    Mary Cassatt's paintings and graphics depict the world of 19th-century women, mothers, and children. Her exploration of intimate domestic life is informed by an unsurpassed ability to capture the natural, sometimes awkward poses of her figures and her refusal to "prettify" her subjects. This teaching guide gives an overview of Cassatt's…

  15. Filtering Informal Learning in Everyday Life: Invoking Ordinariness and Moving to Civic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grummell, Bernie

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the role of informal learning from television as it is anchored within the ordinariness of daily life. It examines the consequences for pedagogy and civic engagement, questioning how informal learning from television can enhance civic engagement. For many, this learning was localised through personalised and interpersonal…

  16. [Discourses about health risk behaviour and the moralization of the everyday life].

    PubMed

    Bagrichevsky, Marcos; Castiel, Luis David; Vasconcellos-Silva, Paulo Roberto; Estevão, Adriana

    2010-06-01

    The text analyses critically the polarity between discourses about healthy life styles and the sedentariness in the context of new technologies for health information research and dissemination. We argue that the techno-scientific rationality has grown an 'economy of trues' which, on the perspective of conducting to safe life styles, has prescribed a normative ideal of self discipline which tends to generate distress and consumerism of artifacts of burning calories. In the hegemonic production of systems of truth, sedentariness has been seen as a kind of unhealthy behavior that is ranked as moral failure. Emphasis is given about the multiple discourses embracing life styles and risk, taken as biopolitics devices imbricated in the communication processes in health, which has to be lightened up for their ethics and politics implications. The spectacularization of life styles associated to the consumption and the production of narratives that have badly influenced our culture, making bigger the distance of a socially possible notion of health. We discussed the regulatory essence of such a symbolic reference in the construction of knowledge systems that have been (re)defined what is to be healthy, normal and unhealthy.

  17. Filtering Informal Learning in Everyday Life: Invoking Ordinariness and Moving to Civic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grummell, Bernie

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the role of informal learning from television as it is anchored within the ordinariness of daily life. It examines the consequences for pedagogy and civic engagement, questioning how informal learning from television can enhance civic engagement. For many, this learning was localised through personalised and interpersonal…

  18. Children's Participation in Preschool--On the Conditions of the Adults? Preschool Staff's Concepts of Children's Participation in Preschool Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette; Eriksson, Anette

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, analyse and describe preschool staff's concepts of children's participation in everyday preschool life, as well as preschool staff's experiences and concepts of what characterises the children who participate. Furthermore, it addresses the conditions that preschool staff consider as crucial in…

  19. On the "Critique of Everyday Life" to "Metaphilosophy": Henri Lefebvre's Philosophical-Political Legacy of the Cultural Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sünker, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Henri Lefebvre (1901-91), philosopher and sociologist, is, together with Theodor W. Adorno, Max Horkheimer, Walter Benjamin and Ernst Bloch, one of the most relevant representatives of the first generation in Western Marxism. His engagement with Marxism led him to analyse everyday life in post-war France in order to decipher the possibilities of,…

  20. On the "Critique of Everyday Life" to "Metaphilosophy": Henri Lefebvre's Philosophical-Political Legacy of the Cultural Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sünker, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Henri Lefebvre (1901-91), philosopher and sociologist, is, together with Theodor W. Adorno, Max Horkheimer, Walter Benjamin and Ernst Bloch, one of the most relevant representatives of the first generation in Western Marxism. His engagement with Marxism led him to analyse everyday life in post-war France in order to decipher the possibilities of,…

  1. Children's Participation in Preschool--On the Conditions of the Adults? Preschool Staff's Concepts of Children's Participation in Preschool Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette; Eriksson, Anette

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, analyse and describe preschool staff's concepts of children's participation in everyday preschool life, as well as preschool staff's experiences and concepts of what characterises the children who participate. Furthermore, it addresses the conditions that preschool staff consider as crucial in…

  2. Launch Vehicle Propulsion Life Cycle Cost Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapata, Edgar; Rhodes, Russell E.; Robinson, John W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper will review lessons learned for space transportation systems from the viewpoint of the NASA, Industry and academia Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST). The paper provides the basic idea and history of "lessons learned". Recommendations that are extremely relevant to NASA's future investments in research, program development and operations are"'provided. Lastly, a novel and useful approach to documenting lessons learned is recommended, so as to most effectively guide future NASA investments. Applying lessons learned can significantly improve access to space for cargo or people by focusing limited funds on the right areas and needs for improvement. Many NASA human space flight initiatives have faltered, been re-directed or been outright canceled since the birth of the Space Shuttle program. The reasons given at the time have been seemingly unique. It will be shown that there are common threads as lessons learned in many a past initiative.

  3. Neuropsychological problems in everyday life: a 5-year follow-up study of young severely closed-head-injured patients.

    PubMed

    Kaitaro, T; Koskinen, S; Kaipio, M L

    1995-10-01

    The aim of this follow-up study was to examine the long-term disabilities and handicaps caused by severe head injuries and their effects on the everyday life of patients and their relatives. The group studied consisted of 19 subjects who had suffered a severe closed-head injury during 1984 and had been rehabilitated in the Käpylä Rehabilitation Center. In 1989 a thorough functional assessment of these patients was carried out. In addition, information concerning the quality of life, activities of daily living (ADL) and social situation was gathered by means of questionnaires filled in by the patient and, if possible, by a close relative. The results indicated the importance of changes in cognitive functions, personality and emotional reactions. Changes in personality and emotional reactions were especially emphasized by the relatives. We also correlated the patients' and their relatives' estimates of the occurrence of memory problems, whereas tests of visual memory, though able to discriminate the brain-injured from normal subjects, did not correlate on a statistically significant level with the estimates of patients and relatives. The implications of the results for methods of assessment and the planning of rehabilitation programmes are discussed.

  4. Designing for Entertaining Everyday Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inakage, Masa; Arakawa, Takahiro; Iguchi, Kenji; Katsumoto, Yuichiro; Katsura, Makoto; Osawa, Takeshi; Tokuhisa, Satoru; Ueki, Atsuro

    Entertainment is one of the essential elements in the human society. Entertainment includes “fun” in our everyday life activities, from meeting friends to relaxing at hot spas. Everyday artifacts can become entertaining media if these artifacts and environment are designed to be responsive. This chapter discusses the researches of entertaining artifacts to share how to design responsive artifacts for entertaining experience in our everyday life.

  5. Effect of professional expertise and exposure to everyday life decision-making on moral choices.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Maddalena; Verde, Paola; Angelino, Gregorio; Carrozzo, Paolo; Vecchi, Diego; Piccardi, Laura; Colangeli, Stefano; Cordellieri, Pierluigi; Ferlazzo, Fabio; Giannini, Anna Maria

    2017-07-27

    Moral sense is defined as a feeling of fairness or unfairness of an action that knowingly causes harm to people other than the subject. It is crucial in determining human behavior and becomes pivotal in operational environments. Here we assessed whether professional daily life experience in an operational environment affects moral judgment by asking 41 military pilots of the Italian Air Force (P) and 69 controls (C) to solve 40 moral dilemmas. We found that P gave more morally acceptable utilitarian responses to moral dilemmas. Interestingly, men and women in P equally accepted utilitarian resolutions of moral dilemmas, whereas in C women were less prone than men to accept utilitarian responses. We conclude that professional daily life experience of P, in an operational environment, affects moral judgment and mitigates gender predisposition towards moral dilemmas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Law in everyday life and death: a socio-legal study of chronic disorders of consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Halliday, Simon; Kitzinger, Celia; Kitzinger, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses, from a socio-legal perspective, the question of the significance of law for the treatment, care and the end-of-life decision making for patients with chronic disorders of consciousness. We use the phrase ‘chronic disorders of consciousness’ as an umbrella term to refer to severely brain-injured patients in prolonged comas, vegetative or minimally conscious states. Based on an analysis of interviews with family members of patients with chronic disorders of consciousness, we explore the images of law that were drawn upon and invoked by these family members when negotiating the situation of their relatives, including, in some cases, the ending of their lives. By examining ‘legal consciousness’ in this way (an admittedly confusing term in the context of this study,) we offer a distinctly sociological contribution to the question of how law matters in this particular domain of social life. PMID:26041944

  7. Are we overpathologizing everyday life? A tenable blueprint for behavioral addiction research

    PubMed Central

    Billieux, Joël; Schimmenti, Adriano; Khazaal, Yasser; Maurage, Pierre; Heeren, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Background Behavioral addiction research has been particularly flourishing over the last two decades. However, recent publications have suggested that nearly all daily life activities might lead to a genuine addiction. Methods and aim In this article, we discuss how the use of atheoretical and confirmatory research approaches may result in the identification of an unlimited list of “new” behavioral addictions. Results Both methodological and theoretical shortcomings of these studies were discussed. Conclusions We suggested that studies overpathologizing daily life activities are likely to prompt a dismissive appraisal of behavioral addiction research. Consequently, we proposed several roadmaps for future research in the field, centrally highlighting the need for longer tenable behavioral addiction research that shifts from a mere criteria-based approach toward an approach focusing on the psychological processes involved. PMID:26014667

  8. Children's longing for everydayness: life following traumatic brain injury in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Roscigno, Cecelia I.; Swanson, Kristen M.; Vavilala, Monica S.; Solchany, JoAnne

    2012-01-01

    Primary Objective Little is known about life after traumatic brain injury (TBI) from the child's perspective. Research Design This descriptive phenomenological investigation explored themes of children's experiences following moderate to severe TBI. Methods and Procedures Inclusion criteria: 1) 6 – 18 years of age at injury; 2) moderate to severe TBI; 3) ≤ 3 years since injury; and 4) English speaking and could participate in an interview. Children participated (N = 39) in two interviews at least one year apart. A preliminary model was developed and shared for participants' input. Main Outcomes and Results Six themes emerged: 1) it is like waking up in a bad dream; 2) I thought going home would get me back to my old life, but it did not; 3) everything is such hard work; 4) you feel like you will never be like the person you were before; 5) it is not all bad; and 6) some people get it, but many people do not. Conclusions Social support was important to how children adjusted to changes or losses. Most children did adjust to functional changes by second interviews. Children had a more difficult time adjusting to how others defined them and limited their possibilities for a meaningful life. PMID:21631183

  9. Activity problems in everyday life--patients' perspectives of hand osteoarthritis: "try imagining what it would be like having no hands".

    PubMed

    Bukhave, Elise Bromann; Huniche, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    To explore first-person perspectives on activities and participation in everyday life among people with hand osteoarthritis (OA). Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 5 men and 26 women of different ages living with hand OA. Supplemental data were collected via photo-interviews of two of the men and nine of the women. The analytical process was inspired by the interpretive phenomenological analysis and informed by the interpretive frameworks of critical psychology and social practice theory. Empirical findings indicate that persons with hand OA experience activity problems and participation limitations in the conduct of everyday life. Activity problems were related to self-care, paid work, as well as leisure activities. The participants also reported employing different strategies attempting to overcome the challenges of their everyday lives in order to keep actively performing valued activities. They reported environmental support of utmost importance for these attempts. Social participation in networks was also reported to be affected by the participants' activity problems. Arranging everyday life is complex and is carried out in structures of social practice. A supportive physical and social environment facilitates participation. The findings highlight the importance of paying attention to individual needs in rehabilitation processes.

  10. Daily life in very old age: everyday activities as expression of successful living.

    PubMed

    Horgas, A L; Wilms, H U; Baltes, M M

    1998-10-01

    The goals of this article are (a) to describe the daily life of the very old in terms of frequency, duration, variety, and social and physical contexts of activities, and (b) to examine the effects of background variables (e.g., age, sex, residential and marital status, income, and education) on late life activity engagement. A representative sample of 516 adults aged 70-105 was interviewed about their activities using the Yesterday Interview. In contrast to most research on activity engagement, this measurement approach allows for assessment of both the type and context of activities engaged in during the day preceding the interview. The results indicated high frequencies of obligatory activities but also showed substantial time spent in discretionary activities, with television viewing occupying most of the participants' leisure time. Most activities were done alone and at home. In bivariate and multiple regression analyses, age and residential status had the strongest association with activity frequency, duration, and variety; the oldest-old and those residing in long-term care facilities had lower levels of activity engagement. Results are discussed in terms of their relevance for successful aging.

  11. Persons with Haemophilia in Sweden- Experiences and Strategies in Everyday Life. A Single Centre Study.

    PubMed

    Brodin, Elisabeth; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S; Baghaei, Fariba; Törnbom, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilia is caused by deficiency in coagulation factor VIII or IX. Treatment with the missing coagulation factors has been available in most developed countries for several decades. The aim was to explore the experiences of adults living with severe or moderate haemophilia and their coping strategies at a single centre in Sweden. The interview study had a qualitative empirical approach and was analyzed on the basis of the method empirical phenomenological psychology. The sample included 14 participants, mean age 42 (19-80 y), who met the inclusion criteria and to saturation of information. General characteristics were; All were satisfied with and grateful for access to medication. An acceptance of the disorder and willingness to live a normal life was identified among all participants. They were all content with the care provided by Haemophilia Treatment Centre (HTC) and felt supported by its multidisciplinary team. Four typologies were identified; Protective adults and assertive children during up-bringing, finding a role in social context, symptoms and treatments, fear of limited resources in the future. Task-, emotional- and avoidance coping strategies were seen in the interviews. The most prominent coping strategy was task oriented. This interview study with Swedish PWH shows that they strive for normality and adaptation in social activities throughout life finding their own niche. The PWH expressed the importance of knowledge and support from the comprehensive medical team at HTC and therefore it seems important to continue comprehensive medical care at HTC in order to follow-up the haemophilia persons regularly.

  12. Participation in everyday activities and quality of life in pre-teenage children living with cerebral palsy in South West Ireland.

    PubMed

    Mc Manus, Vicki; Corcoran, Paul; Perry, Ivan J

    2008-10-31

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common cause of physical disability in children but its impact on quality of life is not well understood. This study examined participation in everyday activities among children without CP and children with mild, moderate and severe impairment due to CP. We then examined ten domains of quality of life in children with CP and investigated whether participation in everyday activities was associated with improved quality of life independent of gender, age and level of impairment. This was a cross-sectional study of children aged 8-12 years based on two questionnaires, frequency of participation (FPQ) and KIDSCREEN, completed by parents of 98 children on the South of Ireland Cerebral Palsy Register (response rate = 82%) and parents of 448 children attending two Cork city schools (response rate = 69%) who completed one questionnaire (FPQ). Multiple linear regression was used: firstly to estimate the effect of severity of CP on participation in everyday activities independent of age and gender and secondly we estimated the effect of participation on quality of life independent of age gender and level of impairment. Participation in 11 of the 14 everyday activities examined varied across the children without CP and the children with varying severity of CP. In general, increased impairment decreased participation. Independent of age and gender, there was a highly significant decrease in overall participation with a fall of -6.0 (95% CI = -6.9 to -5.2) with each increasing level of impairment. The children with CP generally had high quality of life. Increased impairment was associated with diminished quality of life in just two domains - Physical well-being and Social support and peers. Overall participation in everyday activities was significantly associated with quality of life in 3 of the 10 domains (Physical well-being, Social support and peers & Moods and emotions) in analysis adjusted for gender age and level of impairment. While

  13. Becoming forgetful: how elderly people deal with forgetfulness in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Imhof, Lorenz; Wallhagen, Margaret I; Mahrer-Imhof, Romy; Monsch, Andreas U

    2006-01-01

    Studies show that complaints about being forgetful are weakly correlated with standardized measures of memory impairment. Little attention has been paid to those complaints in a healthy elderly population. Therefore, this qualitative, grounded-theory study investigated the experiences and consequences of becoming forgetful. In-depth interviews with 32 participants were conducted and analyzed. The findings show that forgetfulness became part of daily life through 3 strategies, conceptualized as doing forgetfulness: (1) reducing complexity; (2) creating and maintaining routines; and (3) dealing with feelings of embarrassment and shame. The well-being of people experiencing forgetfulness depended on how successfully they performed the strategies of doing forgetfulness. Gaining insight into this process allows health care professionals to assess the phenomenon early and to individualize counseling and further diagnostic procedures.

  14. Ostracism in Everyday Life: The Effects of Ostracism on Those Who Ostracize.

    PubMed

    Nezlek, John B; Wesselmann, Eric D; Wheeler, Ladd; Williams, Kipling D

    2015-01-01

    Ostracism is a negative interpersonal experience that has been studied primarily in laboratory settings. Moreover, these studies have focused primarily on how people feel when they have been ostracized. The present study extended this research by investigating ostracism as it occurs in daily life, focusing on how people feel about ostracizing someone. Using a method modeled after the Rochester Interaction Record (RIR), for two weeks, 64 participants (adults residing in the community) described what happened each time they ostracized someone. The questions in the diary were based on Williams's (2001) need-threat model of ostracism. Most ostracism episodes were directed toward people of equal status, and participants reported lower levels of belonging but higher levels of control after ostracizing someone. Punitive ostracism was associated with more positive outcomes for the source than when people ostracized someone for other reasons.

  15. Factors contributing to depressive mood states in everyday life: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pemberton, Rachel; Fuller Tyszkiewicz, Matthew D

    2016-08-01

    Although accumulated evidence suggests that fluctuations in depressed mood are common among individuals with depression, and may be associated with onset, duration, and severity of illness, a systematic appraisal of putative predictors of depressed mood is lacking. A systematic search for relevant studies in the literature was conducted using PsycInfo and PubMed databases via EbscoHost in February 2016. The search was limited to articles using the experience sampling method, an approach suitable for capturing in situ fluctuations in mood states. Forty-two studies met inclusion criteria for the review, from which three key risk factors (poor sleep, stress, and significant life events) and two protective factors (physical activity and quality of social interactions) were identified. The majority of papers supported concurrent and lagged associations between these putative protective/risk factors and depressed mood. Despite support for each of the proposed protective/risk factors, few studies evaluated multiple factors in the same study. Moreover, the time course for the effects of these predictors on depressed mood remains largely unknown. The present review identified several putative risk and protective factors for depressed mood. A review of the literature suggests that poor sleep, negative social interactions, and stressful negative events may temporally precede spikes in depressed mood. In contrast, exercise and positive social interactions have been shown to predict subsequent declines in depressed mood. However, the lack of multivariate models in which the unique contributions of various predictors could be evaluated means that the current state of knowledge prevents firm conclusions about which factors are most predictive of depressed mood. More complex modeling of these effects is necessary in order to provide insights useful for clinical treatment in daily life of the depressed mood component of depressive disorders. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by

  16. Persons with Haemophilia in Sweden- Experiences and Strategies in Everyday Life. A Single Centre Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction/Aim Haemophilia is caused by deficiency in coagulation factor VIII or IX. Treatment with the missing coagulation factors has been available in most developed countries for several decades. The aim was to explore the experiences of adults living with severe or moderate haemophilia and their coping strategies at a single centre in Sweden. Method The interview study had a qualitative empirical approach and was analyzed on the basis of the method empirical phenomenological psychology. The sample included 14 participants, mean age 42 (19–80 y), who met the inclusion criteria and to saturation of information. Results: General characteristics were; All were satisfied with and grateful for access to medication. An acceptance of the disorder and willingness to live a normal life was identified among all participants. They were all content with the care provided by Haemophilia Treatment Centre (HTC) and felt supported by its multidisciplinary team. Four typologies were identified; Protective adults and assertive children during up-bringing, finding a role in social context, symptoms and treatments, fear of limited resources in the future. Task-, emotional- and avoidance coping strategies were seen in the interviews. The most prominent coping strategy was task oriented. Conclusion This interview study with Swedish PWH shows that they strive for normality and adaptation in social activities throughout life finding their own niche. The PWH expressed the importance of knowledge and support from the comprehensive medical team at HTC and therefore it seems important to continue comprehensive medical care at HTC in order to follow-up the haemophilia persons regularly. PMID:26431432

  17. The screening of everyday life chemicals in validated assays targeting the pituitary-gonadal axis.

    PubMed

    Tinwell, H; Colombel, S; Blanck, O; Bars, R

    2013-07-01

    Ten structurally diverse chemicals (vitamins C, B9, B6, B3, sucrose, caffeine, gingerol, xanthan gum, paracetamol, ibuprofen) deemed intrinsic to modern life but not considered as endocrine active, were tested in vitro using the human estrogen receptor transcriptional activation (hERTa) and the H295R steroidogenesis assays. All were inactive in the hERTa assay but paracetamol, gingerol, caffeine and vitamin C affected steroidogenesis in vitro from 250, 25, 500 and 750 μM respectively. One molecule, caffeine, was further tested in rat pubertal assays at the tumorigenic dose-level and at dose-levels relevant for human consumption. In females pubertal parameters (vaginal opening, estrus cycle), ovarian weight and Fsh and prolactin transcript levels were affected. In males, plasma progesterone levels and prostate and seminal vesicle weights were affected. Although the current regulatory focus is synthetic chemicals that can cause adverse effects on the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, our data infer that the range of natural chemicals with the potential to affect this axis may be extensive and is probably overlooked. Thus, to avoid regulation of an overwhelming number of chemicals, a weight of evidence approach, combining hazard identification and characterization with exposure considerations, is needed to identify those chemicals of real regulatory concern.

  18. Computerized Exercises to Promote Transfer of Cognitive Skills to Everyday Life.

    PubMed

    Vianin, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, computerized and non-computerized cognitive remediation programs have been designed for both individual and group settings. We believe, however, that a common misconception lies in considering the efficiency of a cognitive remediation therapy as resulting from the sole use of a computer. This omits that metacognitive skills need also to be trained throughout the remediation phase. RECOS is a theory-based therapeutic approach designed to promote the transfer of cognitive skills to functional improvements. It involves working with one person at a time using both paper/pencil tasks and a set of interactive computer exercises. Paper/pencil exercises are used to promote problem-solving techniques and to help patients to find appropriate suitable strategies. During the following computerized 1-h session, therapists guide participants to the procedural dimension of the action, which refers to knowledge about doing things and relies on retrospective introspection. We assume that each patient has a rich and underestimated procedural knowledge he/she is not aware of. By providing complex and interactive environments, computerized exercises are recommended to bring this knowledge to light. When strategies used by the participant become conscious, conditional knowledge determines when and why to use them in real-life situations.

  19. Computerized Exercises to Promote Transfer of Cognitive Skills to Everyday Life

    PubMed Central

    Vianin, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, computerized and non-computerized cognitive remediation programs have been designed for both individual and group settings. We believe, however, that a common misconception lies in considering the efficiency of a cognitive remediation therapy as resulting from the sole use of a computer. This omits that metacognitive skills need also to be trained throughout the remediation phase. RECOS is a theory-based therapeutic approach designed to promote the transfer of cognitive skills to functional improvements. It involves working with one person at a time using both paper/pencil tasks and a set of interactive computer exercises. Paper/pencil exercises are used to promote problem-solving techniques and to help patients to find appropriate suitable strategies. During the following computerized 1-h session, therapists guide participants to the procedural dimension of the action, which refers to knowledge about doing things and relies on retrospective introspection. We assume that each patient has a rich and underestimated procedural knowledge he/she is not aware of. By providing complex and interactive environments, computerized exercises are recommended to bring this knowledge to light. When strategies used by the participant become conscious, conditional knowledge determines when and why to use them in real-life situations. PMID:27148085

  20. Racial identification, knowledge, and the politics of everyday life in an Arizona science classroom: A linguistic ethnography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Brendan Harold

    This dissertation is a linguistic ethnography of a high school Astronomy/Oceanography classroom in southern Arizona, where an exceptionally promising, novice, white science teacher and mostly Mexican-American students confronted issues of identity and difference through interactions both related and unrelated to science learning. Through close analysis of video-recorded, naturally-occurring interaction and rich ethnographic description, the study documents how a teacher and students accomplished everyday classroom life, built caring relationships, and pursued scientific inquiry at a time and in a place where nationally- and locally-circulating discourses about immigration and race infused even routine interactions with tension and uncertainty. In their talk, students appropriated elements of racializing discourses, but also used language creatively to "speak back" to commonsense notions about Mexicanness. Careful examination of science-related interactions reveals the participants' negotiation of multiple, intersecting forms of citizenship (i.e., cultural and scientific citizenship) in the classroom, through multidirectional processes of language socialization in which students and the teacher regularly exchanged expert and novice roles. This study offers insight into the continuing relevance of racial, cultural, and linguistic identity to students' experiences of schooling, and sheds new light on classroom discourse, teacher-student relationships, and dimensions of citizenship in science learning, with important implications for teacher preparation and practice.

  1. Assistive devices utilisation in activities of everyday life--a proposed framework of understanding a user perspective.

    PubMed

    Krantz, Oskar

    2012-05-01

    This theoretical article proposes a framework of understanding a user perspective of assistive devices utilisation in everyday life. Utilising the MPT model (Matching Person and Technology) and the ValMO model (Values and Meaning in Human Occupations), a framework of understanding is proposed. Main components are person, assistive device, and activity, connected by the person's expectations and experiences concerning the doability/doworthiness (possible to do/worth doing) of an activity, and the usability/useworthiness (possible to use/worth using) of an assistive device. Expectations may differ based on not only earlier experiences (habitus), but also situational and environmental variations, and result in differing experiences. In general, the purpose of an assistive device is to increase a person's repertoire of doable activities. For a person, this can be a function of the evaluation of possible gains, in terms of correlation between investments (in terms of time and energy), and the (expected) result of the activity. The only person able to estimate the useworthiness/usability of a device and the doworthiness/doability of an activity is the user her/himself, assessing the degree at which a specific assistive device enhances the value of an activity, in turn affecting the habitus of the (presumptive) user. [Box: see text].

  2. Food cravings in everyday life: An EMA study on snack-related thoughts, cravings, and consumption.

    PubMed

    Richard, Anna; Meule, Adrian; Reichenberger, Julia; Blechert, Jens

    2017-06-01

    Food craving refers to an intense desire to consume a specific food and is regularly experienced by the majority of individuals. Yet, there are interindividual differences in the frequency and intensity of food craving experiences, which is often referred to as trait food craving. The characteristics and consequences of trait and state food craving have mainly been investigated in questionnaire-based and laboratory studies, which may not reflect individuals' behavior in daily life. In the present study, sixty-one participants completed the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r) as measure of trait food craving, followed by seven days of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), during which they reported snack-related thoughts, craving intensity, and snack consumption at five times per day. Results showed that 86 percent of reported snacks were high-caloric, with chocolate-containing foods being the most often reported snacks. Individuals with high FCQ-T-r scores (high trait food cravers, HCs) thought more often about high-calorie than low-calorie snacks whereas no differences were found in individuals with low FCQ-T-r scores (low trait food cravers, LCs). Further, the relationship between craving intensity and snack-related thoughts was stronger in HCs than in LCs. Higher craving intensity was associated with more consumption of snacks and again this relationship was stronger in HCs than in LCs. Finally, more snack-related thoughts were related to more frequent consumption of snacks, independent of trait food craving. Thus, HCs are more prone to think about high-calorie snacks in their daily lives and to consume more snack foods when they experience intense cravings, which might be indicative of a heightened responding towards high-calorie foods. Thus, trait-level differences as well as snack-related thoughts should be targeted in dietary interventions.

  3. Everyday life following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: decline in physical symptoms within the first month and change-related predictors.

    PubMed

    Kroemeke, Aleksandra; Sobczyk-Kruszelnicka, Małgorzata; Kwissa-Gajewska, Zuzanna

    2017-09-12

    Lower quality of life, especially in the physical domain (Physical-QOL), is common in patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, few studies explore changes in the Physical-QOL, i.e., physical symptoms, in everyday life of patients following HSCT. The present study addresses this gap by examining patient daily physical symptoms and their predictors in terms of demographic and clinical characteristics. Physical symptoms were reported by 188 patients (56.9% men; aged 47.6 ± 13.4 years) for 28 consecutive days after post-HSCT hospital discharge. Multilevel modeling was used to investigate fixed and random effects for physical symptom changes over time. The results indicated that the initial level of physical symptoms (immediately after hospital discharge) systematically decreased over 28 days. Treatment toxicity (WHO scale; β = 0.09, p < .01) and baseline depressive symptoms (CES-D scale; β = 0.06, p < .01) were associated with the initial level of physical symptoms. Patients with more depressive symptoms before HSCT and with more adverse treatment effects presented with more physical symptoms immediately after hospital discharge. The type of transplant, diagnosis, and conditioning regimen differentiated the course of physical symptoms. Patients with leukemias and other myeloid neoplasms (β = 0.05, p < .01), after allogeneic HSCT (β = -0.06, p < .01), and with non-myeloablative conditioning (β = -0.09, p < .01) showed a significant lower decrease in symptoms over time. Patients with multiple myeloma presented with the most rapid improvement (β = -.03, p < .05). The findings suggest a heterogeneous and rather positive response to HSCT. Treatment-related conditions occurred to be a significant predictor of the intensity of change in physical functioning after HSCT.

  4. Experiences of housing support in everyday life for persons with schizophrenia and the role of the media from a societal perspective.

    PubMed

    Jormfeldt, Henrika; Hallén, Malin

    2016-01-01

    Background The mental health-care system in Sweden, as in many other counties, has its main focus on the reduction of psychiatric symptoms and the prevention of relapses. People diagnosed with schizophrenia often have significant health issues and experience reduced well-being in everyday life. The social imaginary of mental illness as an imbalance of the brain has implications concerning general attitudes in society. The news media are an important source of information on psychiatric disorders and have an important role in cultivating public perceptions and stigma. News media can contribute to the mental illness stigma and place individuals with mental illnesses at risk of not receiving adequate care and support. The aim of this preliminary study was to describe users' experiences of housing support in everyday life. Results The results revealed three themes of housing support, which were needed, but frequently insufficiently fulfilled in the municipality. The three themes were: "Support to Practice Healthy Routines in Daily Life," "Support to Shape Meaningful Contents in Everyday Life," and "Support to Meet Needs of Integrity and Respect." Conclusions The findings support previous studies arguing that current health care and housing support fails to meet basic needs and may lead to significant and unnecessary health risks. Further investigation is needed regarding the links between attitudes to mental illness in society and political and financial principles for health care and housing support for persons with schizophrenia. Further research is needed regarding the role of the media in policymaking concerning health promotion interventions for people diagnosed with schizophrenia.

  5. Experiences of housing support in everyday life for persons with schizophrenia and the role of the media from a societal perspective.

    PubMed

    Jormfeldt, Henrika; Hallén, Malin

    2016-01-01

    The mental health-care system in Sweden, as in many other counties, has its main focus on the reduction of psychiatric symptoms and the prevention of relapses. People diagnosed with schizophrenia often have significant health issues and experience reduced well-being in everyday life. The social imaginary of mental illness as an imbalance of the brain has implications concerning general attitudes in society. The news media are an important source of information on psychiatric disorders and have an important role in cultivating public perceptions and stigma. News media can contribute to the mental illness stigma and place individuals with mental illnesses at risk of not receiving adequate care and support. The aim of this preliminary study was to describe users' experiences of housing support in everyday life. The results revealed three themes of housing support, which were needed, but frequently insufficiently fulfilled in the municipality. The three themes were: "Support to Practice Healthy Routines in Daily Life," "Support to Shape Meaningful Contents in Everyday Life," and "Support to Meet Needs of Integrity and Respect." The findings support previous studies arguing that current health care and housing support fails to meet basic needs and may lead to significant and unnecessary health risks. Further investigation is needed regarding the links between attitudes to mental illness in society and political and financial principles for health care and housing support for persons with schizophrenia. Further research is needed regarding the role of the media in policymaking concerning health promotion interventions for people diagnosed with schizophrenia.

  6. Occupational gaps in everyday life one year after stroke and the association with life satisfaction and impact of stroke.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Gunilla; Aasnes, Monica; Tistad, Malin; Guidetti, Susanne; von Koch, Lena

    2012-01-01

    To examine the presence, frequency, and distribution of occupational gaps and to explore whether there are associations between occupational gaps and life satisfaction, self-rated recovery, and functioning and participation in activities of daily living (ADLs) 1 year after stroke. Data were collected at onset and at 12 months after stroke from 161 patients admitted to a stroke unit in central Sweden by using Occupational Gaps Questionnaire, LiSat-11, Stroke Impact Scale, Katz ADL Index, and Barthel Index. Spearman rank correlation and Mann Whitney U test were used in the analyses. Occupational gaps were reported by 87% of the participants. The number of occupational gaps was moderately associated with participation and self-rated recovery. There was a significant difference in the number of occupational gaps between the participants who were independent in ADLs and those who were not, both at baseline and at 12 months after stroke. There was, however, no significant association between occupational gaps and life satisfaction. Occupational gaps 1 year after stroke are very common, particularly among individuals experiencing difficulties in ADLs. Increased efforts are vital to enable individuals to do the activities that are important to them, irrespective of whether these are instrumental ADLs or leisure or social activities. Occupational gaps could be reduced by developing rehabilitation interventions that enable desired activities in different contexts that are crucial for individual patients.

  7. Impact of a nurse-run clinic on prevalence of urinary incontinence and everyday life in men undergoing radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Lombraña, María; Izquierdo, Laura; Gómez, Ascensión; Alcaraz, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) in patients undergoing prostatectomy and to evaluate the impact of UI on the everyday life in order to select the patients eligible to enter a pelvic floor rehabilitation program. The sample comprised 114 consecutive men undergoing laparoscopic or open radical prostatectomy between April 2007 and April 2008. Participants' mean age was 59 years (range, 46-67 years). The research setting was a hospital-based clinic in Barcelona, Spain. Patients who required an indwelling urinary catheter due to other factors were excluded from the trial. During admission, nursing staff explained the study and obtained informed consent from patients willing to participate in the trial. The impact of UI on daily living was evaluated via administration of the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form. Impact of UI was evaluated before surgery, and after 1 and 12 months following indwelling catheter removal. A total of 95.5% patients developed UI 1 month following bladder catheter removal. Slightly less than 1 in 4 patients (24.8%) indicated that UI had no effect on activities of daily living. In contrast, 27.5% indicated that UI had a moderate impact and 47.7% indicated a severe impact. Ninety-one patients reported performing pelvic floor muscle exercises to improve UI, but only 45% were found to be performing them correctly. When evaluated at 1 year following catheter removal, 52.64% of the patients continued to experience UI. The majority (79.8%) indicated that UI did not impact their daily lives, 8.8% indicated a moderate impact, and 20.4% reported that UI had a severe impact on daily life. Seventy patients (61.4%) continued to perform pelvic floor muscle exercises; after 1 year, 93% were deemed to be correctly identifying, contracting, and relaxing their pelvic floor muscles. Urinary incontinence remains prevalent as long as 12 months following catheter removal. Incontinence exerts a moderate to

  8. How to Investigate Within-Subject Associations between Physical Activity and Momentary Affective States in Everyday Life: A Position Statement Based on a Literature Overview

    PubMed Central

    Kanning, Martina K.; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W.; Schlicht, Wolfgang Michael

    2013-01-01

    Several meta-analyses have investigated the association between physical activity and affective states and have found evidence suggesting that exercise exerts a positive effect on affective state. However, in this field of research, most studies have conducted between-subject analyses. Nonetheless, there is more and more interest in the within-subject associations between physical activity and momentary affective states in everyday life. This position statement pertains to this up-and-coming field of research and provides methodological recommendations for further studies. The paper is divided into three parts: first, we summarize and evaluate three methodological requirements necessary for the proper evaluation of within-subject associations between physical activity and momentary affective states in everyday life. We propose that the following issues should be considered: (a) to address the dynamic nature of such relationships, repeated assessments are necessary; (b) as activities performed in everyday life are mostly spontaneous and unconscious, an objective assessment of physical activity is useful; (c) given that recall of affective states is often affected by systematic distortions, real-time assessment is preferable. In sum, we suggest the use of ambulatory assessment techniques, and more specifically the combination of accelerometer-assessment of physical activity with an electronic diary assessment of the momentary affective state and additional context information. Second, we summarize 22 empirical studies published between 1980 and 2012 using ambulatory assessment to investigate within-subject associations between momentary affective states and physical activity in everyday life. Generally, the literature overview detects a positive association, which appears stronger among those studies that were of high methodological quality. Third, we propose the use of ambulatory assessment intervention (AAIs) strategies to change people’s behavior and to enable

  9. Wandering minds and wavering goals: Examining the relation between mind wandering and grit in everyday life and the classroom.

    PubMed

    Ralph, Brandon C W; Wammes, Jeffrey D; Barr, Nathaniel; Smilek, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Here we examined the relation between mind wandering and the personality trait of 'grit.' Our hypothesis was that because mind wandering leads to a disruption of momentary goal completion, the tendency to mind wander might be inversely related to the completion of long-term goals that require sustained interest and effort (i.e., grittiness). In Study 1 we used online questionnaires and found that in everyday life, the propensity to mind wander was negatively correlated with individuals' self-reported grittiness. Interestingly, the relation between mind wandering and grit was strongest for unintentional bouts of mind wandering (as compared with intentional mind wandering). We extended these findings in Study 2 by (a) using a more heterogeneous sample of participants, (b) including a measure of conscientiousness, and (c) including another measure of general perseverance. In addition to replicating our findings from Study 1, in Study 2 we found that the grit measure uniquely predicted spontaneous mind wandering over and above a measure of conscientiousness and an alternative measure of general perseverance. Lastly, in Study 3 we extend the relation between mind wandering and grit to the classroom, finding that mind wandering during university lectures was also related to self-reported grittiness. Taken together, we suggest that the propensity to experience brief lapses of attention is associated with the propensity to stick-with and complete long-term goals. We also provide evidence that when predicting mind wandering and inattention, measures of grit are not redundant with existing measure of conscientiousness and general perseverance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Toxins in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Chey, Howard; Buchanan, Susan

    2008-12-01

    This article reviews the sources of exposure and health effects of common toxicants encountered by patients in primary care practice. The recognition and management of exposure to indoor and outdoor pollutants, heavy metals, pesticides, electromagnetic fields, and endocrine-disrupting chemicals are listed. A sample environmental history form is included.

  11. Breastfeeding and Everyday Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... over-the-counter drugs, vitamins, and dietary or herbal supplements. For some women with chronic health problems, stopping ... over-the-counter drugs, vitamins, and dietary or herbal supplements. For some women with chronic health problems, stopping ...

  12. Navigation for everyday life

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, D.D.; Hammond, K.J.; Swain, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    Past work in navigation has worked toward the goal of producing an accurate map of the environment. While no one can deny the usefulness of such a map, the ideal of producing a complete map becomes unrealistic when an agent is faced with performing real tasks. And yet an agent accomplishing recurring tasks should navigate more efficiently as time goes by. We present a system which integrates navigation, planning, and vision. In this view, navigation supports the needs of a larger system as opposed to being a task in its own right. Whereas previous approaches assume an unknown and unstructured environment, we assume a structured environment whose organization is known, but whose specifics are unknown. The system is endowed with a wide range of visual capabilities as well as search plans for informed exploration of a simulated store constructed from real visual data. We demonstrate the agent finding items while mapping the world. In repeatedly retrieving items, the agent`s performance improves as the learned map becomes more useful.

  13. Astronomy in Everyday Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    deCastroMilone, Andre

    1999-01-01

    It is amazing how fascinated people are with the heavens. Who has never admired a sunset or been amazed at a storm? However, even today, a large part of mankind does not understand the celestial and atmospheric phenomena that are part off our daily lives. These natural phenomena are even the subject of myths. This chapter will serve as an introduction, within certain limits, to educators and university students regarding celestial phenomena that are present in our daily lives even though they go un-noticed by most people. Phenomena which are exclusively part of the atmosphere in our planet will not be discussed. The influence of the Earth's atmosphere in scientific observation of the stars is the focus of Chapter 2.

  14. Toward an ethnography of silence: the lived presence of the past in the everyday life of Holocaust trauma survivors and their descendants in Israel.

    PubMed

    Kidron, Carol A

    2009-02-01

    Despite the abundant scholarship on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the memoropolitics entailed by testimonial accounts of trauma and genocide, little is known of the everyday experience of trauma survivors and their descendants. Survivor silence is thought to signify only psychological or political repression and the "unspeakability" of traumatic pasts. It is widely accepted that the everyday lives of trauma victims and their descendants entail only the "absence of presence" of the past and the absence of descendant knowledge of that past, while the familial social milieu is thought to foster only the wounds of transmitted PTSD. Contrary to the literature, ethnographic accounts of Holocaust descendants depict the survivor home as embedding the nonpathological presence of the Holocaust past within silent, embodied practices, person-object interaction, and person-person interaction. These silent traces form an experiential matrix of Holocaust presence that sustains familial "lived memory" of the past and transmits tacit knowledge of the past within the everyday private social milieu. The ethnography of silent memory may also provide a tentative model of nontraumatic individual and familial memory work in everyday life.

  15. Living an everyday life with head and neck cancer 2-2.5 years post-diagnosis - A qualitative prospective study of 56 patients.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Joakim; Salander, Pär; Lilliehorn, Sara; Laurell, Göran

    2016-04-01

    There are many studies available describing how patients are affected by head and neck cancer (HNC) and its treatment. Usually these studies are quantitative and focus on assessing patients' quality of life or distress post-treatment. These studies are important, but they are of limited value if we are interested in understanding more about HNC in an everyday life context. The purpose was to determine how life was lived and valued during and after treatment for HNC and to detect different transitions in returning to everyday life. During 2009-2012, 56 patients with HNC were consecutively included, and interviewed at 6, 12, and 24 months post-treatment about how they lived their lives. All patients received primary treatment at a tertiary referral university hospital in Sweden. Four different trajectories and transitions emerged. The first group (n = 15) evaluated their illness experience as a past parenthesis in their life suggesting that they had psychologically left the illness behind. In the second group (n = 9), the impact of the disease seemed to be diluted by other strains in their life, and although these patients to some extent were still hampered by side effects, they regarded them as 'no big deal'. The cancer really made a difference in the third group (n = 12) in both positive and negative ways and seemed to reflect a balance between such effects. In the fourth group (n = 20), the physical and/or psychological problems predominated and the patients' lives had changed for the worse. The narratives showed that being afflicted by HNC has different impacts depending on how the patients live their lives - it is a matter of individual transition in an everyday life context. This idiosyncrasy challenges the meaningfulness of screening efforts to identify vulnerable groups for psychosocial intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Student perception of relevance of biology content to everyday life: A study in higher education biology courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himschoot, Agnes Rose

    The purpose of this mixed method case study was to examine the effects of methods of instruction on students' perception of relevance in higher education non-biology majors' courses. Nearly ninety percent of all students in a liberal arts college are required to take a general biology course. It is proposed that for many of those students, this is the last science course they will take for life. General biology courses are suspected of discouraging student interest in biology with large enrollment, didactic instruction, covering a huge amount of content in one semester, and are charged with promoting student disengagement with biology by the end of the course. Previous research has been aimed at increasing student motivation and interest in biology as measured by surveys and test results. Various methods of instruction have been tested and show evidence of improved learning gains. This study focused on students' perception of relevance of biology content to everyday life and the methods of instruction that increase it. A quantitative survey was administered to assess perception of relevance pre and post instruction over three topics typically taught in a general biology course. A second quantitative survey of student experiences during instruction was administered to identify methods of instruction used in the course lecture and lab. While perception of relevance dropped in the study, qualitative focus groups provided insight into the surprising results by identifying topics that are more relevant than the ones chosen for the study, conveying the affects of the instructor's personal and instructional skills on student engagement, explanation of how active engagement during instruction promotes understanding of relevance, the roll of laboratory in promoting students' understanding of relevance as well as identifying external factors that affect student engagement. The study also investigated the extent to which gender affected changes in students' perception of

  17. Experiences and management of fatigue in everyday life among adult patients living with heart failure: a systematic review of qualitative evidence.

    PubMed

    Schjoedt, Inge; Sommer, Irene; Bjerrum, Merete Bender

    2016-03-01

    Fatigue, a common and distressing symptom of heart failure, is a non-specific, invisible and subjective experience, which is difficult to describe and for which there are no effective interventions. Fatigue negatively impacts on patients' everyday life, prognosis and quality of life, therefore it is important that patients can manage, monitor and respond to changes in fatigue. To cope with fatigue patients may need or seek advice on self-management strategies. To synthesize the best available evidence on the experiences and management of fatigue in everyday life among adult patients with stable heart failure. Adults with confirmed and stable heart failure. Studies exploring the experiences and management of fatigue in everyday life among adults with heart failure. Qualitative studies focusing on qualitative data, including, but not limited to, designs within phenomenology, grounded theory or ethnography. A three-step search strategy was used to identify published and unpublished qualitative studies from 1995 to 2014. Studies that met the inclusion criteria were assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological validity using the standardized critical appraisal tools of the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-QARI). Data was extracted from the five included studies using JBI-QARI. Findings were identified and arranged according to the three research questions: patients' experiences of fatigue, impact of fatigue on everyday life and how patients' managed fatigue and its consequences in everyday life. Findings were pooled using JBI-QARI. From the five included studies, 108 findings were derived and subsequently aggregated into 24 categories, which were finally meta-synthesized into five syntheses: "A pervasive and unignorable bodily experience" captured the patients' descriptions of fatigue experiences; "Limited performance of daily living and social activities" and "Loss of self-esteem, identity and intellectual function

  18. Everyday life and health concepts among blue-collar female workers in Denmark: implications for health promotion aiming at reducing health inequalities.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jeanette Magne

    2013-06-01

    This article introduces a perspective on the health of women with low levels of education in terms of organisation of their everyday life. The aim is to demonstrate the ways in which the women's concept of health is contingent on the conditions encountered in everyday life. A qualitative study based on interviews with the women forms the basis for the discussion. The analysis shows that the women find it difficult to adopt the official discourse on health and its foundation in a biomedical tradition. The article argues that it is necessary to move away from the educational approach focusing on risk and lifestyle with the goal of regulating individual behaviour. Instead, an approach is suggested which can provide the women with the opportunity to gain control of the everyday health determinants which are normally beyond their immediate reach. This is based on the argument that it is necessary to work with a health promotion and education strategy capable of operating within the various interactive patterns between 'environment' and 'individual' which form the foundation for health.

  19. 'Getting things done': an everyday-life perspective towards bridging the gap between intentions and practices in health-related behavior.

    PubMed

    van Woerkum, Cees; Bouwman, Laura

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we aim to add a new perspective to supporting health-related behavior. We use the everyday-life view to point at the need to focus on the social and practical organization of the concerned behavior. Where most current approaches act disjointedly on clients and the social and physical context, we take the clients' own behavior within the dynamics of everyday context as the point of departure. From this point, healthy behavior is not a distinguishable action, but a chain of activities, often embedded in other social practices. Therefore, changing behavior means changing the social system in which one lives, changing a shared lifestyle or changing the dominant values or existing norms. Often, clients experience that this is not that easy. From the everyday-life perspective, the basic strategy is to support the client, who already has a positive intention, to 'get things done'. This strategy might be applied to those cases, where a gap is found between good intentions and bad behavior.

  20. Aesthetic Inquiry into Chinese University Student Fatherly Life Lessons: "Roots" and Their Implications for Educational Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Laura Blythe

    2017-01-01

    Globally, teachers are trained to educate and assess children through matrices based on comparative competition, a practice that thrives on ranking. In an era of glocalization, how might educational systems cultivate classroom connections embracing diverse student gifts? This arts-based narrative inquiry explores fatherly life lessons of 17…

  1. Life's Little Lessons: An Inch-By-Inch Tale of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaglione, Joanne; Small, Gail

    2006-01-01

    Life's Little Lessons is a delightful and humorous story about a caterpillar named Cyrano and his misadventures. In school he struggles, at times he gives up, until one day he discovers that he and only he is in charge of his own happiness. Children, will easily identify with Cyrano, his feelings and his flight, as they learn that although life…

  2. Let Freedom Ring: The Life & Legacy of Martin Luther King, Jr. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

    This lesson plan teaches students about the life and work of Martin Luther King, Jr. Students listen to a brief biography, view photographs of the March on Washington, and read a portion of King's "I Have a Dream" speech. After studying Dr. King's use of imagery and allusion, students create original poetic phrases about freedom and…

  3. Life's Little Lessons: An Inch-By-Inch Tale of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaglione, Joanne; Small, Gail

    2006-01-01

    Life's Little Lessons is a delightful and humorous story about a caterpillar named Cyrano and his misadventures. In school he struggles, at times he gives up, until one day he discovers that he and only he is in charge of his own happiness. Children, will easily identify with Cyrano, his feelings and his flight, as they learn that although life…

  4. Children's Subject Positions in Discourses of Music in Everyday Life: Rethinking Conceptions of the Child in and for Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vestad, Ingeborg Lunde

    2014-01-01

    In this article I discuss children's everyday uses of recorded music (such as CDs, Mp3-files) in the light of sociological notions of "children" and "childhood". The discussion provides perspectives on musical engagement and musicality that supplement perspectives within developmental psychology. The study is based on…

  5. Children's Subject Positions in Discourses of Music in Everyday Life: Rethinking Conceptions of the Child in and for Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vestad, Ingeborg Lunde

    2014-01-01

    In this article I discuss children's everyday uses of recorded music (such as CDs, Mp3-files) in the light of sociological notions of "children" and "childhood". The discussion provides perspectives on musical engagement and musicality that supplement perspectives within developmental psychology. The study is based on…

  6. Strengths, Pitfalls, and Lessons from Longitudinal Childhood Asthma Cohorts of Children Followed Up into Adult Life

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a common problem worldwide and longitudinal studies of children followed up into adult life enable the assessment of clinical outcomes, examine the pattern of lung function outcomes, and importantly provide insight into aetiology and prognosis for patients with asthma. The aim of this review is to examine the major childhood asthma cohort studies which have continued into adult life, describing the strengths and weaknesses and the lessons that can be learnt regarding pathophysiology and potential future directions for research. PMID:27872847

  7. Experiences of housing support in everyday life for persons with schizophrenia and the role of the media from a societal perspective

    PubMed Central

    Jormfeldt, Henrika; Hallén, Malin

    2016-01-01

    Background The mental health-care system in Sweden, as in many other counties, has its main focus on the reduction of psychiatric symptoms and the prevention of relapses. People diagnosed with schizophrenia often have significant health issues and experience reduced well-being in everyday life. The social imaginary of mental illness as an imbalance of the brain has implications concerning general attitudes in society. The news media are an important source of information on psychiatric disorders and have an important role in cultivating public perceptions and stigma. News media can contribute to the mental illness stigma and place individuals with mental illnesses at risk of not receiving adequate care and support. The aim of this preliminary study was to describe users’ experiences of housing support in everyday life. Results The results revealed three themes of housing support, which were needed, but frequently insufficiently fulfilled in the municipality. The three themes were: “Support to Practice Healthy Routines in Daily Life,” “Support to Shape Meaningful Contents in Everyday Life,” and “Support to Meet Needs of Integrity and Respect.” Conclusions The findings support previous studies arguing that current health care and housing support fails to meet basic needs and may lead to significant and unnecessary health risks. Further investigation is needed regarding the links between attitudes to mental illness in society and political and financial principles for health care and housing support for persons with schizophrenia. Further research is needed regarding the role of the media in policymaking concerning health promotion interventions for people diagnosed with schizophrenia. PMID:27167557

  8. Life stories of people with rheumatoid arthritis who retired early: how gender and other contextual factors shaped their everyday activities, including paid work.

    PubMed

    Stamm, T A; Machold, K P; Smolen, J; Prodinger, B

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore how contextual factors affect the everyday activities of women and men with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as evident in their life stories. Fifteen people with RA, who had retired early due to the disease, were interviewed up to three times, according to a narrative biographic interview style. The life stories of the participants, which were reconstructed from the biographical data and from the transcribed 'told story' were analysed from the perspective of contextual factors, including personal and environmental factors. The rigour and accuracy of the analysis were enhanced by reflexivity and peer-review of the results. The life stories of the participants in this study reflected how contextual factors (such as gender, the healthcare system, the support of families and social and cultural values) shaped their everyday activities. In a society such as in Austria, which is based on traditional patriarchal values, men were presented with difficulties in developing a non-paid-work-related role. For women, if paid work had to be given up, they were more likely to engage in alternative challenging activities which enabled them to develop reflective skills, which in turn contributed to a positive and enriching perspective on their life stories. Health professionals may thus use some of the women's strategies to help men. Interventions by health professionals in people with RA may benefit from an approach sensitive to personal and environmental factors.

  9. Not worth the risk? Attitudes of adults with learning difficulties, and their informal and formal carers to the hazards of everyday life.

    PubMed

    Heyman, B; Huckle, S

    1993-12-01

    Twenty adults with learning difficulties (adults) living at home with informal carers, mostly parents, and attending Adult Training Centres (ATCs) were interviewed about their everyday lives and information was also obtained from informal and formal carers. The problem of dealing with the hazards of everyday life emerged as an important theme. The thinking of adults and informal carers could be understood in terms of the moral dimension of hazards, through the distinction between risks, to be calculated, and dangers, to be avoided. Adults and informal carers within families largely agreed in their categorization of hazards but differences were found. In families where the head of the household had had a professional or skilled manual occupation, adults and informal carers were most likely to agree that hazards for the adult were dangers to be avoided. In families which had a history of unemployment or unskilled occupations, adults and informal carers were most likely to treat certain hazards as risks to be taken. The latter families were also less likely to have 2 informal carers. Adults from more risk-tolerant families appeared to be achieving more of their potential in everyday living skills. Formal carers at ATCs were more accepting of risks for adults with learning difficulties than informal carers and there was misunderstanding and conflict between formal and informal carers as a result.

  10. "Learning at Stations" in Secondary Level Chemistry Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eilks, Ingo

    2002-01-01

    Science lessons are often too strongly content-driven and focus exclusively on scientific knowledge. Discusses how students fail to see the relevance of science and often do not see the connection of science to either everyday life or the future. (Contains 26 references.) (DDR)

  11. Return to work in the context of everyday life 7-11 years after spinal cord injury - a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Holmlund, Lisa; Guidetti, Susanne; Eriksson, Gunilla; Asaba, Eric

    2017-08-09

    The aim of this follow-up study was to explore experiences of return to work in the context of everyday life among adults 7-11 years after spinal cord injury (SCI). This study used in-depth interviews and observations in a qualitative design with eight persons who had previously been interviewed in 2008. A narrative approach was used during data gathering and analysis. Return to work was experienced as something constantly needing to be negotiated in the context of everyday life. Several years after SCI expectations for work and perceptions of possibilities for meaningful work had changed. Five main themes were identified through the analysis, (1) negotiating the possibilities of working, (2) hope for future work tempered with concern, (3) education as a possible path to employment, (4) paths toward return to work in light of unmet support, and (5) unpaid occupations grounded in interest and competence. Persons who have no higher education or lack viable employment to return to after SCI seem to be vulnerable in return to work. Early and timely interventions tailored to the person's interests and competencies, in which the rehabilitation team has a distinct coordinating role, are thus critical in return to work. Implications for Rehabilitation Tensions between hope and expectations for work and unmet needs of support can lead to barriers in return to work, particularly for those who have no higher education or lack employment to return to after spinal cord injury. Rehabilitation after spinal cord injury can benefit from focus on how the balance of work fits into routines in the context of everyday life. Early and timely interventions integrating the person's interests and competencies in return to work after spinal cord injury in combination with having a health care provider who has a distinct coordinating role are critical.

  12. Commentary on: Are we overpathologizing everyday life? A tenable blueprint for behavioral addiction research. Excessive behaviors are not necessarily addictive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu

    2015-09-01

    The commentary aims to provide clarity to the article "Are we overpathologizing everyday life? A tenable blueprint for behavioral addiction research." We provide another viewpoint for the important issues of behavior addiction. The course of behavior addiction should be further studied. The criteria of withdrawal and tolerance of behavior addiction are ill-defined and need to be further evaluated. The etiology, course, presentation, and functional impairment of behavior addiction should be validated by evidence-based data before being defined as a disorder.

  13. Respiratory symptoms increase health care consumption and affect everyday life – a cross-sectional population-based study from Finland, Estonia, and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Axelsson, Malin; Lindberg, Anne; Kainu, Annette; Rönmark, Eva; Jansson, Sven-Arne

    2016-01-01

    Background Even though respiratory symptoms are common in the adult population, there is limited research describing their impact on everyday life and association with health care consumption. Aim The main objective of this population-based study was to estimate and compare the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among adults in Finland, Estonia, and Sweden in relation to health care consumption and to identify factors influencing health care consumption. A secondary aim was to assess to which extent the presence of respiratory symptoms affect everyday life. Method In the population-based FinEsS studies consisting of random samples of subjects aged 20 to 69 years from Finland (n=1,337), Estonia (n=1,346), and Sweden (n=1,953), data on demographics, respiratory health, and health care consumption were collected by structured interviews. Prevalence was compared and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Results Respiratory symptoms were significantly more common in Finland (66.0%) and Estonia (65.2%) than in Sweden (54.1%). Among subjects with respiratory symptoms, the proportion reporting outpatient care during the past year was fairly similar in the three countries, while specialist consultations were more common in Finland (19.1%), and hospitalisations more common in Estonia (15.0%). Finnish and Estonian residency, female sex, and BMI>25 increased the risk for outpatient care consumption. Wheeze and attacks of shortness of breath in the past 12 months, recurrent sputum production, and cough were associated with an increased risk for health care consumption. Increasing number of respiratory symptoms increased the risk for consuming health care. A larger proportion of subjects in Estonia and Sweden experienced their everyday life being affected by respiratory symptoms compared with subjects in Finland. Conclusion Respiratory symptoms are common in Finland, Estonia, and Sweden and contribute to a negative impact on everyday life as well as increased

  14. Promoting Health in Virtual Worlds: Lessons From Second Life

    PubMed Central

    Mäntymäki, Matti; Söderlund, Sari

    2014-01-01

    Background Social media services can help empower people to take greater responsibility for their health. For example, virtual worlds are media-rich environments that have many technically advantageous characteristics that can be used for Health 2.0 purposes. Second Life has been used to build environments where people can obtain information and interact with other users for peer support and advice from health care professionals. Objective The intent of the study was to find out whether Second Life is a working and functional platform supporting the empowerment of people in health-related issues. Methods We conducted a review of the current health-related activity in Second Life, coupled with an extensive series of observations and interactions with the respective resources inside Second Life. Results A total of 24 operative health resources were found in Second Life, indicating that health-related activity is rather limited in Second Life, though at first glance it appears to contain very rich health-related content. The other main shortcomings of Second Life relate to a lack of activity, a low number of resource users, problems with Second Life’s search features, and the difficulty of finding trustworthy information. Conclusions For the average user, Second Life offers very little unique value compared to other online health resources. PMID:25313009

  15. Tracking the train of thought from the laboratory into everyday life: an experience-sampling study of mind wandering across controlled and ecological contexts.

    PubMed

    McVay, Jennifer C; Kane, Michael J; Kwapil, Thomas R

    2009-10-01

    In an experience-sampling study that bridged laboratory, ecological, and individual-differences approaches to mind-wandering research, 72 subjects completed an executive-control task with periodic thought probes (reported by McVay & Kane, 2009) and then carried PDAs for a week that signaled them eight times daily to report immediately whether their thoughts were off task. Subjects who reported more mind wandering during the laboratory task endorsed more mind-wandering experiences during everyday life (and were more likely to report worries as off-task thought content). We also conceptually replicated laboratory findings that mind wandering predicts task performance: Subjects rated their daily-life performance to be impaired when they reported off-task thoughts, with greatest impairment when subjects' mind wandering lacked metaconsciousness. The propensity to mind wander appears to be a stable cognitive characteristic and seems to predict performance difficulties in daily life, just as it does in the laboratory.

  16. Effectiveness of the "Cancer Home-Life Intervention" on everyday activities and quality of life in people with advanced cancer living at home: a randomised controlled trial and an economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Å; Pilegaard, M S; Oestergaard, L G; Lindahl-Jacobsen, L; Sørensen, J; Johnsen, A T; la Cour, K

    2016-01-22

    During the past decade an increasing number of people live with advanced cancer mainly due to improved medical treatment. Research has shown that many people with advanced cancer have problems with everyday activities, which have negative impact on their quality of life, and that they spend a considerable part of their time at home. Still, research on interventions to support the performance of and participation in everyday activities is only scarcely available. Therefore, the occupational therapy-based "Cancer Home-Life Intervention" consisting of tailored adaptive interventions applied in the participant's home environment was developed. The objective of this study is to examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Cancer Home-Life Intervention compared to usual care on the performance of and participation in everyday activities and quality of life in people with advanced cancer living at home. The study is a randomised, controlled trial (RCT) including an economic evaluation. The required sample size of 272 adults living at home will be recruited from outpatient clinics at two Danish hospitals. They should be diagnosed with cancer; evaluated incurable by the responsible oncologist; and with a functional level 1-2 on the WHO performance scale. The primary outcome is the quality of performance of activities of daily living. Secondary outcomes are problems with prioritised everyday activities; autonomy and participation; and health-related quality of life. Participants are randomly assigned to: a) The Cancer Home-Life Intervention in addition to usual care, and b) Usual care alone. The trial will show whether the Cancer Home-Life Intervention provides better support for people with advanced cancer living at home in performing and participating in everyday activities, and whether it contributes to their health-related quality of life. The economic evaluation alongside the RCT will show if the Cancer Home-Life Intervention is cost-effective. The trial will

  17. Exploring the Universe: Lessons for Life on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinspoon, David

    2015-04-01

    When it comes to life in the universe we, as yet, have almost no perspective. One of the values in exploring the universe with an eye out for biological activity is that it forces us to challenge our largely untested assumptions about life and planetary evolution. In this spirit, I will briefly discuss three questions: (1) Are Venus and Mars failed biospheres? (2) Can a planet be alive? (3) Can a planet be aware?

  18. Benefits and burdens: family caregivers' experiences of assistive technology (AT) in everyday life with persons with young-onset dementia (YOD).

    PubMed

    Holthe, Torhild; Jentoft, Rita; Arntzen, Cathrine; Thorsen, Kirsten

    2017-09-11

    People with dementia and their family caregivers may benefit from assistive technology (AT), but knowledge is scarce about family carers' (FC) experiences and involvement in the use of AT in everyday life. To examine the FC roles and experiences with AT as means of supporting people with young onset-dementia (YOD). Qualitative interview study with follow-up design. Repeated semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 FC of people with YOD, participating in an ongoing intervention study investigating the families' use and experiences of AT in everyday life. Six main themes emerged: (1) timely information about AT; (2) waiting times; (3) AT incorporated into everyday living; (4) AT experienced as a relief and burden; (5) appraisal of AT qualities and (6) the committed caregiver. The study found benefits for the FC, especially with simply designed AT, but also several barriers for successful use. A committed caregiver is vital throughout the process. Users will need professional advice and support, and occupational therapists may have a significant role in the process. Interventions implementing AT must be based on analysis of the needs of the person with YOD and the carers: their capabilities, preferences, embodied habits, and coping strategies. Implications for Rehabilitation Committed family carers (FC) play an important, often decisive, role in providing support for the person with young-onset dementia (YOD, onset <65 years) to use and benefit from the AT. The simpler the AT, the better. The AT should be introduced at "the right time", before the cognitive and adaptive reduction is too great. The "window" for implementation may be short. AT has potential to ease caregiving and give relief for FC. However, many barriers, difficulties and problems must be attended to. A system for individualized support over time is necessary for implementing AT for this group.

  19. Science education and everyday action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, Wendy Renee Sherman

    2001-07-01

    This dissertation addresses three related tasks and issues in the larger field of science education. The first is to review of the several uses of "everydayness" at play in the science education literature, and in the education and social science literatures more generally. Four broad iterations of everydayness were found in science education, and these were traced and analyzed to develop their similarities, and contradictions. It was concluded that despite tendencies in science education research to suppose a fundamental demarcation either between professional science and everyday life, or between schools and everyday life, all social affairs, including professional science and activity in schools, are continuous with everyday life, and consist fundamentally in everyday, ordinary mundane actions which are ordered and organized by the participants to those social activities and occasions. The second task for this dissertation was to conduct a naturalistic, descriptive study of undergraduate-level physics laboratory activities from the analytic perspective of ethnomethodology. The study findings are presented as closely-detailed analysis of the students' methods of following their instructions and 'fitting' their observed results to a known scientific concept or principle during the enactment of their classroom laboratory activities. Based on the descriptions of students' practical work in following instructions and 'fitting'. The characterization of school science labs as an "experiment-demonstration hybrid" is developed. The third task of this dissertation was to synthesize the literature review and field study findings in order to clarify what science educators could productively mean by "everydayness", and to suggest what understandings of science education the study of everyday action recommends. It is argued that the significance of the 'experiment-demo hybrid' characterization must be seen in terms of an alternate program for science education research, which

  20. Altered Cognitive Control Activations after Moderate-to-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury and Their Relationship to Injury Severity and Everyday-Life Function

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Alexander; Brunner, Jan Ferenc; Indredavik Evensen, Kari Anne; Finnanger, Torun Gangaune; Vik, Anne; Skandsen, Toril; Landrø, Nils Inge; Håberg, Asta Kristine

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how the neuronal underpinnings of both adaptive and stable cognitive control processes are affected by traumatic brain injury (TBI). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was undertaken in 62 survivors of moderate-to-severe TBI (>1 year after injury) and 68 healthy controls during performance of a continuous performance test adapted for use in a mixed block- and event-related design. Survivors of TBI demonstrated increased reliance on adaptive task control processes within an a priori core region for cognitive control in the medial frontal cortex. TBI survivors also had increased activations related to time-on-task effects during stable task-set maintenance in right inferior parietal and prefrontal cortices. Increased brain activations in TBI survivors had a dose-dependent linear positive relationship to injury severity and were negatively correlated with self-reported cognitive control problems in everyday-life situations. Results were adjusted for age, education, and fMRI task performance. In conclusion, evidence was provided that the neural underpinnings of adaptive and stable control processes are differently affected by TBI. Moreover, it was demonstrated that increased brain activations typically observed in survivors of TBI might represent injury-specific compensatory adaptations also utilized in everyday-life situations. PMID:24557637

  1. They need to be recognized as a person in everyday life: Teachers' and helpers' experiences of teacher-student relationships in upper secondary school.

    PubMed

    Krane, Vibeke; Karlsson, Bengt; Ness, Ottar; Binder, Per-Einar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how teachers and helpers experience that teacher-student relationship (TSR) is developed and promoted in upper secondary school. We also explored their experiences of qualities of TSR with students with mental health problems or at risk of dropping out. The study used a qualitative and participative approach; key stakeholders were included as co-researchers. Focus group interviews were held with 27 teachers and helpers. A thematic analysis was conducted. The participants' descriptions of important experiential dimensions of TSR were clustered around four themes: (1) to be recognized as a person with strengths and challenges in everyday life, (2) collaborative relationships between students and teachers, (3) flexible boundaries in the relationship between teachers and students and (4) organization of classes and procedures set the stage for TSR. Collaborative, emotional and contextual qualities were found important to the development of TSR in upper secondary school. Experiences of negative qualities of TSR can contribute to push students out of school. Teachers and helpers experience that TSR may have the potential to play a role in promoting mental health in students' everyday life.

  2. They need to be recognized as a person in everyday life: Teachers' and helpers' experiences of teacher-student relationships in upper secondary school.

    PubMed

    Krane, Vibeke; Karlsson, Bengt; Ness, Ottar; Binder, Per-Einar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how teachers and helpers experience that teacher-student relationship (TSR) is developed and promoted in upper secondary school.We also explored their experiences of qualities of TSR with students with mental health problems or at risk of dropping out. The study used a qualitative and participative approach; key stakeholders were included as co-researchers. Focus group interviews were held with 27 teachers and helpers. A thematic analysis was conducted. The participants' descriptions of important experiential dimensions of TSR were clustered around four themes: (1) to be recognized as a person with strengths and challenges in everyday life, (2) collaborative relationships between students and teachers, (3) flexible boundaries in the relationship between teachers and students and (4) organization of classes and procedures set the stage for TSR. Collaborative, emotional and contextual qualities were found important to the development of TSR in upper secondary school. Experiences of negative qualities of TSR can contribute to push students out of school. Teachers and helpers experience that TSR may have the potential to play a role in promoting mental health in students' everyday life.

  3. Altered Cognitive Control Activations after Moderate-to-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury and Their Relationship to Injury Severity and Everyday-Life Function.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Alexander; Brunner, Jan Ferenc; Indredavik Evensen, Kari Anne; Finnanger, Torun Gangaune; Vik, Anne; Skandsen, Toril; Landrø, Nils Inge; Håberg, Asta Kristine

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated how the neuronal underpinnings of both adaptive and stable cognitive control processes are affected by traumatic brain injury (TBI). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was undertaken in 62 survivors of moderate-to-severe TBI (>1 year after injury) and 68 healthy controls during performance of a continuous performance test adapted for use in a mixed block- and event-related design. Survivors of TBI demonstrated increased reliance on adaptive task control processes within an a priori core region for cognitive control in the medial frontal cortex. TBI survivors also had increased activations related to time-on-task effects during stable task-set maintenance in right inferior parietal and prefrontal cortices. Increased brain activations in TBI survivors had a dose-dependent linear positive relationship to injury severity and were negatively correlated with self-reported cognitive control problems in everyday-life situations. Results were adjusted for age, education, and fMRI task performance. In conclusion, evidence was provided that the neural underpinnings of adaptive and stable control processes are differently affected by TBI. Moreover, it was demonstrated that increased brain activations typically observed in survivors of TBI might represent injury-specific compensatory adaptations also utilized in everyday-life situations.

  4. They need to be recognized as a person in everyday life: Teachers’ and helpers’ experiences of teacher–student relationships in upper secondary school

    PubMed Central

    Krane, Vibeke; Karlsson, Bengt; Ness, Ottar; Binder, Per-Einar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how teachers and helpers experience that teacher–student relationship (TSR) is developed and promoted in upper secondary school. We also explored their experiences of qualities of TSR with students with mental health problems or at risk of dropping out. The study used a qualitative and participative approach; key stakeholders were included as co-researchers. Focus group interviews were held with 27 teachers and helpers. A thematic analysis was conducted. The participants’ descriptions of important experiential dimensions of TSR were clustered around four themes: (1) to be recognized as a person with strengths and challenges in everyday life, (2) collaborative relationships between students and teachers, (3) flexible boundaries in the relationship between teachers and students and (4) organization of classes and procedures set the stage for TSR. Collaborative, emotional and contextual qualities were found important to the development of TSR in upper secondary school. Experiences of negative qualities of TSR can contribute to push students out of school. Teachers and helpers experience that TSR may have the potential to play a role in promoting mental health in students’ everyday life. PMID:27707451

  5. Unstimulated cortisol secretory activity in everyday life and its relationship with fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome: a systematic review and subset meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Powell, Daniel J H; Liossi, Christina; Moss-Morris, Rona; Schlotz, Wolff

    2013-11-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a psychoneuroendocrine regulator of the stress response and immune system, and dysfunctions have been associated with outcomes in several physical health conditions. Its end product, cortisol, is relevant to fatigue due to its role in energy metabolism. The systematic review examined the relationship between different markers of unstimulated salivary cortisol activity in everyday life in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fatigue assessed in other clinical and general populations. Search terms for the review related to salivary cortisol assessments, everyday life contexts, and fatigue. All eligible studies (n=19) were reviewed narratively in terms of associations between fatigue and assessed cortisol markers, including the cortisol awakening response (CAR), circadian profile (CP) output, and diurnal cortisol slope (DCS). Subset meta-analyses were conducted of case-control CFS studies examining group differences in three cortisol outcomes: CAR output; CAR increase; and CP output. Meta-analyses revealed an attenuation of the CAR increase within CFS compared to controls (d=-.34) but no statistically significant differences between groups for other markers. In the narrative review, total cortisol output (CAR or CP) was rarely associated with fatigue in any population; CAR increase and DCS were most relevant. Outcomes reflecting within-day change in cortisol levels (CAR increase; DCS) may be the most relevant to fatigue experience, and future research in this area should report at least one such marker. Results should be considered with caution due to heterogeneity in one meta-analysis and the small number of studies.

  6. Validation of the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for Stroke by exploring the patient's perspective on functioning in everyday life: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Paanalahti, Markku; Alt Murphy, Margit; Lundgren-Nilsson, Åsa; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S

    2014-12-01

    International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) core sets are short procedures to record and provide information on health. However, further validation is needed. The aim of this study was to validate the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for stroke by exploring the patient's living at home and receiving outpatient rehabilitation perspective on functioning in everyday life. Qualitative interviews of 22 patients with previous stroke in Finland were analyzed using the content analysis method: functional concepts that described the participants' perspective on functioning in everyday life were extracted from the interview transcripts and linked to ICF categories using ICF linking rules. Extracted functional concepts from 372 meaning units were linked to 115 of the 166 categories included in the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for stroke and to six additional ICF categories. Thirty-eight concepts could not be linked to the ICF categories. Sixty-eight percent of the second-level ICF categories in the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for stroke were validated. In total, 28 of 36 categories added to the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for stroke from the Core Sets for patients with neurological conditions in the acute and early postacute phases were not confirmed in this sample of individuals with stroke living in their homes.

  7. The process of striving for an ordinary, everyday life, in young children living with cancer, at six months and one year post diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Darcy, Laura; Björk, Maria; Enskär, Karin; Knutsson, Susanne

    2014-12-01

    Health care focus is shifting from solely looking at surviving cancer to elements of attention relating to living with it on a daily basis.The young child's experiences are crucial to providing evidence based care. The aim of this study was to explore the everyday life of young children as expressed by the child and parents at six months and one year post diagnosis. Interviews were conducted with children and their parents connected to a paediatric oncology unit in Southern Sweden. A qualitative content analysis of interview data from two time points, six months and one year post diagnosis, was carried out. The process of living with cancer at six months and at one year post diagnosis revealed the child's striving for an ordinary, everyday life. Experiences over time of gaining control, making a normality of the illness and treatment and feeling lonely were described. Nurses have a major role to play in the process of striving for a new normal in the world post-diagnosis, and provide essential roles by giving the young child information, making them participatory in their care and encouraging access to both parents and peers. Understanding this role and addressing these issues regularly can assist the young child in the transition to living with cancer. Longitudinal studies with young children are vital in capturing their experiences through the cancer trajectory and necessary to ensure quality care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Translating between social worlds of policy and everyday life: The development of a group-based method to support policymaking by exploring behavioural aspects of sustainable consumption.

    PubMed

    Horlick-Jones, Tom; Prades, Ana

    2015-10-01

    A large international literature on how lay citizens make sense of various aspects of science and technology has been generated by investigations which utilise small group methods. Within that literature, focus group and other group-based methods have come to co-exist, and to some extent, hybridise, with the use of small groups in citizen engagement initiatives. In this article, we report on how we drew upon these methodological developments in the design and operationalisation of a policymaking support tool (STAVE). This tool has been developed to gain insight, in a relatively speedy and cost-effective way, into practical details of the everyday lived experience of people's lives, as relating to the sustainability of corresponding practices. An important challenge we faced was how, in Kuhn's terms, to 'translate' between the forms of life corresponding to the world of policymaking and the world of everyday domestic life. We examine conceptual and methodological aspects of how the tool was designed and assembled, and then trialled in the context of active real-world collaborations with policymaking organisations. These trials were implemented in six European countries, where they were used to support work on live policy issues concerned with sustainable consumption.

  9. Searching for Life on Early Mars: Lessons from the Pilbara

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, J. D. A.; Stoker, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Stromatolites in the Pilbara region of Western Australia constitute the earliest outcrop-scale evidence of life on Earth (Figure 1). The stromatolites in the 3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Formation (SPF) provide an important analog for searching for fossil evidence of early life on Mars, as Noachian aged sediments on Mars were formed under similar environmental conditions. Stromatolites represent possibly the best evidence that could be collected by a rover because they form recognizable macroscopic structures and are often associated with chemical and microscopic evidence.

  10. An approach to facilitate healthcare professionals' readiness to support technology use in everyday life for persons with dementia.

    PubMed

    Malinowsky, Camilla; Rosenberg, Lena; Nygård, Louise

    2014-05-01

    Everyday technologies (ETs) like microwave ovens and automatic telephone services as well as assistive technologies (ATs) are often used in the performance of everyday activities. As a consequence, the ability to manage technology is important. This pilot study aimed to clarify the applicability of a model for knowledge translation to support healthcare professionals, to support technology use among older adults with dementia and their significant others. An additional aim was to explore the process of translating the model into practice. The applicability of the model (comprising a one-day course, including introduction and provision of tools, followed by interviews during and after a period of practice) was clarified for 11 healthcare professionals using a constant comparative approach. The content of the model gave the participants an eye-opening experience of technology use among persons with dementia. They also described how they had incorporated the model as a new way of thinking which supported and inspired new investigations and collaborations with colleagues and significant others. This study provided an applicable model of how research knowledge about technology use can be translated into clinical practice and be used by healthcare professionals to support the use of technology for persons with dementia.

  11. From Lessons to Life: Authentic Materials Bridge the Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spelleri, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the use of authentic materials in teaching English as a Second Language. Issues addressed include students' interest in "real life" materials, the role of the teacher, and how to teach using authentic materials. Sample criteria for selecting authentic materials are included. (Author/VWL)

  12. How the Principalship Has Changed: Lessons from Principals' Life Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brubaker, Dale L.

    1995-01-01

    The life stories of (North Carolina) principals in a graduate education class reveal vast changes over the past 20 years. "Good ol' boy" superintendents and principals have been replaced by self-interested political "sharks" concerned more with image than substance. Fortunately, principals with resiliency, caring values, and…

  13. How the Principalship Has Changed: Lessons from Principals' Life Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brubaker, Dale L.

    1995-01-01

    The life stories of (North Carolina) principals in a graduate education class reveal vast changes over the past 20 years. "Good ol' boy" superintendents and principals have been replaced by self-interested political "sharks" concerned more with image than substance. Fortunately, principals with resiliency, caring values, and…

  14. Lessons Learned: The MetLife Foundation Awards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazis, Richard; Haynes, Leslie; Liebowitz, Martin

    2002-01-01

    This past year, Jobs for the Future studied strategies that community colleges are using to improve the quality and effectiveness of their services to low-income youth and adults. Much of this research was conducted for the MetLife Foundation Community College Excellence Awards Initiative. Across the country, in urban, rural, and suburban…

  15. Resilience As a Life Practice: Lessons from Mother Seton.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Jamie L; Wray, Janet N; Lonneman, William

    One method for developing personal resilience is to listen to the stories of others who developed resilience. This article highlights the elements of spiritual practice, relationships, and education, as experienced by the first American saint, Elizabeth Ann Seton. Seton worked through immense suffering, demonstrating integration, adjustment, and growth. Her life story is an example of resilience as a practice that nurses can learn from today.

  16. Adolescents' Information Behavior When Isolated from Peer Groups: Lessons from New Immigrant Adolescents' Everyday Life Information Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Joung Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate how isolated immigrant adolescents seek and use necessary information when they are not able to use significant information sources--their peer groups--in the period of transition before new peer groups are established. Method: To achieve the study's purpose, sixteen recently arrived (three…

  17. Adolescents' Information Behavior When Isolated from Peer Groups: Lessons from New Immigrant Adolescents' Everyday Life Information Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Joung Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate how isolated immigrant adolescents seek and use necessary information when they are not able to use significant information sources--their peer groups--in the period of transition before new peer groups are established. Method: To achieve the study's purpose, sixteen recently arrived (three…

  18. The potential for life in subglacial environments. Lessons from Vostok

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukin, V. V.; Bulat, S. A.; Lipenkov, V. Ya.; Leitchenkov, G. L.; Masolov, V. N.

    2003-04-01

    Lake Vostok is now viewed as an isolated ecosystem featured by extreme life conditions similar to those expected for icy planets. Indeed, up to now, no confident findings of revived microbes are reported for the deep glacier ice at Vostok, which implies the biota of the lake if existing does not originate from the ice above. In contrast, ~15 kyr old re-frozen lake water (accretion ice) originating from a shallow bay upstream Vostok and containing sediment inclusions showed signatures of unexpected thermophilic-like chemolithoautotroph-related bacteria. Cold-living bacteria are not yet found in the accretion ice whereas the observed marine diatom skeletons look polished as if they were specially treated with aggressive chemicals. Therefore it seems that the major water body of the lake does not contain living biota probably due to high concentration of dissolved oxygen supplied from melting ice. Lake Vostok represents an old (Late-Jurassic-Early Cretaceous) inactive rift structure bounded by deep faults. Rare seismotectonic events can periodically disrupt the crustal continuity, enhance penetrativity of fractures and cause uplift of hot solutions within faults which bring deep-seated ‘crustal’ bacteria from stratal waters up to the lake floor where they may be incorporated in the accretion ice. In addition, fluids delivered from crust can reside at the bottom of the lake making the water body locally stratified and providing a habitat for cold-living not yet discovered microbes. Thus, we conclude that the likelihood of having living biota in subglacial lakes with no rift geological setting is quite low. The only two lakes, Vostok and its recently discovered still unnamed brother, both featured by rift structure can advance our knowledge on life in subglacial environments. Further drilling at Vostok would provide us with younger lake ice accreted at the maximum water depth and the anticipated sampling of near-bottom waters and bottom sediments at this site would

  19. Using everyday technology to compensate for difficulties in task performance in daily life: experiences in persons with acquired brain injury and their significant others.

    PubMed

    Larsson Lund, Maria; Lövgren-Engström, Ann-Louice; Lexell, Jan

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. The purpose of this study is to illuminate how persons with acquired brain injury (ABI) and their significant others experienced individualised occupation-based interventions using commonly available everyday technology (ET) to compensate for perceived difficulties with performance of tasks in daily life. METHOD. Qualitative research interviews were conducted with 10 persons with ABI and with one of their significant others. The data were analysed according to qualitative content analysis. RESULTS. The persons with ABI experienced that they mastered their lives in a better way by the compensatory use of ET. They became capable of doing tasks independently and experienced themselves as being a new person. During the intervention process, persons with ABI became aware of the compensatory potential of familiar ET, and they were supported to use effective compensatory strategies and incorporate them into their habits. Their significant others felt a relief in daily life, and their mood was positively affected as they experienced reduced responsibility and need of control. CONCLUSIONS. This qualitative study has shown that persons with ABI, as well as their significant others, experienced a multitude of benefits from occupation-based interventions using commonly available ET to compensate for their difficulties in the performance of tasks in daily life and that the goals achieved affected their overall contentment with life.

  20. [Power and everyday life in a lunatic asylum environment - a case example from Glasgow at the beginning of the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Gründler, Jens

    In this article the focus of analysis lies on power relations in everyday life in one of Glasgow's Pauper Lunatic Asylums at the turn of the twentieth century. Taking a sample of patient case files I examine the daily processes of negotiation between inmates and their relatives, physicians, attendants and nurses as well as the poor law administration. Some cases especially exemplify the complex relationships between the actors. They show which opportunities and boundaries existed for "power brokering" for the more powerless. At the same time these cases illustrate the formal and practical limits of enforcement by doctors and nursing staff. Without turning a blind eve to hierarchies and power imbalances the analysis shows that even in settings like "total institutions" power remains volatile. Even there the more powerful actors have to actualize, seize and prevail on a regular basis.

  1. [The new territorial configuration of L'Aquila (Central Italy) after the 2009 earthquake and places and behaviours changes of everyday life].

    PubMed

    Castellani, Serena; Palma, Francesca; Calandra, Lina Maria

    2016-01-01

    Since 2010, the Cartolab Laboratory research team (Department of Human Studies, University of L'Aquila) has been investigating the social geography in the post-earthquake period through the analysis of the territorial changes and new sociospatial configurations occurred in the everyday life of the L'Aquila inhabitants. Accordingly, this paper aims to describe the principal results of researches concentrating on the use of leisure time and leisure places in the post-disaster period in L'Aquila. The paper uses an action-research/participating- participatory (RAPP) methodology. The paper presents the monitored changes occurred in leisure time and places, and compares them with the conditions before the earthquake. Primary data have been retrieved by surveys and interviews. Results indicate that acceleration of fragmentation and dispersion of inhabitants are the main characteristics of the new sociospatial configuration in the post-disaster period in L'Aquila.

  2. When the struggle against dejection becomes a part of everyday life: a qualitative study of coping strategies in older abused people

    PubMed Central

    Sandmoe, Astrid; Hauge, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    Background Abuse of older people is a serious issue and is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, and professionals will encounter elderly victims of abuse in all areas of the health care system. An important health determinant is behavioral factors, including coping style, which will impact on how older people manage stress and maintain control in their lives, and thereby protect themselves from abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the coping strategies elderly people abused by their offspring used to manage everyday life. Methods A qualitative approach was used and 14 elderly victims of abuse were interviewed. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and subjected to qualitative content analysis. Results Five main coping strategies were identified. The main strategy was linked to the role of parent. Another prominent strategy was attitude towards being victimized. Further strategies were associated with hope for a better relationship with offspring in the future, while others felt that they had done the best they could, or that their offspring were no longer their responsibility. The results are discussed in light of theoretical perspectives related to coping and resilience. Conclusion Abuse of older people by their offspring imposes severe stress on victims and challenges the values and beliefs about the caring nature of families. The findings of this study indicate that victims of abuse use a wide range of coping techniques to manage everyday life, and that some strategies help them to maintain their self-respect in their role as parents and find some sort of resilience. PMID:25045272

  3. The Twentieth Century History of the Extraterrestrial Life Debate: Major Themes and Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    In this chapter we provide an overview of the extraterrestrial life debate since 1900, drawing largely on the major histories of the subject during this period, The Biological Universe (Dick 1996), Life on Other Worlds (Dick 1998), and The Living Universe (Dick and Strick 2004), as well as other published work. We outline the major components of the debate, including (1) the role of planetary science, (2) the search for planets beyond the solar system, (3) research on the origins of life, and (4) the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI). We emphasize the discovery of cosmic evolution as the proper context for the debate, reserving the cultural implications of astrobiology for part III of this volume. We conclude with possible lessons learned from this history, especially in the domains of the problematic nature of evidence, inference, and metaphysical preconceptions; the checkered role of theory; and an analysis of how representative general current arguments have fared in the past.

  4. How Do Lessons Learned on the International Space Station (ISS) Help Plan Life Support for Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Hodgson, Edward W.; Gentry, Gregory J.; Kliss, Mark H.

    2016-01-01

    How can our experience in developing and operating the International Space Station (ISS) guide the design, development, and operation of life support for the journey to Mars? The Mars deep space Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) must incorporate the knowledge and experience gained in developing ECLSS for low Earth orbit, but it must also meet the challenging new requirements of operation in deep space where there is no possibility of emergency resupply or quick crew return. The understanding gained by developing ISS flight hardware and successfully supporting a crew in orbit for many years is uniquely instructive. Different requirements for Mars life support suggest that different decisions may be made in design, testing, and operations planning, but the lessons learned developing the ECLSS for ISS provide valuable guidance.

  5. Everyday Heroes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karns, Michelle; McGee, Ben

    2011-01-01

    There's no need to be "Waiting for Superman." Heroes are everywhere in education. The efforts, dedication, and commitment of educators to create learning organizations that awaken the spirit of children in spite of their life circumstances and build capacity for those that have not had the benefit of privilege is worth telling. This article shares…

  6. Turning points and lessons learned: stressful life events and personality trait development across middle adulthood.

    PubMed

    Sutin, Angelina R; Costa, Paul T; Wethington, Elaine; Eaton, William

    2010-09-01

    The present research examined stressful life events and personality development across middle adulthood. Participants (N = 533) related the most stressful event they had experienced within the last 10 years, indicated whether they considered the event to be a turning point and/or lesson learned, and twice completed a comprehensive measure of traits defined by the five-factor model of personality; the stressful event occurred between these two assessments. Descriptions were coded to classify events into broad content domains based on the nature of the event. Prospectively, individuals high in Neuroticism perceived the event as a turning point; extraverts learned a lesson from it. Longitudinally, perceiving the event as a negative turning point was associated with increases in Neuroticism, whereas learning a lesson from the event was associated with increases in Extraversion and Conscientiousness. Characteristics of the events themselves were primarily unrelated to trait change. Across middle adulthood, personality trait change may be more strongly related to how individuals understand the stressful events in their lives rather than simply the occurrence of such events. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Teaching Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS): A nationwide retrospective analysis of 8202 lessons taught in Germany.

    PubMed

    Luedi, Markus M; Wölfl, Christoph C; Wieferich, Katharina; Dogjani, Agron; Kauf, Peter; Doll, Dietrich

    To examine whether faculty who teach the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) course would improve with experience and, correspondingly, ratings from course evaluations would increase. Retrospective analysis of student evaluations of 262 ATLS courses held between 2008 and 2012. All ATLS courses held between 2008 and 2012 nationwide in Germany. All ATLS student course evaluations covering 8202 lessons, 81 instructors, 36 course directors, and 5 coordinators. ATLS courses in Germany attained high levels of student satisfaction. Satisfaction levels increased steadily over the 5-year period studied. The entire staff influenced this finding. Teaching quality improved the most within the first 100 lessons taught. Skill stations received better evaluations than lectures, and local courses were less satisfactory than national course formats. The 2 demonstrations that open the course were the top rated events. Skill stations, including a human phantom, were highly rated; the cricothyrotomy station was top rated. The German ATLS course evaluations indicated steady improvement over the 5-year study. The level of experience of course coordinators, directors, and instructors influenced this finding. Teaching quality improved most within the first 100 lessons taught, and then reached a steady state. Skill stations received better evaluations than lectures, and local courses were less satisfactory than national course formats. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Life Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Pearl

    2011-01-01

    In early 2010, Stig Lanesskog, associate dean for the MBA program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, challenged a group of his students to venture beyond classroom polemics and into the lives of people in need. Lanesskog took them to South Dakota's Pine Ridge Reservation, a culturally rich and economically devastated area with…

  9. Life Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Pearl

    2011-01-01

    In early 2010, Stig Lanesskog, associate dean for the MBA program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, challenged a group of his students to venture beyond classroom polemics and into the lives of people in need. Lanesskog took them to South Dakota's Pine Ridge Reservation, a culturally rich and economically devastated area with…

  10. Dating, Marriage, and Parenthood for HIV-Positive Heterosexual Puerto Rican Men: Normalizing Perspectives on Everyday Life With HIV

    PubMed Central

    Sastre, Francisco; Sheehan, Diana M.; Gonzalez, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    HIV-positive men are living long and healthier lives while managing HIV as a chronic illness. Although research has extensively documented the experiences of illness of people living with HIV, dating, marriage, and fatherhood among heterosexual Latino men has not been examined. To address this gap, this study used a qualitative study design to examine patterns and strategies for dating, marriage, and parenthood among 24 HIV-positive heterosexual Puerto Rican men living in Boston. The findings in our study indicate that an HIV diagnosis does not necessarily deter men from having an active sexual life, marrying, or having children. In fact, for some of the men, engaging in these social and life-changing events is part of moving on and normalizing life with HIV; these men planned for, achieved, and interpreted these events in the context of establishing normalcy with HIV. Although the HIV diagnosis discouraged some men from engaging in sexual relations, getting married, or having children, others fulfilled these desires with strategies aimed to reconciling their HIV status in their personal life, including dating or marrying HIV-positive women only. Additional important themes identified in this study include the decision to disclose HIV status to new sexual partners as well as the decision to accept the risk of HIV transmission to a child or partner in order to fulfill desires of fatherhood. Understanding the personal struggles, decision-making patterns, and needs of HIV-positive heterosexual men can aid in designing interventions that support healthy living with HIV. PMID:24794822

  11. Dating, marriage, and parenthood for HIV-positive heterosexual Puerto Rican men: normalizing perspectives on everyday life with HIV.

    PubMed

    Sastre, Francisco; Sheehan, Diana M; Gonzalez, Arnaldo

    2015-03-01

    HIV-positive men are living long and healthier lives while managing HIV as a chronic illness. Although research has extensively documented the experiences of illness of people living with HIV, dating, marriage, and fatherhood among heterosexual Latino men has not been examined. To address this gap, this study used a qualitative study design to examine patterns and strategies for dating, marriage, and parenthood among 24 HIV-positive heterosexual Puerto Rican men living in Boston. The findings in our study indicate that an HIV diagnosis does not necessarily deter men from having an active sexual life, marrying, or having children. In fact, for some of the men, engaging in these social and life-changing events is part of moving on and normalizing life with HIV; these men planned for, achieved, and interpreted these events in the context of establishing normalcy with HIV. Although the HIV diagnosis discouraged some men from engaging in sexual relations, getting married, or having children, others fulfilled these desires with strategies aimed to reconciling their HIV status in their personal life, including dating or marrying HIV-positive women only. Additional important themes identified in this study include the decision to disclose HIV status to new sexual partners as well as the decision to accept the risk of HIV transmission to a child or partner in order to fulfill desires of fatherhood. Understanding the personal struggles, decision-making patterns, and needs of HIV-positive heterosexual men can aid in designing interventions that support healthy living with HIV. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. What Triggers Anger in Everyday Life? Links to the Intensity, Control, and Regulation of These Emotions, and Personality Traits.

    PubMed

    Kashdan, Todd B; Goodman, Fallon R; Mallard, Travis T; DeWall, C Nathan

    2016-12-01

    Why do people experience anger? Most of our knowledge on anger-triggering events is based on the study of reactions at a single time point in a person's life. Little research has examined how people experience anger in their daily life over time. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive examination of the situational determinants of anger over the course of 3 weeks. Using daily diary methodology, people (N = 173; 2,342 anger episodes) reported their most intense daily anger and, with an open-ended format, described the trigger. Participants also answered questions on anger intensity, control, and regulatory strategies, along with baseline personality trait measures. Using an iterative coding system, five anger trigger categories emerged: other people, psychological and physical distress, intrapersonal demands, environment, and diffuse/undifferentiated/unknown. Compared with other triggers, when anger was provoked by other people or when the source was unknown, there was a stronger positive association with anger intensity and lack of control. Personality traits (i.e., anger, mindfulness, psychological need satisfaction, the Big Five) showed few links to the experience and regulation of daily anger. Although aversive events often spur anger, the correlates and consequences of anger differ depending on the source of aversion; personality traits offer minimal value in predicting anger in daily life. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. "Everyday Memory" Impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Catherine R. G.; Happe, Francesca; Pickles, Andrew; Marsden, Anita J. S.; Tregay, Jenifer; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Charman, Tony

    2011-01-01

    "Everyday memory" is conceptualised as memory within the context of day-to-day life and, despite its functional relevance, has been little studied in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In the first study of its kind, 94 adolescents with an ASD and 55 without an ASD completed measures of everyday memory from the Rivermead…

  14. "Everyday Memory" Impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Catherine R. G.; Happe, Francesca; Pickles, Andrew; Marsden, Anita J. S.; Tregay, Jenifer; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Charman, Tony

    2011-01-01

    "Everyday memory" is conceptualised as memory within the context of day-to-day life and, despite its functional relevance, has been little studied in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In the first study of its kind, 94 adolescents with an ASD and 55 without an ASD completed measures of everyday memory from the Rivermead…

  15. Everyday life in the suburbs of Berlin: consequences for the social participation of aged men and women.

    PubMed

    Giesel, Flemming; Rahn, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    Against the background of demographic change, mobility issues are becoming crucial. Especially for the elderly, daily outdoor activities are essential for participation in social life. This article addresses the question of what extent older people, especially women, are threatened by limited social participation in Berlin's suburbia. The mobility of older women (70+) is characterized by the least number of trips, the shortest distances, and more than 50% walking trips. Besides, many older women are dissatisfied with their residential area. Given the lack of essential facilities, older women have to be considered as disadvantaged in terms of limited social participation.

  16. The self-created outdoor class-room "Michelbachpark": Practical experiences of 5 years project work in every-day school life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brake, Jens; Istler, Katharina; Kisser, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    project is positioned in every-day school-life, the presentation is about practical experiences and given feedback by pupils (class 10 and primary school), teachers (gymnasia and primary school), partners and people. This way, the presentation may also give hints, what are determinants for success and how to overcome barriers in every-day school life and practice. In the future, we are going to found a company leaded by the pupils. Younger classes can book the whole equipment together with tutors. This will lead to the economic aspect of sustainability.

  17. [Shame, embarrassment and trouble...relatives of patients with OCD describe stigma experiences in every-day life].

    PubMed

    Trosbach, Johanna; Stengler-Wenzke, Katarina; Angermeyer, Matthias C

    2003-03-01

    There are numerous studies on the stigma of mental illness. However, the subjective stigma experiences of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and their relatives have, so far not been investigated. Narrative interviews with 22 family members of patients with OCD were carried out as part of a study on the burden of mental illness on the family. Experience of stigma was analysed as an aspect of subjective burden using a grounded theory approach. Different areas of life could be described, in which stigmatization is anticipated or experienced by family members of patients with OCD. Concealing is a relevant strategy for the members in dealing with the illness. Stigmatization can be minimized by impartially handling the illness and cooperation of patients, their relevant others and professionals.

  18. Professional roles in physiotherapy practice: Educating for self-management, relational matching, and coaching for everyday life.

    PubMed

    Solvang, Per Koren; Fougner, Marit

    2016-11-01

    The patient's active participation in treatment and rehabilitation represents a cultural change in clinical practice as well as a major change in physiotherapist and patient roles. This article presents findings from a study aimed at gaining a better understanding of how physiotherapists in actual practice understand their interactions with patients during the treatment process. This article reports on the findings from focus-group interviews with physiotherapists working in three different settings. Analyses of the interview data identified three modes of physiotherapy practice. In one, physiotherapists educate their patients to be self-managing in conducting exercise programs based on sound evidence. Educational films available on the Internet are included in these efforts to teach patients. In another, physiotherapists emphasize the importance of a close relationship to the patient. A good personal chemistry is believed to improve the treatment process. And finally, what physiotherapists learn about the living conditions and the biographies of their patients was shown to be very important. Understanding the importance of the life-world and taking this into consideration in the treatment process were factors considered to be central to good practice. The article concludes with a discussion linking these findings to those of other studies identifying those factors contributing to our knowledge of what is involved in biopsychosocial practice in physiotherapy.

  19. [Contamination and Cleaning of Touch Panels Used in Everyday Life and the Awareness of Persons in Charge and Users of Devices about Contamination].

    PubMed

    Morioka, Ikuharu; Uda, Kazu; Yamamoto, Mio

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the contamination and cleaning of touch panels used in everyday life and the awareness of persons in charge and users of devices about contamination. Samples from touch panels were cultured to detect viable bacteria (n=132), Staphylococcus aureus (n=66) and Escherichia coli (n=64). A questionnaire survey was conducted on persons in charge and users of the devices on the day of sampling. Viable bacterial cells were detected in more than 90% of the automatic teller machines (ATMs) at banks, the ticket machines at stations, and the copy machines at convenience stores. S. aureus and E. coli were detected in more than one-half of such devices examined. The detection rate of viable bacterial cells in smartphones was 57.5% and was lower than those in other devices. More than 65% of the ATMs, ticket machines, and copy machines were cleaned once or twice a day. More than one-half of the users of smartphones or button-type mobile phones did not clean their devices. Those who did not aware about the contamination of touch panels were 46.6% of the persons in charge and 38.2% of the users. It is necessary to examine the suitable number of times and methods of cleaning of touch panels and to raise the awareness of persons in charge or users of such devices about contamination.

  20. Influence of advanced prosthetic knee joints on perceived performance and everyday life activity level of low-functional persons with a transfemoral amputation or knee disarticulation.

    PubMed

    Theeven, Patrick J; Hemmen, Bea; Geers, Richard P J; Smeets, Rob J E M; Brink, Peter R G; Seelen, Henk A M

    2012-05-01

    To assess the effects of two types of microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee joints (MPKs) on perceived performance and everyday life activity level. Randomized cross-over trial. Thirty persons with a unilateral above-knee amputation or knee disarticulation classified as Medicare Functional Classification Level-2. Participants were measured in 3 conditions, i.e. using a mechanically controlled prosthesis, an MPK featuring a microprocessor-controlled stance and swing phase (MPKA), and an MPK featuring a microprocessor-controlled stance phase (MPKB). Subjects' perceived performance regarding prosthesis use was measured with the Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire. Subjects' activity level was quantified using accelerometry. As high within-group variability regarding subjects' functional performance was expected to impede detection of possible effects of an MPK, data were analysed for the total group and for 3 subgroups of participants. Participants' perception regarding ambulation, residual limb health, utility, and satisfaction with walking were significantly higher in the MPKA condition compared with the mechanical knee joint condition. Participants' activity level was similar in all knee joint conditions. Although Medicare Functional Classification Level-2 amputees report benefitting in terms of their performance from using an MPK, this is not reflected in their actual daily activity level after one week of using an MPK.

  1. Teaching Practice of Life Study Lesson of Classroom Teacher Candidates Analysis of the Results of Peer Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bektas, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine peer assessments that the classroom candidates applied at teaching practice on life study lesson. The cross sectional survey method which is one of the survey methods has been used in the research. In this study the sampling criteria, one of the purposive sampling methods, is used. Thus, in the fall semester…

  2. Enhancing Lesson Planning and Quality of Classroom Life: A Study of Mathematics Student Teachers' Use of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Virginia; Garofalo, Joe; Juersivich, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we report on (1) how preservice secondary mathematics teachers (PSMTs), who had experiences doing and practice-teaching mathematics in a technology-rich environment, subsequently used this technology when planning lessons and (2) how the use of technology affected other aspects of the PSMTs' quality of classroom life. These results…

  3. Lessons Learned from the Crew Health Care System (CHeCS) Rack 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) design of the Crew Health Care System (CHeCS) Rack 1 and it will document some of the lessons that have been learned to date for the ECLS equipment in this rack.

  4. Teaching Practice of Life Study Lesson of Classroom Teacher Candidates Analysis of the Results of Peer Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bektas, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine peer assessments that the classroom candidates applied at teaching practice on life study lesson. The cross sectional survey method which is one of the survey methods has been used in the research. In this study the sampling criteria, one of the purposive sampling methods, is used. Thus, in the fall semester…

  5. Lessons Learned from the Crew Health Care System (CHeCS) Rack 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) design of the Crew Health Care System (CHeCS) Rack 1 and it will document some of the lessons that have been learned to date for the ECLS equipment in this rack.

  6. Enhancing Lesson Planning and Quality of Classroom Life: A Study of Mathematics Student Teachers' Use of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Virginia; Garofalo, Joe; Juersivich, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we report on (1) how preservice secondary mathematics teachers (PSMTs), who had experiences doing and practice-teaching mathematics in a technology-rich environment, subsequently used this technology when planning lessons and (2) how the use of technology affected other aspects of the PSMTs' quality of classroom life. These results…

  7. Anger arousal and behavioral anger regulation in everyday life among patients with chronic low back pain: Relationships to patient pain and function.

    PubMed

    Burns, John W; Gerhart, James I; Bruehl, Stephen; Peterson, Kristina M; Smith, David A; Porter, Laura S; Schuster, Erik; Kinner, Ellen; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Fras, Anne Marie; Keefe, Francis J

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the degree to which patient anger arousal and behavioral anger regulation (expression, inhibition) occurring in the course of daily life was related to patient pain and function as rated by patients and their spouses. Married couples (N = 105) (one spouse with chronic low back pain) completed electronic daily diaries, with assessments 5 times/day for 14 days. Patients completed items on their own state anger, behavioral anger expression and inhibition, and pain-related factors. Spouses completed items on their observations of patient pain-related factors. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to test concurrent and lagged relationships. Patient-reported increases in state anger were related to their reports of concurrent increases in pain and pain interference and to spouse reports of patient pain and pain behavior. Patient-reported increases in behavioral anger expression were related to lagged increases in pain intensity and interference and decreases in function. Most of these relationships remained significant with state anger controlled. Patient-reported increases in behavioral anger inhibition were related to concurrent increases in pain interference and decreases in function, which also remained significant with state anger controlled. Patient-reported increases in state anger were related to lagged increases in spouse reports of patient pain intensity and pain behaviors. Results indicate that in patients with chronic pain, anger arousal and behavioral anger expression and inhibition in everyday life are related to elevated pain intensity and decreased function as reported by patients. Spouse ratings show some degree of concordance with patient reports. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Auditory Behavior in Everyday Life (ABEL) questionnaire in Hebrew and in Arabic and its association with clinical tests in cochlear-implanted children.

    PubMed

    Geal-Dor, Miriam; Jbarah, Rema; Adler, Miriam; Yehezkely, Michal Kaufmann; Adelman, Cahtia

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the results of the Auditory Behavior in Everyday Life (ABEL) questionnaire adapted to Hebrew and to Arabic and its association to clinical test results in children with cochlear implants. As assessment of hearing by audiometry does not always adequately reflect performance in daily life, questionnaires have been developed to assess functioning in natural surroundings and to track progress. In order to evaluate cochlear-implanted children's verbal and communicative abilities, the parental ABEL questionnaire was developed in 2002. The advantages of the ABEL questionnaire are that it is intended for a wide age range, is quick to administer, and is filled out by parents themselves. The ABEL questionnaire was translated into Hebrew and into Arabic and routinely used in the clinic. A total of 61 questionnaires were thus filled out by parents of children with cochlear implants (ages 3.9-14.3 years) when they came for routine mapping. Retrospectively, data were analyzed and questionnaire results were compared with performance with the implant on several clinical tests: audiometric thresholds, discrimination (percentage) of vowel-consonant-vowel nonsense syllables, and results of speech perception tests with monosyllabic and bisyllabic words and with sentences in quiet and in noise. A correlation was found between the different sections of the questionnaire, and age at implantation had a significant effect on questionnaire scores. However, correlations between questionnaire score and clinical tests were found only for speech perception tests in noise and not in quiet or to audiogram and speech reception threshold. As has been reported previously, self-evaluation or parental evaluation does not always correlate with all measured results of hearing performance. However, the subjective information collected through questionnaires can be valuable for evaluation of progress, for counseling and rehabilitation training, as well as for mapping.

  9. Learning from Life: Turning Life's Lessons into Leadership Experience. An Ideas into Action Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruderman, Marian N.; Ohlott, Patricia J.

    Ordinary nonwork activities like fundraising, coaching, and community advocacy can serve as sources of learning for managers in such areas as interpersonal skills, handling multiple tasks, using relevant background information, and leadership practice. Private life encourages leadership development by offering managers experience developing their…

  10. From bioterrorism exercise to real-life public health crisis: lessons for emergency hotline operations.

    PubMed

    Uscher-Pines, Lori; Bookbinder, Sylvia H; Miro, Suzanne; Burke, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Although public health agencies routinely operate hotlines to communicate key messages to the public, they are rarely evaluated to improve hotline management. Since its creation in 2003, the New Jersey Department of Health & Senior Services' Emergency Communications Center has confronted two large-scale incidents that have tested its capabilities in this area. The influenza vaccine shortage of 2004 and the April 2005 TOPOFF 3 full-scale bioterrorism exercise provided both real-life and simulated crisis situations from which to derive general insights into the strengths and weaknesses of hotline administration. This article identifies problems in the areas of staff and message management by analyzing call volume data and the qualitative observations of group feedback sessions and semistructured interviews with hotline staff. It also makes recommendations based on lessons learned to improve future hotline operations in public health emergencies.

  11. The influence of depression, level of functioning in everyday life, and illness acceptance on quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Rosińczuk, Joanna; Kołtuniuk, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease, and its incidence will increase as the global population ages. Due to the multitude of symptoms, this disease clearly has a significant impact on decreasing quality of life for those with PD. We aimed to evaluate the effect of selected variables on quality of life in people with idiopathic PD treated pharmacologically. This study was conducted among 50 patients with PD aged 47-85 years. The diagnostic survey method was applied to collect data with the use of the authors' questionnaire and standardized questionnaires, including, Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ), Beck Depression Inventory, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale, and Acceptance of Illness Scale. The results were statistically analyzed. Analysis of the study material showed that people who were more self-reliant were characterized by lower intensity of depressive symptoms (ρ=-0.567, P=0), were more likely to accept their illness (ρ=0.611, P=0), and assessed quality of life better in each of the studied domains of the PDQ. Illness acceptance correlated with the occurrence of depressive symptoms (ρ=-0.567, P=0) and significantly affected quality of life. Factors such as depression, disease acceptance, and functional capacity have a significant impact on the subjective assessment of quality of life in patients with PD. Evaluation of these factors should be taken into account in the therapeutic process, to minimize their negative impact on quality of life in patients with PD.

  12. Everyday Memory in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, I-Chen; Tsai, Pei-Luen; Hsu, Yung-Wen; Ma, Hui-Ing; Lai, Hsuan-An

    2013-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have deficits in working memory, but little is known about the everyday memory of these children in real-life situations. We investigated the everyday memory function in children with DCD, and explored the specific profile of everyday memory across different domains. Nineteen children with…

  13. Everyday Memory in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, I-Chen; Tsai, Pei-Luen; Hsu, Yung-Wen; Ma, Hui-Ing; Lai, Hsuan-An

    2013-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have deficits in working memory, but little is known about the everyday memory of these children in real-life situations. We investigated the everyday memory function in children with DCD, and explored the specific profile of everyday memory across different domains. Nineteen children with…

  14. The influence of depression, level of functioning in everyday life, and illness acceptance on quality of life in patients with Parkinson’s disease: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Rosińczuk, Joanna; Kołtuniuk, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer’s disease, and its incidence will increase as the global population ages. Due to the multitude of symptoms, this disease clearly has a significant impact on decreasing quality of life for those with PD. We aimed to evaluate the effect of selected variables on quality of life in people with idiopathic PD treated pharmacologically. Materials and methods This study was conducted among 50 patients with PD aged 47–85 years. The diagnostic survey method was applied to collect data with the use of the authors’ questionnaire and standardized questionnaires, including, Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire (PDQ), Beck Depression Inventory, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale, and Acceptance of Illness Scale. The results were statistically analyzed. Results Analysis of the study material showed that people who were more self-reliant were characterized by lower intensity of depressive symptoms (ρ=−0.567, P=0), were more likely to accept their illness (ρ=0.611, P=0), and assessed quality of life better in each of the studied domains of the PDQ. Illness acceptance correlated with the occurrence of depressive symptoms (ρ=−0.567, P=0) and significantly affected quality of life. Conclusion Factors such as depression, disease acceptance, and functional capacity have a significant impact on the subjective assessment of quality of life in patients with PD. Evaluation of these factors should be taken into account in the therapeutic process, to minimize their negative impact on quality of life in patients with PD. PMID:28356744

  15. Technology and Everyday Functioning in People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Rasch Analysis of the Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire (ETUQ)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallgren, M.; Nygard, L.; Kottorp, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: As people with intellectual disabilities (ID) today live integrated in society and use different technological artefacts and services in their everyday life, more in-depth evaluation methods are crucial to detect strengths and limitations of their everyday technology use. The Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire (ETUQ) was originally…

  16. Experiences of long-term home care as an informal caregiver to a spouse: gendered meanings in everyday life for female carers.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Henrik; Sandberg, Jonas; Hellström, Ingrid

    2013-05-01

    In this article, we explore the gender aspects of long-term caregiving from the perspective of women providing home care for a spouse suffering from dementia. One of the most common circumstances in which a woman gradually steps into a long-term caregiver role at home involves caring for a spouse suffering from dementia. Little attention has been paid to examining the experiences and motivations of such caregivers from a feminist perspective. Twelve women, all of whom were informal caregivers to a partner suffering from dementia, were interviewed on the following themes: the home, their partner's disease, everyday life, their relationship and autonomy. The results of these interviews were analysed in relation to gender identity and social power structures using a feminist perspective. The findings of this study show that the informants frequently reflected on their caregiving activities in terms of both general and heteronormative expectations. The results suggest that the process of heteropolarisation in these cases can be an understood as a consequence of both the spouse's illness and the resulting caring duties. Also, the results suggest that the act of caring leads to introspections concerning perceived 'shortcomings' as a caregiver. Finally, the results indicate that it is important to recognise when the need for support in day-to-day caring is downplayed. Women view their caregiving role and responsibilities as paramount; their other duties, including caring for themselves, are deemed less important. We stress that the intense commitment and responsibilities that women experience in their day-to-day caring must be acknowledged and that it is important for healthcare professionals to find mechanisms for providing choices for female caregivers without neglecting their moral concerns. Female carers face difficulties in always living up to gendered standards and this need to be considered when evaluating policies and practices for family carers. © 2012 Blackwell

  17. The Everyday Walk of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soldier, Lydia Whirlwind

    1994-01-01

    Describes the experiences of Albert White Hat, a Lakota language instructor at Sinte Gleska University, and Rita Means, chair of the university's board of regents, in their return to traditional beliefs. Describes the impact of the return on their lives and highlights elements of Lakota culture that have guided both educators. (MAB)

  18. Intergenerational Conflicts in Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smol'kin, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    Conflicts between younger and older generations can take on a character that goes beyond personal experience to become a narrative of more general social conditions. In times of change, this phenomenon may play an important role in defining new social realities. This seems to be occurring in Russia today. Available studies of intergenerational…

  19. Internal Comparisons in Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Jens; Husemann, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    According to the internal/external frame of reference (I/E) model (H. W. Marsh, 1986), students not only compare their own abilities in a domain with those of other students (social comparison), they also compare their own achievements in different domains (internal comparison). The main purpose of this study was to investigate internal comparison…

  20. Everyday Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mary Alice

    2011-01-01

    "Do what's best for kids!" The author's former principal said this often when they discussed media program needs. Media specialists can make media centers places where students and teachers want to be. This article looks at everyday, attainable, common sense best practices. These everyday best practices require time, energy, new ways of thinking,…

  1. Graphing from Everyday Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carraher, David; Schliemann, Analucia; Nemirousky, Ricardo

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the importance of teaching grounded in the everyday experiences and concerns of the learners. Studies how people with limited school experience can understand graphs and concludes that individuals with limited academic education can clarify the role of everyday experiences in learning about graphs. (ASK)

  2. Lessons Learned From a Life With Type 1 Diabetes: Adult Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Freeborn, Donna; Dyches, Tina; Roper, Susanne Olsen

    2017-08-01

    Adults who have lived much of their life with type 1 diabetes have learned lessons that can benefit health care providers (HCPs), families, and young people who live with the condition. This study was undertaken to gain a better understanding of the challenges of growing up and living with type 1 diabetes from adults who have experienced those challenges and to recommend strategies for parents, caregivers, and HCPs who work with children or adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Thirty-five adults with type 1 diabetes participated in this qualitative study consisting of two in-depth interviews with each participant. Six themes emerged: 1) It's not who you are. 2) Don't let it limit you. 3) Get involved in diabetes support groups. 4) It's going to be OK. 5) Teach them; don't scare them. 6) Don't single kids out. Through hindsight and the more mature perspective of adulthood, study participants were able to share valuable insights that could inform the efforts of those who work with or care for younger people with type 1 diabetes.

  3. Lessons learned before and after cardiomyoplasty: risk sensitive patient selection and post procedure quality of life.

    PubMed

    Furnary, A P; Swanson, J S; Grunkemeier, G; Starr, A

    1996-01-01

    This paper unveils some of the clinical lessons we have learned from caring for cardiomyoplasty patients over the past 7 years. We examine both the clinical and scientific rationale for expanding the time frame of "procedural mortality" from 30 days to 90 days. Utilizing this definition of procedural mortality, preoperative patient variables were applied to postoperative patient outcomes in order to develop a risk sensitive method of patient selection. Preoperative atrial fibrillation, elevated pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, decreased peak oxygen consumption, and the requirement of intra-aortic balloon pump at the time of cardiomyoplasty, were all found to be independent risk factors for early death following cardiomyoplasty. This analysis, which has been previously published, is reviewed and enhanced with the mathematical equations for duplicating these relative risk calculations. The mathematical model presented herein allows a method of risk stratification, which obviates the need for randomized congestive heart failure controls in the future. In the absence of a statistically regulated control population, we also examine the 1-year clinical outcomes of the nonrandomizd control group of patients, who were followed during the North American FDA Phase II Cardiomyoplasty Trial. This quality of life comparison with cardiomyoplasty patients at 1 year revealed a significant decrease in intensive care unit patient-days, a significant increase in activity of daily living score, and a significant improvement in New York Heart Association functional class as compared to control.

  4. Challenges in real-life diabetes translation research: early lessons from BRIDGES projects.

    PubMed

    Garcia de Quevedo, Isabel; Siminerio, Linda; L'Heveder, Ronan; Narayan, K M Venkat

    2012-03-01

    Efficacious interventions for prevention of diabetes and its complications exist; however, their implementation is woefully inadequate. The purpose of this project is to qualitatively assess the early lessons learnt from implementing translational research from eleven projects supported by BRIDGES, an International Diabetes Federation program. Semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted with 10 researchers, seeking their views on factors relating to success and barriers to implementation. Data were collected from June to September 2010 by a trained interviewer; information was recorded, transcribed and further analyzed with MAXQDA. Patient recruitment and retention were reported as challenges. Lack of availability of local multidisciplinary teams was highlighted as having a negative effect on the project. Grassroots and community participation were emphasized to have beneficial effects. Flexibility was recognized as a key for successful execution of the projects. Recommendations include: feedback from previous grantees, in the form of pre-submission workshops, and mentoring from experienced investigators with emphasis on the differences between traditional and translational researches. This evaluation underscores the main contingencies to be considered for successful implementation of translational research. It emphasizes the importance of having the three stakeholders: patients, providers, and health systems, acting together in a flexible environment within real life settings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A lesson program for schoolchildren about a clean and healthy life-style: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hollander, C

    1997-05-01

    A health education project is underway in primary schools in the Wonogiri district of Indonesia. This project, implemented by the Yayasan Indonesia Sejahtera (YIS), is related to the Perilaku Hidup Bersih dan Sehat (PHBS) campaign developed by the Provincial Health Office of central Java to promote a healthy life-style. The PHBS campaign, which will eventually target households, industry, and schools, is currently promoting only 10 household-level indicators. Thus, YIS developed a curriculum for PHBS that includes those indicators that are relevant to primary school students. The longterm YIS project group includes the fifth-grade (11- and 12-year-old students) at every elementary school in the district. A single class in a village school is serving as the target group for the pilot study. Development of the pilot curriculum involved a pre/post test as well as a field test, and an evaluation is planned. The health topics chosen for the project are: clean water, use of family sanitation facilities, garbage disposal, mosquitoes, personal hygiene, dental hygiene, nutrition, smoking and alcohol, and family planning. The curriculum consists of seven lessons and is taught using visual aids and a participatory approach. Post-test results were disappointing because answers improved over pretest answers for only 5 out of 21 questions. One of the reasons may have been that the project had to begin before all of the supporting materials were ready. Evaluation is currently ongoing, and plans are underway to expand the program.

  6. A Cultural-Historical Reading of How Play Is Used in Families as a Tool for Supporting Children's Emotional Development in Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Feiyan; Fleer, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have identified the positive "link" between imaginary play and emotion regulation in laboratory settings. However, little is known about "how" play and emotion regulation are related in everyday practice. This article examines how families use play as a tool to support young children's emotion regulation in…

  7. A Cultural-Historical Reading of How Play Is Used in Families as a Tool for Supporting Children's Emotional Development in Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Feiyan; Fleer, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have identified the positive "link" between imaginary play and emotion regulation in laboratory settings. However, little is known about "how" play and emotion regulation are related in everyday practice. This article examines how families use play as a tool to support young children's emotion regulation in…

  8. Search for life on Mars in surface samples: Lessons from the 1999 Marsokhod rover field experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newsom, Horton E.; Bishop, J.L.; Cockell, C.; Roush, T.L.; Johnson, J. R.

    2001-01-01

    The Marsokhod 1999 field experiment in the Mojave Desert included a simulation of a rover-based sample selection mission. As part of this mission, a test was made of strategies and analytical techniques for identifying past or present life in environments expected to be present on Mars. A combination of visual clues from high-resolution images and the detection of an important biomolecule (chlorophyll) with visible/near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy led to the successful identification of a rock with evidence of cryptoendolithic organisms. The sample was identified in high-resolution images (3 times the resolution of the Imager for Mars Pathfinder camera) on the basis of a green tinge and textural information suggesting the presence of a thin, partially missing exfoliating layer revealing the organisms. The presence of chlorophyll bands in similar samples was observed in visible/NIR spectra of samples in the field and later confirmed in the laboratory using the same spectrometer. Raman spectroscopy in the laboratory, simulating a remote measurement technique, also detected evidence of carotenoids in samples from the same area. Laboratory analysis confirmed that the subsurface layer of the rock is inhabited by a community of coccoid Chroococcidioposis cyanobacteria. The identification of minerals in the field, including carbonates and serpentine, that are associated with aqueous processes was also demonstrated using the visible/NIR spectrometer. Other lessons learned that are applicable to future rover missions include the benefits of web-based programs for target selection and for daily mission planning and the need for involvement of the science team in optimizing image compression schemes based on the retention of visual signature characteristics. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Everyday Constitutional Assessments and Their Relevance to Formal Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varenne, Herve

    2014-01-01

    Background: In anthropology and related disciplines, the term "assessment" refers to the everyday activities of ordinary people as they figure out what to do next given what others have just done. The assessments, in turn, constitute what is happening, whether in encounters between policeman and person in the street, or classroom lesson,…

  10. Everyday solutions for everyday problems: how mental health systems can support recovery.

    PubMed

    Slade, Mike

    2012-07-01

    People who experience mental illness can be viewed as either fundamentally different than, or fundamentally like, everyone else in society. Recovery-oriented mental health systems focus on commonality. In practice, this involves an orientation toward supporting everyday solutions for everyday problems rather than providing specialist treatments for mental illness-related problems. This change is evident in relation to help offered with housing, employment, relationships, and spirituality. Interventions may contribute to the process of striving for a life worth living, but they are a means, not an end. Mental health systems that offer treatments in support of an individual's life goals are very different than those that treat patients in their best interests. The strongest contribution of mental health services to recovery is to support everyday solutions to everyday problems.

  11. Steps to Financial Fitness, Grades 3-5. Teacher Guide [and] Student Workouts. Financial Fitness for Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suiter, Mary C.

    Developing financial fitness requires developing a knowledge base and then applying it. This teacher guide and student workouts package contains 15 lessons from students at grades 3-5, divided into 4 theme areas of earning and income, saving, spending and borrowing, and managing money. The development of knowledge for use in the everyday life of…

  12. The Catholic Church, moral doctrine, and HIV prevention in Recife, Brazil: Negotiating the contradictions between religious belief and the realities of everyday life

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Luis Felipe; de Aquino, Francisca Luciana; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Murray, Laura R.; Oliveira, Cinthia; Parker, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    Religious beliefs have had a key role in shaping local responses to HIV and AIDS. As the world’s largest Catholic country, Brazil is no exception. Yet little research has been conducted to document how the religious doctrine is enacted in practice among its lay leaders and followers. In this article, we present ethnographic research from Recife, Brazil, conducted to understand the way in which religious doctrines are interpreted on a local level. Contextualized within the sociology of contemporary Brazilian Catholicism, we draw on interviews with clergy members, lay leaders and parishioners in order to discuss how the Catholic Church’s vision of sexuality translates into the everyday lives of its followers by. We explore the disjuncture between the Catholic ideals of fidelity and delaying sex until marriage with the everyday reality of the Church’s followers, highlighting the role that gender plays in defining sexual roles and expectations. We conclude posing questions for future research and HIV prevention strategies considering the formal institutional response of the Brazilian Catholic Church to AIDS on one hand, and the social and cultural contexts in which Catholics live their daily lives on the other. PMID:22500141

  13. The Catholic Church, moral doctrine, and HIV prevention in Recife, Brazil: Negotiating the contradictions between religious belief and the realities of everyday life.

    PubMed

    Rios, Luis Felipe; de Aquino, Francisca Luciana; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Murray, Laura R; Oliveira, Cinthia; Parker, Richard G

    2011-01-01

    Religious beliefs have had a key role in shaping local responses to HIV and AIDS. As the world's largest Catholic country, Brazil is no exception. Yet little research has been conducted to document how the religious doctrine is enacted in practice among its lay leaders and followers. In this article, we present ethnographic research from Recife, Brazil, conducted to understand the way in which religious doctrines are interpreted on a local level. Contextualized within the sociology of contemporary Brazilian Catholicism, we draw on interviews with clergy members, lay leaders and parishioners in order to discuss how the Catholic Church's vision of sexuality translates into the everyday lives of its followers by. We explore the disjuncture between the Catholic ideals of fidelity and delaying sex until marriage with the everyday reality of the Church's followers, highlighting the role that gender plays in defining sexual roles and expectations. We conclude posing questions for future research and HIV prevention strategies considering the formal institutional response of the Brazilian Catholic Church to AIDS on one hand, and the social and cultural contexts in which Catholics live their daily lives on the other.

  14. What is it they say about best intentions?: a life lesson in empathy and sympathy.

    PubMed

    Waite, Lisa A

    2011-06-01

    This narrative exposes a critical communication lesson through a true account. In describing empathy and sympathy, it ushers readers on a brief journey where one vital exchange goes awry. A lesson emerges for clinical staff and patients communicating in sensitive circumstances. Empathy and sympathy both express feelings but differ in how these interwoven emotions emerge. It is suggested that sympathy shares feeling whereas empathy shares understanding. The narrative includes a dilemma and the consequence that results from ineffective communication, and concludes with suggestions to successfully manage similar communication encounters.

  15. Everyday Learning about Sleep. Everyday Learning Series. Volume 5, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linke, Pam

    2007-01-01

    The Everyday Learning Series has been developed to focus attention on the every day life experiences of early childhood and to offer insight about how parents and carers can make the most of these experiences. Having a new baby is wonderful and exciting and one of the most trying times in a parent's life. So it is no wonder that anyone caring for…

  16. Life-Size Sculptural Heads: A Lesson in Three-Dimensional Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Harriet

    2003-01-01

    Presents a lesson in which students created three-dimensional self-portraits, using papier-mache, clay, and plaster, designed to develop their modeling skills as they learn about art history. Discusses how the students created their sculptures, offering detailed directions on creating the three-dimensional heads. (CMK)

  17. Life-Size Sculptural Heads: A Lesson in Three-Dimensional Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Harriet

    2003-01-01

    Presents a lesson in which students created three-dimensional self-portraits, using papier-mache, clay, and plaster, designed to develop their modeling skills as they learn about art history. Discusses how the students created their sculptures, offering detailed directions on creating the three-dimensional heads. (CMK)

  18. The Neural Correlates of Everyday Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, F.; Muhlert, N.; Butler, C. R.; Benattayallah, A.; Zeman, A. Z.

    2011-01-01

    We used a novel automatic camera, SenseCam, to create a recognition memory test for real-life events. Adapting a "Remember/Know" paradigm, we asked healthy undergraduates, who wore SenseCam for 2 days, in their everyday environments, to classify images as strongly or weakly remembered, strongly or weakly familiar or novel, while brain activation…

  19. The Neural Correlates of Everyday Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, F.; Muhlert, N.; Butler, C. R.; Benattayallah, A.; Zeman, A. Z.

    2011-01-01

    We used a novel automatic camera, SenseCam, to create a recognition memory test for real-life events. Adapting a "Remember/Know" paradigm, we asked healthy undergraduates, who wore SenseCam for 2 days, in their everyday environments, to classify images as strongly or weakly remembered, strongly or weakly familiar or novel, while brain activation…

  20. Human Factors Throughout the Life Cycle: Lessons Learned from the Shuttle Program. [Human Factors in Ground Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    2011-01-01

    With the ending of the Space Shuttle Program, it is critical that we not forget the Human Factors lessons we have learned over the years. At every phase of the life cycle, from manufacturing, processing and integrating vehicle and payload, to launch, flight operations, mission control and landing, hundreds of teams have worked together to achieve mission success in one of the most complex, high-risk socio-technical enterprises ever designed. Just as there was great diversity in the types of operations performed at every stage, there was a myriad of human factors that could further complicate these human systems. A single mishap or close call could point to issues at the individual level (perceptual or workload limitations, training, fatigue, human error susceptibilities), the task level (design of tools, procedures and aspects of the workplace), as well as the organizational level (appropriate resources, safety policies, information access and communication channels). While we have often had to learn through human mistakes and technological failures, we have also begun to understand how to design human systems in which individuals can excel, where tasks and procedures are not only safe but efficient, and how organizations can foster a proactive approach to managing risk and supporting human enterprises. Panelists will talk about their experiences as they relate human factors to a particular phase of the shuttle life cycle. They will conclude with a framework for tying together human factors lessons-learned into system-level risk management strategies.

  1. Final Conversations, Phase 2: Children and Everyday Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Maureen; Baldwin, Paula

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined messages of everyday communication (small talk and routine interactions). The importance of these messages was highlighted in light of their role in creating structure, safety, and meaning making in the family at the end of life. In addition, family rituals that developed from children's everyday communication were…

  2. Final Conversations, Phase 2: Children and Everyday Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Maureen; Baldwin, Paula

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined messages of everyday communication (small talk and routine interactions). The importance of these messages was highlighted in light of their role in creating structure, safety, and meaning making in the family at the end of life. In addition, family rituals that developed from children's everyday communication were…

  3. A “Misfit” Theory of Spontaneous Conscious Odor Perception (MITSCOP): reflections on the role and function of odor memory in everyday life

    PubMed Central

    Köster, Egon P.; Møller, Per; Mojet, Jozina

    2014-01-01

    Our senses have developed as an answer to the world we live in (Gibson, 1966) and so have the forms of memory that accompany them. All senses serve different purposes and do so in different ways. In vision, where orientation and object recognition are important, memory is strongly linked to identification. In olfaction, the guardian of vital functions such as breathing and food ingestion, perhaps the most important (and least noticed and researched) role of odor memory is to help us not to notice the well-known odors or flavors in our everyday surroundings, but to react immediately to the unexpected ones. At the same time it provides us with a feeling of safety when our expectancies are met. All this happens without any smelling intention or conscious knowledge of our expectations. Identification by odor naming is not involved in this and people are notoriously bad at it. Odors are usually best identified via the episodic memory of the situation in which they once occurred. Spontaneous conscious odor perception normally only occurs in situations where attention is demanded, either because the inhaled air or the food smell is particularly good or particularly bad and people search for its source or because people want to actively enjoy the healthiness and pleasantness of their surroundings or food. Odor memory is concerned with novelty detection rather than with recollection of odors. In this paper, these points are illustrated with experimental results and their consequences for doing ecologically valid odor memory research are drawn. Furthermore, suggestions for ecologically valid research on everyday odor memory and some illustrative examples are given. PMID:24575059

  4. An Everyday Atlas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Robert F.

    1984-01-01

    Having students make an everyday atlas, a collection of maps, generally of a small area, that illustrates features of particular local interest, is a good way to introduce them to the methods and materials of geography. How to make an atlas is discussed. Two examples are described. (RM)

  5. Age benefits in everyday prospective memory: the influence of personal task importance, use of reminders and everyday stress.

    PubMed

    Ihle, Andreas; Schnitzspahn, Katharina; Rendell, Peter G; Luong, Cäcilia; Kliegel, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The present diary study examined everyday prospective memory tasks in younger and old adults and explored the role of personal task importance, use of reminders and everyday stress as possible correlates of age-related prospective memory performance in everyday life. Results revealed an age benefit in everyday prospective memory tasks. In addition, task importance was identified as a critical moderator of age-related prospective memory performance. More frequent use of reminders and lower levels of stress, however, were associated with better prospective memory performance in general but did not contribute to age-related prospective memory performance. Exploring further possible correlates of prospective memory revealed that the strategy to reprioritize initially planned intentions was associated with age benefits in everyday prospective memory. Results suggest that the age-related benefit observed in experimenter-given tasks transfers to everyday prospective memory and varies in dependence of motivational and cognitive factors. Implications for theoretical models of prospective memory and aging are discussed.

  6. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia and focusing on epidemiology and management in everyday hematologic practice: recent data from the Czech Leukemia Study Group for Life (CELL).

    PubMed

    Panovská, Anna; Doubek, Michael; Brychtová, Yvona; Mayer, Jirí

    2010-08-01

    Currently, pathogenesis, new prognostic factors, or new therapy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are frequently discussed; however, up-to-date data concerning the incidence and the management of CLL in everyday hematologic practice are still missing. The aim of our study was to find out the accurate epidemiologic situation of CLL and the diagnostic and therapeutic preferences of hematologists in the preselect area: the South Moravian Region (1,127,718 inhabitants, white race). The total number of 540 patients (median age at the time of diagnosis, 65 years; sex, 306 men and 234 women) who had been followed in 2008 were included in the analysis. In the years 2006 and 2007, the incidence of CLL was 5.8 and 6.2, respectively, per 100,000; the prevalence was 48 per 100,000. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia treatment was indicated in 194 patients (36%); 93 (17%) of them also underwent the second line of treatment. Of these 194 patients, 64 patients (33%) were given fludarabine-based regimens, and 74 patients (38%) received chlorambucil as a first line of treatment. Thirty patients were treated within clinical trials. Although the treatment was indicated in only one third of patients (36%), new prognostic factors were examined in > 50% of patients. The ascertained incidence of CLL in our region is higher than declared incidence in the past. Evidently, CLL became an often misdiagnosed and underreported disease.

  7. The Views of the Teachers about the Mind Mapping Technique in the Elementary Life Science and Social Studies Lessons Based on the Constructivist Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyihoglu, Aysegul; Kartal, Ayca

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the opinions of teachers on using the mind mapping technique in Life Science and Social Studies lessons. The participants of the study are 20 primary education teachers. In this study, a semi-structured interview technique was used. For content analysis, the themes and codes were defined, based on the views…

  8. Some life lessons in the work place: personal narrative/case study.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Michael Schwartz, a lawyer deaf since birth, describes his journey as a professional for the last 32 years since his graduation from NYU School of Law in 1981. He offers a case study of his experiences with accommodations on the job as required by federal and state law. The study includes specific examples of what worked and what did not work for a deaf lawyer like him working at his craft. Schwartz wraps up with the lessons he learned over the last three decades as we moved from the model of non-compliance to that of compliance, even beyond compliance, with the mandates of law in the employment context.

  9. A pilot investigation of the potential for incorporating lifelog technology into executive function rehabilitation for enhanced transfer of self-regulation skills to everyday life.

    PubMed

    Cuberos-Urbano, Gustavo; Caracuel, Alfonso; Valls-Serrano, Carlos; García-Mochón, Leticia; Gracey, Fergus; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2016-06-02

    The objective of the study was to identify the potential target and effect size of goal management training (GMT) enhanced with life-logging technology compared with standard GMT on a range of possible primary outcomes reflecting cognitive and ecological aspects of executive functioning and quality of life. Sixteen patients with acquired brain injury involving executive dysfunction were randomly allocated to one of the two interventions: seven weeks of GMT (n = 8), or seven weeks of GMT+Lifelog (n = 8). Outcome measures included a battery of executive function tests, the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX) and the Quality of Life after Brain Injury scale (QOLIBRI), measured pre- and post-interventions. Within-group changes were assessed with related-samples t-tests and estimation of effect sizes. GMT+Lifelog was associated with significant changes, of medium to large effect size, in response inhibition (Stroop), multitasking (Strategy Application and Multiple Errand tests), DEX Intentionality and Positive Affect subscales and QOLIBRI Daily Life and Autonomy, subscales. GMT alone was associated with significant changes of overall quality of life. It was concluded that GMT+Lifelog holds promise to optimise the impact of GMT on executive dysfunction and quality of life.

  10. Robotics research toward explication of everyday physics

    SciTech Connect

    Arimoto, Suguru

    1999-11-01

    It is commonly recognized now at the end of the 20th century that a general 6- or 7-degree-of-freedom robot equipped with an end-effector with simple structure is clumsy in performing a variety of ordinary tasks that a human encounters in his or her everyday life. In this paper, it is claimed that the clumsiness manifests the lack of knowledge of everyday physics. It is then shown that even dynamics of a set of dual fingers grasping and manipulating a rigid object are not yet formulated with the fingers' ends are covered by soft and deformable materials. By illustrating this typical problem of everyday physics, it is pointed out that explication of everyday physics in computational (or mathematical) languages is inevitable for consideration of how to endow a robot with dexterity and versatility. Once kinematics and dynamics involved in such everyday tasks are described, it is then possible to discover a simple but fine control structure without the need of much computation of kinematics and dynamics. Simplicity of the control structure implies robustness against parameter uncertainties, which eventually allows the control to perform tasks with dexterity and versatility by using visual or tactile sensing feedback. Thus, a key to uncover the hidden secret of dexterity is to characterize complicated dynamics of such a robotic task as seen when a set of multifingers with multijoints covered by deformable material interacts physically with objects or an environment. It is pointed out throughout the paper that some of the generic characteristics of dynamics that everyday physics encounters must be passivity, approximate Jacobian matrix of coordinates transformation, feedback loops from sensation to action, impedance matching, and static friction.

  11. Whose Job Is It? Everyday Routines and Quality of Life in Latino and Non-Latino Families of Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Susan D.; Domínguez-Pareto, Irenka; Cohen, Shana R.; Kuppermann, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that families construct daily routines that enable the household to function smoothly and promote family quality of life. However, we know little about how activities are distributed between parents caring for a child with an intellectual disability (ID), particularly in Latino families. To address this gap, we…

  12. Whose Job Is It? Everyday Routines and Quality of Life in Latino and Non-Latino Families of Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Susan D.; Domínguez-Pareto, Irenka; Cohen, Shana R.; Kuppermann, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that families construct daily routines that enable the household to function smoothly and promote family quality of life. However, we know little about how activities are distributed between parents caring for a child with an intellectual disability (ID), particularly in Latino families. To address this gap, we…

  13. Ancient Rome II: The Theater, Sculpture & Painting, Religion, Everyday Life, the Roman at Home. Teaching with Primary Sources Series, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Rosalie F.; Baker, Charles F., III

    Intended for teachers of grades 5 and up, this unit on ancient Rome introduces students to a variety of primary sources, all chosen with the idea that they can be used to form an accurate and informative picture of what it was like to be a Roman during ancient times, and the similarities and dissimilarities between life then and today. The unit…

  14. Ancient Rome II: The Theater, Sculpture & Painting, Religion, Everyday Life, the Roman at Home. Teaching with Primary Sources Series, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Rosalie F.; Baker, Charles F., III

    Intended for teachers of grades 5 and up, this unit on ancient Rome introduces students to a variety of primary sources, all chosen with the idea that they can be used to form an accurate and informative picture of what it was like to be a Roman during ancient times, and the similarities and dissimilarities between life then and today. The unit…

  15. Everyday Learning about Managing Angry Feelings. Everyday Learning Series. Volume 5, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szarkowicz, Diane Louise

    2007-01-01

    The Everyday Learning Series has been developed to focus attention on the every day life experiences of early childhood and to offer insight about how parents and care givers can make the most of these experiences. Having angry feelings or feeling aggressive is normal. Most children learn to manage such feelings in safe and acceptable ways,…

  16. The impact of breast cancer on living an everyday life 4.5-5 years post-diagnosis - a qualitative prospective study of 39 women.

    PubMed

    Salander, Pär; Lilliehorn, Sara; Hamberg, Katarina; Kero, Anneli

    2011-04-01

    The survival of women with breast cancer has improved. There are many studies available describing different aspects of how the illness and its treatment affect the women. Usually these studies are cross-sectional and focus on assessments of a sample of women at a single point in time during post-treatment. These studies are important but of limited value if we are interested in understanding more about breast cancer in a life context. The present study is a contribution. A consecutive sample of 39 women was followed up by means of repeated thematic interviews about how they lived their lives, from the end of radiation therapy to a point four years later, i.e. 4.5-5 years post diagnosis. Four different groups of women emerged. Largely, the first group evaluated the cancer initiated transformation of their lives in a positive way. The breast cancer helped them depart from a career treadmill or to positive interpersonal experiences. In the second group the cancer and its treatment seemed to pass without marked traces. The cancer made a difference for the third group, but both in positive and negative ways. A different life perspective or improved relationships were weighted against troublesome side effects from treatment. Finally, in the fourth group a bodily decline due to side effects and other health problems was predominant and this obstructed their chances of living a good life. The narratives showed that being diseased by breast cancer has different impacts depending on how the woman lives her life - it is very much a matter of transition in a life context. The results are furthermore discussed in relation to adaptation and coping theory.

  17. Are we alone? Lessons from the evolution of life on earth.

    PubMed

    Via, S

    2001-12-01

    The understanding of life on Earth that we have obtained from the science of evolutionary biology offers clues to the qustion of what life might be like if found elsewhere. After presenting the basics of the evolutionary process, I discuss the factors that determine the outcome of evolution, the role of key innovations and extinction in evolution, and whether the evolution of human life is inevitable.

  18. Life lessons after classes: investigating the influence of an afterschool sport program on adolescents' life skills development.

    PubMed

    Lee, Okseon; Park, Mirim; Jang, Kyunghwan; Park, Yongnam

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of an afterschool sport program on adolescents' life skills development and to identify which characteristics of the program would have an influence on their life skills acquisition. The participants were six children (4 boys, 2 girls) who participated in a 12-week afterschool program implemented in two elementary schools, as well as the two program instructors who implemented the afterschool sport program. Data were collected from individual interviews with program participants and instructors. The inductive analysis of data revealed four categories of life skills developed through program participation: (1) playing well and being more active, (2) connecting well and having better social skills, (3) coping well and becoming a better problem solver, and (4) dreaming well and having a better sense of purpose. Regarding the characteristics of the program that influenced life skills development, three themes emerged: (1) having a clear goal and building consensus with stakeholders, (2) establishing a firm yet flexible structure, and (3) instructors' use of effective strategies for teaching life skills.

  19. Life lessons after classes: investigating the influence of an afterschool sport program on adolescents’ life skills development

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Okseon; Park, Mirim; Jang, Kyunghwan; Park, Yongnam

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of an afterschool sport program on adolescents’ life skills development and to identify which characteristics of the program would have an influence on their life skills acquisition. The participants were six children (4 boys, 2 girls) who participated in a 12-week afterschool program implemented in two elementary schools, as well as the two program instructors who implemented the afterschool sport program. Data were collected from individual interviews with program participants and instructors. The inductive analysis of data revealed four categories of life skills developed through program participation: (1) playing well and being more active, (2) connecting well and having better social skills, (3) coping well and becoming a better problem solver, and (4) dreaming well and having a better sense of purpose. Regarding the characteristics of the program that influenced life skills development, three themes emerged: (1) having a clear goal and building consensus with stakeholders, (2) establishing a firm yet flexible structure, and (3) instructors’ use of effective strategies for teaching life skills. PMID:28367697

  20. Short lessons in basic life support improve self-assurance in performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Kobras, Mario; Langewand, Sascha; Murr, Christina; Neu, Christiane; Schmid, Jeannette

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are several reasons why resuscitation measures may lead to inferior results: difficulties in team building, delayed realization of the emergency and interruption of chest compression. This study investigated the outcome of a new form of in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training with special focus on changes in self-assurance of potential helpers when faced with emergency situations. METHODS: Following a 12-month period of CPR training, questionnaires were distributed to participants and non-participants. Those non-participants who intended to undergo the training at a later date served as control group. RESULTS: The study showed that participants experienced a significant improvement in self-assurance, compared with their remembered self-assurance before the training. Their self-assurance also was significantly greater than that of the control group of non-participants. CONCLUSION: Short lessons in CPR have an impact on the self-assurance of medical and non-medical personnel. PMID:27942341

  1. USGS Science Data Life Cycle Tools - Lessons Learned in moving to the Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frame, M. T.; Mancuso, T.; Hutchison, V.; Zolly, L.; Wheeler, B.; Urbanowski, S.; Devarakonda, R.; Palanisamy, G.

    2016-12-01

    The U.S Geological Survey (USGS) Core Science Systems has been working for the past year to design, re-architect, and implement several key tools and systems within the USGS Cloud Hosting Service supported by Amazon Web Services (AWS). As a result of emerging USGS data management policies that align with federal Open Data mandates, and as part of a concerted effort to respond to potential increasing user demand due to these policies, the USGS strategically began migrating its core data management tools and services to the AWS environment in hopes of leveraging cloud capabilities (i.e. auto-scaling, replication, etc.). The specific tools included: USGS Online Metadata Editor (OME); USGS Digital Object Identifier (DOI) generation tool; USGS Science Data Catalog (SDC); USGS ScienceBase system; and an integrative tool, the USGS Data Release Workbench, which steps bureau personnel through the process of releasing data. All of these tools existed long before the Cloud was available and presented significant challenges in migrating, re-architecting, securing, and moving to a Cloud based environment. Initially, a `lift and shift' approach, essentially moving as is, was attempted and various lessons learned about that approach will be discussed, along with recommendations that resulted from the development and eventual operational implementation of these tools. The session will discuss lessons learned related to management of these tools in an AWS environment; re-architecture strategies utilized for the tools; time investments through sprint allocations; initial benefits observed from operating within a Cloud based environment; and initial costs to support these data management tools.

  2. Reconceptualised Life Skills in Secondary Education in the African Context: Lessons Learnt from Reforms in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyeampong, Kwame

    2014-01-01

    Early notions of life skills in Africa did not take into account the importance of a flexible and portable set of skills that would enable youth to adapt to changes in the world of work and lay the foundations for productive well-being and behaviour. Rather, life skills education in many secondary education curricula in Africa started with an…

  3. Reconceptualised Life Skills in Secondary Education in the African Context: Lessons Learnt from Reforms in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyeampong, Kwame

    2014-01-01

    Early notions of life skills in Africa did not take into account the importance of a flexible and portable set of skills that would enable youth to adapt to changes in the world of work and lay the foundations for productive well-being and behaviour. Rather, life skills education in many secondary education curricula in Africa started with an…

  4. Methods to extend mechanical component life: Lessons learned with space vehicle and rocket engine components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huzel, Dieter K.

    The causes of diminished component life and the principal component degradation mechanisms are discussed together with means for extending component life. Particular attention is given to the component wear analyses and methodology. It is emphasized that, while the accelerated tests might lead to questionable results, the accelerated cycling does lend itself to reliable acceleration in a carefully designed test program.

  5. Cognitive Predictors of Everyday Problem Solving across the Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Hertzog, Christopher; Park, Denise C

    2017-01-01

    An important aspect of successful aging is maintaining the ability to solve everyday problems encountered in daily life. The limited evidence today suggests that everyday problem solving ability increases from young adulthood to middle age, but decreases in older age. The present study examined age differences in the relative contributions of fluid and crystallized abilities to solving problems on the Everyday Problems Test (EPT). We hypothesized that due to diminishing fluid resources available with advanced age, crystallized knowledge would become increasingly important in predicting everyday problem solving with greater age. Two hundred and twenty-one healthy adults from the Dallas Lifespan Brain Study, aged 24-93 years, completed a cognitive battery that included measures of fluid ability (i.e., processing speed, working memory, inductive reasoning) and crystallized ability (i.e., multiple measures of vocabulary). These measures were used to predict performance on EPT. Everyday problem solving showed an increase in performance from young to early middle age, with performance beginning to decrease at about age of 50 years. As hypothesized, fluid ability was the primary predictor of performance on everyday problem solving for young adults, but with increasing age, crystallized ability became the dominant predictor. This study provides evidence that everyday problem solving ability differs with age, and, more importantly, that the processes underlying it differ with age as well. The findings indicate that older adults increasingly rely on knowledge to support everyday problem solving, whereas young adults rely almost exclusively on fluid intelligence. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Everyday memory in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Chen; Tsai, Pei-Luen; Hsu, Yung-Wen; Ma, Hui-Ing; Lai, Hsuan-An

    2013-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have deficits in working memory, but little is known about the everyday memory of these children in real-life situations. We investigated the everyday memory function in children with DCD, and explored the specific profile of everyday memory across different domains. Nineteen children with DCD and 19 typically developing (TD) children participated in the study. Their everyday memory performance was evaluated using the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test for Children, which showed that 52.6% of the children with DCD had everyday memory deficits. The overall everyday memory scores of the DCD group were significantly lower than those of the controls, particularly in the verbal and visual memory domains. Pearson correlation analysis indicated significant associations between verbal intelligence and memory scores. Analysis of covariance with verbal intelligence as a covariate showed no significant differences between groups in memory scores. Mediator analysis supported the notion that everyday memory deficits in children with DCD were fully mediated through verbal intelligence. We provide evidence of everyday memory deficits in most of the children with DCD, and hypothesize that language abilities are their underlying cause. The clinical implications of these findings and recommendations for additional research are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison between sensor-augmented insulin therapy with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion or multiple daily injections in everyday life: 3-day analysis of glucose patterns and sensor accuracy in children.

    PubMed

    Zucchini, Stefano; Scipione, Mirella; Balsamo, Claudia; Maltoni, Giulio; Rollo, Alessandra; Molinari, Emanuela; Mangoni, Lorenza; Cicognani, Alessandro

    2011-12-01

    Sensor-augmented continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy is superior to CSII therapy alone, but little is known on the effectiveness of sensor-augmented multiple daily injections (MDI) therapy. We compared during everyday life mean glucose control and several variability indexes recorded for 3 days by a real-time glucose sensor (Medtronic, Northridge, CA) in two groups of children treated with either CSII or MDI. Fifty-five consecutive subjects were examined: 17 receiving CSII and 38 receiving MDI basal-bolus therapy (age range, 7-22 years). All subjects wore the sensor for 4 days, and 3 days were used for statistical analysis. Mean glucose and SD, coefficient of variation (CV), mean amplitude of glucose excursion (MAGE), mean of daily differences (MODD), continuous overall net glycemic action (CONGA) at 2 and 4 h, blood glucose (BG) rate, area under the curve (AUC) above 180 mg/dL and below 70 mg/dL, Low BG Index (LBGI), and High BG Index (HBGI) were calculated. Patients receiving CSII administered more daily boluses than patients receiving MDI (5.2±1.5 vs. 3.2±0.3, respectively; P=0.001). Mean glucose was lower in the CSII group. AUC above 180 mg/dL and HBGI were higher in the MDI group. CV, CONGA at 2 h, CONGA at 2 h during the day, and HBGI were worse in the MDI group, whereas MODD, LBGI, BG rate, and MAGE were similar. A positive correlation (r=0.95; P<0.05) was found between the paired sensor-meter values. For the glucose values <70 mg/dL, sensitivity was 40%, and specificity was 99%. In our pediatric patients during everyday life sensor-augmented CSII therapy seemed more effective than sensor-augmented MDI therapy, in terms both of glucose mean values and of intraday variability. Mild hypoglycemic episodes and indexes of low BG values were similar in the two groups, although the latter results may be inaccurate because of low sensor sensitivity at low glucose value.

  8. Walking on the edge: meanings of living in an ageing body and using a walker in everyday life - a phenomenological hermeneutic study.

    PubMed

    Brännström, Helene; Bäckman, Margit; Santamäki Fischer, Regina

    2013-05-01

    In order to maintain one's state of health whilst growing older, the ability to walk is essential. The aim of this study was to illuminate the meanings of the lived experience of living in an ageing body and using a walker in daily life. Narrative interviews were performed with seven older persons aged 79-95 years. The transcribed text was analysed using a phenomenological hermeneutic method. The key finding of the study was that the lived experience of living in an ageing body and using a walker in daily life was interpreted as 'walking on the edge' based on the themes 'Being vulnerable and dependent' and 'Being confident and independent'. The results highlight the importance of reflecting on this phenomenon as a health care professional while meeting the care needs of older persons who use walkers. Nurses need to consider the walker as a personal and valued possession of the individual and handle the walker in agreement with the older person, placing the walker close at hand with the brakes locked to give secure support. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. A Tale of Two Chambers: Iterative Approaches and Lessons Learned from Life Support Systems Testing in Altitude Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callini, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    The drive for the journey to Mars is in a higher gear than ever before. We are developing new spacecraft and life support systems to take humans to the Red Planet. The journey that development hardware takes before its final incarnation in a fully integrated spacecraft can take years, as is the case for the Orion environmental control and life support system (ECLSS). Through the Pressure Integrated Suit Test (PIST) series, NASA personnel at Johnson Space Center have been characterizing the behavior of a closed loop ECLSS in the event of cabin depressurization. This kind of testing - one of the most hazardous activities performed at JSC - requires an iterative approach, increasing in complexity and hazards). The PIST series, conducted in the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD) 11-ft Chamber, started with unmanned test precursors before moving to a human-in-the-loop phase, and continues to evolve with the eventual goal of a qualification test for the final system that will be installed on Orion. Meanwhile, the Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA) program is an effort to research and develop technologies that will work in concert to support habitation on Mars. September 2015 marked the first unmanned HESTIA test, with the goal of characterizing how ECLSS technologies work together in a closed environment. HESTIA will culminate in crewed testing, but it can benefit from the lessons learned from another test that is farther ahead in its development and life cycle. Discussing PIST and HESTIA, this paper illustrates how we approach testing, the kind of information that facility teams need to ensure efficient collaborations and successful testing, and how we can apply what we learn to execute future tests.

  10. Reconceptualised life skills in secondary education in the African context: Lessons learnt from reforms in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyeampong, Kwame

    2014-04-01

    Early notions of life skills in Africa did not take into account the importance of a flexible and portable set of skills that would enable youth to adapt to changes in the world of work and lay the foundations for productive well-being and behaviour. Rather, life skills education in many secondary education curricula in Africa started with an emphasis on developing specific technical vocational skills considered essential for employability or self-employment. Using Ghana as an example, this paper shows how secondary education curriculum reformers recommended shifts that embraced a new interpretation of life skills focused on 21st-century skills. This gradual move also reflected the difficulty that secondary education in general has had in networking with the world of work to provide work experience that would lead to the development of work-related skills and enhance employability. The author's main argument is that although the reconceptualisation of life skills in secondary education to reflect 21st-century skills is a welcome shift in the African context, this needs to be accompanied by reforms in teacher education. Classroom teaching and learning need to be adapted in a fundamental way in order to ensure that youth fully benefit from the inclusion of 21st-century life skills in secondary education curricula. Such reforms must include pedagogical practices which nurture communication, collaboration, creativity and critical thinking skills.

  11. Affirming Life in the Face of Death: Ricoeur's Living Up to Death as a modern ars moriendi and a lesson for palliative care.

    PubMed

    de Lange, Ds Frits

    2014-11-01

    In his posthumously published Living Up to Death Paul Ricoeur left an impressive testimony on what it means to live at a high old age with death approaching. In this article I present him as a teacher who reminds us of valuable lessons taught by patients in palliative care and their caretakers who accompany them on their way to death, and also as a guide in our search for a modern ars moriendi, after--what many at least experience as--the breakdown of traditional religious belief in a personal afterlife. These lessons can be summarized in the following theses. 'Living up to death, one cannot experience one's own death. Therefore, never consider someone dying as moribund'. 'Though everybody is alone in dying, nobody should die alone.' 'The preparation for death is an affirmation of life'. 'Life experienced as a gift can be given up'. The plausibility of the last thesis, however, may go beyond the confines of austere philosophical thinking.

  12. Organic and Isotopic Signatures of Life: Lessons from the Early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, K. H.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; House, C. H.

    2002-12-01

    In the study of life on earth, isotopic analyses of organic biomarkers provide essential insight to their biological and environmental provenance. Isotopic analyses of organic materials on other planets present a number of challenges, both analytical and interpretive. Prebiotic planetary organic materials can derive from condensation reactions and by delivery through meteorites or interplanetary dust, with the relative importance of each influenced by the oxidation state of the atmosphere. Material delivered to planets can have an interstellar origin, although it is dominated by compounds influenced by the formation of the solar system. Each of these processes impact molecular isotopic signatures and must be considered in life-detection strategies. Pronounced effects are observed for hydrogen isotopes, with smaller fractionations observed for other elements. Theoretical, laboratory and observational studies of non-terrean materials are essential to further understand molecular isotopic heterogeneity associated with these exclusively abiotic processes. Studies of Archean-aged samples provide an important resource for interpreting molecular isotopic patterns as signatures of life processes. Carbon assimilation and biomass synthesis from simple precursor compounds typically discriminate against 13C. This generality, however, is complicated by the observations of a wide range of fractionation factors associated with important microbial carbon-uptake processes. Metabolic processes further distribute isotopic signatures, such that wide isotopic heterogeneity is observed among cellular biochemical constituents. In addition, preservation/contamination concerns dominate studies of very ancient organic matter, as they likely will in life-detection studies. However, both biochemical heterogeneity and sample integrity can be addressed by considering patterns from different paleoenvironments. Molecular results demonstrate that Late Archean microbial life on this planet was

  13. Vapor Compression Distillation Urine Processor Lessons Learned from Development and Life Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchens, Cindy F.; Long, David A.

    1999-01-01

    Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) is the chosen technology for urine processing aboard the International Space Station (155). Development and life testing over the past several years have brought to the forefront problems and solutions for the VCD technology. Testing between 1992 and 1998 has been instrumental in developing estimates of hardware life and reliability. It has also helped improve the hardware design in ways that either correct existing problems or enhance the existing design of the hardware. The testing has increased the confidence in the VCD technology and reduced technical and programmatic risks. This paper summarizes the test results and changes that have been made to the VCD design.

  14. Vapor Compression Distillation Urine Processor Lessons Learned from Development and Life Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchens, Cindy F.; Long, David A.

    1999-01-01

    Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) is the chosen technology for urine processing aboard the International Space Station (155). Development and life testing over the past several years have brought to the forefront problems and solutions for the VCD technology. Testing between 1992 and 1998 has been instrumental in developing estimates of hardware life and reliability. It has also helped improve the hardware design in ways that either correct existing problems or enhance the existing design of the hardware. The testing has increased the confidence in the VCD technology and reduced technical and programmatic risks. This paper summarizes the test results and changes that have been made to the VCD design.

  15. Carving for the Soul: Life Lessons from Self-Taught Artist O. L. Samuels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sickler-Voigt, Debrah C.

    2006-01-01

    O. L. Samuels is a well-known folk artist who creates wooden animals, people, speeding cars, and mystical creatures to express stories about life, personal heritage, and social issues. An African American born on a plantation in Southern Georgia on November 18,1931, Samuels left his home at the age of 8 in search of work. Leaving his home at such…

  16. Carving for the Soul: Life Lessons from Self-Taught Artist O. L. Samuels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sickler-Voigt, Debrah C.

    2006-01-01

    O. L. Samuels is a well-known folk artist who creates wooden animals, people, speeding cars, and mystical creatures to express stories about life, personal heritage, and social issues. An African American born on a plantation in Southern Georgia on November 18,1931, Samuels left his home at the age of 8 in search of work. Leaving his home at such…

  17. Life and Death of a Gifted Program: Lessons Not Yet Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starko, Alane J.

    1990-01-01

    The study investigates factors influencing the establishment, operation, and elimination of an elementary enriched/accelerated program existing from 1958-69. The program's life cycle and perceived effects on students were investigated to determine factors that may continue to affect programing for the gifted/talented. (Author/JDD)

  18. Life detection strategy for Jovian's icy moons: Lessons from subglacial Lake Vostok exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulat, Sergey; Alekhina, Irina; Marie, Dominique; Petit, Jean-Robert

    2010-05-01

    The objective was to estimate the microbial content of accretion ice originating from the subglacial Lake Vostok buried beneath 4-km thick East Antarctic ice sheet with the ultimate goal to discover microbial life in this extreme icy environment. The DNA study constrained by Ancient DNA research criteria was used as a main approach. The flow cytometry was implemented in cell enumerating. As a result, both approaches showed that the accretion ice contains the very low unevenly distributed biomass indicating that the water body should also be hosting a highly sparse life. Up to now, the only accretion ice featured by mica-clay sediments presence allowed the recovery a pair of bacterial phylotypes. This unexpectedly included the chemolithoautotrophic thermophile Hydrogenophilus thermoluteolus and one more unclassified phylotype both passing numerous contaminant controls. In contrast, the deeper and cleaner accretion ice with no sediments presence and near detection limit gas content gave no reliable signals. Thus, the results obtained testify that the search for life in the Lake Vostok is constrained by a high chance of forward-contamination. The subglacial Lake Vostok seems to represent the only extremely clean giant aquatic system on the Earth providing a unique test area for searching for life on icy worlds. The life detection strategy for (sub)glacial environments elsewhere (e.g., Jovian's Europa) should be based on stringent decontamination procedures in clean-room facilities, establishment of on-site contaminant library, implementation of appropriate methods to reach detection level for signal as low as possible, verification of findings through ecological settings of a given environment and repetition at an independent laboratory within the specialized laboratory network.

  19. Lessons learned from primary school students with photonics learning-by-playing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phoojaruenchanachai, Suwannee; Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Chanhorm, Sataporn

    2009-06-01

    We encourage primary school students in the grades 4-6 to challenge themselves on exploring light in everyday life. At the beginning, we bring in the critical-thinking approach where we use open-ended questions in applications of photonics around them. Later on, we engage them to our photonics lessons via our "Long Len" photonics kit. With our educational kit, we observe that most students in 21 schools from different parts of Thailand are amazed about photonics. They try to play with our kit in their ways, enjoy learning with their friends, and give us back many interesting questions. Based on their evaluations on our approach, 90-98% of them understand more about topics they already know. They also gain new knowledge and can see how it is applied to everyday life. The remaining percentage relates to students who are shy to interact with us.

  20. Community College Biology Lesson Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manteuffel, Mary S., Comp.; Herrick, Kathie, Comp.

    This catalog contains lesson descriptions of the available biology lessons on PLATO IV, compiled to assist instructors in planning their curricula. Information is provided for 87 lessons in the following areas: introductory material on experimental tools and techniques; chemical basis of life; cellular structure and function; reproduction and…

  1. Physiological consequences of everyday psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Pollard, T M

    1997-06-01

    A large body of data has been accumulated concerning physiological responses in people exposed to stressors in laboratories. Adrenaline and cortisol have become known as "stress hormones" because, in men, levels of both hormones consistently rise in response to stress in laboratory-based investigations. If chronically repeated, elevation of adrenaline and cortisol is likely to have long-term consequences for health, especially cardiovascular health, partly via the effects of the hormones on blood pressure and serum cholesterol levels. Research on people conducting their everyday lives is necessary to establish whether the same responses are shown on a day to day basis. Such research requires new methodologies and careful data collection. So far, it has been shown that adrenaline and blood pressure do seem to vary in expected ways. Other responses in everyday life, including those of cholesterol, cortisol and the immune system, are less well characterised.

  2. Everyday Memory Errors in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ossher, Lynn; Flegal, Kristin E.; Lustig, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    Despite concern about cognitive decline in old age, few studies document the types and frequency of memory errors older adults make in everyday life. In the present study, 105 healthy older adults completed the Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ; Sunderland, Harris, & Baddeley, 1983), indicating what memory errors they had experienced in the last 24 hours, the Memory Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (MSEQ; West, Thorn, & Bagwell, 2003), and other neuropsychological and cognitive tasks. EMQ and MSEQ scores were unrelated and made separate contributions to variance on the Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE; Folstein, Folstein, & McHugh, 1975), suggesting separate constructs. Tip-of-the-tongue errors were the most commonly reported, and the EMQ Faces/Places and New Things subscales were most strongly related to MMSE. These findings may help training programs target memory errors commonly experienced by older adults, and suggest which types of memory errors could indicate cognitive declines of clinical concern. PMID:22694275

  3. Jamestown Changes [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    In this lesson, students study census data showing the names and occupations of early settlers of the English settlement at Jamestown, Virginia, to discern how life changed in the Jamestown settlement in the first few years after it was founded. Learning objectives of the lesson plan are: (1) to gain experience gathering information from primary…

  4. "Walden". [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surber, Gretchen C.

    Based on Henry David Thoreau's book "Walden," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that acquisitiveness and simplicity can be opposing life philosophies; and that both philosophies have had notable adherents. The main activity of the lesson involves students researching historical characters (including Thoreau)…

  5. The life cycle and pathogenesis of human cytomegalovirus infection: lessons from proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Beltran, Pierre M. Jean; Cristea, Ileana M.

    2015-01-01

    Viruses have co-evolved with their hosts, acquiring strategies to subvert host cellular pathways for effective viral replication and spread. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a widely-spread β-herpesvirus, is a major cause of birth defects and opportunistic infections in HIV-1/AIDS patients. HCMV displays an intricate system-wide modulation of the human cell proteome. An impressive array of virus–host protein interactions occurs throughout the infection. To investigate the virus life cycle, proteomics has recently become a significant component of virology studies. Here, we review the mass spectrometry-based proteomics approaches used in HCMV studies, as well as their contribution to understanding the HCMV life cycle and the virus-induced changes to host cells. The importance of the biological insights gained from these studies clearly demonstrate the impact that proteomics has had and can continue to have on understanding HCMV biology and identifying new therapeutic targets. PMID:25327590

  6. Eczema in early life: Genetics, the skin barrier, and lessons learned from birth cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Biagini Myers, Jocelyn M.; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K.

    2010-01-01

    Eczema is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the skin that affects up to 30% of children. It often afflicts infants in the first few months of life and can be the first indicator of the atopic march. Recent results from birth cohort studies have uncovered novel information regarding genetic and environmental factors that promote the development of eczema. Birth cohort studies provide an optimal study design to elucidate these associations and prospectively track longitudinal data including exposure assessment and health outcomes from birth into early life and childhood. This is especially relevant for eczema given the age specific emergence of this disease. In this review, we will provide a general overview of pediatric eczema and discuss the important findings in the literature with respect to genetics and environmental exposures, highlighting those derived from birth cohort studies. Additionally, we will review how these relate to the atopic march, the hygiene hypothesis and the integrity of the skin barrier. PMID:20739029

  7. Integration of lessons from recent research for "Earth to Mars" life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, M.; Allen, J. P.; Alling, A.; Dempster, W. F.; Silverstone, S.; van Thillo, M.

    Development of reliable and robust strategies for long-term life support for mbox planetary exploration needs to be built on real-time experimentation to verify and improve system components Also critical is the incorporation of a range of viable options to handle potential short-term life system imbalances This paper revisits some of the conceptual framework for a Mars base prototype previously advanced Mars on Earth in the light of three years of experimentation by the authors in the Laboratory Biosphere further investigation of system alternatives and the advent of other innovative engineering and agri-ecosystem approaches Several experiments with candidate space agriculture crops have demonstrated the higher productivity possible with elevated light levels and improved environmental controls For example crops of sweet potatoes exceeded original Mars base prototype projections by 83 ultradwarf Apogee wheat by 27 pinto bean by 240 and cowpeas slightly exceeded anticipated dry bean yield These production levels although they may be increased with further optimization of lighting regimes environmental parameters crop density etc offer evidence that a soil-based system can be as productive as the hydroponic systems which have dominated space life support scenarios and research Soil also offers several distinct advantages the capability to be created using in-situ space resources reducing reliance on consumables and imported resources and more easily recycling and

  8. Lessons from the life history of natural fertility societies on child growth and maturation.

    PubMed

    Gawlik, Aneta; Hochberg, Ze'ev

    2012-06-19

    During the evolution of hominids, childhood and adolescence have been added as new life-history phases. The transition from infancy to childhood (ICT) confers a predictive adaptive response to energetic cues that strongly influence adult height, whereas the transition from juvenility to adolescence establishes longevity and the age of fertility. Evolutionary short-term adaptations to energy crises apparently use epigenetic mechanisms that defer the ICT, culminating in short stature. The study of hunter-gatherers gives us an indication of pre-demographic transition populations and their life style that prevailed for 99% of homo's evolution. The secular trend for receding age of pubertal development has been an adaptive response to positive environmental cues in terms of energy balance. In natural fertility preindustrial societies with limited access to modern contraception and health care, and whose economies are primarily subsistence-based, most resources are invested as somatic capital in human body size and fertility. Here we review results from databases for natural fertility societies, with the information on life history, population density, height and body mass, indices of adolescence and fertility. By using them it was possible to verify the ICT model as well as to explore pubertal parameters that are related to evolutionary fitness. They confirmed that body size was adaptively smaller in hostile environments, and was tightly associated with reproductive fitness.

  9. Everyday life consequences of substance use in adult patients with a substance use disorder (SUD) and co-occurring attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD): a patient's perspective.

    PubMed

    Kronenberg, Linda M; Slager-Visscher, Karin; Goossens, Peter J J; van den Brink, Wim; van Achterberg, Theo

    2014-09-19

    Although the prevalence of substance use disorder (SUD) with co-occurring attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is relatively high in adult patients, there is hardly any knowledge about these dual diagnoses. A recent study reported met- and unmet needs for several life domains regarding these patient groups. To improve treatment, it is necessary to identify the everyday life consequences of SUD and co-occurring ADHD or ASD in adult patients. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. 11 SUD + ADHD and 12 SUD + ASD patients participated in the study. The interview transcripts were coded and analysed according to the seven steps for descriptive phenomenology by Colaizzi. Both patients with ADHD and patients with ASD can get caught in a jumble of thoughts and emotions which can often lead to agitation and impulsivity in the case of ADHD or passivity and melancholia in the case of ASD with co-occurring SUD in both cases. Initially substance use ameliorates the symptoms and related problems, but both patient groups can later experience even greater problems: difficulties with the structuring of daily life due to a lack of planning (SUD + ADHD) or due to a lack of initiative (SUD + ASD). Both groups indicate that structure helps them function better. They also recognize that substance use disorganizes their lives and that an absence of structure contributes to substance use in what becomes a vicious circle which needs to be broken for effective treatment and care. This study provides insight into the daily life consequences of SUD with a co-occurring ADHD or ASD. Substance use is reported to solve some ADHD- or ASD-related problems in the short run but have negative consequences in the long run (i.e., contribute to already impaired cognitive functioning). Insight is provided into what clinicians can do to break this vicious circle and thus help ADHD patients to refrain from action and ASD patients to take

  10. Development and validation of the impact of dry eye on everyday life (IDEEL) questionnaire, a patient-reported outcomes (PRO) measure for the assessment of the burden of dry eye on patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate a comprehensive patient-reported outcomes instrument focusing on the impact of dry eye on everyday life (IDEEL). Methods Development and validation of the IDEEL occurred in four phases: 1) focus groups with 45 dry eye patients to develop a draft instrument, 2) item generation, 3) pilot study to assess content validity in 16 patients and 4) psychometric validation in 210 subjects: 130 with non-Sjögren's keratoconjunctivitis sicca, 32 with Sjögren's syndrome and 48 controls, and subsequent item reduction. Results Focus groups identified symptoms and the associated bother, the impact of dry eye on daily life and the patients' satisfaction with their treatment as the central concepts in patients' experience of dry eye. Qualitative analysis indicated that saturation was achieved for these concepts and yielded an initial 112-item draft instrument. Patients understood the questionnaire and found the items to be relevant indicating content validity. Patient input, item descriptive statistics and factor analysis identified 55 items that could be deleted. The final 57-item IDEEL assesses dry eye impact constituting 3 modules: dry eye symptom-bother, dry eye impact on daily life comprising impact on daily activities, emotional impact, impact on work, and dry eye treatment satisfaction comprising satisfaction with treatment effectiveness and treatment-related bother/inconvenience. The psychometric analysis results indicated that the IDEEL met the criteria for item discriminant validity, internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability and floor/ceiling effects. As expected, the correlations between IDEEL and the Dry Eye Questionnaire (a habitual symptom questionnaire) were higher than between IDEEL and Short-Form-36 and EuroQoL-5D, indicating concurrent validity. Conclusion The IDEEL is a reliable, valid and comprehensive questionnaire relevant to issues that are specific to dry eye patients, and meets current FDA patient

  11. What traces of life can we expect on Mars? Lessons from the early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westall, F.

    2008-09-01

    Abstract Environmental conditions on early Mars, from a microbial point of view, were largely similar to those on the early Earth. The oldest, well-preserved rocks on the early Earth (~3.5 Ga) host a wide range of morphological and geochemical traces of life, including chemolithotrophic, heterotrophic and photosynthetic anaerobic microorganisms. These microorganisms evolved in a tectonically evolving geological context, including carbonate platform formation. This scenario did not exist on Mars. Moreover, Mars was outside the habitable zone and standing bodies of water were probably ice-covered. Evolutionary advancement of martian life (if it appeared) would have been curtailed very early and it is unlikely that photosynthesis could have evolved. It is therefore unlikely that martian life will leave visible traces that can be detected with in situ instrumentation (no biolaminites or stromatolites). Geochemical detection of organic components will be possible but it is unlikely that the results will be conclusive. The return of suitable rocks from Mars is advocated. Early life on Earth and Mars The oldest, well preserved rocks on Earth, including both sedimentary and volcanic lithologies, contain abundant morphological and geochemical traces of life [1]. Evidence of borings into basalt lavas [2] and microbial colonies within volcanic sediments [3,4] testify to microbial utilisation of chemolithotrophy. Microscopic tunnels, tens of microns in length, containing traces of biologically important elements, such as C and N, in the vitreous rinds of pillow lavas are identified in petrographic thin section (Fig. 1) [2]. Similar 5-10 μm-sized tunnels have been channelled into the surfaces of detrital volcanic grains [4]. They contain the remains of microbial polymeric substances (EPS) but can only be identified in petrographic thin section and using the high magnification of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Furthermore, volcanic sediments deposited in water contain

  12. The lived experience of engaging in everyday occupations in persons with mild to moderate aphasia.

    PubMed

    Niemi, Tuuli; Johansson, Ulla

    2013-10-01

    Impairment of language ability, aphasia, can cause barriers to communication and hence impact on participation in many life situations. This study aimed to describe and explore how persons with aphasia following stroke experience engaging in everyday occupations. Six persons from Southwest Finland who had aphasia due to stroke one to four years previously were interviewed for the study. A modified form of the empirical phenomenological psychological method was used for data analysis. Three main characteristics of experiences of engaging in everyday occupations were identified: (1) encountering new experiences in everyday occupations, (2) striving to handle everyday occupations and (3) going ahead with life. The participants had experienced an altering life-world. Engagement in occupations affected their perceptions of competence and identity, and experiences of belonging and well-being. It was also through engagement in everyday occupations that they had discovered and learnt to handle changes in their everyday life. Aphasia can have a long-term impact on engagement in everyday occupations and participation in society, but conversely, engagement in meaningful occupations can also contribute to adaptation to disability and life changes. Aphasia can have a long-term impact on engagement in everyday occupations and participation in society. Health care professionals need to determine what clients with aphasia think about their occupations and life situations in spite of difficulties they may have verbalizing their thoughts. Experiences of engaging in meaningful occupations can help clients with aphasia in reconstructing their life stories, thereby contributing to adaptation to disability and life changes.

  13. Integration of lessons from recent research for “Earth to Mars” life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Allen, J. P.

    Development of reliable and robust strategies for long-term life support for planetary exploration must be built from real-time experimentation to verify and improve system components. Also critical is incorporating a range of viable options to handle potential short-term life system imbalances. This paper revisits some of the conceptual framework for a Mars base prototype which has been developed by the authors along with others previously advanced ("Mars on Earth ®") in the light of three years of experimentation in the Laboratory Biosphere, further investigation of system alternatives and the advent of other innovative engineering and agri-ecosystem approaches. Several experiments with candidate space agriculture crops have demonstrated the higher productivity possible with elevated light levels and improved environmental controls. For example, crops of sweet potatoes exceeded original Mars base prototype projections by an average of 46% (53% for best crop) ultradwarf (Apogee) wheat by 9% (23% for best crop), pinto bean by 13% (31% for best crop). These production levels, although they may be increased with further optimization of lighting regimes, environmental parameters, crop density etc. offer evidence that a soil-based system can be as productive as the hydroponic systems which have dominated space life support scenarios and research. But soil also offers distinct advantages: the capability to be created on the Moon or Mars using in situ space resources, reduces long-term reliance on consumables and imported resources, and more readily recycling and incorporating crew and crop waste products. In addition, a living soil contains a complex microbial ecosystem which helps prevent the buildup of trace gases or compounds, and thus assist with air and water purification. The atmospheric dynamics of these crops were studied in the Laboratory Biosphere adding to the database necessary for managing the mixed stands of crops essential for supplying a nutritionally

  14. CLIL in physics lessons at grammar school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štefančínová, Iveta; Valovičová, Ľubomíra

    2017-01-01

    Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) is one of the most outstanding approaches in foreign language teaching. This teaching method has promising prospects for the future of modern education as teaching subject and foreign languages are combined to offer a better preparation for life in Europe, especially when the mobility is becoming a highly significant factor of everyday life. We realized a project called Foreign languages in popularizing science at grammar school. Within the project five teachers with approbation subjects of English, French, German and Physics attended the methodological courses abroad. The teachers applied the gained experience in teaching and linking science teaching with the teaching of foreign languages. Outputs of the project (e.g. English-German-French-Slovak glossary of natural science terminology, student activity sheets, videos with natural science orientation in a foreign language, physical experiments in foreign languages, multimedia fairy tales with natural contents, posters of some scientists) are prepared for the CLIL-oriented lessons. We collected data of the questionnaire for students concerning attitude towards CLIL. The questionnaire for teachers showed data about the attitude, experience, and needs of teachers employing CLIL in their lessons.

  15. Cognition in scientific and everyday domains: Comparison and learning implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reif, Frederick; Larkin, Jill H.

    An analysis and comparison of everyday life and the domain of science reveals significant differences in their goals and in the cognitive means used to attain these goals. Students' lack of awareness of these differences can lead to pervasive learning difficulties in their study of science. Thus many students (a) have erroneous conceptions of scientific goals, (b) import goals and ways of thinking which are effective in everyday life but inadequate in science, and (c) devise ways of thinking ill suited to science. Additional complications arise because science taught in schools often differs both from actual science and from everyday life. Students' learning difficulties are thus increased because scientific goals are distorted and scientific ways of thinking are inadequately taught. The preceding analysis suggests some empirical investigations and instructional improvements.

  16. Translating Strong for Life Into the Community Care Program: Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Danilovich, Margaret K.; Hughes, Susan L.; Corcos, Daniel M.; Marquez, David X.; Eisenstein, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    We used a randomized controlled trial to test the implementation of Strong for Life (SFL), a resistance exercise intervention, using 32 home care aides (HCAs) as exercise leaders with their 42 homebound older adult clients enrolled in the Community Care Program, a Medicaid 1915(c) waiver program. Mixed-methods were used to analyze outcomes of program satisfaction rates, training session evaluations, program fidelity, and job descriptive index scores. Results indicate that it is feasible for HCAs to implement SFL safely with clients. Participants viewed SFL as highly satisfactory and HCAs were able to adapt SFL for their clients. HCAs have high job satisfaction, and leading SFL enhances work achievement and pride. Our results show it is possible to train HCAs to implement SFL with their clients in addition to providing usual care services, participation positively affects both care partners, and this is a feasible and practical delivery model to provide exercise for adults receiving home- and community-based services. PMID:26912729

  17. Borders of life: lessons from Microbiology of deep-sea hydrothermal vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieur, D.

    Thirty years ago, the deep-sea was known as a low density biotope due to coldness, darkness and famine-like conditions. The discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Eastern Pacific in 1977 and the associated black smokers in 1979 considerably changed our views about life on Earth. For the first time, an ecosystem almost independent (at least for tens of years) of solar nergy was discovered. Besides the spectacular and unexpected communities of invertebrates based on symbiotic associations with chemo-litho-autotrophic bacteria, prokaryotic communities associated with high temperature black smokers fascinated microbiologists of extreme environments. Within mineral structures where temperature gradients may fluctuate from ambient seawater temperatures (2°C) up to 350°C, thermophilic (optimal growth above 60°C) and hyperthermophilic (optimal growth above 80°C) microorganisms thrived under very severe conditions due to elevated hydrostatic pressure, toxic compounds or strong ionizing radiations. These organisms belong to both domains of Bacteria and Archaea and live aerobically but mostly anaerobically, using a variety of inorganic and organic carbon sources, and a variety of electron donnors and acceptors as well. The most thermophilic organism known on Earth was isolated from a mid-Atlantic-Ridge hydrotermal vent: Pyrolobus fumarii grows optimally at 110°c and its upper temperature limit for life is 113°C. Such an organism survived to autoclaving conditions currently used for sterilization procedures. Many other hyperthermophilic organisms were isolated and described, including fermenters, sulphate and sulphur reducers, hydrogen oxidizers, nitrate reducers, methanogens, etc. Although most of anaerobes are killed when exposed to oxygen, several deep-sea hyperthermophiles appeared to survive to both oxygen and starvation exposures, indicating that they probably can colonize rather distant environments Because of elevated hydrostatic pressure that exists at

  18. Life Lessons from Women with HIV: Mutuality, Self-Awareness, and Self-Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Dana C.; Bruck-Segal, Dana L.; Ruffing, Elizabeth G.; Firpo-Perretti, Yudelki M.; Dale, Sannisha K.; Weber, Kathleen M.; Cohen, Mardge H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Women with HIV in the United States cope with multiple traumas that influence adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and well-being. Narrative themes from three life turning points and a projective story task were compared for two groups of women with HIV (HIV well-managed vs. HIV not well-managed, matched on demographics and narrative word count) to understand predictors of successful outcomes. The well-managed group (n = 10) was virally suppressed and reported ≥95% ART adherence; the not well-managed group (n = 10) had detectable viral load and reported <95% ART adherence. Women were predominantly African American with low socioeconomic status and averaged 46.51 years. A three-stage coding process (with coders blind to group status in stages 1 and 2) involved (1) line by line thematic analyses that generated 155 subthemes reflecting six content areas (interpersonal relationships; culture and community; sense of self; relationship to past, present, and future experiences; self-care; and motivators for change); (2) absence/presence of the 155 subthemes was compared for the two groups; the frequency of 37 subthemes was found to significantly differ; and (3) the 37 differentiating subthemes were conceptually integrated, revealing that the well-managed group's narratives more frequently reflected (a) mutuality (growth-fostering relationships involving reciprocal care and empathy); (b) self-awareness (recognition of personal strengths and weaknesses and multiple factors contributing to life choices and trajectories); and (c) self-efficacy (active coping, self-advocacy, and utilizing resources). Implications for treatment and interconnections among themes are discussed, emphasizing the factors that enable women to care for themselves and others. PMID:27214648

  19. Life Lessons from Women with HIV: Mutuality, Self-Awareness, and Self-Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Brody, Leslie R; Jack, Dana C; Bruck-Segal, Dana L; Ruffing, Elizabeth G; Firpo-Perretti, Yudelki M; Dale, Sannisha K; Weber, Kathleen M; Cohen, Mardge H

    2016-06-01

    Women with HIV in the United States cope with multiple traumas that influence adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and well-being. Narrative themes from three life turning points and a projective story task were compared for two groups of women with HIV (HIV well-managed vs. HIV not well-managed, matched on demographics and narrative word count) to understand predictors of successful outcomes. The well-managed group (n = 10) was virally suppressed and reported ≥95% ART adherence; the not well-managed group (n = 10) had detectable viral load and reported <95% ART adherence. Women were predominantly African American with low socioeconomic status and averaged 46.51 years. A three-stage coding process (with coders blind to group status in stages 1 and 2) involved (1) line by line thematic analyses that generated 155 subthemes reflecting six content areas (interpersonal relationships; culture and community; sense of self; relationship to past, present, and future experiences; self-care; and motivators for change); (2) absence/presence of the 155 subthemes was compared for the two groups; the frequency of 37 subthemes was found to significantly differ; and (3) the 37 differentiating subthemes were conceptually integrated, revealing that the well-managed group's narratives more frequently reflected (a) mutuality (growth-fostering relationships involving reciprocal care and empathy); (b) self-awareness (recognition of personal strengths and weaknesses and multiple factors contributing to life choices and trajectories); and (c) self-efficacy (active coping, self-advocacy, and utilizing resources). Implications for treatment and interconnections among themes are discussed, emphasizing the factors that enable women to care for themselves and others.

  20. Mobile Video in Everyday Social Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reponen, Erika; Lehikoinen, Jaakko; Impiö, Jussi

    Video recording has become a spontaneous everyday activity for many people, thanks to the video capabilities of modern mobile phones. Internet connectivity of mobile phones enables fluent sharing of captured material even real-time, which makes video an up-and-coming everyday interaction medium. In this article we discuss the effect of the video camera in the social environment, everyday life situations, mainly based on a study where four groups of people used digital video cameras in their normal settings. We also reflect on another study of ours, relating to real-time mobile video communication and discuss future views. The aim of our research is to understand the possibilities in the domain of mobile video. Live and delayed sharing seem to have their special characteristics, live video being used as a virtual window between places whereas delayed video usage has more scope for good-quality content. While this novel way of interacting via mobile video enables new social patterns, it also raises new concerns for privacy and trust between participating persons in all roles, largely due to the widely spreading possibilities of videos. Video in a social situation affects cameramen (who record), targets (who are recorded), passers-by (who are unintentionally in the situation), and the audience (who follow the videos or recording situations) but also the other way around, the participants affect the video by their varying and evolving personal and communicational motivations for recording.