Science.gov

Sample records for evidensbaserede farmakologiske interventioner

  1. The New Interventionism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Eugene J.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews U.S. interventionism from the Truman administration to the Reagan administration. Assesses how intervention has been initiated, justified, and prolonged in the past, stating that future policy must be based upon historical realities rather than on ideology, inherited doctrines, resolutions, or vague treaties. (GEA)

  2. [Cell signaling pathways interaction in cellular proliferation: Potential target for therapeutic interventionism].

    PubMed

    Valdespino-Gómez, Víctor Manuel; Valdespino-Castillo, Patricia Margarita; Valdespino-Castillo, Víctor Edmundo

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, cellular physiology is best understood by analysing their interacting molecular components. Proteins are the major components of the cells. Different proteins are organised in the form of functional clusters, pathways or networks. These molecules are ordered in clusters of receptor molecules of extracellular signals, transducers, sensors and biological response effectors. The identification of these intracellular signaling pathways in different cellular types has required a long journey of experimental work. More than 300 intracellular signaling pathways have been identified in human cells. They participate in cell homeostasis processes for structural and functional maintenance. Some of them participate simultaneously or in a nearly-consecutive progression to generate a cellular phenotypic change. In this review, an analysis is performed on the main intracellular signaling pathways that take part in the cellular proliferation process, and the potential use of some components of these pathways as target for therapeutic interventionism are also underlined. PMID:25986976

  3. A Classification and Review of Basic Writing Rhetorics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Christopher G.

    In a "College English" article, B. M. Kroll describes the educational and philosophical foundations of three perspectives on the teaching of writing: interventionism, maturationism, and interactionism. These three developmental perspectives offer a useful way of reviewing, evaluating, and classifying textbooks written for basic writers. The…

  4. The Public Looks at Foreign Policy: A Report from Five Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, John P.; Holm, John D.

    The document examines the American public stand on foreign policy and explores the extent of citizen support for six basic foreign policy orientations--anti-Communism, internationalism, democracy, isolationism, interventionism, and self-interest. The extent of public support within these orientations among subgroups in the populace is also…

  5. [Technological improvements in interventional cardiology].

    PubMed

    Calabuig, J; Artaiz, M; Azcárate, P; Palazuelos, J; Martín-Raymondi, D

    2005-01-01

    In the last few years, the evolution of coronary interventionism has been very important. The primary success rates in the early 1990s were 86-88% with a re-stenosis rate of 30%-40%. Current primary success rates have risen to over 95% with a re-stenosis rate of under 10% even for many types of lesions classically considered complex. Currently the main limitations in interventional cardiology remain coronary segments that cannot be accessed due to chronic total occlusion, or severe proximal tortuosity or calcification. Rapid improvements have led to broader clinical indications for percutaneous revascularization procedures. We describe the latest improvements in techniques.

  6. Is contracting a form of privatization?

    PubMed Central

    Perrot, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Contracting is often seen as a form of privatization, with contracts functioning as the tool that makes privatization possible. But contracting is also viewed by some as a means for the private sector to expand in a covert way its presence within the health sector. This article discusses the wider meaning of the term privatization in the health sector and the ways in which it is achieved. Privatization is seen here not simply as an action that leads to a new situation but also as one that leads to a change in behaviour. It is proposed that privatization may be assessed by looking at the ownership, management, and mission or objectives of the entity being privatized. Discussed also is the use of contracting by the state as a tool for state interventionism that is not based on authoritarian regulation. PMID:17143466

  7. The politics of welfare privatization: the British experience.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Gooby, P

    1989-01-01

    The 1980s Conservative government in Britain is committed to policies of welfare privatization for practical and ideological reasons--to facilitate tax cuts and to roll back the state. One problem this policy faces is that the most expensive and interventionist services are highly popular with voters from all parties. In this article, the author examines the extent to which recent privatization policies in welfare are influenced by conflict between the goals of achieving tax cuts and of maintaining electoral support, so that the outcome is a change in the form of state interventionism, rather than a rolling back of the welfare state. It also considers the impact of new policies designed to undermine the consensus across social groups and political parties of support for big-spending state services, which may facilitate reductions in the overall scope of welfare provision in future years. PMID:2714921

  8. The politics of welfare privatization: the British experience.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Gooby, P

    1989-01-01

    The 1980s Conservative government in Britain is committed to policies of welfare privatization for practical and ideological reasons--to facilitate tax cuts and to roll back the state. One problem this policy faces is that the most expensive and interventionist services are highly popular with voters from all parties. In this article, the author examines the extent to which recent privatization policies in welfare are influenced by conflict between the goals of achieving tax cuts and of maintaining electoral support, so that the outcome is a change in the form of state interventionism, rather than a rolling back of the welfare state. It also considers the impact of new policies designed to undermine the consensus across social groups and political parties of support for big-spending state services, which may facilitate reductions in the overall scope of welfare provision in future years.

  9. Mathematics in the lower primary years: A research-based perspective on curricula and teaching practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Bob

    1994-07-01

    Drawing on current research the author explicates twelve assertions relating to curricula, teaching, learners and learning environments in lower primary school mathematics. Topics discussed include: unchanging and under-challenging curricula; the need for greater emphasis on developing children's verbal number strategies and number sense, and on activities specifically suited to prenumerical children; curriculum constraints on teachers; the role of problem solving and differing interpretations of problem solving; the need for a better understanding of how children learn mathematics; differences in children's knowledge; "anti-interventionism," discovery learning, constructivism, children's autonomy and developmental learning; the need for compensatory programs; and learning in collaborative settings. The author concludes that learning and teaching lower primary mathematics continues to be an important area of focus and challenge for teachers and researchers.

  10. [Legal and organizational bases of health care in the textile industry of the Congress Kingdom of Poland in the 19th and beginning of 20th cent. (forms of insurance, work safety and sanitary regulations)].

    PubMed

    Fijałek, J; Kasznicki, J; Olszewski, A

    1978-01-01

    The origins of state interventionism in the field of health care in the textile industry of the Congress Kingdom of Poland go back to the first half of the XIX-th century. It could not, however, be developed earlier than in the last quarter of this century, at which time it resulted from the class struggle of textile workers, mainly in Lódź and Zyraŕdów. Legal and organizational patterns of health care were of foreign origin, but soon they were modified and adapted to the local conditions of the Congress Kingdom of Poland. It has to be underlined that it was the textile industry that stimulated legal and organizational changes in the field of industrial health care, not only in the Congress Kingdom of Poland but also in the whole contemporary Europe.

  11. The relevance of a rules-based maize marketing policy: an experimental case study of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Abbink, Klaus; Jayne, Thomas S; Moller, Lars C

    2011-01-01

    Strategic interaction between public and private actors is increasingly recognised as an important determinant of agricultural market performance in Africa and elsewhere. Trust and consultation tends to positively affect private activity while uncertainty of government behaviour impedes it. This paper reports on a laboratory experiment based on a stylised model of the Zambian maize market. The experiment facilitates a comparison between discretionary interventionism and a rules-based policy in which the government pre-commits itself to a future course of action. A simple precommitment rule can, in theory, overcome the prevailing strategic dilemma by encouraging private sector participation. Although this result is also borne out in the economic experiment, the improvement in private sector activity is surprisingly small and not statistically significant due to irrationally cautious choices by experimental governments. Encouragingly, a rules-based policy promotes a much more stable market outcome thereby substantially reducing the risk of severe food shortages. These results underscore the importance of predictable and transparent rules for the state's involvement in agricultural markets.

  12. Ground truth data generation for skull-face overlay.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, O; Cavalli, F; Campomanes-Álvarez, B R; Campomanes-Álvarez, C; Valsecchi, A; Huete, M I

    2015-05-01

    Objective and unbiased validation studies over a significant number of cases are required to get a more solid picture on craniofacial superimposition reliability. It will not be possible to compare the performance of existing and upcoming methods for craniofacial superimposition without a common forensic database available for the research community. Skull-face overlay is a key task within craniofacial superimposition that has a direct influence on the subsequent task devoted to evaluate the skull-face relationships. In this work, we present the procedure to create for the first time such a dataset. We have also created a database with 19 skull-face overlay cases for which we are trying to overcome legal issues that allow us to make it public. The quantitative analysis made in the segmentation and registration stages, together with the visual assessment of the 19 face-to-face overlays, allows us to conclude that the results can be considered as a gold standard. With such a ground truth dataset, a new horizon is opened for the development of new automatic methods whose performance could be now objectively measured and compared against previous and future proposals. Additionally, other uses are expected to be explored to better understand the visual evaluation process of craniofacial relationships in craniofacial identification. It could be very useful also as a starting point for further studies on the prediction of the resulting facial morphology after corrective or reconstructive interventionism in maxillofacial surgery.

  13. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell's criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein's Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein's remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation.

  14. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell’s criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein’s Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein’s remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation. PMID:26696908

  15. Ground truth data generation for skull-face overlay.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, O; Cavalli, F; Campomanes-Álvarez, B R; Campomanes-Álvarez, C; Valsecchi, A; Huete, M I

    2015-05-01

    Objective and unbiased validation studies over a significant number of cases are required to get a more solid picture on craniofacial superimposition reliability. It will not be possible to compare the performance of existing and upcoming methods for craniofacial superimposition without a common forensic database available for the research community. Skull-face overlay is a key task within craniofacial superimposition that has a direct influence on the subsequent task devoted to evaluate the skull-face relationships. In this work, we present the procedure to create for the first time such a dataset. We have also created a database with 19 skull-face overlay cases for which we are trying to overcome legal issues that allow us to make it public. The quantitative analysis made in the segmentation and registration stages, together with the visual assessment of the 19 face-to-face overlays, allows us to conclude that the results can be considered as a gold standard. With such a ground truth dataset, a new horizon is opened for the development of new automatic methods whose performance could be now objectively measured and compared against previous and future proposals. Additionally, other uses are expected to be explored to better understand the visual evaluation process of craniofacial relationships in craniofacial identification. It could be very useful also as a starting point for further studies on the prediction of the resulting facial morphology after corrective or reconstructive interventionism in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:25267257

  16. Constructing New Expertise: Private and Public Initiatives for Safe Food (Brussels in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century)

    PubMed Central

    Scholliers, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In 1856, the mayor of Brussels proposed the establishment of a municipal laboratory with a chemist to analyse food and beverages to restrain fraud. His proposal was accepted and a laboratory – possibly one of the first municipal laboratories in Europe – was set up. The laboratory still exists today. This paper aims at tracing the conditions in which it emerged, situating it within the laissez-faire context of the time. It was brought into existence by a liberal administration, in a period of little interventionism replete with unencumbered private interests (those of bakers, butchers, grocers, millers, pharmacists, doctors and so on). What will be considered here is the general mood with regard to food fraud, fair trade, correct price, and the quality of food in the first half of the nineteenth century. On a broader level, this contribution addresses the frictions between private and public initiative, while focusing on the process of construction of expertise. The paper makes use of contemporary documents such as reviews, newspapers, association reports and city council chronicles. PMID:25284894

  17. Effect of changes in technical parameters in radiological safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avendaño, Ge; Fernandez, C.

    2007-11-01

    This work analyzes the generation of secondary radiation that affects the professionals of health during interventional X ray procedures in first level hospitals. The research objectives were, on the one hand, to quantify the amount of radiation and to compare it with norms in force with respect to magnitudes, and on the other hand to evaluate the elements of protection used. The measurements will help to improve the radiological safety, to assess the eventuality of risks and, in the last term, to the possibility of norms modification for the improvement of the protection, especially that of the personnel who daily make a certain amount of interventional procedures guided by radiation, like angiographic cine applications, using continuous or pulsed fluoroscopy. The motivation of the study is in the suspicion that present interventionism is made with a false sensation of safety, based only in the use of lead apron and protection elements incorporated in the equipment by the manufacturer, nevertheless not always the health personnel are conscious that an excessive proximity with the tube and the patient body becomes a risky source of secondary and scattered radiation. The obtained results allow us to demonstrate the existence of conditions of risk, even possible iatrogenic events, in particular when the procedures imply the use of certain techniques of radiographic exploration, thus reaching the conclusion that the radiographic methodology must be changed in order to rationalize so much?. In order to achieve this we propose modifications to the present norms and legislation referred to the radiological safety in Chile.