Science.gov

Sample records for evitar grandes erros

  1. Development of a stable ERroGFP variant suitable for monitoring redox dynamics in the ER

    PubMed Central

    Hoseki, Jun; Oishi, Asami; Fujimura, Takaaki; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an essential organelle for cellular metabolic homeostasis including folding and maturation of secretory and membrane proteins. Disruption of ER proteostasis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases such as diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. The ER redox state, which is an oxidative environment suitable for disulfide-bond formation, is essential for ER protein quality control. Hence, detection of the ER redox state, especially in living cells, is essential to understand the mechanism by which the redox state of the ER is maintained. However, methods to detect the redox state of the ER have not been well-established because of inefficient folding and stability of roGFP variants with oxidative redox potential like roGFP-iL. Here we have improved the folding efficiency of ER-targeted roGFP-iL (ERroGFP-iL) in cells by introducing superfolder GFP (sfGFP) mutations. Four specific amino acid substitutions (S30R, Y39N, T105N and I171V) greatly improved folding efficiency in Escherichia coli and in the ER of HeLa cells, as well as the thermostability of the purified proteins. Introduction of these mutations also enhanced the dynamic range for redox change both in vitro and in the ER of living cells. ER-targeted roGFP-S4 (ERroGFP-S4) possessing these four mutations could detect physiological redox changes within the ER. ERroGFP-S4 is therefore a novel probe suitable for monitoring redox change in the ER. ERroGFP-S4 can be applied to detect aberrant ER redox states associated with various pathological conditions and to identify the mechanisms used to maintain the redox state of the ER. PMID:26934978

  2. Eavesdropping to Find Mates: The Function of Male Hearing for a Cicada-Hunting Parasitoid Fly, Emblemasoma erro (Diptera: Sarcophagidae).

    PubMed

    Stucky, Brian J

    2016-01-01

    Females of several species of dipteran parasitoids use long-range hearing to locate hosts for their offspring by eavesdropping on the acoustic mating calls of other insects. Males of these acoustic eavesdropping parasitoids also have physiologically functional ears, but so far, no adaptive function for male hearing has been discovered. I investigated the function of male hearing for the sarcophagid fly Emblemasoma erro Aldrich, an acoustic parasitoid of cicadas, by testing the hypothesis that both male and female E. erro use hearing to locate potential mates. I found that both male and nongravid female E. erro perform phonotaxis to the sounds of calling cicadas, that male flies engage in short-range, mate-finding behavior once they arrive at a sound source, and that encounters between females and males at a sound source can lead to copulation. Thus, cicada calling songs appear to serve as a mate-finding cue for both sexes of E. erro Emblemasoma erro's mate-finding behavior is compared to that of other sarcophagid flies, other acoustic parasitoids, and nonacoustic eavesdropping parasitoids.

  3. Grand River/Grand Rapids (Michigan)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Grand River/Grand Rapids (Michigan) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts

  4. Eavesdropping to Find Mates: The Function of Male Hearing for a Cicada-Hunting Parasitoid Fly, Emblemasoma erro (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)

    PubMed Central

    Stucky, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Females of several species of dipteran parasitoids use long-range hearing to locate hosts for their offspring by eavesdropping on the acoustic mating calls of other insects. Males of these acoustic eavesdropping parasitoids also have physiologically functional ears, but so far, no adaptive function for male hearing has been discovered. I investigated the function of male hearing for the sarcophagid fly Emblemasoma erro Aldrich, an acoustic parasitoid of cicadas, by testing the hypothesis that both male and female E. erro use hearing to locate potential mates. I found that both male and nongravid female E. erro perform phonotaxis to the sounds of calling cicadas, that male flies engage in short-range, mate-finding behavior once they arrive at a sound source, and that encounters between females and males at a sound source can lead to copulation. Thus, cicada calling songs appear to serve as a mate-finding cue for both sexes of E. erro. Emblemasoma erro’s mate-finding behavior is compared to that of other sarcophagid flies, other acoustic parasitoids, and nonacoustic eavesdropping parasitoids. PMID:27382133

  5. Uma comparação entre técnicas de propagação de erros em astrofísica: Monte Carlo x Bootstrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waelkens, A. H.; Janot Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    Recentemente Dhillon & Watson (2001) criticaram o procedimento de determinação de erros via simulações de Monte Carlo no caso do imageamento indireto de estrelas, por introduzir ruído nos dados e resultar em erros superestimados. Estes autores propuseram a utilização alternativa do método de Bootstrap como uma técnica superior para a estimativa de erros. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados de um estudo comparativo da performance das técnicas de simulação por Monte Carlo e por Bootstrap para a determinação de erros em duas situações de interesse: (i) ajuste de modelos a espectros observados e (ii) imageamento indireto de discos de acréscimo com técnicas de mapeamento por eclipse. No caso (i), os dados de entrada são espectros de emissão simples de hidrogênio aos quais é adicionado ruído gaussiano de amplitude selecionada. No caso (ii), são produzidas curvas de luz do eclipse de uma distribuição de brilho seguindo a lei TµR-3/4 para discos estacionários cuja taxa de acréscimo varia ao longo do eclipse segundo uma distribuição gaussiana de amplitude selecionada, simulando o ruído. A avaliação da performance é feita com o auxílio de um diagrama do erro relativo na grandeza ajustada, conforme obtido por cada método, versus o erro relativo (ruído/sinal) dos dados de entrada. O estudo mostra que as duas técnicas produzem resultados semelhantes nos dois casos, e que a suposta superioridade do método de Bootstrap não se confirma.

  6. Transverse section through the Grand Lodge and Grand Chapter rooms ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Transverse section through the Grand Lodge and Grand Chapter rooms of James H. Windrim and George Summers’s neoclassical competition design for the New Masonic Temple, Philadelphia, 1867 - Masonic Temple, 1 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. A GRAND affair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    tima2014; tomandersen; mugundhan; toadgreen

    2015-10-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com news story “GRAND plans for new neutrino observatory”, which called for a new detector made up of hundreds of thousands of antennas spread over an area slightly smaller than the UK (18 August, http://owl.ly/R5N6u).

  8. Democracy and "Grand" Corruption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose-Ackerman, Susan

    1996-01-01

    Defines "grand" corruption as that occurring at the higher levels of a political system and involving large sums of money. Discusses the impact and incentives for this level of corruption as well as various government responses. Identifies multinational corporations as the major malefactors. (MJP)

  9. Asymptotically safe grand unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajc, Borut; Sannino, Francesco

    2016-12-01

    Phenomenologically appealing supersymmetric grand unified theories have large gauge representations and thus are not asymptotically free. Their ultraviolet validity is limited by the appearance of a Landau pole well before the Planck scale. One could hope that these theories save themselves, before the inclusion of gravity, by generating an interacting ultraviolet fixed point, similar to the one recently discovered in non-supersymmetric gauge-Yukawa theories. Employing a-maximization, a-theorem, unitarity bounds, as well as positivity of other central charges we nonperturbatively rule out this possibility for a broad class of prime candidates of phenomenologically relevant supersymmetric grand unified theories. We also uncover candidates passing these tests, which have either exotic matter or contain one field decoupled from the superpotential. The latter class of theories contains a model with the minimal matter content required by phenomenology.

  10. Nuclear Proliferation and Grand Challenges

    ScienceCinema

    McCarthy, Kathy

    2016-07-12

    Nuclear engineer Dr. Kathy McCarthy leads systems analysis. She talks about proliferation and the grand challenges of nuclear R&D. For more information about INL energy research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  11. Nuclear Proliferation and Grand Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear engineer Dr. Kathy McCarthy leads systems analysis. She talks about proliferation and the grand challenges of nuclear R&D. For more information about INL energy research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  12. Estudo exaustivo e sistemático de erros nas provas da olimpíada brasileira de astronomia - resultados preliminares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, F. S.; Canalle, J. B. G.; Villas da Rocha, J. F.

    2003-08-01

    A Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia (OBA) contou, em sua quinta edição, com a participação de mais de 60 mil alunos dos ensinos fundamental e médio de praticamente todo o território nacional. Uma das formas de controle que a sua coordenação nacional possui sobre a correção, levada a cabo pelos professores que as aplicaram, é a do envio, por parte destes professores, das 10 melhores provas de cada um dos três níveis nos quais a Olimpíada é realizada. Assim, e dado ao caráter discursivo das provas da Olimpíada, a sua coordenação nacional dispõe de um vasto acervo sobre as concepções, certas ou erradas, dos alunos que dela participaram. Este conjunto de dados jamais fora explorado até o presente trabalho que pretende ser, neste sentido, inaugural. Nas provas dos níveis I e II da V OBA, que abrangem todo o conjunto do ensino fundamental, uma das questões versava sobre a noção que os alunos tinham sobre como os habitantes da Terra situam-se sobre sua superfície. Fizemos um estudo sistemático das respostas a esta questão. Primeiramente, todas as modalidades de erros foram levantadas; em seguida, realizamos uma distribuição por idade tanto do índice de acerto como da ocorrência e da distribuição de cada erro. Como resultado, obtivemos que, em ambos os níveis: 1) as concepções errôneas não se apresentam distribuídas aleatoriamente; 2) há uma concentração no tipo de erro apresentado; 3) há uma tendência de progressivo acerto com relação à idade quando os dados são considerados em termos nacionais; 4) esta tendência nacional é fraca ou mesmo não é verificada em alguns dos estados com maior patamar de acerto.

  13. Thomas Moran: "The Grand Canyon."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brubaker, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan for introducing students in grades four through six to Thomas Moran's painting, "The Grand Canyon." The goal of the lesson is to illustrate the importance of the American West as a subject for artists in the nineteenth century. (JDH)

  14. Rio Grande Wetbacks: Mexican Migrant Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norquest, Carrol

    Farmers in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas saw a rise of wetback labor in the 1930s and 40s. The wetback laborers were Mexicans who had crossed the Rio Grande and were in the United States illegally to work. Carrol Norquest, a farmer in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, employed wetbacks regularly. In this book, Mr. Norquest writes about the…

  15. 33 CFR 100.906 - Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI. 100.906 Section 100.906 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of...

  16. 33 CFR 100.906 - Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI. 100.906 Section 100.906 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of...

  17. 33 CFR 100.906 - Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI. 100.906 Section 100.906 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of...

  18. 33 CFR 100.906 - Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI. 100.906 Section 100.906 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of...

  19. 33 CFR 100.906 - Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI. 100.906 Section 100.906 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Grand Haven Coast Guard Festival Waterski Show, Grand Haven, MI. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of...

  20. GRAND DITCH VIEW, FROM FARVIEW CURVE OVERLOOK, VIEWING WEST. DITCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GRAND DITCH VIEW, FROM FARVIEW CURVE OVERLOOK, VIEWING WEST. DITCH IS INDICATED BY HORIZONTAL LINE NEAR TOP OF CLOUD COVERED PEAKS - Grand Ditch, Baker Creek to LaPoudre Pass Creek, Grand Lake, Grand County, CO

  1. View of upstream face of Grand Coulee Dam, looking northeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of upstream face of Grand Coulee Dam, looking northeast. This image features a cloudless sky.) - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  2. Grand Challenges of Enterprise Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Brosey, W.D; Neal, R.E.; Marks, D.

    2001-04-01

    Enterprise Integration connects and combines people, processes, systems, and technologies to ensure that the right people and the right processes have the right information and the right resources at the right time. A consensus roadmap for Technologies for Enterprise Integration was created as part of an industry/government/academia partnership in the Integrated Manufacturing Technology Initiative (IMTI). Two of the grand challenges identified by the roadmapping effort will be addressed here--Customer Responsive Enterprises and Totally Connected Enterprises. Each of these challenges is briefly discussed as to the current state of industry and the future vision as developed in the roadmap.

  3. Uma Comparação entre Técnicas de Propagação de Erros em Astrofísica: Monte Carlo x Bootstrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabot, Alexandre; Baptista, Raymundo

    2005-07-01

    Neste trabalho é feito um estudo comparativo entre dois algoritmos numéricos usados para propagação de erros em dados experimentais. Um deles é conhecido por Método de Monte carlo e o outro por Método de Bootstrap. Recentemente, Dhullon & Watson argüiram que a aplicação do método de Monte Carlo introduz ruído nos dados, e propuseram então a utilização do Bootstrap como alternativa capaz de produzir resultados superiores. O objetivo deste trabalho é testar a validade dessa afirmação. As duas técnicas foram aplicadas a três problemas diferentes: o ajsute de modelos de emissão LTE simples e atmosfera estelar a espectros estelares observados e o ajuste de curvas de luz de eclipses de Variáveis Cataclísmicas para a detemrinação da distribuição radial de brilho dos seus discos de acréscimo. Os métodos foram testados quanto à sua robusteza, ou seja, a capacidade de prover resultados coerentes enre si. Além disso, as soluções dos métodos foram comparadas. Os resultados indicam que não existe evidência de superioridade de um métodos em relação ao outro.

  4. View of upstream face of the forebay dam of Grand ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of upstream face of the forebay dam of Grand Coulee Dam, looking west. Construction of the forebay dam, which replaced the eastern end of the original Grand Coulee Dam, was completed in 1974. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  5. Grand challenges for biological engineering.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jeong-Yeol; Riley, Mark R

    2009-09-22

    Biological engineering will play a significant role in solving many of the world's problems in medicine, agriculture, and the environment. Recently the U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) released a document "Grand Challenges in Engineering," covering broad realms of human concern from sustainability, health, vulnerability and the joy of living. Biological engineers, having tools and techniques at the interface between living and non-living entities, will play a prominent role in forging a better future. The 2010 Institute of Biological Engineering (IBE) conference in Cambridge, MA, USA will address, in part, the roles of biological engineering in solving the challenges presented by the NAE. This letter presents a brief outline of how biological engineers are working to solve these large scale and integrated problems of our society.

  6. Gravity and grand unified theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, L.; Toms, D. J.

    1985-02-01

    Curvature-dependent consequences of grand unified theories (GUTs) for the evolution of the very early universe are investigated, considering the possibility that at high curvature and particle energies of 10 to the 24th eV the effective values of the coupling constants governing the strength of the curvature-matter interaction are largely determined by the elementary-particle content defined by the particular GUT. The GUTs examined include those of Georgi and Glashow (1974) and Chang et al. (1980), and the coupling constants studied are the cosmological Lambda, Newtonian G, xi(phi) and xi(H) linking curvature and the scalar Higgs bosons, and alpha(i) (coefficients of action terms quadratically dependent on the curvature tensor).

  7. Grand unification of neutron stars.

    PubMed

    Kaspi, Victoria M

    2010-04-20

    The last decade has shown us that the observational properties of neutron stars are remarkably diverse. From magnetars to rotating radio transients, from radio pulsars to isolated neutron stars, from central compact objects to millisecond pulsars, observational manifestations of neutron stars are surprisingly varied, with most properties totally unpredicted. The challenge is to establish an overarching physical theory of neutron stars and their birth properties that can explain this great diversity. Here I survey the disparate neutron stars classes, describe their properties, and highlight results made possible by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, in celebration of its 10th anniversary. Finally, I describe the current status of efforts at physical "grand unification" of this wealth of observational phenomena, and comment on possibilities for Chandra's next decade in this field.

  8. Grand unification of neutron stars

    PubMed Central

    Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2010-01-01

    The last decade has shown us that the observational properties of neutron stars are remarkably diverse. From magnetars to rotating radio transients, from radio pulsars to isolated neutron stars, from central compact objects to millisecond pulsars, observational manifestations of neutron stars are surprisingly varied, with most properties totally unpredicted. The challenge is to establish an overarching physical theory of neutron stars and their birth properties that can explain this great diversity. Here I survey the disparate neutron stars classes, describe their properties, and highlight results made possible by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, in celebration of its 10th anniversary. Finally, I describe the current status of efforts at physical “grand unification” of this wealth of observational phenomena, and comment on possibilities for Chandra’s next decade in this field. PMID:20404205

  9. Google Earth Grand Tour Themes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Paor, D. G.; Whitmeyer, S. J.; Bentley, C.; Dordevic, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    As part of an NSF TUES Type 3 project entitled "Google Earth for Onsite and Distance Education (GEODE)," we are assembling a "Grand Tour" of locations on Earth and other terrestrial bodies that every geoscience student should know about and visit at least in virtual reality. Based on feedback from colleagues at previous meetings, we have identified nine Grand Tour themes: "Plates and Plumes," "Rocks and Regions," "Geology Through Time," "The Mapping Challenge*," "U.S. National Parks*," "The Magical Mystery Tour*," "Resources and Hazards," "Planets and Moons," and "Top of the Pops." Themes marked with an asterisk are most developed at this stage and will be demonstrated in real time. The Mapping Challenge invites students to trace geological contacts, measure bedding strike and dip and the plunge, trend, and facing of a fold. There is an advanced tool for modeling periclinal folds. The challenge is presented in a game-like format with an emphasis on puzzle-solving that will appeal to students regardless of gender. For the tour of U.S. national parks, we divided the most geologically important parks into four groups—Western Pacific, West Coast, Rockies, and East Coast. We are combining our own team's GigaPan imagery with imagery already available on the Internet. There is a great deal of imagery just waiting to be annotated for geological education purposes. The Magical Mystery Tour takes students to Google Streetview locations selected by instructors. Students are presented with questions or tasks and are given automatic feedback. Other themes are under development. Within each theme, we are crowd-sourcing contributions from colleagues and inviting colleagues to vote for or against proposed locations and student interactions. The GEODE team includes the authors and: Heather Almquist, Stephen Burgin, Cinzia Cervato, Gene Cooper, Paul Karabinos, Terry Pavlis, Jen Piatek, Bill Richards, Jeff Ryan, Ron Schott, Kristen St. John, and Barb Tewksbury.

  10. Hyacinths Choke the Rio Grande

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These images acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, demonstrate the potential of satellite-based remote sensors to monitor infestations of non-native plant species. These images show the vigorous growth of water hyacinths along a stretch of the Rio Grande River in Texas. The infestation had grown so dense in some places it was impeding the flow of water and rendered the river impassible for boats. The hyacinth is an aquatic weed native to South America. The plant is exotic looking and, when it blooms, the hyacinth produces a pretty purple flower, which is why it was introduced into North America. However, it has the capacity to grow and spread at astonishing rates so that in the wild it can completely clog the flow of rivers and waterways in a matter of days or weeks. The top image was acquired on March 30, 2002, and the bottom image on May 9, 2002. In the near-infrared region of the spectrum, photosynthetically-active vegetation is highly reflective. Consequently, vegetation appears bright to the near-infrared sensors aboard ASTER; and water, which absorbs near-infrared radiation, appears dark. In these false-color images produced from the sensor data, healthy vegetation is shown as bright red while water is blue or black. Notice a water hyacinth infestation is already apparent on March 30 near the center of the image. By May 9, the hyacinth population has exploded to cover more than half the river in the scene. Satellite-based remote sensors can enable scientists to monitor large areas of infestation like this one rather quickly and efficiently, which is particularly useful for regions that are difficult to reach from on the ground. (For more details, click to read Showdown in the Rio Grande.) Images courtesy Terrametrics; Data provided by the ASTER Science Team

  11. 33 CFR 117.285 - Grand Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grand Canal. 117.285 Section 117.285 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.285 Grand Canal. (a) The draw of the Lansing Island bridge, mile 0.7, shall open on...

  12. FOI and Fire at the MGM Grand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, William N.; Marie, Janice

    The fire at the MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada, brought to light a lack of compliance with the freedom of information philosophy and its supporting statutes. Freedom of information means circulation of important information. However, at the Grand Hotel, the hotel staff had not been properly trained in disaster procedures, the escape…

  13. 17. Photocopy of photograph (original contact print in Grand Rapids ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of photograph (original contact print in Grand Rapids Michigan City Library, Michigan Room) circa 1908, photographer unknown. VIEW NORTH - NORTHEAST, SOUTHSIDE, GENERAL VIEW. - Bridge Street Bridge, Spanning Grand River, Michigan & Bridge Streets, Grand Rapids, MI

  14. Last workshop on grand unification

    SciTech Connect

    Frampton, P.H. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)

    1991-01-01

    The presentations at the workshop alternated between experiment and theory in the traditional manner. Let me introduce first all the experimental topics. For the proton decay experiments, their present status was provided by Ayres, Ernwein, Gajewski and Totsuka for the Soudan, Frejus, IMB and Kamioka groups respectively. Massive neutrinos were reviewed by Robertson, solar neutrinos by Bahcall, and double beta decay by Avignone. Monopole searches were covered by Barish. Other experimental talks concerned both astrophysics and the Standard Model. In astrophysics, Perlmutter presented the possible discovery of a sub- millisecond pulsar in supernova 1987A and Sadoulet outlined a program to search for dark matter. Within the Standard Model, Matthews reported the recent discovery of Z{sup 0} particle decays at SLC and Dehmelt described his high-accuracy measurement of (g-2){sub c}. The theoretical talks were on GUTs, extensions of the Standard Model, general relativity and strings, and theoretical astrophysics and cosmology. Langacker talked on grand unification, proton decay and neutrino masses.

  15. Introduction to Grand Unified Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiero, Antonio

    The following sections are included: * THE STANDARD MODEL: A CRITICAL APPRAISAL * The "Low Energy" Limit of Renormalizable Gauge Theories * The Standard Model: its purity * The Standard Model: its impurity * Vices and Virtues of the Standard Model * INTRODUCTION TO GRAND UNIFIED THEORIES * When "Strong" and "Weak" Merge Together * The "Big Desert" Picture of the World * A Persistent Cloud: the hierarchy problem * PHENOMENOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF GUTs * What is New in GUTs * General Features of the B and L Violating Processes * A FIRST GLIMPSE AT THE SU(5) MODEL * Why SU(5)? * The Higgs Sector and the Hierarchy Nightmare * LOW ENERGY PHENOMENOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF SU(5) * The Successful sin2θW Prediction of SU(5) * Fermion Masses in SU(5) * Mixing Angles and Phases * Proton Lifetime: A Death Blow to the SU(5) Model? * B-L and Neutrino Masses in SU(5) * SU(5): A Final Score * NEW PHYSICS NOT FAR FROM THE FERMI SCALE? * L-Right Symmetry: A Fundamental Symmetry? * Massive Majorana Neutrinos * Neutron -Antineutron Oscillations * Lepton Number as a Fourth Colour * THE SO(10) MODEL * Few Generalities on the Orthogonal Groups * The SO(10) Gauge Interactions * Patterns of Symmetry Breaking in the SO(10) Model * The Fermion Mass Spectrum * The Question of the Neutrino Mass * PHENOMENOLOGY OF THE INTERMEDIATE MASS SCALES * Renormalization Group Equations in the Presence of IMS * MI and MX in IMS models * Higgs Contributions to the β-Functions * Phenomenological Consequences of IMS * A GENERAL OUTLOOK ON GUTs * General Constraints on GUTs * Major Unsolved Questions in GUTs * Bibliography * References

  16. Grand unification through gravitational effects

    SciTech Connect

    Calmet, Xavier; Hsu, Stephen D. H.; Reeb, David

    2010-02-01

    We systematically study the unification of gauge couplings in the presence of (one or more) effective dimension-5 operators cHG{sub {mu}{nu}G}{sup {mu}{nu}/}4M{sub pl}, induced into the grand unified theory by gravitational interactions at the Planck scale. These operators alter the usual condition for gauge-coupling unification, which can, depending on the Higgs content H and vacuum expectation value, result in unification at scales M{sub X} significantly different than naively expected. We find nonsupersymmetric models of SU(5) and SO(10) unification, with natural Wilson coefficients c, that easily satisfy the constraints from proton decay. Furthermore, gauge-coupling unification at scales as high as the Planck scale seems feasible, possibly hinting at simultaneous unification of gauge and gravitational interactions. In the Appendix we work out the group theoretical aspects of this scenario for SU(5) and SO(10) unified groups in detail; this material is also relevant in the analysis of nonuniversal gaugino masses obtained from supergravity.

  17. Supersymmetry and supergravity: Phenomenology and grand unification

    SciTech Connect

    Arnowitt, R. |; Nath, P.

    1993-12-31

    A survey is given of supersymmetry and supergravity and their phenomenology. Some of the topics discussed are the basic ideas of global supersymmetry, the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and its phenomenology, the basic ideas of local supersymmetry (supergravity), grand unification, supersymmetry breaking in supergravity grand unified models, radiative breaking of SU(2) {times} U(1), proton decay, cosmological constraints, and predictions of supergravity grand unified models. While the number of detailed derivations are necessarily limited, a sufficient number of results are given so that a reader can get a working knowledge of this field.

  18. Middle Rio Grande/Albuquerque (New Mexico)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Middle Rio Grande/Albuquerque (New Mexico) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  19. William Shatner and the Grand Entrance

    NASA Video Gallery

    As NASA prepares for Curiosity rover landing on Mars, William Shatner shares this thrilling story of NASA's hardest planetary science mission to date. The video titled, "Grand Entrance," guides vie...

  20. Wintertime meteorology of the Grand Canyon region

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.

    1992-09-01

    The Grand Canyon region of the American Southwest is an interesting region meteorologically, but because of its isolated location, the lack of major population centers in the region, and the high cost of meteorological field experiments, it has historically received little observational attention. In recent years, however, attention has been directed to episodes of visibility degradation in many of the US National parks, and two recent field studies focused on this visibility problem have greatly increased the meteorological data available for the Grand Canyon region. The most recent and comprehensive of these studies is the Navajo Generating Station Winter Visibility Study of 1989--90. This study investigated the sources of visibility degradation in Grand Canyon National Park and the meteorological mechanisms leading to low visibility episodes. In this paper we present analyses of this rich data set to gain a better understanding of the key wintertime meteorological features of the Grand Canyon region.

  1. Wil Wheaton and the Grand Entrance

    NASA Video Gallery

    As NASA prepares for Curiosity rover landing on Mars, Wil Wheaton shares this thrilling story of NASA's hardest planetary science mission to date. The video titled, "Grand Entrance," guides viewers...

  2. Sm-Nd geochronology of the Erro-Tobbio gabbros (Ligurian Alps, Italy): Insights into the evolution of the Alpine Tethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampone, Elisabetta; Borghini, Giulio; Romairone, Anna; Abouchami, Wafa; Class, Cornelia; Goldstein, Steven L.

    2014-09-01

    The Alpine-Apennine ophiolites are considered analogs of the oceanic lithosphere formed at ocean-continent transition zones and very slow oceanic spreading centers. They are lithospheric remnants of the Jurassic Piedmont-Ligurian ocean, a branch of the Mesozoic Tethys separating the European and Adriatic continental margins. Previous geochronological studies on gabbroic rocks of the Alpine Tethys indicated a rather large time span of crust formation. In this paper, we present Sm-Nd geochronological data on well-preserved olivine gabbros intruded in mantle peridotites from the Erro-Tobbio ophiolitic unit (Ligurian Alps, Italy). Borghini et al. (2007) documented that these gabbros crystallized at low-P conditions (< 5 kb) from primitive N-MORB melts, similar to many gabbroic rocks from Alpine-Apennine ophiolites. Here four plagioclase-clinopyroxene internal Sm-Nd isochrons are presented, yielding equivalent ages and initial εNd values. The ages are 177 ± 7 Ma, 179 ± 7 Ma, 178 ± 21 Ma and 182 ± 19 Ma, reflecting a weighted mean age of 178 ± 5 Ma with initial εNd of 9.2 ± 0.4 (2SD). Similar ages are only recorded in gabbroic rocks from the External Liguride Units (Northern Apennines) and represent the oldest ages available for the gabbroic crust of the Alpine Tethys. These Mg-rich gabbros can therefore be considered as representative of early (syn-rift) melt intrusions in thinned lithospheric mantle exhumed at ocean-continent transition domains, likely close to Adria's continental margin, similar to the hyper-extended Western Iberian Margin. Our new results together with previous ages of the Tethys oceanic crust allow for the reconstruction of the spatial distribution of oceanic gabbros over time, and evaluation of the spreading and propagation rates of this paleo-ocean. The northward propagation rifting velocity, estimated at ~ 5 cm/year, is presumably higher than the lateral spreading rate of ~ 2 cm/year. Our rate estimates suggest that the Red Sea is a

  3. American Grand Strategy: The End of Primacy?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-13

    experts, this forum resulted in multiple strategic though pieces outlining a way ahead for American grand strategy. However, the lack of Presidential ...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY AMERICAN GRAND STRATEGY THE END OF PRIMACY? by Carey J. Jones, USAF, Lt Col A Research Report Submitted...valid OMB control number 1. REPORT DATE 13 FEB 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE American

  4. View of upstream face of Grand Coulee Dam, looking northeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of upstream face of Grand Coulee Dam, looking northeast. This image features a partially cloudy sky.) - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  5. Different Views of the Grand Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, Wilfred A.

    Each year the spectacular scenery of the Grand Canyon of Arizona awes its more than 4,000,000 visitors. Just as its enormous scale dwarfs our human sense of space, its geology also dwarfs our human sense of time. Perhaps here, more than anywhere else on the planet, we can experience a sense of ``Deep Time.'' The colorful rocks exposed in the vertical walls of the canyon display a span of 1.8 billion years of Earth's history [Beus and Morales, 2003]. But wait! There is a different view! According to Vail [2003], this time span is only 6,000 years and the Grand Canyon and its rocks are a record of the Biblical 6 days of creation and Noah's flood. During a visit to Grand Canyon, in August 2003, I learned that Vail's book, Grand Canyon: A Different View, is being sold within the National Park. The author and compiler of Grand Canyon: A Different View is a Colorado River guide who is well acquainted with the Grand Canyon at river level. He has produced a book with an attractive layout and beautiful photographs. The book is remarkable because it has 23 co-authors, all male, who comprise a veritable ``Who's Who'' in creationism. For example, Henry Morris and John Whitcomb, the authors of the seminal young Earth creationist text, The Genesis Flood [Whitcomb and Morris, 1961], each contribute a brief introduction. Each chapter of Grand Canyon: A Different View begins with an overview by Vail, followed by brief comments by several contributors that ``have been peer reviewed to ensure a consistent and Biblical perspective.'' This perspective is strict Biblical literalism.

  6. 2010 Panel on the biomaterials grand challenges.

    PubMed

    Reichert, William Monty; Ratner, Buddy D; Anderson, James; Coury, Art; Hoffman, Allan S; Laurencin, Cato T; Tirrell, David

    2011-02-01

    In 2009, the National Academy for Engineering issued the Grand Challenges for Engineering in the 21st Century comprised of 14 technical challenges that must be addressed to build a healthy, profitable, sustainable, and secure global community (http://www.engineeringchallenges.org). Although crucial, none of the NEA Grand Challenges adequately addressed the challenges that face the biomaterials community. In response to the NAE Grand Challenges, Monty Reichert of Duke University organized a panel entitled Grand Challenges in Biomaterials at the at the 2010 Society for Biomaterials Annual Meeting in Seattle. Six members of the National Academies-Buddy Ratner, James Anderson, Allan Hoffman, Art Coury, Cato Laurencin, and David Tirrell-were asked to propose a grand challenge to the audience that, if met, would significantly impact the future of biomaterials and medical devices. Successfully meeting these challenges will speed the 60-plus year transition from commodity, off-the-shelf biomaterials to bioengineered chemistries, and biomaterial devices that will significantly advance our ability to address patient needs and also to create new market opportunities.

  7. 2010 Panel on the Biomaterials Grand Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, William “Monty”; Ratner, Buddy D.; Anderson, James; Coury, Art; Hoffman, Allan S.; Laurencin, Cato T.; Tirrell, David

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the National Academy for Engineering issued the Grand Challenges for Engineering in the 21st Century comprised of 14 technical challenges that must be addressed to build a healthy, profitable, sustainable, and secure global community (http://www.engineeringchallenges.org). Although crucial, none of the NEA Grand Challenges adequately addressed the challenges that face the biomaterials community. In response to the NAE Grand Challenges, Monty Reichert of Duke University organized a panel entitled Grand Challenges in Biomaterials at the at the 2010 Society for Biomaterials Annual Meeting in Seattle. Six members of the National Academies—Buddy Ratner, James Anderson, Allan Hoffman, Art Coury, Cato Laurencin, and David Tirrell—were asked to propose a grand challenge to the audience that, if met, would significantly impact the future of biomaterials and medical devices. Successfully meeting these challenges will speed the 60-plus year transition from commodity, off-the-shelf biomaterials to bioengineered chemistries, and biomaterial devices that will significantly advance our ability to address patient needs and also to create new market opportunities. PMID:21171147

  8. Lifeomics leads the age of grand discoveries.

    PubMed

    He, Fuchu

    2013-03-01

    When our knowledge of a field accumulates to a certain level, we are bound to see the rise of one or more great scientists. They will make a series of grand discoveries/breakthroughs and push the discipline into an 'age of grand discoveries'. Mathematics, geography, physics and chemistry have all experienced their ages of grand discoveries; and in life sciences, the age of grand discoveries has appeared countless times since the 16th century. Thanks to the ever-changing development of molecular biology over the past 50 years, contemporary life science is once again approaching its breaking point and the trigger for this is most likely to be 'lifeomics'. At the end of the 20th century, genomics wrote out the 'script of life'; proteomics decoded the script; and RNAomics, glycomics and metabolomics came into bloom. These 'omics', with their unique epistemology and methodology, quickly became the thrust of life sciences, pushing the discipline to new high. Lifeomics, which encompasses all omics, has taken shape and is now signalling the dawn of a new era, the age of grand discoveries.

  9. Grand and Semigrand Canonical Basin-Hopping

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We introduce grand and semigrand canonical global optimization approaches using basin-hopping with an acceptance criterion based on the local contribution of each potential energy minimum to the (semi)grand potential. The method is tested using local harmonic vibrational densities of states for atomic clusters as a function of temperature and chemical potential. The predicted global minima switch from dissociated states to clusters for larger values of the chemical potential and lower temperatures, in agreement with the predictions of a model fitted to heat capacity data for selected clusters. Semigrand canonical optimization allows us to identify particularly stable compositions in multicomponent nanoalloys as a function of increasing temperature, whereas the grand canonical potential can produce a useful survey of favorable structures as a byproduct of the global optimization search. PMID:26669731

  10. Research Furthers Conservation of Grand Canyon Sandbars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melis, Theodore S.; Topping, David J.; Rubin, David M.; Wright, Scott A.

    2007-01-01

    Grand Canyon National Park lies approximately 25 km (15 mi) down-river from Glen Canyon Dam, which was built on the Colorado River just south of the Arizona-Utah border in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area. Before the dam began to regulate the Colorado River in 1963, the river carried such large quantities of red sediment, for which the Southwest is famous, that the Spanish named the river the Rio Colorado, or 'red river'. Today, the Colorado River usually runs clear below Glen Canyon Dam because the dam nearly eliminates the main-channel sand supply. The daily and seasonal flows of the river were also altered by the dam. These changes have disrupted the sedimentary processes that create and maintain Grand Canyon sandbars. Throughout Grand Canyon, sandbars create habitat for native plants and animals, supply camping beaches for river runners and hikers, and provide sediment needed to protect archaeological resources from weathering and erosion. Maintenance of sandbars in the Colorado River ecosystem, the river corridor that stretches from the dam to the western boundary of Grand Canyon National Park, is a goal of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program. The program is a federally authorized initiative to ensure that the mandates of the Grand Canyon Protection Act of 1992 are met through advances in information and resource management. The U.S. Geological Survey's Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center has responsibility for scientific monitoring and research efforts for the program. Extensive research and monitoring during the past decade have resulted in the identification of possible alternatives for operating Glen Canyon Dam that hold new potential for the conservation of sand resources.

  11. A Grand Unified Theory of Interdisciplinarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lennard J.

    2007-01-01

    Aside from the appeal to administrators as a tool to reduce costs by combining less robust departments with heftier relations, interdisciplinarity is a powerful idea because it implies that different branches of knowledge can benefit from talking to one another: a grand, unified theory of knowledge in which each discipline contributes building…

  12. Toxic Waste in Grand Banks. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litchka, Peter

    "Toxic Waste in Grand Banks" is an assessment task in which students from a high school economics class investigate the issues of economic prosperity, environmental concerns, government intervention in the market economy, and responsible civic participation in solving community problems. Students will demonstrate an ability--both individually and…

  13. Plasma nanoscience: setting directions, tackling grand challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    (Ken Ostrikov, Kostya; Cvelbar, Uros; Murphy, Anthony B.

    2011-05-01

    This review paper presents historical perspectives, recent advances and future directions in the multidisciplinary research field of plasma nanoscience. The current status and future challenges are presented using a three-dimensional framework. The first and the largest dimension covers the most important classes of nanoscale objects (nanostructures, nanofeatures and nanoassemblies/nanoarchitectures) and materials systems, namely carbon nanotubes, nanofibres, graphene, graphene nanoribbons, graphene nanoflakes, nanodiamond and related carbon-based nanostructures; metal, silicon and other inorganic nanoparticles and nanostructures; soft organic nanomaterials; nano-biomaterials; biological objects and nanoscale plasma etching. In the second dimension, we discuss the most common types of plasmas and plasma reactors used in nanoscale plasma synthesis and processing. These include low-temperature non-equilibrium plasmas at low and high pressures, thermal plasmas, high-pressure microplasmas, plasmas in liquids and plasma-liquid interactions, high-energy-density plasmas, and ionized physical vapour deposition as well as some other plasma-enhanced nanofabrication techniques. In the third dimension, we outline some of the 'Grand Science Challenges' and 'Grand Socio-economic Challenges' to which significant contributions from plasma nanoscience-related research can be expected in the near future. The urgent need for a stronger focus on practical, outcome-oriented research to tackle the grand challenges is emphasized and concisely formulated as from controlled complexity to practical simplicity in solving grand challenges.

  14. The Cambrian eustatic signal: Not so grand

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, C.A.; James, N.P. )

    1990-05-01

    Efforts to decipher potential high-frequency (fourth- and fifth-order) eustatic signals within third-order grand cycles in Cambrian strata of western Newfoundland have yielded a surprising result: the conspicuous, large-scale stratigraphic rhythms, grand cycles, were not principally a bathymetric phenomenon, grand cycles, i.e., the stratigraphic repetition of tens-of-meters-thick lithosomes, which are alternately carbonate and terrigenous clastic rich, are widely cited as evidence for lower Paleozoic third-order eustatic fluctuations. Evidence from Middle to Upper Cambrian platform strata in western Newfoundland indicates that grand cyclicity in this area was not simply a response to sea level change. Instead, the stratigraphic signal of eustasy is marked by the presence of terrigenous clastics in an otherwise carbonate-prone succession. Detailed facies analysis reveals that both terrigenous and carbonate lithosomes are locally constructed of predictable, meter-scale, coarsening-upward cycles. Lithofacies constituting meter-scale cycles in both lithosomes are bathymetrically indistinguishable with respect to environmental energy, ichnofauna, and exposure index. Meter-scale cycles in either lithosome are typically capped by the same lithology, precluding contemporaneous generation of carbonate vs. terrigenous cycles along some presumed bathymetric gradient. Obvious lithologic differences between carbonate and terrigenous meter-scale cycles obscure their common origin. Terrigenous cycles are best explained by the incursion of siliciclastic fines into a shallow-water carbonate environment irrespective of sea level change.

  15. Rio Grande rift: problems and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Baldridge, W.S.; Olsen, K.H.; Callender, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    Topics and ideas addressed include: (1) the regional extent of the Rio Grande rift; (2) the structure of the crust and upper mantle; (3) whether the evidence for an axile dike in the lower crust is compelling; (4) the nature of faulting and extension in the crust; and (5) the structural and magmatic development of the rift. 88 references, 5 figures.

  16. Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamill, John F.

    2009-01-01

    The Grand Canyon of the Colorado River, one of the world's most spectacular gorges, is a premier U.S. National Park and a World Heritage Site. The canyon supports a diverse array of distinctive plants and animals and contains cultural resources significant to the region's Native Americans. About 15 miles upstream of Grand Canyon National Park sits Glen Canyon Dam, completed in 1963, which created Lake Powell. The dam provides hydroelectric power for 200 wholesale customers in six western States, but it has also altered the Colorado River's flow, temperature, and sediment-carrying capacity. Over time this has resulted in beach erosion, invasion and expansion of nonnative species, and losses of native fish. Public concern about the effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations prompted the passage of the Grand Canyon Protection Act of 1992, which directs the Secretary of the Interior to operate the dam 'to protect, mitigate adverse impacts to, and improve values for which Grand Canyon National Park and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area were established...' This legislation also required the creation of a long-term monitoring and research program to provide information that could inform decisions related to dam operations and protection of downstream resources.

  17. The Grand Strategy of the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    emerging American political consciousness .6 Since the Revolutionary era, most American conflicts have been articulated and justified with some reference...The Grand Strategy of the United States ways. The result was a rise in international organized crime, quantum increases in international and domestic

  18. Grand Canyon Humpback Chub Population Improving

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, Matthew E.

    2007-01-01

    The humpback chub (Gila cypha) is a long-lived, freshwater fish found only in the Colorado River Basin. Physical adaptations-large adult body size, large predorsal hump, and small eyes-appear to have helped humpback chub evolve in the historically turbulent Colorado River. A variety of factors, including habitat alterations and the introduction of nonnative fishes, likely prompted the decline of native Colorado River fishes. Declining numbers propelled the humpback chub onto the Federal list of endangered species in 1967, and the species is today protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Only six populations of humpback chub are currently known to exist, five in the Colorado River Basin above Lees Ferry, Ariz., and one in Grand Canyon, Ariz. The U.S. Geological Survey's Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center oversees monitoring and research activities for the Grand Canyon population under the auspices of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP). Analysis of data collected through 2006 suggests that the number of adult (age 4+ years) humpback chub in Grand Canyon increased to approximately 6,000 fish in 2006, following an approximate 40-50 percent decline between 1989 and 2001. Increasing numbers of adult fish appear to be the result of steadily increasing numbers of juvenile fish reaching adulthood beginning in the mid- to late-1990s and continuing through at least 2002.

  19. Comprehensive District Reform: Philadelphia's Grand Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Useem, Elizabeth; Balfanz, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This report describes "Philadelphia's Grand Experiment" in comprehensive school district reform, from its conception through its initial months of implementation. In 2001, as part of the remedy for low student performance, the governor ordered the state to take over governance of the Philadelphia School District, with a substantial…

  20. Search for a Realistic Orbifold Grand Unification

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, Yoshiharu

    2008-05-13

    We review the prototype model of a grand unified theory on the orbifold S{sup 1}/Z{sub 2} and discuss topics related to the choice of boundary conditions; the dynamical rearrangement of gauge symmetry and the equivalence classes of BCs. We explore a family unification scenario by orbifolding.

  1. Map Your Way to the Grand Canyon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Holly

    2005-01-01

    In the introductory assignment, each randomly assigned group spends about 10 to 15 minutes at each station. The author incorporates as much sensory stimulation in the activity as possible. At the first station, students view a PowerPoint show from a geology class the author participated in at the Grand Canyon. At station two, students look at a…

  2. The Colorado River in the Grand Canyon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speece, Susan

    1991-01-01

    An assessment of the water quality of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon was made, using the following parameters: dissolved oxygen, water temperature, hydrogen ion concentration, total dissolved solids, turbidity, and ammonium/nitrogen levels. These parameters were used to provide some clue as to the "wellness" and stability of the…

  3. Monopoles of SU(15) grand unification

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, P.B.

    1991-03-01

    In a recently analyzed grand unified model based on the gauge group SU(15), monopoles are automatically consistent with the cosmological mass density bound. The Parker bound of monopole flux puts some constaints on the model which can be easily satisfied.

  4. Grand Unification with and without Supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Melfo, Alejandra

    2007-06-19

    Grand Unified Theories based on the group SO(10) generically provide interesting and testable relations between the charged fermions and neutrino sector masses and mixings. In the light of the recent neutrino data, we reexamine these relations both in supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric models, and give a brief review of their present status.

  5. Creationism in the Grand Canyon, Texas Textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folger, Peter

    2004-01-01

    AGU President Bob Dickinson, together with presidents of six other scientific societies, have written to Joseph Alston, Superintendent of Grand Canyon National Park, pointing out that a creationist book, The Grand Canyon: A Different View, is being sold in bookstores within the borders of the park as a scientific explanation about Grand Canyon geologic history. President Dickinson's 16 December letter urges that Alston clearly separate The Grand Canyon: A Different View from books and materials that discuss the legitimate scientific understanding of the origin of the Grand Canyon. The letter warns the Park Service against giving the impression that it approves of the anti-science movement known as young-Earth creationism, or that it endorses the advancement of religious tenets disguised as science. The text of the letter is on AGU's Web site http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/policy/sci_pol.html. Also, this fall, AGU sent an alert to Texas members about efforts by intelligent design creationists aimed at weakening the teaching of biological evolution in textbooks used in Texas schools. The alert pointed scientists to a letter, drafted by AGU, together with the American Institute of Physics, the American Physical Society, the Optical Society of America, and the American Astronomical Society, that urged the Texas State Board of Education to adopt textbooks that presented only accepted, peer-reviewed science and pedagogical expertise. Over 550 scientists in Texas added their names to the letter (http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/policy/texas_textbooks.pdf ), sent to the Board of Education on 1 November prior to their vote to adopt a slate of new science textbooks. The Board voted 11-5 in favor of keeping the textbooks free of changes advocated by groups supporting intelligent design creationism.

  6. 43. and Design, Grand Canyon National Park, dated August 23, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. and Design, Grand Canyon National Park, dated August 23, 1934, and September 17, 1934 (original located at Federal Records Center, Denver, Colorado, #113/3084-set of 2) SEWAGE PLANT ADDITION. - Water Reclamation Plant, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

  7. 26. VIEW OF THE PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE CROSSING GRAND CANAL AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. VIEW OF THE PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE CROSSING GRAND CANAL AT 30TH STREET IN PHOENIX, LOOKING WEST, Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. 21. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT, LOOKING WEST LOCATION UNKNOWN. THE WIDE DRY BED OF THE SALT RIVER SPANS THE BACKGROUND. Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. 32. VIEW OF TERMINUS OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING TURNOUT GATES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. VIEW OF TERMINUS OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING TURNOUT GATES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. WASTE WATER IS TURNED INTO THE BED OF NEW RIVER. Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. 31. VIEW SHOWING DEMOSSING ALONG GRAND CANAL. THE DRAGLINE SCOOPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW SHOWING DEMOSSING ALONG GRAND CANAL. THE DRAGLINE SCOOPS UP AQUATIC WEEDS AND DEPOSITS THEM IN A DUMP TRUCK. Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. Grand Forks - East Grand Forks Urban Water Resources Study. Social and Environmental Inventory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    Utilities 107-108 FIGUR~ES Figure Number Title Pag 14 Projected Population - Region 67 1 5 Projected Population - Grand Forks County 68 Study Area 16...Projected Population - Polk County Study Area 68 17 Planning Regions 105 TABLES Tale Number Title Pg 21 Historic Sites in the Grand Forks Area 61I 22...of Indians, traders and settlers; and those related to the populations which currently reside in the area. The information on archeology and history

  12. 27 CFR 9.129 - Arroyo Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arroyo Grande Valley. 9... Arroyo Grande Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arroyo Grande Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of Arroyo...

  13. 27 CFR 9.129 - Arroyo Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arroyo Grande Valley. 9... Arroyo Grande Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arroyo Grande Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of Arroyo...

  14. 27 CFR 9.129 - Arroyo Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arroyo Grande Valley. 9... Arroyo Grande Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arroyo Grande Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of Arroyo...

  15. 27 CFR 9.129 - Arroyo Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arroyo Grande Valley. 9... Arroyo Grande Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arroyo Grande Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of Arroyo...

  16. 27 CFR 9.129 - Arroyo Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arroyo Grande Valley. 9... Arroyo Grande Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arroyo Grande Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of Arroyo...

  17. Radiocarbon dates from the Casa Grande. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    This report suggests a very early Civano construction date for Casa Grande, Casa Grande Ruins National Monument, Arizona on the basis of C14 dates from fragments of two primary roof beams. The radiocarbon dates presented are seen as a positive contribution to an understanding of the history of Casa Grande.

  18. Overview of the Grand Junction Office from Bluff east of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of the Grand Junction Office from Bluff east of facility. Note Buildings #35. #33 and #31A in lower left of photograph. VIEW WEST - Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office, 2597 B3/4 Road, Grand Junction, Mesa County, CO

  19. 16. Photocopy of photograph (original contact print in Grand Rapids, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photocopy of photograph (original contact print in Grand Rapids, Michigan City Library, Michigan Room) 1904, photographer unknown. VIEW NORTHEAST, SOUTHSIDE, BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION. Note old railroad tressel bridge. - Bridge Street Bridge, Spanning Grand River, Michigan & Bridge Streets, Grand Rapids, MI

  20. 76 FR 43597 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lower Grand River, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lower Grand River, LA AGENCY: Coast... operation of the LA 77 bridge across the ] Lower Grand River, mile 47.0 (Alternate Route) at Grosse Tete..., telephone 202-366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The LA 77 bridge across the Lower Grand River, mile...

  1. 78 FR 11680 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Grand Rapids Public Museum, Grand Rapids, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ..., the former name of the Grand Rapids Public Museum). The object is a stone human effigy vessel that was... lot of unassociated funerary objects was bequeathed to the Grand Rapids Public Museum by Dr. Ruth Herrick. The lot of unassociated funerary objects is identified in the Grand Rapids Public...

  2. Upper Rio Grande Simulation Model (URGSIM)

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Jesse; & Tidwell, Vincent

    2010-08-05

    URGSIM estimates the location of surface water and groundwater resources in the upper Rio Grande Basin between the Colorado-New Mexico state line, and Caballo Reservoir from 1975 - 2045. It is a mass balance hydrology model of the Upper Rio Grande surface water, groundwater, and water demand systems which runs at a monthly timestep from 1975-1999 in calibration mode, 2000 – 2004 in validation mode, and 2005 – 2045 in scenario analysis mode.

  3. SeaWiFS: Grand Banks Brightening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    There is a hole in the cloud cover today over the Grand Banks of Newfoundland through which SeaWiFS was able to catch this view of a very large patch of bright aquamarine water. Either a large storm has passed over the Banks stirring up the bottom sediments, or some large bloom of phytoplankton is under way. Part of the Island of Newfoundland, including the snow-covered Avalon Peninsula, can also be seen in the northwest corner of the image.

  4. Introduction-Grand Challenges and small steps.

    PubMed

    De Grandis, Giovanni; Efstathiou, Sophia

    2016-04-01

    This collection addresses two different audiences: 1) historians and philosophers of the life sciences reflecting on collaborations across disciplines, especially as regards defining and addressing Grand Challenges; 2) researchers and other stakeholders involved in cross-disciplinary collaborations aimed at tackling Grand Challenges in the life and medical sciences. The essays collected here offer ideas and resources both for the study and for the practice of goal-driven cross-disciplinary research in the life and medical sciences. We organise this introduction in three sections. The first section provides some background and context. The second motivates our take on this topic and then outlines the central ideas of each paper. The third section highlights the specificity and significance of this approach by considering: a) how this collection departs from existing literature on inter- and trans-disciplinarity, b) what is characteristic about this approach, and c) what role this suggests for the history and philosophy of the life sciences in addressing Grand Challenges.

  5. Raptor Use of the Rio Grande Gorge

    SciTech Connect

    Ponton, David A.

    2015-03-20

    The Rio Grande Gorge is a 115 km long river canyon located in Southern Colorado (15 km) and Northern New Mexico (100 km). The majority of the canyon is under the administration of the Bureau of Land Management {BLM), and 77 km of the canyon south of the Colorado/New Mexico border are designated Wild River under the National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968. Visits I have made to the Rio Grande Gorge over the past 15 .years disclosed some raptor utilization. As the Snake River Birds of Prey Natural Area gained publicity, its similarity to the Rio Grande Gorge became obvious, and I was intrigued by the possibility of a high raptor nesting density in the Gorge. A survey in 1979 of 20 km of the northern end of the canyon revealed a moderately high density of red-tailed hawks and prairie falcons. With the encouragement of that partial survey, and a need to assess the impact of river-running on nesting birds of prey, I made a more comprehensive survey in 1980. The results of my surveys, along with those of a 1978 helicopter survey by the BLM, are presented in this report, as well as general characterization of the area, winter use by raptors, and an assessment of factors influencing the raptor population.

  6. Greening of the Grand Canyon -- developing a sustainable design for the Grand Canyon National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, H.T.

    1995-11-01

    The Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) is faced with increasing visitor demand that is threatening the natural and cultural resources of one of the most popular recreation sites in the United States. The National Park Service (NPS) developed a draft General Management Plan (GMP), which provides management objectives and visions for the entire park, with alternative plans for the park`s developed areas. With the GMP as a starting point, a Grand Canyon Sustainable Design Workshop was conducted to make the Grand Canyon National Park more environmentally and economically sustainable. The workshop, which used the Environmental Design Charrette process, addressed integrated environmental solutions and their implementation in three primary areas: Integrated Information, Visitor Experience, and Resource Efficiency. This paper describes the Environmental Design Charrette process and the efforts of the Resource Efficiency group.

  7. Needs assessment for the Greenway Grand Forks-East Grand Forks development and public education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munski, Laura

    Following the flood of 1997, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers included the Greenway Grand Forks---East Grand Forks (the Greenway) as a flood control measure for Grand Forks, North Dakota and East Grand Forks, Minnesota. It extends along both the Red River of the North and the Red Lake River, encompassing 2200 acres of land. The cities of Grand Forks and East Grand Forks hired consultants to assist with the postflood planning process. The planning process culminated with the Red River of the North Greenway Final Report (Flink, 1998). The purpose of this study was to determine if the development of the Greenway addressed the objectives of the planning report. The history of the land adjacent to the rivers was reviewed to document the progression of riverfront development. Anecdotal evidence was collected, field observations were made, city council minutes were reviewed, Greenway Technical Committee members were interviewed, Greenway Technical Committee minutes were reviewed, and the Greenway Grand Forks---East Grand Forks survey results were reviewed to determine if the objectives of the Red River of the North Greenway Final Report were addressed. A cross section survey was designed by Laura Munski for this dissertation research. The survey was approved by the Greenway Technical Committee. The survey collected both quantitative and qualitative data from the community. The purpose of the survey portion of the research project was to ascertain how residents were kept informed of activities on the Greenway and what amenities residents were using on the Greenway and to solicit their comments regarding the Greenway. The results of the survey research were used in both marketing and event planning for the Greenway. The singular qualitative survey question gave respondents an opportunity to share their comments regarding the Greenway. The qualitative data analysis provided insight to the amenities and educational programs desired by respondents, their concerns regarding the

  8. Grand rounds for dental students: an exploration.

    PubMed

    Fasbinder, D J; Heys, D R; Holland, G R; Keerthy, Akshay; Murdoch-Kinch, Carol Anne; Inglehart, Marita R

    2015-05-01

    Grand Rounds are widely used in medicine for educating students comprehensively about clinical issues. The aim of this study was to explore the value of Grand Rounds for introducing first- (D1) and second-year (D2) dental students to an interdisciplinary approach to dental care. The objectives were to explore how interested students were in various topics, which topics they would like to see addressed in future sessions, which aspects they liked/disliked, how they evaluated the program components, and how they evaluated the outcomes. Data were collected from D1s at the end of the Year 1 fall term and from D1s and D2s at the beginning and end of the Year 1 winter term and at the end of Year 2. Response rates for most of the groups ranged from 88% to 100%, but response rates for surveys at the end of the study period fell to 40% and 32%. The results showed that the students were most interested in clinical topics that were presented in an interdisciplinary way. Their suggested topics ranged from specialty-specific issues to treatment-related topics such as implants and cosmetic dentistry. The open-ended responses showed that students liked learning differing perspectives on these topics, but disliked the course-related assignments and the preparation work in small groups. The closed-ended responses showed that the students appreciated the in-class presentations by experts and evaluated the course as helpful in informing them about the complexity of issues and the importance of the interplay between basic and clinical sciences. Educating future dentists in a way in which they embrace interdisciplinary approaches is challenging. Using the Grand Rounds concept could be one approach to increasing students' awareness of the importance of interdisciplinary work.

  9. Grand valley irrigation return flow case study

    SciTech Connect

    Keys, J.W.

    1981-06-01

    Irrigation water supply is furnished annually to about 71,500 acres of land in the Grand Valley of western Colorado. Return flows from that irrigation contribute about 780,000 tpy of salt to the Colorado River, causing an increase of 77 mg/l in the salinity concentration at Imperial Dam. A case study of water quality in this region is focused on: water quality data for irrigation and return flows/ identification of regulations that affect irrigation and return flows/ and a proposed program for controlling salinity levels. (1 map, 9 references, 8 tables)

  10. SeaWiFS: Grand Banks Brightening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    There is a hole in the cloud cover today over the Grand Banks of Newfoundland through which SeaWiFS was able to catch this view of a very large patch of bright aquamarine water. Either a large storm has passed over the Banks stirring up the bottom sediments, or some large bloom of phytoplankton is under way. Part of the Island of Newfoundland, including the snow-covered Avalon Peninsula, can also be seen in the northwest corner of the image. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  11. The periodicity of Grand Solar Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco Herrera, Victor Manuel

    2016-07-01

    The sunspot number is the most used index to quantify the solar activity. Nevertheless, the sunspot is a syn- thetic index and not a physical index. Therefore, we should be careful to use the sunspot number to quantify the low (high) solar activity. One of the major problems of using sunspot to quantify solar activity is that its minimum value is zero. This zero value hinders the reconstruction of the solar cycle during the Maunder minimum. All solar indexes can be used as analog signals, which can be easily converted into digital signals. In con- trast, the conversion of a digital signal into an analog signal is not in general a simple task. The sunspot number during the Maunder minimum can be studied as a digital signal of the solar activity In 1894, Maunder published a discovery that has maintained the Solar Physics in an impasse. In his fa- mous work on "A Prolonged Sunspot Minimum" Maunder wrote: "The sequence of maximum and minimum has, in fact, been unfailing during the present century [..] and yet there [..], the ordinary solar cycle was once interrupted, and one long period of almost unbroken quiescence prevailed". The search of new historical Grand solar minima has been one of the most important questions in Solar Physics. However, the possibility of estimating a new Grand solar minimum is even more valuable. Since solar activity is the result of electromagnetic processes; we propose to employ the power to quantify solar activity: this is a fundamental physics concept in electrodynamics. Total Solar Irradiance is the primary energy source of the Earth's climate system and therefore its variations can contribute to natural climate change. In this work, we propose to consider the fluctuations in the power of the Total Solar Irradiance as a physical measure of the energy released by the solar dynamo, which contributes to understanding the nature of "profound solar magnetic field in calm". Using a new reconstruction of the Total Solar Irradiance we found the

  12. The Grand Duchy on the Grand Tour: A Historical Study of Student Migration in Luxembourg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohstock, Anne; Schreiber, Catherina

    2013-01-01

    Since Luxembourg became independent in 1839, practically the entire political, economic and intellectual elite of the country has been socialised abroad. It was only in 2003 that the Grand Duchy set up its own university; before then, young Luxembourgers had to study in foreign countries. Over the past 150 years, Luxembourg has thus experienced…

  13. Grand Bay-Banks Lake Stewardship Partnership - Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    Department of Defense Legacy Resource Management Program PROJECT NUMBER 05-158 Grand Bay-Banks Lake Stewardship Partnership - Phase II...Bay-Banks Lake Stewardship Partnership - Phase II 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...Grand Bay-Banks Lake Desired Future Ecological Condition Workshop 2 Acknowledgements The Grand Bay-Banks Lake Stewardship Partnership

  14. Gamma ray and neutrino detector facility (GRANDE), Task C

    SciTech Connect

    Sobel, H.W.; Yodh, G.B.

    1991-08-01

    GRANDE is an imaging, water Cerenkov detector, which combines in one facility an extensive air shower array and a high-energy neutrino detector. We proposed that the detector be constructed in phases, beginning with an active detector area of 31,000 m{sup 2} (GRANDE-I){sup 2} and expanding to a final size of 100,000--150,00 m{sup 2}. Some of the characteristics of GRANDE-I are discussed in this paper.

  15. Grand Canyon, Lake Powell, and Lake Mead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A snowfall in the American West provides contrast to the landscape's muted earth tones and indicates changes in topography and elevation across (clockwise from top left) Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. In Utah, the southern ranges of the Wasatch Mountains are covered in snow, and the Colorado River etches a dark ribbon across the red rock of the Colorado Plateau. In the center of the image is the reservoir created by the Glen Canyon Dam. To the east are the gray-colored slopes of Navaho Mountain, and to the southeast, dusted with snow is the region called Black Mesa. Southwest of Glen Canyon, the Colorado enters the Grand Canyon, which cuts westward through Arizona. At a deep bend in the river, the higher elevations of the Keibab Plateau have held onto snow. At the end of the Grand Canyon lies another large reservoir, Lake Mead, which is formed by the Hoover Dam. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  16. Extension in the Rio Grande rift.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cordell, L.

    1982-01-01

    A positive gravity anomaly along the axis of the Rio Grande rift reflects a volume of anomalous mass added at the base of the crust and intruded into the crust. Part of this volume can be associated with vertical uplift of the crust. The remainder of this anomalous volume, plus the volume of surficial graben fill, can be associated with horizontal crustal extension. The volume of crustal uplift in the Rio Grande rift is unknown, but this term can be eliminated by means of an independent equation provided by assumption of generalized isostatic equilibrium. The volume and mass equations combined provide a solution for extension of the crust in terms of the following parameters: total anomalous mass deficiency in the mantle lithosphere, total anomalous mass excess in the crust and its density contrast, total anomalous mass deficiency of surficial graben fill and its density contrast, and the volume of material eroded from the uplift. Using standard density estimates and masses determined by equivalent-source modeling of gravity profiles, I obtained 1-km extension at 37oN (Colorado-New Mexico border), 13- km extension at 35oN (Albuquerque, New Mexico), and 24-km extension at 33oN in S New Mexico.-Author

  17. Lava Flows in the Grand Canyon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Over vast expanses of time, natural processes like floods and volcanoes deposit layers of rock on the Earth's surface. To delve down through layers of rock is to explore our planet's history. Sometimes rock layers are exposed through human activity, such as drilling or excavation. Other times, rivers carve through the rock. One of the best, and most well-known, examples of a river exposing ancient rocks is Colorado River in Arizona's Grand Canyon. What fewer people know is that the Grand Canyon also has a history of relatively recent (on geologic time scales) volcanism. The evidence--hardened lava--spills down the canyon walls all the way to the river. On June 22, 2003, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the Grand Canyon, near 36.2 degrees north latitude and 113.2 degrees west longitude. ASTER detects light visible to human eyes as well as 'invisible' infrared light. Because different minerals reflect different portions of the light spectrum, ASTER can see varying mineral compositions of the rocks it observes, as well as detecting vegetation. In this three-dimensional visualization, lava fields appear brownish gray, darker than the layers of limestone, sandstone and other rock in the canyon. Vegetation appears green, and sparsely vegetated areas appear mustard. Water in the Colorado River is blue-purple. Geologists estimate that between 1.8 million and 400,000 years ago, lava flows actually dammed the Colorado River more than a dozen times. Some of the lava dams were as high as 600 meters (about 1,969 feet), forming immense reservoirs. Over time, enough water and sediment built up to push the river flow over the tops of these dams and eventually erode them away. Today, remnants of these lava dams remain throughout the area, along with the much older rock layers they cover. Among the most well known examples of these 'frozen' lava cascades is Lava Falls, which spills down to the

  18. La masa de los grandes impactores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, M. G.; Brunini, A.

    Los planetas han sido formados fundamentalmente acretando masa a través de colisiones con planetesimales sólidos. La masa más grande de la distribución de planetesimales y las masas máxima y mínima de los impactores, han sido calculadas usando los valores actuales del período y de la inclinación de los planetas (Lissauer & Safronov 1991; Parisi & Brunini 1996). Recientes investigaciones han mostrado, que las órbitas de los planetas gigantes no han sufrido variaciones con el tiempo, siendo su movimiento regular durante su evolución a partir de la finalización de la etapa de acreción (Laskar 1990, 1994). Por lo tanto, la eccentricidad actual de los planetas gigantes se puede utilizar para imponer una cota máxima a las masas y velocidades orbitales de los grandes impactores. Mediante un simple modelo dinámico, y considerando lo arriba mencionado, obtenemos la cota superior para la masa del planetesimal más grande que impactó a cada planeta gigante al final de su etapa de acreción. El resultado más importante de este trabajo es la estimación de la masa máxima permitida para impactar a Júpiter, la cúal es ~ 1.136 × 10 -1, siendo en el caso de Neptuno ~ 3.99 × 10 -2 (expresada en unidades de la masa final de cada planeta). Además, fue posible obtener la velocidad orbital máxima permitida para los impactores como una función de su masa, para cada planeta. Las cotas obtenidas para la masa y velocidad de los impactores de Saturno y Urano (en unidades de la masa y velocidad final de cada planeta respectivamente) son casi las mismas que las obtenidas para Júpiter debido a que estos tres planetas poseen similar eccentricidad actual. Nuestros resultados están en buen acuerdo con los obtenidos por Lissauer & Safronov (1991). Estas cotas podrían ser utilizadas para obtener la distribución de planetesimales en el Sistema Solar primitivo.

  19. Steroids from Dysoxylum grande (Meliaceae) leaves.

    PubMed

    Wah, Low Kok; Abas, Faridah; Cordell, Geoffrey A; Ito, Hideyuki; Ismail, Intan Safinar

    2013-02-01

    Seven new 23-oxo-cholestane derivatives named as grandol A (1), B (2), C (3), D (4), E (5), F (6), and G (7) were isolated from Dysoxylum grande leaves alongside with a new 3,4-secodammar-4(28)-en-3-oic acid derivative (8). The structures of the compounds were elucidated based on the interpretation of spectroscopic data, and their relative configurations were established by NOESY 2D NMR data. All of the isolates were tested for anti-acetylcholinesterase activity using thin layer chromatography (TLC)-bioautography with fast blue B salt. Only grandol A (1) and B (2) showed positive results, with clear discoloration at a concentration of 12.5 ppm. However, the obtained IC(50) values for grandol A and B, when using Ellman's method, were not significant (>200 μg/ml).

  20. The ten grand challenges of synthetic life.

    PubMed

    Porcar, Manuel; Danchin, Antoine; de Lorenzo, Victor; Dos Santos, Vitor A; Krasnogor, Natalio; Rasmussen, Steen; Moya, Andrés

    2011-06-01

    The construction of artificial life is one of the main scientific challenges of the Synthetic Biology era. Advances in DNA synthesis and a better understanding of regulatory processes make the goal of constructing the first artificial cell a realistic possibility. This would be both a fundamental scientific milestone and a starting point of a vast range of applications, from biofuel production to drug design. However, several major issues might hamper the objective of achieving an artificial cell. From the bottom-up to the selection-based strategies, this work encompasses the ten grand challenges synthetic biologists will have to be aware of in order to cope with the task of creating life in the lab.

  1. Grand Challenges in Protoplanetary Disc Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haworth, Thomas J.; Ilee, John D.; Forgan, Duncan H.; Facchini, Stefano; Price, Daniel J.; Boneberg, Dominika M.; Booth, Richard A.; Clarke, Cathie J.; Gonzalez, Jean-François; Hutchison, Mark A.; Kamp, Inga; Laibe, Guillaume; Lyra, Wladimir; Meru, Farzana; Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Panić, Olja; Rice, Ken; Suzuki, Takeru; Teague, Richard; Walsh, Catherine; Woitke, Peter; Community authors

    2016-10-01

    The Protoplanetary Discussions conference-held in Edinburgh, UK, from 2016 March 7th-11th-included several open sessions led by participants. This paper reports on the discussions collectively concerned with the multi-physics modelling of protoplanetary discs, including the self-consistent calculation of gas and dust dynamics, radiative transfer, and chemistry. After a short introduction to each of these disciplines in isolation, we identify a series of burning questions and grand challenges associated with their continuing development and integration. We then discuss potential pathways towards solving these challenges, grouped by strategical, technical, and collaborative developments. This paper is not intended to be a review, but rather to motivate and direct future research and collaboration across typically distinct fields based on community-driven input, to encourage further progress in our understanding of circumstellar and protoplanetary discs.

  2. Biological grand universality and its physical challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azbel‧, Mark Ya.

    1999-12-01

    Presented quantitative laws of metabolism, mortality and evolution are valid for animals from bacteria to mammals and demonstrate grand universality in biology. Its microscopic origin may be a physical and mathematical challenge. Natural evolution is accurately reduced to the continuous one, “weak” and “strong” Gould-Eldredge spurts. The discovery of writing, i.e. non-genetic, long range, collective information transfer from generation to generation with human rather than natural selection, leads to post-evolution. Technological post-evolution is exponentially rapid and may lead to the extinction of a civilization. This might resolve the Fermi-Hart paradox: if extra-terrestrial intelligence exists, why it cannot be contacted?

  3. Gauged flavor, supersymmetry and grand unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Rabindra N.

    2012-07-01

    I review a recent work on gauged flavor with left-right symmetry, where all masses and all Yukawa couplings owe their origin to spontaneous flavor symmetry breaking. This is suggested as a precursor to a full understanding of flavor of quarks and leptons. An essential ingredient of this approach is the existence of heavy vector-like fermions, which is the home of flavor, which subsequently gets transmitted to the familiar quarks and leptons via the seesaw mechanism. I then discuss implications of extending this idea to include supersymmetry and finally speculate on a possible grand unified model based on the gauge group SU(5)L×SU(5)R which provides a group theoretic origin for the vector-like fermions.

  4. The problem of the Grand Unification Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treder, H.-J.

    The evolution and fundamental questions of physical theories unifying the gravitational, electromagnetic, and quantum-mechanical interactions are explored, taking Pauli's aphorism as a motto: 'Let no man join what God has cast asunder.' The contributions of Faraday and Riemann, Lorentz, Einstein, and others are discussed, and the criterion of Pauli is applied to Grand Unification Theories (GUT) in general and to those seeking to link gravitation and electromagnetism in particular. Formal mathematical symmetry principles must be shown to have real physical relevance by predicting measurable phenomena not explainable without a GUT; these phenomena must be macroscopic because gravitational effects are to weak to be measured on the microscopic level. It is shown that empirical and theoretical studies of 'gravomagnetism', 'gravoelectricity', or possible links between gravoelectrity and the cosmic baryon assymmetry eventually lead back to basic questions which appear philosophical or purely mathematical but actually challenge physics to seek verifiable answers.

  5. Neutrino dark energy in grand unified theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Jitesh R.; Gu, Pei-Hong; Sarkar, Utpal; Singh, Santosh K.

    2009-10-01

    We studied a left-right symmetric model that can accommodate the neutrino dark energy (νDE) proposal. The type-III seesaw mechanism is implemented to give masses to the neutrinos. After explaining the model, we study the consistency of the model by minimizing the scalar potential and obtaining the conditions for the required vacuum expectation values of the different scalar fields. This model is then embedded in an SO(10) grand unified theory and the allowed symmetry breaking scales are determined by the condition of the gauge coupling unification. Although SU(2)R breaking is required to be high, its Abelian subgroup U(1)R is broken in the TeV range, which can then give the required neutrino masses and predicts new gauge bosons that could be detected at LHC. The neutrino masses are studied in detail in this model, which shows that at least 3 singlet fermions are required.

  6. Grand Portage Reservation Environmental Monitoring Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    There are seven types of aquatic resources on the Grand Portage Reservation. An ecological monitoring program was proposed for these resources. Some of the resources are pristine, while others have been affected by development. Each type of resource has physical (habitat, sediment, and hydrology), chemical, and biological (fish, invertebrates, and algae) characteristics that are monitored in a consistent manner so that change may be detected. Not all aspects of the physical, chemical, and biotic components are monitored at each resource type. Monitoring is focused on those aspects most susceptible to change. Replication and comparison with pristine components are a significant part of the program so that actual change can be determined from natural temporal and spatial variability.

  7. Neutrino dark energy in grand unified theories

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatt, Jitesh R.; Sarkar, Utpal; Singh, Santosh K.; Gu, P.-H.

    2009-10-01

    We studied a left-right symmetric model that can accommodate the neutrino dark energy ({nu}DE) proposal. The type-III seesaw mechanism is implemented to give masses to the neutrinos. After explaining the model, we study the consistency of the model by minimizing the scalar potential and obtaining the conditions for the required vacuum expectation values of the different scalar fields. This model is then embedded in an SO(10) grand unified theory and the allowed symmetry breaking scales are determined by the condition of the gauge coupling unification. Although SU(2){sub R} breaking is required to be high, its Abelian subgroup U(1){sub R} is broken in the TeV range, which can then give the required neutrino masses and predicts new gauge bosons that could be detected at LHC. The neutrino masses are studied in detail in this model, which shows that at least 3 singlet fermions are required.

  8. Gauge-Higgs EW and grand unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosotani, Yutaka

    2016-07-01

    Four-dimensional Higgs field is identified with the extra-dimensional component of gauge potentials in the gauge-Higgs unification scenario. SO(5) × U(1) gauge-Higgs EW unification in the Randall-Sundrum warped space is successful at low energies. The Higgs field appears as an Aharonov-Bohm phase 𝜃H in the fifth dimension. Its mass is generated at the quantum level and is finite. The model yields almost the same phenomenology as the standard model for 𝜃H < 0.1, and predicts Z‧ bosons around 6-10 TeV with very broad widths. The scenario is generalized to SO(11) gauge-Higgs grand unification. Fermions are introduced in the spinor and vector representations of SO(11). Proton decay is naturally forbidden.

  9. Gauge-Higgs EW and Grand Unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosotani, Yutaka

    Four-dimensional Higgs field is identified with the extra-dimensional component of gauge potentials in the gauge-Higgs unifiation scenario. SO(5) × U(1) gauge-Higgs EW unification in the Randall-Sundrum warped space is successful at low energies. The Higgs field appears as an Aharonov-Bohm phase θH in the fifth dimension. Its mass is generated at the quantum level and is finite. The model yields almost the same phenomenology as the standard model for θH < 0.1, and predicts Z' bosons around 6-10 TeV with very broad widths. The scenario is generalized to SO(11) gauge-Higgs grand unification. Fermions are introduced in the spinor and vector representations of SO(11). Proton decay is naturally forbidden.

  10. Perspective view over the Grand Canyon, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This simulated true color perspective view over the Grand Canyon was created from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data acquired on May 12, 2000. The Grand Canyon Village is in the lower foreground; the Bright Angel Trail crosses the Tonto Platform, before dropping down to the Colorado Village and then to the Phantom Ranch (green area across the river). Bright Angel Canyon and the North Rim dominate the view. At the top center of the image the dark blue area with light blue haze is an active forest fire.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 5 km in foreground to 40 km Location: 36.3 degrees north latitude, 112 degrees west longitude Orientation: North-northeast at top Original Data Resolution: ASTER 15 meters Dates Acquired: May 12, 2000

  11. Elastoplasticidad anisotropa de metales en grandes deformaciones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caminero Torija, Miguel Angel

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el desarrollo de modelos y algoritmos numericos que simulen el comportamiento del material bajo estas condiciones en el contexto de programas de elementos finitos, dando como resultado predicciones mas precisas de los procesos de conformado y deformacion plastica en general. Para lograr este objetivo se han desarrollado diversas tareas destinadas a mejorar las predicciones en tres aspectos fundamentales. El primer aspecto consiste en la mejora de la descripcion del endurecimiento cinematico anisotropo en pequenas deformaciones, lo cual se ha realizado a traves de modelos y algoritmos implicitos de superficies multiples. Ha sido estudiada la consistencia de este tipo de modelos tanto si estan basados en una regla implicita similar a la de Mroz o en la regla de Prager. Ademas se han simulado los ensayos de Lamba y Sidebottom, obteniendo, en contra de la creencia general, muy buenas predicciones con la regla de Prager. Dichos modelos podrian ser extendidos de forma relativamente facil para considerar grandes deformaciones a traves de procedimientos en deformaciones logaritmicas, similares a los desarrollados en esta tesis y detallados a continuacion. El segundo aspecto consiste en la descripcion de la anisotropia elastoplastica inicial. Esto se ha conseguido mediante el desarrollo de modelos y algoritmos para plasticidad anisotropa en grandes deformaciones, bien ignorando la posible anisotropia elastica, bien considerandola simultaneamente con la anisotropia plastica. Para ello ha sido necesario desarrollar primero un nuevo algoritmo de elastoplasticidad anisotropa en pequenas deformaciones consistentemente linealizado y sin despreciar ningun termino, de tal forma que se conserve la convergencia cuadratica de los metodos de Newton. Este algoritmo en pequenas deformaciones ha servido para realizar la correccion plastica de dos algoritmos en grandes deformaciones. El primero de estos algoritmos es una variacion del clasico algoritmo de

  12. "No. 64. View of Grand River looking along the axis ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "No. 64. View of Grand River looking along the axis of proposed diversion dam. H.T.C., Aug. 20, 1913." - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  13. 29. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, LOOKING WEST TOWARD BROPHY PREP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, LOOKING WEST TOWARD BROPHY PREP AND ST. FRANCIS CHURCH (compare this photograph with AZ-17-15, taken at the same spot in 1937). Photographer: Kevin Kreisel-Coons, May 1990 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. 36 CFR 7.59 - Grand Portage National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grand Portage National Monument. 7.59 Section 7.59 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.59 Grand Portage National Monument....

  15. 36 CFR 7.59 - Grand Portage National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grand Portage National Monument. 7.59 Section 7.59 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.59 Grand Portage National Monument....

  16. 36 CFR 7.59 - Grand Portage National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grand Portage National Monument. 7.59 Section 7.59 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.59 Grand Portage National Monument....

  17. 36 CFR 7.59 - Grand Portage National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grand Portage National Monument. 7.59 Section 7.59 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.59 Grand Portage National Monument....

  18. 22. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT, LOOKING WEST FROM BELOW THE SETTLING BASIN (see HAER Photograph No. AZ-30-17, Crosscut Hydro Plant). Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. 18. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT BEFORE 1989 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT BEFORE 1989 REALIGNMENT, LOOKING NORTH TOWARD RAILROAD CROSSING AND CROSSCUT STEAM PLANT LARGE WHITE BUILDING. THE CROSSCUT HYDRO PLANT IS HIDDEN BY TREES TO RIGHT OF STEAM PLANT. Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. 20. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT, LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT, LOOKING EAST FROM SOUTH BANK NEAR SETTLING BASIN (see HAER Photograph No. AZ-30-17, Crosscut Hydro Plant). THE LARGE FOREGROUND PIPE CARRIED WATER ACROSS THE CANAL FROM THE SETTLING BASIN TO THE CROSSCUT STEAM PLANT. Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.4 Grand Canyon National Park. (a)...

  2. 4. Photocopy of architectural blueprint (on file at La Grande ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of architectural blueprint (on file at La Grande District Office, La Grande, Oregon) USDA Forest Service, 1939 OIL AND GAS BUILDING - Union Ranger District Compound, Oil & Gas House, Fronting State Highway 203, at West edge of Union, Union, Union County, OR

  3. 24. VIEW SHOWING WASTE GATES ON GRAND CANAL AT JUNCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW SHOWING WASTE GATES ON GRAND CANAL AT JUNCTION WITH OLD CROSSCUT NE/4, Sec. 7, TIN, R4E; LOOKING WEST. OLD CROSSCUT CANAL ENTERS FROM RIGHT. WASTE GATE ON LEFT EMPTIES INTO SALT RIVER BED Photographer: Kevin Kreisel-Coons, May 1990 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  4. 33 CFR 117.447 - Grand Cabahanosse Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grand Cabahanosse Bayou. 117.447 Section 117.447 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.447 Grand Cabahanosse Bayou. The...

  5. 33 CFR 117.447 - Grand Cabahanosse Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grand Cabahanosse Bayou. 117.447 Section 117.447 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.447 Grand Cabahanosse Bayou. The...

  6. 33 CFR 117.447 - Grand Cabahanosse Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grand Cabahanosse Bayou. 117.447 Section 117.447 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.447 Grand Cabahanosse Bayou. The...

  7. 33 CFR 117.447 - Grand Cabahanosse Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grand Cabahanosse Bayou. 117.447 Section 117.447 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.447 Grand Cabahanosse Bayou. The...

  8. 33 CFR 117.447 - Grand Cabahanosse Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grand Cabahanosse Bayou. 117.447 Section 117.447 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.447 Grand Cabahanosse Bayou. The...

  9. Hardy-Littlewood maximal operator in generalized grand Lebesgue spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umarkhadzhiev, Salaudin M.

    2014-12-01

    We obtain sufficient conditions and necessary conditions for the maximal operator to be bounded in the generalized grand Lebesgue space on an open set Ω ∈ Rn which is not necessarily bounded. The sufficient conditions coincide with necessary conditions for instance in the case where Ω is bounded and the standard definition of the grand space is used.

  10. THE "MUD VOLCANO," A STINKY THERMAL FEATURE ON THE GRAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    THE "MUD VOLCANO," A STINKY THERMAL FEATURE ON THE GRAND LOOP ROAD. ACIDIC HOT SPRINGS HAVE REDUCED THE UNDERLYING LAVA TO A FINE CLAY, PRODUCING AN AREA OF BOILING MUD. THE ODOR OF ROTTEN EGGS IS FROM HYDROGEN SULFIDE GAS. - Grand Loop Road, Forming circuit between Mammoth Hot Springs, Norris Junction, Madison Junction, Old Faithful, Mammoth, Park County, WY

  11. Parallel Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (ParaGrandMC) Simulation Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamakov, Vesselin I.

    2016-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the Parallel Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (ParaGrandMC) simulation code. This is a highly scalable parallel FORTRAN code for simulating the thermodynamic evolution of metal alloy systems at the atomic level, and predicting the thermodynamic state, phase diagram, chemical composition and mechanical properties. The code is designed to simulate multi-component alloy systems, predict solid-state phase transformations such as austenite-martensite transformations, precipitate formation, recrystallization, capillary effects at interfaces, surface absorption, etc., which can aid the design of novel metallic alloys. While the software is mainly tailored for modeling metal alloys, it can also be used for other types of solid-state systems, and to some degree for liquid or gaseous systems, including multiphase systems forming solid-liquid-gas interfaces.

  12. The seismic history of the Rio Grande Rift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    The Rio Grande Rift, one of the major geologic structures of the Southwest, cuts through the center of New Mexico from north to south. The rift is also referred to as the Rio Grande Trench and as the Rio Grande Trough. It extends from the northern end of the San Luis Valley in Colorado southward 725 kilometres along the course of the Rio Grande River through New Mexico to near El Paso, Tex. The Rio Grande Rift is not a single trough but a series of north-trending basins arranged en echelon and separated by narrow constrictions or channels. The rift follows the western flank of the southern Rocky Mountains and apparently was formed at the same time as the moutains. 

  13. The Arctic Grand Challenge: Abrupt Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkniss, P. E.

    2003-12-01

    Trouble in polar paradise (Science, 08/30/02), significant changes in the Arctic environment are scientifically documented (R.E. Moritz et al. ibid.). More trouble, lots more, "abrupt climate change," (R. B. Alley, et al. Science 03/28/03). R. Corell, Arctic Climate Impact Assessment team (ACIA), "If you want to see what will happen in the rest of the world 25 years from now just look what's happening in the Arctic," (Arctic Council meeting, Iceland, 08/03). What to do? Make abrupt Arctic climate change a grand challenge for the IPY-4 and beyond! Scientifically:Describe the "state" of the Arctic climate system as succinctly as possible and accept it as the point of departure.Develop a hypothesis and criteria what constitutes "abrupt climate change," in the Arctic that can be tested with observations. Observations: Bring to bear existing observations and coordinate new investments in observations through an IPY-4 scientific management committee. Make the new Barrow, Alaska, Global Climate Change Research Facility a major U.S. contribution and focal point for the IPY-4 in the U.S Arctic. Arctic populations, Native peoples: The people of the North are living already, daily, with wrenching change, encroaching on their habitats and cultures. For them "the earth is faster now," (I. Krupnik and D. Jolly, ARCUS, 2002). From a political, economic, social and entirely realistic perspective, an Arctic grand challenge without the total integration of the Native peoples in this effort cannot succeed. Therefore: Communications must be established, and the respective Native entities must be approached with the determination to create well founded, well functioning, enduring partnerships. In the U.S. Arctic, Barrow with its long history of involvement and active support of science and with the new global climate change research facility should be the focal point of choice Private industry: Resource extraction in the Arctic followed by oil and gas consumption, return the combustion

  14. Humility and opportunity in Rio Grande rift

    SciTech Connect

    Black, B.A. )

    1989-09-01

    One of the hardest things to do is to admit a mistake. But we can often learn valuable lessons when we analyze why we made our mistakes and when we admit our vulnerability to the unknown. In 1984, the authors published an article that described what they referred to privately as a geologic Moebius loop where a seismic grid appeared to grossly mistie. They though they stayed in the same Paleozoic carbonate formation all the way around the loop. Drilling subsequent to that article has deepened the mystery of the correlations by proving that the target formations were indeed limestones and showing they may not be the Paleozoic limestones they though they started in but are perhaps a new, previously undescribed sequence of thick Tertiary lacustrine limestone. The Yates La Mesa 2 well in Sec. 24, T17N, R8E, has spawned more questions than it has answered, but it has paradoxically also pointed out the potential for new and exciting plays in the Rio Grande rift basins and has given them an opportunity to show how previous misinterpreted work can teach new lessons. Seismic lines in the rift and in the Yates well illustrate how they can both deceive and inspire themselves in the search for hydrocarbons.

  15. Coordinating the Atlantis Grand Opening Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Abigail Allaine

    2013-01-01

    While working as the marketing intern for Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Center Planning and Development Directorate (CPD), I was given the opportunity not only to learn new skills and expand my work experience under the powerful influence of NASA, but I also was given the opportunity to prove that I am an individual capable of contributing to the KSC team. My main responsibility while working in CPD was to organize and run a booth that represented the entire directorate at the Grand Opening of the Shuttle Atlantis exhibit during the weekend of June 28-30. This event was important for CPD because as a Directorate that markets KSC's facilities, technical capabilities and technologies to potential partners, it is important to attend all events and use them to gain an understanding of our audience. Although we catered mostly to the general public during this event, it was still important to reach out to the larger space enthusiast community and let them know about KSC's future plans to become a multi-user spaceport and that teclmology is still being developed.

  16. Grand challenge scientific questions in coupled modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Steven

    1993-01-01

    Most convective field experiments in the past (e.g., SESAME, CCOPE, CINDE) have attempted to resolve only the immediate scales of moist convection using network arrays that spanned two or three atmospheric scales at most. Furthermore, these scales have been defined more on practical considerations (cost, manpower, etc.) than on a clear understanding of their theoretical significance. Unfortunately, this has precluded a description of the entire life cycle of MCS's and their interaction with larger scale systems, the land surface, and trace species. Fortunately, the following factors now make it possible to attempt to simulate scale contraction processes from the synoptic scale down to the cloud scale, as well as interactions between complex meteorological, land surface, precipitation, chemical, and hydrologic processes with coupled, multiscale models: the availability of new technology to sample meteorological fields at high temporal and spatial resolution over a broad region made possible by the weather observing modernization program; increased computer power and improved numerical approaches to run limited area models with nonhydrostatic precipitation physics so as to explicitly resolve MCS (Mesoscale Convective System) processes; and four dimensional assimilation of non-conventional data to provide dynamically consistent datasets for diagnostic analysis of nonlinear scale-interactive dynamics. Several examples of scale-interactive processes which present grand challenges for coupled, multiscale modeling were presented.

  17. Toward realistic gauge-Higgs grand unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furui, Atsushi; Hosotani, Yutaka; Yamatsu, Naoki

    2016-09-01

    The SO(11) gauge-Higgs grand unification in the Randall-Sundrum warped space is presented. The 4D Higgs field is identified as the zero mode of the fifth-dimensional component of the gauge potentials, or as the fluctuation mode of the Aharonov-Bohm phase θ along the fifth dimension. Fermions are introduced in the bulk in the spinor and vector representations of SO(11). SO(11) is broken to SO(4)×SO(6) by the orbifold boundary conditions, which is broken to SU2×U1×SU3 by a brane scalar. Evaluating the effective potential V(θ), we show that the electroweak symmetry is dynamically broken to U1. The quark-lepton masses are generated by the Hosotani mechanism and brane interactions, with which the observed mass spectrum is reproduced. Proton decay is forbidden thanks to the new fermion number conservation. It is pointed out that there appear light exotic fermions. The Higgs boson mass is determined with the quark-lepton masses given; however, it turns out to be smaller than the observed value.

  18. Minimal realistic SU(5) Grand Unified Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assad, Nima

    2016-03-01

    Despite making predictions in unprecedented agreement with experiment, such as the magnetic dipole moment of the electron to one part in a billion, the experimental confirmation of neutrino flavor oscillations, and thus of massive neutrinos, implies that the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics is incomplete. An extension of the SM, which retains its low energy predictions while accounting for massive neutrinos, is achieved through the introduction of the dimension 5 Weinberg operator and its associated energy scale above the electroweak (102 GeV), but below the Planck scale (1019 GeV). The Beyond Standard Model (BSM) class of Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) implicates such a scale (1016 GeV) in the unification of the three SM gauge couplings, thus making the origin of neutrino mass a theoretically appealing probe into particle behavior at energies currently inaccessible experimentally. Here, we compare the 24F and 15H extensions of the Georgi-Glashow SU(5) GUT to accommodate massive neutrinos and to unify SM gauge couplings while minimizing the theory's additional field content. Using the Monte Carlo event generator MadGraph, each extension is found to produce distinct signatures at the run II of the LHC.

  19. A liner timeline at Grand Central Sanitation

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, R.

    1994-08-01

    Since the promulgation of the minimum landfill liner requirements under RCRA's Subtitle D in September 1991, nearly every operating landfill in the US that has expanded horizontally has been brought up to speed with basic environmental protection measures, i.e., liners, leachate collection groundwater monitoring, etc. For most landfills, however, these changes did not happen overnight. For more than a decade, most of the states and countless private landfills have been anticipating the advent of Subtitle D and have been upgrading outdated landfills long before the federal regulations were enforced. Grand Central Sanitation, Inc. (GCS, Pen Argyl, Pa.), for example, is a case in point. The family-run company's sanitary landfill began operation as a 52-acre, natural renovation, or earthen barrier, fill in the early 1950s and its first two fill areas, now closed, had only natural soils as a liner. Today, GCS's facility has more than doubled its permitted capacity. Its 10th disposal cell, now under construction, is triple-lined with the latest synthetic geomembranes, including high-density polyethylene (HDPE) liners, geotextiles, geonets, and leachate collection systems.

  20. Dawn Grand Calibrated (RDR) Ceres Counts V1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prettyman, T. H.; Yamashita, N.

    2016-04-01

    The GRaND Reduced Data Records (RDR) contain a time series of calibrated spectra, counting data, and ephemeris, pointing, and geometry (EPG) data. The EPG data are contained in a single file, with an entry for every science data record acquired by GRaND within the dataset start-stop times. Each record has a unique identifier, spacecraft clock ticks, which is used as a serial number to identify data from the same record in other files containing spectra and counting data. The RDR data set includes a time series of corrected gamma ray spectra acquired by GRaND's bismuth-germanate (BGO) scintillator.

  1. Dawn Grand Calibrated (RDR) Vesta Counts V1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prettyman, T. H.; Yamashita, N.

    2014-12-01

    The GRaND Reduced Data Records (RDR) contain a time series of calibrated spectra, counting data, and ephemeris, pointing, and geometry (EPG) data. The data set is specific to Vesta encounter. The EPG data are contained in a single file, with an entry for every science data record acquired by GRaND at Vesta. Each record has a unique identifier, spacecraft clock ticks, which is used as a serial number to identify data from the same record in other files containing spectra and counting data. The RDR data set includes a time series of corrected gamma ray spectra acquired by GRaND's bismuth-germanate (BGO) scintillator.

  2. "P8400564 Grand Valley Project view of GV Diversion Dam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "P8-400-564 Grand Valley Project - view of GV Diversion Dam on Col. River completed in 1915 by BOR to divert water to irrigate the Grand Valley Project. 7-18-58 by Stan Rasmussen." Note integration of the dam and canal headgate at center left, proximity of the river and railroad tracks at lower left, and gatekeeper's house on lower right - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  3. 72. 451 MADISON AVENUE, GRAND STAIR, ZODIAC CLOCK WITH DECORATIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. 451 MADISON AVENUE, GRAND STAIR, ZODIAC CLOCK WITH DECORATIVE CARVING BY STANFORD WHITE AND AUGUSTUS SAINT-GAUDENS - Villard Houses, 451-457 Madison Avenue & 24 East Fifty-first Street, New York County, NY

  4. Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McGowan, Vance R.; Powell, Russ M.

    1999-05-01

    The primary goal of ''The Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Improvement Project'' is to access, create, improve, protect, and restore reparian and instream habitat for anadromous salmonids, thereby maximizing opportunities for natural fish production within the basin.

  5. 25. VIEW OF UPPER PORTION OF GRAND STAIRWAY SHOWING SKY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW OF UPPER PORTION OF GRAND STAIRWAY SHOWING SKY LIGHT, COLUMN CAPITALS AND COFFERED CEILING. PHOTO TAKEN FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER OF SECOND FLOOR LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Yakima National Guard Armory, 202 South Third Street, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  6. GRAND MINIMA AND NORTH-SOUTH ASYMMETRY OF SOLAR ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Olemskoy, S. V.; Kitchatinov, L. L.

    2013-11-01

    A solar-type dynamo model in a spherical shell is developed with allowance for random dependence of the poloidal field generation mechanism on time and latitude. The model shows repeatable epochs of a strongly decreased amplitude of magnetic cycles similar to the Maunder minimum of solar activity. Random dependence of dynamo parameters on latitude breaks the equatorial symmetry of generated fields. The model shows the correlation of the occurrence of grand minima with deviations in the dynamo field from dipolar parity. An increased north-south asymmetry of magnetic activity can, therefore, be an indicator of transitions to grand minima. Qualitative interpretation of this correlation is suggested. Statistics of grand minima in the model are close to the Poisson random process, indicating that the onset of a grand minimum is statistically independent of preceding minima.

  7. RadNet Air Data From Grand Rapids, MI

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Grand Rapids, MI from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  8. RadNet Air Data From Grand Junction, CO

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Grand Junction, CO from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  9. Thermomechanical models of the Rio Grande rift

    SciTech Connect

    Bridwell, R.J.; Anderson, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    Fully two-dimensional, coupled thermochemical solutions of a continental rift and platform are used to model the crust and mantle structure of a hot, buoyant mantle diapir beneath the Rio Grande rift. The thermomechanical model includes both linear and nonlinear laws of the Weertman type relating shear stress and creep strain rate, viscosity which depends on temperature and pressure, and activation energy, temperature-dependent thermal conductivity, temperature-dependent coefficient of thermal expansion, the Boussinesq approximation for thermal bouyancy, material convection using a stress rate that is invariant to rigid rotations, an elastically deformable crust, and a free surface. The model determines the free surface velocities, solid state flow field in the mantle, and viscosity structure of lithosphere and asthenosphere. Regional topography and crustal heat flow are simulated. A suite of symmetric models, assumes continental geotherms on the right and the successively increasing rift geotherms on the left. These models predict an asthenospheric flow field which transfers cold material laterally toward the rift at > 300 km, hot, buoyant material approx. 200 km wide which ascends vertically at rates of 1 km/my between 175 to 325 km, and spreads laterally away from the rift at the base of the lithosphere. Crustal spreading rates are similar to uplift rates. The lithosphere acts as stiff, elastic cap, damping upward motion through decreased velocities of 1 km/10 my and spreading uplift laterally. A parameter study varying material coefficients for the Weertman flow law suggests asthenospheric viscosities of approx. 10/sup 22/ to 10/sup 23/ poise. Similar studies predict crustal viscosities of approx. 10/sup 25/ poise. The buoyant process of mantle flow narrows and concentrates heat transport beneath the rift, increases upward velocity, and broadly arches the lithosphere. 10 figures, 1 table.

  10. Observational Needs from the WCRP Grand Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, David

    2016-07-01

    An innovative history of platforms and instruments has provided remarkable satellite-based views of and data about our planet over roughly the past 35 years. The fragile and temporary nature of these satellite systems remind us that, from a climate viewpoint, we have not in any way solved or completed our observational tasks. Instead, the challenges of using satellites to observe key features of our planet's climate grow more complicated and the need grows more urgent. Admitting that we have borrowed and adopted some of our current capabilities from meteorological satellites, we need continuity of what we have as well as innovation and extension to reach new features that we now recognise as important. The scientific goals of the WCRP Grand Challenges emphasise this simultaneous need for continuation and innovation. We need longer better records of global changes in cloud types and distributions but we also need sharp accurate views of water vapour beneath those clouds. We need gravity missions to continue to track the net mass losses from Greenland and Antarctica while at the same time we need innovative remote sensing techniques to quantify rapid ice discharges at their peripheries. We need longer and broader latitudinal records of precipitation, snow cover and soil moisture but we also crucially need to detect hydrological and biogeochemical processes at the root zone. We must maintain continuity and consistency of ocean surface temperature, surface salinity and surface wind records while we also develop new methods to reveal and record deep ocean temperatures and currents. For immediate scientific, economic and political reasons we must develop a comprehensive CO2 monitoring system. And we need open high-quality access to all these data to understand present and preceding conditions as we encounter the surprises of the Anthropocene.

  11. Achieving a "Grand Convergence" in global health by 2035.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Adel

    2017-01-20

    Historical evidence demonstrates the validity of the concept "Grand Convergence". The Lancet commission identified the major challenges facing low and lower middle income countries including the unfinished agenda, non-communicable diseases and injuries and an approach to funding and achieving these objectives along with progress towards universal health care. The role of vaccines is summarized as a major approach to accomplish a Grand Convergence in a generation.

  12. Environmental Assessment Deicer Recovery at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-15

    completed application to this office for further review. We also request the opportunity for complete review of applications for renewal or...NO 58205~6434 September 30, 2004 ND SHPO Ref.: 97 .. Q527av, Draft FONSI, Deicer Recovery Operation, Grand Forks AFB, NO. Dear Ms. Strom: We have...reviewed the Finding ofNo Significant Impact for a deicer recovery operation (draft version) at the Grand Forks Air Force Base, NO. We have no

  13. Environmental Assessment Tent City at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-15

    thunderstorms. Winters are long and severe with almost continuous snow cover. The spring and fall seasons are generally short transition periods. The...from the northwest during the late fall, winter, and spring , and from the southeast during the summer. Grand Forks County is included in the ND Air...drainage system. At Manvel, ND, approximately 10 miles northeast of Grand Forks AFB, the mean discharge of the Turtle River is 50.3 feet cubed per

  14. Simulations of Precipitation Variability over the Upper Rio Grande Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Costigan, Keeley R.; Bossert, James E.; Langley, David L.

    1997-12-31

    In this research, we study Albuquerque`s water and how it may be affected by changes in the regional climate, as manifested by variations in Rio Grande water levels. To do this, we rely on the use of coupled atmospheric, runoff, and ground water models. Preliminary work on the project has focused on uncoupled simulations of the aquifer beneath Albuquerque and winter precipitation simulations of the upper Rio Grande Basin. The latter is discussed in this paper.

  15. 8. VIEW SHOWING THE DEMOSSING OF GRAND CANAL LOCATION UNKNOWN. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW SHOWING THE DEMOSSING OF GRAND CANAL LOCATION UNKNOWN. AT TEAM OF HORSES ON OPPOSITE BANKS OF THE CANAL DRAG A CHAIN BETWEEN THEM ALONG THE BOTTOM OF THE CANAL, WHICH PULLS THE MOSS AND WEEDS LOOSE. THE PLANS THEN FLOAT DOWN THE CANAL AND ARE CAUGHT IN A SCREEN AND REMOVED. Photographer unknown, 1923 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. Physiographic rim of the Grand Canyon, Arizona: a digital database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Billingsley, George H.; Hampton, Haydee M.

    1999-01-01

    This Open-File report is a digital physiographic map database. This pamphlet serves to introduce and describe the digital data. There is no paper map included in the Open-File report. The report does include, however, PostScript and PDF format plot files, each containing an image of the map. For those interested in a paper plot of information contained in the database or in obtaining the PostScript plot files, please see the section entitled "For Those Who Don't Use Digital Geologic Map Databases" below. This physiographic map of the Grand Canyon is modified from previous versions by Billingsley and Hendricks (1989), and Billingsley and others (1997). The boundary is drawn approximately along the topographic rim of the Grand Canyon and its tributary canyons between Lees Ferry and Lake Mead (shown in red). Several isolated small mesas, buttes, and plateaus are within this area, which overall encompasses about 2,600 square miles. The Grand Canyon lies within the southwestern part of the Colorado Plateaus of northern Arizona between Lees Ferry, Colorado River Mile 0, and Lake Mead, Colorado River Mile 277. The Colorado River is the corridor for raft trips through the Grand Canyon. Limestone rocks of the Kaibab Formation form most of the north and south rims of the Grand Canyon, and a few volcanic rocks form the north rim of parts of the Uinkaret and Shivwits Plateaus. Limestones of the Redwall Limestone and lower Supai Group form the rim of the Hualapai Plateau area, and Limestones of Devonian and Cambrian age form the boundary rim near the mouth of Grand Canyon at the Lake Mead. The natural physiographic boundary of the Grand Canyon is roughly the area a visitor would first view any part of the Grand Canyon and its tributaries.

  17. 78 FR 40381 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Grand Canyon, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... Canyon VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME) navigation aid, Grand..., at the Grand Canyon VOR/DME navigation aid, Grand Canyon, AZ, to accommodate IFR aircraft under... within the scope of that authority as it establishes controlled airspace at the Grand Canyon...

  18. 78 FR 25404 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Grand Canyon, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME) navigation aid, Grand Canyon, AZ, to facilitate vectoring... route domestic airspace extending upward from 1,200 feet above the surface at the Grand Canyon VOR/DME... airspace at the Grand Canyon VOR/DME, Grand Canyon, AZ. This proposal will be subject to an...

  19. Old Fire/Grand Prix Fire, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    On November 18, 2003, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite acquired this image of the Old Fire/Grand Prix fire east of Los Angeles. The image is being processed by NASA's Wildfire Response Team and will be sent to the United States Department of Agriculture's Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (RSAC) which provides interpretation services to Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams to assist in mapping the severity of the burned areas. The image combines data from the visible and infrared wavelength regions to highlight the burned areas.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Michael Abrams at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort dedicated to

  20. 3D View of Grand Canyon, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Grand Canyon is one of North America's most spectacular geologic features. Carved primarily by the Colorado River over the past six million years, the canyon sports vertical drops of 5,000 feet and spans a 445-kilometer-long stretch of Arizona desert. The strata along the steep walls of the canyon form a record of geologic time from the Paleozoic Era (250 million years ago) to the Precambrian (1.7 billion years ago).

    The above view was acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument aboard the Terra spacecraft. Visible and near infrared data were combined to form an image that simulates the natural colors of water and vegetation. Rock colors, however, are not accurate. The image data were combined with elevation data to produce this perspective view, with no vertical exaggeration, looking from above the South Rim up Bright Angel Canyon towards the North Rim. The light lines on the plateau at lower right are the roads around the Canyon View Information Plaza. The Bright Angel Trail, which reaches the Colorado in 11.3 kilometers, can be seen dropping into the canyon over Plateau Point at bottom center. The blue and black areas on the North Rim indicate a forest fire that was smoldering as the data were acquired on May 12, 2000.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land

  1. Chemical Contamination of the Lower Rio Grande near Laredo, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, B.; Ren, J.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Belzer, W.

    2006-12-01

    The Rio Grande River stretches over 2000 miles from the southern Rocky Mountains in Colorado to the tip of Texas where the Rio Grande meets the Gulf of Mexico. It is the natural boundary between U.S. and Mexico from El Paso, TX, to Brownsville, TX. The communities along the border heavily rely upon the Rio Grande as a primary source of water for consumption, agricultural uses, supporting wildlife and recreation. For many years the Rio Grande has been polluted with municipal, industrial, agricultural and farming contaminants from both sides of the border. This pollution has led to the extinction or reduction of certain wildlife species as well as affecting the health of the residences along the border. Even though great strides have been made in monitoring the Rio Grande, there has been a lack of intense monitoring data collection for pollutants such as pesticides. Three sampling sites including Manadas Creek, the Rio Grande River at International Bridge I, and USGS monitoring site 08459200 off of Highway 83 were chosen. The water quality parameters focused include temperature, pH, conductivity, dissolve oxygen (DO), salinity, total dissolved solids, nutrients, metals and pesticides. Preliminary results have shown elevated concentration of total phosphorus and ortho-phosphorus in the Manadas Creek site. Organochlorinated pesticides such as heptachlor and 4, 4 DDE were detected at various concentrations at all sites and endrin aldehyde was found at Manadas Creek site. This research has provided more information on the current chemical contamination level of the Rio Grande in the Laredo area.

  2. Traveltime of the Rio Grande in the Middle Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico, Water Years 2003-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langman, Jeff B.

    2008-01-01

    The quality of water in the Rio Grande is becoming increasingly important as more surface water is proposed for diversion from the river for potable and nonpotable uses. In cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority, the U.S. Geological Survey examined traveltime of the Rio Grande in the Middle Rio Grande Basin to evaluate the potential travel of a conservative solute entrained in the river's streamflow. A flow-pulse analysis was performed to determine traveltimes of a wide range of streamflows in the Rio Grande, to develop traveltime curves for estimating the possible traveltime of a conservative solute in the Rio Grande between Cochiti Dam and Albuquerque, and to evaluate streamflow velocities and dispersion and storage characteristics of the Rio Grande in the entire Middle Rio Grande Basin. A flow-pulse analysis was applied to 12 pulse events recorded during the 2003-05 water years for streamflow-gaging stations between Cochiti Dam and the city of San Acacia. Pulse streamflows ranged from 495 to 5,190 cubic feet per second (ft3/s). Three points of each pulse were tracked as the pulse passed a station - rising-limb leading edge, plateau leading edge, and plateau trailing edge. Most pulses indicated longer traveltimes for each successive point in the pulse. Dispersion and spreading of the pulses decreased with increased streamflow. Decreasing traveltimes were not always consistent with increasing streamflow, particularly for flows less than 1,750 ft3/s, and the relation of traveltime and original pulse streamflow at Cochiti indicated a nonlinear component. Average streamflow velocities decreased by greater than 30 percent from San Felipe to San Acacia. The expected trend of increasing dispersion with downstream travel was not always visible because of other influences on streamflow. With downstream flow, distributions of the pulses became more skewed to the descending limbs, indicating possible short-term storage of a part of the

  3. Cassini's Grand Finale: The Final Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, Linda; Edgington, Scott

    2016-04-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission, a joint collaboration between NASA, ESA and the Italian Space Agency, is approaching its last year of operations after nearly 12 years in orbit around Saturn. Cassini will send back its final bits of unique data on September 15th, 2017 as it plunges into Saturn's atmosphere, vaporizing and satisfying planetary protection requirements. Before that time Cassini will continue its legacy of exploration and discovery with 12 close flybys of Titan in 2016 and 2017 that will return new science data as well as sculpt the inclinations and periods of the final orbits. Even though all of our close icy satellite flybys, including those of Enceladus, are now completed, numerous Voyager-class flybys (<100,000 km) of Mimas and Enceladus remain as well as some of our best flybys of the tiny ring moons. Cassini will also continue to study seasonal and temporal changes in the system as northern summer solstice approaches. In November 2016 Cassini will transition to a series of orbits with peripases just outside Saturn's F ring. These 20 orbits will include close flybys of some tiny ring moons and excellent views of the F ring and outer A ring. The 126th and final close flyby of Titan will propel Cassini across Saturn's main rings and into its final orbits. Cassini's Grand Finale, starting in April 2017, is comprised of 22 orbits at an inclination of 63 degrees. Cassini will repeatedly dive between the innermost rings and the upper atmosphere of the planet providing insights into fundamental questions unattainable during the rest of the mission. Cassini will be the first spacecraft to explore this region. These close orbits provide the highest resolution observations of both the rings and Saturn, and direct in situ sampling of the ring particles, composition, plasma, Saturn's exosphere and the innermost radiation belts. Saturn's gravitational field will be measured to unprecedented accuracy, providing information on the interior structure of the planet

  4. History and environmental setting of the Grand Calumet River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith Becker; Whitman, Richard L.; Gerovac, Paul J.

    2002-01-01

    The Grand Calumet River lies in an area of great ecological diversity, a result of the convergence of three biomes during glaciation. Over thousands of years the region and the river have changed ecologically due to ice retreat, lake level declines, settlement and industrialization. Settlement and industrialization have greatly accelerated the rate of change, and the Grand Calumet River and its basin are now subject to the added effects of years of direct pollution. For years, industries directly discharged into the waterway; and those contaminants remain locked in the sediment a century later. In order to preserve the remaining surrounding natural areas and to improve the Grand Calumet River, buried contaminants would have to be dredged from the river. Restoration needs to be implemented as part of the clean-up process, and recontamination should be prevented.

  5. patterns of dust transport to the Grand Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de P. Vasconcelos, Luis A.; Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Liu, Desong; Macias, Edward S.; White, Warren H.

    Dust particles in the 2.5 µm to 15 µm diameter range contribute to regional haze that sometimes impairs visibility at the Grand Canyon and other National Parks in the southwestern U.S. The proportion of airborne dust that is attributable to land modification is unknown, but can be expected to increase as a consequence of the region's rapid population growth. This note examines the upwind histories of air masses bringing high coarse-particle concentrations to the Grand Canyon over a five-year monitoring period. Although arid and semi-arid lands extend in all directions, and the fastest airflows generally have a northerly component, high dust concentrations are most common in air arriving from the southwest, where development has been concentrated. This empirical association suggests that the expansion of suburban and agricultural lands is raising dust levels at the Grand Canyon.

  6. Introduction to Special Section on the Rio Grande Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, G. R.

    1986-05-01

    With the aid of a Penrose Conference in 1974 and an international rift conference held in 1978 in Santa Fe, New Mexico, the Rio Grande rift has become widely recognized as a major Cenozoic continental rift zone. As a result of the 1978 Santa Fe meeting, the American Geophysical Union published a special volume of papers concerned with the Rio Grande rift [Riecker, 1979], and the New Mexico Geological Society recently published another volume focused on this rift [Baldridge et al., 1984]. These volumes are a manifestation of the research activity which lead to the formation of the Rio Grande rift consortium whose purpose is to foster rift-related research and communication. This organization has sponsored several special sessions at geological and geophysical meetings and has generally increased the awareness of this important feature.

  7. Mutagenic potential of sediments from the Grand Calumet River

    SciTech Connect

    Maccubbin, A.E.; Ersing, N. )

    1991-08-01

    The Grand Calumet River/Indiana Harbor Canal is one of the International Joint Commission's Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOC). Like many other AOCs, the Grand Calumet River is in a heavily industrialized area and has a history of chemical contamination. Many of the chemicals found in the industrial and municipal wastes that enter the waterway end up in sediment where they are concentrated to high levels. In order to assess the potential genotoxicity of sediments from the Grand Calumet River, the authors determined the mutagenic potential of organic extracts of sediments. The sediment extracts were assayed in the Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity test. In the Ames test, all ten sediment samples assayed were found to be mutagenic. In general, chemicals found in the sediments required metabolic activation before a positive mutagenic response was observed.

  8. Connection between solar activity cycles and grand minima generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchio, A.; Lepreti, F.; Laurenza, M.; Alberti, T.; Carbone, V.

    2017-03-01

    Aims: The revised dataset of sunspot and group numbers (released by WDC-SILSO) and the sunspot number reconstruction based on dendrochronologically dated radiocarbon concentrations have been analyzed to provide a deeper characterization of the solar activity main periodicities and to investigate the role of the Gleissberg and Suess cycles in the grand minima occurrence. Methods: Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) has been used to isolate the time behavior of the different solar activity periodicities. A general consistency among the results from all the analyzed datasets verifies the reliability of the EMD approach. Results: The analysis on the revised sunspot data indicates that the highest energy content is associated with the Schwabe cycle. In correspondence with the grand minima (Maunder and Dalton), the frequency of this cycle changes to longer timescales of 14 yr. The Gleissberg and Suess cycles, with timescales of 60-120 yr and 200-300 yr, respectively, represent the most energetic contribution to sunspot number reconstruction records and are both found to be characterized by multiple scales of oscillation. The grand minima generation and the origin of the two expected distinct types of grand minima, Maunder and longer Spörer-like, are naturally explained through the EMD approach. We found that the grand minima sequence is produced by the coupling between Gleissberg and Suess cycles, the latter being responsible for the most intense and longest Spörer-like minima (with typical duration longer than 80 yr). Finally, we identified a non-solar component, characterized by a very long scale oscillation of 7000 yr, and the Hallstatt cycle ( 2000 yr), likely due to the solar activity. Conclusions: These results provide new observational constraints on the properties of the solar cycle periodicities, the grand minima generation, and thus the long-term behavior of the solar dynamo.

  9. Regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners.

    PubMed

    Hjerpe, Evan E; Kim, Yeon-Su

    2007-10-01

    Economic impact analysis (EIA) of outdoor recreation can provide critical social information concerning the utilization of natural resources. Outdoor recreation and other non-consumptive uses of resources are viewed as environmentally friendly alternatives to extractive-type industries. While outdoor recreation can be an appropriate use of resources, it generates both beneficial and adverse socioeconomic impacts on rural communities. The authors used EIA to assess the regional economic impacts of rafting in Grand Canyon National Park. The Grand Canyon region of northern Arizona represents a rural US economy that is highly dependent upon tourism and recreational expenditures. The purpose of this research is twofold. The first is to ascertain the previously unknown regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners. The second purpose is to examine attributes of these economic impacts in terms of regional multipliers, leakage, and types of employment created. Most of the literature on economic impacts of outdoor recreation has focused strictly on the positive economic impacts, failing to illuminate the coinciding adverse and constraining economic impacts. Examining the attributes of economic impacts can highlight deficiencies and constraints that limit the economic benefits of recreation and tourism. Regional expenditure information was obtained by surveying non-commercial boaters and commercial outfitters. The authors used IMPLAN input-output modeling to assess direct, indirect, and induced effects of Grand Canyon river runners. Multipliers were calculated for output, employment, and income. Over 22,000 people rafted on the Colorado River through Grand Canyon National Park in 2001, resulting in an estimated $21,100,000 of regional expenditures to the greater Grand Canyon economy. However, over 50% of all rafting-related expenditures were not captured by the regional economy and many of the jobs created by the rafting industry are lower-wage and seasonal. Policy

  10. Environmental Audit of the Grand Junction Projects Office

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    The Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) is located in Mesa County, Colorado, immediately south and west of the Grand Junction city limits. The US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) established the Colorado Raw Materials Office at the present-day Grand Junction Projects Office in 1947, to aid in the development of a viable domestic uranium industry. Activities at the site included sampling uranium concentrate; pilot-plant milling research, including testing and processing of uranium ores; and operation of a uranium mill pilot plant from 1954 to 1958. The last shipment of uranium concentrate was sent from GJPO in January, 1975. Since that time the site has been utilized to support various DOE programs, such as the former National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program, the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP), and the Technical Measurements Center (TMC). All known contamination at GJPO is believed to be the result of the past uranium milling, analyses, and storage activities. Hazards associated with the wastes impounded at GJPO include surface and ground-water contamination and potential radon and gamma-radiation exposure. This report documents the results of the Baseline Environmental Audit conducted at Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) located in Grand Junction, Colorado. The Grand Junction Baseline Environmental Audit was conducted from May 28 to June 12, 1991, by the Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24). This Audit evaluated environmental programs and activities at GJPO, as well as GJPO activities at the State-Owned Temporary Repository. 4 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. The Grand Geochemistry of 4 Vesta: First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prettyman, T. H.; Beck, A.; Feldman, W. C.; Forni, O.; Joy, S. P.; Lawrence, D. J.; McCoy T. J.; McFadden, L. A.; McSween, H. Y.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Polanskey, C. A.; Rayman, M. D.; Raymond, C. A.; Reedy, R. C.; Russell, C. T.; Titus, T. N.; Toplis, M. J.; Yamashita, N.

    2012-01-01

    On 12-Dec-2011, the Dawn spacecraft commenced low altitude mapping of the giant asteroid, 4 Vesta (264-km mean radius). Dawn's roughly circular, polar, low altitude mapping orbit (LAMO) has a mean radius of 470 km, placing the spacecraft within about 210 km of Vesta's surface. At these altitudes, Dawn s Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) is sensitive to Vesta's elemental com-position (Fig. 1). GRaND will acquire data in LAMO for up to 16 weeks, which is sufficient to map the elemental composition of the entire surface of Vesta. The timing of LAMO enables us to report the first results of our geochemistry investigation at this conference. In this abstract, we present an overview of our initial observations, based on data acquired at high altitude and during the first weeks of LAMO. GRaND overview. A detailed description of the GRaND instrument, science objectives and prospective results is given in [1]. At low altitudes, GRaND is sensitive to gamma rays and neutrons produced by cosmogenic nuclear reactions and radioactive decay occurring within the top few decimeters of the surface and on a spatial scale of a few hundred kilometers. From these nuclear emissions, the abundance of several major- and minor-elements, such as Fe, Mg, Si, K, and Th can be determined. Assuming the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites are representative of Vesta s crustal composition [2], then GRaND will be able to map the mixing ratios of whole-rock HED end-members, enabling the determination of the relative proportions of basaltic eucrite, cumulate eucrite, and diogenite as well as the proportions of mafic and plagioclase minerals [1,3]. GRaND will also search for compositions not well-represented in the meteorite collection, such as evolved, K-rich lithologies [4], and outcrops of olivine from Vesta s mantle or igneous intrusions in major impact basins [5]. The search for a possible mesosiderite source region is described in [6]. GRaND will globally map the abundance of

  12. Geology and ground water resources of Grand Forks County

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Dan E.; Kume, Jack; Kelly, T.E.; Paulson, Q.F.

    1970-01-01

    Grand Forks County in northeastern North Dakota is underlain by glacial drift, westward-dipping Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks and Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks. Glacial drift that covers the bedrock reaches a maximum thickness of 455 feet. It can be differentiated into 5 drift sheets, each of which in turn can be separated into till units, lake clay and silt units, and sand and gravel units. Relief on the bedrock surface is much greater than that on the present glacial topography. In western Grand Forks County, the bedrock rises 600 feet from east to west at the Pembina escarpment, whereas the surface elevations rise only 300 feet.

  13. OBSIDIAN CLIFF OVERLOOKS THE EAST SIDE OF THE GRAND LOOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBSIDIAN CLIFF OVERLOOKS THE EAST SIDE OF THE GRAND LOOP ROAD. THE OBSIDIAN, A BLACK VOLCANIC GLASS, FORMED WHEN A LAVA FLOW CONTACTED GLACIAL ICE. IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE ROAD BY THE U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS, WORKERS CREATED THE LEDGE FOR THE ROAD BY BUILDING LARGE BONFIRES AGAINST THE CLIFF, THEN DASHING THE HEATED ROCK WITH COLD WATER, CAUSING IT TO SHATTER. - Grand Loop Road, Forming circuit between Mammoth Hot Springs, Norris Junction, Madison Junction, Old Faithful, Mammoth, Park County, WY

  14. Strong coupling phase transitions in supersymmetric grand unified models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, David B.

    1985-08-01

    The determination of the temperature at which a grand unified model becomes strongly coupled should be based upon a physical quantity such as the screening lenght rather than the ad hoc condition that the opening becomes O(1). I use a recent calculation of this screening length (the inverse electric mass) to discuss some aspects of strong coupling behavior in the cosmology of supersymmetric grand unified models. Significant effects may occur in a variety of cases. An interesting possibilit is that there may be a pair of confining and deconfining phase transitions at a temperature as low as the supersymmetry breaking scale (O(TeV)). I present illustrative examples for these effects.

  15. Guidebook to Rio Grande rift in New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawley, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the details of geologic features along the rift zone. Included are short papers on topics relative to the overall region. These papers and the road logs are of special interest to any one pursuing further study of the rift. This book is a comprehensive guide to the middle and late Cenozoic geology of the Rio Grande region of Colorado and New Mexico. Though initially used on field trips for the International Symposium on Tectonics and Magmatism of the Rio Grande rift, the guidebook will be useful to anyone interested in the Cenozoic history of the 600-mi-long area extending from central Colorado to El Paso, Texas.

  16. Initiation and Frequency of Debris Flows in Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, Peter G.; Webb, Robert H.; Melis, Theodore S.

    1996-01-01

    Debris flows occur in 600 tributaries of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona when intense precipitation causes slope failures in bedrock or colluvium. These slurries transport poorly sorted sediment, including very large boulders that form rapids at the mouths of tributaries and control the longitudinal profile of the Colorado River. Although the amount of rainfall on the days of historic debris flows typically is not unusual, the storm rainfall on consecutive days before the debris flows typically had recurrence intervals greater than 10 yrs. Four types of failure mechanisms initiate debris flows: bedrock failure (12 percent), failure of colluvial wedges by rainfall (21 percent), failure of colluvial wedges by runoff (the ?firehose effect;? 36 percent), and combinations of these failure mechanisms (30 percent). Failure points are directly or indirectly associated with terrestrial shales, particularly the Permian Hermit Shale, shale units within the Permian Esplanade Sandstone of the Supai Group, and the Cambrian Bright Angel Shale. Shales either directly fail, produce colluvial wedges downslope that contain clay, or form benches that store poorly sorted colluvium in wedge-shaped deposits. Terrestrial shales provide the fine particles and clay minerals?particularly kaolinite and illite?essential to long-distance debris-flow transport, whereas marine shales mostly contain smectites, which inhibit debris-flow initiation. Using repeat photography, we determined whether or not a debris flow occurred in the last century in 164 of 600 tributaries in Grand Canyon. We used logistic regression to model the binomial frequency data using 21 morphometric and lithologic variables. The location of shale units, particularly the Hermit Shale, within the tributary is the most consistent variable related to debris-flow frequency in Grand Canyon. Other statistically significant variables vary with large scale changes in canyon morphology. Standard morphometric measures such

  17. Noncommutative geometry, Grand Symmetry and twisted spectral triple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devastato, Agostino

    2015-08-01

    In the noncommutative geometry approach to the standard model we discuss the possibility to derive the extra scalar field sv - initially suggested by particle physicist to stabilize the electroweak vacuum - from a “grand algebra” that contains the usual standard model algebra. We introduce the Connes-Moscovici twisted spectral triples for the Grand Symmetry model, to cure a technical problem, that is the appearance, together with the field sv, of unbounded vectorial terms. The twist makes these terms bounded, and also permits to understand the breaking making the computation of the Higgs mass compatible with the 126 GeV experimental value.

  18. Grand Minima: Is The Sun Going To Sleep?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcintosh, S. W.; Leamon, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    We explore recent observational work which indicate that the energetics of the sun's outer atmosphere have been on a steady decline for the past decade and perhaps longer. Futher, we show that new investigations into evolution of the Sun's global magnetic activity appear to demonstrate a path through which the Sun can go into, and exit from, a grand activity minimum without great difficulty while retaining an activity cycle - only losing sunspots. Are we at the begining of a new grand(-ish) minimum? Naturally, only time will tell, but the observational evidence hint that one may not be far off to what impact on the Sun-Earth Connection.

  19. Society and Health in the Lower Rio Grande Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, William

    Shedding light on problems of mental health and illness that have baffled public health workers attempting to improve the health and welfare of Mexican Americans living in the lower Rio Grande Valley, this document reports the folk customs, social organization, medical practices, and beliefs of the Mexican American of this area. Chapters describe…

  20. 44. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, NORTHEAST CORNER OF GRAND STAIRCASE (STAIRS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, NORTHEAST CORNER OF GRAND STAIRCASE (STAIRS G), SIDE AISLE, EAST WALL, THE NEGRO'S CONTRIBUTION IN THE SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICA: RELIGION MURAL (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. Collaborative Care for Children: A Grand Rounds Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Michele; Dunbar, Nancy; Clancy, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    At the end of the 2011-2012 school year, two collaborative initiatives took place in Springfield, MA, between the public school system and Baystate Medical Center, an affiliate of Tufts University. The success of these initiatives was highlighted during grand rounds that featured academic medical center physicians and nurses as well as public…

  2. ASSESSING TRANSBOUNDARY INFLUENCES IN THE LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley Transboundary Air Pollution Project (TAPP) was a U.S.-Mexico Border XXI Program project to assess transboundary air pollution in and near Brownsville, Texas. The study used a three-site air monitoring network very close to the border to capture the d...

  3. Grand Canyon Trekkers: School-Based Lunchtime Walking Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawthorne, Alisa; Shaibi, Gabriel; Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; McFall, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of childhood overweight is especially troubling among low income Latino youth. Grand Canyon Trekkers (GCT) was implemented as a quasi-experimental study in 10 Title 1 elementary schools with a large Latino population to examine the effects of a 16-week structured walking program on components of health-related physical fitness: Body…

  4. 77 FR 51966 - Upper Rio Grande Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... Forest Service Upper Rio Grande Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... the committee is to improve collaborative relationships and to provide advice and recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding consistent with the title II of the Act....

  5. 77 FR 51967 - Upper Rio Grande Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... Forest Service Upper Rio Grande Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... is to improve collaborative relationships and to provide advice and recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding consistent with the title II of the Act. The meeting is open...

  6. A Model for a Grand Theory: Creativity in Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhinnie, Harold J.

    This paper presents a collection of thoughts and observations about a grand theory of creativity in the arts. The theory elaborated in the paper is based upon the following five major bodies of psychological knowledge and research: (1) hemisphere differences and cerebral lateralization; (2) chemical balance in the brain and bipolar factors; (3)…

  7. Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis after swimming in the Rio Grande.

    PubMed

    DeNapoli, T S; Rutman, J Y; Robinson, J R; Rhodes, M M

    1996-10-01

    We report a case of fatal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) with Naegleria fowleri in a 13-year-old male, and review the clinical course and diagnostic autopsy findings. The boy developed the infection after swimming with relatives in the Rio Grande and in a holding tank containing water pumped from the river. The clinical and neuropathologic features of PAM are presented. The microscopic features of motile unicellular organisms with pathognomonic broad, lobate pseudopodia are diagnostic and, if recognized before death, allow for timely treatment. A public health investigation into this case implicated river water from the Rio Grande polluted with sewage as the infection source. Exposure to polluted river water from some areas of the Rio Grande may represent a risk factor for infection with Naegleria fowerli, because the high levels of coliform bacteria found in sewage and the warm, sluggish water of the river are favorable growth conditions for the amoebae. Because the Rio Grande is an international border, this case illustrates the importance of international cooperation in pollution control in the prevention of a potentially fatal infectious disease.

  8. Late quaternary zonation of vegetation in the eastern grand canyon.

    PubMed

    Cole, K

    1982-09-17

    Fossil assemblages from 53 packrat middens indicate which plant species were dominant during the last 24,000 years in the eastern Grand Canyon. Past vegetational patterns show associations that cannot be attributed to simple elevational displacement of the modern zones. A model emphasizing a latitudinal shift of climatic values is proposed.

  9. National Uranium Resource Evaluation, Grand Canyon Quadrangle, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Baillieul, T.A.; Zollinger, R.C.

    1982-06-01

    The Grand Canyon Quadrangle (2/sup 0/), northwestern Arizona, was evaluated to identify environments and delineate areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits. This was done using criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation. General surface reconnaissance and geochemical sampling were carried out in all geologic environments within the quadrangle. Aerial radiometric and hydrochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance surveys were performed, although results were not available in time for field checking. The results of this investigation indicate environments favorable for: channel-controlled, peneconcordant sandstone deposits in the Petrified Forest Member of the Chinle Formation in the north-central part of the quadrangle, vein-type deposits in collapse breccias in all areas underlain by the Redwall Limestone, and unconformity-related deposits in the metasediments of the Vishnu Group within the Grand Canyon. All other rock units examined are considered unfavorable for hosting uranium deposits. Younger Precambrian rocks of the Grand Canyon Supergroup, exposed only within the Grand Canyon National Park, remain unevaluated.

  10. Brighty, donkeys and conservation in the Grand Canyon.

    PubMed

    Wills, John

    2006-09-01

    The Grand Canyon is a vast place. It is almost incomprehensible in size. And yet it can also seem strangely crowded. Millions of tourists flock to the Grand Canyon in northern Arizona every year. In 1999, almost 5 million people visited, the highest figure in Canyon history. And each one of them expected to see a wild, free and untrammelled landscape. Despite the obvious natural resources, this expectation has proved anything but easy to satisfy. The US National Park Service (NPS), responsible for the management of most large North American parks (along with several historic sites and museums), has struggled to make or keep the canyon "grand". Park rangers have grappled with a multitude of issues during the past century, including automobile congestion, drying of the Colorado River and uranium mining inside the park. Conservation has posed a unique set of challenges. On a fundamental level, "restoring" the Grand Canyon to its "original" wilderness setting has proved intensely problematic. In the field of wildlife management, restoring the Canyon to its pre-Columbian splendour has entailed some tough decisions--none more so than a 1976 plan to eliminate a sizeable population of feral burros (wild donkeys) roaming the preserve, animals classified as exotics by the NPS.

  11. Crisscrossing "Grand Canyon": Bridging the Gaps with Computer Conferencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minock, Mary; Shor, Francis

    1995-01-01

    Notes that Interdisciplinary Studies Program faculty at Wayne State University devised courses and assignments using computer conferencing to create a collaborative, democratic, and nonauthoritarian learning community. Discusses an assignment based on the film "Grand Canyon" that encouraged students to take on roles of their racial and…

  12. Grand Manner Aesthetics in Landscape: From Canvas to Celluloid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auger, Emily E.

    2009-01-01

    The methods by which environmental issues are aestheticized in late-twentieth-century film is directly and historically related to those established for grand manner painters by Nicholas Poussin (1594-1665) and taught at the French academy from the seventeenth through the nineteenth centuries. That these fundamentals were part of the training of…

  13. 27 CFR 9.87 - Grand River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grand River Valley. 9.87 Section 9.87 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.87...

  14. France's grandes écoles accused of elitism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellemans, Alexander

    2010-02-01

    Physicists in France have backed government plans to open up the country's elite grandes écoles to more students from poorer backgrounds. The government wants to allow up to 30% of students to be given free scholarships in an attempt to broaden the social mix of the student body. The physicists say this would not lead to a lowering of standards.

  15. Grand Entry: A New Ceremony Derived from the Old West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Sherrole

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Grand Entry ceremony that marks the beginning of a pow-wow. Traces the evolution of the ceremony, highlighting elements derived from the Wild West. Argues that although the ceremony was not an original part of pow-wows, it reflects longstanding cultural values, such as respect for elders and honor to veterans. (AJL)

  16. The Strategic Planning Process and the Need for Grand Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Basil Liddell Hart defines the purpose of grand strategy as the means “to coordinate and direct all of the resources of the nation, or band of nations...University Press. Murray, William, MacGregor Knox, and Alvin Bernstein . The Making of Strategy. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994. Naveh, Shimon

  17. 42. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, NORTHWEST CORNER OF GRAND STAIRCASE (STAIRS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, NORTHWEST CORNER OF GRAND STAIRCASE (STAIRS G), SIDE AISLE, WEST WALL, THE NEGRO'S CONTRIBUTION IN THE SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICA: SCIENCE MURAL - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. Alt-Energy Grand Prix Inspires an "I Can" Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessmer, Al; Trzeciak, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how a team comprised largely of high school students builds and races an E85-fueled car and takes first place at the Bowling Green (Ohio) State University (BGSU) Grand Prix. Free and open to the public, the event features student drivers and crews, racing go-karts powered by renewable, ethanol-based E85 fuel. The track is a…

  19. Workshop and conference on Grand Challenges applications and software technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    On May 4--7, 1993, nine federal agencies sponsored a four-day meeting on Grand Challenge applications and software technology. The objective was to bring High-Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Grand Challenge applications research groups supported under the federal HPCC program together with HPCC software technologists to: discuss multidisciplinary computational science research issues and approaches, identify major technology challenges facing users and providers, and refine software technology requirements for Grand Challenge applications research. The first day and a half focused on applications. Presentations were given by speakers from universities, national laboratories, and government agencies actively involved in Grand Challenge research. Five areas of research were covered: environmental and earth sciences; computational physics; computational biology, chemistry, and materials sciences; computational fluid and plasma dynamics; and applications of artificial intelligence. The next day and a half was spent in working groups in which the applications researchers were joined by software technologists. Nine breakout sessions took place: I/0, Data, and File Systems; Parallel Programming Paradigms; Performance Characterization and Evaluation of Massively Parallel Processing Applications; Program Development Tools; Building Multidisciplinary Applications; Algorithm and Libraries I; Algorithms and Libraries II; Graphics and Visualization; and National HPCC Infrastructure.

  20. Microorganisms from the late precambrian of the grand canyon, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Schopf, J W; Ford, T D; Breed, W J

    1973-03-30

    An assemblage of cellularly well-preserved, filamentous and spheroidal plant microfossils has been detected in a cherty pisolite bed of the late Precambrian Chuar Group from the eastern Grand Canyon of the Colorado River. This newly discovered microflora, probably among the youngest Precambrian biological communities now known, appears to be of both evolutionary and biostratigraphic significance.

  1. Grand Prize and Citation Winners: Ten School with Soaring Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning By Design, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design features of the grand prize winners of the 2002 "Learning by Design" contest--an addition to West Linn High School in West Linn, Oregon, and the renovation of Beaver Brook Academic Center/The Ethel Walker School in Simsbury, Connecticut. Also describes the designs of the eight citation winners. (EV)

  2. Basement extension and salt mobility, southern Grand Banks, Newfoundland

    SciTech Connect

    Balkwill, H.R.; Legall, F.

    1986-05-01

    The Grand Banks, an especially wide cratonic segment of the North American Atlantic continental shelf, extended vigorously during Late Triassic-Aptian rift-phase episodes, accompanied by syntectonic basin filling and large-scale structural disruption. Thereafter, the rift-disrupted domain underwent drift-phase subsidence and was buried by a seaward-prograding continental terrace wedge, in which progressively feeble extension is evident. Rift-faulted cratonic basement is perceptible on industry-acquired reflection seismic profiles from the southern Grand Banks. The profiles also show that Carboniferous and Lower Jurassic salt were the main levels of supracrustal detachment during Jurassic and Early Cretaceous extension. Large salt-mobilized structures within the rift-phase succession include fault-zone sheaths, elongate pillows, aligned piercement spires, and immense walls. These elements parallel large extension faults in basement and, in many places, are superposed on the faults. In striking contrast, upper Aptian and younger drift-phase strata are regionally subhorizontal, and are broken to middle and late Tertiary stratigraphic levels by only a few small extension faults and aligned diapirs. The authors interpret the structural/stratigraphic relationships in the southern Grand Banks to indicate that episodic Mesozoic and Cenozoic basement extension was the principal dynamic agent in determining the timing of salt structures, their orientations, and styles of disruption on enclosing strata. This genetic association may be applicable to other parts of the Grand Banks tectonic province, and possibly to other extensional cratonic margin basins.

  3. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... administered by the National Park Service, along the Colorado River within Grand Canyon National Park, upstream... Colorado River. (8) Swimming and bathing are permitted except in locations immediately above rapids, eddies... trip also authorizes camping along the Colorado River by persons in the river trip party, except...

  4. Modeling streamflow from snowmelt in the upper Rio Grande

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annual snowpack in the high elevation snowsheds of the Upper Rio Grande (URG) Basin is a vital source of surface water for irrigated agriculture in New Mexico. Maximum streamflow from the annual snowpack usually occurs in early May for the southernmost snowsheds (e.g., Ojo Caliente) and at the end o...

  5. Scaling up Social: Strategies for Solving Social Work's Grand Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Maria Y.; Ostrow, Laysha; Kemp, Susan P.

    2017-01-01

    The Grand Challenges for Social Work Initiative aims to focus the profession's attention on how social work can play a larger role in mitigating contemporary social problems. Yet a central issue facing contemporary social work is its seeming reticence to engage with social problems, and their solutions, beyond individual-level interventions.…

  6. Carbonaceous aerosol particles from common vegetation in the Grand Canyon

    SciTech Connect

    Hallock, K.A.; Mazurek, M.A. ); Cass, G.R. . Dept. of Environmental Engineering Science)

    1992-05-01

    The problem of visibility reduction in the Grand Canyon due to fine organic aerosol particles in the atmosphere has become an area of increased environmental concern. Aerosol particles can be derived from many emission sources. In this report, we focus on identifying organic aerosols derived from common vegetation in the Grand Canyon. These aerosols are expected to be significant contributors to the total atmospheric organic aerosol content. Aerosol samples from living vegetation were collected by resuspension of surface wax and resin components liberated from the leaves of vegetation common to areas of the Grand Canyon. The samples were analyzed using high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Probable identification of compounds was made by comparison of sample spectra with National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) mass spectral references and positive identification of compounds was made when possible by comparison with authentic standards as well as NIST references. Using these references, we have been able to positively identify the presence of n-alkane and n-alkanoic acid homolog series in the surface waxes of the vegetation sampled. Several monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes were identified also as possible biogenic aerosols which may contribute to the total organic aerosol abundance leading to visibility reduction in the Grand Canyon.

  7. Accelerating scientific discovery by formulating grand scientific challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbing, D.

    2012-11-01

    One important question for science and society is how to best promote scientific progress. Inspired by the great success of Hilbert's famous set of problems, the FuturICT project tries to stimulate and focus the efforts of many scientists by formulating Grand Challenges, i.e. a set of fundamental, relevant and hardly solvable scientific questions.

  8. 61. PAGE THREE OF PLANS FOR GRAND CANAL AT WASHINGTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. PAGE THREE OF PLANS FOR GRAND CANAL AT WASHINGTON STREET TIDEGATE SYSTEM REHABILITATION Plan Sheet D-28451, Sheet No. 3 of 3 (delineated by H. V. Nguyen, November 1985) - Venice Canals, Community of Venice, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 45. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTHEAST CORNER OF GRAND STAIRCASE (STAIRS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTHEAST CORNER OF GRAND STAIRCASE (STAIRS G), SIDE AISLE, EAST WALL, THE NEGRO'S CONTRIBUTION IN THE SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICA: EDUCATION MURAL - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. 76 FR 76153 - Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit... Coulee Project Hydropower Authority (Grand Coulee Authority) filed an application for a preliminary... the Scooteney Inlet Drop Hydroelectric Project (Scooteney Inlet Project or project) to be located...

  11. 76 FR 9341 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ..., 2011. d. Applicant: Grand River Dam Authority (GRDA). e. Name of Project: Pensacola Project. f... Ketchum Cove on Grand Lake 0' the Cherokees, Mayes County. The additional slips require waivers of...

  12. 75 FR 11938 - Meridian Automotive Systems, Grand Rapids, MI; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Meridian Automotive Systems, Grand Rapids, MI; Notice of Termination... Meridian Automotive Systems, Grand Rapids, Michigan (Meridian Automotive). The petitioning group of...

  13. 76 FR 23623 - Backcountry Management Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... National Park Service Backcountry Management Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona AGENCY: National Park Service, Department of the Interior. ACTION: Notice of Intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Backcountry Management Plan, Grand Canyon National...

  14. Llano Grande Center's Oral History Project Sparks Cultural and Economic Renewal in Texas's Rio Grande Valley. Rural Trust Featured Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, Elizabeth Higgins

    The Llano Grande Center for Research and Development started as an oral history experiment in two of Texas's poorest school districts. Since the 1920s, when this arid region in the southernmost tip of Texas was first transformed into the orchards and farmlands of the "Magic Valley," workers of Mexican descent have worked the land. Over…

  15. Sedimentology and stratigraphy of the Palisades, Lower Comanche, and Arroyo Grande areas of the Colorado River Corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Rubin, David M.; Dierker, Jennifer L.; Fairley, Helen C.; Griffiths, Ronald E.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Hunter, Ralph E.; Kohl, Keith; Leap, Lisa M.; Nials, Fred L.; Topping, David J.; Yeatts, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This report analyzes various depositional environments in three archaeologically significant areas of the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon. Archaeological features are built on and buried by fluvial, aeolian, and locally derived sediment, representing a complex interaction between geologic and cultural history. These analyses provide a basis for determining the potential influence of Glen Canyon Dam operations on selected archaeological sites and thus for guiding dam operations in order to facilitate preservation of cultural resources. This report presents initial results of a joint effort between geologists and archaeologists to evaluate the significance of various depositional processes and environments in the prehistoric formation and modern preservation of archaeological sites along the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon National Park. Stratigraphic investigations of the Palisades, Lower Comanche, and Arroyo Grande areas of Grand Canyon yield detailed information regarding the sedimentary history at these locations. Reconstruction of past depositional settings is critical to a thorough understanding of the geomorphic and stratigraphic evolution of these three archaeologically significant areas. This examination of past sedimentary environments allows the relative significance of fluvial, aeolian, debris-fan, and slope-wash sedimentary deposits to be identified at each site. In general the proportion of fluvial sediment (number and thickness of flood deposits) is shown to decrease away from the river, and locally derived sediment becomes more significant. Flood sequences often occur as 'couplets' that contain a fluvial deposit overlain by an interflood unit that reflects reworking of fluvial sediment at the land surface by wind and local runoff. Archaeological features are built on and buried by sediment of various depositional environments, implying a complex interaction between geologic and cultural history. Such field analysis, which combines

  16. 76 FR 76156 - Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority; Notice of Preliminary..., 2011, Grand Coulee Project Hydropower Authority (Grand Coulee Authority) filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study...

  17. 77 FR 58820 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing.... Applicant: Grand River Dam Authority. e. Name of Project: Pensacola Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The.... Jahnke, Assistant General Counsel, Grand River Dam Authority, P.O. Box 409, Vinita, Oklahoma......

  18. 77 FR 37326 - Safety Zone; Grand Hotel 125th Anniversary Fireworks Celebration, Mackinaw Island, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Grand Hotel 125th Anniversary Fireworks... launched from a point on Lake Huron to commemorate the Grand Hotel's 125th anniversary. The Captain of the Port, Sector Sault Sainte Marie, has determined that the Grand Hotel Celebration Fireworks Display...

  19. 78 FR 74007 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Grand Rapids, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Grand Rapids, MI AGENCY... amends Class E airspace within the Grand Rapids, MI, area by updating the airport name and geographic... Gerald R. Ford International Airport, Grand Rapids, MI, formerly called Kent County International...

  20. Water Environment Evolution along the China Grand Canal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, F.; Wu, Y. X.; Yang, B. F.; Li, X. J.

    2014-03-01

    The China Grand Canal is one of the earliest canals in the world, having lasted for nearly 3000 years. Even its section canals have a rich history, such as the North-South Grand Canal that was established during the Sui Dynasty, whereas the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal was excavated during the Yuan Dynasty and the east line of the South-to-North Water Diversion. As one of the longest in the world, the China Grand Canal's total length is over 3500 kilometers. This length includes the navigable, unnavigable, and underground sections. Making the best use of situations and according to local conditions, the Chinese people harmoniously constructed the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal with nature. Tens of millions of workers took nearly 3000 years to complete the great shipping system. Navigable sections still exist for up to 900 kilometers and the volume of freight traffic is approximately 300 million tons. The canal remains the main logistical channel of the North-to-South Coal Transportation, South-to-North Water Diversion, and resources circulation. To date, China is promoting the success of heritage application. Part of these efforts is the declaration of the China Grand Canal as a World Cultural Heritage by 2014. In addition, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer project is planned to be navigable by 2016. The ancient Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal will usher in the new ecological civilization and cultural revival along the canal. This paper presents technical methods of water environment evolution research on the river system, river, and water quality along the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal through the integration of historical literature and modern remote sensing image data. The study carried out water environment investigation and analysis along the Beijing-Hangzhou canal by using ETM, SPOT image data, and GPS measurement data. Spatial and temporal evolution characteristics and regulations of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal regional water environment in the span of 3000

  1. Standardized methods for Grand Canyon fisheries research 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Persons, William R.; Ward, David L.; Avery, Luke A.

    2013-01-01

    This document presents protocols and guidelines to persons sampling fishes in the Grand Canyon, to help ensure consistency in fish handling, fish tagging, and data collection among different projects and organizations. Most such research and monitoring projects are conducted under the general umbrella of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program and include studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), National Park Service (NPS), the Arizona Game and Fish Department (AGFD), various universities, and private contractors. This document is intended to provide guidance to fieldworkers regarding protocols that may vary from year to year depending on specific projects and objectives. We also provide herein documentation of standard methods used in the Grand Canyon that can be cited in scientific publications, as well as a summary of changes in protocols since the document was first created in 2002.

  2. Los grandes telescopios ópticos e infrarrojos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Espinosa, J. M.

    Recientemente se han puesto en funcionamiento telescopios de 8 y 10 metros de diámetro de su espejo primario que están significando un gran avance en las capacidades observacionales de la Astronomía moderna. Igualmente en nuestro país se está construyendo el Gran Telescopio de Canarias (GTC) que situará a la Astronomía española en la vanguardia de esta disciplina. En mi charla hablaré de las oportunidades observacionales que suponen estos grandes telescopios para la Astronomía moderna. Hablaré del GTC y del esfuerzo español por ser actores principales del desarrollo de la Astronomía moderna. Por último, mostraré brevemente los proyectos futuros de grandes telescopios que se están proponiendo a ambos lados del Atlántico.

  3. Light threshold effects in supersymmetric grand unified theories

    SciTech Connect

    Faraggi, A.E.; Grinstein, B.

    1993-08-01

    Supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories have a rich spectrum of particles barely heavier than the intermediate vector bosons. As their non-supersymmetric counterparts, they lead to many relations among low energy observables. But the precise form of the predictions is modified by the extended spectrum. If the masses of these new particles are comparable to M{sub Z}, the standard computation of their effect becomes inaccurate. The authors, present a detailed discussion of the correct procedure, and carry out the relevant computations to one loop order. Attention is paid to the special treatment that the top and Higgs particles must receive. The size of the effect is explored for a range of parameters in the minimal supersymmetric SU(5) grand-unified theory with radiative breaking. It is found that the naive (leading-log) computation can be fairly inaccurate.

  4. City of Grand Rapids Building Solar Roof Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    DeClercq, Mark; Martinez, Imelda

    2012-08-31

    Grand Rapids, Michigan is striving to reduce it environmental footprint. The municipal government organization has established environmental sustainability policies with the goal of securing 100% of its energy from renewable sources by 2020. This report describes the process by which the City of Grand Rapids evaluated, selected and installed solar panels on the Water/Environmental Services Building. The solar panels are the first to be placed on a municipal building. Its new power monitoring system provides output data to assess energy efficiency and utilization. It is expected to generate enough clean solar energy to power 25 percent of the building. The benefit to the public includes the economic savings from reduced operational costs for the building; an improved environmentally sustainable area in which to live and work; and increased knowledge about the use of solar energy. It will serve as a model for future energy saving applications.

  5. Grand Canyon, Arizona as seen from STS-66

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Snow covers the Kaibab Plateau on the northern side of the Colorado River in this November, 1994 view of the Grand Canyon. North is to the bottom of this view. The Colorado River has created a canyon which cuts through billions of years of geologic time. The Grand Canyon is 446 kilometers (277 miles) long, averages 16 kilometers (10 miles) wide, and is approximately 1.6 kilometers (1 mile) deep. The Coconino Plateau is located on the upper left side of the view, or to the south of the Colorado River. The direction of the flow of the Colorado River is from the east to the west. Eventually the river turns south and empties into the Gulf of California. The southern portion of Lake Powell in Utah can be seen at the bottom center of the view.

  6. Cholera Outbreak in Grande Comore: 1998–1999

    PubMed Central

    Troeger, Christopher; Gaudart, Jean; Truillet, Romain; Sallah, Kankoe; Chao, Dennis L.; Piarroux, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    In 1998, a cholera epidemic in east Africa reached the Comoros Islands, an archipelago in the Mozambique Channel that had not reported a cholera case for more than 20 years. In just a little over 1 year (between January 1998 and March 1999), Grande Comore, the largest island in the Union of the Comoros, reported 7,851 cases of cholera, about 3% of the population. Using case reports and field observations during the medical response, we describe the epidemiology of the 1998–1999 cholera epidemic in Grande Comore. Outbreaks of infectious diseases on islands provide a unique opportunity to study transmission dynamics in a nearly closed population, and they may serve as stepping-stones for human pathogens to cross unpopulated expanses of ocean. PMID:26572869

  7. Late archaic settlement systems in the northern Rio Grande

    SciTech Connect

    Vierra, Bradley J.

    2003-01-01

    Last year at these meetings I proposed a possible seasonal transhumance pattern for the Late Archaic in the northern Rio Grande region. This pattern involved the movement of groups from the lowland juniper-savanna grasslands in the early summer, to the upland ponderosa pindmixed conifer forests in the mid to late summer, and then back down to the piiion-juniper woodlands during the fall. The Rio Grande Valley was also used for winter habitation sites. Following on this research, I take the next step by studying the inter-assemblage variability represented in a sample of open-air sites located within each of these vegetation communities. The results indicate that there are significant differences in reduction tactics represented between valley habitation vs., upland campsites, and that these site sites are linked together by obsidian procurement patterns.

  8. Clinical Immersion and Biomedical Engineering Design Education: "Engineering Grand Rounds".

    PubMed

    Walker, Matthew; Churchwell, André L

    2016-03-01

    Grand Rounds is a ritual of medical education and inpatient care comprised of presenting the medical problems and treatment of a patient to an audience of physicians, residents, and medical students. Traditionally, the patient would be in attendance for the presentation and would answer questions. Grand Rounds has evolved considerably over the years with most sessions being didactic-rarely having a patient present (although, in some instances, an actor will portray the patient). Other members of the team, such as nurses, nurse practitioners, and biomedical engineers, are not traditionally involved in the formal teaching process. In this study we examine the rapid ideation in a clinical setting to forge a system of cross talk between engineers and physicians as a steady state at the praxis of ideation and implementation.

  9. Differential compaction mechanism for earth fissures near Casa Grande, Arizona.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jachens, R.C.; Holzer, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    Precise gravity measurements indicate that earth fissures or tension cracks caused by ground-water withdrawal within a 10km2 area SE of Casa Grande are associated with relief on the buried interface between the alluvial aquifer and underlying bedrock. These relations suggest that the fissures are forming in response to localized differential compaction caused by localized variations of aquifer-system thickness. -from Authors

  10. Information Summary, Area of Concern: Grand Calumet River, Indiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    Science, p 37. 26 R31 Bright, Greg R. 1988. Recent Water Quality in the Grand Calumet River as Measured by Benthic Invertebrates . Proceedings of the...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) The Water Quality...Management Plans. The AOCs are areas where serious impairment of bene- ficial uses of water or biota (drinking, swimming, fishing, navigation, etc

  11. Grand challenges in mass storage: A system integrator's perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Dan; Lee, Richard

    1993-01-01

    The grand challenges are the following: to develop more innovation in approach; to expand the I/O barrier; to achieve increased volumetric efficiency and incremental cost improvements; to reinforce the 'weakest link' software; to implement improved architectures; and to minimize the impact of self-destructing technologies. Mass storage is defined as any type of storage system exceeding 100 GBytes in total size, under the control of a centralized file management scheme. The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form.

  12. Shoreline evolution from 1945 to 1988 at Grand Isle, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Bencaz, C.A.; Birdseye, R.U. )

    1990-09-01

    Louisiana is losing over 55 mi{sup 2} of its coast annually owing to natural processes and many forms of human intervention. Sand bodies are especially impacted in the Mississippi Delta Plain where Grand Isle, the state's only inhabited barrier island, is located. Trends in erosion and deposition on Grand Isle were evaluated using aerial photographs acquired in 1945, 1949, 1956, 1958, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1971, 1976, 1978, 1982, 1986, and 1988. Shoreline changes in 14 different zones on the island were calculated for each set of aerial photographs and summarized on maps and in tables. Geological interpretations, meteorological data, and historical records helped to explain the patterns of change. The major factors contributing to shoreline changes at Grand Isle are: (1) The nature of the unprotected sediments forming the margins of the island. Unstabilized shorelines include slopes composed largely of sand, tidal marsh, sand and shell beaches, and recently dredged fill. (2) Shoreline orientation with respect to wave fetch, prevailing wind directions, and approaching storms. (3) Duration and magnitude of major storms. (4) Local weather, along with regional and worldwide climate. (5) Relative sea-level rise, owing to subsidence of the Mississippi Delta Plain sediments from compaction, consolidation, and isostatic adjustment, as well as to a currently rising global sea level. The rate of relative sea level rise at Grand Isle averages 0.41 in./year. (6) Sediment deprivation, largely owing to human influences such as dams, reservoirs, artificial levees, and control structures located in the Mississippi drainage basin, alluvial valley, and delta plain. (7) Disruption of longshore drift by construction and orientation of jetties, groins, and breakwaters. (8) Beach nonfishment and marsh infilling by humans.

  13. Basement structures over Rio Grande Rise from gravity inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantino, Renata Regina; Hackspacher, Peter Christian; de Souza, Iata Anderson; Lima Costa, Iago Sousa

    2017-04-01

    The basement depth in the Rio Grande Rise (RGR), South Atlantic, is estimated from combining gravity data obtained from satellite altimetry, marine surveys, bathymetry, sediment thickness and crustal thickness information. We formulate a crustal model of the region by inverse gravity modeling. The effect of the sediment layer is evaluated using the global sediment thickness model of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and fitting the sediment compaction model to observed density values from Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) reports. The Global Relief Model ETOPO1 and constraining data from seismic interpretation on crustal thickness are integrated in the inversion process. The modeled Moho depth values vary between 6 and 27 km over the area, being thicker under the RGR and also in the direction of São Paulo Plateau. The inversion for the gravity-equivalent basement topography is applied to gravity residual data, which is free from the gravity effect of sediments and from the gravity effect of the estimated Moho interface. We find several short-wavelengths structures not present in the bathymetry data. Our model shows a rift crossing the entire Rio Grande Rise deeper than previously presented in literature, with depths up to 5 km in the East Rio Grande Rise (ERGR) and deeper in the West Rio Grande Rise (WRGR), reaching 6.4 km. An interesting NS structure that goes from 34°S and extends through de São Paulo Ridge may be related to the South Atlantic Opening and could reveal an extinct spreading center.

  14. US Grand Strategy: An Assessment of Statutory Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-15

    Gates The demands on US grand strategy have increased dramatically since the current framework for national security was established. In 1947...Strategy. Instead, the State Department cites the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) as the foundational law for its high-level strategic... foundation and integrating all elements of national power…and promoting an international order that reinforces the rights and responsibilities of all

  15. 27 CFR 9.119 - Middle Rio Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...&SF RR) tracks, approx. 250 feet east of elevation mark 4,889 feet on the Turn, N. Mex. U.S.G.S. map... “Middle Rio Grande Valley” viticultural area are 24 U.S.G.S. Quadrangle (7.5 Minute Series) maps and 1 (15 Minute Series) U.S.G.S. map. They are titled: (1) Abeytas, N. Mex. (1952), revised 1979. (2) Alameda,...

  16. Environmental Assessment: Demolish 452 at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    humid with frequent thunderstorms. Winters are long and severe with almost continuous snow cover. The spring and fall seasons are generally short...direction is generally from the northwest during the late fall, winter, and spring , and from the southeast during the summer. Grand Forks County is...to Lake Winnipeg, Canada. The Red River drainage basin is part of the Hudson Bay drainage system. At Manvel, ND, approximately 10 miles northeast

  17. Migrant Worker: A Boy from the Rio Grande Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt-Goldsmith, Diane

    Ricky is an 11-year-old migrant worker. During the summer, he travels with his family from their home in Rio Grande City, Texas, to farms farther north. There they spend 10-12 hours a day in the hot sun picking fruit and vegetables and packing the harvest for market. Ricky is not protected by the federal laws that govern the hours, wages, and…

  18. Environmental Assessment Housing Transfer at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-27

    tallgrass prairie that once was dominant in this region. Plants thriving in this preserve include western wheatgrass, slender wheatgrass, big bluestem...Palustrine Forested type wetlands. Vegetation is robust at GFAFB wetlands, and they are characterized as typical prairie potholes found within the...grassland and wetland habitats for wildlife in Grand Forks County. Pastures, meadows, and other non-cultivated areas create a prairie -land mosaic

  19. American Grand Strategy in an Age of Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ...grand strategy in an age of terrorism. These recommendations focus on refining the existing strategy and systems rather than radically recreating...integration and synchronization. The interagency system should adopt a military-style planning process that stresses: decisive actions to secure national

  20. Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Onjukka, Sam T.; Harbeck, Jim

    2003-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

  1. Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Onjukka, Sam T.; Harbeck, Jim

    2003-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

  2. Biology of the Rio Grande border region : a bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Lynne E.; Jacobs, Linda J.; Papoulias, Diana

    1997-01-01

    This bibliography includes 1,913 references to the literature of the Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte). The specific geographic area covered extends 100 km on either side of the river from Elephant Butte Dam in New Mexico to the Gulf of Mexico. The bibliography focuses on the biological literature, divided into major subject areas, and also includes supporting literature from the physical and environmental sciences.

  3. Outer planets grand tours: Planetary radio astronomy team report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Requirements related to scientific observations of planetary radio emissions during outer planets grand tours are discussed. Observations at low frequencies where non-thermal cooperative plasma phenomena play a major role are considered for determining dynamical processes and magnetic fields near a planet. Magnetic field measurements by spacecraft magnetometers, and by radio receivers in their harmonic modes are proposed for interpretation of planetary radio emission.

  4. Natural regeneration in two central Idaho grand fir habitat types. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Geier-Hayes, K.

    1994-03-01

    Natural regeneration of five conifer species was surveyed in two central Idaho grand fir habitat types. The habitat types range from warm, dry (grand fir/white spirea) to mesic (Grand fir/Mountain Maple). Four harvest-regeneration methods and four site preparation techniques were sampled. Recommendations for obtaining natural regeneration vary primarily by habitat type. Conifer seedlings in the warm, dry grand fir white spirea habitat type require site protection for establishment. In the mesic grand fir/mountain maple habitat type, tall shrub potential can reduce the opportunity to establish early seral conifer species.

  5. Field Studies of Geothermal Reservoirs Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    James C Witcher

    2002-07-30

    The Rio Grande rift provides an excellent field laboratory to study the nature of geothermal systems in an extensional environment. Much of the geologic complexity that is found in the Basin and Range is absent because the rift is located on cratonic crust with a thin and well-characterized Phanerozoic stratigraphy and tectonic history. On the other hand, the Neogene thermo-tectonic history of the rift has many parallels with the Basin and Range to the west. The geology of the southern Rio Grande rift is among the best characterized of any rift system in the world. Also, most geologic maps for the region are rather unique in that detailed analyses of Quaternary stratigraphic and surficial unit are added in concert with the details of bedrock geology. Pleistocene to Holocene entrenchment of the Rio Grande and tributaries unroofs the alteration signatures and permeability attributes of paleo outflow plumes and upflow zones, associated with present-day, but hidden or ''blind,'' hydrothermal systems at Rincon and San Diego Mountain.

  6. Integrating electrodermal biofeedback into pharmacologic treatment of grand mal seizures

    PubMed Central

    Scrimali, Tullio; Tomasello, Damiana; Sciuto, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Electrodermal activity (EDA) and electrodermal biofeedback, when integrated with pharmacologic treatments, indicate promising methods for the treatment of grand mal seizures. They can be used to monitor patient arousal and help patients learn new strategies to better cope with stress and anxiety. Our proposed method can possibly reduce the number of crises for patients who are dependent on pharmacologic therapy and can improve their quality of life. This article describes the scientific background of electrodermal monitoring and electrodermal biofeedback for patients affected by grand mal seizures. In this study, we have reported a clinical case study. The patient was treated for 2 years with electrodermal biofeedback to augment pharmacologic treatments. The trial has been designed in accordance with “n = 1 case study research”. Our results have shown that our methods could achieve a significant reduction in grand mal seizures and sympathetic arousal when applied. The patient under consideration was also relaxed and exhibited greater competency to cope with stress. Additionally, the patient’s sense of mastery and self-efficacy was enhanced. PMID:26029078

  7. Pollution Sources Over the Grand Canyon and Canyonlands National Parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.; Popp, C. J.; Arimoto, R.; Martin, R. S.

    2003-12-01

    To investigate pollution sources that are degrading the visibility of two national parks, Grand Canyon National Park, AZ, and Canyonlands National Park, UT, daily samples of total suspended particulates (TSP), PM2.5, trace gases, and organic compounds were collected in the two parks in the summer (July) of 2001 and winter (December-January) of 2001-2002. Factor analysis results show a number of anthropogenic signals (e.g., smelters) in the summer air over the Grand Canyon. In winter, the Grand Canyon samples revealed an aged pollution signal, which was probably transported from long distance, and a local source. In contrast, Canyonlands has less distinctive pollution signals in summer compared with winter. Summer air there shows an aged pollution source, evidence for smelter impacts on the concentrations of rare-earth elements and other metals, and a titanium source. More individual pollution signals were identified from the winter samples at Canyonlands (e.g., coal combustion and smelters). Our chemical and meteorological data clearly indicate that the main long-range transport pathway for pollution in summer is via southwesterly winds at both national parks; this implicates western Arizona as a likely source region. In winter pollution comes from the Salt Lake area via northerlies or northwesterlies.

  8. Electrical resistance sensors record spring flow timing, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, E.A.; Monroe, S.A.; Springer, A.E.; Blasch, K.W.; Bills, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    Springs along the south rim of the Grand Canyon, Arizona, are important ecological and cultural resources in Grand Canyon National Park and are discharge points for regional and local aquifers of the Coconino Plateau. This study evaluated the applicability of electrical resistance (ER) sensors for measuring diffuse, low-stage (<1.0 cm) intermittent and ephemeral flow in the steep, rocky spring-fed tributaries of the south rim. ER sensors were used to conduct a baseline survey of spring flow timing at eight sites in three spring-fed tributaries in Grand Canyon. Sensors were attached to a nearly vertical rock wall at a spring outlet and were installed in alluvial and bedrock channels. Spring flow timing data inferred by the ER sensors were consistent with observations during site visits, with flow events recorded with collocated streamflow gauging stations and with local precipitation gauges. ER sensors were able to distinguish the presence of flow along nearly vertical rock surfaces with flow depths between 0.3 and 1.0 cm. Laboratory experiments confirmed the ability of the sensors to monitor the timing of diffuse flow on impervious surfaces. A comparison of flow patterns along the stream reaches and at springs identified the timing and location of perennial and intermittent flow, and periods of increased evapotranspiration.

  9. Observations of environmental change in Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Robert H.; Melis, Theodore S.; Valdez, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    Few scientific data have been collected on pre-dam conditions of the Colorado River corridor through Grand Canyon National Park. Using historical diaries, interviews with pre-dam river runners (referred to as the ?Old Timers?), and historical scientific data and observations, we compiled anecdotal information on environmental change in Grand Canyon. The most significant changes are the: lowering of water temperature in the river, near-elimination of heavily sediment-laden flows, erosion of sand bars, invasion of non-native tamarisk trees, reduction in driftwood, development of marshes, increase in non-native fish at the expense of native fishes, and increase in water bird populations. In addition, few debris flows were observed before closure of Glen Canyon Dam, which might suggests that the frequency of debris flows in Grand Canyon has increased. Other possible changes include decreases in bat populations and increases in swallow and bighorn sheep populations, although the evidence is anecdotal and inconclusive. These results provide a perspective on managing the Colorado River that may allow differentiation of the effects of Glen Canyon Dam from other processes of change.

  10. KASCADE-Grande Review, Recent Results, Future Endeavors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoo, S.; Apel, W. D.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Beck, K.; Bertaina, M.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cossavella, F.; Daumiller, K.; de Souza, V.; Di Pierro, F.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Fuhrmann, D.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Gils, H. J.; Glasstetter, R.; Grupen, C.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hörandel, J. R.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kang, D.; Klages, H. O.; Link, K.; Łuczak, P.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Milke, J.; Mitrica, B.; Morello, C.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ostapchenko, S.; Palmieri, N.; Petcu, M.; Pierog, T.; Rebel, H.; Roth, M.; Schieler, H.; Schröder, F. G.; Sima, O.; Toma, G.; Trinchero, G. C.; Ulrich, H.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.; Zabierowski, J.

    A detailed knowledge of the energy spectrum and composition of cosmic rays (CRs) is the most important source of information for solving the riddle of the origin of CRs. The KASCADE experiment and its extension KASCADE-Grande have contributed much to the current knowledge about both the spectrum and composition in the energy range from around 1 PeV to 1 EeV. One of the most important results of the KASCADE experiment is the connection of the knee at a few PeV to a decrease in the flux of light primaries. Later, KASCADE-Grande found a knee-like structure also in the spectrum of heavy elements at around 90 PeV and an ankle-like feature in the spectrum of light elements just above 100 PeV. In this contribution a short review of the experiment will be followed by an overview on the current results on spectrum and composition of CRs and a summary of the further activities within the KASCADE-Grande collaboration related to both, data analysis and data publication.

  11. Electrical resistance sensors record spring flow timing, Grand Canyon, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Adams, Eric A; Monroe, Stephen A; Springer, Abraham E; Blasch, Kyle W; Bills, Donald J

    2006-01-01

    Springs along the south rim of the Grand Canyon, Arizona, are important ecological and cultural resources in Grand Canyon National Park and are discharge points for regional and local aquifers of the Coconino Plateau. This study evaluated the applicability of electrical resistance (ER) sensors for measuring diffuse, low-stage (<1.0 cm) intermittent and ephemeral flow in the steep, rocky spring-fed tributaries of the south rim. ER sensors were used to conduct a baseline survey of spring flow timing at eight sites in three spring-fed tributaries in Grand Canyon. Sensors were attached to a nearly vertical rock wall at a spring outlet and were installed in alluvial and bedrock channels. Spring flow timing data inferred by the ER sensors were consistent with observations during site visits, with flow events recorded with collocated streamflow gauging stations and with local precipitation gauges. ER sensors were able to distinguish the presence of flow along nearly vertical rock surfaces with flow depths between 0.3 and 1.0 cm. Laboratory experiments confirmed the ability of the sensors to monitor the timing of diffuse flow on impervious surfaces. A comparison of flow patterns along the stream reaches and at springs identified the timing and location of perennial and intermittent flow, and periods of increased evapotranspiration.

  12. Environmental assessment of facility operations at the U.S. Department of Energy Grand Junction Projects Office, Grand Junction, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared a sitewide environmental assessment (EA) of the proposed action to continue and expand present-day activities on the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) facility in Grand Junction, Colorado. Because DOE-GJPO regularly proposes and conducts many different on-site activities, DOE decided to evaluate these activities in one sitewide EA rather than in multiple, activity-specific documents. On the basis of the information and analyses presented in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required for facility operations, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  13. Microbial contamination and chemical toxicity of the Rio Grande

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Jose; Botsford, James; Hernandez, Jose; Montoya, Anna; Saenz, Roswitha; Valles, Adrian; Vazquez, Alejandro; Alvarez, Maria

    2004-01-01

    Background The Rio Grande River is the natural boundary between U.S. and Mexico from El Paso, TX to Brownsville, TX. and is one of the major water resources of the area. Agriculture, farming, maquiladora industry, domestic activities, as well as differences in disposal regulations and enforcement increase the contamination potential of water supplies along the border region. Therefore, continuous and accurate assessment of the quality of water supplies is of paramount importance. The objectives of this study were to monitor water quality of the Rio Grande and to determine if any correlations exist between fecal coliforms, E. coli, chemical toxicity as determined by Botsford's assay, H. pylori presence, and environmental parameters. Seven sites along a 112-Km segment of the Rio Grande from Sunland Park, NM to Fort Hancock, TX were sampled on a monthly basis between January 2000 and December 2002. Results The results showed great variability in the number of fecal coliforms, and E. coli on a month-to-month basis. Fecal coliforms ranged between 0–106 CFU/100 ml while E. coli ranged between 6 to > 2419 MPN. H. pylori showed positive detection for all the sites at different times. Toxicity ranged between 0 to 94% of inhibition capacity (IC). Since values above 50% are considered to be toxic, most of the sites displayed significant chemical toxicity at different times of the year. No significant correlations were observed between microbial indicators and chemical toxicity. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that the 112-Km segment of the Rio Grande river from Sunland Park, NM to Fort Hancock, TX exceeds the standards for contact recreation water on a continuous basis. In addition, the presence of chemical toxicity in most sites along the 112-Km segment indicates that water quality is an area of concern for the bi-national region. The presence of H. pylori adds to the potential health hazards of the Rio Grande. Since no significant correlation was

  14. 75 FR 30428 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Grand...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon, AZ AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION... the U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand...

  15. Fostering Scientific Literacy: Establishing Social Relevance via the Grand Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyford, M. E.; Myers, J. D.; Buss, A.

    2010-12-01

    Numerous studies and polls suggest the general public’s understanding of science and scientific literacy remain woefully inadequate despite repeated calls for improvement over the last 150 years. This inability to improve scientific literacy significantly is a complex problem likely driven by a number of factors. However, we argue that past calls and efforts for improving scientific literacy have failed to: 1) articulate a truly meaningful justification for society to foster a scientifically literate public; 2) provide a rationale that motivates individuals of diverse backgrounds to become scientifically literate; 3) consider the impact of personal perspective, e.g. values, beliefs, attitudes, etc., on learning; and 4) offer a relevant and manageable framework in which to define scientific literacy. For instance, past calls for improving scientific literacy, e.g. the U.S. is behind the Soviets in the space race, U.S students rank below country X in math and science, etc., have lacked justification, personal motivation and a comprehensive framework for defining scientific literacy. In these cases, the primary justification for improving science education and scientific literacy was to regain international dominance in the space race or to advance global standing according to test results. These types of calls also articulate short-term goals that are rendered moot once they have been achieved. At the same time, teaching practices have commonly failed to consider the perspectives students bring to the classroom. Many STEM faculty do not address issues of personal perspective through ignorance or the desire to avoid controversial subjects, e g. evolution, climate change. We propose that the ‘grand challenges’ (e.g., energy, climate change, antibacterial resistance, water, etc.) humankind currently faces provides a compelling framework for developing courses and curricula well-suited for improving scientific literacy. A grand challenge paradigm offers four

  16. Potential particulate impacts at the Grand Canyon from northwestern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Eatough, D J; Green, M; Moran, W; Farber, R

    2001-08-10

    Project MOHAVE was a major air quality and visibility research program conducted from 1990 to 1999 to investigate the causes of visibility impairment in the Grand Canyon National Park region. At Meadview, a remote monitoring site just west of the Grand Canyon National Park, on September 1 and 2, 1992, the concentrations of sulfate (3.1 and 4.3 microg sulfate/m3) were the highest seen in 6 years of monitoring at this site. During this period, the concentrations of SO2 at Meadview were also abnormally high and approximately three times the sulfate concentrations, on a nmol/m3 basis. High concentrations of sulfate and SO2 extended south into southern Arizona and northwestern Mexico. Based on ambient atmospheric conditions, emissions from the Mohave Power Project (MPP) 110 km upwind of Meadview could not have been responsible for the majority of the regionally observed sulfur oxides. The geographical distribution of SO2 and sulfate, and available source information suggest that northwestern Mexico was a significant source of the unusually high observed sulfur oxides. A CMB model developed during Project MOHAVE was used to apportion sulfur oxides at Meadview and other sampling sites throughout the study region for August 31-September 2, 1992. The results indicate that the contribution of MPP to sulfate at Meadview was typical. However, the transport of SOx from northwestern Mexico was elevated throughout much of the region during this time period. This led to the large increase in sulfate concentrations at Meadview on September 1 and 2. These results indicate that emissions from Mexico can be a significant source of particulate material in the Grand Canyon.

  17. Grande Ronde Model Watershed Program FY 1998 Habitat Projects.

    SciTech Connect

    Grande Ronde Model Watershed Staff

    1999-08-01

    The Grande Ronde Model Watershed Program (GRMWP) is the primary entity coordinating habitat restoration on both private and public lands within the Grande Ronde Basin. The Grande Ronde Basin covers approximately 5,300 square miles, containing more than 2600 miles of fish bearing streams, in the Blue Mountains of northeast Oregon. Snake River spring chinook salmon, summer steelhead and bull trout, which are listed under the Endangered Species Act, are present in the basin. The GRMWP began coordinating restoration projects in 1994. Approximately 215 projects have been implemented through the GRMWP program as of 1998. Nine of these projects were funded in part through the Bonneville Power Administration's 1998 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. These nine projects used a variety of methods to enhance and restore watershed conditions. In-stream work to improve fish habitat included construction of hard structures (eg. vortex rock weirs), placement of large woody material and whole trees, gravel bar treatments, and improvements to off-channel rearing habitat; 55 miles of stream were treated. Fish passage was improved at three locations by replacing or removing culverts that blocked fish. Stream riparian conditions were enhanced with exclosure fencing, vegetation planting and thinning, noxious weed control, and floodplain enhancements; 10 miles of stream were directly benefited with these riparian improvements. Four spring developments were constructed to enhance riparian and stream conditions by providing off stream livestock water sources. Nine spring developments and 1 reservoir were improved with fencing and/or piping to troughs to reduce sediment runoff and restore riparian habitat. Roads were closed or obliterated (8.5 miles) and road drainage was improved (3.4 miles) to reduce sediment delivery to streams. These nine projects cost approximately 1.3 million dollars to implement and monitor. BPA provided 41% of the funding, the remainder was cost shared by

  18. Seismic anisotropy of the Rio Grande Rift and surrounding regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulliam, J.; Rockett, C. V.; Grand, S. P.

    2009-12-01

    The Rio Grande Rift, located between the Colorado Plateau and the Great Plains, has a complex tectonic history comprised of two distinct phases in the Cenozoic era. An early stage of rifting began in the mid-Oligocene (~30 Ma) and lasted until the early Miocene (~18 Ma), followed by a lull and then an apparent reactivation along previous zones of weakness during a separate extension event in the late Miocene (~10 Ma), which continues today. The rift now extends more than 1000 km in length, trending north-south from Southern Colorado through New Mexico and Western Texas and into Chihuahua, Mexico. Structure of the rift is complex due to its multiple events of extension. The LA RISTRA seismic study (1999-2006) deployed broadband seismographs on a transect from Texas to Utah to investigate the structure and processes that control the Rift. Among other results, they found distinct differences in orientation of the fast polarization direction, as measured from SKS splitting, in the three main regions: the Colorado Plateau, the Rio Grande Rift, and the Great Plains. In 2008 71 EarthScope FlexArray stations were installed between Transportable Array stations to form a broad 2D deployment on the eastern flank of the RGR in southeastern New Mexico and western Texas as part of the SIEDCAR (Seismic Investigation of Edge Driven Convection Associated with the Rio Grande Rift) study. SKS splitting measurements from these, as well as from TA stations in the vicinity, show a more complex 2D pattern, but one which conforms with variations in crustal thickness and velocity anomalies in the uppermost mantle. We will report on these measurements and their implications for the style of convection associated with the RGR.

  19. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Grand Junction, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    Surface remedial action will be completed at the Grand Junction processing site during the summer of 1994. Results of 1993 water sampling indicate that ground water flow conditions and ground water quality at the processing site have remained relatively constant with time. Uranium concentrations in ground water continue to exceed the maximum concentration limits, providing the best indication of the extent of contaminated ground water. Evaluation of surface water quality of the Colorado River indicate no impact from uranium processing activities. No compliance monitoring at the Cheney disposal site has been proposed because ground water in the Dakota Sandstone (uppermost aquifer) is classified as limited-use (Class 111) and because the disposal cell is hydrogeologically isolated from the uppermost aquifer. The following water sampling and water level monitoring activities are planned for calendar year 1994: (i) Semiannual (early summer and late fall) sampling of six existing monitor wells at the former Grand Junction processing site. Analytical results from this sampling will be used to continue characterizing hydrogeochemical trends in background ground water quality and in the contaminated ground water area resulting from source term (tailings) removal. (ii) Water level monitoring of approximately three proposed monitor wells projected to be installed in the alluvium at the processing site in September 1994. Data loggers will be installed in these wells, and water levels will be electronically monitored six times a day. These long-term, continuous ground water level data will be collected to better understand the relationship between surface and ground water at the site. Water level and water quality data eventually will be used in future ground water modeling to establish boundary conditions in the vicinity of the Grand Junction processing site. Modeling results will be used to help demonstrate and document the potential remedial alternative of natural flushing.

  20. Schweickart and guest at ASVC prior to grand opening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Apollo 9 Lunar Module Pilot Russell L. Schweikart poses in front of an Apollo Command and Service Module in the the new Apollo/Saturn V Center (ASVC) at KSC prior to the gala grand opening ceremony for the facility that was held Jan. 8, 1997. Several Apollo astronauts were invited to participate in the event, which also featured NASA Administrator Dan Goldin and KSC Director Jay Honeycutt. The ASVC also features several other Apollo program spacecraft components, multimedia presentations and a simulated Apollo/Saturn V liftoff. The facility will be a part of the KSC bus tour that embarks from the KSC Visitor Center.

  1. Cernan and other guests at ASVC prior to grand opening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Several Apollo program astronauts, along with their family members and friends, pause before a painting of an Apollo/Saturn V launch vehicle at the pad in the new Apollo/Saturn V Center (ASVC) at KSC prior to the gala grand opening ceremony for the facility that was held Jan. 8, 1997. The astronauts were invited to participate in the event, which also featured NASA Administrator Dan Goldin and KSC Director Jay Honeycutt. The ASVC also features several other Apollo program spacecraft component displays and multimedia presentations. The facility will be a part of the KSC bus tour that embarks from the KSC Visitor Center.

  2. Reviewing the success of intentional flooding of the Grand Canyon

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, B.D.

    1997-04-01

    A description and evaluation of the results of an intentional flooding experiment at the Grand Canyon are described. The purpose of the 7-day release of flood waters from the Glen Canyon Dam was to determine if managed floods have the ability to predictably restore the riverine environment. A summary of environmental conditions leading to the experiment is provided and flood results are listed. Initial results showed significant improvement in the size and number of the river`s beaches, creation of backwater habitat for endangered species, and no adverse impact to the trout fishery, Indian cultural sites, and other resources.

  3. Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McGowan, Vance R.; Powell, Russ M.; Stennfeld, Scott P.

    2001-04-01

    On July 1, 1984 the Bonneville Power Administration and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife entered into an agreement to initiate fish habitat enhancement work in the Joseph Creek subbasin of the Grande Ronde River Basin in northeast Oregon. In July of 1985 the Upper and Middle Grande Ronde River, and Catherine Creek subbasins were included in the intergovernmental contract, and on March 1, 1996 the Wallowa River subbasin was added. The primary goal of ''The Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project'' is to access, create, improve, protect, and restore riparian and instream habitat for anadromous salmonids, thereby maximizing opportunities for natural fish production within the basin. This project provided for implementation of Program Measure 703 (C)(1), Action Item 4.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC, 1987), and continues to be implemented as offsite mitigation for mainstem fishery losses caused by the Columbia River hydro-electric system. All work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife is on private lands and therefore requires that considerable time be spent developing rapport with landowners to gain acceptance of, and continued cooperation with this program throughout 10-15 year lease periods. This project calls for passive regeneration of habitat, using riparian enclosure fencing as the primary method to restore degraded streams to a normative condition. Active remediation techniques using plantings, off-site water developments, site-specific instream structures, or whole channel alterations are also utilized where applicable. Individual projects contribute to and complement ecosystem and basin-wide watershed restoration efforts that are underway by state, federal, and tribal agencies, and local watershed councils. Work undertaken during 2000 included: (1) Implementing 2 new projects in the Grande Ronde drainage, and retrofitting one old project that will protect

  4. Seasonal Transport of Fine Particles to the Grand Canyon.

    PubMed

    de P Vasconcelos, Luis A

    1999-03-01

    Potential sources of pollutants can be identified by analyzing back trajectories associated with extreme ambient concentrations. Conditional frequency analysis (CFA) was used to identify statistically significant associations of geographical regions and ambient air quality observed at sites near the Grand Canyon. Stratification by season reveals a pattern of association during the fall quarter that is not observed during other seasons. Application of CFA to different source tracers provides additional information on the nature of the associations. Tracer species that were often below detection limits can be studied because the method requires only that the highest concentrations be identified.

  5. Grand challenges in bioengineered nanorobotics for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Lenaghan, Scott C; Wang, Yongzhong; Xi, Ning; Fukuda, Toshio; Tarn, Tzyhjong; Hamel, William R; Zhang, Mingjun

    2013-03-01

    One of the grand challenges currently facing engineering, life sciences, and medicine is the development of fully functional nanorobots capable of sensing, decision making, and actuation. These nanorobots may aid in cancer therapy, site-specific drug delivery, circulating diagnostics, advanced surgery, and tissue repair. In this paper, we will discuss, from a bioinspired perspective, the challenges currently facing nanorobotics, including core design, propulsion and power generation, sensing, actuation, control, decision making, and system integration. Using strategies inspired from microorganisms, we will discuss a potential bioengineered nanorobot for cancer therapy.

  6. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Project - ODFW, 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Scott

    2009-04-10

    Core activities of the Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Supplementation Program (GRESCSP) are funded through the authority of the Lower Snake River Fish and Wildlife Compensation Plan (LSRCP). The LSRCP program was approved by the Water Resources Development Act of 1976, PL 94-587, Section 102, 94th Congress substantially in accordance with the Special Report, LSRCP, June 1975 on file with the Chief of Engineers. The LSRCP was prepared and submitted in compliance with the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act of 1958, PL 85-624, 85th Congress, August 12, 1958 to mitigate for the losses of fish and wildlife caused by the construction of dams on lower Snake River. The GRESCSP is an artificial propagation program that was initiated by Bonneville Power Administrations Fish and Wildlife program in the mid 1990's. The intent of this program was to change the mitigation aspect of the LSRCP program (harvest mitigation) to an integrated supplementation program; inasmuch as, hatchery produced fish could be experimentally used as a recovery tool and fish surplus to mitigation would be available for in-place and in-kind harvest. Fish production is still authorized by the LSRCP with the original mitigation return goal of 5,860 adult spring Chinook to the project area. The GRESCSP was developed with two primary components: (1) conventional broodstock (projects 199800702; 199800703; 199800704) and (2) captive brood (projects 199801001; 199801006). The GRESCSP relies on cooperative M&E efforts from the LSRCP including setting aside the Wenaha and Minam tributaries as natural production reserves components used for reference streams. The GRESCSP, coordinated with federal and tribal partners, identifies production levels for both propagation components and weir management strategies for each of the three supplemented tributary areas within the Grande Ronde Sub-basin. The three supplemented areas are Catherine Creek, Lostine River, and upper Grande Ronde River. Lookingglass Creek, an

  7. Radiation effects on science instruments in Grand Tour type missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    The extent of the radiation effects problem is delineated, along with the status of protective designs for 15 representative science instruments. Designs for protecting science instruments from radiation damage is discussed for the various instruments to be employed in the Grand Tour type missions. A literature search effort was undertaken to collect science instrument components damage/interference effects data on the various sensitive components such as Si detectors, vidicon tubes, etc. A small experimental effort is underway to provide verification of the radiation effects predictions.

  8. Ethical Grand Rounds: Teaching Ethics at the Point of Care.

    PubMed

    Airth-Kindree, Norah M M; Kirkhorn, Lee-Ellen C

    2016-01-01

    We offer an educational innovation called Ethical Grand Rounds (EGR) as a teaching strategy to enhance ethical decision-making. Nursing students participate in EGR-flexible ethical laboratories, where they take stands on ethical dilemmas, arguing for--or against--an ethical principle. This process provides the opportunity to move past normative ethics, that is, an ideal ethical stance in accord with ethical conduct codes, to applied ethics, what professional nurses would do in actual clinical practice, given the constraints that exist in contemporary care settings. EGR serves as a vehicle to translate "what ought to be" into "what is."

  9. Rio Grande Rift GPS Measurements 2006-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berglund, H.; Sheehan, A. F.; Nerem, R.; Choe, J.; Lowry, A. R.; Roy, M.; Blume, F.; Murray, M.

    2009-12-01

    We use three years of measurements from 25 continuous GPS stations across the Rio Grande Rift in New Mexico and Colorado to estimate surface velocities, time series, baselines, and strain rates. The stations are part of the EarthScope Rio Grande Rift experiment, a collaboration between researchers at the University of Colorado at Boulder, the University of New Mexico, and Utah State University. The network includes 5 east-west station profiles transecting the rift, with the southernmost line in southern New Mexico and the northernmost line in northern Colorado. Most of the stations have shallow-drilled braced monuments installed in 2006-2007 and will remain occupied until 2010-2011 or longer. We also estimate station coordinates and velocities from the 2001 and 2008 High Accuracy Reference Network (HARN) campaigns conducted in Colorado. Initial 72-hour observations were made in the summer of 2001 and were repeated in the summer of 2008. Data from regional Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) GPS stations are included in the processing to increase station density and extend profiles further to the east and west of the Rio Grande Rift. We use GAMIT/GLOBK to process regional sub-networks that share several common sites well determined in the Stable North America Reference Frame (SNARF). These common sites are used as a tie between the sub-networks and SNARF. Our time series from the first three years of the experiment show excellent monument stability. We have solved for baseline distance as a function of time across each of these lines. Despite what might be expected for a rigid Colorado Plateau moving away from rigid North America about a pole near Colorado, we find no evidence of an increase in Rio Grande Rift opening to the south. Our results suggest that steady-state extension across the rift from northern Colorado to southern New Mexico has an upper bound less than ~1 mm/yr with strain rates less than ~20 nanostrain/yr, although these results are still preliminary

  10. Early Agriculture in the Eastern Grand Canyon of Arizona, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, S.W.; Davis, M.E.; Lucchitta, I.; Finkel, R.; Caffee, M.

    2000-01-01

    Abandoned fields in Colorado River alluvium in the eastern Grand Canyon show signs of primitive agriculture. Presence of maize pollen in association with buried soils near Comanche Creek suggests that farming began prior to 3130 yr B.P. Cotton pollen, identified in buried soils near Nankoweap Creek, dates to 1310 yr B.P., approximately 500 years earlier than previously reported anywhere on the Colorado Plateau. Farming spanned three millennia in this reach of the canyon. Entrenchment, starting approximately 700 yr B.P., making water diversion to fields infeasible, was likely responsible for field abandonment. ?? 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. Nursing in a complex world: a case for grand theory.

    PubMed

    Florczak, Kristine; Poradzisz, Michele; Hampson, Susan

    2012-10-01

    The authors of this column put forth a call for more grand theory to be used as the basis of nursing research. To that end, complexity theory and the Neuman systems model are reviewed followed by a discussion of the links that occur between them. Then evidence of the increased use of middle-range theory as the foundation of current nursing research is put forth. Finally, there is a discussion about the authors' conclusion that the complexity of the phenomena of interest for nursing research requires theories to be used as underpinnings that are more abstract and less reductionistic.

  12. Vigilando la Calidad del Agua de los Grandes Rios de la Nacion: El Programa NASQAN del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Reutter, David C.; Wells, Frank C.; Rivera, M.C.; Munoz, A.

    1998-01-01

    La Oficina del Estudio Geologico de los Estados Unidos (U.S. Geological Survey, 0 USGS) ha monitoreado la calidad del agua de la cuenca del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte) desde 1995 como parte de la rediseiiada Red Nacional para Contabilizar la Calidad del Agua de los Rios (National Stream Quality Accounting Network, o NASOAN) (Hooper and others, 1997). EI programa NASOAN fue diseiiado para caracterizar las concentraciones y el transporte de sedimento y constituyentes quimicos seleccionados, encontrados en los grandes rios de los Estados Unidos - incluyendo el Misisipi, el Colorado y el Columbia, ademas del Rio Grande. En estas cuatro cuencas, el USGS opera actualmente (1998) una red de 40 puntos de muestreo pertenecientes a NASOAN, con un enfasis en cuantificar el flujo en masa (la cantidad de material que pasa por la estacion, expresado en toneladas por dial para cada constituyente. Aplicacando un enfoque consistente, basado en la cuantificacion de flujos en la cuenca del Rio Grande, el programa NASOAN esta generando la informacion necesaria para identificar fuentes regionales de diversos contaminantes, incluyendo sustancias qui micas agricolas y trazas elementos en la cuenca. EI efecto de las grandes reservas en el Rio Grande se puede observar segun los flujos de constituyentes discurren a 10 largo del rio. EI analisis de los flujos de constituyentes a escala de la cuenca proveera los medios para evaluar la influencia de la actividad humana sobre las condiciones de calidad del agua del Rio Grande.

  13. Boundedness of Weighted Singular Integral Operators on a Carleson Curve in Grand Lebesgue Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokilashvili, Vakhtang; Samko, Stefan

    2010-09-01

    We obtain the necessary and sufficient conditions for the boundedness of the weighted singular integral operator with power weights in grand Lebesgue spaces. Because of applications to singular integral equations, the underlying set where the functions are defined is a Carleson curve in the complex plane. Note that weighted boundedness of an operator in grand Lebesgue space is known to be not the same as the boundedness in weighted grand Lebesgue space.

  14. Gamma ray and neutrino detector facility (GRANDE), Task C. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Sobel, H.W.; Yodh, G.B.

    1991-08-01

    GRANDE is an imaging, water Cerenkov detector, which combines in one facility an extensive air shower array and a high-energy neutrino detector. We proposed that the detector be constructed in phases, beginning with an active detector area of 31,000 m{sup 2} (GRANDE-I){sup 2} and expanding to a final size of 100,000--150,00 m{sup 2}. Some of the characteristics of GRANDE-I are discussed in this paper.

  15. Grand challenges in mass storage: A systems integrators perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Richard R.; Mintz, Daniel G.

    1993-01-01

    Within today's much ballyhooed supercomputing environment, with its CFLOPS of CPU power, and Gigabit networks, there exists a major roadblock to computing success; that of Mass Storage. The solution to this mass storage problem is considered to be one of the 'Grand Challenges' facing the computer industry today, as well as long into the future. It has become obvious to us, as well as many others in the industry, that there is no clear single solution in sight. The Systems Integrator today is faced with a myriad of quandaries in approaching this challenge. He must first be innovative in approach, second choose hardware solutions that are volumetric efficient; high in signal bandwidth; available from multiple sources; competitively priced, and have forward growth extendibility. In addition he must also comply with a variety of mandated, and often conflicting software standards (GOSIP, POSIX, IEEE, MSRM 4.0, and others), and finally he must deliver a systems solution with the 'most bang for the buck' in terms of cost vs. performance factors. These quandaries challenge the Systems Integrator to 'push the envelope' in terms of his or her ingenuity and innovation on an almost daily basis. This dynamic is explored further, and an attempt to acquaint the audience with rational approaches to this 'Grand Challenge' is made.

  16. Grand Unification as a Bridge Between String Theory and Phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Pati, Jogesh C.

    2006-06-09

    In the first part of the talk, I explain what empirical evidence points to the need for having an effective grand unification-like symmetry possessing the symmetry SU(4)-color in 4D. If one assumes the premises of a future predictive theory including gravity--be it string/M theory or a reincarnation--this evidence then suggests that such a theory should lead to an effective grand unification-like symmetry as above in 4D, near the string-GUT-scale, rather than the standard model symmetry. Advantages of an effective supersymmetric G(224) = SU(2){sub L} x SU(2){sub R} x SU(4){sup c} or SO(10) symmetry in 4D in explaining (1) observed neutrino oscillations, (2) baryogenesis via leptogenesis, and (3) certain fermion mass-relations are noted. And certain distinguishing tests of a SUSY G(224) or SO(10)-framework involving CP and flavor violations (as in {mu} {yields} e{gamma}, {tau} {yields} {mu}{gamma}, edm's of the neutron and the electron) as well as proton decay are briefly mentioned. Recalling some of the successes we have had in our understanding of nature so far, and the current difficulties of string/M theory as regards the large multiplicity of string vacua, some comments are made on the traditional goal of understanding vis a vis the recently evolved view of landscape and anthropism.

  17. A Grand Δ(96)×SU(5) Flavour Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Stephen F.; Luhn, Christoph; Stuart, Alexander J.

    2013-02-01

    Recent results from the Daya Bay and RENO reactor experiments have measured the smallest lepton mixing angle and found it to have a value of θ13≈9°. This result presents a new challenge for the existing paradigms of discrete flavour symmetries which attempt to describe all quark and lepton masses and mixing angles. Here we propose a Supersymmetric Grand Unified Theory of Flavour based on Δ(96)×SU(5), together with a U(1)×Z3 symmetry, including a full discussion of Δ(96) in a convenient basis. The Grand Δ(96)×SU(5) Flavour Model relates the quark mixing angles and masses in the form of the Gatto-Sartori-Tonin relation and realises the Georgi-Jarlskog mass relations between the charged leptons and down-type quarks. We predict a Bi-trimaximal (not Tri-bimaximal) form of neutrino mixing matrix, which, after including charged lepton corrections with zero phase, leads to the following GUT scale predictions for the atmospheric, solar, and reactor mixing angles: θ23≈36.9°, θ12≈32.7° and θ13≈9.6°, in good agreement with recent global fits, and a zero Dirac CP phase δ≈0.

  18. Geomorphology of plutonium in the Northern Rio Grande

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, W.L.

    1993-03-01

    Nearly all of the plutonium in the natural environment of the Northern Rio Grande is associated with soils and sediment, and river processes account for most of the mobility of these materials. A composite regional budget for plutonium based on multi-decadal averages for sediment and plutonium movement shows that 90 percent of the plutonium moving into the system is from atmospheric fallout. The remaining 10 percent is from releases at Los Alamos. Annual variation in plutonium flux and storage exceeds 100 percent. The contribution to the plutonium budget from Los Alamos is associated with relatively coarse sediment which often behaves as bedload in the Rio Grande. Infusion of these materials into the main stream were largest in 1951, 1952, 1957, and 1968. Because of the schedule of delivery of plutonium to Los Alamos for experimentation and weapons manufacturing, the latter two years are probably the most important. Although the Los Alamos contribution to the entire plutonium budget was relatively small, in these four critical years it constituted 71--86 percent of the plutonium in bedload immediately downstream from Otowi.

  19. Female homicide in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leites, Gabriela Tomedi; Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Hirakata, Vania Noemi

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the female homicide rate due to aggression in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, using this as a "proxy" of femicide. This was an ecological study which correlated the female homicide rate due to aggression in Rio Grande do Sul, according to the 35 microregions defined by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), with socioeconomic and demographic variables access and health indicators. Pearson's correlation test was performed with the selected variables. After this, multiple linear regressions were performed with variables with p < 0.20. The standardized average of female homicide rate due to aggression in the period from 2003 to 2007 was 3.1 obits per 100 thousand. After multiple regression analysis, the final model included male mortality due to aggression (p = 0.016), the percentage of hospital admissions for alcohol (p = 0.005) and the proportion of ill-defined deaths (p = 0.015). The model have an explanatory power of 39% (adjusted r2 = 0.391). The results are consistent with other studies and indicate a strong relationship between structural violence in society and violence against women, in addition to a higher incidence of female deaths in places with high alcohol hospitalization.

  20. A continental rift model for the La Grande greenstone belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skulski, T.; Hynes, A.; Liu, M.; Francis, D.; Rivard, B.; Stamatelopoulou-Seymour, K.

    1986-01-01

    Stratigraphic relationships and the geochemistry of volcanic rocks contrain the nature and timing of the tectonic and magmatic processes in the pre-deformational history of the La Grande greenstone belt in the Superior Province of north-central Quebec. The lowermost supracrustals in this belt are obscured by syntectonic granitoid intrusives. The supracrustal succession in the western part of the belt consists of a lower sequence of immature clastic sediments and mafic volcanoclastics, overlain by pillowed and massive basalts. Further east, along tectonic strike, a lower sequence of mafic volcanoclastics and immature clastic sediments is overlain by a thick sequence of pillowed and massive basalts, and resedimented coarse clastic sediments and banded iron formation. These are overlain by assive basaltic andesites, andesites and intermediate volcanoclastics intercalated with immature clastic sediments. In contrast, in the eastern part of the belt lenses of felsic volcanics and volcanoclastics occur at the base of the succession and pillowed and massive basalts are overlain by komatiites at the top. The La Grande greenstone belt can be explained as the product of continental rifting. The restricted occurence of komatiites, and eastwardly directed paleocurrents in clastic sediments in the central part of the belt are consistent with rifting commencing in the east and propagating westward with time. The increase in depth of emplacement and deposition with time of the lower three units in the central part of the belt reflects deposition in a subsiding basin. These supracrustal rocks are believed to represent the initial rift succession.

  1. Measurements of velocity and discharge, Grand Canyon, Arizona, May 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oberg, Kevin A.; Fisk, Gregory G.; ,

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) evaluated the feasibility of utilizing an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) to collect velocity and discharge data in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona, in May 1994. An ADCP is an instrument that can be used to measure water velocity and discharge from a moving boat. Measurements of velocity and discharge were made with an ADCP at 54 cross sections along the Colorado River between the Little Colorado River and Diamond Creek. Concurrent measurements of discharge with an ADCP and a Price-AA current meter were made at three U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations: Colorado River above the Little Colorado River near Desert View, Colorado River near Grand Canyon, and Colorado River above Diamond Creek near Peach Springs. Discharges measured with an ADCP were within 3 percent of the rated discharge at each streamflow-gaging station. Discharges measured with the ADCP were within 4 percent of discharges measured with a Price-AA meter, except at the Colorado River above Diamond Creek. Vertical velocity profiles were measured with the ADCP from a stationary position at four cross sections along the Colorado River. Graphs of selected vertical velocity profiles collected in a cross section near National Canyon show considerable temporal variation among profile.

  2. Flavour in supersymmetric Grand Unification: A democratic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, Riccardo; Dvali, Gia; Strumia, Alessandro; Berezhiani, Zurab; Hall, Lawrence

    1994-12-01

    We consider the flavour problem in a supersymmetric Grand Unified theory with gauged SU(6) group, where the Higgs doublets are understood as pseudo-Goldstone bosons of a larger SU(6) ⊗ SU(6) global symmetry of the Higgs superpotential. A key element of this work is that we never appeal to any flavour symmetry. One main interesting feature emerges: only one of the light fermions, an up-type quark, to be identified with the top, can get a Yukawa coupling at renormalizable level. This fact, together with bottom-tau Yukawa unification, also implied in our scheme, gives rise to a characteristic correlation between the top and the Higgs mass. By including a flavour-blind discrete symmetry and requiring that all higher dimensional operators be mediated by the exchanges of appropriate heavy multiplets, it is possible to give an approximate description of all masses and mixing angles in term of a hierarchy of Grand Unified scales. A special "texture" arises, implying a relation between the top mass and the third generation mixing angles. Several other possible consequences of this approach are pointed out, concerning the μ/s mass ratio, the Cabibbo angle and the proton decay.

  3. Grand Unification as a Bridge Between String Theory and Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pati, Jogesh C.

    In the first part of this paper, we explain what empirical evidence points to the need for having an effective grand unification-like symmetry possessing the symmetry SU(4)-color in 4D. If one assumes the premises of a future predictive theory including gravity — be it string/M-theory or a reincarnation — this evidence then suggests that such a theory should lead to an effective grand unification-like symmetry as above in 4D, near the string-GUT-scale, rather than the standard model symmetry. Advantages of an effective supersymmetric G(224) = SU(2)L × SU(2)R × SU(4)c or SO(10) symmetry in 4D in explaining (i) observed neutrino oscillations, (ii) baryogenesis via leptogenesis, and (iii) certain fermion mass-relations are noted. And certain distinguishing tests of a SUSY G(224) or SO(10)-framework involving CP and flavor violations (as in μ → eγ, τ → μγ, edm's of the neutron and the electron) as well as proton decay are briefly mentioned. Recalling some of the successes we have had in our understanding of nature so far, and the current difficulties of string/M-theory as regards the large multiplicity of string vacua, some comments are made on the traditional goal of understanding vis a vis the recently evolved view of landscape and anthropism.

  4. Predictive Temperature Equations for Three Sites at the Grand Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Katrina Marie Neitzel

    Climate data collected at a number of automated weather stations were used to create a series of predictive equations spanning from December 2009 to May 2010 in order to better predict the temperatures along hiking trails within the Grand Canyon. The central focus of this project is how atmospheric variables interact and can be combined to predict the weather in the Grand Canyon at the Indian Gardens, Phantom Ranch, and Bright Angel sites. Through the use of statistical analysis software and data regression, predictive equations were determined. The predictive equations are simple or multivariable best fits that reflect the curvilinear nature of the data. With data analysis software curves resulting from the predictive equations were plotted along with the observed data. Each equation's reduced chi2 was determined to aid the visual examination of the predictive equations' ability to reproduce the observed data. From this information an equation or pair of equations was determined to be the best of the predictive equations. Although a best predictive equation for each month and season was determined for each site, future work may refine equations to result in a more accurate predictive equation.

  5. Bringing Seismology's Grand Challenges to the Undergraduate Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, M. H.; Taber, J.; Hubenthal, M.

    2011-12-01

    The "Seismological Grand Challenges in Understanding Earth's Dynamic Systems," a community-written long-range science plan for the next decade, poses 10 questions to guide fundamental seismological research. Written in an approachable fashion suitable for policymakers, the broad questions and supporting discussion contained in this document offer an ideal framework for the development of undergraduate curricular materials. Leveraging this document, we have created a collection of inquiry-based classroom modules that utilize authentic data to modernize seismological instruction in 100 and 200 level undergraduate courses. The modules not only introduce undergraduates to the broad questions that the seismological community seeks to answer in the future but also showcase the numerous areas where modern seismological research is actively contributing to our understanding of fundamental Earth processes. To date 6 in-depth explorations that correspond to the Grand Challenges document have been developed. The specific topics for each exploration were selected to showcase modern seismological research while also covering topics commonly included in the curriculum of these introductory classes. Examples of activities that have been created and their corresponding Grand Challenge include: -A guided inquiry that introduces students to episodic tremor and slip and compares the GPS and seismic signatures of ETS with those produced from standard tectonic earthquakes (Grand Challenge "How do faults slip?"). - A laboratory exercise where students engage in b-value mapping of volcanic earthquakes to assess potential eruption hazards (How do magmas ascend and erupt?). - A module that introduce students to glacial earthquakes in Greenland and compares their frequency and spatial distribution to tectonic earthquakes (How do processes in the ocean and atmosphere interact with the solid Earth?). What is the relationship between stress and strain in the lithosphere? - An activity that

  6. Is it possible to give scientific solutions to Grand Challenges? On the idea of grand challenges for life science research.

    PubMed

    Efstathiou, Sophia

    2016-04-01

    This paper argues that challenges that are grand in scope such as "lifelong health and wellbeing", "climate action", or "food security" cannot be addressed through scientific research only. Indeed scientific research could inhibit addressing such challenges if scientific analysis constrains the multiple possible understandings of these challenges into already available scientific categories and concepts without translating between these and everyday concerns. This argument builds on work in philosophy of science and race to postulate a process through which non-scientific notions become part of science. My aim is to make this process available to scrutiny: what I call founding everyday ideas in science is both culturally and epistemologically conditioned. Founding transforms a common idea into one or more scientifically relevant ones, which can be articulated into descriptively thicker and evaluatively deflated terms and enable operationalisation and measurement. The risk of founding however is that it can invisibilise or exclude from realms of scientific scrutiny interpretations that are deemed irrelevant, uninteresting or nonsensical in the domain in question-but which may remain salient for addressing grand-in-scope challenges. The paper considers concepts of "wellbeing" in development economics versus in gerontology to illustrate this process.

  7. [Temporary workers' perceptions of occupational risks in the port of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Soares, Jorgana Fernanda de Souza; Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Mendoza-Sassi, Raul Andrés; Almeida, Tabajara Lucas de; Muccillo-Baisch, Ana Luiza; Soares, Maria Cristina Flores; Costa, Valdecir Zavarese da

    2008-06-01

    This was a cross-sectional, descriptive, quantitative study in the port of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, aimed at identifying occupational risk perceptions in a sample of 306 temporary dockworkers. Most temporary dockworkers (93.46%) acknowledged the existence of health risks on the job, independently of schooling (p = 0.44) and job activity (p = 0.47). Risks identified by temporary workers as a whole included falling of suspended objects (8.43 +/- 2.47), noise (8.06 +/- 2.32), and bad weather conditions (8.05 +/- 2.48). Risks that varied significantly between jobs were: noise (p = 0.00), lifting loads manually (p = 0.00), work tools (p = 0,00), insufficient number of work team members (p = 0.03), extra wages based on productivity (p = 0.00), work pace (p = 0.01), working on scaffolding and other high areas (p = 0.00), workers moving on top of cargo (p = 0.00), and ship's ladders and gangways (p = 0.00). The study corroborated that temporary dock work is unhealthy and hazardous, and that the risks affect workers according to the specific jobs they perform.

  8. Water resources of Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, Edward Riley

    1974-01-01

    The study described in this report is an appraisal of water resources in Grand Teton National Park where hydrologic data are needed for planning water supplies for public use. Water is used in the park for public-water supplies at National Park Service facilities, for commercial and domestic use at guest ranches and private residences, and for irrigation. Public-water supplies in the park utilize both surface and ground water. Some of the surface-water sources are in areas of heavy use by park visitors. Public-health requirements are that only ground water, if adequate in quantity and quality, should be used for public-water supplies in such areas.

  9. Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McGowan, Vance R.; Morton, Winston H.

    2008-12-30

    On July 1, 1984 the Bonneville Power Administration and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife entered into an intergovernmental contract to initiate fish habitat enhancement work in the Joseph Creek subbasin of the Grande Ronde River Basin in northeast Oregon. In 1985 the Upper and Middle Grande Ronde River, and Catherine Creek subbasins were included in the contract, and in 1996 the Wallowa River subbasin was added. The primary goal of 'The Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project' is to create, protect, and restore riparian and instream habitat for anadromous salmonids, thereby maximizing opportunities for natural fish production within the basin. This project provided for implementation of Program Measure 703 (C)(1), Action Item 4.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC, 1987), and continues to be implemented as offsite mitigation for mainstem fishery losses caused by the Columbia River hydro-electric system. All work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and partners is on private lands and therefore requires that considerable time be spent developing rapport with landowners to gain acceptance of, and continued cooperation with this program throughout 10-15 year lease periods. Both passive and active restoration treatment techniques are used. Passive regeneration of habitat, using riparian exclosure fencing and alternate water sources are the primary method to restore degraded streams when restoration can be achieved primarily through changes in management. Active restoration techniques using plantings, bioengineering, site-specific instream structures, or whole stream channel alterations are utilized when streams are more severely degraded and not likely to recover in a reasonable timeframe. Individual projects contribute to and complement ecosystem and basin-wide watershed restoration efforts that are underway by state, federal, and tribal agencies, and coordinated by

  10. Bringing Seismology's Grand Challenges to the Undergraduate Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, M. H.; Hubenthal, M.; Taber, J.

    2012-12-01

    The "Seismological Grand Challenges in Understanding Earth's Dynamic Systems," a community-written long-range science plan for the next decade, poses 10 questions to guide fundamental seismological research. Written in an approachable fashion suitable for policymakers, the broad questions and supporting discussion contained in this document offer an ideal framework for the development of undergraduate curricular materials. Leveraging this document, we have created a collection of inquiry-based classroom modules that utilize authentic data to modernize seismological instruction in 100 and 200 level undergraduate courses. The modules not only introduce undergraduates to the broad questions that the seismological community seeks to answer in the future but also showcase the numerous areas where modern seismological research is actively contributing to our understanding of fundamental Earth processes. To date 6 in-depth explorations that correspond to the Grand Challenges document have been developed. The specific topics for each exploration were selected to showcase modern seismological research while also covering topics commonly included in the curriculum of these introductory classes. The activities that have been created and their corresponding Grand Challenge are: -A guided inquiry that introduces students to episodic tremor and slip and compares the GPS and seismic signatures of ETS with those produced from standard tectonic earthquakes (Grand Challenge "How do faults slip?"). - A laboratory exercise where students engage in b-value mapping of volcanic earthquakes to assess potential eruption hazards (How do magmas ascend and erupt?). - A module that introduces students to glacial earthquakes in Greenland and compares their frequency and spatial distribution to tectonic earthquakes (How do processes in the ocean and atmosphere interact with the solid Earth?). -A suite of activities that introduce students to oil and gas exploration, including an activity that

  11. STEM education for teachers in the Rio Grande Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, Judit Gyorgyey; Baguio, Margaret R.

    2015-11-01

    We have worked with elementary and middle school teachers in the Rio Grande Valley for the last 10 years bringing Earth and Space Science themed workshops to underserved areas of Texas. The Texas curriculum was also changed to include Astronomy and Space Science requirement in the tests students need to take to prove their academic preparedness. The teachers worked through a variety of inquiry-based, hands-on activities after a short presentation on the background science. In order to evaluate our effectiveness, we have asked the teachers to take pre- and post-workshop tests, and we asked them to fill out a self-reflective survey. We will report on our experiences, what works best with the teachers, and in what areas we still have a long way to go.This work was supported by various NASA education grants and Cooperative agreements, as well as grants provided by the Texas Space Grant Consortium.

  12. Observational Manifestation of Chaos in Grand Design Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridman, Alexei M.; Sagdeev, Roald Z.; Khoruzii, Oleg V.; et al.

    To study dynamic properties of the gaseous disk of the grand design spiral galaxy NGC 3631 we calculate the Lyapunov characteristic numbers (LCN) for different families of streamlines in the disk. For the trajectories near separatrices of the giant vortices and near saddle points presenting in the velocity field, the LCN turned out to be positive. The result is insensitive to the method of the calculation. Both methods -- using two trajectories and based on linearized equations -- give the identical results. The values of the LCN in the gaseous disk of NGC 3631 are independent on the Riemannian metric used for the calculations in agreement with the classical mathematical theorem. The spectra of the 'short-time' LCN (stretching numbers) evaluated for the same trajectories turned out to be non-invariant. We confirmed this result obtained for the real galactic disk on classical model examples.

  13. Proton Stability in Grand Unified Theories and Discrete Gauge Symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Mohapatra, R. N.

    2008-05-13

    Most supersymmetric grand unified theories face the problem of rapid proton decay coming either from R-parity violating interactions and/or from Planck scale induced R-parity conserving operators, possibly induced by non-perturbative Planck scale effects such as black holes or wormholes. In this talk, I argue in favor of the possibility that a natural way to resolve this problem is to assume that there are new discrete or continuous gauge symmetries accompanying these theories that resolve these problems while at the same time allowing enough flexibility to have a viable model. I discuss this for left-right and SO(10) theories and discuss the profound impact such considerations have on the construction of realistic GUT models. I then discuss a recently proposed SO(10) model which has only apparently string inspired multiplets and has enough structure to be a realistic model.

  14. Exploring the {alpha}p-process with Grand Raiden

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, S.; Berg, G. P. A.; Couder, M.; Goerres, J.; Patel, D.; Sault, K.; Wiescher, M.; Adachi, T.; Hatanaka, K.; Ishikawa, D.; Matsubara, H.; Okamura, H.; Ong, H. J.; Suzuki, T.; Tamii, A.; Zenihiro, J.; Dozono, M.; Wakasa, T.; Fujita, H.; Fujita, Y.

    2009-01-28

    {sup 22}Mg, {sup 30}S, {sup 34}Ar and {sup 38}Ca have been investigated using (p,t) reactions at RCNP with the intent of identifying energy levels in nuclei that determine the reaction rates along the pathway of the {alpha}p-process. These experiments exploit the high resolution and 0 deg. capabilities of the Grand Raiden spectrometer and the WS beamline, which can deliver a fully dispersion matched beam to target. The level information is vital to understanding the nucleosynthesis occurring during explosive hydrogen burning, which, for example, is thought to occur during type I X-ray bursts. In the case of {sup 22}Mg, new reaction rate calculations have been performed for the {sup 18}Ne({alpha},p){sup 21}Na reaction. The experimental technique will be discussed, and the experimental results will be presented.

  15. A Leptophobic Z' And Dark Matter From Grand Unification

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, Matthew R.; Hooper, Dan; Rosner, Jonathan L.

    2011-09-01

    We explore the phenomenology of Grand Unified Models based on the E_6 group, focusing on the Z' with suppressed couplings to leptons that can appear in such models. We find that this Z' can accommodate the W+dijets anomaly reported by the CDF collaboration. Furthermore, a viable dark matter candidate in the form of a right-handed sneutrino is also present within the fundamental 27-dimensional representation of E_6. Through its sizable couplings to the Z', the dark matter is predicted to possess an elastic scattering cross section with neutrons which can generate the signals reported by the CoGeNT and DAMA/LIBRA collaborations. To avoid being overproduced in the early universe, the dark matter must annihilate to leptons through the exchange of charged or neutral fermions which appear in the 27 of E_6, providing an excellent fit to the gamma ray spectrum observed from the Galactic Center by the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope.

  16. Ethiopia's Grand Renaissance Dam: Implications for Downstream Riparian Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Block, P. J.; Hammond, M.; King, A.

    2013-12-01

    Ethiopia has begun seriously developing their significant hydropower potential by launching construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile River to facilitate local and regional growth. Although this has required substantial planning on Ethiopia's part, no policy dictating the reservoir filling rate strategy has been publicly issued. This filling stage will have clear implications on downstream flows in Sudan and Egypt, complicated by evaporative losses, climate variability, and climate change. In this study, various filling policies and future climate states are simultaneously explored to infer potential streamflow reductions at Lake Nasser, providing regional decision-makers with a set of plausible, justifiable, and comparable outcomes. Schematic of the model framework Box plots of 2017-2032 percent change in annual average streamflow at Lake Nasser for each filling policy constructed from the 100 time-series and weighted precipitation changes. All values are relative to the no dam policy and no changes to future precipitation.

  17. Grand Canyon Trekkers: school-based lunchtime walking program.

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, Alisa; Shaibi, Gabriel; Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; McFall, Sarah

    2011-02-01

    The incidence of childhood overweight is especially troubling among low income Latino youth. Grand Canyon Trekkers (GCT) was implemented as a quasi-experimental study in 10 Title 1 elementary schools with a large Latino population to examine the effects of a 16-week structured walking program on components of health-related physical fitness: Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference, and cardio-respiratory. Data on 1,074 research participants revealed no significance changes in BMI or waist circumference (p > .05); however, cardio-respiratory fitness increased by 37.1% over baseline. Cardiovascular fitness is an independent determinant of long-term health; therefore, the GCT program may have significantly improved the future health profile of the participants and decreased their risk of metabolic diseases.

  18. A groundwater convection model for Rio Grande rift geothermal resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P.; Harder, V.; Daggett, P. H.; Swanberg, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    It has been proposed that forced convection, driven by normal groundwater flow through the interconnected basins of the Rio Grande rift is the primary source mechanism for the numerous geothermal anomalies along the rift. A test of this concept using an analytical model indicates that significant forced convection must occur in the basins even if permeabilities are as low as 50-200 millidarcies at a depth of 2 km. Where groundwater flow is constricted at the discharge areas of the basins forced convection can locally increase the gradient to a level where free convection also occurs, generating surface heat flow anomalies 5-15 times background. A compilation of groundwater data for the rift basins shows a strong correlation between constrictions in groundwater flow and hot springs and geothermal anomalies, giving strong circumstantial support to the convection model.

  19. The grand partition function of dilute biregular solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamori, Meguru; Ito, Kimihisa; Tokuda, Motonori

    1994-10-01

    It has been demonstrated that the grand partition function (GPF) of biregular solutions contains in one single equation such thermodynamic principles as Henry's law, Raoult's law, the Gibbs-Duhem relation, Raoultian activity coefficients and their finite power series, Wagner's rec-iprocity, Schenck-Frohberg-Steinmetz's interchange, Lupis-Elliott's additivity, Mori-Morooka's disparity, and Darken's quadratic formalism. The logarithm of the Raoultian activity coefficient of species i, In γi should not be expressed by the Taylor series expansion, lest its truncation infringe the Gibbs-Duhem equation. The GPF methodology establishes that In γi, is not a vector but a scalar point function, free from any path dependence. While Darken's quadratic formalism employs three parameters to describe a ternary solution, the present biregularity approximation offers an alternative using seven empirical parameters, in case better accuracy is needed.

  20. WEB based online event displays for KASCADE-grande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieler, H.; Weindl, A.

    2008-07-01

    For three detector components of the KASCADE-Grande experiment, WEB based online event displays have been implemented. They provide, in a fast and simplified way, actual information about energy deposits and arrival times of measured events, and the overall detector status. Besides the aspect of being able to show air shower events to interested people wherever there is an internet access available, these event displays are an easy and highly useful tool for controlling and maintaining tasks from remote places. The event displays are designed as client-server applications, with the server running as independent part of the local data acquisition. Simplified event data are distributed via socket connections directly to the java applets acting as clients. These clients can run in any common browser on any computer anywhere on the planet.

  1. Climate Change Impacts in the Upper Rio Grande Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkila, T.; Siegfried, T. U.; Sellars, S. L.; Schlager, E.

    2010-12-01

    In the US Southwest, evidence of increased future drought severity and duration in the context of climate change has been detected. Considering the already difficult water distribution and allocation strategies within the region, we are investigating the Costilla Creek, a tributary to the Rio Grande. The catchment is located in Costilla county in Colorado from where on runoff is crossing boundaries between Colorado and New Mexico three times before its confluence with the Rio Grande in New Mexico. Water allocation is governed by an interstate compact between Colorado and New Mexico. While the states have been relatively successful in complying with the compact’s allocation rules, the Costilla Creek catchment has experienced interstate upstream/downstream conflict, mainly during irrigation seasons. Whether or not the states will be able to avert conflict in the future and maintain compliance with the compact, is a critical question. The situation in the relatively small catchment is not unique. Various interstate watersheds, including the entire Rio Grande basin, the La Plata, Arkansas, and Colorado, are expected to face similar impacts from climate change, yet the water compacts that govern them may not be structured to adapt to these conditions. Looking at the Costilla Creek offers a valuable starting point for understanding how to model these effects across various basins. We have developed a lumped-parameter rainfall-runoff model including snow storage of the Costilla Creek watershed. Temperature and precipitation data from NCRS - SNOTEL stations together with USGS gauging station data were utilized for model calibration and validation. ISCCP solar radiation data and temperature data were used to estimate irrigation water demand in irrigated agriculture. The model is driven by the IPCC SRES A2 scenario. GCM ensemble averaged temperature / precipitation trends were extracted for the upper Rio Grande region. 50 year precipitation simulations were created using a

  2. Dawn Grand Map Vesta Neutron Absorption V1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prettyman, T. H.

    2014-06-01

    A global map of a unitless compositional parameter, delta-C_perpendicular (DCP), and propagated 1-sigma uncertainties is provided. DCP varies linearly with the macroscopic thermal neutron absorption cross section of Vesta's regolith. An equation for converting tabulated DCP values to absorption units is provided in this document. DCP was determined from thermal and epithermal neutron counting rates measured by the NASA Dawn mission's Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) while in low altitude mapping orbit, about 210 km from Vesta's surface. The measurements are representative of Vesta's bulk regolith composition to depths of a few decimeters with a spatial resolution of about 300-km full-width-at-half-maximum of arc length on the surface. The methods used to determine neutron absorption are described by PRETTYMANETAL2013.

  3. Grand Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project, 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McGowan, Vance R.; Morton, Winston H.

    2009-07-01

    On July 1, 1984 the Bonneville Power Administration and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife entered into an intergovernmental contract to initiate fish habitat enhancement work in the Joseph Creek subbasin of the Grande Ronde River Basin in northeast Oregon. In 1985 the Upper and Middle Grande Ronde River, and Catherine Creek subbasins were included in the contract, and in 1996 the Wallowa River subbasin was added. The primary goal of 'The Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project' is to create, protect, and restore riparian and instream habitat for anadromous salmonids, thereby maximizing the opportunities for natural fish production within the basin. This project originally provided for implementation of Program Measure 703 (C)(1), Action Item 4.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC, 1987), and continues to be implemented under revisions of the Fish and Wild Program as offsite mitigation for mainstem fishery losses caused by the Columbia River hydro-electric system. All work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and partners is on private lands and therefore requires considerable time be spent developing rapport with landowners to gain acceptance, and continued cooperation with this program throughout 10-15 year lease periods. Both passive and active restoration treatment techniques are used. Passive regeneration of habitat, using riparian exclosure fencing and alternate water sources, is the primary method to restore degraded streams when restoration can be achieved primarily through changes in management. Active restoration techniques using plantings, bioengineering, site-specific instream structures, or whole stream channel alterations are utilized when streams are more severely degraded and not likely to recover in a reasonable timeframe. Individual projects contribute to and complement ecosystem and basin-wide watershed restoration efforts that are underway by state

  4. Bryozoans from rio grande do sul continental shelf, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Laís V; Calliari, Lauro

    2015-05-06

    The continental shelf of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) is predominantly composed of unconsolidated sediments with a few hard substrates represented principally by beachrock. In this area there are elongate deposits of shell gravel material which are interpreted as indicators of the palaeo-shorelines. These Pleistocene deposits are overlapped by Holocene sediments (Recent), but are exposed during erosive events caused by extra-tropical cyclones, which provide the mixture of both sediments mainly during autumn and winter. The few studies on bryozoans made in this area previously recorded seven species, one fossil and the other six from Recent fluvial and marine environments. The aim of the present study was to describe the eight most abundant bryozoan species that occur in the inner RS shelf. Of these, four are new records for RS State (Arachnopusia aff. pusae, Hippomonavella brasiliensis, Turbicellepora pourtalesi, and Lifuella gorgonensis), and the other four are new to science (Chaperia taylori, Micropora nodimagna, Cellaria riograndensis, and Exochella moyani).

  5. Formulation of Liouville's theorem for grand ensemble molecular simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delle Site, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    Liouville's theorem in a grand ensemble, that is for situations where a system is in equilibrium with a reservoir of energy and particles, is a subject that, to our knowledge, has not been explicitly treated in literature related to molecular simulation. Instead, Liouville's theorem, a central concept for the correct employment of molecular simulation techniques, is implicitly considered only within the framework of systems where the total number of particles is fixed. However, the pressing demand of applied science in treating open systems leads to the question of the existence and possible exact formulation of Liouville's theorem when the number of particles changes during the dynamical evolution of the system. The intention of this paper is to stimulate a debate about this crucial issue for molecular simulation.

  6. Hazards Management in Grand County, Colorado-Fire Fuels Characterization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Christopher; Lile, Elizabeth; Briggs, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The USGS Fire Science Initiative is designed to identify potential wildfire risks and related hazards and to mitigate their effects on people, property, and natural resources. The USGS Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center (RMGSC) plays an integral role in the fire science demonstration project targeting Grand County, Colo., which uses remote sensing imagery, other geospatial data, and advanced classification techniques to produce inventories and assessments of the current state of the ecosystem. The data gathered - extent of tree mortality and insect infestation, changes in fire fuels, susceptibility to post-fire effects, distribution of wildland-urban interface areas, etc. - will give much needed information to decisionmakers on the Federal, State, and local levels.

  7. Hydrological Compartmentalization: A Grand Challenge in the Critical Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonnell, J.; Evaristo, J. A.; Orlowski, N.; Jasechko, S.

    2014-12-01

    Current terrestrial biosphere models assume that plant transpiration, groundwater and streamflow are all sourced and mediated by the same well mixed soil reservoir. Recent stable water isotope data from Oregon and Mexico and now global meta-analysis and remote sensing measurements have all shown evidence of hydrological compartmentalization: a mobile compartment that forms groundwater and streamflow and a poorly mobile compartment that supplies plant transpiration. The way we now measure and model this poorly mobile water is a grand challenge for understanding subsurface mixing, water residence time, and its interaction and feedback to ecosystem processes. Here we review the latest results from this work and outline some of the future research challenges for understanding soil-plant-atmospheric interactions between the bedrock and the boundary layer.

  8. Hydrological Compartmentalization: A Grand Challenge in the Critical Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonnell, J.; Evaristo, J. A.; Orlowski, N.; Jasechko, S.

    2015-12-01

    Current terrestrial biosphere models assume that plant transpiration, groundwater and streamflow are all sourced and mediated by the same well mixed soil reservoir. Recent stable water isotope data from Oregon and Mexico and now global meta-analysis and remote sensing measurements have all shown evidence of hydrological compartmentalization: a mobile compartment that forms groundwater and streamflow and a poorly mobile compartment that supplies plant transpiration. The way we now measure and model this poorly mobile water is a grand challenge for understanding subsurface mixing, water residence time, and its interaction and feedback to ecosystem processes. Here we review the latest results from this work and outline some of the future research challenges for understanding soil-plant-atmospheric interactions between the bedrock and the boundary layer.

  9. Web-based Interactive Landform Simulation Model - Grand Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, W.; Pelletier, J. D.; Duffin, K.; Ormand, C. J.; Hung, W.; Iverson, E. A.; Shernoff, D.; Zhai, X.; Chowdary, A.

    2013-12-01

    Earth science educators need interactive tools to engage and enable students to better understand how Earth systems work over geologic time scales. The evolution of landforms is ripe for interactive, inquiry-based learning exercises because landforms exist all around us. The Web-based Interactive Landform Simulation Model - Grand Canyon (WILSIM-GC, http://serc.carleton.edu/landform/) is a continuation and upgrade of the simple cellular automata (CA) rule-based model (WILSIM-CA, http://www.niu.edu/landform/) that can be accessed from anywhere with an Internet connection. Major improvements in WILSIM-GC include adopting a physically based model and the latest Java technology. The physically based model is incorporated to illustrate the fluvial processes involved in land-sculpting pertaining to the development and evolution of one of the most famous landforms on Earth: the Grand Canyon. It is hoped that this focus on a famous and specific landscape will attract greater student interest and provide opportunities for students to learn not only how different processes interact to form the landform we observe today, but also how models and data are used together to enhance our understanding of the processes involved. The latest development in Java technology (such as Java OpenGL for access to ubiquitous fast graphics hardware, Trusted Applet for file input and output, and multithreaded ability to take advantage of modern multi-core CPUs) are incorporated into building WILSIM-GC and active, standards-aligned curricula materials guided by educational psychology theory on science learning will be developed to accompany the model. This project is funded NSF-TUES program.

  10. The most important points in grand slam singles tennis.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, P G

    2001-06-01

    A computerized data management system was used to enter details of points played in 252 tennis matches from the men's and women's singles events of all four Grand Slam tournaments over a 2-year period. A supplementary data analysis system was developed to determine the proportion of points won by each player on serve at each game score from love all to deuce as well as the proportion of games the player went on to win from each score. Analysis of the 43 matches in which both players served at each score from love all to deuce revealed that the proportion of points won by the server was not significantly influenced by score, F(15, 495) = 0.8, p > .05. A further analysis of the 175 matches consisting of at least 100 points revealed that the proportion of points won by the superior player was not significantly influenced by gender, F(1, 165) = 0.1, p > .05, or surface, F(3, 165) = 0.1, p > .05. However, the proportion of points won when serving was significantly greater in men's singles than women's singles, F(1, 165) = 69.7, p < .001, R2 = .30. Surface also had a significant influence on the proportion of points won when serving, F(3, 165) = 8.1, p < .001, R2 = .13, with a significantly greater proportion of points won when serving by both winning and losing players at Wimbledon than at the Australian and French Opens, p < .05. This suggests that gender and surface should be accounted for when determining the importance of points in Grand Slam tennis.

  11. Magnetotelluric pilot study in the Rio Grande Rift, southwest USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feucht, D. W.; Bedrosian, P. A.; Sheehan, A. F.

    2012-12-01

    A magnetotelluric (MT) pilot study consisting of approximately 25 stations distributed in and around the Rio Grande Rift of the southwest United States was carried out in the summer of 2012. Both broadband (100 Hz to 1000 s) and long-period (up to 10 000 s) MT data were collected across two profiles that run perpendicular to the rift axis near Denver, Colorado and Taos, New Mexico, respectively. Time-domain EM data was also collected at each site to account for galvanic distortion in the near-surface. The tectonic forces and rheologic properties behind the initiation and propagation of the rift are poorly understood. Surface mapping of volcanism, normal faulting and sedimentary basins reveals a narrow band of crustal deformation confined to a region in close proximity to the rift axis while geophysical results suggest that deformation is distributed across a much broader and deeper region of the lithosphere. In particular, seismic tomography shows low seismic wave speeds into the lower crust and upper mantle. The magnetotelluric technique is a well-proven passive electromagnetic method that allows for the detection of apparent resistivity at a wide range of depth scales. Complimenting the seismic results with MT data will provide important new information on the geologic and geophysical properties that control the rifting process in this low-strain rate environment. Properties to which the MT method is particular sensitive include temperature, fluid content, and mineral alteration. Preliminary results from this most recent survey are encouraging, showing good data quality up to 10 000 s. In an important precursor to full 2D modeling, the magnetotelluric phase tensor has been used to assess the dimensionality of the electrical resistivity structure at depth. This pilot study provides proof of concept for a much larger magnetotelluric experiment planned to take place in the Rio Grande Rift in 2013.

  12. 77 FR 38793 - Grand Valley Rural Power Lines, Inc., Yampa Valley Electric Association, Inc., Intermountain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand Valley Rural Power Lines, Inc., Yampa Valley Electric Association, Inc., Intermountain Rural Electric Association, Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc. v. Public... CFR 385.206 and 385.212 (2011), Grand Valley Rural Power Lines, Inc., Yampa Valley...

  13. 75 FR 7625 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Rio Grande Silvery Minnow (Hybognathus amarus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... (mi)) reach of the Rio Grande River in New Mexico, downstream of Cochiti Dam to the headwaters of Elephant Butte Reservoir. In December 2008, silvery minnows were introduced into the Rio Grande River near Big Bend, Texas, as a nonessential, experimental population under section 10(j) of the ESA (December...

  14. 77 FR 22569 - Interconnection of the Grande Prairie Wind Farm, Holt County, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... Prairie Wind, LLC (Grande Prairie Wind), a majority- owned subsidiary of Midwest Wind Energy, LLC, has applied to Western to interconnect their proposed wind energy generation project to Western's power... interconnect their proposed wind energy generation Project to Western's Fort Thompson- Grand...

  15. 78 FR 48292 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Grand Forks AFB, ND

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Grand Forks AFB, ND AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class D... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class D airspace for Grand Forks AFB,...

  16. "No. 182. Grand Valley Diversion Dam. June, 1917. R.B.D." Structures ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "No. 182. Grand Valley Diversion Dam. June, 1917. R.B.D." Structures on the west side of the river below the dam are three bunkhouses, a mess hall, hospital, doctor's residence, engineer's residence, and outbuildings." - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  17. 28. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL AT 24TH STREET, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL AT 24TH STREET, LOOKING WEST (compare this photograph with AZ-17-14, taken at the same spot in 1919) Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. 75 FR 20920 - Safety Zone; Lake Havasu Grand Prix, Lake Havasu, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lake Havasu Grand Prix, Lake Havasu, AZ... temporary safety zone upon the navigable waters of Lake Havasu on the Colorado River in Lake Havasu City, Arizona for the Lake Havasu Grand Prix. This temporary safety zone is necessary to provide for the...

  19. 78 FR 22814 - Special Local Regulations; Miami Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Miami Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ..., Atlantic Ocean; Miami Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY... Miami Beach, Florida during the Miami Super Boat Grand Prix. The Miami Super Boat Grand Prix will... Beach, Florida. Approximately 25 high- speed power boats will be participating in the races, and it...

  20. 77 FR 7574 - Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit... Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority (GCPHA) filed an application, pursuant to section 4(f) of... Project, to be located on the P.E. 46A Wasteway, which is part of the Federal Columbia Basin Project,...

  1. 76 FR 76156 - Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit... Coulee Project Hydropower Authority (Grand Coulee Authority) filed an application for a preliminary... the PEC 1973 Drop Hydroelectric Project (PEC 1973 Project or project) to be located on the...

  2. 77 FR 7574 - Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit... Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority (GCPHA) filed an application, pursuant to section 4(f) of... Project, to be located on the P.E. 16.4 Wasteway, which is part of the Federal Columbia Basin Project,...

  3. 77 FR 7143 - Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit... Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority (GCPHA) filed an application, pursuant to section 4(f) of... Project, to be located on the P.E. 46A Wasteway, which is part of the Federal Columbia Basin Project,...

  4. 78 FR 74005 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Grand Forks, ND

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... MSL within a 4.2-mile radius of Grand Forks International Airport. This Class D airspace area is... airspace extending upward from the surface to and including 3,400 feet MSL within a 4.9-mile radius of....9-mile radius to 5.6 miles south of the airport, excluding that airspace within the Grand...

  5. 75 FR 18055 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Mermentau River, Grand Chenier, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... of the SR 82 swing span bridge across the Mermentau River, mile 7.1, at Grand Chenier, Cameron Parish... span drive assembly and system components. This deviation allows the bridge to remain closed to... operating schedule of the swing span bridge across the Mermentau River at mile 7.1 in Grand Chenier,...

  6. 30. VIEW SHOWING AUTOMATIC DEMOSSING RACK, GRAND CANAL AT 99TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. VIEW SHOWING AUTOMATIC DEMOSSING RACK, GRAND CANAL AT 99TH AVENUE, LOOKING WEST. THIS MACHINE SCOOPS UP FLOATING WEEDS AND OTHER DEBRIS AND CONVEYS IT TO A TRASH DUMPSTER. Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. Basic Education in the Lower Rio Grande Valley: Human Capital Development or a Colonial System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Patrick D.

    This report describes economic, social, and political characteristics of the lower Rio Grande Valley with implications for the educational system, and presents preliminary findings on how south Texas schools are integrating new immigrant Mexican students. The lower Rio Grande Valley comprises four Texas counties and northern Tamaulipas, Mexico.…

  8. 76 FR 42654 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Petition To List Grand Canyon Cave Pseudoscorpion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... Grand Canyon cave scorpion) was in that group of 67 species. Based on the evaluation of the information..., or stinger, that true scorpions possess. The specimen of Grand Canyon cave pseudoscorpion, when... Cave, Middle Cave, Scorpion Cave, Tse An Cho Cave, Tuning Fork Cave, and Cave of the Domes. All...

  9. 78 FR 73559 - Moose-Wilson Corridor Comprehensive Management Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, Grand Teton...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... National Park Service Moose-Wilson Corridor Comprehensive Management Plan, Environmental Impact Statement... the Moose-Wilson Corridor, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. DATES: The National Park Service will...://parkplanning.nps.gov/MooseWilson , at the Grand Teton National Park Headquarters Building, 1 Teton Park...

  10. ASSESSING TRANSBOUNDARY INFLUENCES IN THE LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY (COMMUNITY SUMMARY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley Transboundary Air Pollution Project (TAPP) was done to determine if movement of air pollutants across the U.S.-Mexico border was occurring in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (hereinafter called "the Valley") and, if so, the extent. The study w...

  11. First-Year Students' Attitudes towards the Grand Challenges and Nanotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakin, Joni M.; Han, Yi; Davis, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The "Grand Challenges" for Engineering are an effort to portray engineering as a field that has profound impacts on society. This study explores the level of interest first-year engineering students had in various "Grand Challenges" and in nanotechnology topics. We administered a survey to a large sample of students enrolled in…

  12. 78 FR 28005 - System Energy Resources, Inc.; Grand Gulf Nuclear Station; Order Approving Direct and Indirect...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... COMMISSION System Energy Resources, Inc.; Grand Gulf Nuclear Station; Order Approving Direct and Indirect Transfers of Early Site Permit and Approving Conforming Amendment I System Energy Resources, Inc. (SERI), is... direct transfer of Grand Gulf ESP Site, to a new limited liability company, System Energy Resource,...

  13. 78 FR 7331 - SLR; Fajardo Offshore Grand Prix; Rada Fajardo; Fajardo, PR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 SLR; Fajardo Offshore Grand Prix; Rada Fajardo; Fajardo... establishing a special local regulation on the waters of Rada Fajardo in Fajardo, Puerto Rico during the Fajardo Offshore Grand Prix, a high speed boat race. The event is scheduled to take place on Sunday,...

  14. 75 FR 10308 - Fire Management Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Record of Decision, Grand Canyon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... Doc No: 2010-4414] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Fire Management Plan, Final... Impact Statement for the Fire Management Plan, Grand Canyon National Park. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... availability of the Record of Decision for the Fire Management Plan, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona....

  15. 46 CFR 7.105 - Marquesas Keys, FL to Rio Grande, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marquesas Keys, FL to Rio Grande, TX. 7.105 Section 7.105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY... the seaward limits of the territorial sea (as defined in 33 CFR 2.22(a)(1)) to Rio Grande, Texas...

  16. 46 CFR 7.105 - Marquesas Keys, FL to Rio Grande, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marquesas Keys, FL to Rio Grande, TX. 7.105 Section 7.105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY... the seaward limits of the territorial sea (as defined in 33 CFR 2.22(a)(1)) to Rio Grande, Texas...

  17. 46 CFR 7.105 - Marquesas Keys, FL to Rio Grande, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marquesas Keys, FL to Rio Grande, TX. 7.105 Section 7.105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY... the seaward limits of the territorial sea (as defined in 33 CFR 2.22(a)(1)) to Rio Grande, Texas...

  18. 40 CFR 81.83 - Albuquerque-Mid Rio Grande Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.83 Albuquerque-Mid Rio Grande Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Albuquerque-Mid Rio Grande Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New Mexico) is revised to... Air Quality Control Region. 81.83 Section 81.83 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  19. 40 CFR 81.239 - Upper Rio Grande Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.239 Upper Rio Grande Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Upper Rio Grande Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New Mexico) consists of the... Quality Control Region. 81.239 Section 81.239 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  20. Origin & Evolution of the Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, 1970-90

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the early 1960s William E Cornatzer, MD, PhD, suggested the need for increased USDA research concerning human nutrition, and creation of the Grand Forks Human Nutrition Laboratory (Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center). He shared ideas with Senator Milton R. Young of North Dakota, who requ...

  1. Unusual Recharge Processes near Arroyos of the Rio Grande Aquifer, El Paso/Juarez Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, M.; Hibbs, B. J.; Hogan, J.; Eastoe, C. J.; Druhan, J.

    2005-12-01

    The twin-cities of El Paso and Juarez share the water resources of the Hueco Bolson aquifer and overlying Rio Grande aquifer. Both aquifers span the international border between Mexico and the United States. Salinity in the Rio Grande aquifer varies widely, some parts of the shallow aquifer containing less than 1,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS), other parts of the aquifer exceeding 5,000 mg/L TDS. One sizable part of the "Lower Valley" area, approximately 45 km below El Paso contains very dilute water near the outer edge of the floodplain. Historically it had been thought that the dilute waters in this location were derived from recharge from arroyos that drained proximal parts of the Hueco Bolson. Instead, our hydrogen and oxygen isotope data and carbon-14 data indicate that these dilute waters were derived from pre-dam infiltration of the Rio Grande. Relatively light and slightly evaporated pre-dam waters (-11.5 del O18) at the arroyos are also relatively young (60 to 90 percent modern carbon), tagging them as runoff waters from pre-dam snowmelt in Colorado. These isotopically light waters are found up to 110 meters beneath land surface. Prior to Rio Grande rectification and channelization of the mid-1930's, the Rio Grande flowed near the outer edge of the floodplain where these pre-dam, dilute waters are found at depth. Review of predevelopment drill stem tests indicated a permeable zone about 150 to 230 meters deep that had a lower hydraulic head than the overlying Rio Grande aquifer. The permeable zone acted as a predevelopment sink for flow that induced recharge from the Rio Grande and Rio Grande aquifer. Thus, we can account for local predevelopment recharge of the Rio Grande aquifer from infiltration of dilute water from the Rio Grande prior to the historic era of channel rectification, and not from recharge from flanking arroyos as had been postulated by previous researchers.

  2. Saturn Ring Radiation Environment for the Cassini Grand Finale Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, John F.; Kollmann, Peter; Johnson, Robert E.; Roussos, Elias; Sittler, Edward C.; Sturner, Steven J.

    2016-10-01

    Grand Finale (proximal) orbits of Cassini from April to September 2017 will provide an unprecedented opportunity for further in-situ exploration of the energetic radiation environment primarily arising from galactic cosmic ray interactions with the main rings. Improved modeling of these interactions contributes to ring mass properties, radiation chemistry, and source modeling for trapped radiation within and beyond the rings. Our new GEANT simulations show that these interactions produce very substantial fluxes of secondary gamma rays, neutrons, electrons, protons, and more short-lived particles. Cosmic ray albedo neutron decay from ring neutron emissions provides the primary source of trapped protons near and above 10 MeV in the radiation belts extending from beyond the F ring to the orbit of Tethys. Fluxes of these high-energy trapped protons increased as expected with declining solar activity from 2004 through 2009, consistent with decreasing modulation of the galactic cosmic ray protons and heavier ions by the solar wind. In 2017 solar activity and modulation will again be declining from earlier maximum levels in 2012 - 2014, while solar illumination of the rings will be near solstice levels. There may then be similarities in the ring radiation and plasma environment to conditions in 2004. In comparison, the 1979 traversal of the main rings by Pioneer 11 occurred during peak solar activity but declining cosmic ray flux. The questions are then what radiation environment we might expect to find during the Grand Finale orbits, how would the Cassini MIMI LEMMS sensor respond to this environment, and how might these new measurements change our understanding of the rings? During SOI flyover of the rings, LEMMS nominal data showed intensities higher than those from Pioneer 11 to an extent that cannot be explained by the updated interaction model. LEMMS more likely responded to penetrating high-energy radiation at energies outside its nominal ranges for electrons and

  3. Busca de estruturas em grandes escalas em altos redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boris, N. V.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Cypriano, E.

    2003-08-01

    A busca por estruturas em grandes escalas (aglomerados de galáxias, por exemplo) é um ativo tópico de pesquisas hoje em dia, pois a detecção de um único aglomerado em altos redshifts pode por vínculos fortes sobre os modelos cosmológicos. Neste projeto estamos fazendo uma busca de estruturas distantes em campos contendo pares de quasares próximos entre si em z Â3 0.9. Os pares de quasares foram extraídos do catálogo de Véron-Cetty & Véron (2001) e estão sendo observados com os telescópios: 2,2m da University of Hawaii (UH), 2,5m do Observatório de Las Campanas e com o GEMINI. Apresentamos aqui a análise preliminar de um par de quasares observado nos filtros i'(7800 Å) e z'(9500 Å) com o GEMINI. A cor (i'-z') mostrou-se útil para detectar objetos "early-type" em redshifts menores que 1.1. No estudo do par 131046+0006/J131055+0008, com redshift ~ 0.9, o uso deste método possibilitou a detecção de sete objetos candidatos a galáxias "early-type". Num mapa da distribuição projetada dos objetos para 22 < i' < 25 observou-se que estas galáxias estão localizadas próximas a um dos quasares e há indícios de que estejam aglomeradas dentro de um área de ~ 6 arcmin2. Se esse for o caso, estes objetos seriam membros de uma estrutura em grande escala. Um outro argumento em favor dessa hipótese é que eles obedecem uma relação do tipo Kormendy (raio equivalente X brilho superficial dentro desse raio), como a apresentada pelas galáxias elípticas em z = 0.

  4. 77 FR 15600 - Special Local Regulation; Emerald Coast Super Boat Grand Prix; Saint Andrew Bay; Panama City, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Emerald Coast Super Boat Grand... crews, vessels, and persons on navigable waters during the Emerald Coast Super Boat Grand Prix high... the Emerald Coast Super Boat Grand Prix high speed boat races. Basis and Purpose On January 31,...

  5. 75 FR 4363 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License..., 2009. d. Applicant: Grand River Dam Authority. e. Name of Project: Markham Ferry Hydroelectric Project... Contact: D. Casey Davis, Grand River Dam Authority, P.O. Box 409, 226 West Dwain Willis Avenue,......

  6. 76 FR 4649 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Intent To File License Application...: Grand River Dam Authority. e. Name of Project: Salina Pumped Storage Project. f. Location: In Mayes..., and Mr. Charles Atkins, Superintendent of Hydro Operations, Grand River Dam Authority, P.O. Box...

  7. 78 FR 76604 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With.... Date Filed: November 27, 2013. d. Applicant: Grand River Dam Authority. e. Name of Project: Salina... Lake Hudson (the lower reservoir), which is the reservoir for the Grand River Dam Authority's......

  8. 76 FR 7831 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License...: Grand River Dam Authority. e. Name of Project: Markham Ferry Project. f. Location: The project is..., Grand River Dam Authority, P.O. Box 409, Vinita, OK 73401-0409. Tel: (918) 256-5545. i. FERC...

  9. 75 FR 61458 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License.... Date Filed: May 27, 2010, supplemented on August 12 and August 16, 2010. d. Applicant: Grand River Dam Authority. e. Name of Project: Pensacola Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: Grand Lake in Ottawa...

  10. 75 FR 16090 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License.... Date Filed: March 11, 2010, supplemented on March 17, 2010. d. Applicant: Grand River Dam Authority. e.... 791a-825r. h. Applicant Contact: Ms. Tamara E. Jahnke, Assistant General Council, Grand Dam...

  11. 78 FR 21404 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Grand...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon, AZ AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Grand Canyon National...

  12. 14 CFR Appendix to Subpart U of... - Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of the Grand Canyon National Park, AZ

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Grand Canyon National Park, AZ Appendix to Subpart U of Part 93 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ Pt. 93, Subpt. U, App. Appendix to Subpart U of Part 93—Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of the Grand Canyon National Park,...

  13. 14 CFR Appendix to Subpart U of... - Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of the Grand Canyon National Park, AZ

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Grand Canyon National Park, AZ Appendix to Subpart U of Part 93 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ Pt. 93, Subpt. U, App. Appendix to Subpart U of Part 93—Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of the Grand Canyon National Park,...

  14. 78 FR 21400 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Grand...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon, AZ AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Grand Canyon National...

  15. 78 FR 21407 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Grand...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon, AZ AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Grand Canyon National...

  16. 78 FR 21405 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Grand...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon, AZ AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Grand Canyon National...

  17. 76 FR 40293 - Proposed Amendment of Class D and Modification of Class E Airspace; Grand Junction, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... Airspace; Grand Junction, CO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to modify Class E airspace at Grand Junction Regional Airport, Grand Junction, CO. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to facilitate vectoring...

  18. 14 CFR Appendix to Subpart U of... - Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of the Grand Canyon National Park, AZ

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Grand Canyon National Park, AZ Appendix to Subpart U of Part 93 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ Pt. 93, Subpt. U, App. Appendix to Subpart U of Part 93—Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of the Grand Canyon National Park,...

  19. 14 CFR Appendix to Subpart U of... - Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of the Grand Canyon National Park, AZ

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Grand Canyon National Park, AZ Appendix to Subpart U of Part 93 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ Pt. 93, Subpt. U, App. Appendix to Subpart U of Part 93—Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of the Grand Canyon National Park,...

  20. 14 CFR Appendix to Subpart U of... - Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of the Grand Canyon National Park, AZ

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Grand Canyon National Park, AZ Appendix to Subpart U of Part 93 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ Pt. 93, Subpt. U, App. Appendix to Subpart U of Part 93—Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of the Grand Canyon National Park,...

  1. Populating a Control Point Database: A cooperative effort between the USGS, Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center and the Grand Canyon Youth Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, K. M.; Fritzinger, C.; Wharton, E.

    2004-12-01

    The Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center measures the effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations on the resources along the Colorado River from Glen Canyon Dam to Lake Mead in support of the Grand Canyon Adaptive Management Program. Control points are integral for geo-referencing the myriad of data collected in the Grand Canyon including aerial photography, topographic and bathymetric data used for classification and change-detection analysis of physical, biologic and cultural resources. The survey department has compiled a list of 870 control points installed by various organizations needing to establish a consistent reference for data collected at field sites along the 240 mile stretch of Colorado River in the Grand Canyon. This list is the foundation for the Control Point Database established primarily for researchers, to locate control points and independently geo-reference collected field data. The database has the potential to be a valuable mapping tool for assisting researchers to easily locate a control point and reduce the occurrance of unknowingly installing new control points within close proximity of an existing control point. The database is missing photographs and accurate site description information. Current site descriptions do not accurately define the location of the point but refer to the project that used the point, or some other interesting fact associated with the point. The Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) resolved this problem by turning the data collection effort into an educational exercise for the participants of the Grand Canyon Youth organization. Grand Canyon Youth is a non-profit organization providing experiential education for middle and high school aged youth. GCMRC and the Grand Canyon Youth formed a partnership where GCMRC provided the logistical support, equipment, and training to conduct the field work, and the Grand Canyon Youth provided the time and personnel to complete the field work. Two data

  2. Upwarp of anomalous asthenosphere beneath the Rio Grande rift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, E.C.; Davis, P.M.; Evans, J.R.; Iyer, H.M.; Olsen, K.H.

    1984-01-01

    Continental rifts are possible analogues of mid-ocean ridges, although major plate tectonic features are less clearly observed1. Current thermal models of mid-ocean ridges2-4 consist of solid lithospheric plates overlying the hotter, less viscous asthenosphere, with plate thickness increasing away from the ridge axis. The lithospheric lower boundary lies at or near the melting point isotherm, so that at greater depths higher temperatures account for lower viscosity, lower seismic velocities and possibly partial melting. Upwarp of this boundary at the ridge axis concentrates heat there, thus lowering densities by expansion and raising the sea floor to the level of thermal isostatic equilibrium. At slow spreading ridges, a major central graben forms owing to the mechanics of magma injection into the crust5. Topography, heat flow, gravity and seismic studies support these models. On the continents, a low-velocity channel has been observed, although it is poorly developed beneath ancient cratons6-9. Plate tectonic models have been applied to continental basins and margins10-12, but further similarities to the oceanic models remain elusive. Topographic uplift is often ascribed to Airy type isostatic compensation caused by crustal thickening, rather than thermal compensation in the asthenosphere. Here we discuss the Rio Grande rift, in southwestern United States. Teleseismic P-wave residuals show that regional uplift is explained by asthenosphere uplift rather than crustal thickening. ?? 1984 Nature Publishing Group.

  3. Grand canonical steady-state simulation of nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsch, Martin; Vrabec, Jadran

    2009-11-01

    Grand canonical molecular dynamics (GCMD) is applied to the nucleation process in a metastable phase near the spinodal, where nucleation occurs almost instantaneously and is limited to a very short time interval. With a variant of Maxwell's demon, proposed by McDonald [Am. J. Phys. 31, 31 (1963)], all nuclei exceeding a specified size are removed. In such a steady-state simulation, the nucleation process is sampled over an arbitrary time span and all properties of the metastable state, including the nucleation rate, can be obtained with an increased precision. As an example, a series of GCMD simulations with McDonald's demon is carried out for homogeneous vapor to liquid nucleation of the truncated-shifted Lennard-Jones (tsLJ) fluid, covering the entire relevant temperature range. The results are in agreement with direct nonequilibrium MD simulation in the canonical ensemble. It is confirmed for supersaturated vapors of the tsLJ fluid that the classical nucleation theory underpredicts the nucleation rate by two orders of magnitude.

  4. Addressing Physics Grand Challenges Using the Jefferson Lab FEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Gwyn P.

    2006-11-01

    The Jefferson Lab Free Electron Laser[1] is the first of the so-called 4^th generation light sources to go operational. Capable of delivering extraordinarily bright, tunable light in ultrafast pulses from THz[2] through infrared to UV, the facility extends the experimental reach of accelerator-based light-sources by many orders of magnitude. This allows new opportunities to study many of the ``Grand Challenges'' recently defined by the Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences Division, most of which are concerned with understandings of equilibrium and non-equilibrium behavior of materials in physics, chemistry and biology using precise pump and probe techniques. Specifically, in condensed matter physics, the JLab FEL permits new studies which go beyond earlier studies of reductionist behavior to those which examine emergent behavior. Thus, the understanding of high Tc superconductivity, colossal magneto-resistance, and observations of the breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, are examples of collective behavior which is now treated theoretically via the concept of quasiparticles. In this presentation we will describe the dual pathways of light source development and physics challenges, and then show how they are combined in experiments that allow new insights to be developed to understand material function. We will illustrate this with details of the evolution of accelerator-based light sources, and with examples of work performed to date. References: [1] Neil et al. Phys. Rev.Letts 84, 662 (2000). [2] Carr, Martin, McKinney, Neil, Jordan & Williams, Nature 420, 153 (2002).

  5. The Grand Canyon midair collision. A stimulus for change.

    PubMed

    Murphy, G K

    1990-06-01

    Commercial aviation in the United States developed rapidly from a nucleus of pilots who returned from World War I, barnstormed and flew primitive airmail routes, and were hired by the new commerical airlines of the 1930s. The death of U.S. Senator Bronson Cutting in a 1935 crash was an important stimulus to improved governmental regulation of civil aviation. The air traffic control system, primitive until and throughout World War II, was soon proven to be inadequate for postwar demands. The midair collision of two large airliners over the Grand Canyon in June 1956 that killed the 128 persons on board was itself a strong stimulus for serious efforts, particularly in improving air traffic control systems. This and many other difficult problems in aviation safety have been addressed in the subsequent 33 years, some with success, although it has not always been immediate, and with major accidents still occurring. Commercial air travel is safe and widely accepted, however, and there is promise for additional important advances here.

  6. Hydrological and Meteorological Disturbances in Rio Grande Riparian Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, J. R.; Cleverly, J. R.; Dahm, C.

    2012-12-01

    Invasive species and ecohydrological disturbances are imperiling native riparian ecosystems. Adaptable, resilient exotic competitors including tamarisk have colonized many waterways in the western US. Alteration of the natural flow regime due to water diversions is expected to be exacerbated by climate change in this region, confounding restoration efforts. Climate change may also increase the likelihood of other disturbances, including extreme weather events (drought, floods, temperatures). We investigate how hydrological and meteorological variability impact water use by tamarisk communities that have overtaken native riparian vegetation. We have collected more than a decade of complete growing season eddy covariance evapotranspiration (ET) and water table (WT) elevation data at two sites along the Rio Grande corridor of central New Mexico, USA. Conditions have ranged from extreme drought to exceedingly wet years with extensive overbank flooding, and from record setting warm to cold temperatures. Severe to extreme droughts persisted throughout 2002 and 2003. Abundant snowpacks and wetter conditions led to extensive flooding early in the 2005 and 2008 growing seasons. Along with a return to intense drought conditions, extreme temperatures struck New Mexico in 2011. A deep freeze in early February followed by an extraordinarily late, extended hard freeze at the onset of the growing season was then succeeded by the warmest summer in the state's 117 year record. We present how water use by the replacement communities responds to droughts, flooding, and extreme temperatures, all of which are expected to increase in frequency, and speculate how these disturbances will affect native riparian ecosystems.

  7. Environmental Audit, Rifle, Gunnison and Grand Junction UMTRA Project Sites

    SciTech Connect

    1991-08-01

    This report documents the results of the comprehensive baseline Environmental Audit completed for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites at Grand Junction, Rifle, and Gunnison, Colorado. Included in the Audit were the actual abandoned mill sites, associated transportation and disposal cell facilities, and representative examples of the more than 4,000 known vicinity properties. Sites investigated include: Climax Mill Site, Truck/Train Haul Route, Cotter Transfer Station, Cheney Disposal Cell, Rifle Mill Sites (Old and New Rifle), Gunnison Mill Site, Vicinity Properties, and Estes Gulch and Proposed Landfill Site No. 1 Disposal Cells. The UMTRA Audit was a comprehensive baseline audit which considered all environmental programs and the activities associated with ongoing and planned remediation at the UMTRA sites listed above. Compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was not considered during this investigation. The Audit Team looked at the following technical disciplines: air, surface water/drinking water, groundwater, soil/sediment/biota, waste management, toxic and chemical materials, quality assurance, radiation, inactive waste sites, and environmental management. 6 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. Hiker Fatality From Severe Hyponatremia in Grand Canyon National Park.

    PubMed

    Myers, Thomas M; Hoffman, Martin D

    2015-09-01

    We present the case of a hiker who died of severe hyponatremia at Grand Canyon National Park. The woman collapsed on the rim shortly after finishing a 5-hour hike into the Canyon during which she was reported to have consumed large quantities of water. First responders transported her to the nearest hospital. En route, she became unresponsive, and subsequent treatment included intravenous normal saline. Imaging and laboratory data at the hospital confirmed hypervolemic hyponatremia with encephalopathy. She never regained consciousness and died of severe cerebral edema less than 24 hours later. We believe this is the first report of a fatality due to acute hyponatremia associated with hiking in a wilderness setting. This case demonstrates the typical pathophysiology, which includes overconsumption of fluids, and demonstrates the challenges of diagnosis and the importance of appropriate acute management. Current treatment guidelines indicate that symptomatic exercise-associated hyponatremia should be acutely managed with hypertonic saline and can be done so without concern over central pontine myelinolysis, whereas treatment with high volumes of isotonic fluids may delay recovery and has even resulted in deaths.

  9. Extreme Drought Conditions in the Rio Grande/Bravo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, F.; Dracup, J. A.

    2001-12-01

    The Treaty of February 3, 1944 entitled "Utilization of Waters of the Colorado and Tijuana Rivers and of the Rio Grande" between the U.S. and Mexico regulates the distribution of flows of the rivers between these two countries. The treaty is based on hydrological data available up to 1944. Using new (historical and paleoclimatological) data, the water balance presented in the Treaty is re-examinated and the 431,721,000 m3/year allocation for USA during "extreme drought conditions" is re-evaluated. The authors define "extreme drought conditions" for this basin and a hydrological drought analysis is carried out using a streamflow simulation model. The analysis is complemented with an analysis of the effects of the El Niño - Southern Oscillation and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation on precipitation and streamflow. The results of this research will be applicable to potential changes in the current water resources management policies on the basin. Given the social, economical and political importance of this basin, the findings of this research potentially will have significant impacts. This research is founded by the NSF fund SAHRA (Science and Technology Center to study and promote the "Sustainability of Water Resources in Semi-Arid Regions" at the University of Arizona).

  10. A grand unified model for liganded gold clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wen Wu; Zhu, Beien; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Gao, Yi

    2016-12-01

    A grand unified model (GUM) is developed to achieve fundamental understanding of rich structures of all 71 liganded gold clusters reported to date. Inspired by the quark model by which composite particles (for example, protons and neutrons) are formed by combining three quarks (or flavours), here gold atoms are assigned three `flavours' (namely, bottom, middle and top) to represent three possible valence states. The `composite particles' in GUM are categorized into two groups: variants of triangular elementary block Au3(2e) and tetrahedral elementary block Au4(2e), all satisfying the duet rule (2e) of the valence shell, akin to the octet rule in general chemistry. The elementary blocks, when packed together, form the cores of liganded gold clusters. With the GUM, structures of 71 liganded gold clusters and their growth mechanism can be deciphered altogether. Although GUM is a predictive heuristic and may not be necessarily reflective of the actual electronic structure, several highly stable liganded gold clusters are predicted, thereby offering GUM-guided synthesis of liganded gold clusters by design.

  11. Young Clusters in Nearby, Grand-Design Spirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosbøl, Preben; Dottori, Horacio

    The distributions of stellar clusters in 10 nearby, grand-design spiral galaxies were studied using deep JHK-maps from HAWK-I/VLT. The properties of the cluster complexes were analyzed using (H-K)-(J-H) diagrams. Two groups of clusters can be identified where the main one is associated to old clusters with low extinction while the other, less populated, consists of very young clusters (i.e. < 10 Myr) with an average reddening around A_{V} ˜ 7m. The (J-K)-MK diagrams show two branches of clusters populated by old and young clusters, respectively. The gap between them suggests a rapid reduction of extinction in the clusters at an early evolutionary phase. Statistical tests, taking the sample sizes into account, show that the cluster distribution functions (CDF) are different in arm and inter-arm regions, for strong spiral perturbations, with the former being shifted to brighter magnitudes by at least 0.4m. Also the star formation rates in the strong arms were found to be 2-5 times higher than those in the inter-arm regions.

  12. A grand unified model for liganded gold clusters

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wen Wu; Zhu, Beien; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Gao, Yi

    2016-01-01

    A grand unified model (GUM) is developed to achieve fundamental understanding of rich structures of all 71 liganded gold clusters reported to date. Inspired by the quark model by which composite particles (for example, protons and neutrons) are formed by combining three quarks (or flavours), here gold atoms are assigned three ‘flavours' (namely, bottom, middle and top) to represent three possible valence states. The ‘composite particles' in GUM are categorized into two groups: variants of triangular elementary block Au3(2e) and tetrahedral elementary block Au4(2e), all satisfying the duet rule (2e) of the valence shell, akin to the octet rule in general chemistry. The elementary blocks, when packed together, form the cores of liganded gold clusters. With the GUM, structures of 71 liganded gold clusters and their growth mechanism can be deciphered altogether. Although GUM is a predictive heuristic and may not be necessarily reflective of the actual electronic structure, several highly stable liganded gold clusters are predicted, thereby offering GUM-guided synthesis of liganded gold clusters by design. PMID:27910848

  13. Grand minima of solar activity and sociodynamics of culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirsky, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    Indices of creative productivity introduced by C. Murrey were used to verify S. Ertel's conclusion about a global increase in creative productivity during the prolonged minimum of solar activity in 1640-1710. It was found that these indices for mathematicians, philosophers, and scientists increase in the Maunder era by factor of 1.6 in comparison with intervals of the same length before and after the minimum. A similar effect was obtained for mathematicians and philosophers for five earlier equitype minima in total (an increase by a factor of 1.9). The regularity that is revealed is confirmed by the fact that the most important achievements of high-ranking mathematicians and philosophers during the whole time period (2300 years) considered in this study fall on epochs of reduced levels of solar activity. The rise in the probability of the generation of rational ideas during grand minima is reflected also in the fact that they precede the appearance of written language and farming. Ultra-low-frequency electromagnetic fields appear to serve as a physical agent stimulating the activity of the brain's left hemisphere during the epochs of minima.

  14. Dark matter as the signal of grand unification

    SciTech Connect

    Kadastik, Mario; Kannike, Kristjan; Raidal, Martti

    2009-10-15

    We argue that the existence of dark matter (DM) is a possible consequence of grand unification (GUT) symmetry breaking. In GUTs like SO(10), discrete Z{sub 2} matter parity (-1){sup 3(B-L)} survives despite broken B-L, and group theory uniquely determines that the only possible Z{sub 2}-odd matter multiplets belong to representation 16. We construct the minimal nonsupersymmetric SO(10) model containing one scalar 16 for DM and study its predictions below M{sub G}. We find that electroweak symmetry breaking occurs radiatively due to DM couplings to the standard model Higgs boson. For thermal relic DM the mass range M{sub DM}{approx}O(0.1-1) TeV is predicted by model perturbativity up to M{sub G}. For M{sub DM}{approx}O(1) TeV to explain the observed cosmic ray anomalies with DM decays, there exists a lower bound on the spin-independent direct detection cross section within the reach of planned experiments.

  15. Grand challenge problems in environmental modeling and remediation: Groundwater contaminant transport. Final project report 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The over-reaching goal of the Groundwater Grand Challenge component of the Partnership in Computational Science (PICS) was to develop and establish the massively parallel approach for the description of groundwater flow and transport and to address the problem of uncertainties in the data and its interpretation. This necessitated the development of innovative algorithms and the implementation of massively parallel computational tools to provide a suite of simulators for groundwater flow and transport in heterogeneous media. This report summarizes the activities and deliverables of the Groundwater Grand Challenge project funded through the High Performance Computing grand challenge program of the Department of Energy from 1995 through 1997.

  16. Analysis of the mass media coverage of the Gates Foundation grand challenges in global health initiative.

    PubMed

    Verma, G

    2009-03-01

    The Grand Challenges were launched in 2003 by the Gates Foundation and other collaborators to address the health needs of developing countries. This paper outlines the current problem with health research and development in the context of inequality as conveyed by the 90/10 divide. The paper then looks at the focus and nature of press reporting of global health issues by analysing how press articles have portrayed the Grand Challenges in Global Health initiative. Analysis of the mass media illustrates that the focus of reporting on the Grand Challenges tends to be on utilitarian themes, leaving issues related to justice and equity comparatively under-reported.

  17. Plutonium and the Rio Grande: Environmental Change and Contamination in the Nuclear Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leipnik, Mark

    Plutonium and the Rio Grande begins with an evocative description of the tranquility that prevailed along the Rio Grande in the halcyon days before the Manhattan Project changed the environment of this corner of New Mexico forever. Graf presents a methodology for studying the environmental impacts of the plutonium releases from facilities at Los Alamos. Specifically, he quantifies releases of various isotopes of plutonium and tracks their fate in the sediments and water bodies of the Rio Grande. Despite access to ample reliable data, his task is challenging: it requires regional-scale analysis and applications of techniques from disciplines including geomorphology, hydrology, environmental chemistry, plant physiology, and historical research.

  18. Grand canonical ensemble Monte Carlo simulation of the dCpG/proflavine crystal hydrate.

    PubMed

    Resat, H; Mezei, M

    1996-09-01

    The grand canonical ensemble Monte Carlo molecular simulation method is used to investigate hydration patterns in the crystal hydrate structure of the dCpG/proflavine intercalated complex. The objective of this study is to show by example that the recently advocated grand canonical ensemble simulation is a computationally efficient method for determining the positions of the hydrating water molecules in protein and nucleic acid structures. A detailed molecular simulation convergence analysis and an analogous comparison of the theoretical results with experiments clearly show that the grand ensemble simulations can be far more advantageous than the comparable canonical ensemble simulations.

  19. Grand canonical ensemble Monte Carlo simulation of the dCpG/proflavine crystal hydrate.

    PubMed Central

    Resat, H; Mezei, M

    1996-01-01

    The grand canonical ensemble Monte Carlo molecular simulation method is used to investigate hydration patterns in the crystal hydrate structure of the dCpG/proflavine intercalated complex. The objective of this study is to show by example that the recently advocated grand canonical ensemble simulation is a computationally efficient method for determining the positions of the hydrating water molecules in protein and nucleic acid structures. A detailed molecular simulation convergence analysis and an analogous comparison of the theoretical results with experiments clearly show that the grand ensemble simulations can be far more advantageous than the comparable canonical ensemble simulations. Images FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 PMID:8873992

  20. 33 CFR 100.717 - Annual Fort Myers Beach Offshore Grand Prix; Fort Myers, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... involved with the Fort Myers Beach Offshore Grand Prix, exiting Big Carlos Pass between 11 a.m. and 3 p.m... until finally past and clear of the racecourse. All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 83. (5)...

  1. 78 FR 25097 - Notice of Meeting, Rio Grande Natural Area Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    .... DATES: The meeting will be held from 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. on May 29, 2013. ADDRESSES: Rio Grande Water Conservation District, 10900 East U.S. Highway 160, Alamosa, CO 81101. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  2. Nephroprotective action of Peucedanum grande against cadmium chloride induced renal toxicity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Mohammad; Ahmad, Shiekh Tanveer; Dayal, Rameshver; Javid, Kalim; Umar, Sadiq; Asiaf, Asia; Nafees, Sana; Bhat, Jalal Uddin; Wani, Arjumand; Samim, Mohammad; Singh, Surender

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium is a known industrial pollutant which accumulates in the kidney and its exposure leads to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The present study was carried out to evaluate the protective effects of Peucedanum grande against CdCl2 induced renal toxicity in Wistar rats. Wistar rats were subjected to oral pre-treatment of P. grande (60 and 120 mg/kg b.wt) against the renal toxicity induced by administration of CdCl2 (3mg/kg b.wt). Efficacy of P. grande against the renal toxicity was evaluated in terms of biochemical estimation of antioxidant enzyme activities and histopathological changes. P. grande pretreatment prevented deteriorative effects induced by CdCl2 through a protective mechanism that involved reduction of increased oxidative stress as well as by restoration of histopathological changes against CdCl2 administration.

  3. Workshop on The Rio Grande Rift: Crustal Modeling and Applications of Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, D. P. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    The elements of a program that could address significant earth science problems by combining remote sensing and traditional geological, geophysical, and geochemical approaches were addressed. Specific areas and tasks related to the Rio Grande Rift are discussed.

  4. SEASONAL VARIATION IN THE BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLING OF SESTON IN GRAND TRAVERSE BAY, LAKE MICHIGAN. (R825151)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study describes the biogeochemical cycling of seston in Grand Traverse Bay, Lake Michigan. Seston was characterized by carbon and nitrogen elemental and isotopic abundances. Fluorescence, temperature, light transmittance, and concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen we...

  5. Monitoring Fine Sediment; Grande Ronde and John Day Rivers, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Greene, M. Jonas; Purser, Michael D.

    2000-01-01

    This project was initiated to monitor surface fine sediment levels and overwinter intrusion of fine sediment in spring chinook salmon spawning habitat in the North Folk John Day and Grande Ronde Rivers, for five years.

  6. Apatite 4He/3He and (U-Th)/He evidence for an ancient Grand Canyon.

    PubMed

    Flowers, R M; Farley, K A

    2012-12-21

    The Grand Canyon is one of the most dramatic features on Earth, yet when and why it was carved have been controversial topics for more than 150 years. Here, we present apatite (4)He/(3)He thermochronometry data from the Grand Canyon basement that tightly constrain the near-surface cooling history associated with canyon incision. (4)He/(3)He spectra for eastern Grand Canyon apatites of differing He date, radiation damage, and U-Th zonation yield a self-consistent cooling history that substantially validates the He diffusion kinetic model applied here. Similar data for the western Grand Canyon provide evidence that it was excavated to within a few hundred meters of modern depths by ~70 million years ago (Ma), in contrast to the conventional model in which the entire canyon was carved since 5 to 6 Ma.

  7. 75 FR 61173 - Jackson Hole Airport Agreement Extension, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Grand Teton...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    .... Drawer 170, Moose, Wyoming. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gary Pollock, Grand Teton National Park, P.O. Drawer 170, Moose, Wyoming, 307-739-3410, gary_pollock@nps.gov . Dated: September 17, 2010. John...

  8. 75 FR 5634 - Grand Challenges of the 21st Century; Request for Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... grand challenge is the ``moon shot.'' As President Kennedy said in his speech before a 1961 joint... decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the Earth.'' More recently,...

  9. Status and Trends of the Grand Canyon Population of Humpback Chub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, Matthew E.

    2009-01-01

    The Colorado River Basin supports one of the most distinctive fish communities in North America, including the federally endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha). One of only six remaining populations of this fish is found in Grand Canyon, Arizona. U.S. Geological Survey scientists and their cooperators are responsible for monitoring the Grand Canyon population. Analysis of recently collected data indicates that the number of Grand Canyon adult humpback chub - fish 4 years old and older and capable of reproduction - increased approximately 50 percent between 2001 and 2008. When possible model error is considered, the estimated number of adult chub in the Grand Canyon population is between 6,000 and 10,000. The most likely number is estimated at 7,650 individuals.

  10. Meetings and Events for Middle Rio Grande/Albuquerque (New Mexico)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Middle Rio Grande/Albuquerque (New Mexico) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  11. Supergravity grand unification, proton decay and cosmological constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Arnowitt, R. |; Nath, P.

    1995-05-01

    Properties and experimental predictions of a broad class of supergravity grand unified models possessing an SU(5)-type proton decay and R parity are described. Models of this type can be described in terms of four parameters at the Gut scale in addition to those of the Standard Model i.e. m{sub 0} (universal scalar mass), m{sub 1/2} (universal gaugino mass), A{sub 0} (cubic soft breaking parameter) and tan {beta} = /. Thus the 32 SUSY masses can be expressed in terms of m{sub 0}, M{sub 1/2}, A{sub 0} tan {beta} and the as yet unknown t-quark mass M{sub t}. Gut thresholds are examined and a simple model leads to grand unification consistent with p-decay data when 0.114 < {alpha}{sub 3}(M{sub z}) < 0.135, in agreement with current values of {alpha}{sub 3}(M{sub Z}). Proton decay is examined for the superheavy Higgs triplet mass H{sub H3} < 10M{sub G}(M{sub G} {approx_equal} 1.5 {times} 10{sup 16} GeV) and squarks and gluinos lighter than 1 TeV. Throughout most of the parameter space chargino-neutralino scaling relations are predicted to hold: 2m{sub {anti Z}}{sub 1} {congruent} m{sub {anti W}}{sub 1} {congruent} m{sub {anti Z}}{sub 2}, m{sub {anti W}}{sub 1} {approx_equal} (1/4)m{sub {anti g}} (for {mu} > 0) or m{sub {anti W}}{sub 1} {approx_equal} (1/3)m{sub {anti g}} (for {mu} < 0), while m{sub {anti W}}{sub 2} {congruent} m{sub {anti Z}}{sub 3} {congruent} m{sub {anti Z}}{sub 4} {much_gt} m{sub {anti Z}}{sub 1}. Future proton decay experiments combined with LEP2 lead to further predictions, e.g. for the entire parameter space either proton decay should be seen at these or the {anti W}{sub 1} seen at LEP2. Relic density constraints on the {anti Z}{sub 1} further constrain the parameter space e.g. so that m{sub t} < 165 GeV, M{sub h} < 105 GeV, m{sub {anti W}}{sub 1} < 100 GeV and m{sub {anti Z}}{sub 1} < 50 GeV when M{sub H}{sub 3}/M{sub G} < 6.

  12. Origin of the Colorado River experimental flood in Grand Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, E.D.; Pizzi, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Colorado River is one of the most highly regulated and extensively utilized rivers in the world. Total reservoir storage is approximately four times the mean annual runoff of ~17 x 109 m3 year -1. Reservoir storage and regulation have decreased annual peak discharges and hydroelectric power generation has increased daily flow variability. In recent years, the incidental impacts of this development have become apparent especially along the Colorado River through Grand Canyon National Park downstream from Glen Canyon Dam and caused widespread concern. Since the completion of Glen Canyon Dam, the number and size of sand bars, which are used by recreational river runners and form the habitat for native fishes, have decreased substantially. Following an extensive hydrological and geomorphic investigation, an experimental flood release from the Glen Canyon Dam was proposed to determine whether sand bars would be rebuilt by a relatively brief period of flow substantially greater than the normal operating regime. This proposed release, however, was constrained by the Law of the River, the body of law developed over 70 years to control and distribute Colorado River water, the needs of hydropower users and those dependent upon hydropower revenues, and the physical constraints of the dam itself. A compromise was reached following often difficult negotiations and an experimental flood to rebuild sand bars was released in 1996. This flood, and the process by which it came about, gives hope to resolving the difficult and pervasive problem of allocation of water resources among competing interests.The Colorado River is one of the most highly regulated and extensively utilized rivers in the world. Total reservoir storage is approximately four times the mean annual runoff of approximately 17??109 m3 year-1. Reservoir storage and regulation have decreased annual peak discharges and hydroelectric power generation has increased daily flow variability. In recent years, the

  13. Geologic map of the Grand Junction Quadrangle, Mesa County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Robert B.; Carrara, Paul E.; Hood, William C.; Murray, Kyle E.

    2002-01-01

    This 1:24,000-scale geologic map of the Grand Junction 7.5' quadrangle, in support of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of the stratigraphy, structure, and geologic hazards in the area of the junction of the Colorado River and the Gunnison River. Bedrock strata include the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale through the Lower Jurassic Wingate Sandstone units. Below the Mancos Shale, which floors the Grand Valley, the Upper and Lower(?)Cretaceous Dakota Formation and the Lower Cretaceous Burro Canyon Formation hold up much of the resistant northeast- dipping monocline along the northeast side of the Uncompahgre uplift. The impressive sequence of Jurassic strata below include the Brushy Basin, Salt Wash, and Tidwell Members of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, the Middle Jurassic Wanakah Formation and informal 'board beds' unit and Slick Rock Member of the Entrada Formation, and the Lower Jurassic Kayenta Formation and Wingate Sandstone. The Upper Triassic Chinle Formation and Early Proterozoic meta-igneous gneiss and migmatitic meta- sedimentary rocks, which are exposed in the Colorado National Monument quadrangle to the west, do not crop out here. The monoclinal dip slope of the northeastern margin of the Uncompahgre uplift is apparently a Laramide structural feature. Unlike the southwest-dipping, high-angle reverse faults in the Proterozoic basement and s-shaped fault- propagation folds in the overlying strata found in the Colorado National Monument 7.5' quadrangle along the front of the uplift to the west, the monocline in the map area is unbroken except at two localities. One locality displays a small asymmetrical graben that drops strata to the southwest. This faulted character of the structure dies out to the northwest into an asymmetric fault-propagation fold that also drops strata to the southwest. Probably both parts of this structure are underlain by a northeast-dipping high

  14. Rockmagnetism and inorganic geochemistry of Grand Lake sediment, NE Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minyuk, P. S.; Borkhodoev, V. Y.; Subbotnikova, T. V.

    2013-12-01

    Grand Lake, located in Magadan region (51 53'E, 60 44'N), belongs to the group of Elikchan Lakes. Maximum depth of the lake is 23.2 m. 12 cores from deep and shallow parts of the lake were taken using a Livingston corer. Sediment records from Grand Lake provide a continuous archive of climate change during marine isotopic stages (MIS) 4-1. Magnetic susceptibility (MS), saturation magnetization, saturation remanence, coercive force, remanence coercivity, temperature dependence of the induced magnetization and susceptibility of sediment and magnetic extracts were analyzed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) was used to diagnose Fe-bearing minerals. MS from cores was used for correlation between the core sections. Analysis of the complex data indicate that there are four main lithologic units of sediment. Unit 1 (MIS 1), depth 0-320 cm. Upper subunit (0-150 cm) shows negative or very low MS. Sediment has high content of organic matter and SiO2 (up to 92%) because of biogenic component. The Lower subunit (depth 150-320 cm) consists of laminated organic silt. The MS of this subunit ranges from 0 to 295 (95), 10-6 SI. The sediment shows high content of Fe2O3, P2O5, MnO indicating a redox boundary. Unit 2 (MIS 2), depth 320-627 cm. Sediment is composed of laminated silt and formed during anoxic conditions. Dark thin layers are enriched with P2O5 and MnO. The unit is characterized by low MS = 57-500 (170), 10-6, SI. Vivianite and Fe-sulfides including pyrite and greigite are found in this unit. Greigite occurs in diatom valves and as fine grained aggregates and has specific thermomagnetic curves. Unit 3 (MIS 3), depth 627-965 cm. Sediment consist of homogenous silt and that accumulated during oxic conditions. Unit has highest MS in the core section: 87-1300 (480), 10-6 SI and is enriched with CaO, Na2O, K2O, SiO2. Unite 4 (MIS 4), depth-965-1015 cm includes sand, dense silt and shows high variations of MS values. According to

  15. Grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation of liquid argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruff, Imre; Baranyai, András; Pálinkás, Gábor; Heinzinger, Karl

    1986-08-01

    A grand canonical Monte Carlo procedure with fixed values of the chemical potential μ, volume V, and temperature T, is described which is suitable to simulate simple fluids with only a minor increase in computer time in comparison with canonical (N,V,T) simulations and considerably faster than (N,p,T) ones. The method is rapidly convergent for rather dense systems with a reduced density of about ρσ3=0.88. The rapid convergence is attained by decreasing the vain attempts in the regime when new particles are added. The chance to find a place for an additional particle is increased by locating the cavities suitable to house a particle with the aid of the Dirichlet-Voronoi polyhedra. As an example, liquid argon is simulated with Lennard-Jones potentials at T=86.3 K and μ=-73.4 J/mol. The simulated density has been found to be 1.468 g/cm3 which is to be compared with the experimental value of 1.425 g/cm3. The same density was obtained by starting the procedure with both 216 and 250 particles in the simulation box of length 2.1895 nm. The pair correlation function is also in very good agreement with both earlier (N,V,T) simulations and diffraction experiments. The configurations obtained are analyzed by the second- and third-order invariants of the even-l spherical harmonics as order parameters characterizing the nearest neighbors of argon atoms. These results as well as some other statistics on the geometry of the coordination sphere indicate that the prevailing cluster geometry in liquid argon is a distorted hexagonal close packed arrangement which is nevertheless distinguishable from face centered cubic or icosahedral clusters distorted to the same degree or more. The surroundings of vacancies, however, are completely random with no characteristic symmetry properties.

  16. Lunar and terrestrial planet formation in the Grand Tack scenario

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, S. A.; Morbidelli, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present conclusions from a large number of N-body simulations of the giant impact phase of terrestrial planet formation. We focus on new results obtained from the recently proposed Grand Tack model, which couples the gas-driven migration of giant planets to the accretion of the terrestrial planets. The giant impact phase follows the oligarchic growth phase, which builds a bi-modal mass distribution within the disc of embryos and planetesimals. By varying the ratio of the total mass in the embryo population to the total mass in the planetesimal population and the mass of the individual embryos, we explore how different disc conditions control the final planets. The total mass ratio of embryos to planetesimals controls the timing of the last giant (Moon-forming) impact and its violence. The initial embryo mass sets the size of the lunar impactor and the growth rate of Mars. After comparing our simulated outcomes with the actual orbits of the terrestrial planets (angular momentum deficit, mass concentration) and taking into account independent geochemical constraints on the mass accreted by the Earth after the Moon-forming event and on the time scale for the growth of Mars, we conclude that the protoplanetary disc at the beginning of the giant impact phase must have had most of its mass in Mars-sized embryos and only a small fraction of the total disc mass in the planetesimal population. From this, we infer that the Moon-forming event occurred between approximately 60 and approximately 130 Myr after the formation of the first solids and was caused most likely by an object with a mass similar to that of Mars. PMID:25114304

  17. Optical properties of aerosols at Grand Canyon National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malm, William C.; Day, Derek E.

    Visibility in the United States is expected to improve over the next few decades because of reduced emissions, especially sulfur dioxide. In the eastern United States, sulfates make up about 60-70% of aerosol extinction, while in the inner mountain west that fraction is only about 30%. In the inner mountain west, carbon aerosols make up about 35% of extinction, while coarse mass contributes between 15 and 25% depending on how absorption is estimated. Although sulfur dioxide emissions are projected to decrease, carbon emissions due to prescribed fire activity will increase by factors of 5-10, and while optical properties of sulfates have been extensively studied, similar properties of carbon and coarse particles are less well understood. The inability to conclusively apportion about 50% of the extinction budget motivated a study to examine aerosol physio-chemical-optical properties at Grand Canyon, Arizona during the months of July and August. Coarse particle mass has usually been assumed to consist primarily of wind-blown dust, with a mass-scattering efficiency between about 0.4 and 0.6 m 2 g -1. Although there were episodes where crustal material made up most of the coarse mass, on the average, organics and crustal material mass were about equal. Furthermore, about one-half of the sampling periods had coarse-mass-scattering efficiencies greater than 0.6 m 2 g -1 and at times coarse-mass-scattering efficiencies were near 1.0 m 2 g -1. It was shown that absorption by coarse- and fine-particle absorption were about equal and that both fine organic and sulfate mass-scattering efficiencies were substantially less than the nominal values of 4.0 and 3.0 m 2 g -1 that have typically been used.

  18. Interacting topological insulator and emergent grand unified theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Yi-Zhuang; Xu, Cenke

    2015-03-01

    Motivated by the Pati-Salam grand unified theory [J. C. Pati and A. Salam, Phys. Rev. D 10, 275 (1974), 10.1103/PhysRevD.10.275], we study (4 +1 )d topological insulators with SU (4 ) ×SU (2) 1×SU (2) 2 symmetry, whose (3 +1 )d boundary has 16 flavors of left-chiral fermions, which form representations (4 ,2 ,1 ) and (4 ¯,1 ,2 ) . The key result we obtain is that, without any interaction, this topological insulator has a Z classification, namely, any quadratic fermion mass operator at the (3 +1 )d boundary is prohibited by the symmetries listed above; while under interaction, this system becomes trivial, namely, its (3 +1 )d boundary can be gapped out by a properly designed short-range interaction without generating nonzero vacuum expectation value of any fermion bilinear mass, or in other words, its (3 +1 )d boundary can be driven into a "strongly-coupled symmetric gapped (SCSG) phase." Based on this observation, we propose that after coupling the system to a dynamical SU (4 ) ×SU (2) 1×SU (2) 2 lattice gauge field, the Pati-Salam GUT can be fully regularized as the boundary states of a (4 +1 )d topological insulator with a thin fourth spatial dimension, the thin fourth dimension makes the entire system generically a (3 +1 )d system. The mirror sector on the opposite boundary will not interfere with the desired GUT, because the mirror sector is driven to the SCSG phase by a carefully designed interaction and is hence decoupled from the GUT.

  19. Decontamination of nuclear systems at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station

    SciTech Connect

    Weed, R.D.; Baker, K.R.

    1996-12-31

    Early in 1994 Management at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station realized that a potential decontamination of several reactor systems was needed to maintain the commitments to the {open_quotes}As Low As Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) program. There was a substantial amount of planned outage work required to repair and replace some internals in loop isolation valves and there were inspections and other outage work that needed to be accomplished as it had been postponed from previous outages because of the radiation exposure levels in and around the system equipment. Management scheduled for the procurement specification to be revised to incorporate additional boundary areas which had not been previously considered. The schedule included the period for gathering bids, awarding a contract, and reviewing the contractor`s procedures and reports and granting approval for the decontamination to proceed during the upcoming outage. In addition to the reviews required by the engineering group for overall control of the process, the plant system engineers had to prepare procedures at the system level to provide for a smooth operation to be made during the decontamination of the systems. The system engineers were required to make certain that the decontamination fluids would be contained within the systems being decontaminated and that they would not cross contaminate any other system not being decontaminated. Since these nuclear stations do not have the provisions for decontaminating these systems with using additional equipment, the equipment required is furnished by the contractor as skid mounted packaged units which can be moved into the area, set up near the system being decontaminated, and after the decontamination is completed, the skid mounted packages are removed as part of the contract. Figure 1 shows a typical setup in block diagram required to perform a reactor system decontamination. 1 fig.

  20. The MICE grand challenge lightcone simulation - I. Dark matter clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosalba, P.; Crocce, M.; Gaztañaga, E.; Castander, F. J.

    2015-04-01

    We present a new N-body simulation from the Marenostrum Institut de Ciències de l'Espai (MICE) collaboration, the MICE Grand Challenge (MICE-GC), containing about 70 billion dark matter particles in a (3 Gpc h-1)3 comoving volume. Given its large volume and fine spatial resolution, spanning over five orders of magnitude in dynamic range, it allows an accurate modelling of the growth of structure in the universe from the linear through the highly non-linear regime of gravitational clustering. We validate the dark matter simulation outputs using 3D and 2D clustering statistics, and discuss mass-resolution effects in the non-linear regime by comparing to previous simulations and the latest numerical fits. We show that the MICE-GC run allows for a measurement of the BAO feature with per cent level accuracy and compare it to state-of-the-art theoretical models. We also use sub-arcmin resolution pixelized 2D maps of the dark matter counts in the lightcone to make tomographic analyses in real and redshift space. Our analysis shows the simulation reproduces the Kaiser effect on large scales, whereas we find a significant suppression of power on non-linear scales relative to the real space clustering. We complete our validation by presenting an analysis of the three-point correlation function in this and previous MICE simulations, finding further evidence for mass-resolution effects. This is the first of a series of three papers in which we present the MICE-GC simulation, along with a wide and deep mock galaxy catalogue built from it. This mock is made publicly available through a dedicated web portal, http://cosmohub.pic.es.

  1. Lunar and terrestrial planet formation in the Grand Tack scenario.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, S A; Morbidelli, A

    2014-09-13

    We present conclusions from a large number of N-body simulations of the giant impact phase of terrestrial planet formation. We focus on new results obtained from the recently proposed Grand Tack model, which couples the gas-driven migration of giant planets to the accretion of the terrestrial planets. The giant impact phase follows the oligarchic growth phase, which builds a bi-modal mass distribution within the disc of embryos and planetesimals. By varying the ratio of the total mass in the embryo population to the total mass in the planetesimal population and the mass of the individual embryos, we explore how different disc conditions control the final planets. The total mass ratio of embryos to planetesimals controls the timing of the last giant (Moon-forming) impact and its violence. The initial embryo mass sets the size of the lunar impactor and the growth rate of Mars. After comparing our simulated outcomes with the actual orbits of the terrestrial planets (angular momentum deficit, mass concentration) and taking into account independent geochemical constraints on the mass accreted by the Earth after the Moon-forming event and on the time scale for the growth of Mars, we conclude that the protoplanetary disc at the beginning of the giant impact phase must have had most of its mass in Mars-sized embryos and only a small fraction of the total disc mass in the planetesimal population. From this, we infer that the Moon-forming event occurred between approximately 60 and approximately 130 Myr after the formation of the first solids and was caused most likely by an object with a mass similar to that of Mars.

  2. Grand Challenge Competition to Predict In Vivo Knee Loads

    PubMed Central

    Fregly, Benjamin J.; Besier, Thor F.; Lloyd, David G.; Delp, Scott L.; Banks, Scott A.; Pandy, Marcus G.; D’Lima, Darryl D.

    2013-01-01

    Impairment of the human neuromusculoskeletal system can lead to significant mobility limitations and decreased quality of life. Computational models that accurately represent the musculoskeletal systems of individual patients could be used to explore different treatment options and ultimately to optimize clinical outcome. The most significant barrier to model-based treatment design is validation of model-based estimates of in vivo contact and muscle forces. This paper introduces an annual “Grand Challenge Competition to Predict In Vivo Knee Loads” based on a series of comprehensive publicly available in vivo data sets for evaluating musculoskeletal model predictions of contact and muscle forces in the knee. The data sets come from patients implanted with force-measuring tibial prostheses. Following a historical review of musculoskeletal modeling methods used for estimating knee muscle and contact forces, we describe the first two data sets used for the first two competitions and summarize four subsequent data sets to be used for future competitions. These data sets include tibial contact force, video motion, ground reaction, muscle EMG, muscle strength, static and dynamic imaging, and implant geometry data. Competition participants create musculoskeletal models to predict tibial contact forces without having access to the corresponding in vivo measurements, which are not released until after each year’s competition submissions. These blinded predictions provide an unbiased evaluation of the capabilities and limitations of musculoskeletal modeling methods. The paper concludes with a discussion of how these unique data sets can be used by the musculoskeletal modeling research community to improve the estimation of in vivo muscle and contact forces and ultimately to help make musculoskeletal models clinically useful. PMID:22161745

  3. Dissipative particle dynamics simulations in the grand canonical ensemble: applications to polymer brushes.

    PubMed

    Goujon, Florent; Malfreyt, Patrice; Tildesley, Dominic J

    2004-04-19

    We have used the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method in the grand canonical ensemble to study the compression of grafted polymer brushes in good solvent conditions. The force-distance profiles calculated from DPD simulations in the grand canonical ensemble are in very good agreement with the self-consistent field (SCF) theoretical models and with experimental results for two polystyrene brush layers grafted onto mica surfaces in toluene.

  4. A grand convergence in mortality is possible: comment on Global Health 2035.

    PubMed

    Norheim, Ole Frithjof

    2014-01-01

    The grand challenge in global health is the inequality in mortality and life expectancy between countries and within countries. According to Global Health 2035, the Lancet Commission celebrating the 20(th) anniversary of the World Development Report (WDR) of 1993, the world now has the unique opportunity to achieve a grand convergence in global mortality within a generation. This article comments on the main findings and recommendations of the Global Health 2035.

  5. Challenges faced by multidisplinary new investigators on addressing grand challenges in global health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The grand challenges approach aims to spark innovative and transformative strategies to overcome barriers to significant global health issues. Grand Challenges Canada endorses an ‘Integrated Innovation™’ approach that focuses on the intersection of scientific/technological, social and business innovation. In this article we explore themes emerging from a dialogue between the authors, who are multidisciplinary recipients of the ‘Rising Stars in Global Health’ award from Grand Challenges Canada, regarding benefits of engaging in integrated innovation research, and recommendations for how this approach may develop in the future. Discussion Our dialogue followed a semi-structured interview format that addressed three topics: 1) reflections on applying an Integrated Innovation™ approach for global health; 2) thoughts on participation in the Grand Challenges 2012 meeting; and 3) authors’ visions of Grand Challenges Canada and the Grand Challenge movement towards 2020. The dialogue was transcribed verbatim and we used thematic analysis techniques to identify, analyze and report themes in the data. Benefits of working using the Grand Challenges approach centered on two themes: a) the potential for scientific breakthrough and b) building interdisciplinary collaborations and a community of scholars. Challenges and opportunities for Grand Challenges in moving forward included: a) capacity building, particularly regarding Integrated Innovation™ and scale-up planning; b) interdisciplinary and international mentorship for new investigators; and c) potential for future commercialization. Conclusions Our discussion highlighted that Integrated Innovation™ offers the opportunity to develop new theories, methods and approaches to global health while simultaneously fostering a collaborative spirit grounded in international, interdisciplinary collaborations. However, the arguable over-emphasis on corporatization poses a major challenge for new investigators

  6. A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the Low Rio Grande

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    ER D C /E L TR -0 5- 6 Aquatic Plant Control Research Program A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the Lower Rio Grande...is unlimited. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program ERDC/EL TR-05-6 April 2005 A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the...SUBTITLE A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the Lower Rio Grande 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  7. A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the Lower Rio Grande, 2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    ER D C /E L SR -0 5- 1 Aquatic Plant Control Research Program A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the Lower Rio Grande... Plants of the Lower Rio Grande, 2004 Chetta S. Owens Analytical Services Inc. Lewisville Aquatic Ecosystem Research Facility U.S. Army Engineer...Reclamation, Denver, CO. Owens, C. S., Grodowitz, M. J., and Nibling, F. (2005). “A survey of the invasive aquatic and riparian plants of the lower Rio

  8. A grand convergence in mortality is possible: comment on Global Health 2035

    PubMed Central

    Norheim, Ole Frithjof

    2014-01-01

    The grand challenge in global health is the inequality in mortality and life expectancy between countries and within countries. According to Global Health 2035, the Lancet Commission celebrating the 20th anniversary of the World Development Report (WDR) of 1993, the world now has the unique opportunity to achieve a grand convergence in global mortality within a generation. This article comments on the main findings and recommendations of the Global Health 2035. PMID:24596900

  9. The Open door: U.S. Grand Strategy from 1787 to 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-12

    strategy. U.S. grand strategy is not found in a single document. Several noted authors, from Paul Kennedy to John Mearsheimer, have established that...important work The Soldier and the State, “Politics deals 7 For excellent discussions on the grand strategies of hegemonic powers, see  John  J

  10. China’s Energy Security: The Grand "Hedging" Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    independent variables, cost, reliability, and security, China’s grand strategy is shown to be a hedging approach. The analysis consists of three case...shown to be a hedging approach. The analysis consists of three case studies. The first case study shows that as the Chinese National Oil...4Xencheng Liu, “China’s Energy Security and Its Grand Strategy,” (Policy Analysis Brief, The

  11. A comprehensive review of visual air quality at the Grand Canyon.

    PubMed

    Archer, S F; Molenar, J V; Dietrich, D L

    1989-04-01

    The Grand Canyon, located in Northern Arizona, is one of the seven natural wonders of the world, and has been set aside as a National Park to preserve its unique character. Several million visitors from all over the world travel to the Grand Canyon each year to witness its awesome beauty, As a natural preserve, the area protects numerous values such as genetic diversity, solitude, non-mechanized recreation, etc, but the majority of visitors travel to the Grand Canyon for one reason: to view the scenery.There have been reports in the general press (and even in the United States Congressional Hearings) that visual conditions at the Grand Canyon have been seriously degraded by air pollution. Over the past nine years, a vast array of visibility-related research and monitoring has been conducted to determine the extent and probable cause of this visible degradation. Studies have included optical measurements, pollution characterization, source-receptor relationship analysis, and human perception of visual air quality. The resulting data document the visual air quality of the Grand Canyon and provide a basis to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate significant events and trends.This poster comprehensively assembles, updates, analyzes and summarizes these various studies to report what has happened to air clarity at the Grand Canyon. The authors examine: - the extent and variation of optical conditions through an examination of reported standard visual range data and a qualitative review of standard photographic monitoring record; - the scientific basis and measurement techniques used to quantify optical conditions; - the probable causes of visual degradation by analyzing the chemical properties of collected aerosols, and through investigation of air mass trajectories; - how visitors to the Grand Canyon perceive and value visual air quality; - the implications study results have for control of air pollutants outside protected natural areas. By examining the situation

  12. Environmental Assessment: Demolish CASS Switch Stations Buildings 644, 645, 646 at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    Winters are long and severe with almost continuous snow cover. The spring and fall seasons are generally short transition periods. The average...during the late fall, winter, and spring , and from the southeast during the summer. Grand Forks County is included in the ND Air Quality Control...approximately 10 miles northeast of Grand Forks AFB, the mean discharge of the Turtle River is 50.3 feet cubed per second (ft3/s). Peak flows result from

  13. Environmental Assessment: Construct Airfield Lighting Vault and Demolish Building 531 at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    frequent thunderstorms. Winters are long and severe with almost continuous snow cover. The spring and fall seasons are generally short transition periods...from the northwest during the late fall, winter, and spring , and from the southeast during the summer. Grand Forks County is included in the ND Air...Manvel, ND, approximately 10 miles northeast of Grand Forks AFB, the mean discharge of the Turtle River is 50.3 feet cubed per second (ft3/s). Peak

  14. Environmental Assessment: Demolish Buildings 212, 218, 819, 820 at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-31

    Winters are long and severe with almost continuous snow cover. The spring and fall seasons are generally short transition periods. The average annual...during the late fall, winter, and spring , and from the southeast during the summer. Grand Forks County is included in the ND Air Quality Control...approximately 10 miles northeast of Grand Forks AFB, the mean discharge of the Turtle River is 50.3 feet cubed per second (ft3/s). Peak flows result from

  15. Comparison of the radiological dose from the Cerro Grande fire to a natural wildfire.

    PubMed

    Volkerding, John M

    2004-01-01

    Since the Cerro Grande fire burned portions of a Department of Energy facility where nuclear weapons research occurs, it is important to determine if the fire posed greater risk to the public than a natural fire. All wildfires release radioactive as well as other toxic pollutants into the atmosphere. Thus, it is important to determine if the radioactive air emissions from the Cerro Grande fire were statistically different than those from a natural wildfire, specifically the Viveash fire.

  16. What Should Be America’s Next Post 9-11 Grand Strategy?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-26

    THE PROPOSED GRAND STRATEGIES? Strategy and strategic thinking are not passwords for success. Poor strategy like medicine will kill. If policy makers...Peloponnesian War, (New York: Prometheus Book, 1998). 81 Stein, 100. 88 82 Figure 11. Grand Strategy Effectiveness. Based on ideas and information...obsolete. See Robert Zubrin, (Energy Victory: Winning the War on Terror, New York: Prometheus Books), 2007. See Paul Roberts, The End of Oil: On the Edge

  17. Formation of the Grand Canyon 5 to 6 million years ago through integration of older palaeocanyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlstrom, Karl E.; Lee, John P.; Kelley, Shari A.; Crow, Ryan S.; Crossey, Laura J.; Young, Richard A.; Lazear, Greg; Beard, L. Sue; Ricketts, Jason W.; Fox, Matthew; Shuster, David L.

    2014-03-01

    The timing of formation of the Grand Canyon, USA, is vigorously debated. In one view, most of the canyon was carved by the Colorado River relatively recently, in the past 5-6 million years. Alternatively, the Grand Canyon could have been cut by precursor rivers in the same location and to within about 200 m of its modern depth as early as 70-55 million years ago. Here we investigate the time of formation of four out of five segments of the Grand Canyon, using apatite fission-track dating, track-length measurements and apatite helium dating: if any segment is young, the old canyon hypothesis is falsified. We reconstruct the thermal histories of samples taken from the modern canyon base and the adjacent canyon rim 1,500 m above, to constrain when the rocks cooled as a result of canyon incision. We find that two of the three middle segments, the Hurricane segment and the Eastern Grand Canyon, formed between 70 and 50 million years ago and between 25 and 15 million years ago, respectively. However, the two end segments, the Marble Canyon and the Westernmost Grand Canyon, are both young and were carved in the past 5-6 million years. Thus, although parts of the canyon are old, we conclude that the integration of the Colorado River through older palaeocanyons carved the Grand Canyon, beginning 5-6 million years ago.

  18. Lower Cambrian grand cycles of the southwestern Great Basin, U. S. A

    SciTech Connect

    Mount, J.F.; Hunt, D.L.; Dienger, J. ); Green, L.R. )

    1991-02-01

    Depositional Grand Cycles are a prominent feature of Cambrian strata of western North America. Consisting of a lower siliciclastic half-cycle and an overlying carbonate half-cycle, these sequences appear to record regional deepening-shoaling events on a broadly subsiding Cambrian passive margin shelf. The Lower Cambrian Grand Cycles of the White-Inyo and Death Valley regions differ greatly from their Middle and Upper Cambrian counterparts throughout the Cordillera. These differences are manifested in the following ways: (1) Lower Cambrian siliciclastic half-cycles are relatively carbonate poor and were deposited primarily in deeper subtidal shelf settings; (2) siliciclastic half-cycle deposition is dominated by episodic storm processes, in contrast to the meter-scale, peritidal shallowing-upward cyclicity characteristic of younger Grand Cycles: (3) Grand Cycle boundaries are more diffuse and, in many cases, difficult to identify in more cratonward sections, and (4) trilobite zone boundaries appear to cross Lower Cambrian Grand Cycle boundaries appear to cross Lower Cambrian Grand Cycle boundaries, indicating that the cycles are not regionally correlative, unconformity bounded sequences. The depositional modeling indicates that these differences can be attributed to paleogeographic factors unique to the Early Cambrian. These include relatively rapid thermotectonic subsidence of the nascent Early Cambrian passive margin coupled with a high rate of eustatic sea level rise, high sediment yields off of the North American craton, and a relatively narrow Early Cambrian shelf.

  19. Numerical modeling of the late Cenozoic geomorphic evolution of Grand Canyon, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    The late Cenozoic geomorphic evolution of Grand Canyon has been influenced by three primary tectonic and drainage adjustment events. First, incision into the Paleozoic strata of the southwestern margin of the Colorado Plateau began at 16 Ma in response to relief production along the Grand Wash Fault. Second, the ancestral Upper Colorado River reversed drainage and became integrated with the Lower Colorado River basin through Grand Canyon between 5.5 and 6 Ma. Third, the Colorado River was influenced by Plio- Quaternary normal faulting along the Hurricane and Toroweap Faults. Despite the relatively firm constraints available on the timing of these events, the geomorphic evolution of Grand Canyon is still not well constrained and many questions remain. For example, was there a deeply-incised gorge in western Grand Canyon before Colorado River integration? How and where was the Colorado River integrated? How have incision rates varied in space and time? In this paper, I describe the results of a numerical modeling study designed to address these questions. The model integrates the stream power model for bedrock channel erosion with cliff retreat and the flexural-isostatic response to erosion. The model honors the structural geology of the Grand Canyon region, including the variable erodibility of rocks in the Colorado Plateau and the occurrence of Plio-Quaternary normal faulting along the Hurricane-Toroweap Fault system. We present the results of two models designed to bracket the possible drainage architectures of the southwestern margin of the Colorado Plateau in Miocene time. In the first model, we assume a 13,000 km2 drainage basin primarily sourced from the Hualapai and Coconino Plateaux. The results of this model indicate that relief production along the Grand Wash fault initiated the formation of a large (700 m) knickpoint that migrated headward at a rate of 15 km/Myr prior to drainage integration at 6 Ma to form a deep gorge in western Grand Canyon. This model

  20. The State of the Colorado River Ecosystem in Grand Canyon: A Report of the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center 1991-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gloss, Steven P.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Melis, Theodore S.

    2005-01-01

    This report is an important milestone in the effort by the Secretary of the Interior to implement the Grand Canyon Protection Act of 1992 (GCPA; title XVIII, secs. 1801-1809, of Public Law 102-575), the most recent authorizing legislation for Federal efforts to protect resources downstream from Glen Canyon Dam. The chapters that follow are intended to provide decision makers and the American public with relevant scientific information about the status and recent trends of the natural, cultural, and recreational resources of those portions of Grand Canyon National Park and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area affected by Glen Canyon Dam operations. Glen Canyon Dam is one of the last major dams that was built on the Colorado River and is located just south of the Arizona-Utah border in the lower reaches of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, approximately 15 mi (24 km) upriver from Grand Canyon National Park (fig. 1). The information presented here is a product of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP), a federally authorized initiative to ensure that the primary mandate of the GCPA is met through advances in information and resource management. The U.S. Geological Survey`s (USGS) Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) has responsibility for the scientific monitoring and research efforts for the program, including the preparation of reports such as this one.

  1. Hydrology and land use in Grand Traverse County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cummings, T.R.; Gillespie, J.L.; Grannemann, N.G.

    1990-01-01

    Glacial deposits are the sole source of ground-water supplies in Grand Traverse County. These deposits range in thickness from 100 to 900 feet and consist of till, outwash, and materials of lacustrine and eolian origin. In some areas, the deposits fill buried valleys that are 500 feet deep. Sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age, which underlie the glacial deposits, are mostly shale and are not used for water supply. Of the glacial deposits, outwash and lacustrine sand are the most productive aquifers. Most domestic wells obtain water from sand and gravel at depths ranging from 50 to 150 feet and yield at least 20 gallons per minute. Irrigation, municipal, and industrial wells capable of yielding 250 gallons per minute or more are generally greater than 150 feet deep. At places in the county where moranial deposits contain large amounts of interbedded silt and clay, wells are generally deeper and yields are much lower. Areal variations in the chemical and physical characteristics of ground and surface water are related to land use and chemical inputs to the hydrologic system. Information on fertilizer application, septic-tank discharges, animal wastes, and precipitation indicate that 40 percent of nitrogen input is from precipitation, 6 percent from septic tanks, 14 percent from animal wastes, and 40 percent from fertilizers. Streams and lakes generally have a calcium bicarbonate-type water. The dissolved-solids concentration of streams ranged from 116 to 380 milligrams per liter, and that of lakes, from 47 to 170 milligrams per liter. Water of streams is hard to very hard; water of lakes ranges from soft to hard. The maximum total nitrogen concentration found in streams was 4.4 milligrams per liter. Water of lakes have low nitrogen concentrations; the median nitrate concentration is less than 0.01 milligrams per liter. Pesticides (Parathion and Simazine) were detected in low concentrations at six stream sites; 2,4-D was detected in low concentrations in water of two

  2. On the Grand Challenges in Physical Petrology: the Multiphase Crossroads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergantz, G. W.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid progress in experimental, micro-analytical and textural analysis at the crystal scale has produced an unprecedented record of magmatic processes. However an obstacle to further progress is the lack of understanding of how mass, energy and momentum flux associated with crystal-rich, open-system events produces identifiable outcomes. Hence developing a physically-based understanding of magmatic systems linking micro-scale petrological observations with a physical template operating at the macro-scale presents a so-called "Grand Challenge." The essence of this challenge is that magmatic systems have characteristic length and feedback scales between those accessible by classical continuum and discrete methods. It has become increasingly obvious that the old-school continuum methods have limited resolution and power of explanation for multiphase (real) magma dynamics. This is, in part, because in crystal-rich systems the deformation is non-affine, and so the concept of constitutive behavior is less applicable and likely not even relevant, especially if one is interested in the emergent character of micro-scale processes. One expression of this is the cottage industry of proposing viscosity laws for magmas, which serves as "blunt force" de facto corrections for what is intrinsically multiphase behavior. Even in more fluid-rich systems many of these laws are not suitable for use in the very transport theories they aim to support. The alternative approach is the discrete method, where multiphase interactions are explicitly resolved. This is a daunting prospect given the numbers of crystals in magmas. But perhaps all crystals don't need to be modeled. I will demonstrate how discrete methods can recover critical state behavior, resolve crystal migration, the onset of visco-elastic behavior such as melt-present shear bands which sets the large-scale mixing volumes, some of the general morpho-dynamics that underlies purported rheological models, and transient controls on

  3. Going Out in a Blaze of Glory: Cassini's Grand Finale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, Linda; Edgington, Scott G.; Altobelli, Nicolas

    2016-10-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission, a joint collaboration between NASA, ESA and the Italian Space Agency, is approaching its final year of operations after more than 12 years in Saturn orbit. Cassini will send back its final bits of unique data on 15 September 2017 as it plunges into Saturn's atmosphere, vaporizing and satisfying planetary protection requirements.Since early 2016 Cassini's orbital inclination has been slowly increasing. In November Cassini will transition to a series of 20 orbits with peripases just outside Saturn's F ring that include some of the closest flybys of the tiny ring moons and excellent views of the F ring and outer A ring. Cassini's final close flyby of Titan will propel it across Saturn's main rings and into its final orbits.Cassini's Grand Finale begins in April 2017 and is comprised of 22 orbits at an inclination of 63 degrees. Cassini will repeatedly dive between the innermost ring and Saturn's upper atmosphere providing insights into fundamental questions unattainable during the rest of the mission. It will be the first spacecraft to explore this region.These close orbits provide the highest resolution observations of both the rings and Saturn, and direct in situ sampling of the ring particles' composition, plasma, Saturn's exosphere and the innermost radiation belts. Saturn's gravitational field will be measured to unprecedented accuracy, providing information on Saturn's interior structure and mass distribution in the rings. Probing the magnetic field will give insight into the nature of the magnetic dynamo and the true rotation rate of Saturn's interior. The ion and neutral mass spectrometer will sniff the exosphere and upper atmosphere and examine water-based molecules originating from the rings. The cosmic dust analyzer will sample particle composition from different parts of the main rings.New science highlights and science objectives from Cassini's final orbits will be discussed.This work was carried out in part at the Jet

  4. Quantifying Nitrogen Sources and Cycling Along the Upper Rio Grande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelsner, G.; Brooks, P.; Hogan, J.; Lacey, H.; McDonnell, D.; Zeglin, L.; Mills, S.; Villinski, J.

    2005-05-01

    Synoptic sampling of a 1200km reach of the Upper Rio Grande has been performed in January and August from 2000 to present. The objective of this sampling has been to develop seasonal relationships between discharge, land use, and major water quality parameters including salinity and nutrients. In general, water quality, both salinity and nutrient concentrations, degrades with distance downstream. Increased salinity is explained largely by gradual downstream increase due to evapoconcentration punctuated by localized inputs of saline groundwater. Both total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) concentrations gradually increase with distance downstream, however for TDN this trend is punctuated by large, localized inputs primarily from urban areas. Somewhat surprisingly, surface water draining from areas of intensive, irrigated agriculture during the growing season often had lower nutrient and DOC concentrations than the river. Increased spatial and temporal sampling of the 250km reach between Cochiti Dam and Elephant Butte Reservoir was conducted in June, July and August of 2004 to quantify the relationships between agricultural and urban land use and nutrient loading as well as nutrient sinks within the surface water, hyporheic and riparian systems. Summer 2004 data indicate that wastewater treatment plants are the largest and most consistent sources of inorganic nitrogen to the river. In both June and July there was a net removal of nitrogen from the reach as discharge decreased 26%, concentrations decreased 39%, and TDN loads decreased 56%. Interestingly, the diversion of river water for irrigated agriculture reduced discharge 25%, TDN loads 60% and concentrations 47% along the same reach before draining back to the main stem of the river suggesting that agricultural diversions were serving as a sink for nitrogen. However in August, TDN loads were higher in returning drains suggesting that agricultural systems had switched to a net source of

  5. Gamma Ray and Neutrino Detector Facility (GRANDE). Progress report for Task C

    SciTech Connect

    Sobel, H.W.; Yodh, G.B.

    1991-08-01

    GRANDE is an imaging, water Cerenkov detector, which combines in one facility an extensive air shower array and a high-energy neutrino detector. The authors proposed that the detector be constructed in phases, beginning with an active detector area of 31,000 m{sup 2} (GRANDE-I) and expanding to a final size of 100,000--150,000 m{sup 2}. Some of the characteristics of GRANDE-I are shown. GRANDE utilizes the proven technology of water Cerenkov detectors. A feasibility study has shown that the powerful background discrimination inherent in the directional property of the Cerenkov light and in the large size of the detector, will allow successful surface operation with an acceptably small trigger rate. The engineering analysis showed that the facility can be built over the reasonably short time span of 4 years using well-known construction technologies. Combining the neutrino detector and the extensive air shower array in a single facility greatly enhances the physics potential of GRANDE. It also achieves a considerable saving in cost and time since a sizable fraction of such costs, for either experiment, is in the site preparation. Additionally, the neutrino detector benefits from the efficient cosmic-ray anticoincidence afforded by the gamma detector. A site has been selected (a water-filled quarry near Little Rock, Arkansas) and an engineering firm has completed the preliminary design of the detector structure. They also have designed the water purification system, and have preliminary designs for the data harvesting electronics and other systems. During this past year the authors learned that the proposal to construct GRANDE-I was not approved by DOE. The construction of such a detector was considered premature by the reviewers and one major technical concern still dominated the reviews. In order to answer the technical concerns while waiting for the results from the current generation of gamma-ray detectors, they propose to construct and operate a small prototype

  6. Evaluation of canoe surveys for anurans along the Rio Grande in Big Bend National Park, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jung, R.E.; Bonine, K.E.; Rosenshield, M.L.; de la Reza, A.; Raimondo, S.; Droege, S.

    2002-01-01

    Surveys for amphibians along large rivers pose monitoring and sampling problems. We used canoes at night to spotlight and listen for anurans along four stretches of the Rio Grande in Big Bend National Park, Texas, in 1998 and 1999. We explored temporal and spatial variation in amphibian counts and species richness and assessed relationships between amphibian counts and environmental variables, as well as amphibian-habitat associations along the banks of the Rio Grande. We documented seven anuran species, but Rio Grande leopard frogs (Rana berlandieri) accounted for 96% of the visual counts. Chorus surveys along the river detected similar or fewer numbers of species, but orders of magnitude fewer individuals compared to visual surveys. The number of species varied on average by 37% across monthly and nightly surveys. We found similar average coefficients of variation in counts of Rio Grande leopard frogs on monthly and nightly bases (CVs = 42-44%), suggesting that canoe surveys are a fairly precise technique for counts of this species. Numbers of Rio Grande leopard frogs observed were influenced by river gage levels and air and water temperatures, suggesting that surveys should be conducted under certain environmental conditions to maximize counts and maintain consistency. We found significant differences in species richness and bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) counts among the four river stretches. Four rare anuran species were found along certain stretches but not others, which could represent either sampling error or unmeasured environmental or habitat differences among the river stretches. We found a greater association of Rio Grande leopard frogs with mud banks compared to rock or cliff (canyon) areas and with seepwillow and open areas compared to giant reed and other vegetation types. Canoe surveys appear to be a useful survey technique for anurans along the Rio Grande and may work for other large river systems as well.

  7. Age and evolution of the Grand Canyon revealed by U-Pb dating of water table-type speleothems.

    PubMed

    Polyak, Victor; Hill, Carol; Asmerom, Yemane

    2008-03-07

    The age and evolution of the Grand Canyon have been subjects of great interest and debate since its discovery. We found that cave mammillaries (water table indicator speleothems) from nine sites in the Grand Canyon showed uranium-lead dating evidence for an old western Grand Canyon on the assumption that groundwater table decline rates are equivalent to incision rates. Samples in the western Grand Canyon yielded apparent water table decline rates of 55 to 123 meters per million years over the past 17 million years, in contrast to eastern Grand Canyon samples that yielded much faster rates (166 to 411 meters per million years). Chronology and inferred incision data indicate that the Grand Canyon evolved via headward erosion from west to east, together with late-stage ( approximately 3.7 million years ago) accelerated incision in the eastern block.

  8. Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, 1995-2002 Summary Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffnagle, Timothy; Carmichael, Richard; Noll, William

    2003-12-01

    The Grande Ronde Basin once supported large runs of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and estimated peak escapements in excess of 10,000 occurred as recently as the late 1950's (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 1975). Natural escapement declines in the Grande Ronde Basin have been severe and parallel those of other Snake River populations. Reduced productivity has primarily been attributed to increased mortality associated with downstream and upstream migration past eight dams and reservoirs in the Snake and Columbia rivers. Reduced spawner numbers, combined with human manipulation of previously important spawning and rearing habitat in the Grande Ronde Basin, have resulted in decreased spawning distribution and population fragmentation of chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde Basin (Figure 1; Table 1). Escapement of spring/summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin included 1,799 adults in 1995, less than half of the previous record low of 3,913 adults in 1994. Catherine Creek, Grande Ronde River and Lostine River were historically three of the most productive populations in the Grande Ronde Basin (Carmichael and Boyce 1986). However, productivity of these populations has been poor for recent brood years. Escapement (based on total redd counts) in Catherine Creek and Grande Ronde and Lostine rivers dropped to alarmingly low levels in 1994 and 1995. A total of 11, 3 and 16 redds were observed in 1994 in Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River and Lostine River, respectively, and 14, 6 and 11 redds were observed in those same streams in 1995. In contrast, the maximum number of redds observed in the past was 505 in Catherine Creek (1971), 304 in the Grande Ronde River (1968) and 261 in 1956 in the Lostine River (Tranquilli et al 2003). Redd counts for index count areas (a standardized portion of the total stream) have also decreased dramatically for most Grande Ronde Basin streams from 1964-2002, dropping to as low as 37 redds in the 119.5 km in the index survey

  9. A report upon the Grand Coulee Fish Maintenance Project 1939-1947

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Frederick S.; Hanavan, Mitchell G.

    1948-01-01

    The Grand Coulee Fish-Maintenance Project, undertaken by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service in 19.391 consisted in relocating the anadroumous runs of the upper Columbia River to four major tributaries entering below the Grand Coulee damsite. These streams were believed capable of supporting several times their existing, badly depleted, run. The plan was predicated upon the assumption that the relocated runs, in conformity with their "homing tendency", would return to the lower tributaries rather than attempt to reach their ancestral spawning grounds above Grand Coulee Dam. This interim report covers the history and accanplishments of the Grand Coulee Fish-Maintenance Project through the initial period of relocating the rune as well as the first four years of the permanent program. Results obtained to date indicate conclusive success in diverting the upper Columbia fish runs into the accessible lower tributaries. The results also indicate, less conclusively, that-in spite of many existing handicaps--the upper Columbia salmon and steelhead runs may be rehabilitated through the integrated program of natural and artificial propagation incorporated in the Grand Coulee Fish-Maintenance Project.

  10. Paleohydraulic interpretation and morphologic reconstruction of the northern Rio Grande River, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Muriceak, D.R. . Geosciences Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    A flight of unpaired late Quaternary terraces comprised of fluvio-glacial deposits flanks the northern Rio Grande River for nearly ten miles along the upper Rio Grande valley. These terraces, which occur at decreasing heights due to progressive valley incision, are comprised of sediments that represent aggradation by braided streams flowing from the terminus of valley glaciers that flowed down the upper Rio Grande at least twice during late Quaternary time. Terminal moraines that are equivalent to Pinedale and Bull Lake stages of ice advance occur at the upstream origin of the terraces. Incision of the Rio Grande river since Pinedale time has resulted in at least three cut terraces that converge downstream. The purpose of this report is to reconstruct the Quaternary history of the Rio Grande river valley during its transition from full glacial to interglacial conditions. A total geodetic station provided coordinate and elevation data to correlate the terraces, extrapolate channel geometry through cross sections, and construct longitudinal profiles of the individual terrace surfaces. Measurements of the B-axis length of boulders on both terrace tread surfaces and surfaces within the terrace deposits were used to reconstruct paleoflow hydrology. The coarsest channel morphological features, too large to be deposited by normal glacial outwash, were deposited during a catastrophic outburst flood (after the failure of an ice dammed lake) that produced high discharge.

  11. Monitoring the water quality of the Nation's large rivers: Rio Grande NASQAN Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Reutter, David C.; Wells, Frank C.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has monitored the water quality in the Rio Grande Basin as part of the redesigned National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) since 1995 (Hooper and others, 1997). The NASQAN program was designed to characterize the concentrations and transport of sediment and selected chemical constituents found in the Nation's large rivers-including the Mississippi, Colorado, and Columbia in addition to the Rio Grande. In these four basins, the USGS currently (1998) operates a network of 40 NASQAN sites, with an emphasis on quantifying the mass flux for each constituent (the amount of material moving past the site, expressed in tons per day). By applying a consistent flux-based approach in the Rio Grande Basin, the NASQAN program is generating the information needed to identify regional sources for a variety of constituents, including agricultural chemicals and trace elements, in the basin. The effect of the large reservoirs on the Rio Grande can be observed as constituent fluxes are routed downstream. The analysis of constituent fluxes on a basin-wide scale will provide the means to assess the influence of human activity on water-quality conditions in the Rio Grande.

  12. Sudden transitions and grand variations in the solar dynamo, past and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Jager, Cornelis; Duhau, Silvia

    2012-06-01

    The solar dynamo is the exotic dance of the sun's two major magnetic field components, the poloidal and the toroidal, interacting in anti-phase. On the basis of new data on the geomagnetic aa index, we improve our previous forecast of the properties of the current Schwabe cycle #24. Its maximum will occur in 2013.5 and the maximum sunspot number Rmax will then be 62 ± 12, which is within the bounds of our earlier forecasts. The subsequent analysis, based on a phase diagram, which is a diagram showing the relation between maximum sunspot numbers and minimum geomagnetic aa index values leads to the conclusion that a new Grand Episode in solar activity has started in 2008. From the study of the natural oscillations in the sunspot number time series, as found by an analysis based on suitable wavelet base functions, we predict that this Grand Episode will be of the Regular Oscillations type, which is the kind of oscillations that also occurred between 1724 and 1924. Previous expectations of a Grand (Maunder-type) Minimum of solar activity cannot be supported. We stress the significance of the Hallstatt periodicity for determining the character of the forthcoming Grand Episodes. No Grand Minimum is expected to occur during the millennium that has just started. The full text of all quoted papers by the two authors of this paper can be consulted at www.cdejager.com/sun-earth-publications/.

  13. Promoting Undergraduate Research at Grand Valley State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riemersma, P.; Mekik, F. A.

    2003-12-01

    Grand Valley State University (GVSU) is a relatively young, rapidly growing, predominately undergraduate institution of about 20,000 students located in western Michigan in which undergraduate research plays a vital role in the education of our students. Student research is supported and actively promoted by 1) creating university funding opportunities and taking advantage of small outside funding sources 2) building a tradition of undergraduate research 3) incorporating small research activities into classes and 4) educating students explicitly in how to prepare a professional poster, give a professional talk and write a journal article. As the saying goes, if you have money, the students will come. At GVSU most students recognize the value of a research experience but need income to pay for college expenses. The internally funded Student Summer Scholars program at GVSU provides student salary and faculty stipend for a summer research project (\\6000 per grant). The geology department has also been successful at obtaining grants from the NASA Michigan Space Grant Consortium (\\5,000 plus a 100% GVSU match). We have been successful in using these easier to obtain smaller grants to fund undergraduate projects. In some cases small grants actually allow us to pursue "risky" or otherwise difficult to fund projects. Undergraduate research "counts" at GVSU and once a tradition and critical mass of undergraduate research has been established, it can become self-sustaining. To recognize the achievements of undergraduate research at GVSU, there is an annual Student Scholarship Day in which the students (580 university wide) present the results of their research. Also, by persuading students in our introductory classes (for extra credit) to attend Student Scholarship Day, the students, early in their college career, can see what fellow students can accomplish and student presenters can revel in their role of researcher and educator. Such an event helps to build a tradition

  14. Complete theory of grand unification in five dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Lawrence J.; Nomura, Yasunori

    2002-10-01

    structure of the extra dimension. Lepton flavor violation is found to be generically large in higher dimensional unified theories with nontrivial matter geometries, providing soft supersymmetry breaking operators are local up to the compactification scale. In our theory this forces a common location for all three neutrinos, predicting large neutrino mixing angles. Rates for μ-->eγ, μ-->eee, μ-->e conversion and τ-->μγ are larger in our theory than in conventional 4D supersymmetric grand unified theories, and, once superpartner masses are measured, these rates are completely determined in terms of two leptonic mixing angles. Proposed experiments probing μ-->e transitions will probe the entire interesting parameter space of our theory.

  15. Comment on "Apatite 4He/3He and (U-Th)/He evidence for an ancient Grand Canyon".

    PubMed

    Karlstrom, Karl E; Lee, John; Kelley, Shari; Crow, Ryan; Young, Richard A; Lucchitta, Ivo; Beard, L Sue; Dorsey, Rebecca; Ricketts, Jason W; Dickinson, William R; Crossey, Laura

    2013-04-12

    Flowers and Farley (Reports, 21 December 2012, p. 1616; published online 29 November 2012) propose that the Grand Canyon is 70 million years old. Starkly contrasting models for the age of the Grand Canyon-70 versus 6 million years-can be reconciled by a shallow paleocanyon that was carved in the eastern Grand Canyon 25 to 15 million years ago (Ma), negating the proposed 70 Ma and 55 Ma paleocanyons. Cooling models and geologic data are most consistent with a 5 to 6 Ma age for western Grand Canyon and Marble Canyon.

  16. Comment on “Apatite 4He/3He and (U-Th)/He Evidence for an Ancient Grand Canyon”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlstrom, Karl E.; Lee, John; Kelley, Shari; Crow, Ryan; Young, Richard A.; Lucchitta, Ivo; Beard, L. Sue; Dorsey, Rebecca; Ricketts, Jason W.; Dickinson, William R.; Crossey, Laura

    2013-04-01

    Flowers and Farley (Reports, 21 December 2012, p. 1616; published online 29 November 2012) propose that the Grand Canyon is 70 million years old. Starkly contrasting models for the age of the Grand Canyon—70 versus 6 million years—can be reconciled by a shallow paleocanyon that was carved in the eastern Grand Canyon 25 to 15 million years ago (Ma), negating the proposed 70 Ma and 55 Ma paleocanyons. Cooling models and geologic data are most consistent with a 5 to 6 Ma age for western Grand Canyon and Marble Canyon.

  17. Investigation of rifting processes in the Rio Grande Rift using data from unusually large earthquake swarms

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, A.; Balch, R.; House, L.; Hartse, H.

    1995-12-01

    San Acacia Swarm in the Rio Grande Rift. Because the Rio Grande rift is one of the best seismically instrumented rift zones in the world, studying its seismicity provides an exceptional opportunity to explore the active tectonic processes within continental rifts. We have been studying earthquake swarms recorded near Socorro in an effort to link seismicity directly to the rifting process. For FY94, our research has focused on the San Acacia swarm, which occurred 25 km north of Socorro, New Mexico, along the accommodation zone between the Albuquerque-Belen and Socorro basins of the central Rio Grande rift. The swarm commenced on 25 February 1983, had a magnitude 4.2 main shock on 2 March and ended on 17 March, 1983.

  18. Age and diet of fossil California condors in Grand Canyon, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Emslie, S.D.

    1987-08-14

    A dozen new radiocarbon dates, together with a thorough review of its fossil distribution, shed new light on the time and probable cause of extinction of the California condor, Gymnogyps californianus, in Grand Canyon, Arizona. The radiocarbon data indicate that this species became extinct in Grand Canyon, and other parts of the inland West, more than 10,000 years ago in coincidence with the extinction of megafauna (proboscidians, edentates, perissodactyls). That condors relied on the megafauna for food is suggested by the recovery of food bones from a late Pleistocene nest cave in Grand Canyon. These fossil data have relevance to proposed release and recovery programs of the present endangered population of California condors. 19 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  19. Addressing the Grand Challenge of atmospheric carbon dioxide: geologic sequestration vs. biological recycling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    On February 15, 2008, the National Academy of Engineering unveiled their list of 14 Grand Challenges for Engineering. Building off of tremendous advancements in the past century, these challenges were selected for their role in assuring a sustainable existence for the rapidly increasing global community. It is no accident that the first five Challenges on the list involve the development of sustainable energy sources and management of environmental resources. While the focus of this review is to address the single Grand Challenge of "develop carbon sequestration methods", is will soon be clear that several other Challenges are intrinsically tied to it through the principles of sustainability. How does the realm of biological engineering play a role in addressing these Grand Challenges? PMID:22047501

  20. Applying the World Water and Agriculture Model to Filling Scenarios for the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, Daniel L.; Tidwell, Vincent C.; Passell, Howard D.; Roberts, Barry L.

    2016-11-01

    The World Water and Agriculture Model has been used to simulate water, hydropower, and food sector effects in Egypt, Sudan, and Ethiopia during the filling of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam reservoir. This unique capability allows tradeoffs to be made between filling policies for the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam reservoir. This Nile River Basin study is presented to illustrate the capacity to use the World Water and Agriculture Model to simulate regional food security issues while keeping a global perspective. The study uses runoff data from the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 and information from the literature in order to establish a reasonable set of hydrological initial conditions. Gross Domestic Product and population growth are modelled exogenously based on a composite projection of United Nations and World Bank data. The effects of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam under various percentages of water withheld are presented.

  1. Apatite 4He/3He thermochronometry evidence for an ancient Grand Canyon, Colorado Plateau, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers, R. M.; Farley, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    The very existence of Grand Canyon inspires questions about why canyons are carved, how drainage systems and landscapes evolve, and how these processes relate to the elevation gain of plateaus. Yet when and why Grand Canyon was carved have been extraordinarily controversial for more than 150 years. Over the last several decades, the dominant view for the origin of the canyon is one of rapid incision at 5-6 Ma, when detritus derived from the upstream reaches of the Colorado River system appeared in Grand Wash Trough at the Colorado River's western exit from the Colorado Plateau. The absence of such diagnostic deposits prior to 6 Ma has been used to argue that Grand Canyon was not yet excavated (e.g., Karlstrom et al., 2008). However, a variety of data hint at a more ancient age for part or all of the canyon, and it has been proposed that a smaller drainage basin in largely carbonate lithologies could explain the absence of pre-6 Ma Colorado River clastics in Grand Wash Trough even if a significant Grand Canyon were present. Most recently, apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) thermochronometry data from western Grand Canyon were used to infer excavation of this area to within several hundred meters of its modern depth by ca. 70 Ma (Wernicke, 2011), an interpretation in direct conflict with the young canyon model. The unexpected implications of the initial Grand Canyon AHe work motivated the apatite 4He/3He and U-Th zonation study presented here. Apatite 4He/3He thermochronometry provides information about the spatial distribution of radiogenic 4He in an apatite crystal that can better constrain a sample's cooling history. A key premise of AHe and 4He/3He spectra interpretation is that the He kinetic model used is accurate. We first investigate whether differing 4He/3He spectra for apatites of variable AHe date, radiation damage, and U-Th zonation from eastern Grand Canyon yield mutually consistent thermal history results using the RDAAM kinetic model, which must be true if the

  2. Vegetation and substrate properties of aeolian dune fields in the Colorado River corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes vegetation and substrate properties of aeolian landscapes in the Colorado River corridor through Grand Canyon, Arizona, in Grand Canyon National Park. Characterizing these parameters provides a basis from which to assess future changes in this ecosystem, including the spread of nonnative plant species. Differences are apparent between aeolian dune fields that are downwind of where modern controlled flooding deposits new sandbars (modern-fluvial-sourced dune fields) and those that have received little or no new windblown sand since river regulation began in the 1960s (relict-fluvial-sourced dune fields). The most substantial difference between modern- and relict-fluvial-sourced aeolian dune fields is the greater abundance of biologic soil crust in relict dune fields. These findings can be used with similar investigations in other geomorphic settings in Grand Canyon and elsewhere in the Colorado River corridor to evaluate the health of the Colorado River ecosystem over time.

  3. Nursing grand rounds as a medium for the continuing education of nurses.

    PubMed

    Wolak, Eric S; Cairns, Bruce; Smith, Elaine

    2008-04-01

    Grand rounds are an educational technique used by the medical profession, yet only sporadically used in nursing. When grand round are employed, knowledge can be disseminated on a consistent basis. No literature was found detailing the effectiveness and value of such programs. This article describes a small pilot study that assessed the effect on knowledge and the perceived value of a nursing grand rounds (NGR) format. To measure these two concepts, those who attended the inaugural NGR presentation were given a posttest and an assessment survey 1 year after the presentation. The posttest focused on key concepts presented, and the survey rated perceived value and knowledge on a scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Results demonstrated positive knowledge acquisition and a high perceived value. This assessment review lends support to the use of institutional NGR as a means of continuing education and professional advancement.

  4. Le schwannome malin du nerf grand sciatique chez l'enfant

    PubMed Central

    Lechqar, Maryem; Elbiache, Imad; Atarraf, Karima; Bouabdellah, Youssef; Afifi, My Abderahman

    2012-01-01

    Le schwannome malin est une tumeur très rare chez l'enfant (1 à 2% des tumeurs des tissus mous), elle se développe au dépend des cellules de schwanne. Dans ce travail, les auteurs rapportent un cas de schwannome malin développé au dépend du nerf grand sciatique. La radiographie de la cuisse de face et de profil était normale. L'imagerie par résonance magnétique a identifié une lésion le long du trajet du nerf grand sciatique. La tumeur a été réséquée en totalité emportant le nerf grand sciatique. L'examen anatomo-pathologique a confirmé le diagnostic. PMID:23133710

  5. Thermodynamic signatures of an underlying quantum phase transition: A grand canonical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, Kevin; Reslen, Jose

    2016-08-01

    The grand canonical formalism is employed to study the thermodynamic structure of a model displaying a quantum phase transition when studied with respect to the canonical formalism. A numerical survey shows that the grand partition function diverges following a power law when the interaction parameter approaches a limiting constant. The power-law exponent takes a distinctive value when such limiting constant coincides with the critical point of the subjacent quantum phase transition. An approximated expression for the grand partition function is derived analytically implementing a mean field scheme and a number of thermodynamic observables are obtained. The system observables show signatures that can be used to track the critical point of the underlying transition. This result provides a simple fact that can be exploited to verify the existence of a quantum phase transition avoiding the zero temperature regime.

  6. Age and diet of fossil california condors in grand canyon, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Emslie, S D

    1987-08-14

    A dozen new radiocarbon dates, together with a thorough review of its fossil distribution, shed new light on the time and probable cause of extinction of the California condor, Gymnogyps californianus, in Grand Canyon, Arizona. The radiocarbon data indicate that this species became extinct in Grand Canyon, and other parts of the inland West, more than 10,000 years ago in coincidence with the extinction of megafauna (proboscidians, edentates, perissodactyls). That condors relied on the megafauna for food is suggested by the recovery of food bones from a late Pleistocene nest cave in Grand Canyon. These fossil data have relevance to proposed release and recovery programs of the present endangered population of California condors.

  7. Grand challenges in the management and conservation of North American inland fishes and fisheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lynch, Abigail; Cooke, Steven J.; Beard, Douglas; Kao, Yu-Chun; Lorenzen, Kai; Song, Andrew M.; Allen, Micheal S.; Basher, Zeenatul; Bunnell, David; Camp, Edward V.; Cowx, Ian G.; Freedman, Jonathan A.; Nguyen, Vivian M.; Nohner, Joel K.; Rogers, Mark W.; Siders, Zachary A.; Taylor, William W.; Youn, So-Jung

    2017-01-01

    Even with long-standing management and extensive science support, North American inland fish and fisheries still face many conservation and management challenges. We used a grand challenges approach to identify critical roadblocks that if removed would help solve important problems in the management and long-term conservation of North American inland fish and fisheries. We identified seven grand challenges within three themes (valuation, governance, and externalities) and 34 research needs and management actions. The major themes identified are to (1) raise awareness of diverse values associated with inland fish and fisheries, (2) govern inland fish and fisheries to satisfy multiple use and conservation objectives, and (3) ensure productive inland fisheries given nonfishing sector externalities. Addressing these grand challenges will help the broader community understand the diverse values of inland fish and fisheries, promote open forums for engagement of diverse stakeholders in fisheries management, and better integrate the inland fish sector into the greater water and land use policy process.

  8. Merged digital aeromagnetic data for the middle Rio Grande and southern Espanola basins, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweeney, Ronald E.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.

    2002-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently conducted a multi-disciplinary study of the Middle Rio Grande basin (Bartolino and Cole, 2002; Fig. 1). The main purpose of this study was to gain a better multi-dimensional understanding of the basin's hydrogeologic framework and use this new understanding to construct an improved regional ground-water flow model. The Middle Rio Grande basin fill serves as the primary water resource for Albuquerque and surrounding communities (Thorn and others, 1993). It is composed of poorly consolidated, Tertiary to Quaternary sediments, collectively called the Santa Fe Group. These sediments were deposited during the Tertiary to Quaternary development of the Rio Grande rift (Fig. 1, inset). The strata vary in thickness from 1,000 to more than 4,000 m and range from mudstone to conglomerate (Kelley, 1977; May and Russell, 1994).

  9. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Grand Junction, Colorado. Revision 1, Version 6

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan describes the planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the Grand Junction US DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site (GRJ-01) in Grand Junction, Colorado, and at the Cheney Disposal Site (GRJ-03) near Grand Junction. The plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for the routine monitoring stations at the sites. Regulatory basis is in the US EPA regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and EPA ground water quality standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). This plan summarizes results of past water sampling activities, details water sampling activities planned for the next 2 years, and projects sampling activities for the next 5 years.

  10. Could a future "Grand Solar Minimum" like the Maunder Minimum stop global warming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meehl, Gerald A.; Arblaster, Julie M.; Marsh, Daniel R.

    2013-05-01

    A future Maunder Minimum type grand solar minimum, with total solar irradiance reduced by 0.25% over a 50 year period from 2020 to 2070, is imposed in a future climate change scenario experiment (RCP4.5) using, for the first time, a global coupled climate model that includes ozone chemistry and resolved stratospheric dynamics (Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model). This model has been shown to simulate two amplifying mechanisms that produce regional signals of decadal climate variability comparable to observations, and thus is considered a credible tool to simulate the Sun's effects on Earth's climate. After the initial decrease of solar radiation in 2020, globally averaged surface air temperature cools relative to the reference simulation by up to several tenths of a degree Centigrade. By the end of the grand solar minimum in 2070, the warming nearly catches up to the reference simulation. Thus, a future grand solar minimum could slow down but not stop global warming.

  11. A Miocene river in northern Arizona and its implications for the Colorado River and Grand Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucchitta, I.; Holm, R.F.; Lucchitta, B.K.

    2011-01-01

    The southwesterly course of the pre–late Miocene Crooked Ridge River can be traced continuously for 48 km and discontinuously for 91 km in northern Arizona. It is visible today in inverted relief. Pebbles in the river gravel came from at least as far northeast as the San Juan Mountains. The river valley was carved out of easily eroded Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks, whose debris overloaded the river with abundant detritus, possibly steepening the gradient. After the river became inactive, the regional drainage network was rearranged twice, and the Four Corners region was lowered by erosion 1–2 km. The river provides constraints on the history of the Colorado River and Grand Canyon; its continuation into lakes in Arizona or Utah is unlikely, as is integration of the Colorado River through Grand Canyon by lake spillover. The downstream course of the river was probably across the Kaibab Arch in a valley roughly coincident with the present eastern Grand Canyon.

  12. Growth and mortality of Cichla spp. (Perciformes, Cichlidae) introduced in Volta Grande Reservoir (Grande River) and in a small artificial lake in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomiero, L M; Carmassi, A L; Rondineli, G R; Villares Junior, G A; Braga, F M S

    2010-11-01

    The growth and mortality parameters were estimated through the analysis of length frequency distribution for species of Cichla spp. introduced into a lake in Leme (SP), and in Volta Grande reservoir (SP-MG). In Leme, Cichla kelberi presented larger frequency in the inferior classes of lengths, larger instantaneous rate of natural mortality, and smaller number of cohorts than C. kelberi and C. piquiti in Volta Grande. The values of growth performance obtained for the species were similar, corroborating the validity of the estimated growth and mortality parameters. The increase of the growth rate in small and less diverse environments occurs due to predation. The genus Cichla adapts well in locations in which it is introduced, however this adaptation shows itself to be strongly adjusted to each particular location, determining great plasticity and establishment capacity.

  13. Physical and chemical properties of water and sediments, Grand Portage and Wauswaugoning Bays, Lake Superior, Grand Portage Indian Reservation, northeastern Minnesota, 1993-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruhl, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    This report is a compilation of data on the physical and chemical properties of water and sediments in Grand Portage and Wauswaugoning Bays of Lake Superior along the shoreline of the Grand Portage Indian Reservation. The data were collected during 1993-96 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Grand Portage Indian Reservation. The data include: (1) temperature, pH, and specific conductance measurements and dissolved oxygen concentrations; (2) Secchi disk transparency, alkalinity, and turbidity measurements; (3) fecal Coliform and fecal Streptococcal bacteria colony counts (per 100 milliliters of sample water); (4) major and minor ion, nutrient, and trace-metal concentrations; (5) dissolved and suspended residue concentrations; (6) pesticide, phenol, and asbestos concentrations; (7) suspended sediment trace-metal concentrations; and (8) bottom sediment trace-metal concentrations. Water samples were collected from nine sites; suspended and bottom sediment samples were collected from five sites. The data in this report can be used to evaluate present water-quality conditions and as a reference to monitor potential long-term changes in these conditions.

  14. Full canonical information from grand-potential density-functional theory.

    PubMed

    de Las Heras, Daniel; Schmidt, Matthias

    2014-12-05

    We present a general and formally exact method to obtain the canonical one-body density distribution and the canonical free energy from direct decomposition of classical density functional results in the grand ensemble. We test the method for confined one-dimensional hard-core particles for which the exact grand potential density functional is explicitly known. The results agree to within high accuracy with those from exact methods and our Monte Carlo many-body simulations. The method is relevant for treating finite systems and for dynamical density functional theory.

  15. A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the Lower Rio Grande

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    Riparian Plants of the Lower Rio Grande _____ Chetta S. Owens, Michael J. Grodowitz, and Fred Nibling April 2005 A~~~loilisCrit \\,~~ni .... W]oGa de 6...Program April 2005 A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the Lower Rio Grande Chetta S. Owens Analytical Services, Inc., Lewisville...DATES COVERED (From - To) April 2005 Final report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the

  16. Wildlife Mitigation and Restoration for Grand Coulee Dam: Blue Creek Project, Phase 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Merker, Christopher

    1993-04-01

    This report is a recommendation from the Spokane Tribe to the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) for partial mitigation for the extensive wildlife and wildlife habitat losses on the Spokane Indian Reservation caused by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam. NPPC`s interim wildlife goal over the next 7 years for the Columbia hydropower system, is to protect, mitigate and enhance approximately 35% basin wide of the lost habitat units. Grand Coulee Dam had the greatest habitat losses of any Dams of the Wildlife Rule.

  17. Union County - La Grande, Oregon geothermal district heating: feasibility assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, H. II; Giddings, M.; Hanson, P.

    1982-09-01

    This report presents an assessment of geothermal district heating in the City of La Grande, Oregon. Eight study area districts were analyzed to determine their economic feasibility. Results from the analyses conclude that certain districts within the City of La Grande are economically feasible if certain assumptions are correct. Development of geothermal district heating for these areas would provide direct energy and dollar savings to the building owners and would also provide direct and indirect benefits to low and moderate income households within the City.

  18. Nearshore temperature findings for the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona: possible implications for native fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Robert P.; Vernieu, William S.

    2013-01-01

    Since the completion of Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, in 1963, downstream water temperatures in the main channel of the Colorado River in Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons are much colder in summer. This has negatively affected humpback chub (Gila cypha) and other native fish adapted to seasonally warm water, reducing main-channel spawning activity and impeding the growth and development of larval and juvenile fish. Recently published studies by U.S. Geological Survey scientists found that under certain conditions some isolated nearshore environments in Grand Canyon allow water to become separated from the main-channel current and to warm, providing refuge areas for the development of larval and juvenile fish.

  19. Southwestern riparian plant trait matrix, Colorado River, Grand Canyon, 2014 to 2016 - Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palmquist, Emily C.; Ralston, Barbara; Sarr, Daniel; Merritt, David M.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Scott, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    This dataset contains information on the physical traits and environmental tolerances of plant species occurring along the lower Colorado River through Grand Canyon. Due to the unique combination of plant species within the Grand Canyon, this flora shares species with many riparian areas in the western U.S.A. and represents obligate wetland to obligate upland plant species. Data for the matrix were compiled from published scientific papers, unpublished reports, plant fact sheets, existing trait databases, regional floras, and plant guides. Categorical, ordinal, and continuous data are included in this dataset. This dataset does not contain sensitive or classified data.

  20. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Program, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, Richard W.

    2003-03-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2000.

  1. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, Richard W.

    2003-03-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2001.

  2. The Grand Convergence: Closing the Divide between Public Health Funding and Global Health Needs

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The Global Health 2035 report notes that the “grand convergence”—closure of the infectious, maternal, and child mortality gap between rich and poor countries—is dependent on research and development (R&D) of new drugs, vaccines, diagnostics, and other health tools. However, this convergence (and the R&D underpinning it) will first require an even more fundamental convergence of the different worlds of public health and innovation, where a largely historical gap between global health experts and innovation experts is hindering achievement of the grand convergence in health. PMID:26933890

  3. Restoring The Azimuthal Symmetry Of Charged Particle Lateral Density In The Range Of KASCADE-Grande

    SciTech Connect

    Sima, O.; Rebel, H.; Apel, W. D.; Bekk, K.; Bozdog, H.; Daumiller, K.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Finger, M.; Gils, H. J.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Huege, T.; Isar, P. G.; Klages, H. O.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Milke, J.; Nehls, S.

    2010-11-24

    KASCADE-Grande, an extension of the former KASCADE experiment, is a multi-component Extensive Air Shower (EAS) experiment located in Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Campus North), Germany. An important observable for analyzing the EAS is the lateral density of charged particles in the intrinsic shower plane. This observable is deduced from the basic information provided by the Grande scintillators - the energy deposit - first in the observation plane, by using a Lateral Energy Correction Function (LECF), then in the intrinsic shower plane, by applying an adequate mapping procedure. In both steps azimuthal.

  4. Long-term change along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park (1889-2011)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, R.H.; Belnap, J.; Scott, M. L.; Friedman, J. M.; Esque, T. C.

    2013-01-01

    The Colorado River and its riverine resources have undergone profound changes since completion of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963, as every river runner with any history in Grand Canyon will attest. Long-term monitoring data are difficult to obtain for high-value resource areas (Webb et al. 2009), particularly in remote parts of national parks, yet these data are important to determining appropriate actions for restoration of resources and (or) potential modifications of flow releases on regulated rivers. The river corridor through the bottom of Grand Canyon creates a challenging environment for change-detection monitoring techniques (Belnap et al. 2008).

  5. Grand Marais Harbor, Cook County, Minnesota, Operation and Maintenance Activities, Environment Assessment Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-01

    the Ojibway, who called the harbor "great pond". Later the French voyageurs gave the harbor the name it now carries. Interpreted literally, Grand...Marais means "great swamp" but in the special vocabu- lary of the voyageurs , "usrais" referred to a harbor-of-refuge or a protected cove. " 2.621 The...total commerce for Grand Marais Harbor consisted of logs and pulpwood. Commerce reached a peak of over 78,000 tons in 1958, then diminished somewhat

  6. Mesohabitats, fish assemblage composition, and mesohabitat use of the Rio Grande silvery minnow over a range of seasonal flow regimes in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte, in and near Big Bend National Park, Texas, 2010-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moring, J. Bruce; Braun, Christopher L.; Pearson, Daniel K.

    2014-01-01

    There were no statistically significant differences between the stream velocities associated with seine hauls of the Rio Grande silvery minnow and Tamaulipas shiner. Stream velocities associated with the seine hauls that included Rio Grande silvery minnow indicate that this species is predominantly found in low-velocity mesohabitats. Velocities associated with seine hauls that included the Tamaulipas shiner represented a much broader overall range of velocities than those associated with Rio Grande silvery minnow collections. No statistically significant differences were found between the depths for seine hauls that included Rio Grande silvery minnow or Tamaulipas shiner. The Rio Grande silvery minnow was more commonly collected in seine hauls from mesohabitats dominated by cobble substrates and less frequently collected in mesohabitats with substrates dominated by fine-sized silt and clay particles, gravels, and sands, in that order. In contrast, the Tamaulipas shiner was broadly distributed among mesohabitats characterized as having gravel, cobble, and silt and clay.

  7. 75 FR 75170 - Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc.: Bemidji to Grand Rapids 230 kV Transmission Line Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-02

    ... Rural Utilities Service Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc.: Bemidji to Grand Rapids 230 kV Transmission... to Grand Rapids 230 kV Transmission Line Project (Project) in Beltrami, Hubbard, Itasca, and Cass... construct the 230 kilovolt (kV) transmission line between the Wilton Substation near Bemidji, Minnesota...

  8. 76 FR 15936 - Designation for the Owensboro, KY; Bloomington, IL; Iowa Falls, IA; Casa Grande, AZ; Fargo, ND...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Designation for the Owensboro, KY; Bloomington, IL; Iowa Falls, IA; Casa Grande, AZ; Fargo, ND; Grand Forks, ND; and Plainview, TX Areas...

  9. 78 FR 25574 - Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Cocoa...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final... Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, a series of high-speed... Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida. Approximately 30 high-speed power boats are anticipated...

  10. 78 FR 33969 - Special Local Regulations; Daytona Beach Grand Prix of the Sea, Atlantic Ocean; Daytona Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Daytona Beach Grand Prix of the Sea, Atlantic Ocean; Daytona Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule... east of Daytona Beach, Florida, during the Daytona Beach Grand Prix of the Sea, a series of...

  11. 75 FR 57024 - Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees From the Grand Junction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Program Act of 2000. The initial proposed definition for the class being evaluated, subject to revision as warranted by the evaluation, is as follows: Facility: Grand Junction Operations Office. Location: Grand... personnel, and Fire Chief. Period of Employment: January 1, 1943 through July 31, 2010. FOR...

  12. 75 FR 52925 - Opportunity for Designation in the Owensboro, KY; Bloomington, IL; Iowa Falls, IA; Casa Grande...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ...; Bloomington, IL; Iowa Falls, IA; Casa Grande, AZ; Fargo, ND; Grand Forks, ND; and Plainview, TX Areas; Request for Comments on the Official Agencies Servicing These Areas AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and... official services in the areas presently served by these agencies to submit an application for...

  13. 76 FR 40903 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License...: Grand River Dam Authority. e. Name of Project: Salina Pumped Storage Project. f. Location: The project... River Dam Authority, P.O. Box 409, Vinita, OK 73401-0409. Tel: (918) 256-5545. i. FERC Contact:...

  14. 78 FR 48044 - Safety Zone; San Diego International Airport Terminal Two West Grand Opening Fireworks; San Diego...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... [Docket No. USCG-2013-0637] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego International Airport Terminal Two West... of a fireworks display for the Grand Opening of Lindbergh Airport Terminal Two West on August 8, 2013..., for the San Diego International Airport Terminal Two grand opening. This safety zone is necessary...

  15. Trace elements and heavy metals in the Grand Bay National Estuarine Reserve in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve has the highest biotic diversity of habitats and offer a reserve of food resources and commercially significant species. Rapid human civilization has led to accumulation of heavy metals and trace elements in estuaries. The Grand Bay National Estuarin...

  16. 78 FR 69410 - Grand Tower Energy Center, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Grand Tower Energy Center, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding, of Grand Tower Energy Center, LLC's application for...

  17. 78 FR 55093 - Call for Nominations to the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument Advisory Committee, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... Bureau of Land Management Call for Nominations to the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument... this notice is to request public nominations for two members of the Grand Staircase-Escalante National... science issues and the achievement of the GSENM Monument Management Plan objectives. GSENM will...

  18. 75 FR 76037 - General Motors Corporation Grand Rapids Metal Center Metal Fabricating Division Including On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Employment and Training Administration General Motors Corporation Grand Rapids Metal Center Metal Fabricating..., applicable to workers of General Motors Corporation, Grand Rapids Metal Center, Metal Fabricating Division... related to the production of metal stampings and sub- assembled metal sheet components. The...

  19. Magnetotelluric data in the middle Rio Grande basin, Albuquerque volcanoes, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Jackie M.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2002-01-01

    The population in the Albuquerque-Santa Fe region of New Mexico is rapidly growing. The Santa Fe Group aquifer in the Middle Rio Grande Basin is the main source of municipal water for the greater Albuquerque metropolitan area. The capacity of this aquifer is more limited than previously thought (Thorn et al., 1993). The Middle Rio Grande Basin, as defined hydrologically and used here, is the area within the Rio Grande Valley extending from Cochiti Dam downstream to the community of San Acacia (Figure 1). Because approximately 600,000 people (40 percent of the population of New Mexico) live in the study area (Bartolino, 1999), water shortfalls could have serious consequences. Future growth and land management in the region depends on accurate assessment and protection of the region’s groundwater resources. An important issue in defining the ground water resources is a better understanding of the hydrogeology of the Santa Fe Group and the other sedimentary deposits that fill the Rio Grande rift.

  20. 75 FR 22333 - Safety Zone; Michigan City Super Boat Grand Prix, Lake Michigan, Michigan City, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Michigan City Super Boat Grand Prix, Lake Michigan, Michigan City, IN AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to establish a temporary safety zone on Lake Michigan near Michigan City,...

  1. 75 FR 34932 - Safety Zone; Michigan City Super Boat Grand Prix, Lake Michigan, Michigan City, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Michigan City Super Boat Grand Prix, Lake Michigan, Michigan City, IN AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake Michigan near Michigan City, Indiana. This zone...

  2. Tracking Student Participants from a REU Site with NAE Grand Challenges as the Common Theme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkett, Susan; Dye, Tabatha; Johnson, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    The National Academy of Engineering (NAE) Grand Challenges provides the theme for this NSFfunded Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) site. Research topics, with their broad societal impact, allow undergraduate students from multiple engineering disciplines and computer science to work together on exciting and critical problems. The…

  3. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, Richard W.

    2003-07-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2002. The Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Project is designed to rapidly increase numbers of salmon in stocks that are in imminent danger of extirpation. Parr are captured in Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River and Lostine River and reared to adulthood in captivity. Upon maturation, they are spawned (within stocks) and their progeny reared to smoltification before being released into the natal stream of their parents. This program is co-managed by ODFW, National Marine Fisheries Service, the Nez Perce Tribe and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation.

  4. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project Site at Grand Junction, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this initial site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Grand Junction, Colorado. This SOWP is one of the first UMTRA Ground Water Project documents developed to select a compliance strategy that meets the UMTRA ground water standards (40 CFR Part 192, as amended by 60 FR 2854) for the Grand Junction site. This SOWP applies information about the Grand Junction site to the compliance strategy selection framework developed in the UMTRA Ground Water Project draft programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This risk-based, decision-making framework identifies the decision logic for selecting compliance strategies that could be used to meet the ground water standards. The DOE goal is to use the observational method to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. Based on an evaluation of the site characterization and risk assessment data available for the preparation of this SOWP, DOE proposes that the most likely compliance strategy for the Grand Junction site is no remediation based on the application of supplemental standards. This proposed strategy is based on a conceptual site model that indicates site-related contamination is confined to a limited-use aquifer as defined in the ground water standards.

  5. Environmental Degradation in a Dependent Region: The Rio Grande Valley of Mexico and Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Richard C.

    1999-01-01

    Traces the interrelationships among dependence, environmental degradation, and human health in the Rio Grande Valley of Mexico and Texas. Presents a case study on environmental factors threatening family health in households located on both sides of the border; the health problems can be overcome by addressing restrictive zoning, health services,…

  6. Projecting avian responses to landscape management along the Middle Rio Grande, New Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lack of flooding due to river impoundments on the middle Rio Grande has contributed to the spread of exotic vegetation with dense understory fuel loads. Restoration has focused on understory vegetation thinning but it is unclear how these actions impact bird populations. We quantified densities of ...

  7. The Grand Canyon and Other Holes in the Ground. Natural Wonder Notebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1983-01-01

    The Grand Canyon, the natural wonder visited most often in the United States, is explored on foot, on burro, and by boat in this article. Learn about the canyon's different rock layers as well as its erosion, plant life, animal life, and water flow. (JM)

  8. 76 FR 18547 - Grand River Dam Authority, Salina Pumped Storage Project; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority, Salina Pumped Storage Project; Notice of Proposed... Inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places Rule 2010 of the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  9. Poverty in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas: Historical and Contemporary Dimensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael V.; Maril, Robert Lee

    Relative to other urbanized areas, the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas consistently ranks at the bottom in regard to almost every objective indicator of socioeconomic welfare: per capita income, educational attainment, employment, and health and housing conditions. The 1970 census discovered that approximately one-half of its population,…

  10. Urban Impact of Dissolved Metals in the Paso del Norte Segment of the Rio Grande

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiwan, Sumayeh Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The Paso del Norte segment of the Rio Grande experiences two seasons per year; the (wet) irrigation season and the (dry) non-irrigation season. The goal of this study was to improve the understanding of occurrence and contribution of dissolved metals in this region during the non-irrigation season. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate…

  11. 75 FR 21194 - Special Local Regulation; Harrison Township Grand Prix, Lake St. Clair; Harrison Township, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Harrison Township Grand Prix, Lake St. Clair; Harrison Township, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Port Detroit Zone on Lake St. Clair, Harrison Township, Michigan. This special local regulation...

  12. 75 FR 39445 - Special Local Regulation; Harrison Township Grand Prix, Lake St. Clair, Harrison Township, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Harrison Township Grand Prix, Lake St. Clair, Harrison Township, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY... Detroit Zone on Lake St. Clair, Harrison Township, Michigan. This special local regulation is intended...

  13. Grand Coulee Dam Wildlife Mitigation Program : Pygmy Rabbit Programmatic Management Plan, Douglas County, Washington.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul

    1992-06-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council and the Bonneville Power Administration approved the pygmy rabbit project as partial mitigation for impacts caused by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam. The focus of this project is the protection and enhancement of shrub-steppe/pygmy rabbit habitat in northeastern Washington.

  14. The last 30,000 years of faunal history within the Grand Canyon, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, Jim I.

    1981-05-01

    The vertebrate fauna of the last 30,000 radiocarbon years in the Grand Canyon is reviewed. Faunas accompanied with 92 14C dates have been analyzed from nine cave sites (four systematically excavated) and 50 packrat middens. Reasonably precise chronological and environmental data of late Pleistocene and Holocene age were obtained through dung studies in Rampart, Muav, and Stanton's Caves; from the numerous packrat middens; and from a ringtail refuse deposit in Vulture Cave. The desert tortoise, 8 species of lizards, 12 species of snakes, 68 species of birds, and 33 species of mammals are identified. Extinct animals include the avian carrion feeder, Teratornis merriami, and the mammalian herbivores, Oreamnos harringtoni, Camelops cf. hesternus, Equus sp., and Nothrotheriops shastense. There is no apparent abrupt end to the late Pleistocene as observed in the Grand Canyon fossil faunal or floral record. Animal and plant taxa of the Grand Canyon responded individually to the changes in climate of the last 30,000 yr. Both animal and plant fossil assemblages indicate that a pre-full glacial, a full glacial, and a late glacial woodland community with many less dominant desert taxa were slowly replaced by a Holocene desert community. All woodland taxa were absent from the lower elevations of the Grand Canyon by 8500 yr B.P.

  15. A Comparison of the Teaching of Chemistry in French Grandes Ecoles and British Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutcliffe, H.

    1982-01-01

    A comparison of chemistry teaching in French "Grandes Ecoles" and British universities focuses on entry requirements, course structure and content, teaching methods, assessment, and relationship to industry. Ways in which each country can benefit from the other's practices are outlined. A breakdown of program hours in selected…

  16. The Rise and Fall of Open Solar Flux During the Current Grand Solar Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockwood, M.; Rouillard, A. P.; Finch, I. D.

    2009-08-01

    We use geomagnetic activity data to study the rise and fall over the past century of the solar wind flow speed V SW, the interplanetary magnetic field strength B, and the open solar flux F S. Our estimates include allowance for the kinematic effect of longitudinal structure in the solar wind flow speed. As well as solar cycle variations, all three parameters show a long-term rise during the first half of the 20th century followed by peaks around 1955 and 1986 and then a recent decline. Cosmogenic isotope data reveal that this constitutes a grand maximum of solar activity which began in 1920, using the definition that such grand maxima are when 25-year averages of the heliospheric modulation potential exceeds 600 MV. Extrapolating the linear declines seen in all three parameters since 1985, yields predictions that the grand maximum will end in the years 2013, 2014, or 2027 using V SW, F S, or B, respectively. These estimates are consistent with predictions based on the probability distribution of the durations of past grand solar maxima seen in cosmogenic isotope data. The data contradict any suggestions of a floor to the open solar flux: we show that the solar minimum open solar flux, kinematically corrected to allow for the excess flux effect, has halved over the past two solar cycles.

  17. Water Quality Protection of the Grand Lake St. Marys in Ohio

    EPA Science Inventory

    Grand Lake St. Marys (GLSM) in northwestern Ohio is experiencing toxic levels of algal blooms resulting from nutrients, especially phosphorus (P) input from agricultural runoff. Originally constructed as a feeder reservoir for the Miami and Erie Canal, recreation activities on t...

  18. Using Grand Challenges For Innovative Teaching in Structural Geology, Geophysics, and Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaris, J. R.; Tewksbury, B. J.; Wysession, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    An innovative approach to teaching involves using the "Big Ideas" or "Grand Challenges" of a field, as determined by the research community in that area, as the basis for classroom activities. There have been several recent efforts in the areas of structural geology, tectonics, and geophysics to determine these Grand Challenges, including the areas of seismology ("Seismological Grand Challenges in Understanding Earth's Dynamic Systems"), mineral physics ("Unlocking the Building Blocks of the Planet"), EarthScope-related science ("Unlocking the Secrets of the North American Continent: An EarthScope Science Plan for 2010-2020"), and structural geology and tectonics (at the Structural Geology and Tectonics Forum held at Williams College in June, 2012). These research community efforts produced frameworks of the essential information for their fields with the aim of guiding future research. An integral part of this, however, is training the next generation of scientists, and using these Big Ideas as the basis for course structures and activities is a powerful way to make this happen. When activities, labs, and homeworks are drawn from relevant and cutting-edge research topics, students can find the material more fascinating and engaging, and can develop a better sense of the dynamic process of scientific discovery. Many creative ideas for incorporating the Grand Challenges of structural geology, tectonics, and geophysics in the classroom were developed at a Cutting Edge workshop on "Teaching Structural Geology, Geophysics, and Tectonics in the 21st Century" held at the University of Tennessee in July, 2012.

  19. Projecting avian responses to landscape managment along the middle RIO GRANDE, New Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lack of flooding due to river impoundments on the middle Rio Grande has contributed to the spread of exotic vegetation with dense understory fuel loads. Restoration has focused on understory vegetation thinning but it is unclear how these actions impact bird populations. We quantified densities of ...

  20. Achieving large ends with limited means: grand strategy in global health.

    PubMed

    Curry, Leslie A; Luong, Minh A; Krumholz, Harlan M; Gaddis, John; Kennedy, Paul; Rulisa, Stephen; Taylor, Lauren; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2010-06-01

    Unprecedented attention is focused on global health, with a four-fold increase in development assistance in the last 15 years and the scope of global health expanding beyond infectious disease to include chronic disease and health systems strengthening. As the global impact of health is more widely understood, it has become a crucial element of international relations, economic development, and foreign affairs. At this potential leverage point in the global health movement, the application of grand strategy is of critical importance. Grand strategy, i.e., the development and implementation of comprehensive plans of action to achieve large ends with limited means, has been refined through centuries of international relations and the management of states but has been inadequately applied to global health policy and implementation. We review key principles of grand strategy and demonstrate their applicability to a central global health issue: maternal mortality. The principles include: start with the end in mind, take an ecological approach, recognize that tactics matter, use positive deviance to characterize practical solutions and foster scale-up, and integrate timely intelligence and data into health interventions and improvement efforts. We advocate for the greater use of grand strategy in global health.