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  1. The first 50Myr of dinosaur evolution: macroevolutionary pattern and morphological disparity.

    PubMed

    Brusatte, Stephen L; Benton, Michael J; Ruta, Marcello; Lloyd, Graeme T

    2008-12-23

    The evolutionary radiation of dinosaurs in the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic was a pivotal event in the Earth's history but is poorly understood, as previous studies have focused on vague driving mechanisms and have not untangled different macroevolutionary components (origination, diversity, abundance and disparity). We calculate the morphological disparity (morphospace occupation) of dinosaurs throughout the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic and present new measures of taxonomic diversity. Crurotarsan archosaurs, the primary dinosaur 'competitors', were significantly more disparate than dinosaurs throughout the Triassic, but underwent a devastating extinction at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. However, dinosaur disparity showed only a slight non-significant increase after this event, arguing against the hypothesis of ecological release-driven morphospace expansion in the Early Jurassic. Instead, the main jump in dinosaur disparity occurred between the Carnian and Norian stages of the Triassic. Conversely, dinosaur diversity shows a steady increase over this time, and measures of diversification and faunal abundance indicate that the Early Jurassic was a key episode in dinosaur evolution. Thus, different aspects of the dinosaur radiation (diversity, disparity and abundance) were decoupled, and the overall macroevolutionary pattern of the first 50Myr of dinosaur evolution is more complex than often considered.

  2. Molecular evolution tracks macroevolutionary transitions in Cetacea.

    PubMed

    McGowen, Michael R; Gatesy, John; Wildman, Derek E

    2014-06-01

    Cetacea (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) is a model group for investigating the molecular signature of macroevolutionary transitions. Recent research has begun to reveal the molecular underpinnings of the remarkable anatomical and behavioral transformation in this clade. This shift from terrestrial to aquatic environments is arguably the best-understood major morphological transition in vertebrate evolution. The ancestral body plan and physiology were extensively modified and, in many cases, these crucial changes are recorded in cetacean genomes. Recent studies have highlighted cetaceans as central to understanding adaptive molecular convergence and pseudogene formation. Here, we review current research in cetacean molecular evolution and the potential of Cetacea as a model for the study of other macroevolutionary transitions from a genomic perspective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular evolution across the Asteraceae: micro- and macroevolutionary processes.

    PubMed

    Kane, Nolan C; Barker, Michael S; Zhan, Shing H; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2011-12-01

    The Asteraceae (Compositae) is a large family of over 20,000 wild, weedy, and domesticated species that comprise approximately 10% of all angiosperms, including annual and perennial herbs, shrubs and trees, and species on every continent except Antarctica. As a result, the Asteraceae provide a unique opportunity to understand the evolutionary genomics of lineage radiation and diversification at numerous phylogenetic scales. Using publicly available expressed sequence tags from 22 species representing four of the major Asteraceae lineages, we assessed neutral and nonneutral evolutionary processes across this diverse plant family. We used bioinformatic tools to identify candidate genes under selection in each species. Evolution at silent and coding sites were assessed for different Gene Ontology functional categories to compare rates of evolution over both short and long evolutionary timescales. Our results indicate that patterns of molecular change across the family are surprisingly consistent on a macroevolutionary timescale and much more so more than would be predicted from the analysis of one (or many) examples of microevolution. These analyses also point to particular classes of genes that may be crucial in shaping the radiation of this diverse plant family. Similar analyses of nuclear and chloroplast genes in six other plant families confirm that many of these patterns are common features of the plant kingdom.

  4. A molecular signaling approach to linking intraspecific variation and macro-evolutionary patterns.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Eli M; Snell-Rood, Emilie C

    2014-11-01

    Macro-evolutionary comparisons are a valued tool in evolutionary biology. Nevertheless, our understanding of how systems involved in molecular signaling change in concert with phenotypic diversification has lagged. We argue that integrating our understanding of the evolution of molecular signaling systems with phylogenetic comparative methods is an important step toward understanding the processes linking variation among individuals with variation among species. Focusing mostly on the endocrine system, we discuss how the complexity and mechanistic nature of molecular signaling systems may influence the application and interpretation of macro-evolutionary comparisons. We also detail five hypotheses concerning the role that physiological mechanisms can play in shaping macro-evolutionary patterns, and discuss ways in which these hypotheses could influence phenotypic diversification. Finally, we review a series of tools able to analyze the complexity of physiological systems and the way they change in concert with the phenotypes for which they coordinate development. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Integration and macroevolutionary patterns in the pollination biology of conifers.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Andrew B; Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Crane, Peter R; Knopf, Patrick; Donoghue, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    Integration influences patterns of trait evolution, but the relationship between these patterns and the degree of trait integration is not well understood. To explore this further, we study a specialized pollination mechanism in conifers whose traits are linked through function but not development. This mechanism depends on interactions among three characters: pollen that is buoyant, ovules that face downward at pollination, and the production of a liquid droplet that buoyant grains float through to enter the ovule. We use a well-sampled phylogeny of conifers to test correlated evolution among these characters and specific sequences of character change. Using likelihood models of character evolution, we find that pollen morphology and ovule characters evolve in a concerted manner, where the flotation mechanism breaks down irreversibly following changes in orientation or drop production. The breakdown of this functional constraint, which may be facilitated by the lack of developmental integration among the constituent traits, is associated with increased trait variation and more diverse pollination strategies. Although this functional "release" increases diversity in some ways, the irreversible way in which the flotation mechanism is lost may eventually result in its complete disappearance from seed plant reproductive biology. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Biogeography predicts macro-evolutionary patterning of gestural display complexity in a passerine family.

    PubMed

    Miles, Meredith C; Cheng, Samantha; Fuxjager, Matthew J

    2017-05-01

    Gestural displays are incorporated into the signaling repertoire of numerous animal species. These displays range from complex signals that involve impressive and challenging maneuvers, to simpler displays or no gesture at all. The factors that drive this evolution remain largely unclear, and we therefore investigate this issue in New World blackbirds by testing how factors related to a species' geographical distribution and social mating system predict macro-evolutionary patterns of display elaboration. We report that species inhabiting temperate regions produce more complex displays than species living in tropical regions, and we attribute this to (i) ecological factors that increase the competitiveness of the social environment in temperate regions, and (ii) different evolutionary and geological contexts under which species in temperate and tropical regions evolved. Meanwhile, we find no evidence that social mating system predicts species differences in display complexity, which is consistent with the idea that gestural displays evolve independently of social mating system. Together, these results offer some of the first insight into the role played by geographic factors and evolutionary context in the evolution of the remarkable physical displays of birds and other vertebrates. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Macroevolutionary patterns of sexual size dimorphism in copepods

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, Andrew G.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Major theories compete to explain the macroevolutionary trends observed in sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in animals. Quantitative genetic theory suggests that the sex under historically stronger directional selection will exhibit greater interspecific variance in size, with covariation between allometric slopes (male to female size) and the strength of SSD across clades. Rensch's rule (RR) also suggests a correlation, but one in which males are always the more size variant sex. Examining free-living pelagic and parasitic Copepoda, we test these competing predictions. Females are commonly the larger sex in copepod species. Comparing clades that vary by four orders of magnitude in their degree of dimorphism, we show that isometry is widespread. As such we find no support for either RR or for covariation between allometry and SSD. Our results suggest that selection on both sexes has been equally important. We next test the prediction that variation in the degree of SSD is related to the adult sex ratio. As males become relatively less abundant, it has been hypothesized that this will lead to a reduction in both inter-male competition and male size. However, the lack of such a correlation across diverse free-living pelagic families of copepods provides no support for this hypothesis. By comparison, in sea lice of the family Caligidae, there is some qualitative support of the hypothesis, males may suffer elevated mortality when they leave the host and rove for sedentary females, and their female-biased SSD is greater than in many free-living families. However, other parasitic copepods which do not appear to have obvious differences in sex-based mate searching risks also show similar or even more extreme SSD, therefore suggesting other factors can drive the observed extremes. PMID:25100692

  8. Discrete and morphometric traits reveal contrasting patterns and processes in the macroevolutionary history of a clade of scorpions.

    PubMed

    Mongiardino Koch, N; Ceccarelli, F S; Ojanguren-Affilastro, A A; Ramírez, M J

    2017-04-01

    Many palaeontological studies have investigated the evolution of entire body plans, generally relying on discrete character-taxon matrices. In contrast, macroevolutionary studies performed by neontologists have mostly focused on morphometric traits. Although these data types are very different, some studies have suggested that they capture common patterns. Nonetheless, the tests employed to support this claim have not explicitly incorporated a phylogenetic framework and may therefore be susceptible to confounding effects due to the presence of common phylogenetic structure. We address this question using the scorpion genus Brachistosternus Pocock 1893 as case study. We make use of a time-calibrated multilocus molecular phylogeny, and compile discrete and traditional morphometric data sets, both capturing the overall morphology of the organisms. We find that morphospaces derived from these matrices are significantly different, and that the degree of discordance cannot be replicated by simulations of random character evolution. Moreover, we find strong support for contrasting modes of evolution, with discrete characters being congruent with an 'early burst' scenario whereas morphometric traits suggest species-specific adaptations to have driven morphological evolution. The inferred macroevolutionary dynamics are therefore contingent on the choice of character type. Finally, we confirm that metrics of correlation fail to detect these profound differences given common phylogenetic structure in both data sets, and that methods incorporating a phylogenetic framework and accounting for expected covariance should be favoured. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. Macroevolutionary patterns of ultraviolet floral pigmentation explained by geography and associated bioclimatic factors.

    PubMed

    Koski, Matthew H; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2016-07-01

    Selection driven by biotic interactions can generate variation in floral traits. Abiotic selection, however, also contributes to floral diversity, especially with respect to patterns of pigmentation. Combining comparative studies of floral pigmentation and geography can reveal the bioclimatic factors that may drive macroevolutionary patterns of floral color. We create a molecular phylogeny and measure ultraviolet (UV) floral pattern for 177 species in the Potentilleae tribe (Rosaceae). Species are similar in flower shape and visible color but vary in UV floral pattern. We use comparative approaches to determine whether UV pigmentation variation is associated with geography and/or bioclimatic features (UV-B, precipitation, temperature). Floral UV pattern was present in half of the species, while others were uniformly UV-absorbing. Phylogenetic signal was detected for presence/absence of pattern, but among patterned species, quantitative variation in UV-absorbing area was evolutionarily labile. Uniformly UV-absorbing species tended to experience higher UV-B irradiance. Patterned species occurring at higher altitudes had larger UV-absorbing petal areas, corresponding with low temperature and high UV exposure. This analysis expands our understanding of the covariation of UV-B irradiance and UV floral pigmentation from within species to that among species, and supports the view that abiotic selection is associated with floral diversification among species. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Macroevolutionary patterns of glucosinolate defense and tests of defense-escalation and resource availability hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Cacho, N Ivalú; Kliebenstein, Daniel J; Strauss, Sharon Y

    2015-11-01

    We explored macroevolutionary patterns of plant chemical defense in Streptanthus (Brassicaceae), tested for evolutionary escalation of defense, as predicted by Ehrlich and Raven's plant-herbivore coevolutionary arms-race hypothesis, and tested whether species inhabiting low-resource or harsh environments invest more in defense, as predicted by the resource availability hypothesis (RAH). We conducted phylogenetically explicit analyses using glucosinolate profiles, soil nutrient analyses, and microhabitat bareness estimates across 30 species of Streptanthus inhabiting varied environments and soils. We found weak to moderate phylogenetic signal in glucosinolate classes and no signal in total glucosinolate production; a trend toward evolutionary de-escalation in the numbers and diversity of glucosinolates, accompanied by an evolutionary increase in the proportion of aliphatic glucosinolates; some support for the RAH relative to soil macronutrients, but not relative to serpentine soil use; and that the number of glucosinolates increases with microhabitat bareness, which is associated with increased herbivory and drought. Weak phylogenetic signal in chemical defense has been observed in other plant systems. A more holistic approach incorporating other forms of defense might be necessary to confidently reject escalation of defense. That defense increases with microhabitat bareness supports the hypothesis that habitat bareness is an underappreciated selective force on plants in harsh environments. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Model for macroevolutionary dynamics.

    PubMed

    Maruvka, Yosef E; Shnerb, Nadav M; Kessler, David A; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2013-07-02

    The highly skewed distribution of species among genera, although challenging to macroevolutionists, provides an opportunity to understand the dynamics of diversification, including species formation, extinction, and morphological evolution. Early models were based on either the work by Yule [Yule GU (1925) Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 213:21-87], which neglects extinction, or a simple birth-death (speciation-extinction) process. Here, we extend the more recent development of a generic, neutral speciation-extinction (of species)-origination (of genera; SEO) model for macroevolutionary dynamics of taxon diversification. Simulations show that deviations from the homogeneity assumptions in the model can be detected in species-per-genus distributions. The SEO model fits observed species-per-genus distributions well for class-to-kingdom-sized taxonomic groups. The model's predictions for the appearance times (the time of the first existing species) of the taxonomic groups also approximately match estimates based on molecular inference and fossil records. Unlike estimates based on analyses of phylogenetic reconstruction, fitted extinction rates for large clades are close to speciation rates, consistent with high rates of species turnover and the relatively slow change in diversity observed in the fossil record. Finally, the SEO model generally supports the consistency of generic boundaries based on morphological differences between species and provides a comparator for rates of lineage splitting and morphological evolution.

  12. Multi-level human evolution: ecological patterns in hominin phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Parravicini, Andrea; Pievani, Telmo

    2016-06-20

    Evolution is a process that occurs at many different levels, from genes to ecosystems. Genetic variations and ecological pressures are hence two sides of the same coin; but due both to fragmentary evidence and to the influence of a gene-centered and gradualistic approach to evolutionary phenomena, the field of paleoanthropology has been slow to take the role of macro-evolutionary patterns (i.e. ecological and biogeographical at large scale) seriously. However, several very recent findings in paleoanthropology stress both climate instability and ecological disturbance as key factors affecting the highly branching hominin phylogeny, from the earliest hominins to the appearance of cognitively modern humans. Allopatric speciation due to geographic displacement, turnover-pulses of species, adaptive radiation, mosaic evolution of traits in several coeval species, bursts of behavioral innovation, serial dispersals out of Africa, are just some of the macro-evolutionary patterns emerging from the field. The multilevel approach to evolution proposed by paleontologist Niles Eldredge is adopted here as interpretative tool, and has yielded a larger picture of human evolution that integrates different levels of evolutionary change, from local adaptations in limited ecological niches to dispersal phenotypes able to colonize an unprecedented range of ecosystems. Changes in global climate and Earth's surface most greatly affected human evolution. Precisely because it is cognitively hard for us to appreciate the long-term common destiny we share with the whole biosphere, it is particularly valuable to highlight the accumulating evidence that human evolution has been deeply affected by global ecological changes that transformed our African continent of origin.

  13. Omnivory in birds is a macroevolutionary sink

    PubMed Central

    Burin, Gustavo; Kissling, W. Daniel; Guimarães, Paulo R.; Şekercioğlu, Çağan H.; Quental, Tiago B.

    2016-01-01

    Diet is commonly assumed to affect the evolution of species, but few studies have directly tested its effect at macroevolutionary scales. Here we use Bayesian models of trait-dependent diversification and a comprehensive dietary database of all birds worldwide to assess speciation and extinction dynamics of avian dietary guilds (carnivores, frugivores, granivores, herbivores, insectivores, nectarivores, omnivores and piscivores). Our results suggest that omnivory is associated with higher extinction rates and lower speciation rates than other guilds, and that overall net diversification is negative. Trait-dependent models, dietary similarity and network analyses show that transitions into omnivory occur at higher rates than into any other guild. We suggest that omnivory acts as macroevolutionary sink, where its ephemeral nature is retrieved through transitions from other guilds rather than from omnivore speciation. We propose that these dynamics result from competition within and among dietary guilds, influenced by the deep-time availability and predictability of food resources. PMID:27052750

  14. A General Model for Estimating Macroevolutionary Landscapes.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Florian C; Démery, Vincent; Conti, Elena; Harmon, Luke J; Uyeda, Josef

    2018-03-01

    The evolution of quantitative characters over long timescales is often studied using stochastic diffusion models. The current toolbox available to students of macroevolution is however limited to two main models: Brownian motion and the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, plus some of their extensions. Here, we present a very general model for inferring the dynamics of quantitative characters evolving under both random diffusion and deterministic forces of any possible shape and strength, which can accommodate interesting evolutionary scenarios like directional trends, disruptive selection, or macroevolutionary landscapes with multiple peaks. This model is based on a general partial differential equation widely used in statistical mechanics: the Fokker-Planck equation, also known in population genetics as the Kolmogorov forward equation. We thus call the model FPK, for Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov. We first explain how this model can be used to describe macroevolutionary landscapes over which quantitative traits evolve and, more importantly, we detail how it can be fitted to empirical data. Using simulations, we show that the model has good behavior both in terms of discrimination from alternative models and in terms of parameter inference. We provide R code to fit the model to empirical data using either maximum-likelihood or Bayesian estimation, and illustrate the use of this code with two empirical examples of body mass evolution in mammals. FPK should greatly expand the set of macroevolutionary scenarios that can be studied since it opens the way to estimating macroevolutionary landscapes of any conceivable shape. [Adaptation; bounds; diffusion; FPK model; macroevolution; maximum-likelihood estimation; MCMC methods; phylogenetic comparative data; selection.].

  15. The critical role of fossils in inferring deep-node phylogenetic relationships and macroevolutionary patterns in Cornales.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Brian A

    2018-05-24

    The basal asterid order, Cornales, experienced a rapid radiation during the Cretaceous, which has made it difficult to elucidate the early evolution of the order using extant taxa only. Recent paleobotanical studies, however, have begun to shed light on the early diversification of Cornales. Herein, fossils are directly incorporated in phylogenetic and quantitative morphological analyses to reconstruct early cornalean evolution. A morphological matrix of 77 fruit characters and 58 taxa (24 extinct) was assembled. Parsimony analyses including and excluding fossils were conducted. A fossil inclusive tree was time-scaled to visualize the timing of the initial cornalean radiation. Disparity analyses were utilized to infer the morphological evolution of cornaleans with drupaceous fruits. Fossil inclusive and exclusive parsimony analyses resulted in well-resolved deep-node relationships within Cornales. Resolution in the fossil inclusive analysis is substantially higher, revealing a basal grade including Loasaceae, Hydrangeaceae, Hydrostachyaceae, Grubbiaceae, a Hironoia+Amersinia clade, and Curtisiaceae, respectively, that leads to a "core" group containing a clade comprising a Cretaceous grade leading to clade of Nyssaceae, Mastixiaceae, and Davidiaceae that is sister to a Cornaceae+Alangiaceae clade. The time-scaled tree indicates that the initial cornalean diversification occurred before 89.8 Ma. Disparity analyses suggest the morphological diversity of Cornales peaked during the Paleogene. Phylogenetic analyses clearly demonstrate that novel character mosaics of Cretaceous cornaleans play a critical role in resolving deep-node relationships within Cornales. The post-Cretaceous increase of cornalean disparity is associated with a shift in morphospace occupation, which can be explained from ecological and developmental perspectives. © 2018 Botanical Society of America.

  16. Micro- and Macroevolutionary Trade-Offs in Plant-Feeding Insects.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Daniel A; Hardy, Nate B; Normark, Benjamin B

    2016-12-01

    A long-standing hypothesis asserts that plant-feeding insects specialize on particular host plants because of negative interactions (trade-offs) between adaptations to alternative hosts, yet empirical evidence for such trade-offs is scarce. Most studies have looked for microevolutionary performance trade-offs within insect species, but host use could also be constrained by macroevolutionary trade-offs caused by epistasis and historical contingency. Here we used a phylogenetic approach to estimate the micro- and macroevolutionary correlations between use of alternative host-plant taxa within two major orders of plant-feeding insects: Lepidoptera (caterpillars) and Hemiptera (true bugs). Across 1,604 caterpillar species, we found both positive and negative pairwise correlations between use of 11 host-plant orders, with overall network patterns suggesting that different host-use constraints act over micro- and macroevolutionary timescales. In contrast, host-use patterns of 955 true bug species revealed uniformly positive correlations between use of the same 11 host plant orders over both timescales. The lack of consistent patterns across timescales and insect orders indicates that host-use trade-offs are historically contingent rather than universal constraints. Moreover, we observed few negative correlations overall despite the wide taxonomic and ecological diversity of the focal host-plant orders, suggesting that positive interactions between host-use adaptations, not trade-offs, dominate the long-term evolution of host use in plant-feeding insects.

  17. Does Gene Tree Discordance Explain the Mismatch between Macroevolutionary Models and Empirical Patterns of Tree Shape and Branching Times?

    PubMed Central

    Stadler, Tanja; Degnan, James H.; Rosenberg, Noah A.

    2016-01-01

    Classic null models for speciation and extinction give rise to phylogenies that differ in distribution from empirical phylogenies. In particular, empirical phylogenies are less balanced and have branching times closer to the root compared to phylogenies predicted by common null models. This difference might be due to null models of the speciation and extinction process being too simplistic, or due to the empirical datasets not being representative of random phylogenies. A third possibility arises because phylogenetic reconstruction methods often infer gene trees rather than species trees, producing an incongruity between models that predict species tree patterns and empirical analyses that consider gene trees. We investigate the extent to which the difference between gene trees and species trees under a combined birth–death and multispecies coalescent model can explain the difference in empirical trees and birth–death species trees. We simulate gene trees embedded in simulated species trees and investigate their difference with respect to tree balance and branching times. We observe that the gene trees are less balanced and typically have branching times closer to the root than the species trees. Empirical trees from TreeBase are also less balanced than our simulated species trees, and model gene trees can explain an imbalance increase of up to 8% compared to species trees. However, we see a much larger imbalance increase in empirical trees, about 100%, meaning that additional features must also be causing imbalance in empirical trees. This simulation study highlights the necessity of revisiting the assumptions made in phylogenetic analyses, as these assumptions, such as equating the gene tree with the species tree, might lead to a biased conclusion. PMID:26968785

  18. A Macroevolutionary Perspective on Multiple Sexual Traits in the Phasianidae (Galliformes)

    PubMed Central

    Kimball, Rebecca T.; Mary, Colette M. St.; Braun, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    Traits involved in sexual signaling are ubiquitous among animals. Although a single trait appears sufficient to convey information, many sexually dimorphic species exhibit multiple sexual signals, which may be costly to signalers and receivers. Given that one signal may be enough, there are many microevolutionary hypotheses to explain the evolution of multiple signals. Here we extend these hypotheses to a macroevolutionary scale and compare those predictions to the patterns of gains and losses of sexual dimorphism in pheasants and partridges. Among nine dimorphic characters, including six intersexual signals and three indicators of competitive ability, all exhibited both gains and losses of dimorphism within the group. Although theories of intersexual selection emphasize gain and elaboration, those six characters exhibited greater rates of loss than gain; in contrast, the competitive traits showed a slight bias towards gains. The available models, when examined in a macroevolutionary framework, did not yield unique predictions, making it difficult to distinguish among them. Even with this limitation, when the predictions of these alternative models were compared with the heterogeneous patterns of evolution of dimorphism in phasianids, it is clear that many different selective processes have been involved in the evolution of sexual signals in this group. PMID:21716735

  19. Developmental mechanisms of macroevolutionary change in the tetrapod axis: A case study of Sauropterygia

    PubMed Central

    Soul, Laura C.; Benson, Roger B. J.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how developmental processes change on macroevolutionary timescales to generate body plan disparity is fundamental to the study of vertebrate evolution. Adult morphology of the vertebral column directly reflects the mechanisms that generate vertebral counts (somitogenesis) and their regionalisation (homeotic effects) during embryonic development. Sauropterygians were a group of Mesozoic marine reptiles that exhibited an extremely high disparity of presacral vertebral/somite counts. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we demonstrate that somitogenesis and homeotic effects evolved in a co‐ordinated way among sauropterygians, contrasting with the wider pattern in tetrapods, in which somitogenetic and homeotic shifts are uncorrelated. Changes in sauropterygian body proportions were primarily enabled by homeotic shifts, with a lesser, but important, contribution from differences in postpatterning growth among somites. High body plan plasticity was present in Triassic sauropterygians and was maintained among their Jurassic and Cretaceous descendants. The extreme disparity in the body plan of plesiosaurian sauropterygians did not result from accelerated rates of evolutionary change in neck length, but instead reflect this ancestral versatility of sauropterygian axial development. Our results highlight variation in modes of axial development among tetrapods, and show that heterogeneous statistical models can uncover novel macroevolutionary patterns for animal body plans and the developmental mechanisms that control them. PMID:28240769

  20. Prolegomenon to patterns in evolution.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, Stuart A

    2014-09-01

    Despite Darwin, we remain children of Newton and dream of a grand theory that is epistemologically complete and would allow prediction of the evolution of the biosphere. The main purpose of this article is to show that this dream is false, and bears on studying patterns of evolution. To do so, I must justify the use of the word "function" in biology, when physics has only happenings. The concept of "function" lifts biology irreducibly above physics, for as we shall see, we cannot prestate the ever new biological functions that arise and constitute the very phase space of evolution. Hence, we cannot mathematize the detailed becoming of the biosphere, nor write differential equations for functional variables we do not know ahead of time, nor integrate those equations, so no laws "entail" evolution. The dream of a grand theory fails. In place of entailing laws, I propose a post-entailing law explanatory framework in which Actuals arise in evolution that constitute new boundary conditions that are enabling constraints that create new, typically unprestatable, adjacent possible opportunities for further evolution, in which new Actuals arise, in a persistent becoming. Evolution flows into a typically unprestatable succession of adjacent possibles. Given the concept of function, the concept of functional closure of an organism making a living in its world becomes central. Implications for patterns in evolution include historical reconstruction, and statistical laws such as the distribution of extinction events, or species per genus, and the use of formal cause, not efficient cause, laws. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Geologic constraints on the macroevolutionary history of marine animals

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Shanan E.

    2005-01-01

    The causes of mass extinctions and the nature of taxonomic radiations are central questions in paleobiology. Several episodes of taxonomic turnover in the fossil record, particularly the major mass extinctions, are generally thought to transcend known biases in the geologic record and are widely interpreted as distinct macroevolutionary phenomena that require unique forcing mechanisms. Here, by using a previously undescribed compilation of the durations of sedimentary rock sequences, I compare the rates of expansion and truncation of preserved marine sedimentary basins to rates of origination and extinction among Phanerozoic marine animal genera. Many features of the highly variable record of taxonomic first and last occurrences in the marine animal fossil record, including the major mass extinctions, the frequency distribution of genus longevities, and short- and long-term patterns of genus diversity, can be predicted on the basis of the temporal continuity and quantity of preserved sedimentary rock. Although these results suggest that geologically mediated sampling biases have distorted macroevolutionary patterns in the fossil record, preservation biases alone cannot easily explain the extent to which the sedimentary record duplicates paleobiological patterns. Instead, these results suggest that the processes responsible for producing variability in the sedimentary rock record, such as plate tectonics and sea-level change, may have been dominant and consistent macroevolutionary forces throughout the Phanerozoic. PMID:16105949

  2. Before hierarchy: the rise and fall of Stephen Jay Gould's first macroevolutionary synthesis.

    PubMed

    Dresow, Max W

    2017-06-01

    Few of Stephen Jay Gould's accomplishments in evolutionary biology have received more attention than his hierarchical theory of evolution, which postulates a causal discontinuity between micro- and macroevolutionary events. But Gould's hierarchical theory was his second attempt to supply a theoretical framework for macroevolutionary studies-and one he did not inaugurate until the mid-1970s. In this paper, I examine Gould's first attempt: a proposed fusion of theoretical morphology, multivariate biometry and the experimental study of adaptation in fossils. This early "macroevolutionary synthesis" was predicated on the notion that parallelism and convergence dominate the history of higher taxa, and moreover, that they can be explained in terms of adaptation leading to mechanical improvement. In this paper, I explore the origins and contents of Gould's first macroevolutionary synthesis, as well as the reasons for its downfall. In addition, I consider how various developments during the mid-1970s led Gould to identify hierarchy and constraint as the leading themes of macroevolutionary studies-and adaptation as a macroevolutionary red herring.

  3. Fossils and living taxa agree on patterns of body mass evolution: a case study with Afrotheria.

    PubMed

    Puttick, Mark N; Thomas, Gavin H

    2015-12-22

    Most of life is extinct, so incorporating some fossil evidence into analyses of macroevolution is typically seen as necessary to understand the diversification of life and patterns of morphological evolution. Here we test the effects of inclusion of fossils in a study of the body size evolution of afrotherian mammals, a clade that includes the elephants, sea cows and elephant shrews. We find that the inclusion of fossil tips has little impact on analyses of body mass evolution; from a small ancestral size (approx. 100 g), there is a shift in rate and an increase in mass leading to the larger-bodied Paenungulata and Tubulidentata, regardless of whether fossils are included or excluded from analyses. For Afrotheria, the inclusion of fossils and morphological character data affect phylogenetic topology, but these differences have little impact upon patterns of body mass evolution and these body mass evolutionary patterns are consistent with the fossil record. The largest differences between our analyses result from the evolutionary model, not the addition of fossils. For some clades, extant-only analyses may be reliable to reconstruct body mass evolution, but the addition of fossils and careful model selection is likely to increase confidence and accuracy of reconstructed macroevolutionary patterns. © 2015 The Authors.

  4. Fossils and living taxa agree on patterns of body mass evolution: a case study with Afrotheria

    PubMed Central

    Puttick, Mark N.; Thomas, Gavin H.

    2015-01-01

    Most of life is extinct, so incorporating some fossil evidence into analyses of macroevolution is typically seen as necessary to understand the diversification of life and patterns of morphological evolution. Here we test the effects of inclusion of fossils in a study of the body size evolution of afrotherian mammals, a clade that includes the elephants, sea cows and elephant shrews. We find that the inclusion of fossil tips has little impact on analyses of body mass evolution; from a small ancestral size (approx. 100 g), there is a shift in rate and an increase in mass leading to the larger-bodied Paenungulata and Tubulidentata, regardless of whether fossils are included or excluded from analyses. For Afrotheria, the inclusion of fossils and morphological character data affect phylogenetic topology, but these differences have little impact upon patterns of body mass evolution and these body mass evolutionary patterns are consistent with the fossil record. The largest differences between our analyses result from the evolutionary model, not the addition of fossils. For some clades, extant-only analyses may be reliable to reconstruct body mass evolution, but the addition of fossils and careful model selection is likely to increase confidence and accuracy of reconstructed macroevolutionary patterns. PMID:26674947

  5. Mosaic evolution and the pattern of transitions in the hominin lineage.

    PubMed

    Foley, Robert A

    2016-07-05

    Humans are uniquely unique, in terms of the extreme differences between them and other living organisms, and the impact they are having on the biosphere. The evolution of humans can be seen, as has been proposed, as one of the major transitions in evolution, on a par with the origins of multicellular organisms or the eukaryotic cell (Maynard Smith & Szathmáry 1997 Major transitions in evolution). Major transitions require the evolution of greater complexity and the emergence of new evolutionary levels or processes. Does human evolution meet these conditions? I explore the diversity of evidence on the nature of transitions in human evolution. Four levels of transition are proposed-baseline, novel taxa, novel adaptive zones and major transitions-and the pattern of human evolution considered in the light of these. The primary conclusions are that changes in human evolution occur continuously and cumulatively; that novel taxa and the appearance of new adaptations are not clustered very tightly in particular periods, although there are three broad transitional phases (Pliocene, Plio-Pleistocene and later Quaternary). Each phase is distinctive, with the first based on ranging and energetics, the second on technology and niche expansion, and the third on cognition and cultural processes. I discuss whether this constitutes a 'major transition' in the context of the evolutionary processes more broadly; the role of behaviour in evolution; and the opportunity provided by the rich genetic, phenotypic (fossil morphology) and behavioural (archaeological) record to examine in detail major transitions and the microevolutionary patterns underlying macroevolutionary change. It is suggested that the evolution of the hominin lineage is consistent with a mosaic pattern of change.This article is part of the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Macroevolutionary developmental biology: Embryos, fossils, and phylogenies.

    PubMed

    Organ, Chris L; Cooper, Lisa Noelle; Hieronymus, Tobin L

    2015-10-01

    The field of evolutionary developmental biology is broadly focused on identifying the genetic and developmental mechanisms underlying morphological diversity. Connecting the genotype with the phenotype means that evo-devo research often considers a wide range of evidence, from genetics and morphology to fossils. In this commentary, we provide an overview and framework for integrating fossil ontogenetic data with developmental data using phylogenetic comparative methods to test macroevolutionary hypotheses. We survey the vertebrate fossil record of preserved embryos and discuss how phylogenetic comparative methods can integrate data from developmental genetics and paleontology. Fossil embryos provide limited, yet critical, developmental data from deep time. They help constrain when developmental innovations first appeared during the history of life and also reveal the order in which related morphologies evolved. Phylogenetic comparative methods provide a powerful statistical approach that allows evo-devo researchers to infer the presence of nonpreserved developmental traits in fossil species and to detect discordant evolutionary patterns and processes across levels of biological organization. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Mosaic evolution and the pattern of transitions in the hominin lineage

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Humans are uniquely unique, in terms of the extreme differences between them and other living organisms, and the impact they are having on the biosphere. The evolution of humans can be seen, as has been proposed, as one of the major transitions in evolution, on a par with the origins of multicellular organisms or the eukaryotic cell (Maynard Smith & Szathmáry 1997 Major transitions in evolution). Major transitions require the evolution of greater complexity and the emergence of new evolutionary levels or processes. Does human evolution meet these conditions? I explore the diversity of evidence on the nature of transitions in human evolution. Four levels of transition are proposed—baseline, novel taxa, novel adaptive zones and major transitions—and the pattern of human evolution considered in the light of these. The primary conclusions are that changes in human evolution occur continuously and cumulatively; that novel taxa and the appearance of new adaptations are not clustered very tightly in particular periods, although there are three broad transitional phases (Pliocene, Plio-Pleistocene and later Quaternary). Each phase is distinctive, with the first based on ranging and energetics, the second on technology and niche expansion, and the third on cognition and cultural processes. I discuss whether this constitutes a ‘major transition’ in the context of the evolutionary processes more broadly; the role of behaviour in evolution; and the opportunity provided by the rich genetic, phenotypic (fossil morphology) and behavioural (archaeological) record to examine in detail major transitions and the microevolutionary patterns underlying macroevolutionary change. It is suggested that the evolution of the hominin lineage is consistent with a mosaic pattern of change. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Major transitions in human evolution’. PMID:27298474

  8. Tempo and mode in the macroevolutionary reconstruction of Darwinism.

    PubMed Central

    Gould, S J

    1994-01-01

    Among the several central meanings of Darwinism, his version of Lyellian uniformitarianism--the extrapolationist commitment to viewing causes of small-scale, observable change in modern populations as the complete source, by smooth extension through geological time, of all magnitudes and sequences in evolution--has most contributed to the causal hegemony of microevolution and the assumption that paleontology can document the contingent history of life but cannot act as a domain of novel evolutionary theory. G. G. Simpson tried to combat this view of paleontology as theoretically inert in his classic work, Tempo and Mode in Evolution (1944), with a brilliant argument that the two subjects of his title fall into a unique paleontological domain and that modes (processes and causes) can be inferred from the quantitative study of tempos (pattern). Nonetheless, Simpson did not cash out his insight to paleontology's theoretical benefit because he followed the strict doctrine of the Modern Synthesis. He studied his domain of potential theory and concluded that no actual theory could be found--and that a full account of causes could therefore be located in the microevolutionary realm after all. I argue that Simpson was unduly pessimistic and that modernism's belief in reductionistic unification (the conventional view of Western intellectuals from the 1920s to the 1950s) needs to be supplanted by a postmodernist commitment to pluralism and multiple levels of causation. Macro- and microevolution should not be viewed as opposed, but as truly complementary. I describe the two major domains where a helpful macroevolutionary theory may be sought--unsmooth causal boundaries between levels (as illustrated by punctuated equilibrium and mass extinction) and hierarchical expansion of the theory of natural selection to levels both below (gene and cell-line) and above organisms (demes, species, and clades). Problems remain in operationally defining selection at non-organismic levels

  9. A universal driver of macroevolutionary change in the size of marine phytoplankton over the Cenozoic

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, Z. V.; Sebbo, J.; Feist-Burkhardt, S.; Irwin, A. J.; Katz, M. E.; Schofield, O. M. E.; Young, J. R.; Falkowski, P. G.

    2007-01-01

    The size structure of phytoplankton assemblages strongly influences energy transfer through the food web and carbon cycling in the ocean. We determined the macroevolutionary trajectory in the median size of dinoflagellate cysts to compare with the macroevolutionary size change in other plankton groups. We found the median size of the dinoflagellate cysts generally decreases through the Cenozoic. Diatoms exhibit an extremely similar pattern in their median size over time, even though species diversity of the two groups has opposing trends, indicating that the macroevolutionary size change is an active response to selection pressure rather than a passive response to changes in diversity. The changes in the median size of dinoflagellate cysts are highly correlated with both deep ocean temperatures and the thermal gradient between the surface and deep waters, indicating the magnitude and frequency of nutrient availability may have acted as a selective factor in the macroevolution of cell size in the plankton. Our results suggest that climate, because it affects stratification in the ocean, is a universal abiotic driver that has been responsible for macroevolutionary changes in the size structure of marine planktonic communities over the past 65 million years of Earth's history. PMID:18077334

  10. Patterns and Processes of Vertebrate Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Robert Lynn

    1997-04-01

    This new text provides an integrated view of the forces that influence the patterns and rates of vertebrate evolution from the level of living populations and species to those that resulted in the origin of the major vertebrate groups. The evolutionary roles of behavior, development, continental drift, and mass extinctions are compared with the importance of variation and natural selection that were emphasized by Darwin. It is extensively illustrated, showing major transitions between fish and amphibians, dinosaurs and birds, and land mammals to whales. No book since Simpson's Major Features of Evolution has attempted such a broad study of the patterns and forces of evolutionary change. Undergraduate students taking a general or advanced course on evolution, and graduate students and professionals in evolutionary biology and paleontology will find the book of great interest.

  11. Convergence and Divergence in the Evolution of Cat Skulls: Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Morphological Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Manabu; Ruta, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies of biological shape evolution are greatly enhanced when framed in a phylogenetic perspective. Inclusion of fossils amplifies the scope of macroevolutionary research, offers a deep-time perspective on tempo and mode of radiations, and elucidates life-trait changes. We explore the evolution of skull shape in felids (cats) through morphometric analyses of linear variables, phylogenetic comparative methods, and a new cladistic study of saber-toothed cats. Methodology/Principal Findings A new phylogenetic analysis supports the monophyly of saber-toothed cats (Machairodontinae) exclusive of Felinae and some basal felids, but does not support the monophyly of various saber-toothed tribes and genera. We quantified skull shape variation in 34 extant and 18 extinct species using size-adjusted linear variables. These distinguish taxonomic group membership with high accuracy. Patterns of morphospace occupation are consistent with previous analyses, for example, in showing a size gradient along the primary axis of shape variation and a separation between large and small-medium cats. By combining the new phylogeny with a molecular tree of extant Felinae, we built a chronophylomorphospace (a phylogeny superimposed onto a two-dimensional morphospace through time). The evolutionary history of cats was characterized by two major episodes of morphological divergence, one marking the separation between saber-toothed and modern cats, the other marking the split between large and small-medium cats. Conclusions/Significance Ancestors of large cats in the ‘Panthera’ lineage tend to occupy, at a much later stage, morphospace regions previously occupied by saber-toothed cats. The latter radiated out into new morphospace regions peripheral to those of extant large cats. The separation between large and small-medium cats was marked by considerable morphologically divergent trajectories early in feline evolution. A chronophylomorphospace has wider applications in

  12. Quantifying patterns of research interest evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Tao; Wang, Dashun; Szymanski, Boleslaw

    Changing and shifting research interest is an integral part of a scientific career. Despite extensive investigations of various factors that influence a scientist's choice of research topics, quantitative assessments of mechanisms that give rise to macroscopic patterns characterizing research interest evolution of individual scientists remain limited. Here we perform a large-scale analysis of extensive publication records, finding that research interest change follows a reproducible pattern characterized by an exponential distribution. We identify three fundamental features responsible for the observed exponential distribution, which arise from a subtle interplay between exploitation and exploration in research interest evolution. We develop a random walk based model, which adequately reproduces our empirical observations. Our study presents one of the first quantitative analyses of macroscopic patterns governing research interest change, documenting a high degree of regularity underlying scientific research and individual careers.

  13. Evolution of bioconvective patterns in variable gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements are reported of the evolution of bioconvective patterns in shallow, dense cultures of microorganisms subjected to varying gravity. Various statistical properties of this random, quasi-two-dimensional structure have been found: Aboav's law is obeyed, the average vertex angles follow predictions for regular polygons, and the area of a pattern varies linearly with its number of sides. As gravity varies between 1 g and 1.8 g, these statistical properties continue to hold despite a tripling of the number of polygons and a reduced average polygon dimension by a third. This work compares with experiments on soap foams, Langmuir monolayer foams, metal grains, and simulations.

  14. Macroevolutionary Immunology: A Role for Immunity in the Diversification of Animal life

    PubMed Central

    Loker, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    An emerging picture of the nature of immune systems across animal phyla reveals both conservatism of some features and the appearance among and within phyla of novel, lineage-specific defense solutions. The latter collectively represent a major and underappreciated form of animal diversity. Factors influencing this macroevolutionary (above the species level) pattern of novelty are considered and include adoption of different life styles, life histories, and body plans; a general advantage of being distinctive with respect to immune defenses; and the responses required to cope with parasites, many of which afflict hosts in a lineage-specific manner. This large-scale pattern of novelty implies that immunological phenomena can affect microevolutionary processes (at the population level within species) that can eventually lead to macroevolutionary events such as speciation, radiations, or extinctions. Immunologically based phenomena play a role in favoring intraspecific diversification, specialization and host specificity of parasites, and mechanisms are discussed whereby this could lead to parasite speciation. Host switching – the acquisition of new host species by parasites – is a major mechanism that drives parasite diversity and is frequently involved in disease emergence. It is also one that can be favored by reductions in immune competence of new hosts. Mechanisms involving immune phenomena favoring intraspecific diversification and speciation of host species are also discussed. A macroevolutionary perspective on immunology is invaluable in today’s world, including the need to study a broader range of species with distinctive immune systems. Many of these species are faced with extinction, another macroevolutionary process influenced by immune phenomena. PMID:22566909

  15. Predator-induced macroevolutionary trends in Mesozoic crinoids

    PubMed Central

    Gorzelak, Przemysław; Salamon, Mariusz A.; Baumiller, Tomasz K.

    2012-01-01

    Sea urchins are a major component of recent marine communities where they exert a key role as grazers and benthic predators. However, their impact on past marine organisms, such as crinoids, is hard to infer in the fossil record. Analysis of bite mark frequencies on crinoid columnals and comprehensive genus-level diversity data provide unique insights into the importance of sea urchin predation through geologic time. These data show that over the Mesozoic, predation intensity on crinoids, as measured by bite mark frequencies on columnals, changed in step with diversity of sea urchins. Moreover, Mesozoic diversity changes in the predatory sea urchins show a positive correlation with diversity of motile crinoids and a negative correlation with diversity of sessile crinoids, consistent with a crinoid motility representing an effective escape strategy. We contend that the Mesozoic diversity history of crinoids likely represents a macroevolutionary response to changes in sea urchin predation pressure and that it may have set the stage for the recent pattern of crinoid diversity in which motile forms greatly predominate and sessile forms are restricted to deep-water refugia. PMID:22509040

  16. Left Right Patterning, Evolution and Cardiac Development

    PubMed Central

    Dykes, Iain M.

    2018-01-01

    Many aspects of heart development are determined by the left right axis and as a result several congenital diseases have their origins in aberrant left-right patterning. Establishment of this axis occurs early in embryogenesis before formation of the linear heart tube yet impacts upon much later morphogenetic events. In this review I discuss the differing mechanisms by which left-right polarity is achieved in the mouse and chick embryos and comment on the evolution of this system. I then discus three major classes of cardiovascular defect associated with aberrant left-right patterning seen in mouse mutants and human disease. I describe phenotypes associated with the determination of atrial identity and venous connections, looping morphogenesis of the heart tube and finally the asymmetric remodelling of the embryonic branchial arch arterial system to form the leftward looped arch of aorta and associated great arteries. Where appropriate, I consider left right patterning defects from an evolutionary perspective, demonstrating how developmental processes have been modified in species over time and illustrating how comparative embryology can aide in our understanding of congenital heart disease. PMID:29755990

  17. Topology, divergence dates, and macroevolutionary inferences vary between different tip-dating approaches applied to fossil theropods (Dinosauria).

    PubMed

    Bapst, D W; Wright, A M; Matzke, N J; Lloyd, G T

    2016-07-01

    Dated phylogenies of fossil taxa allow palaeobiologists to estimate the timing of major divergences and placement of extinct lineages, and to test macroevolutionary hypotheses. Recently developed Bayesian 'tip-dating' methods simultaneously infer and date the branching relationships among fossil taxa, and infer putative ancestral relationships. Using a previously published dataset for extinct theropod dinosaurs, we contrast the dated relationships inferred by several tip-dating approaches and evaluate potential downstream effects on phylogenetic comparative methods. We also compare tip-dating analyses to maximum-parsimony trees time-scaled via alternative a posteriori approaches including via the probabilistic cal3 method. Among tip-dating analyses, we find opposing but strongly supported relationships, despite similarity in inferred ancestors. Overall, tip-dating methods infer divergence dates often millions (or tens of millions) of years older than the earliest stratigraphic appearance of that clade. Model-comparison analyses of the pattern of body-size evolution found that the support for evolutionary mode can vary across and between tree samples from cal3 and tip-dating approaches. These differences suggest that model and software choice in dating analyses can have a substantial impact on the dated phylogenies obtained and broader evolutionary inferences. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. PSEMA: An Algorithm for Pattern Stimulated Evolution of Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavrogianni, A. N.; Vlachos, D. S.; Harvalias, G.

    2008-11-01

    An algorithm for pattern stimulating evolution of music is presented in this work (PSEMA). The system combines a pattern with a genetic algorithm for automatic music composition in order to create a musical phrase uniquely characterizing the pattern. As an example a musical portrait is presented. The initialization of the musical phrases is done with a Markov Chain process. The evolution is dominated by an arbitrary correspondence between the pattern (feature extraction of the pattern may be used in this step) and the esthetic result of the musical phrase.

  19. Pacing of Paleozoic macroevolutionary rates by Milankovitch grand cycles.

    PubMed

    Crampton, James S; Meyers, Stephen R; Cooper, Roger A; Sadler, Peter M; Foote, Michael; Harte, David

    2018-05-29

    Periodic fluctuations in past biodiversity, speciation, and extinction have been proposed, with extremely long periods ranging from 26 to 62 million years, although forcing mechanisms remain speculative. In contrast, well-understood periodic Milankovitch climate forcing represents a viable driver for macroevolutionary fluctuations, although little evidence for such fluctuation exists except during the Late Cenozoic. The reality, magnitude, and drivers of periodic fluctuations in macroevolutionary rates are of interest given long-standing debate surrounding the relative roles of intrinsic biotic interactions vs. extrinsic environmental factors as drivers of biodiversity change. Here, we show that, over a time span of 60 million years, between 9 and 16% of the variance in biological turnover (i.e., speciation probability plus species extinction probability) in a major Early Paleozoic zooplankton group, the graptoloids, can be explained by long-period astronomical cycles (Milankovitch "grand cycles") associated with Earth's orbital eccentricity (2.6 million years) and obliquity (1.3 million years). These grand cycles modulate climate variability, alternating times of relative stability in the environment with times of maximum volatility. We infer that these cycles influenced graptolite speciation and extinction through climate-driven changes to oceanic circulation and structure. Our results confirm the existence of Milankovitch grand cycles in the Early Paleozoic Era and show that known processes related to the mechanics of the Solar System were shaping marine macroevolutionary rates comparatively early in the history of complex life. We present an application of hidden Markov models to macroevolutionary time series and protocols for the evaluation of statistical significance in spectral analysis.

  20. Testing for coevolutionary diversification: linking pattern with process.

    PubMed

    Althoff, David M; Segraves, Kari A; Johnson, Marc T J

    2014-02-01

    Coevolutionary diversification is cited as a major mechanism driving the evolution of diversity, particularly in plants and insects. However, tests of coevolutionary diversification have focused on elucidating macroevolutionary patterns rather than the processes giving rise to such patterns. Hence, there is weak evidence that coevolution promotes diversification. This is in part due to a lack of understanding about the mechanisms by which coevolution can cause speciation and the difficulty of integrating results across micro- and macroevolutionary scales. In this review, we highlight potential mechanisms of coevolutionary diversification, outline approaches to examine this process across temporal scales, and propose a set of minimal requirements for demonstrating coevolutionary diversification. Our aim is to stimulate research that tests more rigorously for coevolutionary diversification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Macroecological and macroevolutionary patterns of leaf herbivory across vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Turcotte, Martin M; Davies, T Jonathan; Thomsen, Christina J M; Johnson, Marc T J

    2014-07-22

    The consumption of plants by animals underlies important evolutionary and ecological processes in nature. Arthropod herbivory evolved approximately 415 Ma and the ensuing coevolution between plants and herbivores is credited with generating much of the macroscopic diversity on the Earth. In contemporary ecosystems, herbivory provides the major conduit of energy from primary producers to consumers. Here, we show that when averaged across all major lineages of vascular plants, herbivores consume 5.3% of the leaf tissue produced annually by plants, whereas previous estimates are up to 3.8× higher. This result suggests that for many plant species, leaf herbivory may play a smaller role in energy and nutrient flow than currently thought. Comparative analyses of a diverse global sample of 1058 species across 2085 populations reveal that models of stabilizing selection best describe rates of leaf consumption, and that rates vary substantially within and among major plant lineages. A key determinant of this variation is plant growth form, where woody plant species experience 64% higher leaf herbivory than non-woody plants. Higher leaf herbivory in woody species supports a key prediction of the plant apparency theory. Our study provides insight into how a long history of coevolution has shaped the ecological and evolutionary relationships between plants and herbivores. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Body mass evolution and diversification within horses (family Equidae).

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, Lauren; Clauset, Aaron

    2014-02-01

    Horses (family Equidae) are a classic example of adaptive radiation, exhibiting a nearly 60-fold increase in maximum body mass and a peak taxonomic diversity of nearly 100 species across four continents. Such patterns are commonly attributed to niche competition, in which increased taxonomic diversity drives increased size disparity. However, neutral processes, such as macroevolutionary 'diffusion', can produce similar increases in disparity without increased diversity. Using a comprehensive database of Equidae species size estimates and a common mathematical framework, we measure the contributions of diversity-driven and diffusion-driven mechanisms for increased disparity during the Equidae radiation. We find that more than 90% of changes in size disparity are attributable to diffusion alone. These results clarify the role of species competition in body size evolution, indicate that morphological disparity and species diversity may be only weakly coupled in general, and demonstrate that large species may evolve from neutral macroevolutionary diffusion processes alone. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  3. Measuring the Complexity of Seismicity Pattern Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goltz, C.

    2004-12-01

    ``Complexity'' has become an ubiquitous term in science. However, there is, much as with ``fractality'', no clear definition of what complexity actually means. Yet, it is important to distinguish between what is merely complicated and what is complex in the sense that simple rules can give rise to very rich behaviour. Seismicity is certainly a complicated phenomenon (difficult to understand) but simple models such as cellular automata indicate that earthquakes are truly complex. From the observational point of view, there exists the problem of quantification of complexity in real world seismicity patterns (in the absence of even a rigid definition of complexity). Such a measurement is desirable, however, not only for fundamental understanding but also for monitoring and possibly for prediction purposes. Maybe the most workable definitions of complexity exist in informatics, summarised under the topic of algorithmic complexity. Here, after introducing the concepts, I apply such measures of complexity to temporally evolving seismicity patterns from different geographic regions. Finally, I discuss the usefulness of the approach and discuss results in view of the occurrence of large earthquakes.

  4. Wrinkling pattern evolution of cylindrical biological tissues with differential growth.

    PubMed

    Jia, Fei; Li, Bo; Cao, Yan-Ping; Xie, Wei-Hua; Feng, Xi-Qiao

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional surface wrinkling of soft cylindrical tissues induced by differential growth is explored. Differential volumetric growth can cause their morphological stability, leading to the formation of hexagonal and labyrinth wrinkles. During postbuckling, multiple bifurcations and morphological transitions may occur as a consequence of continuous growth in the surface layer. The physical mechanisms underpinning the morphological evolution are examined from the viewpoint of energy. Surface curvature is found to play a regulatory role in the pattern evolution. This study may not only help understand the morphogenesis of soft biological tissues, but also inspire novel routes for creating desired surface patterns of soft materials.

  5. Probabilistic models of eukaryotic evolution: time for integration

    PubMed Central

    Lartillot, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    In spite of substantial work and recent progress, a global and fully resolved picture of the macroevolutionary history of eukaryotes is still under construction. This concerns not only the phylogenetic relations among major groups, but also the general characteristics of the underlying macroevolutionary processes, including the patterns of gene family evolution associated with endosymbioses, as well as their impact on the sequence evolutionary process. All these questions raise formidable methodological challenges, calling for a more powerful statistical paradigm. In this direction, model-based probabilistic approaches have played an increasingly important role. In particular, improved models of sequence evolution accounting for heterogeneities across sites and across lineages have led to significant, although insufficient, improvement in phylogenetic accuracy. More recently, one main trend has been to move away from simple parametric models and stepwise approaches, towards integrative models explicitly considering the intricate interplay between multiple levels of macroevolutionary processes. Such integrative models are in their infancy, and their application to the phylogeny of eukaryotes still requires substantial improvement of the underlying models, as well as additional computational developments. PMID:26323768

  6. Extreme Postnatal Scaling in Bat Feeding Performance: A View of Ecomorphology from Ontogenetic and Macroevolutionary Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Santana, Sharlene E; Miller, Kimberly E

    2016-09-01

    Ecomorphology studies focus on understanding how anatomical and behavioral diversity result in differences in performance, ecology, and fitness. In mammals, the determinate growth of the skeleton entails that bite performance should change throughout ontogeny until the feeding apparatus attains its adult size and morphology. Then, interspecific differences in adult phenotypes are expected to drive food resource partitioning and patterns of lineage diversification. However, Formal tests of these predictions are lacking for the majority of mammal groups, and thus our understanding of mammalian ecomorphology remains incomplete. By focusing on a fundamental measure of feeding performance, bite force, and capitalizing on the extraordinary morphological and dietary diversity of bats, we discuss how the intersection of ontogenetic and macroevolutionary changes in feeding performance may impact ecological diversity in these mammals. We integrate data on cranial morphology and bite force gathered through longitudinal studies of captive animals and comparative studies of free-ranging individuals. We demonstrate that ontogenetic trajectories and evolutionary changes in bite force are highly dependent on changes in body and head size, and that bats exhibit dramatic, allometric increases in bite force during ontogeny. Interspecific variation in bite force is highly dependent on differences in cranial morphology and function, highlighting selection for ecological specialization. While more research is needed to determine how ontogenetic changes in size and bite force specifically impact food resource use and fitness in bats, interspecific diversity in cranial morphology and bite performance seem to closely match functional differences in diet. Altogether, these results suggest direct ecomorphological relationships at ontogenetic and macroevolutionary scales in bats. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative

  7. Time rescaling and pattern formation in biological evolution.

    PubMed

    Igamberdiev, Abir U

    2014-09-01

    Biological evolution is analyzed as a process of continuous measurement in which biosystems interpret themselves in the environment resulting in changes of both. This leads to rescaling of internal time (heterochrony) followed by spatial reconstructions of morphology (heterotopy). The logical precondition of evolution is the incompleteness of biosystem's internal description, while the physical precondition is the uncertainty of quantum measurement. The process of evolution is based on perpetual changes in interpretation of information in the changing world. In this interpretation the external biospheric gradients are used for establishment of new features of organization. It is concluded that biological evolution involves the anticipatory epigenetic changes in the interpretation of genetic symbolism which cannot generally be forecasted but can provide canalization of structural transformations defined by the existing organization and leading to predictable patterns of form generation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolution of central pattern generators and rhythmic behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Comparisons of rhythmic movements and the central pattern generators (CPGs) that control them uncover principles about the evolution of behaviour and neural circuits. Over the course of evolutionary history, gradual evolution of behaviours and their neural circuitry within any lineage of animals has been a predominant occurrence. Small changes in gene regulation can lead to divergence of circuit organization and corresponding changes in behaviour. However, some behavioural divergence has resulted from large-scale rewiring of the neural network. Divergence of CPG circuits has also occurred without a corresponding change in behaviour. When analogous rhythmic behaviours have evolved independently, it has generally been with different neural mechanisms. Repeated evolution of particular rhythmic behaviours has occurred within some lineages due to parallel evolution or latent CPGs. Particular motor pattern generating mechanisms have also evolved independently in separate lineages. The evolution of CPGs and rhythmic behaviours shows that although most behaviours and neural circuits are highly conserved, the nature of the behaviour does not dictate the neural mechanism and that the presence of homologous neural components does not determine the behaviour. This suggests that although behaviour is generated by neural circuits, natural selection can act separately on these two levels of biological organization. PMID:26598733

  9. Evolution of central pattern generators and rhythmic behaviours.

    PubMed

    Katz, Paul S

    2016-01-05

    Comparisons of rhythmic movements and the central pattern generators (CPGs) that control them uncover principles about the evolution of behaviour and neural circuits. Over the course of evolutionary history, gradual evolution of behaviours and their neural circuitry within any lineage of animals has been a predominant occurrence. Small changes in gene regulation can lead to divergence of circuit organization and corresponding changes in behaviour. However, some behavioural divergence has resulted from large-scale rewiring of the neural network. Divergence of CPG circuits has also occurred without a corresponding change in behaviour. When analogous rhythmic behaviours have evolved independently, it has generally been with different neural mechanisms. Repeated evolution of particular rhythmic behaviours has occurred within some lineages due to parallel evolution or latent CPGs. Particular motor pattern generating mechanisms have also evolved independently in separate lineages. The evolution of CPGs and rhythmic behaviours shows that although most behaviours and neural circuits are highly conserved, the nature of the behaviour does not dictate the neural mechanism and that the presence of homologous neural components does not determine the behaviour. This suggests that although behaviour is generated by neural circuits, natural selection can act separately on these two levels of biological organization. © 2015 The Author(s).

  10. The evolution of dorsal-ventral patterning mechanisms in insects.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Jeremy A; Roth, Siegfried

    2011-01-15

    The gene regulatory network (GRN) underpinning dorsal-ventral (DV) patterning of the Drosophila embryo is among the most thoroughly understood GRNs, making it an ideal system for comparative studies seeking to understand the evolution of development. With the emergence of widely applicable techniques for testing gene function, species with sequenced genomes, and multiple tractable species with diverse developmental modes, a phylogenetically broad and molecularly deep understanding of the evolution of DV axis formation in insects is feasible. Here, we review recent progress made in this field, compare our emerging molecular understanding to classical embryological experiments, and suggest future directions of inquiry.

  11. Spots and stripes: ecology and colour pattern evolution in butterflyfishes

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Jennifer L.; Fitzpatrick, John L.; Merilaita, Sami

    2013-01-01

    The incredible diversity of colour patterns in coral reef fishes has intrigued biologists for centuries. Yet, despite the many proposed explanations for this diversity in coloration, definitive tests of the role of ecological factors in shaping the evolution of particular colour pattern traits are absent. Patterns such as spots and eyespots (spots surrounded by concentric rings of contrasting colour) have often been assumed to function for predator defence by mimicking predators' enemies' eyes, deflecting attacks or intimidating predators, but the evolutionary processes underlying these functions have never been addressed. Striped body patterns have been suggested to serve for both social communication and predator defence, but the impact of ecological constraints remains unclear. We conducted the first comparative analysis of colour pattern diversity in butterflyfishes (Family: Chaetodontidae), fishes with conspicuous spots, eyespots and wide variation in coloration. Using a dated molecular phylogeny of 95 species (approx. 75% of the family), we tested whether spots and eyespots have evolved characteristics that are consistent with their proposed defensive function and whether the presence of spots and body stripes is linked with species' body length, dietary complexity, habitat diversity or social behaviour. Contrary to our expectations, spots and eyespots appeared relatively recently in butterflyfish evolution and are highly evolutionarily labile, suggesting that they are unlikely to have played an important part in the evolutionary history of the group. Striped body patterns showed correlated evolution with a number of ecological factors including habitat type, sociality and dietary complexity. Our findings question the prevailing view that eyespots are an evolutionary response to predation pressure, providing a valuable counter example to the role of these markings as revealed in other taxa. PMID:23427170

  12. Wnt signaling underlies evolution and development of the butterfly wing pattern symmetry systems.

    PubMed

    Martin, Arnaud; Reed, Robert D

    2014-11-15

    Most butterfly wing patterns are proposed to be derived from a set of conserved pattern elements known as symmetry systems. Symmetry systems are so-named because they are often associated with parallel color stripes mirrored around linear organizing centers that run between the anterior and posterior wing margins. Even though the symmetry systems are the most prominent and diverse wing pattern elements, their study has been confounded by a lack of knowledge regarding the molecular basis of their development, as well as the difficulty of drawing pattern homologies across species with highly derived wing patterns. Here we present the first molecular characterization of symmetry system development by showing that WntA expression is consistently associated with the major basal, discal, central, and external symmetry system patterns of nymphalid butterflies. Pharmacological manipulations of signaling gradients using heparin and dextran sulfate showed that pattern organizing centers correspond precisely with WntA, wingless, Wnt6, and Wnt10 expression patterns, thus suggesting a role for Wnt signaling in color pattern induction. Importantly, this model is supported by recent genetic and population genomic work identifying WntA as the causative locus underlying wing pattern variation within several butterfly species. By comparing the expression of WntA between nymphalid butterflies representing a range of prototypical symmetry systems, slightly deviated symmetry systems, and highly derived wing patterns, we were able to infer symmetry system homologies in several challenging cases. Our work illustrates how highly divergent morphologies can be derived from modifications to a common ground plan across both micro- and macro-evolutionary time scales. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evolution and convergence of the patterns of international scientific collaboration.

    PubMed

    Coccia, Mario; Wang, Lili

    2016-02-23

    International research collaboration plays an important role in the social construction and evolution of science. Studies of science increasingly analyze international collaboration across multiple organizations for its impetus in improving research quality, advancing efficiency of the scientific production, and fostering breakthroughs in a shorter time. However, long-run patterns of international research collaboration across scientific fields and their structural changes over time are hardly known. Here we show the convergence of international scientific collaboration across research fields over time. Our study uses a dataset by the National Science Foundation and computes the fraction of papers that have international institutional coauthorships for various fields of science. We compare our results with pioneering studies carried out in the 1970s and 1990s by applying a standardization method that transforms all fractions of internationally coauthored papers into a comparable framework. We find, over 1973-2012, that the evolution of collaboration patterns across scientific disciplines seems to generate a convergence between applied and basic sciences. We also show that the general architecture of international scientific collaboration, based on the ranking of fractions of international coauthorships for different scientific fields per year, has tended to be unchanged over time, at least until now. Overall, this study shows, to our knowledge for the first time, the evolution of the patterns of international scientific collaboration starting from initial results described by literature in the 1970s and 1990s. We find a convergence of these long-run collaboration patterns between the applied and basic sciences. This convergence might be one of contributing factors that supports the evolution of modern scientific fields.

  14. Movement Patterns, Social Dynamics, and the Evolution of Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Smaldino, Paul E.; Schank, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    The structure of social interactions influences many aspects of social life, including the spread of information and behavior, and the evolution of social phenotypes. After dispersal, organisms move around throughout their lives, and the patterns of their movement influence their social encounters over the course of their lifespan. Though both space and mobility are known to influence social evolution, there is little analysis of the influence of specific movement patterns on evolutionary dynamics. We explored the effects of random movement strategies on the evolution of cooperation using an agent-based prisoner’s dilemma model with mobile agents. This is the first systematic analysis of a model in which cooperators and defectors can use different random movement strategies, which we chose to fall on a spectrum between highly exploratory and highly restricted in their search tendencies. Because limited dispersal and restrictions to local neighborhood size are known to influence the ability of cooperators to effectively assort, we also assessed the robustness of our findings with respect to dispersal and local capacity constraints. We show that differences in patterns of movement can dramatically influence the likelihood of cooperator success, and that the effects of different movement patterns are sensitive to environmental assumptions about offspring dispersal and local space constraints. Since local interactions implicitly generate dynamic social interaction networks, we also measured the average number of unique and total interactions over a lifetime and considered how these emergent network dynamics helped explain the results. This work extends what is known about mobility and the evolution of cooperation, and also has general implications for social models with randomly moving agents. PMID:22838026

  15. Tempo and Mode of the Evolution of Venom and Poison in Tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Harris, Richard J; Arbuckle, Kevin

    2016-06-23

    Toxic weaponry in the form of venom and poison has evolved in most groups of animals, including all four major lineages of tetrapods. Moreover, the evolution of such traits has been linked to several key aspects of the biology of toxic animals including life-history and diversification. Despite this, attempts to investigate the macroevolutionary patterns underlying such weaponry are lacking. In this study we analyse patterns of venom and poison evolution across reptiles, amphibians, mammals, and birds using a suite of phylogenetic comparative methods. We find that each major lineage has a characteristic pattern of trait evolution, but mammals and reptiles evolve under a surprisingly similar regime, whilst that of amphibians appears to be particularly distinct and highly contrasting compared to other groups. Our results also suggest that the mechanism of toxin acquisition may be an important distinction in such evolutionary patterns; the evolution of biosynthesis is far less dynamic than that of sequestration of toxins from the diet. Finally, contrary to the situation in amphibians, other tetrapod groups show an association between the evolution of toxic weaponry and higher diversification rates. Taken together, our study provides the first broad-scale analysis of macroevolutionary patterns of venom and poison throughout tetrapods.

  16. Tempo and Mode of the Evolution of Venom and Poison in Tetrapods

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Richard J.; Arbuckle, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Toxic weaponry in the form of venom and poison has evolved in most groups of animals, including all four major lineages of tetrapods. Moreover, the evolution of such traits has been linked to several key aspects of the biology of toxic animals including life-history and diversification. Despite this, attempts to investigate the macroevolutionary patterns underlying such weaponry are lacking. In this study we analyse patterns of venom and poison evolution across reptiles, amphibians, mammals, and birds using a suite of phylogenetic comparative methods. We find that each major lineage has a characteristic pattern of trait evolution, but mammals and reptiles evolve under a surprisingly similar regime, whilst that of amphibians appears to be particularly distinct and highly contrasting compared to other groups. Our results also suggest that the mechanism of toxin acquisition may be an important distinction in such evolutionary patterns; the evolution of biosynthesis is far less dynamic than that of sequestration of toxins from the diet. Finally, contrary to the situation in amphibians, other tetrapod groups show an association between the evolution of toxic weaponry and higher diversification rates. Taken together, our study provides the first broad-scale analysis of macroevolutionary patterns of venom and poison throughout tetrapods. PMID:27348001

  17. Competition and constraint drove Cope's rule in the evolution of giant flying reptiles.

    PubMed

    Benson, Roger B J; Frigot, Rachel A; Goswami, Anjali; Andres, Brian; Butler, Richard J

    2014-04-02

    The pterosaurs, Mesozoic flying reptiles, attained wingspans of more than 10 m that greatly exceed the largest birds and challenge our understanding of size limits in flying animals. Pterosaurs have been used to illustrate Cope's rule, the influential generalization that evolutionary lineages trend to increasingly large body sizes. However, unambiguous examples of Cope's rule operating on extended timescales in large clades remain elusive, and the phylogenetic pattern and possible drivers of pterosaur gigantism are uncertain. Here we show 70 million years of highly constrained early evolution, followed by almost 80 million years of sustained, multi-lineage body size increases in pterosaurs. These results are supported by maximum-likelihood modelling of a comprehensive new pterosaur data set. The transition between these macroevolutionary regimes is coincident with the Early Cretaceous adaptive radiation of birds, supporting controversial hypotheses of bird-pterosaur competition, and suggesting that evolutionary competition can act as a macroevolutionary driver on extended geological timescales.

  18. Optimized temporal pattern of brain stimulation designed by computational evolution

    PubMed Central

    Brocker, David T.; Swan, Brandon D.; So, Rosa Q.; Turner, Dennis A.; Gross, Robert E.; Grill, Warren M.

    2017-01-01

    Brain stimulation is a promising therapy for several neurological disorders, including Parkinson’s disease. Stimulation parameters are selected empirically and are limited to the frequency and intensity of stimulation. We used the temporal pattern of stimulation as a novel parameter of deep brain stimulation to ameliorate symptoms in a parkinsonian animal model and in humans with Parkinson’s disease. We used model-based computational evolution to optimize the stimulation pattern. The optimized pattern produced symptom relief comparable to that from standard high-frequency stimulation (a constant rate of 130 or 185 Hz) and outperformed frequency-matched standard stimulation in the parkinsonian rat and in patients. Both optimized and standard stimulation suppressed abnormal oscillatory activity in the basal ganglia of rats and humans. The results illustrate the utility of model-based computational evolution to design temporal pattern of stimulation to increase the efficiency of brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease, thereby requiring substantially less energy than traditional brain stimulation. PMID:28053151

  19. Common functional targets of adaptive micro- and macro-evolutionary divergence in killifish.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Andrew; Zhang, Shujun; Roach, Jennifer L; Galvez, Fernando

    2013-07-01

    Environmental salinity presents a key barrier to dispersal for most aquatic organisms, and adaptation to alternate osmotic environments likely enables species diversification. Little is known of the functional basis for derived tolerance to environmental salinity. We integrate comparative physiology and functional genomics to explore the mechanistic underpinnings of evolved variation in osmotic plasticity within and among two species of killifish; Fundulus majalis harbours the ancestral mainly salt-tolerant phenotype, whereas Fundulus heteroclitus harbours a derived physiology that retains extreme salt tolerance but with expanded osmotic plasticity towards the freshwater end of the osmotic continuum. Common-garden comparative hypo-osmotic challenge experiments show that F. heteroclitus is capable of remodelling gill epithelia more quickly and at more extreme osmotic challenge than F. majalis. We detect an unusual pattern of baseline transcriptome divergence, where neutral evolutionary processes appear to govern expression divergence within species, but patterns of divergence for these genes between species do not follow neutral expectations. During acclimation, genome expression profiling identifies mechanisms of acclimation-associated response that are conserved within the genus including regulation of paracellular permeability. In contrast, several responses vary among species including those putatively associated with cell volume regulation, and these same mechanisms are targets for adaptive physiological divergence along osmotic gradients within F. heteroclitus. As such, the genomic and physiological mechanisms that are associated with adaptive fine-tuning within species also contribute to macro-evolutionary divergence as species diversify across osmotic niches. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Discovering significant evolution patterns from satellite image time series.

    PubMed

    Petitjean, François; Masseglia, Florent; Gançarski, Pierre; Forestier, Germain

    2011-12-01

    Satellite Image Time Series (SITS) provide us with precious information on land cover evolution. By studying these series of images we can both understand the changes of specific areas and discover global phenomena that spread over larger areas. Changes that can occur throughout the sensing time can spread over very long periods and may have different start time and end time depending on the location, which complicates the mining and the analysis of series of images. This work focuses on frequent sequential pattern mining (FSPM) methods, since this family of methods fits the above-mentioned issues. This family of methods consists of finding the most frequent evolution behaviors, and is actually able to extract long-term changes as well as short term ones, whenever the change may start and end. However, applying FSPM methods to SITS implies confronting two main challenges, related to the characteristics of SITS and the domain's constraints. First, satellite images associate multiple measures with a single pixel (the radiometric levels of different wavelengths corresponding to infra-red, red, etc.), which makes the search space multi-dimensional and thus requires specific mining algorithms. Furthermore, the non evolving regions, which are the vast majority and overwhelm the evolving ones, challenge the discovery of these patterns. We propose a SITS mining framework that enables discovery of these patterns despite these constraints and characteristics. Our proposal is inspired from FSPM and provides a relevant visualization principle. Experiments carried out on 35 images sensed over 20 years show the proposed approach makes it possible to extract relevant evolution behaviors.

  1. The fossil record and macroevolutionary history of the beetles

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Dena M.; Marcot, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Coleoptera (beetles) is the most species-rich metazoan order, with approximately 380 000 species. To understand how they came to be such a diverse group, we compile a database of global fossil beetle occurrences to study their macroevolutionary history. Our database includes 5553 beetle occurrences from 221 fossil localities. Amber and lacustrine deposits preserve most of the beetle diversity and abundance. All four extant suborders are found in the fossil record, with 69% of all beetle families and 63% of extant beetle families preserved. Considerable focus has been placed on beetle diversification overall, however, for much of their evolutionary history it is the clade Polyphaga that is most responsible for their taxonomic richness. Polyphaga had an increase in diversification rate in the Early Cretaceous, but instead of being due to the radiation of the angiosperms, this was probably due to the first occurrences of beetle-bearing amber deposits in the record. Perhaps, most significant is that polyphagan beetles had a family-level extinction rate of zero for most of their evolutionary history, including across the Cretaceous–Palaeogene boundary. Therefore, focusing on the factors that have inhibited beetle extinction, as opposed to solely studying mechanisms that may promote speciation, should be examined as important determinants of their great diversity today. PMID:25788597

  2. Morphological evolution of thin polymer film on chemically patterned substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Satya Pal

    2018-05-01

    In this paper work, pattern formation in ultra thin polymer film, adsorbed on chemically patterned substrates, is reported under strong confinement. The observations indicate for the strong influence of the surface attraction over evolution of spindoal waves, leading to the flattening of the film. But, the film appears to be torn apart in strip or nano fiber like structures, because of coalescences of the monomers at the free ends of the chains. The beads at the free ends of the chain are relatively more mobile. The chain diffusion towards attractive part of the chemically patterned surfaces is clearly seen. Prewetting or crystallization like phenomena seems to appear resulting into formation of strips with coexistence of molten phase drops at the top of the ruptured film. The investigation mimics spindoal dewetting because of the fact that the rupturing occurs in case of strong attractive surface. The investigation is of technical importance as it highlights the formation of nano scale strips and fibers though in a quasi equilibrium case.

  3. Building the backbone: the development and evolution of vertebral patterning.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Angeleen; Kishida, Marcia G; Kimmel, Charles B; Keynes, Roger J

    2015-05-15

    The segmented vertebral column comprises a repeat series of vertebrae, each consisting of two key components: the vertebral body (or centrum) and the vertebral arches. Despite being a defining feature of the vertebrates, much remains to be understood about vertebral development and evolution. Particular controversy surrounds whether vertebral component structures are homologous across vertebrates, how somite and vertebral patterning are connected, and the developmental origin of vertebral bone-mineralizing cells. Here, we assemble evidence from ichthyologists, palaeontologists and developmental biologists to consider these issues. Vertebral arch elements were present in early stem vertebrates, whereas centra arose later. We argue that centra are homologous among jawed vertebrates, and review evidence in teleosts that the notochord plays an instructive role in segmental patterning, alongside the somites, and contributes to mineralization. By clarifying the evolutionary relationship between centra and arches, and their varying modes of skeletal mineralization, we can better appreciate the detailed mechanisms that regulate and diversify vertebral patterning. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Ancient Wings: animating the evolution of butterfly wing patterns.

    PubMed

    Arbesman, Samuel; Enthoven, Leo; Monteiro, Antónia

    2003-10-01

    Character optimization methods can be used to reconstruct ancestral states at the internal nodes of phylogenetic trees. However, seldom are these ancestral states visualized collectively. Ancient Wings is a computer program that provides a novel method of visualizing the evolution of several morphological traits simultaneously. It allows users to visualize how the ventral hindwing pattern of 54 butterflies in the genus Bicyclus may have changed over time. By clicking on each of the nodes within the evolutionary tree, the user can see an animation of how wing size, eyespot size, and eyespot position relative the wing margin, have putatively evolved as a collective whole. Ancient Wings may be used as a pedagogical device as well as a research tool for hypothesis-generation in the fields of evolutionary, ecological, and developmental biology.

  5. Herbivorous ecomorphology and specialization patterns in theropod dinosaur evolution.

    PubMed

    Zanno, Lindsay E; Makovicky, Peter J

    2011-01-04

    Interpreting key ecological parameters, such as diet, of extinct organisms without the benefit of direct observation or explicit fossil evidence poses a formidable challenge for paleobiological studies. To date, dietary categorizations of extinct taxa are largely generated by means of modern analogs; however, for many species the method is subject to considerable ambiguity. Here we present a refined approach for assessing trophic habits in fossil taxa and apply the method to coelurosaurian dinosaurs--a clade for which diet is particularly controversial. Our findings detect 21 morphological features that exhibit statistically significant correlations with extrinsic fossil evidence of coelurosaurian herbivory, such as stomach contents and a gastric mill. These traits represent quantitative, extrinsically founded proxies for identifying herbivorous ecomorphology in fossils and are robust despite uncertainty in phylogenetic relationships among major coelurosaurian subclades. The distribution of these features suggests that herbivory was widespread among coelurosaurians, with six major subclades displaying morphological evidence of the diet, and that contrary to previous thought, hypercarnivory was relatively rare and potentially secondarily derived. Given the potential for repeated, independent evolution of herbivory in Coelurosauria, we also test for repetitive patterns in the appearance of herbivorous traits within sublineages using rank concordance analysis. We find evidence for a common succession of increasing specialization to herbivory in the subclades Ornithomimosauria and Oviraptorosauria, perhaps underlain by intrinsic functional and/or developmental constraints, as well as evidence indicating that the early evolution of a beak in coelurosaurians correlates with an herbivorous diet.

  6. Herbivorous ecomorphology and specialization patterns in theropod dinosaur evolution

    PubMed Central

    Zanno, Lindsay E.; Makovicky, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Interpreting key ecological parameters, such as diet, of extinct organisms without the benefit of direct observation or explicit fossil evidence poses a formidable challenge for paleobiological studies. To date, dietary categorizations of extinct taxa are largely generated by means of modern analogs; however, for many species the method is subject to considerable ambiguity. Here we present a refined approach for assessing trophic habits in fossil taxa and apply the method to coelurosaurian dinosaurs—a clade for which diet is particularly controversial. Our findings detect 21 morphological features that exhibit statistically significant correlations with extrinsic fossil evidence of coelurosaurian herbivory, such as stomach contents and a gastric mill. These traits represent quantitative, extrinsically founded proxies for identifying herbivorous ecomorphology in fossils and are robust despite uncertainty in phylogenetic relationships among major coelurosaurian subclades. The distribution of these features suggests that herbivory was widespread among coelurosaurians, with six major subclades displaying morphological evidence of the diet, and that contrary to previous thought, hypercarnivory was relatively rare and potentially secondarily derived. Given the potential for repeated, independent evolution of herbivory in Coelurosauria, we also test for repetitive patterns in the appearance of herbivorous traits within sublineages using rank concordance analysis. We find evidence for a common succession of increasing specialization to herbivory in the subclades Ornithomimosauria and Oviraptorosauria, perhaps underlain by intrinsic functional and/or developmental constraints, as well as evidence indicating that the early evolution of a beak in coelurosaurians correlates with an herbivorous diet. PMID:21173263

  7. Trait-specific processes of convergence and conservatism shape ecomorphological evolution in ground-dwelling squirrels.

    PubMed

    McLean, Bryan S; Helgen, Kristofer M; Goodwin, H Thomas; Cook, Joseph A

    2018-03-01

    Our understanding of mechanisms operating over deep timescales to shape phenotypic diversity often hinges on linking variation in one or few trait(s) to specific evolutionary processes. When distinct processes are capable of similar phenotypic signatures, however, identifying these drivers is difficult. We explored ecomorphological evolution across a radiation of ground-dwelling squirrels whose history includes convergence and constraint, two processes that can yield similar signatures of standing phenotypic diversity. Using four ecologically relevant trait datasets (body size, cranial, mandibular, and molariform tooth shape), we compared and contrasted variation, covariation, and disparity patterns in a new phylogenetic framework. Strong correlations existed between body size and two skull traits (allometry) and among skull traits themselves (integration). Inferred evolutionary modes were also concordant across traits (Ornstein-Uhlenbeck with two adaptive regimes). However, despite these broad similarities, we found divergent dynamics on the macroevolutionary landscape, with phenotypic disparity being differentially shaped by convergence and conservatism. Such among-trait heterogeneity in process (but not always pattern) reiterates the mosaic nature of morphological evolution, and suggests ground squirrel evolution is poorly captured by single process descriptors. Our results also highlight how use of single traits can bias macroevolutionary inference, affirming the importance of broader trait-bases in understanding phenotypic evolutionary dynamics. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. A simple model for research interest evolution patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Tao; Wang, Dashun; Szymanski, Boleslaw

    Sir Isaac Newton supposedly remarked that in his scientific career he was like ``...a boy playing on the sea-shore ...finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary''. His remarkable modesty and famous understatement motivate us to seek regularities in how scientists shift their research focus as the career develops. Indeed, despite intensive investigations on how microscopic factors, such as incentives and risks, would influence a scientist's choice of research agenda, little is known on the macroscopic patterns in the research interest change undertaken by individual scientists throughout their careers. Here we make use of over 14,000 authors' publication records in physics. By quantifying statistical characteristics in the interest evolution, we model scientific research as a random walk, which reproduces patterns in individuals' careers observed empirically. Despite myriad of factors that shape and influence individual choices of research subjects, we identified regularities in this dynamical process that are well captured by a simple statistical model. The results advance our understanding of scientists' behaviors during their careers and open up avenues for future studies in the science of science.

  9. Evolution of vocal patterns: tuning hindbrain circuits during species divergence.

    PubMed

    Barkan, Charlotte L; Zornik, Erik; Kelley, Darcy B

    2017-03-01

    The neural circuits underlying divergent courtship behaviors of closely related species provide a framework for insight into the evolution of motor patterns. In frogs, male advertisement calls serve as unique species identifiers and females prefer conspecific to heterospecific calls. Advertisement calls of three relatively recently (∼8.5 Mya) diverged species - Xenopus laevis , X. petersii and X. victorianus - include rapid trains of sound pulses (fast trills). We show that while fast trills are similar in pulse rate (∼60 pulses s -1 ) across the three species, they differ in call duration and period (time from the onset of one call to the onset of the following call). Previous studies of call production in X. laevis used an isolated brain preparation in which the laryngeal nerve produces compound action potentials that correspond to the advertisement call pattern (fictive calling). Here, we show that serotonin evokes fictive calling in X. petersii and X. victorianus as it does in X. laevis As in X. laevis , fictive fast trill in X. petersii and X. victorianus is accompanied by an N -methyl-d-aspartate receptor-dependent local field potential wave in a rostral hindbrain nucleus, DTAM. Across the three species, wave duration and period are strongly correlated with species-specific fast trill duration and period, respectively. When DTAM is isolated from the more rostral forebrain and midbrain and/or more caudal laryngeal motor nucleus, the wave persists at species-typical durations and periods. Thus, intrinsic differences within DTAM could be responsible for the evolutionary divergence of call patterns across these related species. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Do Macrophylogenies Yield Stable Macroevolutionary Inferences? An Example from Squamate Reptiles.

    PubMed

    Title, Pascal O; Rabosky, Daniel L

    2017-09-01

    Advances in the generation, retrieval, and analysis of phylogenetic data have enabled researchers to create phylogenies that contain many thousands of taxa. These "macrophylogenies"-large trees that typically derive from megaphylogeny, supermatrix, or supertree approaches-provide researchers with an unprecedented ability to conduct evolutionary analyses across broad phylogenetic scales. Many studies have now used these phylogenies to explore the dynamics of speciation, extinction, and phenotypic evolution across large swaths of the tree of life. These trees are characterized by substantial phylogenetic uncertainty on multiple levels, and the stability of macroevolutionary inferences from these data sets has not been rigorously explored. As a case study, we tested whether five recently published phylogenies for squamate reptiles-each consisting of more than 4000 species-yield congruent inferences about the processes that underlie variation in species richness across replicate evolutionary radiations of Australian snakes and lizards. We find discordance across the five focal phylogenies with respect to clade age and several diversification rate metrics, and in the effects of clade age on species richness. We also find that crown clade ages reported in the literature on these Australian groups are in conflict with all of the large phylogenies examined. Macrophylogenies offer an unprecedented opportunity to address evolutionary and ecological questions at broad phylogenetic scales, but accurately representing the uncertainty that is inherent to such analyses remains a critical challenge to our field. [Australia; macroevolution; macrophylogeny; squamates; time calibration.]. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Genetics and evolution of colour patterns in reptiles.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Mats; Stuart-Fox, Devi; Ballen, Cissy

    2013-01-01

    The study of coloration in the polyphyletic reptilians has flourished in the last two decades, in particular with respect to the underlying genetics of colour traits, the function of colours in social interactions, and ongoing selection on these traits in the wild. The taxonomic bias, however, is profound: at this level of resolution almost all available information is for diurnal lizards. Therefore, we focus on case studies, for which there are as complete causal sequences of colour evolution as possible, from phenotypic expression of variation in colour, to ongoing selection in the wild. For work prior to 1992 and for a broader coverage of reptilian coloration we refer the readers to Cooper and Greenburg's (Biology of the Reptilia, 1992) review. There are seven major conclusions we would like to emphasise: (a) visual systems in diurnal lizards are broadly conserved but among the wider range of reptiles in general, there is functionally important variation in the number and type of photoreceptors, spectral tuning of photopigments and optical properties of the eye; (b) coloration in reptiles is a function of complex interactions between structural and pigmentary components, with implications for both proximate control and condition dependence of colour expression; (c) studies of colour-variable species have enabled estimates of heritability of colour and colour patterns, which often show a simple Mendelian pattern of inheritance; (d) colour-polymorphic lizard species sometimes, but not always, show striking differences in genetically encoded reproductive tactics and provide useful models for studying the evolution and maintenance of polymorphism; (e) both male and female colours are sometimes, but not always, a significant component of socio-sexual signalling, often based on multiple traits; (f) evidence for effects of hormones and condition on colour expression, and trade-offs with immunocompetence and parasite load, is variable; (g) lizards show fading of colours

  12. The evolution of egg colour and patterning in birds.

    PubMed

    Kilner, R M

    2006-08-01

    Avian eggs differ so much in their colour and patterning from species to species that any attempt to account for this diversity might initially seem doomed to failure. Here I present a critical review of the literature which, when combined with the results of some comparative analyses, suggests that just a few selective agents can explain much of the variation in egg appearance. Ancestrally, bird eggs were probably white and immaculate. Ancient diversification in nest location, and hence in the clutch's vulnerability to attack by predators, can explain basic differences between bird families in egg appearance. The ancestral white egg has been retained by species whose nests are safe from attack by predators, while those that have moved to a more vulnerable nest site are now more likely to lay brown eggs, covered in speckles, just as Wallace hypothesized more than a century ago. Even blue eggs might be cryptic in a subset of nests built in vegetation. It is possible that some species have subsequently turned these ancient adaptations to new functions, for example to signal female quality, to protect eggs from damaging solar radiation, or to add structural strength to shells when calcium is in short supply. The threat of predation, together with the use of varying nest sites, appears to have increased the diversity of egg colouring seen among species within families, and among clutches within species. Brood parasites and their hosts have probably secondarily influenced the diversity of egg appearance. Each drives the evolution of the other's egg colour and patterning, as hosts attempt to avoid exploitation by rejecting odd-looking eggs from their nests, and parasites attempt to outwit their hosts by laying eggs that will escape detection. This co-evolutionary arms race has increased variation in egg appearance both within and between species, in parasites and in hosts, sometimes resulting in the evolution of egg colour polymorphisms. It has also reduced variation in

  13. Patterns and processes of drainage network evolution on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stucky de Quay, G.; Roberts, G. G.

    2017-12-01

    Large, complex drainage networks exist on the surface of Mars. These drainage patterns suggest that base level change, fluvial erosion, and deposition of sedimentary rock have played important roles in determining the shape of Martian topography. On Earth, base-level change plays the most important role in determining shapes of river profiles at wavelengths greater than a few kilometers. Wavelet transforms of Martian drainage patterns indicate that the same is true for most Martian drainage. For example, rivers in the Warrego Valles system have large convex-upward elevation profiles, with broad knickzones spanning more than 100 kilometers in length and few kilometers in height. More than 90% of the spectra power of rivers in this system resides at wavelengths greater than 10 kilometers. We examine the source of this long wavelength spectra power by jointly inverting suites of Martian river profiles for damped spatio-temporal histories of base-level change. Drainage networks were extracted from the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) topographic dataset using flow-routing algorithms. Calculated uplift rate histories indicate that regional uplift at wavelengths greater than 100 kilometers play an important role in determining the history of landscape evolution in Warrego Valles. In other regions (e.g. Holden and Eberswalde craters) joint inversion of families of rivers draining craters helps to constrain values of erosional parameters in a simplified version of the stream power erosional model. Integration of calculated incision rates suggest that we can perform a simple mass balance between eroded and deposited rock in regions where both depositional and erosional landforms exist.

  14. Age-Related Evolution Patterns in Online Handwriting

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing age from handwriting (HW) has important applications, as it is key to distinguishing normal HW evolution with age from abnormal HW change, potentially triggered by neurodegenerative decline. We propose, in this work, an original approach for online HW style characterization based on a two-level clustering scheme. The first level generates writer-independent word clusters from raw spatial-dynamic HW information. At the second level, each writer's words are converted into a Bag of Prototype Words that is augmented by an interword stability measure. This two-level HW style representation is input to an unsupervised learning technique, aiming at uncovering HW style categories and their correlation with age. To assess the effectiveness of our approach, we propose information theoretic measures to quantify the gain on age information from each clustering layer. We have carried out extensive experiments on a large public online HW database, augmented by HW samples acquired at Broca Hospital in Paris from people mostly between 60 and 85 years old. Unlike previous works claiming that there is only one pattern of HW change with age, our study reveals three major aging HW styles, one specific to aged people and the two others shared by other age groups. PMID:27752277

  15. Macroevolutionary Dynamics and Historical Biogeography of Primate Diversification Inferred from a Species Supermatrix

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Mark S.; Meredith, Robert W.; Gatesy, John; Emerling, Christopher A.; Park, Jong; Rabosky, Daniel L.; Stadler, Tanja; Steiner, Cynthia; Ryder, Oliver A.; Janečka, Jan E.; Fisher, Colleen A.; Murphy, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships, divergence times, and patterns of biogeographic descent among primate species are both complex and contentious. Here, we generate a robust molecular phylogeny for 70 primate genera and 367 primate species based on a concatenation of 69 nuclear gene segments and ten mitochondrial gene sequences, most of which were extracted from GenBank. Relaxed clock analyses of divergence times with 14 fossil-calibrated nodes suggest that living Primates last shared a common ancestor 71–63 Ma, and that divergences within both Strepsirrhini and Haplorhini are entirely post-Cretaceous. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction of non-avian dinosaurs played an important role in the diversification of placental mammals. Previous queries into primate historical biogeography have suggested Africa, Asia, Europe, or North America as the ancestral area of crown primates, but were based on methods that were coopted from phylogeny reconstruction. By contrast, we analyzed our molecular phylogeny with two methods that were developed explicitly for ancestral area reconstruction, and find support for the hypothesis that the most recent common ancestor of living Primates resided in Asia. Analyses of primate macroevolutionary dynamics provide support for a diversification rate increase in the late Miocene, possibly in response to elevated global mean temperatures, and are consistent with the fossil record. By contrast, diversification analyses failed to detect evidence for rate-shift changes near the Eocene-Oligocene boundary even though the fossil record provides clear evidence for a major turnover event (“Grande Coupure”) at this time. Our results highlight the power and limitations of inferring diversification dynamics from molecular phylogenies, as well as the sensitivity of diversification analyses to different species concepts. PMID:23166696

  16. Alternate pathways of body shape evolution translate into common patterns of locomotor evolution in two clades of lizards.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Philip J; Irschick, Duncan J

    2010-06-01

    Body shape has a fundamental impact on organismal function, but it is unknown how functional morphology and locomotor performance and kinematics relate across a diverse array of body shapes. We showed that although patterns of body shape evolution differed considerably between lizards of the Phrynosomatinae and Lerista, patterns of locomotor evolution coincided between clades. Specifically, we found that the phrynosomatines evolved a stocky phenotype through body widening and limb shortening, whereas Lerista evolved elongation through body lengthening and limb shortening. In both clades, relative limb length played a key role in locomotor evolution and kinematic strategies, with long-limbed species moving faster and taking longer strides. In Lerista, the body axis also influenced locomotor evolution. Similar patterns of locomotor evolution were likely due to constraints on how the body can move. However, these common patterns of locomotor evolution between the two clades resulted in different kinematic strategies and levels of performance among species because of their morphological differences. Furthermore, we found no evidence that distinct body shapes are adaptations to different substrates, as locomotor kinematics did not change on loose or solid substrates. Our findings illustrate the importance of studying kinematics to understand the mechanisms of locomotor evolution and phenotype-function relationships.

  17. Tempo and mode of performance evolution across multiple independent origins of adhesive toe pads in lizards.

    PubMed

    Hagey, Travis J; Uyeda, Josef C; Crandell, Kristen E; Cheney, Jorn A; Autumn, Kellar; Harmon, Luke J

    2017-10-01

    Understanding macroevolutionary dynamics of trait evolution is an important endeavor in evolutionary biology. Ecological opportunity can liberate a trait as it diversifies through trait space, while genetic and selective constraints can limit diversification. While many studies have examined the dynamics of morphological traits, diverse morphological traits may yield the same or similar performance and as performance is often more proximately the target of selection, examining only morphology may give an incomplete understanding of evolutionary dynamics. Here, we ask whether convergent evolution of pad-bearing lizards has followed similar evolutionary dynamics, or whether independent origins are accompanied by unique constraints and selective pressures over macroevolutionary time. We hypothesized that geckos and anoles each have unique evolutionary tempos and modes. Using performance data from 59 species, we modified Brownian motion (BM) and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) models to account for repeated origins estimated using Bayesian ancestral state reconstructions. We discovered that adhesive performance in geckos evolved in a fashion consistent with Brownian motion with a trend, whereas anoles evolved in bounded performance space consistent with more constrained evolution (an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model). Our results suggest that convergent phenotypes can have quite distinctive evolutionary patterns, likely as a result of idiosyncratic constraints or ecological opportunities. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Linking micro- and macroevolutionary perspectives to evaluate the role of Quaternary sea-level oscillations in island diversification.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Anna; Knowles, L Lacey

    2017-12-01

    With shifts in island area, isolation, and cycles of island fusion-fission, the role of Quaternary sea-level oscillations as drivers of diversification is complex and not well understood. Here, we conduct parallel comparisons of population and species divergence between two island areas of equivalent size that have been affected differently by sea-level oscillations, with the aim to understand the micro- and macroevolutionary dynamics associated with sea-level change. Using genome-wide datasets for a clade of seven Amphiacusta ground cricket species endemic to the Puerto Rico Bank (PRB), we found consistently deeper interspecific divergences and higher population differentiation across the unfragmented Western PRB, in comparison to the currently fragmented Eastern PRB that has experienced extreme changes in island area and connectivity during the Quaternary. We evaluate alternative hypotheses related to the microevolutionary processes (population splitting, extinction, and merging) that regulate the frequency of completed speciation across the PRB. Our results suggest that under certain combinations of archipelago characteristics and taxon traits, the repeated changes in island area and connectivity may create an opposite effect to the hypothesized "species pump" action of oscillating sea levels. Our study highlights how a microevolutionary perspective can complement current macroecological work on the Quaternary dynamics of island biodiversity. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Transcriptomic and macroevolutionary evidence for phenotypic uncoupling between frog life history phases

    PubMed Central

    Wollenberg Valero, Katharina C.; Garcia-Porta, Joan; Rodríguez, Ariel; Arias, Mónica; Shah, Abhijeet; Randrianiaina, Roger Daniel; Brown, Jason L.; Glaw, Frank; Amat, Felix; Künzel, Sven; Metzler, Dirk; Isokpehi, Raphael D.; Vences, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Anuran amphibians undergo major morphological transitions during development, but the contribution of their markedly different life-history phases to macroevolution has rarely been analysed. Here we generate testable predictions for coupling versus uncoupling of phenotypic evolution of tadpole and adult life-history phases, and for the underlying expression of genes related to morphological feature formation. We test these predictions by combining evidence from gene expression in two distantly related frogs, Xenopus laevis and Mantidactylus betsileanus, with patterns of morphological evolution in the entire radiation of Madagascan mantellid frogs. Genes linked to morphological structure formation are expressed in a highly phase-specific pattern, suggesting uncoupling of phenotypic evolution across life-history phases. This gene expression pattern agrees with uncoupled rates of trait evolution among life-history phases in the mantellids, which we show to have undergone an adaptive radiation. Our results validate a prevalence of uncoupling in the evolution of tadpole and adult phenotypes of frogs. PMID:28504275

  20. The evolution of pattern camouflage strategies in waterfowl and game birds.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Kate L A; Gluckman, Thanh-Lan

    2015-05-01

    Visual patterns are common in animals. A broad survey of the literature has revealed that different patterns have distinct functions. Irregular patterns (e.g., stipples) typically function in static camouflage, whereas regular patterns (e.g., stripes) have a dual function in both motion camouflage and communication. Moreover, irregular and regular patterns located on different body regions ("bimodal" patterning) can provide an effective compromise between camouflage and communication and/or enhanced concealment via both static and motion camouflage. Here, we compared the frequency of these three pattern types and traced their evolutionary history using Bayesian comparative modeling in aquatic waterfowl (Anseriformes: 118 spp.), which typically escape predators by flight, and terrestrial game birds (Galliformes: 170 spp.), which mainly use a "sit and hide" strategy to avoid predation. Given these life histories, we predicted that selection would favor regular patterning in Anseriformes and irregular or bimodal patterning in Galliformes and that pattern function complexity should increase over the course of evolution. Regular patterns were predominant in Anseriformes whereas regular and bimodal patterns were most frequent in Galliformes, suggesting that patterns with multiple functions are broadly favored by selection over patterns with a single function in static camouflage. We found that the first patterns to evolve were either regular or bimodal in Anseriformes and either irregular or regular in Galliformes. In both orders, irregular patterns could evolve into regular patterns but not the reverse. Our hypothesis of increasing complexity in pattern camouflage function was supported in Galliformes but not in Anseriformes. These results reveal a trajectory of pattern evolution linked to increasing function complexity in Galliformes although not in Anseriformes, suggesting that both ecology and function complexity can have a profound influence on pattern evolution.

  1. The evolution of pattern camouflage strategies in waterfowl and game birds

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Kate L A; Gluckman, Thanh-Lan

    2015-01-01

    Visual patterns are common in animals. A broad survey of the literature has revealed that different patterns have distinct functions. Irregular patterns (e.g., stipples) typically function in static camouflage, whereas regular patterns (e.g., stripes) have a dual function in both motion camouflage and communication. Moreover, irregular and regular patterns located on different body regions (“bimodal” patterning) can provide an effective compromise between camouflage and communication and/or enhanced concealment via both static and motion camouflage. Here, we compared the frequency of these three pattern types and traced their evolutionary history using Bayesian comparative modeling in aquatic waterfowl (Anseriformes: 118 spp.), which typically escape predators by flight, and terrestrial game birds (Galliformes: 170 spp.), which mainly use a “sit and hide” strategy to avoid predation. Given these life histories, we predicted that selection would favor regular patterning in Anseriformes and irregular or bimodal patterning in Galliformes and that pattern function complexity should increase over the course of evolution. Regular patterns were predominant in Anseriformes whereas regular and bimodal patterns were most frequent in Galliformes, suggesting that patterns with multiple functions are broadly favored by selection over patterns with a single function in static camouflage. We found that the first patterns to evolve were either regular or bimodal in Anseriformes and either irregular or regular in Galliformes. In both orders, irregular patterns could evolve into regular patterns but not the reverse. Our hypothesis of increasing complexity in pattern camouflage function was supported in Galliformes but not in Anseriformes. These results reveal a trajectory of pattern evolution linked to increasing function complexity in Galliformes although not in Anseriformes, suggesting that both ecology and function complexity can have a profound influence on pattern

  2. Ecological interactions on macroevolutionary time scales: clams and brachiopods are more than ships that pass in the night.

    PubMed

    Liow, Lee Hsiang; Reitan, Trond; Harnik, Paul G

    2015-10-01

    Competition among organisms has ecological and evolutionary consequences. However, whether the consequences of competition are manifested and measureable on macroevolutionary time scales is equivocal. Marine bivalves and brachiopods have overlapping niches such that competition for food and space may occur. Moreover, there is a long-standing debate over whether bivalves outcompeted brachiopods evolutionarily, because brachiopod diversity declined through time while bivalve diversity increased. To answer this question, we estimate the origination and extinction dynamics of fossil marine bivalve and brachiopod genera from the Ordovician through to the Recent while simultaneously accounting for incomplete sampling. Then, using stochastic differential equations, we assess statistical relationships among diversification and sampling dynamics of brachiopods and bivalves and five paleoenvironmental proxies. None of these potential environmental drivers had any detectable influence on brachiopod or bivalve diversification. In contrast, elevated bivalve extinction rates causally increased brachiopod origination rates, suggesting that bivalves have suppressed brachiopod evolution. © 2015 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Macroevolutionary assembly of ant/plant symbioses: Pseudomyrmex ants and their ant-housing plants in the Neotropics

    PubMed Central

    Chomicki, Guillaume; Ward, Philip S.; Renner, Susanne S.

    2015-01-01

    Symbioses include some of the clearest cases of coevolution, but their origin, loss or reassembly with different partners can rarely be inferred. Here we use ant/plant symbioses involving three plant clades to investigate the evolution of symbioses. We generated phylogenies for the big-eyed arboreal ants (Pseudomyrmecinae), including 72% of their 286 species, as well as for five of their plant host groups, in each case sampling more than 61% of the species. We show that the ant-housing Vachellia (Mimosoideae) clade and its ants co-diversified for the past 5 Ma, with some species additionally colonized by younger plant-nesting ant species, some parasitic. An apparent co-radiation of ants and Tachigali (Caesalpinioideae) was followed by waves of colonization by the same ant clade, and subsequent occupation by a younger ant group. Wide crown and stem age differences between the ant-housing genus Triplaris (Polygonaceae) and its obligate ant inhabitants, and stochastic trait mapping, indicate that its domatium evolved earlier than the ants now occupying it, suggesting previous symbioses that dissolved. Parasitic ant species evolved from generalists, not from mutualists, and are younger than the mutualistic systems they parasitize. Our study illuminates the macroevolutionary assembly of ant/plant symbioses, which has been highly dynamic, even in very specialized systems. PMID:26582029

  4. Three crocodilian genomes reveal ancestral patterns of evolution among archosaurs.

    PubMed

    Green, Richard E; Braun, Edward L; Armstrong, Joel; Earl, Dent; Nguyen, Ngan; Hickey, Glenn; Vandewege, Michael W; St John, John A; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Castoe, Todd A; Kern, Colin; Fujita, Matthew K; Opazo, Juan C; Jurka, Jerzy; Kojima, Kenji K; Caballero, Juan; Hubley, Robert M; Smit, Arian F; Platt, Roy N; Lavoie, Christine A; Ramakodi, Meganathan P; Finger, John W; Suh, Alexander; Isberg, Sally R; Miles, Lee; Chong, Amanda Y; Jaratlerdsiri, Weerachai; Gongora, Jaime; Moran, Christopher; Iriarte, Andrés; McCormack, John; Burgess, Shane C; Edwards, Scott V; Lyons, Eric; Williams, Christina; Breen, Matthew; Howard, Jason T; Gresham, Cathy R; Peterson, Daniel G; Schmitz, Jürgen; Pollock, David D; Haussler, David; Triplett, Eric W; Zhang, Guojie; Irie, Naoki; Jarvis, Erich D; Brochu, Christopher A; Schmidt, Carl J; McCarthy, Fiona M; Faircloth, Brant C; Hoffmann, Federico G; Glenn, Travis C; Gabaldón, Toni; Paten, Benedict; Ray, David A

    2014-12-12

    To provide context for the diversification of archosaurs--the group that includes crocodilians, dinosaurs, and birds--we generated draft genomes of three crocodilians: Alligator mississippiensis (the American alligator), Crocodylus porosus (the saltwater crocodile), and Gavialis gangeticus (the Indian gharial). We observed an exceptionally slow rate of genome evolution within crocodilians at all levels, including nucleotide substitutions, indels, transposable element content and movement, gene family evolution, and chromosomal synteny. When placed within the context of related taxa including birds and turtles, this suggests that the common ancestor of all of these taxa also exhibited slow genome evolution and that the comparatively rapid evolution is derived in birds. The data also provided the opportunity to analyze heterozygosity in crocodilians, which indicates a likely reduction in population size for all three taxa through the Pleistocene. Finally, these data combined with newly published bird genomes allowed us to reconstruct the partial genome of the common ancestor of archosaurs, thereby providing a tool to investigate the genetic starting material of crocodilians, birds, and dinosaurs. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Three crocodilian genomes reveal ancestral patterns of evolution among archosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Green, Richard E; Braun, Edward L; Armstrong, Joel; Earl, Dent; Nguyen, Ngan; Hickey, Glenn; Vandewege, Michael W; St John, John A; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Castoe, Todd A; Kern, Colin; Fujita, Matthew K; Opazo, Juan C; Jurka, Jerzy; Kojima, Kenji K; Caballero, Juan; Hubley, Robert M; Smit, Arian F; Platt, Roy N; Lavoie, Christine A; Ramakodi, Meganathan P; Finger, John W; Suh, Alexander; Isberg, Sally R; Miles, Lee; Chong, Amanda Y; Jaratlerdsiri, Weerachai; Gongora, Jaime; Moran, Christopher; Iriarte, Andrés; McCormack, John; Burgess, Shane C; Edwards, Scott V; Lyons, Eric; Williams, Christina; Breen, Matthew; Howard, Jason T; Gresham, Cathy R; Peterson, Daniel G; Schmitz, Jürgen; Pollock, David D; Haussler, David; Triplett, Eric W; Zhang, Guojie; Irie, Naoki; Jarvis, Erich D; Brochu, Christopher A; Schmidt, Carl J; McCarthy, Fiona M; Faircloth, Brant C; Hoffmann, Federico G; Glenn, Travis C; Gabaldón, Toni; Paten, Benedict; Ray, David A

    2015-01-01

    To provide context for the diversifications of archosaurs, the group that includes crocodilians, dinosaurs and birds, we generated draft genomes of three crocodilians, Alligator mississippiensis (the American alligator), Crocodylus porosus (the saltwater crocodile), and Gavialis gangeticus (the Indian gharial). We observed an exceptionally slow rate of genome evolution within crocodilians at all levels, including nucleotide substitutions, indels, transposable element content and movement, gene family evolution, and chromosomal synteny. When placed within the context of related taxa including birds and turtles, this suggests that the common ancestor of all of these taxa also exhibited slow genome evolution and that the relatively rapid evolution of bird genomes represents an autapomorphy within that clade. The data also provided the opportunity to analyze heterozygosity in crocodilians, which indicates a likely reduction in population size for all three taxa through the Pleistocene. Finally, these new data combined with newly published bird genomes allowed us to reconstruct the partial genome of the common ancestor of archosaurs providing a tool to investigate the genetic starting material of crocodilians, birds, and dinosaurs. PMID:25504731

  6. Pigment cell interactions and differential xanthophore recruitment underlying zebrafish stripe reiteration and Danio pattern evolution

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Larissa B.; Bain, Emily J.; Parichy, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Fishes have diverse pigment patterns, yet mechanisms of pattern evolution remain poorly understood. In zebrafish, Danio rerio, pigment-cell autonomous interactions generate dark stripes of melanophores that alternate with light interstripes of xanthophores and iridophores. Here, we identify mechanisms underlying the evolution of a uniform pattern in D. albolineatus in which all three pigment cell classes are intermingled. We show that in this species xanthophores differentiate precociously over a wider area, and that cis regulatory evolution has increased expression of xanthogenic Colony Stimulating Factor-1 (Csf1). Expressing Csf1 similarly in D. rerio has cascading effects, driving the intermingling of all three pigment cell classes and resulting in the loss of stripes, as in D. albolineatus. Our results identify novel mechanisms of pattern development and illustrate how pattern diversity can be generated when a core network of pigment-cell autonomous interactions is coupled with changes in pigment cell differentiation. PMID:25374113

  7. Hydrozoan insights in animal development and evolution.

    PubMed

    Leclère, Lucas; Copley, Richard R; Momose, Tsuyoshi; Houliston, Evelyn

    2016-08-01

    The fresh water polyp Hydra provides textbook experimental demonstration of positional information gradients and regeneration processes. Developmental biologists are thus familiar with Hydra, but may not appreciate that it is a relatively simple member of the Hydrozoa, a group of mostly marine cnidarians with complex and diverse life cycles, exhibiting extensive phenotypic plasticity and regenerative capabilities. Hydrozoan species offer extensive opportunities to address many developmental mechanisms relevant across the animal kingdom. Here we review recent work from non-Hydra hydrozoans - hydromedusae, hydroids and siphonophores - shedding light on mechanisms of oogenesis, embryonic patterning, allorecognition, stem cell regulation and regeneration. We also highlight potential research directions in which hydrozoan diversity can illuminate the evolution of developmental processes at micro- and macro-evolutionary time scales. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of continental history on the ecological specialization and macroevolutionary processes in the mammalian assemblage of South America: differences between small and large mammals.

    PubMed

    Bofarull, Ana Moreno; Royo, Antón Arias; Fernández, Manuel Hernández; Ortiz-Jaureguizar, Edgardo; Morales, Jorge

    2008-03-26

    , deviations from the expectations indicate the importance of differences in reproductive traits and paleobiogeographic history for the macroevolutionary processes involved. In the case of South American mammals, the Pliocene Great American Biotic Interchange strongly influences the ecological characteristics of this assemblage. Furthermore, the Andes have acted as a fertile ground for speciation in environments prone to vicariance. Finally, the micromammals appear as more prone to biomic specialization than larger species. These factors are responsible for some of the differences found between South America and Africa in the studied pattern. For example, the extensive South American mountain ranges favour a higher number of combinations of inhabited biomes in comparison with Africa.

  9. Influence of continental history on the ecological specialization and macroevolutionary processes in the mammalian assemblage of South America: Differences between small and large mammals

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    mammalian evolution. Nevertheless, deviations from the expectations indicate the importance of differences in reproductive traits and paleobiogeographic history for the macroevolutionary processes involved. In the case of South American mammals, the Pliocene Great American Biotic Interchange strongly influences the ecological characteristics of this assemblage. Furthermore, the Andes have acted as a fertile ground for speciation in environments prone to vicariance. Finally, the micromammals appear as more prone to biomic specialization than larger species. These factors are responsible for some of the differences found between South America and Africa in the studied pattern. For example, the extensive South American mountain ranges favour a higher number of combinations of inhabited biomes in comparison with Africa. PMID:18366786

  10. Sex-specific evolution during the diversification of live-bearing fishes.

    PubMed

    Culumber, Zachary W; Tobler, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Natural selection is often assumed to drive parallel functional diversification of the sexes. But males and females exhibit fundamental differences in their biology, and it remains largely unknown how sex differences affect macroevolutionary patterns. On microevolutionary scales, we understand how natural and sexual selection interact to give rise to sex-specific evolution during phenotypic diversification and speciation. Here we show that ignoring sex-specific patterns of functional trait evolution misrepresents the macroevolutionary adaptive landscape and evolutionary rates for 112 species of live-bearing fishes (Poeciliidae). Males and females of the same species evolve in different adaptive landscapes. Major axes of female morphology were correlated with environmental variables but not reproductive investment, while male morphological variation was primarily associated with sexual selection. Despite the importance of both natural and sexual selection in shaping sex-specific phenotypic diversification, species diversification was overwhelmingly associated with ecological divergence. Hence, the inter-predictability of mechanisms of phenotypic and species diversification may be limited in many systems. These results underscore the importance of explicitly addressing sex-specific diversification in empirical and theoretical frameworks of evolutionary radiations to elucidate the roles of different sources of selection and constraint.

  11. Mapping Phylogenetic Trees to Reveal Distinct Patterns of Evolution.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Michelle; Colijn, Caroline

    2016-10-01

    Evolutionary relationships are frequently described by phylogenetic trees, but a central barrier in many fields is the difficulty of interpreting data containing conflicting phylogenetic signals. We present a metric-based method for comparing trees which extracts distinct alternative evolutionary relationships embedded in data. We demonstrate detection and resolution of phylogenetic uncertainty in a recent study of anole lizards, leading to alternate hypotheses about their evolutionary relationships. We use our approach to compare trees derived from different genes of Ebolavirus and find that the VP30 gene has a distinct phylogenetic signature composed of three alternatives that differ in the deep branching structure. phylogenetics, evolution, tree metrics, genetics, sequencing. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. Tyrannosauroid integument reveals conflicting patterns of gigantism and feather evolution.

    PubMed

    Bell, Phil R; Campione, Nicolás E; Persons, W Scott; Currie, Philip J; Larson, Peter L; Tanke, Darren H; Bakker, Robert T

    2017-06-01

    Recent evidence for feathers in theropods has led to speculations that the largest tyrannosaurids, including Tyrannosaurus rex , were extensively feathered. We describe fossil integument from Tyrannosaurus and other tyrannosaurids ( Albertosaurus, Daspletosaurus, Gorgosaurus and Tarbosaurus ), confirming that these large-bodied forms possessed scaly, reptilian-like skin. Body size evolution in tyrannosauroids reveals two independent occurrences of gigantism; specifically, the large sizes in Yutyrannus and tyrannosaurids were independently derived. These new findings demonstrate that extensive feather coverings observed in some early tyrannosauroids were lost by the Albian, basal to Tyrannosauridae. This loss is unrelated to palaeoclimate but possibly tied to the evolution of gigantism, although other mechanisms exist. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Pattern and Process in the Comparative Study of Convergent Evolution.

    PubMed

    Mahler, D Luke; Weber, Marjorie G; Wagner, Catherine E; Ingram, Travis

    2017-08-01

    Understanding processes that have shaped broad-scale biodiversity patterns is a fundamental goal in evolutionary biology. The development of phylogenetic comparative methods has yielded a tool kit for analyzing contemporary patterns by explicitly modeling processes of change in the past, providing neontologists tools for asking questions previously accessible only for select taxa via the fossil record or laboratory experimentation. The comparative approach, however, differs operationally from alternative approaches to studying convergence in that, for studies of only extant species, convergence must be inferred using evolutionary process models rather than being directly measured. As a result, investigation of evolutionary pattern and process cannot be decoupled in comparative studies of convergence, even though such a decoupling could in theory guard against adaptationist bias. Assumptions about evolutionary process underlying comparative tools can shape the inference of convergent pattern in sometimes profound ways and can color interpretation of such patterns. We discuss these issues and other limitations common to most phylogenetic comparative approaches and suggest ways that they can be avoided in practice. We conclude by promoting a multipronged approach to studying convergence that integrates comparative methods with complementary tests of evolutionary mechanisms and includes ecological and biogeographical perspectives. Carefully employed, the comparative method remains a powerful tool for enriching our understanding of convergence in macroevolution, especially for investigation of why convergence occurs in some settings but not others.

  14. Mapping Phylogenetic Trees to Reveal Distinct Patterns of Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Michelle; Colijn, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary relationships are frequently described by phylogenetic trees, but a central barrier in many fields is the difficulty of interpreting data containing conflicting phylogenetic signals. We present a metric-based method for comparing trees which extracts distinct alternative evolutionary relationships embedded in data. We demonstrate detection and resolution of phylogenetic uncertainty in a recent study of anole lizards, leading to alternate hypotheses about their evolutionary relationships. We use our approach to compare trees derived from different genes of Ebolavirus and find that the VP30 gene has a distinct phylogenetic signature composed of three alternatives that differ in the deep branching structure. Key words: phylogenetics, evolution, tree metrics, genetics, sequencing. PMID:27343287

  15. Convergent evolution in locomotory patterns of flying and swimming animals.

    PubMed

    Gleiss, Adrian C; Jorgensen, Salvador J; Liebsch, Nikolai; Sala, Juan E; Norman, Brad; Hays, Graeme C; Quintana, Flavio; Grundy, Edward; Campagna, Claudio; Trites, Andrew W; Block, Barbara A; Wilson, Rory P

    2011-06-14

    Locomotion is one of the major energetic costs faced by animals and various strategies have evolved to reduce its cost. Birds use interspersed periods of flapping and gliding to reduce the mechanical requirements of level flight while undergoing cyclical changes in flight altitude, known as undulating flight. Here we equipped free-ranging marine vertebrates with accelerometers and demonstrate that gait patterns resembling undulating flight occur in four marine vertebrate species comprising sharks and pinnipeds. Both sharks and pinnipeds display intermittent gliding interspersed with powered locomotion. We suggest, that the convergent use of similar gait patterns by distinct groups of animals points to universal physical and physiological principles that operate beyond taxonomic limits and shape common solutions to increase energetic efficiency. Energetically expensive large-scale migrations performed by many vertebrates provide common selection pressure for efficient locomotion, with potential for the convergence of locomotory strategies by a wide variety of species.

  16. The evolution of embryonic patterning mechanisms in animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, G. A.

    2000-01-01

    Animals exhibit an enormous diversity of life cycles and larval morphologies. The developmental basis for this diversity is not well understood. It is clear, however, that mechanisms of pattern formation in early embryos differ significantly among and within groups of animals. These differences show surprisingly little correlation with phylogenetic relationships; instead, many are correlated with ecological factors, such as changes in life histories. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  17. Evolution of Patterns in Rotating Bénard Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantz, M.; Friedrich, R.; Bestehorn, M.; Haken, H.

    We present an extension of the Swift-Hohenberg equation to the case of a high Prandtl number Bénard experiment in rotating fluid containers. For the case of circular containers we find complex spatio-temporal behaviour at Taylor numbers smaller than the critical one for the onset of the Küppers-Lortz instability. Furthermore, above the critical Taylor number the experimentally well-known time dependent and spatially disordered patterns in form of local patches of rolls are reproduced.

  18. Quantitative patterns of stylistic influence in the evolution of literature.

    PubMed

    Hughes, James M; Foti, Nicholas J; Krakauer, David C; Rockmore, Daniel N

    2012-05-15

    Literature is a form of expression whose temporal structure, both in content and style, provides a historical record of the evolution of culture. In this work we take on a quantitative analysis of literary style and conduct the first large-scale temporal stylometric study of literature by using the vast holdings in the Project Gutenberg Digital Library corpus. We find temporal stylistic localization among authors through the analysis of the similarity structure in feature vectors derived from content-free word usage, nonhomogeneous decay rates of stylistic influence, and an accelerating rate of decay of influence among modern authors. Within a given time period we also find evidence for stylistic coherence with a given literary topic, such that writers in different fields adopt different literary styles. This study gives quantitative support to the notion of a literary "style of a time" with a strong trend toward increasingly contemporaneous stylistic influence.

  19. Traits and evolution of wing venation pattern in paraneopteran insects.

    PubMed

    Nel, André; Prokop, Jakub; Nel, Patricia; Grandcolas, Philippe; Huang, Di-Ying; Roques, Patrick; Guilbert, Eric; Dostál, Ondřej; Szwedo, Jacek

    2012-05-01

    Two different patterns of wing venation are currently supposed to be present in each of the three orders of Paraneoptera. This is unlikely compared with the situation in other insects where only one pattern exists per order. We propose for all Paraneoptera a new and unique interpretation of wing venation pattern, assuming that the convex cubitus anterior gets fused with the common stem of median and radial veins at or very near to wing base, after separation from concave cubitus posterior, and re-emerges more distally from R + M stem. Thereafter, the vein between concave cubitus posterior and CuA is a specialized crossvein called "cua-cup," proximally concave and distally convex. We show that despite some variations, that is, cua-cup can vary from absent to hypertrophic; CuA can re-emerge together with M or not, or even completely disappear, this new interpretation explains all situations among all fossil and recent paraneopteran lineages. We propose that the characters "CuA fused in a common stem with R and M"and "presence of specialized crossvein cua-cup" are venation apomorphies that support the monophyly of the Paraneoptera. In the light of these characters, we reinterpret several Palaeozoic and early Mesozoic fossils that were ascribed to Paraneoptera, and confirm the attribution of several to this superorder as well as possible attribution of Zygopsocidae (Zygopsocus permianus Tillyard, 1935) as oldest Psocodea. We discuss the situation in extinct Hypoperlida and Miomoptera, suggesting that both orders could well be polyphyletic, with taxa related to Archaeorthoptera, Paraneoptera, or even Holometabola. The Carboniferous Protoprosbolidae is resurrected and retransferred into the Paraneoptera. The genus Lithoscytina is restored. The miomopteran Eodelopterum priscum Schmidt, 1962 is newly revised and considered as a fern pinnule. In addition, the new paraneopteran Bruayaphis oudardi gen. nov. et sp. nov. is described fromthe Upper Carboniferous of France (see

  20. Epithelial Patterning, Morphogenesis, and Evolution: Drosophila Eggshell as a Model.

    PubMed

    Osterfield, Miriam; Berg, Celeste A; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y

    2017-05-22

    Understanding the mechanisms driving tissue and organ formation requires knowledge across scales. How do signaling pathways specify distinct tissue types? How does the patterning system control morphogenesis? How do these processes evolve? The Drosophila egg chamber, where EGF and BMP signaling intersect to specify unique cell types that construct epithelial tubes for specialized eggshell structures, has provided a tractable system to ask these questions. Work there has elucidated connections between scales of development, including across evolutionary scales, and fostered the development of quantitative modeling tools. These tools and general principles can be applied to the understanding of other developmental processes across organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The natural history of achalasia: Evidence of a continuum-"The evolutive pattern theory".

    PubMed

    Salvador, Renato; Voltarel, Guerrino; Savarino, Edoardo; Capovilla, Giovanni; Pesenti, Elisa; Perazzolo, Anna; Nicoletti, Loredana; Costantini, Andrea; Merigliano, Stefano; Costantini, Mario

    2018-04-01

    It is currently unclear if the three manometric patterns of esophageal achalasia represent distinct entities or part of a disease continuum. The study's aims were: a) to test the hypothesis that the three patterns represent different stages in the evolution of achalasia; b) to investigate whether manometric patterns change after Laparoscopic-Heller-Dor (LHD). We assessed the patients diagnosed with achalasia who underwent LHD as their first treatment from 1992 to 2016. Their symptoms were scored using a detailed questionnaire for dysphagia, food-regurgitation, and chest pain. Barium-swallow, endoscopy, and esophageal-manometry were performed before and 6 months after surgery. The study population consisted of 511 patients (M:F=283:228). Patients' demographic and clinical data showed that those with pattern III had a shorter history of symptoms, a higher incidence of chest pain, and a less dilated gullet (p<0.001). All patients with a sigmoid-shaped mega-esophagus had pattern I achalasia. One patient with a diagnosis of pattern III achalasia developed pattern II at a follow-up manometry before surgery. At a median follow-up of 30 months (IQR 12-56), the outcome of surgery was positive in 479 patients (91.7%). All patients with pattern I preoperatively had the same pattern after LHD, whereas more than 50% of patients with pattern III before treatment showed pattern I or II after surgery. This study supports the hypothesis/theory that the different manometric patterns represent different stages in the evolution of the disease-where pattern III is the earliest stage, pattern II an intermediate stage, and pattern I the final stage. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dorsoventral patterning in hemichordates: insights into early chordate evolution.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Christopher J; Terasaki, Mark; Wu, Michael; Freeman, Robert M; Runft, Linda; Kwan, Kristen; Haigo, Saori; Aronowicz, Jochanan; Lander, Eric; Gruber, Chris; Smith, Mark; Kirschner, Marc; Gerhart, John

    2006-09-01

    We have compared the dorsoventral development of hemichordates and chordates to deduce the organization of their common ancestor, and hence to identify the evolutionary modifications of the chordate body axis after the lineages split. In the hemichordate embryo, genes encoding bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmp) 2/4 and 5/8, as well as several genes for modulators of Bmp activity, are expressed in a thin stripe of ectoderm on one midline, historically called "dorsal." On the opposite midline, the genes encoding Chordin and Anti-dorsalizing morphogenetic protein (Admp) are expressed. Thus, we find a Bmp-Chordin developmental axis preceding and underlying the anatomical dorsoventral axis of hemichordates, adding to the evidence from Drosophila and chordates that this axis may be at least as ancient as the first bilateral animals. Numerous genes encoding transcription factors and signaling ligands are expressed in the three germ layers of hemichordate embryos in distinct dorsoventral domains, such as pox neuro, pituitary homeobox, distalless, and tbx2/3 on the Bmp side and netrin, mnx, mox, and single-minded on the Chordin-Admp side. When we expose the embryo to excess Bmp protein, or when we deplete endogenous Bmp by small interfering RNA injections, these expression domains expand or contract, reflecting their activation or repression by Bmp, and the embryos develop as dorsalized or ventralized limit forms. Dorsoventral patterning is independent of anterior/posterior patterning, as in Drosophila but not chordates. Unlike both chordates and Drosophila, neural gene expression in hemichordates is not repressed by high Bmp levels, consistent with their development of a diffuse rather than centralized nervous system. We suggest that the common ancestor of hemichordates and chordates did not use its Bmp-Chordin axis to segregate epidermal and neural ectoderm but to pattern many other dorsoventral aspects of the germ layers, including neural cell fates within a diffuse

  3. Dorsoventral Patterning in Hemichordates: Insights into Early Chordate Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Christopher J; Terasaki, Mark; Wu, Michael; Freeman, Robert M; Runft, Linda; Kwan, Kristen; Haigo, Saori; Aronowicz, Jochanan; Lander, Eric; Gruber, Chris; Smith, Mark; Kirschner, Marc; Gerhart, John

    2006-01-01

    We have compared the dorsoventral development of hemichordates and chordates to deduce the organization of their common ancestor, and hence to identify the evolutionary modifications of the chordate body axis after the lineages split. In the hemichordate embryo, genes encoding bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmp) 2/4 and 5/8, as well as several genes for modulators of Bmp activity, are expressed in a thin stripe of ectoderm on one midline, historically called “dorsal.” On the opposite midline, the genes encoding Chordin and Anti-dorsalizing morphogenetic protein (Admp) are expressed. Thus, we find a Bmp-Chordin developmental axis preceding and underlying the anatomical dorsoventral axis of hemichordates, adding to the evidence from Drosophila and chordates that this axis may be at least as ancient as the first bilateral animals. Numerous genes encoding transcription factors and signaling ligands are expressed in the three germ layers of hemichordate embryos in distinct dorsoventral domains, such as pox neuro, pituitary homeobox, distalless, and tbx2/3 on the Bmp side and netrin, mnx, mox, and single-minded on the Chordin-Admp side. When we expose the embryo to excess Bmp protein, or when we deplete endogenous Bmp by small interfering RNA injections, these expression domains expand or contract, reflecting their activation or repression by Bmp, and the embryos develop as dorsalized or ventralized limit forms. Dorsoventral patterning is independent of anterior/posterior patterning, as in Drosophila but not chordates. Unlike both chordates and Drosophila, neural gene expression in hemichordates is not repressed by high Bmp levels, consistent with their development of a diffuse rather than centralized nervous system. We suggest that the common ancestor of hemichordates and chordates did not use its Bmp-Chordin axis to segregate epidermal and neural ectoderm but to pattern many other dorsoventral aspects of the germ layers, including neural cell fates within a diffuse

  4. Not just black and white: pigment pattern development and evolution in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Margaret G.; Patterson, Larissa B.

    2009-01-01

    Animals display diverse colors and patterns that vary within and between species. Similar phenotypes appear in both closely related and widely divergent taxa. Pigment patterns thus provide an opportunity to explore how development is altered to produce differences in form and whether similar phenotypes share a common genetic basis. Understanding the development and evolution of pigment patterns requires knowledge of the cellular interactions and signaling pathways that produce those patterns. These complex traits provide unparalleled opportunities for integrating studies from ecology and behavior to molecular biology and biophysics. PMID:19073271

  5. Evolution and Expression Patterns of TCP Genes in Asparagales

    PubMed Central

    Madrigal, Yesenia; Alzate, Juan F.; Pabón-Mora, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    CYCLOIDEA-like genes are involved in the symmetry gene network, limiting cell proliferation in the dorsal regions of bilateral flowers in core eudicots. CYC-like and closely related TCP genes (acronym for TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, and PROLIFERATION CELL FACTOR) have been poorly studied in Asparagales, the largest order of monocots that includes both bilateral flowers in Orchidaceae (ca. 25.000 spp) and radially symmetrical flowers in Hypoxidaceae (ca. 200 spp). With the aim of assessing TCP gene evolution in the Asparagales, we isolated TCP-like genes from publicly available databases and our own transcriptomes of Cattleya trianae (Orchidaceae) and Hypoxis decumbens (Hypoxidaceae). Our matrix contains 452 sequences representing the three major clades of TCP genes. Besides the previously identified CYC specific core eudicot duplications, our ML phylogenetic analyses recovered an early CIN-like duplication predating all angiosperms, two CIN-like Asparagales-specific duplications and a duplication prior to the diversification of Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae. In addition, we provide evidence of at least three duplications of PCF-like genes in Asparagales. While CIN-like and PCF-like genes have multiplied in Asparagales, likely enhancing the genetic network for cell proliferation, CYC-like genes remain as single, shorter copies with low expression. Homogeneous expression of CYC-like genes in the labellum as well as the lateral petals suggests little contribution to the bilateral perianth in C. trianae. CIN-like and PCF-like gene expression suggests conserved roles in cell proliferation in leaves, sepals and petals, carpels, ovules and fruits in Asparagales by comparison with previously reported functions in core eudicots and monocots. This is the first large scale analysis of TCP-like genes in Asparagales that will serve as a platform for in-depth functional studies in emerging model monocots. PMID:28144250

  6. Color pattern evolution in Vanessa butterflies (Nymphalidae: Nymphalini): non-eyespot characters.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Roohollah; Marcus, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    A phylogenetic approach was used to study color pattern evolution in Vanessa butterflies. Twenty-four color pattern elements from the Nymphalid ground plan were identified on the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the fore- and hind wings. Eyespot characters were excluded and will be examined elsewhere. The evolution of each character was traced over a Bayesian phylogeny of Vanessa reconstructed from 7750 DNA base pairs from 10 genes. Generally, the correspondence between character states on the same surface of the two wings is stronger on the ventral side compared to the dorsal side. The evolution of character states on both sides of a wing correspond with each other in most extant species, but the correspondence between dorsal and ventral character states is much stronger in the forewing than in the hindwing. The dorsal hindwing of many species of Vanessa is covered with an extended Basal Symmetry System and the Discalis I pattern element is highly variable between species, making this wing surface dissimilar to the other wing surfaces. The Basal Symmetry System and Discalis I may contribute to behavioral thermoregulation in Vanessa. Overall, interspecific directional character state evolution of non-eyespot color patterns is relatively rare in Vanessa, with a majority of color pattern elements showing non-variable, non-directional, or ambiguous character state evolution. The ease with which the development of color patterns can be modified, including character state reversals, has likely made important contributions to the production of color pattern diversity in Vanessa and other butterfly groups. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Diversification and the evolution of dispersal ability in the tribe Brassiceae (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Willis, C G; Hall, J C; Rubio de Casas, R; Wang, T Y; Donohue, K

    2014-12-01

    Dispersal and establishment ability can influence evolutionary processes such as geographic isolation, adaptive divergence and extinction probability. Through these population-level dynamics, dispersal ability may also influence macro-evolutionary processes such as species distributions and diversification. This study examined patterns of evolution of dispersal-related fruit traits, and how the evolution of these traits is correlated with shifts in geographic range size, habitat and diversification rates in the tribe Brassiceae (Brassicaceae). The phylogenetic analysis included 72 taxa sampled from across the Brassiceae and included both nuclear and chloroplast markers. Dispersal-related fruit characters were scored and climate information for each taxon was retrieved from a database. Correlations between fruit traits, seed characters, habitat, range and climate were determined, together with trait-dependent diversification rates. It was found that the evolution of traits associated with limited dispersal evolved only in association with compensatory traits that increase dispersal ability. The evolution of increased dispersal ability occurred in multiple ways through the correlated evolution of different combinations of fruit traits. The evolution of traits that increase dispersal ability was in turn associated with larger seed size, increased geographic range size and higher diversification rates. This study provides evidence that the evolution of increased dispersal ability and larger seed size, which may increase establishment ability, can also influence macro-evolutionary processes, possibly by increasing the propensity for long-distance dispersal. In particular, it may increase speciation and consequent diversification rates by increasing the likelihood of geographic and thereby reproductive isolation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Is there a pattern to oxbow lake geomorphic evolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieras, P.; Constantine, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Oxbow lakes are located along the floodplain corridor and created after meander cutoff. They are of high ecological value as they provide relatively calm wetlands which are regularly supplied with nutrients during floods. The persistence of oxbow lakes has been observed to vary from decades to several hundreds of years but little is known about the controls on their longevity. This study aims to ascertain if there is a common pattern in the water decrease of oxbow lakes and to define the controls on the lakes' longevity. The longevity of 37 oxbow lakes from 7 rivers from different parts of the world has been studied. The Towy River (Wales), the Ain River (France) and the Sacramento River (CA, USA) are largely dominated by oxbow lakes created after chute cutoff which is the incision of a chute across the floodplain; whereas the Mississippi River (MS, USA), the Kansas River (KS, USA), the Red River (MN, USA) and the Otter Tail River (MN, USA) show a large number of neck cutoffs which occur when two meanders migrate into one another. The water surface area decrease has been measured for all the sites using aerial photographs. Results revealed that the longevity of oxbow lakes is significantly affected by the type of cutoff. The lakes formed by chute cutoff lose very rapidly most of the water surface area of the initial channel as it is reduce by >80% within the first 10 to 30 years following cutoff for most sites. The water surface area of chute cutoff shows a logarithmic decrease with a fast decrease rate following cutoff, followed by a much slower loss of water surface area. The change in water decrease rate appears to be related to the moment of obstruction of the former channel entrance by sediment aggradation. In contrast, lakes formed by neck cutoff persist for much longer in the landscape and lose 40 to 60% within the first decades but then they maintain this water surface area for longer than a century. The cutoff process is therefore the main control on the

  9. Developing a Learning Progression for Three-Dimensional Learning of the Patterns of Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyner, Yael; Doherty, Jennifer H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines how students make progress toward three-dimensional (3D) understanding of the patterns of evolution. Specifically, it proposes a learning progression that explains how scientific practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas come together in naming and grouping, length of change over time, and the role of common…

  10. Evolution patterns and parameter regimes in edge localized modes on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    DOE Data Explorer

    Smith, D. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Bell, R. E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Podesta, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Smith, D. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Fonck, R. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); McKee, G. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Diallo, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Kaye, S. M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); LeBlanc, B. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Sabbagh, S. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2015-09-01

    We implement unsupervised machine learning techniques to identify characteristic evolution patterns and associated parameter regimes in edge localized mode (ELM) events observed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Multi-channel, localized measurements spanning the pedestal region capture the complex evolution patterns of ELM events on Alfven timescales. Some ELM events are active for less than 100~microsec, but others persist for up to 1~ms. Also, some ELM events exhibit a single dominant perturbation, but others are oscillatory. Clustering calculations with time-series similarity metrics indicate the ELM database contains at least two and possibly three groups of ELMs with similar evolution patterns. The identified ELM groups trigger similar stored energy loss, but the groups occupy distinct parameter regimes for ELM-relevant quantities like plasma current, triangularity, and pedestal height. Notably, the pedestal electron pressure gradient is not an effective parameter for distinguishing the ELM groups, but the ELM groups segregate in terms of electron density gradient and electron temperature gradient. The ELM evolution patterns and corresponding parameter regimes can shape the formulation or validation of nonlinear ELM models. Finally, the techniques and results demonstrate an application of unsupervised machine learning at a data-rich fusion facility.

  11. Patterns of evolution of research strands in the hydrologic sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, F. W.; Fang, Y. C.; Parthasarathy, S.

    2005-03-01

    This paper examines issues of impact and innovation in groundwater research by using bibliometric data and citation analysis.The analysis is based on 3120 papers from the journal Water Resources Research with full contents and their citation data from the ISI Web of Science. The research is designed to develop a better understanding of the way citation numbers can be interpreted by scientists. Not surprisingly, the most highly cited papers appear to be pioneers in the field with papers departing significantly from what has come before and to be effective in creating similar, follow-on papers. Papers that are early contributions to a new research strand that is highly influential will be on average highly cited. However, the importance of a research strand as measured by citations seems to fall with time. The citation patterns of some classic papers show that the activity in the topical area and impact of follow-on papers gradually decline with time, which has similarities with Kuhn's ideas of revolutionary and normal science. The results of this study reinforce the importance of being a pioneer in a research strand, strategically shifting research strands, adopting strategies that can facilitate really major research breakthroughs. L'article examine les problèmes d'impact et d'innovation dans la recherche des eaux souterraines en utilisant les données bibliométriques et l'analyse des citations. L'analyse a été faite sur 3120 articles parus dans Water Resources Research en tenant compte de leur texte complet et de toutes citations parues dans l' ISI Web de la Science. Le but de la recherche a été de mieux comprendre comment le nombre des citations peut être interprété par les scientifiques. Ce n'est pas une surprise que les plus cités articles soient les articles-pionniers dans leurs domaines, qui s'écartent d'une manière significative de ce qui a été écrit auparavant et qui ont été suivi par des nouveaux articles. Les articles qui présentent une

  12. Biophysical models of protein evolution: Understanding the patterns of evolutionary sequence divergence

    PubMed Central

    Echave, Julian; Wilke, Claus O.

    2018-01-01

    For decades, rates of protein evolution have been interpreted in terms of the vague concept of “functional importance”. Slowly evolving proteins or sites within proteins were assumed to be more functionally important and thus subject to stronger selection pressure. More recently, biophysical models of protein evolution, which combine evolutionary theory with protein biophysics, have completely revolutionized our view of the forces that shape sequence divergence. Slowly evolving proteins have been found to evolve slowly because of selection against toxic misfolding and misinteractions, linking their rate of evolution primarily to their abundance. Similarly, most slowly evolving sites in proteins are not directly involved in function, but mutating them has large impacts on protein structure and stability. Here, we review the studies of the emergent field of biophysical protein evolution that have shaped our current understanding of sequence divergence patterns. We also propose future research directions to develop this nascent field. PMID:28301766

  13. Phylogeny suggests nondirectional and isometric evolution of sexual size dimorphism in argiopine spiders.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ren-Chung; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2014-10-01

    Sexual dimorphism describes substantial differences between male and female phenotypes. In spiders, sexual dimorphism research almost exclusively focuses on size, and recent studies have recovered steady evolutionary size increases in females, and independent evolutionary size changes in males. Their discordance is due to negative allometric size patterns caused by different selection pressures on male and female sizes (converse Rensch's rule). Here, we investigated macroevolutionary patterns of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in Argiopinae, a global lineage of orb-weaving spiders with varying degrees of SSD. We devised a Bayesian and maximum-likelihood molecular species-level phylogeny, and then used it to reconstruct sex-specific size evolution, to examine general hypotheses and different models of size evolution, to test for sexual size coevolution, and to examine allometric patterns of SSD. Our results, revealing ancestral moderate sizes and SSD, failed to reject the Brownian motion model, which suggests a nondirectional size evolution. Contrary to predictions, male and female sizes were phylogenetically correlated, and SSD evolution was isometric. We interpret these results to question the classical explanations of female-biased SSD via fecundity, gravity, and differential mortality. In argiopines, SSD evolution may be driven by these or additional selection mechanisms, but perhaps at different phylogenetic scales. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Contrasting patterns of nonneutral evolution in proteins encoded in nuclear and mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed Central

    Weinreich, D M; Rand, D M

    2000-01-01

    We report that patterns of nonneutral DNA sequence evolution among published nuclear and mitochondrially encoded protein-coding loci differ significantly in animals. Whereas an apparent excess of amino acid polymorphism is seen in most (25/31) mitochondrial genes, this pattern is seen in fewer than half (15/36) of the nuclear data sets. This differentiation is even greater among data sets with significant departures from neutrality (14/15 vs. 1/6). Using forward simulations, we examined patterns of nonneutral evolution using parameters chosen to mimic the differences between mitochondrial and nuclear genetics (we varied recombination rate, population size, mutation rate, selective dominance, and intensity of germ line bottleneck). Patterns of evolution were correlated only with effective population size and strength of selection, and no single genetic factor explains the empirical contrast in patterns. We further report that in Arabidopsis thaliana, a highly self-fertilizing plant with effectively low recombination, five of six published nuclear data sets also exhibit an excess of amino acid polymorphism. We suggest that the contrast between nuclear and mitochondrial nonneutrality in animals stems from differences in rates of recombination in conjunction with a distribution of selective effects. If the majority of mutations segregating in populations are deleterious, high linkage may hinder the spread of the occasional beneficial mutation. PMID:10978302

  15. What defines an adaptive radiation? Macroevolutionary diversification dynamics of an exceptionally species-rich continental lizard radiation.

    PubMed

    Pincheira-Donoso, Daniel; Harvey, Lilly P; Ruta, Marcello

    2015-08-07

    Adaptive radiation theory posits that ecological opportunity promotes rapid proliferation of phylogenetic and ecological diversity. Given that adaptive radiation proceeds via occupation of available niche space in newly accessed ecological zones, theory predicts that: (i) evolutionary diversification follows an 'early-burst' process, i.e., it accelerates early in the history of a clade (when available niche space facilitates speciation), and subsequently slows down as niche space becomes saturated by new species; and (ii) phylogenetic branching is accompanied by diversification of ecologically relevant phenotypic traits among newly evolving species. Here, we employ macroevolutionary phylogenetic model-selection analyses to address these two predictions about evolutionary diversification using one of the most exceptionally species-rich and ecologically diverse lineages of living vertebrates, the South American lizard genus Liolaemus. Our phylogenetic analyses lend support to a density-dependent lineage diversification model. However, the lineage through-time diversification curve does not provide strong support for an early burst. In contrast, the evolution of phenotypic (body size) relative disparity is high, significantly different from a Brownian model during approximately the last 5 million years of Liolaemus evolution. Model-fitting analyses also reject the 'early-burst' model of phenotypic evolution, and instead favour stabilizing selection (Ornstein-Uhlenbeck, with three peaks identified) as the best model for body size diversification. Finally, diversification rates tend to increase with smaller body size. Liolaemus have diversified under a density-dependent process with slightly pronounced apparent episodic pulses of lineage accumulation, which are compatible with the expected episodic ecological opportunity created by gradual uplifts of the Andes over the last ~25My. We argue that ecological opportunity can be strong and a crucial driver of adaptive

  16. Social contact patterns can buffer costs of forgetting in the evolution of cooperation.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jeffrey R; Woike, Jan K; Schooler, Lael J; Lindner, Stefan; Pachur, Thorsten

    2018-06-13

    Analyses of the evolution of cooperation often rely on two simplifying assumptions: (i) individuals interact equally frequently with all social network members and (ii) they accurately remember each partner's past cooperation or defection. Here, we examine how more realistic, skewed patterns of contact-in which individuals interact primarily with only a subset of their network's members-influence cooperation. In addition, we test whether skewed contact patterns can counteract the decrease in cooperation caused by memory errors (i.e. forgetting). Finally, we compare two types of memory error that vary in whether forgotten interactions are replaced with random actions or with actions from previous encounters. We use evolutionary simulations of repeated prisoner's dilemma games that vary agents' contact patterns, forgetting rates and types of memory error. We find that highly skewed contact patterns foster cooperation and also buffer the detrimental effects of forgetting. The type of memory error used also influences cooperation rates. Our findings reveal previously neglected but important roles of contact pattern, type of memory error and the interaction of contact pattern and memory on cooperation. Although cognitive limitations may constrain the evolution of cooperation, social contact patterns can counteract some of these constraints. © 2018 The Author(s).

  17. A Preliminary Analysis of Correlated Evolution in Mammalian Chewing Motor Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Susan H.; Vinyard, Christopher J.; Wall, Christine E.; Doherty, Alison H.; Crompton, Alfred W.; Hylander, William L.

    2011-01-01

    Descriptive and quantitative analyses of electromyograms (EMG) from the jaw adductors during feeding in mammals have demonstrated both similarities and differences among species in chewing motor patterns. These observations have led to a number of hypotheses of the evolution of motor patterns, the most comprehensive of which was proposed by Weijs in 1994. Since then, new data have been collected and additional hypotheses for the evolution of motor patterns have been proposed. Here, we take advantage of these new data and a well-resolved species-level phylogeny for mammals to test for the correlated evolution of specific components of mammalian chewing motor patterns. We focus on the evolution of the coordination of working-side (WS) and balancing-side (BS) jaw adductors (i.e., Weijs’ Triplets I and II), the evolution of WS and BS muscle recruitment levels, and the evolution of asynchrony between pairs of muscles. We converted existing chewing EMG data into binary traits to incorporate as much data as possible and facilitate robust phylogenetic analyses. We then tested hypotheses of correlated evolution of these traits across our phylogeny using a maximum likelihood method and the Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. Both sets of analyses yielded similar results highlighting the evolutionary changes that have occurred across mammals in chewing motor patterns. We find support for the correlated evolution of (1) Triplets I and II, (2) BS deep masseter asynchrony and Triplets I and II, (3) a relative delay in the activity of the BS deep masseter and a decrease in the ratio of WS to BS muscle recruitment levels, and (4) a relative delay in the activity of the BS deep masseter and a delay in the activity of the BS posterior temporalis. In contrast, changes in relative WS and BS activity levels across mammals are not correlated with Triplets I and II. Results from this work can be integrated with dietary and morphological data to better understand how feeding and

  18. A preliminary analysis of correlated evolution in Mammalian chewing motor patterns.

    PubMed

    Williams, Susan H; Vinyard, Christopher J; Wall, Christine E; Doherty, Alison H; Crompton, Alfred W; Hylander, William L

    2011-08-01

    Descriptive and quantitative analyses of electromyograms (EMG) from the jaw adductors during feeding in mammals have demonstrated both similarities and differences among species in chewing motor patterns. These observations have led to a number of hypotheses of the evolution of motor patterns, the most comprehensive of which was proposed by Weijs in 1994. Since then, new data have been collected and additional hypotheses for the evolution of motor patterns have been proposed. Here, we take advantage of these new data and a well-resolved species-level phylogeny for mammals to test for the correlated evolution of specific components of mammalian chewing motor patterns. We focus on the evolution of the coordination of working-side (WS) and balancing-side (BS) jaw adductors (i.e., Weijs' Triplets I and II), the evolution of WS and BS muscle recruitment levels, and the evolution of asynchrony between pairs of muscles. We converted existing chewing EMG data into binary traits to incorporate as much data as possible and facilitate robust phylogenetic analyses. We then tested hypotheses of correlated evolution of these traits across our phylogeny using a maximum likelihood method and the Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. Both sets of analyses yielded similar results highlighting the evolutionary changes that have occurred across mammals in chewing motor patterns. We find support for the correlated evolution of (1) Triplets I and II, (2) BS deep masseter asynchrony and Triplets I and II, (3) a relative delay in the activity of the BS deep masseter and a decrease in the ratio of WS to BS muscle recruitment levels, and (4) a relative delay in the activity of the BS deep masseter and a delay in the activity of the BS posterior temporalis. In contrast, changes in relative WS and BS activity levels across mammals are not correlated with Triplets I and II. Results from this work can be integrated with dietary and morphological data to better understand how feeding and the

  19. Sorted bedform pattern evolution: Persistence, destruction and self-organized intermittency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Evan B.; Murray, A. Brad; Coco, Giovanni

    2011-12-01

    We investigate the long-term evolution of inner continental shelf sorted bedform patterns. Numerical modeling suggests that a range of behaviors are possible, from pattern persistence to spatial-temporal intermittency. Sorted bedform persistence results from a robust sorting feedback that operates when the seabed features a sufficient concentration of coarse material. In the absence of storm events, pattern maturation processes such as defect dynamics and pattern migration tend to cause the burial of coarse material and excavation of fine material, leading to the fining of the active layer. Vertical sorting occurs until a critical state of active layer coarseness is reached. This critical state results in the local cessation of the sorting feedback, leading to a self-organized spatially intermittent pattern, a hallmark of observed sorted bedforms. Bedforms in shallow conditions and those subject to high wave climates may be temporally intermittent features as a result of increased wave orbital velocity during storms. Erosion, or deposition of bimodal sediment, similarly leads to a spatially intermittent pattern, with individual coarse domains exhibiting temporal intermittence. Recurring storm events cause coarsening of the seabed (strengthening the sorting feedback) and the development of large wavelength patterns. Cessation of storm events leads to the superposition of storm (large wavelength) and inter-storm (small wavelength) patterns and spatial heterogeneity of pattern modes.

  20. Evolution and inheritance of early embryonic patterning in Drosophila simulans and D. sechellia.

    PubMed

    Lott, Susan E; Ludwig, Michael Z; Kreitman, Martin

    2011-05-01

    Pattern formation in Drosophila is a widely studied example of a robust developmental system. Such robust systems pose a challenge to adaptive evolution, as they mask variation that selection may otherwise act upon. Yet we find variation in the localization of expression domains (henceforth "stripe allometry") in the pattern formation pathway. Specifically, we characterize differences in the gap genes giant and Kruppel, and the pair-rule gene even-skipped, which differ between the sibling species Drosophila simulans and D. sechellia. In a double-backcross experiment, stripe allometry is consistent with maternal inheritance of stripe positioning and multiple genetic factors, with a distinct genetic basis from embryo length. Embryos produced by F1 and F2 backcross mothers exhibit novel spatial patterns of gene expression relative to the parental species, with no measurable increase in positional variance among individuals. Buffering of novel spatial patterns in the backcross genotypes suggests that robustness need not be disrupted in order for the trait to evolve, and perhaps the system is incapable of evolving to prevent the expression of all genetic variation. This limitation, and the ability of natural selection to act on minute genetic differences that are within the "margin of error" for the buffering mechanism, indicates that developmentally buffered traits can evolve without disruption of robustness. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Periodic Pattern of Genetic and Fitness Diversity during Evolution of an Artificial Cell-Like System.

    PubMed

    Ichihashi, Norikazu; Aita, Takuyo; Motooka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Shota; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2015-12-01

    Genetic and phenotypic diversity are the basis of evolution. Despite their importance, however, little is known about how they change over the course of evolution. In this study, we analyzed the dynamics of the adaptive evolution of a simple evolvable artificial cell-like system using single-molecule real-time sequencing technology that reads an entire single artificial genome. We found that the genomic RNA population increases in fitness intermittently, correlating with a periodic pattern of genetic and fitness diversity produced by repeated diversification and domination. In the diversification phase, a genomic RNA population spreads within a genetic space by accumulating mutations until mutants with higher fitness are generated, resulting in an increase in fitness diversity. In the domination phase, the mutants with higher fitness dominate, decreasing both the fitness and genetic diversity. This study reveals the dynamic nature of genetic and fitness diversity during adaptive evolution and demonstrates the utility of a simplified artificial cell-like system to study evolution at an unprecedented resolution. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Characteristics of pattern formation and evolution in approximations of Physarum transport networks.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Most studies of pattern formation place particular emphasis on its role in the development of complex multicellular body plans. In simpler organisms, however, pattern formation is intrinsic to growth and behavior. Inspired by one such organism, the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum, we present examples of complex emergent pattern formation and evolution formed by a population of simple particle-like agents. Using simple local behaviors based on chemotaxis, the mobile agent population spontaneously forms complex and dynamic transport networks. By adjusting simple model parameters, maps of characteristic patterning are obtained. Certain areas of the parameter mapping yield particularly complex long term behaviors, including the circular contraction of network lacunae and bifurcation of network paths to maintain network connectivity. We demonstrate the formation of irregular spots and labyrinthine and reticulated patterns by chemoattraction. Other Turing-like patterning schemes were obtained by using chemorepulsion behaviors, including the self-organization of regular periodic arrays of spots, and striped patterns. We show that complex pattern types can be produced without resorting to the hierarchical coupling of reaction-diffusion mechanisms. We also present network behaviors arising from simple pre-patterning cues, giving simple examples of how the emergent pattern formation processes evolve into networks with functional and quasi-physical properties including tensionlike effects, network minimization behavior, and repair to network damage. The results are interpreted in relation to classical theories of biological pattern formation in natural systems, and we suggest mechanisms by which emergent pattern formation processes may be used as a method for spatially represented unconventional computation.

  3. New Perspectives on Pharyngeal Dorsoventral Patterning in Development and Evolution of the Vertebrate Jaw

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Daniel Meulemans; Crump, J. Gage

    2012-01-01

    Patterning of the vertebrate facial skeleton involves the progressive partitioning of neural-crest-derived skeletal precursors into distinct subpopulations along the anteroposterior (AP) and dorsoventral (DV) axes. Recent evidence suggests that complex interactions between multiple signaling pathways, in particular Endothelin-1 (Edn1), Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP), and Jagged-Notch, are needed to pattern skeletal precursors along the DV axis. Rather than directly determining the morphology of individual skeletal elements, these signals appear to act through several families of transcription factors, including Dlx, Msx, and Hand, to establish dynamic zones of skeletal differentiation. Provocatively, this patterning mechanism is largely conserved from mouse and zebrafish to the jawless vertebrate, lamprey. This implies that the diversification of the vertebrate facial skeleton, including the evolution of the jaw, was driven largely by modifications downstream of a conversed pharyngeal DV patterning program. PMID:22960284

  4. Phylomemetic patterns in science evolution--the rise and fall of scientific fields.

    PubMed

    Chavalarias, David; Cointet, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    We introduce an automated method for the bottom-up reconstruction of the cognitive evolution of science, based on big-data issued from digital libraries, and modeled as lineage relationships between scientific fields. We refer to these dynamic structures as phylomemetic networks or phylomemies, by analogy with biological evolution; and we show that they exhibit strong regularities, with clearly identifiable phylomemetic patterns. Some structural properties of the scientific fields - in particular their density -, which are defined independently of the phylomemy reconstruction, are clearly correlated with their status and their fate in the phylomemy (like their age or their short term survival). Within the framework of a quantitative epistemology, this approach raises the question of predictibility for science evolution, and sketches a prototypical life cycle of the scientific fields: an increase of their cohesion after their emergence, the renewal of their conceptual background through branching or merging events, before decaying when their density is getting too low.

  5. The evolution of nervous system patterning: insights from sea urchin development

    PubMed Central

    Angerer, Lynne M.; Yaguchi, Shunsuke; Angerer, Robert C.; Burke, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of the sea urchin embryo have elucidated the mechanisms that localize and pattern its nervous system. These studies have revealed the presence of two overlapping regions of neurogenic potential at the beginning of embryogenesis, each of which becomes progressively restricted by separate, yet linked, signals, including Wnt and subsequently Nodal and BMP. These signals act to specify and localize the embryonic neural fields – the anterior neuroectoderm and the more posterior ciliary band neuroectoderm – during development. Here, we review these conserved nervous system patterning signals and consider how the relationships between them might have changed during deuterostome evolution. PMID:21828090

  6. Decoupled temporal patterns of evolution and ecology in two post-Paleozoic clades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKinney, F. K.; Lidgard, S.; Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Taylor, P. D.

    1998-01-01

    Counts of taxonomic diversity are the prevailing standards for documenting large-scale patterns of evolution in the fossil record. However, the secular pattern of relative ecological importance between the bryozoan clades Cyclostomata and Cheilostomata is not reflected fully in compilations of generic diversity or within-fauna species richness, and the delayed ecological recovery of the Cheilostomata after the mass extinction at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary is missed entirely. These observations demonstrate that evolutionary success and ecological dominance can be decoupled and profoundly different, even over tens of millions of years.

  7. Evolution of antero‐posterior patterning of the limb: Insights from the chick

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Summary The developing limbs of chicken embryos have served as pioneering models for understanding pattern formation for over a century. The ease with which chick wing and leg buds can be experimentally manipulated, while the embryo is still in the egg, has resulted in the discovery of important developmental organisers, and subsequently, the signals that they produce. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is produced by mesenchyme cells of the polarizing region at the posterior margin of the limb bud and specifies positional values across the antero‐posterior axis (the axis running from the thumb to the little finger). Detailed experimental embryology has revealed the fundamental parameters required to specify antero‐posterior positional values in response to Shh signaling in chick wing and leg buds. In this review, the evolution of the avian wing and leg will be discussed in the broad context of tetrapod paleontology, and more specifically, ancestral theropod dinosaur paleontology. How the parameters that dictate antero‐posterior patterning could have been modulated to produce the avian wing and leg digit patterns will be considered. Finally, broader speculations will be made regarding what the antero‐posterior patterning of chick limbs can tell us about the evolution of other digit patterns, including those that were found in the limbs of the earliest tetrapods. PMID:28734068

  8. Competition and constraint drove Cope's rule in the evolution of giant flying reptiles

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Roger B. J.; Frigot, Rachel A.; Goswami, Anjali; Andres, Brian; Butler, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The pterosaurs, Mesozoic flying reptiles, attained wingspans of more than 10 m that greatly exceed the largest birds and challenge our understanding of size limits in flying animals. Pterosaurs have been used to illustrate Cope’s rule, the influential generalization that evolutionary lineages trend to increasingly large body sizes. However, unambiguous examples of Cope’s rule operating on extended timescales in large clades remain elusive, and the phylogenetic pattern and possible drivers of pterosaur gigantism are uncertain. Here we show 70 million years of highly constrained early evolution, followed by almost 80 million years of sustained, multi-lineage body size increases in pterosaurs. These results are supported by maximum-likelihood modelling of a comprehensive new pterosaur data set. The transition between these macroevolutionary regimes is coincident with the Early Cretaceous adaptive radiation of birds, supporting controversial hypotheses of bird–pterosaur competition, and suggesting that evolutionary competition can act as a macroevolutionary driver on extended geological timescales. PMID:24694584

  9. A general patterning approach by manipulating the evolution of two-dimensional liquid foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhandong; Su, Meng; Yang, Qiang; Li, Zheng; Chen, Shuoran; Li, Yifan; Zhou, Xue; Li, Fengyu; Song, Yanlin

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of gas-liquid foams has been an attractive topic for more than half a century. However, it remains a challenge to manipulate the evolution of foams, which restricts the development of porous materials with excellent mechanical, thermal, catalytic, electrical or acoustic properties. Here we report a strategy to manipulate the evolution of two-dimensional (2D) liquid foams with a micropatterned surface. We demonstrate that 2D liquid foams can evolve beyond Ostwald ripening (large bubbles always consuming smaller ones). By varying the arrangement of pillars on the surface, we have prepared various patterns of foams in which the size, shape and position of the bubbles can be precisely controlled. Furthermore, these patterned bubbles can serve as a template for the assembly of functional materials, such as nanoparticles and conductive polymers, into desired 2D networks with nanoscale resolution. This methodology provides new insights in controlling curvature-driven evolution and opens a general route for the assembly of functional materials.

  10. Antigenic Patterns and Evolution of the Human Influenza A (H1N1) Virus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mi; Zhao, Xiang; Hua, Sha; Du, Xiangjun; Peng, Yousong; Li, Xiyan; Lan, Yu; Wang, Dayan; Wu, Aiping; Shu, Yuelong; Jiang, Taijiao

    2015-01-01

    The influenza A (H1N1) virus causes seasonal epidemics that result in severe illnesses and deaths almost every year. A deep understanding of the antigenic patterns and evolution of human influenza A (H1N1) virus is extremely important for its effective surveillance and prevention. Through development of antigenicity inference method for human influenza A (H1N1), named PREDAC-H1, we systematically mapped the antigenic patterns and evolution of the human influenza A (H1N1) virus. Eight dominant antigenic clusters have been inferred for seasonal H1N1 viruses since 1977, which demonstrated sequential replacements over time with a similar pattern in Asia, Europe and North America. Among them, six clusters emerged first in Asia. As for China, three of the eight antigenic clusters were detected in South China earlier than in North China, indicating the leading role of South China in H1N1 transmission. The comprehensive view of the antigenic evolution of human influenza A (H1N1) virus can help formulate better strategy for its prevention and control. PMID:26412348

  11. Antigenic Patterns and Evolution of the Human Influenza A (H1N1) Virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mi; Zhao, Xiang; Hua, Sha; Du, Xiangjun; Peng, Yousong; Li, Xiyan; Lan, Yu; Wang, Dayan; Wu, Aiping; Shu, Yuelong; Jiang, Taijiao

    2015-09-28

    The influenza A (H1N1) virus causes seasonal epidemics that result in severe illnesses and deaths almost every year. A deep understanding of the antigenic patterns and evolution of human influenza A (H1N1) virus is extremely important for its effective surveillance and prevention. Through development of antigenicity inference method for human influenza A (H1N1), named PREDAC-H1, we systematically mapped the antigenic patterns and evolution of the human influenza A (H1N1) virus. Eight dominant antigenic clusters have been inferred for seasonal H1N1 viruses since 1977, which demonstrated sequential replacements over time with a similar pattern in Asia, Europe and North America. Among them, six clusters emerged first in Asia. As for China, three of the eight antigenic clusters were detected in South China earlier than in North China, indicating the leading role of South China in H1N1 transmission. The comprehensive view of the antigenic evolution of human influenza A (H1N1) virus can help formulate better strategy for its prevention and control.

  12. Generic patterns in the evolution of urban water networks: Evidence from a large Asian city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, Elisabeth; Klinkhamer, Christopher; Urich, Christian; Zhan, Xianyuan; Rao, P. Suresh C.

    2017-03-01

    We examine high-resolution urban infrastructure data using every pipe for the water distribution network (WDN) and sanitary sewer network (SSN) in a large Asian city (≈4 million residents) to explore the structure as well as the spatial and temporal evolution of these infrastructure networks. Network data were spatially disaggregated into multiple subnets to examine intracity topological differences for functional zones of the WDN and SSN, and time-stamped SSN data were examined to understand network evolution over several decades as the city expanded. Graphs were generated using a dual-mapping technique (Hierarchical Intersection Continuity Negotiation), which emphasizes the functional attributes of these networks. Network graphs for WDNs and SSNs are characterized by several network topological metrics, and a double Pareto (power-law) model approximates the node-degree distributions of both water infrastructure networks (WDN and SSN), across spatial and hierarchical scales relevant to urban settings, and throughout their temporal evolution over several decades. These results indicate that generic mechanisms govern the networks' evolution, similar to those of scale-free networks found in nature. Deviations from the general topological patterns are indicative of (1) incomplete establishment of network hierarchies and functional network evolution, (2) capacity for growth (expansion) or densification (e.g., in-fill), and (3) likely network vulnerabilities. We discuss the implications of our findings for the (re-)design of urban infrastructure networks to enhance their resilience to external and internal threats.

  13. Complex and changing patterns of natural selection explain the evolution of the human hip.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Mark; Roseman, Charles C

    2015-08-01

    Causal explanations for the dramatic changes that occurred during the evolution of the human hip focus largely on selection for bipedal function and locomotor efficiency. These hypotheses rest on two critical assumptions. The first-that these anatomical changes served functional roles in bipedalism-has been supported in numerous analyses showing how postcranial changes likely affected locomotion. The second-that morphological changes that did play functional roles in bipedalism were the result of selection for that behavior-has not been previously explored and represents a major gap in our understanding of hominin hip evolution. Here we use evolutionary quantitative genetic models to test the hypothesis that strong directional selection on many individual aspects of morphology was responsible for the large differences observed across a sample of fossil hominin hips spanning the Plio-Pleistocene. Our approach uses covariance among traits and the differences between relatively complete fossils to estimate the net selection pressures that drove the major transitions in hominin hip evolution. Our findings show a complex and changing pattern of natural selection drove hominin hip evolution, and that many, but not all, traits hypothesized to play functional roles in bipedalism evolved as a direct result of natural selection. While the rate of evolutionary change for all transitions explored here does not exceed the amount expected if evolution was occurring solely through neutral processes, it was far above rates of evolution for morphological traits in other mammalian groups. Given that stasis is the norm in the mammalian fossil record, our results suggest that large shifts in the adaptive landscape drove hominin evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Temporal patterns of glacial lake evolution in high-mountain environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mergili, Martin; Emmer, Adam; Viani, Cristina; Huggel, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Lakes forming at the front of retreating glaciers are characteristic features of high-mountain areas in a warming climate. Typically, lakes shift from the proglacial phase (lake is in direct contact with glacier) to a glacier-detached (no direct contact) and finally to a non-glacial phase (lake catchment is completely deglaciated) of lake evolution. Apart from changing glacier-lake interactions, each stage is characterized by particular features of lake growth, and by the lake's susceptibility to sudden drainage (lake outburst flood). While this concept appears to be valid globally, some mountain areas are rich in dynamically evolving proglacial lakes, while in others most lakes have already shifted to the glacier-detached or even non-glacial phase. In the present contribution we (i) explore and quantify the history of glacial lake formation and evolution over the past up to 70 years; (ii) assess the current situation of selected contrasting mountain areas (eastern and western European Alps, southern and northern Pamir, Cordillera Blanca); and (iii) link the patterns of lake evolution to the prevailing topographic and glaciological characteristics in order to improve the understanding of high-mountain geoenvironmental change. In the eastern Alps we identify only very few lakes in the proglacial stage. While many lakes appeared and dynamically evolved until the 1980s between 2550 m and 2800 m asl, most of them have lost glacier contact until the 2000s, whereas very few new proglacial lakes appeared at the same time. Even though a similar trend is observed in the higher western Alps, a more dynamic glacial lake evolution is observed there. The arid southern Pamir is characterized by a high number of proglacial lakes, mainly around 4500 m asl. There is strong evidence that glacial lake evolution is, after a highly dynamic phase between the 1970s and approx. 2000, decelerating. Few proglacial lakes exist in the higher and more humid, heavily glacierized northern Pamir

  15. The macroevolutionary consequences of phenotypic integration: from development to deep time.

    PubMed

    Goswami, A; Smaers, J B; Soligo, C; Polly, P D

    2014-08-19

    Phenotypic integration is a pervasive characteristic of organisms. Numerous analyses have demonstrated that patterns of phenotypic integration are conserved across large clades, but that significant variation also exists. For example, heterochronic shifts related to different mammalian reproductive strategies are reflected in postcranial skeletal integration and in coordination of bone ossification. Phenotypic integration and modularity have been hypothesized to shape morphological evolution, and we extended simulations to confirm that trait integration can influence both the trajectory and magnitude of response to selection. We further demonstrate that phenotypic integration can produce both more and less disparate organisms than would be expected under random walk models by repartitioning variance in preferred directions. This effect can also be expected to favour homoplasy and convergent evolution. New empirical analyses of the carnivoran cranium show that rates of evolution, in contrast, are not strongly influenced by phenotypic integration and show little relationship to morphological disparity, suggesting that phenotypic integration may shape the direction of evolutionary change, but not necessarily the speed of it. Nonetheless, phenotypic integration is problematic for morphological clocks and should be incorporated more widely into models that seek to accurately reconstruct both trait and organismal evolution.

  16. The macroevolutionary consequences of phenotypic integration: from development to deep time

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, A.; Smaers, J. B.; Soligo, C.; Polly, P. D.

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic integration is a pervasive characteristic of organisms. Numerous analyses have demonstrated that patterns of phenotypic integration are conserved across large clades, but that significant variation also exists. For example, heterochronic shifts related to different mammalian reproductive strategies are reflected in postcranial skeletal integration and in coordination of bone ossification. Phenotypic integration and modularity have been hypothesized to shape morphological evolution, and we extended simulations to confirm that trait integration can influence both the trajectory and magnitude of response to selection. We further demonstrate that phenotypic integration can produce both more and less disparate organisms than would be expected under random walk models by repartitioning variance in preferred directions. This effect can also be expected to favour homoplasy and convergent evolution. New empirical analyses of the carnivoran cranium show that rates of evolution, in contrast, are not strongly influenced by phenotypic integration and show little relationship to morphological disparity, suggesting that phenotypic integration may shape the direction of evolutionary change, but not necessarily the speed of it. Nonetheless, phenotypic integration is problematic for morphological clocks and should be incorporated more widely into models that seek to accurately reconstruct both trait and organismal evolution. PMID:25002699

  17. Identifying heterogeneity in rates of morphological evolution: discrete character change in the evolution of lungfish (Sarcopterygii; Dipnoi).

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Graeme T; Wang, Steve C; Brusatte, Stephen L

    2012-02-01

    Quantifying rates of morphological evolution is important in many macroevolutionary studies, and critical when assessing possible adaptive radiations and episodes of punctuated equilibrium in the fossil record. However, studies of morphological rates of change have lagged behind those on taxonomic diversification, and most authors have focused on continuous characters and quantifying patterns of morphological rates over time. Here, we provide a phylogenetic approach, using discrete characters and three statistical tests to determine points on a cladogram (branches or entire clades) that are characterized by significantly high or low rates of change. These methods include a randomization approach that identifies branches with significantly high rates and likelihood ratio tests that pinpoint either branches or clades that have significantly higher or lower rates than the pooled rate of the remainder of the tree. As a test case for these methods, we analyze a discrete character dataset of lungfish, which have long been regarded as "living fossils" due to an apparent slowdown in rates since the Devonian. We find that morphological rates are highly heterogeneous across the phylogeny and recover a general pattern of decreasing rates along the phylogenetic backbone toward living taxa, from the Devonian until the present. Compared with previous work, we are able to report a more nuanced picture of lungfish evolution using these new methods. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Evolution-development congruence in pattern formation dynamics: Bifurcations in gene expression and regulation of networks structures.

    PubMed

    Kohsokabe, Takahiro; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2016-01-01

    Search for possible relationships between phylogeny and ontogeny is important in evolutionary-developmental biology. Here we uncover such relationships by numerical evolution and unveil their origin in terms of dynamical systems theory. By representing developmental dynamics of spatially located cells with gene expression dynamics with cell-to-cell interaction under external morphogen gradient, gene regulation networks are evolved under mutation and selection with the fitness to approach a prescribed spatial pattern of expressed genes. For most numerical evolution experiments, evolution of pattern over generations and development of pattern by an evolved network exhibit remarkable congruence. Both in the evolution and development pattern changes consist of several epochs where stripes are formed in a short time, while for other temporal regimes, pattern hardly changes. In evolution, these quasi-stationary regimes are generations needed to hit relevant mutations, while in development, they are due to some gene expression that varies slowly and controls the pattern change. The morphogenesis is regulated by combinations of feedback or feedforward regulations, where the upstream feedforward network reads the external morphogen gradient, and generates a pattern used as a boundary condition for the later patterns. The ordering from up to downstream is common in evolution and development, while the successive epochal changes in development and evolution are represented as common bifurcations in dynamical-systems theory, which lead to the evolution-development congruence. Mechanism of exceptional violation of the congruence is also unveiled. Our results provide a new look on developmental stages, punctuated equilibrium, developmental bottlenecks, and evolutionary acquisition of novelty in morphogenesis. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Macroevolutionary diversification with limited niche disparity in a species-rich lineage of cold-climate lizards.

    PubMed

    Reaney, Ashley M; Saldarriaga-Córdoba, Mónica; Pincheira-Donoso, Daniel

    2018-02-06

    Life diversifies via adaptive radiation when natural selection drives the evolution of ecologically distinct species mediated by their access to novel niche space, or via non-adaptive radiation when new species diversify while retaining ancestral niches. However, while cases of adaptive radiation are widely documented, examples of non-adaptively radiating lineages remain rarely observed. A prolific cold-climate lizard radiation from South America (Phymaturus), sister to a hyper-diverse adaptive radiation (Liolaemus), has extensively diversified phylogenetically and geographically, but with exceptionally minimal ecological and life-history diversification. This lineage, therefore, may offer unique opportunities to investigate the non-adaptive basis of diversification, and in combination with Liolaemus, to cover the whole spectrum of modes of diversification predicted by theory, from adaptive to non-adaptive. Using phylogenetic macroevolutionary modelling performed on a newly created 58-species molecular tree, we establish the tempo and mode of diversification in the Phymaturus radiation. Lineage accumulation in Phymaturus opposes a density-dependent (or 'niche-filling') process of diversification. Concurrently, we found that body size diversification is better described by an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck evolutionary model, suggesting stabilizing selection as the mechanism underlying niche conservatism (i.e., maintaining two fundamental size peaks), and which has predominantly evolved around two major adaptive peaks on a 'Simpsonian' adaptive landscape. Lineage diversification of the Phymaturus genus does not conform to an adaptive radiation, as it is characterised by a constant rate of species accumulation during the clade's history. Their strict habitat requirements (rocky outcrops), predominantly invariant herbivory, and especially the constant viviparous reproduction across species have likely limited their opportunities for adaptive diversifications throughout novel

  20. The fundamental units, processes and patterns of evolution, and the Tree of Life conundrum

    PubMed Central

    Koonin, Eugene V; Wolf, Yuri I

    2009-01-01

    Background The elucidation of the dominant role of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in the evolution of prokaryotes led to a severe crisis of the Tree of Life (TOL) concept and intense debates on this subject. Concept Prompted by the crisis of the TOL, we attempt to define the primary units and the fundamental patterns and processes of evolution. We posit that replication of the genetic material is the singular fundamental biological process and that replication with an error rate below a certain threshold both enables and necessitates evolution by drift and selection. Starting from this proposition, we outline a general concept of evolution that consists of three major precepts. 1. The primary agency of evolution consists of Fundamental Units of Evolution (FUEs), that is, units of genetic material that possess a substantial degree of evolutionary independence. The FUEs include both bona fide selfish elements such as viruses, viroids, transposons, and plasmids, which encode some of the information required for their own replication, and regular genes that possess quasi-independence owing to their distinct selective value that provides for their transfer between ensembles of FUEs (genomes) and preferential replication along with the rest of the recipient genome. 2. The history of replication of a genetic element without recombination is isomorphously represented by a directed tree graph (an arborescence, in the graph theory language). Recombination within a FUE is common between very closely related sequences where homologous recombination is feasible but becomes negligible for longer evolutionary distances. In contrast, shuffling of FUEs occurs at all evolutionary distances. Thus, a tree is a natural representation of the evolution of an individual FUE on the macro scale, but not of an ensemble of FUEs such as a genome. 3. The history of life is properly represented by the "forest" of evolutionary trees for individual FUEs (Forest of Life, or FOL). Search for trends

  1. Stratal stacking patterns and tectono-sedimentary evolution of hyperextended magma-poor rifted margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribes, C.; Gillard, M.; Epin, M. E.; Ghienne, J. F.; Manatschal, G.; Karner, G. D.; Johnson, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    Research on the formation and evolution of deep-water rifted margins has undergone a major paradigm shift in recent years. An increasing number of studies of present-day and fossil rifted margins allow us to identify and characterize the structural architecture of the most distal parts of rifted margins, the so-called hyperextended, magma-poor rifted margins. However, at present, little is known about the depositional environments, sedimentary facies, stacking patterns, subsidence and thermal history within these domains. In this context, characterizing the stratal stacking patterns and understanding their spatial and temporal evolution is a new challenge. The major difficulty comes from the fact that the observed stratigraphic geometries and facies relationships are a result of the complex interplay between sediment supply and available accommodation, which is controlled by not only the regional generation of accommodation, but also by local tectono-magmatic processes. These parameters are poorly constrained or even sufficiently known in these tectonic settings. Indeed, the complex structural evolution of hyperextended magma-poor rifted margins, including the development of poly-phase in-sequence and out of sequence extensional detachment faults and associated mantle exhumation and magmatic activity, can generate complex accommodation patterns over a highly structured top basement. The presentation summarizes early results concerning the controlling parameters on ultra-deep water stratigraphic stacking patterns and to provide a conceptual framework. This observation-driven approach combines fieldwork from fossil Alpine Tethys margins exposed in the Alps and the analysis of seismic reflection data from present-day deep water rifted margins such as the Australian-Antarctic, East India and Iberia-Newfoundland margins.

  2. Changes in Diversification Patterns and Signatures of Selection during the Evolution of Murinae-Associated Hantaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Castel, Guillaume; Razzauti, Maria; Jousselin, Emmanuelle; Kergoat, Gael J.; Cosson, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    In the last 50 years, hantaviruses have significantly affected public health worldwide, but the exact extent of the distribution of hantavirus diseases, species and lineages and the risk of their emergence into new geographic areas are still poorly known. In particular, the determinants of molecular evolution of hantaviruses circulating in different geographical areas or different host species are poorly documented. Yet, this understanding is essential for the establishment of more accurate scenarios of hantavirus emergence under different climatic and environmental constraints. In this study, we focused on Murinae-associated hantaviruses (mainly Seoul Dobrava and Hantaan virus) using sequences available in GenBank and conducted several complementary phylogenetic inferences. We sought for signatures of selection and changes in patterns and rates of diversification in order to characterize hantaviruses’ molecular evolution at different geographical scales (global and local). We then investigated whether these events were localized in particular geographic areas. Our phylogenetic analyses supported the assumption that RNA virus molecular variations were under strong evolutionary constraints and revealed changes in patterns of diversification during the evolutionary history of hantaviruses. These analyses provide new knowledge on the molecular evolution of hantaviruses at different scales of time and space. PMID:24618811

  3. Using experimental evolution to explore natural patterns between bacterial motility and resistance to bacteriophages

    PubMed Central

    Koskella, Britt; Taylor, Tiffany B; Bates, Jennifer; Buckling, Angus

    2011-01-01

    Resistance of bacteria to phages may be gained by alteration of surface proteins to which phages bind, a mechanism that is likely to be costly as these molecules typically have critical functions such as movement or nutrient uptake. To address this potential trade-off, we combine a systematic study of natural bacteria and phage populations with an experimental evolution approach. We compare motility, growth rate and susceptibility to local phages for 80 bacteria isolated from horse chestnut leaves and, contrary to expectation, find no negative association between resistance to phages and bacterial motility or growth rate. However, because correlational patterns (and their absence) are open to numerous interpretations, we test for any causal association between resistance to phages and bacterial motility using experimental evolution of a subset of bacteria in both the presence and absence of naturally associated phages. Again, we find no clear link between the acquisition of resistance and bacterial motility, suggesting that for these natural bacterial populations, phage-mediated selection is unlikely to shape bacterial motility, a key fitness trait for many bacteria in the phyllosphere. The agreement between the observed natural pattern and the experimental evolution results presented here demonstrates the power of this combined approach for testing evolutionary trade-offs. PMID:21509046

  4. Differential scaling patterns of vertebrae and the evolution of neck length in mammals.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Patrick; Amson, Eli; Fischer, Martin S

    2017-06-01

    Almost all mammals have seven vertebrae in their cervical spines. This consistency represents one of the most prominent examples of morphological stasis in vertebrae evolution. Hence, the requirements associated with evolutionary modifications of neck length have to be met with a fixed number of vertebrae. It has not been clear whether body size influences the overall length of the cervical spine and its inner organization (i.e., if the mammalian neck is subject to allometry). Here, we provide the first large-scale analysis of the scaling patterns of the cervical spine and its constituting cervical vertebrae. Our findings reveal that the opposite allometric scaling of C1 and C2-C7 accommodate the increase of neck bending moment with body size. The internal organization of the neck skeleton exhibits surprisingly uniformity in the vast majority of mammals. Deviations from this general pattern only occur under extreme loading regimes associated with particular functional and allometric demands. Our results indicate that the main source of variation in the mammalian neck stems from the disparity of overall cervical spine length. The mammalian neck reveals how evolutionary disparity manifests itself in a structure that is otherwise highly restricted by meristic constraints. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. Complex dynamics underlie the evolution of imperfect wing pattern convergence in butterflies.

    PubMed

    Finkbeiner, Susan D; Briscoe, Adriana D; Mullen, Sean P

    2017-04-01

    Adaptive radiation is characterized by rapid diversification that is strongly associated with ecological specialization. However, understanding the evolutionary mechanisms fueling adaptive diversification requires a detailed knowledge of how natural selection acts at multiple life-history stages. Butterflies within the genus Adelpha represent one of the largest and most diverse butterfly lineages in the Neotropics. Although Adelpha species feed on an extraordinary diversity of larval hosts, convergent evolution is widespread in this group, suggesting that selection for mimicry may contribute to adaptive divergence among species. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted predation studies in Costa Rica using artificial butterfly facsimiles. Specifically, we predicted that nontoxic, palatable Adelpha species that do not feed on host plants in the family Rubiaceae would benefit from sharing a locally convergent wing pattern with the presumably toxic Rubiaceae-feeding species via reduced predation. Contrary to expectations, we found that the presumed mimic was attacked significantly more than its locally convergent model at a frequency paralleling attack rates on both novel and palatable prey. Although these data reveal the first evidence for protection from avian predators by the supposed toxic, Rubiaceae-feeding Adelpha species, we conclude that imprecise mimetic patterns have high costs for Batesian mimics in the tropics. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Patterns of evolution of MHC class II genes of crows (Corvus) suggest trans-species polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Andrea K.; Sepil, Irem; Nishiumi, Isao; Satta, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    A distinguishing characteristic of genes that code for the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is that alleles often share more similarity between, rather than within species. There are two likely mechanisms that can explain this pattern: convergent evolution and trans-species polymorphism (TSP), in which ancient allelic lineages are maintained by balancing selection and retained by descendant species. Distinguishing between these two mechanisms has major implications in how we view adaptation of immune genes. In this study we analyzed exon 2 of the MHC class IIB in three passerine bird species in the genus Corvus: jungle crows (Corvus macrorhynchos japonensis) American crows (C. brachyrhynchos) and carrion crows (C. corone orientalis). Carrion crows and American crows are recently diverged, but allopatric, sister species, whereas carrion crows and jungle crows are more distantly related but sympatric species, and possibly share pathogens linked to MHC IIB polymorphisms. These patterns of evolutionary divergence and current geographic ranges enabled us to test for trans-species polymorphism and convergent evolution of the MHC IIB in crows. Phylogenetic reconstructions of MHC IIB sequences revealed several well supported interspecific clusters containing all three species, and there was no biased clustering of variants among the sympatric carrion crows and jungle crows. The topologies of phylogenetic trees constructed from putatively selected sites were remarkably different than those constructed from putatively neutral sites. In addition, trees constructed using non-synonymous substitutions from a continuous fragment of exon 2 had more, and generally more inclusive, supported interspecific MHC IIB variant clusters than those constructed from the same fragment using synonymous substitutions. These phylogenetic patterns suggest that recombination, especially gene conversion, has partially erased the signal of allelic ancestry in these species. While clustering of

  7. Are the metabolomic responses to folivory of closely related plant species linked to macroevolutionary and plant-folivore coevolutionary processes?

    SciTech Connect

    Rivas-Ubach, Albert; Hódar, José A.; Sardans, Jordi

    The debate whether the coevolution of plants and insects or macroevolutionary processes (phylogeny) is the main driver determining the arsenal of molecular defensive compounds of plants remains unresolved. Attacks by herbivorous insects affect not only the composition of defensive compounds in plants but the entire metabolome (the set of molecular metabolites), including defensive compounds. Metabolomes are the final products of genotypes and are directly affected by macroevolutionary processes, so closely related species should have similar metabolomic compositions and may respond in similar ways to attacks by folivores. We analyzed the elemental compositions and metabolomes of needles from Pinus pinaster, P.more » nigra and P. sylvestris to determine if these closely related Pinus species with different coevolutionary histories with the caterpillars of the processionary moth respond similarly to attacks by this lepidopteran. All pines had different metabolomes and metabolic responses to herbivorous attack. The metabolomic variation among the pine species and the responses to folivory reflected their macroevolutionary relationships, with P. pinaster having the most divergent metabolome. The concentrations of phenolic metabolites were generally not higher in the attacked trees, which had lower concentrations of terpenes, suggesting that herbivores avoid individuals with high concentrations of terpenes. Our results suggest that macroevolutionary history plays important roles in the metabolomic responses of these pine species to folivory, but plant-insect coevolution probably constrains those responses. Combinations of different evolutionary factors and trade-offs are likely responsible for the different responses of each species to folivory, which is not necessarily exclusively linked to plant-insect coevolution.« less

  8. Adaptive Patterns of Mitogenome Evolution Are Associated with the Loss of Shell Scutes in Turtles.

    PubMed

    Escalona, Tibisay; Weadick, Cameron J; Antunes, Agostinho

    2017-10-01

    The mitochondrial genome encodes several protein components of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) pathway and is critical for aerobic respiration. These proteins have evolved adaptively in many taxa, but linking molecular-level patterns with higher-level attributes (e.g., morphology, physiology) remains a challenge. Turtles are a promising system for exploring mitochondrial genome evolution as different species face distinct respiratory challenges and employ multiple strategies for ensuring efficient respiration. One prominent adaptation to a highly aquatic lifestyle in turtles is the secondary loss of keratenized shell scutes (i.e., soft-shells), which is associated with enhanced swimming ability and, in some species, cutaneous respiration. We used codon models to examine patterns of selection on mitochondrial protein-coding genes along the three turtle lineages that independently evolved soft-shells. We found strong evidence for positive selection along the branches leading to the pig-nosed turtle (Carettochelys insculpta) and the softshells clade (Trionychidae), but only weak evidence for the leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) branch. Positively selected sites were found to be particularly prevalent in OXPHOS Complex I proteins, especially subunit ND2, along both positively selected lineages, consistent with convergent adaptive evolution. Structural analysis showed that many of the identified sites are within key regions or near residues involved in proton transport, indicating that positive selection may have precipitated substantial changes in mitochondrial function. Overall, our study provides evidence that physiological challenges associated with adaptation to a highly aquatic lifestyle have shaped the evolution of the turtle mitochondrial genome in a lineage-specific manner. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Spatial pattern of reference evapotranspiration change and its temporal evolution over Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shanlei; Wang, Guojie; Huang, Jin; Mu, Mengyuan; Yan, Guixia; Liu, Chunwei; Gao, Chujie; Li, Xing; Yin, Yixing; Zhang, Fangmin; Zhu, Siguang; Hua, Wenjian

    2017-11-01

    Due to the close relationship of climate change with reference evapotranspiration (ETo), detecting changes in ETo spatial distribution and its temporal evolution at local and regional levels is favorable to comprehensively understand climate change-induced impacts on hydrology and agriculture. In this study, the objective is to identify whether climate change has caused variation of ETo spatial distribution in different analysis periods [i.e., long- (20-year), medium- (10-year), and short-term (5-year)] and to investigate its temporal evolution (namely, when these changes happened) at annual and monthly scales in Southwest China (SWC). First, we estimated ETo values using the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Penman-Monteith equation, based on historical climate data measured at 269 weather sites during 1973-2012. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) results indicated that the spatial pattern of annual ETo had significantly changed during the past 40 years, particularly in west SWC for the long-term analysis period, and west and southeast SWC in both medium- and short-term periods, which corresponded to the percent area of significant differences which were 21.9, 58.0, and 48.2 %, respectively. For investigating temporal evolution of spatial patterns of annual ETo, Duncan's multiple range test was used, and we found that the most significant changes appeared during 1988-2002 with the significant area of higher than 25.0 %. In addition, for long-, medium-, and short-term analysis periods, the spatial distribution has significantly changed during March, September, November, and December, especially in the corresponding periods of 1988-1997, 1983-1992, 1973-1977, and 1988-2002. All in all, climate change has resulted in significant ETo changes in SWC since the 1970s. Knowledge of climate change-induced spatial distribution of ETo and its temporal evolution would aid in formulating strategies for water resources and agricultural managements.

  10. Colour pattern homology and evolution in Vanessa butterflies (Nymphalidae: Nymphalini): eyespot characters.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, R; Marcus, J M

    2015-11-01

    Ocelli are serially repeated colour patterns on the wings of many butterflies. Eyespots are elaborate ocelli that function in predator avoidance and deterrence as well as in mate choice. A phylogenetic approach was used to study ocelli and eyespot evolution in Vanessa butterflies, a genus exhibiting diverse phenotypes among these serial homologs. Forty-four morphological characters based on eyespot number, arrangement, shape and the number of elements in each eyespot were defined and scored. Ocelli from eight wing cells on the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the forewing and hindwing were evaluated. The evolution of these characters was traced over a phylogeny of Vanessa based on 7750 DNA base pairs from 10 genes. Our reconstruction predicts that the ancestral Vanessa had 5 serially arranged ocelli on all four wing surfaces. The ancestral state on the dorsal forewing and ventral hindwing was ocelli arranged in two heterogeneous groups. On the dorsal hindwing, the ancestral state was either homogenous or ocelli arranged in two heterogeneous groups. On the ventral forewing, we determined that the ancestral state was organized into three heterogeneous groups. In Vanessa, almost all ocelli are individuated and capable of independent evolution relative to other colour patterns except for the ocelli in cells -1 and 0 on the dorsal and ventral forewings, which appear to be constrained to evolve in parallel. The genus Vanessa is a good model system for the study of serial homology and the interaction of selective forces with developmental architecture to produce diversity in butterfly colour patterns. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. Exploring the patterns and evolution of self-organized urban street networks through modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, Yikang; Ban, Yifang; Wang, Jiechen; Haas, Jan

    2013-03-01

    As one of the most important subsystems in cities, urban street networks have recently been well studied by using the approach of complex networks. This paper proposes a growing model for self-organized urban street networks. The model involves a competition among new centers with different values of attraction radius and a local optimal principle of both geometrical and topological factors. We find that with the model growth, the local optimization in the connection process and appropriate probability for the loop construction well reflect the evolution strategy in real-world cities. Moreover, different values of attraction radius in centers competition process lead to morphological change in patterns including urban network, polycentric and monocentric structures. The model succeeds in reproducing a large diversity of road network patterns by varying parameters. The similarity between the properties of our model and empirical results implies that a simple universal growth mechanism exists in self-organized cities.

  12. Critically evaluating the theory and performance of Bayesian analysis of macroevolutionary mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brian R.; Höhna, Sebastian; May, Michael R.; Rannala, Bruce; Huelsenbeck, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Bayesian analysis of macroevolutionary mixtures (BAMM) has recently taken the study of lineage diversification by storm. BAMM estimates the diversification-rate parameters (speciation and extinction) for every branch of a study phylogeny and infers the number and location of diversification-rate shifts across branches of a tree. Our evaluation of BAMM reveals two major theoretical errors: (i) the likelihood function (which estimates the model parameters from the data) is incorrect, and (ii) the compound Poisson process prior model (which describes the prior distribution of diversification-rate shifts across branches) is incoherent. Using simulation, we demonstrate that these theoretical issues cause statistical pathologies; posterior estimates of the number of diversification-rate shifts are strongly influenced by the assumed prior, and estimates of diversification-rate parameters are unreliable. Moreover, the inability to correctly compute the likelihood or to correctly specify the prior for rate-variable trees precludes the use of Bayesian approaches for testing hypotheses regarding the number and location of diversification-rate shifts using BAMM. PMID:27512038

  13. Dual spinal lesion paradigm in the cat: evolution of the kinematic locomotor pattern.

    PubMed

    Barrière, Grégory; Frigon, Alain; Leblond, Hugues; Provencher, Janyne; Rossignol, Serge

    2010-08-01

    The recovery of voluntary quadrupedal locomotion after an incomplete spinal cord injury can involve different levels of the CNS, including the spinal locomotor circuitry. The latter conclusion was reached using a dual spinal lesion paradigm in which a low thoracic partial spinal lesion is followed, several weeks later, by a complete spinal transection (i.e., spinalization). In this dual spinal lesion paradigm, cats can express hindlimb walking 1 day after spinalization, a process that normally takes several weeks, suggesting that the locomotor circuitry within the lumbosacral spinal cord had been modified after the partial lesion. Here we detail the evolution of the kinematic locomotor pattern throughout the dual spinal lesion paradigm in five cats to gain further insight into putative neurophysiological mechanisms involved in locomotor recovery after a partial spinal lesion. All cats recovered voluntary quadrupedal locomotion with treadmill training (3-5 days/wk) over several weeks. After the partial lesion, the locomotor pattern was characterized by several left/right asymmetries in various kinematic parameters, such as homolateral and homologous interlimb coupling, cycle duration, and swing/stance durations. When no further locomotor improvement was observed, cats were spinalized. After spinalization, the hindlimb locomotor pattern rapidly reappeared, but left/right asymmetries in swing/stance durations observed after the partial lesion could disappear or reverse. It is concluded that, after a partial spinal lesion, the hindlimb locomotor pattern was actively maintained by new dynamic interactions between spinal and supraspinal levels but also by intrinsic changes within the spinal cord.

  14. Inhibition of Shh signalling in the chick wing gives insights into digit patterning and evolution.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Joseph; Towers, Matthew

    2016-10-01

    In an influential model of pattern formation, a gradient of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signalling in the chick wing bud specifies cells with three antero-posterior positional values, which give rise to three morphologically different digits by a self-organizing mechanism with Turing-like properties. However, as four of the five digits of the mouse limb are morphologically similar in terms of phalangeal pattern, it has been suggested that self-organization alone could be sufficient. Here, we show that inhibition of Shh signalling at a specific stage of chick wing development results in a pattern of four digits, three of which can have the same number of phalanges. These patterning changes are dependent on a posterior extension of the apical ectodermal ridge, and this also allows the additional digit to arise from the Shh-producing cells of the polarizing region - an ability lost in ancestral theropod dinosaurs. Our analyses reveal that, if the specification of antero-posterior positional values is curtailed, self-organization can then produce several digits with the same number of phalanges. We present a model that may give important insights into how the number of digits and phalanges has diverged during the evolution of avian and mammalian limbs. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Evolution and inheritance of early embryonic patterning in D. simulans and D. sechellia

    PubMed Central

    Lott, Susan E.; Ludwig, Michael Z.; Kreitman, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Pattern formation in Drosophila is a widely studied example of a robust developmental system. Such robust systems pose a challenge to adaptive evolution, as they mask variation which selection may otherwise act upon. Yet we find variation in the localization of expression domains (henceforth ‘stripe allometry’) in the pattern formation pathway. Specifically, we characterize differences in the gap genes giant and Kruppel, and the pair-rule gene even-skipped, which differ between the sibling species D. simulans and D. sechellia. In a double-backcross experiment, stripe allometry is consistent with maternal inheritance of stripe positioning and multiple genetic factors, with a distinct genetic basis from embryo length. Embryos produced by F1 and F2 backcross mothers exhibit novel spatial patterns of gene expression relative to the parental species, with no measurable increase in positional variance among individuals. Buffering of novel spatial patterns in the backcross genotypes suggests that robustness need not be disrupted in order for the trait to evolve, and perhaps the system is incapable of evolving to prevent the expression of all genetic variation. This limitation, and the ability of natural selection to act on minute genetic differences that are within the “margin of error” for the buffering mechanism, indicates that developmentally buffered traits can evolve without disruption of robustness PMID:21121913

  16. Biophysical modeling of the temporal niche: from first principles to the evolution of activity patterns.

    PubMed

    Levy, Ofir; Dayan, Tamar; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga; Porter, Warren P

    2012-06-01

    Most mammals can be characterized as nocturnal or diurnal. However infrequently, species may overcome evolutionary constraints and alter their activity patterns. We modeled the fundamental temporal niche of a diurnal desert rodent, the golden spiny mouse, Acomys russatus. This species can shift into nocturnal activity in the absence of its congener, the common spiny mouse, Acomys cahirinus, suggesting that it was competitively driven into diurnality and that this shift in a small desert rodent may involve physiological costs. Therefore, we compared metabolic costs of diurnal versus nocturnal activity using a biophysical model to evaluate the preferred temporal niche of this species. The model predicted that energy expenditure during foraging is almost always lower during the day except during midday in summer at the less sheltered microhabitat. We also found that a shift in summer to foraging in less sheltered microhabitats in response to predation pressure and food availability involves a significant physiological cost moderated by midday reduction in activity. Thus, adaptation to diurnality may reflect the "ghost of competition past"; climate-driven diurnality is an alternative but less likely hypothesis. While climate is considered to play a major role in the physiology and evolution of mammals, this is the first study to model its potential to affect the evolution of activity patterns of mammals.

  17. The Relation between Recombination Rate and Patterns of Molecular Evolution and Variation in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Campos, José L.; Halligan, Daniel L.; Haddrill, Penelope R.; Charlesworth, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Genetic recombination associated with sexual reproduction increases the efficiency of natural selection by reducing the strength of Hill–Robertson interference. Such interference can be caused either by selective sweeps of positively selected alleles or by background selection (BGS) against deleterious mutations. Its consequences can be studied by comparing patterns of molecular evolution and variation in genomic regions with different rates of crossing over. We carried out a comprehensive study of the benefits of recombination in Drosophila melanogaster, both by contrasting five independent genomic regions that lack crossing over with the rest of the genome and by comparing regions with different rates of crossing over, using data on DNA sequence polymorphisms from an African population that is geographically close to the putatively ancestral population for the species, and on sequence divergence from a related species. We observed reductions in sequence diversity in noncrossover (NC) regions that are inconsistent with the effects of hard selective sweeps in the absence of recombination. Overall, the observed patterns suggest that the recombination rate experienced by a gene is positively related to an increase in the efficiency of both positive and purifying selection. The results are consistent with a BGS model with interference among selected sites in NC regions, and joint effects of BGS, selective sweeps, and a past population expansion on variability in regions of the genome that experience crossing over. In such crossover regions, the X chromosome exhibits a higher rate of adaptive protein sequence evolution than the autosomes, implying a Faster-X effect. PMID:24489114

  18. Phylogenetic patterns and the adaptive evolution of osmoregulation in fiddler crabs (Brachyura, Uca)

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Samuel Coelho; Provete, Diogo Borges; Thurman, Carl Leo

    2017-01-01

    Salinity is the primary driver of osmoregulatory evolution in decapods, and may have influenced their diversification into different osmotic niches. In semi-terrestrial crabs, hyper-osmoregulatory ability favors sojourns into burrows and dilute media, and provides a safeguard against hemolymph dilution; hypo-osmoregulatory ability underlies emersion capability and a life more removed from water sources. However, most comparative studies have neglected the roles of the phylogenetic and environmental components of inter-specific physiological variation, hindering evaluation of phylogenetic patterns and the adaptive nature of osmoregulatory evolution. Semi-terrestrial fiddler crabs (Uca) inhabit fresh to hyper-saline waters, with species from the Americas occupying higher intertidal habitats than Indo-west Pacific species mainly found in the low intertidal zone. Here, we characterize numerous osmoregulatory traits in all ten fiddler crabs found along the Atlantic coast of Brazil, and we employ phylogenetic comparative methods using 24 species to test for: (i) similarities of osmoregulatory ability among closely related species; (ii) salinity as a driver of osmoregulatory evolution; (iii) correlation between salt uptake and secretion; and (iv) adaptive peaks in osmoregulatory ability in the high intertidal American lineages. Our findings reveal that osmoregulation in Uca exhibits strong phylogenetic patterns in salt uptake traits. Salinity does not correlate with hyper/hypo-regulatory abilities, but drives hemolymph osmolality at ambient salinities. Osmoregulatory traits have evolved towards three adaptive peaks, revealing a significant contribution of hyper/hypo-regulatory ability in the American clades. Thus, during the evolutionary history of fiddler crabs, salinity has driven some of the osmoregulatory transformations that underpin habitat diversification, although others are apparently constrained phylogenetically. PMID:28182764

  19. Rapid evolution of binding specificities and expression patterns of inhibitory CD33-related Siglecs in primates

    PubMed Central

    Padler-Karavani, Vered; Hurtado-Ziola, Nancy; Chang, Yung-Chi; Sonnenburg, Justin L.; Ronaghy, Arash; Yu, Hai; Verhagen, Andrea; Nizet, Victor; Chen, Xi; Varki, Nissi; Varki, Ajit; Angata, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Siglecs are sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectins that recognize sialoglycans via amino-terminal V-set domains. CD33-related Siglecs (CD33rSiglecs) on innate immune cells recognize endogenous sialoglycans as “self-associated molecular patterns” (SAMPs), dampening immune responses via cytosolic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs that recruit tyrosine phosphatases. However, sialic acid-expressing pathogens subvert this mechanism through molecular mimicry. Meanwhile, endogenous host SAMPs must continually evolve to evade other pathogens that exploit sialic acids as invasion targets. We hypothesized that these opposing selection forces have accelerated CD33rSiglec evolution. We address this by comparative analysis of major CD33rSiglec (Siglec-3, Siglec-5, and Siglec-9) orthologs in humans, chimpanzees, and baboons. Recombinant soluble molecules displaying ligand-binding domains show marked quantitative and qualitative interspecies differences in interactions with strains of the sialylated pathogen, group B Streptococcus, and with sialoglycans presented as gangliosides or in the form of sialoglycan microarrays, including variations such as N-glycolyl and O-acetyl groups. Primate Siglecs also show quantitative and qualitative intra- and interspecies variations in expression patterns on leukocytes, both in circulation and in tissues. Taken together our data explain why the CD33rSiglec-encoding gene cluster is undergoing rapid evolution via multiple mechanisms, driven by the need to maintain self-recognition by innate immune cells, while escaping 2 distinct mechanisms of pathogen subversion.—Padler-Karavani, V., Hurtado-Ziola, N., Chang, Y.-C., Sonnenburg, J. L., Ronaghy, A., Yu, H., Verhagen, A., Nizet, V., Chen, X., Varki, N., Varki, A., Angata, T. Rapid evolution of binding specificities and expression patterns of inhibitory CD33-related Siglecs in primates. PMID:24308974

  20. The maximum rate of mammal evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.

    2012-03-01

    How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.

  1. Inferring individual-level processes from population-level patterns in cultural evolution.

    PubMed

    Kandler, Anne; Wilder, Bryan; Fortunato, Laura

    2017-09-01

    Our species is characterized by a great degree of cultural variation, both within and between populations. Understanding how group-level patterns of culture emerge from individual-level behaviour is a long-standing question in the biological and social sciences. We develop a simulation model capturing demographic and cultural dynamics relevant to human cultural evolution, focusing on the interface between population-level patterns and individual-level processes. The model tracks the distribution of variants of cultural traits across individuals in a population over time, conditioned on different pathways for the transmission of information between individuals. From these data, we obtain theoretical expectations for a range of statistics commonly used to capture population-level characteristics (e.g. the degree of cultural diversity). Consistent with previous theoretical work, our results show that the patterns observed at the level of groups are rooted in the interplay between the transmission pathways and the age structure of the population. We also explore whether, and under what conditions, the different pathways can be distinguished based on their group-level signatures, in an effort to establish theoretical limits to inference. Our results show that the temporal dynamic of cultural change over time retains a stronger signature than the cultural composition of the population at a specific point in time. Overall, the results suggest a shift in focus from identifying the one individual-level process that likely produced the observed data to excluding those that likely did not. We conclude by discussing the implications for empirical studies of human cultural evolution.

  2. Inferring individual-level processes from population-level patterns in cultural evolution

    PubMed Central

    Wilder, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    Our species is characterized by a great degree of cultural variation, both within and between populations. Understanding how group-level patterns of culture emerge from individual-level behaviour is a long-standing question in the biological and social sciences. We develop a simulation model capturing demographic and cultural dynamics relevant to human cultural evolution, focusing on the interface between population-level patterns and individual-level processes. The model tracks the distribution of variants of cultural traits across individuals in a population over time, conditioned on different pathways for the transmission of information between individuals. From these data, we obtain theoretical expectations for a range of statistics commonly used to capture population-level characteristics (e.g. the degree of cultural diversity). Consistent with previous theoretical work, our results show that the patterns observed at the level of groups are rooted in the interplay between the transmission pathways and the age structure of the population. We also explore whether, and under what conditions, the different pathways can be distinguished based on their group-level signatures, in an effort to establish theoretical limits to inference. Our results show that the temporal dynamic of cultural change over time retains a stronger signature than the cultural composition of the population at a specific point in time. Overall, the results suggest a shift in focus from identifying the one individual-level process that likely produced the observed data to excluding those that likely did not. We conclude by discussing the implications for empirical studies of human cultural evolution. PMID:28989786

  3. Study on relationship between pollen exine ornamentation pattern and germplasm evolution in flowering crabapple

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wang-Xiang; Zhao, Ming-Ming; Fan, Jun-Jun; Zhou, Ting; Chen, Yong-Xia; Cao, Fu-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Pollen ornamentation patterns are important in the study of plant genetic evolution and systematic taxonomy. However, they are normally difficult to quantify. Based on observations of pollen exine ornamentation characteristics of 128 flowering crabapple germplasms (44 natural species and 84 varieties), three qualitative variables with binary properties (Xi: regularity of pollen exine ornamentation; Yi: scope of ornamentation arrangement regularity; Zi: ornamentation arrangement patterns) were extracted to establish a binary three-dimensional data matrix (Xi Yi Zi) and the matrix data were converted to decimal data through weight assignment, which facilitated the unification of qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis. The result indicates that from species population to variety population and from parent population to variety population, the exine ornamentation of all three dimensions present the evolutionary trend of regular → irregular, wholly regular → partially regular, and single pattern → multiple patterns. Regarding the evolutionary degree, the regularity of ornamentation was significantly lower in both the variety population and progeny population, with a degree of decrease 0.82–1.27 times that of the regularity range of R-type ornamentation. In addition, the evolutionary degree significantly increased along Xi  → Yi → Zi. The result also has certain reference values for defining the taxonomic status of Malus species. PMID:28059122

  4. Evolution of Muscle Activity Patterns Driving Motions of the Jaw and Hyoid during Chewing in Gnathostomes

    PubMed Central

    Konow, Nicolai; Herrel, Anthony; Ross, Callum F.; Williams, Susan H.; German, Rebecca Z.; Sanford, Christopher P. J.; Gintof, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Although chewing has been suggested to be a basal gnathostome trait retained in most major vertebrate lineages, it has not been studied broadly and comparatively across vertebrates. To redress this imbalance, we recorded EMG from muscles powering anteroposterior movement of the hyoid, and dorsoventral movement of the mandibular jaw during chewing. We compared muscle activity patterns (MAP) during chewing in jawed vertebrate taxa belonging to unrelated groups of basal bony fishes and artiodactyl mammals. Our aim was to outline the evolution of coordination in MAP. Comparisons of activity in muscles of the jaw and hyoid that power chewing in closely related artiodactyls using cross-correlation analyses identified reorganizations of jaw and hyoid MAP between herbivores and omnivores. EMG data from basal bony fishes revealed a tighter coordination of jaw and hyoid MAP during chewing than seen in artiodactyls. Across this broad phylogenetic range, there have been major structural reorganizations, including a reduction of the bony hyoid suspension, which is robust in fishes, to the acquisition in a mammalian ancestor of a muscle sling suspending the hyoid. These changes appear to be reflected in a shift in chewing MAP that occurred in an unidentified anamniote stem-lineage. This shift matches observations that, when compared with fishes, the pattern of hyoid motion in tetrapods is reversed and also time-shifted relative to the pattern of jaw movement. PMID:21705368

  5. Microevolutionary dynamics of a macroevolutionary key innovation in a Lepidopteran herbivore

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A molecular population genetics understanding is central to the study of ecological and evolutionary functional genomics. Population genetics identifies genetic variation and its distribution within and among populations, it reveals the demographic history of the populations studied, and can provide indirect insights into historical selection dynamics. Here we use this approach to examine the demographic and selective dynamics acting of a candidate gene involved in plant-insect interactions. Previous work documents the macroevolutionary and historical ecological importance of the nitrile-specifier protein (Nsp), which facilitated the host shift of Pieridae butterflies onto Brassicales host plants ~80 Myr ago. Results Here we assess the microevolutionary dynamics of the Nsp gene by studying the within and among-population variation at Nsp and reference genes in the butterfly Pieris rapae (Small Cabbage White). Nsp exhibits unexpectedly high amounts of amino acid polymorphism, unequally distributed across the gene. The vast majority of genetic variation exists within populations, with little to no genetic differentiation among four populations on two continents. A comparison of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions in 70 randomly chosen genes among P. rapae and its close relative Pieris brassicae (Large Cabbage White) finds Nsp to have a significantly relaxed functional constraint compared to housekeeping genes. We find strong evidence for a recent population expansion and no role for strong purifying or directional selection upon the Nsp gene. Conclusions The microevolutionary dynamics of the Nsp gene in P. rapae are dominated by recent population expansion and variation in functional constraint across the repeated domains of the Nsp gene. While the high amounts of amino acid diversity suggest there may be significant functional differences among allelic variants segregating within populations, indirect tests of selection could not conclusively

  6. Breath Figures under Electrowetting: Electrically Controlled Evolution of Drop Condensation Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratian, Davood; Dey, Ranabir; Hoek, Harmen; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

    2018-05-01

    We show that electrowetting (EW) with structured electrodes significantly modifies the distribution of drops condensing onto flat hydrophobic surfaces by aligning the drops and by enhancing coalescence. Numerical calculations demonstrate that drop alignment and coalescence are governed by the drop-size-dependent electrostatic energy landscape that is imposed by the electrode pattern and the applied voltage. Such EW-controlled migration and coalescence of condensate drops significantly alter the statistical characteristics of the ensemble of droplets. The evolution of the drop size distribution displays self-similar characteristics that significantly deviate from classical breath figures on homogeneous surfaces once the electrically induced coalescence cascades set in beyond a certain critical drop size. The resulting reduced surface coverage, coupled with earlier drop shedding under EW, enhances the net heat transfer.

  7. Latitudinal patterns in plant defense: evolution of cardenolides, their toxicity and induction following herbivory.

    PubMed

    Rasmann, Sergio; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2011-05-01

    Attempts over the past 50 years to explain variation in the abundance, distribution and diversity of plant secondary compounds gave rise to theories of plant defense. Remarkably, few phylogenetically robust tests of these long-standing theories have been conducted. Using >50 species of milkweed (Asclepias spp.), we show that variation among plant species in the induction of toxic cardenolides is explained by latitude, with higher inducibility evolving more frequently at lower latitudes. We also found that: (1) the production of cardenolides showed positive-correlated evolution with the diversity of cardenolides, (2) greater cardenolide investment by a species is accompanied by an increase in an estimate of toxicity (measured as chemical polarity) and (3) instead of trading off, constitutive and induced cardenolides were positively correlated. Analyses of root and shoot cardenolides showed concordant patterns. Thus, milkweed species from lower latitudes are better defended with higher inducibility, greater diversity and added toxicity of cardenolides. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  8. Identification of tumor evolution patterns by means of inductive logic programming.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Vitoantonio; Chiarappa, Patrizia; Mastronardi, Giuseppe; Menolascina, Filippo; Paradiso, Angelo; Tommasi, Stefania

    2008-06-01

    In considering key events of genomic disorders in the development and progression of cancer, the correlation between genomic instability and carcinogenesis is currently under investigation. In this work, we propose an inductive logic programming approach to the problem of modeling evolution patterns for breast cancer. Using this approach, it is possible to extract fingerprints of stages of the disease that can be used in order to develop and deliver the most adequate therapies to patients. Furthermore, such a model can help physicians and biologists in the elucidation of molecular dynamics underlying the aberrations-waterfall model behind carcinogenesis. By showing results obtained on a real-world dataset, we try to give some hints about further approach to the knowledge-driven validations of such hypotheses.

  9. Global Pattern of The Evolutions of the Sub-Auroral Polarization Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, F.; Zhang, X.; Wang, W.; Wan, W.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the spatial and temporal limitations of the in-situ measurements from the low altitude polar orbiting satellites or the ionospheric scan by incoherent scatter radars, the global configuration and evolution of SAPS are still not very clear. Here, we present multi-satellite observations of the evolution of subauroral polarization streams (SAPS) during the main phase of a server geomagnetic storm occurred on 31 March 2001. DMSP F12 to F15 observations indicate that the SAPS were first generated in the dusk sector at the beginning of the main phase. Then the SAPS channel expanded towards the midnight and moved to lower latitudes as the main phase went on. The peak velocity, latitudinal width, latitudinal alignment, and longitudinal span of the SAPS channels were highly dynamic during the storm main phase. The global evolution of the SAPS corresponds well with that of the region-2 field-aligned currents, which are mainly determined by the azimuthal pressure gradient of the ring current. Further studies on 37 storms and 30 isolated substorms indicate that the lifetime of the SAPS channel was proportional to the period of time for southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The SAPS channel disappeared after northward turning of the IMF. During the recovery phase, if the IMF kept northward, no SAPS channel was generated, if the IMF turned to southward again, however, SAPS channel will be generated again with lifetime proportional to the duration of the southward IMF. During isolated substorms, the SAPS channel was also controlled by IMF. The SAPS channel was generated after substorm onset and the peak drift velocity of the SAPS channel achieved its maximum during the recovery phase of the substorm. It is suggested that, SAPS channel were mainly controlled by IMF, more works should be done with observations or simulations of investigate the global patterns of the SAPS and the magnetosphere-ionosphere couplings.

  10. Patterns and rates of viral evolution in HIV-1 subtype B infected females and males.

    PubMed

    Dapp, Michael J; Kober, Kord M; Chen, Lennie; Westfall, Dylan H; Wong, Kim; Zhao, Hong; Hall, Breana M; Deng, Wenjie; Sibley, Thomas; Ghorai, Suvankar; Kim, Katie; Chen, Natalie; McHugh, Sarah; Au, Lily; Cohen, Mardge; Anastos, Kathryn; Mullins, James I

    2017-01-01

    Biological sex differences affect the course of HIV infection, with untreated women having lower viral loads compared to their male counterparts but, for a given viral load, women have a higher rate of progression to AIDS. However, the vast majority of data on viral evolution, a process that is clearly impacted by host immunity and could be impacted by sex differences, has been derived from men. We conducted an intensive analysis of HIV-1 gag and env-gp120 evolution taken over the first 6-11 years of infection from 8 Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) participants who had not received combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). This was compared to similar data previously collected from men, with both groups infected with HIV-1 subtype B. Early virus populations in men and women were generally homogenous with no differences in diversity between sexes. No differences in ensuing nucleotide substitution rates were found between the female and male cohorts studied herein. As previously reported for men, time to peak diversity in env-gp120 in women was positively associated with time to CD4+ cell count below 200 (P = 0.017), and the number of predicted N-linked glycosylation sites generally increased over time, followed by a plateau or decline, with the majority of changes localized to the V1-V2 region. These findings strongly suggest that the sex differences in HIV-1 disease progression attributed to immune system composition and sensitivities are not revealed by, nor do they impact, global patterns of viral evolution, the latter of which proceeds similarly in women and men.

  11. Pattern and process in the evolution of the sole dioecious member of Brassicaceae.

    PubMed

    Soza, Valerie L; Le Huynh, Vietnam; Di Stilio, Verónica S

    2014-01-01

    Lepidium sisymbrioides, a polyploid New Zealand endemic, is the sole dioecious species in Brassicaceae and therefore the closest dioecious relative of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The attractiveness of developing this system for future studies on the genetics of sex determination prompted us to investigate historical and developmental factors surrounding the evolution of its unisexual flowers. Our goal was to determine the evolutionary pattern of polyploidization of L. sisymbrioides and the timing and process of flower reproductive organ abortion. To that end, we used a combination of phylogenetics to place this species within the complex history of polyploidization events in Lepidium and histology to compare its floral ontogeny to that of its closest hermaphroditic relatives and to A. thaliana. Using a nuclear locus (PISTILLATA), we reconstructed the gene tree among Lepidium taxa and applied a phylogenetic network analysis to identify ancestral genomes that contributed to the evolution of L. sisymbrioides. Combining this phylogenetic framework with cytological and genome size data, we estimated L. sisymbrioides as an allo-octoploid resulting from three hybridization events. Our investigations of flower development showed that unisexual flowers appear to abort reproductive organs by programmed cell death in female flowers and by developmental arrest in male flowers. This selective abortion occurs at the same floral developmental stage in both males and females, corresponding to Arabidopsis stage nine. Dioecy in Brassicaceae evolved once in L. sisymbrioides following several allopolyploidization events, by a process of selective abortion of reproductive organs at intermediate stages of flower development. Different developmental processes, but similar timing of abortions, affect male versus female flower development. An increased understanding of how and when reproductive organs abort in this species, combined with our estimates of ancestral genome

  12. Distinct biological subtypes and patterns of genome evolution in lymphoma revealed by circulating tumor DNA.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Florian; Kurtz, David M; Newman, Aaron M; Stehr, Henning; Craig, Alexander F M; Esfahani, Mohammad Shahrokh; Lovejoy, Alexander F; Chabon, Jacob J; Klass, Daniel M; Liu, Chih Long; Zhou, Li; Glover, Cynthia; Visser, Brendan C; Poultsides, George A; Advani, Ranjana H; Maeda, Lauren S; Gupta, Neel K; Levy, Ronald; Ohgami, Robert S; Kunder, Christian A; Diehn, Maximilian; Alizadeh, Ash A

    2016-11-09

    Patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) exhibit marked diversity in tumor behavior and outcomes, yet the identification of poor-risk groups remains challenging. In addition, the biology underlying these differences is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that characterization of mutational heterogeneity and genomic evolution using circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) profiling could reveal molecular determinants of adverse outcomes. To address this hypothesis, we applied cancer personalized profiling by deep sequencing (CAPP-Seq) analysis to tumor biopsies and cell-free DNA samples from 92 lymphoma patients and 24 healthy subjects. At diagnosis, the amount of ctDNA was found to strongly correlate with clinical indices and was independently predictive of patient outcomes. We demonstrate that ctDNA genotyping can classify transcriptionally defined tumor subtypes, including DLBCL cell of origin, directly from plasma. By simultaneously tracking multiple somatic mutations in ctDNA, our approach outperformed immunoglobulin sequencing and radiographic imaging for the detection of minimal residual disease and facilitated noninvasive identification of emergent resistance mutations to targeted therapies. In addition, we identified distinct patterns of clonal evolution distinguishing indolent follicular lymphomas from those that transformed into DLBCL, allowing for potential noninvasive prediction of histological transformation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that ctDNA analysis reveals biological factors that underlie lymphoma clinical outcomes and could facilitate individualized therapy. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Patterns of covariation in the masticatory apparatus of hystricognathous rodents: implications for evolution and diversification.

    PubMed

    Hautier, Lionel; Lebrun, Renaud; Cox, Philip G

    2012-12-01

    The mammalian masticatory apparatus is a highly plastic region of the skull. In this study, a quantification of shape variation, the separation of phylogeny from ecology in the genesis of shape brings new insights on the relationships between morphological changes in the cranium, mandible, and muscle architecture. Our study focuses on the Ctenohystrica, a clade that is remarkably diverse and exemplifies a rich evolutionary history in the Old and New World. Current and past rodent diversity brings out the limitations of the qualitative descriptive approach and highlights the need for using integrative quantitative methods. We present here the first descriptive comparison of the whole masticatory apparatus within the Ctenohystrica, by combining geometric morphometric approaches with a noninvasive method of dissection in 3D, iodine-enhanced microcomputed tomography. We used these methods to explore the patterns of covariation between the cranium and the mandible, and the interspecific morphological variation of the skull with regard to several factors such as phylogeny, activity period, type of habitat, and diet. Our study revealed strong phylogenetic and ecological imprints on the morphological traits associated with masticatory mechanics. We showed that, despite a high diversification of lineages, the evolutionary history of Ctenohystrica comprises only a small number of morphotypes for the skull and mandible. The position of the eye was suggested as a key factor determining morphological evolution of the masticatory apparatus by limiting the number of possible pathways and promoting convergent evolution toward new habitats and diets between different clades. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Morphological Evolution of Pit-Patterned Si(001) Substrates Driven by Surface-Energy Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvalaglio, Marco; Backofen, Rainer; Voigt, Axel; Montalenti, Francesco

    2017-09-01

    Lateral ordering of heteroepitaxial islands can be conveniently achieved by suitable pit-patterning of the substrate prior to deposition. Controlling shape, orientation, and size of the pits is not trivial as, being metastable, they can significantly evolve during deposition/annealing. In this paper, we exploit a continuum model to explore the typical metastable pit morphologies that can be expected on Si(001), depending on the initial depth/shape. Evolution is predicted using a surface-diffusion model, formulated in a phase-field framework, and tackling surface-energy anisotropy. Results are shown to nicely reproduce typical metastable shapes reported in the literature. Moreover, long time scale evolutions of pit profiles with different depths are found to follow a similar kinetic pathway. The model is also exploited to treat the case of heteroepitaxial growth involving two materials characterized by different facets in their equilibrium Wulff's shape. This can lead to significant changes in morphologies, such as a rotation of the pit during deposition as evidenced in Ge/Si experiments.

  15. Morphological Evolution of Pit-Patterned Si(001) Substrates Driven by Surface-Energy Reduction.

    PubMed

    Salvalaglio, Marco; Backofen, Rainer; Voigt, Axel; Montalenti, Francesco

    2017-09-29

    Lateral ordering of heteroepitaxial islands can be conveniently achieved by suitable pit-patterning of the substrate prior to deposition. Controlling shape, orientation, and size of the pits is not trivial as, being metastable, they can significantly evolve during deposition/annealing. In this paper, we exploit a continuum model to explore the typical metastable pit morphologies that can be expected on Si(001), depending on the initial depth/shape. Evolution is predicted using a surface-diffusion model, formulated in a phase-field framework, and tackling surface-energy anisotropy. Results are shown to nicely reproduce typical metastable shapes reported in the literature. Moreover, long time scale evolutions of pit profiles with different depths are found to follow a similar kinetic pathway. The model is also exploited to treat the case of heteroepitaxial growth involving two materials characterized by different facets in their equilibrium Wulff's shape. This can lead to significant changes in morphologies, such as a rotation of the pit during deposition as evidenced in Ge/Si experiments.

  16. Amphioxus and lamprey AP-2 genes: implications for neural crest evolution and migration patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meulemans, Daniel; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2002-01-01

    The neural crest is a uniquely vertebrate cell type present in the most basal vertebrates, but not in cephalochordates. We have studied differences in regulation of the neural crest marker AP-2 across two evolutionary transitions: invertebrate to vertebrate, and agnathan to gnathostome. Isolation and comparison of amphioxus, lamprey and axolotl AP-2 reveals its extensive expansion in the vertebrate dorsal neural tube and pharyngeal arches, implying co-option of AP-2 genes by neural crest cells early in vertebrate evolution. Expression in non-neural ectoderm is a conserved feature in amphioxus and vertebrates, suggesting an ancient role for AP-2 genes in this tissue. There is also common expression in subsets of ventrolateral neurons in the anterior neural tube, consistent with a primitive role in brain development. Comparison of AP-2 expression in axolotl and lamprey suggests an elaboration of cranial neural crest patterning in gnathostomes. However, migration of AP-2-expressing neural crest cells medial to the pharyngeal arch mesoderm appears to be a primitive feature retained in all vertebrates. Because AP-2 has essential roles in cranial neural crest differentiation and proliferation, the co-option of AP-2 by neural crest cells in the vertebrate lineage was a potentially crucial event in vertebrate evolution.

  17. Evolution in the lineament patterns associated to strong earthquakes revealed by satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto-Pinto, C. A.; Arellano-Baeza, A. A.; Ouzounov, D. P.

    2011-12-01

    We study the temporal evolution of the stress patterns in the crust by using high-resolution (10-300 m) satellite images from MODIS and ASTER satellite sensors. We are able to detect some changes in density and orientation of lineaments preceding earthquake events. A lineament is generally defined as a straight or a somewhat curved feature in the landscape visible in a satellite image as an aligned sequence of pixels of a contrasting intensity compared to the background. The system of lineaments extracted from the satellite images is not identical to the geological lineaments; nevertheless, it generally reflects the structure of the faults and fractures in the Earth's crust. Our analysis has shown that the system of lineaments is very dynamical, and the significant number of lineaments appeared approximately one month before an earthquake, while one month after the earthquake the lineament configuration returned to its initial state. These features were not observed in the test areas that are free of any seismic activity in that period (null hypothesis). We have designed a computational prototype capable to detect lineament evolution and to utilize both ASTER and MODIS satellite L1/L2. We will demonstrate the first successful test results for several Mw> 5 earthquakes in Chile, Peru, China, and California (USA).

  18. Inferring directions of evolution from patterns of variation: The legacy of Sergei Meyen

    PubMed Central

    Sharov, Alexei A.; Igamberdiev, Abir U.

    2014-01-01

    In the era of the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis, which no longer considers natural selection as the only leading factor of evolution, it is meaningful to revisit the legacy of biologists who discussed the role of alternative factors. Here we analyze the evolutionary views of Sergei Meyen (1935-1987), a paleobotanist who argued that the theory of evolution should incorporate a “nomothetical” approach which infers the laws of morphogenesis (i.e., form generation) from the observed patterns of variation in living organisms and in the fossil records. Meyen developed a theory of “repeated polymorphic sets” (RPSs), which he applied consistently to describe inter-organism variation in populations, intra-organism variation of metameric organs, variation of abnormalities, heterotopy, changes during embryo development, and inter-species variation within evolutionary lineages. The notion of RPS assumes the active nature of organisms that possess hidden morphogenic and behavioural capacities. Meyen's theory is compatible with Darwin's natural selection; however Meyen emphasized the importance of other forms of selection (e.g., selection of developmental trajectories, habitats, and behaviours) in choosing specific elements from the RPS. Finally, Meyen developed a new typological concept of time, where time represents variability (i.e., change) of real objects such as living organisms or geological formations. PMID:25072709

  19. Covariance structure in the skull of Catarrhini: a case of pattern stasis and magnitude evolution.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Felipe Bandoni; Porto, Arthur; Marroig, Gabriel

    2009-04-01

    The study of the genetic variance/covariance matrix (G-matrix) is a recent and fruitful approach in evolutionary biology, providing a window of investigating for the evolution of complex characters. Although G-matrix studies were originally conducted for microevolutionary timescales, they could be extrapolated to macroevolution as long as the G-matrix remains relatively constant, or proportional, along the period of interest. A promising approach to investigating the constancy of G-matrices is to compare their phenotypic counterparts (P-matrices) in a large group of related species; if significant similarity is found among several taxa, it is very likely that the underlying G-matrices are also equivalent. Here we study the similarity of covariance and correlation structure in a broad sample of Old World monkeys and apes (Catarrhini). We made phylogenetically structured comparisons of correlation and covariance matrices derived from 39 skull traits, ranging from between species to the superfamily level. We also compared the overall magnitude of integration between skull traits (r2) for all Catarrhini genera. Our results show that P-matrices were not strictly constant among catarrhines, but the amount of divergence observed among taxa was generally low. There was significant and positive correlation between the amount of divergence in correlation and covariance patterns among the 30 genera and their phylogenetic distances derived from a recently proposed phylogenetic hypothesis. Our data demonstrate that the P-matrices remained relatively similar along the evolutionary history of catarrhines, and comparisons with the G-matrix available for a New World monkey genus (Saguinus) suggests that the same holds for all anthropoids. The magnitude of integration, in contrast, varied considerably among genera, indicating that evolution of the magnitude, rather than the pattern of inter-trait correlations, might have played an important role in the diversification of the

  20. Evolution of Daily Gene Co-expression Patterns from Algae to Plants

    PubMed Central

    de los Reyes, Pedro; Romero-Campero, Francisco J.; Ruiz, M. Teresa; Romero, José M.; Valverde, Federico

    2017-01-01

    Daily rhythms play a key role in transcriptome regulation in plants and microalgae orchestrating responses that, among other processes, anticipate light transitions that are essential for their metabolism and development. The recent accumulation of genome-wide transcriptomic data generated under alternating light:dark periods from plants and microalgae has made possible integrative and comparative analysis that could contribute to shed light on the evolution of daily rhythms in the green lineage. In this work, RNA-seq and microarray data generated over 24 h periods in different light regimes from the eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana and the microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Ostreococcus tauri have been integrated and analyzed using gene co-expression networks. This analysis revealed a reduction in the size of the daily rhythmic transcriptome from around 90% in Ostreococcus, being heavily influenced by light transitions, to around 40% in Arabidopsis, where a certain independence from light transitions can be observed. A novel Multiple Bidirectional Best Hit (MBBH) algorithm was applied to associate single genes with a family of potential orthologues from evolutionary distant species. Gene duplication, amplification and divergence of rhythmic expression profiles seems to have played a central role in the evolution of gene families in the green lineage such as Pseudo Response Regulators (PRRs), CONSTANS-Likes (COLs), and DNA-binding with One Finger (DOFs). Gene clustering and functional enrichment have been used to identify groups of genes with similar rhythmic gene expression patterns. The comparison of gene clusters between species based on potential orthologous relationships has unveiled a low to moderate level of conservation of daily rhythmic expression patterns. However, a strikingly high conservation was found for the gene clusters exhibiting their highest and/or lowest expression value during the light transitions. PMID:28751903

  1. Tectonic evolution of the Mexico flat slab and patterns of intraslab seismicity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moresi, L. N.; Sandiford, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Cocos plate slab is horizontal for about 250 km beneath the Guerrero region of southern Mexico. Analogous morphologies can spontaneously develop in subduction models, through the presence of a low-viscosity mantle wedge. The Mw 7.1 Puebla earthquake appears to have ruptured the inboard corner of the Mexican flat slab; likely in close proximity to the mantle wedge corner. In addition to the historical seismic record, the Puebla earthquake provides a valuable constraint through which to assess geodynamic models for flat slab evolution. Slab deformation predicted by the "weak wedge" model is consistent with past seismicity in the both the upper plate and slab. Below the flat section, the slab is anomalously warm relative to its depth; the lack of seismicity in the deeper part of the slab fits the global pattern of temperature-controlled slab seismicity. This has implications for understanding the deeper structure of the slab, including the seismic hazard from source regions downdip of the Puebla rupture (epicenters closer to Mexico City). While historical seismicity provides a deformation pattern consistent with the weak wedge model , the Puebla earthquake is somewhat anomalous. The earthquake source mechanism is consistent with stress orientations in our models, however it maps to a region of relatively low deviatoric stress.

  2. Aging and fertility patterns in wild chimpanzees provide insights into the evolution of menopause

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Melissa Emery; Jones, James H.; Pusey, Anne E.; Brewer-Marsden, Stella; Goodall, Jane; Marsden, David; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Nishida, Toshisada; Reynolds, Vernon; Sugiyama, Yukimaru; Wrangham, Richard W.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Human menopause is remarkable in that reproductive senescence is markedly accelerated relative to somatic aging, leaving an extended post-reproductive period for a large proportion of women [1, 2]. Functional explanations for this are debated [4-11], in part because comparative data from closely-related species are inadequate. Existing studies of chimpanzees are based on very small samples and have not provided clear conclusions about the reproductive function of aging females [12-19]. These studies have not examined whether reproductive senescence in chimpanzees exceeds the pace of general aging, as in humans, or occurs in parallel with declines in overall health, as in many other animals [20, 21]. In order to remedy these problems, we examined fertility and mortality patterns in 6 free-living chimpanzee populations. Chimpanzee and human birth rates show similar patterns of decline beginning in the 4th decade, suggesting that the physiology of reproductive senescence was relatively conserved in human evolution. However, in contrast to humans, chimpanzee fertility declines are consistent with declines in survivorship, and healthy females maintain high birth rates late into life. Thus, in contrast to recent claims [16], we find no evidence that menopause is a typical characteristic of chimpanzee life histories. PMID:18083515

  3. Long-term patterns of body mass and stature evolution within the hominin lineage

    PubMed Central

    Pablos, Adrián; Stock, Jay T.

    2017-01-01

    Body size is a central determinant of a species' biology and adaptive strategy, but the number of reliable estimates of hominin body mass and stature have been insufficient to determine long-term patterns and subtle interactions in these size components within our lineage. Here, we analyse 254 body mass and 204 stature estimates from a total of 311 hominin specimens dating from 4.4 Ma to the Holocene using multi-level chronological and taxonomic analytical categories. The results demonstrate complex temporal patterns of body size variation with phases of relative stasis intermitted by periods of rapid increases. The observed trajectories could result from punctuated increases at speciation events, but also differential proliferation of large-bodied taxa or the extinction of small-bodied populations. Combined taxonomic and temporal analyses show that in relation to australopithecines, early Homo is characterized by significantly larger average body mass and stature but retains considerable diversity, including small body sizes. Within later Homo, stature and body mass evolution follow different trajectories: average modern stature is maintained from ca 1.6 Ma, while consistently higher body masses are not established until the Middle Pleistocene at ca 0.5–0.4 Ma, likely caused by directional selection related to colonizing higher latitudes. Selection against small-bodied individuals (less than 40 kg; less than 140 cm) after 1.4 Ma is associated with a decrease in relative size variability in later Homo species compared with earlier Homo and australopithecines. The isolated small-bodied individuals of Homo naledi (ca 0.3 Ma) and Homo floresiensis (ca 100–60 ka) constitute important exceptions to these general patterns, adding further layers of complexity to the evolution of body size within the genus Homo. At the end of the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, body size in Homo sapiens declines on average, but also extends to lower limits not seen in

  4. Long-term patterns of body mass and stature evolution within the hominin lineage.

    PubMed

    Will, Manuel; Pablos, Adrián; Stock, Jay T

    2017-11-01

    Body size is a central determinant of a species' biology and adaptive strategy, but the number of reliable estimates of hominin body mass and stature have been insufficient to determine long-term patterns and subtle interactions in these size components within our lineage. Here, we analyse 254 body mass and 204 stature estimates from a total of 311 hominin specimens dating from 4.4 Ma to the Holocene using multi-level chronological and taxonomic analytical categories. The results demonstrate complex temporal patterns of body size variation with phases of relative stasis intermitted by periods of rapid increases. The observed trajectories could result from punctuated increases at speciation events, but also differential proliferation of large-bodied taxa or the extinction of small-bodied populations. Combined taxonomic and temporal analyses show that in relation to australopithecines, early Homo is characterized by significantly larger average body mass and stature but retains considerable diversity, including small body sizes. Within later Homo , stature and body mass evolution follow different trajectories: average modern stature is maintained from ca 1.6 Ma, while consistently higher body masses are not established until the Middle Pleistocene at ca 0.5-0.4 Ma, likely caused by directional selection related to colonizing higher latitudes. Selection against small-bodied individuals (less than 40 kg; less than 140 cm) after 1.4 Ma is associated with a decrease in relative size variability in later Homo species compared with earlier Homo and australopithecines. The isolated small-bodied individuals of Homo naledi ( ca 0.3 Ma) and Homo floresiensis ( ca 100-60 ka) constitute important exceptions to these general patterns, adding further layers of complexity to the evolution of body size within the genus Homo . At the end of the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, body size in Homo sapiens declines on average, but also extends to lower limits not seen in

  5. Dynamical patterning modules: physico-genetic determinants of morphological development and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Stuart A.; Bhat, Ramray

    2008-03-01

    The shapes and forms of multicellular organisms arise by the generation of new cell states and types and changes in the numbers and rearrangements of the various kinds of cells. While morphogenesis and pattern formation in all animal species are widely recognized to be mediated by the gene products of an evolutionarily conserved 'developmental-genetic toolkit', the link between these molecular players and the physics underlying these processes has been generally ignored. This paper introduces the concept of 'dynamical patterning modules' (DPMs), units consisting of one or more products of the 'toolkit' genes that mobilize physical processes characteristic of chemically and mechanically excitable meso- to macroscopic systems such as cell aggregates: cohesion, viscoelasticity, diffusion, spatiotemporal heterogeneity based on lateral inhibition and multistable and oscillatory dynamics. We suggest that ancient toolkit gene products, most predating the emergence of multicellularity, assumed novel morphogenetic functions due to change in the scale and context inherent to multicellularity. We show that DPMs, acting individually and in concert with each other, constitute a 'pattern language' capable of generating all metazoan body plans and organ forms. The physical dimension of developmental causation implies that multicellular forms during the explosive radiation of animal body plans in the middle Cambrian, approximately 530 million years ago, could have explored an extensive morphospace without concomitant genotypic change or selection for adaptation. The morphologically plastic body plans and organ forms generated by DPMs, and their ontogenetic trajectories, would subsequently have been stabilized and consolidated by natural selection and genetic drift. This perspective also solves the apparent 'molecular homology-analogy paradox', whereby widely divergent modern animal types utilize the same molecular toolkit during development by proposing, in contrast to the Neo

  6. SWS2 visual pigment evolution as a test of historically contingent patterns of plumage color evolution in warblers.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Natasha I; Morrow, James M; Chang, Belinda S W; Price, Trevor D

    2015-02-01

    Distantly related clades that occupy similar environments may differ due to the lasting imprint of their ancestors-historical contingency. The New World warblers (Parulidae) and Old World warblers (Phylloscopidae) are ecologically similar clades that differ strikingly in plumage coloration. We studied genetic and functional evolution of the short-wavelength-sensitive visual pigments (SWS2 and SWS1) to ask if altered color perception could contribute to the plumage color differences between clades. We show SWS2 is short-wavelength shifted in birds that occupy open environments, such as finches, compared to those in closed environments, including warblers. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate New World warblers were derived from a finch-like form that colonized from the Old World 15-20 Ma. During this process, the SWS2 gene accumulated six substitutions in branches leading to New World warblers, inviting the hypothesis that passage through a finch-like ancestor resulted in SWS2 evolution. In fact, we show spectral tuning remained similar across warblers as well as the finch ancestor. Results reject the hypothesis of historical contingency based on opsin spectral tuning, but point to evolution of other aspects of visual pigment function. Using the approach outlined here, historical contingency becomes a generally testable theory in systems where genotype and phenotype can be connected. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. The Evolution of Tropical Precipitation Patterns During ENSO Events Using 21+ Years of GPCP Merged Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Scott; Adler, Robert

    2000-01-01

    The ENSO phenomenon is characterized by fluctuations in the climate system of the tropical Pacific. Quantifying changes in the precipitation component of this system is important in understanding the distribution of heating in the atmosphere which drives the large-scale circulation and affects the weather patterns in the mid-latitudes. Monitoring precipitation anomalies in the Pacific is also an important component for tracking the evolution of ENSO. The most timely and complete observations of the earth come from satellite instruments. In this study, the state of the art satellite-gauge merged monthly precipitation data set from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) is used to depict tropical rainfall patterns during ENSO events over the past two decades and quantify these patterns using indices. This analysis will be complemented by daily precipitation data which can resolve the Madden-Julian Oscillation and westerly wind burst events. The 1997-98 El Nino and 1998-2000 La Nina were the best observed ENSO cycle in the historic record. Prior to the El Nino (in terms of anomalous warming of the east Pacific) dry anomalies over the Maritime Continent were observed in February 1997 as a westerly wind burst advected convection to the east. The largest SST anomalies occurred around November-December 1997, which were followed by the largest precipitation anomalies in the beginning of 1998. The largest precipitation departures from normal were not colocated with the SST anomalies, but were further west, In the spring of 1998 negative precipitation anomalies to the north of the equator intensified, signaling the mature phase of the El Nino. A rapid increase in the precipitation-based La Nina index from December-January 1998 to March-April 1998 signaled the coming La Nina. The 1982-1983 El Nino was comparable in strength (according to several indices) and the precipitation patterns evolved in a similar fashion. For the 1998-2000 La Nina, the coldest anomalies

  8. [Prediction method of rural landscape pattern evolution based on life cycle: a case study of Jinjing Town, Hunan Province, China].

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiang; Liu, Li-Ming; Li, Hong-Qing

    2014-11-01

    Taking Jinjing Town in Dongting Lake area as a case, this paper analyzed the evolution of rural landscape patterns by means of life cycle theory, simulated the evolution cycle curve, and calculated its evolution period, then combining CA-Markov model, a complete prediction model was built based on the rule of rural landscape change. The results showed that rural settlement and paddy landscapes of Jinjing Town would change most in 2020, with the rural settlement landscape increased to 1194.01 hm2 and paddy landscape greatly reduced to 3090.24 hm2. The quantitative and spatial prediction accuracies of the model were up to 99.3% and 96.4%, respectively, being more explicit than single CA-Markov model. The prediction model of rural landscape patterns change proposed in this paper would be helpful for rural landscape planning in future.

  9. Volcanic Perspective on Plutonism based on Patterns in Evolution in Long-Lived Continental Volcanic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunder, A. L.; Harris, R. N.; Walker, B. A.; Giles, D.; Klemetti, E. W.

    2008-12-01

    Volcanic rocks represent a biased view of magmatism, but provide critical quenched samples and temporal constraints of magmatic evolution obscured in the plutonic record. We here draw on the records from the Aucanquilcha Volcanic Cluster (AVC; 10 to 0 Ma) in northern Chile and from the mid-Tertiary volcanic field in east-central Nevada (ECNVF; ~40-32 Ma) to consider how evolutionary patterns of intermediate composition volcanic systems bear on the magmatic reworking of the continental crust by plutons and batholiths. Despite disparate tectonic setting (subduction vs extension) and volumes (70 km crust for the ~300 km 3 AVC versus and ~40 km crust for the ~3000 km 3 ECNVF) both volcanic systems share a history of early compositionally diverse volcanism, followed by a stage of more centralized and voluminous dacitic volcanism, which in turn is followed by waning of volcanism. The compositional change and the rapid increase in magma output rate after about half the lifetime of the system is a characteristic pattern of long- lived continental volcanic systems based on a compilation of volume-composition data. The middle, voluminous stage corresponds to the hottest upper crustal conditions, deduced from Al-in-amphibole geothermobarometry and Ti-in-zircon thermometry of the AVC. The middle stage rocks also have textures indicating hybridization of mixed magmas. Simple thermal models of heat input via intraplating readily allow for generation of partially molten crust above the sill, but they do not emulate the rapid increase of magma after some incubation time. We propose that there is a feedback in which a critical thickness of partially molten crust, consisting in part of magmatic precursors, can be readily convectively stirred and mixed with magma of the underplating sill, rapidly creating a large, hybrid and relatively hot body of magma. Stirring facilitates separation of a liquid-enriched extract. The volume of liquid extracted may be small relative to residual

  10. [Dynamic evolution of landscape spatial pattern in Taihu Lake basin, China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Xie, Xiao Ping; Chen, Zhi Cong

    2017-11-01

    Based on the land-use satellite image datasets of 2000, 2010 and 2015, the landscape index, dynamic change model, landscape transfer matrix and CLUE-S model were integrated to analyze the dynamic evolution of the landscape spatial pattern of Taihu Lake basin. The results showed that the landscape type of the basin was dominated by cultivated land and construction land, and the degree of landscape fragmentation was strengthened from 2000 to 2015, and the distribution showed a uniform trend. From the point of transfer dynamic change, the cultivated land and construction land changed significantly, which was reduced by 6761 km 2 (2.1%) and increased by 6615.33 km 2 (8.4%), respectively. From the landscape transfer, it could be seen that the main change direction of the cultivated land reduction was the construction land, and the cultivated land with 7866.30 km 2 was converted into construction land, accounting for 91.6% of the cultivated land change, and the contribution to the construction land was 96.5%. The trend of dynamic changes of cultivated and construction land in the counties and cities was the same as that of the whole Taihu Lake basin. For Shanghai Central Urban, as well as Pudong District, Lin'an City, Baoshan District, Minhang District, Jiading District and Changzhou City, the area of the cultivated land and construction land changed more prominently. However, compared with the CLUE-S model for the landscape pattern change in 2030, the change of cultivated and construction lands would be the largest in the natural development scenario. Under the ecological protection scenario, the area of grassland would increase and the dynamic degree would reach 54.5%. Under the situation of cultivated land protection, the conversion of cultivated land to construction land would be decreased.

  11. Development and evolution of dentition pattern and tooth order in the skates and rays (batoidea; chondrichthyes).

    PubMed

    Underwood, Charlie J; Johanson, Zerina; Welten, Monique; Metscher, Brian; Rasch, Liam J; Fraser, Gareth J; Smith, Moya Meredith

    2015-01-01

    Shark and ray (elasmobranch) dentitions are well known for their multiple generations of teeth, with isolated teeth being common in the fossil record. However, how the diverse dentitions characteristic of elasmobranchs form is still poorly understood. Data on the development and maintenance of the dental patterning in this major vertebrate group will allow comparisons to other morphologically diverse taxa, including the bony fishes, in order to identify shared pattern characters for the vertebrate dentition as a whole. Data is especially lacking from the Batoidea (skates and rays), hence our objective is to compile data on embryonic and adult batoid tooth development contributing to ordering of the dentition, from cleared and stained specimens and micro-CT scans, with 3D rendered models. We selected species (adult and embryonic) spanning phylogenetically significant batoid clades, such that our observations may raise questions about relationships within the batoids, particularly with respect to current molecular-based analyses. We include developmental data from embryos of recent model organisms Leucoraja erinacea and Raja clavata to evaluate the earliest establishment of the dentition. Characters of the batoid dentition investigated include alternate addition of teeth as offset successional tooth rows (versus single separate files), presence of a symphyseal initiator region (symphyseal tooth present, or absent, but with two parasymphyseal teeth) and a restriction to tooth addition along each jaw reducing the number of tooth families, relative to addition of successor teeth within each family. Our ultimate aim is to understand the shared characters of the batoids, and whether or not these dental characters are shared more broadly within elasmobranchs, by comparing these to dentitions in shark outgroups. These developmental morphological analyses will provide a solid basis to better understand dental evolution in these important vertebrate groups as well as the

  12. Ecology and evolution of mammalian biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kate E.; Safi, Kamran

    2011-01-01

    Mammals have incredible biological diversity, showing extreme flexibility in eco-morphology, physiology, life history and behaviour across their evolutionary history. Undoubtedly, mammals play an important role in ecosystems by providing essential services such as regulating insect populations, seed dispersal and pollination and act as indicators of general ecosystem health. However, the macroecological and macroevolutionary processes underpinning past and present biodiversity patterns are only beginning to be explored on a global scale. It is also particularly important, in the face of the global extinction crisis, to understand these processes in order to be able to use this knowledge to prevent future biodiversity loss and loss of ecosystem services. Unfortunately, efforts to understand mammalian biodiversity have been hampered by a lack of data. New data compilations on current species' distributions, ecologies and evolutionary histories now allow an integrated approach to understand this biodiversity. We review and synthesize these new studies, exploring the past and present ecology and evolution of mammalian biodiversity, and use these findings to speculate about the mammals of our future. PMID:21807728

  13. Ecology and evolution of mammalian biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kate E; Safi, Kamran

    2011-09-12

    Mammals have incredible biological diversity, showing extreme flexibility in eco-morphology, physiology, life history and behaviour across their evolutionary history. Undoubtedly, mammals play an important role in ecosystems by providing essential services such as regulating insect populations, seed dispersal and pollination and act as indicators of general ecosystem health. However, the macroecological and macroevolutionary processes underpinning past and present biodiversity patterns are only beginning to be explored on a global scale. It is also particularly important, in the face of the global extinction crisis, to understand these processes in order to be able to use this knowledge to prevent future biodiversity loss and loss of ecosystem services. Unfortunately, efforts to understand mammalian biodiversity have been hampered by a lack of data. New data compilations on current species' distributions, ecologies and evolutionary histories now allow an integrated approach to understand this biodiversity. We review and synthesize these new studies, exploring the past and present ecology and evolution of mammalian biodiversity, and use these findings to speculate about the mammals of our future.

  14. Rates and patterns of molecular evolution in freshwater versus terrestrial insects.

    PubMed

    Mitterboeck, T Fatima; Fu, Jinzhong; Adamowicz, Sarah J

    2016-11-01

    Insect lineages have crossed between terrestrial and aquatic habitats many times, for both immature and adult life stages. We explore patterns in molecular evolutionary rates between 42 sister pairs of related terrestrial and freshwater insect clades using publicly available protein-coding DNA sequence data from the orders Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Mecoptera, Trichoptera, and Neuroptera. We furthermore test for habitat-associated convergent molecular evolution in the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene in general and at a particular amino acid site previously reported to exhibit habitat-linked convergence within an aquatic beetle group. While ratios of nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitutions across available loci were higher in terrestrial than freshwater-associated taxa in 26 of 42 lineage pairs, a stronger trend was observed (20 of 31, p binomial = 0.15, p Wilcoxon = 0.017) when examining only terrestrial-aquatic pairs including fully aquatic taxa. We did not observe any widespread changes at particular amino acid sites in COI associated with habitat shifts, although there may be general differences in selection regime linked to habitat.

  15. Differential evolution of members of the rhomboid gene family with conservative and divergent patterns.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Liangsheng; Ma, Hong

    2015-04-01

    Rhomboid proteins are intramembrane serine proteases that are involved in a plethora of biological functions, but the evolutionary history of the rhomboid gene family is not clear. We performed a comprehensive molecular evolutionary analysis of the rhomboid gene family and also investigated the organization and sequence features of plant rhomboids in different subfamilies. Our results showed that eukaryotic rhomboids could be divided into five subfamilies (RhoA-RhoD and PARL). Most orthology groups appeared to be conserved only as single or low-copy genes in all lineages in RhoB-RhoD and PARL, whereas RhoA genes underwent several duplication events, resulting in multiple gene copies. These duplication events were due to whole genome duplications in plants and animals and the duplicates might have experienced functional divergence. We also identified a novel group of plant rhomboid (RhoB1) that might have lost their enzymatic activity; their existence suggests that they might have evolved new mechanisms. Plant and animal rhomboids have similar evolutionary patterns. In addition, there are mutations affecting key active sites in RBL8, RBL9 and one of the Brassicaceae PARL duplicates. This study delineates a possible evolutionary scheme for intramembrane proteins and illustrates distinct fates and a mechanism of evolution of gene duplicates. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Patterns of microsatellite evolution inferred from the Helianthus annuus (Asteraceae) transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Pramod, Sreepriya; Perkins, Andy D; Welch, Mark E

    2014-08-01

    The distribution of microsatellites in exons, and their association with gene ontology (GO) terms is explored to elucidate patterns of microsatellite evolution in the common sunflower, Helianthus annuus. The relative position, motif, size and level of impurity were estimated for each microsatellite in the unigene database available from the Compositae Genome Project (CGP), and statistical analyses were performed to determine if differences in microsatellite distributions and enrichment within certain GO terms were significant. There are more translated than untranslated microsatellites, implying that many bring about structural changes in proteins. However, the greatest density is observed within the UTRs, particularly 5'UTRs. Further, UTR microsatellites are purer and longer than coding region microsatellites. This suggests that UTR microsatellites are either younger and under more relaxed constraints, or that purifying selection limits impurities, and directional selection favours their expansion. GOs associated with response to various environmental stimuli including water deprivation and salt stress were significantly enriched with microsatellites. This may suggest that these GOs are more labile in plant genomes, or that selection has favoured the maintenance of microsatellites in these genes over others. This study shows that the distribution of transcribed microsatellites in H. annuus is nonrandom, the coding region microsatellites are under greater constraint compared to the UTR microsatellites, and that these sequences are enriched within genes that regulate plant responses to environmental stress and stimuli.

  17. Banding patterns and chromosomal evolution in five species of neotropical Teiinae lizards (Squamata: Teiidae).

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Rodrigo Marques Lima; Pellegrino, Katia Cristina Machado; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo

    2007-11-01

    Karyotypes of five species of South American teiid lizards from subfamily Teiinae: Ameiva ameiva, Kentropyx calcarata, K. paulensis, K. vanzoi (2n = 50, all acrocentric), and Cnemidophorus ocellifer (2n = 50, all biarmed), are herein described and compared on the basis of conventional and silver staining, and CBG and RBG banding patterns. Meiotic data are also included. Karyotypes of K. paulensis, K. vanzoi, and C. ocellifer are reported here for the first time. Inter-generic variability in Ag-NORs location was detected with NORs occurring at the end of long arm of pair 1 in K. calcarata, K. paulensis, and K. vanzoi; pair 5 in C. ocellifer and pair 7 in A. ameiva. The location of NORs, along with the karyological differences between A. ameiva and the Central American species (A. auberi), corroboretes the molecular-based hypothesis that the genus Ameiva is paraphyletic. Inter-populational heteromorphism in Ag-NORs size was detected between populations of C. ocellifer. RBG and CBG banding data demonstrated that the biarmed condition of the C. ocellifer chromosomes is due to multiple pericentric inversion events instead of addition of constitutive heterochromatin. Differential-staining techniques used here revealed valuable information about Teiinae karyotypic diversity and made it possible to compare these species, contributing to both the better comprehension of their chromosomal evolution and issues on taxa systematics.

  18. SWS2 visual pigment evolution as a test of historically contingent patterns of plumage color evolution in Warblers

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Natasha I.; Morrow, James M.; Chang, Belinda S.W.; Price, Trevor D.

    2014-01-01

    Distantly related clades that occupy similar environments may differ due to the lasting imprint of their ancestors – historical contingency. The New World warblers (Parulidae) and Old World warblers (Phylloscopidae) are ecologically similar clades that differ strikingly in plumage coloration. We studied genetic and functional evolution of the short-wavelength sensitive visual pigments (SWS2 and SWS1) to ask if altered color perception could contribute to the plumage color differences between clades. We show SWS2 is short-wavelength shifted in birds that occupy open environments, such as finches, compared to those in closed environments, including warblers. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate New World warblers were derived from a finch-like form that colonized from the Old World 15-20Ma. During this process the SWS2 gene accumulated 6 substitutions in branches leading to New World warblers, inviting the hypothesis that passage through a finch-like ancestor resulted in SWS2 evolution. In fact, we show spectral tuning remained similar across warblers as well as the finch ancestor. Results reject the hypothesis of historical contingency based on opsin spectral tuning, but point to evolution of other aspects of visual pigment function. Using the approach outlined here, historical contingency becomes a generally testable theory in systems where genotype and phenotype can be connected. PMID:25496318

  19. Correlated evolution of thermal niches and functional physiology in tropical freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Culumber, Zachary W; Tobler, Michael

    2018-05-01

    The role of ecology in phenotypic and species diversification is widely documented. Nonetheless, numerous nonadaptive processes can shape realized niches and phenotypic variation in natural populations, complicating inferences about adaptive evolution at macroevolutionary scales. We tested for evolved differences in thermal tolerances and their association with the realized thermal niche (including metrics describing diurnal and seasonal patterns of temperature extremes and variability) across a genus of tropical freshwater fishes reared in a standardized environment. There was limited evolution along the thermal niche axis associated with variation in maximum temperature and in upper thermal limits. In contrast, there was considerable diversification along the first major axis of the thermal niche associated with minimum temperatures and in lower thermal limits. Across our adaptive landscape analyses, 70% of species exhibited evidence of divergence in thermal niches. Most importantly, the first two major axes of thermal niche variation were significantly correlated with variation in lower thermal limits. Our results indicate adaptation to divergent thermal niches and adaptive evolution of related functional traits, and highlight the importance of divergence in lower thermal limits for the evolution of tropical biodiversity. © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  20. Studies of threespine stickleback developmental evolution: progress and promise.

    PubMed

    Cresko, William A; McGuigan, Katrina L; Phillips, Patrick C; Postlethwait, John H

    2007-01-01

    A promising route for understanding the origin and diversification of organismal form is through studies at the intersection of evolution and development (evo-devo). While much has been learned over the last two decades concerning macroevolutionary patterns of developmental change, a fundamental gap in the evo-devo synthesis is the integration of mathematical population and quantitative genetics with studies of how genetic variation in natural populations affects developmental processes. This micro-evo-devo synthesis requires model organisms with which to ask empirical questions. Threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus), long a model for studying behavior, ecology and evolution, is emerging as a prominent model micro-evo-devo system. Research on stickleback over the last decade has begun to address the genetic basis of morphological variation and sex determination, and much of this work has important implications for understanding the genetics of speciation. In this paper we review recent threespine stickleback micro-evo-devo results, and outline the resources that have been developed to make this synthesis possible. The prospects for stickleback research to speed the micro-(and macro-) evo-devo syntheses are great, and this workhorse model system is well situated to continue contributing to our understanding of the generation of diversity in organismal form for many more decades.

  1. Evolution in the block: common elements of 5S rDNA organization and evolutionary patterns in distant fish genera.

    PubMed

    Campo, Daniel; García-Vázquez, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The 5S rDNA is organized in the genome as tandemly repeated copies of a structural unit composed of a coding sequence plus a nontranscribed spacer (NTS). The coding region is highly conserved in the evolution, whereas the NTS vary in both length and sequence. It has been proposed that 5S rRNA genes are members of a gene family that have arisen through concerted evolution. In this study, we describe the molecular organization and evolution of the 5S rDNA in the genera Lepidorhombus and Scophthalmus (Scophthalmidae) and compared it with already known 5S rDNA of the very different genera Merluccius (Merluccidae) and Salmo (Salmoninae), to identify common structural elements or patterns for understanding 5S rDNA evolution in fish. High intra- and interspecific diversity within the 5S rDNA family in all the genera can be explained by a combination of duplications, deletions, and transposition events. Sequence blocks with high similarity in all the 5S rDNA members across species were identified for the four studied genera, with evidences of intense gene conversion within noncoding regions. We propose a model to explain the evolution of the 5S rDNA, in which the evolutionary units are blocks of nucleotides rather than the entire sequences or single nucleotides. This model implies a "two-speed" evolution: slow within blocks (homogenized by recombination) and fast within the gene family (diversified by duplications and deletions).

  2. Gleason Score 7 Prostate Cancers Emerge through Branched Evolution of Clonal Gleason Pattern 3 and 4.

    PubMed

    Sowalsky, Adam G; Kissick, Haydn T; Gerrin, Sean J; Schaefer, Rachel J; Xia, Zheng; Russo, Joshua W; Arredouani, M Simo; Bubley, Glenn J; Sanda, Martin G; Li, Wei; Ye, Huihui; Balk, Steven P

    2017-07-15

    Purpose: The molecular features that account for the distinct histology and aggressive biological behavior of Gleason pattern 4 (Gp4) versus Gp3 prostate cancer, and whether Gp3 tumors progress directly to Gp4, remain to be established. Experimental Design: Whole-exome sequencing and transcriptome profiling of laser capture-microdissected adjacent Gp3 and cribiform Gp4 were used to determine the relationship between these entities. Results: Sequencing confirmed that adjacent Gp3 and Gp4 were clonal based on multiple shared genomic alterations. However, large numbers of unique mutations in the Gp3 and Gp4 tumors showed that the Gp4 were not derived directly from the Gp3. Remarkably, the Gp3 tumors retain their indolent-appearing morphology despite acquisition of multiple genomic alterations, including tumor suppressor losses. Although there were no consistent genomic alterations that distinguished Gp3 from Gp4, pairwise transcriptome analyses identified increased c-Myc and decreased p53 activity in Gp4 versus adjacent clonal Gp3 foci. Conclusions: These findings establish that at least a subset of Gp3 and aggressive Gp4 tumors have a common origin, and support a branched evolution model wherein the Gp3 and Gp4 tumors emerge early from a common precursor and subsequently undergo substantial divergence. Genomic alterations detectable in the Gp3 may distinguish these tumors from truly indolent Gp3. Screening for a panel of these genomic alterations in men who have prostate biopsies showing only Gp3 (Gleason score 6, Gs6) may allow for more precise selection of men who can be safely managed by active surveillance versus those who may benefit from further intervention. Clin Cancer Res; 23(14); 3823-33. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Peritumoral Brain Edema after Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Asymptomatic Intracranial Meningiomas: Risks and Pattern of Evolution.

    PubMed

    Hoe, Yeon; Choi, Young Jae; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Kwon, Do Hoon; Kim, Chang Jin; Cho, Young Hyun

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the risks and pattern of evolution of peritumoral brain edema (PTE) after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for asymptomatic intracranial meningiomas. A retrospective study was conducted on 320 patients (median age 56 years, range 24-87 years) who underwent primary Gamma Knife radiosurgery for asymptomatic meningiomas between 1998 and 2012. The median tumor volume was 2.7 cc (range 0.2-10.5 cc) and the median follow-up was 48 months (range 24-168 months). Volumetric data sets for tumors and PTE on serial MRIs were analyzed. The edema index (EI) was defined as the ratio of the volume of PTE including tumor to the tumor volume, and the relative edema indices (rEIs) were calculated from serial EIs normalized against the baseline EI. Risk factors for PTE were analyzed using logistic regression. Newly developed or increased PTE was noted in 49 patients (15.3%), among whom it was symptomatic in 28 patients (8.8%). Tumor volume larger than 4.2 cc (p<0.001), hemispheric tumor location (p=0.005), and pre-treatment PTE (p<0.001) were associated with an increased risk of PTE. rEI reached its maximum value at 11 months after SRS and decreased thereafter, and symptoms resolved within 24 months in most patients (85.7%). Caution should be exercised in decision-making on SRS for asymptomatic meningiomas of large volume (>4.2 cc), of hemispheric location, or with pre-treatment PTE. PTE usually develops within months, reaches its maximum degree until a year, and resolves within 2 years after SRS.

  4. Using long-term experimental evolution to uncover the patterns and determinants of molecular evolution of an Escherichia coli natural isolate in the streptomycin treated mouse gut

    PubMed Central

    Ghalayini, Mohamed; Magnan, Mélanie; Glodt, Jérémy; Pintard, Coralie; Dion, Sara; Denamur, Erick; Tenaillon, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Though microbial ecology of the gut is now a major focus of interest, little is known about the molecular determinants of microbial adaptation in the gut. Experimental evolution coupled with whole genome sequencing can provide insights of the adaptive process. In vitro experiments have revealed some conserved patterns: intermediate convergence, epistatic interactions between beneficial mutations and mutations in global regulators. To test the relevance of these patterns and to identify the selective pressures acting in vivo, we have performed a long-term adaptation of an E. coli natural isolate, the streptomycin resistant strain 536, in the digestive tract of streptomycin treated mice. After a year of evolution, a clone from 15 replicates was sequenced. Consistently with in vitro observations, the identified mutations revealed a strong pattern of convergence at the mutation, gene, operon and functional levels. Yet, the rate of molecular evolution was lower than in in vitro and no mutations in global regulators were recovered. More specific targets were observed: the dgo operon, involved in the galactonate pathway that improved growth on D-galactonate, and rluD and gidB, implicated in the maturation of the ribosomes, which mutations improved growth only in the presence of streptomycin. As in vitro, the non-random associations of mutations within the same pathways suggested a role of epistasis in shaping the adaptive landscape. Overall, we show that “evolve and sequence” approach coupled to an analysis of convergence, when applied to a natural isolate, can be used to study adaptation in vivo and uncover the specific selective pressures of that environment. PMID:27661780

  5. Unpacking boxes: Integration of molecular, morphological and ecological approaches reveals extensive patterns of reticulate evolution in box eucalypts.

    PubMed

    Flores-Rentería, Lluvia; Rymer, Paul D; Riegler, Markus

    2017-03-01

    Reticulate evolution by hybridization is considered a common process shaping the evolution of many plant species, however, reticulation could also be due to incomplete lineage sorting in biodiverse systems. For our study we selected a group of closely related plant taxa with contrasting yet partially overlapping geographic distributions and different population sizes, to distinguish between reticulated patterns due to hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting. We predicted that sympatric or proximal populations of different species are more likely to have gene flow than geographically distant populations of the same widespread species. Furthermore, for species with restricted distributions, and therefore, small effective population sizes, we predicted complete lineage sorting. Eastern grey box eucalypt species (Eucalyptus supraspecies Moluccanae) provide an ideal system to explore patterns of reticulate evolution. They form a diverse, recently evolved and phylogenetically undefined group within Eucalyptus, with overlapping morphological features and hybridization in nature. We used a multi-faceted approach, combining analyses of chloroplast and nuclear DNA, as well as seedling morphology, flowering time and ecological spatial differentiation in order to test for species delimitation and reticulate evolution in this group. The multiple layers of results were consistent and suggested a lack of monophyly at different hierarchical levels due to multidirectional gene flow among several species, challenging species delimitation. Chloroplast and nuclear haplotypes were shared among different species in geographic proximity, consistent with hybridization zones. Furthermore, species with restricted distributions appeared better resolved due to lineage sorting in the absence of hybridization. We conclude that a combination of molecular, morphological and ecological approaches is required to disentangle patterns of reticulate evolution in the box eucalypts. Published by

  6. Macroevolutionary consequences of profound climate change on niche evolution in marine molluscs over the past three million years

    PubMed Central

    Saupe, E. E.; Hendricks, J. R.; Portell, R. W.; Dowsett, H. J.; Haywood, A.; Hunter, S. J.; Lieberman, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    In order to predict the fate of biodiversity in a rapidly changing world, we must first understand how species adapt to new environmental conditions. The long-term evolutionary dynamics of species' physiological tolerances to differing climatic regimes remain obscure. Here, we unite palaeontological and neontological data to analyse whether species' environmental tolerances remain stable across 3 Myr of profound climatic changes using 10 phylogenetically, ecologically and developmentally diverse mollusc species from the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains, USA. We additionally investigate whether these species' upper and lower thermal tolerances are constrained across this interval. We find that these species' environmental preferences are stable across the duration of their lifetimes, even when faced with significant environmental perturbations. The results suggest that species will respond to current and future warming either by altering distributions to track suitable habitat or, if the pace of change is too rapid, by going extinct. Our findings also support methods that project species' present-day environmental requirements to future climatic landscapes to assess conservation risks. PMID:25297868

  7. Macroevolutionary consequences of profound climate change on niche evolution in marine molluscs over the past three million years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saupe, E.E.; Hendricks, J.R.; Portell, R.W.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Haywood, A. M.; Hunter, S.J.; Lieberman, B.S.

    2014-01-01

    In order to predict the fate of biodiversity in a rapidly changing world, we must first understand how species adapt to new environmental conditions. The long-term evolutionary dynamics of species' physiological tolerances to differing climatic regimes remain obscure. Here, we unite palaeontological and neontological data to analyse whether species' environmental tolerances remain stable across 3 Myr of profound climatic changes using 10 phylogenetically, ecologically and developmentally diverse mollusc species from the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains, USA. We additionally investigate whether these species' upper and lower thermal tolerances are constrained across this interval. We find that these species' environmental preferences are stable across the duration of their lifetimes, even when faced with significant environmental perturbations. The results suggest that species will respond to current and future warming either by altering distributions to track suitable habitat or, if the pace of change is too rapid, by going extinct. Our findings also support methods that project species' present-day environmental requirements to future climatic landscapes to assess conservation risks.

  8. Lineage tracing reveals multipotent stem cells maintain human adenomas and the pattern of clonal expansion in tumor evolution.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Adam; Cereser, Biancastella; Gay, Laura J; Miller, Daniel S J; Das, Bibek; Gutteridge, Alice; Elia, George; Nye, Emma; Jeffery, Rosemary; Poulsom, Richard; Novelli, Marco R; Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel; McDonald, Stuart A C; Wright, Nicholas A; Graham, Trevor A

    2013-07-02

    The genetic and morphological development of colorectal cancer is a paradigm for tumorigenesis. However, the dynamics of clonal evolution underpinning carcinogenesis remain poorly understood. Here we identify multipotential stem cells within human colorectal adenomas and use methylation patterns of nonexpressed genes to characterize clonal evolution. Numerous individual crypts from six colonic adenomas and a hyperplastic polyp were microdissected and characterized for genetic lesions. Clones deficient in cytochrome c oxidase (CCO(-)) were identified by histochemical staining followed by mtDNA sequencing. Topographical maps of clone locations were constructed using a combination of these data. Multilineage differentiation within clones was demonstrated by immunofluorescence. Methylation patterns of adenomatous crypts were determined by clonal bisulphite sequencing; methylation pattern diversity was compared with a mathematical model to infer to clonal dynamics. Individual adenomatous crypts were clonal for mtDNA mutations and contained both mucin-secreting and neuroendocrine cells, demonstrating that the crypt contained a multipotent stem cell. The intracrypt methylation pattern was consistent with the crypts containing multiple competing stem cells. Adenomas were epigenetically diverse populations, suggesting that they were relatively mitotically old populations. Intratumor clones typically showed less diversity in methylation pattern than the tumor as a whole. Mathematical modeling suggested that recent clonal sweeps encompassing the whole adenoma had not occurred. Adenomatous crypts within human tumors contain actively dividing stem cells. Adenomas appeared to be relatively mitotically old populations, pocketed with occasional newly generated subclones that were the result of recent rapid clonal expansion. Relative stasis and occasional rapid subclone growth may characterize colorectal tumorigenesis.

  9. Parallel evolution of facial stripe patterns in the Neolamprologus brichardi/pulcher species complex endemic to Lake Tanganyika.

    PubMed

    Duftner, Nina; Sefc, Kristina M; Koblmüller, Stephan; Salzburger, Walter; Taborsky, Michael; Sturmbauer, Christian

    2007-11-01

    Colour pattern diversity can be due to random processes or to natural or sexual selection. Consequently, similarities in colour patterns are not always correlated with common ancestry, but may result from convergent evolution under shared selection pressures or drift. Neolamprologus brichardi and Neolamprologus pulcher have been described as two distinct species based on differences in the arrangement of two dark bars on the operculum. Our study uses DNA sequences of the mitochondrial control region to show that relatedness of haplotypes disagrees with species assignment based on head colour pattern. This suggests repeated parallel evolution of particular stripe patterns. The complete lack of shared haplotypes between populations of the same or different phenotypes reflects strong philopatric behaviour, possibly induced by the cooperative breeding mode in which offspring remain in their natal territory and serve as helpers until they disperse to nearby territories or take over a breeding position. Concordant phylogeographic patterns between N. brichardi/N. pulcher populations and other rock-dwelling cichlids suggest that the same colonization routes have been taken by sympatric species and that these routes were affected by lake level fluctuations in the past.

  10. Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Ulmschneider

    When we are looking for intelligent life outside the Earth, there is a fundamental question: Assuming that life has formed on an extraterrestrial planet, will it also develop toward intelligence? As this is hotly debated, we will now describe the development of life on Earth in more detail in order to show that there are good reasons why evolution should culminate in intelligent beings.

  11. The impact of shifts in marine biodiversity hotspots on patterns of range evolution: Evidence from the Holocentridae (squirrelfishes and soldierfishes).

    PubMed

    Dornburg, Alex; Moore, Jon; Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Eytan, Ron I; Near, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    One of the most striking biodiversity patterns is the uneven distribution of marine species richness, with species diversity in the Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA) exceeding all other areas. However, the IAA formed fairly recently, and marine biodiversity hotspots have shifted across nearly half the globe since the Paleogene. Understanding how lineages have responded to shifting biodiversity hotspots represents a necessary historic perspective on the formation and maintenance of global marine biodiversity. Such evolutionary inferences are often challenged by a lack of fossil evidence that provide insights into historic patterns of abundance and diversity. The greatest diversity of squirrelfishes and soldierfishes (Holocentridae) is in the IAA, yet these fishes also represent some of the most numerous fossil taxa in deposits of the former West Tethyan biodiversity hotspot. We reconstruct the pattern of holocentrid range evolution using time-calibrated phylogenies that include most living species and several fossil lineages, demonstrating the importance of including fossil species as terminal taxa in ancestral area reconstructions. Holocentrids exhibit increased range fragmentation following the West Tethyan hotspot collapse. However, rather than originating within the emerging IAA hotspot, the IAA has acted as a reservoir for holocentrid diversity that originated in adjacent regions over deep evolutionary time scales. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Larval body patterning and apical organs are conserved in animal evolution

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Planktonic ciliated larvae are characteristic for the life cycle of marine invertebrates. Their most prominent feature is the apical organ harboring sensory cells and neurons of largely undetermined function. An elucidation of the relationships between various forms of primary larvae and apical organs is key to understanding the evolution of animal life cycles. These relationships have remained enigmatic due to the scarcity of comparative molecular data. Results To compare apical organs and larval body patterning, we have studied regionalization of the episphere, the upper hemisphere of the trochophore larva of the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii. We examined the spatial distribution of transcription factors and of Wnt signaling components previously implicated in anterior neural development. Pharmacological activation of Wnt signaling with Gsk3β antagonists abolishes expression of apical markers, consistent with a repressive role of Wnt signaling in the specification of apical tissue. We refer to this Wnt-sensitive, six3- and foxq2-expressing part of the episphere as the ‘apical plate’. We also unraveled a molecular signature of the apical organ - devoid of six3 but expressing foxj, irx, nkx3 and hox - that is shared with other marine phyla including cnidarians. Finally, we characterized the cell types that form part of the apical organ by profiling by image registration, which allows parallel expression profiling of multiple cells. Besides the hox-expressing apical tuft cells, this revealed the presence of putative light- and mechanosensory as well as multiple peptidergic cell types that we compared to apical organ cell types of other animal phyla. Conclusions The similar formation of a six3+, foxq2+ apical plate, sensitive to Wnt activity and with an apical tuft in its six3-free center, is most parsimoniously explained by evolutionary conservation. We propose that a simple apical organ - comprising an apical tuft and a basal plexus

  13. Formation and Evolution of Target Patterns in Cahn-Hilliard Flows: An Extension of the Flux Expulsion Studies in MHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiang; P H Diamond Collaboration; Luis Chacon Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    Spinodal decomposition is a second order phase transition for a binary liquid mixture to evolve from a miscible phase (e.g., water + alcohol) to two co-existing phases (e.g., water + oil). The Cahn-Hilliard model for spinodal decomposition is analogous to 2D MHD. We study the evolution of the concentration field in a single eddy in the 2D Cahn-Hilliard system to better understand scalar mixing processes in that system. This study extends investigations of the classic studies of flux expulsion in 2D MHD and homogenization of potential vorticity in 2D fluids. Simulation results show that there are three stages in the evolution: (A) formation of a ``jelly roll'' pattern, for which the concentration field is constant along spirals; (B) a change in isoconcentration contour topology; and (C) formation of a target pattern, for which the isoconcentration contours follow concentric annuli. In the final target pattern stage, the isoconcentration bands align with stream lines. The results indicate that the target pattern is a metastable state. Band merger process continues on a time scale exponentially long relative to the eddy turnover time. The band merger process resembles step merger in drift-ZF staircases. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, under Award Number DE-FG02-04ER54738.

  14. Forelimb kinematics and motor patterns of swimming loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta): are motor patterns conserved in the evolution of new locomotor strategies?

    PubMed

    Rivera, Angela R V; Wyneken, Jeanette; Blob, Richard W

    2011-10-01

    Novel functions in animals may evolve through changes in morphology, muscle activity or a combination of both. The idea that new functions or behavior can arise solely through changes in structure, without concurrent changes in the patterns of muscle activity that control movement of those structures, has been formalized as the neuromotor conservation hypothesis. In vertebrate locomotor systems, evidence for neuromotor conservation is found across evolutionary transitions in the behavior of terrestrial species, and in evolutionary transitions from terrestrial species to flying species. However, evolutionary transitions in the locomotion of aquatic species have received little comparable study to determine whether changes in morphology and muscle function were coordinated through the evolution of new locomotor behavior. To evaluate the potential for neuromotor conservation in an ancient aquatic system, we quantified forelimb kinematics and muscle activity during swimming in the loggerhead sea turtle, Caretta caretta. Loggerhead forelimbs are hypertrophied into wing-like flippers that produce thrust via dorsoventral forelimb flapping. We compared kinematic and motor patterns from loggerheads with previous data from the red-eared slider, Trachemys scripta, a generalized freshwater species exhibiting unspecialized forelimb morphology and anteroposterior rowing motions during swimming. For some forelimb muscles, comparisons between C. caretta and T. scripta support neuromotor conservation; for example, the coracobrachialis and the latissimus dorsi show similar activation patterns. However, other muscles (deltoideus, pectoralis and triceps) do not show neuromotor conservation; for example, the deltoideus changes dramatically from a limb protractor/elevator in sliders to a joint stabilizer in loggerheads. Thus, during the evolution of flapping in sea turtles, drastic restructuring of the forelimb was accompanied by both conservation and evolutionary novelty in limb motor

  15. Convergent evolution at the pathway level: predictable regulatory changes during flower color transitions.

    PubMed

    Larter, Maximilian; Dunbar-Wallis, Amy; Berardi, Andrea E; Smith, Stacey D

    2018-06-07

    The predictability of evolution, or whether lineages repeatedly follow the same evolutionary trajectories during phenotypic convergence remains an open question of evolutionary biology. In this study, we investigate evolutionary convergence at the biochemical pathway level and test the predictability of evolution using floral anthocyanin pigmentation, a trait with a well-understood genetic and regulatory basis. We reconstructed the evolution of floral anthocyanin content across 28 species of the Andean clade Iochrominae (Solanaceae) and investigated how shifts in pigmentation are related to changes in expression of 7 key anthocyanin pathway genes. We used phylogenetic multivariate analysis of gene expression to test for phenotypic and developmental convergence at a macroevolutionary scale. Our results show that the four independent losses of the ancestral pigment delphinidin involved convergent losses of expression of the three late pathway genes (F3'5'h, Dfr and Ans). Transitions between pigment types affecting floral hue (e.g. blue to red) involve changes to the expression of branching genes F3'h and F3'5'h, while the expression levels of early steps of the pathway are strongly conserved in all species. These patterns support the idea that the macroevolution of floral pigmentation follows predictable evolutionary trajectories to reach convergent phenotype space, repeatedly involving regulatory changes. This is likely driven by constraints at the pathway level, such as pleiotropy and regulatory structure.

  16. Out of the dark: 350 million years of conservatism and evolution in diel activity patterns in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Samantha R; Wiens, John J

    2017-08-01

    Many animals are active only during a particular time (e.g., day vs. night), a partitioning that may have important consequences for species coexistence. An open question is the extent to which this diel activity niche is evolutionarily conserved or labile. Here, we analyze diel activity data across a phylogeny of 1914 tetrapod species. We find strong phylogenetic signal, showing that closely related species tend to share similar activity patterns. Ancestral reconstructions show that nocturnality was the most likely ancestral diel activity pattern for tetrapods and many major clades within it (e.g., amphibians, mammals). Remarkably, nocturnal activity appears to have been maintained continuously in some lineages for ∼350 million years. Thus, we show that traits involved in local-scale resource partitioning can be conserved over strikingly deep evolutionary time scales. We also demonstrate a potentially important (but often overlooked) metric of niche conservatism. Finally, we show that diurnal lineages appear to have faster speciation and diversification rates than nocturnal lineages, which may explain why there are presently more diurnal tetrapod species even though diurnality appears to have evolved more recently. Overall, our results may have implications for studies of community ecology, species richness, and the evolution of diet and communication systems. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Sex-specific patterns of morphological diversification: evolution of reaction norms and static allometries in neriid flies.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Elizabeth J; Bath, Eleanor; Chenoweth, Stephen F; Bonduriansky, Russell

    2014-02-01

    The consequences of sex-specific selection for patterns of diversification remain poorly known. Because male secondary sexual traits are typically costly to express, and both costs and benefits are likely to depend on ambient environment and individual condition, such traits may be expected to diversify via changes in reaction norms as well as the scaling of trait size with body size (static allometry). We investigated morphological diversification within two species of Australian neriid flies (Telostylinus angusticollis, Telostylinus lineolatus) by rearing larvae from several populations on larval diets varying sixfold in nutrient concentration. Mean body size varied among populations of T. angusticollis, but body size reaction norms did not vary within either species. However, we detected diversification of reaction norms for body shape in males and females within both species. Moreover, unlike females, males also diversified in static allometry slope and reaction norms for static allometry slope of sexual and nonsexual traits. Our findings reveal qualitative sex differences in patterns of morphological diversification, whereby shape-size relationships diversify extensively in males, but remain conserved in females despite extensive evolution of trait means. Our results highlight the importance of incorporating plasticity and allometry in studies of adaptation and diversification. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Song evolution, speciation, and vocal learning in passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Mason, Nicholas A; Burns, Kevin J; Tobias, Joseph A; Claramunt, Santiago; Seddon, Nathalie; Derryberry, Elizabeth P

    2017-03-01

    Phenotypic divergence can promote reproductive isolation and speciation, suggesting a possible link between rates of phenotypic evolution and the tempo of speciation at multiple evolutionary scales. To date, most macroevolutionary studies of diversification have focused on morphological traits, whereas behavioral traits─including vocal signals─are rarely considered. Thus, although behavioral traits often mediate mate choice and gene flow, we have a limited understanding of how behavioral evolution contributes to diversification. Furthermore, the developmental mode by which behavioral traits are acquired may affect rates of behavioral evolution, although this hypothesis is seldom tested in a phylogenetic framework. Here, we examine evidence for rate shifts in vocal evolution and speciation across two major radiations of codistributed passerines: one oscine clade with learned songs (Thraupidae) and one suboscine clade with innate songs (Furnariidae). We find that evolutionary bursts in rates of speciation and song evolution are coincident in both thraupids and furnariids. Further, overall rates of vocal evolution are higher among taxa with learned rather than innate songs. Taken together, these findings suggest an association between macroevolutionary bursts in speciation and vocal evolution, and that the tempo of behavioral evolution can be influenced by variation in developmental modes among lineages. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Riparian vegetation patterns in relation to fluvial landforms and channel evolution along selected rivers of Tuscany (Central Italy)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, C.R.; Rinaldi, M.

    2007-01-01

    Riparian vegetation distribution patterns and diversity relative to various fluvial geomorphic channel patterns, landforms, and processes are described and interpreted for selected rivers of Tuscany, Central Italy; with emphasis on channel evolution following human impacts. Field surveys were conducted along thirteen gauged reaches for species presence, fluvial landforms, and the type and amount of channel/riparian zone change. Inundation frequency of different geomorphic surfaces was determined, and vegetation data were analyzed using BDA (binary discriminate analysis) and DCA (detrended correspondence analysis) and related to hydrogeomorphology. Multivariate analyses revealed distinct quantitative vegetation patterns relative to six major fluvial geomorphic surfaces. DCA of the vegetation data also showed distinct associations of plants to processes of adjustment that are related to stage of channel evolution, and clearly separated plants along disturbance/landform/soil moisture gradients. Species richness increases from the channel bed to the terrace and on heterogeneous riparian areas, whereas species richness decreases from moderate to intense incision and from low to intense narrowing. ?? 2007 by Association of American Geographers.

  20. Lineage tracing reveals multipotent stem cells maintain human adenomas and the pattern of clonal expansion in tumor evolution

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Adam; Cereser, Biancastella; Gay, Laura J.; Miller, Daniel S. J.; Das, Bibek; Gutteridge, Alice; Elia, George; Nye, Emma; Jeffery, Rosemary; Poulsom, Richard; Novelli, Marco R.; Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel; McDonald, Stuart A. C.; Wright, Nicholas A.; Graham, Trevor A.

    2013-01-01

    The genetic and morphological development of colorectal cancer is a paradigm for tumorigenesis. However, the dynamics of clonal evolution underpinning carcinogenesis remain poorly understood. Here we identify multipotential stem cells within human colorectal adenomas and use methylation patterns of nonexpressed genes to characterize clonal evolution. Numerous individual crypts from six colonic adenomas and a hyperplastic polyp were microdissected and characterized for genetic lesions. Clones deficient in cytochrome c oxidase (CCO−) were identified by histochemical staining followed by mtDNA sequencing. Topographical maps of clone locations were constructed using a combination of these data. Multilineage differentiation within clones was demonstrated by immunofluorescence. Methylation patterns of adenomatous crypts were determined by clonal bisulphite sequencing; methylation pattern diversity was compared with a mathematical model to infer to clonal dynamics. Individual adenomatous crypts were clonal for mtDNA mutations and contained both mucin-secreting and neuroendocrine cells, demonstrating that the crypt contained a multipotent stem cell. The intracrypt methylation pattern was consistent with the crypts containing multiple competing stem cells. Adenomas were epigenetically diverse populations, suggesting that they were relatively mitotically old populations. Intratumor clones typically showed less diversity in methylation pattern than the tumor as a whole. Mathematical modeling suggested that recent clonal sweeps encompassing the whole adenoma had not occurred. Adenomatous crypts within human tumors contain actively dividing stem cells. Adenomas appeared to be relatively mitotically old populations, pocketed with occasional newly generated subclones that were the result of recent rapid clonal expansion. Relative stasis and occasional rapid subclone growth may characterize colorectal tumorigenesis. PMID:23766371

  1. Temporal and phylogenetic evolution of the sauropod dinosaur body plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Karl T.; Mannion, Philip D.; Falkingham, Peter L.; Brusatte, Stephen L.; Hutchinson, John R.; Otero, Alejandro; Sellers, William I.; Sullivan, Corwin; Stevens, Kent A.; Allen, Vivian

    2016-03-01

    The colossal size and body plan of sauropod dinosaurs are unparalleled in terrestrial vertebrates. However, to date, there have been only limited attempts to examine temporal and phylogenetic patterns in the sauropod bauplan. Here, we combine three-dimensional computational models with phylogenetic reconstructions to quantify the evolution of whole-body shape and body segment properties across the sauropod radiation. Limitations associated with the absence of soft tissue preservation in fossils result in large error bars about mean absolute body shape predictions. However, applying any consistent skeleton : body volume ratio to all taxa does yield changes in body shape that appear concurrent with major macroevolutionary events in sauropod history. A caudad shift in centre-of-mass (CoM) in Middle Triassic Saurischia, associated with the evolution of bipedalism in various dinosaur lineages, was reversed in Late Triassic sauropodomorphs. A craniad CoM shift coincided with the evolution of quadrupedalism in the Late Triassic, followed by a more striking craniad shift in Late Jurassic-Cretaceous titanosauriforms, which included the largest sauropods. These craniad CoM shifts are strongly correlated with neck enlargement, a key innovation in sauropod evolution and pivotal to their gigantism. By creating a much larger feeding envelope, neck elongation is thought to have increased feeding efficiency and opened up trophic niches that were inaccessible to other herbivores. However, we find that relative neck size and CoM position are not strongly correlated with inferred feeding habits. Instead the craniad CoM positions of titanosauriforms appear closely linked with locomotion and environmental distributions, potentially contributing to the continued success of this group until the end-Cretaceous, with all other sauropods having gone extinct by the early Late Cretaceous.

  2. Temporal and phylogenetic evolution of the sauropod dinosaur body plan

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Karl T.; Mannion, Philip D.; Falkingham, Peter L.; Brusatte, Stephen L.; Hutchinson, John R.; Otero, Alejandro; Sellers, William I.; Sullivan, Corwin; Stevens, Kent A.; Allen, Vivian

    2016-01-01

    The colossal size and body plan of sauropod dinosaurs are unparalleled in terrestrial vertebrates. However, to date, there have been only limited attempts to examine temporal and phylogenetic patterns in the sauropod bauplan. Here, we combine three-dimensional computational models with phylogenetic reconstructions to quantify the evolution of whole-body shape and body segment properties across the sauropod radiation. Limitations associated with the absence of soft tissue preservation in fossils result in large error bars about mean absolute body shape predictions. However, applying any consistent skeleton : body volume ratio to all taxa does yield changes in body shape that appear concurrent with major macroevolutionary events in sauropod history. A caudad shift in centre-of-mass (CoM) in Middle Triassic Saurischia, associated with the evolution of bipedalism in various dinosaur lineages, was reversed in Late Triassic sauropodomorphs. A craniad CoM shift coincided with the evolution of quadrupedalism in the Late Triassic, followed by a more striking craniad shift in Late Jurassic–Cretaceous titanosauriforms, which included the largest sauropods. These craniad CoM shifts are strongly correlated with neck enlargement, a key innovation in sauropod evolution and pivotal to their gigantism. By creating a much larger feeding envelope, neck elongation is thought to have increased feeding efficiency and opened up trophic niches that were inaccessible to other herbivores. However, we find that relative neck size and CoM position are not strongly correlated with inferred feeding habits. Instead the craniad CoM positions of titanosauriforms appear closely linked with locomotion and environmental distributions, potentially contributing to the continued success of this group until the end-Cretaceous, with all other sauropods having gone extinct by the early Late Cretaceous. PMID:27069652

  3. From Central Pattern Generator to Sensory Template in the Evolution of Birdsong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konishi, Masakazu

    2010-01-01

    Central nervous networks, be they a part of the human brain or a group of neurons in a snail, may be designed to produce distinct patterns of movement. Central pattern generators can account for the development and production of normal vocal signals without auditory feedback in non-songbirds. Songbirds need auditory feedback to develop and…

  4. Evolution of aging: individual life history trade-offs and population heterogeneity account for mortality patterns across species.

    PubMed

    Le Cunff, Y; Baudisch, A; Pakdaman, K

    2014-08-01

    A broad range of mortality patterns has been documented across species, some even including decreasing mortality over age. Whether there exist a common denominator to explain both similarities and differences in these mortality patterns remains an open question. The disposable soma theory, an evolutionary theory of aging, proposes that universal intracellular trade-offs between maintenance/lifespan and reproduction would drive aging across species. The disposable soma theory has provided numerous insights concerning aging processes in single individuals. Yet, which specific population mortality patterns it can lead to is still largely unexplored. In this article, we propose a model exploring the mortality patterns which emerge from an evolutionary process including only the disposable soma theory core principles. We adapt a well-known model of genomic evolution to show that mortality curves producing a kink or mid-life plateaus derive from a common minimal evolutionary framework. These mortality shapes qualitatively correspond to those of Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, medflies, yeasts and humans. Species evolved in silico especially differ in their population diversity of maintenance strategies, which itself emerges as an adaptation to the environment over generations. Based on this integrative framework, we also derive predictions and interpretations concerning the effects of diet changes and heat-shock treatments on mortality patterns. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  5. Abundance Patterns in S-type AGB Stars: Setting Constraints on Nucleosynthesis and Stellar Evolution Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neyskens, P.; van Eck, S.; Plez, B.; Goriely, S.; Siess, L.; Jorissen, A.

    2011-09-01

    During evolution on the AGB, stars of type S are the first to experience s-process nucleosynthesis and the third dredge-up, and therefore to exhibit s-process signatures in their atmospheres. Their high mass-loss rates (10-7 to 10-6 M⊙/year) make them major contributors to the AGB nucleosynthesis yields at solar metallicity. Precise abundance determinations in S stars are of the utmost importance for constraining e.g. the third dredge-up luminosity and efficiency (which has been only crudely parameterized in current nucleosynthetic models so far). Here, dedicated S-star model atmospheres are used to determine precise abundances of key s-process elements, and to set constraints on nucleosynthesis and stellar evolution models. Special interest is paid to technetium, an element with no stable isotopes. Its detection is considered the best signature that the star effectively populates the thermally-pulsing AGB phase of evolution. The derived Tc/Zr abundances are compared, as a function of the derived [Zr/Fe] overabundances, with AGB stellar model predictions. The [Zr/Fe] overabundances are in good agreement with model predictions, while the Tc/Zr abundances are slightly overpredicted. This discrepancy can help to set better constraints on nucleosynthesis and stellar evolution models of AGB stars.

  6. PROTERAN: animated terrain evolution for visual analysis of patterns in protein folding trajectory.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ruhong; Parida, Laxmi; Kapila, Kush; Mudur, Sudhir

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism of protein folding remains largely a mystery in molecular biology, despite the enormous effort from many groups in the past decades. Currently, the protein folding mechanism is often characterized by calculating the free energy landscape versus various reaction coordinates such as the fraction of native contacts, the radius of gyration and so on. In this paper, we present an integrated approach towards understanding the folding process via visual analysis of patterns of these reaction coordinates. The three disparate processes (1) protein folding simulation, (2) pattern elicitation and (3) visualization of patterns, work in tandem. Thus as the protein folds, the changing landscape in the pattern space can be viewed via the visualization tool, PROTERAN, a program we developed for this purpose. We first present an incremental (on-line) trie-based pattern discovery algorithm to elicit the patterns and then describe the terrain metaphor based visualization tool. Using two example small proteins, a beta-hairpin and a designed protein Trp-cage, we next demonstrate that this combined pattern discovery and visualization approach extracts crucial information about protein folding intermediates and mechanism.

  7. The repeated evolution of large seeds on islands.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Patrick H; Burns, Kevin C

    2014-07-07

    Several plant traits are known to evolve in predictable ways on islands. For example, herbaceous species often evolve to become woody and species frequently evolve larger leaves, regardless of growth form. However, our understanding of how seed sizes might evolve on islands lags far behind other plant traits. Here, we conduct the first test for macroevolutionary patterns of seed size on islands. We tested for differences in seed size between 40 island-mainland taxonomic pairings from four island groups surrounding New Zealand. Seed size data were collected in the field and then augmented by published seed descriptions to produce a more comprehensive dataset. Seed sizes of insular plants were consistently larger than mainland relatives, even after accounting for differences in growth form, dispersal mode and evolutionary history. Selection may favour seed size increases on islands to reduce dispersibility, as long-distance dispersal may result in propagule mortality at sea. Alternatively, larger seeds tend to generate larger seedlings, which are more likely to establish and outcompete neighbours. Our results indicate there is a general tendency for the evolution of large seeds on islands, but the mechanisms responsible for this evolutionary pathway have yet to be fully resolved. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolution of the regionalization and patterning of the vertebrate telencephalon: what can we learn from cyclostomes?

    PubMed

    Sugahara, Fumiaki; Murakami, Yasunori; Adachi, Noritaka; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2013-08-01

    The telencephalon, the most anterior part of the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS), is a highly diversified region of the vertebrate body. Its evolutionary origin remains elusive, especially with regard to the ancestral state of its architecture as well as the origin of telencephalon-specific neuron subtypes. Cyclostomes (lampreys and hagfish), the sister group of the gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates), serve as valuable models for studying the evolution of the vertebrate CNS. Here, we summarize recent studies on the development of the telencephalon in the lamprey. By comparing detailed developmental studies in mammals, we illustrate a possible ancestral developmental plan underlying the diversification of the vertebrate telencephalon and propose possible approaches for understanding the early evolution of the telencephalon. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evolution of Courtship Songs in Xenopus : Vocal Pattern Generation and Sound Production.

    PubMed

    Leininger, Elizabeth C; Kelley, Darcy B

    2015-01-01

    The extant species of African clawed frogs (Xenopus and Silurana) provide an opportunity to link the evolution of vocal characters to changes in the responsible cellular and molecular mechanisms. In this review, we integrate several robust lines of research: evolutionary trajectories of Xenopus vocalizations, cellular and circuit-level mechanisms of vocalization in selected Xenopus model species, and Xenopus evolutionary history and speciation mechanisms. Integrating recent findings allows us to generate and test specific hypotheses about the evolution of Xenopus vocal circuits. We propose that reduced vocal sex differences in some Xenopus species result from species-specific losses of sexually differentiated neural and neuromuscular features. Modification of sex-hormone-regulated developmental mechanisms is a strong candidate mechanism for reduced vocal sex differences.

  10. Temporal and spatial evolution characteristics of gas-liquid two-phase flow pattern based on image texture spectrum descriptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xi-Guo; Jin, Ning-De; Wang, Zhen-Ya; Zhang, Wen-Yin

    2009-11-01

    The dynamic image information of typical gas-liquid two-phase flow patterns in vertical upward pipe is captured by a highspeed dynamic camera. The texture spectrum descriptor is used to describe the texture characteristics of the processed images whose content is represented in the form of texture spectrum histogram, and four time-varying characteristic parameter indexes which represent image texture structure of different flow patterns are extracted. The study results show that the amplitude fluctuation of texture characteristic parameter indexes of bubble flow is lowest and shows very random complex dynamic behavior; the amplitude fluctuation of slug flow is higher and shows intermittent motion behavior between gas slug and liquid slug, and the amplitude fluctuation of churn flow is the highest and shows better periodicity; the amplitude fluctuation of bubble-slug flow is from low to high and oscillating frequence is higher than that of slug flow, and includes the features of both slug flow and bubble flow; the slug-churn flow loses the periodicity of slug flow and churn flow, and the amplitude fluctuation is high. The results indicate that the image texture characteristic parameter indexes of different flow pattern can reflect the flow characteristics of gas-liquid two-phase flow, which provides a new approach to understand the temporal and spatial evolution of flow pattern dynamics.

  11. Involvement of Hedgehog and FGF signalling in the lamprey telencephalon: evolution of regionalization and dorsoventral patterning of the vertebrate forebrain.

    PubMed

    Sugahara, Fumiaki; Aota, Shin-ichi; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Murakami, Yasunori; Takio-Ogawa, Yoko; Hirano, Shigeki; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2011-03-01

    Dorsoventral (DV) specification is a crucial step for the development of the vertebrate telencephalon. Clarifying the origin of this mechanism will lead to a better understanding of vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) evolution. Based on the lamprey, a sister group of the gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates), we identified three lamprey Hedgehog (Hh) homologues, which are thought to play central signalling roles in telencephalon patterning. However, unlike in gnathostomes, none of these genes, nor Lhx6/7/8, a marker for the migrating interneuron subtype, was expressed in the ventral telencephalon, consistent with the reported absence of the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) in this animal. Homologues of Gsh2, Isl1/2 and Sp8, which are involved in the patterning of the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) of gnathostomes, were expressed in the lamprey subpallium, as in gnathostomes. Hh signalling is necessary for induction of the subpallium identity in the gnathostome telencephalon. When Hh signalling was inhibited, the ventral identity was disrupted in the lamprey, suggesting that prechordal mesoderm-derived Hh signalling might be involved in the DV patterning of the telencephalon. By blocking fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling, the ventral telencephalon was suppressed in the lamprey, as in gnathostomes. We conclude that Hh- and FGF-dependent DV patterning, together with the resultant LGE identity, are likely to have been established in a common ancestor before the divergence of cyclostomes and gnathostomes. Later, gnathostomes would have acquired a novel Hh expression domain corresponding to the MGE, leading to the obtainment of cortical interneurons.

  12. The evolution of colour pattern complexity: selection for conspicuousness favours contrasting within-body colour combinations in lizards.

    PubMed

    Pérez I de Lanuza, G; Font, E

    2016-05-01

    Many animals display complex colour patterns that comprise several adjacent, often contrasting colour patches. Combining patches of complementary colours increases the overall conspicuousness of the complex pattern, enhancing signal detection. Therefore, selection for conspicuousness may act not only on the design of single colour patches, but also on their combination. Contrasting long- and short-wavelength colour patches are located on the ventral and lateral surfaces of many lacertid lizards. As the combination of long- and short-wavelength-based colours generates local chromatic contrast, we hypothesized that selection may favour the co-occurrence of lateral and ventral contrasting patches, resulting in complex colour patterns that maximize the overall conspicuousness of the signal. To test this hypothesis, we performed a comparative phylogenetic study using a categorical colour classification based on spectral data and descriptive information on lacertid coloration collected from the literature. Our results demonstrate that conspicuous ventral (long-wavelength-based) and lateral (short-wavelength-based) colour patches co-occur throughout the lacertid phylogeny more often than expected by chance, especially in the subfamily Lacertini. These results suggest that selection promotes the evolution of the complex pattern rather than the acquisition of a single conspicuous colour patch, possibly due to the increased conspicuousness caused by the combination of colours with contrasting spectral properties. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  13. Biological and genetic evolution of HIV type 1 in two siblings with different patterns of disease progression.

    PubMed

    Ripamonti, Chiara; Leitner, Thomas; Laurén, Anna; Karlsson, Ingrid; Pastore, Angela; Cavarelli, Mariangela; Antonsson, Liselotte; Plebani, Anna; Fenyö, Eva Maria; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2007-12-01

    To investigate the immunological and virological factors that may lead to different patterns of disease progression characteristic of HIV-1-infected children, two HIV-1-infected siblings, a slow and a fast progressor, were followed prospectively before the onset of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Viral coreceptor usage, including the use of CCR5/CXCR4 chimeric receptors, macrophage tropism, and sensitivity to the CC-chemokine RANTES, has been studied. An autologous and heterologous neutralizing antibody response has been documented using peripheral blood mononuclear cells- and GHOST(3) cell line-based assays. Viral evolution was investigated by env C2-V3 region sequence analysis. Although both siblings were infected with HIV-1 of the R5 phenotype, their viruses showed important biological differences. In the fast progressor there was a higher RANTES sensitivity of the early virus, an increased trend to change the mode of CCR5 receptor use, and a larger genetic evolution. Both children developed an autologous neutralizing antibody response starting from the second year with evidence of the continuous emergence of resistant variants. A marked viral genetic and phenotypic evolution was documented in the fast progressor sibling, which is accompanied by a high viral RANTES sensitivity and persistent neutralizing antibodies.

  14. Mountain uplift explains differences in Palaeogene patterns of mammalian evolution and extinction between North America and Europe

    PubMed Central

    Eronen, Jussi T.; Janis, Christine M.; Chamberlain, C. Page; Mulch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of late Palaeogene mammalian evolution appear to be very different between Eurasia and North America. Around the Eocene–Oligocene (EO) transition global temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere plummet: following this, European mammal faunas undergo a profound extinction event (the Grande Coupure), while in North America they appear to pass through this temperature event unscathed. Here, we investigate the role of surface uplift to environmental change and mammalian evolution through the Palaeogene (66–23 Ma). Palaeogene regional surface uplift in North America caused large-scale reorganization of precipitation patterns, particularly in the continental interior, in accord with our combined stable isotope and ecometric data. Changes in mammalian faunas reflect that these were dry and high-elevation palaeoenvironments. The scenario of Middle to Late Eocene (50–37 Ma) surface uplift, together with decreasing precipitation in higher-altitude regions of western North America, explains the enigma of the apparent lack of the large-scale mammal faunal change around the EO transition that characterized western Europe. We suggest that North American mammalian faunas were already pre-adapted to cooler and drier conditions preceding the EO boundary, resulting from the effects of a protracted history of surface uplift. PMID:26041349

  15. Mountain uplift explains differences in Palaeogene patterns of mammalian evolution and extinction between North America and Europe.

    PubMed

    Eronen, Jussi T; Janis, Christine M; Chamberlain, C Page; Mulch, Andreas

    2015-06-22

    Patterns of late Palaeogene mammalian evolution appear to be very different between Eurasia and North America. Around the Eocene-Oligocene (EO) transition global temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere plummet: following this, European mammal faunas undergo a profound extinction event (the Grande Coupure), while in North America they appear to pass through this temperature event unscathed. Here, we investigate the role of surface uplift to environmental change and mammalian evolution through the Palaeogene (66-23 Ma). Palaeogene regional surface uplift in North America caused large-scale reorganization of precipitation patterns, particularly in the continental interior, in accord with our combined stable isotope and ecometric data. Changes in mammalian faunas reflect that these were dry and high-elevation palaeoenvironments. The scenario of Middle to Late Eocene (50-37 Ma) surface uplift, together with decreasing precipitation in higher-altitude regions of western North America, explains the enigma of the apparent lack of the large-scale mammal faunal change around the EO transition that characterized western Europe. We suggest that North American mammalian faunas were already pre-adapted to cooler and drier conditions preceding the EO boundary, resulting from the effects of a protracted history of surface uplift. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Bees, birds and yellow flowers: pollinator-dependent convergent evolution of UV patterns.

    PubMed

    Papiorek, S; Junker, R R; Alves-Dos-Santos, I; Melo, G A R; Amaral-Neto, L P; Sazima, M; Wolowski, M; Freitas, L; Lunau, K

    2016-01-01

    Colour is one of the most obvious advertisements of flowers, and occurs in a huge diversity among the angiosperms. Flower colour is responsible for attraction from a distance, whereas contrasting colour patterns within flowers aid orientation of flower visitors after approaching the flowers. Due to the striking differences in colour vision systems and neural processing across animal taxa, flower colours evoke specific behavioural responses by different flower visitors. We tested whether and how yellow flowers differ in their spectral reflectance depending on the main pollinator. We focused on bees and birds and examined whether the presence or absence of the widespread UV reflectance pattern of yellow flowers predicts the main pollinator. Most bee-pollinated flowers displayed a pattern with UV-absorbing centres and UV-reflecting peripheries, whereas the majority of bird-pollinated flowers are entirely UV- absorbing. In choice experiments we found that bees did not show consistent preferences for any colour or pattern types. However, all tested bee species made their first antennal contact preferably at the UV-absorbing area of the artificial flower, irrespective of its spatial position within the flower. The appearance of UV patterns within flowers is the main difference in spectral reflectance between yellow bee- and bird-pollinated flowers, and affects the foraging behaviour of flower visitors. The results support the hypothesis that flower colours and the visual capabilities of their efficient pollinators are adapted to each other. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. Variation in the Intensity of Selection on Codon Bias over Time Causes Contrasting Patterns of Base Composition Evolution in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Benjamin C.; Campos, José L.; Haddrill, Penelope R.; Charlesworth, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Four-fold degenerate coding sites form a major component of the genome, and are often used to make inferences about selection and demography, so that understanding their evolution is important. Despite previous efforts, many questions regarding the causes of base composition changes at these sites in Drosophila remain unanswered. To shed further light on this issue, we obtained a new whole-genome polymorphism data set from D. simulans. We analyzed samples from the putatively ancestral range of D. simulans, as well as an existing polymorphism data set from an African population of D. melanogaster. By using D. yakuba as an outgroup, we found clear evidence for selection on 4-fold sites along both lineages over a substantial period, with the intensity of selection increasing with GC content. Based on an explicit model of base composition evolution, we suggest that the observed AT-biased substitution pattern in both lineages is probably due to an ancestral reduction in selection intensity, and is unlikely to be the result of an increase in mutational bias towards AT alone. By using two polymorphism-based methods for estimating selection coefficients over different timescales, we show that the selection intensity on codon usage has been rather stable in D. simulans in the recent past, but the long-term estimates in D. melanogaster are much higher than the short-term ones, indicating a continuing decline in selection intensity, to such an extent that the short-term estimates suggest that selection is only active in the most GC-rich parts of the genome. Finally, we provide evidence for complex evolutionary patterns in the putatively neutral short introns, which cannot be explained by the standard GC-biased gene conversion model. These results reveal a dynamic picture of base composition evolution. PMID:28082609

  18. Clinicopathogenomic analysis of mismatch repair proficient colorectal adenocarcinoma uncovers novel prognostic subgroups with differing patterns of genetic evolution.

    PubMed

    Braxton, David R; Zhang, Ray; Morrissette, Jennifer D; Loaiza-Bonilla, Arturo; Furth, Emma E

    2016-10-01

    Cancer somatic genetic evolution is a direct contributor to heterogeneity at the clonal and molecular level in colorectal adenocarcinoma (COAD). We sought to determine the extent to which genetic evolution may be detected in COAD in routinely obtained single clinical specimens and establish clinical significance with regard to clinicopathologic and outcome data. One hundred and twenty three cases of routinely collected mismatch repair proficient COAD were sequenced on the Illumina Truseq Amplicon assay. Measures of intratumoral heterogeneity and the preferential timing of mutational events were assessed and compared to clinicopathologic data. Survival subanalysis was performed on 55 patients. Patient age (p = 0.013) and specimen percent tumor (p = 0.033) was associated with clonal diversity, and biopsy (p = 0.044) and metastasis (p = 0.044) returned fewer mutations per case. APC and TP53 mutations preferentially occurred early while alterations in FBXW7, FLT3, SMAD4, GNAS and PTEN preferentially occurred as late events. Temporal heterogeneity was evident in KRAS and PIK3CA mutations. Hierarchical clustering revealed a TP53 mutant subtype and a MAPK-PIK3CA subtype with differing patterns of late mutational events. Survival subanalysis showed a decreased median progression free survival for the MAPK-PIK3CA subtype (8 months vs. 13 months; univariate logrank p = 0.0380, cox model p= 0.018). Neoadjuvant therapy associated mutations were found for ERBB2 (p = 0.0481) and FBXW7 (p = 0.015). Our data indicate novel molecular subtypes of mismatch repair proficient COAD display differing patterns of genetic evolution which correlate with clinical outcomes. Furthermore, we report treatment acquired and/or selected mutations in ERBB2 and FBXW7. © 2016 UICC.

  19. Spatial-pattern-induced evolution of a self-replicating loop network.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Ikegami, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    We study a system of self-replicating loops in which interaction rules between individuals allow competition that leads to the formation of a hypercycle-like network. The main feature of the model is the multiple layers of interaction between loops, which lead to both global spatial patterns and local replication. The network of loops manifests itself as a spiral structure from which new kinds of self-replicating loops emerge at the boundaries between different species. In these regions, larger and more complex self-replicating loops live for longer periods of time, managing to self-replicate in spite of their slower replication. Of particular interest is how micro-scale interactions between replicators lead to macro-scale spatial pattern formation, and how these macro-scale patterns in turn perturb the micro-scale replication dynamics.

  20. A comparative physical map reveals the pattern of chromosomal evolution between the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) and chicken (Gallus gallus) genomes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A robust bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based physical map is essential for many aspects of genomics research, including an understanding of chromosome evolution, high-resolution genome mapping, marker-assisted breeding, positional cloning of genes, and quantitative trait analysis. To facilitate turkey genetics research and better understand avian genome evolution, a BAC-based integrated physical, genetic, and comparative map was developed for this important agricultural species. Results The turkey genome physical map was constructed based on 74,013 BAC fingerprints (11.9 × coverage) from two independent libraries, and it was integrated with the turkey genetic map and chicken genome sequence using over 41,400 BAC assignments identified by 3,499 overgo hybridization probes along with > 43,000 BAC end sequences. The physical-comparative map consists of 74 BAC contigs, with an average contig size of 13.6 Mb. All but four of the turkey chromosomes were spanned on this map by three or fewer contigs, with 14 chromosomes spanned by a single contig and nine chromosomes spanned by two contigs. This map predicts 20 to 27 major rearrangements distinguishing turkey and chicken chromosomes, despite up to 40 million years of separate evolution between the two species. These data elucidate the chromosomal evolutionary pattern within the Phasianidae that led to the modern turkey and chicken karyotypes. The predominant rearrangement mode involves intra-chromosomal inversions, and there is a clear bias for these to result in centromere locations at or near telomeres in turkey chromosomes, in comparison to interstitial centromeres in the orthologous chicken chromosomes. Conclusion The BAC-based turkey-chicken comparative map provides novel insights into the evolution of avian genomes, a framework for assembly of turkey whole genome shotgun sequencing data, and tools for enhanced genetic improvement of these important agricultural and model species. PMID:21906286

  1. When should we expect early bursts of trait evolution in comparative data? Predictions from an evolutionary food web model.

    PubMed

    Ingram, T; Harmon, L J; Shurin, J B

    2012-09-01

    Conceptual models of adaptive radiation predict that competitive interactions among species will result in an early burst of speciation and trait evolution followed by a slowdown in diversification rates. Empirical studies often show early accumulation of lineages in phylogenetic trees, but usually fail to detect early bursts of phenotypic evolution. We use an evolutionary simulation model to assemble food webs through adaptive radiation, and examine patterns in the resulting phylogenetic trees and species' traits (body size and trophic position). We find that when foraging trade-offs result in food webs where all species occupy integer trophic levels, lineage diversity and trait disparity are concentrated early in the tree, consistent with the early burst model. In contrast, in food webs in which many omnivorous species feed at multiple trophic levels, high levels of turnover of species' identities and traits tend to eliminate the early burst signal. These results suggest testable predictions about how the niche structure of ecological communities may be reflected by macroevolutionary patterns. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. Evolution of the F-Box Gene Family in Euarchontoglires: Gene Number Variation and Selection Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ailan; Fu, Mingchuan; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Mao, Yuanhui; Li, Xiangchen; Tao, Shiheng

    2014-01-01

    F-box proteins are substrate adaptors used by the SKP1–CUL1–F-box protein (SCF) complex, a type of E3 ubiquitin ligase complex in the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). SCF-mediated ubiquitylation regulates proteolysis of hundreds of cellular proteins involved in key signaling and disease systems. However, our knowledge of the evolution of the F-box gene family in Euarchontoglires is limited. In the present study, 559 F-box genes and nine related pseudogenes were identified in eight genomes. Lineage-specific gene gain and loss events occurred during the evolution of Euarchontoglires, resulting in varying F-box gene numbers ranging from 66 to 81 among the eight species. Both tandem duplication and retrotransposition were found to have contributed to the increase of F-box gene number, whereas mutation in the F-box domain was the main mechanism responsible for reduction in the number of F-box genes, resulting in a balance of expansion and contraction in the F-box gene family. Thus, the Euarchontoglire F-box gene family evolved under a birth-and-death model. Signatures of positive selection were detected in substrate-recognizing domains of multiple F-box proteins, and adaptive changes played a role in evolution of the Euarchontoglire F-box gene family. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) distributions were found to be highly non-random among different regions of F-box genes in 1092 human individuals, with domain regions having a significantly lower number of non-synonymous SNPs. PMID:24727786

  3. Evolution of stationary wave patterns in mesospheric water vapor due to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirhan Barı, Deniz; Gabriel, Axel; Sezginer Ünal, Yurdanur

    2016-07-01

    The variability in the observed stationary wave patterns of the mesospheric water vapor (H2O) is investigated using CMIP5 RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 projections. The change in the vertical and meridional wave structure at northern mid- and polar latitudes associated to the zonal and meridional eddy heat fluxes is discussed by analyzing the advection of H2O due to residual wind components. The alteration in the characteristics of the stationary wave-1 pattern of the lower mesospheric H2O (up to about 75km) related to change in the projected radiative forcing is observed for the years from 2006 to 2100. Additionally the remarkable effect of the increase in global temperature on the zonal asymmetries in small-scale transient waves and parameterized gravity waves, which largely contribute to the observed stationary wave patterns of H2O in the upper mesosphere, is analyzed. For validation purposes, the derived stratospheric patterns are verified against the eddy heat fluxes and residual advection terms derived from Aura/MLS satellite data between 2004-2010 and the reference period of the CMIP5 MPI dataset (1976-2005) providing confidence in the applied method.

  4. Diversity patterns amongst herbivorous dinosaurs and plants during the Cretaceous: implications for hypotheses of dinosaur/angiosperm co-evolution.

    PubMed

    Butler, R J; Barrett, P M; Kenrick, P; Penn, M G

    2009-03-01

    Palaeobiologists frequently attempt to identify examples of co-evolutionary interactions over extended geological timescales. These hypotheses are often intuitively appealing, as co-evolution is so prevalent in extant ecosystems, and are easy to formulate; however, they are much more difficult to test than their modern analogues. Among the more intriguing deep time co-evolutionary scenarios are those that relate changes in Cretaceous dinosaur faunas to the primary radiation of flowering plants. Demonstration of temporal congruence between the diversifications of co-evolving groups is necessary to establish whether co-evolution could have occurred in such cases, but is insufficient to prove whether it actually did take place. Diversity patterns do, however, provide a means for falsifying such hypotheses. We have compiled a new database of Cretaceous dinosaur and plant distributions from information in the primary literature. This is used as the basis for plotting taxonomic diversity and occurrence curves for herbivorous dinosaurs (Sauropodomorpha, Stegosauria, Ankylosauria, Ornithopoda, Ceratopsia, Pachycephalosauria and herbivorous theropods) and major groups of plants (angiosperms, Bennettitales, cycads, cycadophytes, conifers, Filicales and Ginkgoales) that co-occur in dinosaur-bearing formations. Pairwise statistical comparisons were made between various floral and faunal groups to test for any significant similarities in the shapes of their diversity curves through time. We show that, with one possible exception, diversity patterns for major groups of herbivorous dinosaurs are not positively correlated with angiosperm diversity. In other words, at the level of major clades, there is no support for any diffuse co-evolutionary relationship between herbivorous dinosaurs and flowering plants. The diversification of Late Cretaceous pachycephalosaurs (excluding the problematic taxon Stenopelix) shows a positive correlation, but this might be spuriously related to

  5. Differences in the selection response of serially repeated color pattern characters: standing variation, development, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Allen, Cerisse E; Beldade, Patrícia; Zwaan, Bas J; Brakefield, Paul M

    2008-03-26

    There is spectacular morphological diversity in nature but lineages typically display a limited range of phenotypes. Because developmental processes generate the phenotypic variation that fuels natural selection, they are a likely source of evolutionary biases, facilitating some changes and limiting others. Although shifts in developmental regulation are associated with morphological differences between taxa, it is unclear how underlying mechanisms affect the rate and direction of evolutionary change within populations under selection. Here we focus on two ecologically relevant features of butterfly wing color patterns, eyespot size and color composition, which are similarly and strongly correlated across the serially repeated eyespots. Though these two characters show similar patterns of standing variation and covariation within a population, they differ in key features of their underlying development. We targeted pairs of eyespots with artificial selection for coordinated (concerted selection) versus independent (antagonistic selection) change in their color composition and size and compared evolutionary responses of the two color pattern characters. The two characters respond to selection in strikingly different ways despite initially similar patterns of variation in all directions present in the starting population. Size (determined by local properties of a diffusing inductive signal) evolves flexibly in all selected directions. However, color composition (determined by a tissue-level response to the signal concentration gradient) evolves only in the direction of coordinated change. There was no independent evolutionary change in the color composition of two eyespots in response to antagonistic selection. Moreover, these differences in the directions of short-term evolutionary change in eyespot size and color composition within a single species are consistent with the observed wing pattern diversity in the genus. Both characters respond rapidly to selection for

  6. SciClone: inferring clonal architecture and tracking the spatial and temporal patterns of tumor evolution.

    PubMed

    Miller, Christopher A; White, Brian S; Dees, Nathan D; Griffith, Malachi; Welch, John S; Griffith, Obi L; Vij, Ravi; Tomasson, Michael H; Graubert, Timothy A; Walter, Matthew J; Ellis, Matthew J; Schierding, William; DiPersio, John F; Ley, Timothy J; Mardis, Elaine R; Wilson, Richard K; Ding, Li

    2014-08-01

    The sensitivity of massively-parallel sequencing has confirmed that most cancers are oligoclonal, with subpopulations of neoplastic cells harboring distinct mutations. A fine resolution view of this clonal architecture provides insight into tumor heterogeneity, evolution, and treatment response, all of which may have clinical implications. Single tumor analysis already contributes to understanding these phenomena. However, cryptic subclones are frequently revealed by additional patient samples (e.g., collected at relapse or following treatment), indicating that accurately characterizing a tumor requires analyzing multiple samples from the same patient. To address this need, we present SciClone, a computational method that identifies the number and genetic composition of subclones by analyzing the variant allele frequencies of somatic mutations. We use it to detect subclones in acute myeloid leukemia and breast cancer samples that, though present at disease onset, are not evident from a single primary tumor sample. By doing so, we can track tumor evolution and identify the spatial origins of cells resisting therapy.

  7. Mutational landscape, clonal evolution patterns, and role of RAS mutations in relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Oshima, Koichi; Khiabanian, Hossein; da Silva-Almeida, Ana C.; Tzoneva, Gannie; Abate, Francesco; Ambesi-Impiombato, Alberto; Sanchez-Martin, Marta; Carpenter, Zachary; Penson, Alex; Perez-Garcia, Arianne; Eckert, Cornelia; Nicolas, Concepción; Balbin, Milagros; Sulis, Maria Luisa; Kato, Motohiro; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Paganin, Maddalena; Basso, Giuseppe; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Devidas, Meenakshi; Loh, Mignon L.; Kirschner-Schwabe, Renate; Palomero, Teresa; Rabadan, Raul; Ferrando, Adolfo A.

    2016-01-01

    Although multiagent combination chemotherapy is curative in a significant fraction of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients, 20% of cases relapse and most die because of chemorefractory disease. Here we used whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing to analyze the mutational landscape at relapse in pediatric ALL cases. These analyses identified numerous relapse-associated mutated genes intertwined in chemotherapy resistance-related protein complexes. In this context, RAS-MAPK pathway-activating mutations in the neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog (NRAS), kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS), and protein tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor type 11 (PTPN11) genes were present in 24 of 55 (44%) cases in our series. Interestingly, some leukemias showed retention or emergence of RAS mutant clones at relapse, whereas in others RAS mutant clones present at diagnosis were replaced by RAS wild-type populations, supporting a role for both positive and negative selection evolutionary pressures in clonal evolution of RAS-mutant leukemia. Consistently, functional dissection of mouse and human wild-type and mutant RAS isogenic leukemia cells demonstrated induction of methotrexate resistance but also improved the response to vincristine in mutant RAS-expressing lymphoblasts. These results highlight the central role of chemotherapy-driven selection as a central mechanism of leukemia clonal evolution in relapsed ALL, and demonstrate a previously unrecognized dual role of RAS mutations as drivers of both sensitivity and resistance to chemotherapy. PMID:27655895

  8. Rates and Patterns of Chromosomal Evolution in Drosophila pseudoobscura and D. miranda

    PubMed Central

    Bartolomé, Carolina; Charlesworth, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Comparisons of gene orders between species permit estimation of the rate of chromosomal evolution since their divergence from a common ancestor. We have compared gene orders on three chromosomes of Drosophila pseudoobscura with its close relative, D. miranda, and the distant outgroup species, D. melanogaster, by using the public genome sequences of D. pseudoobscura and D. melanogaster and ∼50 in situ hybridizations of gene probes in D. miranda. We find no evidence for extensive transfer of genes among chromosomes in D. miranda. The rates of chromosomal rearrangements between D. miranda and D. pseudoobscura are far higher than those found before in Drosophila and approach those for nematodes, the fastest rates among higher eukaryotes. In addition, we find that the D. pseudoobscura chromosome with the highest level of inversion polymorphism (Muller's element C) does not show an unusually fast rate of evolution with respect to chromosome structure, suggesting that this classic case of inversion polymorphism reflects selection rather than mutational processes. On the basis of our results, we propose possible ancestral arrangements for the D. pseudoobscura C chromosome, which are different from those in the current literature. We also describe a new method for correcting for rearrangements that are not detected with a limited set of markers. PMID:16547107

  9. Patterns of molecular evolution of an avian neo-sex chromosome.

    PubMed

    Pala, Irene; Hasselquist, Dennis; Bensch, Staffan; Hansson, Bengt

    2012-12-01

    Newer parts of sex chromosomes, neo-sex chromosomes, offer unique possibilities for studying gene degeneration and sequence evolution in response to loss of recombination and population size decrease. We have recently described a neo-sex chromosome system in Sylvioidea passerines that has resulted from a fusion between the first half (10 Mb) of chromosome 4a and the ancestral sex chromosomes. In this study, we report the results of molecular analyses of neo-Z and neo-W gametologs and intronic parts of neo-Z and autosomal genes on the second half of chromosome 4a in three species within different Sylvioidea lineages (Acrocephalidea, Timaliidae, and Alaudidae). In line with hypotheses of neo-sex chromosome evolution, we observe 1) lower genetic diversity of neo-Z genes compared with autosomal genes, 2) moderate synonymous and weak nonsynonymous sequence divergence between neo-Z and neo-W gametologs, and 3) lower GC content on neo-W than neo-Z gametologs. Phylogenetic reconstruction of eight neo-Z and neo-W gametologs suggests that recombination continued after the split of Alaudidae from the rest of the Sylvioidea lineages (i.e., after ~42.2 Ma) and with some exceptions also after the split of Acrocephalidea and Timaliidae (i.e., after ~39.4 Ma). The Sylvioidea neo-sex chromosome shares classical evolutionary features with the ancestral sex chromosomes but, as expected from its more recent origin, shows weaker divergence between gametologs.

  10. SciClone: Inferring Clonal Architecture and Tracking the Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Tumor Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Dees, Nathan D.; Griffith, Malachi; Welch, John S.; Griffith, Obi L.; Vij, Ravi; Tomasson, Michael H.; Graubert, Timothy A.; Walter, Matthew J.; Ellis, Matthew J.; Schierding, William; DiPersio, John F.; Ley, Timothy J.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Wilson, Richard K.; Ding, Li

    2014-01-01

    The sensitivity of massively-parallel sequencing has confirmed that most cancers are oligoclonal, with subpopulations of neoplastic cells harboring distinct mutations. A fine resolution view of this clonal architecture provides insight into tumor heterogeneity, evolution, and treatment response, all of which may have clinical implications. Single tumor analysis already contributes to understanding these phenomena. However, cryptic subclones are frequently revealed by additional patient samples (e.g., collected at relapse or following treatment), indicating that accurately characterizing a tumor requires analyzing multiple samples from the same patient. To address this need, we present SciClone, a computational method that identifies the number and genetic composition of subclones by analyzing the variant allele frequencies of somatic mutations. We use it to detect subclones in acute myeloid leukemia and breast cancer samples that, though present at disease onset, are not evident from a single primary tumor sample. By doing so, we can track tumor evolution and identify the spatial origins of cells resisting therapy. PMID:25102416

  11. Design of Spiking Central Pattern Generators for Multiple Locomotion Gaits in Hexapod Robots by Christiansen Grammar Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Espinal, Andres; Rostro-Gonzalez, Horacio; Carpio, Martin; Guerra-Hernandez, Erick I.; Ornelas-Rodriguez, Manuel; Sotelo-Figueroa, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a method to design Spiking Central Pattern Generators (SCPGs) to achieve locomotion at different frequencies on legged robots. It is validated through embedding its designs into a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and implemented on a real hexapod robot. The SCPGs are automatically designed by means of a Christiansen Grammar Evolution (CGE)-based methodology. The CGE performs a solution for the configuration (synaptic weights and connections) for each neuron in the SCPG. This is carried out through the indirect representation of candidate solutions that evolve to replicate a specific spike train according to a locomotion pattern (gait) by measuring the similarity between the spike trains and the SPIKE distance to lead the search to a correct configuration. By using this evolutionary approach, several SCPG design specifications can be explicitly added into the SPIKE distance-based fitness function, such as looking for Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) with minimal connectivity or a Central Pattern Generator (CPG) able to generate different locomotion gaits only by changing the initial input stimuli. The SCPG designs have been successfully implemented on a Spartan 6 FPGA board and a real time validation on a 12 Degrees Of Freedom (DOFs) hexapod robot is presented. PMID:27516737

  12. Origins of adult pigmentation: diversity in pigment stem cell lineages and implications for pattern evolution

    PubMed Central

    Spiewak, Jessica E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Teleosts comprise about half of all vertebrate species and exhibit an extraordinary diversity of adult pigment patterns that function in shoaling, camouflage and mate choice and have played important roles in speciation. Here, we review recent studies that have identified several distinct neural crest lineages, with distinct genetic requirements, that give rise to adult pigment cells in fishes. These lineages include post-embryonic, peripheral nerve associated stem cells that generate black melanophores and iridescent iridophores, cells derived directly from embryonic neural crest cells that generate yellow-orange xanthophores, and bipotent stem cells that generate both melanophores and xanthophores. This complexity in adult chromatophore lineages has implications for our understanding of adult traits, melanoma, and the evolutionary diversification of pigment cell lineages and patterns. PMID:25421288

  13. Macroevolutionary trends of atomic composition and related functional group proportion in eukaryotic and prokaryotic proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Juan; Yang, Chun-Lin; Hao, You-Jin; Li, Ying; Chen, Bin; Wen, Jian-Fan

    2014-01-25

    To fully explore the trends of atomic composition during the macroevolution from prokaryote to eukaryote, five atoms (oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen) and related functional groups in prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins were surveyed and compared. Genome-wide analysis showed that eukaryotic proteins have more oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen atoms than prokaryotes do. Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) analysis revealed that oxygen, sulfur, carbon and hydrogen frequencies are higher in eukaryotic proteins than in their prokaryotic orthologs. Furthermore, functional group analysis demonstrated that eukaryotic proteins tend to have higher proportions of sulfhydryl, hydroxyl and acylamino, but lower of sulfide and carboxyl. Taken together, an apparent trend of increase was observed for oxygen and sulfur atoms in the macroevolution; the variation of oxygen and sulfur compositions and their related functional groups in macroevolution made eukaryotic proteins carry more useful functional groups. These results will be helpful for better understanding the functional significances of atomic composition evolution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Documenting a significant relationship between macroevolutionary origination rates and Phanerozoic pCO2 levels.

    PubMed

    Cornette, James L; Lieberman, Bruce S; Goldstein, Robert H

    2002-06-11

    We show that the rates of diversification of the marine fauna and the levels of atmospheric CO(2) have been closely correlated for the past 545 million years. These results, using two of the fundamental databases of the Earth's biota and the Earth's atmospheric composition, respectively, are highly statistically significant (P < 0.001). The strength of the correlation suggests that one or more environmental variables controlling CO(2) levels have had a profound impact on evolution throughout the history of metazoan life. Comparing our work with highly significant correlations described by D. H. Rothman [Rothman, D. H. (2001) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 4305-4310] between total biological diversity and a measure of stable carbon isotope fractionation, we find that the rates of diversification rather than total diversification correlate with environmental variables, and that the rate of diversification follows the record of CO(2) projected by R. A. Berner and Z. Kothavala [Berner, R. A. & Kothavala, Z. (2001) Am. J. Sci. 301, 182-204] more closely than that predicted by Rothman.

  15. Evolution of Canada’s Boreal Forest Spatial Patterns as Seen from Space

    PubMed Central

    Pickell, Paul D.; Coops, Nicholas C.; Gergel, Sarah E.; Andison, David W.; Marshall, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the development of landscape patterns over broad spatial and temporal scales is a major contribution to ecological sciences and is a critical area of research for forested land management. Boreal forests represent an excellent case study for such research because these forests have undergone significant changes over recent decades. We analyzed the temporal trends of four widely-used landscape pattern indices for boreal forests of Canada: forest cover, largest forest patch index, forest edge density, and core (interior) forest cover. The indices were computed over landscape extents ranging from 5,000 ha (n = 18,185) to 50,000 ha (n = 1,662) and across nine major ecozones of Canada. We used 26 years of Landsat satellite imagery to derive annualized trends of the landscape pattern indices. The largest declines in forest cover, largest forest patch index, and core forest cover were observed in the Boreal Shield, Boreal Plain, and Boreal Cordillera ecozones. Forest edge density increased at all landscape extents for all ecozones. Rapidly changing landscapes, defined as the 90th percentile of forest cover change, were among the most forested initially and were characterized by four times greater decrease in largest forest patch index, three times greater increase in forest edge density, and four times greater decrease in core forest cover compared with all 50,000 ha landscapes. Moreover, approximately 18% of all 50,000 ha landscapes did not change due to a lack of disturbance. The pattern database results provide important context for forest management agencies committed to implementing ecosystem-based management strategies. PMID:27383055

  16. Evolution of Canada's Boreal Forest Spatial Patterns as Seen from Space.

    PubMed

    Pickell, Paul D; Coops, Nicholas C; Gergel, Sarah E; Andison, David W; Marshall, Peter L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the development of landscape patterns over broad spatial and temporal scales is a major contribution to ecological sciences and is a critical area of research for forested land management. Boreal forests represent an excellent case study for such research because these forests have undergone significant changes over recent decades. We analyzed the temporal trends of four widely-used landscape pattern indices for boreal forests of Canada: forest cover, largest forest patch index, forest edge density, and core (interior) forest cover. The indices were computed over landscape extents ranging from 5,000 ha (n = 18,185) to 50,000 ha (n = 1,662) and across nine major ecozones of Canada. We used 26 years of Landsat satellite imagery to derive annualized trends of the landscape pattern indices. The largest declines in forest cover, largest forest patch index, and core forest cover were observed in the Boreal Shield, Boreal Plain, and Boreal Cordillera ecozones. Forest edge density increased at all landscape extents for all ecozones. Rapidly changing landscapes, defined as the 90th percentile of forest cover change, were among the most forested initially and were characterized by four times greater decrease in largest forest patch index, three times greater increase in forest edge density, and four times greater decrease in core forest cover compared with all 50,000 ha landscapes. Moreover, approximately 18% of all 50,000 ha landscapes did not change due to a lack of disturbance. The pattern database results provide important context for forest management agencies committed to implementing ecosystem-based management strategies.

  17. [Dynamic evolution of wetland landscape spatial pattern in Nansi Lake, China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi Cong; Xie, Xiao Ping; Bai, Mao Wei

    2016-10-01

    Based on Landsat images in 1987, 2002 and 2014 from Nansi Lake located in Shandong Province, landscape pattern index, dynamic index, landscape gradient and gridding model were used for analysis of the wetland distribution in the lake. The results showed that the landscape contagion index and aggregation index gradually decreased from 1987 to 2014, while the landscape diversity index and evenness index gradually increased. The distribution of landscape area was more uniform while its patterns trended to be fragmented. Human activities impacted Nansi wetland distribution and the disturbance presented an increasing trend. The total area of Nansi wetland gradually increased during the study period. The area of lake first decreased then increased, and the area reached the maximum in 2014. The area of the ponds along the riparian zone had increased gradually, but the increasing speed slowed down. The area of the rivers remained stable, while the area of the swamps decreased continually during the period. The change of landscape pattern of Nansi Lake wetland mainly resulted from agricultural activities, establishment of Nansi Lake Natural Reserve, and the South-to-North Water Diversion Project.

  18. Somatic Mutation Patterns in Hemizygous Genomic Regions Unveil Purifying Selection during Tumor Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Swaraj; Larsson, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Identification of cancer driver genes using somatic mutation patterns indicative of positive selection has become a major goal in cancer genomics. However, cancer cells additionally depend on a large number of genes involved in basic cellular processes. While such genes should in theory be subject to strong purifying (negative) selection against damaging somatic mutations, these patterns have been elusive and purifying selection remains inadequately explored in cancer. Here, we hypothesized that purifying selection should be evident in hemizygous genomic regions, where damaging mutations cannot be compensated for by healthy alleles. Using a 7,781-sample pan-cancer dataset, we first confirmed this in POLR2A, an essential gene where hemizygous deletions are known to confer elevated sensitivity to pharmacological suppression. We next used this principle to identify several genes and pathways that show patterns indicative of purifying selection to avoid deleterious mutations. These include the POLR2A interacting protein INTS10 as well as genes involved in mRNA splicing, nonsense-mediated mRNA decay and other RNA processing pathways. Many of these genes belong to large protein complexes, and strong overlaps were observed with recent functional screens for gene essentiality in human cells. Our analysis supports that purifying selection acts to preserve the remaining function of many hemizygously deleted essential genes in tumors, indicating vulnerabilities that might be exploited by future therapeutic strategies. PMID:28027311

  19. [Evolution of breathing pattern and ventilation at maximal exercise during growth. Definition of reference values].

    PubMed

    Prioux, J; Mercier, J; Ramonatxo, M; Granier, P; Mercier, B; Prefaut, C

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the changes of parameters of breathing pattern and ventilation (VE) as a function of age during maximal exercise in children. A multi-longitudinal survey was conducted in forty four untrained schoolboys, divided in three groups with initial age of 11.2 years for group I, 12.9 years for group II, and 14.9 for group III. These children were subsequently followed three years ago at the same period. The range age was thus 11.2 to 16.9 years. This study showed that, during growth, ventilation (VE max), tidal volume (VT max) and mean inspiratory flow (VT/TI max) increased significantly with age, that inspiratory frequency (f max) decreased, that inspiratory, expiratory and total time of the respiratory cycle (TI max, TE max, TTOT max) increased slightly and that the inspiration fraction (TI/TTOT max) was identical at 11 and 17 years. Furthermore we observed that the peak height velocity and peak tidal volume velocity took place at the same age, i.e., 14 years and that those of weight and VT/TI at the same age of 15 years. In conclusion, this study allowed us to define reference values for breathing pattern at maximal exercise in sedentary boys and to specify the relation between growth and parameters of breathing pattern in these children.

  20. New insights into the phylogenetic relationships, character evolution, and phytogeographic patterns of Calceolaria (Calceolariaceae).

    PubMed

    Cosacov, Andrea; Sérsic, Alicia N; Sosa, Victoria; De-Nova, J Arturo; Nylinder, Stephan; Cocucci, Andrea A

    2009-12-01

    Biogeographical patterns and diversification processes in Andean and Patagonian flora are not yet well understood. Calceolaria is a highly diversified genus of these areas, representing one of the most specialized plant-pollinator systems because flowers produce nonvolatile oils, a very unusual floral reward. Phylogenetic analyses with molecular (ITS and matK) and morphological characters from 103 Calceolaria species were conducted to examine relationships, to understand biogeographic patterns, and to detect evolutionary patterns of floral and ecological characters. Total evidence analysis retrieved three major clades, which strongly correspond to the three previously recognized subgenera, although only subgenus Rosula was retrieved as a monophyletic group. A single historical event explains the expansion from the southern to central Andes, while different parallel evolutionary lines show a northward expansion from the central to northern Andes across the Huancabamba Deflection, an important geographical barrier in northern Peru. Polyploidy, acquisition of elaiophores, and a nototribic pollination mechanism are key aspects of the evolutionary history of Calceolaria. Pollination interactions were more frequently established with Centris than with Chalepogenus oil-collecting bee species. The repeated loss of the oil gland and shifts to pollen as the only reward suggest an evolutionary tendency from highly to moderately specialized pollination systems.

  1. Dynamic distribution patterns of ribosomal DNA and chromosomal evolution in Paphiopedilum, a lady's slipper orchid

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Paphiopedilum is a horticulturally and ecologically important genus of ca. 80 species of lady's slipper orchids native to Southeast Asia. These plants have long been of interest regarding their chromosomal evolution, which involves a progressive aneuploid series based on either fission or fusion of centromeres. Chromosome number is positively correlated with genome size, so rearrangement processes must include either insertion or deletion of DNA segments. We have conducted Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) studies using 5S and 25S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) probes to survey for rearrangements, duplications, and phylogenetically-correlated variation within Paphiopedilum. We further studied sequence variation of the non-transcribed spacers of 5S rDNA (5S-NTS) to examine their complex duplication history, including the possibility that concerted evolutionary forces may homogenize diversity. Results 5S and 25S rDNA loci among Paphiopedilum species, representing all key phylogenetic lineages, exhibit a considerable diversity that correlates well with recognized evolutionary groups. 25S rDNA signals range from 2 (representing 1 locus) to 9, the latter representing hemizygosity. 5S loci display extensive structural variation, and show from 2 specific signals to many, both major and minor and highly dispersed. The dispersed signals mainly occur at centromeric and subtelomeric positions, which are hotspots for chromosomal breakpoints. Phylogenetic analysis of cloned 5S rDNA non-transcribed spacer (5S-NTS) sequences showed evidence for both ancient and recent post-speciation duplication events, as well as interlocus and intralocus diversity. Conclusions Paphiopedilum species display many chromosomal rearrangements - for example, duplications, translocations, and inversions - but only weak concerted evolutionary forces among highly duplicated 5S arrays, which suggests that double-strand break repair processes are dynamic and ongoing. These results make the genus

  2. Dynamic distribution patterns of ribosomal DNA and chromosomal evolution in Paphiopedilum, a lady's slipper orchid.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tianying; Albert, Victor A

    2011-09-12

    Paphiopedilum is a horticulturally and ecologically important genus of ca. 80 species of lady's slipper orchids native to Southeast Asia. These plants have long been of interest regarding their chromosomal evolution, which involves a progressive aneuploid series based on either fission or fusion of centromeres. Chromosome number is positively correlated with genome size, so rearrangement processes must include either insertion or deletion of DNA segments. We have conducted Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) studies using 5S and 25S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) probes to survey for rearrangements, duplications, and phylogenetically-correlated variation within Paphiopedilum. We further studied sequence variation of the non-transcribed spacers of 5S rDNA (5S-NTS) to examine their complex duplication history, including the possibility that concerted evolutionary forces may homogenize diversity. 5S and 25S rDNA loci among Paphiopedilum species, representing all key phylogenetic lineages, exhibit a considerable diversity that correlates well with recognized evolutionary groups. 25S rDNA signals range from 2 (representing 1 locus) to 9, the latter representing hemizygosity. 5S loci display extensive structural variation, and show from 2 specific signals to many, both major and minor and highly dispersed. The dispersed signals mainly occur at centromeric and subtelomeric positions, which are hotspots for chromosomal breakpoints. Phylogenetic analysis of cloned 5S rDNA non-transcribed spacer (5S-NTS) sequences showed evidence for both ancient and recent post-speciation duplication events, as well as interlocus and intralocus diversity. Paphiopedilum species display many chromosomal rearrangements--for example, duplications, translocations, and inversions--but only weak concerted evolutionary forces among highly duplicated 5S arrays, which suggests that double-strand break repair processes are dynamic and ongoing. These results make the genus a model system for the study of

  3. Robust regression and posterior predictive simulation increase power to detect early bursts of trait evolution.

    PubMed

    Slater, Graham J; Pennell, Matthew W

    2014-05-01

    A central prediction of much theory on adaptive radiations is that traits should evolve rapidly during the early stages of a clade's history and subsequently slowdown in rate as niches become saturated--a so-called "Early Burst." Although a common pattern in the fossil record, evidence for early bursts of trait evolution in phylogenetic comparative data has been equivocal at best. We show here that this may not necessarily be due to the absence of this pattern in nature. Rather, commonly used methods to infer its presence perform poorly when when the strength of the burst--the rate at which phenotypic evolution declines--is small, and when some morphological convergence is present within the clade. We present two modifications to existing comparative methods that allow greater power to detect early bursts in simulated datasets. First, we develop posterior predictive simulation approaches and show that they outperform maximum likelihood approaches at identifying early bursts at moderate strength. Second, we use a robust regression procedure that allows for the identification and down-weighting of convergent taxa, leading to moderate increases in method performance. We demonstrate the utility and power of these approach by investigating the evolution of body size in cetaceans. Model fitting using maximum likelihood is equivocal with regards the mode of cetacean body size evolution. However, posterior predictive simulation combined with a robust node height test return low support for Brownian motion or rate shift models, but not the early burst model. While the jury is still out on whether early bursts are actually common in nature, our approach will hopefully facilitate more robust testing of this hypothesis. We advocate the adoption of similar posterior predictive approaches to improve the fit and to assess the adequacy of macroevolutionary models in general.

  4. Correlated evolution of sex and reproductive mode in corals (Anthozoa: Scleractinia).

    PubMed

    Kerr, Alexander M; Baird, Andrew H; Hughes, Terry P

    2011-01-07

    Sexuality and reproductive mode are two fundamental life-history traits that exhibit largely unexplained macroevolutionary patterns among the major groups of multicellular organisms. For example, the cnidarian class Anthozoa (corals and anemones) is mainly comprised of gonochoric (separate sex) brooders or spawners, while one order, Scleractinia (skeleton-forming corals), appears to be mostly hermaphroditic spawners. Here, using the most complete phylogeny of scleractinians, we reconstruct how evolutionary transitions between sexual systems (gonochorism versus hermaphrodism) and reproductive modes (brooding versus spawning) have generated large-scale taxonomic patterns in these characters. Hermaphrodites have independently evolved in three large, distantly related lineages consisting of mostly reef-building species. Reproductive mode in corals has evolved at twice the rate of sexuality, while the evolution of sexuality has been heavily biased: gonochorism is over 100 times more likely to be lost than gained, and can only be acquired by brooders. This circuitous evolutionary pathway accounts for the prevalence of hermaphroditic spawners among reef-forming scleractinians, despite their ancient gonochoric heritage.

  5. Correlated evolution of sex and reproductive mode in corals (Anthozoa: Scleractinia)

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Alexander M.; Baird, Andrew H.; Hughes, Terry P.

    2011-01-01

    Sexuality and reproductive mode are two fundamental life-history traits that exhibit largely unexplained macroevolutionary patterns among the major groups of multicellular organisms. For example, the cnidarian class Anthozoa (corals and anemones) is mainly comprised of gonochoric (separate sex) brooders or spawners, while one order, Scleractinia (skeleton-forming corals), appears to be mostly hermaphroditic spawners. Here, using the most complete phylogeny of scleractinians, we reconstruct how evolutionary transitions between sexual systems (gonochorism versus hermaphrodism) and reproductive modes (brooding versus spawning) have generated large-scale taxonomic patterns in these characters. Hermaphrodites have independently evolved in three large, distantly related lineages consisting of mostly reef-building species. Reproductive mode in corals has evolved at twice the rate of sexuality, while the evolution of sexuality has been heavily biased: gonochorism is over 100 times more likely to be lost than gained, and can only be acquired by brooders. This circuitous evolutionary pathway accounts for the prevalence of hermaphroditic spawners among reef-forming scleractinians, despite their ancient gonochoric heritage. PMID:20659935

  6. The evolutionary history of vertebrate cranial placodes II. Evolution of ectodermal patterning.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Gerhard; Patthey, Cedric; Shimeld, Sebastian M

    2014-05-01

    Cranial placodes are evolutionary innovations of vertebrates. However, they most likely evolved by redeployment, rewiring and diversification of preexisting cell types and patterning mechanisms. In the second part of this review we compare vertebrates with other animal groups to elucidate the evolutionary history of ectodermal patterning. We show that several transcription factors have ancient bilaterian roles in dorsoventral and anteroposterior regionalisation of the ectoderm. Evidence from amphioxus suggests that ancestral chordates then concentrated neurosecretory cells in the anteriormost non-neural ectoderm. This anterior proto-placodal domain subsequently gave rise to the oral siphon primordia in tunicates (with neurosecretory cells being lost) and anterior (adenohypophyseal, olfactory, and lens) placodes of vertebrates. Likewise, tunicate atrial siphon primordia and posterior (otic, lateral line, and epibranchial) placodes of vertebrates probably evolved from a posterior proto-placodal region in the tunicate-vertebrate ancestor. Since both siphon primordia in tunicates give rise to sparse populations of sensory cells, both proto-placodal domains probably also gave rise to some sensory receptors in the tunicate-vertebrate ancestor. However, proper cranial placodes, which give rise to high density arrays of specialised sensory receptors and neurons, evolved from these domains only in the vertebrate lineage. We propose that this may have involved rewiring of the regulatory network upstream and downstream of Six1/2 and Six4/5 transcription factors and their Eya family cofactors. These proteins, which play ancient roles in neuronal differentiation were first recruited to the dorsal non-neural ectoderm in the tunicate-vertebrate ancestor but subsequently probably acquired new target genes in the vertebrate lineage, allowing them to adopt new functions in regulating proliferation and patterning of neuronal progenitors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  7. The Evolution and Expression Pattern of Human Overlapping lncRNA and Protein-coding Gene Pairs.

    PubMed

    Ning, Qianqian; Li, Yixue; Wang, Zhen; Zhou, Songwen; Sun, Hong; Yu, Guangjun

    2017-03-27

    Long non-coding RNA overlapping with protein-coding gene (lncRNA-coding pair) is a special type of overlapping genes. Protein-coding overlapping genes have been well studied and increasing attention has been paid to lncRNAs. By studying lncRNA-coding pairs in human genome, we showed that lncRNA-coding pairs were more likely to be generated by overprinting and retaining genes in lncRNA-coding pairs were given higher priority than non-overlapping genes. Besides, the preference of overlapping configurations preserved during evolution was based on the origin of lncRNA-coding pairs. Further investigations showed that lncRNAs promoting the splicing of their embedded protein-coding partners was a unilateral interaction, but the existence of overlapping partners improving the gene expression was bidirectional and the effect was decreased with the increased evolutionary age of genes. Additionally, the expression of lncRNA-coding pairs showed an overall positive correlation and the expression correlation was associated with their overlapping configurations, local genomic environment and evolutionary age of genes. Comparison of the expression correlation of lncRNA-coding pairs between normal and cancer samples found that the lineage-specific pairs including old protein-coding genes may play an important role in tumorigenesis. This work presents a systematically comprehensive understanding of the evolution and the expression pattern of human lncRNA-coding pairs.

  8. Contrasting Patterns of Nucleotide Substitution Rates Provide Insight into Dynamic Evolution of Plastid and Mitochondrial Genomes of Geranium.

    PubMed

    Park, Seongjun; Ruhlman, Tracey A; Weng, Mao-Lun; Hajrah, Nahid H; Sabir, Jamal S M; Jansen, Robert K

    2017-06-01

    Geraniaceae have emerged as a model system for investigating the causes and consequences of variation in plastid and mitochondrial genomes. Incredible structural variation in plastid genomes (plastomes) and highly accelerated evolutionary rates have been reported in selected lineages and functional groups of genes in both plastomes and mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes), and these phenomena have been implicated in cytonuclear incompatibility. Previous organelle genome studies have included limited sampling of Geranium, the largest genus in the family with over 400 species. This study reports on rates and patterns of nucleotide substitutions in plastomes and mitogenomes of 17 species of Geranium and representatives of other Geraniaceae. As detected across other angiosperms, substitution rates in the plastome are 3.5 times higher than the mitogenome in most Geranium. However, in the branch leading to Geranium brycei/Geranium incanum mitochondrial genes experienced significantly higher dN and dS than plastid genes, a pattern that has only been detected in one other angiosperm. Furthermore, rate accelerations differ in the two organelle genomes with plastomes having increased dN and mitogenomes with increased dS. In the Geranium phaeum/Geranium reflexum clade, duplicate copies of clpP and rpoA genes that experienced asymmetric rate divergence were detected in the single copy region of the plastome. In the case of rpoA, the branch leading to G. phaeum/G. reflexum experienced positive selection or relaxation of purifying selection. Finally, the evolution of acetyl-CoA carboxylase is unusual in Geraniaceae because it is only the second angiosperm family where both prokaryotic and eukaryotic ACCases functionally coexist in the plastid. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  9. The nocturnal bottleneck and the evolution of activity patterns in mammals.

    PubMed

    Gerkema, Menno P; Davies, Wayne I L; Foster, Russell G; Menaker, Michael; Hut, Roelof A

    2013-08-22

    In 1942, Walls described the concept of a 'nocturnal bottleneck' in placental mammals, where these species could survive only by avoiding daytime activity during times in which dinosaurs were the dominant taxon. Walls based this concept of a longer episode of nocturnality in early eutherian mammals by comparing the visual systems of reptiles, birds and all three extant taxa of the mammalian lineage, namely the monotremes, marsupials (now included in the metatherians) and placentals (included in the eutherians). This review describes the status of what has become known as the nocturnal bottleneck hypothesis, giving an overview of the chronobiological patterns of activity. We review the ecological plausibility that the activity patterns of (early) eutherian mammals were restricted to the night, based on arguments relating to endothermia, energy balance, foraging and predation, taking into account recent palaeontological information. We also assess genes, relating to light detection (visual and non-visual systems) and the photolyase DNA protection system that were lost in the eutherian mammalian lineage. Our conclusion presently is that arguments in favour of the nocturnal bottleneck hypothesis in eutherians prevail.

  10. The nocturnal bottleneck and the evolution of activity patterns in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Gerkema, Menno P.; Davies, Wayne I. L.; Foster, Russell G.; Menaker, Michael; Hut, Roelof A.

    2013-01-01

    In 1942, Walls described the concept of a ‘nocturnal bottleneck’ in placental mammals, where these species could survive only by avoiding daytime activity during times in which dinosaurs were the dominant taxon. Walls based this concept of a longer episode of nocturnality in early eutherian mammals by comparing the visual systems of reptiles, birds and all three extant taxa of the mammalian lineage, namely the monotremes, marsupials (now included in the metatherians) and placentals (included in the eutherians). This review describes the status of what has become known as the nocturnal bottleneck hypothesis, giving an overview of the chronobiological patterns of activity. We review the ecological plausibility that the activity patterns of (early) eutherian mammals were restricted to the night, based on arguments relating to endothermia, energy balance, foraging and predation, taking into account recent palaeontological information. We also assess genes, relating to light detection (visual and non-visual systems) and the photolyase DNA protection system that were lost in the eutherian mammalian lineage. Our conclusion presently is that arguments in favour of the nocturnal bottleneck hypothesis in eutherians prevail. PMID:23825205

  11. Energetic constraints, not predation, influence the evolution of sleep patterning in mammals.

    PubMed

    Capellini, I; Nunn, C L; McNamara, P; Preston, B T; Barton, R A

    2008-10-01

    Mammalian sleep is composed of two distinct states - rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep - that alternate in cycles over a sleep bout. The duration of these cycles varies extensively across mammalian species. Because the end of a sleep cycle is often followed by brief arousals to waking, a shorter sleep cycle has been proposed to function as an anti-predator strategy. Similarly, higher predation risk could explain why many species exhibit a polyphasic sleep pattern (division of sleep into several bouts per day), as having multiple sleep bouts avoids long periods of unconsciousness, potentially reducing vulnerability.Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we tested these predictions in mammals, and also investigated the relationships among sleep phasing, sleep-cycle length, sleep durations and body mass.Neither sleep-cycle length nor phasing of sleep was significantly associated with three different measures of predation risk, undermining the idea that they represent anti-predator adaptations.Polyphasic sleep was associated with small body size, shorter sleep cycles and longer sleep durations. The correlation with size may reflect energetic constraints: small animals need to feed more frequently, preventing them from consolidating sleep into a single bout. The reduced daily sleep quotas in monophasic species suggests that the consolidation of sleep into one bout per day may deliver the benefits of sleep more efficiently and, since early mammals were small-bodied and polyphasic, a more efficient monophasic sleep pattern could be a hitherto unrecognized advantage of larger size.

  12. Long-distance communication by specialized cellular projections during pigment pattern development and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Dae Seok; Bain, Emily J; Patterson, Larissa B; Grout, Megan E; Parichy, David M

    2015-01-01

    Changes in gene activity are essential for evolutionary diversification. Yet, elucidating the cellular behaviors that underlie modifications to adult form remains a profound challenge. We use neural crest-derived adult pigmentation of zebrafish and pearl danio to uncover cellular bases for alternative pattern states. We show that stripes in zebrafish require a novel class of thin, fast cellular projection to promote Delta-Notch signaling over long distances from cells of the xanthophore lineage to melanophores. Projections depended on microfilaments and microtubules, exhibited meandering trajectories, and stabilized on target cells to which they delivered membraneous vesicles. By contrast, the uniformly patterned pearl danio lacked such projections, concomitant with Colony stimulating factor 1-dependent changes in xanthophore differentiation that likely curtail signaling available to melanophores. Our study reveals a novel mechanism of cellular communication, roles for differentiation state heterogeneity in pigment cell interactions, and an unanticipated morphogenetic behavior contributing to a striking difference in adult form. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12401.001 PMID:26701906

  13. Onshore–offshore gradient in metacommunity turnover emerges only over macroevolutionary time-scales

    PubMed Central

    Tomašových, Adam; Dominici, Stefano; Zuschin, Martin; Merle, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Invertebrate lineages tend to originate and become extinct at a higher rate in onshore than in offshore habitats over long temporal durations (more than 10 Myr), but it remains unclear whether this pattern scales down to durations of stages (less than 5 Myr) or even sequences (less than 0.5 Myr). We assess whether onshore–offshore gradients in long-term turnover between the tropical Eocene and the warm-temperate Plio-Pleistocene can be extrapolated from gradients in short-term turnover, using abundances of molluscan species from bulk samples in the northeast Atlantic Province. We find that temporal turnover of metacommunities does not significantly decline with depth over short durations (less than 5 Myr), but significantly declines with depth between the Eocene and Plio-Pleistocene (approx. 50 Myr). This decline is determined by a higher onshore extinction of Eocene genera and families, by a higher onshore variability in abundances of genera and families, and by an onshore expansion of genera and families that were frequent offshore in the Eocene. Onshore–offshore decline in turnover thus emerges only over long temporal durations. We suggest that this emergence is triggered by abrupt and spatially extensive climatic or oceanographic perturbations that occurred between the Eocene and Plio-Pleistocene. Plio-Pleistocene metacommunities show a high proportion of bathymetric generalists, in contrast to Eocene metacommunities. Accordingly, the net cooling and weaker thermal gradients may have allowed offshore specialists to expand into onshore habitats and maintain their presence in offshore habitats. PMID:25297863

  14. Modeling bivalve diversification: the effect of interaction on a macroevolutionary system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. I.; Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    The global diversification of the class Bivalvia has historically received two conflicting interpretations. One is that a major upturn in diversification was associated with, and a consequence of, the Lake Permian mass extinction. The other is that mass extinctions have had little influence and that bivalves have experienced slow but nearly steady exponential diversification through most of their history, unaffected by interactions with other clades. We find that the most likely explanation lies between these two interpretations. Through most of the Phanerozoic, the diversity of bivalves did indeed exhibit slow growth, which was not substantially altered by mass extinctions. However, the presence of "hyperexponential bursts" in diversification during the initial Ordovician radiation and following the Late Permian and Late Cretaceous mass extinctions suggests a more complex history in which a higher characteristic diversification rate was dampened through most of the Phanerozoic. The observed pattern can be accounted for with a two-phase coupled (i.e., interactive) logistic model, where one phase is treated as the "bivalves" and the other phase is treated as a hypothetical group of clades with which the "bivalves" might have interacted. Results of this analysis suggest that interactions with other taxa have substantially affected bivalve global diversity through the Phanerozoic.

  15. Conserved patterns of integrated developmental plasticity in a group of polyphenic tropical butterflies.

    PubMed

    van Bergen, Erik; Osbaldeston, Dave; Kodandaramaiah, Ullasa; Brattström, Oskar; Aduse-Poku, Kwaku; Brakefield, Paul M

    2017-02-27

    Developmental plasticity is thought to have profound macro-evolutionary effects, for example, by increasing the probability of establishment in new environments and subsequent divergence into independently evolving lineages. In contrast to plasticity optimized for individual traits, phenotypic integration, which enables a concerted response of plastic traits to environmental variability, may affect the rate of local adaptation by constraining independent responses of traits to selection. Using a comparative framework, this study explores the evolution of reaction norms for a variety of life history and morphological traits across five related species of mycalesine butterflies from the Old World tropics. Our data indicate that an integrated response of a suite of key traits is shared amongst these species. Interestingly, the traits that make up the functional suite are all known to be regulated by ecdysteroid signalling in Bicyclus anynana, one of the species included in this study, suggesting the same underlying hormonal regulator may be conserved within this group of polyphenic butterflies. We also detect developmental thresholds for the expression of alternative morphs. The phenotypic plasticity of a broad suite of morphological and life history traits is integrated and shared among species from three geographically independent lineages of mycalesine butterflies, despite considerable periods of independent evolution and exposure to disparate environments. At the same time, we have detected examples of evolutionary change where independent traits show different patterns of reaction norms. We argue that the expression of more robust phenotypes may occur by shifting developmental thresholds beyond the boundaries of the typical environmental variation.

  16. Episode-Based Evolution Pattern Analysis of Haze Pollution: Method Development and Results from Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guangjie; Duan, Fengkui; Ma, Yongliang; Zhang, Qiang; Huang, Tao; Kimoto, Takashi; Cheng, Yafang; Su, Hang; He, Kebin

    2016-05-03

    Haze episodes occurred in Beijing repeatedly in 2013, resulting in 189 polluted days. These episodes differed in terms of sources, formation processes, and chemical composition and thus required different control policies. Therefore, an overview of the similarities and differences among these episodes is needed. For this purpose, we conducted one-year online observations and developed a program that can simultaneously divide haze episodes and identify their shapes. A total of 73 episodes were identified, and their shapes were linked with synoptic conditions. Pure-haze events dominated in wintertime, whereas mixed haze-dust (PM2.5/PM10 < 60%) and mixed haze-fog (Aerosol Water/PM2.5 ∼ 0.3) events dominated in spring and summer-autumn, respectively. For all types, increase of ratio of PM2.5 in PM10 was typically achieved before PM2.5 reached ∼150 μg/m(3). In all PM2.5 species observed, organic matter (OM) was always the most abundant component (18-60%), but it was rarely the driving factor: its relative contribution usually decreased as the pollution level increased. The only OM-driven episode observed was associated with intensive biomass-burning activities. In comparison, haze evolution generally coincided with increasing sulfur and nitrogen oxidation ratios (SOR and NOR), indicating the enhanced production of secondary inorganic species. Applicability of these conclusions required further tests with simultaneously multisite observations.

  17. Patterns of threshold evolution in polyphenic insects under different developmental models.

    PubMed

    Tomkins, Joseph L; Moczek, Armin P

    2009-02-01

    Two hypotheses address the evolution of polyphenic traits in insects. Under the developmental reprogramming model, individuals exceeding a threshold follow a different developmental pathway from individuals below the threshold. This decoupling is thought to free selection to independently hone alternative morphologies, increasing phenotypic plasticity and morphological diversity. Under the alternative model, extreme positive allometry explains the existence of alternative phenotypes and divergent phenotypes are developmentally coupled by a continuous reaction norm, such that selection on either morph acts on both. We test the hypothesis that continuous reaction norm polyphenisms, evolve through changes in the allometric parameters of even the smallest males with minimal trait expression, whereas threshold polyphenisms evolve independent of the allometric parameters of individuals below the threshold. We compare two polyphenic species; the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus, whose allometry has been modeled both as a threshold polyphenism and a continuous reaction norm and the earwig Forficula auricularia, whose allometry is best modeled with a discontinuous threshold. We find that across populations of both species, variation in forceps or horn allometry in minor males are correlated to the population's threshold. These findings suggest that regardless of developmental mode, alternative morphs do not evolve independently of one another.

  18. Time evolution of surface chlorophyll patterns from cross-spectrum analysis of satellite color images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denman, Kenneth L.; Abbott, Mark R.

    1988-01-01

    The rate of decorrelation of surface chlorophyll patterns as a function of the time separation between pairs of images was determined from two sequences of CZCS images of the Pacific Ocean area adjacent to Vancouver Island, Canada; cloud-free subareas were selected that were common to several images separated in time by 1-17 days. Image pairs were subjected to two-dimensional autospectrum and cross-spectrum analysis in an array processor, and squared coherence estimates found for several wave bands were plotted against time separation, in analogy with a time-lagged cross correlation function. It was found that, for wavelengths of 50-150 km, significant coherence was lost after 7-10 days, while for wavelengths of 25-50 km, significant coherence was lost after only 5-7 days. In both cases, offshore regions maintained coherence longer than coastal regions.

  19. Angiosperm n-alkane distribution patterns and the geologic record of C4 grassland evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, A.; Graham, H. V.; Patzkowsky, M.; Fox, D. L.; Freeman, K. H.

    2012-12-01

    n-Alkane average chain-length (ACL) patterns vary regionally with community composition and climate. To clarify the influence of phylogenetic and community patterns, we compiled and analyzed a global database of published n-alkane abundance for n-C27 to C35 homologs in modern plant specimens (n=205). ACL for waxes in C4 non-woody plants are longer than for woody plants, suggesting ACL can serve as an indicator of the three-dimensional structure of local vegetation. Further, these findings suggest compound-specific isotopic data for longer alkane homologs (C31, C33, C35) will proportionately represent non-woody vegetation and isotope measurements of C29 are more representative of woody vegetation. Thus, the combination of ACL and carbon isotope compositions should allow us to disentangle C3 woody, C3 non-woody, and C4 non-woody signals in terrestrial paleorecords. Application of this approach to the geologic record of Miocene C4 grassland expansion in the US Great Plains and the Siwaliks in Pakistan illustrate two very different transition scenarios. Alkane-specific isotopic data indicate C4 grasslands appeared 2.5 Ma in the Great Plains and 6.5 Ma in the Siwaliks, and ACL analysis indicates that this transition involved the replacement of woody vegetation in the US and the replacement of C3 grasses in Pakistan. Our analysis illustrates that, consistent with differences in the timing of C4 grassland, the drivers of change were likely not the same in these regions. Oxygen isotope records suggest that the more recent transition in the Great Plains was associated with climate cooling and possibly changes in disturbance regimes and that the transition in the Siwaliks was likely associated with warming and drying.

  20. Neutral Evolution and Dispersal Limitation Produce Biogeographic Patterns in Microcystis aeruginosa Populations of Lake Systems.

    PubMed

    Shirani, Sahar; Hellweger, Ferdi L

    2017-08-01

    Molecular observations reveal substantial biogeographic patterns of cyanobacteria within systems of connected lakes. An important question is the relative role of environmental selection and neutral processes in the biogeography of these systems. Here, we quantify the effect of genetic drift and dispersal limitation by simulating individual cyanobacteria cells using an agent-based model (ABM). In the model, cells grow (divide), die, and migrate between lakes. Each cell has a full genome that is subject to neutral mutation (i.e., the growth rate is independent of the genome). The model is verified by simulating simplified lake systems, for which theoretical solutions are available. Then, it is used to simulate the biogeography of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa in a number of real systems, including the Great Lakes, Klamath River, Yahara River, and Chattahoochee River. Model output is analyzed using standard bioinformatics tools (BLAST, MAFFT). The emergent patterns of nucleotide divergence between lakes are dynamic, including gradual increases due to accumulation of mutations and abrupt changes due to population takeovers by migrant cells (coalescence events). The model predicted nucleotide divergence is heterogeneous within systems, and for weakly connected lakes, it can be substantial. For example, Lakes Superior and Michigan are predicted to have an average genomic nucleotide divergence of 8200 bp or 0.14%. The divergence between more strongly connected lakes is much lower. Our results provide a quantitative baseline for future biogeography studies. They show that dispersal limitation can be an important factor in microbe biogeography, which is contrary to the common belief, and could affect how a system responds to environmental change.

  1. Evolution of large body size in abalones (Haliotis): Patterns and implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Estes, J.A.; Lindberg, D.R.; Wray, C.

    2005-01-01

    Kelps and other fleshy macroalgae - dominant reef-inhabiting organisms in cool - seasmay have radiated extensively following late Cenozoic polar cooling, thus triggering a chain of evolutionary change in the trophic ecology of nearshore temperate ecosystems. We explore this hypothesis through an analysis of body size in the abalones (Gastropoda; Haliotidae), a widely distributed group in modern oceans that displays a broad range of body sizes and contains fossil representatives from the late Cretaceous (60-75 Ma). Geographic analysis of maximum shell length in living abalones showed that small-bodied species, while most common in the Tropics, have a cosmopolitan distribution, whereas large-bodied species occur exclusively in cold-water ecosystems dominated by kelps and other macroalgae. The phylogeography of body size evolution in extant abalones was assessed by constructing a molecular phylogeny in a mix of large and small species obtained from different regions of the world. This analysis demonstrates that small body size is the plesiomorphic state and largeness has likely arisen at least twice. Finally, we compiled data on shell length from the fossil record to determine how (slowly or suddenly) and when large body size arose in the abalones. These data indicate that large body size appears suddenly at the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. Our findings support the view that fleshy-algal dominated ecosystems radiated rapidly in the coastal oceans with the onset of the most recent glacial age. We conclude with a discussion of the broader implications of this change. ?? 2005 The Paleontological Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Adaptive evolution of seed oil content in angiosperms: accounting for the global patterns of seed oils.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, Anushree; Decocq, Guillaume

    2016-09-09

    Studies of the biogeographic distribution of seed oil content in plants are fundamental to understanding the mechanisms of adaptive evolution in plants as seed oil is the primary energy source needed for germination and establishment of plants. However, seed oil content as an adaptive trait in plants is poorly understood. Here, we examine the adaptive nature of seed oil content in 168 angiosperm families occurring in different biomes across the world. We also explore the role of multiple seed traits like seed oil content and composition in plant adaptation in a phylogenetic and nonphylogenetic context. It was observed that the seed oil content in tropical plants (28.4 %) was significantly higher than the temperate plants (24.6 %). A significant relationship between oil content and latitude was observed in three families Papaveraceae, Sapindaceae and Sapotaceae indicating that selective forces correlated with latitude influence seed oil content. Evaluation of the response of seed oil content and composition to latitude and the correlation between seed oil content and composition showed that multiple seed traits, seed oil content and composition contribute towards plant adaptation. Investigation of the presence or absence of phylogenetic signals across 168 angiosperm families in 62 clades revealed that members of seven clades evolved to have high or low seed oil content independently as they did not share a common evolutionary path. The study provides us an insight into the biogeographical distribution and the adaptive role of seed oil content in plants. The study indicates that multiple seed traits like seed oil content and the fatty acid composition of the seed oils determine the fitness of the plants and validate the adaptive hypothesis that seed oil quantity and quality are crucial to plant adaptation.

  3. Changes in exon–intron structure during vertebrate evolution affect the splicing pattern of exons

    PubMed Central

    Gelfman, Sahar; Burstein, David; Penn, Osnat; Savchenko, Anna; Amit, Maayan; Schwartz, Schraga; Pupko, Tal; Ast, Gil

    2012-01-01

    Exon–intron architecture is one of the major features directing the splicing machinery to the short exons that are located within long flanking introns. However, the evolutionary dynamics of exon–intron architecture and its impact on splicing is largely unknown. Using a comparative genomic approach, we analyzed 17 vertebrate genomes and reconstructed the ancestral motifs of both 3′ and 5′ splice sites, as also the ancestral length of exons and introns. Our analyses suggest that vertebrate introns increased in length from the shortest ancestral introns to the longest primate introns. An evolutionary analysis of splice sites revealed that weak splice sites act as a restrictive force keeping introns short. In contrast, strong splice sites allow recognition of exons flanked by long introns. Reconstruction of the ancestral state suggests these phenomena were not prevalent in the vertebrate ancestor, but appeared during vertebrate evolution. By calculating evolutionary rate shifts in exons, we identified cis-acting regulatory sequences that became fixed during the transition from early vertebrates to mammals. Experimental validations performed on a selection of these hexamers confirmed their regulatory function. We additionally revealed many features of exons that can discriminate alternative from constitutive exons. These features were integrated into a machine-learning approach to predict whether an exon is alternative. Our algorithm obtains very high predictive power (AUC of 0.91), and using these predictions we have identified and successfully validated novel alternatively spliced exons. Overall, we provide novel insights regarding the evolutionary constraints acting upon exons and their recognition by the splicing machinery. PMID:21974994

  4. Adaptive Evolution and Environmental Durability Jointly Structure Phylodynamic Patterns in Avian Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Benjamin; Drake, John M.; Brown, Justin; Stallknecht, David E.; Bedford, Trevor; Rohani, Pejman

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have been pivotal to the origination of human pandemic strains. Despite their scientific and public health significance, however, there remains much to be understood about the ecology and evolution of AIVs in wild birds, where major pools of genetic diversity are generated and maintained. Here, we present comparative phylodynamic analyses of human and AIVs in North America, demonstrating (i) significantly higher standing genetic diversity and (ii) phylogenetic trees with a weaker signature of immune escape in AIVs than in human viruses. To explain these differences, we performed statistical analyses to quantify the relative contribution of several potential explanations. We found that HA genetic diversity in avian viruses is determined by a combination of factors, predominantly subtype-specific differences in host immune selective pressure and the ecology of transmission (in particular, the durability of subtypes in aquatic environments). Extending this analysis using a computational model demonstrated that virus durability may lead to long-term, indirect chains of transmission that, when coupled with a short host lifespan, can generate and maintain the observed high levels of genetic diversity. Further evidence in support of this novel finding was found by demonstrating an association between subtype-specific environmental durability and predicted phylogenetic signatures: genetic diversity, variation in phylogenetic tree branch lengths, and tree height. The conclusion that environmental transmission plays an important role in the evolutionary biology of avian influenza viruses—a manifestation of the “storage effect”—highlights the potentially unpredictable impact of wildlife reservoirs for future human pandemics and the need for improved understanding of the natural ecology of these viruses. PMID:25116957

  5. Streamflow droughts in major watershed regions of the conterminous U.S.: Understanding evolution of historic patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pournasiri Poshtiri, M.; Pal, I.

    2015-12-01

    Climate non-stationarity affects regional hydrological extremes. This research looks into historic patterns of streamflow drought indicators and their evolution for major watershed regions in the conterminous U.S. (CONUS). The results indicate general linear and non-linear drying trends, particularly in the last four decades, as opposed to wetting trends reported in previous studies. Regional differences in the trends are notable, and echo the local climatic changes documented in the recent National Climate Assessment (NCA). A reversal of linear trends is seen for some northern regions after 1980s. Patterns in return periods and corresponding return values of the indicators are also examined, which suggests changing risk conditions that are important for water-resources decision-making. Persistent or flash drought conditions in a river can lead to chronic or short-term water scarcity—a main driver of societal and cross-boundary conflicts. Thus, this research identifies "hotspot" locations where suitable adaptive management measures are most needed.

  6. Changes in landscape evolution patterns during the Mid-Pleistocene Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claude, A.; Akçar, N.; Ivy-Ochs, S.; Schlunegger, F.; Kubik, P.; Christl, M.; Vockenhuber, C.; Dehnert, A.; Kuhlemann, J.; Rahn, M. K. W.; Schluechter, C.

    2016-12-01

    River terraces in the Alpine Foreland are sedimentary archives that have recorded paleoenvironmental changes during the Quaternary. In the Swiss Alpine Foreland, Quaternary terraces represent a succession of proximal glaciofluvial gravels deposited by meltwater during repeated glaciations of the Alps and the foreland and lying unconformably on Tertiary molasse or Mesozoic carbonate bedrock. The morphostratigraphy of the terrace gravels has a reversed stratigraphic relationship such that older deposits occur at higher elevations than younger deposits. The aim of this study is to reconstruct the landscape evolution of the northern Alpine Foreland since the early and middle Pleistocene. We focus on seven different sites where we establish their chronology by applying cosmogenic depth-profile and isochron burial dating with 10Be, 26Al and 36Cl. Additionally we perform detailed investigations of clast fabrics, petrographic compositions and clast morphometries to identify the sediment source areas and interpret their transport mechanisms and depositional environments. Finally, coupling the reconstructed chronologies with interpolated height differences between the bedrock underlying the Quaternary deposits and the bedrock beneath the modern river allows estimating post-depositional bedrock incision rates. Analyses show that a first gravel accumulation occurred at around 2 Ma, with most of the sediments originating from the northern Central Alps or being reworked from the Miocene Molasse conglomerates. At that time, the Alpine Rhine was draining through Lake Constance into the Danube River and eastwards into the Black Sea. Long-term incision rates into bedrock are ≤ 100 m/Ma. A second phase of gravel accumulation was observed at around 1 Ma, coinciding with the Mid-Pleistocene Revolution. Results from provenance studies showed that these sediments were derived either from the northern central and eastern Alps or were reworked from the Molasse in the Alpine Foreland

  7. Adult sex ratios and partner scarcity among hunter-gatherers: implications for dispersal patterns and the evolution of human sociality.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Karen L; Schacht, Ryan; Bell, Adrian

    2017-09-19

    Small populations are susceptible to high genetic loads and random fluctuations in birth and death rates. While these selective forces can adversely affect their viability, small populations persist across taxa. Here, we investigate the resilience of small groups to demographic uncertainty, and specifically to fluctuations in adult sex ratio (ASR), partner availability and dispersal patterns. Using 25 years of demographic data for two Savannah Pumé groups of South American hunter-gatherers, we show that in small human populations: (i) ASRs fluctuate substantially from year to year, but do not consistently trend in a sex-biased direction; (ii) the primary driver of local variation in partner availability is stochasticity in the sex ratio at maturity; and (iii) dispersal outside of the group is an important behavioural means to mediate locally constrained mating options. To then simulate conditions under which dispersal outside of the local group may have evolved, we develop two mathematical models. Model results predict that if the ASR is biased, the globally rarer sex should disperse. The model's utility is then evaluated by applying our empirical data to this central prediction. The results are consistent with the observed hunter-gatherer pattern of variation in the sex that disperses. Together, these findings offer an alternative explanation to resource provisioning for the evolution of traits central to human sociality (e.g. flexible dispersal, bilocal post-marital residence and cooperation across local groups). We argue that in small populations, looking outside of one's local group is necessary to find a mate and that, motivated by ASR imbalance, the alliances formed to facilitate the movement of partners are an important foundation for the human-typical pattern of network formation across local groups.This article is part of the themed issue 'Adult sex ratios and reproductive decisions: a critical re-examination of sex differences in human and animal

  8. Sexual selection on male size drives the evolution of male-biased sexual size dimorphism via the prolongation of male development.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Patrick T; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Puniamoorthy, Nalini

    2016-06-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) arises when the net effects of natural and sexual selection on body size differ between the sexes. Quantitative SSD variation between taxa is common, but directional intraspecific SSD reversals are rare. We combined micro- and macroevolutionary approaches to study geographic SSD variation in closely related black scavenger flies. Common garden experiments revealed stark intra- and interspecific variation: Sepsis biflexuosa is monomorphic across the Holarctic, while S. cynipsea (only in Europe) consistently exhibits female-biased SSD. Interestingly, S. neocynipsea displays contrasting SSD in Europe (females larger) and North America (males larger), a pattern opposite to the geographic reversal in SSD of S. punctum documented in a previous study. In accordance with the differential equilibrium model for the evolution of SSD, the intensity of sexual selection on male size varied between continents (weaker in Europe), whereas fecundity selection on female body size did not. Subsequent comparative analyses of 49 taxa documented at least six independent origins of male-biased SSD in Sepsidae, which is likely caused by sexual selection on male size and mediated by bimaturism. Therefore, reversals in SSD and the associated changes in larval development might be much more common and rapid and less constrained than currently assumed. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. Microfracture spacing distributions and the evolution of fracture patterns in sandstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooker, J. N.; Laubach, S. E.; Marrett, R.

    2018-03-01

    Natural fracture patterns in sandstone were sampled using scanning electron microscope-based cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) imaging. All fractures are opening-mode and are fully or partially sealed by quartz cement. Most sampled fractures are too small to be height-restricted by sedimentary layers. At very low strains (<∼0.001), fracture spatial distributions are indistinguishable from random, whereas at higher strains, fractures are generally statistically clustered. All 12 large (N > 100) datasets show spacings that are best fit by log-normal size distributions, compared to exponential, power law, or normal distributions. The clustering of fractures suggests that the locations of natural factures are not determined by a random process. To investigate natural fracture localization, we reconstructed the opening history of a cluster of fractures within the Huizachal Group in northeastern Mexico, using fluid inclusions from synkinematic cements and thermal-history constraints. The largest fracture, which is the only fracture in the cluster visible to the naked eye, among 101 present, opened relatively late in the sequence. This result suggests that the growth of sets of fractures is a self-organized process, in which small, initially isolated fractures grow and progressively interact, with preferential growth of a subset of fractures developing at the expense of growth of the rest. Size-dependent sealing of fractures within sets suggests that synkinematic cementation may contribute to fracture clustering.

  10. Long Bone Histology and Growth Patterns in Ankylosaurs: Implications for Life History and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Martina; Hayashi, Shoji; Sander, P. Martin

    2013-01-01

    The ankylosaurs are one of the major dinosaur groups and are characterized by unique body armor. Previous studies on other dinosaur taxa have revealed growth patterns, life history and evolutionary mechanisms based on their long bone histology. However, to date nothing is known about long bone histology in the Ankylosauria. This study is the first description of ankylosaurian long bone histology based on several limb elements, which were sampled from different individuals from the Ankylosauridae and Nodosauridae. The histology is compared to that of other dinosaur groups, including other Thyreophora and Sauropodomorpha. Ankylosaur long bone histology is characterized by a fibrolamellar bone architecture. The bone matrix type in ankylosaurs is closest to that of Stegosaurus. A distinctive mixture of woven and parallel-fibered bone together with overall poor vascularization indicates slow growth rates compared to other dinosaurian taxa. Another peculiar characteristic of ankylosaur bone histology is the extensive remodeling in derived North American taxa. In contrast to other taxa, ankylosaurs substitute large amounts of their primary tissue early in ontogeny. This anomaly may be linked to the late ossification of the ankylosaurian body armor. Metabolically driven remodeling processes must have liberated calcium to ossify the protective osteodermal structures in juveniles to subadult stages, which led to further remodeling due to increased mechanical loading. Abundant structural fibers observed in the primary bone and even in remodeled bone may have improved the mechanical properties of the Haversian bone. PMID:23894321

  11. Multi-locus phylogenetic analysis reveals the pattern and tempo of bony fish evolution

    PubMed Central

    Broughton, Richard E.; Betancur-R., Ricardo; Li, Chenhong; Arratia, Gloria; Ortí, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Over half of all vertebrates are “fishes”, which exhibit enormous diversity in morphology, physiology, behavior, reproductive biology, and ecology. Investigation of fundamental areas of vertebrate biology depend critically on a robust phylogeny of fishes, yet evolutionary relationships among the major actinopterygian and sarcopterygian lineages have not been conclusively resolved. Although a consensus phylogeny of teleosts has been emerging recently, it has been based on analyses of various subsets of actinopterygian taxa, but not on a full sample of all bony fishes. Here we conducted a comprehensive phylogenetic study on a broad taxonomic sample of 61 actinopterygian and sarcopterygian lineages (with a chondrichthyan outgroup) using a molecular data set of 21 independent loci. These data yielded a resolved phylogenetic hypothesis for extant Osteichthyes, including 1) reciprocally monophyletic Sarcopterygii and Actinopterygii, as currently understood, with polypteriforms as the first diverging lineage within Actinopterygii; 2) a monophyletic group containing gars and bowfin (= Holostei) as sister group to teleosts; and 3) the earliest diverging lineage among teleosts being Elopomorpha, rather than Osteoglossomorpha. Relaxed-clock dating analysis employing a set of 24 newly applied fossil calibrations reveals divergence times that are more consistent with paleontological estimates than previous studies. Establishing a new phylogenetic pattern with accurate divergence dates for bony fishes illustrates several areas where the fossil record is incomplete and provides critical new insights on diversification of this important vertebrate group. PMID:23788273

  12. Evolution of wave patterns and temperature field in shock-tube flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiverin, A. D.; Yakovenko, I. S.

    2018-05-01

    The paper is devoted to the numerical analysis of wave patterns behind a shock wave propagating in a tube filled with a gaseous mixture. It is shown that the flow inside the boundary layer behind the shock wave is unstable, and the way the instability develops fully corresponds to the solution obtained for the boundary layer over a flat plate. Vortical perturbations inside the boundary layer determine the nonuniformity of the temperature field. In turn, exactly these nonuniformities define the way the ignition kernels arise in the combustible mixture after the reflected shock interaction with the boundary layer. In particular, the temperature nonuniformity determines the spatial limitations of probable ignition kernel position relative to the end wall and side walls of the tube. In the case of low-intensity incident shocks the ignition could start not farther than the point of first interaction between the reflected shock wave and roller vortices formed in the process of boundary layer development. Proposed physical mechanisms are formulated in general terms and can be used for interpretation of the experimental data in any systems with a delayed exothermal reaction start. It is also shown that contact surface thickening occurs due to its interaction with Tollmien-Schlichting waves. This conclusion is of importance for understanding the features of ignition in shock tubes operating in the over-tailored regime.

  13. Temporal evolution of total ozone and circulation patterns over European mid-latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monge Sanz, B. M.; Casale, G. R.; Palmieri, S.; Siani, A. M.

    2003-04-01

    Linear correlation analysis and the running correlation technique are used to investigate the interannual and interdecadal variations of total ozone (TO) over several mid-latitude European locations. The study includes the longest series of ozone data, that of the Swiss station of Arosa. TO series have been related to time series of two circulation indices, the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI) and the Arctic Oscillation Index (AOI). The analysis has been performed with monthly data, and both series containing all the months of the year and winter (DJFM) series have been used. Special attention has been given to winter series, which exhibit very high correlation coefficients with NAOI and AOI; interannual variations of this relationship are studied by applying the running correlation technique. TO and circulation indices data series have been also partitioned into their different time-scale components with the Kolmogorov-Zurbenko method. Long-term components indicate the existence of strong opposite connection between total ozone and circulation patterns over the studied region during the last three decades. However, it is also observed that this relation has not always been so, and in previous times differences in the correlation amplitude and sign have been detected.

  14. Bone microstructure and the evolution of growth patterns in Permo-Triassic therocephalians (Amniota, Therapsida) of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Botha-Brink, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Therocephalians were a speciose clade of nonmammalian therapsids whose ecological diversity and survivorship of the end-Permian mass extinction offer the potential to investigate the evolution of growth patterns across the clade and their underlying influences on post-extinction body size reductions, or ‘Lilliput effects’. We present a phylogenetic survey of limb bone histology and growth patterns in therocephalians from the Middle Permian through Middle Triassic of the Karoo Basin, South Africa. Histologic sections were prepared from 80 limb bones representing 11 genera of therocephalians. Histologic indicators of skeletal growth, including cortical vascularity (%CV) and mean primary osteon diameters (POD), were evaluated in a phylogenetic framework and assessed for correlations with other biologically significant variables (e.g., size and robusticity). Changes in %CV and POD correlated strongly with evolutionary changes in body size (i.e., smaller-bodied descendants tended to have lower %CV than their larger-bodied ancestors across the tree). Bone wall thickness tended to be high in early therocephalians and lower in the gracile-limbed baurioids, but showed no general correlation with cross-sectional area or degree of vascularity (and, thus, growth). Clade-level patterns, however, deviated from previously studied within-lineage patterns. For example, Moschorhinus, one of few therapsid genera to have survived the extinction boundary, demonstrated higher %CV in the Triassic than in the Permian despite its smaller size in the extinction aftermath. Results support a synergistic model of size reductions for Triassic therocephalians, influenced both by within-lineage heterochronic shifts in survivor taxa (as reported in Moschorhinus and the dicynodont Lystrosaurus) and phylogenetically inferred survival of small-bodied taxa that had evolved short growth durations (e.g., baurioids). These findings mirror the multi-causal Lilliput patterns described in marine faunas

  15. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that diversification and body size evolution are independent in insects.

    PubMed

    Rainford, James L; Hofreiter, Michael; Mayhew, Peter J

    2016-01-08

    Skewed body size distributions and the high relative richness of small-bodied taxa are a fundamental property of a wide range of animal clades. The evolutionary processes responsible for generating these distributions are well described in vertebrate model systems but have yet to be explored in detail for other major terrestrial clades. In this study, we explore the macro-evolutionary patterns of body size variation across families of Hexapoda (insects and their close relatives), using recent advances in phylogenetic understanding, with an aim to investigate the link between size and diversity within this ancient and highly diverse lineage. The maximum, minimum and mean-log body lengths of hexapod families are all approximately log-normally distributed, consistent with previous studies at lower taxonomic levels, and contrasting with skewed distributions typical of vertebrate groups. After taking phylogeny and within-tip variation into account, we find no evidence for a negative relationship between diversification rate and body size, suggesting decoupling of the forces controlling these two traits. Likelihood-based modeling of the log-mean body size identifies distinct processes operating within Holometabola and Diptera compared with other hexapod groups, consistent with accelerating rates of size evolution within these clades, while as a whole, hexapod body size evolution is found to be dominated by neutral processes including significant phylogenetic conservatism. Based on our findings we suggest that the use of models derived from well-studied but atypical clades, such as vertebrates may lead to misleading conclusions when applied to other major terrestrial lineages. Our results indicate that within hexapods, and within the limits of current systematic and phylogenetic knowledge, insect diversification is generally unfettered by size-biased macro-evolutionary processes, and that these processes over large timescales tend to converge on apparently neutral

  16. Mosaic patterns of diversification dynamics following the colonization of Melanesian islands.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Emmanuel F A; Hendrich, Lars; Shaverdo, Helena; Balke, Michael

    2015-11-03

    The fate of newly settled dispersers on freshly colonized oceanic islands is a central theme of island biogeography. The emergence of increasingly sophisticated methods of macroevolutionary pattern inference paves the way for a deeper understanding of the mechanisms governing these diversification patterns on lineages following their colonization of oceanic islands. Here we infer a comprehensive molecular phylogeny for Melanesian Exocelina diving beetles. Recent methods in historical biogeography and diversification rate inference were then used to investigate the evolution of these insects in space and time. An Australian origin in the mid-Miocene was followed by independent colonization events towards New Guinea and New Caledonia in the late Miocene. One colonization of New Guinea led to a large radiation of >150 species and 3 independent colonizations of New Caledonia gave rise to about 40 species. The comparably late colonizations of Vanuatu, Hawaii and China left only one or two species in each region. The contrasting diversification trajectories of these insects on Melanesian islands are likely accounted for by island size, age and availability of ecological opportunities during the colonization stage.

  17. Pervasive adaptive protein evolution apparent in diversity patterns around amino acid substitutions in Drosophila simulans.

    PubMed

    Sattath, Shmuel; Elyashiv, Eyal; Kolodny, Oren; Rinott, Yosef; Sella, Guy

    2011-02-10

    In Drosophila, multiple lines of evidence converge in suggesting that beneficial substitutions to the genome may be common. All suffer from confounding factors, however, such that the interpretation of the evidence-in particular, conclusions about the rate and strength of beneficial substitutions-remains tentative. Here, we use genome-wide polymorphism data in D. simulans and sequenced genomes of its close relatives to construct a readily interpretable characterization of the effects of positive selection: the shape of average neutral diversity around amino acid substitutions. As expected under recurrent selective sweeps, we find a trough in diversity levels around amino acid but not around synonymous substitutions, a distinctive pattern that is not expected under alternative models. This characterization is richer than previous approaches, which relied on limited summaries of the data (e.g., the slope of a scatter plot), and relates to underlying selection parameters in a straightforward way, allowing us to make more reliable inferences about the prevalence and strength of adaptation. Specifically, we develop a coalescent-based model for the shape of the entire curve and use it to infer adaptive parameters by maximum likelihood. Our inference suggests that ∼13% of amino acid substitutions cause selective sweeps. Interestingly, it reveals two classes of beneficial fixations: a minority (approximately 3%) that appears to have had large selective effects and accounts for most of the reduction in diversity, and the remaining 10%, which seem to have had very weak selective effects. These estimates therefore help to reconcile the apparent conflict among previously published estimates of the strength of selection. More generally, our findings provide unequivocal evidence for strongly beneficial substitutions in Drosophila and illustrate how the rapidly accumulating genome-wide data can be leveraged to address enduring questions about the genetic basis of adaptation.

  18. The planetary nebulae populations in five galaxies: abundance patterns and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasińska, G.; Richer, M. G.; McCall, M. L.

    1998-08-01

    We have collected photometric and spectroscopic data on planetary nebulae (PNe) in 5 galaxies: the Milky Way (bulge), M 31 (bulge), M 32, the LMC and the SMC. We have computed the abundances of O, Ne and N and compared them from one galaxy to another. In each Galaxy, the distribution of oxygen abundances has a large dispersion. The average O/H ratio is larger in the M 31 and the Galactic bulge PNe than in those in the Magellanic Clouds. In a given galaxy, it is also larger for PNe with [O III] luminosities greater than 100 L_⊙, which are likely to probe more recent epochs in the galaxy history. We find that the M 31 and the Galactic bulge PNe extend the very tight Ne/H-O/H correlation observed in the Galactic disk and Magellanic Clouds PNe towards higher metallicities. We note that the anticorrelation between N/O and O/H that was known to occur in the Magellanic Clouds and in the disk PNe is also marginally found in the PNe of the Galactic bulge. Furthermore, we find that high N/O ratios are higher for less luminous PNe. In M 32, all PNe have a large N/O ratio, indicating that the stellar nitrogen abundance is enhanced in this galaxy. We have also compared the PN evolution in the different galactic systems by constructing diagrams that are independent of abundances, and have found strikingly different behaviours of the various samples. In order to help in the interpretation of these data, we have constructed a grid of expanding, PN photoionization models in which the central stars evolve according to the evolutionary tracks of Bl{öcker (1995). These models show that the apparent spectroscopic properties of PNe are extremely dependent, not only on the central stars, but also on the masses and expansion velocities of the nebular envelopes. The main conclusion of the confrontation of the observed samples with the model grids is that the PN populations are indeed not the same in the various parent galaxies. Both stars and nebulae are different. In particular, the

  19. Oxygen and evolutionary patterns in the sea: onshore/offshore trends and recent recruitment of deep-sea faunas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, D. K.; Lindberg, D. R.

    1998-01-01

    Over the last 15 years a striking pattern of diversification has been documented in the fossil record of benthic marine invertebrates. Higher taxa (orders) tend to originate onshore, diversify offshore, and retreat into deep-water environments. Previous studies attribute this macroevolutionary pattern to a variety of causes, foremost among them the role of nearshore disturbance in providing opportunities for the evolution of novel forms accorded ordinal rank. Our analysis of the post-Paleozoic record of ordinal first appearances indicates that the onshore preference of ordinal origination occurred only in the Mesozoic prior to the Turonian stage of the Cretaceous, a period characterized by relatively frequent anoxic/dysoxic bottom conditions in deeper marine environments. Later, in the Cretaceous and Cenozoic, ordinal origination of benthic organisms did not occur exclusively, or even preferentially, in onshore environments. This change in environmental pattern of ordinal origination roughly correlates with Late Cretaceous: (i) decline in anoxia/dysoxia in offshore benthic environments; (ii) extinction of faunas associated with dysoxic conditions; (iii) increase in bioturbation with the expansion of deep burrowing forms into offshore environments; and (iv) offshore expansion of bryozoan diversity. We also advance a separate argument that the Cenomanian/Turonian and latest Paleocene global events eliminated much of the deep-water benthos. This requires a more recent origin of modern vent and deep-sea faunas, from shallower water refugia, than the Paleozoic or early Mesozoic origin of these faunas suggested by other workers.

  20. A novel marsupial hepatitis A virus corroborates complex evolutionary patterns shaping the genus Hepatovirus.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Carneiro, Ianei; Sander, Anna-Lena; Silva, Namá; Moreira-Soto, Andres; Normann, Andrea; Flehmig, Bertram; Lukashev, Alexander N; Dotzauer, Andreas; Wieseke, Nicolas; Franke, Carlos Roberto; Drexler, Jan Felix

    2018-04-25

    The discovery of nonprimate hepatoviruses illuminated the evolutionary origins of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in small mammals. Marsupials are ancient mammals that diverged during the Jurassic from other Eutheria. Viruses from marsupials may thus provide important insight into virus evolution. To investigate Hepatovirus macroevolutionary patterns, we sampled 112 opossums in northeastern Brazil. A novel marsupial HAV (MHAV) was detected in a Brazilian Common Opossum ( Didelphis aurita ) by nested RT-PCR. MHAV concentration in liver was high at 2.5x10 9 RNA copies/gram and about 1000-fold higher than in other solid organs, suggesting hepatotropism. Hepatovirus seroprevalence in D. aurita was 26.6% using an ELISA. End-point titers in confirmatory immunofluorescence assays were high and marsupial antibodies co-localized with anti-HAV control sera, suggesting specificity of serological detection. MHAV showed all genomic hallmarks defining hepatoviruses, including late domain motifs likely involved in quasi-envelope acquisition, a predicted C-terminal pX extension of VP1, strong avoidance of CpG dinucleotides and a type 3 internal ribosomal entry site. Translated polyprotein gene sequence distances of at least 23.7% to other hepatoviruses suggested MHAV represents a novel Hepatovirus species. Conserved predicted cleavage sites suggested similarities in polyprotein processing between HAV and MHAV. MHAV was nested within rodent hepatoviruses in phylogenetic reconstructions, suggesting an ancestral hepatovirus host switch from rodents into marsupials. Co-phylogenetic reconciliations of host and hepatovirus phylogenies confirmed that host-independent macroevolutionary patterns shaped the phylogenetic relationships of extant hepatoviruses. Although Marsupials are synanthropic and consumed as wild game in Brazil, HAV community protective immunity may limit the zoonotic potential of MHAV. IMPORTANCE The hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an ubiquitous cause of acute hepatitis in humans

  1. Microhabitat use, trophic patterns, and the evolution of brain structure in African cichlids.

    PubMed

    Huber, R; van Staaden, M J; Kaufman, L S; Liem, K F

    1997-01-01

    The species assemblages of cichlids in the three largest African Great Lakes are among the richest concentrations of vertebrate species on earth. The faunas are broadly similar in terms of trophic diversity, species richness, rates of endemism, and taxonomic composition, yet they are historically independent of each other. Hence, they offer a true and unique evolutionary experiment to test hypotheses concerning the mutual dependencies of ecology and brain morphology. We examined the brains of 189 species of cichlids from the three large lakes: Victoria, Tanganyika, and Malawi. A first paper demonstrated that patterns of evolutionary change in cichlid brain morphology are similar across taxonomic boundaries as well as across the three lakes [van Staaden et al., 1995 ZACS 98: 165-178]. Here we report a close relationship between the relative sizes of various brain structures and variables related to the utilization of habitat and prey. Causality is difficult to assign in this context, nonetheless, prey size and agility, turbidity levels, depth, and substrate complexity are all highly predictive of variation in brain structure. Areas associated with primary sensory functions such as vision and taste relate significantly to differences in feeding habits. Turbidity and depth are closely associated with differences in eye size, and large eyes are associated with species that pick plankton from the water column. Piscivorous taxa and others that utilize motile prey are characterized by a well developed optic tectum and a large cerebellum compared to species that prey on molluscs or plants. Structures relating to taste are well developed in species feeding on benthos over muddy or sandy substrates. The data militated against the existence of compensatory changes in brain structure. Thus enhanced development of a particular function is generally not accompanied by a parallel reduction of structures related to other modalities. Although genetic and environmental influences

  2. Patterns in root traits of woody species hosting arbuscular and ectomycorrhizas: implications for the evolution of belowground strategies.

    PubMed

    Comas, Louise H; Callahan, Hilary S; Midford, Peter E

    2014-08-01

    Root traits vary enormously among plant species but we have little understanding of how this variation affects their functioning. Of central interest is how root traits are related to plant resource acquisition strategies from soil. We examined root traits of 33 woody species from northeastern US forests that form two of the most common types of mutualisms with fungi, arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) and ectomycorrhizas (EM). We examined root trait distribution with respect to plant phylogeny, quantifying the phylogenetic signal (K statistic) in fine root morphology and architecture, and used phylogenetically independent contrasts (PICs) to test whether taxa forming different mycorrhizal associations had different root traits. We found a pattern of species forming roots with thinner diameters as species diversified across time. Given moderate phylogenetic signals (K = 0.44-0.68), we used PICs to examine traits variation among taxa forming AM or EM, revealing that hosts of AM were associated with lower branching intensity (r PIC = -0.77) and thicker root diameter (r PIC = -0.41). Because EM evolved relatively more recently and intermittently across plant phylogenies, significant differences in root traits and colonization between plants forming AM and EM imply linkages between the evolution of these biotic interactions and root traits and suggest a history of selection pressures, with trade-offs for supporting different types of associations. Finally, across plant hosts of both EM and AM, species with thinner root diameters and longer specific root length (SRL) had less colonization (r PIC = 0.85, -0.87), suggesting constraints on colonization linked to the evolution of root morphology.

  3. Patterns in root traits of woody species hosting arbuscular and ectomycorrhizas: implications for the evolution of belowground strategies

    PubMed Central

    Comas, Louise H; Callahan, Hilary S; Midford, Peter E

    2014-01-01

    Root traits vary enormously among plant species but we have little understanding of how this variation affects their functioning. Of central interest is how root traits are related to plant resource acquisition strategies from soil. We examined root traits of 33 woody species from northeastern US forests that form two of the most common types of mutualisms with fungi, arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) and ectomycorrhizas (EM). We examined root trait distribution with respect to plant phylogeny, quantifying the phylogenetic signal (K statistic) in fine root morphology and architecture, and used phylogenetically independent contrasts (PICs) to test whether taxa forming different mycorrhizal associations had different root traits. We found a pattern of species forming roots with thinner diameters as species diversified across time. Given moderate phylogenetic signals (K = 0.44–0.68), we used PICs to examine traits variation among taxa forming AM or EM, revealing that hosts of AM were associated with lower branching intensity (rPIC = −0.77) and thicker root diameter (rPIC = −0.41). Because EM evolved relatively more recently and intermittently across plant phylogenies, significant differences in root traits and colonization between plants forming AM and EM imply linkages between the evolution of these biotic interactions and root traits and suggest a history of selection pressures, with trade-offs for supporting different types of associations. Finally, across plant hosts of both EM and AM, species with thinner root diameters and longer specific root length (SRL) had less colonization (rPIC = 0.85, −0.87), suggesting constraints on colonization linked to the evolution of root morphology. PMID:25247056

  4. Genome-wide analysis of WRKY transcription factors in white pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) reveals evolution and patterns under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaosan; Li, Kongqing; Xu, Xiaoyong; Yao, Zhenghong; Jin, Cong; Zhang, Shaoling

    2015-12-24

    WRKY transcription factors (TFs) constitute one of the largest protein families in higher plants, and its members contain one or two conserved WRKY domains, about 60 amino acid residues with the WRKYGQK sequence followed by a C2H2 or C2HC zinc finger motif. WRKY proteins play significant roles in plant development, and in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) is one of the most important fruit crops in the world and is frequently threatened by abiotic stress, such as drought, affecting growth, development and productivity. Although the pear genome sequence has been released, little is known about the WRKY TFs in pear, especially in respond to drought stress at the genome-wide level. We identified a total of 103 WRKY TFs in the pear genome. Based on the structural features of WRKY proteins and topology of the phylogenetic tree, the pear WRKY (PbWRKY) family was classified into seven groups (Groups 1, 2a-e, and 3). The microsyteny analysis indicated that 33 (32%) PbWRKY genes were tandemly duplicated and 57 genes (55.3%) were segmentally duplicated. RNA-seq experiment data and quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR revealed that PbWRKY genes in different groups were induced by drought stress, and Group 2a and 3 were mainly involved in the biological pathways in response to drought stress. Furthermore, adaptive evolution analysis detected a significant positive selection for Pbr001425 in Group 3, and its expression pattern differed from that of other members in this group. The present study provides a solid foundation for further functional dissection and molecular evolution of WRKY TFs in pear, especially for improving the water-deficient resistance of pear through manipulation of the PbWRKYs.

  5. Ecological divergence and conservatism: spatiotemporal patterns of niche evolution in a genus of livebearing fishes (Poeciliidae: Xiphophorus).

    PubMed

    Culumber, Zachary W; Tobler, Michael

    2016-02-19

    Ecological factors often have a strong impact on spatiotemporal patterns of biodiversity. The integration of spatial ecology and phylogenetics allows for rigorous tests of whether speciation is associated with niche conservatism (constraints on ecological divergence) or niche divergence. We address this question in a genus of livebearing fishes for which the role of sexual selection in speciation has long been studied, but in which the potential role of ecological divergence during speciation has not been tested. By combining reconstruction of ancestral climate tolerances and disparity indices, we show that the earliest evolutionary split in Xiphophorus was associated with significant divergence for temperature variables. Niche evolution and present day niches were most closely associated with each species' geographic distribution relative to a biogeographic barrier, the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Tests for similarity of the environmental backgrounds of closely related species suggested that the relative importance of niche conservatism and divergence during speciation varied among the primary clades of Xiphophorus. Closely related species in the two swordtail clades exhibited higher levels of niche overlap than expected given environmental background similarity indicative of niche conservatism. In contrast, almost all species of platyfish had significantly divergent niches compared to environmental backgrounds, which is indicative of niche divergence. The results suggest that the relative importance of niche conservatism and divergence differed among the clades of Xiphophorus and that traits associated with niche evolution may be more evolutionarily labile in the platyfishes. Our results ultimately suggest that the taxonomic scale of tests for conservatism and divergence could greatly influence inferences of their relative importance in the speciation process.

  6. Understanding Patterns of Evolution Acceptance--A New Implementation of the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) with Midwestern University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romine, William L.; Walter, Emily M.; Bosse, Ephiram; Todd, Amber N.

    2017-01-01

    We validate the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) on undergraduate students using the Rasch model and utilize the MATE to explore qualitatively how students express their acceptance of evolution. At least 24 studies have used the MATE, most with the assumption that it is unidimensional. However, we found that the MATE is best…

  7. Trends and patterns of anthropogenic evolution of chernozems in lands of agricultural afforestation within the territory of forest-steppe in the center of eastern Europe

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The anthropogenic evolution of chernozems as a result of plowing and the creation of forest shelterbelts on three meadow-steppe areas of forest-steppe were studied. It was established, that in all areas there are similar patterns, caused by the transformation of virgin soils into arable soils and vi...

  8. HIV evolution in early infection: selection pressures, patterns of insertion and deletion, and the impact of APOBEC.

    PubMed

    Wood, Natasha; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Keele, Brandon F; Giorgi, Elena; Liu, Michael; Gaschen, Brian; Daniels, Marcus; Ferrari, Guido; Haynes, Barton F; McMichael, Andrew; Shaw, George M; Hahn, Beatrice H; Korber, Bette; Seoighe, Cathal

    2009-05-01

    The pattern of viral diversification in newly infected individuals provides information about the host environment and immune responses typically experienced by the newly transmitted virus. For example, sites that tend to evolve rapidly across multiple early-infection patients could be involved in enabling escape from common early immune responses, could represent adaptation for rapid growth in a newly infected host, or could represent reversion from less fit forms of the virus that were selected for immune escape in previous hosts. Here we investigated the diversification of HIV-1 env coding sequences in 81 very early B subtype infections previously shown to have resulted from transmission or expansion of single viruses (n = 78) or two closely related viruses (n = 3). In these cases, the sequence of the infecting virus can be estimated accurately, enabling inference of both the direction of substitutions as well as distinction between insertion and deletion events. By integrating information across multiple acutely infected hosts, we find evidence of adaptive evolution of HIV-1 env and identify a subset of codon sites that diversified more rapidly than can be explained by a model of neutral evolution. Of 24 such rapidly diversifying sites, 14 were either i) clustered and embedded in CTL epitopes that were verified experimentally or predicted based on the individual's HLA or ii) in a nucleotide context indicative of APOBEC-mediated G-to-A substitutions, despite having excluded heavily hypermutated sequences prior to the analysis. In several cases, a rapidly evolving site was embedded both in an APOBEC motif and in a CTL epitope, suggesting that APOBEC may facilitate early immune escape. Ten rapidly diversifying sites could not be explained by CTL escape or APOBEC hypermutation, including the most frequently mutated site, in the fusion peptide of gp41. We also examined the distribution, extent, and sequence context of insertions and deletions, and we provide

  9. HIV Evolution in Early Infection: Selection Pressures, Patterns of Insertion and Deletion, and the Impact of APOBEC

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Natasha; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Keele, Brandon F.; Giorgi, Elena; Liu, Michael; Gaschen, Brian; Daniels, Marcus; Ferrari, Guido; Haynes, Barton F.; McMichael, Andrew; Shaw, George M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Korber, Bette; Seoighe, Cathal

    2009-01-01

    The pattern of viral diversification in newly infected individuals provides information about the host environment and immune responses typically experienced by the newly transmitted virus. For example, sites that tend to evolve rapidly across multiple early-infection patients could be involved in enabling escape from common early immune responses, could represent adaptation for rapid growth in a newly infected host, or could represent reversion from less fit forms of the virus that were selected for immune escape in previous hosts. Here we investigated the diversification of HIV-1 env coding sequences in 81 very early B subtype infections previously shown to have resulted from transmission or expansion of single viruses (n = 78) or two closely related viruses (n = 3). In these cases, the sequence of the infecting virus can be estimated accurately, enabling inference of both the direction of substitutions as well as distinction between insertion and deletion events. By integrating information across multiple acutely infected hosts, we find evidence of adaptive evolution of HIV-1 env and identify a subset of codon sites that diversified more rapidly than can be explained by a model of neutral evolution. Of 24 such rapidly diversifying sites, 14 were either i) clustered and embedded in CTL epitopes that were verified experimentally or predicted based on the individual's HLA or ii) in a nucleotide context indicative of APOBEC-mediated G-to-A substitutions, despite having excluded heavily hypermutated sequences prior to the analysis. In several cases, a rapidly evolving site was embedded both in an APOBEC motif and in a CTL epitope, suggesting that APOBEC may facilitate early immune escape. Ten rapidly diversifying sites could not be explained by CTL escape or APOBEC hypermutation, including the most frequently mutated site, in the fusion peptide of gp41. We also examined the distribution, extent, and sequence context of insertions and deletions, and we provide

  10. Dynamic Patterns of Clonal Evolution in Tumor Vasculature Underlie Alterations in Lymphocyte-Endothelial Recognition to Foster Tumor Immune Escape.

    PubMed

    Corey, Daniel M; Rinkevich, Yuval; Weissman, Irving L

    2016-03-15

    Although tumor blood vessels have been a major therapeutic target for cancer chemotherapy, little is known regarding the stepwise development of the tumor microenvironment. Here, we use a multicolor Cre-dependent marker system to trace clonality within the tumor microenvironment to show that tumor blood vessels follow a pattern of dynamic clonal evolution. In an advanced melanoma tumor microenvironment, the vast majority of tumor vasculature clones are derived from a common precursor. Quantitative lineage analysis reveals founder clones diminish in frequency and are replaced by subclones as tumors evolve. These tumor-specific blood vessels are characterized by a developmental switch to a more invasive and immunologically silent phenotype. Gene expression profiling and pathway analysis reveals selection for traits promoting upregulation of alternative angiogenic programs such as unregulated HGF-MET signaling and enhanced autocrine signaling through VEGF and PDGF. Furthermore, we show a developmental switch in the expression of functionally significant primary lymphocyte adhesion molecules on tumor endothelium, such as the loss in expression of the mucosal addressin MAdCAM-1, whose counter receptor a4β7 on lymphocytes controls lymphocyte homing. Changes in adhesive properties on tumor endothelial subclones are accompanied by decreases in expression of lymphocyte chemokines CXCL16, CXCL13, CXCL12, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CCL19. These evolutionary patterns in the expressed genetic program within tumor endothelium will have both a quantitative and functional impact on lymphocyte distribution that may well influence tumor immune function and underlie escape mechanisms from current antiangiogenic pharmacotherapies. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Contrasting Patterns of Nucleotide Substitution Rates Provide Insight into Dynamic Evolution of Plastid and Mitochondrial Genomes of Geranium

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seongjun; Ruhlman, Tracey A.; Weng, Mao-Lun; Hajrah, Nahid H.; Sabir, Jamal S.M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Geraniaceae have emerged as a model system for investigating the causes and consequences of variation in plastid and mitochondrial genomes. Incredible structural variation in plastid genomes (plastomes) and highly accelerated evolutionary rates have been reported in selected lineages and functional groups of genes in both plastomes and mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes), and these phenomena have been implicated in cytonuclear incompatibility. Previous organelle genome studies have included limited sampling of Geranium, the largest genus in the family with over 400 species. This study reports on rates and patterns of nucleotide substitutions in plastomes and mitogenomes of 17 species of Geranium and representatives of other Geraniaceae. As detected across other angiosperms, substitution rates in the plastome are 3.5 times higher than the mitogenome in most Geranium. However, in the branch leading to Geranium brycei/Geranium incanum mitochondrial genes experienced significantly higher dN and dS than plastid genes, a pattern that has only been detected in one other angiosperm. Furthermore, rate accelerations differ in the two organelle genomes with plastomes having increased dN and mitogenomes with increased dS. In the Geranium phaeum/Geranium reflexum clade, duplicate copies of clpP and rpoA genes that experienced asymmetric rate divergence were detected in the single copy region of the plastome. In the case of rpoA, the branch leading to G. phaeum/G. reflexum experienced positive selection or relaxation of purifying selection. Finally, the evolution of acetyl-CoA carboxylase is unusual in Geraniaceae because it is only the second angiosperm family where both prokaryotic and eukaryotic ACCases functionally coexist in the plastid. PMID:28854633

  12. Jointing patterns and tectonic evolution of the Maciço Calcário Estremenho, Lusitanian Basin, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Jorge M. F.

    2018-05-01

    The Maciço Calcário Estremenho (MCE) is an uplifted Jurassic limestone massif unit of the Lusitanian Basin, Portugal, where five main joint sets trending NNE-SSW, WSW-ENE, WNW-ESE, NW-SE, and NNW-SSE are recognized. Except for the NNW-SSE set, all the other sets host calcite veins and barren joints, evidencing a multistage development by several deformation episodes, including shear reactivation. Orthogonal patterns defined by the NNE-SSW/WNW-ESE and NNW-SSE/WSW-ENE systems are characteristic of some tectonostratigraphic units of the MCE, but the sets of each one of the systems are genetically independent. They result from specific deformation episodes undergone by the studied area in the course of its Meso-Cenozoic evolution. NNE-SSW calcite veins were the first to form during Middle Jurassic fault-controlled subsidence. A renewal of this set as barren joints took place during the Eocene Pyrenean compressive phase. The WSW-ENE and WNW-ESE sets have a restricted spatial distribution and relate to transient compressive episodes of the Middle - Late Jurassic and Jurassic - Cretaceous transitions, respectively. The NW-SE set, also characteristic of a specific region, formed during the Late Jurassic rifting and is related to local NE-SW tension dependent on block tilting towards a major NW-SE fault. The Miocene Betic compressive phase is responsible for the formation of the NNW-SSE set, which is widespread throughout the MCE.

  13. Concerted evolution of body mass and cell size: similar patterns among species of birds (Galliformes) and mammals (Rodentia)

    PubMed Central

    Dragosz-Kluska, Dominika; Pis, Tomasz; Pawlik, Katarzyna; Kapustka, Filip; Kilarski, Wincenty M.; Kozłowski, Jan

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cell size plays a role in body size evolution and environmental adaptations. Addressing these roles, we studied body mass and cell size in Galliformes birds and Rodentia mammals, and collected published data on their genome sizes. In birds, we measured erythrocyte nuclei and basal metabolic rates (BMRs). In birds and mammals, larger species consistently evolved larger cells for five cell types (erythrocytes, enterocytes, chondrocytes, skin epithelial cells, and kidney proximal tubule cells) and evolved smaller hepatocytes. We found no evidence that cell size differences originated through genome size changes. We conclude that the organism-wide coordination of cell size changes might be an evolutionarily conservative characteristic, and the convergent evolutionary body size and cell size changes in Galliformes and Rodentia suggest the adaptive significance of cell size. Recent theory predicts that species evolving larger cells waste less energy on tissue maintenance but have reduced capacities to deliver oxygen to mitochondria and metabolize resources. Indeed, birds with larger size of the abovementioned cell types and smaller hepatocytes have evolved lower mass-specific BMRs. We propose that the inconsistent pattern in hepatocytes derives from the efficient delivery system to hepatocytes, combined with their intense involvement in supracellular function and anabolic activity. PMID:29540429

  14. Between a Pod and a Hard Test: The Deep Evolution of Amoebae.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seungho; Tice, Alexander K; Spiegel, Frederick W; Silberman, Jeffrey D; Pánek, Tomáš; Cepicka, Ivan; Kostka, Martin; Kosakyan, Anush; Alcântara, Daniel M C; Roger, Andrew J; Shadwick, Lora L; Smirnov, Alexey; Kudryavtsev, Alexander; Lahr, Daniel J G; Brown, Matthew W

    2017-09-01

    Amoebozoa is the eukaryotic supergroup sister to Obazoa, the lineage that contains the animals and Fungi, as well as their protistan relatives, and the breviate and apusomonad flagellates. Amoebozoa is extraordinarily diverse, encompassing important model organisms and significant pathogens. Although amoebozoans are integral to global nutrient cycles and present in nearly all environments, they remain vastly understudied. We present a robust phylogeny of Amoebozoa based on broad representative set of taxa in a phylogenomic framework (325 genes). By sampling 61 taxa using culture-based and single-cell transcriptomics, our analyses show two major clades of Amoebozoa, Discosea, and Tevosa. This phylogeny refutes previous studies in major respects. Our results support the hypothesis that the last common ancestor of Amoebozoa was sexual and flagellated, it also may have had the ability to disperse propagules from a sporocarp-type fruiting body. Overall, the main macroevolutionary patterns in Amoebozoa appear to result from the parallel losses of homologous characters of a multiphase life cycle that included flagella, sex, and sporocarps rather than independent acquisition of convergent features. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  15. Contrasting impacts of competition on ecological and social trait evolution in songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Joseph A.; Burns, Kevin J.; Mason, Nicholas A.; Shultz, Allison J.; Morlon, Hélène

    2018-01-01

    Competition between closely related species has long been viewed as a powerful selective force that drives trait diversification, thereby generating phenotypic diversity over macroevolutionary timescales. However, although the impact of interspecific competition has been documented in a handful of iconic insular radiations, most previous studies have focused on traits involved in resource use, and few have examined the role of competition across large, continental radiations. Thus, the extent to which broad-scale patterns of phenotypic diversity are shaped by competition remain largely unclear, particularly for social traits. Here, we estimate the effect of competition between interacting lineages by applying new phylogenetic models that account for such interactions to an exceptionally complete dataset of resource-use traits and social signaling traits for the entire radiation of tanagers (Aves, Thraupidae), the largest family of songbirds. We find that interspecific competition strongly influences the evolution of traits involved in resource use, with a weaker effect on plumage signals, and very little effect on song. Our results provide compelling evidence that interspecific exploitative competition contributes to ecological trait diversification among coexisting species, even in a large continental radiation. In comparison, signal traits mediating mate choice and social competition seem to diversify under different evolutionary models, including rapid diversification in the allopatric stage of speciation. PMID:29385141

  16. Contrasting impacts of competition on ecological and social trait evolution in songbirds.

    PubMed

    Drury, Jonathan P; Tobias, Joseph A; Burns, Kevin J; Mason, Nicholas A; Shultz, Allison J; Morlon, Hélène

    2018-01-01

    Competition between closely related species has long been viewed as a powerful selective force that drives trait diversification, thereby generating phenotypic diversity over macroevolutionary timescales. However, although the impact of interspecific competition has been documented in a handful of iconic insular radiations, most previous studies have focused on traits involved in resource use, and few have examined the role of competition across large, continental radiations. Thus, the extent to which broad-scale patterns of phenotypic diversity are shaped by competition remain largely unclear, particularly for social traits. Here, we estimate the effect of competition between interacting lineages by applying new phylogenetic models that account for such interactions to an exceptionally complete dataset of resource-use traits and social signaling traits for the entire radiation of tanagers (Aves, Thraupidae), the largest family of songbirds. We find that interspecific competition strongly influences the evolution of traits involved in resource use, with a weaker effect on plumage signals, and very little effect on song. Our results provide compelling evidence that interspecific exploitative competition contributes to ecological trait diversification among coexisting species, even in a large continental radiation. In comparison, signal traits mediating mate choice and social competition seem to diversify under different evolutionary models, including rapid diversification in the allopatric stage of speciation.

  17. Evolution of Cooperation Patterns in Psoriasis Research: Co-Authorship Network Analysis of Papers in Medline (1942–2013)

    PubMed Central

    González-Alcaide, Gregorio; Park, Jinseo; Huamaní, Charles; Belinchón, Isabel; Ramos, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although researchers have worked in collaboration since the origins of modern science and the publication of the first scientific journals in the eighteenth century, this phenomenon has acquired exceptional importance in the last several decades. Since the mid-twentieth century, new knowledge has been generated from within an ever-growing network of investigators, working cooperatively in research groups across countries and institutions. Cooperation is a crucial determinant of academic success. Objective The aim of the present paper is to analyze the evolution of scientific collaboration at the micro level, with regard to the scientific production generated on psoriasis research. Methods A bibliographic search in the Medline database containing the MeSH terms “psoriasis” or “psoriatic arthritis” was carried out. The search results were limited to articles, reviews and letters. After identifying the co-authorships of documents on psoriasis indexed in the Medline database (1942–2013), various bibliometric indicators were obtained, including the average number of authors per document and degree of multi-authorship over time. In addition, we performed a network analysis to study the evolution of certain features of the co-authorship network as a whole: average degree, size of the largest component, clustering coefficient, density and average distance. We also analyzed the evolution of the giant component to characterize the changing research patterns in the field, and we calculated social network indicators for the nodes, namely betweenness and closeness. Results The main active research clusters in the area were identified, along with their authors of reference. Our analysis of 28,670 documents sheds light on different aspects related to the evolution of scientific collaboration in the field, including the progressive increase in the mean number of co-authors (which stood at 5.17 in the 2004–2013 decade), and the rise in multi-authored papers

  18. Evolution of Cooperation Patterns in Psoriasis Research: Co-Authorship Network Analysis of Papers in Medline (1942-2013).

    PubMed

    González-Alcaide, Gregorio; Park, Jinseo; Huamaní, Charles; Belinchón, Isabel; Ramos, José M

    2015-01-01

    Although researchers have worked in collaboration since the origins of modern science and the publication of the first scientific journals in the eighteenth century, this phenomenon has acquired exceptional importance in the last several decades. Since the mid-twentieth century, new knowledge has been generated from within an ever-growing network of investigators, working cooperatively in research groups across countries and institutions. Cooperation is a crucial determinant of academic success. The aim of the present paper is to analyze the evolution of scientific collaboration at the micro level, with regard to the scientific production generated on psoriasis research. A bibliographic search in the Medline database containing the MeSH terms "psoriasis" or "psoriatic arthritis" was carried out. The search results were limited to articles, reviews and letters. After identifying the co-authorships of documents on psoriasis indexed in the Medline database (1942-2013), various bibliometric indicators were obtained, including the average number of authors per document and degree of multi-authorship over time. In addition, we performed a network analysis to study the evolution of certain features of the co-authorship network as a whole: average degree, size of the largest component, clustering coefficient, density and average distance. We also analyzed the evolution of the giant component to characterize the changing research patterns in the field, and we calculated social network indicators for the nodes, namely betweenness and closeness. The main active research clusters in the area were identified, along with their authors of reference. Our analysis of 28,670 documents sheds light on different aspects related to the evolution of scientific collaboration in the field, including the progressive increase in the mean number of co-authors (which stood at 5.17 in the 2004-2013 decade), and the rise in multi-authored papers signed by many different authors (in the same

  19. Eocene evolution of whale hearing.

    PubMed

    Nummela, Sirpa; Thewissen, J G M; Bajpai, Sunil; Hussain, S Taseer; Kumar, Kishor

    2004-08-12

    The origin of whales (order Cetacea) is one of the best-documented examples of macroevolutionary change in vertebrates. As the earliest whales became obligately marine, all of their organ systems adapted to the new environment. The fossil record indicates that this evolutionary transition took less than 15 million years, and that different organ systems followed different evolutionary trajectories. Here we document the evolutionary changes that took place in the sound transmission mechanism of the outer and middle ear in early whales. Sound transmission mechanisms change early on in whale evolution and pass through a stage (in pakicetids) in which hearing in both air and water is unsophisticated. This intermediate stage is soon abandoned and is replaced (in remingtonocetids and protocetids) by a sound transmission mechanism similar to that in modern toothed whales. The mechanism of these fossil whales lacks sophistication, and still retains some of the key elements that land mammals use to hear airborne sound.

  20. Phylogeny and biogeography of Primula sect. Armerina: implications for plant evolution under climate change and the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    PubMed

    Ren, Guangpeng; Conti, Elena; Salamin, Nicolas

    2015-08-16

    The historical orogenesis and associated climatic changes of mountain areas have been suggested to partly account for the occurrence of high levels of biodiversity and endemism. However, their effects on dispersal, differentiation and evolution of many groups of plants are still unknown. In this study, we examined the detailed diversification history of Primula sect. Armerina, and used biogeographic analysis and macro-evolutionary modeling to investigate a series of different questions concerning the evolution of the geographical and ecological distribution of the species in this section. We sequenced five chloroplast and one nuclear genes for species of Primula sect. Armerina. Neither chloroplast nor nuclear trees support the monophyly of the section. The major incongruences between the two trees occur among closely related species and may be explained by hybridization. Our dating analyses based on the chloroplast dataset suggest that this section began to diverge from its relatives around 3.55 million years ago, largely coinciding with the last major uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). Biogeographic analysis supports the origin of the section in the Himalayan Mountains and dispersal from the Himalayas to Northeastern QTP, Western QTP and Hengduan Mountains. Furthermore, evolutionary models of ecological niches show that the two P. fasciculata clades have significantly different climatic niche optima and rates of niche evolution, indicating niche evolution under climatic changes and further providing evidence for explaining their biogeographic patterns. Our results support the hypothesis that geologic and climatic events play important roles in driving biological diversification of organisms in the QTP area. The Pliocene uplift of the QTP and following climatic changes most likely promoted both the inter- and intraspecific divergence of Primula sect. Armerina. This study also illustrates how niche evolution under climatic changes influences biogeographic

  1. Evolution of roughness during the pattern transfer of high-chi, 10nm half-pitch, silicon-containing block copolymer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blachut, Gregory; Sirard, Stephen M.; Liang, Andrew; Mack, Chris A.; Maher, Michael J.; Rincon-Delgadillo, Paulina A.; Chan, Boon Teik; Mannaert, Geert; Vandenberghe, Geert; Willson, C. Grant; Ellison, Christopher J.; Hymes, Diane

    2018-03-01

    A pattern transfer study was conducted to monitor the evolution of roughness in sub-10 nm half-pitch lines generated by the directed self-assembly (DSA) of a high-chi, silicon-containing block copolymer, poly(4-trimethylsilylstyrene)-block-poly(4-methoxystyrene). Unbiased roughness measurements were used to characterize the roughness of the structures before and after pattern transfer into silicon nitride. Parameters of the reactive ion etch process used as a dry development were systematically modified to minimize undesired line walking created by the DSA pre-pattern and to determine their impacts on roughness. The results of this study indicate that an optimized dry development can mitigate the effects of pre-pattern inhomogeneity, and that both dry development and pattern transfer steps effect the roughness of the final structures.

  2. Spatial-temporal evolution of self-organized loop-patterns on a water surface and a diffuse discharge in the gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuechen; Geng, Jinling; Jia, Pengying; Zhang, Panpan; Zhang, Qi; Li, Yaru

    2017-11-01

    Excited by an alternating current voltage, a patterned discharge and a diffuse discharge are generated in a needle to liquid configuration. Using an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD), temporal evolution of the discharge between the two electrodes is investigated for the diffuse mode and the patterned mode, respectively. For the diffuse mode, the positive discharge is in a glow regime, and the negative discharge is in a Townsend discharge regime. For the patterned mode, the discharge always belongs to the Townsend discharge regime. Moreover, in the patterned mode, various patterns including the single loop, single loop with the surrounding corona, triple loops, and concentric loops with a central spot are observed on the water surface with the increasing positive peak-value of the applied voltage (Upp). Temporally resolved images of the loop-patterns are captured on the water surface. From the electrical measurements and the ICCD imaging, it is found that the loop pattern emerges after the discharge bridges the two electrodes. Then, it begins to evolve and finally degenerates with the decrease in the discharge current. The pattern does not disappear until the discharge quenches. Formation of the loop-patterns is attributed to the role of negative ions.

  3. The influence of habitat on the evolution of plants: a case study across Saxifragales

    PubMed Central

    de Casas, Rafael Rubio; Mort, Mark E.; Soltis, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Organismal evolution tends to be closely associated with ecological conditions. However, the extent to which this association constrains adaptation or diversification into new habitats remains unclear. We studied habitat evolution in the hyper-diverse angiosperm clade Saxifragales. Methods We used species-level phylogenies for approx. 950 species to analyse the evolution of habitat shifts as well as their influence on plant diversification. We combined habitat characterization based on floristic assignments and state-of-the art phylogenetic comparative methods to estimate within- and across-habitat diversification patterns. Key Results Our analyses showed that Saxifragales diversified into multiple habitats from a forest-inhabiting ancestor and that this diversification is governed by relatively rare habitat shifts. Lineages are likely to stay within inferred ancestral ecological conditions. Adaptation to some habitat types (e.g. aquatic, desert) may be canalizing events that lineages do not escape. Although associations between increased diversification rates and shifts in habitat preferences are occasionally observed, extreme macroevolutionary rates are closely associated with specific habitats. Lineages occurring in shrubland, and especially tundra and rock cliffs, exhibit comparatively high diversification, whereas forest, grassland, desert and aquatic habitats are associated with low diversification. Conclusions The likelihood of occupation of new habitats appears to be asymmetric. Shifts to aquatic and desert habitats may be canalizing events. Other habitats, such as tundra, might act as evolutionary sources, while forests provide the only habitat seemingly colonized easily by lineages originating elsewhere. However, habitat shifts are very rare, and any major environmental alteration is expected to have dramatic evolutionary consequences. PMID:27551029

  4. The influence of habitat on the evolution of plants: a case study across Saxifragales.

    PubMed

    de Casas, Rafael Rubio; Mort, Mark E; Soltis, Douglas E

    2016-12-01

    Organismal evolution tends to be closely associated with ecological conditions. However, the extent to which this association constrains adaptation or diversification into new habitats remains unclear. We studied habitat evolution in the hyper-diverse angiosperm clade Saxifragales. We used species-level phylogenies for approx. 950 species to analyse the evolution of habitat shifts as well as their influence on plant diversification. We combined habitat characterization based on floristic assignments and state-of-the art phylogenetic comparative methods to estimate within- and across-habitat diversification patterns. Our analyses showed that Saxifragales diversified into multiple habitats from a forest-inhabiting ancestor and that this diversification is governed by relatively rare habitat shifts. Lineages are likely to stay within inferred ancestral ecological conditions. Adaptation to some habitat types (e.g. aquatic, desert) may be canalizing events that lineages do not escape. Although associations between increased diversification rates and shifts in habitat preferences are occasionally observed, extreme macroevolutionary rates are closely associated with specific habitats. Lineages occurring in shrubland, and especially tundra and rock cliffs, exhibit comparatively high diversification, whereas forest, grassland, desert and aquatic habitats are associated with low diversification. The likelihood of occupation of new habitats appears to be asymmetric. Shifts to aquatic and desert habitats may be canalizing events. Other habitats, such as tundra, might act as evolutionary sources, while forests provide the only habitat seemingly colonized easily by lineages originating elsewhere. However, habitat shifts are very rare, and any major environmental alteration is expected to have dramatic evolutionary consequences. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  5. The dorsoventral patterning of Musca domestica embryos: insights into BMP/Dpp evolution from the base of the lower cyclorraphan flies.

    PubMed

    Hodar, Christian; Cambiazo, Verónica

    2018-01-01

    In the last few years, accumulated information has indicated that the evolution of an extra-embryonic membrane in dipterans was accompanied by changes in the gene regulatory network controlled by the BMP/Dpp pathway, which is responsible for dorsal patterning in these insects. However, only comparative analysis of gene expression levels between distant species with two extra-embryonic membranes, like A. gambiae or C. albipunctata , and D. melanogaster, has been conducted. Analysis of gene expression in ancestral species, which evolved closer to the amnioserosa origin, could provide new insights into the evolution of dorsoventral patterning in dipterans. Here we describe the spatial expression of several key and downstream elements of the Dpp pathway and show the compared patterns of expression between Musca and Drosophila embryos, both dipterans with amnioserosa. Most of the analyzed gene showed a high degree of expression conservation, however, we found several differences in the gene expression pattern of M. domestica orthologs for sog and tolloid . Bioinformatics analysis of the promoter of both genes indicated that the variations could be related to the gain of several binding sites for the transcriptional factor Dorsal in the Md.tld promoter and Snail in the Md.sog enhancer . These altered expressions could explain the unclear formation of the pMad gradient in the M. domestica embryo, compared to the formation of the gradient in D. melanogaster. Gene expression changes during the dorsal-ventral patterning in insects contribute to the differentiation of extra-embryonic tissues as a consequence of changes in the gene regulatory network controlled by BMP/Dpp. In this work, in early M. domestica embryos, we identified the expression pattern of several genes members involved in the dorsoventral specification of the embryo. We believe that these data can contribute to understanding the evolution of the BMP/Dpp pathway, the regulation of BMP ligands, and the

  6. Elastic, not plastic species: frozen plasticity theory and the origin of adaptive evolution in sexually reproducing organisms.

    PubMed

    Flegr, Jaroslav

    2010-01-13

    Darwin's evolutionary theory could easily explain the evolution of adaptive traits (organs and behavioral patterns) in asexual but not in sexual organisms. Two models, the selfish gene theory and frozen plasticity theory were suggested to explain evolution of adaptive traits in sexual organisms in past 30 years. The frozen plasticity theory suggests that sexual species can evolve new adaptations only when their members are genetically uniform, i.e. only after a portion of the population of the original species had split off, balanced on the edge of extinction for several generations, and then undergone rapid expansion. After a short period of time, estimated on the basis of paleontological data to correspond to 1-2% of the duration of the species, polymorphism accumulates in the gene pool due to frequency-dependent selection; and thus, in each generation, new mutations occur in the presence of different alleles and therefore change their selection coefficients from generation to generation. The species ceases to behave in an evolutionarily plastic manner and becomes evolutionarily elastic on a microevolutionary time-scale and evolutionarily frozen on a macroevolutionary time-scale. It then exists in this state until such changes accumulate in the environment that the species becomes extinct. Frozen plasticity theory, which includes the Darwinian model of evolution as a special case--the evolution of species in a plastic state, not only offers plenty of new predictions to be tested, but also provides explanations for a much broader spectrum of known biological phenomena than classic evolutionary theories. This article was reviewed by Rob Knight, Fyodor Kondrashov and Massimo Di Giulio (nominated by David H. Ardell).

  7. The effects of a deleterious mutation load on patterns of influenza A/H3N2's antigenic evolution in humans

    PubMed Central

    Koelle, Katia; Rasmussen, David A

    2015-01-01

    Recent phylogenetic analyses indicate that RNA virus populations carry a significant deleterious mutation load. This mutation load has the potential to shape patterns of adaptive evolution via genetic linkage to beneficial mutations. Here, we examine the effect of deleterious mutations on patterns of influenza A subtype H3N2's antigenic evolution in humans. By first analyzing simple models of influenza that incorporate a mutation load, we show that deleterious mutations, as expected, act to slow the virus's rate of antigenic evolution, while making it more punctuated in nature. These models further predict three distinct molecular pathways by which antigenic cluster transitions occur, and we find phylogenetic patterns consistent with each of these pathways in influenza virus sequences. Simulations of a more complex phylodynamic model further indicate that antigenic mutations act in concert with deleterious mutations to reproduce influenza's spindly hemagglutinin phylogeny, co-circulation of antigenic variants, and high annual attack rates. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07361.001 PMID:26371556

  8. Clades reach highest morphological disparity early in their evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Martin; Gerber, Sylvain; Wills, Matthew Albion

    2013-01-01

    There are few putative macroevolutionary trends or rules that withstand scrutiny. Here, we test and verify the purported tendency for animal clades to reach their maximum morphological variety relatively early in their evolutionary histories (early high disparity). We present a meta-analysis of 98 metazoan clades radiating throughout the Phanerozoic. The disparity profiles of groups through time are summarized in terms of their center of gravity (CG), with values above and below 0.50 indicating top- and bottom-heaviness, respectively. Clades that terminate at one of the “big five” mass extinction events tend to have truncated trajectories, with a significantly top-heavy CG distribution overall. The remaining 63 clades show the opposite tendency, with a significantly bottom-heavy mean CG (relatively early high disparity). Resampling tests are used to identify groups with a CG significantly above or below 0.50; clades not terminating at a mass extinction are three times more likely to be significantly bottom-heavy than top-heavy. Overall, there is no clear temporal trend in disparity profile shapes from the Cambrian to the Recent, and early high disparity is the predominant pattern throughout the Phanerozoic. Our results do not allow us to distinguish between ecological and developmental explanations for this phenomenon. To the extent that ecology has a role, however, the paucity of bottom-heavy clades radiating in the immediate wake of mass extinctions suggests that early high disparity more probably results from the evolution of key apomorphies at the base of clades rather than from physical drivers or catastrophic ecospace clearing. PMID:23884651

  9. The evolution of phenotypic plasticity in fish swimming

    PubMed Central

    Oufiero, Christopher E.; Whitlow, Katrina R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fish have a remarkable amount of variation in their swimming performance, from within species differences to diversity among major taxonomic groups. Fish swimming is a complex, integrative phenotype and has the ability to plastically respond to a myriad of environmental changes. The plasticity of fish swimming has been observed on whole-organismal traits such as burst speed or critical swimming speed, as well as underlying phenotypes such as muscle fiber types, kinematics, cardiovascular system, and neuronal processes. Whether the plastic responses of fish swimming are beneficial seems to depend on the environmental variable that is changing. For example, because of the effects of temperature on biochemical processes, alterations of fish swimming in response to temperature do not seem to be beneficial. In contrast, changes in fish swimming in response to variation in flow may benefit the fish to maintain position in the water column. In this paper, we examine how this plasticity in fish swimming might evolve, focusing on environmental variables that have received the most attention: temperature, habitat, dissolved oxygen, and carbon dioxide variation. Using examples from previous research, we highlight many of the ways fish swimming can plastically respond to environmental variation and discuss potential avenues of future research aimed at understanding how plasticity of fish swimming might evolve. We consider the direct and indirect effects of environmental variation on swimming performance, including changes in swimming kinematics and suborganismal traits thought to predict swimming performance. We also discuss the role of the evolution of plasticity in shaping macroevolutionary patterns of diversity in fish swimming. PMID:29491937

  10. Distinct genetic evolution patterns of relapsing diffuse large B-cell lymphoma revealed by genome-wide copy number aberration and targeted sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Juskevicius, D; Lorber, T; Gsponer, J; Perrina, V; Ruiz, C; Stenner-Liewen, F; Dirnhofer, S; Tzankov, A

    2016-12-01

    Recurrences of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) result in significant morbidity and mortality, but their underlying genetic and biological mechanisms are unclear. Clonal relationship in DLBCL relapses so far is mostly addressed by the investigation of immunoglobulin (IG) rearrangements, therefore, lacking deeper insights into genome-wide lymphoma evolution. We studied mutations and copy number aberrations in 20 paired relapsing and 20 non-relapsing DLBCL cases aiming to test the clonal relationship between primaries and relapses to track tumors' genetic evolution and to investigate the genetic background of DLBCL recurrence. Three clonally unrelated DLBCL relapses were identified (15%). Also, two distinct patterns of genetic evolution in clonally related relapses were detected as follows: (1) early-divergent/branching evolution from a common progenitor in 6 patients (30%), and (2) late-divergent/linear progression of relapses in 11 patients (65%). Analysis of recurrent genetic events identified potential early drivers of lymphomagenesis (KMT2D, MYD88, CD79B and PIM1). The most frequent relapse-specific events were additional mutations in KMT2D and alterations of MEF2B. SOCS1 mutations were exclusive to non-relapsing DLBCL, whereas primaries of relapsing DLBCL more commonly displayed gains of 10p15.3-p12.1 containing the potential oncogenes PRKCQ, GATA3, MLLT10 and ABI1. Altogether, our study expands the knowledge on clonal relationship, genetic evolution and mutational basis of DLBCL relapses.

  11. Genome structure drives patterns of gene family evolution in ciliates, a case study using Chilodonella uncinata (Protista, Ciliophora, Phyllopharyngea).

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Song, Weibo; Katz, Laura A

    2014-08-01

    In most lineages, diversity among gene family members results from gene duplication followed by sequence divergence. Because of the genome rearrangements during the development of somatic nuclei, gene family evolution in ciliates involves more complex processes. Previous work on the ciliate Chilodonella uncinata revealed that macronuclear β-tubulin gene family members are generated by alternative processing, in which germline regions are alternatively used in multiple macronuclear chromosomes. To further study genome evolution in this ciliate, we analyzed its transcriptome and found that (1) alternative processing is extensive among gene families; and (2) such gene families are likely to be C. uncinata specific. We characterized additional macronuclear and micronuclear copies of one candidate alternatively processed gene family-a protein kinase domain containing protein (PKc)-from two C. uncinata strains. Analysis of the PKc sequences reveals that (1) multiple PKc gene family members in the macronucleus share some identical regions flanked by divergent regions; and (2) the shared identical regions are processed from a single micronuclear chromosome. We discuss analogous processes in lineages across the eukaryotic tree of life to provide further insights on the impact of genome structure on gene family evolution in eukaryotes. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Characterizing the propagation evolution of wave patterns and vortex structures in astigmatic transformations of Hermite-Gaussian beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. F.; Chang, C. C.; Lee, C. Y.; Tung, J. C.; Liang, H. C.; Huang, K. F.

    2018-01-01

    Theoretical wave functions are analytically derived to characterize the propagation evolution of the Hermite-Gaussian (HG) beams transformed by a single-lens astigmatic mode converter with arbitrary angle. The derived wave functions are related to the combination of the rotation transform and the antisymmetric fractional Fourier transform. The derived formula is systematically validated by using an off-axis diode-pumped solid-state laser to generate various high-order HG beams for mode conversions. In addition to validation, the creation and evolution of vortex structures in the transformed HG beams are numerically manifested. The present theoretical analyses can be used not only to characterize the evolution of the transformed beams but to design the optical vortex beams with various forms.

  13. Time scales of pattern evolution from cross-spectrum analysis of advanced very high resolution radiometer and coastal zone color scanner imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denman, Kenneth L.; Abbott, Mark R.

    1994-01-01

    We have selected square subareas (110 km on a side) from coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) and advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) images for 1981 in the California Current region off northern California for which we could identify sequences of cloud-free data over periods of days to weeks. We applied a two-dimensional fast Fourier transformation to images after median filtering, (x, y) plane removal, and cosine tapering. We formed autospectra and coherence spectra as functions of a scalar wavenumber. Coherence estimates between pairs of images were plotted against time separation between images for several wide wavenumber bands to provide a temporal lagged coherence function. The temporal rate of loss of correlation (decorrelation time scale) in surface patterns provides a measure of the rate of pattern change or evolution as a function of spatial dimension. We found that patterns evolved (or lost correlation) approximately twice as rapidly in upwelling jets as in the 'quieter' regions between jets. The rapid evolution of pigment patterns (lifetime of about 1 week or less for scales of 50-100 km) ought to hinder biomass transfer to zooplankton predators compared with phytoplankton patches that persist for longer times. We found no significant differences between the statistics of CZCS and AVHRR images (spectral shape or rate of decorrelation). In addition, in two of the three areas studied, the peak correlation between AVHRR and CZCS images from the same area occurred at zero lag, indicating that the patterns evolved simutaneously. In the third area, maximum coherence between thermal and pigment patterns occurred when pigment images lagged thermal images by 1-2 days, mirroring the expected lag of high pigment behind low temperatures (and high nutrients) in recently upwelled water. We conclude that in dynamic areas such as coastal upwelling systems, the phytoplankton cells (identified by pigment color patterns) behave largely as passive scalars at the

  14. Estimating rates and patterns of morphological evolution from phylogenies: lessons in limb lability from Australian Lerista lizards

    PubMed Central

    Wiens, John J

    2009-01-01

    Squamates (lizards and snakes) offer an exciting model system for research on the evolution of body form. A new phylogenetic study in BMC Evolutionary Biology of Australian lizards shows remarkable evolutionary lability in digit numbers among closely related species, but also highlights important challenges in this area. PMID:19291259

  15. Clonal Heterogeneity and Tumor Evolution: Past, Present, and the Future.

    PubMed

    McGranahan, Nicholas; Swanton, Charles

    2017-02-09

    Intratumor heterogeneity, which fosters tumor evolution, is a key challenge in cancer medicine. Here, we review data and technologies that have revealed intra-tumor heterogeneity across cancer types and the dynamics, constraints, and contingencies inherent to tumor evolution. We emphasize the importance of macro-evolutionary leaps, often involving large-scale chromosomal alterations, in driving tumor evolution and metastasis and consider the role of the tumor microenvironment in engendering heterogeneity and drug resistance. We suggest that bold approaches to drug development, harnessing the adaptive properties of the immune-microenvironment while limiting those of the tumor, combined with advances in clinical trial-design, will improve patient outcome. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A comparison of phenotypic variation and covariation patterns and the role of phylogeny, ecology, and ontogeny during cranial evolution of new world monkeys.

    PubMed

    Marroig, G; Cheverud, J M

    2001-12-01

    Similarity of genetic and phenotypic variation patterns among populations is important for making quantitative inferences about past evolutionary forces acting to differentiate populations and for evaluating the evolution of relationships among traits in response to new functional and developmental relationships. Here, phenotypic co variance and correlation structure is compared among Platyrrhine Neotropical primates. Comparisons range from among species within a genus to the superfamily level. Matrix correlation followed by Mantel's test and vector correlation among responses to random natural selection vectors (random skewers) were used to compare correlation and variance/covariance matrices of 39 skull traits. Sampling errors involved in matrix estimates were taken into account in comparisons using matrix repeatability to set upper limits for each pairwise comparison. Results indicate that covariance structure is not strictly constant but that the amount of variance pattern divergence observed among taxa is generally low and not associated with taxonomic distance. Specific instances of divergence are identified. There is no correlation between the amount of divergence in covariance patterns among the 16 genera and their phylogenetic distance derived from a conjoint analysis of four already published nuclear gene datasets. In contrast, there is a significant correlation between phylogenetic distance and morphological distance (Mahalanobis distance among genus centroids). This result indicates that while the phenotypic means were evolving during the last 30 millions years of New World monkey evolution, phenotypic covariance structures of Neotropical primate skulls have remained relatively consistent. Neotropical primates can be divided into four major groups based on their feeding habits (fruit-leaves, seed-fruits, insect-fruits, and gum-insect-fruits). Differences in phenotypic covariance structure are correlated with differences in feeding habits, indicating

  17. How do geological sampling biases affect studies of morphological evolution in deep time? A case study of pterosaur (Reptilia: Archosauria) disparity.

    PubMed

    Butler, Richard J; Brusatte, Stephen L; Andres, Brian; Benson, Roger B J

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental contribution of paleobiology to macroevolutionary theory has been the illumination of deep time patterns of diversification. However, recent work has suggested that taxonomic diversity counts taken from the fossil record may be strongly biased by uneven spatiotemporal sampling. Although morphological diversity (disparity) is also frequently used to examine evolutionary radiations, no empirical work has yet addressed how disparity might be affected by uneven fossil record sampling. Here, we use pterosaurs (Mesozoic flying reptiles) as an exemplar group to address this problem. We calculate multiple disparity metrics based upon a comprehensive anatomical dataset including a novel phylogenetic correction for missing data, statistically compare these metrics to four geological sampling proxies, and use multiple regression modeling to assess the importance of uneven sampling and exceptional fossil deposits (Lagerstätten). We find that range-based disparity metrics are strongly affected by uneven fossil record sampling, and should therefore be interpreted cautiously. The robustness of variance-based metrics to sample size and geological sampling suggests that they can be more confidently interpreted as reflecting true biological signals. In addition, our results highlight the problem of high levels of missing data for disparity analyses, indicating a pressing need for more theoretical and empirical work. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution © 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Gene networks, occlusal clocks, and functional patches: new understanding of pattern and process in the evolution of the dentition.

    PubMed

    Polly, P David

    2015-05-01

    Our understanding of the evolution of the dentition has been transformed by advances in the developmental biology, genetics, and functional morphology of teeth, as well as the methods available for studying tooth form and function. The hierarchical complexity of dental developmental genetics combined with dynamic effects of cells and tissues during development allow for substantial, rapid, and potentially non-linear evolutionary changes. Studies of selection on tooth function in the wild and evolutionary functional comparisons both suggest that tooth function and adaptation to diets are the most important factors guiding the evolution of teeth, yet selection against random changes that produce malocclusions (selectional drift) may be an equally important factor in groups with tribosphenic dentitions. These advances are critically reviewed here.

  19. An eco-epidemiological study of Morbilli-related paramyxovirus infection in Madagascar bats reveals host-switching as the dominant macro-evolutionary mechanism.

    PubMed

    Mélade, Julien; Wieseke, Nicolas; Ramasindrazana, Beza; Flores, Olivier; Lagadec, Erwan; Gomard, Yann; Goodman, Steven M; Dellagi, Koussay; Pascalis, Hervé

    2016-04-12

    An eco-epidemiological investigation was carried out on Madagascar bat communities to better understand the evolutionary mechanisms and environmental factors that affect virus transmission among bat species in closely related members of the genus Morbillivirus, currently referred to as Unclassified Morbilli-related paramyxoviruses (UMRVs). A total of 947 bats were investigated originating from 52 capture sites (22 caves, 18 buildings, and 12 outdoor sites) distributed over different bioclimatic zones of the island. Using RT-PCR targeting the L-polymerase gene of the Paramyxoviridae family, we found that 10.5% of sampled bats were infected, representing six out of seven families and 15 out of 31 species analyzed. Univariate analysis indicates that both abiotic and biotic factors may promote viral infection. Using generalized linear modeling of UMRV infection overlaid on biotic and abiotic variables, we demonstrate that sympatric occurrence of bats is a major factor for virus transmission. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that all paramyxoviruses infecting Malagasy bats are UMRVs and showed little host specificity. Analyses using the maximum parsimony reconciliation tool CoRe-PA, indicate that host-switching, rather than co-speciation, is the dominant macro-evolutionary mechanism of UMRVs among Malagasy bats.

  20. ATGC database and ATGC-COGs: an updated resource for micro- and macro-evolutionary studies of prokaryotic genomes and protein family annotation

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, David M.; Wolf, Yuri I.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2017-01-01

    The Alignable Tight Genomic Clusters (ATGCs) database is a collection of closely related bacterial and archaeal genomes that provides several tools to aid research into evolutionary processes in the microbial world. Each ATGC is a taxonomy-independent cluster of 2 or more completely sequenced genomes that meet the objective criteria of a high degree of local gene order (synteny) and a small number of synonymous substitutions in the protein-coding genes. As such, each ATGC is suited for analysis of microevolutionary variations within a cohesive group of organisms (e.g. species), whereas the entire collection of ATGCs is useful for macroevolutionary studies. The ATGC database includes many forms of pre-computed data, in particular ATGC-COGs (Clusters of Orthologous Genes), multiple sequence alignments, a set of ‘index’ orthologs representing the most well-conserved members of each ATGC-COG, the phylogenetic tree of the organisms within each ATGC, etc. Although the ATGC database contains several million proteins from thousands of genomes organized into hundreds of clusters (roughly a 4-fold increase since the last version of the ATGC database), it is now built with completely automated methods and will be regularly updated following new releases of the NCBI RefSeq database. The ATGC database is hosted jointly at the University of Iowa at dmk-brain.ecn.uiowa.edu/ATGC/ and the NCBI at ftp.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pub/kristensen/ATGC/atgc_home.html. PMID:28053163

  1. Genome structure drives patterns of gene family evolution in ciliates, a case study using Chilodonella uncinata (Protista, Ciliophora, Phyllopharyngea)

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Feng; Song, Weibo; Katz, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    In most lineages, diversity among gene family members results from gene duplication followed by sequence divergence. Because of the genome rearrangements during the development of somatic nuclei, gene family evolution in ciliates involves more complex processes. Previous work on the ciliate Chilodonella uncinata revealed that macronuclear β-tubulin gene family members are generated by alternative processing, in which germline regions are alternatively used in multiple macronuclear chromosomes. To further study genome evolution in this ciliate, we analyzed its transcriptome and found that: 1) alternative processing is extensive among gene families; and 2) such gene families are likely to be C. uncinata-specific. We characterized additional macronuclear and micronuclear copies of one candidate alternatively processed gene family -- a protein kinase domain containing protein (PKc) -- from two C. uncinata strains. Analysis of the PKc sequences reveals: 1) multiple PKc gene family members in the macronucleus share some identical regions flanked by divergent regions; and 2) the shared identical regions are processed from a single micronuclear chromosome. We discuss analogous processes in lineages across the eukaryotic tree of life to provide further insights on the impact of genome structure on gene family evolution in eukaryotes. PMID:24749903

  2. The shoot stem cell niche in angiosperms: expression patterns of WUS orthologues in rice and maize imply major modifications in the course of mono- and dicot evolution.

    PubMed

    Nardmann, Judith; Werr, Wolfgang

    2006-12-01

    In Arabidopsis, stem cell homeostasis in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) is controlled by a feedback loop between WUS and CLV functions. We have identified WUS orthologues in maize and rice by a detailed phylogenetic analysis of the WOX gene family and subsequent cloning. A single WUS orthologue is present in the rice genome (OsWUS), whereas the allotetraploid maize genome contains 2 WUS paralogues (ZmWUS1 and ZmWUS2). None of the isolated grass WUS orthologues displays an organizing center-type expression pattern in the vegetative SAM as in Arabidopsis. In contrast, the grass-specific expression patterns relate to the specification of new phytomers consistent with the transcriptional expression patterns of TD1 and FON1 (CLV1 orthologues of maize and rice, respectively). Moreover, the grass WUS and CLV1 orthologues are coexpressed in all reproductive meristems, where fasciation and supernumerary floral organs occur in td1 or fon1 loss-of-function mutants. The expression patterns of WUS orthologues in both grass species compared with those of dicots imply that major changes in WUS function, which are correlated with changes in CLV1 signaling, have occurred during angiosperm evolution and raise doubts about the uniqueness of the WUS/CLV antagonism in the maintenance of the shoot stem cell niche in grasses.

  3. Gene sequence variations and expression patterns of mitochondrial genes are associated with the adaptive evolution of two Gynaephora species (Lepidoptera: Lymantriinae) living in different high-elevation environments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi-Lin; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Tian-Xuan; Wang, Juan; Zhu, Qian-Hua; Chen, Jun-Yuan; Yuan, Ming-Long

    2017-04-30

    The adaptive evolution of animals to high-elevation environments has been extensively studied in vertebrates, while few studies have focused on insects. Gynaephora species (Lepidoptera: Lymantriinae) are endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and represent an important insect pest of alpine meadows. Here, we present a detailed comparative analysis of the mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of two Gynaephora species inhabiting different high-elevation environments: G. alpherakii and G. menyuanensis. The results indicated that the general mitogenomic features (genome size, nucleotide composition, codon usage and secondary structures of tRNAs) were well conserved between the two species. All of mitochondrial protein-coding genes were evolving under purifying selection, suggesting that selection constraints may play a role in ensuring adequate energy production. However, a number of substitutions and indels were identified that altered the protein conformations of ATP8 and NAD1, which may be the result of adaptive evolution of the two Gynaephora species to different high-elevation environments. Levels of gene expression for nine mitochondrial genes in nine different developmental stages were significantly suppressed in G. alpherakii, which lives at the higher elevation (~4800m above sea level), suggesting that gene expression patterns could be modulated by atmospheric oxygen content and environmental temperature. These results enhance our understanding of the genetic bases for the adaptive evolution of insects endemic to the QTP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fracture patterns of the drainage basin of Wadi Dahab in relation to tectonic-landscape evolution of the Gulf of Aqaba - Dead Sea transform fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaby, Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    Crustal rifting of the Arabian-Nubian Shield and formation of the Afro-Arabian rifts since the Miocene resulted in uplifting and subsequent terrain evolution of Sinai landscapes; including drainage systems and fault scarps. Geomorphic evolution of these landscapes in relation to tectonic evolution of the Afro-Arabian rifts is the prime target of this study. The fracture patterns and landscape evolution of the Wadi Dahab drainage basin (WDDB), in which its landscape is modeled by the tectonic evolution of the Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea transform fault, are investigated as a case study of landscape modifications of tectonically-controlled drainage systems. The early developed drainage system of the WDDB was achieved when the Sinai terrain subaerially emerged in post Eocene and initiation of the Afro-Arabian rifts in the Oligo-Miocene. Conjugate shear fractures, parallel to trends of the Afro-Arabian rifts, are synthesized with tensional fracture arrays to adapt some of inland basins, which represent the early destination of the Sinai drainage systems as paleolakes trapping alluvial sediments. Once the Gulf of Aqaba rift basin attains its deeps through sinistral movements on the Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea transform fault in the Pleistocene and the consequent rise of the Southern Sinai mountainous peaks, relief potential energy is significantly maintained through time so that it forced the Pleistocene runoffs to flow via drainage systems externally into the Gulf of Aqaba. Hence the older alluvial sediments are (1) carved within the paleolakes by a new generation of drainage systems; followed up through an erosional surface by sandy- to silty-based younger alluvium; and (2) brought on footslopes of fault scarps reviving the early developed scarps and inselbergs. These features argue for crustal uplifting of Sinai landscapes syn-rifting of the Gulf of Aqaba rift basin. Oblique orientation of the Red Sea-Gulf of Suez rift relative to the WNW-trending Precambrian Najd faults; and

  5. Biostratigraphy, taxonomic diversity and patterns of morphological evolution of Ordovician acritarchs (organic-walled microphytoplankton) from the northern Gondwana margin in relation to palaeoclimatic and palaeogeographic changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecoli, Marco; Le Hérissé, Alain

    2004-10-01

    Acritarchs, the fossilizable, resting cysts of phytoplanktonic algal protists, are the dominant component of marine organic-walled microfossils in the Palaeozoic. The majority of acritarchs show strong similarities with dinoflagellate cysts in morphological and biogeochemical features, as well as distributional patterns in the sediments. The production of these organic-walled microfossils and their distribution and survivorship in the sediments were controlled by differences in ecological tolerances and life cycle (autecology) of the planktonic parent organisms. Calculation of evolutionary rates and development of a detailed diversity curve at specific level, form the basis for discussing the influence of global palaeoenvironmental perturbations on the evolution of organic-walled microphytoplankton in northern Gondwana during latest Cambrian through Ordovician times. The potential of acritarchs for biostratigraphic correlation at the regional scale (northern Gondwana domain) is much improved by our detailed revision of distributional patterns of 245 acritarch taxa. The most important Cambro-Ordovician acritarch bio-events are short periods of diversification, which also correspond to introduction of morphological innovations, observed in latest Cambrian and earliest Tremadoc, late Tremadoc, early Arenig, basal Llanvirn, and latest Ashgill, and an important extinction phase in the early Caradoc. Overall, acritarch diversity increased from the basal Ordovician up to the middle Llanvirn, then declined in the early and middle Caradoc. During Ashgill times, the assemblages are poorly diversified at the generic level as a result of a combined effect of sea level drawdown and onset of glacial conditions, but no major extinction event is observed in connection with the end-Ordovician biotic crisis. The peak in acritarch diversity during Middle Ordovician times appears to be correlated to maximum spread of palaeogeographical assembly. Acritarch dynamics appear largely

  6. Carbon source utilization patterns of Bacillus simplex ecotypes do not reflect their adaptation to ecologically divergent slopes in 'Evolution Canyon', Israel.

    PubMed

    Sikorski, Johannes; Pukall, Rüdiger; Stackebrandt, Erko

    2008-10-01

    The 'Evolution Canyons' I and II in Israel are model habitats to study adaptation and speciation of bacteria in the environment. These canyons represent similar ecological replicates, separated by 40 km, with a strongly sun-exposed and hot 'African' south-facing slope (SFS) vs. a cooler and mesic-lush 'European' north-facing slope (NFS). Previously, among 131 Bacillus simplex isolates, distinct genetic lineages (ecotypes), each specific for either SFS or NFS, were identified, suggesting a temperature-driven slope-specific adaptation. Here, we asked whether the ecological heterogeneity of SFS vs. NFS also affected carbon utilization abilities, as determined using the Biolog assay. Contrary to expectation, a correlation between substrate utilization patterns and the ecological origin of strains was not found. Rather, the patterns split according to the two major phylogenetic lineages each of which contain SFS and NFS ecotypes. We conclude that traits related to the general energy metabolism, as far as assessed here, are neither shaped by the major abiotic features of 'Evolution Canyon', namely solar radiation, temperature, and drought, nor by the soil characteristics. We further conclude that some traits diverge rather neutrally from each other, whereas other, more environmentally related traits are shaped by natural selection and show evolutionary convergence.

  7. Molecular evolution and patterns of duplication in the SEP/AGL6-like lineage of the Zingiberales: a proposed mechanism for floral diversification.

    PubMed

    Yockteng, Roxana; Almeida, Ana M R; Morioka, Kelsie; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R; Specht, Chelsea D

    2013-11-01

    The diversity of floral forms in the plant order Zingiberales has evolved through alterations in floral organ morphology. One striking alteration is the shift from fertile, filamentous stamens to sterile, laminar (petaloid) organs in the stamen whorls, attributed to specific pollination syndromes. Here, we examine the role of the SEPALLATA (SEP) genes, known to be important in regulatory networks underlying floral development and organ identity, in the evolution of development of the diverse floral organs phenotypes in the Zingiberales. Phylogenetic analyses show that the SEP-like genes have undergone several duplication events giving rise to multiple copies. Selection tests on the SEP-like genes indicate that the two copies of SEP3 have mostly evolved under balancing selection, probably due to strong functional restrictions as a result of their critical role in floral organ specification. In contrast, the two LOFSEP copies have undergone differential positive selection, indicating neofunctionalization. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, gene expression from RNA-seq data, and in situ hybridization analyses show that the recovered genes have differential expression patterns across the various whorls and organ types found in the Zingiberales. Our data also suggest that AGL6, sister to the SEP-like genes, may play an important role in stamen morphology in the Zingiberales. Thus, the SEP-like genes are likely to be involved in some of the unique morphogenetic patterns of floral organ development found among this diverse order of tropical monocots. This work contributes to a growing body of knowledge focused on understanding the role of gene duplications and the evolution of entire gene networks in the evolution of flower development.

  8. The role of extreme events in evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combes, Claude

    2008-09-01

    Evolutionists have often had a marked tendency to think that, in the course of time, planetary events were not very different from those occurring during a human life. However, when a 'non-human' timescale is used, the history of our planet appears profoundly and frequently disturbed by extreme events. These events, even not always instantaneous, impose - because of their amplitude - a severe sorting, not between individuals of a species, but between species, or even between phyla. In the face of an extreme event, intraspecific diversity counts little: it is the interspecific diversity that makes the difference. As shown by mass extinctions, extreme events open ecological niches and redistribute the cards of life, giving survivors opportunities to radiate. The capacity to cope with extreme ecological conditions favours certain species in ecosystems, not certain individuals in populations. This is not a macroevolutionary process in terms of acquiring new adaptations, but a macroevolutionary process in terms of sorting entire sections of life. The most important is perhaps that the current 'mediatisation' of a limited number of mass extinctions dissimulates less important extinctions caused by less extreme and more localized events that were possibly responsible for many changes in the composition and structure of communities throughout the evolution. The term of 'pre-adaptation' has been neglected, because it gives an impression of finalism, but it expresses well that, when an unexpected event occurs, a particular species has or has not the 'right genes' to continue to sustain viable populations. The role of extreme events in modifying the course of evolution should not be underestimated.

  9. COMMON PATTERNS IN THE EVOLUTION BETWEEN THE LUMINOUS NEUTRON STAR LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARY SUBCLASSES

    SciTech Connect

    Fridriksson, Joel K.; Homan, Jeroen; Remillard, Ronald A., E-mail: J.K.Fridriksson@uva.nl

    2015-08-10

    The X-ray transient XTE J1701–462 was the first source observed to evolve through all known subclasses of low-magnetic-field neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (NS-LMXBs), as a result of large changes in its mass accretion rate. To investigate to what extent similar evolution is seen in other NS-LMXBs we have performed a detailed study of the color–color and hardness–intensity diagrams (CDs and HIDs) of Cyg X-2, Cir X-1, and GX 13+1—three luminous X-ray binaries, containing weakly magnetized neutron stars, known to exhibit strong secular changes in their CD/HID tracks. Using the full set of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Arraymore » data collected for the sources over the 16 year duration of the mission, we show that Cyg X-2 and Cir X-1 display CD/HID evolution with close similarities to XTE J1701–462. Although GX 13+1 shows behavior that is in some ways unique, it also exhibits similarities to XTE J1701–462, and we conclude that its overall CD/HID properties strongly indicate that it should be classified as a Z source, rather than as an atoll source. We conjecture that the secular evolution of Cyg X-2, Cir X-1, and GX 13+1—illustrated by sequences of CD/HID tracks we construct—arises from changes in the mass accretion rate. Our results strengthen previous suggestions that within single sources Cyg-like Z source behavior takes place at higher luminosities and mass accretion rates than Sco-like Z behavior, and lend support to the notion that the mass accretion rate is the primary physical parameter distinguishing the various NS-LMXB subclasses.« less

  10. VDJ-Seq: Deep Sequencing Analysis of Rearranged Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Gene to Reveal Clonal Evolution Patterns of B Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanwen; Nie, Kui; Redmond, David; Melnick, Ari M; Tam, Wayne; Elemento, Olivier

    2015-12-28

    Understanding tumor clonality is critical to understanding the mechanisms involved in tumorigenesis and disease progression. In addition, understanding the clonal composition changes that occur within a tumor in response to certain micro-environment or treatments may lead to the design of more sophisticated and effective approaches to eradicate tumor cells. However, tracking tumor clonal sub-populations has been challenging due to the lack of distinguishable markers. To address this problem, a VDJ-seq protocol was created to trace the clonal evolution patterns of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) relapse by exploiting VDJ recombination and somatic hypermutation (SHM), two unique features of B cell lymphomas. In this protocol, Next-Generation sequencing (NGS) libraries with indexing potential were constructed from amplified rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) VDJ region from pairs of primary diagnosis and relapse DLBCL samples. On average more than half million VDJ sequences per sample were obtained after sequencing, which contain both VDJ rearrangement and SHM information. In addition, customized bioinformatics pipelines were developed to fully utilize sequence information for the characterization of IgH-VDJ repertoire within these samples. Furthermore, the pipeline allows the reconstruction and comparison of the clonal architecture of individual tumors, which enables the examination of the clonal heterogeneity within the diagnosis tumors and deduction of clonal evolution patterns between diagnosis and relapse tumor pairs. When applying this analysis to several diagnosis-relapse pairs, we uncovered key evidence that multiple distinctive tumor evolutionary patterns could lead to DLBCL relapse. Additionally, this approach can be expanded into other clinical aspects, such as identification of minimal residual disease, monitoring relapse progress and treatment response, and investigation of immune repertoires in non-lymphoma contexts.

  11. Repeated evolution of vertebrate pollination syndromes in a recently diverged Andean plant clade.

    PubMed

    Lagomarsino, Laura P; Forrestel, Elisabeth J; Muchhala, Nathan; Davis, Charles C

    2017-08-01

    Although specialized interactions, including those involving plants and their pollinators, are often invoked to explain high species diversity, they are rarely explored at macroevolutionary scales. We investigate the dynamic evolution of hummingbird and bat pollination syndromes in the centropogonid clade (Lobelioideae: Campanulaceae), an Andean-centered group of ∼550 angiosperm species. We demonstrate that flowers hypothesized to be adapted to different pollinators based on flower color fall into distinct regions of morphospace, and this is validated by morphology of species with known pollinators. This supports the existence of pollination syndromes in the centropogonids, an idea corroborated by ecological studies. We further demonstrate that hummingbird pollination is ancestral, and that bat pollination has evolved ∼13 times independently, with ∼11 reversals. This convergence is associated with correlated evolution of floral traits within selective regimes corresponding to pollination syndrome. Collectively, our results suggest that floral morphological diversity is extremely labile, likely resulting from selection imposed by pollinators. Finally, even though this clade's rapid diversification is partially attributed to their association with vertebrate pollinators, we detect no difference in diversification rates between hummingbird- and bat-pollinated lineages. Our study demonstrates the utility of pollination syndromes as a proxy for ecological relationships in macroevolutionary studies of certain species-rich clades. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Evolution of ectomycorrhizas as a driver of diversification and biogeographic patterns in the model mycorrhizal mushroom genus Laccaria.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Andrew W; Hosaka, Kentaro; Mueller, Gregory M

    2017-03-01

    A systematic and evolutionary ecology study of the model ectomycorrhizal (ECM) genus Laccaria was performed using herbarium material and field collections from over 30 countries covering its known geographic range. A four-gene (nrITS, 28S, RPB2, EF1α) nucleotide sequence dataset consisting of 232 Laccaria specimens was analyzed phylogenetically. The resulting Global Laccaria dataset was used for molecular dating and estimating diversification rates in the genus. Stable isotope analysis of carbon and nitrogen was used to evaluate the origin of Laccaria's ECM ecology. In all, 116 Laccaria molecular species were identified, resulting in a near 50% increase in its known diversity, including the new species described herein: Laccaria ambigua. Molecular dating indicates that the most recent common ancestor to Laccaria existed in the early Paleocene (56-66 million yr ago), probably in Australasia. At this time, Laccaria split into two lineages: one represented by the new species L. ambigua, and the other reflecting a large shift in diversification that resulted in the remainder of Laccaria. L. ambigua shows a different isotopic profile than all other Laccaria species. Isotopes and diversification results suggest that the evolution of the ECM ecology was a key innovation in the evolution of Laccaria. Diversification shifts associated with Laccaria's dispersal to the northern hemisphere are attributed to adaptations to new ecological niches. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. [Evolution pattern of impervious surface in the Yuqiao Reservoir Watershed, Tianjin, China during the process of urbanization.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hui Jun; Li, Chong Wei; Zhang, Ya Juan; Song, Ai Yun

    2016-04-22

    Imperviousness in watershed is a key index to measure urbanization status which exerts an important impact on both eco-hydrological process and spatio-temporal pattern. Taking Yuqiao Reservoir Watershed as a case study area, based on the ENVI 5.1 software, the basic impervious surface information was extracted from remote sensing images taken in 1984, 1994, 2004 and 2013. The linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA) model was applied to extract the impervious surface area (ISA) in nine coverage classes of watershed in order to analyze its spatio-temporal varying trend in terms of the landscape pattern metrics. Results showed that the RMSE and IS pixel accuracy of all samples were 0.005 and 85.4% respectively, which indicated that the method of extracting impervious surface on a basin scale was feasible. The average of ISA showed a linear growth, from 0.16 to 0.23, the impervious surface area increased by 4.9% in the whole watershed, and the total impervious surface area increased by 1 time. In the sub-basin road network, the impervious surface area increased gradually with the density of the road network, and its expansion pattern was of infilling growth. The patch shape of the middle coverage degree was irregular, and its fragmentation degree was the highest. The fragmentation degree and diversity of the landscape in the whole river basin increased year by year due to increasing human disturbance.

  14. Patterns of a spatial exploration under time evolution of the attractiveness: Persistent nodes, degree distribution, and spectral properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Roberto

    2018-06-01

    This work explores the features of a graph generated by agents that hop from one node to another node, where the nodes have evolutionary attractiveness. The jumps are governed by Boltzmann-like transition probabilities that depend both on the euclidean distance between the nodes and on the ratio (β) of the attractiveness between them. It is shown that persistent nodes, i.e., nodes that never been reached by this special random walk are possible in the stationary limit differently from the case where the attractiveness is fixed and equal to one for all nodes (β = 1). Simultaneously, one also investigates the spectral properties and statistics related to the attractiveness and degree distribution of the evolutionary network. Finally, a study of the crossover between persistent phase and no persistent phase was performed and it was also observed the existence of a special type of transition probability which leads to a power law behaviour for the time evolution of the persistence.

  15. ATGC database and ATGC-COGs: an updated resource for micro- and macro-evolutionary studies of prokaryotic genomes and protein family annotation.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, David M; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2017-01-04

    The Alignable Tight Genomic Clusters (ATGCs) database is a collection of closely related bacterial and archaeal genomes that provides several tools to aid research into evolutionary processes in the microbial world. Each ATGC is a taxonomy-independent cluster of 2 or more completely sequenced genomes that meet the objective criteria of a high degree of local gene order (synteny) and a small number of synonymous substitutions in the protein-coding genes. As such, each ATGC is suited for analysis of microevolutionary variations within a cohesive group of organisms (e.g. species), whereas the entire collection of ATGCs is useful for macroevolutionary studies. The ATGC database includes many forms of pre-computed data, in particular ATGC-COGs (Clusters of Orthologous Genes), multiple sequence alignments, a set of 'index' orthologs representing the most well-conserved members of each ATGC-COG, the phylogenetic tree of the organisms within each ATGC, etc. Although the ATGC database contains several million proteins from thousands of genomes organized into hundreds of clusters (roughly a 4-fold increase since the last version of the ATGC database), it is now built with completely automated methods and will be regularly updated following new releases of the NCBI RefSeq database. The ATGC database is hosted jointly at the University of Iowa at dmk-brain.ecn.uiowa.edu/ATGC/ and the NCBI at ftp.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pub/kristensen/ATGC/atgc_home.html. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Evolution of Xylan Substitution Patterns in Gymnosperms and Angiosperms: Implications for Xylan Interaction with Cellulose1[CC-BY

    PubMed Central

    Li, An; Gomes, Thiago C.F.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between cellulose and xylan is important for the load-bearing secondary cell wall of flowering plants. Based on the precise, evenly spaced pattern of acetyl and glucuronosyl (MeGlcA) xylan substitutions in eudicots, we recently proposed that an unsubstituted face of xylan in a 2-fold helical screw can hydrogen bond to the hydrophilic surfaces of cellulose microfibrils. In gymnosperm cell walls, any role for xylan is unclear, and glucomannan is thought to be the important cellulose-binding polysaccharide. Here, we analyzed xylan from the secondary cell walls of the four gymnosperm lineages (Conifer, Gingko, Cycad, and Gnetophyta). Conifer, Gingko, and Cycad xylan lacks acetylation but is modified by arabinose and MeGlcA. Interestingly, the arabinosyl substitutions are located two xylosyl residues from MeGlcA, which is itself placed precisely on every sixth xylosyl residue. Notably, the Gnetophyta xylan is more akin to early-branching angiosperms and eudicot xylan, lacking arabinose but possessing acetylation on alternate xylosyl residues. All these precise substitution patterns are compatible with gymnosperm xylan binding to hydrophilic surfaces of cellulose. Molecular dynamics simulations support the stable binding of 2-fold screw conifer xylan to the hydrophilic face of cellulose microfibrils. Moreover, the binding of multiple xylan chains to adjacent planes of the cellulose fibril stabilizes the interaction further. Our results show that the type of xylan substitution varies, but an even pattern of xylan substitution is maintained among vascular plants. This suggests that 2-fold screw xylan binds hydrophilic faces of cellulose in eudicots, early-branching angiosperm, and gymnosperm cell walls. PMID:27325663

  17. Contrasting evolution patterns between glacier-fed and non-glacier-fed lakes in the central Tibetan Plateau and driving force analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, C.; Sheng, Y.

    2015-12-01

    High-altitude lakes in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) showed strong spatio-temporal variability during past decades. The lake dynamics can be associated with several key factors including lake type, supply of glacial meltwater, local climate variations. It is important to differentiate these factors when analyzing the driving force of lakes dynamics. With a focus on lakes over the Tanggula Mountains of the central TP, this study investigates the temporal evolution patterns of lake area and water level of different types: glacier-fed closed lake, non-glacier-fed closed lake and upstream lake (draining into closed lakes). We collected all available Landsat archive data and quantified the inter-annual variability of lake extents. Results show accelerated expansions of both glacier-fed and non-glacier-fed lakes during 1970s-2013, and different temporal patterns of the two types of lakes: the non-glacier-fed lakes displayed a batch-wise growth pattern, with obvious growth in 2002, 2005 and 2011 and slight changes in other years, while glacier-fed lakes showed steady expanding tendency. The contrasting patterns are confirmed by the distinction of lake level change between the two groups derived from satellite altimetry during 2003-2009. The upstream lakes remained largely stable due to natural drainage regulation. The intermittent expansions for non-glacier-fed lakes were found to be related to excessive precipitation events and positive "precipitation-evaporation". In contrast, glacier-fed lake changes showed weak correlations with precipitation variations, which imply a joint contribution from glacial meltwater to water budgets. A simple estimation reveals that the increased water storage for all of examined lakes contributed from precipitation/evaporation (0.31±0.09 Gt/yr) slightly overweighed the glacial meltwater supply (0.26±0.08 Gt/yr).

  18. Molecular evolution of psbA gene in ferns: unraveling selective pressure and co-evolutionary pattern

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The photosynthetic oxygen-evolving photo system II (PS II) produces almost the entire oxygen in the atmosphere. This unique biochemical system comprises a functional core complex that is encoded by psbA and other genes. Unraveling the evolutionary dynamics of this gene is of particular interest owing to its direct role in oxygen production. psbA underwent gene duplication in leptosporangiates, in which both copies have been preserved since. Because gene duplication is often followed by the non-fictionalization of one of the copies and its subsequent erosion, preservation of both psbA copies pinpoint functional or regulatory specialization events. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular evolution of psbA among fern lineages. Results We sequenced psbA , which encodes D1 protein in the core complex of PSII, in 20 species representing 8 orders of extant ferns; then we searched for selection and convolution signatures in psbA across the 11 fern orders. Collectively, our results indicate that: (1) selective constraints among D1 protein relaxed after the duplication in 4 leptosporangiate orders; (2) a handful positively selected codons were detected within species of single copy psbA, but none in duplicated ones; (3) a few sites among D1 protein were involved in co-evolution process which may intimate significant functional/structural communications between them. Conclusions The strong competition between ferns and angiosperms for light may have been the main cause for a continuous fixation of adaptive amino acid changes in psbA , in particular after its duplication. Alternatively, a single psbA copy may have undergone bursts of adaptive changes at the molecular level to overcome angiosperms competition. The strong signature of positive Darwinian selection in a major part of D1 protein is testament to this. At the same time, species own two psbA copies hardly have positive selection signals among the D1 protein coding sequences. In this study

  19. Patterns of host-plant choice in bees of the genus Chelostoma: the constraint hypothesis of host-range evolution in bees.

    PubMed

    Sedivy, Claudio; Praz, Christophe J; Müller, Andreas; Widmer, Alex; Dorn, Silvia

    2008-10-01

    To trace the evolution of host-plant choice in bees of the genus Chelostoma (Megachilidae), we assessed the host plants of 35 Palearctic, North American and Indomalayan species by microscopically analyzing the pollen loads of 634 females and reconstructed their phylogenetic history based on four genes and a morphological dataset, applying both parsimony and Bayesian methods. All species except two were found to be strict pollen specialists at the level of plant family or genus. These oligolectic species together exploit the flowers of eight different plant orders that are distributed among all major angiosperm lineages. Based on ancestral state reconstruction, we found that oligolecty is the ancestral state in Chelostoma and that the two pollen generalists evolved from oligolectic ancestors. The distinct pattern of host broadening in these two polylectic species, the highly conserved floral specializations within the different clades, the exploitation of unrelated hosts with a striking floral similarity as well as a recent report on larval performance on nonhost pollen in two Chelostoma species clearly suggest that floral host choice is physiologically or neurologically constrained in bees of the genus Chelostoma. Based on this finding, we propose a new hypothesis on the evolution of host range in bees.

  20. Genetics and evolution of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis O-specific polysaccharides: a novel pattern of O-antigen diversity

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Johanna J.; Cunneen, Monica M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract O-antigen polysaccharide is a major immunogenic feature of the lipopolysaccharide of Gram-negative bacteria, and most species produce a large variety of forms that differ substantially from one another. There are 18 known O-antigen forms in the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis complex, which are typical in being composed of multiple copies of a short oligosaccharide called an O unit. The O-antigen gene clusters are located between the hemH and gsk genes, and are atypical as 15 of them are closely related, each having one of five downstream gene modules for alternative main-chain synthesis, and one of seven upstream modules for alternative side-branch sugar synthesis. As a result, many of the genes are in more than one gene cluster. The gene order in each module is such that, in general, the earlier a gene product functions in O-unit synthesis, the closer the gene is to the 5΄ end for side-branch modules or the 3΄ end for main-chain modules. We propose a model whereby natural selection could generate the observed pattern in gene order, a pattern that has also been observed in other species. PMID:28364730

  1. Whole-exome sequencing reveals the spectrum of gene mutations and the clonal evolution patterns in paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Norio; Yoshida, Kenichi; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Okuno, Yusuke; Yamato, Genki; Hara, Yusuke; Nagata, Yasunobu; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Terui, Kiminori; Kato, Motohiro; Park, Myoung-Ja; Ohki, Kentaro; Shimada, Akira; Takita, Junko; Tomizawa, Daisuke; Kudo, Kazuko; Arakawa, Hirokazu; Adachi, Souichi; Taga, Takashi; Tawa, Akio; Ito, Etsuro; Horibe, Keizo; Sanada, Masashi; Miyano, Satoru; Ogawa, Seishi; Hayashi, Yasuhide

    2016-11-01

    Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a molecularly and clinically heterogeneous disease. Targeted sequencing efforts have identified several mutations with diagnostic and prognostic values in KIT, NPM1, CEBPA and FLT3 in both adult and paediatric AML. In addition, massively parallel sequencing enabled the discovery of recurrent mutations (i.e. IDH1/2 and DNMT3A) in adult AML. In this study, whole-exome sequencing (WES) of 22 paediatric AML patients revealed mutations in components of the cohesin complex (RAD21 and SMC3), BCORL1 and ASXL2 in addition to previously known gene mutations. We also revealed intratumoural heterogeneities in many patients, implicating multiple clonal evolution events in the development of AML. Furthermore, targeted deep sequencing in 182 paediatric AML patients identified three major categories of recurrently mutated genes: cohesion complex genes [STAG2, RAD21 and SMC3 in 17 patients (8·3%)], epigenetic regulators [ASXL1/ASXL2 in 17 patients (8·3%), BCOR/BCORL1 in 7 patients (3·4%)] and signalling molecules. We also performed WES in four patients with relapsed AML. Relapsed AML evolved from one of the subclones at the initial phase and was accompanied by many additional mutations, including common driver mutations that were absent or existed only with lower allele frequency in the diagnostic samples, indicating a multistep process causing leukaemia recurrence. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Whole-genome and multisector exome sequencing of primary and post-treatment glioblastoma reveals patterns of tumor evolution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoon; Zheng, Siyuan; Amini, Seyed S; Virk, Selene M; Mikkelsen, Tom; Brat, Daniel J; Grimsby, Jonna; Sougnez, Carrie; Muller, Florian; Hu, Jian; Sloan, Andrew E; Cohen, Mark L; Van Meir, Erwin G; Scarpace, Lisa; Laird, Peter W; Weinstein, John N; Lander, Eric S; Gabriel, Stacey; Getz, Gad; Meyerson, Matthew; Chin, Lynda; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Verhaak, Roel G W

    2015-03-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a prototypical heterogeneous brain tumor refractory to conventional therapy. A small residual population of cells escapes surgery and chemoradiation, resulting in a typically fatal tumor recurrence ∼ 7 mo after diagnosis. Understanding the molecular architecture of this residual population is critical for the development of successful therapies. We used whole-genome sequencing and whole-exome sequencing of multiple sectors from primary and paired recurrent GBM tumors to reconstruct the genomic profile of residual, therapy resistant tumor initiating cells. We found that genetic alteration of the p53 pathway is a primary molecular event predictive of a high number of subclonal mutations in glioblastoma. The genomic road leading to recurrence is highly idiosyncratic but can be broadly classified into linear recurrences that share extensive genetic similarity with the primary tumor and can be directly traced to one of its specific sectors, and divergent recurrences that share few genetic alterations with the primary tumor and originate from cells that branched off early during tumorigenesis. Our study provides mechanistic insights into how genetic alterations in primary tumors impact the ensuing evolution of tumor cells and the emergence of subclonal heterogeneity. © 2015 Kim et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  3. Whole-genome and multisector exome sequencing of primary and post-treatment glioblastoma reveals patterns of tumor evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hoon; Zheng, Siyuan; Amini, Seyed S.; Virk, Selene M.; Mikkelsen, Tom; Brat, Daniel J.; Grimsby, Jonna; Sougnez, Carrie; Muller, Florian; Hu, Jian; Sloan, Andrew E.; Cohen, Mark L.; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Scarpace, Lisa; Laird, Peter W.; Weinstein, John N.; Lander, Eric S.; Gabriel, Stacey; Getz, Gad; Meyerson, Matthew; Chin, Lynda; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a prototypical heterogeneous brain tumor refractory to conventional therapy. A small residual population of cells escapes surgery and chemoradiation, resulting in a typically fatal tumor recurrence ∼7 mo after diagnosis. Understanding the molecular architecture of this residual population is critical for the development of successful therapies. We used whole-genome sequencing and whole-exome sequencing of multiple sectors from primary and paired recurrent GBM tumors to reconstruct the genomic profile of residual, therapy resistant tumor initiating cells. We found that genetic alteration of the p53 pathway is a primary molecular event predictive of a high number of subclonal mutations in glioblastoma. The genomic road leading to recurrence is highly idiosyncratic but can be broadly classified into linear recurrences that share extensive genetic similarity with the primary tumor and can be directly traced to one of its specific sectors, and divergent recurrences that share few genetic alterations with the primary tumor and originate from cells that branched off early during tumorigenesis. Our study provides mechanistic insights into how genetic alterations in primary tumors impact the ensuing evolution of tumor cells and the emergence of subclonal heterogeneity. PMID:25650244

  4. Classic Maya Bloodletting and the Cultural Evolution of Religious Rituals: Quantifying Patterns of Variation in Hieroglyphic Texts

    PubMed Central

    Munson, Jessica; Amati, Viviana; Collard, Mark; Macri, Martha J.

    2014-01-01

    Religious rituals that are painful or highly stressful are hypothesized to be costly signs of commitment essential for the evolution of complex society. Yet few studies have investigated how such extreme ritual practices were culturally transmitted in past societies. Here, we report the first study to analyze temporal and spatial variation in bloodletting rituals recorded in Classic Maya (ca. 250–900 CE) hieroglyphic texts. We also identify the sociopolitical contexts most closely associated with these ancient recorded rituals. Sampling an extensive record of 2,480 hieroglyphic texts, this study identifies every recorded instance of the logographic sign for the word ch’ahb’ that is associated with ritual bloodletting. We show that documented rituals exhibit low frequency whose occurrence cannot be predicted by spatial location. Conversely, network ties better capture the distribution of bloodletting rituals across the southern Maya region. Our results indicate that bloodletting rituals by Maya nobles were not uniformly recorded, but were typically documented in association with antagonistic statements and may have signaled royal commitments among connected polities. PMID:25254359

  5. [The evolution of heat shock genes and expression patterns of heat shock proteins in the species from temperature contrasting habitats].

    PubMed

    Garbuz, D G; Evgen’ev, M B

    2017-01-01

    Heat shock genes are the most evolutionarily ancient among the systems responsible for adaptation of organisms to a harsh environment. The encoded proteins (heat shock proteins, Hsps) represent the most important factors of adaptation to adverse environmental conditions. They serve as molecular chaperones, providing protein folding and preventing aggregation of damaged cellular proteins. Structural analysis of the heat shock genes in individuals from both phylogenetically close and very distant taxa made it possible to reveal the basic trends of the heat shock gene organization in the context of adaptation to extreme conditions. Using different model objects and nonmodel species from natural populations, it was demonstrated that modulation of the Hsps expression during adaptation to different environmental conditions could be achieved by changing the number and structural organization of heat shock genes in the genome, as well as the structure of their promoters. It was demonstrated that thermotolerant species were usually characterized by elevated levels of Hsps under normal temperature or by the increase in the synthesis of these proteins in response to heat shock. Analysis of the heat shock genes in phylogenetically distant organisms is of great interest because, on one hand, it contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of evolution of adaptogenes and, on the other hand, sheds the light on the role of different Hsps families in the development of thermotolerance and the resistance to other stress factors.

  6. Classic Maya bloodletting and the cultural evolution of religious rituals: quantifying patterns of variation in hieroglyphic texts.

    PubMed

    Munson, Jessica; Amati, Viviana; Collard, Mark; Macri, Martha J

    2014-01-01

    Religious rituals that are painful or highly stressful are hypothesized to be costly signs of commitment essential for the evolution of complex society. Yet few studies have investigated how such extreme ritual practices were culturally transmitted in past societies. Here, we report the first study to analyze temporal and spatial variation in bloodletting rituals recorded in Classic Maya (ca. 250-900 CE) hieroglyphic texts. We also identify the sociopolitical contexts most closely associated with these ancient recorded rituals. Sampling an extensive record of 2,480 hieroglyphic texts, this study identifies every recorded instance of the logographic sign for the word ch'ahb' that is associated with ritual bloodletting. We show that documented rituals exhibit low frequency whose occurrence cannot be predicted by spatial location. Conversely, network ties better capture the distribution of bloodletting rituals across the southern Maya region. Our results indicate that bloodletting rituals by Maya nobles were not uniformly recorded, but were typically documented in association with antagonistic statements and may have signaled royal commitments among connected polities.

  7. Experimentally observed evolution between dynamic patterns and intrinsic localized modes in a driven nonlinear electrical cyclic lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shige, S.; Miyasaka, K.; Shi, W.; Soga, Y.; Sato, M.; Sievers, A. J.

    2018-02-01

    Locked intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) and large amplitude lattice spatial modes (LSMs) have been experimentally measured for a driven 1-D nonlinear cyclic electric transmission line, where the nonlinear element is a saturable capacitor. Depending on the number of cells and electrical lattice damping an LSM of fixed shape can be tuned across the modal spectrum. Interestingly, by tuning the driver frequency away from this spectrum the LSM can be continuously converted into ILMs and vice versa. The differences in pattern formation between simulations and experimental findings are due to a low concentration of impurities. Through this novel nonlinear excitation and switching channel in cyclic lattices either energy balanced or unbalanced LSMs and ILMs may occur. Because of the general nature of these dynamical results for nonintegrable lattices applications are to be expected. The ultimate stability of driven aero machinery containing nonlinear periodic structures may be one example.

  8. Holocene Evolution of Precipitation Patterns in the Southwestern US, Mexico, Central America, and Caribbean: Comparison with Tropical SST Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, J. A.; Metcalfe, S. E.; Davies, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    We evaluate proxy reconstructions of Holocene records precipitation in the North American Monsoon region (SW US and northern Mexico) and regions to the south (southern Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean). Seventy-seven precipitation records are tabulated at 2-3 kyr increments for the past 12 kyr, with results displayed mainly on maps. Sites currently dominated by summer precipitation, coupled with proxy records that distinguish summer vs. winter vegetation are used to estimate summer precipitation. Resulting patterns of precipitation variability are evaluated against SST reconstructions from surrounding tropical seas -eastern tropical Pacific, Gulf of California (GoC), Caribbean, and Gulf of Mexico (GoM), which are source areas for summer precipitation. During the Younger Dryas, ca. 12 ka, widespread drying in southern regions contrasted with evidence for wetter conditions in multiple records from the SW US. By 9 ka wetter conditions had spread to the southern regions, likely reflecting an increased Caribbean low-level jet associated with an enhanced Bermuda High. Pacific westerlies contributed significant winter precipitation to the southwestern US and northernmost Mexico at 9 ka. The modern geographical pattern of summer precipitation was established by 6 ka, as the Bermuda High moved northward following the demise of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. SSTs in the GoC and GoM increased, and the NAM strengthened. Increased regional precipitation differences are apparent by 4 ka, likely reflecting enhanced ENSO variability. Most of the southern region experienced increased precipitation during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), whereas winter drought dominated in the north. In contrast, much of the Little Ice Age (LIA) was characterized by generally drier conditions in Central America and Mexico, with wetter conditions in the SW US. Results are broadly supportive of enhanced La Niña-like conditions during the MCA vs. increased ENSO variability during the LIA.

  9. The mitochondrial genome sequences of the round goby and the sand goby reveal patterns of recent evolution in gobiid fish.

    PubMed

    Adrian-Kalchhauser, Irene; Svensson, Ola; Kutschera, Verena E; Alm Rosenblad, Magnus; Pippel, Martin; Winkler, Sylke; Schloissnig, Siegfried; Blomberg, Anders; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2017-02-16

    Vertebrate mitochondrial genomes are optimized for fast replication and low cost of RNA expression. Accordingly, they are devoid of introns, are transcribed as polycistrons and contain very little intergenic sequences. Usually, vertebrate mitochondrial genomes measure between 16.5 and 17 kilobases (kb). During genome sequencing projects for two novel vertebrate models, the invasive round goby and the sand goby, we found that the sand goby genome is exceptionally small (16.4 kb), while the mitochondrial genome of the round goby is much larger than expected for a vertebrate. It is 19 kb in size and is thus one of the largest fish and even vertebrate mitochondrial genomes known to date. The expansion is attributable to a sequence insertion downstream of the putative transcriptional start site. This insertion carries traces of repeats from the control region, but is mostly novel. To get more information about this phenomenon, we gathered all available mitochondrial genomes of Gobiidae and of nine gobioid species, performed phylogenetic analyses, analysed gene arrangements, and compared gobiid mitochondrial genome sizes, ecological information and other species characteristics with respect to the mitochondrial phylogeny. This allowed us amongst others to identify a unique arrangement of tRNAs among Ponto-Caspian gobies. Our results indicate that the round goby mitochondrial genome may contain novel features. Since mitochondrial genome organisation is tightly linked to energy metabolism, these features may be linked to its invasion success. Also, the unique tRNA arrangement among Ponto-Caspian gobies may be helpful in studying the evolution of this highly adaptive and invasive species group. Finally, we find that the phylogeny of gobiids can be further refined by the use of longer stretches of linked DNA sequence.

  10. Continuous 1.3-million-year record of East African hydroclimate, and implications for patterns of evolution and biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Robert P.; Scholz, Christopher A.; Cohen, Andrew S.; King, John W.; Brown, Erik T.; Ivory, Sarah J.; Johnson, Thomas C.; Deino, Alan L.; Reinthal, Peter N.; McGlue, Michael M.; Blome, Margaret W.

    2015-01-01

    The transport of moisture in the tropics is a critical process for the global energy budget and on geologic timescales, has markedly influenced continental landscapes, migratory pathways, and biological evolution. Here we present a continuous, first-of-its-kind 1.3-My record of continental hydroclimate and lake-level variability derived from drill core data from Lake Malawi, East Africa (9–15° S). Over the Quaternary, we observe dramatic shifts in effective moisture, resulting in large-scale changes in one of the world’s largest lakes and most diverse freshwater ecosystems. Results show evidence for 24 lake level drops of more than 200 m during the Late Quaternary, including 15 lowstands when water levels were more than 400 m lower than modern. A dramatic shift is observed at the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT), consistent with far-field climate forcing, which separates vastly different hydroclimate regimes before and after ∼800,000 years ago. Before 800 ka, lake levels were lower, indicating a climate drier than today, and water levels changed frequently. Following the MPT high-amplitude lake level variations dominate the record. From 800 to 100 ka, a deep, often overfilled lake occupied the basin, indicating a wetter climate, but these highstands were interrupted by prolonged intervals of extreme drought. Periods of high lake level are observed during times of high eccentricity. The extreme hydroclimate variability exerted a profound influence on the Lake Malawi endemic cichlid fish species flock; the geographically extensive habitat reconfiguration provided novel ecological opportunities, enabling new populations to differentiate rapidly to distinct species. PMID:26644580

  11. Continuous 1.3-million-year record of East African hydroclimate, and implications for patterns of evolution and biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Robert P.; Scholz, Christopher A.; Cohen, Andrew S.; King, John W.; Brown, Erik T.; Ivory, Sarah J.; Johnson, Thomas C.; Deino, Alan L.; Reinthal, Peter N.; McGlue, Michael M.; Blome, Margaret W.

    2015-12-01

    The transport of moisture in the tropics is a critical process for the global energy budget and on geologic timescales, has markedly influenced continental landscapes, migratory pathways, and biological evolution. Here we present a continuous, first-of-its-kind 1.3-My record of continental hydroclimate and lake-level variability derived from drill core data from Lake Malawi, East Africa (9-15° S). Over the Quaternary, we observe dramatic shifts in effective moisture, resulting in large-scale changes in one of the world's largest lakes and most diverse freshwater ecosystems. Results show evidence for 24 lake level drops of more than 200 m during the Late Quaternary, including 15 lowstands when water levels were more than 400 m lower than modern. A dramatic shift is observed at the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT), consistent with far-field climate forcing, which separates vastly different hydroclimate regimes before and after ∼800,000 years ago. Before 800 ka, lake levels were lower, indicating a climate drier than today, and water levels changed frequently. Following the MPT high-amplitude lake level variations dominate the record. From 800 to 100 ka, a deep, often overfilled lake occupied the basin, indicating a wetter climate, but these highstands were interrupted by prolonged intervals of extreme drought. Periods of high lake level are observed during times of high eccentricity. The extreme hydroclimate variability exerted a profound influence on the Lake Malawi endemic cichlid fish species flock; the geographically extensive habitat reconfiguration provided novel ecological opportunities, enabling new populations to differentiate rapidly to distinct species.

  12. Continuous 1.3-million-year record of East African hydroclimate, and implications for patterns of evolution and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Robert P; Scholz, Christopher A; Cohen, Andrew S; King, John W; Brown, Erik T; Ivory, Sarah J; Johnson, Thomas C; Deino, Alan L; Reinthal, Peter N; McGlue, Michael M; Blome, Margaret W

    2015-12-22

    The transport of moisture in the tropics is a critical process for the global energy budget and on geologic timescales, has markedly influenced continental landscapes, migratory pathways, and biological evolution. Here we present a continuous, first-of-its-kind 1.3-My record of continental hydroclimate and lake-level variability derived from drill core data from Lake Malawi, East Africa (9-15° S). Over the Quaternary, we observe dramatic shifts in effective moisture, resulting in large-scale changes in one of the world's largest lakes and most diverse freshwater ecosystems. Results show evidence for 24 lake level drops of more than 200 m during the Late Quaternary, including 15 lowstands when water levels were more than 400 m lower than modern. A dramatic shift is observed at the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT), consistent with far-field climate forcing, which separates vastly different hydroclimate regimes before and after ∼800,000 years ago. Before 800 ka, lake levels were lower, indicating a climate drier than today, and water levels changed frequently. Following the MPT high-amplitude lake level variations dominate the record. From 800 to 100 ka, a deep, often overfilled lake occupied the basin, indicating a wetter climate, but these highstands were interrupted by prolonged intervals of extreme drought. Periods of high lake level are observed during times of high eccentricity. The extreme hydroclimate variability exerted a profound influence on the Lake Malawi endemic cichlid fish species flock; the geographically extensive habitat reconfiguration provided novel ecological opportunities, enabling new populations to differentiate rapidly to distinct species.

  13. Vaccination against rubella: Analysis of the temporal evolution of the age-dependent force of infection and the effects of different contact patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaku, M.; Coutinho, F. A.; Azevedo, R. S.; Burattini, M. N.; Lopez, L. F.; Massad, E.

    2003-05-01

    In this paper, we analyze the temporal evolution of the age-dependent force of infection and incidence of rubella, after the introduction of a very specific vaccination program in a previously nonvaccinated population where rubella was in endemic steady state. We deduce an integral equation for the age-dependent force of infection, which depends on a number of parameters that can be estimated from the force of infection in a steady state prior to the vaccination program. We present the results of our simulations, which are compared with observed data. We also examine the influence of contact patterns among members of a community on the age-dependent intensity of transmission of rubella and on the results of vaccination strategies. As an example of the theory proposed, we calculate the effects of vaccination strategies for four communities from Caieiras (Brazil), Huixquilucan (Mexico), Finland, and the United Kingdom. The results for each community differ considerably according to the distinct intensity and pattern of transmission in the absence of vaccination. We conclude that this simple vaccination program is not very efficient (very slow) in the goal of eradicating the disease. This gives support to a mixed strategy, proposed by Massad et al., accepted and implemented by the government of the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

  14. Reconstructing the flow pattern evolution in inner region of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet by glacial landforms from Gausdal Vestfjell area, south-central Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putniņš, Artūrs; Henriksen, Mona

    2017-05-01

    More than 17 000 landforms from detailed LiDAR data sets have been mapped in the Gausdal Vestfjell area, south-central Norway. The spatial distribution and relationships between the identified subglacial bedforms, mainly streamlined landforms and ribbed moraine ridges, have provided new insight on the glacial dynamics and the sequence of glacial events during the last glaciation. This established evolution of the Late Weichselian ice flow pattern at this inner region of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet is stepwise where a topography independent ice flow (Phase I) are followed by a regional (Phase II) before a strongly channelized, topography driven ice flow (Phase III). The latter phase is divided into several substages where the flow sets are becoming increasingly confined into the valleys, likely separated by colder, less active ice before down-melting of ice took place. A migrating ice divide and lowering of the ice surface seems to be the main reasons for these changes in ice flow pattern. Formation of ribbed moraine can occur both when the ice flow slows down and speeds up, forming respectively broad fields and elongated belts of ribbed moraines.

  15. Spatial pattern evolution of Aedes aegypti breeding sites in an Argentinean city without a dengue vector control programme.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Manuel O; Polop, Francisco; Rotela, Camilo H; Abril, Marcelo; Scavuzzo, Carlos M

    2016-11-21

    The main objective of this study was to obtain and analyse the space-time dynamics of Aedes aegypti breeding sites in Clorinda City, Formosa Province, Argentina coupled with landscape analysis using the maximum entropy approach in order to generate a dengue vector niche model. In urban areas, without vector control activities, 12 entomologic (larval) samplings were performed during three years (October 2011 to October 2014). The entomologic surveillance area represented 16,511 houses. Predictive models for Aedes distribution were developed using vector breeding abundance data, density analysis, clustering and geoprocessing techniques coupled with Earth observation satellite data. The spatial analysis showed a vector spatial distribution pattern with clusters of high density in the central region of Clorinda with a well-defined high-risk area in the western part of the city. It also showed a differential temporal behaviour among different areas, which could have implications for risk models and control strategies at the urban scale. The niche model obtained for Ae. aegypti, based on only one year of field data, showed that 85.8% of the distribution of breeding sites is explained by the percentage of water supply (48.2%), urban distribution (33.2%), and the percentage of urban coverage (4.4%). The consequences for the development of control strategies are discussed with reference to the results obtained using distribution maps based on environmental variables.

  16. Deformation-induced speckle-pattern evolution and feasibility of correlational speckle tracking in optical coherence elastography.

    PubMed

    Zaitsev, Vladimir Y; Matveyev, Alexandr L; Matveev, Lev A; Gelikonov, Grigory V; Gelikonov, Valentin M; Vitkin, Alex

    2015-07-01

    Feasibility of speckle tracking in optical coherence tomography (OCT) based on digital image correlation (DIC) is discussed in the context of elastography problems. Specifics of applying DIC methods to OCT, compared to processing of photographic images in mechanical engineering applications, are emphasized and main complications are pointed out. Analytical arguments are augmented by accurate numerical simulations of OCT speckle patterns. In contrast to DIC processing for displacement and strain estimation in photographic images, the accuracy of correlational speckle tracking in deformed OCT images is strongly affected by the coherent nature of speckles, for which strain-induced complications of speckle “blinking” and “boiling” are typical. The tracking accuracy is further compromised by the usually more pronounced pixelated structure of OCT scans compared with digital photographic images in classical DIC applications. Processing of complex-valued OCT data (comprising both amplitude and phase) compared to intensity-only scans mitigates these deleterious effects to some degree. Criteria of the attainable speckle tracking accuracy and its dependence on the key OCT system parameters are established.

  17. Patterns of structural dynamics in RACK1 protein retained throughout evolution: A hydrogen-deuterium exchange study of three orthologs

    PubMed Central

    Tarnowski, Krzysztof; Fituch, Kinga; Szczepanowski, Roman H; Dadlez, Michal; Kaus-Drobek, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    RACK1 is a member of the WD repeat family of proteins and is involved in multiple fundamental cellular processes. An intriguing feature of RACK1 is its ability to interact with at least 80 different protein partners. Thus, the structural features enabling such interactomic flexibility are of great interest. Several previous studies of the crystal structures of RACK1 orthologs described its detailed architecture and confirmed predictions that RACK1 adopts a seven-bladed β-propeller fold. However, this did not explain its ability to bind to multiple partners. We performed hydrogen-deuterium (H-D) exchange mass spectrometry on three orthologs of RACK1 (human, yeast, and plant) to obtain insights into the dynamic properties of RACK1 in solution. All three variants retained similar patterns of deuterium uptake, with some pronounced differences that can be attributed to RACK1's divergent biological functions. In all cases, the most rigid structural elements were confined to B-C turns and, to some extent, strands B and C, while the remaining regions retained much flexibility. We also compared the average rate constants for H-D exchange in different regions of RACK1 and found that amide protons in some regions exchanged at least 1000-fold faster than in others. We conclude that its evolutionarily retained structural architecture might have allowed RACK1 to accommodate multiple molecular partners. This was exemplified by our additional analysis of yeast RACK1 dimer, which showed stabilization, as well as destabilization, of several interface regions upon dimer formation. PMID:24591271

  18. Patterns, evolution, and severity of striatal injury in insidious- versus acute-onset glutaric aciduria type 1.

    PubMed

    Boy, Nikolas; Garbade, Sven F; Heringer, Jana; Seitz, Angelika; Kölker, Stefan; Harting, Inga

    2018-05-02

    Striatal injury in patients with glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1) results in a complex, predominantly dystonic, movement disorder. Onset may be acute following acute encephalopathic crisis (AEC) or insidious without apparent acute event. We analyzed clinical and striatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in 21 symptomatic GA1 patients to investigate if insidious- and acute-onset patients differed in timing, pattern of striatal injury, and outcome. Eleven patients had acute and ten had insidious onset, two with later AEC (acute-on-insidious). The median onset of dystonia was 10 months in both groups, and severity was greater in patients after AEC (n = 8 severe, n = 5 moderate) than in insidious onset (n = 4 mild, n = 3 moderate, n = 1 severe). Deviations from guideline-recommended basic metabolic treatment were identified in six insidious-onset patients. Striatal lesions were extensive in all acute-onset patients and restricted to the dorsolateral putamen in eight of ten insidious-onset patients. After AEC, the two acute-on-insidious patients had extensive striatal changes superimposed on pre-existing dorsolateral putaminal lesions. Two insidious-onset patients with progressive dystonia without overt AEC also had extensive striatal changes, one with sequential striatal injury revealed by diffusion-weighted imaging. Insidious-onset patients had a latency phase of 3.5 months to 6.5 years between detection and clinical manifestation of dorsolateral putaminal lesions. Insidious-onset type GA1 is characterized by dorsolateral putaminal lesions, less severe dystonia, and an asymptomatic latency phase, despite already existing lesions. Initially normal MRI during the first months and deviations from guideline-recommended treatment in a large proportion of insidious-onset patients substantiate the protective effect of neonatally initiated treatment.

  19. Evolution of Antp-class genes and differential expression of Hydra Hox/paraHox genes in anterior patterning

    PubMed Central

    Gauchat, Dominique; Mazet, Françoise; Berney, Cédric; Schummer, Michèl; Kreger, Sylvia; Pawlowski, Jan; Galliot, Brigitte

    2000-01-01

    The conservation of developmental functions exerted by Antp-class homeoproteins in protostomes and deuterostomes suggested that homologs with related functions are present in diploblastic animals. Our phylogenetic analyses showed that Antp-class homeodomains belong either to non-Hox or to Hox/paraHox families. Among the 13 non-Hox families, 9 have diploblastic homologs, Msx, Emx, Barx, Evx, Tlx, NK-2, and Prh/Hex, Not, and Dlx, reported here. Among the Hox/paraHox, poriferan sequences were not found, and the cnidarian sequences formed at least five distinct cnox families. Two are significantly related to the paraHox Gsx (cnox-2) and the mox (cnox-5) sequences, whereas three display some relatedness to the Hox paralog groups 1 (cnox-1), 9/10 (cnox-3) and the paraHox cdx (cnox-4). Intermediate Hox/paraHox genes (PG 3 to 8 and lox) did not have clear cnidarian counterparts. In Hydra, cnox-1, cnox-2, and cnox-3 were not found chromosomally linked within a 150-kb range and displayed specific expression patterns in the adult head. During regeneration, cnox-1 was expressed as an early gene whatever the polarity, whereas cnox-2 was up-regulated later during head but not foot regeneration. Finally, cnox-3 expression was reestablished in the adult head once it was fully formed. These results suggest that the Hydra genes related to anterior Hox/paraHox genes are involved at different stages of apical differentiation. However, the positional information defining the oral/aboral axis in Hydra cannot be correlated strictly to that characterizing the anterior–posterior axis in vertebrates or arthropods. PMID:10781050

  20. Stepwise evolution of corolla symmetry in CYCLOIDEA2-like and RADIALIS-like gene expression patterns in Lamiales.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jinshun; Kellogg, Elizabeth A

    2015-08-01

    • CYCLOIDEA2 (CYC2)-like and RADIALIS (RAD)-like genes are needed for the normal development of corolla bilateral symmetry in Antirrhinum majus L. (snapdragon, Plantaginaceae, Lamiales). However, if and how changes in expression of CYC2-like and RAD-like genes correlate with the origin of corolla bilateral symmetry early in Lamiales remains largely unknown. The asymmetrical expression of CYC2-like and/or RAD-like genes during floral meristem development could be ancestral or derived in Plantaginaceae.• We used in situ RNA localization to examine the expression of CYC2-like and RAD-like genes in two early-diverging Lamiales.• CYC2-like and RAD-like genes are expressed broadly in the floral meristems in early-diverging Lamiales with radially symmetrical corollas, in contrast to their restricted expression in adaxial/lateral regions in core Lamiales. The expression pattern of CYC2-like genes has evolved in stepwise fashion, in that CYC2-like genes are likely expressed briefly in the floral meristem during flower development in sampled Oleaceae; prolonged expression of CYC2-like genes in petals originated in the common ancestor of Tetrachondraceae and core Lamiales, and asymmetrical expression in adaxial/lateral petals appeared later, in the common ancestor of the core Lamiales. Likewise, expression of RAD-like genes in petals appeared in early-diverging Lamiales or earlier; asymmetrical expression in adaxial/lateral petals then appeared in core Lamiales.• These data plus published reports of CYC2-like and RAD-like genes show that asymmetrical expression of these two genes is likely derived and correlates with the origins of corolla bilateral symmetry. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  1. Developmental evolution of flowering plant pollen tube cell walls: callose synthase (CalS) gene expression patterns

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    -specific functions in early seed plants and was then recruited to novel expression patterns and functions within pollen tube walls in an ancestor of extant angiosperms. PMID:21722365

  2. Purifying and Positive Selection Influence Patterns of Gene Loss and Gene Expression in the Evolution of a Plant Sex Chromosome System.

    PubMed

    Crowson, Daisy; Barrett, Spencer C H; Wright, Stephen I

    2017-05-01

    Sex chromosomes are unique regions of the genome, with a host of properties that distinguish them from autosomes and from each other. Although there is extensive theory describing sex chromosome formation and subsequent degeneration of the Y chromosome, the relative importance of processes governing degeneration is poorly understood. In particular, it is not known whether degeneration occurs solely as a direct result of inefficient selection due to loss of recombination, or whether adaptive gene silencing on the Y chromosome results in most degeneration occurring neutrally. We used comparative transcriptome data from two related annual plants with highly heteromorphic sex chromosomes, Rumex rothschildianus and Rumex hastatulus, to investigate the patterns and processes underlying Y chromosome degeneration. The rate of degeneration varied greatly between the two species. In R. rothschildianus, we infer widespread gene loss, higher than previously reported for any plant. Gene loss was not random: genes with lower constraint and those not expressed during the haploid phase were more likely to be lost. There was indirect evidence of adaptive evolution on the Y chromosome from the over-expression of Y alleles in certain genes with sex-biased gene expression. There was no complete dosage compensation, but there was evidence for targeted dosage compensation occurring in more selectively constrained genes. Overall, our results are consistent with selective interference playing the dominant role in the degeneration of the Y chromosome, rather than adaptive gene silencing. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Complete sequences of organelle genomes from the medicinal plant Rhazya stricta (Apocynaceae) and contrasting patterns of mitochondrial genome evolution across asterids.

    PubMed

    Park, Seongjun; Ruhlman, Tracey A; Sabir, Jamal S M; Mutwakil, Mohammed H Z; Baeshen, Mohammed N; Sabir, Meshaal J; Baeshen, Nabih A; Jansen, Robert K

    2014-05-28

    Rhazya stricta is native to arid regions in South Asia and the Middle East and is used extensively in folk medicine to treat a wide range of diseases. In addition to generating genomic resources for this medicinally important plant, analyses of the complete plastid and mitochondrial genomes and a nuclear transcriptome from Rhazya provide insights into inter-compartmental transfers between genomes and the patterns of evolution among eight asterid mitochondrial genomes. The 154,841 bp plastid genome is highly conserved with gene content and order identical to the ancestral organization of angiosperms. The 548,608 bp mitochondrial genome exhibits a number of phenomena including the presence of recombinogenic repeats that generate a multipartite organization, transferred DNA from the plastid and nuclear genomes, and bidirectional DNA transfers between the mitochondrion and the nucleus. The mitochondrial genes sdh3 and rps14 have been transferred to the nucleus and have acquired targeting presequences. In the case of rps14, two copies are present in the nucleus; only one has a mitochondrial targeting presequence and may be functional. Phylogenetic analyses of both nuclear and mitochondrial copies of rps14 across angiosperms suggests Rhazya has experienced a single transfer of this gene to the nucleus, followed by a duplication event. Furthermore, the phylogenetic distribution of gene losses and the high level of sequence divergence in targeting presequences suggest multiple, independent transfers of both sdh3 and rps14 across asterids. Comparative analyses of mitochondrial genomes of eight sequenced asterids indicates a complicated evolutionary history in this large angiosperm clade with considerable diversity in genome organization and size, repeat, gene and intron content, and amount of foreign DNA from the plastid and nuclear genomes. Organelle genomes of Rhazya stricta provide valuable information for improving the understanding of mitochondrial genome evolution

  4. The four hexamerin genes in the honey bee: structure, molecular evolution and function deduced from expression patterns in queens, workers and drones.

    PubMed

    Martins, Juliana R; Nunes, Francis M F; Cristino, Alexandre S; Simões, Zilá L P; Bitondi, Márcia M G

    2010-03-26

    Hexamerins are hemocyanin-derived proteins that have lost the ability to bind copper ions and transport oxygen; instead, they became storage proteins. The current study aimed to broaden our knowledge on the hexamerin genes found in the honey bee genome by exploring their structural characteristics, expression profiles, evolution, and functions in the life cycle of workers, drones and queens. The hexamerin genes of the honey bee (hex 70a, hex 70b, hex 70c and hex 110) diverge considerably in structure, so that the overall amino acid identity shared among their deduced protein subunits varies from 30 to 42%. Bioinformatics search for motifs in the respective upstream control regions (UCRs) revealed six overrepresented motifs including a potential binding site for Ultraspiracle (Usp), a target of juvenile hormone (JH). The expression of these genes was induced by topical application of JH on worker larvae. The four genes are highly transcribed by the larval fat body, although with significant differences in transcript levels, but only hex 110 and hex 70a are re-induced in the adult fat body in a caste- and sex-specific fashion, workers showing the highest expression. Transcripts for hex 110, hex 70a and hex70b were detected in developing ovaries and testes, and hex 110 was highly transcribed in the ovaries of egg-laying queens. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that HEX 110 is located at the most basal position among the holometabola hexamerins, and like HEX 70a and HEX 70c, it shares potential orthology relationship with hexamerins from other hymenopteran species. Striking differences were found in the structure and developmental expression of the four hexamerin genes in the honey bee. The presence of a potential binding site for Usp in the respective 5' UCRs, and the results of experiments on JH level manipulation in vivo support the hypothesis of regulation by JH. Transcript levels and patterns in the fat body and gonads suggest that, in addition to their primary

  5. The four hexamerin genes in the honey bee: structure, molecular evolution and function deduced from expression patterns in queens, workers and drones

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hexamerins are hemocyanin-derived proteins that have lost the ability to bind copper ions and transport oxygen; instead, they became storage proteins. The current study aimed to broaden our knowledge on the hexamerin genes found in the honey bee genome by exploring their structural characteristics, expression profiles, evolution, and functions in the life cycle of workers, drones and queens. Results The hexamerin genes of the honey bee (hex 70a, hex 70b, hex 70c and hex 110) diverge considerably in structure, so that the overall amino acid identity shared among their deduced protein subunits varies from 30 to 42%. Bioinformatics search for motifs in the respective upstream control regions (UCRs) revealed six overrepresented motifs including a potential binding site for Ultraspiracle (Usp), a target of juvenile hormone (JH). The expression of these genes was induced by topical application of JH on worker larvae. The four genes are highly transcribed by the larval fat body, although with significant differences in transcript levels, but only hex 110 and hex 70a are re-induced in the adult fat body in a caste- and sex-specific fashion, workers showing the highest expression. Transcripts for hex 110, hex 70a and hex70b were detected in developing ovaries and testes, and hex 110 was highly transcribed in the ovaries of egg-laying queens. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that HEX 110 is located at the most basal position among the holometabola hexamerins, and like HEX 70a and HEX 70c, it shares potential orthology relationship with hexamerins from other hymenopteran species. Conclusions Striking differences were found in the structure and developmental expression of the four hexamerin genes in the honey bee. The presence of a potential binding site for Usp in the respective 5' UCRs, and the results of experiments on JH level manipulation in vivo support the hypothesis of regulation by JH. Transcript levels and patterns in the fat body and gonads suggest that

  6. New gene evolution in the bonus-TIF1-γ/TRIM33 family impacted the architecture of the vertebrate dorsal-ventral patterning network.

    PubMed

    Wisotzkey, Robert G; Quijano, Janine C; Stinchfield, Michael J; Newfeld, Stuart J

    2014-09-01

    Uncovering how a new gene acquires its function and understanding how the function of a new gene influences existing genetic networks are important topics in evolutionary biology. Here, we demonstrate nonconservation for the embryonic functions of Drosophila Bonus and its newest vertebrate relative TIF1-γ/TRIM33. We showed previously that TIF1-γ/TRIM33 functions as an ubiquitin ligase for the Smad4 signal transducer and antagonizes the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling network underlying vertebrate dorsal-ventral axis formation. Here, we show that Bonus functions as an agonist of the Decapentaplegic (Dpp) signaling network underlying dorsal-ventral axis formation in flies. The absence of conservation for the roles of Bonus and TIF1-γ/TRIM33 reveals a shift in the dorsal-ventral patterning networks of flies and mice, systems that were previously considered wholly conserved. The shift occurred when the new gene TIF1-γ/TRIM33 replaced the function of the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4L in the lineage leading to vertebrates. Evidence of this replacement is our demonstration that Nedd4 performs the function of TIF1-γ/TRIM33 in flies during dorsal-ventral axis formation. The replacement allowed vertebrate Nedd4L to acquire novel functions as a ubiquitin ligase of vertebrate-specific Smad proteins. Overall our data reveal that the architecture of the Dpp/BMP dorsal-ventral patterning network continued to evolve in the vertebrate lineage, after separation from flies, via the incorporation of new genes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The evolution of polyandry: patterns of genotypic variation in female mating frequency, male fertilization success and a test of the sexy-sperm hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Simmons, L W

    2003-07-01

    The sexy-sperm hypothesis predicts that females obtain indirect benefits for their offspring via polyandy, in the form of increased fertilization success for their sons. I use a quantitative genetic approach to test the sexy-sperm hypothesis using the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. Previous studies of this species have shown considerable phenotypic variation in fertilization success when two or more males compete. There were high broad-sense heritabilities for both paternity and polyandry. Patterns of genotypic variance were consistent with X-linked inheritance and/or maternal effects on these traits. The genetic architecture therefore precludes the evolution of polyandry via a sexy-sperm process. Thus the positive genetic correlation between paternity in sons and polyandry in daughters predicted by the sexy-sperm hypothesis was absent. There was significant heritable variation in the investment by females in ovaries and by males in the accessory gland. Surprisingly there was a very strong genetic correlation between these two traits. The significance of this genetic correlation for the coevolution of male seminal products and polyandry is discussed.

  8. Non-neural ectoderm is really neural: evolution of developmental patterning mechanisms in the non-neural ectoderm of chordates and the problem of sensory cell homologies.

    PubMed

    Holland, Linda Z

    2005-07-15

    In chordates, the ectoderm is divided into the neuroectoderm and the so-called non-neural ectoderm. In spite of its name, however, the non-neural ectoderm contains numerous sensory cells. Therefore, the term "non-neural" ectoderm should be replaced by "general ectoderm." At least in amphioxus and tunicates and possibly in vertebrates as well, both the neuroectoderm and the general ectoderm are patterned anterior/posteriorly by mechanisms involving retinoic acid and Hox genes. In amphioxus and tunicates the ectodermal sensory cells, which have a wide range of ciliary and microvillar configurations, are mostly primary neurons sending axons to the CNS, although a minority lack axons. In contrast, vertebrate mechanosensory cells, called hair cells, are all secondary neurons that lack axons and have a characteristic eccentric cilium adjacent to a group of microvilli of graded lengths. It has been highly controversial whether the ectodermal sensory cells in the oral siphons of adult tunicates are homologous to vertebrate hair cells. In some species of tunicates, these cells appear to be secondary neurons, and microvillar and ciliary configurations of some of these cells approach those of vertebrate hair cells. However, none of the tunicate cells has all the characteristics of a hair cell, and there is a high degree of variation among ectodermal sensory cells within and between different species. Thus, similarities between the ectodermal sensory cells of any one species of tunicate and craniate hair cells may well represent convergent evolution rather than homology. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Evolution of plastid gene rps2 in a lineage of hemiparasitic and holoparasitic plants: Many losses of photosynthesis and complex patterns of rate variation

    PubMed Central

    dePamphilis, Claude W.; Young, Nelson D.; Wolfe, Andrea D.

    1997-01-01

    The plastid genomes of some nonphotosynthetic parasitic plants have experienced an extreme reduction in gene content and an increase in evolutionary rate of remaining genes. Nothing is known of the dynamics of these events or whether either is a direct outcome of the loss of photosynthesis. The parasitic Scrophulariaceae and Orobanchaceae, representing a continuum of heterotrophic ability ranging from photosynthetic hemiparasites to nonphotosynthetic holoparasites, are used to investigate these issues. We present a phylogenetic hypothesis for parasitic Scrophulariaceae and Orobanchaceae based on sequences of the plastid gene rps2, encoding the S2 subunit of the plastid ribosome. Parasitic Scrophulariaceae and Orobanchaceae form a monophyletic group in which parasitism can be inferred to have evolved once. Holoparasitism has evolved independently at least five times, with certain holoparasitic lineages representing single species, genera, and collections of nonphotosynthetic genera. Evolutionary loss of the photosynthetic gene rbcL is limited to a subset of holoparasitic lineages, with several holoparasites retaining a full length rbcL sequence. In contrast, the translational gene rps2 is retained in all plants investigated but has experienced rate accelerations in several hemi- as well as holoparasitic lineages, suggesting that there may be substantial molecular evolutionary changes to the plastid genome of parasites before the loss of photosynthesis. Independent patterns of synonymous and nonsynonymous rate acceleration in rps2 point to distinct mechanisms underlying rate variation in different lineages. Parasitic Scrophulariaceae (including the traditional Orobanchaceae) provide a rich platform for the investigation of molecular evolutionary process, gene function, and the evolution of parasitism. PMID:9207097

  10. Chemical Evolution of Groundwater Near a Sinkhole Lake, Northern Florida: 2. Chemical Patterns, Mass Transfer Modeling, and Rates of Mass Transfer Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Brian G.; Plummer, L. Niel; Busenberg, Eurybiades; Revesz, Kinga M.; Jones, Blair F.; Lee, Terrie M.

    1995-06-01

    Chemical patterns along evolutionary groundwater flow paths in silicate and carbonate aquifers were interpreted using solute tracers, carbon and sulfur isotopes, and mass balance reaction modeling for a complex hydrologic system involving groundwater inflow to and outflow from a sinkhole lake in northern Florida. Rates of dominant reactions along defined flow paths were estimated from modeled mass transfer and ages obtained from CFC-modeled recharge dates. Groundwater upgradient from Lake Barco remains oxic as it moves downward, reacting with silicate minerals in a system open to carbon dioxide (CO2), producing only small increases in dissolved species. Beneath and downgradient of Lake Barco the oxic groundwater mixes with lake water leakage in a highly reducing, silicate-carbonate mineral environment. A mixing model, developed for anoxic groundwater downgradient from the lake, accounted for the observed chemical and isotopic composition by combining different proportions of lake water leakage and infiltrating meteoric water. The evolution of major ion chemistry and the 13C isotopic composition of dissolved carbon species in groundwater downgradient from the lake can be explained by the aerobic oxidation of organic matter in the lake, anaerobic microbial oxidation of organic carbon, and incongruent dissolution of smectite minerals to kaolinite. The dominant process for the generation of methane was by the CO2 reduction pathway based on the isotopic composition of hydrogen (δ2H(CH4) = -186 to -234‰) and carbon (δ13C(CH4) = -65.7 to -72.3‰). Rates of microbial metabolism of organic matter, estimated from the mass transfer reaction models, ranged from 0.0047 to 0.039 mmol L-1 yr-1 for groundwater downgradient from the lake.

  11. Extraterrestrial civilizations: Problems of their evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leskov, L. V.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of finding extraterrestrial civilizations and establishing contact with them is directly related to the problem of their evolution. Possible patterns in this evolution and the stages in the evolution of extraterrestrial civilizations are examined.

  12. Convergent evolution as natural experiment: the tape of life reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Powell, Russell; Mariscal, Carlos

    2015-12-06

    Stephen Jay Gould argued that replaying the 'tape of life' would result in radically different evolutionary outcomes. Recently, biologists and philosophers of science have paid increasing attention to the theoretical importance of convergent evolution-the independent origination of similar biological forms and functions-which many interpret as evidence against Gould's thesis. In this paper, we examine the evidentiary relevance of convergent evolution for the radical contingency debate. We show that under the right conditions, episodes of convergent evolution can constitute valid natural experiments that support inferences regarding the deep counterfactual stability of macroevolutionary outcomes. However, we argue that proponents of convergence have problematically lumped causally heterogeneous phenomena into a single evidentiary basket, in effect treating all convergent events as if they are of equivalent theoretical import. As a result, the 'critique from convergent evolution' fails to engage with key claims of the radical contingency thesis. To remedy this, we develop ways to break down the heterogeneous set of convergent events based on the nature of the generalizations they support. Adopting this more nuanced approach to convergent evolution allows us to differentiate iterated evolutionary outcomes that are probably common among alternative evolutionary histories and subject to law-like generalizations, from those that do little to undermine and may even support, the Gouldian view of life.

  13. Evolution of increased phenotypic diversity enhances population performance by reducing sexual harassment in damselflies.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yuma; Kagawa, Kotaro; Svensson, Erik I; Kawata, Masakado

    2014-07-18

    The effect of evolutionary changes in traits and phenotypic/genetic diversity on ecological dynamics has received much theoretical attention; however, the mechanisms and ecological consequences are usually unknown. Female-limited colour polymorphism in damselflies is a counter-adaptation to male mating harassment, and thus, is expected to alter population dynamics through relaxing sexual conflict. Here we show the side effect of the evolution of female morph diversity on population performance (for example, population productivity and sustainability) in damselflies. Our theoretical model incorporating key features of the sexual interaction predicts that the evolution of increased phenotypic diversity will reduce overall fitness costs to females from sexual conflict, which in turn will increase productivity, density and stability of a population. Field data and mesocosm experiments support these model predictions. Our study suggests that increased phenotypic diversity can enhance population performance that can potentially reduce extinction rates and thereby influence macroevolutionary processes.

  14. Chapter 4. New model systems for the study of developmental evolution in plants.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Elena M

    2009-01-01

    The number of genetically tractable plant model systems is rapidly increasing, thanks to the decreasing cost of sequencing and the wide amenability of plants to stable transformation and other functional approaches. In this chapter, I discuss emerging model systems from throughout the land plant phylogeny and consider how their unique attributes are contributing to our understanding of development, evolution, and ecology. These new models are being developed using two distinct strategies: in some cases, they are selected because of their close relationship to the established models, while in others, they are chosen with the explicit intention of exploring distantly related plant lineages. Such complementary approaches are yielding exciting new results that shed light on both micro- and macroevolutionary processes in the context of developmental evolution.

  15. Bony cranial ornamentation linked to rapid evolution of gigantic theropod dinosaurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, Terry A.; Organ, Chris; Zanno, Lindsay E.

    2016-09-01

    Exaggerated cranial structures such as crests and horns, hereafter referred to collectively as ornaments, are pervasive across animal species. These structures perform vital roles in visual communication and physical interactions within and between species. Yet the origin and influence of ornamentation on speciation and ecology across macroevolutionary time scales remains poorly understood for virtually all animals. Here, we explore correlative evolution of osseous cranial ornaments with large body size in theropod dinosaurs using a phylogenetic comparative framework. We find that body size evolved directionally toward phyletic giantism an order of magnitude faster in theropod species possessing ornaments compared with unadorned lineages. In addition, we find a body mass threshold below which bony cranial ornaments do not originate. Maniraptoriform dinosaurs generally lack osseous cranial ornaments despite repeatedly crossing this body size threshold. Our study provides novel, quantitative support for a shift in selective pressures on socio-sexual display mechanisms in theropods coincident with the evolution of pennaceous feathers.

  16. Bony cranial ornamentation linked to rapid evolution of gigantic theropod dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Terry A.; Organ, Chris; Zanno, Lindsay E.

    2016-01-01

    Exaggerated cranial structures such as crests and horns, hereafter referred to collectively as ornaments, are pervasive across animal species. These structures perform vital roles in visual communication and physical interactions within and between species. Yet the origin and influence of ornamentation on speciation and ecology across macroevolutionary time scales remains poorly understood for virtually all animals. Here, we explore correlative evolution of osseous cranial ornaments with large body size in theropod dinosaurs using a phylogenetic comparative framework. We find that body size evolved directionally toward phyletic giantism an order of magnitude faster in theropod species possessing ornaments compared with unadorned lineages. In addition, we find a body mass threshold below which bony cranial ornaments do not originate. Maniraptoriform dinosaurs generally lack osseous cranial ornaments despite repeatedly crossing this body size threshold. Our study provides novel, quantitative support for a shift in selective pressures on socio-sexual display mechanisms in theropods coincident with the evolution of pennaceous feathers. PMID:27676310

  17. The origin and early evolution of whales: macroevolution documented on the Indian subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, S; Thewissen, J G M; Sahni, A

    2009-11-01

    The origin of whales (order Cetacea) from a four-footed land animal is one of the best understood examples of macroevolutionary change. This evolutionary transition has been substantially elucidated by fossil finds from the Indian subcontinent in the past decade and a half. Here, we review the first steps of whale evolution, i.e. the transition from a land mammal to obligate marine predators, documented by the Eocene cetacean families of the Indian subcontinent: Pakicetidae, Ambulocetidae, Remingtonocetidae, Protocetidae, and Basilosauridae, as well as their artiodactyl sister group, the Raoellidae. We also discuss the influence that the excellent fossil record has on the study of the evolution of organ systems, in particular the locomotor and hearing systems.

  18. Grainsize Patterns and Bed Evolution of the Rhone River (France): A Present-day Snapshot Following a Century and a Half of Human Modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michal, T.; Parrot, E.; Piegay, H.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past 150 years the Rhône River has been heavily altered by human infrastructures. The first wave (1860 - 1930) of modifications consisted of dikes and groynes designed to narrow the channel and promote incision in order to facilitate navigation. A second period (1948 - 1986) involved the construction of a series of canals and dams for hydroelectricity production. These works bypass multiple reaches of the original channel and drastically reduce the discharge and sediment load reaching them. A comprehensive study underway is aimed at describing the present-day morphology of the Rhone along its 512 km length from its source at Lake Geneva to its sink at the Mediterranean Sea and quantifying the role of management works in the evolution to its current state. Grainsize distributions and armour ratios were determined using a combination of Wolman counts on bars and in shallow channels and dredge samples collected from a boat in navigable reaches. Long profiles were constructed from historical bathymetric maps and bathymetric data collected between 1950 - 2010. Differential long profiles highlighting changes in bed elevation due to sediment storage and erosion were analyzed for three different periods: post-channelization, post-dam construction, and a recent period of major floods. Results show a complex discontinuous pattern in grainsize associated with hydraulic discontinuities imposed by dams. The D50 for bypass reaches is 45 mm compared to a D50 of 34 mm in the non-bypass reaches. The lower D50 as well as a finer tailed distribution in non-bypass reaches reflects fining associated with storage upstream of dams. Armour ratios are on average around 2 but are notably higher for reaches in the middle section of the Rhone. The average incision rate was 1.8 cm/yr for the period of post-channelization and 1.2 cm/yr following dam construction, suggesting the post-dam Rhone was already partially armoured due to incision associated with channelization preceding dam

  19. Causal evidence between monsoon and evolution of rhizomyine rodents

    PubMed Central

    López-Antoñanzas, Raquel; Knoll, Fabien; Wan, Shiming; Flynn, Lawrence J.

    2015-01-01

    The modern Asian monsoonal systems are currently believed to have originated around the end of the Oligocene following a crucial step of uplift of the Tibetan-Himalayan highlands. Although monsoon possibly drove the evolution of many mammal lineages during the Neogene, no evidence thereof has been provided so far. We examined the evolutionary history of a clade of rodents, the Rhizomyinae, in conjunction with our current knowledge of monsoon fluctuations over time. The macroevolutionary dynamics of rhizomyines were analyzed within a well-constrained phylogenetic framework coupled with biogeographic and evolutionary rate studies. The evolutionary novelties developed by these rodents were surveyed in parallel with the fluctuations of the Indian monsoon so as to evaluate synchroneity and postulate causal relationships. We showed the existence of three drops in biodiversity during the evolution of rhizomyines, all of which reflected elevated extinction rates. Our results demonstrated linkage of monsoon variations with the evolution and biogeography of rhizomyines. Paradoxically, the evolution of rhizomyines was accelerated during the phases of weakening of the monsoons, not of strengthening, most probably because at those intervals forest habitats declined, which triggered extinction and progressive specialization toward a burrowing existence. PMID:25759260

  20. Causal evidence between monsoon and evolution of rhizomyine rodents.

    PubMed

    López-Antoñanzas, Raquel; Knoll, Fabien; Wan, Shiming; Flynn, Lawrence J

    2015-03-11

    The modern Asian monsoonal systems are currently believed to have originated around the end of the Oligocene following a crucial step of uplift of the Tibetan-Himalayan highlands. Although monsoon possibly drove the evolution of many mammal lineages during the Neogene, no evidence thereof has been provided so far. We examined the evolutionary history of a clade of rodents, the Rhizomyinae, in conjunction with our current knowledge of monsoon fluctuations over time. The macroevolutionary dynamics of rhizomyines were analyzed within a well-constrained phylogenetic framework coupled with biogeographic and evolutionary rate studies. The evolutionary novelties developed by these rodents were surveyed in parallel with the fluctuations of the Indian monsoon so as to evaluate synchroneity and postulate causal relationships. We showed the existence of three drops in biodiversity during the evolution of rhizomyines, all of which reflected elevated extinction rates. Our results demonstrated linkage of monsoon variations with the evolution and biogeography of rhizomyines. Paradoxically, the evolution of rhizomyines was accelerated during the phases of weakening of the monsoons, not of strengthening, most probably because at those intervals forest habitats declined, which triggered extinction and progressive specialization toward a burrowing existence.

  1. Bridging Inter- and Intraspecific Trait Evolution with a Hierarchical Bayesian Approach.

    PubMed

    Kostikova, Anna; Silvestro, Daniele; Pearman, Peter B; Salamin, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of organisms is crucially dependent on the evolution of intraspecific variation. Its interactions with selective agents in the biotic and abiotic environments underlie many processes, such as intraspecific competition, resource partitioning and, eventually, species formation. Nevertheless, comparative models of trait evolution neither allow explicit testing of hypotheses related to the evolution of intraspecific variation nor do they simultaneously estimate rates of trait evolution by accounting for both trait mean and variance. Here, we present a model of phenotypic trait evolution using a hierarchical Bayesian approach that simultaneously incorporates interspecific and intraspecific variation. We assume that species-specific trait means evolve under a simple Brownian motion process, whereas species-specific trait variances are modeled with Brownian or Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes. After evaluating the power of the method through simulations, we examine whether life-history traits impact evolution of intraspecific variation in the Eriogonoideae (buckwheat family, Polygonaceae). Our model is readily extendible to more complex scenarios of the evolution of inter- and intraspecific variation and presents a step toward more comprehensive comparative models for macroevolutionary studies. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Constraints in cancer evolution.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Subramanian; Birkbak, Nicolai J; Swanton, Charles

    2017-02-08

    Next-generation deep genome sequencing has only recently allowed us to quantitatively dissect the extent of heterogeneity within a tumour, resolving patterns of cancer evolution. Intratumour heterogeneity and natural selection contribute to resistance to anticancer therapies in the advanced setting. Recent evidence has also revealed that cancer evolution might be constrained. In this review, we discuss the origins of intratumour heterogeneity and subsequently focus on constraints imposed upon cancer evolution. The presence of (1) parallel evolution, (2) convergent evolution and (3) the biological impact of acquiring mutations in specific orders suggest that cancer evolution may be exploitable. These constraints on cancer evolution may help us identify cancer evolutionary rule books, which could eventually inform both diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to improve survival outcomes. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  3. The eunuch phenomenon: adaptive evolution of genital emasculation in sexually dimorphic spiders.

    PubMed

    Kuntner, Matjaž; Agnarsson, Ingi; Li, Daiqin

    2015-02-01

    Under natural and sexual selection traits often evolve that secure paternity or maternity through self-sacrifice to predators, rivals, offspring, or partners. Emasculation-males removing their genitals-is an unusual example of such behaviours. Known only in insects and spiders, the phenomenon's adaptiveness is difficult to explain, yet its repeated origins and association with sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and sexual cannibalism suggest an adaptive significance. In spiders, emasculation of paired male sperm-transferring organs - secondary genitals - (hereafter, palps), results in 'eunuchs'. This behaviour has been hypothesized to be adaptive because (i) males plug female genitals with their severed palps (plugging hypothesis), (ii) males remove their palps to become better fighters in male-male contests (better-fighter hypothesis), perhaps reaching higher agility due to reduced total body mass (gloves-off hypothesis), and (iii) males achieve prolonged sperm transfer through severed genitals (remote-copulation hypothesis). Prior research has provided evidence in support of these hypotheses in some orb-weaving spiders but these explanations are far from general. Seeking broad macroevolutionary patterns of spider emasculation, we review the known occurrences, weigh the evidence in support of the hypotheses in each known case, and redefine more precisely the particular cases of emasculation depending on its timing in relation to maturation and mating: 'pre-maturation', 'mating', and 'post-mating'. We use a genus-level spider phylogeny to explore emasculation evolution and to investigate potential evolutionary linkage between emasculation, SSD, lesser genital damage (embolic breakage), and sexual cannibalism (females consuming their mates). We find a complex pattern of spider emasculation evolution, all cases confined to Araneoidea: emasculation evolved at least five and up to 11 times, was lost at least four times, and became further modified at least once. We also find

  4. The Evolution of Energetic Scaling across the Vertebrate Tree of Life.

    PubMed

    Uyeda, Josef C; Pennell, Matthew W; Miller, Eliot T; Maia, Rafael; McClain, Craig R

    2017-08-01

    Metabolism is the link between ecology and physiology-it dictates the flow of energy through individuals and across trophic levels. Much of the predictive power of metabolic theories of ecology derives from the scaling relationship between organismal size and metabolic rate. There is growing evidence that this scaling relationship is not universal, but we have little knowledge of how it has evolved over macroevolutionary time. Here we develop a novel phylogenetic comparative method to investigate how often and in which clades the macroevolutionary dynamics of the metabolic scaling have changed. We find strong evidence that the metabolic scaling relationship has shifted multiple times across the vertebrate phylogeny. However, shifts are rare and otherwise strongly constrained. Importantly, both the estimated slope and intercept values vary widely across regimes, with slopes that spanned across theoretically predicted values such as 2/3 or 3/4. We further tested whether traits such as ecto-/endothermy, genome size, and quadratic curvature with body mass (i.e., energetic constraints at extreme body sizes) could explain the observed pattern of shifts. Though these factors help explain some of the variation in scaling parameters, much of the remaining variation remains elusive. Our results lay the groundwork for further exploration of the evolutionary and ecological drivers of major transitions in metabolic strategy and for harnessing this information to improve macroecological predictions.

  5. Cenozoic Icehouse Forcing Mechanisms on Coccolithophorid Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderiks, J.

    2007-12-01

    An overall macroevolutionary size decrease in marine unicellular calcifying algae, the coccolithophores, is punctuated by distinct size responses that correlate to major climatic and paleoceanographic events during the Cenozoic. Notably, major size decreases in the ancestors of the modern blooming species Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica are recorded at the Eocene-Oligocene transition (34 Ma) and in the late Miocene (9 Ma). Coccolithophorid cell size (as reconstructed from individual coccolith biometry) is likely influenced by a variety of passive and active evolutionary selection pressures, with specific factors, such as resource availability and climatic change, determining trends in specific intervals of time. This study presents biometric data of the Noelaerhabdacaea, Calcidiscaceae and Coccolithaceae families, which together represent the bulk of coccolith-carbonate buried in Cenozoic deep-sea sediments, from multiple Deep Sea Drilling Project and Ocean Drilling Project sites covering temperate to tropical regions in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans. Despite distinct regional ecologic responses at each site, striking correspondences within the global data set call for global forcing mechanisms on the size evolution and ecological success of coccolithophores in an 'icehouse' world.

  6. Average sedimentary rock rare Earth element patterns and crustal evolution: Some observations and implications from the 3800 Ma ISUA supracrustal belt, West Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dymek, R. F.; Boak, J. L.; Gromet, L. P.

    1983-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE) data is given on a set of clastic metasediments from the 3800 Ma Isua Supracrustal belt, West Greenland. Each of two units from the same sedimentary sequence has a distinctive REE pattern, but the average of these rocks bears a very strong resemblance to the REE pattern for the North American Shale Composite (NASC), and departs considerably from previous estimates of REE patterns in Archaean sediments. The possibility that the source area for the Isua sediments resembled that of the NASC is regarded as highly unlikely. However, REE patterns like that in the NASC may be produced by sedimentary recycling of material yielding patterns such as are found at Isua. The results lead to the following tentative conclusions: (1) The REE patterns for Isua Seq. B MBG indicate the existence of crustal materials with fractionated REE and negative Eu anomalies at 3800 Ma, (2) The average Seq. B REE pattern resembles that of the North American Shale Composite (NASC), (3) If the Seq. B average is truly representative of its crustal sources, then this early crust could have been extensively differentiated. In this regard, a proper understanding of the NASC pattern, and its relationship to post-Archaean crustal REE reservoirs, is essential, (4) The Isua results may represent a local effect.

  7. Fitting models of continuous trait evolution to incompletely sampled comparative data using approximate Bayesian computation.

    PubMed

    Slater, Graham J; Harmon, Luke J; Wegmann, Daniel; Joyce, Paul; Revell, Liam J; Alfaro, Michael E

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, a suite of methods has been developed to fit multiple rate models to phylogenetic comparative data. However, most methods have limited utility at broad phylogenetic scales because they typically require complete sampling of both the tree and the associated phenotypic data. Here, we develop and implement a new, tree-based method called MECCA (Modeling Evolution of Continuous Characters using ABC) that uses a hybrid likelihood/approximate Bayesian computation (ABC)-Markov-Chain Monte Carlo approach to simultaneously infer rates of diversification and trait evolution from incompletely sampled phylogenies and trait data. We demonstrate via simulation that MECCA has considerable power to choose among single versus multiple evolutionary rate models, and thus can be used to test hypotheses about changes in the rate of trait evolution across an incomplete tree of life. We finally apply MECCA to an empirical example of body size evolution in carnivores, and show that there is no evidence for an elevated rate of body size evolution in the pinnipeds relative to terrestrial carnivores. ABC approaches can provide a useful alternative set of tools for future macroevolutionary studies where likelihood-dependent approaches are lacking. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Genes encoding biotin carboxylase subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase from Brassica napus and parental species: cloning, expression patterns, and evolution

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Comparative genomics is a useful tool to investigate gene and genome evolution. Biotin carboxylase (BC), an important subunit of heteromeric ACCase that is a rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis in dicots, catalyzes ATP, biotin-carboxyl-carrier protein and CO2 to form carboxybiotin-carbo...

  9. Quality, Evolution, and Positional Change of University Students' Argumentation Patterns about Organic Agriculture during an Argument-Critique-Argument Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Shu-Mey; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality, evolution, and position of university students' argumentation about organic agriculture over a 4-week argument-critique-argument e-learning experience embedded in a first year university biology course. The participants (N = 43) were classified into three groups based on their…

  10. Reconstructing the Phylogenetic History of Long-Term Effective Population Size and Life-History Traits Using Patterns of Amino Acid Replacement in Mitochondrial Genomes of Mammals and Birds

    PubMed Central

    Nabholz, Benoit; Lartillot, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The nearly neutral theory, which proposes that most mutations are deleterious or close to neutral, predicts that the ratio of nonsynonymous over synonymous substitution rates (dN/dS), and potentially also the ratio of radical over conservative amino acid replacement rates (Kr/Kc), are negatively correlated with effective population size. Previous empirical tests, using life-history traits (LHT) such as body-size or generation-time as proxies for population size, have been consistent with these predictions. This suggests that large-scale phylogenetic reconstructions of dN/dS or Kr/Kc might reveal interesting macroevolutionary patterns in the variation in effective population size among lineages. In this work, we further develop an integrative probabilistic framework for phylogenetic covariance analysis introduced previously, so as to estimate the correlation patterns between dN/dS, Kr/Kc, and three LHT, in mitochondrial genomes of birds and mammals. Kr/Kc displays stronger and more stable correlations with LHT than does dN/dS, which we interpret as a greater robustness of Kr/Kc, compared with dN/dS, the latter being confounded by the high saturation of the synonymous substitution rate in mitochondrial genomes. The correlation of Kr/Kc with LHT was robust when controlling for the potentially confounding effects of nucleotide compositional variation between taxa. The positive correlation of the mitochondrial Kr/Kc with LHT is compatible with previous reports, and with a nearly neutral interpretation, although alternative explanations are also possible. The Kr/Kc model was finally used for reconstructing life-history evolution in birds and mammals. This analysis suggests a fairly large-bodied ancestor in both groups. In birds, life-history evolution seems to have occurred mainly through size reduction in Neoavian birds, whereas in placental mammals, body mass evolution shows disparate trends across subclades. Altogether, our work represents a further step toward a more

  11. Darwin's missing link - a novel paradigm for evolution education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catley, Kefyn M.

    2006-09-01

    Microevolutionary mechanisms are taught almost exclusively in our schools, to the detriment of those mechanisms that allow us to understand the larger picture - macroevolution. The results are demonstrable; as a result of the strong emphasis on micro processes in evolution education, students and teachers still have poor understanding of the processes which operate at the macro level, and virtually no understanding at all of the history of life on our planet. Natural selection has become synonymous with the suite of processes we call evolution. This paper makes the case for a paradigm shift in evolution education, so that both perspectives - micro and macro - are given equal weight. Increasingly, issues of bioethics, human origins, cloning, etc., are being cast in a light that requires an understanding of macroevolution. To deny our students access to this debate is to deny the call for universal science literacy. A methodology from professional practice is proposed that could achieve this goal, and discussed in light of its utility, theoretical underpinnings, and historical legacy. A mandate for research is proposed that focuses on learners' understanding of several challenging macroevolutionary concepts, including species, the formation of higher groups, deep time, and hierarchical thinking.

  12. Convergent evolution as natural experiment: the tape of life reconsidered

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Russell; Mariscal, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Stephen Jay Gould argued that replaying the ‘tape of life’ would result in radically different evolutionary outcomes. Recently, biologists and philosophers of science have paid increasing attention to the theoretical importance of convergent evolution—the independent origination of similar biological forms and functions—which many interpret as evidence against Gould's thesis. In this paper, we examine the evidentiary relevance of convergent evolution for the radical contingency debate. We show that under the right conditions, episodes of convergent evolution can constitute valid natural experiments that support inferences regarding the deep counterfactual stability of macroevolutionary outcomes. However, we argue that proponents of convergence have problematically lumped causally heterogeneous phenomena into a single evidentiary basket, in effect treating all convergent events as if they are of equivalent theoretical import. As a result, the ‘critique from convergent evolution’ fails to engage with key claims of the radical contingency thesis. To remedy this, we develop ways to break down the heterogeneous set of convergent events based on the nature of the generalizations they support. Adopting this more nuanced approach to convergent evolution allows us to differentiate iterated evolutionary outcomes that are probably common among alternative evolutionary histories and subject to law-like generalizations, from those that do little to undermine and may even support, the Gouldian view of life. PMID:26640647

  13. Evolution at the tips: Asclepias phylogenomics and new perspectives on leaf surfaces.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Mark; Straub, Shannon C K; Boutte, Julien; Hansen, Kimberly; Cronn, Richard C; Liston, Aaron

    2018-03-01

    Leaf surface traits, such as trichome density and wax production, mediate important ecological processes such as anti-herbivory defense and water-use efficiency. We present a phylogenetic analysis of Asclepias plastomes as a framework for analyzing the evolution of trichome density and presence of epicuticular waxes. We produced a maximum-likelihood phylogeny using plastomes of 103 species of Asclepias. We reconstructed ancestral states and used model comparisons in a likelihood framework to analyze character evolution across Asclepias. We resolved the backbone of Asclepias, placing the Sonoran Desert clade and Incarnatae clade as successive sisters to the remaining species. We present novel findings about leaf surface evolution of Asclepias-the ancestor is reconstructed as waxless and sparsely hairy, a macroevolutionary optimal trichome density is supported, and the rate of evolution of trichome density has accelerated. Increased sampling and selection of best-fitting models of evolution provide more resolved and robust estimates of phylogeny and character evolution than obtained in previous studies. Evolutionary inferences are more sensitive to character coding than model selection. © 2018 The Authors. American Journal of Botany is published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the Botanical Society of America.

  14. Dependency distance in language evolution. Comment on "Dependency distance: A new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages" by Haitao Liu et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bingli; Chen, Xinying

    2017-07-01

    In the target article [1], Liu et al. provide an informative introduction to the dependency distance studies and proclaim that language syntactic patterns, that relate to the dependency distance, are associated with human cognitive mechanisms, such as limited working memory and syntax processing. Therefore, such syntactic patterns are probably 'human-driven' language universals. Sufficient evidence based on big data analysis is also given in the article for supporting this idea. The hypotheses generally seem very convincing yet still need further tests from various perspectives. Diachronic linguistic study based on authentic language data, on our opinion, can be one of those 'further tests'.

  15. Pattern Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, Rebecca

    2006-03-01

    From the stripes of a zebra and the spots on a leopard's back to the ripples on a sandy beach or desert dune, regular patterns arise everywhere in nature. The appearance and evolution of these phenomena has been a focus of recent research activity across several disciplines. This book provides an introduction to the range of mathematical theory and methods used to analyse and explain these often intricate and beautiful patterns. Bringing together several different approaches, from group theoretic methods to envelope equations and theory of patterns in large-aspect ratio-systems, the book also provides insight behind the selection of one pattern over another. Suitable as an upper-undergraduate textbook for mathematics students or as a fascinating, engaging, and fully illustrated resource for readers in physics and biology, Rebecca Hoyle's book, using a non-partisan approach, unifies a range of techniques used by active researchers in this growing field. Accessible description of the mathematical theory behind fascinating pattern formation in areas such as biology, physics and materials science Collects recent research for the first time in an upper level textbook Features a number of exercises - with solutions online - and worked examples

  16. Sedimentary patterns in perched spring travertines near Granada (Spain) as indicators of the paleohydrological and paleoclimatological evolution of a karst massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Algarra, Agustín.; Martín-Martín, Manuel; Andreo, Bartolomé; Julià, Ramón; González-Gómez, Cecilio

    2003-10-01

    Perched spring travertines of the Granada basin (South Spain) constitute a perched system with four well-defined steps, which are formed by several facies associations deposited in different sub-environments (travertine pools, dams and cascades). These perched travertines are considered as a freshwater reef system with a facies zonation and stratigraphic architecture closely resembling that of marine reef terraces and prograding carbonate platforms. The travertine deposits have been dated by 230Th/ 234U and 14C methods. As in other Mediterranean areas, the travertine deposition occurred episodically during warm and wet interglacial periods coinciding with isotopic stages 9, 7 and 5, and with the transition between isotopic stages 2/1. During these periods, underground dissolution, large outflow in the springs and subsequent calcium carbonate precipitation occurred. In the same way that evolution of reef systems indicates sea level changes, the geomorphology, age and architecture of perched spring travertine systems may be used to interpret former climatically controlled changes in outflow, in base level marked by the altitude of springs and in the chemistry of spring waters. Thus, aggradation or climbing progradation may indicate an increase of outflow at the spring, progradation with toplap is due to a stable base level and, conversely, dowlapping progradation may signify that the base level was gradually dropping. Therefore, the travertines can be considered semiquantitative indicators of the paleohydrological evolution of karstic massifs and used as an important terrestrial proxy climate record.

  17. [Hyperbolic growth of marine and continental biodiversity through the phanerozoic and community evolution].

    PubMed

    Markov, A V; Korotaev, A V

    2008-01-01

    models, the hyperbolic pattern of the world population growth arises from a non-linear second-order positive feedback between the demographic growth and technological development (more people - more potential inventors - faster technological growth - the carrying capacity of the Earth grows faster - faster population growth - more people - more potential inventors, and so on). Based on the analogy with macrosociological models and diverse paleontological data, we suggest that the hyperbolic character of biodiversity growth can be similarly accounted for by a non-linear second-order positive feedback between the diversity growth and community structure complexity. The feedback can work via two parallel mechanisms: 1) decreasing extinction rate (more taxa- higher alpha diversity, or mean number of taxa in a community - communities become more complex and stable - extinction rate decreases - more taxa, and so on) and 2) increasing origination rate (new taxa facilitate niche construction; newly formed niches can be occupied by the next "generation" of taxa). The latter possibility makes the mechanisms underlying the hyperbolic growth of biodiversity and human population even more similar, because the total ecospace of the biota is analogous to the "carrying capacity of the Earth" in demography. As far as new species can increase ecospace and facilitate opportunities for additional species entering the community, they are analogous to the "inventors" of the demographic models whose inventions increase the carrying capacity of the Earth. The hyperbolic growth of the Phanerozoic biodiverstiy suggests that "cooperative" interactions between taxa can play an important role in evolution, along with generally accepted competitive interactions. Due to this "cooperation", the evolution of biodiversity acquires some features of a self-accelerating process. Macroevolutionary "cooperation" reveals itself in: 1) increasing stability of communities that arises from alpha diversity growth

  18. Nowhere to run: the role of habitat openness and refuge use in defining patterns of morphological and performance evolution in tropical lizards.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Brett A

    2009-07-01

    For species from open habitats with little cover and few refugia, selection should favour morphologies that enhance performance at tasks that enable rapid movement across open areas. Similarly, selection should also favour traits that enable rapid access and movement within suitable refugia. This study examined the relationship between habitat openness, refuge use, morphology and performance of 19 species representing 23 populations of tropical Lygosomine skink. Species from this group occupy a wide array of habitats from open forest and open rocky intertidal zones to high-altitude heaths and dense, closed forests. Species that occupied open habitats were faster at sprinting, climbing and had better cling ability than species from more cluttered, closed habitats. In addition, species from habitats that used rock crevices as refuges had enhanced sprinting ability. This study shows the importance of both habitat openness and refuge type in the evolution of both the morphology and performance in lizards.

  19. A fish is not a fish: patterns in fatty acid composition of aquatic food may have had implications for hominin evolution.

    PubMed

    Joordens, Josephine C A; Kuipers, Remko S; Wanink, Jan H; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2014-12-01

    From c. 2 Ma (millions of years ago) onwards, hominin brain size and cognition increased in an unprecedented fashion. The exploitation of high-quality food resources, notably from aquatic ecosystems, may have been a facilitator or driver of this phenomenon. The aim of this study is to contribute to the ongoing debate on the possible role of aquatic resources in hominin evolution by providing a more detailed nutritional context. So far, the debate has focused on the relative importance of terrestrial versus aquatic resources while no distinction has been made between different types of aquatic resources. Here we show that Indian Ocean reef fish and eastern African lake fish yield on average similarly high amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (AA). Hence a shift from exploiting tropical marine to freshwater ecosystems (or vice versa) would entail no material difference in dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) availability. However, a shift to marine ecosystems would likely mean a major increase in access to brain-selective micronutrients such as iodine. Fatty fish from marine temperate/cold waters yield twice as much DHA and four times as much EPA as tropical fish, demonstrating that a latitudinal shift in exploitation of African coastal ecosystems could constitute a significant difference in LC-PUFA availability with possible implications for brain development and functioning. We conclude that exploitation of aquatic food resources could have facilitated the initial moderate hominin brain increase as observed in fossils dated to c. 2 Ma, but not the exceptional brain increase in later stages of hominin evolution. We propose that the significant expansion in hominin brain size and cognition later on may have been aided by strong directional selecting forces such as runaway sexual selection of intelligence, and nutritionally supported by exploitation of high-quality food resources in stable and

  20. A new stem group echinoid from the Triassic of China leads to a revised macroevolutionary history of echinoids during the end-Permian mass extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Jeffrey R.; Hu, Shi-xue; Zhang, Qi-Yue; Petsios, Elizabeth; Cotton, Laura J.; Huang, Jin-Yuan; Zhou, Chang-yong; Wen, Wen; Bottjer, David J.

    2018-01-01

    The Permian-Triassic bottleneck has long been thought to have drastically altered the course of echinoid evolution, with the extinction of the entire echinoid stem group having taken place during the end-Permian mass extinction. The Early Triassic fossil record of echinoids is, however, sparse, and new fossils are paving the way for a revised interpretation of the evolutionary history of echinoids during the Permian-Triassic crisis and Early Mesozoic. A new species of echinoid, Yunnanechinus luopingensis n. sp. recovered from the Middle Triassic (Anisian) Luoping Biota fossil Lagerstätte of South China, displays morphologies that are not characteristic of the echinoid crown group. We have used phylogenetic analyses to further demonstrate that Yunnanechinus is not a member of the echinoid crown group. Thus a clade of stem group echinoids survived into the Middle Triassic, enduring the global crisis that characterized the end-Permian and Early Triassic. Therefore, stem group echinoids did not go extinct during the Palaeozoic, as previously thought, and appear to have coexisted with the echinoid crown group for at least 23 million years. Stem group echinoids thus exhibited the Lazarus effect during the latest Permian and Early Triassic, while crown group echinoids did not.

  1. The evolution of genital complexity and mating rates in sexually size dimorphic spiders.

    PubMed

    Kuntner, Matjaž; Cheng, Ren-Chung; Kralj-Fišer, Simona; Liao, Chen-Pan; Schneider, Jutta M; Elgar, Mark A

    2016-11-09

    Genital diversity may arise through sexual conflict over polyandry, where male genital features function to manipulate female mating frequency against her interest. Correlated genital evolution across animal groups is consistent with this view, but a link between genital complexity and mating rates remains to be established. In sexually size dimorphic spiders, golden orbweaving spiders (Nephilidae) males mutilate their genitals to form genital plugs, but these plugs do not always prevent female polyandry. In a comparative framework, we test whether male and female genital complexity coevolve, and how these morphologies, as well as sexual cannibalism, relate to the evolution of mating systems. Using a combination of comparative tests, we show that male genital complexity negatively correlates with female mating rates, and that levels of sexual cannibalism negatively correlate with male mating rates. We also confirm a positive correlation between male and female genital complexity. The macroevolutionary trajectory is consistent with a repeated evolution from polyandry to monandry coinciding with the evolution towards more complex male genitals. These results are consistent with the predictions from sexual conflict theory, although sexual conflict may not be the only mechanism responsible for the evolution of genital complexity and mating systems. Nevertheless, our comparative evidence suggests that in golden orbweavers, male genital complexity limits female mating rates, and sexual cannibalism by females coincides with monogyny.

  2. Evolutionary transitions in controls reconcile adaptation with continuity of evolution.

    PubMed

    Badyaev, Alexander V

    2018-05-19

    Evolution proceeds by accumulating functional solutions, necessarily forming an uninterrupted lineage from past solutions of ancestors to the current design of extant forms. At the population level, this process requires an organismal architecture in which the maintenance of local adaptation does not preclude the ability to innovate in the same traits and their continuous evolution. Representing complex traits as networks enables us to visualize a fundamental principle that resolves tension between adaptation and continuous evolution: phenotypic states encompassing adaptations traverse the continuous multi-layered landscape of past physical, developmental and functional associations among traits. The key concept that captures such traversing is network controllability - the ability to move a network from one state into another while maintaining its functionality (reflecting evolvability) and to efficiently propagate information or products through the network within a phenotypic state (maintaining its robustness). Here I suggest that transitions in network controllability - specifically in the topology of controls - help to explain how robustness and evolvability are balanced during evolution. I will focus on evolutionary transitions in degeneracy of metabolic networks - a ubiquitous property of phenotypic robustness where distinct pathways achieve the same end product - to suggest that associated changes in network controls is a common rule underlying phenomena as distinct as phenotypic plasticity, organismal accommodation of novelties, genetic assimilation, and macroevolutionary diversification. Capitalizing on well understood principles by which network structure translates into function of control nodes, I show that accumulating redundancy in one type of network controls inevitably leads to the emergence of another type of controls, forming evolutionary cycles of network controllability that, ultimately, reconcile local adaptation with continuity of evolution

  3. Laws of evolution of slip trace pattern and its parameters with deformation in [1.8.12] – single crystals of Ni{sub 3}Fe alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Teplyakova, Ludmila, E-mail: lat168@mail.ru; Koneva, Nina, E-mail: koneva@mail.ru; Kunitsyna, Tatyana, E-mail: kma11061990@mail.ru

    2016-01-15

    The slip trace pattern of Ni{sub 3}Fe alloy single crystals with the short range order oriented for a single slip were investigated on replica at different stages of deformation using the transmission diffraction electron microscopy method. The connection of staging with the formation of slip trace pattern and the change of its parameters were established. The number of local areas where two or more slip systems work is increased with the change of stages. In these conditions the character of slip localization in the primary slip system is changed from the packets to the homogeneous distribution. The distributions of themore » distances between slip traces and the shear power in slip traces were plotted. The correlation between the average value of the shear power in the primary slip traces and the average distance between them was revealed in this work. It was established that the rates of the average value growth of the relative local shear and the shear power in the slip traces reach the largest values at the transition stage.« less

  4. Evolution of amoxicillin/clavulanate in the treatment of adults with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis and community-acquired pneumonia in response to antimicrobial-resistance patterns.

    PubMed

    File, Thomas M; Benninger, Michael S; Jacobs, Michael R

    2004-06-01

    Current treatment guidelines for community-acquired respiratory tract infections no longer depend solely on the characteristics of the patient and the clinical syndrome, but on those of the offending pathogen, including presence and level of antimicrobial resistance. The most common respiratory tract pathogens known to cause acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) include Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, especially b-lactum and macrolide resistance, among S pneumoniae and H influenzae has increased dramatically during the past 2 decades, diminishing the activity of many older antimicrobials against resistant organisms. A pharmacokinetically enhanced formulation of amoxicillin/clavulanate has been developed to fulfill the need for an oral b-lactam antimicrobial that achieves a greater time that the serum drug concentration exceeds the minimum inhibitory concentration (T > MIC) of antimicrobials against pathogens than conventional formulations to improve activity against S pneumoniae with reduced susceptibility to penicillin. The b-lactamase inhibitor clavulanate allows for coverage of b-lactamase-producing pathogens, such as H influenzae and M catarrhalis. This article reviews the rationale for, and evolution of, oral amoxicillin clavulanate for ABRS and CAP

  5. Diversity in a Cold Hot-Spot: DNA-Barcoding Reveals Patterns of Evolution among Antarctic Demosponges (Class Demospongiae, Phylum Porifera).

    PubMed

    Vargas, Sergio; Kelly, Michelle; Schnabel, Kareen; Mills, Sadie; Bowden, David; Wörheide, Gert

    2015-01-01

    The approximately 350 demosponge species that have been described from Antarctica represent a faunistic component distinct from that of neighboring regions. Sponges provide structure to the Antarctic benthos and refuge to other invertebrates, and can be dominant in some communities. Despite the importance of sponges in the Antarctic subtidal environment, sponge DNA barcodes are scarce but can provide insight into the evolutionary relationships of this unique biogeographic province. We sequenced the standard barcoding COI region for a comprehensive selection of sponges collected during expeditions to the Ross Sea region in 2004 and 2008, and produced DNA-barcodes for 53 demosponge species covering about 60% of the species collected. The Antarctic sponge communities are phylogenetically diverse, matching the diversity of well-sampled sponge communities in the Lusitanic and Mediterranean marine provinces in the Temperate Northern Atlantic for which molecular data are readily available. Additionally, DNA-barcoding revealed levels of in situ molecular evolution comparable to those present among Caribbean sponges. DNA-barcoding using the Segregating Sites Algorithm correctly assigned approximately 54% of the barcoded species to the morphologically determined species. A barcode library for Antarctic sponges was assembled and used to advance the systematic and evolutionary research of Antarctic sponges. We provide insights on the evolutionary forces shaping Antarctica's diverse sponge communities, and a barcode library against which future sequence data from other regions or depth strata of Antarctica can be compared. The opportunity for rapid taxonomic identification of sponge collections for ecological research is now at the horizon.

  6. Predators and patterns of within-host growth can mediate both among-host competition and evolution of transmission potential of parasites.

    PubMed

    Auld, Stuart K J R; Hall, Spencer R; Housley Ochs, Jessica; Sebastian, Mathew; Duffy, Meghan A

    2014-08-01

    Parasite prevalence shows tremendous spatiotemporal variation. Theory indicates that this variation might stem from life-history characteristics of parasites and key ecological factors. Here, we illustrate how the interaction of an important predator and the schedule of transmission potential of two parasites can explain parasite abundance. A field survey showed that a noncastrating fungus (Metschnikowia bicuspidata) commonly infected a dominant zooplankton host (Daphnia dentifera), while a castrating bacterial parasite (Pasteuria ramosa) was rare. This result seemed surprising given that the bacterium produces many more infectious propagules (spores) than the fungus upon host death. The fungus's dominance can be explained by the schedule of within-host growth of parasites (i.e., how transmission potential changes over the course of infection) and the release of spores from "sloppy" predators (Chaoborus spp., who consume Daphnia prey whole and then later regurgitate the carapace and parasite spores). In essence, sloppy predators create a niche that the faster-schedule fungus currently occupies. However, a selection experiment showed that the slower-schedule bacterium can evolve into this faster-schedule, predator-mediated niche (but pays a cost in maximal spore yield to do so). Hence, our study shows how parasite life history can interact with predation to strongly influence the ecology, epidemiology, and evolution of infectious disease.

  7. Patterns of species range evolution in Indo-Pacific reef assemblages reveal the Coral Triangle as a net source of transoceanic diversity.

    PubMed

    Evans, Sean M; McKenna, Caroline; Simpson, Stephen D; Tournois, Jennifer; Genner, Martin J

    2016-06-01

    The Coral Triangle in the Indo-Pacific is a region renowned for exceptional marine biodiversity. The area could have acted as a 'centre of origin' where speciation has been prolific or a 'centre of survival' by providing refuge during major environmental shifts such as sea-level changes. The region could also have acted as a 'centre of accumulation' for species with origins outside of the Coral Triangle, owing to it being at a central position between the Indian and Pacific oceans. Here, we investigated support for these hypotheses using population-level DNA sequence-based reconstructions of the range evolution of 45 species (314 populations) of Indo-Pacific reef-associated organisms. Our results show that populations undergoing the most ancient establishment were significantly more likely to be closer to the centre of the Coral Triangle than to peripheral locations. The data are consistent with the Coral Triangle being a net source of coral-reef biodiversity for the Indo-Pacific region, suggesting that the region has acted primarily as a centre of survival, a centre of origin or both. These results provide evidence of how a key location can influence the large-scale distributions of biodiversity over evolutionary timescales. © 2016 The Authors.

  8. Interordinal gene capture, the phylogenetic position of Steller's sea cow based on molecular and morphological data, and the macroevolutionary history of Sirenia.

    PubMed

    Springer, Mark S; Signore, Anthony V; Paijmans, Johanna L A; Vélez-Juarbe, Jorge; Domning, Daryl P; Bauer, Cameron E; He, Kai; Crerar, Lorelei; Campos, Paula F; Murphy, William J; Meredith, Robert W; Gatesy, John; Willerslev, Eske; MacPhee, Ross D E; Hofreiter, Michael; Campbell, Kevin L

    2015-10-01

    tooth-specific loci of a variety of edentulous and enamelless vertebrates including birds, turtles, aardvarks, pangolins, xenarthrans, and baleen whales. Further, branch-site dN/dS analyses provide evidence for positive selection in ENAM on the stem dugongid branch where extensive tooth reduction occurred, followed by neutral evolution on the Hydrodamalis branch. Finally, we present a synthetic evolutionary tree for living and fossil sirenians showing several key innovations in the history of this clade including character state changes that parallel those that occurred in the evolutionary history of cetaceans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Early cellular evolution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.

    1972-01-01

    Study of the evolutionary developments that occurred subsequent to the origin of ancestral cells. Microbial physiology and ecology are potential sharp tools for shaping concepts of microbial evolution. Some popular unjustified assumptions are discussed. It is considered that certain principles derived mainly from the advances of molecular biology can be used to order the natural groups (genera) of extant prokaryotes and their patterns phylogenetically.

  10. Subgenome-specific assembly of vitamin E biosynthesis genes and expression patterns during seed development provide insight into the evolution of oat genome.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Gonzalez, Juan J; Garvin, David F

    2016-11-01

    Vitamin E is essential for humans and thus must be a component of a healthy diet. Among the cereal grains, hexaploid oats (Avena sativa L.) have high vitamin E content. To date, no gene sequences in the vitamin E biosynthesis pathway have been reported for oats. Using deep sequencing and orthology-guided assembly, coding sequences of genes for each step in vitamin E synthesis in oats were reconstructed, including resolution of the sequences of homeologs. Three homeologs, presumably representing each of the three oat subgenomes, were identified for the main steps of the pathway. Partial sequences, likely representing pseudogenes, were recovered in some instances as well. Pairwise comparisons among homeologs revealed that two of the three putative subgenome-specific homeologs are almost identical for each gene. Synonymous substitution rates indicate the time of divergence of the two more similar subgenomes from the distinct one at 7.9-8.7 MYA, and a divergence between the similar subgenomes from a common ancestor 1.1 MYA. A new proposed evolutionary model for hexaploid oat formation is discussed. Homeolog-specific gene expression was quantified during oat seed development and compared with vitamin E accumulation. Homeolog expression largely appears to be similar for most of genes; however, for some genes, homoeolog-specific transcriptional bias was observed. The expression of HPPD, as well as certain homoeologs of VTE2 and VTE4, is highly correlated with seed vitamin E accumulation. Our findings expand our understanding of oat genome evolution and will assist efforts to modify vitamin E content and composition in oats. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Expression patterns of Eph genes in the "dual visual development" of the lamprey and their significance in the evolution of vision in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Daichi G; Murakami, Yasunori; Yamazaki, Yuji; Wada, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Image-forming vision is crucial to animals for recognizing objects in their environment. In vertebrates, this type of vision is achieved with paired camera eyes and topographic projection of the optic nerve. Topographic projection is established by an orthogonal gradient of axon guidance molecules, such as Ephs. To explore the evolution of image-forming vision in vertebrates, lampreys, which belong to the basal lineage of vertebrates, are key animals because they show unique "dual visual development." In the embryonic and pre-ammocoete larval stage (the "primary" phase), photoreceptive "ocellus-like" eyes develop, but there is no retinotectal optic nerve projection. In the late ammocoete larval stage (the "secondary" phase), the eyes grow and form into camera eyes, and retinotectal projection is newly formed. After metamorphosis, this retinotectal projection in adult lampreys is topographic, similar to that of gnathostomes. In this study, we explored the involvement of Ephs in lamprey "dual visual development" and establishment of the image-form vision. We found that gnathostome-like orthogonal gradient expression was present in the retina during the "secondary" phase; i.e., EphB showed a gradient of expression along the dorsoventral axis, while EphC was expressed along the anteroposterior axis. However, no orthogonal gradient expression was observed during the "primary" phase. These observations suggest that Ephs are likely recruited de novo for the guidance of topographical "second" optic nerve projection. Transformations during lamprey "dual visual development" may represent "recapitulation" from a protochordate-like ancestor to a gnathostome-like vertebrate ancestor. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Evolution: Understanding Life on Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dybas, Cheryl Lyn

    2002-01-01

    Reports on presentations representing evolution at the 53rd annual meeting of the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) which was held March 22-24, 2002. Explains evolutionary patterns, phylogenetic pageantry, molecular clocks, speciation and biogeography, speciation and macroevolution, and human-induced evolution of drugs-resistant…

  13. Mutational pattern of the nurse shark antigen receptor gene (NAR) is similar to that of mammalian Ig genes and to spontaneous mutations in evolution: the translesion synthesis model of somatic hypermutation.

    PubMed

    Diaz, M; Velez, J; Singh, M; Cerny, J; Flajnik, M F

    1999-05-01

    The pattern of somatic mutations of shark and frog Ig is distinct from somatic hypermutation of Ig in mammals in that there is a bias to mutate GC base pairs and a low frequency of mutations. Previous analysis of the new antigen receptor gene in nurse sharks (NAR), however, revealed no bias to mutate GC base pairs and the frequency of mutation was comparable to that of mammalian IgG. Here, we analyzed 1023 mutations in NAR and found no targeting of the mechanism to any particular nucleotide but did obtain strong evidence for a transition bias and for strand polarity. As seen for all species studied to date, the serine codon AGC/T in NAR was a mutational hotspot. The NAR mutational pattern is most similar to that of mammalian IgG and furthermore both are strikingly akin to mutations acquired during the neutral evolution of nuclear pseudogenes, suggesting that a similar mechanism is at work for both processes. In yeast, most spontaneous mutations are introduced by the translesion synthesis DNA polymerase zeta (REV3) and in various DNA repair-deficient backgrounds transitions were more often REV3-dependent than were transversions. Therefore, we propose a model of somatic hypermutation where DNA polymerase zeta is recruited to the Ig locus. An excess of DNA glycosylases in germinal center reactions may further enhance the mutation frequency by a REV3-dependent mutagenic process known as imbalanced base excision repair.

  14. Rates of molecular evolution in tree ferns are associated with body size, environmental temperature, and biological productivity.

    PubMed

    Barrera-Redondo, Josué; Ramírez-Barahona, Santiago; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2018-05-01

    Variation in rates of molecular evolution (heterotachy) is a common phenomenon among plants. Although multiple theoretical models have been proposed, fundamental questions remain regarding the combined effects of ecological and morphological traits on rate heterogeneity. Here, we used tree ferns to explore the correlation between